María Ibáñez Cabanell, José
Son muchos los escenarios astrofísicos en que los procesos hidrodinámicos juegan un papel clave. En la complejidad que encierra la descripción de dichos procesos destaca el de la correcta simulación de flujos complejos donde la presencia de ondas de choque fuertes que, eventualmente, interaccionan entre ellas o también la presencia de inestabilidades (Kelvin-Helmholtz, Rayleigh-Taylor, etc.) suponen un verdadero desafío numérico. Los códigos hidrodinámicos basados en la solución de un problema de valores iniciales discontinuo (problema de Riemann) son, en la actualidad, los más robustos en el campo de la dinámica de fluidos computacional. En esta charla se dará un resumen de los fundamentos de dichas técnicas numéricas (esquemas de alta resolución de captura de choques) y se ilustrará su potencialidad mostrando una amplia gama de resultados en diferentes aplicaciones astrofísicas.
... prevented by treating heart problems and avoiding certain medicines. Alternative Names Wide-complex tachycardia; V tach; Tachycardia - ventricular Images Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator ... Ventricular arrhythmias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ...
Okçün Baniş; Tekin, Abdullah; Oz, Büge; Küçükoğlu, M Serdar
Isolated ventricular noncompaction of myocardium is a rare congenital disease due to an arrest of myocardial morphogenesis during foetal development. It is characterized by a thin compacted epicardial and an extremely thickened endocardial layer with prominent trabeculations and deep intertrabecular recesses. The persistence of myocardial noncompaction is usually an associated anomaly in patients with congenital left or right ventricular outflow tract obstruction. However, isolated noncompaction of myocardium is not associated with any factors that would explain it apart from the foetal arrest of compaction of the ventricular myocardium. The disease results in systolic and diastolic ventricular dysfunction, systemic embolism and ventricular arrhythmias. We describe a case of isolated noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium in a 20-year-old man who presented initially with ventricular tachycardia.
Iturralde Torres, P
Evaluation and management of postinfarct ventricular tachycardia has changed dramatically in the past two decades. The introduction of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator has played a major role in this change, alternating both, the purpose of the patients evaluation and treatment options. Episodes of sustained ventricular tachycardia can occur in a variety of clinical settings; the most common of which is the patient who has suffered a myocardial infarction. In this paper, I explore the causes and effects of some of these changes and review current strategies, specially the radiofrequency catheter ablation, for the management of the patient with postinfarct ventricular tachycardia.
... specially sized mesh device to close the hole. Hybrid procedure. A hybrid procedure uses surgical and catheter-based techniques. Access ... clinicalkey.com. Accessed Sept. 15, 2014. Konetti NR. Hybrid muscular ventricular defect closure: Surgeon or physician. Indian ...
... than are white people with similar blood pressure measurements. Sex. Women with hypertension are at higher risk ... hypertrophy than are men with similar blood pressure measurements. Left ventricular hypertrophy changes the structure and working ...
Trochu, J N
Kinins are vasodilator peptides implicated in many physiological and physiopathological processes such as blood pressure regulation and that of the coronary circulation and inflammatory reactions. Kinins play an essential role in ventricular function as they counteract the effects of angiotensin II during myocardial ischaemia, ventricular remodelling and severe cardiac failure, emphasising the value of treatment favouring local endogenic production of bradykinin such as ACE inhibitors, neutral endopeptidase inhibitors and antagonists of AT1 receptors of angiotensin II.
Maia, I G; Sá, R; Bassan, R; Alves, P; Ribeiros, J C; Loyola, L H; Cruz Filho, F E; Valverde, A; Belém, L
To evaluate the clinical findings and complementary investigation to support the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Six males with a mean age of 40 years old with episodes of sustained ventricular tachycardia with left bundle branch block pattern. All patients were submitted to a clinical investigation, EKG X rays and echocardiograms. In five patients an electrophysiologic study was performed. All patients were treated with anti-arrhythmic drugs. Palpitation was the most common complaint. T-wave inversion in leads V1-V3 was present in 4 patients. An epsilon wave was noted in 2 patients. The chest X ray was abnormal in only 1 patient. All patients had an abnormal echocardiogram, with consisted in the dilatation of the outflow tract of the RV and hypocontractility. In 2 patients aneurysm of the basal RV free wall below tricuspid valve were detected. Ventricular post-excitation waves were present in 4 patients. After a mean follow-up of 37 months, 5 patients were asymptomatic with anti-arrhythmic drugs and one in therapeutic adjustment. In patients with ventricular tachycardia with left bundle branch block pattern, the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia was substantiated by echocardiographic data and electrocardiographic findings such a T-wave inversion during sinus rhythm and ventricular post-excitation waves. The results obtained with anti-arrhythmic drugs in our study group, suggest that drug therapy should be the first and best approach to treat patients with this type of pathology.
Janse, Michiel J.
One of the factors that favors the development of ventricular fibrillation is an increase in the dispersion of refractoriness. Experiments will be described in which an increase in dispersion in the recovery of excitability was determined during brief episodes of enhanced sympathetic nerve activity, known to increase the risk of fibrillation. Whereas in the normal heart ventricular fibrillation can be induced by a strong electrical shock, a premature stimulus of moderate intensity only induces fibrillation in the presence of regional ischemia, which greatly increases the dispersion of refractoriness. One factor that is of importance for the transition of reentrant ventricular tachycardia to ventricular fibrillation during acute regional ischemia is the subendocardial Purkinje system. After selective destruction of the Purkinje network by lugol, reentrant tachycardias still develop in the ischemic region, but they do not degenerate into fibrillation. Finally, attempts were made to determine the minimal mass of thin ventricular myocardium required to sustain fibrillation induced by burst pacing. This was done by freezing of subendocardial and midmural layers. The rim of surviving epicardial muscle had to be larger than 20 g. Extracellular electrograms during fibrillation in both the intact and the "frozen" left ventricle were indistinguishable, but activation patterns were markedly different. In the intact ventricle epicardial activation was compatible with multiple wavelet reentry, in the "frozen" heart a single, or at most two wandering reentrant waves were seen.
Uchida, T; Fukasawa, M; Kawahara, Y
Postinfarction ventricular septal rupture (VSR) is a lethal complication with high mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate our surgical strategy and results of VSR. Between 1996 and 2008, 13 consecutive patients underwent operation for VSR at our hospital. All patients required emergent operation because of severe cardiogenic shock. Surgical procedure consisted of endocardial patch repair with infarct exclusion, so called "Komeda-David operation". In patients with multiple coronary artery disease, myocardial revascularization was done simultaneously. These patients were divided into 2 groups according to the location of VSR. There were 9 patients of anterior VSR. Two of them could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass and died of severe low output syndrome (LOS) at early postoperative period. The site of infarction in both patients was broad anteroseptal region including right ventricle. On the other hand, there were 4 patients of inferior VSP. Two of these patients were lost due to LOS. One patient was complicated with left ventricular free wall rupture. In another patient, infarction was extended proximally toward the mitral annulus and papillary muscles. Both cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic crossclamp time were significantly longer in inferior VSR than in anterior region. There was no late death in 2 groups. Despite improvements of surgical procedures, such as infarct exclusion technique, the operative mortality remains high in cases with broad infarction and/or right ventricular infarction. In these particular circumstances, in should be mandatory to consider the optimal timing of operation and the modification of surgical technique itself.
Cisneros, Silvia; Duarte, Ricardo; Fernandez-Perez, Gabriel C; Castellon, Daniel; Calatayud, Julia; Lecumberri, Iñigo; Larrazabal, Eneritz; Ruiz, Berta Irene
There are many disorders that may involve the left ventricular (LV) apex; however, they are sometimes difficult to differentiate. In this setting cardiac imaging methods can provide the clue to obtaining the diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the spectrum of diseases that most frequently affect the apex of the LV including Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy, LV aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms, apical diverticula, apical ventricular remodelling, apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, LV non-compaction, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia with LV involvement and LV false tendons, with an emphasis on the diagnostic criteria and imaging features. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13244-011-0091-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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... Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Heart and Circulatory System ECG (Electrocardiogram) Anesthesia - What to Expect Tetralogy of ... Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Heart and Circulatory System Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...
Sousa, Carla; Almeida, Pedro; Gonçalves, Alexandra; Rodrigues, João; Rangel, Inês; Macedo, Filipe; Maciel, M Júlia
Right ventricular thrombosis is a rare yet potentially fatal condition. It has been described in association with hypercoagulability states, autoimmune diseases and dilated cardiomyopathy. Echocardiography constitutes the election tool for diagnosis and characterization of these entities, allowing for the differentiation between the various types of thrombi. We present a case of a patient with alcoholic dilated cardiomyopathy admitted for congestive heart failure and lower respiratory infection. In the diagnostic approach, a routine echocardiography revealed a large mural right ventricular thrombus in association with severe biventricular dysfunction. The patient was proposed for anticoagulation strategy, which he refused.
Couperus, Lotte E; Delgado, Victoria; Palmen, Meindert; van Vessem, Marieke E; Braun, Jerry; Fiocco, Marta; Tops, Laurens F; Verwey, Harriëtte F; Klautz, Robert J M; Schalij, Martin J; Beeres, Saskia L M A
Several clinical and left ventricular parameters have been associated with prognosis after surgical left ventricular restoration in patients with ischemic heart failure. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of right ventricular function. A total of 139 patients with ischemic heart failure (62 ± 10 years; 79% were male; left ventricular ejection fraction 27% ± 7%) underwent surgical left ventricular restoration. Biventricular function was assessed with echocardiography before surgery. The independent association between all-cause mortality and right ventricular fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain was assessed. The additive effect of multiple impaired right ventricular parameters on mortality also was assessed. Baseline right ventricular fractional area change was 42% ± 9%, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was 18 ± 3 mm, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain was -24% ± 7%. Within 30 days after surgery, 15 patients died. Right ventricular fractional area change (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.98; P < .01), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.96; P = .02), and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.26; P < .01) were independently associated with 30-day mortality, after adjusting for left ventricular ejection fraction and aortic crossclamping time. Right ventricular function was impaired in 21%, 20%, and 27% of patients on the basis of right ventricular fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain, respectively. Any echocardiographic parameter of right ventricular dysfunction was present in 39% of patients. The coexistence of several impaired right ventricular parameters per patient was
Serra, José L; Caresani, Julian A; Bono, Julio O
A 65-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital because of a syncopal episode with documented transient complete atrioventricular block. A DDD pacemaker was implanted. Post implantation, the patient was diagnosed with bidirectional ventricular tachycardia. Analysis of the arrhythmia and differential diagnosis is performed.
Wei, Xiang; Omo, Alfred; Pan, Tiecheng; Li, Jun; Liu, Ligang; Hu, Min
Bronchogenic cysts occurring in the left ventricle are a medical rarity. One successfully operated case is reported herein. The location of the cyst was just between the epicardium and myocardium of the inferior left ventricular wall, adjacent to the apex of the heart. Complete excision was achieved through a left anterolateral thoracotomy without extracorporeal circulation.
Aorto-ventricular tunnel is a congenital, extracardiac channel which connects the ascending aorta above the sinutubular junction to the cavity of the left, or (less commonly) right ventricle. The exact incidence is unknown, estimates ranging from 0.5% of fetal cardiac malformations to less than 0.1% of congenitally malformed hearts in clinico-pathological series. Approximately 130 cases have been reported in the literature, about twice as many cases in males as in females. Associated defects, usually involving the proximal coronary arteries, or the aortic or pulmonary valves, are present in nearly half the cases. Occasional patients present with an asymptomatic heart murmur and cardiac enlargement, but most suffer heart failure in the first year of life. The etiology of aorto-ventricular tunnel is uncertain. It appears to result from a combination of maldevelopment of the cushions which give rise to the pulmonary and aortic roots, and abnormal separation of these structures. Echocardiography is the diagnostic investigation of choice. Antenatal diagnosis by fetal echocardiography is reliable after 18 weeks gestation. Aorto-ventricular tunnel must be distinguished from other lesions which cause rapid run-off of blood from the aorta and produce cardiac failure. Optimal management of symptomatic aorto-ventricular tunnel consists of diagnosis by echocardiography, complimented with cardiac catheterization as needed to elucidate coronary arterial origins or associated defects, and prompt surgical repair. Observation of the exceedingly rare, asymptomatic patient with a small tunnel may be justified by occasional spontaneous closure. All patients require life-long follow-up for recurrence of the tunnel, aortic valve incompetence, left ventricular function, and aneurysmal enlargement of the ascending aorta. PMID:17922908
Aorto-ventricular tunnel is a congenital, extracardiac channel which connects the ascending aorta above the sinutubular junction to the cavity of the left, or (less commonly) right ventricle. The exact incidence is unknown, estimates ranging from 0.5% of fetal cardiac malformations to less than 0.1% of congenitally malformed hearts in clinico-pathological series. Approximately 130 cases have been reported in the literature, about twice as many cases in males as in females. Associated defects, usually involving the proximal coronary arteries, or the aortic or pulmonary valves, are present in nearly half the cases. Occasional patients present with an asymptomatic heart murmur and cardiac enlargement, but most suffer heart failure in the first year of life. The etiology of aorto-ventricular tunnel is uncertain. It appears to result from a combination of maldevelopment of the cushions which give rise to the pulmonary and aortic roots, and abnormal separation of these structures. Echocardiography is the diagnostic investigation of choice. Antenatal diagnosis by fetal echocardiography is reliable after 18 weeks gestation. Aorto-ventricular tunnel must be distinguished from other lesions which cause rapid run-off of blood from the aorta and produce cardiac failure. Optimal management of symptomatic aorto-ventricular tunnel consists of diagnosis by echocardiography, complimented with cardiac catheterization as needed to elucidate coronary arterial origins or associated defects, and prompt surgical repair. Observation of the exceedingly rare, asymptomatic patient with a small tunnel may be justified by occasional spontaneous closure. All patients require life-long follow-up for recurrence of the tunnel, aortic valve incompetence, left ventricular function, and aneurysmal enlargement of the ascending aorta.
Inoue, Katsuji; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Kawakami, Hideo; Koyama, Yasushi; Nishimura, Kazuhisa; Ito, Taketoshi
A 76-year-old man with chest pain was admitted to hospital where electrocardiography (ECG) showed ST-segment elevation in leads V1-4, indicative of acute anterior myocardial infarction. ST-segment elevation was also present in the right precordial leads V4R-6R. Emergency coronary angiography revealed that the left coronary artery was dominant and did not have significant stenosis. Aortography showed ostial occlusion of the right coronary artery (RCA). Left ventriculography showed normal function and right ventriculography showed a dilated right ventricle and severe hypokinesis of the right ventricular free wall. Conservative treatment was selected because the patient's symptoms soon ameliorated and his hemodynamics was stable. 99mTc-pyrophosphate and 201Tl dual single-photon emission computed tomography showed uptake of 99mTc-pyrophosphate in only the right ventricular free wall, but no uptake of 99mTc-pyrophosphate and no perfusion defect of 201Tl in the left ventricle. The peak creatine kinase (CK) and CK-MB were 1,381 IU/L and 127 IU/L, respectively. His natural course was favorable and the chest pain disappeared under medication. Two months after the onset, the ECG showed poor R progression in leads V1-4 indicating an old anterior infarction. Coronary angiography confirmed the ostial stenosis of the hypoplastic RCA. This was a case of pure right ventricular free wall infarction because of the occlusion of the ostium of the hypoplastic RCA, but not of the right ventricular branch. Because the electrocardiographic findings resemble those of an acute anterior infarction, it is important to consider pure right ventricular infarction in the differential diagnosis.
Cohen-Solal, A; Himbert, D; Guéret, P; Gourgon, R
Cardiac failure is the principal medium-term complication of myocardial infarction. Changes in left ventricular geometry are observed after infarction, called ventricular remodeling, which, though compensatory initially, cause ventricular failure in the long-term. Experimental and clinical studies suggest that early treatment by coronary recanalisation, trinitrin and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors may prevent or limit the expansion and left ventricular dilatation after infarction, so improving ventricular function, and, at least in the animal, reduce mortality. Large scale trials with converting enzyme inhibitors are currently under way to determine the effects of this new therapeutic option. It would seem possible at present, independently of any reduction in the size of the infarction, to reduce or delay left ventricular dysfunction by interfering with the natural process of dilatation and ventricular modeling after infarction.
The identification of mural thrombus in patients with left ventricular aneurysm and mural thrombus probably warrants consideration of long-term anticoagulation. In patients with acute, large, anterior or anteroapical, transmural myocardial infarctions, serial noninvasive examinations are warranted to define a group of patients at high risk for the development of left ventricular aneurysm and/or mural thrombus. Anticoagulants should be considered in patients in whom mural thrombi develop as a complication of their infarction. Patients with congestive cardiomyopathy should be considered for long-term anticoagulation. These recommendations are all tempered by the realization that the use of anticoagulant therapy is not without its own risks. The decision to anticoagulate must be balanced against each individual patient's suitability for such therapy and the individual likelihood of the development of side effects.
Francis, Johnson; Venugopal, K; Khadar, S A; Sudhayakumar, N; Gupta, Anoop K
Idiopathic fascicular ventricular tachycardia is an important cardiac arrhythmia with specific electrocardiographic features and therapeutic options. It is characterized by relatively narrow QRS complex and right bundle branch block pattern. The QRS axis depends on which fascicle is involved in the re-entry. Left axis deviation is noted with left posterior fascicular tachycardia and right axis deviation with left anterior fascicular tachycardia. A left septal fascicular tachycardia with normal axis has also been described. Fascicular tachycardia is usually seen in individuals without structural heart disease. Response to verapamil is an important feature of fascicular tachycardia. Rare instances of termination with intravenous adenosine have also been noted. A presystolic or diastolic potential preceding the QRS, presumed to originate from the Purkinje fibers can be recorded during sinus rhythm and ventricular tachycardia in many patients with fascicular tachycardia. This potential (P potential) has been used as a guide to catheter ablation. Prompt recognition of fascicular tachycardia especially in the emergency department is very important. It is one of the eminently ablatable ventricular tachycardias. Primary ablation has been reported to have a higher success, lesser procedure time and fluoroscopy time.
Hennessy, Sean; Leonard, Charles E; Newcomb, Craig; Kimmel, Stephen E; Bilker, Warren B
AIMS We aimed to examine the association between cisapride and ventricular arrhythmia, and examine the relationship to dose and CYP3A4 inhibitors. METHODS A nested case–control study was conducted in Medicaid beneficiaries exposed to cisapride, metoclopramide or a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) from 1999 to 2000. Cases were hospitalized with a principal International Classification of Diseases-9 code indicating sudden cardiac death or ventricular arrhythmia. Controls had at least as much event-free person time following the study prescription as its matched case. RESULTS A total of 145 cases and 7250 controls were identified. The unadjusted rate ratio for cisapride vs. PPIs was 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.96, 2.25). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for cisapride vs. PPIs was 2.10 (1.34, 3.28). Excluding persons in managed care, the adjusted OR for cisapride was 2.92 (1.55, 5.49). In the initial prescription period, the adjusted OR for cisapride vs. PPIs was 7.85 (1.95, 31.60). Non-arrhythmogenic CYP3A4 inhibitors were not associated with an increased risk in users of cisapride or PPI inhibitors. The OR for potentially arrhythmogenic CYP3A4 inhibitors was 3.79 (1.76, 8.15) in cisapride users and 3.47 (2.06, 5.83) in PPI users. CONCLUSIONS Cisapride was associated with a doubling to tripling of the risk of hospitalization for ventricular arrhythmia, and a nearly eightfold risk in the initial prescription period. Although use of potentially arrhythmogenic CYP3A4 inhibitors was associated with an increased risk, this appears to be due to a direct effect of the drugs themselves rather than an interaction with cisapride. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT Case reports have linked cisapride to ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. However, two prior epidemiological studies have failed to show an association between cisapride and serious arrhythmia. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS Overall, cisapride was associated with a doubling to tripling of the risk of
Semantic difficulties arise when hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy is seen without obstruction and with congestive failure, and also when congestive cardiomyopathy is seen with gross hypertrophy but without heart failure. Retention of a small left ventricular cavity and a normal ejection fraction characterizes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy at all stages of the disorder. Congestive cardiomyopathy is recognized by the presence of a dilated left ventricular cavity and reduced ejection fraction regardless of the amount of hypertrophy and the presence or not of heart failure. Longevity in congestive cardiomyopathy seems to be promoted when hypertrophy is great relative to the amount of pump failure as measured by increase in cavity size. Conversely, death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is most likely when hypertrophy is greatest at a time when outflow tract obstruction has been replaced by inflow restriction caused by diminishing ventricular distensibility. Hypertrophy is thus beneficial and compensatory in congestive cardiomyopathy, whereas it may be the primary disorder and eventual cause of death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Reasons are given for believing that hypertension may have been the original cause of left ventricular dilatation in some case of congestive cardiomyopathy in which loss of stroke output thenceforward is followed by normotension. Development of severe hypertension in these patients after recovery from a prolonged period of left ventricular failure with normotension lends weight to this hypothesis. No fault has been found in the large or small coronary arteries in either hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or congestive cardiomyopathy when they have been examined in life by selective coronary angiography, or by histological methods in biopsy or post-mortem material. Coronary blood supply may be a limiting factor in the compensatory hypertrophy of congestive cardiomyopathy, and the ability to hypertrophy may explain the better prognosis of some
Schreiber, Doreen; Kottkamp, Hans
Idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias occur in patients without structural heart disease. They can arise from a variety of specific areas within both ventricles and in the supravalvular regions of the great arteries. Two main groups need to be differentiated: arrhythmias from the outflow tract (OT) region and idiopathic left ventricular, so-called fascicular, tachycardias (ILVTs). OT tachycardia typically originates in the right ventricular OT, but may also occur in the left ventricular OT, particularly in the sinuses of Valsalva or the anterior epicardium or the great cardiac vein. Activation mapping or pace mapping for the OT regions and mapping of diastolic potentials in ILVTs are the mapping techniques that are typically used. The ablation of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias is highly successful, associated with only rare complications. Newly recognized entities of idiopathic ventricular tachycardias are those originating in the papillary muscles and in the atrioventricular annular regions.
Maia, I G; Cruz Filho, F; Costa, A M; Boghossian, S H; Fagundes, M; Ribeiro, J C; Sá, R; Alves, P A
To evaluate retrospectively clinical features of repetitive monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (RMVT). Files of 11 patients with RMVT were analyzed (9 females, mean-age 37 +/- 17 years). All patients were submitted to clinical evaluation, ECG, Holter monitoring stress test, high-resolution ECG and echocardiogram; they were treated with antiarrhythmic drugs. Patients were in NYHA class I or II, 9 asymptomatics and 2 with palpitations. The ECG was normal in all of them. Cardiac memory was observed in 3. A left bundle branch block with inferior axis deviation in the frontal plane was present during RMVT in all patients (right ventricular outflow tract focus). Holter monitoring revealed mean of 12031 +/- 8345 isolated PVC/24h; 2892 +/- 234 ventricular couplets/24h and 1367 +/- 890 VTs/24h (mainly nonsustained). In 6 patients RMVT was suppressed during maximal exercise treadmill. High-resolution ECG was negative in all group. Five patients had a normal echocardiogram while 5 showed mitral valve prolapse. One patient developed tachycardiomyopathy. The arrhythmia was controlled with 320mg of oral sotalol in 3 of 4 that used this drug and with 120mg oral propranolol in one of 6 that used this drug. Drug resistance was present in the others. The mean follow-up period was 38 +/- 16 months. The results demonstrate that RMVT is a benign form of VT with no detectable anatomic substract by the currently used methods. It is probably induced by nonreentrant mechanism and frequently drug resistance is observed. Among the antiarrhythmic drugs commonly used, sotalol showed to be the most effective.
Jones, P; Lodé, N
Cardiac arrest in children is not often due to a disturbance in rhythm that is amenable to electrical defibrillation, contrary to the situation in adults. When a shockable rhythm is present, defibrillation using an external electric shock applied at an early stage after pre‐oxygenation and chest compressions is of proven efficacy. Success at conversion of ventricular fibrillation is dependent on the delay before delivering the shock and defibrillation efficiency, which is itself a function of thoracic impedance, energy dose and waveform. PMID:17895341
Prakash, Sumi; Garg, Nadish; Xie, Gong-Yuan; Dellsperger, Kevin C
Left ventricular (LV) pseudoaneurysm (PS) is an uncommon, often fatal complication associated with myocardial infarction, cardiothoracic surgery, trauma, and, rarely, infective endocarditis. A 28-year-old man with prior history of bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement presented with congestive heart failure and bacteremia with Abiotrophia granulitica. Transesophageal echocardiogram showed bioprosthesis dysfunction, large vegetations, mitral regurgitation, and probable PS. Cardiac and chest CT confirmed a PS communicating with the left ventricle Patient had pulseless electrical activity and died. Autopsy showed a giant PS with layered thrombus and pseudo-endothelialized cavity. Our case highlights the importance of multimodality imaging as an important tool in management of PS.
Decaux, G; Szyper, M; Grivegnée, A
In order to determine if the neurologic manifestations in chronic hyponatraemia result partly from brain oedema, we measured the cerebral ventricular volume before and after correction of hyponatraemia in eight patients with central nervous system manifestations. Only the three patients with seizures showed a clear change in the ventricular size and probably had brain oedema. PMID:6101182
Dencker, Magnus; Valind, Sven; Stagmo, Martin
Metastatic presentation of leiomyosarcoma in the heart is very rare. We present transthoracic echocardiography and combined PET/CT images of a case with a large right ventricular metastasis of leiomyosarcoma. The patient was placed on cytostatic drugs for palliative purposes, but passed away one month later because of an untreatable ventricular tackycardia.
Chiarandà, G; Di Guardo, G; Gulizia, M; Lazzaro, A; Regolo, T
Fascicular tachycardia is an uncommon idiopathic ventricular tachycardia, originating from the left ventricle; it usually occurs in young male patients, with a high prevalence in south-east Asiatic people. Electrocardiographic aspects of this unique ventricular tachycardia (right bundle branch block morphology and left or right-axis deviation, with a moderate QRS widening) and verapamil sensitivity make it often difficult the differential diagnosis with other forms of supraventricular tachycardia. Reentry is believed to be the operative mechanism of fascicular tachycardia, with the reentrant circuit located in the Purkinje network, in the region of the left posterior or anterior fascicle. The slow conduction zone participating in the reentry circuit, made up of partially depolarized Purkinje fibers, seems to be located in a relatively wide area, from the basal to the apical left interventricular septum. Intravenous verapamil is elective in acute treatment; however oral verapamil shows poor efficacy in preventing tachycardia relapses. Ablative approach is very effective; success is achieved in approximately 90% of patients, with rare complications. Recently diastolic potentials during fascicular tachycardia have been reported and these findings have given rise to new electrophysiological hypotheses and new indications about the successful ablation site.
Yamasaki, Manabu; Kawamatsu, Naoto; Yoshino, Kunihiko; Abe, Kohei; Misumi, Hiroyasu
Congenital left ventricular diverticulum (CLVD) is a rare congenital anomaly and may be associated with fatal adverse events. A previously healthy 20-year-old man collapsed as a result of sudden ventricular fibrillation (VF). Despite intractable VF, he had return of spontaneous circulation with cardiopulmonary resuscitation and subsequent introduction of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). After ECMO was discontinued, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed CLVD at the posterolateral wall of the left ventricle. Given the risk of recurrent VF and left ventricular rupture, he underwent surgical repair for CLVD and implantation of a subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Jun; Chen, Jie
In this paper, the symbolic dynamics analysis was used to analyze the complexity of normal heartbeat signal (NSR), Ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) signals. By calculating the information entropy value of symbolic sequences, the complexities were quantified. Based on different information entropy values, NSR, VT and VF signals were distinguished with satisfactory results. The study showed that a sudden drop of symbolic sequence’s entropy value indicated that the patients most likely entered the episode of ventricular tachycardia and this was a crucial episode for the clinical treatment of patients. It had important clinical significance for the automatic diagnosis.
In ventricular tachycardia (VT) arising in the myocardial tissue, the site of origin may be the endocardium, mid-myocardium or epicardium. The incidence of epicardial origin varies with the underlying heart disease, and is probably not more than 20% in ischemic heart disease and higher in non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. Percutaneous subxiphoid access to the pericardial space has enabled a non-surgical approach to catheter mapping and ablation of epicardial VT. Several algorithms are available for electrocardiographic recognition of epicardial origin. Idiopathic epicardial VTs are rare but may be curable by catheter ablation. The electrophysiologic principles guiding the mapping and ablation of epicardial VTs are similar to those used for endocardial VTs, but the biophysics of energy delivery may be different. Complications of the epicardial approach are also different from those of endocardial ablation, and specific precautions have to be taken to protect the coronary arteries and phrenic nerves and to avoid pericardial tamponade.
Adamec, R; Zimmermann, M
When electrodes are placed at the surface of the thorax, high-amplification electrocardiography (HA-ECG) combined with signal summation as a function of time provides a non-invasive method for detecting electric potentials occurring after the QRS complex of the clinical electrocardiogram. These potentials are called late, and can probably be likened to the "divided" or "fragmented" potentials recorded directly on the heart or in its ventricles near zones of ischemia, infarction or aneurysm. The prevalence of late potentials of ventricular activation (LPVA) and their association with the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias seems well established, notably in the presence of ventricular aneurysm and anamnesis of severe ventricular arrhythmia. Some studies have shown that detection of LPVAs is of value in identifying heart patients at risk of ventricular arrhythmia or sudden death. Heart disease aside, the presence of LPVAs has been demonstrated in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and reported in Fallot's tetralogy after complete correction. A standardization of recordings and a more precise definition of LPVAs are necessary before HA-ECG can become a routine clinical method. Further, the possibility of "beat by beat" recordings with "spatial" summation will allow detection of LPVAs which vary with time and in nature and hence provide a better understanding of the genesis of ventricular arrhythmias.
Anversa, P; Zhang, X; Li, P; Olivetti, G; Cheng, W; Reiss, K; Sonnenblick, E H; Kajstura, J
To determine the effects of chronic constriction of the left coronary artery on the function and structure of the heart, coronary artery narrowing was surgically induced in rats and ventricular pump performance, extent and distribution of myocardial damage, and the hypertrophic and hyperplastic response of myocytes were examined. Alterations in cardiac hemodynamics were found in all rats, but the characteristics of the physiological properties of the heart allowed a separation of the animals into two groups which exhibited left ventricular dysfunction and failure, respectively. Left ventricular hypertrophy occurred in both groups and was characterized by ventricular dilatation and wall thinning which were more severe in the failing animals. Multiple foci of myocardial damage across the wall were seen in all animals but tissue injury was more prominent in the endomyocardium and in failing rats. The anatomical and hemodynamic changes resulted in a significant increase in diastolic wall stress which paralleled the depression in ventricular performance. Myocyte cell loss and myocyte cellular hypertrophy were more severe with ventricular failure than with dysfunction. Finally, diastolic overload appeared to be coupled with activation of the DNA synthetic machinery of myocytes and nuclear mitotic division. In conclusion, a fixed lesion of the left coronary artery leads to abnormalities in cardiac dynamics with marked increases in diastolic wall stress and extensive ventricular remodeling in spite of compensatory myocyte cellular hypertrophy and hyperplasia in the remaining viable tissue.
Eason, Bryan D.; Leach, Stacey B.; Kuroki, Keiichi
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) was diagnosed postmortem in a weimaraner dog. Syncope, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death in this patient combined with the histopathological fatty tissue infiltration affecting the right ventricular myocardium are consistent with previous reports of ARVC in non-boxer dogs. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy has not been previously reported in weimaraners. PMID:26483577
Sugiura, Junya; Murayama, Hiroomi; Okada, Noritaka
In patients with a functional single ventricle such as neonatal Ebstein's anomaly or pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, the right ventricle can compress the left ventricle and decrease its performance due to the volume or pressure overload of the right ventricle. We have performed right ventricular centripetal plication from the inside to exclude the right ventricle and to minimize the adverse effect on the left ventricle and the results have been satisfactory.
Nof, Eyal; Stevenson, William G; John, Roy M
Catheter ablation has emerged as an important and effective treatment option for many recurrent ventricular arrhythmias. The approach to ablation and the risks and outcomes are largely determined by the nature of the severity and type of underlying heart disease. In patients with structural heart disease, catheter ablation can effectively reduce ventricular tachycardia (VT) episodes and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks. For VT and symptomatic premature ventricular beats that occur in the absence of structural heart disease, catheter ablation is often effective as the sole therapy. Advances in catheter technology, imaging and mapping techniques have improved success rates for ablation. This review discusses current approaches to mapping and ablation for ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:26835040
Fuchs, A; Netz, H
The implantation of a mechanical circulatory device for end-stage ventricular failure is a possible therapeutic approach in adult and pediatric cardiac surgery and cardiology. The aim of this article is to present mechanical circulatory assist devices used in infants and children with special emphasis on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, Berlin Heart assist device, centrifugal pump and Medos assist device. The success of long-term support with implantable ventricular assist devices in adults and children has led to their increasing use as a bridge to transplantation in patients with otherwise non-treatable left ventricular failure, by transforming a terminal phase heart condition into a treatable cardiopathy. Such therapy allows rehabilitation of patients before elective cardiac transplantation (by removing contraindications to transplantation mainly represented by organ impairment) or acting as a bridge to recovery of the native left ventricular function (depending on underlying cardiac disease). Treatment may also involve permanent device implantation when cardiac transplantation is contraindicated. Indications for the implantation of assisted circulation include all states of cardiac failure that are reversible within a variable period of time or that require heart transplantation. This article will address the current status of ventricular assist devices by examining historical aspects of its development, current technical issues and clinical features of pediatric ventricular assist devices, including indications and contraindications for support. PMID:22368605
Naeije, Robert; Badagliacca, Roberto
The right and the left ventricle are interdependent as both structures are nested within the pericardium, have the septum in common and are encircled with common myocardial fibres. Therefore, right ventricular volume or pressure overloading affects left ventricular function, and this in turn may affect the right ventricle. In normal subjects at rest, right ventricular function has negligible interaction with left ventricular function. However, the right ventricle contributes significantly to the normal cardiac output response to exercise. In patients with right ventricular volume overload without pulmonary hypertension, left ventricular diastolic compliance is decreased and ejection fraction depressed but without intrinsic alteration in contractility. In patients with right ventricular pressure overload, left ventricular compliance is decreased with initial preservation of left ventricular ejection fraction, but with eventual left ventricular atrophic remodelling and altered systolic function. Breathing affects ventricular interdependence, in healthy subjects during exercise and in patients with lung diseases and altered respiratory system mechanics. Inspiration increases right ventricular volumes and decreases left ventricular volumes. Expiration decreases both right and left ventricular volumes. The presence of an intact pericardium enhances ventricular diastolic interdependence but has negligible effect on ventricular systolic interdependence. On the other hand, systolic interdependence is enhanced by a stiff right ventricular free wall, and decreased by a stiff septum. Recent imaging studies have shown that both diastolic and systolic ventricular interactions are negatively affected by right ventricular regional inhomogeneity and prolongation of contraction, which occur along with an increase in pulmonary artery pressure. The clinical relevance of these observations is being explored. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights
Li, Puxian; Diao, Xingtao; Bi, Zhiyong; Hao, Shuyu; Ren, Xiaohui; Zhang, Junting; Xing, Jun
We report 13 patients with third ventricular meningiomas (TVM) and discuss the clinical, radiological, pathological and surgical features, as well as follow-up of these tumors. TVM are rare intracranial tumors, and because of this, there are few reports in the literature. Of 11,600 intracranial meningiomas that were surgically treated and pathologically confirmed at Beijing Tian Tan Hospital over a period of 10 years (2003-2013), 13 TVM were selected for a retrospective review. We recorded the clinical, radiological, pathological, and surgical data and statistically analyzed the preoperative, postoperative and 6 month postoperative Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) scores. TVM represented 0.11% of intracranial meningiomas. Radiologically, TVM were divided into three groups: anterior (n=3), posterior (n=3), and entire third ventricle (n=7). Three patients (23.1%) were misdiagnosed preoperatively. Total removal was achieved in 61.5% (8/13) of patients, and subtotal resection was achieved in 38.5% (5/13). Pathologically, the tumors were World Health Organization (WHO) Grade I in 11 patients (84.6%) and WHO Grade II in two (15.6%). There were no statistically significant differences in the preoperative, postoperative, or 6 month postoperative KPS scores (F=0.814; p=0.401). TVM without dural attachments are rare neoplasms that should be differentiated from choroid plexus papilloma, craniopharyngioma, and pineocytoma. Surgery is the optimal treatment and may result in a favorable prognosis, and understanding of the radiological subtype can help with the choice of surgical approach.
Sung, June-Min; Chung, In-Hyun; Lee, Hye Young; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Byun, Young Sup; Kim, Byung Ok; Rhee, Kun Joo
Most patients diagnosed with takotsubo cardiomyopathies are expected to almost completely recover, and their prognosis is excellent. However, complications can occur in the acute phase. We present a case of a woman with takotsubo cardiomyopathy with right ventricular involvement who developed a rupture of the right ventricular free wall following ventricular septal rupture, as a consequence of an acute increase in right ventricular afterload by left-to-right shunt. Our case report illustrates that takotsubo cardiomyopathy can be life threatening in the acute phase. Ventricular septal rupture in biventricular takotsubo cardiomyopathy may be a harbinger of cardiac tamponade by right ventricular rupture. PMID:27873520
Sung, June Min; Hong, Sung Jin; Chung, In Hyun; Lee, Hye Young; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Byun, Young Sup; Kim, Byung Ok; Rhee, Kun Joo
Most patients diagnosed with takotsubo cardiomyopathies are expected to almost completely recover, and their prognosis is excellent. However, complications can occur in the acute phase. We present a case of a woman with takotsubo cardiomyopathy with right ventricular involvement who developed a rupture of the right ventricular free wall following ventricular septal rupture, as a consequence of an acute increase in right ventricular afterload by left-to-right shunt. Our case report illustrates that takotsubo cardiomyopathy can be life threatening in the acute phase. Ventricular septal rupture in biventricular takotsubo cardiomyopathy may be a harbinger of cardiac tamponade by right ventricular rupture.
Burki, Sarah; Zafar, Farhan; Morales, David Luis Simon
The domain of pediatric ventricular assist device (VAD) has recently gained considerable attention. Despite the fact that, historically, the practice of pediatric mechanical circulatory support (MCS) has lagged behind that of adult patients, this gap between the two groups is narrowing. Currently, the Berlin EXCOR VAD is the only pediatric-specific durable VAD approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The prospective Berlin Heart trial demonstrated a successful outcome, either bridge to transplantation (BTT), or in rare instances, bridge to recovery, in approximately 90% of children. Also noted during the trial was, however, a high incidence of adverse events such as embolic stroke, bleeding and infection. This has incentivized some pediatric centers to utilize adult implantable continuous-flow devices, for instance the HeartMate II and HeartWare HVAD, in children. As a result of this paradigm shift, the outlook of pediatric VAD support has dramatically changed: Treatment options previously unavailable to children, including outpatient management and even destination therapy, have now been becoming a reality. The sustained demand for continued device miniaturization and technological refinements is anticipated to extend the range of options available to children—HeartMate 3 and HeartWare MVAD are two examples of next generation VADs with potential pediatric application, both of which are presently undergoing clinical trials. A pediatric-specific continuous-flow device is also on the horizon: the redesigned Infant Jarvik VAD (Jarvik 2015) is undergoing pre-clinical testing, with a randomized clinical trial anticipated to follow thereafter. The era of pediatric VADs has begun. In this article, we discuss several important aspects of contemporary VAD therapy, with a particular focus on challenges unique to the pediatric population. PMID:26793341
Tung, Roderick; Shivkumar, Kalyanam
Epicardial mapping and ablation via a percutaneous subxiphoid technique has been instrumental in improving the working understanding of complex myocardial scars in various arrhythmogenic substrates. Endocardial ablation alone may not be sufficient in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and Chagas disease to prevent recurrent ventricular tachycardia. Multiple observational studies have demonstrated greater freedom from recurrence with adjunctive epicardial ablation compared with endocardial ablation alone. While epicardial ablation is performed predominantly at tertiary referral centers, knowledge of the technical approach, clinical indications, and potential complications is imperative to maximizing clinical success and patient safety. In 1996, Sosa and colleagues modified the pericardiocentesis technique to enable percutaneous access to the pericardial space for mapping and catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia.1 Originally developed for patients with epicardial scarring due to chagasic cardiomyopathy and patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy refractory to endocardial ablationm,2,3 this approach has since become an essential part of the armamentarium for the treatment of ventricular tachycardia. Myocardial scars are three-dimensionally complex with varying degrees of transmurality, and the ability to map and ablate the epicardial surface has contributed to a greater understanding of scar-related VT in postinfarction cardiomyopathy and nonischemic substrates including idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and chagasic cardiomyopathy. In this review, we highlight the percutaneous approach and discuss clinical indications and potential complications. PMID:26306131
Tung, Roderick; Shivkumar, Kalyanam
Epicardial mapping and ablation via a percutaneous subxiphoid technique has been instrumental in improving the working understanding of complex myocardial scars in various arrhythmogenic substrates. Endocardial ablation alone may not be sufficient in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and Chagas disease to prevent recurrent ventricular tachycardia. Multiple observational studies have demonstrated greater freedom from recurrence with adjunctive epicardial ablation compared with endocardial ablation alone. While epicardial ablation is performed predominantly at tertiary referral centers, knowledge of the technical approach, clinical indications, and potential complications is imperative to maximizing clinical success and patient safety. In 1996, Sosa and colleagues modified the pericardiocentesis technique to enable percutaneous access to the pericardial space for mapping and catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia.1 Originally developed for patients with epicardial scarring due to chagasic cardiomyopathy and patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy refractory to endocardial ablationm,2,3 this approach has since become an essential part of the armamentarium for the treatment of ventricular tachycardia. Myocardial scars are three-dimensionally complex with varying degrees of transmurality, and the ability to map and ablate the epicardial surface has contributed to a greater understanding of scar-related VT in postinfarction cardiomyopathy and nonischemic substrates including idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and chagasic cardiomyopathy. In this review, we highlight the percutaneous approach and discuss clinical indications and potential complications.
Chrysant, George S; Nguyen, P K
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors today are the standard therapy of patients with myocardial infarction and heart failure due to their proven beneficial effects in left ventricular remodeling and left ventricular function. ACE inhibitors have also been demonstrated to lead to regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). It is believed that the mechanism of action of LVH regression with ACE inhibitors arises from more than simple blood pressure reduction. LVH is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality independent of blood pressure. Moexipril hydrochloride is a long-acting, non-sulfhydryl ACE inhibitor that can be taken once daily for the treatment of hypertension. Moexipril has now also been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on LVH and can lead to LVH regression.
Chrysant, George S; Nguyen, PK
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors today are the standard therapy of patients with myocardial infarction and heart failure due to their proven beneficial effects in left ventricular remodeling and left ventricular function. ACE inhibitors have also been demonstrated to lead to regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). It is believed that the mechanism of action of LVH regression with ACE inhibitors arises from more than simple blood pressure reduction. LVH is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality independent of blood pressure. Moexipril hydrochloride is a long-acting, non-sulfhydryl ACE inhibitor that can be taken once daily for the treatment of hypertension. Moexipril has now also been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on LVH and can lead to LVH regression. PMID:17583172
Zhao, Yun-Tao; Wang, Lei; Yi, Zhong
Bidirectional ventricular tachycardia is a rare variety of tachycardia with a morphologically distinct presentation. The QRS axis and/or morphology alternate in the frontal plane leads. We report a patient with bidirectional ventricular tachycardia in association with aconitine poisoning.
Rizvi, Asim; Deaño, Roderick C.; Bachman, Daniel P.; Xiong, Guanglei; Min, James K.; Truong, Quynh A.
The assessment of ventricular function, cardiac chamber dimensions and ventricular mass is fundamental for clinical diagnosis, risk assessment, therapeutic decisions, and prognosis in patients with cardiac disease. Although cardiac computed tomography (CT) is a noninvasive imaging technique often used for the assessment of coronary artery disease, it can also be utilized to obtain important data about left and right ventricular function and morphology. In this review, we will discuss the clinical indications for the use of cardiac CT for ventricular analysis, review the evidence on the assessment of ventricular function compared to existing imaging modalities such cardiac MRI and echocardiography, provide a typical cardiac CT protocol for image acquisition and post-processing for ventricular analysis, and provide step-by-step instructions to acquire multiplanar cardiac views for ventricular assessment from the standard axial, coronal, and sagittal planes. Furthermore, both qualitative and quantitative assessments of ventricular function as well as sample reporting are detailed. PMID:25576407
Patel, Nishit H; Golwala, Harsh; Stavrakis, Stavros; Schechter, Eliot
Sertraline is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, which is a commonly used drug for major depressive disorder. Most frequently reported adverse effects of sertraline in patients receiving 50-150 mg/d are dry mouth, headache, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, sweating, and dizziness. We hereby report one of the few cases of sertraline-induced ventricular tachycardia, which has been for the first time objectively assessed by the Naranjo scale. We therefore urge the primary care physicians and the cardiologists to keep sertraline as a possible precipitating factor for evaluation of ventricular tachycardia.
Hastings, H M; Evans, S J; Quan, W; Chong, M L; Nwasokwa, O
Electrogram recordings of ventricular fibrillation appear complex and possibly chaotic. However, sequences of beat-to-beat intervals obtained from these recordings are generally short, making it difficult to explicitly demonstrate nonlinear dynamics. Motivated by the work of Sugihara on atmospheric dynamics and the Durbin-Watson test for nonlinearity, we introduce a new statistical test that recovers significant dynamical patterns from smoothed lag plots. This test is used to show highly significant nonlinear dynamics in a stable canine model of ventricular fibrillation. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8816831
Fayssoil, Abdallah; Abasse, Soumeth; Nardi, Olivier
Right ventricular (RV) function is essential in cardio--pulmonary physiology and physiopathology. RV dysfunction has prognostic impact in inferior myocardial infarction, significant valvulopathies, congenital cardiopathies, arterial pulmonary hypertension and in patients suffering from acute or chronic heart failure. RV analysis relies on non invasive (echocardiography-Doppler, isotopic technology, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging) and/or invasive approaches (right cardiac catheterization). Neglected a short time ago, RV assessment has regained interest with tissular Doppler imaging, strain imaging and 2D speckle tracking. We review echocardiography and Doppler -parameters used for right -ventricular assessment.
Werner, A M; Darrell, J C; Pallegrini, R V; Woelfel, G F; Grant, K; Marrangoni, A G
Cardiothoracic surgeons whose practice is limited to adults rarely see patients with right ventricular outflow obstruction and an intact ventricular septum. Of more than 10,000 open-heart procedures performed at our institution from 1983 to 1993 (in patients 18 to 75 years old), only 5 procedures were for correction of this problem. Both the pulmonary valve and the subvalvular area were abnormal in these 5 patients, and 4 of the 5 had subvalvular stenosis. The gradient across the right ventricular outflow tract was measured by cardiac catheterization before repair in all patients and averaged 118 mmHg. Various surgical approaches were used for repair. In the 2 patients whose pressures were measured postoperatively, the gradients were 25 mmHg and 45 mmHg, respectively. There were no operative deaths. At follow-up (range, 2 months to 5 years after surgery), all patients were in New York Heart Association functional class I and all had murmurs. Those who underwent echocardiography were found to have minimal gradients across the right ventricular outflow tract. Images PMID:9205983
Rodrigues, E A; Dewhurst, N G; Smart, L M; Hannan, W J; Muir, A L
The values of several non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of right ventricular necrosis in inferior myocardial infarction were compared in 51 consecutive patients who underwent serial radionuclide ventriculography, pyrophosphate scintigraphy, and cross sectional echocardiography. In addition a unipolar electrocardiographic lead V4R was recorded on admission, daily, and during episodes of further pain. Profound right ventricular dysfunction was evident in 50% of patients studied by radionuclide methods after inferior myocardial infarction but recognition on clinical groups alone was poor. Functionally important right ventricular infarction was best detected and followed serially by radionuclide ventriculography. Echocardiographic methods for evaluating right ventricular ejection fraction correlated poorly with radionuclide methods. Increased uptake of radioactivity by the right ventricle on pyrophosphate scintigraphy usually indicated poor right ventricular function, but a scan that was negative in the right ventricular territory did not exclude dysfunction. ST segment elevation in V4R was not specific for right ventricular infarction and its routine use may lead to overdiagnosis of this condition. Serial measurements suggest that profound right ventricular dysfunction persists after acute inferior infarction and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Of 25 patients with severe right ventricular dysfunction, six died in the late hospital period. In the remaining 19 patients mean right ventricular ejection fraction over a two month period did not improve; six patients had persistent right ventricular dyskinesia and features of chronic right ventricular failure developed in three survivors. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3015175
... the lungs forces the heart and lungs to work harder. Over time, if not repaired, this defect can increase the risk for other complications, including heart failure, high blood pressure in the lungs ... » Types of Ventricular Septal Defects Click here to ...
Witkowski, Francis X.; Leon, L. Joshua; Penkoske, Patricia A.; Giles, Wayne R.; Spano, Mark L.; Ditto, William L.; Winfree, Arthur T.
Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of death in the industrialized world, with the majority of such tragedies being due to ventricular fibrillation. Ventricular fibrillation is a frenzied and irregular disturbance of the heart rhythm that quickly renders the heart incapable of sustaining life. Rotors, electrophysiological structures that emit rotating spiral waves, occur in several systems that all share with the heart the functional properties of excitability and refractoriness. These re-entrant waves, seen in numerical solutions of simplified models of cardiac tissue, may occur during ventricular tachycardias,. It has been difficult to detect such forms of re-entry in fibrillating mammalian ventricles. Here we show that, in isolated perfused dog hearts, high spatial and temporal resolution mapping of optical transmembrane potentials can easily detect transiently erupting rotors during the early phase of ventricular fibrillation. This activity is characterized by a relatively high spatiotemporal cross-correlation. During this early fibrillatory interval, frequent wavefront collisions and wavebreak generation are also dominant features. Interestingly, this spatiotemporal pattern undergoes an evolution to a less highly spatially correlated mechanism that lacks the epicardial manifestations of rotors despite continued myocardial perfusion.
Alwan, Yaqub; Cvetkovic, Zoran; Curtis, Michael
Recent studies have been performed on feature selection for diagnostics between non-ventricular rhythms and ventricular arrhythmias, or between non-ventricular fibrillation and ventricular fibrillation. However they did not assess classification directly between non-ventricular rhythms, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation, which is important in both a clinical setting and preclinical drug discovery. In this study it is shown that in a direct multiclass setting, the selected features from these studies are not capable at differentiating between ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. A high dimensional feature space, Fourier magnitude spectra, is proposed for classification, in combination with the structured prediction method conditional random fields. An improvement in overall accuracy, and sensitivity of every category under investigation is achieved.
Reddy, Yeruva Madhu; Chinitz, Larry; Mansour, Moussa; Bunch, T. Jared; Mahapatra, Srijoy; Swarup, Vijay; Di Biase, Luigi; Bommana, Sudharani; Atkins, Donita; Tung, Roderick; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Burkhardt, J. David; Ruskin, Jeremy; Natale, Andrea; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya
Background Data on relative safety, efficacy, and role of different percutaneous left ventricular assist devices for hemodynamic support during the ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation procedure are limited. Methods and Results We performed a multicenter, observational study from a prospective registry including all consecutive patients (N=66) undergoing VT ablation with a percutaneous left ventricular assist devices in 6 centers in the United States. Patients with intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP group; N=22) were compared with patients with either an Impella or a TandemHeart device (non-IABP group; N=44). There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between both the groups. In non-IABP group (1) more patients could undergo entrainment/activation mapping (82% versus 59%; P=0.046), (2) more number of unstable VTs could be mapped and ablated per patient (1.05±0.78 versus 0.32±0.48; P<0.001), (3) more number of VTs could be terminated by ablation (1.59±1.0 versus 0.91±0.81; P=0.007), and (4) fewer VTs were terminated with rescue shocks (1.9±2.2 versus 3.0±1.5; P=0.049) when compared with IABP group. Complications of the procedure trended to be more in the non-IABP group when compared with those in the IABP group (32% versus 14%; P=0.143). Intermediate term outcomes (mortality and VT recurrence) during 12±5-month follow-up were not different between both groups. Left ventricular ejection fraction ≤15% was a strong and independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (53% versus 4%; P<0.001). Conclusions Impella and TandemHeart use in VT ablation facilitates extensive activation mapping of several unstable VTs and requires fewer rescue shocks during the procedure when compared with using IABP. PMID:24532564
Nölker, Georg; Gutleben, Klaus-Jürgen; Asbach, Stefan; Ritscher, Guido; Marschang, Harald; Sinha, Anil M; Boileau, Peter; Benser, Michael E; Hallier, Benoit; Hümmer, Alexander; Brachmann, Johannes
In pacemaker patients with preserved atrio-ventricular (AV) conduction, atrial fibrillation (AF) can lead to symptomatic ventricular rate irregularity and loss of ventricular stimulation. We tested if dynamic ventricular overdrive (DVO) as a potentially pacemaker-integrated algorithm could improve both aspects. Different settings of DVO and ventricular-ventricular-inhibited-pacing (VVI) with different base rates were tested in two consecutive phases during electrophysiological studies for standard indications. Mean heart rate (HR), HR irregularity and percentage of ventricular pacing were evaluated. A fusion index (FI) indicative of the proportion of fusion beats was calculated for each stimulation protocol. Dynamic ventricular overdrive from the right ventricular apex was acutely applied in 38 patients (11 females, mean age 62.1 ± 11.5 years) with sustained AF and preserved AV conduction. Dynamic ventricular overdrive at LOW/MEDIUM setting increased the amount of ventricular pacing compared with VVI pacing at 60, 70, and 80 beats per minute (bpm; to 81/85% from 11, 25, and 47%, respectively; P < 0.05). It also resulted in a maximum decrease in interval differences (to 48 ± 18 ms from 149 ± 28, 117 ± 38, and 95 ± 46 ms, respectively; P < 0.05) and fusion (to 0.13 from 0.41, 0.42, and 0.36, respectively; P < 0.05) compared with VVI pacing at 60, 70, and 80 bpm. However, the application of DVO resulted in a significant increase in HR compared with intrinsic rhythm and VVI pacing at 80 bpm (to 97 bpm from 89 and 94 bpm, respectively; P < 0.05). Dynamic ventricular overdrive decreases HR irregularity and increases ventricular pacing rate compared with VVI pacing at fixed elevated base rates and spontaneous rhythm. Fusion index might help to refine information on pacing percentages provided by device counters.
Vester, E G
A relation between myocardial ischemia and induction of ventricular arrhythmias can be demonstrated in patients with coronary heart disease--in contrast to patients with primary non ischemic cardiac diseases--using a combined metabolic-electrophysiological investigation protocol consisting of programmed atrial and ventricular stimulation with simultaneous measurement of the arterio/coronary venous difference for lactate, pyruvate, free fatty acids and amino acids. There are significant metabolic distinctions between both ischemic and non ischemic heart disease under pacing stress conditions as well as at rest. Areas of "hibernating myocardium" resp. "mismatch" zones in the myocardium showing reduced or abolished perfusion and preserved metabolism during scintographic SPECT/PET studies, may be found more often in patients with ventricular tachycardias (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) in the chronic post myocardial infarction state than in patients without VT/VF. The proof of such zones may be considered a possible risk factor for arrhythmic events and sudden cardiac death after myocardial infarction. Hereby the concept of an interaction between acute and chronic ischemia triggering the onset of polymorphic VT or VF gaines increasing acceptance. In contrast, monomorphic reentrant VT are usually generated in the border zone of scarred areas where islands of vital fibers are surrounded by fibrotic tissue. These arrhythmogenic origin regions are characterized by a "match" pattern presenting a comparably severe reduction of perfusion and metabolism. Under those circumstances a control resp. suppression of the VT focus can only be provided by interventional techniques like catheter ablation, antitachycardiac surgery or implantation of a cardioverter/defibrillator beyond antiarrhythmic drug therapy. An antiischemic causal treatment (bypass surgery or angioplasty) represents for maximal 40% of patients with ischemically induced ventricular arrhythmias an adequate and
Alipour, Fariborz; Karnell, Michael
Purpose Supraglottic compression is frequently observed in individuals with dysphonia. It is commonly interpreted as an indication of excessive circumlaryngeal muscular tension and ventricular medialization. The purpose of this study was to describe the aerodynamic and acoustic impact of varying ventricular medialization in a canine model. Methods Subglottal air pressure, glottal airflow, electroglottograph, acoustic signals and high-speed video images were recorded in seven excised canine larynges mounted in vitro for laryngeal vibratory experimentation. The degree of gap between the ventricular folds was adjusted and measured using sutures and weights. Data was recorded during phonation when the ventricular gap was narrow, neutral, and large. Glottal resistance was estimated by measures of subglottal pressure and glottal flow. Results Glottal resistance increased systematically as ventricular gap became smaller. Wide ventricular gaps were associated with increases in fundamental frequency and decreases in glottal resistance. Sound pressure level did not appear to be impacted by the adjustments in ventricular gap used in this research. Conclusions Increases in supraglottic compression and associated reduced ventricular width may be observed in a variety of disorders that affect voice quality. Ventricular compression may interact with true vocal fold posture and vibration resulting in predictable changes in aerodynamic, physiologic, acoustic, and perceptual measures of phonation. The data from this report supports the theory that narrow ventricular gaps may be associated with disordered phonation. In vitro and in vivo human data are needed to further test this association. PMID:24321590
Reed, Matthew J; Clegg, Gareth R; Robertson, Colin E
The surface electrocardiogram associated with ventricular fibrillation has been of interest to researchers for some time. Over the last few decades, techniques have been developed to analyse this signal in an attempt to obtain more information about the state of the myocardium and the chances of successful defibrillation. This review looks at the implications of analysing the VF waveform and discusses the various techniques that have been used, including fast Fourier transform analysis, wavelet transform analysis and mathematical techniques such as chaos theory.
Klein, L S; Miles, W M
Radiofrequency catheter ablation techniques have enjoyed successful applications in patients with a wide variety of supraventricular tachycardias, especially the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and atrioventricular nodal reentry. More recent reports have shown successful applications in patients with atrial tachycardias and atrial flutter. In addition to these, there are now reports of success during attempts to use radiofrequency techniques to eliminate ventricular tachycardia (VT), both in patients without structural heart disease (idiopathic VT) and patients with structural heart disease (primarily coronary artery disease). Techniques to map sites for ablation in patients with idiopathic VT usually include identifying early endocardial activation and using pace mapping. Success rates for ablation of idiopathic VT have been very high (over 90%) in patients with VT arising from the right ventricular outflow tract. Success rates have not been quite as high when VTs arising from sites other than the right ventricular outflow tract are targeted in the patient with idiopathic VT. In patients with VT caused by coronary artery disease, early endocardial activation and pace mapping can be unreliable. In these patients, searching for mid-diastolic potentials or showing concealed entrainment have proved more reliable. When these latter techniques are applied, success rates in eliminating a single focus of VT in a patient with coronary artery disease has been reported to be as high as 60% to 80%. Future therapies will include new energy sources, new (larger and/or cooled) electrodes, and multipoint catheter mapping, possibly using body surface mapping techniques.
Alan, Sevil; Ünal, Betül; Yildirim, Aytül
Isotretinoin has been considered a unique drug for acne treatment. However, it is associated with numerous adverse effects. Isotretinoin can trigger premature ventricular contractions. This report describes a 33-year-old-woman who presented with palpitations for 1 week while undergoing 1-month isotretinoin treatment for mild-moderate facial acne. An electrocardiogram and Holter monitoring showed premature ventricular contractions during isotretinoin (Roaccutane, Roche) treatment. Isotretinoin-related premature ventricular contractions were strongly suggested in this case due to the existence of documented premature ventricular contractions on electrocardiograms and the disappearance of these premature ventricular contractions two weeks after termination of the treatment To the authors' knowledge, there has been 1 reported case of premature ventricular contractions linked to isotretinoin use; this report describes a second such case. PMID:28099609
Goli, Anil K; Koduri, Madhav; Downs, Christopher; Mackall, Judith
Idiopathic ventricular tachycardias, which occur in patients without structural heart disease, are a common entity, representing up to 10% of all ventricular tachycardias evaluated by cardiac electrophysiology services. Pregnancy can increase the incidence of various cardiac arrhythmias. Factors that can potentially promote arrhythmias in pregnancy include the effects of hormones, changes in autonomic tone, hemodynamic perturbations, hypokalemia, and underlying heart disease. Ventricular arrhythmias in pregnancy are repetitive monomorphic ventricular premature complexes and couplets that frequently originate at the right ventricular outflow tract. New onset symptomatic repetitive right ventricular outflow tract ventricular tachycardia during pregnancy has been inadequately reported in the literature. We present a case of symptomatic repetitive right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia that started during pregnancy and continued in the postpartum period, requiring curative treatment with electrophysiology study and radiofrequency ablation.
Pac, Mustafa; Pac, Aysenur; Polat, Tugcin Bora; Balli, Sevket; Turhan, Nesrin; Aras, Dursun; Oflaz, Mehmet Burhan; Kücüker, Seref
Right ventricular dysplasia is usually discovered by the presence of ventricular arrhythmia. As arrhythmia is an epiphenomenon, the first presentation of some cases can be primarily heart failure. We describe an adolescent girl who presented with progressive right heart failure and whose hallmark was fibrofatty replacement of ventricular muscle, especially of the right side, without ventricular arrhythmia. The patient was successfully treated by orthotopic heart transplantation.
Santangeli, Pasquale; Lin, David; Marchlinski, Francis E
The left ventricular summit is a common site of origin of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias. These arrhythmias are most commonly ablated within the coronary venous system or from other adjacent structures, such as the right ventricular and left ventricular outflow tract or coronary cusp region. When ablation from adjacent structures fails, a percutaneous epicardial approach can be considered, but is rarely successful in eliminating the arrhythmias due to proximity to major coronary vessels and/or epicardial fat.
Ying, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Miao-Yan
Isolated left ventricular noncompaction (IVNC) is a rare congenital form of cardiomyopathy. Verapamil-sensitive fascicular ventricular tachycardia is a rare arrhythmogenic condition characterized by a right bundle-branch block pattern and left-axis deviation with a relatively narrow QRS complex. We herein present the case of a patient with IVNC who presented with verapamil-sensitive fascicular ventricular tachycardia.
Mazur, Alexander; Kusniec, Jairo; Strasberg, Boris
Bundle branch reentrant (BBR) tachycardia is an uncommon form of ventricular tachycardia (VT) incorporating both bundle branches into the reentry circuit. The arrhythmia is usually seen in patients with an acquired heart disease and significant conduction system impairment, although patients with structurally normal heart have been described. Surface ECG in sinus rhythm (SR) characteristically shows intraventricular conduction defects. Patients typically present with presyncope, syncope or sudden death because of VT with fast rates frequently above 200 beats per minute. The QRS morphology during VT is a typical bundle branch block pattern, usually left bundle branch block, and may be identical to that in SR. Prolonged His-ventricular (H-V) interval in SR is found in the majority of patients with BBR VT, although some patients may have the H-V interval within normal limits. The diagnosis of BBR VT is based on electrophysiological findings and pacing maneuvers that prove participation of the His- Purkinje system in the tachycardia mechanism. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of a bundle branch can cure BBR VT and is currently regarded as the first line therapy. The technique of choice is ablation of the right bundle. The reported incidence of clinically significant conduction system impairment requiring implantation of a permanent pacemaker varies from 0% to 30%. Long-term outcome depends on the underlying cardiac disease. Patients with poor systolic left ventricular function are at risk of sudden death or death from progressive heart failure despite successful BBR VT ablation and should be considered for an implantable cardiovertor-defibrillator. PMID:16943949
Lampert, Brent C; Teuteberg, Jeffrey J
Most patients with advanced systolic dysfunction who are assessed for a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) also have some degree of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. Hence, RV failure (RVF) remains a common complication of LVAD placement. Severe RVF after LVAD implantation is associated with increased peri-operative mortality and length of stay and can lead to coagulopathy, altered drug metabolism, worsening nutritional status, diuretic resistance, and poor quality of life. However, current medical and surgical treatment options for RVF are limited and often result in significant impairments in quality of life. There has been continuing interest in developing risk models for RVF before LVAD implantation. This report reviews the anatomy and physiology of the RV and how it changes in the setting of LVAD support. We will discuss proposed mechanisms and describe biochemical, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic predictors of RVF in LVAD patients. We will describe management strategies for reducing and managing RVF. Finally, we will discuss the increasingly recognized and difficult to manage entity of chronic RVF after LVAD placement and describe opportunities for future research. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maccabelli, Giuseppe; Mizuno, Hiroya; Della Bella, Paolo
Epicardial ablation has lately become a necessary tool to approach some ventricular tachycardias in different types of cardiomyopathy. Its diffusion is now limited to a few high volume centers not because of the difficulty of the pericardial puncture but since it requires high competence not only in the VT ablation field but also in knowing and recognizing the possible complications each of which require a careful treatment. This article will review the state of the art of epicardial ablation with special attention to the procedural aspects and to the possible selection criteria of the patients PMID:23233758
Chakraborty, Praloy; Kaul, Bhavna; Mandal, Kausik; Isser, H.S.; Bansal, Sandeep; Subramanian, Anandaraja
Bidirectional ventricular tachycardia (BDVT) is a rare form of ventricular arrhythmia, characterized by changing QRS axis of 180 degrees. Digitalis toxicity is considered as commonest cause of BDVT; other causes include aconite toxicity, myocarditis, myocardial infarction, metastatic cardiac tumour and cardiac channelopathies. We describe a case of BDVT in a patient with Anderson-Tawil syndrome. PMID:27479206
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ventricular cannula. 882.4060 Section 882.4060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Identification. A ventricular cannula is a device used to puncture the ventricles of the brain for aspiration or...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ventricular cannula. 882.4060 Section 882.4060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Identification. A ventricular cannula is a device used to puncture the ventricles of the brain for aspiration or...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ventricular cannula. 882.4060 Section 882.4060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Identification. A ventricular cannula is a device used to puncture the ventricles of the brain for aspiration or...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ventricular cannula. 882.4060 Section 882.4060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Identification. A ventricular cannula is a device used to puncture the ventricles of the brain for aspiration or...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ventricular cannula. 882.4060 Section 882.4060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Identification. A ventricular cannula is a device used to puncture the ventricles of the brain for aspiration or...
Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Varm, Chandra Mohan; Thakur, Ramesh; Krishna, Vinay; Goel, Amit; Kumar, Ashutosh; Jha, Mukesh Jitendra; Mishra, Vikas; Singh Syal, Karandeep
We present a case of a rare complication of transvenous right ventricular pacing by temporary pacing wire causing iatrogenic interventricular septal perforation and left ventricular pacing in a 69-year-old man who was referred for recurrent syncope with sinus arrest. PMID:28197251
Bailly, Lucie; Bernardoni, Nathalie Henrich; Müller, Frank; Rohlfs, Anna-Katharina; Hess, Markus
Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed (a) to provide a classification of the ventricular-fold dynamics during voicing, (b) to study the aerodynamic impact of these motions on vocal-fold vibrations, and (c) to assess whether ventricular-fold oscillations could be sustained by aerodynamic coupling with the vocal folds. Method: A 72-sample…
Bailly, Lucie; Bernardoni, Nathalie Henrich; Müller, Frank; Rohlfs, Anna-Katharina; Hess, Markus
Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed (a) to provide a classification of the ventricular-fold dynamics during voicing, (b) to study the aerodynamic impact of these motions on vocal-fold vibrations, and (c) to assess whether ventricular-fold oscillations could be sustained by aerodynamic coupling with the vocal folds. Method: A 72-sample…
Tobbia, Patrick; Norris, Leslie A; Klima, Lawrence D
A 70-year-old woman developed ventricular fibrillation subsequent to initiation of phentermine therapy. She was hospitalised and experienced recurrent ventricular fibrillation. During cardiac catheterisation, she was found to have a right coronary artery vasospasm, which resolved with intravenous nitroglycerin. Her phentermine was discontinued and the patient remained symptom free at last follow-up.
Khomaziuk, V A
Echocardiographic evaluation was done of left ventricular functional state in 90 patients with primary and secondary pulmonary arterial hypertension with and without intercavitary shunting. Changes in left ventricular function were identified in 86% cases; they reflected disturbances in both ventricles compensatory interaction. The degree of changes depended on the degree of dilatation of the right ventricle and level of interchamber shunting.
Sert, Ahmet; Aypar, Ebru; Aslan, Eyup; Odabas, Dursun
Noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium is a rare cardiomyopathy characterized by a pattern of prominent trabecular meshwork and deep intertrabecular recesses. The prevalence of left ventricular noncompaction is 0.01% in adults and 0.14% in pediatric patients. Although the usual site of involvement is the left ventricle, the right ventricle and septum can be affected as well. Previously, right ventricular noncompaction has been described only in a few cases of newborns with congenital heart defects and in adult patients. This report presents a newborn with isolated right ventricular noncompaction. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first newborn patient with isolated right ventricular noncompaction but no congenital heart defect involving only the right ventricle.
de Agustin, Jose Alberto; de Diego, Jose Juan Gomez; Marcos-Alberca, Pedro; Rodrigo, Jose Luis; Almeria, Carlos; Mahia, Patricia; Luaces, Maria; Garcia-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Macaya, Carlos; de Isla, Leopoldo Perez
Left ventricular aneurysms are a frequent complication of acute extensive myocardial infarction and are most commonly located at the ventricular apex. A timely diagnosis is vital due to the serious complications that can occur, including heart failure, thromboembolism, or tachyarrhythmias. We report the case of a 78-year-old male with history of previous anterior myocardial infarction and currently under evaluation by chronic heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a huge thrombosed and calcified anteroapical left ventricular aneurysm. Coronary angiography demonstrated that the left anterior descending artery was chronically occluded, and revealed a big and spherical mass with calcified borders in the left hemithorax. Left ventriculogram confirmed that this spherical mass was a giant calcified left ventricular aneurysm, causing very severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The patient underwent cardioverter-defibrillator implantation for primary prevention.
Barold, S Serge; Kucher, Andreas; Nägele, Herbert; Buenfil Medina, José Carlos; Brodsky, Michael; Van Heuverswyn, Frederic E; Stroobandt, Roland X
Sensing of left ventricular (LV) activity in some devices used for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) was designed primarily to prevent the delivery of an LV stimulus into the LV vulnerable period. Such a sensing function of the LV channel is not universally available in contemporary CRT devices. Recordings of LV electrograms may provide special diagnostic data unavailable solely from the standard right ventricular electrogram and corresponding marker channel. We used the LV sensing function of Biotronik CRT defibrillators to find 3 cases of dissimilar ventricular rhythms or tachyarrhythmias. Such arrhythmias are potentially important because concomitant slower right ventricular activity may prevent or delay implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy for a life-threatening situation involving a faster and more serious LV tachyarrhythmia. Dissimilar ventricular rhythms may not be rare and may account for cases of unexplained sudden death with a normally functioning implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and no recorded terminal arrhythmia.
Harvey, A M; Battersby, I A; Faena, M; Fews, D; Darke, P G G; Ferasin, L
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a disease characterised by infiltration of the myocardium by adipose and fibrous tissue. The disease is an important cause of sudden death in humans, but has rarely been described in animals. This report describes ARVC in two cats with right-sided congestive heart failure. One cat had also experienced previous episodes of syncope. Standard six-lead and 24-hour (Holter) electrocardiogram recording revealed complete atrioventricular block and multiform ventricular ectopics in both cats, with the addition of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular bigeminy and R-on-T phenomenon in one of them. On echocardiography, the right ventricle and atrium were massively dilated and hypokinetic. The survival times of the cats were three days and 16 days following diagnosis. Histopathology in one case revealed fibro-fatty infiltration of the myocardium, predominantly affecting the right ventricular free wall.
de Agustin, Jose Alberto; de Diego, Jose Juan Gomez; Marcos-Alberca, Pedro; Rodrigo, Jose Luis; Almeria, Carlos; Mahia, Patricia; Luaces, Maria; Garcia-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Macaya, Carlos; de Isla, Leopoldo Perez
Left ventricular aneurysms are a frequent complication of acute extensive myocardial infarction and are most commonly located at the ventricular apex. A timely diagnosis is vital due to the serious complications that can occur, including heart failure, thromboembolism, or tachyarrhythmias. We report the case of a 78-year-old male with history of previous anterior myocardial infarction and currently under evaluation by chronic heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a huge thrombosed and calcified anteroapical left ventricular aneurysm. Coronary angiography demonstrated that the left anterior descending artery was chronically occluded, and revealed a big and spherical mass with calcified borders in the left hemithorax. Left ventriculogram confirmed that this spherical mass was a giant calcified left ventricular aneurysm, causing very severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The patient underwent cardioverter-defibrillator implantation for primary prevention. PMID:26225205
Whitman, Isaac R; Gladstone, Rachel A; Badhwar, Nitish; Hsia, Henry H; Lee, Byron K; Josephson, S Andrew; Meisel, Karl M; Dillon, William P; Hess, Christopher P; Gerstenfeld, Edward P; Marcus, Gregory M
Catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) is common. Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation is associated with a risk of cerebral emboli attributed to cardioversions and numerous ablation lesions in the low-flow left atrium, but cerebral embolic risk in ventricular ablation has not been evaluated. We enrolled 18 consecutive patients meeting study criteria scheduled for ventricular tachycardia or PVC ablation over a 9-month period. Patients undergoing left ventricular (LV) ablation were compared with a control group of those undergoing right ventricular ablation only. Patients were excluded if they had implantable cardioverter defibrillators or permanent pacemakers. Radiofrequency energy was used for ablation in all cases and heparin was administered with goal-activated clotting times of 300 to 400 seconds for all LV procedures. Pre- and postprocedural brain MRI was performed on each patient within a week of the ablation procedure. Embolic infarcts were defined as new foci of reduced diffusion and high signal intensity on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery brain MRI within a vascular distribution. The mean age was 58 years, half of the patients were men, half had a history of hypertension, and the majority had no known vascular disease or heart failure. LV ablation was performed in 12 patients (ventricular tachycardia, n=2; PVC, n=10) and right ventricular ablation was performed exclusively in 6 patients (ventricular tachycardia, n=1; PVC, n=5). Seven patients (58%) undergoing LV ablation experienced a total of 16 cerebral emboli, in comparison with zero patients undergoing right ventricular ablation (P=0.04). Seven of 11 patients (63%) undergoing a retrograde approach to the LV developed at least 1 new brain lesion. More than half of patients undergoing routine LV ablation procedures (predominately PVC ablations) experienced new brain emboli after the procedure. Future research is critical to understanding the long
Sarmento-Leite, Rogerio; Silva, Guilherme V.; Dohman, Hans F.R.; Rocha, Ricardo Mourilhe; Dohman, Hans J.F.; de Mattos, Nelson Durval S.G.; Carvalho, Luis Antonio; Gottschall, Carlos A.M.; Perin, Emerson C.
We performed this prospective cohort study to correlate the findings of left ventricular angiography (LVA) and NOGA™ left ventricular electromechanical mapping (LVEM) in the evaluation of cardiac wall motion and also to establish standards for wall motion assessment by LVEM. Fifty-five patients (35 men; mean age, 60.4 ± 11.8 years) eligible for elective left cardiac catheterization underwent LVA and LVEM. Wall motion scores, LV ejection fractions (LVEF), and LV volumes derived from LVA versus LVEM data were compared and analyzed statistically. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the accuracy of LVEM in distinguishing between normal, hypokinetic, and akinetic/dyskinetic wall motion. Mean LVEM procedure time was 37 ± 11 minutes. The LVEM and LVA findings differed for mean LVEF (55% ± 13% vs 36% ± 9%), mean end-systolic volume (56 ± 13 mL vs 36 ± 10 mL), and mean end-diastolic volume (174 ± 104 mL vs 123 ± 65 mL). Mean wall motion scores (± SD) for normokinetic, hypokinetic, and akinetic/dyskinetic segments were 13.9% ± 5.6%, 8.3% ± 5.2%, and 3.2% ± 3.1%, respectively. Cutpoints for differentiating between wall motion types were 12% and 6%. The ROC curves showed LVEM to have a 93% accuracy in differentiating between normokinetic and akinetic/dyskinetic segments and a 73% accuracy between normokinetic and hypokinetic segments. These data suggest that LVEM can differentiate between normal and abnormal cardiac wall motion, although it is more accurate at differentiating between normokinetic and akinetic/dyskinetic motion than between normokinetic and hypokinetic motion. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:19–26) PMID:12638666
Behrens, S; Zabel, M; Franz, M R; Schultheiss, H P
It has been known for many years that ventricular fibrillation may be induced and terminated by electrical field stimuli. Recent experimental studies have shown that both fibrillation and defibrillation have a common electrophysiologic mechanism that is based on the interaction between the electrical field stimulus and ventricular repolarization. Ventricular fibrillation will be induced if the field stimulus is applied with the area of vulnerability, this area of vulnerability is defined two dimensionally by the shock coupling interval and shock strength, and is modified by the configuration of the shock. A field shock that is applied within the area of vulnerability causes heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization immediately after the shock (postshock dispersion), thereby enabling the development of circuit movements and reentry, and resulting in ventricular fibrillation. High energy shocks, however, that are applied above the area of vulnerability (i.e., above the upper limit of vulnerability) will not induce ventricular fibrillation due to homogeneous prolongation of repolarization and a resulting small postshock dispersion. In analogy, ventricular fibrillation will continue after unsuccessful low-energy defibrillation shocks due to high postshock dispersion, whereas a high-energy shock will synchronize ventricular repolarization, thereby causing small postshock dispersion and termination of ventricular fibrillation. This paper describes the relation between fibrillation, defibrillation and ventricular repolarization based on experimental findings. A possible clinical application of these findings is that the upper limit of vulnerability may be used as a surrogate for the defibrillation threshold. Thus, defibrillation threshold testing may not be necessary during future implantations of automatic cardioverter defibrillators.
The purpose of this investigation was to analyze how left ventricular assist device (LVAD) with a centrifugal pump alters left ventricular diastolic hemodynamics and energy by means of a left ventricular pressure volume relationship. Fifteen anesthetized normal pig hearts were studied after placement of an apical drainage LVAD with a centrifugal pump. Indices of the left ventricular isovolumic relaxation phase, left ventricular filling phase and general hemodynamic data were recorded with the LVAD in on and off situations. The pump assist rate was adjusted to 25%, 50% and 75%. Left ventricular stroke work, with a high correlation with oxygen consumption, decreased as the assist rate increased. Left ventricular relaxation delayed as the assist rate increased, but the atrioventricular pressure gradient increased in the left ventricular rapid filling phase. This finding clarifies left ventricular rapid filling. In this study, it was suggested that although left ventricular isovolumic relaxation was affected, 75% assistance is the most effective for the pump flow in terms of circulation support and restoration of cardiac function.
Linz, Dominik; Wirth, Klaus; Ukena, Christian; Mahfoud, Felix; Pöss, Janine; Linz, Benedikt; Böhm, Michael; Neuberger, Hans-Ruprecht
Increased sympathetic activation during acute ventricular ischemia is involved in the occurrence of life-threatening arrhythmias. To test the effect of sympathetic inhibition by renal denervation (RDN) on ventricular ischemia/reperfusion arrhythmias. Anesthetized pigs, randomized to RDN or SHAM treatment, were subjected to 20 minutes of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion followed by reperfusion. Infarct size, hemodynamics, premature ventricular contractions, and spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias were analyzed. Monophasic action potentials were recorded with an epicardial probe at the ischemic area. Ventricular ischemia resulted in an acute reduction of blood pressure (-29%) and peak left ventricular pressure rise (-40%), which were not significantly affected by RDN. However, elevation of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) during LAD ligation was attenuated by RDN (ΔLVEDP: +1.8 ± 0.6 mm Hg vs +9.7 ± 1 mm Hg in the SHAM group; P = .046). Infarct size was not affected by RDN compared to SHAM. RDN significantly reduced spontaneous ventricular extrabeats (160 ± 15/10 min in the RDN group vs 422 ± 36/10 min in the SHAM group; P = .021) without affecting coupling intervals. In 5 of 6 SHAM-treated animals, ventricular fibrillation (VF) occurred during LAD occlusion. By contrast, only 1 of 7 RDN-treated animals experienced VF (P = .029). Beta-receptor blockade by atenolol showed comparable effects. Neither VF nor transient shortening of monophasic action potential duration during reperfusion was inhibited by RDN. RDN reduced the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias/fibrillation and attenuated the rise in LVEDP during left ventricular ischemia without affecting infarct size, changes in ventricular contractility, blood pressure, and reperfusion arrhythmias. Therefore, RDN may protect from ventricular arrhythmias during ischemic events. © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.
Diegel, P D; Mussivand, T; Holfert, J W; Nahon, D; Miller, J; Maclean, G K; Santerre, J P; Bearnson, G B; Juretich, J; Hansen, A C
A 64 ml (effective stroke volume) in vitro electrohydraulic ventricular assist device (VAD) prototype has been built. The energy converter is an axial flow pump driven by a brushless direct current (DC) motor. Systole begins as silicone oil is pumped from the volume displacement chamber (VDC) into the ventricle, displacing the flexing diaphragm separating the oil and the blood. In diastole, the motor reverses, providing active filling by pumping oil from the ventricle into the VDC. The surface mount electronic internal controller provides motor commutator, energy management, telemetry, and physiologic control functions. Energy is supplied externally by either a 12 V DC power supply or a 12 V DC rechargeable battery and is transmitted through the skin by a transcutaneous energy transformer (TET). Energy can also be supplied by a 12 V DC rechargeable internal battery. Bidirectional infrared telemetry is used to transmit information between the internal and external controllers.
Boyle, Andrew J
A dramatic shift in the durability and reliability of ventricular assist device (VAD) therapy is taking hold due to the newer generations of continuous flow VADs that are either in clinical trials or under consideration by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for commercial approval. To expand the pool of potential mechanical circulatory support (MCS) patients, device reliability will need to prove to be greatly enhanced over previous generations of VADs and functional capacity and quality of life will need to improve substantially over baseline. Improved patient selection should have the simultaneously beneficial effects of improving outcomes while expanding the MCS patient population. The critical factors determining the likelihood of expansion of the MCS field include, but are not limited to, improvements in technology and its reliability, training and education of all advanced heart failure caregivers, improving availability of MCS geographically, and a shift in patient selection to a population more likely to benefit from MCS therapy.
Rivas-Rodriguez, Aida; Suarez-Mier, Belén; Rivas-Rodriguez, Lidia; Lana, Alberto
Objetivo. Analizar el riesgo de ventriculitis asociada a los cuidados del drenaje ventricular externo. Sujetos y metodos. Estudio de casos y controles en una muestra de pacientes neurocriticos del Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias (España) portadores de drenaje ventricular externo (n = 127; 49 casos y 78 controles). Se consideraron casos (variable dependiente) los pacientes con diagnostico medico de ventriculitis siguiendo criterios establecidos. Las variables independientes fueron los cuidados del drenaje ventricular, como curas de la zona de insercion, administracion de medicacion intratecal, lavados, movilizacion y recambio del drenaje. Se controlo el efecto de variables confusoras: edad, sexo, escala APACHE y diagnostico en el momento del ingreso, comorbilidad, antibioterapia, tiempo hasta la colocacion del drenaje ventricular externo y tiempo de permanencia. Resultados. Las curas del drenaje (odds ratio: 3,8; intervalo de confianza al 95%, IC 95%: 1,1-13,9) y la administracion de medicacion intratecal (odds ratio: 7,1; IC 95%: 2,1-23,6) se asociaron significativamente con la ventriculitis. Cuando se ajusta adicionalmente por el tiempo de permanencia del cateter, el efecto de las curas (odds ratio: 1,4; IC 95%: 0,3-6,6) pierde importancia porque ambas variables estan muy relacionadas. Conclusiones. La medicacion intratecal y las curas parecen asociarse con ventriculitis. La administracion de medicacion por el drenaje realmente refleja que el medico sospecha la ventriculitis antes de su diagnostico y, por esta razon, la prescribe. Sin embargo, como la duracion del drenaje aumenta la frecuencia de curas, parece prudente recomendar no alargar el tiempo de drenaje y mejorar la capacitacion de los profesionales de enfermeria para realizar curas.
Crossley, George H; Mead, Hardwin; Kleckner, Karen; Sheldon, Todd; Davenport, Lynn; Harsch, Manya R; Parikh, Purvee; Ramza, Brian; Fishel, Robert; Bailey, J Russell
The stimulation thresholds of left ventricular (LV) leads tend to be less reliable than conventional leads. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) requires continuous capture of both ventricles. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a novel algorithm for the automatic measurement of the stimulation threshold of LV leads in cardiac resynchronization systems. We enrolled 134 patients from 18 centers who had existing CRT-D systems. Software capable of automatically executing LV threshold measurements was downloaded into the random access memory (RAM) of the device. The threshold was measured by pacing in the left ventricle and analyzing the interventricular conduction sensed in the right ventricle. Automatic LV threshold measurements were collected and compared with manual LV threshold tests at each follow-up visit and using a Holter monitor system that recorded both the surface electrocardiograph (ECG) and continuous telemetry from the device. The proportion of Left Ventricular Capture Management (LVCM) in-office threshold tests within one programming step of the manual threshold test was 99.7% (306/307) with a two-sided 95% confidence interval of (98.2%, 100.0%). The algorithm measured the threshold successfully in 96% and 97% of patients after 1 and 3 months respectively. Holter monitor analysis in a subset of patients revealed accurate performance of the algorithm. This study demonstrated that the LVCM algorithm is safe, accurate, and highly reliable. LVCM worked with different types of leads and different lead locations. LVCM was demonstrated to be clinically equivalent to the manual LV threshold test. LVCM offers automatic measurement, output adaptation, and trends of the LV threshold and should result in improved ability to maintain LV capture without sacrificing device longevity.
Wang, Yan; Patel, Dimpi; Wang, Dao Wu; Yan, Jiang Tao; Hsia, Henry H; Liu, Hao; Zhao, Chun Xia; Zuo, Hou Juan; Wang, Dao Wen
To assess the impact of β1 -adrenoceptor blockers (β1 -blocker) and isoprenaline on the incidence of idiopathic repetitive ventricular arrhythmia that apparently decreases with preprocedural anxiety. From January 2010 to July 2012, six patients were identified who had idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias that apparently decreased (by greater than 90%) with preprocedural anxiety. The number of ectopic ventricular beats per hour (VPH) was calculated from Holter or telemetry monitoring to assess the ectopic burden. The mean VPH of 24 hours from Holter before admission (VPH-m) was used as baseline (100%) for normalization. β1 -Blockers, isoprenaline, and/or aminophylline were administrated successively on the ward and catheter lab to evaluate their effects on the ventricular arrhythmias. Among 97 consecutive patients with idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias, six had reduction in normalized VPHs in the hour before the scheduled procedure time from (104.6 ± 4.6%) to (2.8 ± 1.6%) possibly due to preprocedural anxiety (P < 0.05), then increased to (97.9 ± 9.7%) during β1 -blocker administration (P < 0.05), then quickly reduced to (1.6 ± 1.0%) during subsequent isoprenaline infusion. Repeated β1 -blocker quickly counteracted the inhibitory effect of isoprenaline, and VPHs increased to (120.9 ± 2.4%) from (1.6 ± 1.0%; P < 0.05). Isoprenaline and β1 -blocker showed similar effects on the arrhythmias in catheter lab. In some patients with structurally normal heart and ventricular arrhythmias there is a marked reduction of arrhythmias associated with preprocedural anxiety. These patients exhibit a reproducible sequence of β1 -blocker aggravation and catecholamine inhibition of ventricular arrhythmias, including both repetitive ventricular premature beats and monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Leaver, D. G.; Sharma, R. N.; Glennie, J. S.
A case of attempted suicide is described which is believed to be the first reported example of survival after a self-inflicted penetrating knife wound of the heart. The 12 cm. blade entered the right ventricle and damaged one of the papillary muscles. The ventricular septum was also perforated. At cardiotomy the stab wound in the free wall of the right ventricle was surtured and the papillary muscle repaired. The ventricular septal defect was closed, but a small left-to-right shunt at ventricular level reappeared after operation. Images PMID:5433343
Borlaug, Barry A.; Kass, David A.
Synopsis Nearly half of all patients with heart failure have preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). HFpEF patients tend to be older, female, and hypertensive, and characteristically display increased ventricular and arterial stiffening. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology of abnormal ventriculoarterial stiffening and how the latter affects ventricular function, cardiovascular hemodynamics, reserve capacity, and symptoms. We conclude by exploring how novel treatment strategies targeting abnormal ventricular-arterial interaction might prove useful in the treatment of patients with HFpEF. PMID:18313622
Cavallero, Erika; Curzi, Mirko; Cioccarelli, Sara Anna; Papalia, Giulio; Ornaghi, Diego; Bragato, Renato Maria
Left ventricular apical masses constitute a rare finding. Imaging properties together with the clinical history of the patient usually allow an etiologic definition. We report a challenging case of an ambiguous left ventricular apical mass of uncertain nature till histological examination. Points of interest were singular clinical history and echocardiographic findings, although not conclusive in hypothesis generating. Furthermore to the best of our knowledge, this is one of the rare attempt to excise a deep left ventricular mass with a mini-invasive surgical approach. PMID:28465915
Sekihara, Takayuki; Nakane, Eisaku; Nakasone, Kazutaka; Inoko, Moriaki
Generally, low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a risk for ventricular arrhythmia in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis. We present a case of cardiac sarcoidosis with preserved LVEF that evoked ventricular fibrillation (VF). A 73-year-old woman with VF presented to our emergency department. She had a history of ocular sarcoidosis, with gradual thinning of the basal intraventricular septum. LVEF was 62% on the most recent echocardiography. The electrocardiogram after defibrillation showed complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) with QT segment prolongation and frequent ventricular premature beats. VF via torsade des pointes (TdP) was suspected, and temporary intravenous ventricular pacing and magnesium sulfate infusion suppressed her VF. Cardiac sarcoidosis was diagnosed, and an implantable cardioverter defibrillator was implanted. Patients with cardiac sarcoidosis with CAVB are at risk of evoking VF via TdP regardless of LVEF. If cardiac sarcoidosis is suspected, early diagnosis and risk stratification of ventricular arrhythmia are important. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Relation of maximum blood pressure during exercise and regular physical activity in normotensive men with left ventricular mass and hypertrophy. MARATHOM Investigators. Medida de la Actividad fisica y su Relación Ambiental con Todos los Lípidos en el HOMbre.
Molina, L; Elosua, R; Marrugat, J; Pons, S
The relation between maximum systolic blood pressure (BP) during exercise and left ventricular (LV) mass is controversial. Physical activity also induces LV mass increase. The objective was to assess the relation between BP response to exercise and LV mass in normotensive men, taking into account physical activity practice. A cross-sectional study was performed. Three hundred eighteen healthy normotensive men, aged between 20 and 60 years, participated in this study. The Minnesota questionnaire was used to assess physical activity practice. An echocardiogram and a maximum exercise test were performed. LV mass was calculated and indexed to body surface area. LV hypertrophy was defined as a ventricular mass index > or =134 g/m2. BP was measured at the moment of maximum effort. Hypertensive response was considered when BP was > or =210 mm Hg. In the multiple linear regression model, maximum systolic BP was associated with LV mass index and correlation coefficient was 0.27 (SE 0.07). Physical activity practice and age were also associated with LV mass. An association between hypertensive response to exercise and LV hypertrophy was observed (odds ratio 3.16). Thus, BP response to exercise is associated with LV mass and men with systolic BP response > or =210 mm Hg present a 3-times higher risk of LV hypertrophy than those not reaching this limit. Physical activity practice is related to LV mass, but not to LV hypertrophy.
Shah, Ashok J; Hocini, Meleze; Denis, Arnaud; Derval, Nicolas; Sacher, Frederic; Jais, Pierre; Haissaguerre, Michel
Primary electrical diseases manifest with polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PMVT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) and along with idiopathic VF contribute to about 10% of sudden cardiac deaths (SCDs) overall. These disorders include long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, short QT syndrome, and early repolarization syndrome. This article reviews the clinical electrophysiological management of PMVT/VF in a structurally normal heart affected with these disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ahmed, Nauman; Frontera, Antonio; Duncan, Edward; Thomas, Glyn
An early repolarization (ER) pattern on electrocardiography was historically considered a benign finding; however, this finding in the inferior and lateral leads has recently been associated with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (VF). Here we describe a case of a 29-year-old man with an ER pattern, who experienced recurrent implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks for ventricular tachycardia (VT) and VF. An ICD interrogation demonstrated how VF and VT were repeatedly initiated by closely coupled premature ventricular beats.
Schmidt, Boris; Chun, Kyoung Ryul Julian; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Ouyang, Feifan
Ventricular tachycardias (VT) associated with the His-Purkinje system may occur in patients with and without organic heart disease. The former may encounter bundle branch reentrant VT, a macroreentrant VT utilizing the specific conduction system. It frequently occurs in patients with preexisting conduction disturbance such as complete left bundle branch block and may be eliminated by catheter ablation of the right bundle branch. After successful ablation, patient's prognosis depends on the presence or absence of structural heart disease.In patients without structural heart disease, VT with right bundle branch block pattern and superior axis, referred to as idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia, is observed. It is a reentrant VT utilizing the posterior left fascicle and the Purkinje network. The two treatment options include antiarrhythmic drug therapy with verapamil or curative catheter ablation.Another form of ventricular arrhythmia originating in the Purkinje network is idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF). Focal triggers from the right and left ventricular Purkinje network induce premature ventricular contractions inducing IVF. This is amenable to catheter ablation leading to a significant reduction in ICD (implantable cardioverter defibrillator) interventions in sudden cardiac death survivors.
Jablonsky, G.; Hilton, J.D.; Liu, P.P.; Morch, J.E.; Druck, M.N.; Bar-Shlomo, B.Z.; McLaughlin, P.R.
Rest and exercise right and left ventricular function were compared using equilibrium gated radionuclide angiography in 19 normal sedentary control subjects and 34 patients with hemodynamically documented congenital ventricular septal defect (VSD). Gated radionuclide angiography was performed at rest and during each level of graded supine bicycle exercise to fatigue. Heart rate, blood pressure, maximal work load achieved, and right and left ventricular ejection fractions were assessed. The control subjects demonstrated an increase in both the left and right ventricular ejection fractions with exercise. All study groups failed to demonstrate an increase in ejection fraction in either ventricle with exercise. Furthermore, resting left ventricular ejection fraction in Groups 2 and 3 was lower than that in the control subjects and resting right ventricular ejection fraction was lower in Group 3 versus control subjects. Thus left and right ventricular function on exercise were abnormal in patients with residual VSD as compared with control subjects; rest and exercise left ventricular ejection fractions remained abnormal despite surgical closure of VSD in the remote past; resting left and right ventricular function was abnormal in patients with Eisenmenger's complex; lifelong volume overload may be detrimental to myocardial function.
Buja, G; Martini, B; Nava, A
A 51 year old woman with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia had two types of ventricular tachycardia--(a) a regular and sustained tachycardia and with normal frontal plane axis on electrocardiography and (b) an irregular non-sustained tachycardia with a leftward frontal plane axis. Changes in the QRS complex were sometimes seen during the sustained ventricular tachycardia. The clinical, electrocardiographic, and electrophysiological data were consistent with the diagnosis of two different and sometimes simultaneous tachycardias originating in the right ventricle. This case suggests a possible new mechanism for the multiform appearances of the ventricular tachycardia. PMID:3395531
Santinga, J.T.; Kirsh, M.M.; Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.; Pitt, B.
Forty patients having aortic valve replacement were evaluated preoperatively for ventricular arrhythmia and left ventricular ejection fraction. Arrhythmias were classified as complex or simple using the Lown criteria on the 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram; ejection fractions were determined by radionuclide gated blood pool analysis and contrast angiography. The ejection fractions determined by radionuclide angiography were 59.1 +/- 13.1% for 26 patients with simple or no ventricular arrhythmias, and 43.9 +/- 20.3% for 14 patients with complex ventricular arrhythmias (p less than 0.01). Ejection fractions determined by angiography, available for 31 patients, were also lower in patients with complex ventricular arrhythmias (61.1 +/- 16.3% versus 51.4 +/- 13.4%; p less than 0.05). Seven of 9 patients showing conduction abnormalities on the electrocardiogram had complex ventricular arrhythmias. Eight of 20 patients with aortic stenosis had complex ventricular arrhythmias, while 2 of 13 patients with aortic insufficiency had such arrhythmias. It is concluded that decreased left ventricular ejection fraction, intraventricular conduction abnormalities, and aortic stenosis are associated with an increased frequency of complex ventricular arrhythmias in patients with aortic valve disease.
Cianciulli, Tomás F; Saccheri, María C; Fernández, Segundo P; Fernández, Cinthia C; Rozenfeld, Paula A; Kisinovsky, Isaac
We report the case of a rare cardiac presentation of Fabry disease. Although concentric left ventricular hypertrophy is a major cardiac finding in Fabry disease, there is no case report of dynamic obstruction at mid-left ventricular level. We describe a 59-year-old-woman suffering from a severe form of Fabry disease, mimicking an apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mid-ventricular obstruction. Differentiation of Fabry disease from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is crucial given the therapeutic and prognostic differences. Fabry disease should always be suspected in an adult, independently of the pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy.
... myocytes. During exercise or emotional stress, impaired calcium regulation in the heart can lead to ventricular tachycardia ... mechanisms of arrhythmias associated to impaired Ca(2+) regulation. Heart Rhythm. 2009 Nov;6(11):1652-9. ...
... Diagnosis and Management Resources (4 links) Brigham and Women's Hospital Cleveland Clinic: How Are Arrhythmias Treated? GeneReview: Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center General ...
Akdemir, Baris; YarmohammadI, Hirad; Alraies, M Chadi; Adkisson, Wayne O
When patients present with palpitations, the primary care physician can perform the initial evaluation and treatment for premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). Many patients need only reassurance and do not need to see a cardiologist.
Clark, A. J. L.; McMichael, H. B.
A patient presented with severe acute left ventricular failure and was treated with hydrallazine and oxygen alone. He made a rapid and full recovery as judged by clinical, radiological and blood gas evidence. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:7329902
Monitillo, Francesco; Leone, Marta; Rizzo, Caterina; Passantino, Andrea; Iacoviello, Massimo
Ventricular repolarization is a complex electrical phenomenon which represents a crucial stage in electrical cardiac activity. It is expressed on the surface electrocardiogram by the interval between the start of the QRS complex and the end of the T wave or U wave (QT). Several physiological, pathological and iatrogenic factors can influence ventricular repolarization. It has been demonstrated that small perturbations in this process can be a potential trigger of malignant arrhythmias, therefore the analysis of ventricular repolarization represents an interesting tool to implement risk stratification of arrhythmic events in different clinical settings. The aim of this review is to critically revise the traditional methods of static analysis of ventricular repolarization as well as those for dynamic evaluation, their prognostic significance and the possible application in daily clinical practice. PMID:26839657
Babuty, D; Charniot, J C; Delhomme, C; Fauchier, L; Fauchier, J P; Cosnay, P
In order to determine the predictive value for ventricular arrhythmias of ventricular late potentials (LP) in mitral valve prolapse (MVP) the authors performed high amplification signal-averaging ECG (SA) and 24 hours ambulatory ECG (Holter) monitoring in 68 consecutive patients (34 men, 34 women, average age 48 +/- 17.7 years) with echocardiographically diagnosed MVP. Patients with bundle branch block or associated cardiac disease were excluded. Echocardiography showed 26 patients to have floppy mitral valves (38.2%), 50 patients to have posterior deplacement > or = 5 mm of the mitral valves in systole (73.5%) and 35 patients to have mitral regurgitation (51.4%). Holter monitoring showed 17 patients without ventricular extrasystoles (VES), 15 had Lown Grade I, 6 had Lown Grade II, 3 had Lown Grade III, 15 had Lown Grade IV A and 12 had Lown Grade IV B ventricular arrhythmias. Therefore, 30 patients had complex ventricular arrhythmias (> or = Lown Grade III) and 13 patients had spontaneous non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) (one patient had NSVT on resting ECG but not on Holter monitoring). Eighteen patients had LP (26.5%). The incidence of complex ventricular arrhythmias was higher in patients with mitral regurgitation (62.8% versus 27.7%; p < 0.005) whereas the incidence of NSVT was not significantly different (25.7% versus 17.1%; p = 0.15). On the other hand, the frequency of complex ventricular arrhythmias was not significantly different in the presence or absence of LP (61.1% versus 40%: NS) whereas the incidence of NSVT was higher in patients with LP (44.4% versus 10%; p < 0.005).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Caplow, Julie; Quatromoni, Neha
Takotsubo Syndrome is a transient condition characterized by left ventricular systolic dysfunction with apical akinesis/dyskinesis and ballooning. Although the prognosis with medical management is excellent in most cases, rare cases of serious complications can occur. We present here a case of a 71-year-old woman presenting with acute decompensated heart failure with initial findings consistent with a myocardial infarction, who was found instead to have an acute ventricular septal defect as a complication of Takotsubo Syndrome. PMID:27563471
Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Miller, Marc A; Reddy, Vivek Y; Dukkipati, Srinivas R
This review discusses the role of hemodynamic support for catheter ablation of unstable ventricular tachycardia, using commercially available mechanical circulatory support devices (intra-aortic balloon pump, Impella, TandemHeart, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation) and analyzes the published clinical experience of the safety and efficacy of these devices during ventricular tachycardia ablation. Appropriate selection of patients, device-specific characteristics, and hemodynamic monitoring is also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gellér, László; Szilágyi, Szabolcs; Solymossy, Katalin; Srej, Marianna; Zima, Endre; Tahin, Tamás; Merkely, Béla
Idiopathic fascicular ventricular tachycardia is an important and not very rare cardiac arrhythmia with specific electrocardiographic features and therapeutic options. Ventricular tachycardia is characterized by relatively narrow QRS complex and right bundle branch block pattern. The QRS axis depends on which fascicle is involved in the re-entry. Left axis deviation is noted with left posterior fascicular tachycardia and right axis deviation with left anterior fascicular tachycardia. A left septal fascicular tachycardia with normal QRS axis is also possible. Idiopathic fascicular tachycardia is usually seen in individuals without structural heart disease. Response to verapamil is an important feature of fascicular tachycardia. In some cases intravenous adenosine may also terminate the arrhythmia. During electrophysiology study, presystolic or diastolic potentials precede the QRS, presumed to originate from the Purkinje fibers. The potentials can be recorded during sinus rhythm and ventricular tachycardia in many patients with fascicular tachycardia. This potential (so-called Purkinje potential) has been used as a guide to catheter ablation. Correct diagnosis of fascicular tachycardia is very important because catheter ablation is very effective in the treatment of this type of ventricular tachycardia. In this review, we describe three patients with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia and their successful catheter ablation, and summarize the actual knowledge of the diagnosis and management of this special ventricular tachycardia.
Kuo, C T; Luqman, N; Lin, K H; Chiang, C W
Area(s) of slow conduction are thought to be present within the reentry circuit of most clinically important ventricular tachycardia (VT). To prevent recurrence after ablation of VT late after myocardial infarction, it is desirable to localize and destroy area(s) of slow conduction "critical link" within the reentry circuit. Conventionally, they may be identified by endocardial catheter mapping, continuous electrical activity, mid-diastolic potentials, earliest endocardial activation, pace-mapping etc. However, none of these methods are very specific. Entrainment method may be used to localize the slow conduction zone of reentrant VT. Concealed entrainment is consistent with pacing at a site in the reentry circuit but may also occur at some "bystander" sites that are close to the reentry circuit but are not participating in the circuit itself. During pacing at the slow conduction area of the reentry circuit, the stimulus to QRS (S-QRS) interval should equal the electrogram to QRS (EG-QRS) interval during VT. Similarly the post-pacing interval (PPI) approximates the tachycardia cycle length. During pacing at bystander sites, the S-QRS interval may be greater, less than or equal to the EG-QRS interval, depending on the conduction time from the bystander site to the circuit. The PPI, however, always exceed the tachycardia cycle length. In conjunction with concealed entrainment, the use of diastolic potential, double potentials and continuous electrical activity enhances the prediction of radiofrequency termination of post-infarction VT.
Diegel, P D; Mussivand, T; Holfert, J W; Juretich, J T; Miller, J A; Maclean, G K; Szurmak, Z; Santerre, J P; Rajagopalan, K; Dew, P A
An electrohydraulic ventricular assist device has been developed. An axial flow pump driven by a brushless DC motor provides actuation. Energy is supplied by internal Ni/Cd batteries and by external Ag/Zn batteries, both rechargeable. Electromagnetic induction is used to pass energy through the skin with a transcutaneous energy transfer (TET) system. Physiologic control, battery management, motor commutation, and communication functions are performed by a surface mount internal controller. An infrared data link within the TET coils provides bidirectional communication between the external and internal controllers. A computer model was developed to predict system performance. The dimensions are 180 mm x 116 mm x 40 mm. An in vitro system pumped 5.7 L/min at 10 mmHg inflow and 100 mmHg outflow pressure. The internal battery can provide the projected energy requirements for 40 min after 540 charge/discharge cycles, and the external battery is capable of 4 hr of operation after 150 cycles. The TET system can deliver 60 W of power and exceeds 80% efficiency between 15 and 30 W. The device configuration is based on human cadaver and intraoperative fit trials. The device is being modified for calf implantation by redirecting the blood ports, increasing the output, and incorporating the internal controller in the unified device base.
Ng, G André
What is the topic of this review? This article addresses the relationship between vagus nerve activity and malignant ventricular arrhythmias. It focuses on the clinical association of an impaired vagal tone in cardiac disease states with high mortality from sudden cardiac death and the potential underlying mechanisms. What advances does it highlight? The article summarizes the mounting evidence that vagal innervation in the cardiac ventricle plays a key direct role in the prevention of the initiation of ventricular fibrillation. Data are presented on the role that nitric oxide plays in mediating the effects of vagal protection against ventricular fibrillation, supporting the notion that a separate non-muscarinic, nitrergic population of vagal neurons is responsible for this protection. Sudden cardiac death remains a significant unresolved clinical problem, with many of the deaths being due to malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Markers of abnormal autonomic function have been shown to be strong prognostic predictors, highlighting the important relationship between reduced vagal tone and malignant ventricular arrhythmias, such as ventricular fibrillation, in cardiac patients. Exploring the mechanisms underlying the autonomic modulation of ventricular fibrillation, my group has shown that vagus nerve stimulation protects against ventricular fibrillation in the innervated isolated heart preparation. We have provided direct evidence that nitric oxide is released in the ventricle with cervical vagus nerve stimulation and NO mediates the antifibrillatory actions of vagus nerve stimulation in the ventricle. Classical physiology teaches that vagal postganglionic nerves modulate the heart via acetylcholine acting at muscarinic receptors and, dogmatically, that there is little vagal effect in the ventricle, as innervation was believed to be sparse. Mounting evidence from many species now supports the presence of a rich vagal innervation in the ventricle. Data from my group
Biffi, Alessandro; Maron, Barry J; Di Giacinto, Barbara; Porcacchia, Paolo; Verdile, Luisa; Fernando, Fredrick; Spataro, Antonio; Culasso, Francesco; Casasco, Maurizio; Pelliccia, Antonio
The aim of this study was to analyze the relation between the magnitude of training-induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and the frequency and complexity of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in a large population of elite athletes without cardiovascular abnormalities. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias are a common finding in athletes, but it is unresolved as to whether the presence or magnitude of LV hypertrophy is a determinant of these arrhythmias in athletes without cardiovascular abnormalities. From 738 athletes examined at a national center for the evaluation of elite Italian athletes, 175 consecutive elite athletes with 24-hour ambulatory (Holter) electrocardiographic recordings (but without cardiovascular abnormalities and symptoms) were selected for the study group. Echocardiographic studies were performed during periods of peak training. Athletes were arbitrarily divided into 4 groups according to the frequency and complexity of ventricular arrhythmias during Holter electrocardiographic monitoring. No statistically significant relation was evident between LV mass (or mass index) and the grade or frequency of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. In addition, a trend was noted in those athletes with the most frequent and complex ventricular ectopy toward lower calculated LV mass. In conclusion, ventricular ectopy in elite athletes is not directly related to the magnitude of physiologic LV hypertrophy. These data offer a measure of clinical reassurance regarding the benign nature of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in elite athletes and the expression of athlete's heart.
Kane, Ad; Defaye, P; Jacon, P; Mbaye, A; Machecourt, J
A 45-year-old man was hospitalized for syncope due to fascicular ventricular tachycardia degenerating into ventricular fibrillation (VF). The electrocardiogram showed an early repolarization syndrome. The arrhythmia was repetitive and disappeared after oral hydroquinidine. An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) was implanted; subsequently, the patient was arrhythmia free at 9 months follow-up.
Leidenfrost, Jeremy; Prasad, Sunil; Itoh, Akinobu; Lawrance, Christopher P; Bell, Jennifer M; Silvestry, Scott C
Cardiogenic shock from refractory right ventricular (RV) failure during left ventricular assist device placement is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The addition of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to RV mechanical assistance may help RV recovery and lead to improved outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed all implanted continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices from April 2009 to June 2013. RV mechanical support was utilized for RV failure defined as haemodynamic instability despite vasopressors, pulmonary vascular dilators and inotropic therapy. RV assist devices were utilized with and without in-line membrane oxygenation. During the study period, 267 continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices were implanted. RV mechanical support was utilized in 27 (10%) patients; 12 (46%) had the addition of in-line extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The mean age of patients with a right ventricular assist device with membrane oxygenation was lower than that in patients with a right ventricular assist device alone (45.6 ± 15.9 vs 64.6 ± 6.5, P = 0.001). Support was weaned in 66% (10 of 15) of patients with right ventricular assist device (RVAD) alone vs 83% (10 of 12) of those with RVAD with membrane oxygenation (P = 0.42). The RVAD was removed after 10.4 ± 9.4 vs 5 ± 2.99 days for patients with a RVAD with membrane oxygenation (P = 0.1). Patients with RVAD with membrane oxygenation had a 30-day mortality rate of 8 vs 47% for those with RVAD alone (P = 0.04). The survival rate after discharge was 86, 63 and 54% at 3, 6 and 12 months for both groups combined. Patients with a RVAD with membrane oxygenation support for acute RV failure after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device implantation had a lower 30-day mortality than those with a RVAD alone. Patients who survive to discharge have a reasonable 1-year survival. Combining membrane oxygenation with RVAD support appears to offer a short-term survival benefit in patients with RV failure
Archer, S.; Gornick, C.; Grund, F.; Shafer, R.; Weir, E.K.
Ventricular preexcitation, as seen in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, results in a high frequency of positive exercise electrocardiographic responses. Why this occurs is unknown but is not believed to reflect myocardial ischemia. Exercise thallium testing is often used for noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease in patients with conditions known to result in false-positive electrocardiographic responses. To assess the effects of ventricular preexcitation on exercise thallium testing, 8 men (aged 42 +/- 4 years) with this finding were studied. No subject had signs or symptoms of coronary artery disease. Subjects exercised on a bicycle ergometer to a double product of 26,000 +/- 2,000 (+/- standard error of mean). All but one of the subjects had at least 1 mm of ST-segment depression. Tests were terminated because of fatigue or dyspnea and no patient had chest pain. Thallium test results were abnormal in 5 patients, 2 of whom had stress defects as well as abnormally delayed thallium washout. One of these subjects had normal coronary arteries on angiography with a negative ergonovine challenge, and both had normal exercise radionuclide ventriculographic studies. Delayed thallium washout was noted in 3 of the subjects with ventricular preexcitation and normal stress images. This study suggests that exercise thallium testing is frequently abnormal in subjects with ventricular preexcitation. Ventricular preexcitation may cause dyssynergy of ventricular activation, which could alter myocardial thallium handling, much as occurs with left bundle branch block. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography may be a better test for noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease in patients with ventricular preexcitation.
We propose a Novel Left Ventricular Assist System® (Novel LVAS®) as a bridge to cardiac transplantation and to functional heart recovery in advanced heart failure. This report regards the principles that led to its development. It is our hope that the design of a high-peak-output pump of smaller size will lead to improved functional capacity, when compared with currently available left ventricular assist bridges to heart recovery. Several basic considerations went into the design of this system: 1) we did not want to cannulate the heart chambers; 2) in particular, we rejected the use of a left ventricular apical cannula for myocardial recovery, because it destroys the helical anatomy of the chamber; 3) we chose an atriostomy for blood inflow to the implanted pump; and 4) we synchronized the pump to the patient's electrocardiogram, to ensure blood pump ejection in diastole. The key to success is the atriostomy, which creates an opening larger than the patient's mitral valve. The atriostomy may be performed with the heart beating. Bleeding from the left ventricular apical anastomosis is a fairly common occurrence in currently available left ventricular assist systems; subsequent transfusion can exacerbate right heart dysfunction and sensitize the immune system. These complications are avoided with our system. The new system works either in partial mode or total mode, depending on whether partial or full left ventricular unloading is required. The Novel Left Ventricular Assist System is in its initial clinical trial stage, under the supervision of the author. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:194–201) PMID:12959201
Malakan Rad, Elaheh; Zeinaloo, Ali Akbar
We report postoperative normalization of left ventricular noncompaction in a neonate undergoing successful neonatal surgery for type II aorta to left ventricular tunnel (ALVT) associated with a large patent ductus arteriosus, floppy and extremely redundant anterior mitral leaflet, right coronary artery arising directly from the tunnel, and severe left ventricular noncompaction. We also described 2 novel echocardiographic findings in ALVT including "triple wavy line sign" on M-mode echocardiography which disappeared 1 month after operation and "abnormally increased left ventricular posterior wall motion" on M-mode of standard parasternal long-axis view on color tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) that also normalized postoperatively. We showed that proper definition of endocardial border is extremely important in strain and strain rate imaging in the context of left ventricular noncompaction. Preoperative longitudinal strain and strain rate were significantly decreased in comparison to radial strain and strain rate. Circumferential strain and strain rate were normal. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Budeus, Marco; Feindt, Peter; Gams, Emmeran; Wieneke, Heinrich; Erbel, Raimund; Sack, Stefan
Ventricular arrhythmias are rare and represent the most serious arrhythmic complication after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The present retrospective study was conducted for identifying patients at risk of ventricular arrhythmias with ventricular signal averaged ECG, standard deviation of all normal RR intervals (SDNN), angiographic and echocardiographic data. We defined ventricular arrhythmias as sustained ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. The study population consisted of 209 consecutive patients with sinus rhythm undergoing CABG. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of VA after CABG. The secondary endpoints were hospital length of stay after CABG and the occurrence of VA after hospital discharge. During the postoperative follow-up ventricular arrhythmias were observed in 11 patients (5%). Patients with ventricular arrhythmias showed a higher incidence of ventricular late potentials (91 vs. 9% of patients, p<0.0001) than patients without ventricular arrhythmias. In addition patients with ventricular arrhythmias had a lower left ventricular ejection fraction (44.2+/-15.2 vs. 60.1+/-13.1%, p<0.0001) and a SDNN (22.4+/-8.8 vs. 34.4+/-16.1 ms, p<0.02). A stepwise logistic regression analysis of all variables identified the combination of ventricular late potentials, ejection fraction < or = 38% and SDNN < or = 28 ms (odds rate 26.00; 95% CI, 3.44-196.67, p<0.002) as an independent predictor of ventricular arrhythmias. The results of our study suggest that the probability of ventricular arrhythmias could be predicted after CABG by a combination of low left ventricular ejection fraction and a measurement of ventricular signal averaged ECG and standard deviation of all normal RR intervals. Patients who can be identified as having a high risk of ventricular arrhythmias should be observed carefully after surgery.
Rosati, Barbara; Dong, Min; Cheng, Lan; Liou, Shian-Ren; Yan, Qinghong; Park, Ji Young; Shiang, Elaine; Sanguinetti, Michael; Wang, Hong-Sheng; McKinnon, David
The relative importance of regulatory versus structural evolution for the evolution of different biological systems is a subject of controversy. The primacy of regulatory evolution in the diversification of morphological traits has been promoted by many evolutionary developmental biologists. For physiological traits, however, the role of regulatory evolution has received less attention or has been considered to be relatively unimportant. To address this issue for electrophysiological systems, we examined the importance of regulatory and structural evolution in the evolution of the electrophysiological function of cardiac myocytes in mammals. In particular, two related phenomena were studied: the change in action potential morphology in small mammals and the scaling of action potential duration across mammalian phylogeny. In general, the functional properties of the ion channels involved in ventricular action potential repolarization were found to be relatively invariant. In contrast, there were large changes in the expression levels of multiple ion channel and transporter genes. For the Kv2.1 and Kv4.2 potassium channel genes, which are primary determinants of the action potential morphology in small mammals, the functional properties of the proximal promoter regions were found to vary in concordance with species-dependent differences in mRNA expression, suggesting that evolution of cis-regulatory elements is the primary determinant of this trait. Scaling of action potential duration was found to be a complex phenomenon, involving changes in the expression of a large number of channels and transporters. In this case, it is concluded that regulatory evolution is the predominant mechanism by which the scaling is achieved.
Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S
Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.
Rodríguez-Serrano, Gustavo; Lara-Vaca, Susano; Pereyra-Nobara, Texar; Bernal-Ruiz, Enrique
Introducción: el objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar si existe diferencia en la función sistólica y la sincronía del ventrículo izquierdo con estimulación del septum medio o tracto de salida del ventrículo derecho en pacientes con bloqueo auriculoventricular portadores de marcapaso. Métodos: estudio observacional, analítico, transversal. Se seleccionaron todos los pacientes mayores de 18 años portadores de marcapaso con diagnóstico de bloqueo auriculoventricular. Se analizaron dos grupos acorde al sitio de colocación del electrodo de estimulación en región septal media o tracto de salida del ventrículo derecho. Se determinó la fracción de expulsión y sincronía del ventrículo izquierdo. Resultados: se incluyeron 54 pacientes por cada grupo, siendo las características de ambos similares, excepto el tiempo de colocación del electrodo de estimulación ventricular (p = < 0.001). No hubo diferencia significativa en la fracción de expulsión o sincronía del ventrículo izquierdo. Conclusiones: no se encontró diferencia en la fracción de expulsión o sincronía del ventrículo izquierdo independientemente del sitio de colocación del electrodo de estimulación.
Maryn, Youri; De Bodt, Marc S; Van Cauwenberge, Paul
Ventricular dysphonia, also known as dysphonia plica ventricularis, refers to the pathological interference of the false vocal folds during phonation. Despite its low incidence and prevalence, Vd is a well-known phenomenon in voice clinics. The present report reviews symptoms, etiology, diagnosis, and therapeutic options regarding this voice disorder. Literature review and case studies. The literature pertaining to all clinical aspects of V(D) was reviewed to define diagnostic and therapeutic clinical decision making. Ventricular dysphonia is characterized by a typical rough, low-pitched voice quality resulting from false vocal fold vibration. Ventricular dysphonia may be compensatory when true vocal folds are affected (resection, paralysis). Noncompensatory types may be of habitual, psychoemotional, or idiopathic origin. Because perceptual symptoms may vary considerably, diagnosis should rely on a meticulous voice assessment, including laryngeal videostroboscopic, perceptual, aerodynamic, and acoustic evaluation. Various therapeutic approaches for the noncompensatory type of ventricular dysphonia may be considered: voice therapy, psychotherapy, anesthetic or botulinum toxin injections, or surgery. The study presents the state of the art with respect to ventricular dysphonia and may be helpful in diagnosis and therapeutic decision-making.
Moon, Jerald; Alipour, Fariborz
Our purpose in this study was to better understand the muscular anatomy of the ventricular folds in order to help improve biomechanical modeling of phonation and to better understand the role of these muscles during phonatory and nonphonatory tasks. Four human larynges were decalcified, sectioned coronally from posterior to anterior by a CryoJane tape transfer system, and stained with Masson's trichrome. The total and relative areas of muscles observed in each section were calculated and used for characterizing the muscle distribution within the ventricular folds. The ventricular folds contained anteriorly coursing thyroarytenoid and ventricularis muscle fibers that were in the lower half of the ventricular fold posteriorly, and some ventricularis muscle was evident in the upper and lateral portions of the fold more anteriorly. Very little muscle tissue was observed in the medial half of the fold, and the anterior half of the ventricular fold was largely devoid of any muscle tissue. All 4 larynges contained muscle bundles that coursed superiorly and medially through the upper half of the fold, toward the lateral margin of the epiglottis. Although variability of expression was evident, a well-defined thyroarytenoid muscle was readily apparent lateral to the arytenoid cartilage in all specimens.
Obeyesekere, Manoj N; Sy, Raymond W; Leong-Sit, Peter; Gula, Lorne J; Yee, Raymond; Skanes, Allan C; Klein, George J; Krahn, Andrew D
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in genes involved in the intracellular calcium homeostasis of cardiac cells. Affected patients typically present with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias precipitated by emotional/physical stress. The diagnosis is based on the demonstration of polymorphic or bidirectional ventricular tachycardia associated with adrenergic stress. Genetic testing can be confirmatory in some patients. Treatment for catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia includes medical and surgical efforts to suppress the effects of epinephrine at the myocardial level and/or modulation of calcium homeostasis. Mortality is high when untreated and sudden cardiac death may be the first manifestation of the disease. First-degree relatives of a proband should be offered genetic testing if the causal mutation is known. If the family mutation is not known, relatives should be clinically evaluated with provocative testing. In the absence of rigorous trials, prophylactic treatment of the asymptomatic catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia patient appears to reduce morbidity and mortality.
Mujanovic, Emir; Bergsland, Jacob; Avdic, Sevleta; Stanimirovic-Mujanovic, Sanja; Kovacevic-Preradovic, Tamara; Kabil, Emir
Introduction: Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm is a rare condition because in most instances ventricular free-wall rupture leads to fatal pericardial tamponade. Rupture of the free wall of the left ventricle is a catastrophic complication of myocardial infarction, occurring in approximately 4% of patients with infarcts, resulting in immediate collapse of the patient and electromechanical dissociation. In rare cases the rupture is contained by pericardial and fibrous tissue, and the result is a pseudoaneurysm. The left ventricular pseudoaneurysm contains only pericardial and fibrous elements in its wall-no myocardial tissue. Because such aneurysms have a strong tendency to rupture, this disorder may lead to death if it is left surgically untreated. Case report: In this case report, we present a patient who underwent successful repair of a left ventricular pseudoaneurysm, which followed a myocardial infarction that was caused by occlusion of the left circumflex coronary artery. Although repair of left ventricular pseudoaneurysm is still a surgical challenge, it can be performed with acceptable results in most patients. PMID:25568538
Piers, Sebastiaan R D; Everaerts, Kimberly; van der Geest, Rob J; Hazebroek, Mark R; Siebelink, Hans-Marc; Pison, Laurent A F G; Schalij, Martin J; Bekkers, Sebastiaan C A M; Heymans, Stephane; Zeppenfeld, Katja
The relation between myocardial scar and different types of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of myocardial scar, assessed by late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-CMR), on the occurrence and type of ventricular arrhythmia in patients with NIDCM. Consecutive patients with NIDCM who underwent LGE-CMR and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation at either of 2 centers were included. LGE was defined by signal intensity ≥35% of maximal signal intensity, subdivided into core and border zones (≥50% and 35%-50% of maximal signal intensity, respectively), and categorized according to location (basal or nonbasal) and transmurality. ICD recordings and electrocardiograms were reviewed to determine the occurrence and type of ventricular arrhythmia during follow-up. Of 87 patients (age 56 ± 13 y, 62% male, left ventricular ejection fraction 29% ± 12%), 55 (63%) had LGE (median 6.3 g, interquartile range 0.0-13.8 g). During a median follow-up of 45 months, monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) occurred in 18 patients (21%) and polymorphic VT/ventricular fibrillation (VF) in 10 (11%). LGE predicted monomorphic VT (log-rank, P < .001), but not polymorphic VT/VF (log-rank, P = .40). The optimal cutoff value for the extent of LGE to predict monomorphic VT was 7.2 g (area under curve 0.84). Features associated with monomorphic VT were core extent, basal location, and area with 51%-75% LGE transmurality. Myocardial scar assessed by LGE-CMR predicts monomorphic VT, but not polymorphic VT/VF, in NIDCM. The risk for monomorphic VT is particularly high when LGE shows a basal transmural distribution and a mass ≥7.2 g. Importantly, patients without LGE on CMR remain at risk for potentially fatal polymorphic VT/VF. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Benavente-Fernandez, Isabel; Lubián-Gutierrez, Manuel; Jimenez-Gomez, Gema; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso M; Lubián-López, Simon P
Posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) is monitored by conventional two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS). The aims of this study were to determine the volume of the lateral ventricles using three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) in preterm infants with PHVD and to evaluate the relationship between volume and linear measurements. Serial 2DUSs and 3DUSs were performed on preterm infants with PHVD admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at Puerta del Mar Hospital, Cádiz, Spain, from January 2013 to December 2014. The ventricular index, anterior horn width and thalamo-occipital distance were used as ventricular lineal measurements. Ventricular volume was calculated offline. Serial ultrasounds from seven preterm infants were measured. Each linear measurement was significantly associated with volume, and an equation was obtained through a significant multilevel mixed-effects lineal regression model: ventricular volume (cm(3) ) = -11.02 + 0.668*VI + 0.817*AHW + 0.256*TOD. Intra-observer and interobserver agreement was excellent with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.99. Lateral ventricular volumes of preterm infants with PHVD could be reliably determined using 3DUS. Ventricular volume could be accurately estimated using three lineal measurements. More studies are needed to address the importance of volume determination in PHVD. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sacher, Frederic; Reichlin, Tobias; Zado, Erica S; Field, Michael E; Viles-Gonzalez, Juan F; Peichl, Petr; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A; Maury, Philippe; Dukkipati, Srinivas R; Picard, Francois; Kautzner, Josef; Barandon, Laurent; Koneru, Jayanthi N; Ritter, Philippe; Mahida, Saagar; Calderon, Joachim; Derval, Nicolas; Denis, Arnaud; Cochet, Hubert; Shepard, Richard K; Corre, Jerome; Coffey, James O; Garcia, Fermin; Hocini, Meleze; Tedrow, Usha; Haissaguerre, Michel; d'Avila, Andre; Stevenson, William G; Marchlinski, Francis E; Jais, Pierre
Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are increasingly used as a bridge to cardiac transplantation or as destination therapy. Patients with LVADs are at high risk for ventricular arrhythmias. This study describes ventricular arrhythmia characteristics and ablation in patients implanted with a Heart Mate II device. All patients with a Heart Mate II device who underwent ventricular arrhythmia catheter ablation at 9 tertiary centers were included. Thirty-four patients (30 male, age 58±10 years) underwent 39 ablation procedures. The underlying cardiomyopathy pathogenesis was ischemic in 21 and nonischemic in 13 patients with a mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 17%±5% before LVAD implantation. One hundred and ten ventricular tachycardias (VTs; cycle lengths, 230-740 ms, arrhythmic storm n=28) and 2 ventricular fibrillation triggers were targeted (25 transseptal, 14 retrograde aortic approaches). Nine patients required VT ablation <1 month after LVAD implantation because of intractable VT. Only 10/110 (9%) of the targeted VTs were related to the Heart Mate II cannula. During follow-up, 7 patients were transplanted and 10 died. Of the remaining 17 patients, 13 were arrhythmia-free at 25±15 months. In 1 patient with VT recurrence, change of turbine speed from 9400 to 9000 rpm extinguished VT. Catheter ablation of VT among LVAD recipients is feasible and reasonably safe even soon after LVAD implantation. Intrinsic myocardial scar, rather than the apical cannula, seems to be the dominant substrate. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Santambrogio, Luisa; Bianchi, Tiziana; Fuardo, Marinella; Gazzoli, Fabrizio; Veronesi, Roberto; Braschi, Antonio; Maurelli, Marco
Right ventricular failure after left ventricular assist device placement is the major concern on weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass and it is one of the most serious complications in the postoperative period. This complication has a poor prognosis and is generally unpredictable. The identification of pre-operative risk factor for this serious complication is incomplete yet. In order to determine pre-operative risk for severe right ventricular failure after left ventricular assist device support we analyzed preoperative hemodynamics, laboratory data and characteristics of 48 patients who received Novacor (World Heart Corp., Ottawa, ON, Canada). We compared the data from the patients who developed right ventricular failure and the patients who did not. Right ventricular failure occurred in 16% of the patients. There was no significant difference between the groups in demographic characteristics. We identified as preoperative risk factors the pre-operative low mean pulmonary artery and the impairment of hepatic and renal function on laboratory data. Our results confirm in part the findings of the few previous studies. This information may be useful for the patient selection for isolated left ventricular assist device implantation, but other studies are necessary before establishing criteria for patient selection for univentricular support universally accepted.
Kumar, Saurabh; Barbhaiya, Chirag; Nagashima, Koichi; Choi, Eue-Keun; Epstein, Laurence M; John, Roy M; Maytin, Melanie; Albert, Christine M; Miller, Amy L; Koplan, Bruce A; Michaud, Gregory F; Tedrow, Usha B; Stevenson, William G
Cardiac sarcoid-related ventricular tachycardia (VT) is a rare disorder; the underlying substrate and response to ablation are poorly understood. We sought to examine the ventricular substrate and outcomes of catheter ablation in this population. Of 435 patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy referred for VT ablation, 21 patients (5%) had cardiac sarcoidosis. Multiple inducible VTs were observed with mechanism consistent with scar-mediated re-entry in all VTs. Voltage maps showed widespread and confluent right ventricular scarring. Left ventricular scarring was patchy with a predilection for the basal septum, anterior wall, and perivalvular regions. Epicardial right ventricular scar overlay and exceeded the region of corresponding endocardial scar. After ≥1 procedures, ablation abolished ≥1 inducible VT in 90% and eliminated VT storm in 78% of patients; however, multiple residual VTs remained inducible. Failure to abolish all inducible VTs was because of septal intramural circuits or extensive right ventricular scarring. Multiple procedure VT-free survival was 37% at 1 year, but VT control was achievable in the majority of patients with fewer antiarrhythmic drugs compared with preablation (2.1±0.8 versus 1.1±0.8; P<0.001). Patients with cardiac sarcoidosis and VT exhibit ventricular substrate characterized by confluent right ventricular scarring and patchy left ventricular scarring capable of sustaining a large number of re-entrant circuits. Catheter ablation is effective in terminating VT storm and eliminating ≥1 inducible VT in the majority of patients, but recurrences are common. Ablation in conjunction with antiarrhythmic drugs can help palliate VT in this high-risk population. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Frommeyer, Gerrit; Weller, Jan; Ellermann, Christian; Bögeholz, Nils; Leitz, Patrick; Dechering, Dirk G; Kochhäuser, Simon; Wasmer, Kristina; Eckardt, Lars
The I(f) channel inhibitor ivabradine is recommended for treatment of heart failure but also affects potassium currents and thereby prolongs ventricular repolarization. The aim of this study was to examine the electrophysiological effects of ivabradine on digitalis-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Thirteen rabbit hearts were isolated and Langendorff-perfused. After obtaining baseline data, the digitalis glycoside ouabain was infused (0.2 μM). Monophasic action potentials and ECG showed a significant abbreviation of QT interval (-34 ms, p < 0.05) and action potential duration (APD90 ; -27 ms, p < 0.05). The shortening of ventricular repolarization was accompanied by a reduction in effective refractory period (ERP; -27 ms, p < 0.05). Thereafter, hearts were additionally treated with ivabradine (5 μM). Of note, this did not exert significant effects on QT interval (-4 ms, p = ns) or APD90 (-15 ms, p = ns) but resulted in an increase in ERP (+17 ms, p < 0.05). This led to a significant increase in post-repolarization refractoriness (PRR, +32 ms, p < 0.01) as compared with sole ouabain treatment. Under baseline conditions, ventricular fibrillation (VF) was inducible by a standardized pacing protocol including programmed stimulation and burst stimulation in four of 13 hearts (31%; 15 episodes). After application of 0.2 μM ouabain, eight of 13 hearts were inducible (62%, 49 episodes). Additional infusion of 5 μM ivabradine led to a significant suppression of VF. Only four episodes could be induced in two of 13 hearts (15%). In this study, ivabradine reduced digitalis-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Ivabradine did not affect ventricular repolarization in the presence of digitalis treatment but demonstrated potent anti-arrhythmic properties based on an increase in both ERP and PRR. The study further characterizes the beneficial electrophysiological profile of ivabradine. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).
Jungen, Christiane; Scherschel, Katharina; Eickholt, Christian; Kuklik, Pawel; Klatt, Niklas; Bork, Nadja; Salzbrunn, Tim; Alken, Fares; Angendohr, Stephan; Klene, Christiane; Mester, Janos; Klöcker, Nikolaj; Veldkamp, Marieke W.; Schumacher, Udo; Willems, Stephan; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Meyer, Christian
The parasympathetic nervous system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation. Catheter ablation, a minimally invasive procedure deactivating abnormal firing cardiac tissue, is increasingly becoming the therapy of choice for atrial fibrillation. This is inevitably associated with the obliteration of cardiac cholinergic neurons. However, the impact on ventricular electrophysiology is unclear. Here we show that cardiac cholinergic neurons modulate ventricular electrophysiology. Mechanical disruption or pharmacological blockade of parasympathetic innervation shortens ventricular refractory periods, increases the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia and decreases ventricular cAMP levels in murine hearts. Immunohistochemistry confirmed ventricular cholinergic innervation, revealing parasympathetic fibres running from the atria to the ventricles parallel to sympathetic fibres. In humans, catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation, which is accompanied by accidental parasympathetic and concomitant sympathetic denervation, raises the burden of premature ventricular complexes. In summary, our results demonstrate an influence of cardiac cholinergic neurons on the regulation of ventricular function and arrhythmogenesis. PMID:28128201
Van Trigt, P; Bittner, H B; Kendall, S W; Milano, C A
OBJECTIVE: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction remains the leading cause of early mortality after cardiac transplantation. The effect of brain death and subsequent hypothermic cardioplegic arrest and storage on subsequent post-transplant right ventricular function was examined. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Right ventricular dysfunction in the donor heart usually is attributed to failure of the donor right ventricle to adapt to the sudden increase in afterload (pulmonary vascular resistance) in the recipient. Strategies to improve ventricular mechanics in the postoperative period are aimed at reducing pulmonary vascular resistance with vasodilators or augmenting right ventricular contractility with inotropic agents. Events occurring in the donor heart (brain death, hypothermic cardioplegic arrest, and storage) also may be directly related to post-transplant RV dysfunction. METHODS: A canine model of brain death and orthotopic cardiac transplantation was used. A dynamic pressure-volume analysis of RV mechanics was performed using micromanometers and sonomicrometric dimension transducers. Systolic function was assessed by measurement of preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW). Brain death was induced in 17 dogs by inflation of an intracranial balloon. Right ventricular function then was assessed serially to 6 hours (PRSW). Right ventricular adrenergic beta receptor density and function was sampled at control and after 6 hours of brain death. The effect of cardioplegic arrest and hypothermic storage was assessed in a second group of 17 dogs, using the same instrumentation and method of RV analysis. RESULTS: A significant decrease in right ventricular PRSW occurred after brain death, with the average decrease being 37% +/- 10.4% from the control. The RV myocardial beta adrenergic receptor density did not significantly change (253 +/- 34 fmol/ng control vs. 336 +/- 54 fmol/ng after brain death). The adenylyl cyclase activity of the RV beta receptor was assessed and was not
Peer, Syed Murfad; Bhat, P.S. Seetharama; Furtado, Arul Dominic; Chikkatur, Raghavendra
Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) aneurysm is a known complication of tetralogy of Fallot repair when a ventriculotomy is done. It leads to RV dysfunction and may require re-operation. We describe a rare instance of a patient who developed an RVOT aneurysm after trans-ventricular repair of tetralogy of Fallot, which was complicated with the formation of a thrombus in the aneurysm sac. The patient underwent re-operation with thrombectomy, excision of the RVOT aneurysm and pulmonary valve replacement. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of this combination and its implications have not been reported. PMID:22232231
Nestico, P F; DePace, N L; Morganroth, J
The recognition that patients at high risk for sudden cardiac death can be identified raises our enthusiasm to eliminate some of these risk factors and thus our hope to prevent sudden cardiac death. Although this effect is yet to be shown in cooperative, well-controlled clinical trials, data exist to suggest that this result will be achieved. Thus, the use of antiarrhythmic agents in chronic ventricular ectopy, particularly in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, seems to be warranted, and new and more potent agents to be used for this end will be available in the future.
Tereshchenko, Larisa G.; Josephson, Mark E.
The spectrum of frequencies producing the QRS complex has not been fully explored. In this manuscript we review previous studies of QRS frequency content, and discuss our novel method of the conjoint analysis of the ECG signal in six dimensions: in the domain of three space dimensions, in time domain, and in frequency domain. Orbital frequency of QRS loop is introduced as a six-dimensional characteristic of ventricular conduction, which helped to reveal inapparent ventricular conduction, and to characterize electrophysiological substrate. In this paper, we review our novel method in the historical context. PMID:26364232
Velázquez-Rodríguez, Enrique; Rodríguez-Piña, Horacio; Pacheco-Bouthillier, Alex; Deras-Mejía, Luz María
A 12-year-old girl with symptoms of fatigue, decreased exercise tolerance and progressive dyspnea (New York Heart Association functional class III) with a possible diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy secondary to viral myocarditis. Because of incessant wide QRS tachycardia refractory to antiarrhythmic drugs, she was referred for electrophysiological study. The diagnosis was idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia involving the posterior fascicle of the left bundle branch. After successful treatment with radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by a Purkinje potential radiological and echocardiographic evaluation showed complete reversal of left ventricular function in the first 3 months and no recurrence of arrhythmia during 2 years of follow up.
Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Ivanov, Plamen; Stanley, H. Eugene; Stanley, Gene; Goldberger, Ary L.
Increased number of premature (abnormal) ventricular beats in a record of heartbeat intervals are known to be associated with an advanced stage of pathology (e.g. congestive heart failure). These abnormal beats usually occur in repeated bursts for relatively short periods of time. Here we ask the question if particular abnormal patterns appear throughout records of heartbeat intervals. We study the temporal organization of specific patterns of ventricular beats in long 24 hour records and their relation to different stages of disease. We analyze the statistical properties of such patterns and combination of patterns by means of crosscorrelation matrices.
Vasaturo, Sabina; Ploeg, David E.; Buitrago, Guadalupe; Zeppenfeld, Katja; Veselic-Charvat, Maud
A 53-year-old woman was referred for ventricular fibrillation with resuscitation. A CT-angiography showed signs of a right ventricular enlargement without obvious cause. A cardiac MRI demonstrated a dilated and hypokinetic right ventricle with extensive late gadolinium enhancement. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) was suspected according to the "revised ARVD task force criteria". An endomyocardial biopsy was inconclusive. The patient developed purulent pericarditis after epicardial ablation therapy and died of toxic shock syndrome. The post-mortem pathologic examination demonstrated sarcoidosis involving the heart, lungs, and thyroid gland. PMID:25995699
Stratemann, Stacy; Dzurik, Yvette; Fish, Frank; Parra, David
Cardiac tumors in children are rare. Although most are histologically benign, they can be associated with life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden death. We report a 7-year-old boy, with a first episode of symptomatic tachycardia, who was found to have a left ventricular (LV) fibroma. He had a normal echocardiogram prior to an electrophysiology study, which revealed a sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia and a radio-opacity near the LV apex. These findings prompted a cardiac MRI, which demonstrated a discrete mass on his LV apex and free wall. Our case emphasizes that structural heart disease should be aggressively pursued in children presenting with ventricular tachycardia.
Wink, Jeroen; de Wilde, Rob B P; Wouters, Patrick F; van Dorp, Eveline L A; Veering, Bernadette Th; Versteegh, Michel I M; Aarts, Leon P H J; Steendijk, Paul
Blockade of cardiac sympathetic fibers by thoracic epidural anesthesia may affect right ventricular function and interfere with the coupling between right ventricular function and right ventricular afterload. Our main objectives were to study the effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia on right ventricular function and ventricular-pulmonary coupling. In 10 patients scheduled for lung resection, right ventricular function and its response to increased afterload, induced by temporary, unilateral clamping of the pulmonary artery, was tested before and after induction of thoracic epidural anesthesia using combined pressure-conductance catheters. Thoracic epidural anesthesia resulted in a significant decrease in right ventricular contractility (ΔESV25: +25.5 mL, P=0.0003; ΔEes: -0.025 mm Hg/mL, P=0.04). Stroke work, dP/dtMAX, and ejection fraction showed a similar decrease in systolic function (all P<0.05). A concomitant decrease in effective arterial elastance (ΔEa: -0.094 mm Hg/mL, P=0.004) yielded unchanged ventricular-pulmonary coupling. Cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, and mean arterial blood pressure were unchanged. Clamping of the pulmonary artery significantly increased afterload (ΔEa: +0.226 mm Hg/mL, P<0.001). In response, right ventricular contractility increased (ΔESV25: -26.6 mL, P=0.0002; ΔEes: +0.034 mm Hg/mL, P=0.008), but ventricular-pulmonary coupling decreased (Δ(Ees/Ea) = -0.153, P<0.0001). None of the measured indices showed significant interactive effects, indicating that the effects of increased afterload were the same before and after thoracic epidural anesthesia. Thoracic epidural anesthesia impairs right ventricular contractility but does not inhibit the native positive inotropic response of the right ventricle to increased afterload. Right ventricular-pulmonary arterial coupling was decreased with increased afterload but not affected by the induction of thoracic epidural anesthesia. URL: http
Garcia-Ramirez, J R; Holcombe, D J; Garcia-Gregory, J A
Posttraumatic formation of either aortico-ventricular or coronary arterio-ventricular fistulas are rare, albeit well-documented events. A case is presented involving crush injury to the chest complicated by an acute inferior wall myocardial infarction and later associated with an aortico-right ventricular fistula. Progressive right ventricular dilatation dictated subsequent surgical repair in this case, although similar fistulas without dilatation may safely be observed.
Sheldon, Seth H; Gard, Joseph J; Asirvatham, Samuel J
Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) are frequently encountered and a marker of electrocardiomyopathy. In some instances, they increase the risk for sustained ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and sudden cardiac death. While often associated with a primary cardiomyopathy, they have also been known to cause tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy in patients without preceding structural heart disease. Medical therapy including beta-blockers and class III anti-arrhythmic agents can be effective while implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICD) are indicated in certain patients. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is the preferred, definitive treatment in those patients that improve with anti-arrhythmic therapy, have tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy, or have certain subtypes of PVCs/NSVT. We present a review of PVCs and NSVT coupled with case presentations on RFA of fascicular ventricular tachycardia, left-ventricular outflow tract ventricular tachycardia, and Purkinje arrhythmia leading to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. PMID:20811538
Driessen, Mieke M P; Hui, Wei; Bijnens, Bart H; Dragulescu, Andreea; Mertens, Luc; Meijboom, Folkert J; Friedberg, Mark K
Right ventricular (RV) pressure overload has a vastly different clinical course in children with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH) than in children with pulmonary stenosis (PS). While RV function is well recognized as a key prognostic factor in iPAH, adverse ventricular-ventricular interactions and LV dysfunction are less well characterized and the pathophysiology is incompletely understood. We compared ventricular-ventricular interactions as hypothesized drivers of biventricular dysfunction in pediatric iPAH versus PS Eighteen iPAH, 16 PS patients and 18 age- and size-matched controls were retrospectively studied. Cardiac cycle events were measured by M-mode and Doppler echocardiography. Measurements were compared between groups using ANOVA with post hoc Dunnet's or ANCOVA including RV systolic pressure (RVSP; iPAH 96.8 ± 25.4 mmHg vs. PS 75.4 ± 18.9 mmHg; P = 0.011) as a covariate. RV-free wall thickening was prolonged in iPAH versus PS, extending beyond pulmonary valve closure (638 ± 76 msec vs. 562 ± 76 msec vs. 473 ± 59 msec controls). LV and RV isovolumetric relaxation were prolonged in iPAH (P < 0.001; LV 102.8 ± 24.1 msec vs. 63.1 ± 13.7 msec; RV 95 [61-165] vs. 28 [0-43]), associated with adverse septal kinetics; characterized by rightward displacement in early systole and leftward displacement in late RV systole (i.e., early LV diastole). Early LV diastolic filling was decreased in iPAH (73 ± 15.9 vs. PS 87.4 ± 14.4 vs. controls 95.8 ± 12.5 cm/sec; P = 0.004). Prolonged RVFW thickening, prolonged RVFW isovolumetric times, and profound septal dyskinesia are associated with interventricular mechanical discoordination and decreased early LV filling in pediatric iPAH much more than PS These adverse mechanics affect systolic and diastolic biventricular efficiency in iPAH and may form the basis for worse clinical outcomes. We used clinically derived data to study the pathophysiology of ventricular-ventricular
Boyle, Tehnaz P; Kimia, Amir A; Nigrovic, Lise E
This study aims to validate a published ventricular shunt clinical prediction rule for the identification of children at low risk for ventricular shunt malfunction based on the absence of 3 high-risk clinical predictors (irritability, nausea or vomiting, and headache). We identified children aged 21 years and younger with a ventricular shunt who presented between 2010 and 2013 to a single pediatric emergency department (ED) for evaluation of potential shunt malfunction. We defined a ventricular shunt malfunction as obstruction to cerebrospinal fluid flow requiring operative neurosurgical intervention within 72 hours of initial ED evaluation. We applied this ventricular shunt clinical prediction rule to the study population and report the test characteristics. We identified 755 ED visits for 294 children with potential ventricular shunt malfunction. Of these encounters, 146 (19%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 17%-22%) had a ventricular shunt malfunction. The ventricular shunt clinical prediction rule had a sensitivity of 99% (95% CI, 94%-100%), specificity of 7% (95% CI, 5%-9%), and negative predictive value of 95% (95% CI, 82%-99%). Two children with a ventricular shunt malfunction were misclassified as low risk by this clinical prediction rule. Ventricular shunt malfunctions were common. Although children classified as low risk by the ventricular shunt clinical prediction rule were less likely to have a shunt malfunction, routine neuroimaging may still be required because exclusion of ventricular shunt malfunction may be difficult on clinical grounds alone.
Lundar, T; Nornes, H
Resorption of the ventricular fluid was studied by measuring ventricular fluid outflow resistance during steady state 1.5 and 5.0 ml/min infusions in 26 patients with substantial enlargement of the supratentorial ventricular system. This test may avoid unnecessary use of shunts, but a shunt could be introduced during the same procedure. PMID:2266372
Yaliniz, Hafize; Gocen, Ugur; Atalay, Atakan; Salih, Orhan Kemal
Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of aneurysmectomy. We present a case of a surgically treated left ventricular pseudoaneurysm, which was diagnosed three years after coronary artery bypass grafting and left ventricular aneurysmectomy. The presenting symptoms, diagnostic evaluation, and surgical repair are described. PMID:27516793
Lin Md, Tina; Conti Md, Sergio; Cipolletta Md, Laura; Marino Md, Vittoria; Zucchetti Md, Martina; Russo Md, Eleonora; Pizzamiglio Md, Francesca; Al-Mohani Md, Ghaliah; Pala Be, Salvatore; Catto Be PhD, Valentina; Di Biase Md PhD, Luigi; Natale Md, Andrea; Tondo Md PhD Fesc, Claudio; Carbucicchio Md, Corrado
Ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) arising from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) are a common and heterogeneous entity. Idiopathic right ventricular arrhythmias (IdioVAs) are generally benign, with excellent ablation outcomes and long-term arrhythmia-free survival, and must be distinguished from other conditions associated with VAs arising from the right ventricle: the differential diagnosis with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) is therefore crucial because VAs are one of the most important causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young individuals even with early stage of the disease. Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is a current option for the treatment of VAs but important differences must be considered in terms of indication, purposes and procedural strategies in the treatment of the two conditions. In this review, we comprehensively discuss clinical and electrophysiological features, diagnostic and therapeutic techniques in a compared analysis of these two entities.
Wenink, A C; Gittenberger-de Groot, A C
Study of serial sections of human embryos ranging from 3.6 to 25 mm crown rump length shows that the ventricular septum develops from three sources. The primary septum develops between the inlet and outlet which are the two first discernible segments of the ventricular portion of the primary heart tube. Two other septa develop within the inlet and within the outlet, respectively. Before and during septation all ventricular trabeculations are identical. In later stages, the atrioventricular valves and their tension apparatus develop from the inner myocardial layer of the left and right ventricular inlet parts. The outlet trabeculations do not take part in this process. These observations are suggested to explain the typical trabecular patterns of the apices of the mature left and right ventricles, which develop from the inlet and from the outlet, respectively. Images PMID:7138710
... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Identification. A ventricular catheter is a device used to gain access to the cavities of the brain for injection of material into, or removal of material from, the brain. (b) Classification. Class II...
... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Identification. A ventricular catheter is a device used to gain access to the cavities of the brain for injection of material into, or removal of material from, the brain. (b) Classification. Class II...
... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Identification. A ventricular catheter is a device used to gain access to the cavities of the brain for injection of material into, or removal of material from, the brain. (b) Classification. Class II...
Sanchez-Quintana, D.; Anderson, R. H.; Ho, S. Y.
BACKGROUND: Little attention has been paid to the architecture of the muscle fibres of the ventricular walls in congenitally malformed hearts. In this study the gross pattern of myocardial fibres in normal hearts was compared with that in cases of tetralogy of Fallot. METHODS AND RESULTS: After morphological examination nine specimens with tetralogy were dissected to study the ventricular myoarchitecture. Changes were found in the shape of the malformed ventricles. The ventricular walls were arranged in layers in all hearts. Superficial and deep layers were present in both ventricles, with the superficial layer showing a more oblique orientation in the specimens with tetralogy than in normal hearts. Modifications of muscle fibre that were related to the type of malformation were seen in the deep layer. A middle layer was present in the left ventricles of normal hearts and specimens with tetralogy: this showed a horizontal orientation in both groups. In contrast, a middle layer was found in the right ventricle only in specimens showing tetralogy. CONCLUSIONS: The malformed hearts showed modifications in ventricular shape, in the arrangement of muscle in the right ventricle, and in the overall myoarchitecture. These changes could well be the consequence of the same agent (or agents) that caused the structural defect. Images PMID:8868990
Lee, M; Leahu, D; Weiner, H L; Abbott, R; Wisoff, J H; Epstein, F J
Fourth-ventricular shunting is commonly used to treat symptomatic posterior fossa cysts of the Dandy-Walker malformation and trapped fourth ventricle. Although the benefits of this procedure have been widely reported, there is a paucity of data on the pitfalls of posterior fossa shunting in the neurosurgical literature. During the 4-year period from July 1989 to June 1993, we placed fourth-ventricular shunts in 12 patients. Remarkably, 5 patients suffered complications related to posterior fossa catheter placement (42% rate). Three of these patients developed new cranial nerve dysfunction caused by direct injury to the floor of the fourth ventricle, 1 patient suffered an intracystic hemorrhage and acute shunt malfunction, and 1 patient had the catheter tip in the brainstem on postoperative studies without new neurological deficit. We conclude that placement of fourth-ventricular shunts can be fraught with complications which we believe is related to technique. We propose that altering the trajectory of the ventricular catheter from our usual midline technique to a more lateral position will lessen the chances for injury to the floor of the fourth ventricle. In this manner we hope to decrease our incidence of complications for this procedure.
Sanchez-Quintana, D; Anderson, R H; Ho, S Y
Little attention has been paid to the architecture of the muscle fibres of the ventricular walls in congenitally malformed hearts. In this study the gross pattern of myocardial fibres in normal hearts was compared with that in cases of tetralogy of Fallot. After morphological examination nine specimens with tetralogy were dissected to study the ventricular myoarchitecture. Changes were found in the shape of the malformed ventricles. The ventricular walls were arranged in layers in all hearts. Superficial and deep layers were present in both ventricles, with the superficial layer showing a more oblique orientation in the specimens with tetralogy than in normal hearts. Modifications of muscle fibre that were related to the type of malformation were seen in the deep layer. A middle layer was present in the left ventricles of normal hearts and specimens with tetralogy: this showed a horizontal orientation in both groups. In contrast, a middle layer was found in the right ventricle only in specimens showing tetralogy. The malformed hearts showed modifications in ventricular shape, in the arrangement of muscle in the right ventricle, and in the overall myoarchitecture. These changes could well be the consequence of the same agent (or agents) that caused the structural defect.
Allen, H.A.; Haney, P.J.
Two neonates had unusually rapid development of necrotizing enterocolitis within 24 hours of birth. Both patients had decreased systemic perfusion secondary to aortic atresia. Onset of either clinical or radiographic manifestations of necrotizing enterocolitis in the first day of life should alert one to the possible presence of severe left ventricular outflow obstruction.
Chiale, P A; Halpern, M S; Nau, G J; Przybylski, J; Tambussi, A M; Lázzari, J O; Elizari, M V; Rosenbaum, M B
We studied 28 cases of chronic chagasic myocarditis (CCM) with frequent ventricular arrhythmias. Two-hundred and three conventional ECGs recorded during 3 months showed ventricular extrasystoles (VE) ranging between 0.2 and 6 per ten beats in 100%; multiform VE in 97.04%; couplets in 79.31%; ventricular tachycardia (VT) in 42.85%; and R on T in 21.67%. A 24-hour continuous recording showed that VE ranged between 3780 and 61733 (mean 16618 +/- 2627); multiform VE and couplets were present in 100% of patients, and VT was present in 78.5%. In 16 patients (group I) the frequency of VE was persistently high, without diurnal variation; 11 patients showed sustained reduction during sleeping hours and only one showed an increase during night sleep (group II). Even in group II, VE never disappeared for periods longer than 10 minutes. In five patients, four 24-hour recordings were obtained at weekly intervals, and in five other patients a second 24-hour recording was performed 10 to 24 months later. The remarkable frequency, persistence and low variability of ventricular arrhythmias in CCM suggest that such arrhythmias can be used as a most stable, reliable, but highly demanding model for testing the efficacy of antiarrhythmic drugs.
Cooley, Denton A.; Norman, John C.
Certain problems related to the left ventricular outflow tract are not amenable to conventional surgical methods, but may be solved with the creation of a double outlet left ventricle by using a composite rigid pyrolite left ventricular apex outlet prosthesis and a fabric valve-containing conduit. Low porosity woven Dacron tube grafts are used for the conduit. Twenty-three patients who have undergone apico-aortic bypass with this conduit are reported here, with gratifying results in eighteen. PMID:15216062
Badui, E; Cruz, H; Almazan, A; Enciso, R; Soberanis, N; Garcia, R
The authors present a case of a thirty-nine-year-old white man in good health who developed episodes of ventricular tachycardia as a first manifestation of a right ventricular myxoma, which was diagnosed by two-dimensional echocardiogram and then resected with no complications and total disappearance of the cardiac arrhythmia. After reviewing the literature they consider the present case as a rare manifestation of an infrequent location of an uncommon disease.
Peter, C.A.; Bowyer, K.; Jones, R.H.
In patients with ventricular or atrial septal defect, the ventricle which is chronically volume overloaded might not appropriately respond to increased demand for an augmentation in output and thereby might limit total cardiac function. In this study we simultaneously measured right and left ventricular response to exercise in 10 normal individuals, 10 patients with ventricular septal defect (VSD), and 10 patients with atrial septal defect (ASD). The normal subjects increased both right and left ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, and stroke volume to achieve a higher cardiac output during exercise. Patients with VSD failed to increase right ventricular ejection fraction, but increased right ventricular end-diastolic volume and stroke volume. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume did not increase in these patients but ejection fraction, stroke volume, and forward left ventricular output achieved during exercise were comparable to the response observed in healthy subjects. In the patients with ASD, no rest-to-exercise change occurred in either right ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, or stroke volume. In addition, left ventricular end-diastolic volume failed to increase, and despite an increase in ejection fraction, left ventricular stroke volume remained unchanged from rest to exercise. Therefore, cardiac output was augmented only by the heart rate increase in these patients. Right ventricular function appeared to be the major determinant of total cardiac output during exercise in patients with cardiac septal defects and left-to-right shunt.
Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan; Kothandam, Sivakumar; Kumar, Rajesh; Indrajith, Sujatha Desai; Agarwal, Ravi
A 26-year-old lady presented with exertional dyspnea, palpitations, central cyanosis, and oxygen saturations of 80% in room air. Her electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and cardiac magnetic resonance were diagnostic of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. There was no documented ventricular arrhythmia or syncopal episodes and Holter recordings were repeatedly normal. Cardiac hemodynamics showed right to left shunt through atrial septal defect, low pulmonary blood flow, normal atrial pressures, and minimally elevated right ventricular end-diastolic pressures. Since her presenting symptoms and cyanosis were attributed to reduced pulmonary blood flow, she underwent off-pump cavopulmonary anastomosis between right superior vena cava and right pulmonary artery. As we intended to avoid the adverse effect of extracorporeal circulation on the myocardial function and pulmonary vasculature, we did not attempt to reduce the size of the atrial septal defect. Her postoperative period was uneventful; oxygen saturation improved to 89% with significant improvement in effort tolerance. At 18-month follow-up, there were no ventricular arrhythmias on surveillance. The clinical presentation of this disease may vary from serious arrhythmias warranting defibrillators and electrical ablations at one end to right ventricular pump failure warranting cardiomyoplasty or right ventricular exclusion procedures at the other end. However, when the presentation was unusual with severe cyanosis through a stretched foramen ovale leading to reduced pulmonary blood flows, Glenn shunt served as a good palliation and should be considered as one of the options in such patients.
Terada, Yukie; Mineharu, Yohei; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Funaki, Takeshi; Tanji, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Susumu
Ventriculitis is an uncommon condition with a poor prognosis, especially when complicated by brain abscess. We compared the therapeutic efficacy of neuroendoscopic ventricular irrigation with those of conventional treatments such as ventricular drainage and continuous irrigation via a ventricular drain. We retrospectively analyzed 14 consecutive patients treated for ventriculitis at our institution between 2001 and 2015. Included were the six patients treated with neuroendoscopic (NE) irrigation (NE group), which we adopted in 2011, and the eight patients treated before 2011 with conventional treatments (non-NE group). We compared mortality, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 6 months postoperatively, and duration of ventricular/spinal drainage-catheter placement between groups. Mean age at onset was 49.3 years (range, 32-68 years) in the NE group and 50.3 years (range, 8-78 years) in the non-NE group. At 6-month follow-up, good clinical outcome (mRS≤3) was observed in 66.7% of the NE group, whereas it was observed in 25.0% of the non-NE group. There were three deaths (37.5%) in the non-NE group but none in the NE group. Duration of drainage-catheter placement was significantly shorter in the NE group than in the non-NE group (19.8days vs. 70.9days, p<0.001). Among patients in the NE group, only those who underwent irrigation on the day of diagnosis maintained a low mRS score. Neuroendoscopic ventricular irrigation was safe and effective in the treatment of ventriculitis. Immediate intervention after diagnosis may lead to an improved prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Galvão Santos, Pedro; Cavaco, Diogo; Adragão, Pedro; Scanavacca, Mauricio; Reis Santos, Katya; Belo Morgado, Francisco; Carmo, Pedro; Costa, Francisco; Bernardo, Ricardo; Nunes, Manuela; Abecasis, Miguel; Neves, José; Mendes, Miguel
Reentrant circuits of ventricular tachycardia may involve not only the endocardium but also the epicardium. Epicardial ablation can be useful in these situations. The aim of this study was to assess efficacy, safety and complications in a series of consecutive patients who underwent ablation of ventricular tachycardia with epicardial mapping. The study included all patients undergoing ventricular tachycardia ablation with epicardial mapping from 2004 to 2012. Of a total of 95 ablations, an epicardial approach was attempted in nine patients, eight male, mean age 58±12 years. Endocardial mapping was performed in all patients previously or simultaneously. The etiology of the arrhythmia was non-ischemic in eight patients and ischemic in one. We compared the number of events in the six months prior to the epicardial procedure and six months after. Percutaneous epicardial access was achieved in eight patients. In one case it was not possible due to the presence of adhesions. In none of the patients was the procedure repeated and there were no major complications during hospitalization. In a mean follow-up of 3.5±1.2 years, one patient suffered stroke; there were no other medium-to-long-term complications and the number of ventricular tachycardia episodes was reduced in all patients after ablation. Epicardial radiofrequency ablation of ventricular tachycardia was effective in reducing morbidity in eight patients, with a low risk of complications in the short and medium-to-long term. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Mancio, Jennifer; Bettencourt, Nuno; Oliveira, Marco; Pires-Morais, Gustavo; Ribeiro, Vasco Gama
Myocarditis is assumed to involve both ventricles equally. Right ventricular predominant involvement is rarely described. A case of acute viral right ventricular myocarditis presenting with chest pain and syncope, grade 3 atrioventricular block, right ventricular dilatation and free wall hypokinesia is reported. Cardiac MRI showed late enhancement of the right ventricular free wall without involvement of the left ventricle. Anti-Coxsackie A9 virus neutralising IgM-type antibodies titre was elevated. This case emphasises that manifestations of myocarditis can be limited to the right ventricle and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of right ventricular enlargement. PMID:24096068
In the past, hypertensive heart disease was the principal cause of congestive heart failure, but currently ischemic heart disease is the major etiologic factor. In the last 20 years, the role of myocardial infarction (MI) and the subsequent alteration in ventricular architecture of the infarcted and noninfarcted myocardium have become increasingly associated with a phenomenon known as ventricular remodelling. This process consists of left ventricular wall thinning in the infarction area, ventricular chamber dilatation, and compensatory hypertrophy of the noninfarcted portion of the myocardium. This article describes the pathophysiologic transformation that begins with MI and ventricular remodeling and ends in congestive heart failure.
Veille, J C; Hanson, R
Our purpose was to determine left ventricular size and function in obese pregnant patients during the third trimester. Eight morbidly obese pregnant patients had M-mode echocardiography. None were hypertensive or diabetic at the time of study. A group of 36 normal patients were used as controls. Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, fractional shortening, and cardiac index were not significantly different between the two groups. Left atrial size, left ventricular wall thickness, interventricular septal thickness, and left ventricular mass were greater in the obese group. The radius-to-wall thickness ratio was significantly smaller in the obese group. (1) Left ventricular dimension and function in obese patients was similar to that of nonobese patients. (2) The left ventricle was found to be significantly hypertrophied in obese patients. Left ventricular reconfiguration appears to be important in preserving left ventricular function. Whether these changes are specific to pregnancy or secondary to maternal obesity remains to be determined.
Chiale, Pablo A; Etcheverry, Daniel; Pastori, Julio D; Fernandez, Pablo A; Garro, Hugo A; González, Mario D; Elizari, Marcelo V
T wave "memory" is a peculiar variety of cardiac remodeling caused by a transient change in the course of ventricular depolarization (due to ventricular pacing, rate-dependent intraventricular block, ventricular preexcitation or tachyarrhythmias with wide QRS complexes). It is usually manifested by inverted T waves that appears when normal ventricular activation is restored. This phenomenon is cumulative and occurs earlier if the ventricular myocardium has previously been exposed to the same conditioning stimuli. In this article the different conditions giving rise to "classical" T wave memory development are reviewed and also "another" type of T wave memory is described. It is also shown that cardiac memory may induce not only negative (pseudo-primary) T waves but also a reversal of primary and pseudoprimary T waves leading to "normalization" of ventricular repolarization. The knowledge of these dissimilar consequences of T wave memory is essential to assess the characteristics of ventricular repolarization.
Steinberg, Christian; Philippon, François; O'Hara, Gilles; Molin, Franck
Accurate sensing of malignant arrhythmia is critical for the appropriate delivery of therapy from implantable cardioverter defibrillators, and undersensing of ventricular tachyarrhythmias can have catastrophic consequences. Here, we present an unusual case of ventricular fibrillation undersensing from the right ventricular lead at multiple different implantation sites because of very low amplitude voltage signals during induced ventricular fibrillation. A left ventricular sensing electrode was implanted to allow correct sensing and therapy delivery. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Panaich, Sidakpal S; Badheka, Apurva O; Chothani, Ankit; Mehta, Kathan; Patel, Nileshkumar J; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Singh, Vikas; Savani, Ghanshyambhai T; Arora, Shilpkumar; Patel, Nilay; Bhalara, Vipulkumar; Grover, Peeyush; Shah, Neeraj; Elder, Mahir; Mohamad, Tamam; Kaki, Amir; Kondur, Ashok; Brown, Michael; Grines, Cindy; Schreiber, Theodore
Ventricular septal myomectomy (VSM) is the primary modality for left ventricular outflow tract gradient reduction in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with refractory symptoms. Comprehensive postprocedural data for VSM from a large multicenter registry are sparse. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate postprocedural mortality, complications, length of stay (LOS), and cost of hospitalization after VSM and to further appraise the multivariate predictors of these outcomes. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried from 1998 through 2010 using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, procedure codes 37.33 for VSM and 425.1 for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The severity of co-morbidities was defined using the Charlson co-morbidity index. Hierarchical mixed-effects models were generated to identify independent multivariate predictors of in-hospital mortality, procedural complications, LOS, and cost of hospitalization. The overall mortality was 5.9%. Almost 9% (8.7%) of patients had postprocedural complete heart block requiring pacemakers. Increasing Charlson co-morbidity index was associated with a higher rate of complications and mortality (odds ratio 2.41, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 4.98, p = 0.02). The mean cost of hospitalization was $41,715 ± $1,611, while the average LOS was 8.89 ± 0.35 days. Occurrence of any postoperative complication was associated with increased cost of hospitalization (+$33,870, p <0.001) and LOS (+6.08 days, p <0.001). In conclusion, the postoperative mortality rate for VSM was 5.9%; cardiac complications were most common, specifically complete heart block. Age and increasing severity of co-morbidities were predictive of poorer outcomes, while a higher burden of postoperative complications was associated with a higher cost of hospitalization and LOS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Holley, Loraine K
The past 25 years have seen the implantable cardioverter defibrillator emerge as the treatment of choice for ventricular arrhythmias with reduction in size but increased therapeutic options. Understanding the complex mechanisms of ventricular arrhythmias and defibrillation in normal and diseased hearts has been the focus of many research teams including that of John Uther at the Westmead Hospital Department of Cardiology. Marked improvements in capacitor and battery technologies, arrhythmia discrimination, pacing algorithms, shock waveforms and monitoring capabilities enable wider use and patient acceptance. Emergence of cardiac resynchronisation therapy and the implantable defibrillator for treatment of chronic heart failure is not only giving quality of life and extended survival for heart failure patients but has also cast new light on the evolution of heart failure.
Ajijola, Olujimi A.; Tung, Roderick; Shivkumar, Kalyanam
Advances in the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) have improved survival after ischemic cardiac injury. Post-infarct structural and functional remodeling results in electrophysiologic substrates at risk for monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (MMVT). Characterization of this substrate using a variety of clinical and investigative tools has improved our understanding of MMVT circuits, and has accelerated the development of device and catheter-based therapies aimed at identification and elimination of this arrhythmia. This review will discuss the central role of the ischemic heart disease substrate in the development MMVT. Electrophysiologic characterization of the post-infarct myocardium using bipolar electrogram amplitudes to delineate scar border zones will be reviewed. Functional electrogram determinants of reentrant circuits such as isolated late potentials will be discussed. Strategies for catheter ablation of reentrant ventricular tachycardia, including structural and functional targets will also be examined, as will the role of the epicardial mapping and ablation in the management of recurrent MMVT. PMID:24568826
Benjamin, Mina M; Hayes, Kevin; Field, Michael E; Scheinman, Melvin M; Hoffmayer, Kurt S
A 73-year-old man with history of pulmonary sarcoidosis was found to have runs of non-sustained bidirectional ventricular tachycardia (BVT) with two different QRS morphologies on a Holter monitor. Cardiac magnetic resonance delayed gadolinium imaging revealed a region of patchy mid-myocardial enhancement within the left ventricular basal inferolateral myocardium. An 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) showed increased uptake in the same area, consistent with active sarcoid, with no septal involvement. Follow-up FDG-PET one year later showed disease progression with new septal involvement. Cardiac sarcoidosis, characterized by myocardial inflammation and interstitial fibrosis that can lead to conduction system disturbance and macro re-entrant arrhythmias, should be considered in differential diagnosis of BVT. BVT may indicate septal involvement with sarcoidosis before the lesions are large enough to be detected radiologically.
Roberts, Jason D; Veinot, John P; Rutberg, Julie; Gollob, Michael H
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) represents an inherited cardiomyopathy that manifests clinically with malignant ventricular arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death, and less commonly heart failure. The condition is characterized by replacement of the myocardium, primarily of the right ventricle, with fibrofatty tissue. Extensive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium has been previously thought to be pathognomonic of ARVC; however, this report details two other forms of inherited cardiomyopathy, namely hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and the PRKAG2 cardiac syndrome, that were found to have significant fibrofatty myocardial replacement at pathologic examination. This report represents the first documentation of inherited cardiomyopathies mimicking ARVC and highlights the concept that other cardiac conditions can be associated with fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pak, P H; Kass, D A
Regardless of its cause, systolic dysfunction in dilated cardiomyopathy triggers a wide variety of compensatory responses resulting in cardiac dilatation, fluid retention, and systemic vasoconstriction. Standard therapy with vasodilators, digoxin, and diuretics can provide symptomatic relief in many patients. However, many others do not respond adequately, and mortality from heart failure remains high. This has driven the search for novel therapies. To evaluate the efficacy and decipher mechanisms of action of these treatments, accurate assessments of left ventricular function are valuable. In particular, one seeks indexes that are cardiac-specific, in that they are minimally influenced by vascular loading conditions. An increasingly used "gold standard" that can achieve this goal is the invasively measured pressure-volume relation. Newer noninvasive methods have yielded several surrogates that have the key advantage of being applicable to chronic disease assessment. In this report, we review the current state-of-the-art in left ventricular function assessment, and describe recent advances in its noninvasive evaluation.
Jaffe, R; Flugelman, M Y; Halon, D A; Lewis, B S
The multiple mechanisms that bring about the decompensation of the hypertrophic remodeled myocardium are synergistic and not fully understood. Our current hypothesis is that the increased stress on the ventricle is initially offset by compensatory myocardial hypertrophy. In many instances, however, progressive ventricular dilatation and heart failure occur as a result of maladaptive hypertrophy (abnormal myosin-actin production), programmed cell death (apoptosis) and/or changes in the interstitial vasculature and collagen composition. The molecular and genetic background to these processes includes changes in myocardial gene expression, activation of the local tissue renin-angiotensin and other neurohormonal systems, increased matrix metalloproteinase activity (including collagenase), and expression of certain components of the immune system, such as TNF-alpha. Future research will hopefully provide better methods for limiting the remodeling-ventricular dilatation process by novel pharmacotherapies, gene therapy and, possibly, surgical therapy, and determine the impact of such interventions on survival.
Brittain, Evan L.; Hemnes, Anna R.; Keebler, Mary; Lawson, Mark; Byrd, Benjamin F.; DiSalvo, Tom
Right ventricular (RV) function is a strong independent predictor of outcome in a number of distinct cardiopulmonary diseases. The RV has a remarkable ability to sustain damage and recover function which may be related to unique anatomic, physiologic, and genetic factors that differentiate it from the left ventricle. This capacity has been described in patients with RV myocardial infarction, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and chronic thromboembolic disease as well as post-lung transplant and post-left ventricular assist device implantation. Various echocardiographic and magnetic resonance imaging parameters of RV function contribute to the clinical assessment and predict outcomes in these patients; however, limitations remain with these techniques. Early diagnosis of RV function and better insight into the mechanisms of RV recovery could improve patient outcomes. Further refinement of established and emerging imaging techniques is necessary to aid subclinical diagnosis and inform treatment decisions. PMID:23130100
Gebauer, Roman A.; Tomek, Viktor; Salameh, Aida; Marek, Jan; Chaloupecký, Václav; Gebauer, Roman; Matějka, Tomáš; Vojtovič, Pavel; Janoušek, Jan
Aims To identify risk factors for left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in right ventricular (RV) pacing in the young. Methods and results Left ventricular function was evaluated in 82 paediatric patients with either non-surgical (n = 41) or surgical (n= 41) complete atrioventricular block who have been 100% RV paced for a mean period of 7.4 years. Left ventricular shortening fraction (SF) decreased from a median (range) of 39 (24–62)% prior to implantation to 32 (8–49)% at last follow-up (P < 0.05). Prevalence of a combination of LV dilatation (LV end-diastolic diameter >+2z-values) and dysfunction (SF < 0.26) was found to increase from 1.3% prior to pacemaker implantation to 13.4% (11/82 patients) at last follow-up (P = 0.01). Ten of these 11 patients had progressive LV remodelling and 8 of 11 were symptomatic. The only significant risk factor for the development of LV dilatation and dysfunction was the presence of epicardial RV free wall pacing (OR = 14.3, P < 0.001). Other pre-implantation demographic, diagnostic, and haemodynamic factors including block aetiology, pacing variables, and pacing duration did not show independent significance. Conclusion Right ventricular pacing leads to pathologic LV remodelling in a significant proportion of paediatric patients. The major independent risk factor is the presence of epicardial RV free wall pacing, which should be avoided whenever possible. PMID:19286675
Rosenkranz, Stephan; Gibbs, J. Simon R.; Wachter, Rolf; De Marco, Teresa; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc
In patients with left ventricular heart failure (HF), the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are frequent and have important impact on disease progression, morbidity, and mortality, and therefore warrant clinical attention. Pulmonary hypertension related to left heart disease (LHD) by far represents the most common form of PH, accounting for 65–80% of cases. The proper distinction between pulmonary arterial hypertension and PH-LHD may be challenging, yet it has direct therapeutic consequences. Despite recent advances in the pathophysiological understanding and clinical assessment, and adjustments in the haemodynamic definitions and classification of PH-LHD, the haemodynamic interrelations in combined post- and pre-capillary PH are complex, definitions and prognostic significance of haemodynamic variables characterizing the degree of pre-capillary PH in LHD remain suboptimal, and there are currently no evidence-based recommendations for the management of PH-LHD. Here, we highlight the prevalence and significance of PH and RV dysfunction in patients with both HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and provide insights into the complex pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary interaction in LHD, which may lead to the evolution from a ‘left ventricular phenotype’ to a ‘right ventricular phenotype’ across the natural history of HF. Furthermore, we propose to better define the individual phenotype of PH by integrating the clinical context, non-invasive assessment, and invasive haemodynamic variables in a structured diagnostic work-up. Finally, we challenge current definitions and diagnostic short falls, and discuss gaps in evidence, therapeutic options and the necessity for future developments in this context. PMID:26508169
Bhatt, Advay G; Steinberg, Jonathan S
Robot-assisted left ventricular lead implantation for cardiac resynchronization therapy is a feasible and safe technique with superior visualization, dexterity, and precision to target the optimal pacing site. The technique has been associated with clinical response and beneficial reverse remodeling comparable with the conventional approach via the coronary sinus. The lack of clinical superiority and a residual high nonresponder rate suggest that the appropriate clinical role for the technique remains as rescue therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Underwood, Katherine; Vorsanger, Matthew; Saric, Muhamed; Skolnick, Adam H
Pectus excavatum is one of the most common congenital chest wall deformities. The degree of sternal depression, which may result in compression of the right heart by the chest wall, is variable. While typically asymptomatic, there are various symptoms that can result from severe pectus excavatum. We report on a patient with severe pectus excavatum leading to dynamic obstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract in the seated position.
Shravan Kumar, Chinnikatti; Sharma, D. N.; Sharma, Kuldeep; Haresh, K. P.; Rath, G. K.
A 6-year-old child presented to us with on and off headache and vomiting for 4 months. On examination, there was bilateral papilledema with mild intracranial hypertension but with no neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed third ventricular mass with obstructive hydrocephalus with possibility of glioma. The patient underwent gross tumor excision and histopathology confirmed anaplastic neurocytoma. The postoperative MRI showed residual disease. The patient treated with adjuvant radiotherapy and temozolamide chemotherapy. PMID:21209769
Qin, Wei; Wang, Liming; Chen, Xin; Liu, Peisheng; Wang, Rui
Cardiac myxoma, the most common primary heart tumor, is located mainly in the left atrium. We reported a rare case of left ventricular myxoma incidentally found on echocardiography in an asymptomatic 60-year-old male. The tumor was carefully resected without fragmentation. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged home on the 4th postoperative day. Surgical resection of this type of cardiac myxoma is recommended due to the rarity of tumor location. PMID:25469121
Girard, F; Le Tacon, S; Maria, M; Pierrard, O; Monin, P
We report one case of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation following butane poisoning after inhalation of antiperspiration aerosol. An early management using semi-automatic defibrillator explained the success of the resuscitation. The mechanism of butane toxicity could be an increased sensitivity of cardiac receptors to circulating catecholamines, responsible for cardiac arrest during exercise and for resuscitation difficulties. The indication of epinephrine is discussed.
Estrada, Victor H Nieto; Franco, Daniel L Molano; Moreno, Albert A Valencia; Gambasica, Jose A Rojas; Nunez, Cristian C Cortes
Two cases of patients that developed right ventricular failure (RVF) after cardiac valve surgery are presented with a narrative revision of the literature. RVF involves a great challenge due to the severity of this condition; it has a low incidence among non-congenital cardiac surgery patients, is more likely associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary complications related to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and is a cause of acute graft failure and of a higher early mortality in cardiac transplant. The morphologic and hemodynamic characteristics of the right ventricle and some specific factors that breed pulmonary hypertension after cardiac surgery are in favor of the onset of RVF. Due to the possibility of complications after cardiac valve repair or replacement, measures as appropriate hemodynamic monitoring, to manage oxygenation, ventilation, sedation, acid base equilibrium and perfusion goals are a requirement, as well as a normal circulating volume, and the prevention of a disproportionate rise in the afterload, to preserve the free wall of the right ventricle (RV) and the septum's contribution to the right ventricular global function and geometry. If there is no response to these basic measures, the use of advanced therapy with inotropics, intravenous or inhaled pulmonary vasodilation agents is recommended; the use of mechanical ventricular assistance stands as a last resource.
Deneke, T; Israel, C W; Krug, J; Nentwich, K; Müller, P; Mügge, A; Schade, A
Ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT) can cause sudden cardiac death. This can be prevented by an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) but approximately 25% of patients with an ICD develop electrical storm (≥ 3 VTs within 24 hours) during the course of 4-5 years. This is a life-threatening event even in the presence of an ICD, particularly if incessant VT is present, and may significantly deteriorate the patient's psychological state if multiple shocks are discharged. Catheter ablation of VT has developed into a standard procedure in many specialized electrophysiology centers. Patients with hemodynamically stable and unstable VT are amendable to substrate-based ablation strategies. Catheter ablation can be performed as emergency procedure in patients with electrical storm as well as electively in patients with monomorphic VT stored in ICD memory. In patients with ischemic or non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, VT ablation is complementary to ICD implantation and can reduce the number of ventricular arrhythmia episodes and shocks and should be performed early. In patients with electrical storm, catheter ablation can acutely achieve rhythm stabilization and may improve prognosis in the long term. Further indications for catheter ablation exist in patients with idiopathic VT where catheter ablation represents a curative therapy, and in patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic frequent premature ventricular beats which may improve prognosis in patients with heart failure and cardiac resynchronization therapy.
Estrada, Victor H. Nieto; Franco, Daniel L. Molano; Moreno, Albert A. Valencia; Gambasica, Jose A. Rojas; Nunez, Cristian C. Cortes
Two cases of patients that developed right ventricular failure (RVF) after cardiac valve surgery are presented with a narrative revision of the literature. RVF involves a great challenge due to the severity of this condition; it has a low incidence among non-congenital cardiac surgery patients, is more likely associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary complications related to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and is a cause of acute graft failure and of a higher early mortality in cardiac transplant. The morphologic and hemodynamic characteristics of the right ventricle and some specific factors that breed pulmonary hypertension after cardiac surgery are in favor of the onset of RVF. Due to the possibility of complications after cardiac valve repair or replacement, measures as appropriate hemodynamic monitoring, to manage oxygenation, ventilation, sedation, acid base equilibrium and perfusion goals are a requirement, as well as a normal circulating volume, and the prevention of a disproportionate rise in the afterload, to preserve the free wall of the right ventricle (RV) and the septum’s contribution to the right ventricular global function and geometry. If there is no response to these basic measures, the use of advanced therapy with inotropics, intravenous or inhaled pulmonary vasodilation agents is recommended; the use of mechanical ventricular assistance stands as a last resource. PMID:28197291
Faustino, Mariana; Ranchordás, Sara; Abecasis, João; Freitas, António; Ferreira, Moradas; Gil, Victor; Morais, Carlos; Neves, José Pedro
Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of acute myocardial infarction, associated with high mortality. However, it can present in a non-specific manner, complicating and delaying the diagnosis. The authors present the case of a 65-year-old patient, hypertensive, with no other known relevant medical history, who presented with chest pain, cough and left pleural effusion, initially attributed to a pulmonary process. However, these were in fact the result of a left ventricular pseudoaneurysm following silent acute myocardial infarction. The diagnosis was suspected on echocardiography and confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and the patient underwent successful surgical pseudoaneurysm repair. This case illustrates an atypical presentation of a left ventricular pseudoaneurysm, in which the manifestations resulted from pericardial and pleural extension of the inflammatory process associated with contained myocardial rupture. The case demonstrates the need for a high index of suspicion, and the value of imaging techniques to confirm it, in order to proceed with appropriate surgical treatment, and thus modify the course of the disease. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Trayanova, Natalia A.; Constantino, Jason; Gurev, Viatcheslav
One of the most important components of mechano-electric coupling is stretch-activated channels, sarcolemmel channels that open upon mechanical stimuli. Uncovering the mechanisms by which stretch-activated channels contribute to ventricular arrhythmogenesis under a variety of pathological conditions is hampered by the lack of experimental methodologies that can record the three-dimensional electromechanical activity simultaneously at high spatiotemporal resolution. Computer modeling provides such an opportunity. This goal of this review is to illustrate the utility of sophisticated, physiologically realistic, whole heart computer simulations in determining the role of mechano-electric coupling in ventricular arrhythmogeneisis. We first present the various ways by which stretch-activated channels have been modeled and demonstrate how these channels affect cardiac electrophysiological properties. Next, we employ an electrophysiological model of the rabbit ventricles to understand how so-called commotio cordis, the mechanical impact to the pre-cordial region of the heart, can initiate ventricular tachycardia via the recruitment of stretch-activated channels. Using the same model, we also provide mechanistic insight to the termination of arrhythmias by precordial thump under normal and globally-ischemic conditions. Lastly, we employ a novel anatomically-realistic dynamic 3D coupled electromechanical model of the rabbit ventricles to gain insight into the role of electromechanical dysfunction in arrhythmogenesis during acute regional ischemia. PMID:20638670
Posselt, Bonnie N; Cox, A T; D'Arcy, J; Rooms, M; Saba, M
Although rare, sudden cardiac death does occur in British military personnel. In the majority of cases, the cause is considered to be a malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmia, which can be precipitated by a number of underlying pathologies. Conversely, a tachyarrhythmia may have a more benign and treatable cause, yet the initial clinical symptoms may be similar, making differentiation difficult. This is an overview of the mechanisms underlying the initiation and propagation of arrhythmias and the various pathological conditions that predispose to arrhythmia genesis, classified according to which parts of the heart are involved: atrial tachyarrhythmias, atrial and ventricular, as well as those affecting the ventricles alone. It encompasses atrial tachycardia, atrial flutter, supraventricular tachycardias and ventricular tachycardias, including the more commonly encountered inherited primary electrical diseases, also known as the channelopathies. The clinical features, investigation and management strategies are outlined. The occupational impact-in serving military personnel and potential recruits-is described, with explanations relating to the different conditions and their specific implication on continued military service.
Tzou, Wendy S; Nguyen, Duy T; Aleong, Ryan G; Varosy, Paul D; Katz, David F; Heath, Russell R; Schuller, Joseph L; Lowery, Christopher M; Lewkowiez, Laurent; Sauer, William H
While most ventricular arrhythmias (VA) can be ablated successfully using an endocardial (endo) approach, epicardial (epi) mapping and ablation is sometimes required. There may be suggestive clues on the surface electrocardiogram; however, identification of an epi origin of VA with certainty remains problematic. All patients referred for ablation of ventricular tachycardia or frequent ventricular ectopy from June 2007 to July 2011 were evaluated. Patients with completed endo and epi electroanatomical activation maps of an epi VA were included (n = 10). Bipolar electrograms (EGMs) in the area of earliest endo activation were analyzed and compared to the area of early epi activation. An EGM component was characterized as far field if it was monophasic and there was inability to capture. We identified 3 characteristics from endo mapping that consistently indicated need for epi ablation: (1) Diffusely early activation (>2 cm(2) region of sites with equally earliest activation within 10 milliseconds). (2) Sequence of a far-field EGM followed by a near-field EGM in the region of earliest endo activation. (3) Inability to capture the far-field component of the earliest EGM (stim-QRS < egm-QRS time) or reproduce morphological features of the VA complex with stimulation at the earliest endo site of activation. The presence of a diffusely early area of activation and inability to capture a far-field endo EGM indicates that epi ablation may be needed to eliminate a VA. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dotsinsky, Ivan A; Stoyanov, Todor V
Background Detection of QRS complexes and other types of ventricular beats is a basic component of ECG analysis. Many algorithms have been proposed and used because of the waves' shape diversity. Detection in a single channel ECG is important for several applications, such as in defibrillators and specialized monitors. Methods The developed heuristic algorithm for ventricular beat detection includes two main criteria. The first of them is based on steep edges and sharp peaks evaluation and classifies normal QRS complexes in real time. The second criterion identifies ectopic beats by occurrence of biphasic wave. It is modified to work with a delay of one RR interval in case of long RR intervals. Other algorithm branches classify already detected QRS complexes as ectopic beats if a set of wave parameters is encountered or the ratio of latest two RR intervals RRi-1/RRi is less than 1:2.5. Results The algorithm was tested with the AHA and MIT-BIH databases. A sensitivity of 99.04% and a specificity of 99.62% were obtained in detection of 542014 beats. Conclusion The algorithm copes successfully with different complicated cases of single channel ventricular beat detection. It is aimed to simulate to some extent the experience of the cardiologist, rather than to rely on mathematical approaches adopted from the theory of signal analysis. The algorithm is open to improvement, especially in the part concerning the discrimination between normal QRS complexes and ectopic beats. PMID:14750981
Moroney, D A; Swartz, M T; Reedy, J E; Lohmann, D P; McBride, L R; Pennington, D G
The effect of ventricular arrhythmias (VA) on survival was retrospectively reviewed in 41 patients (33 men, 8 women) who were supported with Thoratec ventricular assist devices (VAD [Thoratec Medical Inc., Berkeley, CA]) (17 left, 9 right, and 15 biventricular). Ages ranged from 15 to 71 years (mean, 56 years), and duration of support was 0.1-17 days (mean, 4.7 days). There was no significant difference in age, gender, or type of support between survivors and nonsurvivors, and no correlation between the type of support and incidence of VA. Only two patients (both on left ventricular assist devices [LVAD]) died as a direct result of VA. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of VA before or during VAD support between survivors and nonsurvivors. These data show that evidence of VA is not a predictor of survival in patients in whom myocardial recovery is expected.
Osaki, Satoru; Alberte, Cesar; Murray, Margaret A; Brahmbhatt, Rinjal D; Johnson, Maryl R; Edwards, Niloo M; Kohmoto, Takushi
Refractory ventricular tachycardia (VT) can be a potentially life-threatening rhythm in the presence of non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, particularly when it results in hemodynamic compromise. A 65-year-old man with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy was referred for multiple episodes of VT. A HeartMate left ventricular assist device (LVAD) was implanted to stabilize and control the VT. However, he had multiple episodes of VT and the frequency of ventricular arrhythmias did not improve after LVAD implantation. He required electrical cardioversion to treat each episode. On Day 41 post-operatively, radiofrequency ablation was performed. Two significant areas of scarring were identified and were successfully ablated. After ablation, he did not have significant sustained VT episodes and was discharged.
Ootani, Katsuki; Shimada, Jun; Kitagawa, Yosuke; Konno, Yuki; Miura, Fumitake; Takahashi, Toru; Ito, Etsuro; Ichinose, Kouta; Yonesaka, Susumu
Described herein is the case of a rare combination of congenital left ventricular (LV) aneurysm and left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) in a newborn. The patient developed refractory heart failure soon after birth and died at 5 months of age. The etiology of both congenital LV aneurysm and LVNC seems to be maldevelopment of the ventricular myocardium during early fetal life. Treatment should be individually tailored depending on clinical severity, and treatment options are limited. Given that this combination of congenital LV aneurysm and LVNC is significantly associated with poor prognosis, it appears that patients with congenital LV aneurysm and LVNC are candidates for early, aggressive intervention, including surgical aneurysmectomy and evaluation for transplantation. It is important to be aware of this combination of congenital LV aneurysm and LVNC, and to make earlier decisions on therapeutic strategy.
Masaki, Naoki; Fukasawa, Manabu; Toyama, Shuji; Kawahara, Yu; Inage, Yuichi
Cardiac rupture is a catastrophic complication of acute myocardial infarction with highly mortality rate. Three types of rupture are ventricular free wall rupture( VFR), ventricular septal rupture( VSR), and papillary muscle rupture( PMR). A combination of any 2 types of rupture is called ventricular double rupture (VDR), and very rare. We report a case of VDR (VSR and VFR) after acute myocardial infarction. A 76-year-old female with heart failure was admitted to our hospital. Echocardiography showed an apical VSR and pericardial effusion. She was diagnosed with VDR and emergent operation was performed. During operation, the site of VFR was right ventricle, which was the same infarction area of VSR. VSR was closed by infarction exclusion technique, concurrently excluding the site of VFR. VFR was successfully repaired by mattress sutures. Post-operative course was good without heart failure, though residual shunt was remained. The patient survived and was discharged from our hospital.
Van Herendael, Hugo; Dorian, Paul
Amiodarone has emerged as the leading antiarrhythmic therapy for termination and prevention of ventricular arrhythmia in different clinical settings because of its proven efficacy and safety. In patients with shock refractory out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and hemodynamically destabilizing ventricular arrhythmia, amiodarone is the most effective drug available to assist in resuscitation. Although the superiority of the transvenous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) over amiodarone has been well established in the preventive treatment of patients at high risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, amiodarone (if used with a beta-blocker) is the most effective antiarrhythmic drug to prevent ICD shocks and treat electrical storm. Both the pharmacokinetics and the electrophysiologic profile of amiodarone are complex, and its optimal and safe use requires careful patient surveillance with respect to potential adverse effects.
Van Herendael, Hugo; Dorian, Paul
Amiodarone has emerged as the leading antiarrhythmic therapy for termination and prevention of ventricular arrhythmia in different clinical settings because of its proven efficacy and safety. In patients with shock refractory out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and hemodynamically destabilizing ventricular arrhythmia, amiodarone is the most effective drug available to assist in resuscitation. Although the superiority of the transvenous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) over amiodarone has been well established in the preventive treatment of patients at high risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, amiodarone (if used with a beta-blocker) is the most effective antiarrhythmic drug to prevent ICD shocks and treat electrical storm. Both the pharmacokinetics and the electrophysiologic profile of amiodarone are complex, and its optimal and safe use requires careful patient surveillance with respect to potential adverse effects. PMID:20730062
Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.
Abstract Reperfusion‐induced lethal ventricular arrhythmias are observed during relief of coronary artery spasm, with unstable angina, exercise‐induced ischemia, and silent ischemia. Accordingly, significant efforts are underway to understand the mechanisms responsible for reperfusion‐induced lethal arrhythmias and mice have become increasingly important in these efforts. However, although reperfusion‐induced sustained ventricular tachycardia leading to ventricular fibrillation (VF) has been recorded in many models, reports in mice are sparse and of limited success. Importantly, none of these studies were conducted in intact, conscious mice. Accordingly, a chronically instrumented, intact, conscious murine model of reperfusion‐induced lethal arrhythmias has the potential to be of major importance for advancing the concepts and methods that drive cardiovascular therapies. Therefore, we describe, for the first time, the use of an intact, conscious, murine model of reperfusion‐induced lethal arrhythmias. Male mice (n = 9) were instrumented to record cardiac output and the electrocardiogram. In addition, a snare was placed around the left main coronary artery. Following recovery, the susceptibility to sustained ventricular tachycardia produced by 3 min of occlusion and reperfusion of the left main coronary artery was determined in conscious mice by pulling on the snare. Reperfusion culminated in sustained ventricular tachycardia, leading to VF, in all nine conscious mice. The procedures conducted in conscious C57BL/6J mice, a strain commonly used in transgenic studies, can be utilized in genetically modified models to enhance our understanding of single gene defects on reperfusion‐induced lethal ventricular arrhythmias in intact, conscious, and complex animals. PMID:24973331
Ishiwata, Takahiro; Nakazawa, Makoto; Pu, William T; Tevosian, Sergei G; Izumo, Seigo
Both genetic and epigenetic factors, such as abnormal hemodynamics, affect cardiac morphogenesis and the pathogenesis of congenital heart disease. Diastolic function is an important determinant of cardiac function, and tools for evaluating diastolic function in the embryo would be very valuable for assessment of cardiac performance. Using histological measurements of ventricular myoarchitecture, Doppler assessment of ventricular inflow velocities, and direct measurement of ventricular pressure, we investigated developmental changes of ventricular diastolic function in the mouse embryos from embryonic days 9.5 to 19.5. Regression analysis showed that peak velocity of A wave (an index of passive compliance) correlated with the area of trabecular myocardium in right ventricle (RV) (r2=0.92, P<0.0001) and left ventricle (LV) (r2=0.93, P<0.0001). Peak velocity of E wave (an index of active relaxation) exponentially correlated with the area of compact myocardium in RV (r2=0.98, P<0.0001) and LV (r2=0.97, P<0.0001). We used these techniques to analyze FOG-2 null embryos. FOG-2 null embryos had thin compact myocardium, higher EDP and E/A ratio, smaller -dP/dt, and diminished sucking pressure than wild-type littermates, indicating that decreased ventricular diastolic function might be the primary cause of embryonic lethality. In conclusion, during embryogenesis the development of compact myocardium tightly regulates the development of ventricular distensibility. Our study in normal mice forms the basis for future studies of embryonic cardiac function in genetically manipulated mice with abnormalities of the cardiovascular system.
Chen, Jian; Hoff, Per Ivar; Rossvoll, Ole; De Bortoli, Alessandro; Solheim, Eivind; Sun, Lizhi; Schuster, Peter; Larsen, Terje; Ohm, Ole-Jørgen
Ventricular arrhythmias arising from the fibrous rings have been demonstrated, but knowledge about the aortomitral continuity (AMC) as a source of the arrhytmias is still limited. The objective is to describe the characteristics of ventricular arrhythmias originating from the AMC in patients without structural heart disease. Ten patients with ventricular tachycardia (VT) and/or premature ventricular contractions, who had been successfully treated by catheter ablation at the AMC beneath the aortic valve, were enrolled. Clinical data and electrocardiographic characteristics were analysed. Three of the 10 patients had previously registered episodes of supraventricular tachycardia and had undergone catheter ablation of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT). In four patients with anterior AMC location, early R/S wave transition was found in the precordial leads, with equal R and S amplitudes in V2, rS in V1, and R in V3. In six patients whose VT arose from the middle part of the AMC, we demonstrated a special ('rebound') transition pattern, with which equal R and S amplitudes occurred in V2, and high R waves in V1 and V3. In the anterior AMC location, the S/R ratios in leads V1 and V2 were >1 and statistically significantly higher than those located in the middle (V1: 1.59 vs. 0.23, P< 0.001; V2: 1.52 vs. 0.41, P< 0.01). We report a series of ventricular arrhythmias arising from the AMC with different R/S wave transition patterns in the precordial leads on the electrocardiogram. There may be a relationship between ventricular arrhythmias from AMC and AVNRT.
Batul, Syeda Atiqa; Olshansky, Brian; Fisher, John D.; Gopinathannair, Rakesh
Ventricular arrhythmias are an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, particularly in those with structural heart disease, inherited cardiomyopathies, and channelopathies. The goals of ventricular arrhythmia management include symptom relief, improving quality of life, reducing implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks, preventing deterioration of left ventricular function, reducing risk of arrhythmic death, and potentially improving overall survival. Guideline-directed medical therapy and implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation remain the mainstay of therapy to prevent sudden cardiac death in patients with ventricular arrhythmias in the setting of structural heart disease. Recent advances in imaging modalities and commercial availability of genetic testing panels have enhanced our mechanistic understanding of the disease processes and, along with significant progress in catheter-based ablative therapies, have enabled a tailored and more effective management of drug-refractory ventricular arrhythmias. Several gaps in our knowledge remain and require further research. In this article, we review the recent advances in the diagnosis and management of ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:28721212
Meierhenrich, R; Schütz, W; Gauss, A
Over the last two decades there has been a growing recognition that cardiac function is not solely determined by systolic but also essentially by diastolic function. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is characterized by an impairment of ventricular filling caused either by abnormal relaxation, an active energy consuming process or decreased compliance, which is determined by passive tissue properties of the ventricle. Doppler echocardiography, including tissue Doppler imaging, has emerged as the preferred clinical tool for the assessment of left ventricular diastolic function. Recently the importance of left ventricular diastolic function is increasingly being recognized also during the perioperative period. Newer studies have shown that after cardiopulmonary bypass there is a significant decrease in left ventricular compliance. Experimental studies have demonstrated that sepsis is associated with a decrease in both active relaxation and ventricular compliance. Initial studies are also focusing on therapeutic options for patients with isolated diastolic dysfunction.
Violaris, A G; Angelini, G D
A 74-year-old female presented in cardiogenic shock four weeks following a severe episode of ischaemic chest pain. Physical examination was suggestive of a ventricular septal defect, and this was confirmed by cross-sectional echocardiography and right heart catheterisation. As the resting electrocardiogram was consistent with an extensive anterior myocardial infarct of indeterminate age, a diagnosis of ventricular septal defect subsequent to infarction was made and the patient taken to the operating theatre for urgent repair. At operation, however, the defect was found to be congenital in origin.
Scolari, Diogo; Fagundes, Rubem D R; Russomano, Thaís; Zwetsch, Iuberi Carson
This paper deals with automatic recognition of cardiac arrhythmias that require immediate electrical defibrillation therapy (ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia), through ECG (electrocardiogram) samples. The DD-HMM (discrete density hidden Markov model) and RBF (radial basis function) neural network algorithms were compared in the following aspects: precision, defined as correct recognition percentage and process time, defined as the delay since the ECG input until the result, indicating shock or non-shock events. The results show that RBF is more precise than DD-HMM but not so fast to evaluate. PhysioNet database files were used to train and to validate the algorithms.
Mahesh, Balakrishnan; Ong, Ping; Kutty, Ramesh; Abu-Omar, Yasir
Left ventricular free wall rupture secondary to myocardial infarction is an uncommon but catastrophic event requiring emergency surgery. We describe a unique presentation of left ventricular free wall rupture as delayed tamponade caused by a gradually expanding pseudoaneurysm compressing the left atrium, leading to pulmonary congestion that required increasing respiratory support to maintain oxygenation, and necessitated emergency surgery. We discuss the options available to treat pseudoaneurysms due to left ventricular free wall rupture.
Kalvin, Lindsey; Yousefzai, Rayan; Khandheria, Bijoy K.; Paterick, Timothy E.
Postmyocardial infarction ventricular septal defect is an increasingly rare mechanical complication of acute myocardial infarction. We present a case of acute myocardial infarction from right coronary artery occlusion that developed hypotension and systolic murmur 12 hours after successful percutaneous coronary intervention. Although preoperative imaging suggested a large ventricular septal defect and a pseudoaneurysm, intraoperative findings concluded a serpiginous dissection of the ventricular septum. The imaging technicalities are discussed.
Stratchko, Lindsay; Filatova, Irina; Agarwal, Amit; Kanekar, Sangam
The cerebral ventricular system is intimately associated with the forebrain and brainstem. The ventricular system functions to produce and circulate cerebrospinal fluid, which plays an important role in mechanical protection and regulation of homeostasis in the central nervous system. This article discusses anatomy and neuroimaging of the ventricular system and highlights normal anatomical variations that may be mistaken for pathology. Applied surgical anatomy is reviewed with emphasis on operative approach and potential risk to adjacent central nervous system structures.
Amin, D V; Antaki, J F; Litwak, P; Thomas, D; Wu, Z J; Watach, M
An important consideration for clinical application of rotary blood pump based ventricular assist is the avoidance of ventricular collapse due to excessive operating speed. Because healthy animals do not typically demonstrate this phenomenon, it is difficult to evaluate control algorithms for avoiding suction in vivo. An acute hemodynamic study was thus conducted to determine the conditions under which suction could be induced. A 70 kg calf was implanted with an axial flow assist device (Nimbus/UoP IVAS; Nimbus Inc., Rancho Cordova, CA) cannulated from the left ventricular apex to ascending aorta. On initiation of pump operation, several vasoactive interventions were performed to alter preload, afterload, and contractility of the left ventricle. Initially, dobutamine increased contractility and heart rate ([HR] = 139; baseline = 70), but ventricular collapse was not achievable, even at the maximal pump speed of 15,000 rpm. Norepinephrine decreased HR (HR = 60), increased contractility, and increased systemic vascular resistance ([SVR] = 24; baseline = 15), resulting in ventricular collapse at a pump speed of 14,000 rpm. Isoproterenol (beta agonist) increased HR (HR = 103) and decreased SVR (SVR = 12), but ventricular collapse was not achieved. Inferior vena cava occlusion reduced preload, and ventricular collapse was achieved at speeds as low as 11,000 rpm. Esmolol (beta1 antagonist) decreased HR (HR = 55) and contractility, and ventricular collapse was achieved at 11,500 rpm. Episodes of ventricular collapse were characterized initially by the pump output exceeding the venous return and the aortic valve remaining closed throughout the cardiac cycle. If continued, the mitral valve would remain open throughout the cardiac cycle. Using these unique states of the mitral and aortic valves, the onset of ventricular collapse could reliably be identified. It is hoped that the ability to detect the onset of ventricular collapse, rather than the event itself, will assist in
Meneguz-Moreno, Rafael Alexandre; Rodrigues da Costa Teixeira, Felipe; Rossi Neto, João Manoel; Finger, Marco Aurélio; Casadei, Carolina; Castillo, Maria Teresa; Sanchez de Almeida, Antonio Flávio
Left ventricular noncompaction is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by excessive left ventricular trabeculation, deep intertrabecular recesses and a thin compacted layer due to the arrest of compaction of myocardial fibers during embryonic development. We report the case of a young patient with isolated left ventricular noncompaction, leading to refractory heart failure that required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation followed by emergency heart transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Ice pick headache is a momentary, transient, repetitive headache disorder and manifests with the stabbing pains and jolts. The exact mechanism causing this disease is unknown. Premature ventricular contractions are early depolarization of the ventricular myocardium and in the absence of a structural heart disease, it is considered to be a benign disease. In this report, we describe a male patient presenting with the symptom of momentary headache attacks accompanied with instant chest pain which is associated with premature ventricular contraction. PMID:28367337
Ha, Richard V; Chiu, Peter; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Sheikh, Ahmad Y
Despite increasing use of left ventricular devices for the surgical treatment of heart failure, there is limited experience with implantation of devices in the setting of challenging left apical anatomy. We report the case of a 68-year-old man with a chronic post-infarction calcified apical pseudoaneurysm, who underwent pseudoaneurysmectomy, ventricular myoplasty, and left ventricular assist device implantation. A review of the literature and operative strategies are presented. © The Author(s) 2015.
Zhang, Li; Liu, Liwen; Kowey, Peter R; Fontaine, Guy H
The ECG is abnormal in most patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD). Right ventricular parietal block, reduced QRS amplitude, epsilon wave, T wave inversion in V1-3 and ventricular tachycardia in the morphology of left bundle branch block are the characteristic changes that reflect the underlying genetic predetermined pathology and pathoelectrophysiology. Recognizing the characteristic ECG changes in ARVD will be of help in making a correct diagnosis of this rare disease. PMID:24827798
Monrabal Capilla, Maria
Esta tesis doctoral esta organizada en 5 capitulos y esta destinada al estudio de sistemas de Fe (II) que presentan el fenomeno de la transicion de espin a escala nanometrica. El capitulo 1 contiene una introduccion general sobre materiales moleculares multifuncionales, destacando aquellos ejemplos mas importantes. Por otro lado, se explicara el fenomeno de la transicion de espin, tratando aspectos conceptuales, los antecedentes mas importantes y la situacion actual. En el capitulo 2 se describen los diferentes procesos existentes para la obtencion de diferentes tipos de nanoparticulas. Ademas, se presenta la sintesis y caracterizacion de nanoparticulas del polimero de coordinacion unidimensional [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4, obtenidas mediante el metodo de micelas inversas. Estas nanoparticulas, con una estrecha distribucion de tamanos centrada alrededor de los 11 nm, presentan una transicion de espin muy abrupta, con un ancho ciclo de histeresis termica de unos 40K. En el capitulo 3 se describe el proceso de modificacion del tamano de las nanoparticulas descritas en el capitulo anterior, llevado a cabo variando la proporcion de surfactante/H2O en el medio. Ademas, con el objetivo de modificar las propiedades magneticas de las nanoparticulas obtenidas en el capitulo 2, se lleva a cabo la sintesis de nanoparticulas de polimeros de la misma familia del [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4. En concreto se sintetizaron 3 nuevos tipos de nanoparticulas basadas en el polimero [Fe(Htrz)1-x(NH2trz)x](ClO4)2, siendo x = 0.05, 0.15 y 0.3, en cada caso. Estas nanoparticulas siguen presentando una estrecha distribucion de tamanos y una transicion de espin muy abrupta y con un ancho ciclo de histeresis. Ademas, se observa que este ciclo se desplaza a temperaturas mas proximas a la temperatura ambiente a medida que se aumenta el porcentaje de 4-amino-1, 2, 4- triazol en la muestra. Pero al mismo tiempo se produce una disminucion de la anchura de este ciclo. Por ultimo, en este capitulo se presenta la
Rienstra, Michiel; Van Gelder, Isabelle C
In the last few years, there has been a major shift in the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the setting of hear failure (HF), from rhythm to ventricular rate control in most patients with both conditions. In this article, the authors focus on ventricular rate control and discuss the indications; the optimal ventricular rate-control target, including detailed results of the Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation: a Comparison Between Lenient versus Strict Rate Control II (RACE II) study; and the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic options to control the ventricular rate during AF in the setting of HF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Targoff, Kimara L; Colombo, Sophie; George, Vanessa; Schell, Thomas; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna; Yelon, Deborah
Establishment of specific characteristics of each embryonic cardiac chamber is crucial for development of a fully functional adult heart. Despite the importance of defining and maintaining unique features in ventricular and atrial cardiomyocytes, the regulatory mechanisms guiding these processes are poorly understood. Here, we show that the homeodomain transcription factors Nkx2.5 and Nkx2.7 are necessary to sustain ventricular chamber attributes through repression of atrial chamber identity. Mutation of nkx2.5 in zebrafish yields embryos with diminutive ventricular and bulbous atrial chambers. These chamber deformities emerge gradually during development, with a severe collapse in the number of ventricular cardiomyocytes and an accumulation of excess atrial cardiomyocytes as the heart matures. Removal of nkx2.7 function from nkx2.5 mutants exacerbates the loss of ventricular cells and the gain of atrial cells. Moreover, in these Nkx-deficient embryos, expression of vmhc, a ventricular gene, fades, whereas expression of amhc, an atrial gene, expands. Cell-labeling experiments suggest that ventricular cardiomyocytes can transform into atrial cardiomyocytes in the absence of Nkx gene function. Through suggestion of transdifferentiation from ventricular to atrial fate, our data reveal a pivotal role for Nkx genes in maintaining ventricular identity and highlight remarkable plasticity in differentiated myocardium. Thus, our results are relevant to the etiologies of fetal and neonatal cardiac pathology and could direct future innovations in cardiac regenerative medicine.
Tadic, Marijana; Pieske-Kraigher, Elisabeth; Cuspidi, Cesare; Morris, Daniel A; Burkhardt, Franziska; Baudisch, Ana; Haßfeld, Sabine; Tschöpe, Carsten; Pieske, Burket
The number of studies demonstrating the importance of right ventricular remodelling in a wide range of cardiovascular diseases has increased in the past two decades. Speckle-tracking imaging provides new variables that give comprehensive information about right ventricular function and mechanics. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of right ventricular mechanics in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and preserved ejection fraction. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid and Embase databases for studies published from January 2000 to December 2016 in the English language using the following keywords: "right ventricle"; "strain"; "speckle tracking"; "heart failure with reduced ejection fraction"; and "heart failure with preserved ejection fraction". Investigations showed that right ventricular dysfunction is associated with higher cardiovascular and overall mortality in patients with heart failure, irrespective of ejection fraction. The number of studies investigating right ventricular strain in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is constantly increasing, whereas data on right ventricular mechanics in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction are limited. Given the high feasibility, accuracy and clinical implications of right ventricular strain in the population with heart failure, it is of great importance to try to include the evaluation of right ventricular strain as a regular part of each echocardiographic examination in patients with heart failure. However, further investigations are necessary to establish right ventricular strain as a standard variable for decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Eva Amalie; Sun, Mei; Honjo, Osami; Hjortdal, Vibeke E.; Redington, Andrew N.; Friedberg, Mark K.
Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension is usually fatal due to right ventricular failure and is frequently associated with co-existing left ventricular dysfunction. Endothelin-1 is a powerful pro-fibrotic mediator and vasoconstrictor that is elevated in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Endothelin receptor blockers are commonly used as pulmonary vasodilators, however their effect on biventricular injury, remodeling and function, despite elevated isolated right ventricular afterload is unknown. Methods Elevated right ventricular afterload was induced by progressive pulmonary artery banding. Seven rabbits underwent pulmonary artery banding without macitentan; 13 received pulmonary artery banding + macitentan; and 5 did not undergo inflation of the pulmonary artery band (sham-operated controls). Results: Right and left ventricular collagen content was increased with pulmonary artery banding compared to sham-operated controls and ameliorated by macitentan. Right ventricular fibrosis signaling (connective tissue growth factor and endothelin-1 protein levels); extra-cellular matrix remodeling (matrix-metalloproteinases 2 and 9), apoptosis and apoptosis-related peptides (caspases 3 and 8) were increased with pulmonary artery banding compared with sham-operated controls and decreased with macitentan. Conclusion Isolated right ventricular afterload causes biventricular fibrosis, right ventricular apoptosis and extra cellular matrix remodeling, mediated by up-regulation of endothelin-1 and connective tissue growth factor signaling. These pathological changes are ameliorated by dual endothelin receptor blockade despite persistent elevated right ventricular afterload. PMID:26765263
Carroll, William W; Shirali, Girish S; Bradley, Scott M
A neonate presented with d-transposition of the great arteries, aortic arch hypoplasia, aortic coarctation, and multiple ventricular septal defects. During the arterial switch procedure and the aortic arch repair, a fenestrated Gore-Tex disk (W.L. Gore & Assoc, Flagstaff, AZ) was sewn into the right ventricular outflow tract to restrict pulmonary blood flow. The internal right ventricular band successfully controlled the pulmonary blood flow, maintaining a systemic oxygen saturation of 88% to 92%, and allowing growth from 3.5 to 10.5 kg. At 8 months of age, the internal band in the patient was removed, and the ventricular septal defects were successfully closed.
Sami, M.H.; Derbekyan, V.A.; Lisbona, R.
Gated cardiac scanning was used to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of encainide in 19 patients (1 woman) with complex ventricular arrhythmia and depressed left ventricular (LV) function (ejection fraction less than 45%). Patients were 36 to 80 years old (average 61). All were candidates for long-term encainide therapy after having failed with currently available antiarrhythmics. Sixty-three percent had congestive heart failure before they received encainide. All were evaluated in the hospital before encainide therapy by a gated cardiac scan performed at least 3 days after discontinuing all antiarrhythmic drugs. Patients received oral encainide in doses of 75 to 200 mg. Gated cardiac scans were repeated 1 to 2 weeks later when an 80% reduction in frequency of premature ventricular complexes was observed on a 24-hour Holter recording. No patient had worsening of congestive heart failure during encainide therapy. Encainide did not significantly affect ejection fraction, which averaged 22 +/- 10% before and 25 +/- 14% (SD) after encainide (difference not significant (NS)). Other hemodynamic variables, including heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume and end-diastolic volume, remained unchanged during encainide therapy. Digoxin blood levels in 10 patients averaged 1.04 +/- 0.43 before and 1.22 +/- 0.47 mg/ml (NS) during encainide therapy. Thus, encainide given orally in clinically effective doses does not appear to have significant hemodynamic effects in patients with ventricular arrhythmia and depressed LV function.
Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Seltmann, Martin; Muschiol, Gerd; Achenbach, Stephan
A 61-year-old female patient presented with sub acute myocardial infarction with an occluded right coronary artery on invasive evaluation and a ventricular septal rupture on echocardiogram. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) was performed to better define the septal anatomy. As the anatomy on cardiac CT was considered unfavorable for percutaneous intervention, the patient underwent successful surgical repair.
Hellman, Yaron; Malik, Adnan S; Lin, Hongbo; Shen, Changyu; Wang, I-Wen; Wozniak, Thomas C; Hashmi, Zubair A; Pickrell, Jeanette; Jani, Milena; Caccamo, Marco A; Gradus-Pizlo, Irmina; Hadi, Azam
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels have been shown to predict ventricular arrhythmia (VA) and sudden death in patients with heart failure. We sought to determine whether BNP levels before left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation can predict VA post LVAD implantation in advanced heart failure patients. We conducted a retrospective study consisting of patients who underwent LVAD implantation in our institution during the period of May 2009-March 2013. The study was limited to patients receiving a HeartMate II or HeartWare LVAD. Acute myocardial infarction patients were excluded. We compared between the patients who developed VA within 15 days post LVAD implantation to the patients without VA. A total of 85 patients underwent LVAD implantation during the study period. Eleven patients were excluded (five acute MI, four without BNP measurements, and two discharged earlier than 13 days post LVAD implantation). The incidence of VA was 31%, with 91% ventricular tachycardia (VT) and 9% ventricular fibrillation. BNP remained the single most powerful predictor of VA even after adjustment for other borderline significant factors in a multivariate logistic regression model (P < 0.05). BNP levels are a strong predictor of VA post LVAD implantation, surpassing previously described risk factors such as age and VT in the past.
Udeoji, Dioma U; Philip, Kiran J; Morrissey, Ryan P; Phan, Anita; Schwarz, Ernst R
The first case of noncompaction was described in 1932 after an autopsy performed on a newborn infant with aortic atresia/coronary-ventricular fistula. Isolated noncompaction cardiomyopathy was first described in 1984. A review on selected/relevant medical literature was conducted using Pubmed from 1984 to 2013 and the pathogenesis, clinical features, and management are discussed. Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a relatively rare congenital condition that results from arrest of the normal compaction process of the myocardium during fetal development. LVNC shows variability in its genetic pattern, pathophysiologic findings, and clinical presentations. The genetic heterogeneity, phenotypical overlap, and variety in clinical presentation raised the suspicion that LVNC might just be a morphological variant of other cardiomyopathies, but the American Heart Association classifies LVNC as a primary genetic cardiomyopathy. The familiar type is common and follows a X-linked, autosomal-dominant, or mitochondrial-inheritance pattern (in children). LVNC can occur in isolation or coexist with other cardiac and/or systemic anomalies. The clinical presentations are variable ranging from asymptomatic patients to patients who develop ventricular arrhythmias, thromboembolism, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. Increased awareness over the last 25 years and improvements in technology have increased the identification of this illness and improved the clinical outcome and prognosis. LVNC is commonly diagnosed by echocardiography. Other useful diagnostic techniques for LVNC include cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, computerized tomography, and left ventriculography. Management is symptom based and patients with symptoms have a poorer prognosis. LVNC is a genetically heterogeneous disorder which can be associated with other anomalies. Making the correct diagnosis is important because of the possible associations and the need for long-term management and screening of
Joseph, Nicholas; Hofmann, James P.; Saranteas, Theodosios; Papadimos, Thomas J.
Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a very effective bridging therapy in patients with refractory ventricular tachycardia (VT) associated with cardiogenic shock. A moribund patient in extremis, is not amenable to optimization by standard ACC/AHA guidelines. New approaches and novel salvage techniques are necessary to improve outcomes in patients with refractory clinical settings such as malignant ventricular arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, cardiogenic shock and/or pulmonary failure until further management options are explored. Data base searches were done using key words such as ECLS, VT, cardiac arrest, VT ablation, venoarterial extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). The use of ECLS has been described in a few case reports to facilitate VT ablation for incessant VT refractory to medical therapy. For patients with, out-of- hospital ventricular fibrillation (VF) and VT, Minnesota Resuscitation Consortium has implemented emergent advanced perfusion and reperfusion strategy, followed by coronary angiography and primary coronary intervention to improve outcome. The major indications for ECLS are cardiogenic shock related to acute myocardial infarction, myocarditis, post embolic acute cor pulmonale, drug intoxication and post cardiac arrest syndrome with the threat of multi-organ failure. ECLS permits the use of negative inotropic antiarrhythmic drug therapy, facilitates the weaning of catecholamine administration, thereby ending the vicious cycle of catecholamine driven electric storm. ECLS provides hemodynamic support during ablation procedure, while mapping and induction of VT is undertaken. ECLS provides early access to cardiac catheterization laboratory in patients with cardiac arrest due to shockable rhythm. The current evidence from literature, supports the use of ECLS to ensure adequate vital organ perfusion in patients with refractory VT. ECLS is a safe, feasible and effective therapeutic option when conventional therapies are insufficient to support
Marçalo, José; Menezes Falcão, Luiz
A 67-year-old man was admitted to our hospital after episodes of syncope preceded by malaise and diffuse neck and chest discomfort. No family history of cardiac disease was reported. Laboratory workup was within normal limits, including D-dimers, serum troponin I and arterial blood gases. The electrocardiogram showed sinus rhythm with T-wave inversion in leads V1 to V3. Computed tomography angiography to investigate pulmonary embolism showed no abnormal findings. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) displayed massive enlargement of the right ventricle with intact interatrial septum and no pulmonary hypertension. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed right ventricular (RV) dilatation and revealed marked hypokinesia/akinesia of the lateral wall. Exercise stress testing was negative for ischemia. According to the 2010 Task Force criteria for arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD), this patient presented two major criteria (global or regional dysfunction and structural alterations: by MRI, regional RV akinesia or dyskinesia or dyssynchronous RV contraction and RV ejection fraction ≤40%, and repolarization abnormalities: inverted T waves in right precordial leads [V1, V2, and V3]); and one minor criterion (>500 ventricular extrasystoles per 24 hours by Holter), and so a diagnosis of ARVD was made. After electrophysiologic study (EPS) the patient received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). This late clinical presentation of ARVD highlights the importance of TTE screening, possibly complemented by MRI. The associated risk of sudden death was assessed by EPS leading to the implantation of an ICD. Genetic association studies should be offered to the offspring of all ARVD patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Koh, Angela S; Loh, Yee Jim; Lim, Yeong Phang; Le Tan, Ju
Ventricular septal rupture (VSR) is a complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) that is associated with significant mortality. We aim to review the clinical outcome in the current era. Patients admitted to a single tertiary centre from 1997 to 2008 with VSR post-AMI were identified from the local cardiac registry. We performed a retrospective review on 25 patients. Mean age (15 women) was 71 years. Most patients had cardiovascular risk factors (84%); the commonest was hypertension (72%). Anterior AMI (80%) and apical VSR (84%) formed the majority of the cases. Eleven patients (44%) received prior coronary reperfusion therapy either via thrombolysis or PCI. Median time to rupture was 1 day from diagnosis of infarction. More than half (60%) of the patients were in Killip class 3 or 4 at diagnosis of rupture. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 33 +/- 10%. Most patients (80%) required IABP for haemodynamic support. All patients who underwent surgery had ventricular septal repair; amongst them 47% had concomitant CABG. Those managed conservatively were older (P = 0.01). Overall mortality rate was 44%. Most died within the first four days (82%). Surgical and non-surgical survival rates were 68% and 17%, respectively (P= 0.039). Patient demographics, prior coronary reperfusion techniques, Killip class status and LVEF were not significant predictors of mortality. However, non-anterior wall AMI and non-apical VSR were significantly associated with poorer survival (P = 0.009, P = 0.026 respectively). While the occurrence ofVSR post-AMI appears to be low compared to earlier studies, it continues to be associated with significant mortality. Non-anterior wall AMI and non-apical VSR were associated with poorer survival and surgical repair conferred survival advantage over conservative management.
Santamarta, D; Martin-Vallejo, J; Díaz-Alvarez, A; Maillo, A
There is general consensus that a successful endoscopic third ventriculostomy is usually followed by a decrease of ventricular size without reaching their normal size. This study was performed to determine how the change related to clinical outcome, how it developed chronologically and whether the change in ventricular size was different in acute and chronic forms of hydrocephalus. Fifty-five of 74 patients who had undergone endoscopic third ventriculostomy during the period 1997-2004 were selected by the criterion that they had both pre-operative and post-operative films and no neurosurgical manoeuvre other than a surgically successful endoscopic third ventriculostomy in the time span between both radiological studies. Ventricular size was measured with the Evans index, third ventricle index, cella media index and ventricular score. Median age was 51 years (interquartile range, 27-65 years). The change in ventricular size detected shortly after surgery is related to clinical outcome for all ventricular ratios, except the cella media index (p = 0.08). When third ventriculostomy is clinically successful, there is a gradual decrease of ventricular size over a period of more than three months (p < 0.0001 for all ventricular ratios). The reduction is more prominent in acute hydrocephalus than in chronic forms for all ventricular ratios, except the Evans index (p = 0.12). The third ventricle exhibits the greatest reduction (25% with a 95% confidence interval: 15.4-34.5) and determines a different pattern of change in ventricular size after endoscopic third ventriculostomy between acute and chronic hydrocephalus. A decrease of the ventricular size detected soon after endoscopic third ventriculostomy is associated with a satisfactory clinical outcome. This response continues during the first few months after surgery. The reduction is more prominent in acute forms of hydrocephalus.
de Agustín, Jose Alberto; Nuñez-Gil, Iván Javier; Ruiz-Mateos, Borja; Manzano, Maria del Carmen; Vivas, David; de Isla, Leopoldo Pérez; Zamorano, Jose; Macaya, Carlos
Antiphospholipid syndrome has been associated with venous and arterial thrombotic events but intracardiac thrombosis is rare. We describe a case about a 30-year-old woman, admitted with a 6-month history of arthralgia, fatigue, and intermittent fever. Subsequent investigation revealed the presence of a large and calcified mass in the right ventricular outflow tract attached to the subvalvular tricuspid apparatus. Cardiac surgery was performed and histological examination demonstrated it to be composed entirely of calcified thrombus. Screening laboratory evaluation for hypercoagulable states confirmed the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome.
Balsam, Leora B; Louie, Eddie; Hill, Fred; Levine, Jamie; Phillips, Michael S
A global outbreak of invasive Mycobacterium chimaera infections after cardiac surgery has recently been linked to bioaerosols from contaminated heater-cooler units. The majority of cases have occurred after valvular surgery or aortic graft surgery and nearly half have resulted in death. To date, infections in patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have not been characterized in the literature. We report two cases of device-associated M. chimaera infection in patients with continuous-flow LVADs and describe challenges related to diagnosis and management in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Habib, Habib; Hawatmeh, Amer; Rampal, Upamanyu; Shamoon, Fayez
Isolated left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a rare genetic cardiomyopathy. Clinical manifestations are variable; patients may present with heart failure symptoms, arrhythmias, and systemic thromboembolism. However, it can also be asymptomatic. When asymptomatic, LVNC can manifest later in life after the onset of another unrelated condition. We report a case of LVNC which was diagnosed following a hyperthyroid state secondary to Graves' disease. The association of LVNC with other noncardiac abnormalities including neurological, hematological, and endocrine abnormalities including hypothyroidism has been described in isolated case reports before. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of LVNC diagnosed following exacerbation in contractile dysfunction triggered by Graves' disease. PMID:27843800
Thompson, L. D.; Cohen, A. J.; Bellasis, R. M.
A 62-year-old African-American man who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery was found to have repetitive ventricular tachycardia of the "Torsade des pointes" type. The arrhythmia was resistant to bretylium, lidocaine, and pacing, but was controlled by intravenous magnesium sulfate. The recurrent attacks were abolished by a bolus of 1 g magnesium sulfate and controlled using a 1 mg/minute drip for 12 hours. This case shows the effectiveness of intravenous magnesium in controlling Torsade des pointes in postoperative coronary bypass patients. PMID:8583493
Bhatt, Advay G; Steinberg, Jonathan S
Robot-assisted left ventricular lead implantation for cardiac resynchronization therapy is a feasible and safe technique with superior visualization, dexterity, and precision to target the optimal pacing site. The technique has been associated with clinical response and beneficial reverse remodeling comparable with the conventional approach via the coronary sinus. The lack of clinical superiority and a residual high nonresponder rate suggest that the appropriate clinical role for the technique remains as rescue therapy. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chattipakorn, Nipon; Shinlapawittayatorn, Kirkwit; Chattipakorn, Siriporn
Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is known as a main responsible cause of sudden cardiac death which claims thousands of lives each year. Although the mechanism of VF induction has been investigated for over a century, its definite mechanism is still unclear. In the past few decades, the development of new advance technologies has helped investigators to understand how the strong stimulus or the shock induces VF. New hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanism of VF induction. This article reviews most commonly proposed hypotheses that are believed to be the mechanism of VF induction. PMID:16943942
Gutierrez-Murgas, Yenis; Snowden, Jessica N.
Ventricular shunts are the most common neurosurgical procedure performed in the United States. This hydrocephalus treatment is often complicated by infection of the device with biofilm-forming bacteria. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of shunt infection, as well as the implications of the biofilm formation on treatment and prevention of these infections. Many questions remain, including the contribution of glia and the impact of inflammation on developmental outcomes following infection. Immune responses within the CNS must be carefully regulated to contain infection while minimizing bystander damage; further study is needed to design optimal treatment strategies for these patients. PMID:25156073
Oda, K; Tamiya, T; Yamamoto, A; Toki, T; Hirose, K; Izumi, S
We report a case of right ventricular hemangioma which is extremely rare. It was situated on the anterior wall of the right ventricle and protruded into the out flow tract. Aortography revealed that the main feeding artery was the conus brunch. Operation was done under cardiopulmonary bypass. The tumor was situated between LAD and RCA and resected incompletely, because of the fear that complete removal would occlude blood flow of both LAD and RCA. Histological examination disclosed intramuscular hemangioma. The postoperative course was uneventful. To our knowledge, this is the second resected case in the Japanese literature and the eighth case in the world literature.
Garan, Arthur R; Levin, Allison P; Topkara, Veli; Thomas, Sunu S; Yuzefpolskaya, Melana; Colombo, Paolo C; Takeda, Koji; Takayama, Hiroo; Naka, Yoshifumi; Whang, William; Jorde, Ulrich P; Uriel, Nir
Ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) are common in patients with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD). The causes and clinical significance of early post-operative VAs have not previously been characterized in these patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence, precipitants, and clinical impact of early VAs in patients supported by CF-LVADs. Patients with a long-term CF-LVAD receiving care between January 1, 2012, and March 1, 2014, were enrolled and followed prospectively. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) were interrogated at baseline and throughout the follow-up period. VA was defined as ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation lasting >30 seconds or effectively terminated by appropriate ICD tachytherapy or external defibrillation. The primary end-point was the occurrence of early VAs (within 30 days of surgery). Secondary end-points were right ventricular (RV) failure and need for VA ablation. There were 162 patients enrolled, and 38 (23.5%) experienced at least 1 early VA. Predictors of early VA were a history of pre-operative VAs, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, and older age. Several conditions frequently encountered in the early post-operative period were identified as possible precipitants for VA episodes. Early VAs were associated with post-operative RV failure, particularly when patients received shocks instead of anti-tachycardia pacing. Early VAs are common and are associated with RV failure. ICD shocks, but not anti-tachycardia pacing, for early VAs are associated with acute worsening of RV failure. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Algazzar, Alaa Solaiman; Katta, Azza Ali; Ahmed, Khaled Sayed; Elkenany, Nasima Mohamed; Ibrahim, Maher Abdelaleem
Background Our study aimed to demonstrate the short-term impacts of right ventricular apical pacing (RVAP) and right ventricular septal pacing (RVSP) on left ventricular (LV) regional longitudinal strain (RLS) and global longitudinal strain (GLS) in patients with preserved ejection fraction (EF). LV strain and functions may be altered by RVAP. RVSP might be a better alternative. The detrimental effect of right ventricular (RV) pacing may be mediated by regional LV impairment. Methods Sixty-two patients indicated for permanent pacemaker implantation and preserved LV systolic function were included. Dual chamber pacemakers were implanted in all patients. Patients were divided into two groups according to RV lead position: group A (RVAP, n = 32) and group B (RVSP, n = 30). Patients were examined at baseline and after 6 months of implantation for LV systolic functions, global and regional strain by echocardiography and 2D speckle tracking echocardiography. Results Paced QRS duration was significantly shorter in group B compared to group A patients (P = 0.02). Regarding ventricular strain, there was no statistically significant difference between both groups at baseline measurements in comparisons of GLS, relative apical longitudinal strain (rALS) and RLS (P > 0.05). In contrast, there was statistically significant difference between both groups in results of GLS (P = 0.01) at 6 months. In addition, RLSs in septal, apical and rALS were affected after 6 months with P values of 0.02, 0.03 and 0.03, respectively. Conclusion RVAP appears to worsen GLS more than RVSP, and the resultant decrease in apical strain is most correlated region to decrease in GLS. PMID:28197264
Kaza, Aditya K.; Patel, Mayank R.; Fiser, Steven M.; Long, Stewart M.; Kern, John A.; Tribble, Curtis G.; Kron, Irving L.
Introduction Surgical restoration of the left ventricular wall (Dor procedure) has been advocated as a therapy for left ventricular dysfunction due to ischemic cardiomyopathy. This procedure involves placement of an endoventricular patch through a ventriculotomy. Methods We reviewed our series of patients that underwent the Dor procedure within the past 4 years and examined their pre and postoperative ventricular function and mitral valve function. Pre and postoperative ejection fraction and degree of mitral regurgitation were analyzed using the paired Student t-test. We hypothesized that this procedure would result in improved ventricular function and that it would also help improve mitral valve function. Results Thirty-four patients underwent this procedure, with one death. Of these, 30 patients underwent concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting and 8 patients had mitral intervention (seven had an Alfieri repair of the mitral valve, and one had mitral valve annuloplasty). The average preoperative ejection fraction among these patients was 26.8% (range 10–45%). The postoperative ejection fraction was significantly higher at 35.4% (range 25–52%) (P < .001). We noted an improvement in ejection fraction in 27 patients (82%). We also noted that 21 of 33 patients (64%) had improvement in the degree of mitral regurgitation based on echocardiography data (P < .001). Conclusions We conclude that the Dor procedure results in improvement in the left ventricular function. Furthermore, we also note that this procedure ameliorates mitral regurgitation in a majority of these patients even in the absence of associated mitral valve procedures, probably due to reduction in the size of the ventricle and improved orientation of the papillary muscles. PMID:12035039
Tops, Laurens F.; Prakasa, Kalpana; Tandri, Harikrishna; Dalal, Darshan; Jain, Rahul; Dimaano, Veronica L.; Dombroski, David; James, Cynthia; Tichnell, Crystal; Daly, Amy; Marcus, Frank; Schalij, Martin J.; Bax, Jeroen J.; Bluemke, David; Calkins, Hugh; Abraham, Theodore P.
Objectives To study the prevalence and mechanisms underlying right ventricular (RV) dyssynchrony in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) using tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE). Background ARVD/C is characterized by fibrofatty replacement of RV myocardium and RV dilatation. These pathologic changes may result in electromechanical dyssynchrony. Methods Electrocardiography, conventional and TDE was performed in 52 ARVD/C patients fulfilling Task Force criteria and 25 controls. RV end-diastolic and end-systolic areas, RV fractional area change (RVFAC), and left ventricular (LV) volumes and function were assessed. Mechanical synchrony was assessed by measuring differences in time-to-peak systolic velocity (TSV) between the RV free wall, ventricular septum and LV lateral wall. RV dyssynchrony was defined as the difference in TSV between the RV free wall and the ventricular septum, >2 SD above the mean value for controls. Results Mean difference in RV TSV was higher in ARVD/C compared to controls (55 ± 34 ms vs. 26 ± 15 ms, p<0.001). Significant RV dyssynchrony was not noted in any of the controls. Based on a cut-off value of 56 ms, significant RV dyssynchrony was present in 26 ARVD/C patients (50%). Patients with RV dyssynchrony had larger RV end-diastolic area (22 ± 5 vs. 19 ± 4 cm2, p=0.02), and lower RVFAC (29 ± 8 vs. 34 ± 8%, p=0.03) compared to ARVD/C patients without RV dyssynchrony. No differences in QRS duration, LV volumes and function were present between the two groups. Conclusions RV dyssynchrony may occur in up to 50% of ARVD/C patients, and is associated with RV remodeling. This finding may have therapeutic and prognostic implications in ARVD/C. PMID:19628120
Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular; Double Outlet Right Ventricle, Noncommitted VSD; Double Outlet Right Ventricle, Subaortic VSD; Double Outlet Right Ventricle, Subpulmonary VSD; Supracristal Ventricular Septal Defect
Nakanishi, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Shiori; Amano, Atsushi
Achondroplasia with co-morbid CHD is rare, as are reports of surgical treatment for such patients. We present the case of a 13-year-old girl with achondroplasia and ventricular septal defect. Her ventricular septal defect was surgically repaired focussing on the cardiopulmonary bypass flow, healing of the sternum, and her frail neck cartilage. The surgery and recovery were without complications.
Ladia, Vatsal; Sitwala, Puja; AlBalbissi, Kais
Isolated ventricular noncompaction (IVNC) occurs because of interruption of trabecular morphogenesis in the myocardium leading to ventricular noncompaction. Patients present with heart failure or with systemic complications secondary to thromboembolism or arrhythmias. High index of suspicion is necessary for early diagnosis. We present a case of 48-year-old male with unexplained recurrent syncope who was eventually diagnosed with IVNC. PMID:28105050
Guérios, Enio E; Wenaweser, Peter; Meier, Bernhard
Previous reports prove the safety and efficacy of cardiac pacing employing a guidewire in the left ventricle as unipolar pacing electrode. We describe the use of left ventricular guidewire pacing as an alternative to conventional transvenous temporary right ventricular pacing in the context of transcatheter aortic valve implantation.
Pine, M B; Brooks, W W; Nosta, J J; Abelmann, W H
To study ventricular cellular volume regulation when cell membranes and ion pumps cannot prevent swelling, rat ventricular sections were incubated in modified Krebs-Henseleit solutions in which 1) potassium was substituted for sodium, ion for ion; or 2) sodium chloride was reduced to decrease osmolarity to 228, 171, or 114 mosM. Ventricular water, [3H]inulin and [3H]mannitol spaces, potassium, sodium, chloride, and protein contents, and resting transmembrane potentials were measured. Increases in ventricular cellular volume were less than 30% in potassium-substituted and extremely dilute media (114 mosM), in contrast to increases of over 100% in identically treated renal cortical slices. In potassium-substituted solution, the fluid gained by ventricular cells during incubation was hypertonic with respect to the bathing medium. In dilute solution (171 and 114 mosM), ventricular, cellular, and extracellular osmolarities equilibrated only after substantial losses of cellular ions had occurred. These findings support the existence of mechanical limitations to ventricular cellular swelling, which may be caused by a unique network of interstitial collagen present in ventricular myocardium.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ventricular bypass (assist) device. 870.3545 Section 870.3545 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3545 Ventricular...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ventricular bypass (assist) device. 870.3545 Section 870.3545 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3545 Ventricular...
Nof, Eyal; Lahat, Hadas; Constantini, Naama; Luria, David; Rosenfeld, Gail; Eldar, Michael; Pras, Elon; Glikson, Michael
We evaluated a family with 30 members, 3 of whom had incessant polymorphous and bidirectional ventricular tachycardia (VT) that was electrocardiographically similar to that described in other familial polymorphic VT series; the VT was unrelated to exercise and asymptomatic. More subtle, but morphologically similar, ventricular arrhythmias were detected in 3 other family members. Genes related to intracellular calcium transport were specifically excluded.
García, Ana I; Aguilar, Juan M; García, Enrique
Aortic arch coarctation with post-coarctation aneurysm is rare in infants. We present the case of an asymptomatic 3-month-old infant with severe left ventricular dysfunction in this setting. The patient underwent surgical repair, and the left ventricular ejection fraction improved to recovery the 4th post-operative month.
Kniesburges, Stefan; Birk, Veronika; Lodermeyer, Alexander; Schützenberger, Anne; Bohr, Christopher; Becker, Stefan
Within the human larynx, the ventricular folds serve primarily as a protecting valve during swallowing. They are located directly above the sound-generating vocal folds. During normal phonation, the ventricular folds are passive structures that are not excited to periodical oscillations. However, the impact of the ventricular folds on the phonation process has not yet been finally clarified. An experimental synthetic human larynx model was used to investigate the effect of the ventricular folds on the phonation process. The model includes self-oscillating vocal fold models and allows the comparison of the pressure distribution at multiple locations in the larynx for configurations with and without ventricular folds. The results indicate that the ventricular folds increase the efficiency of the phonation process by reducing the phonation threshold level of the pressure below the vocal folds. Two effects caused by the ventricular folds could be identified as reasons: (1) a decrease in the mean pressure level in the region between vocal and ventricular folds (ventricles) and (2) an increase in the glottal flow resistance. The reason for the first effect is a reduction of the pressure level in the ventricles due to the jet entrainment and the low static pressure in the glottal jet. The second effect results from an increase in the glottal flow resistance that enhances the aerodynamic energy transfer into the vocal folds. This effect reduces the onset threshold of the pressure difference across the glottis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Washio, Takumi; Yoneda, Kazunori; Okada, Jun-Ichi; Kariya, Taro; Sugiura, Seiryo; Hisada, Toshiaki
In this paper, we propose an algorithm that optimizes the ventricular fiber structure of the human heart. A number of histological studies and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging analyses have revealed that the myocardial fiber forms a right-handed helix at the endocardium. However, the fiber formation changes its orientation as a function of transmural depth, becoming a left-handed helix at the epicardium. To determine how nature can construct such a structure, which obtains surprising pumping performance, we introduce macroscopic modeling of the branching structure of cardiac myocytes in our finite element ventricular model and utilize this in an optimization process. We put a set of multidirectional fibers around a central fiber orientation at each point of the ventricle walls and simulate heartbeats by generating contraction forces along each of these directions. We examine two optimization processes using the workloads or impulses measured in these directions to update the central fiber orientation. Both processes improve the pumping performance towards an optimal value within several tens of heartbeats, starting from an almost-flat fiber orientation. However, compared with the workload optimization, the impulse optimization produces better agreement with experimental studies on transmural changes of fiber helix angle, streamline patterns of characteristic helical structures, and temporal changes in strain. Furthermore, the impulse optimization is robust under geometrical changes of the heart and tends to homogenize various mechanical factors such as the stretch and stretch rate along the fiber orientation, the contraction force, and energy consumption. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hartley, C. J.; Rabinovitz, R. S.; Patel, B.; Suignard, L. J.; Litowitz, H.; Chelly, J. E.; Jeroudi, M. O.; Charlat, M. L.; O'Neill, P. G.; Noon, G. P.
Measurement of systolic wall thickening by sonomicrometry is an accurate index of regional left ventricular (LV) function, but the trauma of crystal inserion precludes its clinical use. We have developed a 4-mm 10 MHz ultrasonic probe which can either be sutured or applied via suction to the epicar-diuui and can measure wall thickening at anv depth of the LV wall. In 18 dogs, the suction probe correlated well (r=0.97) with previously validated sutured probe. To assess clinical feasibility, the probe was applied to the epicardium of 45 patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. Good wall thickening tracings were obtained with no trauma. Transmural LV thickening fraction prior to bypass surgery was 32 ± 6 % (X ± SEM) at the midventricular lateral wall, 29 ± 5 % at the anterior basal wall and 25 ± 5 % at the midventricular posterior wall. Right ventricular thickening fraction averaged 25 ± 4 %. In general, wall thickening during immediate postoperative period remained unchanged compared to preoperative thickening fraction. Exteriorization of a wire attached to the sutured probe allows in situ monitoring of wall thickening for 48-72 h after surgery and subsequent removal. Thus, this probe is an accurate, atraumatic method for measuring right and LV regional function. Transmural, endocardial and epicardial function can be mapped at various sites during surgery and post-operatively one can follow serial changes of regional function and assess the effects of cardioplegia and other therapeutic interventions.
Cho, Young Kuk; Ma, Jae Sook
Despite developments in surgical techniques and other interventions, right ventricular (RV) failure remains an important clinical problem in several congenital heart diseases (CHD). RV function is one of the most important predictors of mortality and morbidity in patients with CHD. RV failure is a progressive disorder that begins with myocardial injury or stress, neurohormonal activation, cytokine activation, altered gene expression, and ventricular remodeling. Pressure-overload RV failure caused by RV outflow tract obstruction after total correction of tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary stenosis, atrial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries, congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, and systemic RV failure after the Fontan operation. Volume-overload RV failure may be caused by atrial septal defect, pulmonary regurgitation, or tricuspid regurgitation. Although the measurement of RV function is difficult because of many reasons, the right ventricle can be evaluated using both imaging and functional modalities. In clinical practice, echocardiography is the primary mode for the evaluation of RV structure and function. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly used for evaluating RV structure and function. A comprehensive evaluation of RV function may lead to early and optimal management of RV failure in patients with CHD.
Wu, Ming-Chya; Watanabe, Eiichi; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Hu, Chin-Kun; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu
Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is known to be the most dangerous cardiac arrhythmia, frequently leading to sudden cardiac death (SCD). During VF, cardiac output drops to nil and, unless the fibrillation is promptly halted, death usually ensues within minutes. While delivering life saving electrical shocks is a method of preventing SCD, it has been recognized that some, though not many, VF episodes are self-terminating, and understanding the mechanism of spontaneous defibrillation might provide newer therapeutic options for treatment of this otherwise fatal arrhythmia. Using the phase statistics approach, recently developed to study financial and physiological time series, here, we reveal the timing characteristics of transient features of ventricular tachyarrhythmia (mostly VF) electrocardiogram (ECG) and find that there are three distinct types of probability density function (PDF) of phase distributions: uniform (UF), concave (CC), and convex (CV). Our data show that VF patients with UF or CC types of PDF have approximately the same probability of survival and nonsurvival, while VF patients with CV type PDF have zero probability of survival, implying that their VF episodes are never self-terminating. Our results suggest that detailed phase statistics of human ECG data may be a key to understanding the mechanism of spontaneous defibrillation of fatal VF.
Fazio, Giovanni; Mossuto, Claudia; Basile, Ivana; Gennaro, Francesca; D'Angelo, Luciana; Visconti, Claudia; Ferrara, Filippo; Novo, Giuseppina; Pipitone, Salvatore; Novo, Salvatore
This retrospective study was planned for a good risk assessment of asymptomatic patients affected by ventricular pre-excitation. From 1985 to 2007, 124 patients with an atrioventricular pathway (electrocardiographic signs of ventricular pre-excitation) were admitted to our cardiology division. The average age was 7 years (range 1 month to 18 years). The mean follow-up period in the whole population of patients was 4.2 years (range 1-13 years). Four patients were lost during the follow-up. During this period, all patients remained in good health. In all of them, we performed a Holter evaluation every year. An intermittent pathway was detected in 18 patients (15%), and four of them (3.4%) showed a supraventricular tachycardia even though they were asymptomatic patients. An ergometric test was performed in 76 asymptomatic patients; 16 children (21%) showed a total abrupt vanishing of delta wave. A transoesophageal electrophysiological evaluation was performed in 14 patients. According to our data, asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome in children has a good outcome during a short-term (4 years) follow-up. The usefulness of electrophysiological evaluation (in particular its predictive value) is uncertain.
Ferrando-Castagnetto, Federico; Ricca-Mallada, Roberto; Vidal, Alejandro; Martínez, Fabián; Ferrando, Rodolfo
Pacemaker stimulation is associated with unpredictable severe cardiac events. We evaluated left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) during prolonged septal right ventricular pacing. We performed 99mTc-MIBI gated-SPECT and phase analysis in 6 patients with pacemakers implanted at least one year before scintigraphy due to advanced atrioventricular block. Using V-Sync of Emory Cardiac Toolbox we obtained phase bandwidth (PBW) and standard deviation (PSD) from rest phase histogram. Clinical variables, QRS duration, rate and mode of pacing in septal right ventricle wall, chamber diameters, presence and extension of myocardial scar and ischemia and rest LVEF were recorded. Prolonged septal endocardial pacing is associated with marked LVMD, even when systolic function was preserved. More severe dyssynchrony was found in patients with impaired LVEF, higher left ventricle diameters, extensive infarct or severe ischemia than in patients with preserved LVEF (PBW: 177.3o vs. 88.3o; PSD: 53.1o vs. 33.8o). In the patients with ischemic heart disease and pacemaker, gated-SPECT phase analysis is a valid and potentially useful technique to evaluate LMVD associated with myocardial scar and to decide the upgrading to biventricular pacing mode.
Soon, Jia-Lin; Tan, Ju-Le; Lim, Choon-Pin; Tan, Teing-Ee; Tan, Swee-Yaw; Kerk, Ka-Lee; Sim, Kheng-Leng David; Sivathasan, Cumaraswamy
The Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) has revolutionised our treatment of advanced stage heart failure, giving debilitated patients a new lease on life. A small proportion of these LVAD patients can be bridged-to-recovery. The identification of these patients and decision to wean, however, can be challenging. The need to fully explant the device upon recovery has evolved to a minimalist approach aiming to avoid injury to the 'recovered' heart. A review of the evolution of explant strategies was performed to guide our decision to wean the LVAD in our early experience. Between 2009 and 2014, two patients in our series of 69 LVAD implants (2.9%) were successfully weaned off their LVADs. The second patient had a minimal access implantation of his HeartWare Ventricular Assist Device (HVAD, Medtronic Inc, Framingham, MA). His clinical variables and minimalist weaning strategy are described. A case of LVAD decommissioning by thrombosis of the outflow graft, using percutaneous Amplatzer Vascular Plug II without surgery is reported. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Deng, Yi; Naeini, Payam S; Razavi, Mehdi; Collard, Charles D; Tolpin, Daniel A; Anton, James M
Radiofrequency catheter ablation is increasingly being used to treat patients who have ventricular tachycardia, and anesthesiologists frequently manage their perioperative care. This narrative review is intended to familiarize anesthesiologists with preprocedural, intraprocedural, and postprocedural implications of this ablation. Ventricular tachycardia typically arises from structural heart disease, most often from scar tissue after myocardial infarction. Many patients thus affected will benefit from radiofrequency catheter ablation in the electrophysiology laboratory to ablate the foci of arrhythmogenesis. The pathophysiology of ventricular tachycardia is complex, as are the technical aspects of mapping and ablating these arrhythmias. Patients often have substantial comorbidities and tenuous hemodynamic status, necessitating pharmacologic and mechanical cardiopulmonary support. General anesthesia and monitored anesthesia care, when used for sedation during ablation, can lead to drug interactions and side effects in the presence of ventricular tachycardia, so anesthesiologists should also be aware of potential perioperative complications. We discuss variables that can help anesthesiologists safely guide patients through the challenges of radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia.
Abu Saleh, Walid K; Al Jabbari, Odeaa; Bruckner, Brian A; Suarez, Erik E; Estep, Jerry D; Loebe, Matthias
Left ventricular assist device implantation is a proven and efficient modality for the treatment of end-stage heart failure. Left ventricular assist device versatility as a bridge to heart transplantation or destination therapy has led to improved patient outcomes with a concomitant rise in its overall use. Other less invasive treatment modalities are being developed to improve heart function and morbidity and mortality for the heart failure population. Percutaneous ventricular restoration is a new investigational therapy that deploys an intracardiac parachute to wall off damaged myocardium in patients with dilated left ventricles and ischemic heart failure. Clinical trials are under way to test the efficacy of percutaneous ventricular restoration using the parachute device. This review describes our encounter with the parachute device, its explantation due to refractory heart failure, and surgical replacement with a left ventricular assist device. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Left ventricular aneurysms are a frequent and serious complication following acute transmural myocardial infarction and are most commonly located at the ventricular apex. The majority of these patients presents with severe mitral insufficiency, congestive heart failure, systemic embolism and sudden cardiac death. Giant aneurysms occurring in a submitral position between anterior and posterior papillary muscles on the lateral ventricular wall constitute a minor entity and those leaving the mitral apparatus intact are extremely rare. Herein, we report the case of a 57 y/o Caucasian male patient with a past medical history of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction with a giant left ventricular aneurysm measuring 15x10x8 cm in diameter. Despite the size of the aneurysm and its close topographical relation to the posterior mitral annulus the mitral apparatus was intact with a competent valve and normal left atrial size. He underwent successful surgical ventricular restoration. PMID:24172071
Chiale, Pablo A; Elizari, Marcelo V
The electrocardiographic diagnosis of intraventricular conduction disturbances may be hindered by the coexistence of ventricular preexcitation. In fact, the premature depolarization of ventricular myocardium through an accessory pathway tends to conceal any electrocardiographic manifestation of a bundle-branch block. However, there are several conditions favoring the diagnosis of bundle-branch block associated with ventricular preexcitation: intermittency of ventricular preexcitation and/or bundle-branch block, fast atrioventricular (AV) nodal impulse propagation, slow conduction over the accessory pathway or between its ventricular insertion site and the remaining myocardium, and presence of atrioventricular junctional ectopic beats exposing the intraventricular conduction disturbance. This article reexamines the available data on preexcitation in patients with intraventricular blocks and presents clinical examples to emphasize the importance of a thorough examination of the electrocardiogram to attain the correct diagnosis of this association.
Kibler, N A; Belogolova, A S; Vaĭkshnoraĭte, M A; Azarov, Ia E; Shmakov, D N
The ventricular pump function under ectopic excitation of the heart was studied in decapitated and pithed adult frogs Rana temporaria (n = 21) at 18-19 degrees C. The intraventricular pressure was recorded with a catheter via ventricular wall. During pacing of the ventricular base and apex, the systolic pressure decreased (6.1 +/- 4.5 mm Hg and 8.9 +/- 5.0 mm Hg, respectively) as compared to the supraventricular rhythm (8.9 +/- 5.0 mm Hg, p < 0.05). The end-diastolic pressure decreased insignificantly both under basal and apical pacing. The systolic rate of pressure rise during dP/dtmax decreased under ventricular pacing, especially during pacing of the ventricular apex, as compared to the supraventricular rhythm (14.4 +/- 6/9 mm Hg/s and 22.1 +/- 11.2 mm Hg/s, respectively, p < 0.003). The isovolumetric relaxation (dP/dtmin) slowed during apical pacing as compared to the supraventricular rhythm (-25.1 +/- 13.6 and -35.6 +/- 18.3 mm Hg/s, respectively, p < 0.03). Ectopic excitation of the ventricular base and apex resulted in increase of the QRS duration (93 +/- 33 ms and 81 +/- 30 ms, respectively) as compared to the supraventricular rhythm (63 +/- 13 ms, p < 0.05). Thus, pacing of different ventricular areas ventricular myocardium with the ventricular pump function being reduced more obviously during the apical pacing compared to the pacing of ventricular base.
Ueoka, Akira; Morita, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Atsuyuki; Nakagawa, Koji; Nishii, Nobuhiro; Nagase, Satoshi; Ohe, Tohru; Ito, Hiroshi
Clinical and experimental studies have shown the existence of an arrhythmogenic substrate in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) in patients with Brugada syndrome (BrS). To evaluate the importance of the RVOT, we evaluated the activation pattern of induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias using body surface mapping (BSM) in patients with BrS. We examined 14 patients with BrS in whom ventricular tachyarrhythmias were induced by programmed electrical stimulation. The 87-lead BSM was recorded during induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias, and an activation map and an isopotential map of QRS complexes every 5 ms were constructed to evaluate the activation pattern of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. BSM during 20 episodes of ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced at the RVOT showed that repetitive excitation was generated at the RVOT and propagated to the inferior RV and left ventricle, and then returned to the RVOT. Polymorphic QRS change during ventricular tachyarrhythmias was associated with migration of the earliest activation site and rotor. BSM during 4 episodes of ventricular fibrillation (VF) showed that the excitation front moved randomly with formation of multiple wavefronts. Programmed stimulation initiated repetitive firing from the RVOT. Migration and competition of the earliest activation site and rotor and local conduction delay changed the QRS morphology. Degeneration of the reentrant circuit into multiple wavefronts resulted in VF. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1734-1743).
Philips, Binu; te Riele, Anneline S J M; Sawant, Abhishek; Kareddy, Vishnupriya; James, Cynthia A; Murray, Brittney; Tichnell, Crystal; Kassamali, Bina; Nazarian, Saman; Judge, Daniel P; Calkins, Hugh; Tandri, Harikrishna
Variable success rates have been reported after epicardial radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C). The details of the electroanatomic substrate are limited to a few studies, and the characteristics of the recurrent ventricular tachycardia (VT) in ARVD/C remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to report procedural strategy, safety, and efficacy of epicardial RFA at a tertiary single center with a focus on the characteristics of the substrate and recurrent VT. We included 30 ARVD/C patients (mean age 33.1 ± 11.1 years, 53% male) who underwent endocardial/epicardial mapping and epicardial catheter ablation of VT at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator interrogations were evaluated for VT recurrence. The majority of critical VT circuits (69%) were on the epicardial surface, mostly in the subtricuspid region. Eight patients (27%) experienced VT recurrence after epicardial RFA, and the VT-free survival was 83%, 76%, and 70% at 6,12, and 24, months respectively. A significant reduction of VT burden was observed (P <.001), even among those with VT recurrence. No complications occurred except for acute pericarditis in 1 patient. The majority of VT recurrences occurred during the first year after RFA, during exercise, had fast cycle lengths, and required implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shock for termination. The vast majority of critical VT circuits were epicardial, mostly in the subtricuspid region. Epicardial RFA of VT appears to be both safe and effective in achieving arrhythmia control in ARVD/C. The features of the recurrent VT suggest a possible catecholamine-mediated mechanism with an origin in a region not targeted for ablation. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huikuri, H.V.; Korhonen, U.R.; Linnaluoto, M.K.; Takkunen, J.T.
In order to study the quantitative relationship of ventricular arrhythmias to myocardial damage and ischemia, 61 patients with a previous myocardial infarction (at least 6 months previously) were studied by 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring, cardiac catheterization, and thallium-201 scintigraphy. Thirty-five patients (57%) had no ectopic beats or only infrequent, unifocal ones and 26 patients (43%) had complex ventricular arrhythmias. Left ventricular function was lower in the latter, but the number of diseased vessels did not differ in the two groups. The reduction of thallium activity in the infarct area was more marked in patients with complex arrhythmias. Multiple thallium defects were not more common in arrhythmia patients, however. These data support the view that complex ventricular arrhythmias are more closely related to the severity of ventricular damage than the presence of myocardial ischemia remote to the area of previous infarction.
Zhong, Liang; Su, Boyang; Zhang, Jun-Mei; Leo, Hwa Liang; Tan, Ru San
Investigating the intra-ventricular flow is the most important to understand the left ventricular function. In this study, we proposed a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach to simulate the blood flow in patient-specific model by combining both mitral and aortic valves. To accommodate the large mesh deformation, moving arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) meshes were used for moving ventricular wall and rotating leaflets of valves. The left ventricular wall was predescribed according to the points acquired from magnetic resonance image (MRI). Mitral and aortic valves were integrated into the model by assuming each leaflet as a rigid body. Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach was adopted to capture the rapid motion of leaflets. The simulation results were qualitatively similar to the measurements reported in literatures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first to simulate the patient-specific ventricular flow with the presence of both mitral and aortic valves.
Wu, Ling-Min; Bao, Jing-Ru; Yao, Yan; Hou, Bing-Bo; Zheng, Li-Hui; Zhang, Shu
One of the major challenges in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) ablation is ventricular tachycardia (VT) non-inducibility. The study aimed to assess whether fast rate (≥ 250 beats/min) right ventricular burst stimulation was useful for VT induction in patients with ARVC. Ninety-one consecutive ARVC patients with clinical sustained VT that underwent electrophysiological study were enrolled. The stimulation protocol was implemented at both right ventricular apex and outflow tract as follows: Step A, up to double extra-stimuli; Step B, incremental stimulation with low rate (< 250 beats/min); Step C, burst stimulation with fast rate (≥ 250 beats/min); Step D, repeated all steps above with intravenous infusion of isoproterenol. A total of 76 patients had inducible VT (83.5%), among which 49 were induced by Step C, 15 were induced by Step B, 8 and 4 by Step A and D, respectively. Clinical VTs were induced in 60 patients (65.9%). Only two spontaneously ceased ventricular fibrillations were induced by Step C. Multivariate analysis showed that a narrower baseline QRS duration under sinus rhythm was independently associated with VT non-inducibility (OR: 1.1; 95% CI: 1.0-1.1; P = 0.019). Fast rate (≥ 250 beats/min) right ventricular burst stimulation provides a useful supplemental method for VT induction in ARVC patients.
Huang, Lei; Teng, Tianming; Bian, Bo; Yao, Wei; Yu, Xuefang; Wang, Zhuoqun; Xu, Zhelong; Sun, Yuemin
Zinc is one of the most important trace elements in the body and zinc homeostasis plays a critical role in maintaining cellular structure and function. Zinc dyshomeostasis can lead to many diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to investigate whether there is a relationship between zinc and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). A total of 519 patients was enrolled and their serum zinc levels were measured in this study. We performed analyses on the relationship between zinc levels and LVH and the four LV geometry pattern patients: normal LV geometry, concentric remodeling, eccentric LVH, and concentric LVH. We performed further linear and multiple regression analyses to confirm the relationship between zinc and left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and relative wall thickness (RWT). Our data showed that zinc levels were 710.2 ± 243.0 μg/L in the control group and were 641.9 ± 215.2 μg/L in LVH patients. We observed that zinc levels were 715 ± 243.5 μg/L, 694.2 ± 242.7 μg/L, 643.7 ± 225.0 μg/L, and 638.7 ± 197.0 μg/L in normal LV geometry, concentric remodeling, eccentric LVH, and concentric LVH patients, respectively. We further found that there was a significant inverse linear relationship between zinc and LVM (p = 0.001) and LVMI (p = 0.000) but did not show a significant relationship with RWT (p = 0.561). Multiple regression analyses confirmed that the linear relationship between zinc and LVM and LVMI remained inversely significant. The present study revealed that serum zinc levels were significantly decreased in the LVH patients, especially in the eccentric LVH and concentric LVH patients. Furthermore, zinc levels were significantly inversely correlated with LVM and LVMI.
Magalhaes, Sónia; Gonçalves, Helena; Primo, João; Sá, Ana Paula; Silva, Paula; Rosas, Rui; Gama, Vasco
Fascicular ventricular tachycardia (VT), the commonest form of idiopathic left VT, occurs more frequently in young males without structural heart disease and usually presents as paroxysmal palpitations. It is subdivided into two more common subtypes, posterior and anterior. A macro-reentrant circuit involving a considerable and variable extent of the left interventricular septum is presumed to be the underlying arrhythmogenic mechanism. A slow conduction zone with particular sensitivity to verapamil participates in the circuit and it seems that diastolic potentials (DP) represent the electrical activity in or near this zone. The fascicles of the left bundle appear to constitute part of the retrograde pathway and Purkinje potentials (PP) are assumed to represent their activation. In the present retrospective study, the authors review twelve cases of fascicular VT (ten posterior and two anterior) evaluated in the electrophysiology laboratory. Although initial induction was obtained in all patients, reproducibility was poor as a consequence of frequent contact inhibition during endocardial mapping of the left ventricle and this meant that ablation was not possible in two cases. Two cases of associated atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) and a case of associated atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia by a right posterior accessory pathway were documented, which suggest a correlated anatomic substrate. After ablation of the slow nodal pathway in one of the AVNRTs, fascicular VT was no longer inducible. Ablation of the fascicular VT was attempted in nine patients, at the tachycardia exit site (characterized by an early ventricular electrogram fused with a Purkinje potential) in two patients with anterior fascicular VT and in five patients with the posterior subtype, and near the slow conduction pathway (site with simultaneous recording of DP and PP) in the other two patients. The initial success rate with a single procedure was 78%, two of the ablations
Lamberts, Regis R; Vaessen, Rob J; Westerhof, Nico; Stienen, Ger J M
Right ventricular (RV) pressure overload causes right ventricular hypertrophy in several types of pulmonary and congenital heart diseases. The associated cardiac dysfunction has generally been attributed to alterations in RV function. However, due to global neurohormonal adaptations and mechanical ventricular interaction left ventricular (LV) function could be affected as well.Therefore,LV function, RV function and their interaction were studied in rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced RV hypertrophy and control rats. MCT (30 mg/kg) was used to induce pulmonary hypertension, which resulted, after 28 days, in marked RV hypertrophy (RV-weight: control 220 +/- 15,MCT 437 +/- 34mg,p < 0.05). In Langendorff-perfused hearts with balloons inserted in both the LV and the RV, the diastolic pressure-volume relations showed increased stiffness, and relaxation was prolonged in the LV and RV in the MCT group compared to controls. In the MCT group, developed pressures were increased only in the RV. An increase of LV volume increased RV diastolic pressure to a similar extent in both groups. However, an increase in RV volume did not affect LV diastolic pressure in controls, but significantly increased LV diastolic pressure in the MCT group. LV and RV developed pressure-volume relations were not affected. Calculated circumferential end-diastolic wall stresses (sigma) were larger in the MCT group (LV-sigma: 0.55 +/- 0.02, RV-sigma: 1.94 +/- 0.30 kN/m(2), both p< 0.05 to control) compared to controls (LV-sigma: 0.34 +/- 0.06,RV-sigma: 1.23 +/- 0.46 kN/m2). In the MCT group, collagen content was increased in the LV, septum and RV compared to controls. In conclusion, structural changes of the RV and LV result in depressed LV diastolic function during RV hypertrophy.
Kusa, Shigeki; Miller, Marc A; Whang, William; Enomoto, Yoshinari; Panizo, Jorge G; Iwasawa, Jin; Choudry, Subbarao; Pinney, Sean; Gomes, Anthony; Langan, Noelle; Koruth, Jacob S; d'Avila, Andre; Reddy, Vivek Y; Dukkipati, Srinivas R
Although percutaneous left ventricular assist devices (pLVADs) facilitate mapping and ablation of hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia (VT), there is limited data whether clinical outcomes are improved. We sought to retrospectively compare the outcomes of patients undergoing scar-related VT ablation with and without pLVAD support. The study population comprised 194 patients (109 pLVAD and 85 non-pLVAD). The pLVAD group more often had dilated cardiomyopathy (33% versus 13%; P=0.001), New York Heart Association heart failure class ≥III (51% versus 25%; P<0.001), lower left ventricular ejection fractions (26±10% versus 39±16%; P<0.001), and electrical storm (49% versus 34%; P=0.04). Procedure times (422±112 versus 330±92 minutes; P<0.001), postablation VT inducibility (20% versus 7%; P=0.02), and length of subsequent hospitalization (median 6 versus 4 days; P=0.001) were all higher in the pLVAD group. During median follow-up of 215 days, the primary end point (recurrent VT, heart transplantation, or death) occurred in 36% of the pLVAD versus 26% of the non-pLVAD groups (P=0.14). After propensity matching for differences between groups, no differences were seen between groups for both acute procedural outcomes and the primary end point. In this large single-center scar-related VT ablation experience, despite the worse clinical status of the patients selected for pLVAD support, clinical outcomes were better than expected and were similar to healthier patients not receiving hemodynamic support. Patients with dilated cardiomyopathy presenting with electrical storm, advanced heart failure, and severe left ventricular dysfunction most frequently received hemodynamic support during VT ablation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Drakos, Stavros G; Janicki, Lindsay; Horne, Benjamin D; Kfoury, Abdallah G; Reid, Bruce B; Clayson, Stephen; Horton, Kenneth; Haddad, Francois; Li, Dean Y; Renlund, Dale G; Fisher, Patrick W
Right ventricular failure (RVF) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation appears to be associated with increased mortality. However, the determination of which patients are at greater risk of developing postoperative RVF remains controversial and relatively unknown. We sought to determine the preoperative risk factors for the development of RVF after LVAD implantation. The data were obtained for 175 consecutive patients who had received an LVAD. RVF was defined by the need for inhaled nitric oxide for >/=48 hours or intravenous inotropes for >14 days and/or right ventricular assist device implantation. An RVF risk score was developed from the beta coefficients of the independent variables from a multivariate logistic regression model predicting RVF. Destination therapy (DT) was identified as the indication for LVAD implantation in 42% of our patients. RVF after LVAD occurred in 44% of patients (n = 77). The mortality rates for patients with RVF were significantly greater at 30, 180, and 365 days after implantation compared to patients with no RVF. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, 3 preoperative factors were significantly associated with RVF after LVAD implantation: (1) a preoperative need for intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation, (2) increased pulmonary vascular resistance, and (3) DT. The developed RVF risk score effectively stratified the risk of RV failure and death after LVAD implantation. In conclusion, given the progressively growing need for DT, the developed RVF risk score, derived from a population with a large percentage of DT patients, might lead to improved patient selection and help stratify patients who could potentially benefit from early right ventricular assist device implantation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Loghmanpour, Natasha A.; Kormos, Robert L.; Kanwar, Manreet K.; Teuteberg, Jeffrey J.; Murali, Srinivas; Antaki, James F.
Background Right ventricular failure (RVF) continues to be a major adverse event following left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. This study investigates the use of a Bayesian statistical model to address the limited predictive capacity of existing risk scores derived from multivariate analyses. This is based on the hypothesis that it is necessary to consider the inter-relationships and conditional probabilities amongst independent variables to achieve sufficient statistical accuracy. Methods The data used for this study was derived from 10,909 adult patients from INTERMACS who had a primary LVAD from December 2006 – March 2014. An initial set of 176 pre-implant variables were considered. RVF post-implant was categorized as acute (<48 hours), early (48 hours–14 days) and late (>14 days) in onset. For each of these endpoints, a separate tree-augmented Naïve Bayes model was constructed using the most predictive variables using an open source Bayesian inference engine (SMILE.) Results The acute RVF model consisted of 33 variables, including: systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), white blood cell count, left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac index, sodium levels, and lymphocyte percentage. The early RVF model consisted of 34 variables, including systolic PAP, pre-albumin, LDH, INTERMACS profile, right ventricular ejection fraction, pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, age, heart rate, tricuspid regurgitation and BMI. The late RVF model included 33 variables and was mostly predicted by peripheral vascular resistance, MELD score, albumin, lymphocyte percentage, mean PAP and diastolic PAP. The accuracies of all the Bayesian models were between 91–97%, AUC between 0.83–0.90 sensitivity of 90% and specificity between 98–99%, significantly outperforming previously published risk scores. Conclusion A Bayesian prognostic model of RVF, based on the large, multi-center INTERMACS registry provided highly accurate predictions of acute, early, and late
Haeck, Marlieke L A; Höke, Ulas; Marsan, Nina Ajmone; Holman, Eduard R; Wolterbeek, Ron; Bax, Jeroen J; Schalij, Martin J; Vliegen, Hubert W; Delgado, Victoria
Pulmonary hypertension has been associated with right ventricular (RV) dyssynchrony which may induce left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and dyssynchrony through ventricular interdependence. The present study evaluated the influence of RV dyssynchrony on LV performance in patients with pulmonary hypertension. One hundred and seven patients with pulmonary hypertension (age 63 ± 14 years, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure 60 ± 19 mmHg) and LV ejection fraction (EF) >35% were evaluated. Ventricular dyssynchrony was assessed with speckle tracking echocardiography and defined as the standard deviation of the time to peak longitudinal strain of six segments of the RV (RV-SD) and the LV (LV-SD) in the apical 4-chamber view. Mean RV-SD and LV-SD assessed with longitudinal strain speckle tracking echocardiography were 51 ± 28 and 47 ± 21 ms, respectively. The patient population was divided according to the median RV-SD value of 49 ms. Patients with RV-SD ≥49 ms had significantly worse NYHA functional class (2.7 ± 0.7 vs. 2.3 ± 0.7, p = 0.004), RV function (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion: 16 ± 4 vs. 19 ± 4 mm, p < 0.001), LVEF (50 ± 10 vs. 55 ± 8%, p = 0.001), and larger LV-SD (57 ± 18 vs. 36 ± 18 ms, p < 0.001). RV-SD significantly correlated with LV-SD (r = 0.55, p < 0.001) and LVEF (r = -0.23, p = 0.02). Multiple linear regression analysis showed an independent association between RV-SD and LV-SD (β = 0.35, 95%CI 0.21-0.49, p < 0.001). RV dyssynchrony is significantly associated with LV dyssynchrony and reduced LVEF in patients with pulmonary hypertension.
Maslow, Andrew; Schwartz, Carl; Mahmood, Feroze; Singh, Arun; Heerdt, Paul M
In this report, a case of right ventricular (RV) failure, hemodynamic instability, and systemic organ failure is described to highlight how paradoxical ventricular systolic septal motion (PVSM), or a rightward systolic displacement of the interventricular septum, may contribute to RV ejection. Multiple inotropic medications and vasopressors were administered to treat right heart failure and systemic hypotension in a patient following combined aortic and mitral valve replacement. In the early postoperative period, echocardiographic evaluation revealed adequate left ventricular systolic function, akinesis of the RV myocardial tissues, and PVSM. In the presence of PVSM, RV fractional area of contraction was > or =35% despite akinesis of the primary RV myocardial walls. The PVSM appeared to contribute toward RV ejection. As a result, the need for multiple inotropes was re-evaluated, in considering that end-organ dysfunction was the result of systemic hypotension and prolonged vasopressor administration. After discontinuation of phosphodiesterase inhibitors, native vascular tone returned and the need for vasopressors declined. This was followed by recovery of systemic organ function. Echocardiographic re-evaluation two years later, revealed persistent akinesis of the RV myocardial tissues and PVSM, the latter appearing to contribute toward RV ejection. This case highlights the importance of left to RV interactions, and how PVSM may mediate these hemodynamic interactions.
Bettinelli, Audra L; Mulder, Theodorus J; Funke, Birgit H; Lafferty, Katherine A; Longo, Sherri A; Niyazov, Dmitriy M
Ebstein anomaly is a rare congenital heart defect that most often occurs sporadically within a kindred. Familial cases, although reported, are uncommon. At this time, the genetic etiology of Ebstein anomaly is not fully elucidated. Here, we describe clinical and molecular investigations of a rare case of familial Ebstein anomaly in association with a likely pathogenic mutation of the MYH7 gene. The severity of presentation varies, and Ebstein anomaly can be observed in association with such other heart defects as ventricular septal defect and left ventricular (LV) hypertrabeculation, as seen in our family of study. In our family of study, the 31-year-old father and four of his children have been diagnosed with Ebstein anomaly. Genetic testing revealed that the father was heterozygous for the Glu1220del variant detected in exon 27 of the MYH7 gene. The MYH7 gene encodes the β-myosin heavy chain and is expressed in cardiac muscle. DNA sequencing of three of his affected children confirmed that they carried the same variant while the fourth affected child was not available for testing. This is the first report of familial Ebstein anomaly associated with the Glu1220del mutation of the MYH7 gene. The mutation segregates with disease in a family with autosomal dominant transmission of congenital heart defects including Ebstein anomaly and other associated cardiovascular defects including LV hypertrabeculation and ventricular septal defect.
Nakamura, T; Hayashi, K; Seki, J; Nakatani, T; Noda, H; Takano, H; Akutsu, T
Pneumatically driven left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) were acutely implanted between the left atria and the descending aortas of dogs, and were driven in five pumping modes: electrocardiogram synchronous modes with the duty factors of 1:1, 2:1, and 4:1, and asynchronous modes with the pulse rates of 60 and 80 beats/min (bpm). The ventricular diameter and myocardial segment length were measured by an ultrasonic displacement meter and implantable miniature sensors. Bulk mechanical work of the left ventricle and regional mechanical work of the myocardium were calculated from these dimensions and the left ventricular pressure. LVAD reduced the bulk mechanical work of the left ventricle by 30-50% and the regional work by 30-60%. The mean aortic pressure and the total flow (= aortic flow + pump bypass flow) were highest in the 1:1 synchronous pumping mode, which indicates that this mode is most effective to maintain the systemic circulation and coronary blood flow. Asynchronous pumping and synchronous pumping with 2:1 duty factor were most useful to reduce the mechanical work of the left ventricle.
Hou, Bingbo; Zheng, Lihui; Niu, Guodong; Wu, Lingmin; Qiao, Yu; Sun, Wei; Ding, Ligang; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Shu; Liew, Reginald; Yao, Yan
This study was aimed to report the characteristics and treatment of ventricular tachycardia (VT) following surgical treatment of pulmonary stenosis with intact ventricular septum. Five patients underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation for sustained monomorphic left bundle branch block (LBBB) type VT who previously underwent surgical treatment of pulmonary stenosis. Except stimulation, voltage and activation mapping was performed using three-dimensional (3D) electro-anatomic mapping and ablation was applied accordingly. Four VTs were induced during EP study. Two VTs were focal and the earliest activity was targeted in the right ventricular apex (RVA). The other two VTs were reentrant and the critical isthmus located in the mid-lateral wall and anterior wall of right ventricle, respectively. Ablation abolished all inducible VTs in four patients. In the patient whose VT was non-inducible, radiofrequency (RF) energy was delivered to the RVA where pacing mapping matched the clinical VT. One focal VT recurred 60 months after the initial RF ablation. Repeat mapping and ablation was performed and no VT recurred over a 24-month period. The mechanism of VT following surgical treatment of pulmonary stenosis can be either focal or reentrant. Ablation of this subgroup of VT is feasible. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Lainez, Romeo; Parrino, Gene; Bates, Michael
The HeartMate II is an axial-flow left ventricular assist device that is approved for the treatment of advanced heart failure as a bridge to transplant or destination therapy. Despite the success of this device, right ventricular failure remains a persistent problem in most studies. Right ventricular dysfunction is usually defined as the need for right heart mechanical support or the persistent requirement for inotropes to support right heart function beyond 14 days. Over 21 months, 45 patients with end-stage heart disease underwent placement of the HeartMate II at our institution. This continuous cohort of patients underwent a retrospective review to evaluate the incidence of right heart failure. The perioperative survival was 91% with no incidents of mechanical support for the right ventricle and no requirements for inotropes beyond 14 days. This survival was consistent to beyond 1 year at the time of the study, and 18% of patients underwent heart transplant with 100% survival. PMID:21603391
Ding, Ligang; Hou, Bingbo; Wu, Lingmin; Qiao, Yu; Sun, Wei; Guo, Jinrui; Zheng, Lihui; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Linfeng; Zhang, Shu; Yao, Yan
Ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) originating from the left ventricular anterobasal wall (LV-ABW) may represent a therapeutic challenge. The purpose of this study was to investigate the delayed efficacy of radiofrequency catheter (RFCA) ablation without an epicardial approach on VAs originating from the LV-ABW. Eighty patients (mean age 46.9 ± 14.9 years; 47 male) with VAs originating from the LV-ABW were enrolled. After systematic mapping of the right ventricular outflow tract, aortic root, adjacent LV endocardium, and coronary venous system, 3-4 ablation attempts were made at the earliest activation sites and/or best pace-mapping sites. Delayed efficacy was evaluated in patients with acute failure. During mean follow-up of 23.8 ± 21.9 months (range 3-72 months), complete elimination of all VAs was achieved in 47 patients (59%) and partial success in 19 (24%), for an overall success rate of 83%. In 25 of 37 patients (68%) with acute failure, VAs were eliminated or significantly reduced (>80% VA burden) by the delayed effect of RFCA during follow-up. Logistic regression analysis revealed that response time to ablation was a predictor of occurrence of delayed efficacy. No complications occurred during follow-up. Instead of extensive ablation, waiting for delayed efficacy of RFCA may be a reasonable choice for patients with VAs arising from the LV-ABW. Copyright Â© 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Robson, M D; Rider, O J; Pegg, T J; Dasanu, C A; Jung, B A; Clarke, K; Holloway, C J
Objective: Obtaining new details for rotational motion of left ventricular (LV) segments using velocity encoding cardiac MR and correlating the regional motion patterns to LV insertion sites. Methods: Cardiac MR examinations were performed on 14 healthy volunteers aged between 19 and 26 years. Peak rotational velocities and circumferential velocity curves were obtained for 16 ventricular segments. Results: Reduced peak clockwise velocities of anteroseptal segments (i.e. Segments 2 and 8) and peak counterclockwise velocities of inferoseptal segments (i.e. Segments 3 and 9) were the most prominent findings. The observations can be attributed to the LV insertion sites into the right ventricle, limiting the clockwise rotation of anteroseptal LV segments and the counterclockwise rotation of inferoseptal segments as viewed from the apex. Relatively lower clockwise velocities of Segment 5 and counterclockwise velocities of Segment 6 were also noted, suggesting a cardiac fixation point between these two segments, which is in close proximity to the lateral LV wall. Conclusion: Apart from showing different rotational patterns of LV base, mid ventricle and apex, the study showed significant differences in the rotational velocities of individual LV segments. Correlating regional wall motion with known orientation of myocardial aggregates has also provided new insights into the mechanisms of LV rotational motions during a cardiac cycle. Advances in knowledge: LV insertion into the right ventricle limits the clockwise rotation of anteroseptal LV segments and the counterclockwise rotation of inferoseptal segments adjacent to the ventricular insertion sites. The pattern should be differentiated from wall motion abnormalities in cardiac pathology. PMID:24133098
Palmen, Meindert; Braun, Jerry; Beeres, Saskia L M A; Klautz, Robert J M
Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation can be challenging in patients with a prior surgical ventricular restoration (SVR). In this case series of heart failure patients with a history of SVR, we describe the surgical technique and outcome of a customized approach for inflow cannula orientation. Seven patients with a history of SVR with end-stage chronic heart failure were accepted for long-term LVAD support. In all patients, the Dacron patch was removed through left ventriculotomy and a Hegar 22 dilator was inserted at the estimated optimal position of the LVAD inflow cannula. The left ventricle was reconstructed around the dilator from the left ventricular (LV) apex to the base. Finally, the LVAD sewing ring was sutured onto the remaining apical defect and a HeartWare® LVAD was implanted. LVAD implantation was successful in all 7 patients. Transoesophageal echocardiography ensured an adequate LVAD position and inflow and outflow cannula Doppler flow recordings. The mean intensive care unit stay was 5.8 ± 2.6 days, and the hospital stay after surgery was 32 ± 16 days. All patients follow regular visits (follow-up 20 ± 16 months) at the outpatient clinic without any remarkable event. Using the technique described, LVAD implantation in patients after SVR is feasible and safe.
Farooqi, Kanwal M; Lopez, Leo; Pass, Robert H; Hsu, Daphne T; Lamour, Jacqueline M
After heart transplantation (HT) in infants and young children, environmental and intrinsic factors may lead to changes in the geometry and compliance of the donor heart. Serial demographic, clinical, hemodynamic, and echocardiographic data were obtained from HT recipients younger than 4 years of age. Echocardiographic chamber measurement z-scores were compared using recipient body surface area from the time of HT to 1 week, 3 months, and last follow-up visit. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) z-scores were correlated with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) at each time point. Heart transplantation was performed for 13 children between March 2009 and December 2012, 9 of whom (69%) were boys. The median age at HT was 8 months (range, 4-43 months), and the mean follow-up period was 13 ± 7 months. Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension z-scores decreased significantly (p = 0.03) between HT and 1 week, then increased from 1 week to 3 and 12 months. (-1.32 ± 1.7, -0.71 ± 1.8, 0.41 ± 2.1, 0.79 ± 2.3, respectively). A positive relationship (R(2) = 0.48) between the LVEDV z-score and PCPW was present at the last follow-up visit. For infants and young children, the allograft demonstrates appropriate growth by 1 year after HT. Left ventricular compliance improves over time.
Contijoch, Francisco; Rogers, Kelly; Rears, Hannah; Shahid, Mohammed; Kellman, Peter; Gorman, Joseph; Gorman, Robert C.; Yushkevich, Paul; Zado, Erica S.; Supple, Gregory E.; Marchlinski, Francis E.; Witschey, Walter R.T.; Han, Yuchi
Background Premature ventricular complexes (PVC) are prevalent in the general population and are sometimes associated with reduced ventricular function. Current echocardiographic and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) techniques do not adequately address the effect of PVCs on left ventricular function. Methods and Results Fifteen subjects with a history of frequent PVCs undergoing CMR had real-time slice volume quantification performed using a 2D real-time CMR imaging technique. Synchronization of 2D real-time imaging with patient ECG allowed for different beats to be categorized by the loading beat RR-duration and beat RR-duration. For each beat type, global volumes were quantified via summation over all slices covering the entire ventricle. Different patterns of ectopy including isolated PVCs, bigeminy, trigeminy, and interpolated PVCs were observed. Global functional measurement of the different beat types based on timing demonstrated differences in preload, stroke volume, and ejection fraction. An average of hemodynamic function was quantified for each subject depending on the frequency of each observed beat type. Conclusions Application of real-time CMR imaging in patients with PVCs revealed differential contribution of PVCs to hemodynamics. PMID:27009416
Roten, Laurent; Sacher, Frédéric; Daly, Matthew; Pascale, Patrizio; Komatsu, Yuki; Ramoul, Khaled; Scherr, Daniel; Chaumeil, Arnaud; Shah, Ashok; Denis, Arnaud; Derval, Nicolas; Hocini, Mélèze; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre
With the widespread use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, an increasing number of patients present with ventricular tachycardia (VT). Large multicentre studies have shown that ablation of VT successfully reduces recurrent VT and this procedure is being performed by an increasing number of centres. However, for a number of reasons, many patients experience VT recurrence after ablation. One important reason for VT recurrence is the presence of an epicardial substrate involved in the VT circuit which is not affected by endocardial ablation. Epicardial access and ablation is now frequently performed either after failed endocardial VT ablation or as first-line treatment in selected patients. This review will focus on the available evidence for identifying VT of epicardial origin, and discuss in which patients an epicardial approach would be benefitial. PMID:26835028
Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for many patients, with a significant emotional and economic burden caused by implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks and the requirement of medication with significant side effects. Additionally, 10% of VT occurs in patients with no structural heart disease. Until quite recently, ablation for VT has been reserved as the procedure of last hope for those who have ongoing recurrences despite maximal medical therapy and who are traumatized by multiple ICD shocks . However, recent advances in imaging technology and three-dimensional intracardiac mapping systems have significantly improved the safety and efficacy of VT ablation procedures. Thus, ablation for VT should no longer be reserved as a last-resort bailout procedure and should move into the realm of routine electrophysiology treatment. PMID:20948708
Chrysant, George S; Horstmanshof, Douglas A; Guniganti, Uma M
Cardiac tumors are rare and usually indicate metastatic disease. Characterizing a tumor and reaching an exact diagnosis can be difficult. Diagnosis has been aided greatly by advances in imaging, such as cardiovascular magnetic resonance with the use of gadolinium-pentetic acid. Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine neoplasms that are found most often in the intestinal tract, although they can also develop in the lung, stomach, or heart. Herein, we report the case of a 72-year-old woman with a history of intestinal carcinoid disease and presenting symptoms of dizziness, fatigue, and chest pain. We used cardiovascular magnetic resonance with gadolinium enhancement to identify a large mass obstructing left ventricular outflow. The histopathologic results of an endomyocardial biopsy confirmed that the mass was a left-sided metastatic carcinoid cardiac tumor. To our knowledge, we are reporting the 1st combined use of clinical evaluation, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, and histopathologic studies to reach such a diagnosis.
Winslow, Raimond L.; Cortassa, Sonia; O'Rourke, Brian; Hashambhoy, Yasmin L.; Rice, John Jeremy; Greenstein, Joseph L.
Cardiac electrophysiology is a discipline with a rich 50-year history of experimental research coupled with integrative modeling which has enabled us to achieve a quantitative understanding of the relationships between molecular function and the integrated behavior of the cardiac myocyte in health and disease. In this paper, we review the development of integrative computational models of the cardiac myocyte. We begin with a historical overview of key cardiac cell models that helped shape the field. We then narrow our focus to models of the cardiac ventricular myocyte and describe these models in the context of their subcellular functional systems including dynamic models of voltage-gated ion channels, mitochondrial energy production, ATP-dependent and electrogenic membrane transporters, intracellular Ca dynamics, mechanical contraction, and regulatory signal transduction pathways. We describe key advances and limitations of the models as well as point to new directions for future modeling research. PMID:20865780
Chrysant, George S.; Horstmanshof, Douglas A.; Guniganti, Uma M.
Cardiac tumors are rare and usually indicate metastatic disease. Characterizing a tumor and reaching an exact diagnosis can be difficult. Diagnosis has been aided greatly by advances in imaging, such as cardiovascular magnetic resonance with the use of gadolinium-pentetic acid. Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine neoplasms that are found most often in the intestinal tract, although they can also develop in the lung, stomach, or heart. Herein, we report the case of a 72-year-old woman with a history of intestinal carcinoid disease and presenting symptoms of dizziness, fatigue, and chest pain. We used cardiovascular magnetic resonance with gadolinium enhancement to identify a large mass obstructing left ventricular outflow. The histopathologic results of an endomyocardial biopsy confirmed that the mass was a left-sided metastatic carcinoid cardiac tumor. To our knowledge, we are reporting the 1st combined use of clinical evaluation, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, and histopathologic studies to reach such a diagnosis. PMID:21720473
Thune, Jens Jakob; Solomon, Scott D
An acute myocardial infarction causes a loss of contractile fibers which reduces systolic function. Parallel to the effect on systolic function, a myocardial infarction also impacts diastolic function, but this relationship is not as well understood. The two physiologic phases of diastole, active relaxation and passive filling, are both influenced by myocardial ischemia and infarction. Active relaxation is delayed following a myocardial infarction, whereas left ventricular stiffness changes depending on the extent of infarction and remodeling. Interstitial edema and fibrosis cause an increase in wall stiffness which is counteracted by dilation. The effect on diastolic function is correlated to an increased incidence of adverse outcomes. Moreover, patients with comorbid conditions that are associated with worse diastolic function tend to have more adverse outcomes after infarction. There are currently no treatments aimed specifically at treating diastolic dysfunction following a myocardial infarction, but several new drugs, including aldosterone antagonists, may offer promise.
Pochmalicki, G.; Genest, M.; Jibril, H.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chronic drinking on detection of low amplitude signals, and to determine the relation between late ventricular potentials (LVP) and liver biopsy findings. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: General hospital. PATIENTS: 41 consecutive chronic alcoholics without known pre-existing heart disease. METHODS: About four days after each patient's last alcoholic drink, ECG, echocardiography, signal averaged electrocardiogram, liver biopsy, and blood tests were performed. RESULTS: Twenty eight per cent of patients had evidence of LVP. There was a correlation between the percentage of steatosis of the hepatic biopsy and the amplitude of the last 40 ms of average QRS (P = 0.04), the duration of the terminal low amplitude QRS signal (P = 0.05), and the number of positive criteria of late potentials (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic drinking sufficient to cause steatosis is associated with positive findings on the signal averaged ECG. PMID:9326991
Ramprakash, B; Jaishankar, S; Rao, Hygriv B; Narasimhan, C
Fascicular ventricular tachycardia (VT) is an idiopathic VT with right bundle branch block morphology and left-axis deviation occuring predominantly in young males. Fascicular tachycardia has been classified into three subtypes namely, left posterior fascicular VT, left anterior fascicular VT and upper septal fascicular VT. The mechanism of this tachycardia is believed to be localized reentry close to the fascicle of the left bundle branch. The reentrant circuit is composed of a verapamil sensitive zone, activated antegradely during tachycardia and the fast conduction Purkinje fibers activated retrogradely during tachycardia recorded as the pre Purkinje and the Purkinje potentials respectively. Catheter ablation is the preferred choice of therapy in patients with fascicular VT. Ablation is carried out during tachycardia, using conventional mapping techniques in majority of the patients, while three dimensional mapping and sinus rhythm ablation is reserved for patients with nonmappable tachycardia.
Levin, H S; Meyers, C A; Grossman, R G; Sarwar, M
To study the relationship between enlargement of the cerebral ventricles and neuropsychological deficit after closed head injury (CHI), we measured the area of the lateral ventricles on computed tomographic scans obtained at least 30 days after severe CHI in 32 young adults and a control group of similar age. Enlargement of the lateral ventricles was demonstrated in 72% of the head-injured subjects, as defined by the ventricle-brain percent ratio (VBR). Ventricular dilation was related to the duration of coma after high-speed motor vehicle accidents and to intellectual and memory defects. The VBR may be a useful index of the severity of brain damage in certain categories of head-injured patients.
Marano, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Alberto U
In response to an increased afterload, the myocardium undergoes a complex adaptation by which wall stress is normalized and cardiac output is maintained. Although the consensus suggests that the increase of the myocardial mass is a necessary adaptive process to accommodate the increased workload, there is growing evidence that hypertrophy ultimately results in pathological remodeling and deterioration of cardiac function. Despite intense investigation, our understanding of the cellular mechanisms that are responsible for the initiation and the maintenance of this adaptation is largely incomplete and preventing or regressing left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a major challenge. This chapter provides a detailed description of the procedures necessary to induce LVH by coarctation of the transverse aorta and to analyze the effects of the increased hemodynamic load on cardiac mass, cardiomyocyte size, and cardiac performance.
PETERS, CARLI; WACKER-GUSSMANN, ANNETTE; STRASBURGER, JANETTE F; CUNEO, BETTINA F; GOTTEINER, NINA; GULECYUZ, MEHEMET; WAKAI, RONALD T
Objective Congenital ventricular wall defects are very rare and include congenital ventricular aneurysms (CVAs) and diverticula (CVDs). Method We report a series of five fetuses: three with CVAs and two with CVDs referred due to fetal arrhythmia. In addition to routine fetal echocardiography, fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) was used. The literature in CVA and CVD is reviewed. Results Incessant premature ventricular contractions (PVC), mainly bigeminy and trigeminy were found in three fetuses with CVAs and in one with CVD, who also had ventricular couplets. The other fetus with CVD, referred because of PVCs, had only sinus tachycardia. ST elevation was noted in two. Fetal movement had a variable impact on PVC’s. Postnatal evaluation demonstrated two persistent left ventricular aneurysms and one persistent right CVD; one CVD resolved at 35 weeks gestation. Two neonates had incessant PVCs. Both arrhythmias resolved spontaneously while being treated with propranolol. Conclusion FMCG is complementary to echocardiographic imaging. In fetuses with left ventricular wall defects, additional electrophysiological diagnosis can be made by fMCG, including the complexity of ventricular ectopy, arrhythmic response to fetal movement, presence of ST-T wave abnormalities, and atrial amplitude increases. Prenatal risk factor assessment using fMCG can additionally support post-natal treatment and follow-up. PMID:25284224
Garza-García, Carlos; Rocío, Sánchez-Santillán; Orea-Tejeda, Arturo; Castillo-Martínez, Lilia; Eduardo, Canseco; López-Campos, José Luis; Keirns-Davis, Candace
Objective. The aim of the study was to describe echocardiographic abnormalities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, concurrent systemic comorbidities, rheumatologic clinical activity, serologic markers of rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory activity. Methods. In an observational, cross-sectional study, rheumatoid arthritis outpatients were included (n = 105). Conventional transthoracic echocardiographic variables were compared between patients with arthritis and non-RA controls (n = 41). For rheumatoid arthritis patients, articular activity and rheumatologic and inflammatory markers were obtained. Results. Ventricular dysfunction was found in 54.3% of the population: systolic (18.1%), diastolic (32.4%), and/or right (24.8%), with lower ejection fraction (P < 0.0001). Pulmonary hypertension was found in 46.9%. Other echocardiographic findings included increased left atrial diameter (P = 0.01), aortic diameter (P = 0.01), ventricular septum (P = 0.01), left ventricular posterior wall (P = 0.013), and right ventricular (P = 0.01) and atrial diameters compared to control subjects. Rheumatoid factor and anti-CCP antibodies levels were significantly elevated in cases with ventricular dysfunction. Angina and myocardial infarction, diabetes, and dyslipidemia were the main risk factors for ventricular dysfunction. Conclusions. Ventricular dysfunction is common in rheumatoid arthritis and associated with longer disease duration and increased serologic markers of rheumatoid arthritis. Screening for cardiac abnormalities should be considered in this kind of patients.
Gates, Phillip E; Campbell, Ian G; George, Keith P
The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that upper body aerobically trained athletes (kayak canoeists) would have greater left ventricular wall thickness, but similar left ventricular diastolic chamber dimensions, compared with recreationally active and sedentary men. Ultrasound echocardiography was used to determine cardiac structure and function in highly trained kayak canoeists (n = 10), moderately active (n = 10) and sedentary men (n = 10). The septal and posterior left ventricular walls were approximately 0.2 cm thicker in kayak canoeists (P < 0.05), and left ventricular mass was 51% and 32% greater (P < 0.05) in canoeists than in the sedentary and moderately trained participants, respectively. There were no differences in left ventricular chamber dimension, suggesting that the kayak canoeists had a concentric pattern of left ventricular adaptation to aerobic upper body training. Scaling the data to body composition indices had no effect on the outcome of the statistical analysis. There were no differences in resting Doppler left ventricular diastolic or systolic function among the groups. Ejection fraction was lower in the kayak canoeists, but the magnitude of the difference was within the normal variability for this measurement. Thus aerobically upper body trained athletes demonstrated a concentric pattern of cardiac enlargement, but resting left ventricle function was not different between athletes, moderately active and sedentary individuals.
Schelbert, H R; Verba, J W; Johnson, A D; Brock, G W; Alazraki, N P; Rose, F J; Ashburn, W L
Previous reports have suggested that left ventricular ejection fraction can be assessed by recording the passage of peripherally administered radioactive bolus through the heart. The accuracy and validity of this technique were examined in 20 patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization. 99m-Tc-human serum albumin was injected via a central venous catheter into the superior vena cava and precordial activity recorded with a gamma scintillation camera interfaced to a small digital computer. A computer program was designed to generate time-activity curves from the left ventricular blood pool and to calculate left ventricular ejection fractions from the cyclic fluctuations of the left ventricular time-activity curve which correspond to left ventricular volume changes during each cardiac cycle. The results correlated well with those obtained by biplane cineangiocardiography (r equals 0.94) and indicated that the technique should allow accurate and reproducible determination of left ventricular ejection fraction. The findings, however, demonstrated that the time-activity curve must be generated from a region-of-interest which fits the left ventricular blood pool precisely and must be corrected for contributions arising from noncardiac background structures. This nontraumatic and potentially noninvasive technique appears particularly useful for serial evaluation of the acutely ill patient and for follow-up studies in nonhospitalized patients.
Garza-García, Carlos; Rocío, Sánchez-Santillán; Orea-Tejeda, Arturo; Castillo-Martínez, Lilia; Eduardo, Canseco; López-Campos, José Luis; Keirns-Davis, Candace
Objective. The aim of the study was to describe echocardiographic abnormalities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, concurrent systemic comorbidities, rheumatologic clinical activity, serologic markers of rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory activity. Methods. In an observational, cross-sectional study, rheumatoid arthritis outpatients were included (n = 105). Conventional transthoracic echocardiographic variables were compared between patients with arthritis and non-RA controls (n = 41). For rheumatoid arthritis patients, articular activity and rheumatologic and inflammatory markers were obtained. Results. Ventricular dysfunction was found in 54.3% of the population: systolic (18.1%), diastolic (32.4%), and/or right (24.8%), with lower ejection fraction (P < 0.0001). Pulmonary hypertension was found in 46.9%. Other echocardiographic findings included increased left atrial diameter (P = 0.01), aortic diameter (P = 0.01), ventricular septum (P = 0.01), left ventricular posterior wall (P = 0.013), and right ventricular (P = 0.01) and atrial diameters compared to control subjects. Rheumatoid factor and anti-CCP antibodies levels were significantly elevated in cases with ventricular dysfunction. Angina and myocardial infarction, diabetes, and dyslipidemia were the main risk factors for ventricular dysfunction. Conclusions. Ventricular dysfunction is common in rheumatoid arthritis and associated with longer disease duration and increased serologic markers of rheumatoid arthritis. Screening for cardiac abnormalities should be considered in this kind of patients. PMID:24368945
Moreira, Davide; Delgado, Anne; Marmelo, Bruno; Correia, Emanuel; Gama, Pedro; Pipa, João; Nunes, Luís; Santos, Oliveira
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, also known as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, is a condition in which myocardium is replaced by fibrous or fibrofatty tissue, predominantly in the right ventricle. It is clinically characterized by potentially lethal ventricular arrhythmias, and is a leading cause of sudden cardiac death. Its prevalence is not known exactly but is estimated at approximately 1:5000 in the adult population. Diagnosis can be on the basis of structural and functional alterations of the right ventricle, electrocardiographic abnormalities (including depolarization and repolarization alterations and ventricular arrhythmias) and family history. Diagnostic criteria facilitate the recognition and interpretation of non-specific clinical features of this disease. The authors present a case in which the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy was prompted by the suspicion of right ventricular disease on transthoracic echocardiography. This was confirmed by detection of epsilon waves on analysis of the ECG, which generally go unnoticed but in this case were the key to the diagnosis. Their presence was also shown by non-conventional ECG techniques such as modified Fontaine ECG. The course of the disease culminated in the occurrence of ventricular tachycardia, which prompted placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.
Rocco, T.P.; Dilsizian, V.; Fischman, A.J.; Strauss, H.W.
The recent expansion of interventional cardiovascular technologies has stimulated a concomitant expansion of noninvasive cardiac studies, both to assist in diagnosis and to evaluate treatment outcomes. Radionuclide ventricular function studies provide a reliable, reproducible means to quantify global left ventricular systolic performance, a critical determinant of prognosis in patients with cardiovascular disease. In addition, the ability to evaluate regional left ventricular wall motion and to assess ventricular performance during exercise have secured a fundamental role for such studies in the screening and treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. Radionuclide techniques have been extended to the evaluation of left ventricular relaxation/filling events, left ventricular systolic/diastolic function in the ambulatory setting, and with appropriate technical modifications, to the assessment of right ventricular performance at rest and with exercise. As a complement to radionuclide perfusion studies, cardiac blood-pool imaging allows for thorough noninvasive description of cardiac physiology and function in both normal subjects and in patients with a broad range of cardiovascular diseases. 122 references.
Tejera-Jurado, Luis Carlos; Nava, Santiago; Colín-Lizalde, Luis; Márquez, Manlio F; Gómez-Flores, Jorge; González-Hermosillo, Jesús Antonio; Iturralde-Torres, Pedro
Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia is identified in 10% of the patients presenting with ventricular tachycardia, and they consist of various subtypes that can originate from different areas, including the aortic cusps which represent 0.7% of the total. Electrocardiographically, these ventricular tachycardias display a left bundle branch block pattern and inferior axis, and although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis with tachycardias originating from the septal region of the right ventricular outflow tract, which comprise 80% of the idiopathic ventricular tachycardias. Despite the vicinity of the left coronary artery ostium, radiofrequency catheter ablation can be curative in more than 90% of cases with a low risk (< 1% of serious complication). Therefore, it must be considered first-line therapy in patients who have failed or are intolerant to therapy with antiarrhythmic agents. The aim of this article is to describe the first case reported in Mexico of a successful ablation idiopathic ventricular tachycardia from the aortic sinus cusp in a patient with incessant ventricular tachycardia.
Vakil, Kairav; Minami, Elina; Fishbein, Daniel P
A 55-year-old woman with a history of complete heart block, atrial flutter, and progressive right ventricular failure was referred to our tertiary care center to be evaluated for cardiac transplantation. The patient's clinical course included worsening right ventricular dysfunction for 3 years before the current evaluation. Our clinical findings raised concerns about arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Noninvasive imaging, including a positron emission tomographic scan, did not reveal obvious myocardial pathologic conditions. Given the end-stage nature of the patient's right ventricular failure and her dependence on inotropic agents, she underwent urgent listing and subsequent heart transplantation. Pathologic examination of the explanted heart revealed isolated right ventricular sarcoidosis with replacement fibrosis. Biopsy samples of the cardiac allograft 6 months after transplantation showed no recurrence of sarcoidosis. This atypical presentation of isolated cardiac sarcoidosis posed a considerable diagnostic challenge. In addition to discussing the patient's case, we review the relevant medical literature and discuss the need for updated differential diagnostic criteria for end-stage right ventricular failure that mimics arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.
Chiale, Pablo A; Etcheverry, Daniel; Pastori, Julio D; Fernández, Pablo A; Garro, Hugo A; González, Mario D; Elizari, Marcelo V
T wave “memory” is a peculiar variety of cardiac remodeling caused by a transient change in the course of ventricular depolarization (due to ventricular pacing, rate-dependent intraventricular block, ventricular preexcitation or tachyarrhythmias with wide QRS complexes). It is usually manifested by inverted T waves that appears when normal ventricular activation is restored. This phenomenon is cumulative and occurs earlier if the ventricular myocardium has previously been exposed to the same conditioning stimuli. In this article the different conditions giving rise to “classical” T wave memory development are reviewed and also “another” type of T wave memory is described. It is also shown that cardiac memory may induce not only negative (pseudo-primary) T waves but also a reversal of primary and pseudo-primary T waves leading to “normalization” of ventricular repolarization. The knowledge of these dissimilar consequences of T wave memory is essential to assess the characteristics of ventricular repolarization. PMID:24827802
Kolwicz, Stephen C; MacDonnell, Scott M; Renna, Brian F; Reger, Patricia O; Seqqat, Rachid; Rafiq, Khadija; Kendrick, Zebulon V; Houser, Steven R; Sabri, Abdelkarim; Libonati, Joseph R
We investigated how exercise training superimposed on chronic hypertension impacted left ventricular remodeling. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, apoptosis, and proliferation in hearts from female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were examined. Four-month-old SHR animals were placed into a sedentary group (SHR-SED; n = 18) or a treadmill running group (SHR-TRD, 20 m/min, 1 h/day, 5 days/wk, 12 wk; n = 18). Age-matched, sedentary Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were controls (n = 18). Heart weight was greater in SHR-TRD vs. both WKY (P < 0.01) and SHR-SED (P < 0.05). Morphometric-derived left ventricular anterior, posterior, and septal wall thickness were increased in SHR-SED relative to WKY and augmented in SHR-TRD. Cardiomyocyte surface area, length, and width were increased in SHR-SED relative to WKY and further increased in SHR-TRD. Calcineurin abundance was increased in SHR-SED vs. WKY (P < 0.001) and attenuated in SHR-TRD relative to SHR-SED (P < 0.05). Protein abundance and mRNA of Akt was not different among groups. The rate of apoptosis was increased in SHR-SED relative to WKY and mitigated in SHR-TRD. The abundance of Ki-67(+) cells across groups was not statistically different across groups. The abundance of cardiac progenitor cells (c-Kit(+) cells) was increased in SHR-TRD relative to WKY. These data suggest that exercise training superimposed on hypertension augmented cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, despite attenuating calcineurin abundance. Exercise training also mitigated apoptosis in hypertension and showed a tendency to enhance the abundance of cardiac progenitor cells, resulting in a more favorable cardiomyocyte number in the exercise-trained hypertensive heart.
Hastings, Harold M.; Evans, Steven J.; Fenton, Flavio H.; Garfinkel, Alan
It is widely believed that reentrant ventricular tachycardia arises when a spiral wave of activation takes over and drives the ventricle at a rate significantly faster than sinus rhythm, and that ventricular fibrillation (VF), a spatio-temporally disorganized form of cardiac activity leading to sudden cardiac death, arises when this spiral breaks down into multiple offspring. Many authors have found that VF displays significant spatial and temporal organization. The purpose of this research is to quantify time scales and temporal and spatial variability in VF. Surface electrograms were obtained from a stable canine model of VF (cf. Nwasokwa and Bodenheimer, Am. J. Physiol. 253, H643 (1987)). These electrograms were analyzed to identify activation times to an accuracy of 1 ms (cf. Garfinkel et al., J. Clin. Invest. 99, 305 (1997)), yielded eighteen usable series, each containing over 1024 intervactivation intervals, two or three from widely spaced sites per episode of VF, 7 total episodes in 4 animals. Spatial and long-term (60 - 120 sec) temporal variability were analyzed and compared by ANOVA techniques (Evans et al., Proc. Royal Soc. B265, 2167 (1998)). In 6 of 7 episodes, spatial variability among sites was statistically more significant than variability between the first and second halves of each series. More recently, Fourier analysis of these series found three distinct scaling regions, with power law dynamics in each and break points of ca. 1 sec and 4 sec. Finally, there was significant variability in the fraction of "short" interactivation intervals (lasting < 60 of 125 ms) among sites. Together these results suggest variability in physiological properties among sites and consequent variability in spiral wave dynamics among sites.
Kalvakuri, Kavitha; Banga, Sandeep; Upalakalin, Nalinee; Shaw, Crystal; Davila, Wilmer Fernando; Mungee, Sudhir
Metastatic cardiac tumors are more common than the primary cardiac tumors. Cervical cancer metastasizing outside of the pelvis is commonly spread to the lungs, liver, bones and lymph nodes than to the heart. Right-sided metastasis to the heart is more common than to the left side. Intramural spread is more common than intracavitary growth of metastatic cardiac tumors leading to delayed clinical presentation. Intracavitary mass can be confused with intracavitary thrombus which can be seen in the setting of pulmonary embolism. Transthoracic echocardiography plays a major role in the decision making and management of pulmonary embolism, and this modality can also be used to diagnose cardiac masses. Other modalities like TEE, cardiac CT, cardiac MRI and PET-CT scan have further utility in delineating these masses. This may help to plan appropriate management of the right ventricular mass particularly in cases where the patient history and CT pulmonary angiography results favor the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman with a history of supracervical hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy on oral estrogen therapy who was admitted with complaints of pleuritic chest pain and respiratory insufficiency after a long flight. Initial work-up showed sub-segmental pulmonary embolus in the right posterior lower lobe pulmonary artery, and the patient was managed on intravenous heparin. Lack of appropriate response to standard therapy led to further evaluation. Multimodality imaging and biopsies revealed a large right intracavitary ventricular metastatic squamous cell tumor, with the cervix as the primary source. PMID:27406457
McKellar, Stephen H; Javan, Hadi; Bowen, Megan E; Liu, Xiaoquing; Schaaf, Christin L; Briggs, Casey M; Zou, Huashan; Gomez, Arnold David; Abdullah, Osama M; Hsu, Ed W; Selzman, Craig H
Heart failure is a leading cause of death but very little is known about right ventricular (RV) failure (RVF) and right ventricular recovery (RVR). A robust animal model of reversible, RVF does not exist, which currently limits research opportunities and clinical progress. We sought to develop an animal model of reversible, pressure-overload RVF to study RVF and RVR. Fifteen New Zealand rabbits underwent implantation of a fully implantable, adjustable, pulmonary artery band. Animals were assigned to the control, RVF, and RVR groups (n = 5 for each). For the RVF and RVR groups, the pulmonary artery bands were serially tightened to create RVF and released for RVR. Echocardiographic, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and histologic analysis were performed. RV chamber size and wall thickness increased during RVF and regressed during RVR. RV volumes were 1023 μL ± 123 for control, 2381 μL ± 637 for RVF, and 635 μL ± 549 for RVR, and RV wall thicknesses were 0.98 mm ± 0.12 for controls (P = 0.05), 1.72 mm ± 0.60 for RVF, and 1.16 mm ± 0.03 for RVR animals (P = 0.04), respectively. Similarly, heart weight, liver weight, cardiomyocyte size, and the degree of cardiac and hepatic fibrosis increased with RVF and decreased during RVR. We report an animal model of chronic, reversible, pressure-overload RVF to study RVF and RVR. This model will be used for preclinical studies that improve our understanding of the mechanisms of RVF and that develop and test RV protective and RVR strategies to be studied later in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
La Gerche, Andre; Roberts, Timothy J.; Prior, David L.; MacIsaac, Andrew I.; Burns, Andrew T.
Abstract Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is a well-described complication of systemic hypertension. However, less is known regarding the effect of chronic pressure overload on right ventricular (RV) diastolic function. We hypothesized that pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is associated with abnormal RV early relaxation and that this would be best shown by invasive pressure measurement. Twenty-five patients undergoing right heart catheterization for investigation of breathlessness and/or suspected PHT were studied. In addition to standard measurements, RV pressure was sampled with a high-fidelity micromanometer, and RV pressure/time curves were analyzed. Patients were divided into a PHT group and a non-PHT group on the basis of a derived mean pulmonary artery systolic pressure of 25 mmHg. Eleven patients were classified to the PHT group. This group had significantly higher RV minimum diastolic pressure ( vs. mmHg, ) and RV end-diastolic pressure (RVEDP; vs. mmHg, ), and RV τ was significantly prolonged ( vs. ms, ). There were strong correlations between RV τ and RV minimum diastolic pressure (, ) and between RV τ and RVEDP (, ). There was a trend toward increased RV contractility (end-systolic elastance) in the PHT group ( vs. mmHg/mL, ) and a correlation between RV systolic pressure and first derivative of maximum pressure change (, ). Stroke volumes were similar. Invasive measures of RV early relaxation are abnormal in patients with PHT, whereas measured contractility is static or increasing, which suggests that diastolic dysfunction may precede systolic dysfunction. Furthermore, there is a strong association between measures of RV relaxation and RV filling pressures. PMID:26064464
Liu, Yaowu; Fang, Zhen; Yang, Bing; Kojodjojo, Pipin; Chen, Hongwu; Ju, Weizhu; Cao, Kejiang; Chen, Minglong
Background— Fascicular ventricular tachycardia (FVT) is a common form of sustained idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia with an Asian preponderance. This study aimed to prospectively investigate long-term clinical outcomes of patients undergoing ablation of FVT and identify predictors of arrhythmia recurrence. Methods and Results— Consecutive patients undergoing FVT ablation at a single tertiary center were enrolled. Activation mapping was performed to identify the earliest presystolic Purkinje potential during FVT that was targeted by radiofrequency ablation. Follow-up with clinic visits, ECG, and Holter monitoring was performed at least every 6 months. A total of 120 consecutive patients (mean age, 29.3±12.7 years; 82% men; all patients with normal ejection fraction) were enrolled. FVT involved left posterior fascicle and left anterior fascicle in 118 and 2 subjects, respectively. VT was noninducible in 3 patients, and ablation was acutely successful in 117 patients. With a median follow-up of 55.7 months, VT of a similar ECG morphology recurred in 17 patients, and repeat procedure confirmed FVT recurrence involving the same fascicle. Shorter VT cycle length was the only significant predictor of FVT recurrence (P=0.03). Six other patients developed new-onset upper septal FVT that was successfully ablated. Conclusions— Ablation of FVT guided by activation mapping is associated with a single procedural success rate without the use of antiarrhythmic drugs of 80.3%. Arrhythmia recurrences after an initially successful ablation were caused by recurrent FVT involving the same fascicle in two thirds of patients or new onset of upper septal FVT in the remainder. PMID:26386017
Rudhani, Ibrahim Destan; Bajraktari, Gani; Kryziu, Emrush; Zylfiu, Bejtush; Sadiku, Shemsedin; Elezi, Ymer; Rexhepaj, Nehat; Vitia, Arber; Emini, Merita; Abazi, Murat; Berbatovci-Ukimeraj, M; Kryeziu, Kaltrina; Hsanagjekaj, Venera; Korca, Hajrije; Ukimeri, Aferdita
The aim of this prospective study was the assessment of left ventricular and right ventricular diastolic function in patients on hemodialysis (HD) and the correlation of this function with the duration of HD. The study included 42 patients (22 females and 20 males) with chronic renal failure (CRF), treated with HD, and 40 healthy subjects (24 females and 16 males) with no history of cardiovascular disease and with normal renal function, who constituted the control group. The groups were matched for age and sex. All study patients and control subjects underwent detailed history taking and physical examination. They also underwent electrocardiogram, echocardiography and biochemical and hematological blood analyses. Significant differences were noted between the two groups in the two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography findings concerning aortic root dimension, transverse diameter of the left atrium, thickness of the interventricular septum, thickness of the left ventricular posterior wall, left ventricular diastolic diameter, left ventricular systolic diameter, shortening fraction, ejection fraction as well as findings from the pulse Doppler study, including E wave, A wave, E/A ratio, deceleration time of E wave (DT-E), acceleration time of E wave (AT-E), tricuspid E and A waves (E tr and A tr ) and E tr /A tr , ratio. There were significant changes in HD patients without arterial hypertension as well in the control group subjects. Our study suggests that the left ventricular and left atrial dimensions as well as the left ventricular wall thickness are augmented in patients with CRF treated with HD compared with the control group. Additionally, the left and right ventricular diastolic function is also reduced in these patients. These differences were also noted in patients with CRF without arterial hypertension. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction had no correlation with the duration of HD.
Costa, A M; Maia, I G; Cruz Filho, F; Fagundes, M L; Sá, R; Alves, P
To evaluate some features of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with mitral valve prolapse. We studied 25 patients (female: 19; mean age: 37 +/- 13 years) with ventricular arrhythmias, mitral valve prolapse and normal ventricular function. All patients underwent a 24h Holter and high resolution ECG (HRECG). The Qtc intervals were measured in lead II (normal < 0.44 s). In order to define the possible origin of the ventricular focus, the morphology of the ectopic beats were analysed in leads I, II, aVF, V1 using the following criteria: 1) LBBB morphology with left axis deviation in the frontal plane (FP): origin at the inflow tract of the right ventricle (RV); 2) LBBB morphology with right axis deviation in the FP: origin at the outflow tract of the RV; 3) RBBB morphology with left axis deviation in the FP: origin at the posterior region of the left ventricle (LV). RBBB morphology with right axis deviation in the FP: origin at the anterior region of the LV. Twenty three (92%) patients showed > 720 isolated ventricular ectopic beats/24 h. Paired ventricular response was detected in 18 (72%) patients and non-sustained VT in 15 (60%). HRECG was positive in six (24%) patients and Qtc interval was prolonged in 13 (52%). RV was the site of origin of the ventricular ectopic beats in 85% of the patients (outflow: 85%; inflow: 15%). Only five (20%) patients had arrhythmias from the LV. There was a high incidence of ventricular arrhythmias with a low incidence of positive HRECG tests, suggesting that the mechanisms of the arrhythmias do not correlate with slow intramyocardial conduction. It was noted a strong association between mitral valve prolapse, arrhythmogenic right ventricular disease and Qtc prolongation. It is possible that in some of this patients the finding could represent a global myocardial disease.
Kaya, Mehmet Gungor; Yalcin, Ridvan; Ozin, Bulent; Altunkan, Sekip; Cengel, Atiye
A 19-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain. Aside from epigastric tenderness, the patient's physical examination was unremarkable. She developed ventricular tachycardia with left bundle branch block morphology shortly after admission. Echocardiography revealed a thin, enlarged, and hypokinetic right ventricle. Electron beam computed tomography demonstrated hypodense areas in the right ventricular free wall suggestive of fatty infiltration, which suggested arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. The diagnosis was confirmed with the use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The patient received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. This case illustrates a noncardiac presentation of a rare yet treatable cardiac condition.
Fukushima, Akimune; Nakai, Kenji; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Strasburger, Janette; Sugiyama, Toru
We describe polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) diagnosed using fetal magnetocardiography (FMCG). The fetus of a 33-year-old Japanese female at 24 weeks of pregnancy was diagnosed as bradycardia (60 beats/min) by fetal cardiotocography (CTG). Ultrasound findings indicated a diagnosis of an atrioventricular (AV) block involving extrasystole, but FMCG revealed a polymorphic VT followed by ventricular asystole. Standard ECG immediately after cesarean section at 37 weeks of pregnancy confirmed long QT syndrome followed by nonsustained polymorphic VT and an advanced AV block with wide QRS. Echocardiography demonstrated moderate left ventricular dysfunction in the neonate requiring implantation with a permanent pacemaker.
Wang, X X; Song, Z Z
A 55-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of chest distress, associated with activity. Two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) demonstrated a suspected trabeculation versus false tendon of the left ventricular apex cordis but not meeting the diagnostic criteria of noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium (NVM). Threedimensional echocardiography (3DE) revealed more prominent trabeculations and deeper intertrabecular recesses of the left ventricular apex, which were consistent with the diagnostic criteria of NVM. In contrast to 2DE, 3DE provides wide, pyramid-shaped datasets that encompass the entire left ventricle. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:208-10.).
Hanaoka, Yousuke; Misumi, Ikuo; Rokutanda, Taku; Akahoshi, Ryuichiro; Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Kaikita, Koichi; Yamamuro, Megumi; Sugiyama, Seigo; Ogawa, Hisao
A 70-year-old man was diagnosed with mid-ventricular obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (MVOHCM) with apical aneurysm and paradoxic jet flow. At cardiac catheterization, pressure study showed that there was a markedly high pressure-gradient of 90 mmHg between the apex and the base in systole. Apical pressure was 350 mmHg after premature ventricular contraction. The apical aneurysm was already dilated and spherical in late systole; the absence of active relaxation was considered to be the cause of the paradoxic jet flow. In this report, we suggest the pathogenesis of left ventricular apical aneurysm and paradoxic jet flow in MVOHCM.
Vamos, Mate; Bogyi, Peter; Duray, Gabor Z; Nyolczas, Noemi; Hohnloser, Stefan H
A patient with ischaemic cardiomyopathy received a secondary prevention VVI implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) after an episode of sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT). Because of recurrent VTs transmitted via CareLink, medical therapy was optimized and VT ablation was performed. Subsequently, a fast VT with a typical short-long-short initiation developed. In addition, there was an increasing need for ventricular pacing due to sinus bradycardia. This new type of VT could be successfully dealt with by upgrading to DDD ICD and activating the Ventricular Rate Stabilization algorithm.
Wijnmaalen, Adrianus P; Zeppenfeld, Katja
Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is an important treatment modality to prevent ventricular tachycardia (VT) recurrence in patients with repaired congenital heart disease. Identification and ablation of anatomic isthmuses has improved acute ablation outcome with excellent VT-free survival in those with preserved biventricular function. Reports on RFCA for VT in patients with infiltrative disease are sparse and cardiac sarcoidosis seems to be the most prevalent cause for ventricular arrhythmia. Patients with active and ongoing inflammation are at high risk for VT recurrence. RFCA reduces the number of VT but often multiple procedures are required and long-term VT-free survival is unfavorable in those with left ventricular dysfunction.
Burkett, Dale A; Slorach, Cameron; Patel, Sonali S; Redington, Andrew N; Ivy, D Dunbar; Mertens, Luc; Younoszai, Adel K; Friedberg, Mark K
Through ventricular interdependence, pulmonary hypertension (PH) induces left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. We hypothesized that LV strain/strain rate, surrogate measures of myocardial contractility, are reduced in pediatric PH and relate to invasive hemodynamics, right ventricular strain, and functional measures of PH. At 2 institutions, echocardiography was prospectively performed in 54 pediatric PH patients during cardiac catheterization, and in 54 matched controls. Patients with PH had reduced LV global longitudinal strain (LS; -18.8 [-17.3 to -20.4]% versus -20.2 [-19.0 to -20.9]%; P=0.0046) predominantly because of reduced basal (-12.9 [-10.8 to -16.3]% versus -17.9 [-14.5 to -20.7]%; P<0.0001) and mid (-17.5 [-15.5 to -19.0]% versus -21.1 [-19.1 to -23.0]%; P<0.0001) septal strain. Basal global circumferential strain was reduced (-18.7 [-15.7 to -22.1]% versus -20.6 [-19.0 to -22.5]%; P=0.0098), as were septal and free-wall segments. Mid circumferential strain was reduced within the free-wall. Strain rates were reduced in similar patterns. Basal septum LS, the combined average LS of basal and mid interventricular septal segments, correlated strongly with degree of PH (r=0.66; P<0.0001), pulmonary vascular resistance (r=0.60; P<0.0001), and right ventricular free-wall LS (r=0.64; P<0.0001). Brain natriuretic peptide levels correlated moderately with septal LS (r=0.48; P=0.0038). PH functional class correlated moderately with LV free-wall LS (r=-0.48; P=0.0051). The septum, shared between ventricles and affected by septal shift, was the most affected LV region in PH. Pediatric PH patients demonstrate reduced LV strain/strain rate, predominantly within the septum, with relationships to invasive hemodynamics, right ventricular strain, and functional PH measures. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Burkett, Dale A; Slorach, Cameron; Patel, Sonali S; Redington, Andrew N; Ivy, D Dunbar; Mertens, Luc; Younoszai, Adel K; Friedberg, Mark K
Through ventricular interdependence, pulmonary hypertension (PH) induces left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. We hypothesized that pediatric PH patients have LV diastolic dysfunction, related to adverse pulmonary hemodynamics, leftward septal shift, and prolonged right ventricular systole. Echocardiography was prospectively performed at 2 institutions in 54 pediatric PH patients during cardiac catheterization and in 54 matched controls. Diastolic LV measures including myocardial deformation were assessed by echocardiography. PH patients had evidence of LV diastolic dysfunction, most consistent with impaired LV relaxation, though some features of reduced ventricular compliance were present. PH patients demonstrated the following: reduced mitral E velocity and inflow duration, mitral E' and E'/A', septal E' and A', pulmonary vein S and D wave velocities, and LV basal global early diastolic circumferential strain rate and increased mitral E deceleration time, LV isovolumic relaxation time, mitral E/E', and pulmonary vein A wave duration. PH patients demonstrated leftward septal shift and prolonged right ventricular systole, both known to affect LV diastole. These changes were exacerbated in severe PH. There were no statistically significant differences in diastolic measures between patients with and without a shunt and minimal differences between patients with and without congenital heart disease. Multiple echocardiographic LV diastolic parameters demonstrated weak-to-moderate correlations with invasively determined PH severity, leftward septal shift, and prolonged right ventricular systole. Pediatric PH patients exhibit LV diastolic dysfunction most consistent with impaired relaxation and reduced myocardial deformation, related to invasive hemodynamics, leftward septal shift, and prolonged right ventricular systole. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Wang, Yao; Gao, Chang-Qing; Wang, Gang; Shen, Yan-Song
Surgical ventricular restoration (SVR) has been performed to treat left ventricular (LV) aneurysm. However, there is limited analysis of changes in LV shape. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in LV shape induced by SVR and the effects of SVR on LV size and function for LV aneurysm. Between April 2006 and March 2015, 18 patients with dyskinetic (dyskinetic group) and 12 patients with akinetic (akinetic group) postinfarction LV anterior aneurysm receiving SVR with the Dor procedure at Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital were enrolled in this study. A retrospective analysis was carried out using data from the echocardiography database. LV shape was analyzed by calculating the apical conicity index (ACI). LV end-diastolic volume index, end-systolic volume index, and ejection fraction (EF) were measured. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare means at different time points within each group. Within one week after SVR, LV shape became more conical in the two groups (ACI decreased from 0.84 ± 0.13 to 0.69 ± 0.11 [t = 5.155, P = 0.000] in dyskinetic group and from 0.73 ± 0.07 to 0.60 ± 0.11 [t = 2.701, P = 0.026] in akinetic group; LV volumes were decreased significantly and became closer to normal values and EF was improved significantly in the two groups). On follow-up at least one year, LV shape remained unchanged in dyskinetic group (ACI increased from 0.69 ± 0.11 to 0.74 ± 0.12, t = -1.109, P = 0.294), but became more spherical in akinetic group (ACI significantly increased from 0.60 ± 0.11 to 0.75 ± 0.11, t = -1.880, P = 0.047); LV volumes remained unchanged in dyskinetic group, but increased significantly in akinetic group and EF remained unchanged in the two groups. SVR could reshape LV to a more conical shape and a more normal size and improve LV function significantly early after the procedure in patients with dyskinetic or akinetic postinfarction LV anterior aneurysm. However, LV tends to be more spherical and enlarged in
Briceño, David F; Romero, Jorge; Gianni, Carola; Mohanty, Sanghamitra; Villablanca, Pedro A; Natale, Andrea; Di Biase, Luigi
Ventricular arrhythmias are a frequent cause of mortality in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Scar-related reentry represents the most common arrhythmia substrate in patients with recurrent episodes of sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT). Initial mapping of scar-related VT circuits is focused on identifying arrhythmogenic tissue. The substrate-based strategies include targeting late potentials, scar dechanneling, local abnormal ventricular activities, core isolation, and homogenization of the scar. Even though substrate-based strategies for VT ablation have shown promising outcomes for patients with structural heart disease related to ischemic cardiomyopathy, the data are scarce for patients with nonischemic substrates.
Philipsen, Tine E; Vermeulen, Tom; Conraads, Viviane M; Rodrigus, Inez E
The left ventricular apical core biopsy performed during implantation of a left ventricular assist device (VAD) is a well-known diagnostic procedure in confirming cardiomyopathies leading to end-stage heart failure. We describe a patient in whom disseminated malignancy was revealed by means of the apical core biopsy after extracorporeal life support and left ventricular assist device implantation as a bridge to transplantation. This case emphasizes the importance of thorough oncological screening before VAD implantation and the possible consequences of circulating tumour cells in this device-assisted circulation.
Babokin, Vadim; Shipulin, Vladimir; Batalov, Roman; Popov, Sergey
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel approach for endocardectomy during coronary artery bypass graft with surgical ventricular restoration in patients with postinfarction left ventricular aneurysm. One hundred sixty-eight patients underwent coronary artery bypass graft with surgical ventricular restoration from 2005 to 2011. Endocardectomy was performed as an integral part of surgical ventricular restoration for the prevention of ventricular tachycardia. The experimental group (surgical ventricular restoration-endocardectomy group; n = 74) underwent preoperative electrophysiologic study with electroanatomic left ventricular mapping. Radiofrequency ablation-induced markings were placed and were used later as guides for performing endocardectomy during coronary artery bypass graft with surgical ventricular restoration. The control group (surgical ventricular restoration group; n = 94) underwent surgical ventricular restoration without endocardectomy. The 1-year mortality rates in the surgical ventricular restoration-endocardectomy and surgical ventricular restoration (control) groups were 5% and 13%, respectively. During the postoperative period, 3% of patients in the surgical ventricular restoration-endocardectomy group and 38% of patients in the surgical ventricular restoration group experienced ventricular tachycardia events (P < .05). Automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators were implanted in 11 patients in the surgical ventricular restoration group and in 1 patient of the surgical ventricular restoration-endocardectomy group for secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. When performed as an integral part of surgical ventricular restoration, endocardectomy was crucial in preventing postoperative ventricular tachycardia. Use of radiofrequency ablation-induced markings allowed clear visualization of the reentry zones for efficient endocardectomy during coronary artery bypass graft with surgical ventricular
Morin, Daniel P; Mauer, Andreas C; Gear, Kathleen; Zareba, Wojciech; Markowitz, Steven M; Marcus, Frank I; Lerman, Bruce B
The 2 predominant causes of ventricular tachycardia (VT) arising from the right ventricle are arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and idiopathic VT arising from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). These arrhythmias can be adrenergically mediated and may be difficult to distinguish clinically. A minor criterion for the diagnosis of ARVC is T-wave inversion (TWI) in the right precordial leads during sinus rhythm. However, there have been reports of precordial TWI identified in patients with RVOT tachycardia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patterns of precordial TWI could differentiate between the 2 groups. A multicenter registry of 229 patients with VT of right ventricular origin was evaluated. After appropriate exclusions (n = 29), 79 patients (58% men, mean age 40 +/- 14 years) had ARVC, and 121 patients (41% men, mean age 48 +/- 14 years) had RVOT tachycardia. During sinus rhythm, 37 patients (47%) with ARVC and 5 patients (4%) with RVOT tachycardia had TWI in leads V(1) to V(3). For the diagnosis of ARVC, TWI in leads V(1) to V(3) had sensitivity of 47% and specificity of 96%. In conclusion, in patients with VT of right ventricular origin, the presence of TWI in electrocardiographic leads V(1) to V(3) supports the diagnosis of ARVC.
Dulac, Y; Brosset, P; Acar, P; Maury, P; Belin, V; Lagrange, A; Taktak, A; Villacèque, M; Delay, M
The authors report two cases of slow ventricular tachycardia presenting in the antenatal period. One foetus had anasarca at 38 weeks' gestation. After birth, improved myocardial function contributed to the rapid resorption of the effusions. The other case was well tolerated in the foetal and neonatal periods. In both cases, Holter ECG recorded an intermittent ventricular arrhythmia with salvos of sustained ventricular tachycardia with a maximum rate of 185/min, only 10% higher than the underlying sinus rhythm, disappearing on acceleration of the sinus rhythm. The aetiological investigation was negative. Therapeutic abstention was supported by the spontaneously favourable outcome after 3 and 5 months. Slow ventricular tachycardia or accelerated idioventricular rhythms are usually considered to be benign but the case with foetal anasarca suggests that they should be carefully followed up in the neonatal period. In the absence of a consensus on management, therapeutic abstention implies regular cardiological examination until the arrhythmia has disappeared.
Laughlin, D S; Ialeggio, D M; Trupkiewicz, J G; Sleeper, M M
The Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect is an uncommon type of ventricular septal defect characterised in humans by a traditionally perimembranous ventricular septal defect, anterior deviation (cranioventral deviation in small animal patients) of the muscular outlet septum causing malalignment relative to the remainder of the muscular septum, and overriding of the aortic valve. This anomaly is reported infrequently in human patients and was identified in a 45-day-old Humboldt Penguin, Spheniscus humboldti, with signs of poor growth and a cardiac murmur. This case report describes the findings in this penguin and summarises the anatomy and classification of this cardiac anomaly. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of an Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect in a veterinary patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maskeo, Busisiwe C; Spocter, Muhammed A; Haagensen, Mark; Manger, Paul R
This study used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine the volume of the ventricular system in the brain of three adult male African elephants (Loxodonta africana). The ventricular system of the elephant has a volume of ∼240 mL, an order of magnitude larger than that seen in the adult human. Despite this large size, allometric analysis indicates that the volume of the ventricles in the elephant is what one would expect for a mammal with an ∼5 kg brain. Interestingly, our comparison with other mammals revealed that primates appear to have small relative ventricular volumes, and that megachiropterans and microchiropterans follow different scaling rules when comparing ventricular volume to brain mass indicating separate phylogenetic histories. The current study provides context for one aspect of the elephant brain in the broader picture of mammalian brain evolution.
Maurette, P; Tauzin-Fin, P; Vinçon, G; Brachet-Lierman, A
In order to investigate the mechanisms leading to respiratory depression after lumbar administration of opioids, plasma and ventricular CSF pharmacokinetics of intrathecal meperidine (1 mg.kg-1) were studied in five head-injured patients undergoing surgery for lower limb fracture. Meperidine was detected both in the plasma (arterial catheter) and in the ventricular CSF (intracranial catheter) soon after intrathecal administration: 45 +/- 17 min and 100 +/- 14 min, respectively. The maximal plasma concentration was 341 +/- 133 ng.ml-1, whereas, in ventricular CSF, it was 64.5 +/- 14.9 ng.ml-1. The ventricular CSF-plasma ratio increased with time (r = 0.82) from 0.18 +/- 0.04 at the first hour to 0.38 +/- 0.1 at 16th hour. It is concluded that the putative risk of respiratory depression appears to be mainly related to the absorption into the systemic circulation and to redistribution back into CSF.
Nestico, P F; DePace, N L; Morganroth, J
Conventional antiarrhythmic drugs are an important tool for the clinical cardiologist for the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. Knowledge of the different properties of these drugs will help decrease the incidence of adverse effects and increase the frequency of successful therapy.
Hernandez, Antonio; And Others
Laboratory tests including blood count serum electrolyte measures, and electroencephalograms were performed on seven children ages 1 day to 18 years with recurrent attacks of rapid heart action known as idiopathic paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia. (CL)
Yamada, Takumi; Kay, G Neal
Idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) are ventricular tachycardias (VTs) or premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) with a mechanism that is not related to myocardial scar. The sites of successful catheter ablation of idiopathic VA origins have been progressively elucidated and include both the endocardium and, less commonly, the epicardium. Idiopathic VAs usually originate from specific anatomical structures such as the ventricular outflow tracts, aortic root, atrioventricular (AV) annuli, papillary muscles, Purkinje network and so on, and exhibit characteristic electrocardiograms based on their anatomical background. Catheter ablation of idiopathic VAs is usually safe and highly successful, but can sometimes be challenging because of the anatomical obstacles such as the coronary arteries, epicardial fat pads, intramural and epicardial origins, AV conduction system and so on. Therefore, understanding the relevant anatomy is important to achieve a safe and successful catheter ablation of idiopathic VAs. This review describes the anatomical consideration in the catheter ablation of idiopathic VAs.
Joshi, P I; Dalal, J J; Ruttley, M S; Sheridan, D J; Henderson, A H
We studied the acute effects of nifedipine on left ventricular function and haemodynamics at constant heart rate in patients on beta-blocker therapy. Nifedipine significantly depressed left ventricular peak dP/dt and peak dP/dt x P-1. Nifedipine also significantly reduced systemic vascular resistance: this was associated with decreased systolic blood pressure and increased left ventricular stroke output, with slight non-significant increases of ejection fraction and mean circumferential shortening velocity. There was no change in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. This clinical study shows that nifedipine increases cardiac output in association with arterial dilatation despite evidence for a negative inotropic effect. Such intrinsic negative inotropic effects would normally be masked by compensatory sympathetic activity.
Hernandez, Antonio; And Others
Laboratory tests including blood count serum electrolyte measures, and electroencephalograms were performed on seven children ages 1 day to 18 years with recurrent attacks of rapid heart action known as idiopathic paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia. (CL)
Kay, G Neal
Idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) are ventricular tachycardias (VTs) or premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) with a mechanism that is not related to myocardial scar. The sites of successful catheter ablation of idiopathic VA origins have been progressively elucidated and include both the endocardium and, less commonly, the epicardium. Idiopathic VAs usually originate from specific anatomical structures such as the ventricular outflow tracts, aortic root, atrioventricular (AV) annuli, papillary muscles, Purkinje network and so on, and exhibit characteristic electrocardiograms based on their anatomical background. Catheter ablation of idiopathic VAs is usually safe and highly successful, but can sometimes be challenging because of the anatomical obstacles such as the coronary arteries, epicardial fat pads, intramural and epicardial origins, AV conduction system and so on. Therefore, understanding the relevant anatomy is important to achieve a safe and successful catheter ablation of idiopathic VAs. This review describes the anatomical consideration in the catheter ablation of idiopathic VAs. PMID:28116086
Bellmann, Barbara; Nagel, Patrick; Tscholl, Verena; Roser, Mattias; Rillig, Andreas
We report a 49-year-old patient who presented with tachycardia in our emergency room. The 12-lead ECG showed a wide complex tachycardia with a heart rate of 234 beats per minute. After structural heart disease was excluded via echocardiography, coronary angiography and magnetic resonance imaging, an electrophysiological study was performed. During programmed ventricular stimulation, a fascicular tachycardia was induced, which was successfully treated by radiofrequency ablation. Fascicular ventricular tachycardia is a rare tachycardia that occurs in patients without structural heart disease. Radiofrequency ablation can be performed safely and shows a high success rate. Differential diagnoses of fascicular ventricular tachycardias are substrate-based ventricular tachycardia and supraventricular tachycardia.
Pappy, Reji M.; Hanna, Elias B.; Peyton, Marvin D.; Saucedo, Jorge F.
We report the case of a 27-year-old woman with a rare presentation of right ventricular failure secondary to isolated right ventricular myocardial infarction, 3 weeks after an uncommon surgical procedure, the modified Cabrol operation. Her medical history also included a Ross procedure at the age of 12 years. On the basis of her subacute presentation and a consultation with cardiac surgeons, we decided on medical management. Follow-up echocardiography at 6 months revealed that the right ventricular systolic function remained severely impaired, but the patient was asymptomatic with excellent functional capacity. We review the surgical techniques of aortic graft replacement and their respective complications. We also discuss the impact of conservative and reperfusion strategies on prognosis and long-term outcomes in the setting of right ventricular infarction. PMID:22412249
Pappy, Reji M; Hanna, Elias B; Peyton, Marvin D; Saucedo, Jorge F
We report the case of a 27-year-old woman with a rare presentation of right ventricular failure secondary to isolated right ventricular myocardial infarction, 3 weeks after an uncommon surgical procedure, the modified Cabrol operation. Her medical history also included a Ross procedure at the age of 12 years. On the basis of her subacute presentation and a consultation with cardiac surgeons, we decided on medical management. Follow-up echocardiography at 6 months revealed that the right ventricular systolic function remained severely impaired, but the patient was asymptomatic with excellent functional capacity.We review the surgical techniques of aortic graft replacement and their respective complications. We also discuss the impact of conservative and reperfusion strategies on prognosis and long-term outcomes in the setting of right ventricular infarction.
DiLorenzo, Michael P.; Bhatt, Shivani M.; Mercer-Rosa, Laura
Right ventricular function is a crucial determinant of long-term outcomes of children with heart disease. Quantification of right ventricular systolic and diastolic performance by echocardiography is of paramount importance, given the prevalence of children with heart disease, particularly those with involvement of the right heart, such as single or systemic right ventricles, tetralogy of Fallot, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Identification of poor right ventricular performance can provide an opportunity to intervene. In this review, we will go through the different systolic and diastolic indices, as well as their application in practice. Quantification of right ventricular function is possible and should be routinely performed using a combination of different measures, taking into account each disease state. Quantification is extremely useful for individual patient follow-up. Laboratories should continue to strive to optimise reproducibility through quality improvement and quality assurance efforts in addition to investing in technology and training for new, promising techniques, such as three-dimensional echocardiography. PMID:26675593
Hammel, Edward F., Jr.
Current and post World War II scientific research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (New Mexico) is discussed. The operation of the laboratory, the Los Alamos consultant program, and continuation education, and continuing education activities at the laboratory are also discussed. (JN)
Hammel, Edward F., Jr.
Current and post World War II scientific research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (New Mexico) is discussed. The operation of the laboratory, the Los Alamos consultant program, and continuation education, and continuing education activities at the laboratory are also discussed. (JN)
Saritas, Turkay; Erol, Nurdan; Erdem, Abdullah; Karaci, Aliriza; Celebi, Ahmet
Aortico-left ventricular tunnel is extremely rare congenital paravalvar communication between the aorta and the left ventricle. Usually it is treated surgically. In addition to the surgery the tunnel can be closed by percutaneous transcatheter intervention in appropriate patients. We present in this paper 7 months, 10 years, and 1,5 months old three male cases with aortico-left ventricular tunnel that were surgically treated and followed up within 7 years in our clinic. PMID:21264186
Roman, M J; Pickering, T G; Schwartz, J E; Pini, R; Devereux, R B
This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in a large group of asymptomatic hypertensive and normotensive adults and to examine its relation to the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy. Both electrocardiographic and echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy predict an increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality, including cerebrovascular disease, but the mechanism of association is unknown. Four hundred eighty-six (277 normotensive and 209 untreated hypertensive) adults, free of clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease, were studied prospectively with echocardiography to determine left ventricular mass and carotid ultrasound to detect atherosclerosis and to measure common carotid artery dimensions. Carotid atherosclerosis was present in 16% of normotensive and 23% of hypertensive participants (p < 0.05) and was associated with older age, higher systolic and pulse pressures and larger left ventricular mass index ([mean +/- SD] 91 +/- 19 vs. 82 +/- 18 g/m2, p < 0.0001). The difference in mass persisted after adjustment for baseline differences in age and blood pressure. Subjects with left ventricular hypertrophy were twice as likely to have carotid atheromas (35% vs. 18%, p < 0.01). Logistic regression analyses, including standard risk factors, indicated that only age and left ventricular mass index independently predicted the presence of carotid plaque, both in the entire study group and when normotensive and hypertensive subjects were considered separately. We believe that the present study provides the first evidence that higher left ventricular mass as detected by echocardiography is associated with the presence of carotid plaque. The association between cardiac hypertrophy and systemic atherosclerosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of the high incidence of vascular events that is well documented in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy.
Bayley, T. J.
Six patients with symptoms due to sinoatrial block are described in whom no relief or improvement in block occurred when they were treated with isoprenaline or ephedrine. All six patients were treated by ventricular cardiac pacing with complete relief of symptoms. Despite the theoretical disadvantages of parasystole and loss of accrochage in treating these patients by ventricular pacing they have survived for periods of 18 months to over five years. PMID:5567769
Shah, Dipesh K; Joyce, Lyle D; Grogan, Martha; Aubry, Marie Christine; Miller, John A; Ding, Wei; Haddock, Michael G
Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery is commonly misdiagnosed as chronic pulmonary embolism. Rarely, it can involve the right ventricular outflow tract and the pulmonary valve. We report a patient who was treated surgically for an intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery involving the right ventricular outflow tract and the pulmonary valve. The sarcoma recurred in about 8 weeks. It responded favorably to chemoradiation therapy and shows some signs of regression.
Herold, Ulf; Berkefeld, Anna; Krane, Markus; Lange, Rüdiger; Voss, Bernhard
Mechanical circulatory support devices have become an important treatment tool for severe acute and chronic heart failure, since heart transplantation cannot meet the demands because of a lack of available donor organs. Since implantation of the first ventricular assist device a constant development of the suitability of these devices has been made. This review will introduce different generations of left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) and elaborate on clinical indications, risk stratification and current literature. PMID:27621895
Coulson, Nathaniel K; Chiarelli, Peter A; Su, David K; Chang, Jason J; MacConaghy, Brian; Murthy, Revathi; Toms, Peter; Robb, Terrence L; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Browd, Samuel R; Mourad, Pierre D
OBJECT Urgent ventriculostomy placement can be a lifesaving procedure in the setting of hydrocephalus or elevated intracranial pressure. While external ventricular drain (EVD) insertion is common, there remains a high rate of suboptimal drain placement. Here, the authors seek to demonstrate the feasibility of an ultrasound-based guidance system that can be inserted into an existing EVD catheter to provide a linear ultrasound trace that guides the user toward the ventricle. METHODS The ultrasound stylet was constructed as a thin metal tube, with dimensions equivalent to standard catheter stylets, bearing a single-element, ceramic ultrasound transducer at the tip. Ultrasound backscatter signals from the porcine ventricle were processed by custom electronics to offer real-time information about ventricular location relative to the catheter. Data collected from the prototype device were compared with reference measurements obtained using standard clinical ultrasound imaging. RESULTS A study of porcine ventricular catheterization using the experimental device yielded a high rate of successful catheter placement after a single pass (10 of 12 trials), despite the small size of pig ventricles and the lack of prior instruction on porcine ventricular architecture. A characteristic double-peak signal was identified, which originated from ultrasound reflections off of the near and far ventricular walls. Ventricular dimensions, as obtained from the width between peaks, were in agreement with standard ultrasound reference measurements (p < 0.05). Furthermore, linear ultrasound backscatter data permitted in situ measurement of the stylet distance to the ventricular wall (p < 0.05), which assisted in catheter guidance. CONCLUSIONS The authors have demonstrated the ability of the prototype ultrasound stylet to guide ventricular access in the porcine brain. The alternative design of the device makes it potentially easy to integrate into the standard workflow for bedside EVD
Frist, W H; Lorenz, C H; Walker, E S; Loyd, J E; Stewart, J R; Graham, T P; Pearlstein, D P; Key, S P; Merrill, W H
Changes in right ventricular mass and ejection fraction after single-lung transplantation for pulmonary hypertension are poorly understood. To complement functional data provided by echocardiography, radionuclide ventriculography, and right heart catheterization, magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess right ventricular function in 5 single-lung transplant recipients with preoperative pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction (right ventricular ejection fraction, 0.21 +/- 0.09). The right and left ventricular mass, ejection fraction, and mass ratio (left ventricular mass/right ventricular mass) were calculated from the magnetic resonance images. The mean pulmonary artery pressure fell from 72 +/- 18 to 21 +/- 8 mm Hg after transplantation. At 3 months after transplantation both the left ventricular and right ventricular ejection fractions approached normal values, as shown by both radionuclide ventriculography and magnetic resonance imaging, but the right ventricular mass remained abnormally high with slightly low mass ratios. By 1 year both the left ventricular and right ventricular masses had regressed to normal with near-normal mass ratios. Right ventricular performance returns to nearly normal early after transplantation, but the right ventricular mass regresses over a more prolonged time. Cine magnetic resonance imaging provides a noninvasive means of assessing changes in right ventricular function and mass after lung transplantation.
Achary, Deepak; Loyaga-Rendon, Renzo Y.; Pamboukian, Salpy V.; Tallaj, Jose A.; Holman, William L.; Cantor, Ryan S.; Naftel, David C.; Kirklin, James K.
Background Patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by acute heart failure or cardiogenic shock have high mortality with conventional management. Objectives We evaluated outcomes of patients with AMI who received durable ventricular assist devices (VADs). Methods Patients with AMI in the INTERMACS registry who underwent VAD placement were included and compared to patients who received VADs for non-AMI indications. Results VADs were implanted in 502 patients with AMI: 443 left ventricular assist devices; 33 biventricular assist devices; and 26 total artificial hearts. Median age was 58.3 years, and 77.1% were male. At implant, 66% were INTERMACS profile 1. A higher proportion of AMI than non- AMI patients had preoperative intra-aortic balloon pumps (57.6% vs. 25.3%; p < 0.01), intubation (58% vs. 8.3%; p < 0.01), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (17.9% vs. 1.7%, p < 0.01), cardiac arrest (33.5% vs. 3.3%, p < 0.01), and higher-acuity INTERMACS profiles. At 1 month post-VAD, 91.8% of AMI patients were alive with ongoing device support, 7.2 % had died on device, and 1% had been transplanted. At 1 year post-VAD, 52% of AMI patients were alive with ongoing device support, 25.7% had been transplanted, 1.6% had LVADs explanted for recovery, and 20.7% had died on device. The AMI group had higher unadjusted early-phase hazard (HR: 1.24; p = 0.04) and reduced late-phase hazard of death (HR: 0.57; p = 0.04) than the non-AMI group. After accounting for established risk factors, the AMI group no longer had higher early mortality hazard (HR: 0.89; p = 0.3), but had lower late mortality hazard (HR: 0.55; p = 0.02). Conclusion Patients with AMI who receive VADs have outcomes similar to other VAD populations, despite being more critically ill pre-implantation. VAD therapy is an effective strategy for patients with AMI in whom medical therapy is failing. PMID:27102502
Nelson, Daryl O; Lalit, Pratik A; Biermann, Mitch; Markandeya, Yogananda S; Capes, Deborah L; Addesso, Luke; Patel, Gina; Han, Tianxiao; John, Manorama C; Powers, Patricia A; Downs, Karen M; Kamp, Timothy J; Lyons, Gary E
While much progress has been made in the resolution of the cellular hierarchy underlying cardiogenesis, our understanding of chamber-specific myocardium differentiation remains incomplete. To better understand ventricular myocardium differentiation, we targeted the ventricle-specific gene, Irx4, in mouse embryonic stem cells to generate a reporter cell line. Using an antibiotic-selection approach, we purified Irx4(+) cells in vitro from differentiating embryoid bodies. The isolated Irx4(+) cells proved to be highly proliferative and presented Cxcr4, Pdgfr-alpha, Flk1, and Flt1 on the cell surface. Single Irx4(+) ventricular progenitor cells (VPCs) exhibited cardiovascular potency, generating endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and ventricular myocytes in vitro. The ventricular specificity of the Irx4(+) population was further demonstrated in vivo as VPCs injected into the cardiac crescent subsequently produced Mlc2v(+) myocytes that exclusively contributed to the nascent ventricle at E9.5. These findings support the existence of a newly identified ventricular myocardial progenitor. This is the first report of a multipotent cardiac progenitor that contributes progeny specific to the ventricular myocardium. Stem Cells 2016;34:2875-2888. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.
de Micheli, A; Medrano, G A; Casanova, J M
Hemodynamic and electrical adaptation of ventricular myocardium to progressive diastolic and combined overloads was studied in mongrel dogs weighing between 15 and 20 Kg, anesthetized with intraperitoneal sodium pentobarbital (35 mg/Kg). Unipolar epicardial and intracavitary records as well as corresponding ventricular pressure curves were obtained every 30 mn after infusion was begun. The systolic arterial pressure was followed continuously by a mercury manometer. Right ventricular overload was produced by means of continuous venous infusion of saline solution in a group of 115 dogs with open pericardium (Series A) and in another of 45 dogs with intact pericardium (Series B). In Series A, right proximal and peripheral blocks were present in all the cases, beginning at 180 mn of infusion. In Series B, at 210 mn blocks were not present in 18 dogs (40%), and right peripheral blocks were present in 27 (60%). Left ventricular overload was obtained through continuous infusion of saline serum into left atria of 31 dogs with open pericardium (Series A1) and of another 50 with intact pericardium (Series B1). Only peripheral left blocks appeared in both series. Between 240 and 300 mn of infusion, the percentage of surviving animals was greater in Series B1, with a statistically significant difference at 270 and 300 mn. The pericardium seems to hinder the adaptation of right ventricular myocardium to the overloads evaluated, while it seems to help the response of the left ventricular myocardium to diastolic and combined overload.
Wykrętowicz, Mariusz; Katulska, Katarzyna; Milewska, Agata; Krauze, Tomasz
Left ventricular mass (LVM) is correlated with body composition and central hemodynamics as well as kidney function. Recently, fat-free mass has been considered to be more strongly correlated with LVM in comparison to other descriptors of fatness. We therefore address the question of whether comprehensive descriptors of fatness, central hemodynamics and renal characteristics demonstrate the association with left ventricular mass in healthy non-obese population. 119 healthy non-obese subjects (53 females, 66 males, mean age 50 yrs) were evaluated. Central hemodynamics was measured by Pulse Wave Analysis, left ventricular mass was assessed by echocardiography, fatness was evaluated by anthropometry, bioimpedance, and ultrasound. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) correlated to the same extent with central and peripheral blood pressure but not with descriptors of wave reflection. Fat-free mass as well as intraabdominal fat correlated to a similar extent with LVMI. Kidney morphological characteristics indexed to body surface area were associated inversely and independently with LVMI. Comprehensive assessment of fatness reinforced the concept that intraabdominal fat compartment is strongly correlated with left ventricular mass. Descriptors of wave reflection are not associated with left ventricular mass. The interrelationsh between kidney morphology and LVMI indicates that such associations may be a biologically plausible phenomenon.
Wykrętowicz, Mariusz; Katulska, Katarzyna; Milewska, Agata; Krauze, Tomasz
Summary Background Left ventricular mass (LVM) is correlated with body composition and central hemodynamics as well as kidney function. Recently, fat-free mass has been considered to be more strongly correlated with LVM in comparison to other descriptors of fatness. We therefore address the question of whether comprehensive descriptors of fatness, central hemodynamics and renal characteristics demonstrate the association with left ventricular mass in healthy non-obese population. Material/Methods 119 healthy non-obese subjects (53 females, 66 males, mean age 50 yrs) were evaluated. Central hemodynamics was measured by Pulse Wave Analysis, left ventricular mass was assessed by echocardiography, fatness was evaluated by anthropometry, bioimpedance, and ultrasound. Results Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) correlated to the same extent with central and peripheral blood pressure but not with descriptors of wave reflection. Fat-free mass as well as intraabdominal fat correlated to a similar extent with LVMI. Kidney morphological characteristics indexed to body surface area were associated inversely and independently with LVMI. Conclusions Comprehensive assessment of fatness reinforced the concept that intraabdominal fat compartment is strongly correlated with left ventricular mass. Descriptors of wave reflection are not associated with left ventricular mass. The interrelationsh between kidney morphology and LVMI indicates that such associations may be a biologically plausible phenomenon. PMID:25436020
Alday, L E; Moreyra, E; Quiroga, C; Buonano, C; Dander, B
Ventricular aneurysms in children are unusual. Three patients with cardiomyopathy associated with angiographically proved left ventricular aneurysms in this age group are reported. Two of them were girls. The ages were 20 months, 7 years, and 14 years. Heart failure was present in all patients. There was radiological evidence of cardiomegaly in all three, and the electrocardiogram showed signs of necrosis in two of them. Selective left ventricular angiography disclosed generalized hypokinesis in all patients. One child had an aneurysm of the diaphragmatic wall. In another the aneurysm was localized in the muscular ventricular septum, causing severe subpulmonary stenosis by encroaching in the right ventricular outflow tract during systole. The third patient had an aneurysm of the left ventricular free wall partly encircling the left ventricle. The coronary arteries appeared normal in all cases. The clinical features of the underlying disease were not altered by the presence of the aneurysm except in the patient with the septal aneurysm and subpulmonary stenosis. In this patient the aneurysm was successfully resected. Images PMID:944043
Schneider, Markus P; Raff, Ulrike; Kopp, Christoph; Scheppach, Johannes B; Toncar, Sebastian; Wanner, Christoph; Schlieper, Georg; Saritas, Turgay; Floege, Jürgen; Schmid, Matthias; Birukov, Anna; Dahlmann, Anke; Linz, Peter; Janka, Rolf; Uder, Michael; Schmieder, Roland E; Titze, Jens M; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe
The pathogenesis of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with CKD is incompletely understood. Sodium intake, which is usually assessed by measuring urinary sodium excretion, has been inconsistently linked with left ventricular hypertrophy. However, tissues such as skin and muscle may store sodium. Using (23)sodium-magnetic resonance imaging, a technique recently developed for the assessment of tissue sodium content in humans, we determined skin sodium content at the level of the calf in 99 patients with mild to moderate CKD (42 women; median [range] age, 65 [23-78] years). We also assessed total body overhydration (bioimpedance spectroscopy), 24-hour BP, and left ventricular mass (cardiac magnetic resonance imaging). Skin sodium content, but not total body overhydration, correlated with systolic BP (r=0.33, P=0.002). Moreover, skin sodium content correlated more strongly than total body overhydration did with left ventricular mass (r=0.56, P<0.001 versus r=0.35, P<0.001; P<0.01 between the two correlations). Linear regression analysis demonstrated that skin sodium content is a strong explanatory variable for left ventricular mass, unaffected by BP and total body overhydration. In conclusion, we found skin sodium content to be closely linked to left ventricular mass in patients with CKD. Interventions that reduce skin sodium content might improve cardiovascular outcomes in these patients.
Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Kyung Hwa; Choi, Jong Bum; Kuh, Ja Hong
After tricuspid valve surgery for long-standing tricuspid regurgitation associated with right ventricular failure, reverse remodelling of the enlarged right ventricle, including recovery of right ventricular systolic function, is unpredictable. We present the case of a 31-year old man with early reduction of dilated right ventricular dimensions and delayed recovery of impaired right ventricular systolic function after valve repair for traumatic tricuspid regurgitation lasting 16 years.
Xu, Hao; Huang, Yimin; Jiao, Wei; Sun, Wei; Li, Ran; Li, Jiaqing; Lei, Ting
Shunt infection is a morbid complication of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting. The catheters with a hydrophilic surface may impede bacterial adherence and thereby reduce catheter-related CSF infection.A retrospective study compared the occurrence of CSF infection related to use of either standard silastic catheters or hydrogel-coated ventricular catheters (Bioglide, Medtronic). The enrolment was available to neurosurgery patients undergoing shunt surgery from October 2012 to 2015 in two centers. The follow-up period was more than months.A total of 78 patients were included in the study. In 33 patients 35-cm hydrogel-coated ventricular peritoneum shunts (VPS) were used, and in remaining 45 patients 35-cm standard silastic VPS catheters were used. Infection occurred in 14 (17.9%) patients, including definite VPS-related CSF infection in 6 patients (7.7%) and probable infection in remaining 8 patients (10.3%). There was a significant difference found in patients with total infection between the two groups [RR (95% CI); 0.200 (0.050-0.803), P = 0.014]. Analysis of Kaplan-Meier curve estimates indicated significant statistical difference between the two catheter types in duration (log rank = 4.204, P < 0.05). Significant statistical differences were also found in the subgroups including previous CSF infection within 1 month (log rank = 4.391, P = 0.04), conversion of external ventricular drains to shunt (Log Rank = 4.520, P = 0.03), and hospital stay >1 month (log rank = 5.252, P = 0.02). There was no difference found between the two groups of the patients with other infections within 1 month. The follow-up period was of 36 months.The hydrogel-coated catheter is a safe and related to lower infection rates for high-risk patients who underwent shunt surgery.
Xu, Hao; Huang, Yimin; Jiao, Wei; Sun, Wei; Li, Ran; Li, Jiaqing; Lei, Ting
Abstract Shunt infection is a morbid complication of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting. The catheters with a hydrophilic surface may impede bacterial adherence and thereby reduce catheter-related CSF infection. A retrospective study compared the occurrence of CSF infection related to use of either standard silastic catheters or hydrogel-coated ventricular catheters (Bioglide, Medtronic). The enrolment was available to neurosurgery patients undergoing shunt surgery from October 2012 to 2015 in two centers. The follow-up period was more than months. A total of 78 patients were included in the study. In 33 patients 35-cm hydrogel-coated ventricular peritoneum shunts (VPS) were used, and in remaining 45 patients 35-cm standard silastic VPS catheters were used. Infection occurred in 14 (17.9%) patients, including definite VPS-related CSF infection in 6 patients (7.7%) and probable infection in remaining 8 patients (10.3%). There was a significant difference found in patients with total infection between the two groups [RR (95% CI); 0.200 (0.050–0.803), P = 0.014]. Analysis of Kaplan–Meier curve estimates indicated significant statistical difference between the two catheter types in duration (log rank = 4.204, P < 0.05). Significant statistical differences were also found in the subgroups including previous CSF infection within 1 month (log rank = 4.391, P = 0.04), conversion of external ventricular drains to shunt (Log Rank = 4.520, P = 0.03), and hospital stay >1 month (log rank = 5.252, P = 0.02). There was no difference found between the two groups of the patients with other infections within 1 month. The follow-up period was of 36 months. The hydrogel-coated catheter is a safe and related to lower infection rates for high-risk patients who underwent shunt surgery. PMID:27442653
Palik, I; Graham, T P; Burger, J
Postoperative data were obtained from 18 patients with partially obstructed right ventricular (RV) to pulmonary artery (PA) conduits, who were studied 1 to 9 years following a Rastelli operation. Age at operation was 1 to 8 months in seven patients (group I: infant group) and 2 to 9 years in the remaining 11 patients (group II: childhood group). The diagnosis was pulmonary atresia in eight patients, truncus arteriosus in seven, and transposition of the great arteries with ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis in three. Porcine-valved conduits were inserted in 17 patients and an aortic homograft in one. All but seven patients were free of symptoms at the time of postoperative study. Neither peak RV pressures nor RV to PA gradients were different between groups. RV ejection fraction (EF) was decreased in group II (0.43 +/- 0.11) but was normal (0.60 +/- 0.10) in group I. In addition, there was a significant inverse relationship between RVEF and age at repair (r = 0.714; p less than 0.005). RV end-diastolic volume (EDV) was normal or increased in all patients and did not differ between the two groups. Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction was also decreased in the older group (0.56 +/- 0.10 vs 0.68 +/- 0.08; p less than 0.05), and there was a decrease in RVEF and/or LVEF from pre- to postoperative studies in one of six group I patients compared with four of five group II patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Cote, Anita T; Bredin, Shannon S D; Phillips, Aaron A; Koehle, Michael S; Glier, Melissa B; Devlin, Angela M; Warburton, Darren E R
High-intensity exercise induces marked physiological stress affecting the secretion of catecholamines. Sustained elevations in catecholamines are thought to desensitize cardiac beta receptors and may be a possible mechanism in impaired cardiac function following strenuous exercise. In addition, attenuated arterial-ventricular coupling may identify vascular mechanisms in connection with postexercise attenuations in ventricular function. Thirty-nine normally active (NA) and endurance-trained (ET) men and women completed an echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular function before and after an acute bout of high-intensity interval exercise (15 bouts of 1:2 min work:recovery cycling: 100% peak power output and 50 W, respectively). Following exercise, time to peak twist and peak untwisting velocity were delayed (P < 0.01) but did not differ by sex or training status. Interactions for sex and condition (rest vs. exercise) were found for longitudinal diastolic strain rate (men, 1.46 ± 0.19 to 1.28 ± 0.23 s(-1) vs. women, 1.62 ± 0.25 to 1.63 ± 0.26 s(-1); P = 0.01) and arterial elastance (men 2.20 ± 0.65 to 3.24 ± 1.02 mmHg · ml(-1) · m(-2) vs. women 2.51 ± 0.61 to 2.93 ± 0.68 mmHg · ml(-1) · m(-2); P = 0.04). No cardiac variables were found associated with catecholamine levels. The change in twist mechanics was associated with baseline aortic pulse-wave velocity (r(2) = 0.27, P = 0.001). We conclude that males display greater reductions in contractility in response to high-intensity interval exercise, independent of catecholamine concentrations. Furthermore, a novel association of arterial stiffness and twist mechanics following high-intensity acute exercise illustrates the influence of vascular integrity on cardiac mechanics.
Steinberg, Benjamin A; Wehrenberg, Scott; Jackson, Kevin P; Hayes, David L; Varma, Niraj; Powell, Brian D; Day, John D; Frazier-Mills, Camille G; Stein, Kenneth M; Jones, Paul W; Piccini, Jonathan P
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves outcomes in patients with heart failure, yet response rates are variable. We sought to determine whether physician-specified CRT programming was associated with improved outcomes. Using data from the ALTITUDE remote follow-up cohort, we examined sensed atrioventricular (AV) and ventricular-to-ventricular (VV) programming and their associated outcomes in patients with de novo CRT from 2009-2010. Outcomes included arrhythmia burden, left ventricular (LV) pacing, and all-cause mortality at 4 years. We identified 5709 patients with de novo CRT devices; at the time of implant, 34% (n = 1959) had entirely nominal settings programmed, 40% (n = 2294) had only AV timing adjusted, 11% (n = 604) had only VV timing adjusted, and 15% (n = 852) had both AV and VV adjusted from nominal programming. Suboptimal LV pacing (<95%) during follow-up was similar across groups; however, the proportion with atrial fibrillation (AF) burden >5% was lowest in the AV-only adjusted group (17.9%) and highest in the nominal (27.7%) and VV-only adjusted (28.3%) groups. Adjusted all-cause mortality was significantly higher among patients with non-nominal AV delay >120 vs. <120 ms (adjusted heart rate (HR) 1.28, p = 0.008) but similar when using the 180-ms cutoff (adjusted HR 1.13 for >180 vs. ≤180 ms, p = 0.4). Nominal settings for de novo CRT implants are frequently altered, most commonly the AV delay. There is wide variability in reprogramming. Patients with nominal or AV-only adjustments appear to have favorable pacing and arrhythmia outcomes. Sensed AV delays less than 120 ms are associated with improved survival.
Atluri, Pavan; Goldstone, Andrew B.; Fairman, Alex S.; MacArthur, John W.; Shudo, Yasuhiro; Cohen, Jeffrey E.; Acker, Alexandra L.; Hiesinger, William; Howard, Jessica L.; Acker, Michael A.; Woo, Y. Joseph
Background In the era of destination continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (LVAD), the decision of whether a patient will tolerate isolated LVAD support or will need biventricular support (BIVAD) can be challenging. Incorrect decision making with delayed right ventricular (RV) assist device implantation results in increased morbidity and mortality. Continuous flow LVADs have been shown to decrease pulmonary hyper-tension and improve RV function. We undertook this study to determine predictors in the continuous flow LVAD era that identify patients who are candidates for isolated LVAD therapy as opposed to biventricular support. Methods We reviewed demographic, hemodynamic, laboratory, and echocardiographic variables for 218 patients who underwent VAD implant from 2003 through 2011 (LVAD = 167, BIVAD = 51), during the era of continuous flow LVADs. Results Fifty preoperative risk factors were compared between patients who were successfully managed with an LVAD and those who required a BIVAD. Seventeen variables demonstrated statistical significance by univariate analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified central venous pressure >15 mmHg (OR 2.0, “C”), severe RV dysfunction (OR 3.7, “R”), preoperative intubation (OR 4.3, “I”), severe tricuspid regurgitation (OR 4.1, “T”), heart rate >100 (OR 2.0, Tachycardia - “T”) -CRITT as the major criteria predictive of the need for biventricular support. Utilizing these data, a highly sensitive and easy to use risk score for determining RV failure was generated that outperformed other established risk stratification tools. Conclusions We present a preoperative risk calculator to determine suitability of a patient for isolated LVAD support in the current continuous flow ventricular assist device era. PMID:23791165
Cano, Oscar; Hutchinson, Mathew; Lin, David; Garcia, Fermin; Zado, Erica; Bala, Rupa; Riley, Michael; Cooper, Joshua; Dixit, Sanjay; Gerstenfeld, Edward; Callans, David; Marchlinski, Francis E
The aim of the study was to define the epicardial substrate and ablation outcome in patients with left ventricular nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) and suspected epicardial ventricular tachycardia (VT). Ventricular tachycardia in NICM often originates from the epicardium. Twenty-two patients with NICM underwent detailed endocardial and epicardial bipolar voltage maps and VT ablation for suspected epicardial VT. Eight patients with normal hearts and idiopathic VT served to define normal epicardial electrograms. Low-voltage regions were also assessed for wide (>80 ms), split, or late electrograms. Normal epicardial bipolar voltage was identified as >1.0 mV on the basis of the reference population. Confluent low-voltage areas were present in 18 epicardial (82%) and 12 endocardial (54%) maps and were typically over basal lateral LV. In the 18 patients with epicardial VT on the basis of activation/pacemapping, the mean epicardial area was greater than the endocardial low-voltage area (55.3 +/- 33.5 cm(2) vs. 22.9 +/- 32.4 cm(2), p < 0.01). Epicardial low-voltage areas showed 49.7% wide (>80 ms), split, and/or late electrograms rarely seen in the reference patients (2.3%). During follow-up of 18 +/- 7 months, ablation resulted in VT elimination in 15 of 21 patients (71%) including 14 of 18 patients (78%) with epicardial VT. In patients with NICM and VT of epicardial origin, the substrate is characterized by areas of basal LV epicardial > endocardial bipolar low voltage. The electrograms in these areas are not only small (<1.0 mV) but wide (>80 ms), split, and/or late, and help identify the substrate targeted for successful ablation. 2009 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation
Umar, Soban; Lee, Jong-Hwan; de Lange, Enno; Iorga, Andrea; Partow-Navid, Rod; Bapat, Aneesh; van der Laarse, Arnoud; Saggar, Rajeev; Saggar, Rajan; Ypey, Dirk L.; Karagueuzian, Hrayr S.; Eghbali, Mansoureh
Background Right ventricular failure (RVF) in pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with increased incidence of sudden death by a poorly explored mechanism. Here we test the hypothesis that PH promotes spontaneous ventricular fibrillation (VF) during a critical post-PH onset period characterized by a sudden increase in mortality. Methods and Results Rats received either a single subcutaneous dose of monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg) to induce PH-associated RVF (PH, n=24) or saline (CTRL, n=17). Activation pattern of RV-epicardial surface was mapped using voltage-sensitive dye in isolated Langendorff-perfused hearts along with single glass-microelectrode and ECG-recordings. MCT-injected rats developed severe PH by day-21 and progressed to RVF by ~day-30. Rats manifested increased mortality and ~30% rats died suddenly and precipitously during 23–32 days post-MCT. This fatal period was associated with the initiation of spontaneous VF by a focal mechanism in the RV which was subsequently maintained by both focal and incomplete re-entrant wavefronts. Microelectrode recordings from the RV-epicardium at the onset of focal activity showed early afterdepolarization (EAD)-mediated triggered activity that led to VF. The onset of the RV cellular triggered beats preceded left ventricular depolarizations by 23±8 ms. The RV but not the LV cardiomyocytes isolated during this fatal period manifested significant action potential duration prolongation, dispersion and an increased susceptibility to depolarization-induced repetitive activity. No spontaneous VF was observed in any of the CTRL hearts. RVF was associated with significantly reduced RV ejection fraction (p<0.001), RV hypertrophy (p<0.001) and RV fibrosis (p<0.01). The hemodynamic function of the LV and its structure were preserved. Conclusions PH-induced RVF is associated with a distinct phase of increased mortality characterized by spontaneous VF arising from the RV by an EAD-mediated triggered activity. PMID:22199010
Moulodi, Abdol Rasoul; Sheibat Zadeh, Gholam Reza; Sabzi, Feridoun
The optimal treatment method for right ventricular failure after valve surgery complicated by a low cardiac output has not been determined, although several case reports have been published on patients with ventricular failure and arrhythmia who were bridged to cardiac transplantation using biventricular or left ventricular assist devices. This case series illustrates successful circulatory support of 4 patients with prolonged low cardiac outputs and right ventricular failure and arrhythmias after valvular heart surgery with or without severe pulmonary hypertension. In-hospital death occurred in one patient and 3 patients were discharged from the hospital with good general condition. At two years' follow-up, 2 patients were in functional class one but another patient underwent laparotomy for multiple splenic abscesses and died from multiple organ failure. PMID:25561969
Makhija, Neeti; Narula, Jitin; Keshri, Vikas Kumar; Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Talwar, Sachin
Management of long standing left to right shunt lesion resulting in elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is challenging. Limited surgical options are further complicated by an unpredictable postoperative period. Unidirectional valve patch (UVP) closure has shown to be useful in cases of the large ventricular septal defect (VSD) who present late. We report a case of large aortopulmonary window coexisting with a large VSD with severe pulmonary artery hypertension and significantly elevated PVR that was managed surgically by closure of the window by sandwich technique and closure of the septal defect with a UVP. This report emphasizes the importance of UVP in the management of such patients. PMID:27011704
Makhija, Neeti; Narula, Jitin; Keshri, Vikas Kumar; Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Talwar, Sachin
Management of long standing left to right shunt lesion resulting in elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is challenging. Limited surgical options are further complicated by an unpredictable postoperative period. Unidirectional valve patch (UVP) closure has shown to be useful in cases of the large ventricular septal defect (VSD) who present late. We report a case of large aortopulmonary window coexisting with a large VSD with severe pulmonary artery hypertension and significantly elevated PVR that was managed surgically by closure of the window by sandwich technique and closure of the septal defect with a UVP. This report emphasizes the importance of UVP in the management of such patients.
Potfay, Jonathan; Kaszala, Karoly; Tan, Alex Y; Sima, Adam P; Gorcsan, John; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A; Huizar, Jose F
Left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony caused by premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) has been proposed as a mechanism of PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. We sought to understand the impact of different PVC locations and coupling intervals (prematurity) on LV regional mechanics and global function of the PVC beat itself. Using our premature pacing algorithm, pentageminal PVCs at coupling intervals of 200 to 375 ms were delivered from the epicardial right ventricular apex, RV outflow tract, and LV free wall, as well as premature atrial contractions, from the left atrial appendage at a coupling interval of 200 ms in 7 healthy canines. LV short-axis echocardiographic images, LV stroke volume, and dP/dtmax were obtained during all ectopic beats and ventricular pacing. LV dyssynchrony was assessed by dispersion of QRS-to-peak strain (earliest-last QRS-to-peak strain) between 6 different LV segments during each of the aforementioned beats (GE, EchoPac). LV dyssynchrony was greater during long-coupled rather than short-coupled PVCs and PVCs at 375 ms compared with rapid ventricular pacing at 400 ms (P<0.0001), whereas no difference was found between PVC locations. Longer PVC coupling intervals were associated with greater stroke volume and dP/dtmax despite more pronounced dyssynchrony (P<0.001). PVCs with longer coupling intervals demonstrate more pronounced LV dyssynchrony, whereas PVC location has minimal impact. LV dyssynchrony cannot be attributed to prematurity or abnormal ventricular activation alone, but rather to a combination of both. This study suggests that late-coupled PVCs may cause a more severe cardiomyopathy if dyssynchrony is the leading mechanism responsible for PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Jimenez-Juan, Laura; Karur, Gauri R; Connelly, Kim A; Deva, Djeven; Yan, Raymond T; Wald, Rachel M; Singh, Sheldon; Leung, General; Oikonomou, Anastasia; Dorian, Paul; Angaran, Paul; Yan, Andrew T
Indications for the primary prevention of sudden death using an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) are based predominantly on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). However, right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) is also a known prognostic factor in a variety of structural heart diseases that predispose to sudden cardiac death. We sought to investigate the relationship between right and left ventricular parameters (function and volume) measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) among a broad spectrum of patients considered for an ICD. In this retrospective, single tertiary-care center study, consecutive patients considered for ICD implantation who were referred for LVEF assessment by CMR were included. Right and left ventricular function and volumes were measured. In total, 102 patients (age 62±14 years; 23% women) had a mean LVEF of 28±11% and RVEF of 44±12%. The left ventricular and right ventricular end diastolic volume index was 140±42 mL/m(2) and 81±27 mL/m(2), respectively. Eighty-six (84%) patients had a LVEF <35%, and 63 (62%) patients had right ventricular systolic dysfunction. Although there was a significant and moderate correlation between LVEF and RVEF (r=0.40, p<0.001), 32 of 86 patients (37%) with LVEF <35% had preserved RVEF, while 9 of 16 patients (56%) with LVEF ≥35% had right ventricular systolic dysfunction (Kappa=0.041). Among patients being considered for an ICD, there is a positive but moderate correlation between LVEF and RVEF. A considerable proportion of patients who qualify for an ICD based on low LVEF have preserved RVEF, and vice versa.
Pérez Pérez, F M; Sánchez Salado, J
The Takotsubo syndrome, also called transient apical dyskinesia syndrome, was first described in Japan in the 1990s. It is a rare entity found in almost 1% of all patients with suspicion of acute coronary syndrome. It usually affects postmenopausal women with a few cardiovascular risk factors. It is characterized by angina-type chest pain, electrocardiographic changes, elevation of the enzymes of myocardial injury, absence of coronary obstruction on angiography, and a characteristic left ventricular anteroapical dyskinesia, which returns to normal within a few days. Severe emotional stress is the most common trigger for this syndrome. The aetiopathogenesis of this syndrome remains to be defined. This syndrome has been considered a clinical condition since 2001, when a series of 88 cases was published. It is a disease with a partially known mechanism, characterised by the morphology adopted by the left ventricle secondary to hypokinesis or dyskinesia of the apical segments, and hypercontractility of basal segments. Unlike acute coronary syndrome, patients with left ventricle dysfunction do not have atherothrombotic disease in the coronary arteries. In addition, the alterations described are reversible. Some clinical diagnostic criteria have been proposed, although they are still controversial, as well as in the complementary examinations required for diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Nichol, Graham; Sayre, Michael R; Guerra, Federico; Poole, Jeanne
Cardiac arrest is defined as the termination of cardiac activity associated with loss of consciousness, of spontaneous breathing, and of circulation. Sudden cardiac arrest and sudden cardiac death (SCD) are terms often used interchangeably. Most patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest have shown coronary artery disease or symptoms during the hour before the event. Cardiac arrest is potentially reversible by cardiopulmonary resuscitation, defibrillation, cardioversion, cardiac pacing, or treatments targeted at the underlying disease (e.g., acute coronary occlusion). We restrict SCD hereafter to cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation, including rhythms shockable by an automatic external defibrillator (AED), implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), or wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD). We summarize the state of the art related to defibrillation in treating SCD, including a brief history of the evolution of defibrillation, technical characteristics of modern AEDs, strategies to improve AED access and increase survival, ancillary treatments, and use of ICDs or WCDs. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Agarwal, Shvetank; High, Kane M
The latest generation of ventricular assist devices has evolved from the pulsatile, volume-displacement pumps of the 1990s to today's non-pulsatile, constant pressure-generating rotary pumps. These pumps include both centrifugal and axial flow devices that are currently being used or are in advanced development. Rotary pumps have the advantage of a much longer and more reliable duty life than pulsatile pumps. They are also considerably smaller than pulsatile pumps, requiring less invasive surgery for implantation and smaller transcutaneous (electrical rather than pneumatic) drivelines. Most of these devices have been approved as a bridge to transplant (BTT) while some are currently in trials for destination therapy (DT) in Europe (Conformité Européenne (CE) mark) or the United States (Food and Drug Administration (FDA)). This article discusses the current generation of pumps, examining particular design features as highlighted by the designers as well as the current approval status of each device in the United States and Europe.
Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia
OBJECTIVES Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is a rare, genetic disorder predominantly affecting the right ventricle. There is increasing evidence that in some cases, ARVD is due to mutations in genes, which have also been implicated in primary myopathies. This review gives an overview about myopathy-associated ARVD and how these patients can be managed. METHODS A literature review was done using appropriate search terms. RESULTS The myopathy, which is most frequently associated with ARVD, is the myofibrillar myopathy due to desmin mutations. Only in a single patient, ARVD was described in myotonic dystrophy type 1. However, there are a number of genes causing either myopathy or ARVD. These genes include lamin A/C, ZASP/cypher, transmembrane protein-43, titin, and the ryanodine receptor-2 gene. Diagnosis and treatment are identical for myopathy-associated ARVD and nonmyopathy-associated ARVD. CONCLUSIONS Patients with primary myopathy due to mutations in the desmin, dystrophia myotonica protein kinase, lamin A/C, ZASP/cypher, transmembrane protein-43, titin, or the ryanodine receptor-2 gene should be screened for ARVD. Patients carrying a pathogenic variant in any of these genes should undergo annual cardiological investigations for cardiac function and arrhythmias. PMID:27790050
Fukuda, H; Tsuji, D H; Kawasaki, Y; Kawaida, M; Sakou, T
In order to avoid radiation and its undesirable side effects, we have employed surgical techniques for treatment of early glottic cancer when the lesion is confined to one membranous cord (Fukuda, Saito, Sato, and Kitahara: J. Jpn. Bronchoesophagol. Soc. 30: 7-14, 1979; Fukuda and Saito: Otologica 26: 434-436, 1980; Fukuda, Kawaida, Ohki, Kawasaki, Kita, and Tatehara: J. Jpn. Bronchoesophagaol. Soc. 39: 139-144, 1988). Laser is one of the most popular techniques and it has been accepted as the first choice by many authors (Annyas, Overbeek, Escajadillo, and Hoeksema: Laryngoscope 94: 836-838, 1984; Mcguirt and Koufman: Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 113: 501-505, 1987; Tsuji, Fukuda, Kawaskai, Kawaida, and Kanzaki: Keio J. Med. 38: 413-418, 1989). However, some cases are difficult to approach by direct laryngoscopy, requiring an external way to expose the lesion. In these cases, cordectomy by laryngofissure is the method of choice, but the function of the glottis could be improved by replacing the excised cord displacing the ventricular fold. This technique, designed by the authors, was carried out in 22 patients and the results from the viewpoint of phonodynamics, voice quality, and cure rate are discussed in this study. The results are encouraging and we believe that this method is a very reasonable alternative to the laser when such equipment is not available. We also believe that late side effects and oncogenic problems associated with radiation are important points to be considered, especially in patients of relatively younger age.
Von Knorre, Georg H
When in 1930, Wolff, Parkinson, and White published what is today known as the WPW, or preexcitation syndrome, they, and subsequently others, found few comparable cases in the preceding literature. Among these the report of Cohn and Fraser, published in 1913, was the earliest. However, another even earlier documentation in a 1909 article by Hoffmann escaped notice till now. The ECG of a patient with paroxysmal tachycardia reveals a short PR interval and a delta-wave-induced widening of the QRS complex, even though the reproduced tachycardia was not preexcitation related. The interpretation of this poorly reproduced ECG can be confirmed by another and more detailed description of the patient in an electrocardiography textbook published in 1914 by the same author. Thus, the earliest publication of an ECG showing ventricular preexcitation now can be dated back to 1909. Moreover, the Hoffmann monograph contains two additional examples of the WPW syndrome not noticed until now. All three cases published by Hoffmann had their first ECG recordings in 1912 or earlier.
Srinivasan, Visish M; O'Neill, Brent R; Jho, Diana; Whiting, Donald M; Oh, Michael Y
External ventricular drainage (EVD) is one of the most commonly performed neurosurgical procedures. It was first performed as early as 1744 by Claude-Nicholas Le Cat. Since then, there have been numerous changes in technique, materials used, indications for the procedure, and safety. The history of EVD is best appreciated in 4 eras of progress: development of the technique (1850-1908), technological advancements (1927-1950), expansion of indications (1960-1995), and accuracy, training, and infection control (1995-present). While EVD was first attempted in the 18th century, it was not until 1890 that the first thorough report of EVD technique and outcomes was published by William Williams Keen. He was followed by H. Tillmanns, who described the technique that would be used for many years. Following this, many improvements were made to the EVD apparatus itself, including the addition of manometry by Adson and Lillie in 1927, and continued experimentation in cannulation/drainage materials. Technological advancements allowed a great expansion of indications for EVD, sparked by Nils Lundberg, who published a thorough analysis of the use of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring in patients with brain tumors in 1960. This led to the application of EVD and ICP monitoring in subarachnoid hemorrhage, Reye syndrome, and traumatic brain injury. Recent research in EVD has focused on improving the overall safety of the procedure, which has included the development of guidance-based systems, virtual reality simulators for trainees, and antibiotic-impregnated catheters.
Soliman, Elsayed Z; Prineas, Ronald J
It is widely accepted that successful lowering of blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension leads to regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). However, whether differences exist among pharmacological BP-lowering therapies is debated. In this report, we discuss these differences in light of recent literature and the position of extant practice guidelines. Studies comparing the effects of antihypertensive classes on LVH regression reached different conclusions, but the overall direction which is reflected in current society guidelines is that successful lowering of BP is more important than selection of an individual antihypertensive class. Nevertheless, some practice guidelines added statements about considering a specific antihypertensive class for its potential benefit such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or excluding a class such as direct vasodilators. On the other hand, reports have been consistent about the more favorable effect of intensive BP-lowering strategy (target systolic BP < 120 mmHg) compared to standard BP lowering (target systolic BP > 140 mmHg), which is not yet discussed in the current practice guidelines. Successful lowering of BP leads to LVH regression. While reports have been inconsistent about differences among antihypertensive classes, lowering BP beyond currently recommended levels has consistently showed a greater effect on LVH regression.
Reddy, Sushma; Bernstein, Daniel
An abundance of data has provided insight into the mechanisms underlying the development of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and its progression to LV failure. In contrast, there is minimal data on the adaptation of the right ventricle (RV) to pressure and volume overload and the transition to RV failure. This is a critical clinical question, as the RV is uniquely at risk in many patients with repaired or palliated congenital heart disease and in those with pulmonary hypertension. Standard heart failure therapies have failed to improve function or survival in these patients, suggesting a divergence in the molecular mechanisms of RV vs. LV failure. Although, on the cellular level, the remodeling responses of the RV and LV to pressure overload are largely similar, there are several key differences: the stressed RV is more susceptible to oxidative stress, has a reduced angiogenic response, and is more likely to activate cell death pathways than the stressed LV. Together, these differences could explain the more rapid progression of the RV to failure vs. the LV. This review will highlight known molecular differences between the RV and LV responses to hemodynamic stress, the unique stressors on the RV associated with congenital heart disease, and the need to better understand these molecular mechanisms if we are to develop RV-specific heart failure therapeutics. PMID:26527692
Alpert, N R; Mulieri, L A
Thin muscle strips were obtained from non-failing (NF) and failing (dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)) hearts, using a new harvesting and dissection technique. The strips were used to carry out a myothermal and mechanical analysis so that contractile and excitation coupling phenomena in the NF and failing (DCM-F) preparations can be compared. Peak isometric force and rate of relaxation in DCM-F were reduced 46% (p < 0.02) while time to peak tension was increased 14% (p < 0.03). Initial, tension dependent, tension independent and the rate of tension independent heat liberation were reduced 62-70% in DCM-F (p < 0.03). The crossbridge force-time integral (FTIXBr) was calculated from these measurements and was shown to increase 40% while the amount and rate of calcium cycled per beat was reduced 70%. As a result of these changes in the contractile and excitation-contraction coupling systems in DCM-F, the force-frequency relationship was significantly blunted while the power output was markedly reduced. These fundamental alterations account for the substantial ventricular dysfunction found in the dilated cardiomyopathic failing heart.
The freehand technique for insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is based on fixed anatomical landmarks and does not take individual variations into consideration. A patient-tailored approach based on augmented-reality techniques using devices such as smartphones can address this shortcoming. The Sina neurosurgical assist (Sina) is an Android mobile device application (app) that was designed and developed to be used as a simple intraoperative neurosurgical planning aid. It overlaps the patient's images from previously performed CT or MRI studies on the image seen through the device camera. The device is held by an assistant who aligns the images and provides information about the relative position of the target and EVD to the surgeon who is performing EVD insertion. This app can be used to provide guidance and continuous monitoring during EVD placement. The author describes the technique of Sina-assisted EVD insertion into the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle and reports on its clinical application in 5 cases as well as the results of ex vivo studies of ease of use and precision. The technique has potential for further development and use with other augmented-reality devices.
Faul, Christian; Amaral, Ansel P.; Oskouei, Behzad; Hu, Ming-Chang; Sloan, Alexis; Isakova, Tamara; Gutiérrez, Orlando M.; Aguillon-Prada, Robier; Lincoln, Joy; Hare, Joshua M.; Mundel, Peter; Morales, Azorides; Scialla, Julia; Fischer, Michael; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Chen, Jing; Go, Alan S.; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Nessel, Lisa; Townsend, Raymond R.; Feldman, Harold I.; St. John Sutton, Martin; Ojo, Akinlolu; Gadegbeku, Crystal; Di Marco, Giovana Seno; Reuter, Stefan; Kentrup, Dominik; Tiemann, Klaus; Brand, Marcus; Hill, Joseph A.; Moe, Orson W.; Kuro-o, Makoto; Kusek, John W.; Keane, Martin G.; Wolf, Myles
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health epidemic that increases risk of death due to cardiovascular disease. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an important mechanism of cardiovascular disease in individuals with CKD. Elevated levels of FGF23 have been linked to greater risks of LVH and mortality in patients with CKD, but whether these risks represent causal effects of FGF23 is unknown. Here, we report that elevated FGF23 levels are independently associated with LVH in a large, racially diverse CKD cohort. FGF23 caused pathological hypertrophy of isolated rat cardiomyocytes via FGF receptor–dependent activation of the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway, but this effect was independent of klotho, the coreceptor for FGF23 in the kidney and parathyroid glands. Intramyocardial or intravenous injection of FGF23 in wild-type mice resulted in LVH, and klotho-deficient mice demonstrated elevated FGF23 levels and LVH. In an established animal model of CKD, treatment with an FGF–receptor blocker attenuated LVH, although no change in blood pressure was observed. These results unveil a klotho-independent, causal role for FGF23 in the pathogenesis of LVH and suggest that chronically elevated FGF23 levels contribute directly to high rates of LVH and mortality in individuals with CKD. PMID:21985788
Giménez, Á.; Galarza, M.; Thomale, U.; Schuhmann, M. U.; Valero, J.; Amigó, J. M.
The obstruction of ventricular catheters (VCs) is a major problem in the standard treatment of hydrocephalus, the flow pattern of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) being one important factor thereof. As a first approach to this problem, some of the authors studied previously the CSF flow through VCs under time-independent boundary conditions by means of computational fluid dynamics in three-dimensional models. This allowed us to derive a few basic principles which led to designs with improved flow patterns regarding the obstruction problem. However, the flow of the CSF has actually a pulsatile nature because of the heart beating and blood flow. To address this fact, here we extend our previous computational study to models with oscillatory boundary conditions. The new results will be compared with the results for constant flows and discussed. It turns out that the corrections due to the pulsatility of the CSF are quantitatively small, which reinforces our previous findings and conclusions. This article is part of the themed issue `Mathematical methods in medicine: neuroscience, cardiology and pathology'.
Raman, Jai; Jeevanadam, Valluvan
Despite extensive research and great strides over the past 40 years, the ideal permanent mechanical assist device remains elusive. The incidence of heart failure is increasing, and the number of heart transplants has remained constant. The HeartMate and Novacor are two pulsatile, long-term ventricular assist devices (VADs) commonly used as a bridge to transplantation. Randomized Evaluation of Mechanical Assistance in the Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure is a randomized study of device therapy in heart failure with treatment either with device (HeartMate) therapy or maximal medical therapy which was recently completed and demonstrated a Kaplan-Meier survival rate at 1 year of 52% for the device group compared to 25% in the medical therapy group. The TCI HeartMate is the only device approved for destination therapy, while others such as the Novacor device are in the process of evaluation. Most of these devices are still plagued by mechanical problems, bleeding, thromboembolism and infection. Other promising new devices include smaller VADs using impeller pump technology, such as the Arrow LionHeart, Micromed Debakey pump and Jarvik 2000 pump. The CardioVAD is an interesting chronically implantable balloon pump inserted into the descending thoracic aorta. While experience with the newer implantable pumps is growing, most of them require some manipulation of the heart perioperatively, in addition to anticoagulation postoperatively and careful monitoring for complications and infection. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel
Thyagarajan, Braghadheeswar; Kumar, Monisha Priyadarshini; Sikachi, Rutuja R; Agrawal, Abhinav
Summary Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death in developed nations. End stage heart failure often requires cardiac transplantation for survival. The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) has been one of the biggest evolvements in heart failure management often serving as bridge to transplant or destination therapy in advanced heart failure. Like any other medical device, LVAD is associated with complications with infections being reported in many patients. Endocarditis developing secondary to the placement of LVAD is not a frequent, serious and difficult to treat condition with high morbidity and mortality. Currently, there are few retrospective studies and case reports reporting the same. In our review, we found the most common cause of endocarditis in LVAD was due to bacteria. Both bacterial and fungal endocarditis were associated with high morbidity and mortality. In this review we will be discussing the risk factors, organisms involved, diagnostic tests, management strategies, complications, and outcomes in patients who developed endocarditis secondary to LVAD placement. PMID:27672540
Ito, H; Takaki, M; Yamaguchi, H; Tachibana, H; Suga, H
Left ventricular (LV) volume (V) is an essential parameter for assessment of the cardiac pump function. Measurement of LVV in situ by a conductance catheter method has been widely used in dogs and humans but not yet in small experimental animals such as rats. We instituted a miniaturized six-electrode conductance catheter (3-F) for rat LVV measurement and its signal processing apparatus. We compared stroke volumes (SVs) simultaneously measured with this conductance catheter introduced into the LV through the apex and an electromagnetic flow probe placed on the ascending aorta during gradual decreases in LVV by an inferior vena caval occlusion. A high and linear correlation (r = 0.982) was obtained between these differently measured by SVs pooled from six rats. In another group of three rats, LV pressure was simultaneously measured with a 3-F catheter-tip micromanometer introduced into the LV through the apex. We obtained the slope of the end-systolic pressure-volume (P-V) relationship (Emax) by a gradual ascending aortic occlusion. After administration of propranolol, Emax obviously decreased with no change in volume intercept of the P-V relationship. The conductance volumetry proved to be useful in rats.
Chase, David; Kumar, Vipin; Hooda, Amit
In patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) implantation for left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) accompanied by permanent atrial fibrillation (AF), generally, the unused atrial port is plugged at device implantation. We describe an alternative use for the atrial-port in this case report. A 43 year old gentleman with LVSD due to left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) and AF of unknown duration underwent a CRT-D implantation after optimization of cardiac failure treatment. The atrial-port which would otherwise have been plugged was connected to a high right ventricular septal (RVS) pacing-lead and the shock-lead was positioned at the right ventricular apex (RVA). This approach permitted modified cardiac resynchronization in a high RVS to left ventricular (LV) and RVA pacing sequence using the high RVS and LV pacing combined with a shock vector including the RV apex. A standard CRT-D device with a minimum programmable A-V delay of 30 ms (technically RVS to LV delay in the 'DDD' pacing mode) was used. The device was programmed to a 'DDD' pacing mode (sequential multi-site ventricular pacing with some programmability). The mode switch operation was programmed 'OFF' since atrial sensing is unavailable. Device-delivered shocks did not cardiovert the patient back to sinus rhythm suggesting that the AF was permanent (no prior cardioversion attempts were made on the presumption that the chances of maintaining sinus rhythm, given the underlying cardiac condition, were low). Subsequently, the patient required radio-frequency ablation of the atrio-ventricular node for conducted AF. Symptomatic, echocardiographic and radiological improvement preceded atrio-ventricular node ablation. Amongst AF patients with permanent AF undergoing CRT-D implantation, those patients who are likely to have the CRT-D device atrial-ports plugged could benefit from having both the options of (i) a RVA shock vector as well as (ii) a high RVS
Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia/Fibrillation in a Patient with Right Ventricular Amyloidosis with Initial Manifestations Mimicking Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy
Chung, Fa-Po; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Kuo, Ling
Differentiating arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) from other cardiomyopathies is clinically important but challenging. Although the modified Task Force Criteria can facilitate diagnosis of ARVD/C according to clinical manifestations, histopathological examination plays a pivotal role in excluding other diseases that can mimic ARVD/C. Here, we report a patient with amyloidosis that initially presented similarly to ARVD/C. The diagnosis was confirmed by endomyocardial biopsy, and catheter ablation eliminated the ventricular tachyarrhythmias through an epicardial approach. PMID:28382086
Piskorz, Daniel; Bongarzoni, Laureano; Citta, Luciano; Citta, Norberto; Citta, Paula; Keller, Luis; Tommasi, Alicia
ntroducción: La presencia de disfunción sistólica no ha sido reconocida en pacientes (p) hipertensos. Objetivos: El objetivo del presente estudio es demostrar que los p hipertensos con hipertrofia ventricular izquierda (HVI) presentan disfunción sistólica, y que ella se incrementa cuando se asocia a disfunción diastólica (DD). Material y métodos: estudio observacional de corte transversal con la muestra recolectada en forma prospectiva de acuerdo a criterios de inclusión y exclusión preestablecidos. La función ventricular izquierda fue evaluada por ecocardiografía convencional, Doppler del orificio valvular mitral y Doppler tisular siguiendo las normativas internacionales. Los p fueron divididos en cuatro grupos de acuerdo a la presencia o ausencia de HVI y DD. Análisis estadístico: test t de students y test de ANOVA, significación estadística <0,05. Resultados: se incluyeron 292 p, 130 p (51 %) HVI- DD-; 36 p (5,9 %) HVI- DD+; 87 p (37,6 %) HVI+ DD-; y 39 p (5,5 %) HVI+ DD+. Los p con DD fueron de mayor edad, más frecuentemente mujeres, y su PA sistólica y presión aórtica central estaban más elevados. La velocidad de acortamiento longitudinal de las fibras miocárdicas, medida como onda s con Doppler tisular fue 6,3 +1,1 cm/seg en p HVI+ DD+, 7,2+1,3 cm/seg en p HVI+ DD-, 6,8+1,2 cm/seg en p HVI- DD+, y 7,8+0,6 cm/seg en p HVI- DD- (<0,005). Conclusiones: los p hipertensos presentan disfunción sistólica cuando la HVI está presente y es mayor cuando se asocia a DD.
Lerma, Claudia; Wessel, Niels; Schirdewan, Alexander; Kurths, Jürgen; Glass, Leon
The objective was to determine the characteristics of heart rate variability and ventricular arrhythmias prior to the onset of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Sixty-eight beat-to-beat time series from 13 patients with an ICD were analyzed to quantify heart rate variability and ventricular arrhythmias. The episodes of VT were classified in one of two groups depending on whether the sinus rate in the 1 min preceding the VT was greater or less than 90 beats per minute. In a subset of patients, increased heart rate and reduced heart rate variability was often observed up to 20 min prior to the VT. There was a non-significant trend to higher incidence of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) before VT compared to control recordings. The patterns of the ventricular arrhythmias were highly heterogeneous among different patients and even within the same patient. Analysis of the changes of heart rate and heart rate variability may have predictive value about the onset of VT in selected patients. The patterns of ventricular arrhythmia could not be used to predict onset of VT in this group of patients.
Roman, M J; Ganau, A; Saba, P S; Pini, R; Pickering, T G; Devereux, R B
Aging of the vasculature results in arterial stiffening and an increase in systolic and pulse pressures. Although pressure load is a stimulus for left ventricular hypertrophy, the extent to which vascular stiffening per se, independent of blood pressure, influences left ventricular structure is uncertain. Two hundred seventy-six subjects (79 normotensive and 197 otherwise healthy hypertensive individuals) underwent echocardiography to assess left ventricular structure. Arterial stiffness was estimated by the pressure-independent stiffness index, beta, and the pressure-dependent elastic modulus derived from simultaneous carotid ultrasound and applanation tonometry. Systemic arterial compliance (the inverse of stiffness) was estimated by the arterial compliance index. In multivariate analysis, beta was related to age (P<0.001) and smoking history (P<0.01) but not mean pressure, whereas elastic modulus was related to age and mean pressure (both P<0.001). The arterial compliance index was only related to age. Whereas systolic and diastolic pressures and the elastic modulus were positively associated with left ventricular mass (all P<0.001), primarily because of increases in wall thicknesses, beta and the arterial compliance index bore no relation to left ventricular mass. beta was inversely related to chamber diameter and directly related to left ventricular relative wall thickness, the ratio of wall thickness to chamber radius. Younger and older hypertensive subjects had comparable left ventricular mass, despite higher systolic and pulse pressures in the older group, whereas older hypertensives had higher mean relative wall thickness, associated with a significant increase in arterial stiffness (beta, 7.06 versus 5.17; elastic modulus, 595 versus 437 dyne/cm(2) x10(-6)) and reduction in the arterial compliance index (0.87 versus 1.05 mL/mm Hg per square meter) (all P<0.001). Thus, the extent to which arterial stiffness relates to left ventricular hypertrophy is
McMillan, Charlie; Morgan, Nathanial; Goorley, Tom; Merrill, Frank; Funk, Dave; Korzekwa, Deniece; Laintz, Ken
"Heritage of Science" is a short video that highlights the Stockpile Stewardship program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Stockpile Stewardship was conceived in the early 1990s as a national science-based program that could assure the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without the need for full-scale underground nuclear testing. This video was produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory for screening at the Lab's Bradbury Science Museum in Los Alamos, NM and is narrated by science correspondent Miles O'Brien.
McMillan, Charlie; Morgan, Nathanial; Goorley, Tom; Merrill, Frank; Funk, Dave; Korzekwa, Deniece; Laintz, Ken
"Heritage of Science" is a short video that highlights the Stockpile Stewardship program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Stockpile Stewardship was conceived in the early 1990s as a national science-based program that could assure the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without the need for full-scale underground nuclear testing. This video was produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory for screening at the Lab's Bradbury Science Museum in Los Alamos, NM and is narrated by science correspondent Miles O'Brien.
Meyer, Robyn J; Kern, Karl B; Berg, Robert A; Hilwig, Ronald W; Ewy, Gordon A
Left ventricular dysfunction after resuscitation from cardiac arrest has been well described. Treatment with dobutamine improves post-resuscitation left ventricular function. Right ventricular function following resuscitation has not been investigated. The purposes of this study were to examine right ventricular function following resuscitation and determine whether dobutamine would improve post-resuscitation right ventricular function. Right ventricular function was measured in 28 swine (29+/-1 kg) before and after resuscitation from 15 min of untreated ventricular fibrillation. Twelve animals received dobutamine at 10 mcg/kg/min while 16 animals served as untreated controls. Among controls, right ventricular dysfunction post-resuscitation was demonstrated by a decrease in right ventricular ejection fraction and an increase in right ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Among animals treated with dobutamine, there was a significant improvement in right ventricular function post-resuscitation compared to untreated controls. This study establishes that right ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction does occur after prolonged cardiac arrest from ventricular fibrillation. Dobutamine can ameliorate post-resuscitation right ventricular dysfunction. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.
Tadic, Marijana; Cuspidi, Cesare; Vukomanovic, Vladan; Kocijancic, Vesna; Celic, Vera
We sought to evaluate right ventricular (RV) structure and function in hypertensive patients with various left ventricular (LV) geometric patterns using an updated classification for LV geometry. This cross-sectional study included 232 hypertensive subjects. All the subjects underwent complete two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic examination. Using LV mass index, LV end-diastolic diameter and relative wall thickness, according to the updated classification, all subjects were divided into six different groups: normal LV geometry, concentric remodeling, eccentric LV hypertrophy (LVH), concentric, dilated, and concentric-dilated LVH. RV wall thickness was increased in concentric and concentric-dilated LVH compared with normal LV geometry and LV concentric remodeling. RV longitudinal function was reduced in concentric and concentric-dilated patients compared with other hypertensive groups. 3D RV volumes were significantly higher in eccentric, dilated, and concentric-dilated LVH hypertensive subjects. Conversely, 3D RV ejection fraction was lower in these groups. RV longitudinal myocardial function and 3D RV function are significantly influenced by LV geometry in hypertensive patients. RV remodeling is the most pronounced in the patients with concentric, dilated, and concentric-dilated LVH geometric patterns.
Gerlis, L M; Schmidt-Ott, S C; Ho, S Y; Anderson, R H
OBJECTIVE--Since 1905 there have been many reports of cases in which the right ventricle was deficient in myocardium. Several terms have been used to describe this condition. Of these, "Uhl's anomaly" and "arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia" are most often used. Our study investigates the relation between these entities. METHOD--Five cases with a primary deficiency of the right ventricular musculature were examined. The findings were compared with those published reports to evaluate the similarities and differences between Uhl's anomaly and arrhythmogenic dysplasia. RESULTS--The five cases showed two patterns of myocardial deficiency in the right ventricle. On the one hand, the parietal wall was paper thin with complete absence of musculature and apposition of the endocardial and epicardial layers. On the other hand, patchy, localised fibrofatty tissue replacement was found within the parietal musculature. Evidence from our cases, combined with analysis of other publications, showed different modes and timing of clinical presentation of the patients with these two anatomical conditions, congestive heart failure or arrhythmia. CONCLUSIONS--The conditions variously described as Uhl's anomaly and arrhythmogenic dysplasia are separate and distinct morphological entities. Images PMID:8435240
Morine, Kevin J; Kiernan, Michael S; Pham, Duc Thinh; Paruchuri, Vikram; Denofrio, David; Kapur, Navin K
Right ventricular failure (RVF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after CF-LVAD implantation. We explored the association of pulmonary artery compliance (PAC), pulmonary artery elastance (PAE), and pulmonary artery pulsatility index (PAPi) in addition to established parameters as preoperative determinants of postoperative RVF after CF-LVAD surgery. We retrospectively reviewed 132 consecutive CF-LVAD implantations at Tufts Medical Center from 2008 to 2013. Clinical, hemodynamic, and echocardiographic data were studied. RVF was defined as the unplanned need for a right ventricular assist device or inotrope dependence for ≥14 days. Univariate analysis was performed. RVF occurred in 32 of 132 patients (24%). PAC and PAE were not changed, whereas the PAPi was lower among patients with versus without postoperative RVF (1.32 ± 0.46 vs 2.77 ± 1.16; P < .001). RA pressure, RA to pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ratio (RA:PCWP), and RV stroke work index (RVSWI) were also associated with RVF. Using receiver operating characteristic curve-derived cut-points, PAPi < 1.85 provided 94% sensitivity and 81% specificity (C-statistic = 0.942) for identifying RVF and exceeded the predictive value of RA:PCWP, RVSWI, or RA pressure alone. PAPi is a simple hemodynamic variable that may help to identify patients at high risk of developing RVF after LVAD implantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Petrou, Anastasios; Ochsner, Gregor; Amacher, Raffael; Pergantis, Panagiotis; Rebholz, Mathias; Meboldt, Mirko; Schmid Daners, Marianne
The current article presents a novel physiological feedback controller for turbodynamic ventricular assist devices (tVADs). This controller is based on the recording of the left ventricular (LV) pressure measured at the inlet cannula of a tVAD thus requiring only one pressure sensor. The LV systolic pressure (SP) is proposed as an indicator to determine the varying perfusion requirements. The algorithm to extract the SP from the pump inlet pressure signal used for the controller to adjust the speed of the tVAD shows robust behavior. Its performance was evaluated on a hybrid mock circulation. The experiments with changing perfusion requirements were compared with a physiological circulation and a pathological one assisted with a tVAD operated at constant speed. A sensitivity analysis of the controller parameters was conducted to identify their limits and their influence on a circulation. The performance of the proposed SP controller was evaluated for various values of LV contractility, as well as for a simulated pressure sensor drift. The response of a pathological circulation assisted by a tVAD controlled by the introduced SP controller matched the physiological circulation well, while over- and underpumping events were eliminated. The controller presented a robust performance during experiments with simulated pressure sensor drift. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Upton, M T; Gibson, D G; Brown, D J
In 64 patients requiring cardiac catheterization for chest pain, echocardiograms showing anterior mitral leaflet and left ventricular cavity simultaneously were recorded. These were digitized and their first derivatives computed in order to study time relations between mitral valve and left ventricular wall movement in early distole. In 10 patients with normal left ventricular angiograms and coronary arteriograms, mitral valve opening began 1-1 +/- 9-3 ms (mean +/- SD) before the onset of outward wall movement, and reached peak opening velocity 2-0 +/- 13 ms after maximum rate of change of dimension. Virtually identical time relations were seen in 15 patients with normal left ventricular angiograms but with obstructive coronary artery disease (3-6 +/- 9-3 ms and 0-7 +/- 7-3 ms, respectively). These close relations were lost in patients with segmental abnormalities of contraction on left ventricular angiogram. In 19 such patients with normal septal motion, outward wall movement began 53 +/- 31 ms before the onset of anterior movement of the mitral valve leaflet, and this isovolumic wall movement accounted for 31 per cent of the total diastolic excursion. In 9 patients with reversed septal movement, these abnormalities were greater, 92 +/- 39 ms and 33 per cent, respectively, while in 11 patients with diffuse left ventricular involvement they were small, 5-5 +/- 13 ms and 3 per cent. Frame-by-frame digitization of cineangiograms was used to confirm these findings which appear to reflect an abnormal change in left ventricular cavity shape during isovolumic relaxation. Images PMID:973873
Berger, Gregor E; Bartholomeusz, Cali F; Wood, Stephen J; Ang, Anthony; Phillips, Lisa J; Proffitt, Tina; Brewer, Warrick J; Smith, Deidre J; Nelson, Barnaby; Lin, Ashleigh; Borgwardt, Stefan; Velakoulis, Dennis; Yung, Alison R; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos
Ventricular enlargement is common in established schizophrenia; however, data from ultra high-risk for psychosis and first-episode psychosis studies are inconclusive. This study aims to investigate ventricular volumes at different stages of psychosis. Ventricular volumes were measured using a semi-automated and highly reliable method, for 89 established schizophrenia, 162 first-episode psychosis, 135 ultra high-risk for psychosis and 87 healthy controls using 1.5T magnetic resonance images. Clinical outcome diagnoses for ultra high-risk for psychosis were evaluated at long-term follow-up (mean: 7.5 years). Compared to controls, we identified significant ventricular enlargement of 36.2% in established schizophrenia ( p < 0.001). Ventricular enlargement was not significant in first-episode psychosis (6%) or ultra high-risk for psychosis (-3%). Examination across stages of schizophrenia-spectrum diagnoses subgroups revealed a significant linear trend ( p = 0.006; established schizophrenia = 36.2%, first-episode psychosis schizophrenia = 18.5%, first-episode psychosis schizophreniform = -4.2% and ultra high-risk for psychosis-schizophrenia converters = -18.5%). Ventricular enlargement is apparent in patients with established schizophrenia but is not a feature at the earliest stages of illness (ultra high-risk for psychosis and first-episode psychosis). Further research is needed to fully characterize the nature and timing of ventricular volume changes early in the course of illness and how these changes impact outcomes.
Wilcox, Susan R; Kabrhel, Christopher; Channick, Richard N
Pulmonary hypertension is a hemodynamic condition, defined as a mean pulmonary artery pressure by right-sided heart catheterization of at least 25 mm Hg at rest. It is classified into 5 general groups based on the underlying cause, with left ventricular failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease being 2 of the most common causes in the United States. Although the specifics of the pathophysiology will vary with the cause, appreciating the risks of pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure is critical to appropriately evaluating and resuscitating pulmonary hypertension patients in the emergency department (ED). Patients may present to the ED with complaints related to pulmonary hypertension or unrelated ones, but this condition will affect all aspects of care. Exertional dyspnea is the most common symptom attributable to pulmonary hypertension, but the latter should be considered in any ED patient with unexplained dyspnea on exertion, syncope, or signs of right ventricular dysfunction. Patients with right ventricular failure are often volume overloaded, and careful volume management is imperative, especially in the setting of hypotension. Vasopressors and inotropes, rather than fluid boluses, are often required in shock to augment cardiac output and reduce the risk of exacerbating right ventricular ischemia. Intubation should be avoided if possible, although hypoxemia and hypercapnia may also worsen right-sided heart function. Emergency physicians should appreciate the role of pulmonary vasodilators in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension and recognize that patients receiving these medications may rapidly develop right ventricular failure and even death without these therapies. Patients may require interventions not readily available in the ED, such as a pulmonary artery catheter, inhaled pulmonary vasodilators, and mechanical support with a right ventricular assist device or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Therefore, early
de Micheli, A; Medrano, G A
The basic criteria for the electrical diagnosis of left ventricular and biventricular enlargements are discussed on the basis of the myocardial depolarization and repolarization sequence. Left ventricular dilatation secondary to isolated diastolic overloading increases the manifestation of the main vectors resulting from the activation of this ventricle. These changes reflect the proximity of the left ventricular walls to the exploring electrodes. The above mentioned vectors appear as tall R waves and wide ventricular curves with counterclockwise rotation on the three planes. If the diastolic overload is a isolated phenomenon, T waves are positive and asymmetric on the left leads while the T loop, of secondary type, is concordant in its orientation with the R loop. This fact is due to a prolonged duration of the repolarization phase of the left ventricle. Global left ventricular hypertrophy produced by a sustained systolic overloading increases the magnitude and manifestation of all the vectors resulting from the depolarization of this ventricle (I, II l, III l) owing to the prolonged duration of the corresponding activation fronts. When LBBB is also present, the first septal vector is not evident. In extreme degrees of the systolic overload, the T wave is inverted and shows morphologic secondary characteristics in left leads, and the T loop opposes the R loop on frontal and horizontal planes. The directional changes of the repolarization fronts of free left ventricular walls can satisfactorily explain these features. Left ventricular hypertrophy of a segmentary type, such as that observed in idiopathic myocardiopathy, generally increases the magnitude and manifestation of septal vector I and II left. When both ventricles are hypertrophied, the electromotive forces originating in the more severely affected heart chamber predominate in electrical records.
Aktas, Mehmet Kemal; Jeevanantham, Vinodh; Sherazi, Saadia; Flynn, Dennis; Hall, Burr; Huang, David T; Rosero, Spencer; Daubert, James P; Shah, Abrar H
Loss of biventricular (BiV) pacing occurs during ventricular sensed events such as frequent ventricular ectopy, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, and intrinsic atrioventricular nodal conduction, such as in atrial fibrillation. Ventricular sense response (VSR) pacing, a novel cardiac resynchronization therapy pacing strategy, maintains BiV pacing during these sensed ventricular events. Patients who underwent echocardiographic optimization after BiV pacemaker implantation were enrolled, and aortic velocity-time integrals (VTIs) were recorded and compared during intrinsic conduction without pacing, optimized BiV pacing, and intrinsic conduction with VSR pacing alone. Thirty-two patients were enrolled (mean age 68 +/- 11 years, 78% men), with a mean baseline QRS duration of 164 +/- 24 ms and a mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 23 +/- 10%. The mean aortic VTI during intrinsic conduction with VSR pacing was 16.5 +/- 3.6 cm, compared with 15.3 +/- 3.4 cm during intrinsic conduction without pacing (p <0.001). The mean aortic VTI with optimized BiV pacing was 17.3 +/- 3.6 cm, significantly better (p <0.001) compared with intrinsic conduction without pacing. Improvements in aortic VTI were higher with optimized BiV pacing compared with VSR pacing alone (p = 0.02). In the subgroup of patients with left bundle branch block-type activation, the hemodynamic improvements realized with VSR pacing were similar to optimized BiV pacing. Mean aortic VTI improvements with VSR were similar in patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. In conclusion, a cardiac resynchronization therapy algorithm that maintains BiV pacing during a ventricular sensed event appears to have an aortic VTI response that is significantly better compared with intrinsic conduction without pacing.
Matoshvili, Z T; Petriashvili, Sh G; Archadze, A T; Azaladze, I G
Early repolarization pattern (ERP) is a common ECG variant, characterized by J point elevation manifested either as terminal QRS slurring (the transition from the QRS segment to the ST segment) or notching (a positive deflection inscribed on terminal QRS complex) associated with concave upward ST-segment elevation and prominent T waves in at least two contiguous leads. Aim of this observational study was to compare number of premature ventricular beats in the different groups of patients with early repolarization. The result of this observational study shows that there are: 1,74 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in 41-74 year subgroup VS 19-40 year subgroup; 1,31 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in male subgroup VS female subgroup (But this difference is not statistically significant, because t=1,49, p=0,141); 2,85 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in CAD+ERP subgroup VS ERP without CAD subgroup; 1,74 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in HF+ERP subgroup VS ERP without HF subgroup; 1,81 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in CAD+ERP subgroup VS CAD without ERP subgroup; 1,58 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in HF+ERP subgroup VS HF without ERP subgroup; So, CAD+ERP is very arrhythmogenic condition, after this is HF+ERP, Then Age. This study shows that ERP independently increase number of PVB in different groups (CAD, HF). This is principally new and very important result. Also the number of patients is enough to make this conclusion.
Decloedt, A; Borowicz, H; Slowikowska, M; Chiers, K; van Loon, G; Niedzwiedz, A
Pulmonary hypertension has been described in horses with severe equine asthma, but its effect on the right ventricle has not been fully elucidated. To evaluate right ventricular structure and function after a 1-week period of pulmonary hypertension secondary to acute exacerbation of severe equine asthma. Prospective study. A clinical episode of severe equine asthma was induced experimentally in six susceptible horses. Examinations in remission and on day 7 of the clinical episode included a physical examination with clinical scoring, echocardiography, arterial blood gas measurements, venous blood sampling for cardiac biomarkers, intracardiac pressure measurements, right ventricular and right atrial myocardial biopsies, airway endoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage. After 1 month of recovery, physical examination, echocardiography and cardiac biomarker analysis were repeated. Echocardiographic and pressure measurements were compared with those in 10 healthy control horses. All horses developed clinical signs of acute pulmonary obstruction. Right heart pressures increased significantly. Altered right ventricular function could be detected by tissue Doppler and speckle tracking echocardiography. Cardiac troponin concentrations did not increase significantly, but were highly elevated in one horse which exercised in the paddock prior to sampling. Focal neutrophil infiltration was present in two myocardial samples. Even in remission, asthmatic horses showed a thicker right ventricular wall, an increased left ventricular end-systolic eccentricity index at chordal level and decreased right ventricular longitudinal strain compared with controls. The induced clinical episode was rather mild and the number of horses was limited because of the invasive nature of the study. Pulmonary obstruction in asthmatic horses induces pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular structural and functional changes. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.
Jeong, Daniel; Anagnostopoulos, Petros V; Roldan-Alzate, Alejandro; Srinivasan, Shardha; Schiebler, Mark L; Wieben, Oliver; François, Christopher J
Ventricular kinetic energy measurements may provide a novel imaging biomarker of declining ventricular efficiency in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Our purpose was to assess differences in ventricular kinetic energy with 4-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging between patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and healthy volunteers. Cardiac magnetic resonance, including 4-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging, was performed at rest in 10 subjects with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and 9 healthy volunteers using clinical 1.5T and 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanners. Right and left ventricular kinetic energy (KERV and KELV), main pulmonary artery flow (QMPA), and aortic flow (QAO) were quantified using 4-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging data. Right and left ventricular size and function were measured using standard cardiac magnetic resonance techniques. Differences in peak systolic KERV and KELV in addition to the QMPA/KERV and QAO/KELV ratios between groups were assessed. Kinetic energy indices were compared with conventional cardiac magnetic resonance parameters. Peak systolic KERV and KELV were higher in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (6.06 ± 2.27 mJ and 3.55 ± 2.12 mJ, respectively) than in healthy volunteers (5.47 ± 2.52 mJ and 2.48 ± 0.75 mJ, respectively), but were not statistically significant (P = .65 and P = .47, respectively). The QMPA/KERV and QAO/KELV ratios were lower in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (7.53 ± 5.37 mL/[cycle mJ] and 9.65 ± 6.61 mL/[cycle mJ], respectively) than in healthy volunteers (19.33 ± 18.52 mL/[cycle mJ] and 35.98 ± 7.66 mL/[cycle mJ], respectively; P < .05). QMPA/KERV and QAO/KELV were weakly correlated to ventricular size and function. Greater ventricular kinetic energy is necessary to generate flow in the pulmonary and aortic circulations in repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Quantification of ventricular kinetic energy in patients with repaired tetralogy of
Jeong, Daniel; Anagnostopoulos, Petros V.; Roldan-Alzate, Alejandro; Srinivasan, Shardha; Schiebler, Mark L.; Wieben, Oliver; François, Christopher J.
Objective Ventricular kinetic energy measurements may provide a novel imaging biomarker of declining ventricular efficiency in patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF). Our purpose was to assess differences in ventricular kinetic energy (KE) with four-dimensional (4D) Flow MRI between patients with rTOF and healthy volunteers. Methods Cardiac MR (CMR), including 4D Flow MRI, was performed at rest in 10 subjects with rTOF and nine healthy volunteers using clinical 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners. Right and left ventricular kinetic energy (KERV and KELV), main pulmonary artery flow (QMPA), and aortic flow (QAO) were quantified using 4D Flow MRI data. Right and left ventricular size and function were measured using standard CMR techniques. Differences in peak systolic KERV and KELV in addition to the QMPA/KERV and QAO/KELV ratios between groups were assessed. KE indices were compared to conventional CMR parameters. Results Peak systolic KERV and KELV were higher in rTOF subjects (6.06±2.27mJ and 3.55±2.12mJ, respectively) than healthy volunteers (5.47±2.52mJ and 2.48±0.75mJ, respectively) but not statistically significant (p= .65 and p= .47, respectively). The QMPA/KERV and QAO/KELV ratios were lower in rTOF subjects (7.53±5.37mL/(cycle-mJ) and 9.65±6.61mL/(cycle-mJ), respectively) than healthy volunteers (19.33±18.52mL/(cycle-mJ) and 35.98±7.66mL/(cycle-mJ), respectively; p< .05). QMPA/KERV and QAO/KELV were weakly correlated to ventricular size and function. Conclusions Greater ventricular KE is necessary to generate flow in the pulmonary and aortic circulations in rTOF. Quantification of ventricular KE in patients with rTOF is a new observation. Future studies are needed to determine if changes in ventricular KE can provide earlier evidence of ventricular dysfunction and guide future medical and surgical interventions. PMID:25623907
The Los Angeles Basin is bordered on the north by the San Gabriel Mountains. Other smaller basins are separated by smaller mountain ranges, like the Verdugo Hills, and the Santa Monica Mountains in this image from NASA Terra spacecraft.
Ravi, Yazhini; Bansal, Shelley; Rosas, Paola C; Mazzaferri, Ernest L; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B
Chronic heart failure is the leading cause of death in the world. With newer therapies, the burden of this disease has decreased; however, a significant number of patients remain refractive to existing therapies. Myocardial infarction often leads to ventricular remodeling and eventually contributes to heart failure. The Parachute™ (Cardiokinetix, Menlo Park, CA) is the first device designed for percutaneous ventricular restoration therapy, which reduces left ventricular volume and minimizes the risk of open surgical procedures. For the first time, we report a case of explantation of the Parachute ventricular partitioning device and transition to a HeartMate II™ left ventricular assist device and the surgical considerations for a successful outcome.
Bansal, Shelley; Rosas, Paola C.; Mazzaferri, Ernest L.; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B.
Chronic heart failure is the leading cause of death in the world. With newer therapies, the burden of this disease has decreased; however, a significant number of patients remain refractive to existing therapies. Myocardial infarction often leads to ventricular remodeling and eventually contributes to heart failure. The Parachute™ (Cardiokinetix, Menlo Park, CA) is the first device designed for percutaneous ventricular restoration therapy, which reduces left ventricular volume and minimizes the risk of open surgical procedures. For the first time, we report a case of explantation of the Parachute ventricular partitioning device and transition to a HeartMate II™ left ventricular assist device and the surgical considerations for a successful outcome. PMID:27034560
Towbin, J A; Bowles, N E
The left ventricle (LV) plays a central role in the maintenance of health of children and adults due to its role as the major pump of the heart. In cases of LV dysfunction, a significant percentage of affected individuals develop signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure (CHF), leading to the need for therapeutic intervention. Therapy for these patients include anticongestive medications and, in some, placement of devices such as aortic balloon pump or left ventricular assist device (LVAD), or cardiac transplantation. In the majority of patients the etiology is unknown, leading to the term idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC). During the past decade, the basis of LV dysfunction has begun to unravel. In approximately 30-40% of cases, the disorder is inherited; autosomal dominant inheritance is most common (although X-linked, autosomal recessive and mitochondrial inheritance occurs). In the remaining patients, the disorder is presumed to be acquired, with inflammatory heart disease playing an important role. In the case of familial dilated cardiomyopathy (FDCM), the genetic basis is beginning to unfold. To date, two genes for X-linked FDCM (dystrophin, G4.5) have been identified and four genes for the autosomal dominant form (actin, desmin, lamin A/C, delta-sarcoglycan) have been described. In one form of inflammatory heart disease, coxsackievirus myocarditis, inflammatory mediators and dystrophin cleavage play a role in the development of LV dysfunction. In this review, we will describe the molecular genetics of LV dysfunction and provide evidence for a "final common pathway" responsible for the phenotype.
Kubota, Yoshiaki; Asai, Kuniya; Murai, Koji; Tsukada, Yayoi Tetsuou; Hayashi, Hiroki; Saito, Yoshinobu; Azuma, Arata; Gemma, Akihiko; Shimizu, Wataru
COPD is concomitantly present in ~30% of patients with heart failure. Here, we investigated the pulmonary function test parameters for left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and the relationship between pulmonary function and LV diastolic function in patients with COPD. Overall, 822 patients who underwent a pulmonary function test and echocardiography simultaneously between January 2011 and December 2012 were evaluated. Finally, 115 patients with COPD and 115 age- and sex-matched control patients with an LV ejection fraction of ≥50% were enrolled. The mean age of the patients was 74.4±10.4 years, and 72.3% were men. No significant differences were found between the two groups regarding comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and anemia. The index of LV diastolic function (E/e') and the proportion of patients with high E/e' (defined as E/e' ≥15) were significantly higher in patients with COPD than in control patients (10.5% vs 9.1%, P=0.009; 11.3% vs 4.3%, P=0.046). E/e' was significantly correlated with the residual volume/total lung capacity ratio. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed severe COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease III or IV) to be a significant predictive factor for high E/e' (odds ratio [OR] 5.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.13-15.89, P=0.001 and OR 6.00, 95% CI 2.08-17.35, P=0.001, respectively). Our data suggest that LV diastolic dysfunction as a complication of COPD may be associated with mechanical exclusion of the heart by pulmonary overinflation.
Gray, Richard A.
Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is sustained by the continuous “breakup” of rapidly rotating spiral waves. The rate dependence of action potential duration (APD), i.e. APD restitution, plays a role in the induction and breakup of spiral waves. However, the role of conduction velocity (CV) and spatial heterogeneities, in VF induction and maintenance is not clear. We studied restitution, its spatial dispersion, and VF in small (rabbit) and large (pig) hearts using a video imaging system. We studied the effect of two drugs, diacetyl monoxime (DAM) and cytochalasinD (Cyto), in rabbit hearts. Control APDs were shorter than for Cyto but longer than for DAM. CV was greater for Cyto compared to DAM and APD dispersion increased with increasing rate for both drugs. VF was sustained in control, non-sustained with CytoD, and converted to a stable reentry (VT) with DAM. The slight increase of APD with Cyto increased the wavelength and probably prevented VF from being sustained. The DAM results can be explained by the reduction of wavelength and slope of the APD restitution curve. Except for VF, CytoD results were similar to controls. We performed similar studies in larger (pig) hearts with Cyto. APD and restitution slope at rapid rates were smaller for the pig compared to the rabbit. In the pig, APDs recorded during pacing induction protocols, VF and VT demonstrated that during periods of transition, APDs did not fall on the restitution curve. However, the deviations were predictable. During rapid pacing and VT/VF induction, APDs were longer than predicted from the restitution curve, while they were shorter for the conversions of VF to VT and their terminations. Overall, these studies are beginning to elucidate the dynamics and factors involved in the complex spatio-temporal patterns and their transitions that occur at rapid rates such as VT and VF.
Hamilton, Douglas R.; Barratt, Michael R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Ebert, Douglas; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Martin, David S.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael
Tissue Doppler (TD) registers movement of a given sample of cardiac tissue throughout the cardiac cycle. TD spectra of the right ventricle (RV) were obtained from a long-duration ISS crewmember as a portion of an ongoing experiment ("Braslet" test objective). To our knowledge, this is the first report of RV TD conducted in space flight, and the data represent reproducibility and fidelity of this application in space and serve as the first "space normal" data set. Methods RV TD was performed by astronaut scientists remotely guided by an ultrasound expert from Mission Control Center, Houston, TX. In four of the subjects, RV TD was acquired from the free wall near the tricuspid annulus in two separate sessions 4 to 7 days apart. A fifth subject had only one session. All digital DICOM frames were exported for off-line analysis. Systolic (S ), early diastolic (E ) and late diastolic (A ) velocities were measured. RV Tei-index was calculated using diastolic and systolic time intervals as a combined measure of myocardial performance. Results and Discussion The mean values from the first 4 subjects (8 sessions) were used as the on-orbit reference data, and subject 5 was considered as a hypothetical patient for comparison (see Table). The greatest difference was in the early diastolic A (31 %) yet the standard deviation (a) for A amongst the reference subjects was 2.25 (mean = 16.02). Of interest is the Tei index, a simple and feasible indicator of overall ventricular function; it was similar amongst all the subjects. The late diastolic A seems to compensate for the variance in E . Normal Tei index for the RV is < 0.3, yet our data show all but one subject consistently above this level, notwithstanding their nominal responses to daily exercise in microgravity. These data remind us that the physiology of RV preload in altered gravity environments is still not completely understood.
The rates of diffusion of tritiated water (THO) and [14C]sucrose across cat right ventricular myocardium were studied at 23 degrees C in an Ussing-type diffusion cell, recording the time-course of increase in concentration of tracer in one chamber over 4--6 h after adding tracers to the other. Sucrose data were fitted with a model for a homogeneous sheet of uneven thickness in which the tissue is considered to be an array of parallel independent pathways (parallel pathway model) of varying length. The volume of the sucrose diffusion space, presumably a wholly extracellular pathway, was 23% of the tissue or 27.4 +/-1.7% (mean +/- SEM; n=11) of the tissue water. The effective intramyocardial sucrose diffusion coefficient, D8, was 1.51 +/- 0.19 X 10(-6)cm2.s-1 (n=11). Combining these data with earlier data, D8 was 22.6 +/- 1.1% (n=95) of the free diffusion coefficient in aqueous solution D degrees 8. The parallel pathway model and a dead-end pore model, which might have accounted for intracellular sequestration of water, gave estimates of DW/D degrees W (observed/free) of 15%. Because hindrance to water diffusion must be less than for sucrose (where D8/D degrees 8=22.6%), this showed the inadequacy of these models to account simultaneously for the diffusional resistance and the tissue water content. The third or cell-matrix model, a heterogeneous system of permeable cells arrayed in the extracellular matrix, allowed logical and geometrically reasonable interpretations of the steady-state data and implied estimates of DW in the cellular and extracellular fluid of approximately 25% of the aqueous diffusion coefficient. PMID:722277
Walcott, Gregory P; Kroll, Mark W; Ideker, Raymond E
The risk of VF (ventricular fibrillation) from continuous AC utility (50/60 Hz) power has been well quantified and is reflected in accepted standards. Similarly, the required charge for a single pulse delivered during the T-wave of the ECG is also quantified. However, there are no studies that deal with the VF risk of a train of multiple short pulses such as those used in electric fences and conducted electrical weapons (CEWs). We studied 5 swine with an electrode placed through the anterior chest such that the tip was 10 mm from the epicardium. A return electrode was attached remotely to the lower abdomen. Five-second trains of 100 μs pulses at rates of 10-70 PPS (pulses per second) were delivered with gradually increasing charges until VF was induced. The VF threshold was also determined for 60 Hz AC current. As expected, the VF charge threshold decreased with increasing rates. For pulse rates between 10-30 PPS, the aggregate current (= charge • pulse rate) was constant at the VF threshold. The VF threshold in terms of AC RMS current was 7.4 ± 1.9 times the aggregate current VF threshold for the rapid short pulses. These results may have utility for setting safety standards for electric fences and for CEWs such as TASER® CEWs. This also allows for the risk assessment of CEWs by comparison to international electrical safety standards. The output of these weapons appears to be well below the VF risk limits as set by these standards.
Right ventricular pacing is an independent predictor for ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation occurrence and heart failure events in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.
Gardiwal, Ajmal; Yu, Hong; Oswald, Hanno; Luesebrink, Ulrich; Ludwig, Andreas; Pichlmaier, Andreas Maximilian; Drexler, Helmut; Klein, Gunnar
There is increasing evidence that right ventricular (RV) pacing may have detrimental effects by increasing morbidity and mortality for heart failure in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patients. In this study we prospectively tested the hypothesis that cumulative RV pacing increases ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) occurrence (primary endpoint) and hospitalization and mortality for heart failure (secondary endpoint) in a predominantly secondary prophylactic ICD patient population. Two hundred and fifty patients were divided into two groups according to the median of cumulative RV pacing (< or =2 vs. >2%) and prospectively followed-up for occurrence of primary and secondary endpoints for 18 +/- 4 months. Established predictors for VT/VF occurrence and heart failure events such as age, left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), QRS duration, history of atrial fibrillation, and NT-proBNP were collected at enrollment. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that cumulative RV pacing > 2% and EF < 40% were independent predictors for VT/VF occurrence and heart failure events. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with >2% cumulative RV pacing more frequently suffered from VT/VF occurrence and heart failure hospitalization. Cumulative RV pacing > 2% and EF < 40% are independent predictors for VT/VF occurrence and mortality and hospitalization for heart failure in predominantly secondary prophylactic ICD patients. Our data show that algorithms capable of reducing cumulative RV pacing should be used more frequently in clinical practice.
Bernus, O.; Van Eyck, B.; Verschelde, H.; Panfilov, A. V.
We study the effect of blocking the L-type Ca2+-channel on fibrillation in simulations in two-dimensional (2D) isotropic sheets of ventricular tissue and in a three-dimensional anisotropic anatomical model of human ventricles, using a previously developed model of human ventricular cells. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was obtained as a result of spiral wave breakup and consisted of a varying number of chaotically wandering wavelets activating tissue at a frequency of about 6.0 Hz. We show that blocking the Ca2+-current by 75% can convert ventricular fibrillation into a periodic regime with a small number of stable spiral waves, ranging from six in 2D sheets of 25 × 25 cm to a single spiral in the anatomical model of human ventricles. The dominant frequency during this process changed to about 10.0 Hz in the 2D simulations, but to only 5.0 Hz in the whole heart simulations where a single spiral wave anchored around an anatomical obstacle. We show that the observed effects were due to a flattening of the electrical restitution curve, which prevented the generation of wave breaks and stabilized the activation patterns.
Morin, Daniel P.; Mauer, Andreas C.; Gear, Kathleen; Zareba, Wojciech; Markowitz, Steven M.; Marcus, Frank I.; Lerman, Bruce B.
The 2 predominant etiologies of right ventricular tachycardia (VT) are arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and idiopathic VT arising from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). Both of these arrhythmias can be adrenergically mediated and may be difficult to distinguish clinically. A minor criterion for the diagnosis of ARVC is T wave inversion (TWI) in the right precordial leads during sinus rhythm. However, there have been reports of precordial TWI identified in patients with RVOT tachycardia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patterns of precordial TWI could differentiate between the two groups. We evaluated a multicenter registry of 229 patients with VT of right ventricular origin. After appropriate exclusions (n=29), 79 patients (58% M, 40±14y) had ARVC, and 121 patients (41% M, 48±14y) had RVOT tachycardia. During sinus rhythm, 37/79 (47%) patients with ARVC and 5/121 (4%) patients with RVOT tachycardia had T-wave inversion in leads V1-V3. For the diagnosis of ARVC, TWI in leads V1-V3 had a sensitivity of 47% and a specificity of 96%. In conclusion, in patients with VT of RV origin, the presence of TWI in electrocardiogram leads V1-V3 supports the diagnosis of ARVC. PMID:20538137
Li, Bin; Yang, Hui; Wang, Xiaochen; Zhan, Yongkun; Sheng, Wei; Cai, Huanhuan; Xin, Haoyang; Liang, Qianqian; Zhou, Ping; Lu, Chao; Qian, Ruizhe; Chen, Sifeng; Yang, Pengyuan; Zhang, Jianyi; Shou, Weinian; Huang, Guoying; Liang, Ping; Sun, Ning
Most infarctions occur in the left anterior descending coronary artery and cause myocardium damage of the left ventricle. Although current pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and directed cardiac differentiation techniques are able to generate fetal-like human cardiomyocytes, isolation of pure ventricular cardiomyocytes has been challenging. For repairing ventricular damage, we aimed to establish a highly efficient purification system to obtain homogeneous ventricular cardiomyocytes and prepare engineered human ventricular heart muscles in a dish. The purification system used TALEN-mediated genomic editing techniques to insert the neomycin or EGFP selection marker directly after the myosin light chain 2 (MYL2) locus in human pluripotent stem cells. Purified early ventricular cardiomyocytes were estimated by immunofluorescence, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, quantitative PCR, microelectrode array, and patch clamp. In subsequent experiments, the mixture of mature MYL2-positive ventricular cardiomyocytes and mesenchymal cells were cocultured with decellularized natural heart matrix. Histological and electrophysiology analyses of the formed tissues were performed 2 weeks later. Human ventricular cardiomyocytes were efficiently isolated based on the purification system using G418 or flow cytometry selection. When combined with the decellularized natural heart matrix as the scaffold, functional human ventricular heart muscles were prepared in a dish. These engineered human ventricular muscles can be great tools for regenerative therapy of human ventricular damage as well as drug screening and ventricular-specific disease modeling in the future.
Auffermann, W; Wichter, T; Breithardt, G; Joachimsen, K; Peters, P E
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular disease (ARVD) is increasingly found in young adults with ventricular arrhythmias and is characterized by ventricular tachycardia originating within the right ventricle and regional or diffuse abnormalities in the contraction of the right ventricle. Until now, the gold standard for the detection of global and regional abnormalities of the right ventricular wall has been angiography combined with biopsy. The purpose of the current study was to compare MR imaging with angiography for assessing the location and extent of morphologic and functional abnormalities in patients with ARVD. Electrocardiographically gated spin-echo and cine gradient-echo MR imaging of the heart was performed in 36 consecutive patients with biopsy-proved ARVD. Patients were prospectively separated into two groups according to the results of invasive electrophysiologic tests (18 with inducible ventricular tachycardia during invasive electrophysiologic studies [ARVD 1] and 18 without inducible ventricular tachycardia [ARVD 2]) and compared with 11 control subjects. Global and regional morphology and function of the right ventricle were assessed with MR imaging, and those findings were compared with angiographic findings. Right ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower in patients with ARVD 1 than in patients with ARVD 2 or in control subjects. Regional abnormalities of the right ventricular wall also were more pronounced in patients with ARVD 1 than in patients with ARVD 2. Signal-intensity increases corresponding to fatty replacement shown by biopsy were seen in 33% of patients with ARVD 1 and in 11% of patients with ARVD 2. Abnormal regions of the right ventricular wall seen on MR images corresponded to angiographic findings in 86% of patients. Comparison with control subjects showed that patients with ARVD 1 had a significant delay in diastolic relaxation of the right ventricle. Our results show that MR imaging can be used to assess morphologic
Nazeri, Alireza; Elayda, MacArthur A; Dragnev, Lubomir; Frank, Christopher M; Qu, Jihong; Afonso, Valtino X; Rasekh, Abdi; Saeed, Mohammad; Cheng, Jie; Shuraih, Mossaab; Massumi, Ali; Razavi, Mehdi
Studies have shown that long-term vagal stimulation is protective against ventricular fibrillation; however, the effects of acute vagal stimulation during ventricular fibrillation in the normal heart have not been investigated. We examined the effects of acute vagal stimulation on ventricular fibrillation in a canine model. In 4 dogs, we induced 30-second periods of ventricular fibrillation by means of intraventricular pacing. During 2 of the 4 periods of fibrillation that we analyzed, vagal stimulation was delivered through electrodes in the caudal ends of the vagus nerves. Noncontact unipolar electrograms were recorded from 3 ventricular regions: the basal septum, apical septum, and lateral free wall. We then computed the most frequent cycle length, mean organization index, and mean electrogram amplitude for each region. During fibrillation, vagal stimulation shortened the most frequent cycle lengths in the basal septum (P=0.02) and apical septum (P=0.0001), but not in the lateral wall (P=0.46). In addition, vagal stimulation significantly reduced the mean organization indices in the apical septum (P <0.001) and lateral wall (P <0.001), but not in the basal septum (P=0.19). Furthermore, vagal stimulation raised the mean electrogram amplitude in the basal septum (P <0.01) but lowered it substantially in the apical septum (P=0.00005) and lateral wall (P=0.00003). We conclude that vagal stimulation acutely affects the characteristics of ventricular fibrillation in canine myocardium in a spatially heterogeneous manner. This nonuniformity of response may have implications with regard to manipulating the autonomic system as a means of modifying the substrate for ventricular dysrhythmias.
Alonso, Pau; Andrés, Ana; Rueda, Joaquín; Buendía, Francisco; Igual, Begoña; Rodríguez, María; Osa, Ana; Arnau, Miguel A; Salvador, Antonio
Pulmonary regurgitation is a common complication in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot or congenital pulmonary stenosis. Electrocardiographic variables have been correlated with parameters used to evaluate right ventricular function. We aimed to analyze the diagnostic value of the width and fragmentation of the electrocardiogram in the identification of patients with right ventricular dysfunction and/or dilation. We selected 107 consecutive patients diagnosed with severe pulmonary insufficiency after repair of pulmonary stenosis or tetralogy of Fallot. The tests included electrocardiography, echocardiography, and magnetic resonance. Each electrocardiogram was analyzed manually to measure QRS duration. We defined QRS fragmentation as the presence of low-voltage waves in the terminal portion of the QRS complex in at least 2 contiguous leads. We found a significant negative correlation between QRS width and right ventricular function, as well as a positive correlation with right ventricular volume. The receiver operating characteristic curve indicated a cut-off point for QRS width of 140ms, which showed good sensitivity for a diagnosis of right ventricular dilation (> 80%) and dysfunction (> 95%). In logistic regression models, a QRS duration > 140ms was found to be the only independent predictor of right ventricular dilation and dysfunction. Electrocardiography is a rapid, widely available, and reproducible tool. QRS width constitutes an independent predictor of the presence of right ventricular dilation and dysfunction. This study is the first to provide a cutoff value for QRS width to screen for right ventricle involvement. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Luther, Vishal; Linton, Nick W F; Jamil-Copley, Shahnaz; Koa-Wing, Michael; Lim, Phang Boon; Qureshi, Norman; Ng, Fu Siong; Hayat, Sajad; Whinnett, Zachary; Davies, D Wyn; Peters, Nicholas S; Kanagaratnam, Prapa
Post-infarct ventricular tachycardia is associated with channels of surviving myocardium within scar characterized by fractionated and low-amplitude signals usually occurring late during sinus rhythm. Conventional automated algorithms for 3-dimensional electro-anatomic mapping cannot differentiate the delayed local signal of conduction within the scar from the initial far-field signal generated by surrounding healthy tissue. Ripple mapping displays every deflection of an electrogram, thereby providing fully informative activation sequences. We prospectively used CARTO-based ripple maps to identify conducting channels as a target for ablation. High-density bipolar left ventricular endocardial electrograms were collected using CARTO3v4 in sinus rhythm or ventricular pacing and reviewed for ripple mapping conducting channel identification. Fifteen consecutive patients (median age 68 years, left ventricular ejection fraction 30%) were studied (6 month preprocedural implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapies: median 19 ATP events [Q1-Q3=4-93] and 1 shock [Q1-Q3=0-3]). Scar (<1.5 mV) occupied a median 29% of the total surface area (median 540 points collected within scar). A median of 2 ripple mapping conducting channels were seen within each scar (length 60 mm; initial component 0.44 mV; delayed component 0.20 mV; conduction 55 cm/s). Ablation was performed along all identified ripple mapping conducting channels (median 18 lesions) and any presumed interconnected late-activating sites (median 6 lesions; Q1-Q3=2-12). The diastolic isthmus in ventricular tachycardia was mapped in 3 patients and colocated within the ripple mapping conducting channels identified. Ventricular tachycardia was noninducible in 85% of patients post ablation, and 71% remain free of ventricular tachycardia recurrence at 6-month median follow-up. Ripple mapping can be used to identify conduction channels within scar to guide functional substrate ablation. © 2016 American Heart Association
Wang, J; Zhang, H; Wu, C; Han, J; Guo, Z; Jia, C; Yang, L; Hao, Y; Xu, K; Liu, X; Si, J
ABSTRACT Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation of the left ventricular diastolic function and the left ventricular geometry in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) by echocardiography. Methods: The 181 patients diagnosed with OSAS were divided into the normal geometry group (NG), the concentric remodelling group (CR), the eccentric hypertrophy group (EH) and the concentric hypertrophy group (CH). Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were performed toward the correlation of the left ventricular diastolic function and the left ventricular geometry. Results: The E peak in the EH and CH group was significantly reduced, with significant difference; the E/A, Em, Am and Em/Am was reduced in the order of the CR, EH and CH groups, while E/Em was increased, and the difference was significant. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the Em/Am showed significant negative correlations with the left ventricular mass index (LVMI) [r = −0.419] and relative wall thickness (RWT) [r = −0.289], while the E/Em was significantly positively correlated with the LVMI (r = 0.638) and RWT [r = 0.328] (p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that LVMI and RWT had influence on the Em/Am and E/Em (r2 = 0.402, r2 = 0.107, p < 0.001). The left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was the worst in the CH group. Conclusions: There was correlation between the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and the changes in cardiac geometry. PMID:26360680
Macintyre, Ciorsti J; Sapp, John L
The management of ventricular tachyarrhythmias has changed significantly over the past several decades. The advent of readily available implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) has had the greatest effect, with important mortality effects in patients with ventricular tachycardia and structural heart disease. ICDs have been shown to reduce sudden death in patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathies; evidence of adverse consequences of ICD shocks, however, is mounting. In addition to the negative effects on patient-reported quality of life, anxiety, and depression, frequent ventricular arrhythmias and ICD shocks have also been associated with increased mortality. It is therefore important to identify and implement effective ventricular tachycardia-suppressive strategies. Antiarrhythmic drugs represent one such method, but are challenged by unfavourable side effect profiles and proarrhythmic risk. Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia is now a well-accepted intervention, which has been demonstrated to reduce recurrent arrhythmias. Questions persist regarding the optimal role for ablation compared with drug therapy. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Haugaa, Kristina H; Haland, Trine F; Leren, Ida S; Saberniak, Jørg; Edvardsen, Thor
This review aims to give an update on the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is mainly an autosomal dominant inherited disease linked to mutations in genes encoding desmosomes or desmosome-related proteins. Classic symptoms include palpitations, cardiac syncope, and aborted cardiac arrest due to ventricular arrhythmias. Heart failure may develop in later stages. Diagnosis is based on the presence of major and minor criteria from the Task Force Criteria revised in 2010 (TFC 2010), which includes evaluation of findings from six different diagnostic categories. Based on this, patients are classified as having possible, borderline, or definite ARVC. Imaging is important in ARVC diagnosis, including both echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for detecting structural and functional abnormalities, but importantly these findings may occur after electrical alterations and ventricular arrhythmias. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) and signal-averaged ECGs are analysed for depolarization and repolarization abnormalities, including T-wave inversions as the most common ECG alteration. Ventricular arrhythmias are common in ARVC and are considered a major diagnostic criterion if originating from the RV inferior wall or apex. Family history of ARVC and detection of an ARVC-related mutation are included in the TFC 2010 and emphasize the importance of family screening. Electrophysiological studies are not included in the diagnostic criteria, but may be important for differential diagnosis including RV outflow tract tachycardia. Further differential diagnoses include sarcoidosis, congenital abnormalities, myocarditis, pulmonary hypertension, dilated cardiomyopathy, and athletic cardiac adaptation, which may mimic ARVC.
Khoshnevis, G R; Massumi, A
The benefit of defibrillator therapy has been well established for patients with LV dysfunction (ejection fraction less than 35%), coronary artery disease, NSVT, and inducible and nonsuppressible ventricular tachycardia. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy is also indicated for all CHF patients in NYHA functional classes I, II, and III who present with aborted sudden cardiac death, or ventricular fibrillation, or hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia--and also in patients with syncope with no documented ventricular tachycardia but with inducible ventricular tachycardia at electrophysiology study. The ongoing MADIT II trial was designed to evaluate the benefit of prophylactic ICD implantation in these patients (ejection fraction less than 30%, coronary artery disease, and NSVT) without prior risk stratification by PES. The CABG Patch trial concluded that prophylactic placement of an ICD during coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with low ejection fraction and abnormal SAECG is not justifiable. Except for the indications described above, ICD implantation has not been proved to be beneficial as primary or secondary therapy. Until more data are available, patients should be encouraged to enroll in the ongoing clinical trials. PMID:10217470
Tal, A.; Leiberman, A.; Margulis, G.; Sofer, S.
Ventricular function was evaluated using radionuclide ventriculography in 27 children with oropharyngeal obstruction and clinical features of obstructive sleep apnea. Their mean age was 3.5 years (9 months to 7.5 years). Conventional clinical assessment did not detect cardiac involvement in 25 of 27 children; however, reduced right ventricular ejection fraction (less than 35%) was found in 10 (37%) patients (mean: 19.5 +/- 2.3% SE, range: 8-28%). In 18 patients wall motion abnormality was detected. In 11 children in whom radionuclide ventriculography was performed before and after adenotonsillectomy, right ventricular ejection fraction rose from 24.4 +/- 3.6% to 46.7 +/- 3.4% (P less than 0.005), and in all cases wall motion showed a definite improvement. In five children, left ventricular ejection fraction rose greater than 10% after removal of oropharyngeal obstruction. It is concluded that right ventricular function may be compromised in children with obstructive sleep apnea secondary to adenotonsillar hypertrophy, even before clinical signs of cardiac involvement are present.
Haft, Jonathan W; Alnajjar, Osamma; Bull, Joseph L; Bartlett, Robert H; Hirschl, Ronald B
Artificial lungs may serve as transplant alternatives to patients with respiratory failure. To provide a pulmonary replacement, the device cannot significantly alter right ventricular afterload. We sought to characterize cardiac load using a prototype artificial lung as a pulmonary replacement. An artificial lung was implanted into 13 adult sheep, 7 using a noncompliant original prototype and 6 using a modified device with a compliance chamber. Inflow was from the pulmonary artery and outflow into the left atrium. Pulmonary impedance was determined and pulse wave reflections analyzed. Resistance was similar in the original prototype artificial lung and in the native pulmonary circulation (3.0 vs 3.2 Woods units, p = 0.5). First harmonic impedance was significantly increased in the original prototype artificial lung (0.4 vs 5.9 Woods units, p < 0.01). High-amplitude pulse wave reflections were identified and right ventricular function was altered. The addition of compliance to the artificial lung reduced impedance at the first harmonic (5.9 vs 1.9 Woods units, p < 0.01), decreased the amplitude of pulse wave reflections, and normalized right ventricular function. A low-resistance but noncompliant artificial lung increases pulmonary impedance and alters right ventricular function. Addition of a compliance chamber reduces pulse wave reflections and normalizes ventricular function.
Naeini, Payam S.; Razavi, Mehdi; Collard, Charles D.; Tolpin, Daniel A.; Anton, James M.
Radiofrequency catheter ablation is increasingly being used to treat patients who have ventricular tachycardia, and anesthesiologists frequently manage their perioperative care. This narrative review is intended to familiarize anesthesiologists with preprocedural, intraprocedural, and postprocedural implications of this ablation. Ventricular tachycardia typically arises from structural heart disease, most often from scar tissue after myocardial infarction. Many patients thus affected will benefit from radiofrequency catheter ablation in the electrophysiology laboratory to ablate the foci of arrhythmogenesis. The pathophysiology of ventricular tachycardia is complex, as are the technical aspects of mapping and ablating these arrhythmias. Patients often have substantial comorbidities and tenuous hemodynamic status, necessitating pharmacologic and mechanical cardiopulmonary support. General anesthesia and monitored anesthesia care, when used for sedation during ablation, can lead to drug interactions and side effects in the presence of ventricular tachycardia, so anesthesiologists should also be aware of potential perioperative complications. We discuss variables that can help anesthesiologists safely guide patients through the challenges of radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia. PMID:28100967
Calder, A L; Co, E E; Sage, M D
The incidence and severity of abnormalities of the coronary arteries were evaluated in 35 necropsy patients with pulmonary atresia and an intact ventricular septum. Right ventricular to coronary artery fistulous connections were found in more than 60% of the cases. All patients with fistulous connections had histologic abnormalities of the coronary arteries. In 50% the lesions were mild, with medial and intimal thickening producing up to moderate luminal stenosis. In 50% there was loss of normal arterial wall structure and severe narrowing or obliteration of the arterial lumen. The coronary arterial fistulas and histologic abnormalities were prevalent in those with underdevelopment of the tricuspid valve and right ventricular cavity but were not found in patients with a normal or dilated tricuspid valve anulus. The coronary arterial abnormalities were found in more than 80% of patients with a tricuspid valve/mitral valve ratio less than 1. A single coronary artery occurred in 6 patients (17%) of this series. In 80% of those with 1 coronary artery arising from the other, the aberrantly arising coronary artery crossed anteriorly to the pulmonary artery and could be at risk in surgical attempts to reconstruct the right ventricular outflow. Aortography is recommended if the coronary arteries are not clearly delineated on ventricular cineangiocardiography.
Levine, Deborah; Trop, Isabelle; Mehta, Tejas S; Barnes, Patrick D
To elucidate further the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of fetal cerebral ventricles by comparing ultrasonographic (US) and MR images. A retrospective review of MR and US images was performed for 110 normal fetuses and 94 fetuses with central nervous system abnormalities to assess lateral ventricular morphology as having (a) a normal appearance, (b) mild, disproportionate dilatation of the occipital horns with overall preservation of ventricular morphology, (c) colpocephaly with or without normal orientation of the frontal horns, (d) abnormal orientation of the frontal horns without colpocephaly, (e) an angular appearance, (f) fused frontal horns, (g) global dilation, or (h) a distorted appearance. Ventricular morphology on US and MR images was compared and correlated with reference standard diagnoses. US and MR imaging classifications were concordant in 145 of 188 (77%) examinations. Mild disproportion of occipital horns with respect to frontal horns was seen only on MR images. This ventricular configuration was present in eight of 110 normal fetuses and in 10 of 16 fetuses with isolated mild ventriculomegaly (P <.001). An angular configuration of the lateral ventricles, which is seen in fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs), was present on review of MR images in 11 fetuses and on US images in one fetus. The ventricles of fetuses with NTDs and angular ventricles (3-12 mm) were significantly smaller than those of fetuses with NTDs and global dilatation of the ventricles (13-25 mm; P <.05). Ventricular contours differ with differing diagnoses of central nervous system abnormalities.
Woo, Y Joseph; Grand, Todd J; Liao, George P; Panlilio, Corinna M
Left ventricular dysfunction is a predictor of perioperative morbidity and mortality in on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Obligatory global myocardial ischemia and injury induced during crossclamping as well as adverse systemic effects of cardiopulmonary bypass may induce a disproportionately greater overall physiologic insult in patients with poor ventricular function. All patients undergoing nonemergency off-pump coronary artery bypass by a single surgeon during an 18-month period were retrospectively analyzed. Two groups with preoperative ejection fraction classified as poor (10%-35%; n = 31) or normal (55%-80%; n = 60) were compared. The mean ejection fractions were 26% +/- 1% and 63% +/- 1% respectively, p < 0.000001. In those with significant left ventricular dysfunction, there were 2.8 +/- 0.1 grafts per patient, time to extubation was 8.4 +/- 1.2 hours, and discharge was after 4.9 +/- 0.6 days. These results were statistically equivalent to those in the group with normal left ventricular function. There was no intraaortic balloon pump insertion or mortality in either group. This technique provides an effective means of safely revascularizing patients with significant left ventricular dysfunction, and it may provide a valuable alternative approach in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.
Friedman, M J; Okada, R D; Ewy, G A; Hellman, D J
In order to assess the effect of hyperthyroidism on systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle, M-mode echocardiograms and systolic time intervals were obtained in 13 patients while they were clinically hyperthyroid and again when they were euthyroid following radioactive iodine therapy. Echocardiographic tracings of the septum and left ventricular posterior wall were digitized and analyzed to provide the maximum velocity of shortening and maximum velocity of lengthening. These velocities were normalized for left ventricular diastolic dimension. The left ventricular minor axis fractional shortening and the normalized maximum velocity of shortening were both increased during the hyperthyroid state. The normalized maximum velocity of lengthening, a measure of diastolic left ventricular function, was also increased during the hyperthyroid state when compared to the euthyroid state. The preejection period index and the preejection period/left ventricular ejection time ratio were lower when the patients were hyperthyroid than when they were euthyroid. These data confirm the increased inotropic state and demonstrated increased diastolic relaxation velocities of the hyperthyroid left ventricle.
Burkett, Dale A.; Slorach, Cameron; Patel, Sonali S.; Redington, Andrew N.; Ivy, D. Dunbar; Mertens, Luc; Younoszai, Adel K.; Friedberg, Mark K.
Background Through ventricular interdependence, pulmonary hypertension (PH) induces left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. We hypothesized that LV strain/strain rate, surrogate measures of myocardial contractility, are reduced in pediatric PH and relate to invasive hemodynamics, right ventricular (RV) strain, and functional measures of PH. Methods and Results At two institutions, echocardiography was prospectively performed in 54 pediatric PH patients during cardiac catheterization, and in 54 matched controls. PH patients had reduced LV global longitudinal strain (LS) (-18.8 [-17.3 - -20.4]% vs. -20.2 [-19.0 - -20.9]%, P=0.0046) predominantly due to reduced basal (-12.9 [-10.8 - -16.3]% vs. -17.9 [-14.5 - -20.7]%, P<0.0001) and mid (-17.5 [-15.5 - -19.0]% vs. -21.1 [-19.1 - -23.0]%, P<0.0001) septal strain. Basal global circumferential strain (CS) was reduced (-18.7 [-15.7 - -22.1]% vs. -20.6 [-19.0 - -22.5]%, P=0.0098), as were septal and free-wall segments. Mid CS was reduced within the free-wall. Strain rates were reduced in similar patterns. “Basal septum” LS, the combined average LS of basal and mid interventricular septal segments, correlated strongly with degree of PH (r=0.66, P<0.0001), pulmonary vascular resistance (r=0.60, P<0.0001), and RV free-wall LS (r=0.64, P<0.0001). Brain natriuretic peptide levels correlated moderately with septal LS (r=0.48, P=0.0038). PH functional class correlated moderately with LV free-wall LS (r=-0.48, P=0.0051). The septum, shared between ventricles and affected by septal shift, was the most affected LV region in PH. Conclusions Pediatric PH patients demonstrate reduced LV strain/strain rate, predominantly within the septum, with relationships to invasive hemodynamics, RV strain, and functional PH measures. PMID:26259580
Cicala, S; Galderisi, M; Caso, P; Petrocelli, A; D'Errico, A; de Divitiis, O; Calabrò, R
This study analyses right ventricular longitudinal function in arterial systemic hypertension by pulsed tissue Doppler. Thirty normotensives and 30 hypertensives, free of cardiac drugs, underwent standard Doppler echocardiography and pulsed tissue Doppler of right ventricular lateral tricuspid annulus and left ventricular lateral mitral annulus. By tissue Doppler, systolic and diastolic measurements were obtained. Hypertensives had higher left ventricular mass and impaired Doppler diastolic indexes, without changes of global systolic function. Tissue Doppler showed reduction of right ventricular E/A ratio and prolongation of relaxation time in comparison with controls (both P<0.00001). In the overall population, the length of tissue Doppler derived right ventricular relaxation time was positively related to right ventricular anterior wall thickness while right ventricular E/A ratio was positively related to E/A ratio of left ventricular mitral annulus (both P<0.00001). These relations remained significant even after adjusting for clinical and echocardiographic confounders by separate multivariate models. Arterial systemic hypertension is associated to right ventricular longitudinal diastolic dysfunction. This dysfunction involves the prolongation of active relaxation, which is independently associated with the degree of right ventricular hypertrophy and the impairment of passive wall properties, which is mainly due to ventricular interaction occurring under left ventricular pressure overload conditions. Copyright 2002 The European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Yonghui; Zhang, Jiaying; Zhang, Jing
Isolated left ventricular (LV) apical hypoplasia is a unusual and recently recognized congenital cardiac anomaly. A 19-year-old man was found to have an abnormal ECG and cardiac murmur identified during a routine health check since joining work. His ECG revealed normal sinus rhythm, right-axis deviation, poor R wave progression, and T wave abnormalities. On physical examination, a 2/6～3/6 systolic murmur was heard at the second intercostal space along the left sternal border. Subsequent echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the LV apical hypoplasia. Of note, we first found that LV apical hypoplasia was accompanied by RV outflow tract obstruction due to exaggerated rightward bulging of the basal-anterior septum during systole. A close follow-up was performed for the development of heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and potentially tachyarrhythmia.
Cavalcante, João L; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Hudson, Michael
Malignant ventricular arrhythmias resulting from isolated right ventricular myocardial infarction (RVMI) without left ventricular myocardial ischaemia or infarction occur rarely. We present a case of a 61 year-old male with acute onset of chest pain and ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest requiring prompt defibrillation. Subsequent 15-lead EKG, showed ST-segment elevation in the anterior and right precordial leads without ST-segment elevation in the inferior leads. Angiography documented occlusion of a large RV marginal branch. Delayed enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (DE-CMR) with gadolinium performed two days post-infarct showed isolated RVMI. Patient remained symptom free and haemodynamically stable throughout his hospital stay. The clinical presentation of isolated RV infarct can be misleading and diagnosis difficult. EKG findings can resemble acute anterior wall myocardial infarction, while its course can be accompanied by life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This case uniquely combines this rare clinical sequence with DE-CMR images using gadolinium to confirm isolated RVMI. A brief review of RVMI presentation and associated EKG patterns is also discussed. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Yamada, Takumi; Yoshida, Naoki; Doppalapudi, Harish; Litovsky, Silvio H; McElderry, H Thomas; Kay, G Neal
When anatomic obstacles preclude radiofrequency catheter ablation of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) originating from the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), an alternative approach from the anatomically opposite side (endocardial versus epicardial or above versus below the aortic valve) may be considered (anatomic ablation). The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an anatomic ablation in idiopathic LVOT VAs. We studied 229 consecutive patients with idiopathic LVOT VAs. Radiofrequency ablation from the first suitable site was successful in 190 patients, and in the remaining 39 patients, it was unsuccessful or had to be abandoned because of anatomic obstacles. In 22 of these 39 patients, an anatomic ablation was successful, and the VA origins were located in the intramural LVOT in 17 patients, basal left ventricular summit in 4, and LVOT septum near the His bundle in 1. The anatomic ablation was highly successful for idiopathic VAs originating from the intramural LVOT (>75%) and lateral LVOT, whereas it was unlikely to be successful for idiopathic VAs originating from the basal left ventricular summit (25%) and sepal LVOT. When a standard catheter ablation targeting the best electrophysiological measure of idiopathic LVOT VAs was unsuccessful or had to be abandoned because of anatomic obstacles, an anatomic ablation was moderately successful. These idiopathic LVOT VAs with a successful anatomic ablation commonly arose from the intramural LVOT among the left coronary cusp, aortomitral continuity, and epicardium, occasionally the basal left ventricular summit, and rarely the LVOT septum near the His bundle. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Lai, Dakun; Sun, Jian; Li, Yigang; He, Bin
As radio frequency (RF) catheter ablation becomes increasingly prevalent in the management of ventricular arrhythmia in patients, an accurate and rapid determination of the arrhythmogenic site is of important clinical interest. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the inversely reconstructed ventricular endocardial current density distribution from body surface potential maps (BSPMs) can localize the regions critical for maintenance of a ventricular ectopic activity. Patients with isolated and monomorphic premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were investigated by noninvasive BSPMs and subsequent invasive catheter mapping and ablation. Equivalent current density (CD) reconstruction (CDR) during symptomatic PVCs was obtained on the endocardial ventricular surface in six patients (four men, two women, years 23-77), and the origin of the spontaneous ectopic activity was localized at the location of the maximum CD value. Compared with the last (successful) ablation site (LAS), the mean and standard deviation of localization error of the CDR approach were 13.8 and 1.3 mm, respectively. In comparison, the distance between the LASs and the estimated locations of an equivalent single moving dipole in the heart was 25.5 ± 5.5 mm. The obtained CD distribution of activated sources extending from the catheter ablation site also showed a high consistency with the invasively recorded electroanatomical maps. The noninvasively reconstructed endocardial CD distribution is suitable to predict a region of interest containing or close to arrhythmia source, which may have the potential to guide RF catheter ablation.
Yost, Gardner L; Coyle, Laura; Bhat, Geetha; Tatooles, Antone J
High rates of right ventricular failure continue to affect postoperative outcomes in patients implanted with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). Development of right ventricular failure and implantation with right ventricular assist devices is known to be associated with significantly increased mortality. The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is an effective means of evaluating liver dysfunction. We investigated the prognostic utility of postoperative MELD on post-LVAD implantation outcomes. MELD scores, demographic data, and outcomes including length of stay, survival, and postoperative right ventricular failure were collected for 256 patients implanted with continuous flow LVADs. Regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to investigate the relationship between MELD and all outcomes. Increased MELD score was found to be an independent predictor of both right heart failure and necessity for RVAD implantation (OR 1.097, CI 1.040-1.158, p = 0.001; OR 1.121, CI 1.015, p = 0.024, respectively). Patients with RV failure and who underwent RVAD implantation had reduced postoperative survival compared to patients with RV dysfunction (no RV failure = 651.4 ± 609.8 days, RV failure = 392.6 ± 444.8 days, RVAD = 89.3 ± 72.8 days; p < 0.001). In conclusion, MELD can be used to reliably predict postoperative right heart failure and the necessity for RVAD implantation. Those patients with RV failure and RVADs experience significantly increased postoperative mortality compared to those without RV dysfunction.
Lai, Dakun; Sun, Jian; Li, Yigang; He, Bin
As radio frequency (RF) catheter ablation becomes increasingly prevalent in the management of ventricular arrhythmia in patients, an accurate and rapid determination of the arrhythmogenic site is of important clinical interest. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the inversely reconstructed ventricular endocardial current density distribution from body surface potential maps (BSPMs) can localize the regions critical for maintenance of a ventricular ectopic activity. Patients with isolated and monomorphic premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were investigated by noninvasive BSPMs and subsequent invasive catheter mapping and ablation. Equivalent current density (CD) reconstruction (CDR) during symptomatic PVCs was obtained on the endocardial ventricular surface in six patients (four men, two women, years 23-77), and the origin of the spontaneous ectopic activity was localized at the location of the maximum CD value. Compared with the last (successful) ablation site (LAS), the mean and standard deviation of localization error of the CDR approach were 13.8 and 1.3 mm, respectively. In comparison, the distance between the LASs and the estimated locations of an equivalent single moving dipole in the heart was 25.5 ± 5.5 mm. The obtained CD distribution of activated sources extending from the catheter ablation site also showed a high consistency with the invasively recorded electroanatomical maps. The noninvasively reconstructed endocardial CD distribution is suitable to predict a region of interest containing or close to arrhythmia source, which may have the potential to guide RF catheter ablation.
Khalafvand, S S; Zhong, L; Ng, E Y K
Surgical ventricular restoration (SVR) is designed to normalize distorted ventricular shape and size in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and akinetic and dyskinetic segments. This study is aimed to quantify the characteristics of LV as a pump for a case before and after SVR, which is followed by coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We hypothesize that SVR+CABG improves heart flow. A patient with heart failure had magnetic resonance (MR) scans before and 4 months after SVR. LV endocardial geometries were semi-automated segmented and reconstructed using our customized algorithm. The arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation of Navier-Stokes equations was solved to derive the flow patterns and calculate pressure differences in LV. After SVR, LV ejection fraction increased from 34% to 48% in patient but was still lower than normal (70%). Second, LV vortices were stronger than pre-surgery but still weaker than normal. The maximum pressure differences between ventricular base and apex increased from 180 to 400 Pa during diastole, from 252 to 560 Pa during systole, respectively. As anticipated, SVR reduced LV volumes and augmented LV ejection fraction. Three-dimensional CFD/MRI modeling suggests that improved diastolic and systolic ventricular function after SVR is associated with changes in intraventricular blood flow. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Azevedo, Ana Isabel; Dias, Adelaide; Teixeira, Madalena; Gama Ribeiro, Vasco
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is an inherited arrhythmia characterized by adrenergically induced polymorphic or bidirectional ventricular tachycardia (VT). Although a rare disease, its recognition is important because of its high mortality rate when left untreated. We report an index case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with recurrent syncope. The diagnosis was confirmed by exercise-induced polymorphic ventricular premature beats and episodes of non-sustained VT, in the absence of structural heart abnormalities. She remained event free with beta-blocker therapy. CPVT is a potentially life-threatening disease and should be considered in the case of recurrent syncope, in young individuals. Diagnosis is based on clinical history and exercise testing, which is the gold standard. Therapy is mandatory in all diagnosed individuals. Exercise testing in first-degree relatives is recommended, even in the case of a mutation-negative index patient. PMID:26512332
Merinopoulos, I; Vassiliou, V; Porter, J N; Acton, S; Braganza, D R
A 61-year-old woman was admitted with general malaise, chest pain and breathlessness. During her inpatient stay she sustained a ventricular fibrillation (VF) arrest which was successfully terminated with direct current cardioversion. Cardiac investigations revealed poor left ventricular systolic function but unequivocally normal coronary arteries. During the course of her admission a macular rash developed and following investigations including a renal biopsy, a new diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and related myocarditis was reached. First presentation of lupus with myocarditis and VF is uncommon, however reaching the correct diagnosis is important as due to the reversible nature of the condition and improvement in left ventricular systolic function with medical therapy, an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) might not be appropriate. Our case report demonstrates the importance of screening for reversible conditions when considering ICD therapy for secondary prevention of malignant arrhythmias.
Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Kurtz, Baptiste
Summary Extracellular matrix disturbances play an important role in the development of ventricular remodeling and failure. Genetically modified mice with abnormalities in the synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix have been generated, in particular mice with deletion or overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Echocardiography is ideally suited to serially evaluate left ventricular (LV) size and function, thus defining the progression of LV remodeling and failure. This Review describes the echocardiographic parameters that may provide insights into the development of ventricular remodeling and heart failure. The application of echocardiography to study LV remodeling and function after myocardial infarction and LV pressure-overload in wild-type mice and mice deficient or overexpressing MMPs or TIMPs is then detailed. Finally, using the example of mice deficient in nitric oxide synthase 3, a cautionary example is given illustrating discrepancies between the cardiac echocardiographic phenotype and modifications of the extracellular matrix. PMID:19615377
Saffitz, Jeffrey E; Asimaki, Angeliki; Huang, Hayden
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is a primary heart muscle disorder characterized by the early occurrence of arrhythmias often out of proportion to the extent of structural remodeling and contractile derangement. Approximately 40% of patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy have one or more mutations in genes encoding proteins in desmosomes, intercellular adhesion junctions which, in cardiac myocytes, reside within intercalated disks. Some desmosomal proteins fulfill roles both as structural proteins in cell-cell adhesion junctions and as signaling molecules in pathways mediated by Wnt ligands. Evidence is increasing that mutations in desmosomal proteins can perturb the normal balance of critical proteins in junctions and the cytosol which, in turn, could alter gene expression by circumventing normal Wnt signaling pathways. This review highlights recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and presents evidence suggesting that the disease is caused by a combination of altered cellular biomechanical behavior and altered signaling.
Notarangelo, Maria Francesca; Bontardelli, Federico; Taliani, Umberto; Agostinelli, Andrea; Vignali, Luigi; Ardissino, Diego
Left ventricular-right atrial communications, known collectively as the Gerbode defect, are rare types of ventricular septal defects. Acquired forms of this defect have been described as a complication of cardiac surgery, bacterial endocarditis, chest trauma, or myocardial infarction. Diagnosis of this rare defect is challenging, but can be confirmed with echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Until 6 years ago, these communications were corrected only surgically, often with relatively high mortality. However, few case reports of transcatheter closures of the defects have recently been reported with excellent results. We describe a 69-year-old patient with left ventricular-right atrial communication secondary to mitral valve surgery. The diagnosis was made by transesophageal and real-time three-dimensional echocardiography. The defect was closed percutaneously using an Amplatzer device. At follow-up, there was no residual flow and the patient improved clinically.
Egan, P J; Mitrovics, T C; Tomandl, B F
Routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the skull and brain for diagnostic purposes sometimes reveals a wider tip of the frontal ventricular horn on one side and a wider tip of the temporal horn on the other. A search for 'alternate ventricular asymmetry' in Google Scholar, Medline and PubMed Central yielded no results, so the digital archive of the hospital was searched for such cases. A total of 5908 examinations were reviewed and 508 cases were found, comprising 6% of the neurological inpatients and 20% of the psychiatric inpatients (P = 0.001 by χ(2) ). The >3-fold difference in the incidence of this particular ventricular asymmetry implies that it could suggest a psychiatric diagnosis. Clin. Anat. 30:50-52, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Exposito, Victor; Rodriguez-Entem, Felipe; Gonzalez-Enriquez, Susana; Olalla, Juan Jose
Sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) is an important cause of morbidity and sudden death in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Although ICD effectively terminate VT episodes and improve survival, shocks reduce quality of life, and episodes of VT predict increased risk of heart failure and death despite effective therapy. Patients suffering recurrent VT episodes remain a challenge. Antiarrhytmic therapy reduces VT episodes, but it is associated with serious adverse events, and disappointing efficacy. Catheter ablation has emerged as an important option to control recurrent VT, but major procedure-related complications, and even death, are still issues to concern. And even with these armamentaria, some patients still have recurrent VT episodes and ICD shocks. We report on a patient with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and recurrent ventricular tachycardia resistant to multiple antiarrhytmic agents, in whom dronedarone was effective in completely suppressing ventricular tachycardia episodes.
Magalhães, Mariana; Costa, Patrícia; Vaz, Maria Teresa; Pinheiro Torres, José; Areias, José Carlos
Isolated left ventricular noncompaction is a rare congenital cardiomyopathy, characterized morphologically by a dilated left ventricle, prominent trabeculations and deep intertrabecular recesses in the ventricular myocardium, with no other structural heart disease. It is thought to be secondary to an arrest of normal myocardial compaction during fetal life. Clinically, the disease presents with heart failure, embolic events, arrhythmias or sudden death. Current diagnostic criteria are based on clinical and imaging data and two-dimensional and color Doppler echocardiography is the first-line exam. There is no specific therapy and treatment is aimed at associated comorbidities. Cases refractory to medical therapy may require heart transplantation. The authors describe a case of severe and refractory heart failure, which was the initial presentation of isolated left ventricular noncompaction in a previously healthy male child, who underwent successful heart transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Dubi, Shay; Dubi, Chen; Dubi, Yonatan
A minimal model for mechanical motion of the left ventricle is proposed. The model assumes the left ventricle to be a harmonic oscillator with two distinct phases, simulating the systolic and diastolic phases, at which both the amplitude and the elastic constant of the oscillator are different. Taking into account the pressure within the left ventricle, the model shows qualitative agreement with functional parameters of the left ventricle. The model allows for a natural explanation of heart failure with preserved systolic left ventricular function, also termed diastolic heart failure. Specifically, the rise in left ventricular filling pressures following increased left-ventricular wall stiffness is attributed to a mechanism aimed at preserving heart rate and cardiac output.
Prestipino, Filippo; Nenna, Antonio; Casacalenda, Adele; Chello, Massimo
INTRODUCTION Cardiac perforation is a rare, but potentially serious, complication of pacemaker implantation that may develop days or weeks after implantation. PRESENTATION OF CASE In the current case, 92-year-old man underwent permanent pacemaker implantation, but he presented 3 weeks later with severe symptoms. Computed tomography showed protrusion of the tip of the ventricular electrode through the right ventricle and into the chest wall. During an urgent surgical intervention, the lead was disconnected and extracted. A sealing hemostatic device and an hemostatic patch were applied to repair the ventricle; the procedure was uneventfull. DISCUSSION This case demonstrates how the correct diagnosis of ventricular perforation is crucial, and should be followed immediately by surgical planning. CONCLUSION The hemostatic patch is a valuable alternative to sutures in patients with thin and fragile ventricular wall, unable to undergo stitching. PMID:25460433
Meineri, Massimiliano; Van Rensburg, Adriaan E; Vegas, Annette
Right ventricular failure (RVF) complicates 20-50% of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation cases and contributes to increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Normal LVAD function alters the highly compliant right ventricular (RV) physiology, which may unmask RVF. Risk scores for predicting RVF post-LVAD incorporate multiple risk factors but have not been prospectively validated. Prevention of RVF consists of optimising RV function by modifying RV preload and afterload, providing adequate intra-operative RV protection and minimising blood transfusions. Treatment of RVF relies on inotropic support, decreasing pulmonary vascular resistance and adjusting LVAD flows to minimise distortion of RV geometry. RVAD insertion is a last recourse when RVF is refractory to medical treatment.
Galli, Alessio; Lombardi, Federico
Heart failure is a chronic disease with high morbidity and mortality, which represents a growing challenge in medicine. A major risk factor for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is a history of myocardial infarction. The expansion of a large infarct scar and subsequent regional ventricular dilatation can cause postinfarct remodelling, leading to significant enlargement of the left ventricular chamber. It has a negative prognostic value, because it precedes the clinical manifestations of heart failure. The characteristics of the infarcted myocardium predicting postinfarct remodelling can be studied with cardiac magnetic resonance and experimental imaging modalities such as diffusion tensor imaging can identify the changes in the architecture of myocardial fibers. This review discusses all the aspects related to postinfarct left ventricular remodelling: definition, pathogenesis, diagnosis, consequences, and available therapies, together with experimental interventions that show promising results against postinfarct remodelling and heart failure. PMID:26989555
Velazquez, Eric J; Bonow, Robert O
The highest-risk patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction are those with ischemic cardiomyopathy and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction≤35%). The cornerstone of treatment is guideline-driven medical therapy for all patients and implantable device therapy for appropriately selected patients. Surgical revascularization offers the potential for improved survival and quality of life, particularly in patients with more extensive multivessel disease and the greatest degree of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and remodeling. These are also the patients at greatest short-term risk of mortality with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The short-term risks of surgery need to be balanced against the potential for long-term benefit. This review discusses the evolving data on the role of surgical revascularization, surgical ventricular reconstruction, and mitral valve surgery in this high-risk patient population.
Ahmad, M.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Mullins, C. B.; Willerson, J. T.
The response of the human left ventricle to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and the relation between left ventricular function and hemodynamic response were investigated. Ventricular function curves relating stroke volume to end-diastolic volume were obtained in 12 normal men. Volume data were derived from echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters at rest and during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) at minus 40 mm Hg. End-diastolic volume decreased by 19% and stroke volume by 22%. There were no significant changes in heart rate, arterial blood pressure, or end-systolic volume. Thus, moderate levels of LBNP significantly reduce preload and stroke volume without affecting contractile state. The absence of significant changes in heart rate and arterial blood pressure in the presence of a significant reduction in stroke volume is consistent with an increase in systemic peripheral resistance mediated by low-pressure baroreceptors.
Kessler, Elise L.; Boulaksil, Mohamed; van Rijen, Harold V. M.; Vos, Marc A.; van Veen, Toon A. B.
Passive ventricular remodeling is defined by the process of molecular ventricular adaptation to different forms of cardiac pathophysiology. It includes changes in tissue architecture, such as hypertrophy, fiber disarray, alterations in cell size and fibrosis. Besides that, it also includes molecular remodeling of gap junctions, especially those composed by Connexin43 proteins (Cx43) in the ventricles that affect cell-to-cell propagation of the electrical impulse, and changes in the sodium channels that modify excitability. All those alterations appear mainly in a heterogeneous manner, creating irregular and inhomogeneous electrical and mechanical coupling throughout the heart. This can predispose to reentry arrhythmias and adds to a further deterioration into heart failure. In this review, passive ventricular remodeling is described in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM), Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM), Ischemic Cardiomyopathy (ICM), and Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy (ACM), with a main focus on the heterogeneity of those alterations mentioned above. PMID:25566084
Angel, Nathan; Li, Li; Dosdall, Derek J
The Purkinje fiber system has recently been implicated as an important driver of the rapid activation rate during long duration ventricular fibrillation (VF>2 minutes). The goal of this study is to determine whether this activity propagates to or occurs in the proximal specialized conduction system during VF as well. An 8×8 array with 300 µm spaced electrodes was placed over the His bundles of isolated, perfused rabbit hearts (n = 12). Ventricular myocardial (VM) and His activations were differentiated by calculating Laplacian recordings from unipolar signals. Activation rates of the VM and His bundle were compared and the His bundle conduction velocity was measured during perfused VF followed by 8 minutes of unperfused VF. During perfused VF the average VM activation rate of 11.04 activations/sec was significantly higher than the His bundle activation rate of 6.88 activations/sec (p<0.05). However from 3-8 minutes of unperfused VF the His system activation rate (6.16, 5.53, 5.14, 5.22, 6.00, and 4.62 activations/sec significantly faster than the rate of the VM (4.67, 3.63, 2.94, 2.24, 3.45, and 2.31 activations/sec) (p<0.05). The conduction velocity of the His system immediately decreased to 94% of the sinus rate during perfused VF then gradually decreased to 67% of sinus rhythm conduction at 8 minutes of unperfused VF. During prolonged VF the activation rate of the His bundle is faster than that of the VM. This suggests that the proximal conduction system, like the distal Purkinje system, may be an important driver during long duration VF and may be a target for interventional therapy.
Xie, Yuanfang; Grandi, Eleonora; Bers, Donald M; Sato, Daisuke
Ventricular tachycardia (VT) and fibrillation (VF) are the most lethal cardiac arrhythmias. The degeneration of VT into VF is associated with the breakup of a spiral wave of the action potential in cardiac tissue. β-Adrenergic (βAR) signalling potentiates the L-type Ca current (ICaL) faster than the slow delayed rectifier potassium current (IKs), which transiently prolongs the action potential duration (APD) and promotes early after depolarizations. In this study, we aimed at investigating how βAR signalling affects the transition from VT to VF. We used a physiologically detailed computer model of the rabbit ventricular myocyte in a two-dimensional tissue to determine how spiral waves respond to βAR activation following administration of isoproterenol. A simplified mathematical model was also used to investigate the underlying dynamics. We found that the spatiotemporal behaviour of spiral waves strongly depends on the kinetics of βAR activation. When βAR activation is rapid, a stable spiral wave turns into small fragments and its electrocardiogram reveals the transition from VT to VF. This is due to the transiently steepened APD restitution induced by the faster activation of ICaL vs. IKs upon sudden βAR activation. The spiral wave may also disappear if its transient wavelength is too large to be supported by the tissue size upon sudden strong βAR activation that prolongs APD transiently. When βAR activation is gradual, a stable spiral wave remains such, because of more limited increase in both APD and slope of APD restitution due to more contemporaneous ICaL and IKs activation. Changes in APD restitution during βAR activation revealed a novel transient spiral wave dynamics; this spatiotemporal characteristic strongly depends on the protocol of isoproterenol application.
Fujimoto, Naoki; Shibata, Shigeki; Hastings, Jeffery L.; Carrick-Ranson, Graeme; Bhella, Paul S.; Palmer, Dean; Fu, Qi
Pericardial constraint and ventricular interaction influence left ventricular (LV) performance when preload is high. However, it is unclear if these constraining forces modulate LV filling when the heart is unloaded, such as during upright posture, in humans. Fifty healthy individuals underwent right heart catheterization to measure pulmonary capillary wedge (PCWP) and right atrial pressure (RAP). To evaluate the effects of pericardial constraint on hemodynamics, transmural filling pressure (LVTMP) was defined as PCWP-RAP. Beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) waveforms were recorded, and stroke volume (SV) was derived from the Modelflow method. After measurements at −30 mmHg lower body negative pressure (LBNP), which approximates the upright position, LBNP was released, and beat-to-beat measurements were performed for 15 heartbeats. At −30 mmHg LBNP, RAP and PCWP were significantly decreased. During the first six beats of LBNP release, heart rate (HR) was unchanged, while BP increased from the fourth beat. RAP increased faster than PCWP resulting in an acute decrease in LVTMP from the fourth beat. A corresponding drop in SV by 3% was observed with no change in pulse pressure. From the 7th to 15th beats, LVTMP and SV increased steadily, followed by a decreased HR due to the baroreflex. A decreased TMP, but not PCWP, caused a transient drop in SV with no changes in HR or pulse pressure during LBNP release. These results suggest that the pericardium constrains LV filling during LBNP release, enough to cause a small but significant drop of SV, even at low cardiac filling pressure in healthy humans. PMID:21398598
Zhong, L; Su, Y; Gobeawan, L; Sola, S; Tan, R-S; Navia, J L; Ghista, D N; Chua, T; Guccione, J; Kassab, G S
Surgical ventricular restoration (SVR) was designed to treat patients with aneurysms or large akinetic walls and dilated ventricles. Yet, crucial aspects essential to the efficacy of this procedure like optimal shape and size of the left ventricle (LV) are still debatable. The objective of this study is to quantify the efficacy of SVR based on LV regional shape in terms of curvedness, wall stress, and ventricular systolic function. A total of 40 patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after SVR. Both short-axis and long-axis MRI were used to reconstruct end-diastolic and end-systolic three-dimensional LV geometry. The regional shape in terms of surface curvedness, wall thickness, and wall stress indexes were determined for the entire LV. The infarct, border, and remote zones were defined in terms of end-diastolic wall thickness. The LV global systolic function in terms of global ejection fraction, the ratio between stroke work (SW) and end-diastolic volume (SW/EDV), the maximal rate of change of pressure-normalized stress (dσ*/dt(max)), and the regional function in terms of surface area change were examined. The LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were significantly reduced, and global systolic function was improved in ejection fraction, SW/EDV, and dσ*/dt(max). In addition, the end-diastolic and end-systolic stresses in all zones were reduced. Although there was a slight increase in regional curvedness and surface area change in each zone, the change was not significant. Also, while SVR reduced LV wall stress with increased global LV systolic function, regional LV shape and function did not significantly improve.
Tzou, Wendy S; Tung, Roderick; Frankel, David S; Vaseghi, Marmar; Bunch, T Jared; Di Biase, Luigi; Tholakanahalli, Venkatakrishna N; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya; Dickfeld, Timm; Saliaris, Anastasios; Weiss, J Peter; Mathuria, Nilesh; Tedrow, Usha; Afzal, Mohammed R; Vergara, Pasquale; Nagashima, Koichi; Patel, Mehul; Nakahara, Shiro; Vakil, Kairav; Burkhardt, J David; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Natale, Andrea; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Callans, David J; Stevenson, William G; Della Bella, Paolo; Marchlinski, Francis E; Sauer, William H
Ventricular tachycardia (VT) radiofrequency ablation has been associated with reduced VT recurrence and mortality, although it is typically not considered among New York Heart Association class IV (NYHA IV) heart failure patients. We compared characteristics and VT radiofrequency ablation outcomes of those with and without NYHA IV in the International VT Ablation Center Collaboration. NYHA II-IV patients undergoing VT radiofrequency ablation at 12 international centers were included. Clinical variables, VT recurrence, and mortality were analyzed by NYHA IV status using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models. There were significant differences between NYHA IV (n=111) and NYHA II and III (n=1254) patients: NYHA IV had lower left ventricular ejection fraction; more had diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, cardiac resynchronization implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, and VT storm despite greater antiarrhythmic drug use (P<0.01). NYHA IV subjects required more hemodynamic support, were inducible for more and slower VTs, and were less likely to undergo final programmed stimulation. There was no significant difference in acute complications. In-hospital deaths, recurrent VT, and 1-year mortality were higher in the NYHA IV group, in the context of greater baseline comorbidities. Importantly, NYHA IV patients without recurrent VT had similar survival compared with NYHA II and III patients with recurrent VT (68% versus 73%). Early VT recurrence (≤30 days) was significantly associated with mortality, especially in NYHA IV patients. Despite greater baseline comorbidities, VT radiofrequency ablation can be safely performed among NYHA IV patients. Early VT recurrence is significantly associated with subsequent mortality regardless of NYHA status. Elimination of recurrent VT in NYHA IV patients may reduce mortality to a level comparable to NYHA II and III with arrhythmia recurrence. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Rao, Hygriv B; Yu, Ricky; Chitnis, Nishad; DO, Duc; Boyle, Noel G; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Bradfield, Jason S
The safety of ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation in patients with laminated left ventricular (LV) thrombus has not been examined. Patients with laminated LV thrombus on transthoracic echocardiogram who underwent scar-mediated VT ablation at two centers from 2010 to 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had failed medical therapy. Acute procedural outcomes, complications, and clinical outcomes at 1 year were assessed. Eight patients (four ischemic, four nonischemic cardiomyopathy) underwent VT ablation in the presence of laminated intracavitary thrombus. Six out of eight (75%) had electrical storm (ES). The mapping and ablation approach was LV endocardial-only in three patients, epicardial-only in two, combined epicardial-RV endocardial in two, and combined epicardial-LV endocardial in one. Major complication (ischemic stroke) occurred in one patient 9 days post-procedure. There was no procedural mortality. Complete acute procedural success (noninducibility of any VT after ablation) was achieved in five (63%), and partial success (ablation of only clinical VT) in an additional three (37%). At 1 year, freedom from VT and survival were achieved in six (75%) and seven (88%) patients, respectively. Initial data suggest that ablation of VT in the presence of intracavitary thrombus is feasible, is associated with a similar success rate to historical studies in patients without thrombus, and has an acceptable risk of complications given the high-risk nature of patients with ES. Further data are needed; however, the presence of a laminated thrombus should not necessarily preclude ablation in patients who have failed medical therapy for VT in whom ablation is otherwise indicated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Koprivanac, Marijan; Kelava, Marta; Sirić, Franjo; Cruz, Vincent B; Moazami, Nader; Mihaljević, Tomislav
Number of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantations increases every year, particularly LVADs for destination therapy (DT). Right ventricular failure (RVF) has been recognized as a serious complication of LVAD implantation. Reported incidence of RVF after LVAD ranges from 6% to 44%, varying mostly due to differences in RVF definition, different types of LVADs, and differences in patient populations included in studies. RVF complicating LVAD implantation is associated with worse postoperative mortality and morbidity including worse end-organ function, longer hospital length of stay, and lower success of bridge to transplant (BTT) therapy. Importance of RVF and its predictors in a setting of LVAD implantation has been recognized early, as evidenced by abundant number of attempts to identify independent risk factors and develop RVF predictor scores with a common purpose to improve patient selection and outcomes by recognizing potential need for biventricular assist device (BiVAD) at the time of LVAD implantation. The aim of this article is to review and summarize current body of knowledge on risk factors and prediction scores of RVF after LVAD implantation. Despite abundance of studies and proposed risk scores for RVF following LVAD, certain common limitations make their implementation and clinical usefulness questionable. Regardless, value of these studies lies in providing information on potential key predictors for RVF that can be taken into account in clinical decision making. Further investigation of current predictors and existing scores as well as new studies involving larger patient populations and more sophisticated statistical prediction models are necessary. Additionally, a short description of our empirical institutional approach to management of RVF following LVAD implantation is provided.
Kashiyama, Noriyuki; Toda, Koichi; Nakamura, Teruya; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Nishi, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Yasushi; Fukushima, Satsuki; Saito, Shunsuke; Yoshioka, Daisuke; Sawa, Yoshiki
Although right ventricular failure (RVF) is a major concern after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation, methodologies to evaluate RV function remain limited. Liver stiffness (LS), which is closely related to right-sided filling pressure and may indicate RVF severity, could be non-invasively and repeatedly assessed using transient elastography. Here we investigated the suitability of LS as a parameter of RV function in pre- and post-LVAD periods. The study included 55 patients with LVAD implantation as a bridge to transplantation between 2011 and 2015 whose LS was assessed using transient elastography. Seventeen patients presented with RVF, defined as requiring inotropic support for ≥30 days, nitric oxygen inhalation for ≥5 days, and/or mechanical RV support following LVAD implantation. Survival of patients with RVF was significantly worse compared with that of patients without RVF. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified preoperative LS, LV diastolic dimension, RV stroke work index, and dilated phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy aetiology as significant risk factors; the combination of these parameters could improve predictive power of post-LVAD RVF with areas under the curve of 0.89. Furthermore, LS was significantly decreased by LV unloading and significantly correlated with right-sided filling pressure. In addition to dilated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy aetiology, reduced RV stroke work index and small LV dimension, we demonstrated that non-invasively measured LS was a predictor of post-LVAD RVF and can be used as a parameter for the evaluation and optimization of RV function in the perioperative period.
Koprivanac, Marijan; Kelava, Marta; Sirić, Franjo; Cruz, Vincent B.; Moazami, Nader; Mihaljević, Tomislav
Number of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantations increases every year, particularly LVADs for destination therapy (DT). Right ventricular failure (RVF) has been recognized as a serious complication of LVAD implantation. Reported incidence of RVF after LVAD ranges from 6% to 44%, varying mostly due to differences in RVF definition, different types of LVADs, and differences in patient populations included in studies. RVF complicating LVAD implantation is associated with worse postoperative mortality and morbidity including worse end-organ function, longer hospital length of stay, and lower success of bridge to transplant (BTT) therapy. Importance of RVF and its predictors in a setting of LVAD implantation has been recognized early, as evidenced by abundant number of attempts to identify independent risk factors and develop RVF predictor scores with a common purpose to improve patient selection and outcomes by recognizing potential need for biventricular assist device (BiVAD) at the time of LVAD implantation. The aim of this article is to review and summarize current body of knowledge on risk factors and prediction scores of RVF after LVAD implantation. Despite abundance of studies and proposed risk scores for RVF following LVAD, certain common limitations make their implementation and clinical usefulness questionable. Regardless, value of these studies lies in providing information on potential key predictors for RVF that can be taken into account in clinical decision making. Further investigation of current predictors and existing scores as well as new studies involving larger patient populations and more sophisticated statistical prediction models are necessary. Additionally, a short description of our empirical institutional approach to management of RVF following LVAD implantation is provided. PMID:25559829
HYDE, EOIN R.; BEHAR, JONATHAN M.; CROZIER, ANDREW; CLARIDGE, SIMON; JACKSON, TOM; SOHAL, MANAV; GILL, JASWINDER S.; O'NEILL, MARK D.; RAZAVI, REZA; RINALDI, CHRISTOPHER A.
Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with biventricular epicardial (BV‐CS) or endocardial left ventricular (LV) stimulation (BV‐EN) improves LV hemodynamics. The effect of CRT on right ventricular function is less clear, particularly for BV‐EN. Our objective was to compare the simultaneous acute hemodynamic response (AHR) of the right and left ventricles (RV and LV) with BV‐CS and BV‐EN in order to determine the optimal mode of CRT delivery. Methods Nine patients with previously implanted CRT devices successfully underwent a temporary pacing study. Pressure wires measured the simultaneous AHR in both ventricles during different pacing protocols. Conventional epicardial CRT was delivered in LV‐only (LV‐CS) and BV‐CS configurations and compared with BV‐EN pacing in multiple locations using a roving decapolar catheter. Results Best BV‐EN (optimal AHR of all LV endocardial pacing sites) produced a significantly greater RV AHR compared with LV‐CS and BV‐CS pacing (P < 0.05). RV AHR had a significantly increased standard deviation compared to LV AHR (P < 0.05) with a weak correlation between RV and LV AHR (Spearman rs = −0.06). Compromised biventricular optimization, whereby RV AHR was increased at the expense of a smaller decrease in LV AHR, was achieved in 56% of cases, all with BV‐EN pacing. Conclusions BV‐EN pacing produces significant increases in both LV and RV AHR, above that achievable with conventional epicardial pacing. RV AHR cannot be used as a surrogate for optimizing LV AHR; however, compromised biventricular optimization is possible. The beneficial effect of endocardial LV pacing on RV function may have important clinical benefits beyond conventional CRT. PMID:27001004
Fredriksson, Alexandru Grigorescu; Svalbring, Emil; Eriksson, Jonatan; Dyverfeldt, Petter; Alehagen, Urban; Engvall, Jan; Ebbers, Tino; Carlhäll, Carl-Johan
To investigate whether 4D flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect subtle right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in primary left ventricular (LV) disease. 4D flow and morphological 3T MRI data were acquired in 22 patients with mild ischemic heart disease who were stratified into two groups based on LV end-diastolic volume index (EDVI): lower-LVEDVI and higher-LVEDVI, as well as in 11 healthy controls. The RV volume was segmented at end-diastole (ED) and end-systole (ES). Pathlines were emitted from the ED volume and traced forwards and backwards in time to ES. The blood volume was separated into flow components. The Direct Flow (DF) component was defined as RV inflow passing directly to outflow. The kinetic energy (KE) of the DF component was calculated. Echocardiographic conventional RV indices were also assessed. The higher-LVEDVI group had larger LVEDVI and lower LV ejection fraction (98 ± 32 ml/m(2) ; 48 ± 13%) compared to the healthy (67 ± 12, P = 0.002; 64 ± 7, P < 0.001) and lower-LVEDI groups (62 ± 10; 68 ± 7, both P < 0.001). The RV 4D flow-specific measures "DF/EDV volume-ratio" and "DF/EDV KE-ratio at ED" were lower in the higher-LVEDVI group (38 ± 5%; 52 ± 6%) compared to the healthy (44 ± 6; 65 ± 7, P = 0.018 and P < 0.001) and lower-LVEDVI groups (44 ± 6; 64 ± 7, P = 0.011 and P < 0.001). There was no difference in any of the conventional MRI and echocardiographic RV indices between the three groups. We found that in primary LV disease mild impairment of RV function can be detected by 4D flow-specific measures, but not by the conventional MRI and echocardiographic indices. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gibson, Allyson Ann
This Dissertation presents quantitative ultrasonic measurements of the myocardium in fetal hearts and adult human hearts with the goal of studying the physics of sound waves incident upon anisotropic and inhomogeneous materials. Ultrasound has been used as a clinical tool to assess heart structure and function for several decades. The clinical usefulness of this noninvasive approach has grown with our understanding of the physical mechanisms underlying the interaction of ultrasonic waves with the myocardium. In this Dissertation, integrated backscatter and attenuation analyses were performed on midgestational fetal hearts to assess potential differences in the left and right ventricular myocardium. The hearts were interrogated using a 50 MHz transducer that enabled finer spatial resolution than could be achieved at more typical clinical frequencies. Ultrasonic data analyses demonstrated different patterns and relative levels of backscatter and attenuation from the myocardium of the left ventricle and the right ventricle. Ultrasonic data of adult human hearts were acquired with a clinical imaging system and quantified by their magnitude and time delay of cyclic variation of myocardial backscatter. The results were analyzing using Bayes Classification and ROC analysis to quantify potential advantages of using a combination of two features of cyclic variation of myocardial backscatter over using only one or the other feature to distinguish between groups of subjects. When the subjects were classified based on hemoglobin A1c, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and the ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, differences in the magnitude and normalized time delay of cyclic variation of myocardial backscatter were observed. The cyclic variation results also suggested a trend toward a larger area under the ROC curve when information from magnitude and time delay of cyclic variation is combined using Bayes classification than when
Paisana, J P; Gomes, F; Cruz, J; Bonhorst, D; Lopes, D; Schneider, V; Bruges, G; Gil, C
to determine the existence of circadian variability (CV) of single ventricular premature beats (VPBs) and study its relationship with the heart rate variation; to compare sub-groups of patients (Pts) with and without antiarrhythmic therapy and with ischemic cardiopathy versus a free structural cardiopathy group. retrospective study. the CV of VPBs was analyzed by Holter monitoring in 147 Pts, 93 male and 54 female with a mean age of 59 +/- 14.6. Seventy seven Pts were not taking antiarrhythmic drugs while 70 were doing it: Amiodarone 23, Propafenone 30, B-Blockers 9, Quinidine and Disopyramide 7, Flecainide 1. Sixty five Pts had ischemic cardiopathy and 37 were free of any structural abnormality. The selection criteria consisted in: 1--more than 100 VPBs/24h; 2--distribution over more than 12 hours; 3--absence of any hour with more than 35% of the total VPBs in the recording. Data were presented in a percentage form and the results evaluation was made by using single and two-harmonic regression models. a CV was found to the single VPBs, with minimum values during the nocturnal period and maximum values in the morning, with a significant adjustment to the two-harmonic regression model, defined by the equation y = 4.2 - Q,559 sen (2 pi T/24) - 0.604 cos (2 pi T/24) - 0.417 sen (4 pi T/24) + 0,272 cos (4 pi T/24) (p < 0.001). A strong positive correlation was observed between VPBs and heart rate variability (r = 0.95; p < 0.001). The sub-groups of Pts, whether taking antiarrhythmic drugs or not, also showed a CV with a statistically significant two-harmonic regression pattern, with a major morning increase of VPBs in the antiarrhythmic group. The free structural cardiopathy sub-group displayed a best adjustment to the single harmonic regression model while the ischemic group exhibited a two-harmonic regression pattern. a significant circadian variability of VPBs with a bi-modality expression was determined. The majority of the analyzed sub-groups showed the same kind
von Lueder, T G; Hodt, A; Gjerdalen, G F; Steine, K
Chronic exercise induces adaptive changes of left ventricular (LV) ejection and filling capacities which may be detected by novel speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI)-based techniques. A total of 103 consecutive male elite Norwegian soccer players and 46 age-matched healthy controls underwent echocardiography at rest. STE was used to assess LV torsional mechanics and LV systolic longitudinal strain (LS). Diastolic function was evaluated by trans-mitral blood flow, mitral annular velocities by TDI, and LV inflow propagation velocity by color M-mode. Despite similar global LS, players displayed lower basal wall and higher apical wall LS values vs controls, resulting in an incremental base-to-apex gradient of LS. Color M-mode and TDI-derived data were similar in both groups. Peak systolic twist rate (TWR) was significantly lower in players (86.4±2.8 vs controls 101.9±5.2 deg/s, P<.01). Diastolic untwisting rate (UTWR) was higher in players (-124.5±4.2 vs -106.9±6.7 deg/s) and peaked earlier during the cardiac cycle (112.7±0.8 vs 117.4±2.4% of systole duration, both P<.05). Untwisting/twisting ratio (-1.48±0.05 vs -1.11±0.08; P<.001) and untwisting performance (=UTR/TW; -9.25±0.34 vs -7.38±0.40 s(-1) , P<.01) were increased in players. Augmented diastolic wall strain (DWS), a novel measure of LV compliance in players, was associated with improved myocardial mechanical efficiency. The described myocardial biomechanics may underlie augmented exertional cardiac function in athletes and may have a potential role to characterize athlete's heart by itself or to distinguish it from hypertensive or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Dijk, Erika; Prasad, Anand; Fu, Qi; Torres, Pilar; Zhang, Rong; Thomas, James D; Palmer, Dean; Levine, Benjamin D
Left ventricular compliance appears to decrease with aging, which may contribute to the high incidence of heart failure in the elderly. However, whether this change is an inevitable consequence of senescence or rather secondary to reduced physical activity is unknown. Twelve healthy sedentary seniors (69.8+/-3 years old; 6 women, 6 men) and 12 Masters athletes (67.8+/-3 years old; 6 women, 6 men) underwent pulmonary artery catheterization to define Starling and left ventricular pressure-volume curves. Data were compared with those obtained in 14 young but sedentary control subjects (28.9+/-5 years old; 7 women, 7 men). Pulmonary capillary wedge pressures and left ventricular end-diastolic volumes by use of echocardiography were measured at baseline, during decreased cardiac filling by use of lower-body negative pressure (-15 and -30 mm Hg), and after saline infusion (15 and 30 mL/kg). Stroke volume for any given filling pressure was greater in Masters athletes compared with the age-matched sedentary subjects, whereas contractility, as assessed by preload recruitable stroke work, was similar. There was substantially decreased left ventricular compliance in healthy but sedentary seniors compared with the young control subjects, which resulted in higher cardiac pressures for a given filling volume and higher myocardial wall stress for a given strain. The pressure-volume curve for the Masters athletes was indistinguishable from that of the young, sedentary control subjects. A sedentary lifestyle during healthy aging is associated with decreased left ventricular compliance, leading to diminished diastolic performance. Prolonged, sustained endurance training preserves ventricular compliance with aging and may help to prevent heart failure in the elderly.
Gibson, Jennifer A; Henderson, Angela; Jillings, Carol; Kaan, Annemarie
CONTEXT-Although researchers have studied the experience of caring for patients with ventricular assist devices from the perspective of family caregivers, few reports address the experience of nursing patients with such devices. OBJECTIVE -To investigate the experience of nursing patients who have a ventricular assist device. DESIGN -A qualitative approach called interpretive description was used to conduct semistructured, 1-on-1 interviews. PARTICIPANTS-Six registered nurses with a range of clinical experiences were interviewed in a 1-year period from 2009 to 2010. Data were transcribed and analyzed by the researcher in conjunction with a research team. RESULTS-Four distinct themes were interpreted from the interview data: exclusive knowledge, human connection, ethics, and interdisciplinary stress and technology. CONCLUSION -Nursing patients who have a ventricular assist device is a complex experience. Nurses develop expert knowledge that is related to direct exposure to patients; this unique knowledge should be formally considered in team decision making. Nursing care of patients who have a ventricular assist device also has features that might result in overconnected nurse-patient relationships. Closely connected nurse-patient relationships intensified the emotional difficultly of experiences of exposure to illness or suffering, or exposure to an unpredictable dying trajectory. Nursing patients with ventricular assist devices can be difficult, and nursing leaders should be aware of the emotional reactions that can result from direct exposure to patients who might be perceived as very ill or suffering. Institutions with ventricular assist device programs should consider providing emotional support for health care workers who find this type of work emotionally difficult.
Steriotis, Alexandros Klavdios; Nava, Andrea; Rigato, Ilaria; Mazzotti, Elisa; Daliento, Luciano; Thiene, Gaetano; Basso, Cristina; Corrado, Domenico; Bauce, Barbara
The aim of this study was to analyze using noninvasive cardiac examinations a series of young athletes discovered to have ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) during the preparticipation screening program for competitive sports. One hundred forty-five athletes (mean age 17 ± 5 years) were evaluated. The study protocol included electrocardiography (ECG), exercise testing, 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography, 24-hour Holter monitoring, signal-averaged ECG, and in selected cases contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Results of ECG were normal in most athletes (85%). VAs were initially detected prevalently during exercise testing (85%) and in the remaining cases on ECG and Holter monitoring. Premature ventricular complexes disappeared during exercise in 56% of subjects. Premature ventricular complexes during Holter monitoring averaged 4,700 per day, predominantly monomorphic (88%), single, and/or in couplets (79%). The most important echocardiographic findings were mitral valve prolapse in 29 patients (20%), congenital heart disease in 4 (3%), and right ventricular regional kinetic abnormalities in 5 (3.5%). On cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, right ventricular regional kinetic abnormalities were detected in 9 of 30 athletes and were diagnostic of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in only 1 athlete. Overall, 30% of athletes were judged to have potentially dangerous VAs. In asymptomatic athletes with prevalently normal ECG, most VAs can be identified by adding an exercise test during preparticipation screening. In conclusion, cardiac screening with noninvasive examinations remains a fundamental tool for the identification of a possible pathologic substrate and for the characterization of electrical instability. PMID:23219000
Doytchinova, Anisiia; Patel, Jheel; Zhou, Shengmei; Chen, Lan S.; Lin, Hongbo; Shen, Changyu; Everett, Thomas H; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng
Background Stellate ganglion nerve activity (SGNA) is important in ventricular arrhythmogenesis. However, because thoracotomy is needed to access the stellate ganglion, it is difficult to use SGNA for risk stratification. Objective To test the hypothesis that subcutaneous nerve activity (SCNA) in canines can be used to estimate SGNA and predict ventricular arrhythmia. Methods We implanted radio transmitters to continuously monitor left stellate ganglion and subcutaneous electrical activities in 7 ambulatory dogs with myocardial infarction, complete heart block and nerve growth factor infusion to the left stellate ganglion. Results Spontaneous ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) was documented in each dog. SCNA preceded a combined 61 episodes of VT and VF, 61 frequent bigeminy or couplets and 61 premature ventricular contractions within 15 s in 70%, 59% and 61% of arrhythmias, respectively. Similar incidence of 75%, 69% and 62% was noted for SGNA. Progressive increase in SCNA (48.9 (95% CI 39.3–58.5) vs. 61.8 (95% CI 45.9–77.6) vs. 75.1 (95% CI 57.5–92.7) mV-s) and SGNA (48.6 (95% CI 40.9–56.3) vs. 58.5 (95% CI 47.5–69.4) vs. 69.0 (95% CI 53.8–84.2) mV-s) integrated over 20 s intervals was demonstrated 60 s, 40 s and 20 s prior to VT/VF (p<0.05). The Pearson’s correlation coefficient for integrated SCNA and SGNA was 0.73±0.18 (p<0.0001 for all dogs, n=5). Both SCNA and SGNA exhibited circadian variation. Conclusions SCNA can be used as an estimate of SGNA to predict susceptibility to VT and VF in a canine model of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. PMID:25460171
Kristóf, Attila; Husti, Zoltán; Koncz, István; Kohajda, Zsófia; Szél, Tamás; Juhász, Viktor; Biliczki, Péter; Jost, Norbert; Baczkó, István; Papp, Julius Gy; Varró, András; Virág, László
Background The aim of the present work was to characterize the electrophysiological effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and to study the possible proarrhythmic potency of the drug in ventricular muscle. Methods Ion currents were recorded using voltage clamp technique in canine single ventricular cells and action potentials were obtained from canine ventricular preparations using microelectrodes. The proarrhythmic potency of the drug was investigated in an anaesthetized rabbit proarrhythmia model. Results Action potentials were slightly lengthened in ventricular muscle but were shortened in Purkinje fibers by diclofenac (20 µM). The maximum upstroke velocity was decreased in both preparations. Larger repolarization prolongation was observed when repolarization reserve was impaired by previous BaCl2 application. Diclofenac (3 mg/kg) did not prolong while dofetilide (25 µg/kg) significantly lengthened the QTc interval in anaesthetized rabbits. The addition of diclofenac following reduction of repolarization reserve by dofetilide further prolonged QTc. Diclofenac alone did not induce Torsades de Pointes ventricular tachycardia (TdP) while TdP incidence following dofetilide was 20%. However, the combination of diclofenac and dofetilide significantly increased TdP incidence (62%). In single ventricular cells diclofenac (30 µM) decreased the amplitude of rapid (IKr) and slow (IKs) delayed rectifier currents thereby attenuating repolarization reserve. L-type calcium current (ICa) was slightly diminished, but the transient outward (Ito) and inward rectifier (IK1) potassium currents were not influenced. Conclusions Diclofenac at therapeutic concentrations and even at high dose does not prolong repolarization markedly and does not increase the risk of arrhythmia in normal heart. However, high dose diclofenac treatment may lengthen repolarization and enhance proarrhythmic risk in hearts with reduced repolarization reserve. PMID:23300901
Matthay, R A; Berger, H J; Davies, R A; Loke, J; Mahler, D A; Gottschalk, A; Zaret, B L
Right and left ventricular pump performance was assessed at rest and during upright bicycle exercise in 30 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in 25 normal control subjects. Right ventricular and left ventricular ejection fractions were ascertained noninvasively using first-pass quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography. The normal ventricular response to exercise was at least a 5% absolute increase in the ejection fraction of either ventricle. In patients the predominant cardiac abnormality involved performance of the right ventricle. Right ventricular ejection fraction was abnormal at rest in eight patients. Twenty-three patients demonstrated an abnormal right ventricular response to submaximal exercise. Airway obstruction and arterial hypoxemia were significantly more severe in patients with abnormal right ventricular exercise reserve than in those with normal reserve. Abnormal left ventricular performance was infrequent either at rest (four patients) or during exercise (six patients). Thus, this radionuclide technique allows noninvasive assessment of biventricular exercise reserve in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Krishnan, Sundar; Schmidt, Gregory A
In critically ill patients, the right ventricle is susceptible to dysfunction due to increased afterload, decreased contractility, or alterations in preload. With the increased use of point-of-care ultrasonography and a decline in the use of pulmonary artery catheters, echocardiography can be the ideal tool for evaluation and to guide hemodynamic and respiratory therapy. We review the epidemiology of right ventricular failure in critically ill patients; echocardiographic parameters for evaluating the right ventricle; and the impact of mechanical ventilation, fluid therapy, and vasoactive infusions on the right ventricle. Finally, we summarize the principles of management in the context of right ventricular dysfunction and provide recommendations for echocardiography-guided management.
Toufan, Mehrnoush; Pourafkari, Leili; Nader, Nader D.
A 58 years old male with a long-standing history of HLA-B27 positive ankylosing spondylitis presented with increasing fatigue and dyspnea on exertion. He had left ventricular dysfunction and enlargement, flail right coronary leaflet of aortic valve with severe eccentric aortic insufficiency along with left ventricular non-compaction in echocardiography. The most common cardiac manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis are aortic insufficiency and conduction disturbances. Involvement of myocardium, in the form of dilated cardiomyopathy and restrictive cardiomyopathy, has also been reported. This case presents a very rare association of ankylosing spondylitis with non-compaction cardiomyopathy. PMID:28210476
Camaro, Cyril; Bos, Hans S; Smeets, Joep L R M
Three patients, one experiencing palpitations and two complaining of chest pain in stressful situations, appeared to have monomorphic wide complex tachycardia. After excluding channelopathy, structural abnormalities and ischaemia of the heart, this arrhythmia was classified as idiopathic. Symptoms disappeared in one patient after using metoprolol, a β-adrenoceptor blocker. The other two patients were treated with radiofrequency ablation of the focus from which the tachycardias arose. Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia mostly arises from the right ventricular outflow tract. The diagnosis is made upon history taking, including family history, echocardiography, 12-lead ECG, exercise testing and 24-hour Holter monitoring. The prognosis is excellent and sudden cardiac death is rarely seen.
Costa, Steven M.; Cable, Christian
Hemolytic anemia has been reported to occur in the setting of aortic stenosis and prosthetic heart valves, but much more rarely in association with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). Of the few descriptions of hemolytic anemia secondary to HC, all but one case involved bacterial endocarditis contributing to left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. We present the case of a 67-year-old man with recurrent hemolytic anemia and HC, without infective endocarditis. Attempts at iron repletion and augmentation of beta-blocker therapy proved his anemia to be refractory to medical management. Ventricular septal myectomy led to the resolution of hemolysis, anemia, and its coexisting symptoms. PMID:26424952
Rajesh, M. C.; Deepa, K. V.; Ramdas, E. K.
Pain physicians and anesthesiologists routinely perform stellate ganglion block for the treatment of painful upper extremity sympathetic dystrophy. Close proximity of ganglion to vascular structures warrants some expertise and training in the procedure. Off late, successful use of the technique in intractable ventricular tachyarrhythmias has come in literature. We have few cases wherein we could successfully ablate intractable ventricular tachycardia with stellate block which was refractory to repeated shocks. We are reporting one such case with the intention of making an awareness in the anesthesia community about this treatment option. PMID:28298801
Pimentel, L; Hughes, B
Amantadine hydrochloride is a commonly prescribed drug with a narrow therapeutic-to-toxic range. Toxicity is related to the anticholinergic properties of the drug and primarily affects the cardiovascular, central nervous, and respiratory systems. We report the case of an adolescent who ingested 1.3 grams of amantadine and developed complex ventricular arrhythmias and altered mental status. The arrhythmias were completely suppressed with intravenous lidocaine. This case supports the hypothesis that lidocaine is effective for treatment of ventricular arrhythmias secondary to amantadine toxicity.
Banks, B. A. (Inventor)
A cerebrospinal fluid shunt in the form of a ventricular catheter for controlling the condition of hydrocephalus by relieving the excessive cerebrospinal fluid pressure is described. A method for fabrication of the catheter and shunting the cerebral fluid from the cerebral ventricles to other areas of the body is also considered. Shunt flow failure occurs if the ventricle collapse due to improper valve function causing overdrainage. The ventricular catheter comprises a multiplicity of inlet microtubules. Each microtubule has both a large openings at its inlet end and a multiplicity of microscopic openings along its lateral surfaces.
Elmaghawry, Mohamed; Alhashemi, Mohammed; Zorzi, Alessandro; Yacoub, Magdi H
Abstract: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a progressive inherited heart disease characterized by ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death especially in the young. ARVC has been traditionally associated with the Mediterranean basin, as many seminal studies on the disease have originated from research groups of this region. Today, however, numerous ARVC registries from all over the world emphasize that the disease does not have a specific racial or geographical predilection. This work provides a review on the global perspective of ARVC. PMID:24688993
McGee, Michael; Warner, Luke; Collins, Nicholas
Ebstein's anomaly is a congenital disorder characterized by apical displacement of the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve. Ebstein's anomaly may be seen in association with other cardiac conditions, including patent foramen ovale, atrial septal defect, and left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC). LVNC is characterized by increased trabeculation within the left ventricular apex. Echocardiography is often used to diagnose LVNC; however, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers superior characterization of the myocardium. We report a case of sudden cardiac death in a patient with Ebstein's anomaly with unrecognized LVNC noted on post mortem examination with screening documenting the presence of LVNC in one of the patient's twin sons. PMID:26240764