Loschmidt echo and time reversal in complex systems
Goussev, Arseni; Jalabert, Rodolfo A.; Pastawski, Horacio M.; Wisniacki, Diego A.
2016-01-01
Echoes are ubiquitous phenomena in several branches of physics, ranging from acoustics, optics, condensed matter and cold atoms to geophysics. They are at the base of a number of very useful experimental techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance, photon echo and time-reversal mirrors. Particularly interesting physical effects are obtained when the echo studies are performed on complex systems, either classically chaotic, disordered or many-body. Consequently, the term Loschmidt echo has been coined to designate and quantify the revival occurring when an imperfect time-reversal procedure is applied to a complex quantum system, or equivalently to characterize the stability of quantum evolution in the presence of perturbations. Here, we present the articles which discuss the work that has shaped the field in the past few years. PMID:27140977
Loschmidt Echo Revivals: Critical and Noncritical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jafari, R.; Johannesson, Henrik
2017-01-01
A quantum phase transition is generally thought to imprint distinctive characteristics on the nonequilibrium dynamics of a closed quantum system. Specifically, the Loschmidt echo after a sudden quench to a quantum critical point—measuring the time dependence of the overlap between initial and time-evolved states—is expected to exhibit an accelerated relaxation followed by periodic revivals. We here introduce a new exactly solvable model, the extended Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model, the Loschmidt echo of which provides a counterexample. A parallell analysis of the quench dynamics of the three-site spin-interacting X Y model allows us to pinpoint the conditions under which a periodic Loschmidt revival actually appears.
Microscopic time-reversibility and macroscopic irreversibility: Still a paradox
Posch, H.A.; Dellago, Ch.; Hoover, W.G.; Kum, O. |
1995-09-13
Microscopic time reversibility and macroscopic irreversibility are a paradoxical combination. This was first observed by J. Loschmidt in 1876 and was explained, for conservative systems, by L. Boltzmann the following year. Both these features are also present in modern simulations of classic many-body systems in steady nonequilibrium states. We illustrate them here for the simplest possible models, a continuous one-dimensional model of field-driven diffusion, the so-called driven Lorentz gas or Galton Board, and an ergodic time reversible dissipative map.
Loschmidt echo in many-body localized phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serbyn, Maksym; Abanin, Dmitry A.
2017-07-01
The Loschmidt echo, defined as the overlap between quantum wave function evolved with different Hamiltonians, quantifies the sensitivity of quantum dynamics to perturbations and is often used as a probe of quantum chaos. In this work we consider the behavior of the Loschmidt echo in the many-body localized phase, which is characterized by emergent local integrals of motion and provides a generic example of nonergodic dynamics. We demonstrate that the fluctuations of the Loschmidt echo decay as a power law in time in the many-body localized phase, in contrast to the exponential decay in few-body ergodic systems. We consider the spin-echo generalization of the Loschmidt echo and argue that the corresponding correlation function saturates to a finite value in localized systems. Slow, power-law decay of fluctuations of such spin-echo-type overlap is related to the operator spreading and is present only in the many-body localized phase, but not in a noninteracting Anderson insulator. While most of the previously considered probes of dephasing dynamics could be understood by approximating physical spin operators with local integrals of motion, the Loschmidt echo and its generalizations crucially depend on the full expansion of the physical operators via local integrals of motion operators, as well as operators which flip local integrals of motion. Hence these probes allow one to get insights into the relation between physical operators and local integrals of motion and access the operator spreading in the many-body localized phase.
Some considerations on molecular machines and Loschmidt paradox
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucia, Umberto
2015-03-01
Molecular machines do not apparently satisfy the second law of thermodynamics. This holds to the Loschmidt paradox. Boltzmann introduced the irreversible evolution of any system towards a state of mechanical and thermal equilibrium. He expressed this result in his H-theorem. Loschmidt objected that the Boltzmann's result was inconsistent because it was obtained by using a time-symmetric dynamics, in contrast with the time asymmetry of the result. In this letter we show how these two problems can be related to the Gouy-Stodola theorem and to the interactions between open systems or open subsystems in the case of closed or isolated systems.
Loschmidt echo in one-dimensional interacting Bose gases
Lelas, K.; Seva, T.; Buljan, H.
2011-12-15
We explore Loschmidt echo in two regimes of one-dimensional interacting Bose gases: the strongly interacting Tonks-Girardeau (TG) regime, and the weakly interacting mean-field regime. We find that the Loschmidt echo of a TG gas decays as a Gaussian when small (random and time independent) perturbations are added to the Hamiltonian. The exponent is proportional to the number of particles and the magnitude of a small perturbation squared. In the mean-field regime the Loschmidt echo shows richer behavior: it decays faster for larger nonlinearity, and the decay becomes more abrupt as the nonlinearity increases; it can be very sensitive to the particular realization of the noise potential, especially for relatively small nonlinearities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo Gullo, Nicola; Dell'Anna, Luca
2015-12-01
We study the spreading of density-density correlations and the Loschmidt echo, after different sudden quenches in an interacting one-dimensional Bose gas on a lattice, also in the presence of a superimposed aperiodic potential. We use a time dependent Bogoliubov approach to calculate the evolution of the correlation functions and employ the linked cluster expansion to derive the Loschmidt echo.
Transient Loschmidt echo in quenched Ising chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lupo, Carla; Schiró, Marco
2016-07-01
We study the response to sudden local perturbations of highly excited quantum Ising spin chains. The key quantity encoding this response is the overlap between time-dependent wave functions, which we write as a transient Loschmidt Echo. Its asymptotics at long time differences contain crucial information about the structure of the highly excited nonequilibrium environment induced by the quench. We compute the echo perturbatively for a weak local quench but for arbitrarily large global quench, using a cumulant expansion. Our perturbative results suggest that the echo decays exponentially, rather than power law as in the low-energy orthogonality catastrophe, a further example of quench-induced decoherence already found in the case of quenched Luttinger liquids. The emerging decoherence scale is set by the strength of the local potential and the bulk excitation energy.
Quantum Operation Time Reversal
Crooks, Gavin E.
2008-03-25
The dynamics of an open quantum system can be described by a quantum operation: A linear, complete positive map of operators. Here, I exhibit a compact expression for the time reversal of a quantum operation, which is closely analogous to the time reversal of a classical Markov transition matrix. Since open quantum dynamics are stochastic, and not, in general, deterministic, the time reversal is not, in general, an inversion of the dynamics. Rather, the system relaxes toward equilibrium in both the forward and reverse time directions. The probability of a quantum trajectory and the conjugate, time reversed trajectory are related by the heat exchanged with the environment.
Loschmidt Echo in a System of Interacting Electrons
Manfredi, G.; Hervieux, P.-A.
2006-11-10
We study the Loschmidt echo for a system of electrons interacting through mean-field Coulomb forces. The electron gas is modeled by a self-consistent set of hydrodynamic equations. It is observed that the quantum fidelity drops abruptly after a time that is proportional to the logarithm of the perturbation amplitude. The fidelity drop is related to the breakdown of the symmetry properties of the wave function.
Ultrasonic Time Reversal Mirrors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fink, Mathias; Montaldo, Gabriel; Tanter, Mickael
2004-11-01
For more than ten years, time reversal techniques have been developed in many different fields of applications including detection of defects in solids, underwater acoustics, room acoustics and also ultrasound medical imaging and therapy. The essential property that makes time reversed acoustics possible is that the underlying physical process of wave propagation would be unchanged if time were reversed. In a non dissipative medium, the equations governing the waves guarantee that for every burst of sound that diverges from a source there exists in theory a set of waves that would precisely retrace the path of the sound back to the source. If the source is pointlike, this allows focusing back on the source whatever the medium complexity. For this reason, time reversal represents a very powerful adaptive focusing technique for complex media. The generation of this reconverging wave can be achieved by using Time Reversal Mirrors (TRM). It is made of arrays of ultrasonic reversible piezoelectric transducers that can record the wavefield coming from the sources and send back its time-reversed version in the medium. It relies on the use of fully programmable multi-channel electronics. In this paper we present some applications of iterative time reversal mirrors to target detection in medical applications.
Buljubasich, Lisandro; Dente, Axel D.; Levstein, Patricia R.; Chattah, Ana K.; Pastawski, Horacio M.; Sánchez, Claudia M.
2015-10-28
We performed Loschmidt echo nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to study decoherence under a scaled dipolar Hamiltonian by means of a symmetrical time-reversal pulse sequence denominated Proportionally Refocused Loschmidt (PRL) echo. The many-spin system represented by the protons in polycrystalline adamantane evolves through two steps of evolution characterized by the secular part of the dipolar Hamiltonian, scaled down with a factor |k| and opposite signs. The scaling factor can be varied continuously from 0 to 1/2, giving access to a range of complexity in the dynamics. The experimental results for the Loschmidt echoes showed a spreading of the decay rates that correlate directly to the scaling factors |k|, giving evidence that the decoherence is partially governed by the coherent dynamics. The average Hamiltonian theory was applied to give an insight into the spin dynamics during the pulse sequence. The calculations were performed for every single radio frequency block in contrast to the most widely used form. The first order of the average Hamiltonian numerically computed for an 8-spin system showed decay rates that progressively decrease as the secular dipolar Hamiltonian becomes weaker. Notably, the first order Hamiltonian term neglected by conventional calculations yielded an explanation for the ordering of the experimental decoherence rates. However, there is a strong overall decoherence observed in the experiments which is not reflected by the theoretical results. The fact that the non-inverted terms do not account for this effect is a challenging topic. A number of experiments to further explore the relation of the complete Hamiltonian with this dominant decoherence rate are proposed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buljubasich, Lisandro; Sánchez, Claudia M.; Dente, Axel D.; Levstein, Patricia R.; Chattah, Ana K.; Pastawski, Horacio M.
2015-10-01
We performed Loschmidt echo nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to study decoherence under a scaled dipolar Hamiltonian by means of a symmetrical time-reversal pulse sequence denominated Proportionally Refocused Loschmidt (PRL) echo. The many-spin system represented by the protons in polycrystalline adamantane evolves through two steps of evolution characterized by the secular part of the dipolar Hamiltonian, scaled down with a factor |k| and opposite signs. The scaling factor can be varied continuously from 0 to 1/2, giving access to a range of complexity in the dynamics. The experimental results for the Loschmidt echoes showed a spreading of the decay rates that correlate directly to the scaling factors |k|, giving evidence that the decoherence is partially governed by the coherent dynamics. The average Hamiltonian theory was applied to give an insight into the spin dynamics during the pulse sequence. The calculations were performed for every single radio frequency block in contrast to the most widely used form. The first order of the average Hamiltonian numerically computed for an 8-spin system showed decay rates that progressively decrease as the secular dipolar Hamiltonian becomes weaker. Notably, the first order Hamiltonian term neglected by conventional calculations yielded an explanation for the ordering of the experimental decoherence rates. However, there is a strong overall decoherence observed in the experiments which is not reflected by the theoretical results. The fact that the non-inverted terms do not account for this effect is a challenging topic. A number of experiments to further explore the relation of the complete Hamiltonian with this dominant decoherence rate are proposed.
Buljubasich, Lisandro; Sánchez, Claudia M; Dente, Axel D; Levstein, Patricia R; Chattah, Ana K; Pastawski, Horacio M
2015-10-28
We performed Loschmidt echo nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to study decoherence under a scaled dipolar Hamiltonian by means of a symmetrical time-reversal pulse sequence denominated Proportionally Refocused Loschmidt (PRL) echo. The many-spin system represented by the protons in polycrystalline adamantane evolves through two steps of evolution characterized by the secular part of the dipolar Hamiltonian, scaled down with a factor |k| and opposite signs. The scaling factor can be varied continuously from 0 to 1/2, giving access to a range of complexity in the dynamics. The experimental results for the Loschmidt echoes showed a spreading of the decay rates that correlate directly to the scaling factors |k|, giving evidence that the decoherence is partially governed by the coherent dynamics. The average Hamiltonian theory was applied to give an insight into the spin dynamics during the pulse sequence. The calculations were performed for every single radio frequency block in contrast to the most widely used form. The first order of the average Hamiltonian numerically computed for an 8-spin system showed decay rates that progressively decrease as the secular dipolar Hamiltonian becomes weaker. Notably, the first order Hamiltonian term neglected by conventional calculations yielded an explanation for the ordering of the experimental decoherence rates. However, there is a strong overall decoherence observed in the experiments which is not reflected by the theoretical results. The fact that the non-inverted terms do not account for this effect is a challenging topic. A number of experiments to further explore the relation of the complete Hamiltonian with this dominant decoherence rate are proposed.
Dynamical phase transitions and Loschmidt echo in the infinite-range XY model.
Žunkovič, Bojan; Silva, Alessandro; Fabrizio, Michele
2016-06-13
We compare two different notions of dynamical phase transitions in closed quantum systems. The first is identified through the time-averaged value of the equilibrium-order parameter, whereas the second corresponds to non-analyticities in the time behaviour of the Loschmidt echo. By exactly solving the dynamics of the infinite-range XY model, we show that in this model non-analyticities of the Loschmidt echo are not connected to standard dynamical phase transitions and are not robust against quantum fluctuations. Furthermore, we show that the existence of either of the two dynamical transitions is not necessarily connected to the equilibrium quantum phase transition.
Time reversal communication system
Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.
2008-12-02
A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.
Time reversal interactive objects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ing, Ros Ki; Quieffin, Nicolas; Catheline, Stefan; Fink, Mathias
2001-05-01
Time reversal has shown to be a fruitful concept in nondestructive testing in underwater acoustic or in ultrasonic imaging. In this paper this technique is adapted in the audible range to transform every day objects into tactile sensitive interfaces. A quick historical background is presented in the ultrasonic field and specially in chaotic cavity. In all time reversal experiments, it is demonstrated that a wave field spatially and temporally recorded is able to back propagate to its source. In other words, the field contains all the information on the location of the source. In the interactive experiments, it is shown that touching an object like a window, a table or a world globe generates an acoustic field easily detectable with one or two acoustic sensors. Using the concept of time reversal, the source location is deduced in real time. Then, touching objects at specific locations (virtual switches) is used to activate devices. Such devices are for example lights, stereo volume, or computer software. From a technical point of view, all these interactive experiments just use some computation easily performed with a standard personnel computer.
Loschmidt Echo in a Gas of Hard Disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinto, Ricardo; Medina, Ernesto; Pastawski, Horacio M.
2004-03-01
Recent studies of NMR on Polarization Echo generate new interest to the discussion of how to revert the dynamics of a many-body system. In such experiments a complex system of interacting spins is allowed to evolve with a quantum Hamiltonian H until a time tR at which the Hamiltonian sign is changed H' ≃-H. Then, the whole dynamics proceeds to evolve backwards in time. Were this a perfect procedure, every spin in the system would recover its original state at time 2t_R. This is called a Loschmidt Echo. However, there is always small connection of the system Hamiltonian to external reservoirs that prevents reaching back to the initial state so that the Loschmidt Echo decays with increasing t_R. What controls this decay time? An equivalent question is currently been addressed in the context of classical and quantum information processing. In this paper we address this question in a high precision hard disk code to realize 3 regimes: i) a supra-exponential growth regime that precedes the ii) Lyapunov exponential growth and finally iii) the long time diffusive regime. We describe the different Hamiltonian and stochastic perturbations to which the system is submitted.
Quinn, H; /SLAC
2009-01-27
This talk briefly reviews three types of time-asymmetry in physics, which I classify as universal, macroscopic and microscopic. Most of the talk is focused on the latter, namely the violation of T-reversal invariance in particle physics theories. In sum tests of microscopic T-invariance, or observations of its violation, are limited by the fact that, while we can measure many processes, only in very few cases can we construct a matched pair of process and inverse process and observe it with sufficient sensitivity to make a test. In both the cases discussed here we can achieve an observable T violation making use of flavor tagging, and in the second case also using the quantum properties of an antisymmetric coherent state of two B mesons to construct a CP-tag. Both these tagging properties depend only on very general properties of the flavor and/or CP quantum numbers and so provide model independent tests for T-invariance violations. The microscopic laws of physics are very close to T-symmetric. There are small effects that give CP- and T-violating processes in three-generation-probing weak decays. Where a T-violating observable can be constructed we see the relationships between T-violation and CP-violation expected in a CPT conserving theory. These microscopic effects are unrelated to the 'arrow of time' that is defined by increasing entropy, or in the time direction defined by the expansion of our Universe.
Complex semiclassical analysis of the Loschmidt amplitude and dynamical quantum phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Obuchi, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Sei; Takahashi, Kazutaka
2017-05-01
We propose a computational method of the Loschmidt amplitude in a generic spin system on the basis of the complex semiclassical analysis on the spin-coherent state path integral. We demonstrate how the dynamical transitions emerge in the time evolution of the Loschmidt amplitude for the infinite-range transverse Ising model with a longitudinal field, exposed by a quantum quench of the transverse field Γ from ∞ or zero. For both initial conditions, we obtain the dynamical phase diagrams that show the presence or absence of the dynamical transition in the plane of transverse field after a quantum quench and the longitudinal field. The results of semiclassical analysis are verified by numerical experiments. Experimental observation of our findings on the dynamical transition is also discussed.
Remote Whispering Applying Time Reversal
Anderson, Brian Eric
2015-07-16
The purpose of this project was to explore the use of time reversal technologies as a means for communication to a targeted individual or location. The idea is to have the privacy of whispering in one’s ear, but to do this remotely from loudspeakers not located near the target. Applications of this work include communicating with hostages and survivors in rescue operations, communicating imaging and operational conditions in deep drilling operations, monitoring storage of spent nuclear fuel in storage casks without wires, or clandestine activities requiring signaling between specific points. This technology provides a solution in any application where wires and radio communications are not possible or not desired. It also may be configured to self calibrate on a regular basis to adjust for changing conditions. These communications allow two people to converse with one another in real time, converse in an inaudible frequency range or medium (i.e. using ultrasonic frequencies and/or sending vibrations through a structure), or send information for a system to interpret (even allowing remote control of a system using sound). The time reversal process allows one to focus energy to a specific location in space and to send a clean transmission of a selected signal only to that location. In order for the time reversal process to work, a calibration signal must be obtained. This signal may be obtained experimentally using an impulsive sound, a known chirp signal, or other known signals. It may also be determined from a numerical model of a known environment in which the focusing is desired or from passive listening over time to ambient noise.
Loschmidt echo in many-spin systems: a quest for intrinsic decoherence and emergent irreversibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zangara, Pablo R.; Pastawski, Horacio M.
2017-03-01
If a magnetic polarization excess is locally injected in a crystal of interacting spins in thermal equilibrium, this ‘excitation’ would spread as consequence of spin–spin interactions. Such an apparently irreversible process is known as spin diffusion and it can lead the system back to ‘equilibrium’. Even so, a unitary quantum dynamics would ensure a precise memory of the non-equilibrium initial condition. Then, if at a certain time, say t/2, an experimental protocol reverses the many-body dynamics by changing the sign of the effective Hamiltonian, it would drive the system back to the initial non-equilibrium state at time t. As a matter of fact, the reversal is always perturbed by small experimental imperfections and/or uncontrolled internal or environmental degrees of freedom. This limits the amount of signal M(t) recovered locally at time t. The degradation of M(t) accounts for these perturbations, which can also be seen as the sources of decoherence. This general idea defines the Loschmidt echo (LE), which embodies the various time-reversal procedures implemented in nuclear magnetic resonance. Here, we present an invitation to the study of the LE following the pathway induced by the experiments. With such a purpose, we provide a historical and conceptual overview that briefly revisits selected phenomena that underlie the LE dynamics including chaos, decoherence, localization and equilibration. This guiding thread ultimately leads us to the discussion of decoherence and irreversibility as an emergent phenomenon. In addition, we introduce the LE formalism by means of spin–spin correlation functions in a manner suitable for presentation in a broad scope physics journal. Last, but not least, we present new results that could trigger new experiments and theoretical ideas. In particular, we propose to transform an initially localized excitation into a more complex initial state, enabling a dynamically prepared LE. This induces a global definition of the
Time reversal for modified oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cordero-Soto, R.; Suslov, S. K.
2010-03-01
We consider a new completely integrable case of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in ®n with variable coefficients for a modified oscillator that is dual (with respect to time reversal) to a model of the quantum oscillator. We find a second pair of dual Hamiltonians in the momentum representation. The examples considered show that in mathematical physics and quantum mechanics, a change in the time direction may require a total change of the system dynamics to return the system to its original quantum state. We obtain particular solutions of the corresponding nonlinear Schrödinger equations. We also consider a Hamiltonian structure of the classical integrable problem and its quantization.
Theta, time reversal and temperature
Gaiotto, Davide; Kapustin, Anton; Komargodski, Zohar; ...
2017-05-17
SU(N) gauge theory is time reversal invariant at θ = 0 and θ = π. We show that at θ = π there is a discrete ’t Hooft anomaly involving time reversal and the center symmetry. This anomaly leads to constraints on the vacua of the theory. It follows that at θ = π the vacuum cannot be a trivial non-degenerate gapped state. (By contrast, the vacuum at θ = 0 is gapped, non-degenerate, and trivial.) Due to the anomaly, the theory admits nontrivial domain walls supporting lower-dimensional theories. Depending on the nature of the vacuum at θ = π,more » several phase diagrams are possible. Assuming area law for space-like loops, one arrives at an inequality involving the temperatures at which CP and the center symmetry are restored. We also analyze alternative scenarios for SU(2) gauge theory. The underlying symmetry at θ = π is the dihedral group of 8 elements. If deconfined loops are allowed, one can have two O(2)-symmetric fixed points. In conclusion, it may also be that the four-dimensional theory around θ = π is gapless, e.g. a Coulomb phase could match the underlying anomalies.« less
Theta, time reversal and temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaiotto, Davide; Kapustin, Anton; Komargodski, Zohar; Seiberg, Nathan
2017-05-01
SU( N ) gauge theory is time reversal invariant at θ = 0 and θ = π. We show that at θ = π there is a discrete 't Hooft anomaly involving time reversal and the center symmetry. This anomaly leads to constraints on the vacua of the theory. It follows that at θ = π the vacuum cannot be a trivial non-degenerate gapped state. (By contrast, the vacuum at θ = 0 is gapped, non-degenerate, and trivial.) Due to the anomaly, the theory admits nontrivial domain walls supporting lower-dimensional theories. Depending on the nature of the vacuum at θ = π, several phase diagrams are possible. Assuming area law for space-like loops, one arrives at an inequality involving the temperatures at which CP and the center symmetry are restored. We also analyze alternative scenarios for SU(2) gauge theory. The underlying symmetry at θ = π is the dihedral group of 8 elements. If deconfined loops are allowed, one can have two O(2)-symmetric fixed points. It may also be that the four-dimensional theory around θ = π is gapless, e.g. a Coulomb phase could match the underlying anomalies.
Three component vibrational time reversal communication
Anderson, Brian E.; Ulrich, Timothy J.; Ten Cate, James A.
2015-01-01
Time reversal provides an optimal prefilter matched signal to apply to a communication signal before signal transmission. Time reversal allows compensation for wave speed dispersion and can function well in reverberant environments. Time reversal can be used to focus elastic energy to each of the three components of motion independently. A pipe encased in concrete was used to demonstrate the ability to conduct communications of information using three component time reversal. Furthermore, the ability of time reversal to compensate for multi-path distortion (overcoming reverberation) will be demonstrated and the rate of signal communication will be presented. [The U.S. Department ofmore » Energy, through the LANL/LDRD Program, is gratefully acknowledged for supporting this work.]« less
Three component vibrational time reversal communication
Anderson, Brian E.; Ulrich, Timothy J.; Ten Cate, James A.
2015-01-01
Time reversal provides an optimal prefilter matched signal to apply to a communication signal before signal transmission. Time reversal allows compensation for wave speed dispersion and can function well in reverberant environments. Time reversal can be used to focus elastic energy to each of the three components of motion independently. A pipe encased in concrete was used to demonstrate the ability to conduct communications of information using three component time reversal. Furthermore, the ability of time reversal to compensate for multi-path distortion (overcoming reverberation) will be demonstrated and the rate of signal communication will be presented. [The U.S. Department of Energy, through the LANL/LDRD Program, is gratefully acknowledged for supporting this work.
Transient Loschmidt Echo and Orthogonality Catastrophe in highly excited Quantum Ising Spin Chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiro, Marco; Lupo, Carla
We study the response to sudden local perturbations of highly excited Quantum Ising Spin Chains. The key quantity encoding this response is the overlap between time-dependent wave functions, which we write as a transient Loschmidt echo. We compute the Echo perturbatively in the case of a weak local quench and study its asymptotics at long times, which contains crucial information about the structure of the highly excited non-equilibrium environment induced by the quench. Our results reveal that the Echo decays exponentially, rather than power law as in the low-energy Orthogonality Catastrophe, a further example of quench-induced decoherence. The emerging decoherence scale is set by the strenght of the local potential and the bulk excitation energy. In addition, the transient evolution features aging behavior at the Ising quantum critical point.
Time-reversed, flow-reversed ballistics simulations
Zernow, L.; Chapyak, E. J.; Scheffler, D. R.
2001-01-01
Two-dimensional simulations of planar sheet jet formation are studied to examine the hydrodynamic issues involved when simulations are carried out in the inverse direction, that is, with reversed time and flow. Both a realistic copper equation of state and a shockless equation of state were used. These studies are an initial step in evaluating this technique as a ballistics design tool.
Time reversibility in the quantum frame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masot-Conde, Fátima
2014-12-01
Classic Mechanics and Electromagnetism, conventionally taken as time-reversible, share the same concept of motion (either of mass or charge) as the basis of the time reversibility in their own fields. This paper focuses on the relationship between mobile geometry and motion reversibility. The goal is to extrapolate the conclusions to the quantum frame, where matter and radiation behave just as elementary mobiles. The possibility that the asymmetry of Time (Time's arrow) is an effect of a fundamental quantum asymmetry of elementary particles, turns out to be a consequence of the discussion.
Momentum-Space Entanglement and Loschmidt Echo in Luttinger Liquids after a Quantum Quench.
Dóra, Balázs; Lundgren, Rex; Selover, Mark; Pollmann, Frank
2016-07-01
Luttinger liquids (LLs) arise by coupling left- and right-moving particles through interactions in one dimension. This most natural partitioning of LLs is investigated by the momentum-space entanglement after a quantum quench using analytical and numerical methods. We show that the momentum-space entanglement spectrum of a LL possesses many universal features both in equilibrium and after a quantum quench. The largest entanglement eigenvalue is identical to the Loschmidt echo, i.e., the overlap of the disentangled and final wave functions of the system. The second largest eigenvalue is the overlap of the first excited state of the disentangled system with zero total momentum and the final wave function. The entanglement gap is universal both in equilibrium and after a quantum quench. The momentum-space entanglement entropy is always extensive and saturates fast to a time independent value after the quench, in sharp contrast to a spatial bipartitioning.
Time reversibility in the quantum frame
Masot-Conde, Fátima
2014-12-04
Classic Mechanics and Electromagnetism, conventionally taken as time-reversible, share the same concept of motion (either of mass or charge) as the basis of the time reversibility in their own fields. This paper focuses on the relationship between mobile geometry and motion reversibility. The goal is to extrapolate the conclusions to the quantum frame, where matter and radiation behave just as elementary mobiles. The possibility that the asymmetry of Time (Time’s arrow) is an effect of a fundamental quantum asymmetry of elementary particles, turns out to be a consequence of the discussion.
Sánchez, C. M.; Levstein, P. R.; Buljubasich, L.; Pastawski, H. M.
2016-01-01
In this work, we overview time-reversal nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in many-spin systems evolving under the dipolar Hamiltonian. The Loschmidt echo (LE) in NMR is the signal of excitations which, after evolving with a forward Hamiltonian, is recovered by means of a backward evolution. The presence of non-diagonal terms in the non-equilibrium density matrix of the many-body state is directly monitored experimentally by encoding the multiple quantum coherences. This enables a spin counting procedure, giving information on the spreading of an excitation through the Hilbert space and the formation of clusters of correlated spins. Two samples representing different spin systems with coupled networks were used in the experiments. Protons in polycrystalline ferrocene correspond to an ‘infinite’ network. By contrast, the liquid crystal N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline in the nematic mesophase represents a finite proton system with a hierarchical set of couplings. A close connection was established between the LE decay and the spin counting measurements, confirming the hypothesis that the complexity of the system is driven by the coherent dynamics. PMID:27140972
Sánchez, C M; Levstein, P R; Buljubasich, L; Pastawski, H M; Chattah, A K
2016-06-13
In this work, we overview time-reversal nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in many-spin systems evolving under the dipolar Hamiltonian. The Loschmidt echo (LE) in NMR is the signal of excitations which, after evolving with a forward Hamiltonian, is recovered by means of a backward evolution. The presence of non-diagonal terms in the non-equilibrium density matrix of the many-body state is directly monitored experimentally by encoding the multiple quantum coherences. This enables a spin counting procedure, giving information on the spreading of an excitation through the Hilbert space and the formation of clusters of correlated spins. Two samples representing different spin systems with coupled networks were used in the experiments. Protons in polycrystalline ferrocene correspond to an 'infinite' network. By contrast, the liquid crystal N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline in the nematic mesophase represents a finite proton system with a hierarchical set of couplings. A close connection was established between the LE decay and the spin counting measurements, confirming the hypothesis that the complexity of the system is driven by the coherent dynamics.
Time reversal for damage detection in pipes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ying, Yujie; Harley, Joel; Garrett, James H., Jr.; Jin, Yuanwei; Moura, José M. F.; O'Donoughue, Nicholas; Oppenheim, Irving J.; Soibelman, Lucio
2010-04-01
Monitoring the structural integrity of vast natural gas pipeline networks requires continuous and economical inspection technology. Current approaches for inspecting buried pipelines require periodic excavation of sections of pipe to assess only a couple of hundred meters at a time. These inspection systems for pipelines are temporary and expensive. We propose to use guided-wave ultrasonics with Time Reversal techniques to develop an active sensing and continuous monitoring system. Pipe environments are complex due to the presence of multiple modes and high dispersion. These are treated as adverse effects by most conventional ultrasonic techniques. However, Time Reversal takes advantage of the multi-modal and dispersive behaviors to improve the spatial and temporal wave focusing. In this paper, Time Reversal process is mathematically described and experimentally demonstrated through six laboratory experiments, providing comprehensive and promising results on guided wave focusing in a pipe with/without welded joint, with/without internal pressure, and detection of three defects: lateral, longitudinal and corrosion-like. The experimental results show that Time Reversal can effectively compensate for multiple modes and dispersion in pipes, resulting in an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and effective damage detection ability. As a consequence, Time Reversal shows benefits in long-distance and lowpower pipeline monitoring, as well as potential for applications in other infrastructures.
Time reversal acoustics for small targets using decomposition of the time reversal operator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simko, Peter C.
The method of time reversal acoustics has been the focus of considerable interest over the last twenty years. Time reversal imaging methods have made consistent progress as effective methods for signal processing since the initial demonstration that physical time reversal methods can be used to form convergent wave fields on a localized target, even under conditions of severe multipathing. Computational time reversal methods rely on the properties of the so-called 'time reversal operator' in order to extract information about the target medium. Applications for which time reversal imaging have previously been explored include medical imaging, non-destructive evaluation, and mine detection. Emphasis in this paper will fall on two topics within the general field of computational time reversal imaging. First, we will examine previous work on developing a time reversal imaging algorithm based on the MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm. MUSIC, though computationally very intensive, has demonstrated early promise in simulations using array-based methods applicable to true volumetric (three-dimensional) imaging. We will provide a simple algorithm through which the rank of the time reversal operator subspaces can be properly quantified so that the rank of the associated null subspace can be accurately estimated near the central pulse wavelength in broadband imaging. Second, we will focus on the scattering from small acoustically rigid two dimensional cylindrical targets of elliptical cross section. Analysis of the time reversal operator eigenmodes has been well-studied for symmetric response matrices associated with symmetric systems of scattering targets. We will expand these previous results to include more general scattering systems leading to asymmetric response matrices, for which the analytical complexity increases but the physical interpretation of the time reversal operator remains unchanged. For asymmetric responses, the qualitative properties of the
Kober, Jan; Dvorakova, Zuzana; Prevorovsky, Zdenek; Krofta, Josef
2015-07-01
In this letter, fundamentals of transferring a time reversal experiment between similar objects are discussed. The time reversal experiment consists of two steps: forward propagation, when a source excites the medium and a complex wave field is created, and back propagation, resulting in time reversal focusing. Here the procedure of performing the first step on one specimen and the second step on another is investigated. The theory of time reversal transfer is explained on an example of object shape variations. However, conclusions of the theoretical analysis are applicable universally. The feasibility of the proposed procedure is validated in experiments modeling conditions in practice.
Time reversal and holography with spacetime transformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bacot, Vincent; Labousse, Matthieu; Eddi, Antonin; Fink, Mathias; Fort, Emmanuel
2016-10-01
Wave control is usually performed by spatially engineering the properties of a medium. Because time and space play similar roles in wave propagation, manipulating time boundaries provides a complementary approach. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the relevance of this concept by introducing instantaneous time mirrors. We show with water waves that a sudden change of the effective gravity generates time-reversed waves that refocus at the source. We generalize this concept for all kinds of waves, introducing a universal framework which explains the effect of any time disruption on wave propagation. We show that sudden changes of the medium properties generate instant wave sources that emerge instantaneously from the entire space at the time disruption. The time-reversed waves originate from these `Cauchy sources’, which are the counterpart of Huygens virtual sources on a time boundary. It allows us to revisit the holographic method and introduce a new approach for wave control.
Time reversal signal processing for communication.
Young, Derek P.; Jacklin, Neil; Punnoose, Ratish J.; Counsil, David T.
2011-09-01
Time-reversal is a wave focusing technique that makes use of the reciprocity of wireless propagation channels. It works particularly well in a cluttered environment with associated multipath reflection. This technique uses the multipath in the environment to increase focusing ability. Time-reversal can also be used to null signals, either to reduce unintentional interference or to prevent eavesdropping. It does not require controlled geometric placement of the transmit antennas. Unlike existing techniques it can work without line-of-sight. We have explored the performance of time-reversal focusing in a variety of simulated environments. We have also developed new algorithms to simultaneously focus at a location while nulling at an eavesdropper location. We have experimentally verified these techniques in a realistic cluttered environment.
Study of Time Reversal in Complex Systems
2014-01-02
collapse in the time-reversed model; thus these distributions must be unique to each petal , as can be observed in figure 5. We will use the Flower ...in the simple case of a Flower machine having two time-reversed petals in figure 7 in section 2.3. 23 27 B.2 General case We wish to eliminate the...processes, using the conceptual formalism of the ?-machine. The causal irreversibility is examined, in particular for the class of Flower processes, and
Time-Reversal for UWB Communications Systems
2005-08-15
2000. 55. S. Kim, G. F. Edelmann , W. A. Kuperman, W. S. Hodgkiss, and H. G. Song, “Spatial resolution of time-reversal arrays in shallow water,” J...694–696, 2002. 58. G. F. Edelmann , T. Akal, W. S. Hodgkiss, S. Kim, W. A. Kuperman and H. C. Song, “An Initial Demonstration Of Underwater Acoustic
A time-reversal lattice Boltzmann method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vergnault, E.; Malaspinas, O.; Sagaut, P.
2011-09-01
In this paper we address the time-reversed simulation of viscous flows by the lattice Boltzmann method (LB). The theoretical derivation of the reversed LB from the Boltzmann equation is detailed, and the method implemented for weakly compressible flows using the D2Q9 scheme. The implementation of boundary conditions is also discussed. The accuracy and stability are illustrated by four test cases, namely the propagation of an acoustic wave in a medium at rest and in an uniform mean flow, the Taylor-Green vortex decay and the vortex pair-wall collision.
Time-reversal generation of rogue waves.
Chabchoub, Amin; Fink, Mathias
2014-03-28
The formation of extreme localizations in nonlinear dispersive media can be explained and described within the framework of nonlinear evolution equations, such as the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS). Within the class of exact NLS breather solutions on a finite background, which describe the modulational instability of monochromatic wave trains, the hierarchy of rational solutions localized in both time and space is considered to provide appropriate prototypes to model rogue wave dynamics. Here, we use the time-reversal invariance of the NLS to propose and experimentally demonstrate a new approach to constructing strongly nonlinear localized waves focused in both time and space. The potential applications of this time-reversal approach include remote sensing and motivated analogous experimental analysis in other nonlinear dispersive media, such as optics, Bose-Einstein condensates, and plasma, where the wave motion dynamics is governed by the NLS.
Time reversal communication over doubly spread channels.
Zeng, Wen-Jun; Jiang, Xue
2012-11-01
Conventional time reversal can mitigate multipath delay dispersion by temporal focusing. But it is not applicable to time-varying channels with a Doppler spread. Although recently time reversal communication has been adapted to time-variant channels, the modified technique requires frequent channel updates to track channel variations and cannot handle large Doppler spread, which means that it cannot achieve frequency focusing. In this paper, two time reversal receivers for underwater acoustic communications over doubly spread channels are proposed. The proposed approach, which can be interpreted as time-frequency channel matching, is based on the channel spreading function rather than impulse response adopted by the existing techniques; this leads to much less frequent channel updates. Unlike existing methods that only correct a single Doppler shift, the proposed approach uses a rake-like structure to compensate for multiple Doppler shifts and hence can eliminate severe Doppler spread induced by temporal channel variations. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach, indicating that it can simultaneously counteract delay and Doppler spreads, achieving both temporal and frequency focusing.
Time Reversal Acoustic in a flowing medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luong, Trung Dung; Arora, Manish; Hies, Thomas; Ohl, Claus-Dieter; Claus-Dieter Ohl grou Team; DHI Water; Environment (S) Pte. Ltd. Collaboration
2013-11-01
We explore the effect of flow on time reversal acoustics (TRA). Traditionally, TRA has been studied in static conditions, while a motion of the medium is expected to degrade the spatio-temporal focussing of the sound pulse. Here, we study the effect of the flow with a TRA system at 1MHz. A controlled flow is added between the emitter and receiver. Additional, a metallic plate is utilized to increases the numerical aperture of the emitting transducer. The impulse response of the non-flowing system, is recorded and time reversed. Then, the response of the hydrophone is recorded in presence and absence of the flow. It is found that the time reversed signal focuses on at the hydrophone in both the cases. In the absence of flow, the focus signal is observed to be shifted in the time domain. Furthermore, there is a drop in the peak-to-peak value of the focus signal in the presence of flow. For a flow rate of 3 cm/s (Re ~ 1000), a distinct shift in the time domain and a reduction of the peak is obtained. The results will be discussed and compared with numerical simulation of TRA under flow conditions.
Time reversal of ultrasound in granular media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harazi, M.; Yang, Y.; Fink, M.; Tourin, A.; Jia, X.
2017-05-01
Time reversal (TR) focusing of ultrasound in granular packings is experimentally investigated. Pulsed elastic waves transmitted from a compressional or shear transducer source are measured by a TR mirror, reversed in time and back-propagated. We find that TR of ballistic coherent waves onto the source position is very robust regardless driving amplitude but provides poor spatial resolution. By contrast, the multiply scattered coda waves offer a finer TR focusing at small amplitude by a lens effect. However, at large amplitude, these TR focusing signals decrease significantly due to the vibration-induced rearrangement of the contact networks, leading to the breakdown of TR invariance. Our observations reveal that granular acoustics is in between particle motion and wave propagation in terms of sensitivity to perturbations. These laboratory experiments are supported by numerical simulations of elastic wave propagation in disordered 2D percolation networks of masses and springs, and should be helpful for source location problems in natural processes.
Time reversal tests in polarized neutron reactions
Asahi, Koichiro; Bowman, J.D.; Crawford, B.
1998-11-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In recent years the nuclear weak interaction has been studied in the compound nucleus via parity violation. The observed parity-violating effects are strongly enhanced by nuclear structure. The predictions are that the interaction of polarized neutrons with polarized nuclear targets could be also used to perform sensitive tests of time-reversal-violation because of the nuclear enhancements. The author has designed experiments to search for time-reversal violation in neutron-nucleus interactions. He has also developed techniques to polarize neutrons with laser-polarized {sup 3}He gas targets. Using the polarized {sup 3}He neutron spin filter, he has performed two experiments at LANSCE: an absolute neutron beam polarization measurement with an accuracy of 0.2--0.3% and a neutron spin-rotation measurement on a {sup 139}La sample.
Frequency response of the Loschmidt echo decay in an open driven nonlinear oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shi-Hui; Yan, Zhan-Yuan
2015-11-01
The decay of the Loschmidt echo and its relation to the frequency response of the underlying classical dynamics are investigated in an open Duffing system by means of the Wigner function. The initial Wigner function of the system is Gaussian and centered at a phase point (x 0, p 0). For different (x 0, p 0), significant peaks are observed in the frequency response curves of the Loschmidt echo decay during the evolution of the Wigner function. Furthermore, there is good correspondence between the frequency response curves of the Loschmidt echo decay and the underlying classical dynamics. This can be attributed to the increase of the fringes of the Wigner function by the external driving force, which can be revealed by the frequency response of the underlying classical dynamics.
Test of Time Reversal Invariance and COSY
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eversheim, Dieter; Lorentz, Bernd; Valdau, Yury; PAX Collaboration
2013-07-01
Test of Time Reversal Invariance in pd scattering is planned at the COoler-SYnchrotron COSY-Jülich using the PAX internal target station. Feasibility test, performed in September 2012, have shown possibility to perform such an experiment using COSY and PAX. In parallel to the PAX upgrade a new high precision beam current measurement system will be constructed by the end of 2014. After these modifications, it will be possible to improve the current upper limit on a strength of T-odd P-even NN potential by an order of magnitude.
Time Reversal in Solids (Linear and Nonlinear Elasticity): Multimedia Resources in Time Reversal
Dynamic nonlinear elastic behavior, nonequilibrium dynamics, first observed as a curiosity in earth materials has now been observed in a great variety of solids. The primary manifestations of the behavior are characteristic wave distortion, and slow dynamics, a recovery process to equilibrium that takes place linearly with the logarithm of time, over hours to days after a wave disturbance. The link between the diverse materials that exhibit nonequilibrium dynamics appears to be the presence of soft regions, thought to be 'damage' at many scales, ranging from order 10-9 m to 10-1 m at least. The regions of soft matter may be distributed as in a rock sample, or isolated, as in a sample with a single crack [LANLhttp://www.lanl.gov/orgs/ees/ees11/geophysics/nonlinear/nonlinear.shtml]. The Geophysics Group (EES-11) at Los Alamos National Laboratory has posted two or more multimedia items under each of the titles below to demonstrate aspects of their work: 1) Source Reconstruction Using Time Reversal; 2) Robustness and Efficiency of Time Reversal Acoustics in Solid Media; 3) Audio Example of Time Reversal - Speech Privacy; 4) Crack Imagining with Time Reversal - Experimental Results; 5) Time Reversal of the 2004 (M9.0) Sumatra Earthquake.
Time reversal invariance in polarized neutron decay
Wasserman, Eric G.
1994-03-01
An experiment to measure the time reversal invariance violating (T-violating) triple correlation (D) in the decay of free polarized neutrons has been developed. The detector design incorporates a detector geometry that provides a significant improvement in the sensitivity over that used in the most sensitive of previous experiments. A prototype detector was tested in measurements with a cold neutron beam. Data resulting from the tests are presented. A detailed calculation of systematic effects has been performed and new diagnostic techniques that allow these effects to be measured have been developed. As the result of this work, a new experiment is under way that will improve the sensitivity to D to 3 x 10^{-4} or better. With higher neutron flux a statistical sensitivity of the order 3 x 10^{-5} is ultimately expected. The decay of free polarized neutrons (n → p + e + $\\bar{v}$_{e}) is used to search for T-violation by measuring the triple correlation of the neutron spin polarization, and the electron and proton momenta (σ_{n} • p_{p} x p_{e}). This correlation changes sign under reversal of the motion. Since final state effects in neutron decay are small, a nonzero coefficient, D, of this correlation indicates the violation of time reversal invariance. D is measured by comparing the numbers of coincidences in electron and proton detectors arranged symmetrically about a longitudinally polarized neutron beam. Particular care must be taken to eliminate residual asymmetries in the detectors or beam as these can lead to significant false effects. The Standard Model predicts negligible T-violating effects in neutron decay. Extensions to the Standard Model include new interactions some of which include CP-violating components. Some of these make first order contributions to D.
Efficient reverse time migration with amplitude encoding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Jiangtao; Wang, Huazhong; Zhao, Lei; Shao, Yu; Wang, Meixia; Osen, Are
2015-08-01
Reverse time migration (RTM) is an accurate seismic imaging method for imaging the complex subsurface structure. Traditional common shot RTM suffers from low efficiency due to the large number of single shot gathers, especially for marine seismic data. Phase encoding is commonly used to reduce the computational cost of RTM. Phase encoding in the frequency domain is usually related to time shift in the time domain. Therefore, phase-encoding-based RTM needs time padding to avoid information loss which degrades the efficiency of the time-domain wavefield extrapolator. In this paper, an efficient time-domain RTM scheme based on the amplitude encoding is proposed. This scheme uses the orthogonal cosine basis as the encoding function, which has similar physical meaning to plane wave encoding (i.e. plane-wave components with different surface shooting angles). The proposed scheme can generate a qualified imaging result as well as common shot RTM but with less computational cost. Since this scheme does not need time padding, it is more efficient than the phase encoding schemes and can be conveniently implemented in the time domain. Numerical examples on the Sigsbee2a synthetic dataset demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.
Time-reversal and Bayesian inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debski, Wojciech
2017-04-01
Probabilistic inversion technique is superior to the classical optimization-based approach in all but one aspects. It requires quite exhaustive computations which prohibit its use in huge size inverse problems like global seismic tomography or waveform inversion to name a few. The advantages of the approach are, however, so appealing that there is an ongoing continuous afford to make the large inverse task as mentioned above manageable with the probabilistic inverse approach. One of the perspective possibility to achieve this goal relays on exploring the internal symmetry of the seismological modeling problems in hand - a time reversal and reciprocity invariance. This two basic properties of the elastic wave equation when incorporating into the probabilistic inversion schemata open a new horizons for Bayesian inversion. In this presentation we discuss the time reversal symmetry property, its mathematical aspects and propose how to combine it with the probabilistic inverse theory into a compact, fast inversion algorithm. We illustrate the proposed idea with the newly developed location algorithm TRMLOC and discuss its efficiency when applied to mining induced seismic data.
Direct observation of time reversal violation
Bernabeu, J.
2013-06-12
A direct evidence for Time Reversal Violation (TRV) means an experiment that, considered by itself, clearly shows TRV independent of, and unconnected to, the results for CP Violation. No existing result before the recent BABAR experiment with entangled neutral B mesons had demonstrated TRV in this sense. There is a unique opportunity for a search of TRV with unstable particles thanks to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) Entanglement between the two neutral mesons in B, and PHI, Factories. The two quantum effects of the first decay as a filtering measurement and the transfer of information to the still living partner allow performing a genuine TRV asymmetry with the exchange of 'in' and 'out' states. With four independent TRV asymmetries, BABAR observes a large deviation of T-invariance with a statistical significance of 14 standard deviations, far more than needed to declare the result as a discovery. This is the first direct observation of TRV in the time evolution of any system.
Direct observation of time reversal violation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernabéu, J.
2013-06-01
A direct evidence for Time Reversal Violation (TRV) means an experiment that, considered by itself, clearly shows TRV independent of, and unconnected to, the results for CP Violation. No existing result before the recent BABAR experiment with entangled neutral B mesons had demonstrated TRV in this sense. There is a unique opportunity for a search of TRV with unstable particles thanks to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) Entanglement between the two neutral mesons in B, and PHI, Factories. The two quantum effects of the first decay as a filtering measurement and the transfer of information to the still living partner allow performing a genuine TRV asymmetry with the exchange of "in" and "out" states. With four independent TRV asymmetries, BABAR observes a large deviation of T-invariance with a statistical significance of 14 standard deviations, far more than needed to declare the result as a discovery. This is the first direct observation of TRV in the time evolution of any system.
Time reversal violation for entangled neutral mesons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernabéu, J.
2013-07-01
A direct evidence for Time Reversal Violation (TRV) means an experiment that, considered by itself, clearly shows TRV independent of, and unconnected to, the results for CP Violation. No existing result before the recent BABAR experiment with entangled neutral B mesons had demonstrated TRV in this sense. There is a unique opportunity for a search of TRV with unstable particles thanks to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) Entanglement between the two neutral mesons in B, and PHI, Factories. The two quantum effects of the first decay as a filtering measurement and the transfer of information to the still living partner allow performing a genuine TRV asymmetry with the exchange of "in" and "out" states. With four independent TRV asymmetries, BABAR observes a large deviation of T-invariance with a statistical significance of 14 standard deviations, far more than needed to declare the result as a discovery. This is the first direct observation of TRV in the time evolution of any system.
Degraded Time-Frequency Acuity to Time-Reversed Notes
Oppenheim, Jacob N.; Isakov, Pavel; Magnasco, Marcelo O.
2013-01-01
Time-reversal symmetry breaking is a key feature of many classes of natural sounds, originating in the physics of sound production. While attention has been paid to the response of the auditory system to “natural stimuli,” very few psychophysical tests have been performed. We conduct psychophysical measurements of time-frequency acuity for stylized representations of “natural”-like notes (sharp attack, long decay) and the time-reversed versions of these notes (long attack, sharp decay). Our results demonstrate significantly greater precision, arising from enhanced temporal acuity, for such sounds over their time-reversed versions, without a corresponding decrease in frequency acuity. These data inveigh against models of auditory processing that include tradeoffs between temporal and frequency acuity, at least in the range of notes tested and suggest the existence of statistical priors for notes with a sharp-attack and a long-decay. We are additionally able to calculate a minimal theoretical bound on the sophistication of the nonlinearities in auditory processing. We find that among the best studied classes of nonlinear time-frequency representations, only matching pursuit, spectral derivatives, and reassigned spectrograms are able to satisfy this criterion. PMID:23799012
Time reversal for a single spherical scatterer.
Chambers, D H; Gautesen, A K
2001-06-01
We show that the time reversal operator for a planar time reversal mirror (TRM) can have up to four distinct eigenvalues with a small spherical acoustic scatterer. Each eigenstate represents a resonance between the TRM and an induced scattering moment of the sphere. Their amplitude distributions on the TRM are orthogonal superpositions of the radiation patterns from a monopole and up to three orthogonal dipoles. The induced monopole moment is associated with the compressibility contrast between the sphere and the medium, while the dipole moments are associated with density contrast. The number of eigenstates is related to the number of orthogonal orientations of each induced multipole. For hard spheres (glass, metals) the contribution of the monopole moment to the eigenvalues is much greater than that of the dipole moments, leading to a single dominant eigenvalue. The other eigenvalues are much smaller, making it unlikely multiple eigenvalues could have been observed in previous experiments using hard materials. However, for soft materials such as wood, plastic, or air bubbles the eigenvalues are comparable in magnitude and should be observable. The presence of multiple eigenstates breaks the one-to-one correspondence between eigenstates and distinguishable scatterers discussed previously by Prada and Fink [Wave Motion 20, 151-163 (1994)]. However, eigenfunctions from separate scatterers would have different phases for their eigenfunctions, potentially restoring the ability to distinguish separate scatterers. Since relative magnitudes of the eigenvalues for a single scatterer are governed by the ratio of the compressibility contrast to the density contrast, measurement of the eigenvalue spectrum would provide information on the composition of the scatterer.
Breast cancer detection using time reversal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheikh Sajjadieh, Mohammad Hossein
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer among women. Mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have certain limitations in detecting breast cancer, especially during its early stage of development. A number of studies have shown that microwave breast cancer detection has potential to become a successful clinical complement to the conventional X-ray mammography. Microwave breast imaging is performed by illuminating the breast tissues with an electromagnetic waveform and recording its reflections (backscatters) emanating from variations in the normal breast tissues and tumour cells, if present, using an antenna array. These backscatters, referred to as the overall (tumour and clutter) response, are processed to estimate the tumour response, which is applied as input to array imaging algorithms used to estimate the location of the tumour. Due to changes in the breast profile over time, the commonly utilized background subtraction procedures used to estimate the target (tumour) response in array processing are impractical for breast cancer detection. The thesis proposes a new tumour estimation algorithm based on a combination of the data adaptive filter with the envelope detection filter (DAF/EDF), which collectively do not require a training step. After establishing the superiority of the DAF/EDF based approach, the thesis shows that the time reversal (TR) array imaging algorithms outperform their conventional conterparts in detecting and localizing tumour cells in breast tissues at SNRs ranging from 15 to 30dB.
Some Factors Affecting Time Reversal Signal Reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prevorovsky, Z.; Kober, J.
Time reversal (TR) ultrasonic signal processing is now broadly used in a variety of applications, and also in NDE/NDT field. TR processing is used e.g. for S/N ratio enhancement, reciprocal transducer calibration, location, identification, and reconstruction of unknown sources, etc. TR procedure in con-junction with nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy NEWS is also useful for sensitive detection of defects (nonlinearity presence). To enlarge possibilities of acoustic emission (AE) method, we proposed the use of TR signal reconstruction ability for detected AE signals transfer from a structure with AE source onto a similar remote model of the structure (real or numerical), which allows easier source analysis under laboratory conditions. Though the TR signal reconstruction is robust regarding the system variations, some small differences and changes influence space-time TR focus and reconstruction quality. Experiments were performed on metallic parts of both simple and complicated geometry to examine effects of small changes of temperature or configuration (body shape, dimensions, transducers placement, etc.) on TR reconstruction quality. Results of experiments are discussed in this paper. Considering mathematical similarity between TR and Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI), prediction of signal reconstruction quality was possible using only the direct propagation. The results show how some factors like temperature or stress changes may deteriorate the TR reconstruction quality. It is also shown that sometimes the reconstruction quality is not enhanced using longer TR signal (S/N ratio may decrease).
Time reversal violation for entangled neutral mesons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernabeu, J.
2014-07-01
A direct evidence for Time Reversal Violation (TRV) means an experiment that, considered by itself, clearly shows TRV independent of, and unconnected to, the results for CP Violation. No existing result before the recent BABAR experiment with entangled neutral B mesons had demonstrated TRV in this sense. There is a unique solution for the test of TRV with unstable particles thanks to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) Entanglement between the two neutral mesons in B, and φ, Factories. The two quantum effects of the decays as filtering measurements of the meson states and the transfer of information of the first decay to the still living partner allow performing a genuine TRV asymmetry with the exchange of "in" and "out" states. With four independent TRV asymmetries, BABAR observes a large deviation of T-invariance with a statistical significance of 14 standard deviations, far more than needed to declare the result as a discovery. This is the first direct observation of TRV in the time evolution of any system. The perspectives for future additional studies of TRV are discussed.
Time reversal violation for entangled neutral mesons
Bernabeu, J.
2014-07-23
A direct evidence for Time Reversal Violation (TRV) means an experiment that, considered by itself, clearly shows TRV independent of, and unconnected to, the results for CP Violation. No existing result before the recent BABAR experiment with entangled neutral B mesons had demonstrated TRV in this sense. There is a unique solution for the test of TRV with unstable particles thanks to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) Entanglement between the two neutral mesons in B, and φ, Factories. The two quantum effects of the decays as filtering measurements of the meson states and the transfer of information of the first decay to the still living partner allow performing a genuine TRV asymmetry with the exchange of “in” and “out” states. With four independent TRV asymmetries, BABAR observes a large deviation of T-invariance with a statistical significance of 14 standard deviations, far more than needed to declare the result as a discovery. This is the first direct observation of TRV in the time evolution of any system. The perspectives for future additional studies of TRV are discussed.
Time-Reversal of Nonlinear Water Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chabchoub, Amin; Ducrozet, Guillaume; Fink, Mathias
2016-11-01
Time-reversal (TR) refocusing of hydrodynamic nonlinear waves can be discussed within the framework of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS). Indeed, exact solutions of the latter weakly nonlinear evolution equation can be used to study the applicability and limitations of wave refocusing using TR mirrors in hydrodynamics. Recent laboratory experiments confirmed the applicability of TR approach to breathers, known to model extreme and doubly-localized wave configurations. In order to study the range of validity of the TR approach to nonlinear waves, a numerical study using a unidirectional numerical water wave tank, implemented by the higher-order spectral method, reveals new insights to the problem. The validity of the TR approach is assessed over a diversity of NLS configurations, ranging from stationary envelope and breathing solutions, pointing out the importance of higher-order dispersive and particularly nonlinear effects in the refocusing of these hydrodynamic localized structures. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of the approach several applications in other nonlinear dispersive physical media may result in addition to evident usage in the field of ocean engineering.
Three dimensional time reversal optical tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Binlin; Cai, W.; Alrubaiee, M.; Xu, M.; Gayen, S. K.
2011-03-01
Time reversal optical tomography (TROT) approach is used to detect and locate absorptive targets embedded in a highly scattering turbid medium to assess its potential in breast cancer detection. TROT experimental arrangement uses multi-source probing and multi-detector signal acquisition and Multiple-Signal-Classification (MUSIC) algorithm for target location retrieval. Light transport from multiple sources through the intervening medium with embedded targets to the detectors is represented by a response matrix constructed using experimental data. A TR matrix is formed by multiplying the response matrix by its transpose. The eigenvectors with leading non-zero eigenvalues of the TR matrix correspond to embedded objects. The approach was used to: (a) obtain the location and spatial resolution of an absorptive target as a function of its axial position between the source and detector planes; and (b) study variation in spatial resolution of two targets at the same axial position but different lateral positions. The target(s) were glass sphere(s) of diameter ~9 mm filled with ink (absorber) embedded in a 60 mm-thick slab of Intralipid-20% suspension in water with an absorption coefficient μa ~ 0.003 mm-1 and a transport mean free path lt ~ 1 mm at 790 nm, which emulate the average values of those parameters for human breast tissue. The spatial resolution and accuracy of target location depended on axial position, and target contrast relative to the background. Both the targets could be resolved and located even when they were only 4-mm apart. The TROT approach is fast, accurate, and has the potential to be useful in breast cancer detection and localization.
Electromagnetic Time Reversal Imaging: Analysis and Experimentation
2010-04-26
first in last out, energy normalized, and retransmitted into the same propagation medium. This re-transmitted signal will re-trace the original...Reversal SAR," 42nd Asilomar Conference on Signal, Systems and Computers, Pacific Grove, CA, October 26-29, 2008 ( First Prize of Best Student Paper Contest...retransmission, and signal focusing. This seemingly simple operation and processing can achieve temporal and spatial energy focusing. This
Time-reversed wave mixing in nonlinear optics.
Zheng, Yuanlin; Ren, Huaijin; Wan, Wenjie; Chen, Xianfeng
2013-11-19
Time-reversal symmetry is important to optics. Optical processes can run in a forward or backward direction through time when such symmetry is preserved. In linear optics, a time-reversed process of laser emission can enable total absorption of coherent light fields inside an optical cavity of loss by time-reversing the original gain medium. Nonlinearity, however, can often destroy such symmetry in nonlinear optics, making it difficult to study time-reversal symmetry with nonlinear optical wave mixings. Here we demonstrate time-reversed wave mixings for optical second harmonic generation (SHG) and optical parametric amplification (OPA) by exploring this well-known but underappreciated symmetry in nonlinear optics. This allows us to observe the annihilation of coherent beams. Our study offers new avenues for flexible control in nonlinear optics and has potential applications in efficient wavelength conversion, all-optical computing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piroli, Lorenzo; Pozsgay, Balázs; Vernier, Eric
2017-02-01
We consider the computation of the Loschmidt echo after quantum quenches in the interacting XXZ Heisenberg spin chain both for real and imaginary times. We study two-site product initial states, focusing in particular on the Néel and tilted Néel states. We apply the quantum transfer matrix (QTM) approach to derive generalized TBA equations, which follow from the fusion hierarchy of the appropriate QTM’s. Our formulas are valid for arbitrary imaginary time and for real times at least up to a time t 0, after which the integral equations have to be modified. In some regimes, t 0 is seen to be either very large or infinite, allowing to explore in detail the post-quench dynamics of the system. As an important part of our work, we show that for the Néel state our imaginary time results can be recovered by means of the quench action approach, unveiling a direct connection with the quantum transfer matrix formalism. In particular, we show that in the zero-time limit, the study of our TBA equations allows for a simple alternative derivation of the recently obtained Bethe ansatz distribution functions for the Néel, tilted Néel and tilted ferromagnet states.
Method for distinguishing multiple targets using time-reversal acoustics
Berryman, James G.
2004-06-29
A method for distinguishing multiple targets using time-reversal acoustics. Time-reversal acoustics uses an iterative process to determine the optimum signal for locating a strongly reflecting target in a cluttered environment. An acoustic array sends a signal into a medium, and then receives the returned/reflected signal. This returned/reflected signal is then time-reversed and sent back into the medium again, and again, until the signal being sent and received is no longer changing. At that point, the array has isolated the largest eigenvalue/eigenvector combination and has effectively determined the location of a single target in the medium (the one that is most strongly reflecting). After the largest eigenvalue/eigenvector combination has been determined, to determine the location of other targets, instead of sending back the same signals, the method sends back these time reversed signals, but half of them will also be reversed in sign. There are various possibilities for choosing which half to do sign reversal. The most obvious choice is to reverse every other one in a linear array, or as in a checkerboard pattern in 2D. Then, a new send/receive, send-time reversed/receive iteration can proceed. Often, the first iteration in this sequence will be close to the desired signal from a second target. In some cases, orthogonalization procedures must be implemented to assure the returned signals are in fact orthogonal to the first eigenvector found.
Reducing current reversal time in electric motor control
Bredemann, Michael V
2014-11-04
The time required to reverse current flow in an electric motor is reduced by exploiting inductive current that persists in the motor when power is temporarily removed. Energy associated with this inductive current is used to initiate reverse current flow in the motor.
Time-Resolved Emission Spectroscopy of Field Reversed Configuration Thruster
2016-08-31
Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) thrusters are candidates for next generation high -powered electric propulsion (EP) • Advantages over competing...16468 Introduction • Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) thrusters are candidates for next generation high -powered electric propulsion (EP) • Advantages...Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 06 September 2016 - 01 November 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Time-Resolved Emission Spectroscopy of Field
Three-dimensional time reversal communications in elastic media
Anderson, Brian E.; Ulrich, Timothy J.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Ten Cate, James A.
2016-02-23
Our letter presents a series of vibrational communication experiments, using time reversal, conducted on a set of cast iron pipes. Time reversal has been used to provide robust, private, and clean communications in many underwater acoustic applications. Also, the use of time reversal to communicate along sections of pipes and through a wall is demonstrated here in order to overcome the complications of dispersion and multiple scattering. These demonstrations utilize a single source transducer and a single sensor, a triaxial accelerometer, enabling multiple channels of simultaneous communication streams to a single location.
Three-dimensional time reversal communications in elastic media
Anderson, Brian E.; Ulrich, Timothy J.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; ...
2016-02-23
Our letter presents a series of vibrational communication experiments, using time reversal, conducted on a set of cast iron pipes. Time reversal has been used to provide robust, private, and clean communications in many underwater acoustic applications. Also, the use of time reversal to communicate along sections of pipes and through a wall is demonstrated here in order to overcome the complications of dispersion and multiple scattering. These demonstrations utilize a single source transducer and a single sensor, a triaxial accelerometer, enabling multiple channels of simultaneous communication streams to a single location.
Faraday waves under time-reversed excitation.
Pietschmann, Dirk; Stannarius, Ralf; Wagner, Christian; John, Thomas
2013-03-01
Do parametrically driven systems distinguish periodic excitations that are time mirrors of each other? Faraday waves in a Newtonian fluid are studied under excitation with superimposed harmonic wave forms. We demonstrate that the threshold parameters for the stability of the ground state are insensitive to a time inversion of the driving function. This is a peculiarity of some dynamic systems. The Faraday system shares this property with standard electroconvection in nematic liquid crystals [J. Heuer et al., Phys. Rev. E 78, 036218 (2008)]. In general, time inversion of the excitation affects the asymptotic stability of a parametrically driven system, even when it is described by linear ordinary differential equations. Obviously, the observed symmetry has to be attributed to the particular structure of the underlying differential equation system. The pattern selection of the Faraday waves above threshold, on the other hand, discriminates between time-mirrored excitation functions.
Buried-object detection using time-reversed acoustics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pierson, David Michael
The work presented here is a comprehensive study of using time reversal to detect objects located in an inhomogeneous environment using backscattered signals with an emphasis on littoral environments. Time reversal of acoustic signals in the ocean has been studied for more than two decades with the emphasis on the use of the forward scattered field. All studies share similar geometries where both the acoustical source and an adjacent array of transducers are placed in the water column. This configuration, known as a time-reversal mirror (TRM), is not practical when detecting an object that is located in a different environment than the TRM, such as beneath the ocean floor. Little work has been done to study the efficacy of a single transceiver performing the time-reversal operation on the backscattered signals from targets buried beneath the ocean floor. Here, I start by presenting the theory for such a system in both time and frequency domains for scattering by a sphere. Then by using simulations I show that time reversal of backscattered signals provides a robust method to detect targets buried in an acoustically inhomogeneous sediment using a point transceiver in the water column several meters above the sea floor. Effects of the time-reversal window (TRW) on the iterative time-reversal operation are also presented. I define a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that treats the return with the sphere as the signal and the return without the sphere as noise to quantify improvements to the sphere returns. I consider two different sediment models and angle of incidence to show that the TRO operates independently of the sediment type and transceiver orientation. Theoretical analysis reveals that the time-reversal of backscattered signals converges to a subset of waveforms defined by the target and time-reversal window, not the initial pulse. Analysis further reveals that the time-reversal operator detects the sphere after only two iterations of the TRO, with more iterations
Least squares reverse time migration of controlled order multiples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Y.
2016-12-01
Imaging using the reverse time migration of multiples generates inherent crosstalk artifacts due to the interference among different order multiples. Traditionally, least-square fitting has been used to address this issue by seeking the best objective function to measure the amplitude differences between the predicted and observed data. We have developed an alternative objective function by decomposing multiples into different orders to minimize the difference between Born modeling predicted multiples and specific-order multiples from observational data in order to attenuate the crosstalk. This method is denoted as the least-squares reverse time migration of controlled order multiples (LSRTM-CM). Our numerical examples demonstrated that the LSRTM-CM can significantly improve image quality compared with reverse time migration of multiples and least-square reverse time migration of multiples. Acknowledgments This research was funded by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41430321 and 41374138).
Inferring the Presence of Reverse Proxies Through Timing Analysis
2015-06-01
measurement and comparison of three-way handshake and content request/delivery packet round trip times, we identify an accurate classifier that...detects the presence of a reverse proxy server with over 98% accuracy. This is an improvement over other inference methods because all measurements can be...efforts and will be used for further studies and exploration. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Active Measurement , Timing Analysis, Reverse Proxy, Machine Learning
Time Reversal for Ultra-wideband (UWB) Sensor Networking
2007-07-31
allocated by the FCC for UWB communications suggests a bandpass signal. Also, this pulse shape allows multi - band modulation, in which multiple frequency... bands are used to efficiently occupy the UWB spectrum. Multiple UWB signals can be transmitted at the same 16 (a) (b) Figure 2.4 Gaussian pulse : (a) in...ects, an analysis of the virtual array, single-user and multi -user time reversal UWB -MIMO system performance, and a comparison with time reversal UWB
Simulations of Time Reversing Arrays in Shallow Ocean Waters
2016-06-07
34Time-reversing array retrofocusing in noisy environments," submitted to J. Acoust. Soc. Am, August 1999. PATENTS Dowling, D.R., and Yonak S.H...34Multiple microphone photoacoustic leak detection and localization system and method," filed October 1998, now pending. [Although this patent was not...directly supported by ONR, the essential idea in this patent is acoustic time reversal.
Simulation of Time-Reversal Processing for Electromagnetic Communication
Burke, G J; Poggio, A J
2003-07-25
Time-reversal processing was simulated for several possible electromagnetic communication channels, including random point scatterers, large plates and a conducting cavity. Communication was from a single transmitting antenna to a receiving array. The effectiveness of time-reversal processing was compared for a single receiver and the array. The aim of these simulations was to determine a communication environment that would give an interesting level of multipath interference and that can be constructed in a laboratory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajak, Atanu; Divakaran, Uma
2016-04-01
We study the effect of two simultaneous local quenches on the evolution of the Loschmidt echo (LE) and entanglement entropy (EE) of a one dimensional transverse Ising model. In this work, one of the local quenches involves the connection of two spin-1/2 chains at a certain time and the other corresponds to a sudden change in the magnitude of the transverse field at a given site in one of the spin chains. We numerically calculate the dynamics associated with the LE and the EE as a result of such double quenches, and discuss the various timescales involved in this problem using the picture of quasiparticles (QPs) generated as a result of such quenches. We perform a detailed analysis of the probability of QPs produced at the two sites and the nature of the QPs in various phases, and obtain interesting results. More specifically, we find partial reflection of these QPs at the defect center or the site of h-quench, resulting in new timescales which have never been reported before.
All-linear time reversal by a dynamic artificial crystal
Chumak, Andrii V.; Tiberkevich, Vasil S.; Karenowska, Alexy D.; Serga, Alexander A.; Gregg, John F.; Slavin, Andrei N.; Hillebrands, Burkard
2010-01-01
The time reversal of pulsed signals or propagating wave packets has long been recognized to have profound scientific and technological significance. Until now, all experimentally verified time-reversal mechanisms have been reliant upon nonlinear phenomena such as four-wave mixing. In this paper, we report the experimental realization of all-linear time reversal. The time-reversal mechanism we propose is based on the dynamic control of an artificial crystal structure, and is demonstrated in a spin-wave system using a dynamic magnonic crystal. The crystal is switched from an homogeneous state to one in which its properties vary with spatial period a, while a propagating wave packet is inside. As a result, a linear coupling between wave components with wave vectors k≈π/a and k′=k−2ππ/a≈−π/a is produced, which leads to spectral inversion, and thus to the formation of a time-reversed wave packet. The reversal mechanism is entirely general and so applicable to artificial crystal systems of any physical nature. PMID:21266991
Ultrafast Reverse Recovery Time Measurement for Wide-Bandgap Diodes
Mauch, Daniel L.; Zutavern, Fred J.; Delhotal, Jarod J.; ...
2017-03-01
A system is presented that is capable of measuring sub-nanosecond reverse recovery times of diodes in wide-bandgap materials over a wide range of forward biases (0 – 1 A) and reverse voltages (0 – 10 kV). The system utilizes the step recovery technique and comprises a cable pulser based on a silicon (Si) Photoconductive Semiconductor Switch (PCSS) triggered with an Ultra Short Pulse Laser (USPL), a pulse charging circuit, a diode biasing circuit, and resistive and capacitive voltage monitors. The PCSS based cable pulser transmits a 130 ps rise time pulse down a transmission line to a capacitively coupled diode,more » which acts as the terminating element of the transmission line. The temporal nature of the pulse reflected by the diode provides the reverse recovery characteristics of the diode, measured with a high bandwidth capacitive probe integrated into the cable pulser. Furthermore, this system was used to measure the reverse recovery times (including the creation and charging of the depletion region) for two Avogy gallium nitride (GaN) diodes; the initial reverse recovery time was found to be 4 ns and varied minimally over reverse biases of 50 – 100 V and forward current of 1 – 100 mA.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prada, Claire; Fink, Mathias
2005-09-01
Acoustic time reversal mirrors have been developed in the Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique for several years. In inhomogeneous media and especially in the presence of multiple scattering, these systems provide outstanding focusing properties. While used in pulse echo mode, the time reversal process can be iterated, leading to selective focusing on the most reflective point among a set of scatterers. This iteration is also used to enhance the echo from a defect like a kidney stone or a microcalcification in the breast. The iterative time reversal process is described by a matrix call the Time Reversal Operator (TRO). The eigenvectors of this matrix provide the invariants of the iterative time reversal process, their analysis is the base of the D.O.R.T. method. It allows the separation of the echoes from several scatterers in an inhomogeneous medium and the selective focusing on any of them. Furthermore, when an estimate of the medium's Green function is available, high-resolution and low-noise images can be achieved using the backpropagation of the dominant eigenvectors. The principle of acoustic time reversal mirrors and the D.O.R.T. method will be described through several examples.
Photonic topological insulator with broken time-reversal symmetry.
He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yulin; Feng, Liang; Chen, Yan-Feng
2016-05-03
A topological insulator is a material with an insulating interior but time-reversal symmetry-protected conducting edge states. Since its prediction and discovery almost a decade ago, such a symmetry-protected topological phase has been explored beyond electronic systems in the realm of photonics. Electrons are spin-1/2 particles, whereas photons are spin-1 particles. The distinct spin difference between these two kinds of particles means that their corresponding symmetry is fundamentally different. It is well understood that an electronic topological insulator is protected by the electron's spin-1/2 (fermionic) time-reversal symmetry [Formula: see text] However, the same protection does not exist under normal circumstances for a photonic topological insulator, due to photon's spin-1 (bosonic) time-reversal symmetry [Formula: see text] In this work, we report a design of photonic topological insulator using the Tellegen magnetoelectric coupling as the photonic pseudospin orbit interaction for left and right circularly polarized helical spin states. The Tellegen magnetoelectric coupling breaks bosonic time-reversal symmetry but instead gives rise to a conserved artificial fermionic-like-pseudo time-reversal symmetry, Tp ([Formula: see text]), due to the electromagnetic duality. Surprisingly, we find that, in this system, the helical edge states are, in fact, protected by this fermionic-like pseudo time-reversal symmetry Tp rather than by the bosonic time-reversal symmetry Tb This remarkable finding is expected to pave a new path to understanding the symmetry protection mechanism for topological phases of other fundamental particles and to searching for novel implementations for topological insulators.
Photonic topological insulator with broken time-reversal symmetry
He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yulin; Feng, Liang; Chen, Yan-Feng
2016-01-01
A topological insulator is a material with an insulating interior but time-reversal symmetry-protected conducting edge states. Since its prediction and discovery almost a decade ago, such a symmetry-protected topological phase has been explored beyond electronic systems in the realm of photonics. Electrons are spin-1/2 particles, whereas photons are spin-1 particles. The distinct spin difference between these two kinds of particles means that their corresponding symmetry is fundamentally different. It is well understood that an electronic topological insulator is protected by the electron’s spin-1/2 (fermionic) time-reversal symmetry Tf2=−1. However, the same protection does not exist under normal circumstances for a photonic topological insulator, due to photon’s spin-1 (bosonic) time-reversal symmetry Tb2=1. In this work, we report a design of photonic topological insulator using the Tellegen magnetoelectric coupling as the photonic pseudospin orbit interaction for left and right circularly polarized helical spin states. The Tellegen magnetoelectric coupling breaks bosonic time-reversal symmetry but instead gives rise to a conserved artificial fermionic-like-pseudo time-reversal symmetry, Tp (Tp2=−1), due to the electromagnetic duality. Surprisingly, we find that, in this system, the helical edge states are, in fact, protected by this fermionic-like pseudo time-reversal symmetry Tp rather than by the bosonic time-reversal symmetry Tb. This remarkable finding is expected to pave a new path to understanding the symmetry protection mechanism for topological phases of other fundamental particles and to searching for novel implementations for topological insulators. PMID:27092005
Sound focusing in rooms: the time-reversal approach.
Yon, Sylvain; Tanter, Mickael; Fink, Mathias
2003-03-01
New perspectives in audible range acoustics, such as virtual sound space creation and active noise control, rely on the ability of the rendering system to recreate precisely a desired sound field. This ability to control sound in a given volume of a room is directly linked to the capacity to focus acoustical energy both in space and time. However, sound focusing in rooms remains a complicated problem, essentially because of the multiple reflections on obstacles and walls occurring during propagation. In this paper, the technique of time-reversal focusing, well known in ultrasound, is experimentally applied to audible range acoustics. Compared to classical focusing techniques such as delay law focusing, time reversal appears to considerably improve quality of both temporal and spatial focusing. This so-called super-resolution phenomenon is due to the ability of time reversal to take into account all of the different sound paths between the emitting antenna and the focal point, thus creating an adaptive spatial and temporal matched filter for the considered propagation medium. Experiments emphasize the strong robustness of time-reversal focusing towards small modifications in the medium, such as people in motion or temperature variations. Sound focusing through walls using the time-reversal approach is also experimentally demonstrated.
Target Characterization Using Time-Reversal Symmetry of Wave Propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chambers, D. H.
Over the last 15 years, there has been rapid growth in applications of time-reversal symmetry of wave propagation to enhance communications and imaging through highly scattering media. These techniques exploit both temporal and spatial reciprocity to mitigate signal distortion created from the large number of independent propagation paths between a transmitter and receiver. The time-reversal process is often described by the time-reversal operator (TRO), or equivalently by the multistatic response matrix (MRM), defined by the transmit and receive system. A singular value decomposition of this operator (or MRM) is the starting point for many of the time-reversal imaging techniques. In addition to imaging, this decomposition can also be used to extract information about objects embedded within the propagation medium, i.e., target characterization. In this paper, we review the development of target characterization in time-reversal, with an emphasis on extracting information from small targets. We will analyze the MRM for both acoustic and electromagnetic scattering and show how the symmetry of the target is reflected in the properties of the singular value spectrum. Finally, we discuss several open problems and potential applications.
Quantum Transport Enhancement by Time-Reversal Symmetry Breaking
Zimborás, Zoltán; Faccin, Mauro; Kádár, Zoltán; Whitfield, James D.; Lanyon, Ben P.; Biamonte, Jacob
2013-01-01
Quantum mechanics still provides new unexpected effects when considering the transport of energy and information. Models of continuous time quantum walks, which implicitly use time-reversal symmetric Hamiltonians, have been intensely used to investigate the effectiveness of transport. Here we show how breaking time-reversal symmetry of the unitary dynamics in this model can enable directional control, enhancement, and suppression of quantum transport. Examples ranging from exciton transport to complex networks are presented. This opens new prospects for more efficient methods to transport energy and information. PMID:23917452
Quantum transport enhancement by time-reversal symmetry breaking.
Zimborás, Zoltán; Faccin, Mauro; Kádár, Zoltán; Whitfield, James D; Lanyon, Ben P; Biamonte, Jacob
2013-01-01
Quantum mechanics still provides new unexpected effects when considering the transport of energy and information. Models of continuous time quantum walks, which implicitly use time-reversal symmetric Hamiltonians, have been intensely used to investigate the effectiveness of transport. Here we show how breaking time-reversal symmetry of the unitary dynamics in this model can enable directional control, enhancement, and suppression of quantum transport. Examples ranging from exciton transport to complex networks are presented. This opens new prospects for more efficient methods to transport energy and information.
Time Reversal location of non-volcanic tremor in California.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larmat, C. S.; Johnson, P. A.
2008-12-01
Gomberg et al. (2008) recently reported the observation of tremor along the San Andreas transform plate boundary triggered by the surface waves from the 2002 Denali earthquake. This observation implies that the conditions needed for tremor generation are not unique to subduction zones where most tremor observations were previously made (Obara, 2002; Rogers&Dragert, 2003). Insight into the physical process of origin will certainly be provided by accurate location of tremor sources, especially their relative position to the transform fault in the case of California. Locating tremor is difficult because tremor signals are long lived and have few distinctive timing features. For such signals Time Reversal has several advantages; (1) it relies on no a priori assumption of the form of the source and (2) it employs the entire waveform of the received signal using the complete Green function for back-propagation. In this study, we propose to locate the tremor source near the San Jacinto fault in Southern California that was identified by Gomberg et al. (2008) using broad-band and high-broad-band data from local stations. An initial exploratory (purely numerical) study is necessary as the tremor case has important features not encountered in previous Time Reversal studies. The tremor source is not of impulsive nature which increases the complexity of the coda and of the noise generated by mode conversion in the Time Reversal process. The success of Time Reversal relies on a large number of receivers and/or significant wave scattering. Because the receivers are confined to the surface, the receiver aperture is limited. In addition, scattering is limited due to the smoothness of the numerical model and the presence of absorbing boundary conditions. Finally, the velocity model contains low velocity zones which trap seismic energy. This hampers our focus detection capability which relies on monitoring the amplitude of the reverse wavefield. Following this study Time Reversal
Time reversal symmetry violation in the YbF molecule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sauer, B. E.; Devlin, J. A.; Hudson, J. J.; Kara, D. M.; Smallman, I. J.; Tarbutt, M. R.; Hinds, E. A.
2013-03-01
We present a summary of the techniques used to test time reversal symmetry by measuring the permanent electric dipole moment of the YbF molecule. The results of a recent measurement (Hudson et al., Nature 473:493, 2011) are reported. We review some systematic effects which might mimic time reversal violation and describe how they are overcome. We then discuss improvements to the sensitivity of the apparatus, including both short term technical enhancements as well as a longer term goal to use laser cooled YbF in the experiment.
Time reversal of light with linear optics and modulators.
Yanik, Mehmet Fatih; Fan, Shanhui
2004-10-22
We introduce a new physical process that can perform a complete time-reversal operation on any electromagnetic pulse. The process uses only small refractive index modulations of linear optical elements. No nonlinear multiphoton effects such as four-wave mixing are required. The introduced process can be implemented on chip with standard semiconductor materials. Furthermore, the same process can be used to compress or expand the spectrum of electromagnetic waves while completely preserving the coherent information. We exhibit the time-reversal process by first-principles simulations of microcavity complexes in photonic crystals.
Time-reversal of nonlinear waves: Applicability and limitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ducrozet, G.; Fink, M.; Chabchoub, A.
2016-09-01
Time-reversal (TR) refocusing of waves is one of the fundamental principles in wave physics. Using the TR approach, time-reversal mirrors can physically create a time-reversed wave that exactly refocus back, in space and time, to its original source regardless of the complexity of the medium as if time were going backward. Laboratory experiments have proved that this approach can be applied not only in acoustics and electromagnetism, but also in the field of linear and nonlinear water waves. Studying the range of validity and limitations of the TR approach may determine and quantify its range of applicability in hydrodynamics. In this context, we report a numerical study of hydrodynamic time-reversal using a unidirectional numerical wave tank, implemented by the nonlinear high-order spectral method, known to accurately model the physical processes at play, beyond physical laboratory restrictions. The applicability of the TR approach is assessed over a variety of hydrodynamic localized and pulsating structures' configurations, pointing out the importance of high-order dispersive and particularly nonlinear effects in the refocusing of hydrodynamic stationary envelope solitons and breathers. We expect that the results may motivate similar experiments in other nonlinear dispersive media and encourage several applications with particular emphasis on the field of ocean engineering.
Linear and Nonlinear Time Reverse Acoustics in Geomaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutin, A.; Johnson, P. A.; Tencate, J.
2004-12-01
Linear and Nonlinear Time Reverse Acoustics in Geomaterials P. A. Johnson, A.Sutin and J. TenCate Time Reversal Acoustics (TRA) is one of the most interesting topics to have emerged in modern acoustics in the last 40 years. Much of the seminal research in this area has been carried out by the group at the Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique at the University of Paris 7, who have demonstrated the ability and robustness of TRA (using Time Reversal Mirrors) to provide spatial control and focusing of an ultrasonic beam (e.g. Fink, 1999). The ability to obtain highly focused signals with TRA has numerous applications, including lithotripsy, ultrasonic brain surgery, nondestructive evaluation and underwater acoustic communication. Notably, the study of time reversal in solids and in the earth is still relatively new. The problem is fundamentally different from the purely acoustic one due to the excitation and propagation of both compressional (bulk) and shear waves as well as the scattering and potentially high dissipation of the medium. We conducted series of TRA experiments in different solids using direct-coupled transducers on solids in tandem with a large bandwidth laser vibrometer detector. A typical time reversal experiment was carried out using the following steps (Sutin et al. 2004a). Laboratory experiments were conducted in different geomaterials of different shapes and sizes, including Carrera marble, granite and Berea sandstone. We observed that, in spite of potentially huge numbers of wave conversions (e.g., compressional to shear, shear to compressional, compressional/shear to surface waves, etc.) for each reflection at each free surface, time reversal still provides significant spatial and temporal focusing in these different geophysical materials. The typical size of the focal area is approximately equivalent to the shear wavelength and the focal area, but becomes larger with increasing wave attenuation (Sutin et al. 2004a; Delsanto et al., 2003)). The TR
Wavefield separation and polarity reversal correction in elastic reverse time migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhiyuan; Ma, Xiaona; Fu, Chao; Liang, Guanghe
2016-04-01
In elastic reverse time migration (RTM), one of the problems that are often encountered is the cross-talk between P- and S-wavefields. A useful processing technique to reduce the cross-talk is separating the P- and S-wavefields by using divergence and curl operators before applying an elastic imaging condition. However, the separated wavefields lose their physical meaning because their phase and amplitude are changed. In this paper, we modify the divergence and curl operators to give the separated wavefields a clear physical meaning: the separated wavefield is the first derivative of the input wavefield with respect to time. Another problem often encountered is polarity reversals in PS and SP images, which can cause destructive interference in the final stacked image and thus destroy the migrated events. In this paper we also develop a procedure for polarity reversal correction based on the polarization vectors of the P- and S-wavefields in the common-shot domain. The correction factor is first calculated at every imaging point during the wavefield reconstruction and is then multiplied by the PS and SP images at each time step when an elastic imaging condition is applied. Numerical examples with synthetic data have shown that the modified wavefield separation method is correct, and the procedure of polarity reversal correction is effective for a complex model.
Mirror reading can reverse the flow of time.
Casasanto, Daniel; Bottini, Roberto
2014-04-01
How does culture shape our concepts? Across many cultures, people conceptualize time as if it flows along a horizontal timeline, but the direction of this implicit timeline is culture specific: Later times are on the right in some cultures but on the left in others. Here we investigated whether experience reading can determine the direction and orientation of the mental timeline, independent of other cultural and linguistic factors. Dutch speakers performed space-time congruity tasks with the instructions and stimuli written in either standard, mirror-reversed, or rotated orthography. When participants judged temporal phrases written in standard orthography, their reaction times were consistent with a rightward-directed mental timeline, but after brief exposure to mirror-reversed orthography, their mental timelines were reversed. When standard orthography was rotated 90° clockwise (downward) or counterclockwise (upward), participants' mental timelines were rotated, accordingly. Reading can play a causal role in shaping people's implicit time representations. Exposure to a new orthography can change the direction and orientation of the mental timeline within minutes, even when the new space-time mapping directly contradicts the reader's usual mapping. To account for this representational flexibility, we propose the hierarchical mental metaphors theory, according to which culturally conditioned mappings between space and time are specific instances of a more general mapping, which is conditioned by the relationship between space and time in the physical world. Conceptualizations of time are culture specific at one level of analysis but may be universal at another.
Time reversal and charge echo in an electron gas.
Creswick, Richard J
2004-09-03
Apart from subtle violations of CP symmetry by the weak interactions, the basic laws of physics are time-reversal invariant. Nevertheless, in the macroscopic world, time has a very definite direction, or arrow. Given that the dynamics of a closed system are time-reversal invariant, the arrow of time is introduced through boundary or initial conditions. In this Letter it is argued that if the Hamiltonian for a system, H, has the property THT(-1)=-H for a unitary transformation T, then the system can, in principle, be made to evolve backward in time. The prototype of this sort of behavior is the spin echo. Calculations for a single-band tight-binding model suggest that it may be possible to observe the electronic counterpart, or charge echo.
Validity of Time Reversal forTesting Granger Causality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winkler, Irene; Panknin, Danny; Bartz, Daniel; Muller, Klaus-Robert; Haufe, Stefan
2016-06-01
Inferring causal interactions from observed data is a challenging problem, especially in the presence of measurement noise. To alleviate the problem of spurious causality, Haufe et al. (2013) proposed to contrast measures of information flow obtained on the original data against the same measures obtained on time-reversed data. They show that this procedure, time-reversed Granger causality (TRGC), robustly rejects causal interpretations on mixtures of independent signals. While promising results have been achieved in simulations, it was so far unknown whether time reversal leads to valid measures of information flow in the presence of true interaction. Here we prove that, for linear finite-order autoregressive processes with unidirectional information flow, the application of time reversal for testing Granger causality indeed leads to correct estimates of information flow and its directionality. Using simulations, we further show that TRGC is able to infer correct directionality with similar statistical power as the net Granger causality between two variables, while being much more robust to the presence of measurement noise.
Time reversal invariance violation in neutron-deuteron scattering
Song, Young-Ho; Gudkov, Vladimir; Lazauskas, Rimantas
2011-06-15
Time reversal invariance-violating (TRIV) effects in low-energy elastic neutron-deuteron scattering are calculated using meson exchange and EFT-type TRIV potentials in a distorted-wave Born approximation with realistic hadronic strong interaction wave functions, obtained by solving the three-body Faddeev equations in configuration space. The relation between TRIV and parity-violating observables is discussed.
NDE of composite structures using microwave time reversal imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Saptarshi; Tamburrino, Antonello; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish
2016-02-01
Composite materials are being increasingly used to replace metals, partially or completely, in aerospace, shipping and automotive industries because of their light weight, corrosion resistance, and mechanical strength. Integrity of these materials may be compromised during manufacturing or due to impact damage during usage, resulting in defects such as porosity, delamination, cracks and disbonds. Microwave NDE techniques have the ability to propagate through composite materials, without suffering much attenuation. The scattered fields depend on the dielectric properties of the medium, and hence provide information about the structural integrity of these materials. Time Reversal focusing is based on the fact that when a wave solution is reversed in time and back propagated it refocuses back at the source. This paper presents a model based parametric study of time reversal principles with microwave data in composite materials. A two dimensional FDTD model is developed to implement the forward and time reversed electromagnetic wave propagation in a test geometry comprising metal-composite structures. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach to detect and characterize different defects.
Acoustic imaging with time reversal methods: From medicine to NDT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fink, Mathias
2015-03-01
This talk will present an overview of the research conducted on ultrasonic time-reversal methods applied to biomedical imaging and to non-destructive testing. We will first describe iterative time-reversal techniques that allow both focusing ultrasonic waves on reflectors in tissues (kidney stones, micro-calcifications, contrast agents) or on flaws in solid materials. We will also show that time-reversal focusing does not need the presence of bright reflectors but it can be achieved only from the speckle noise generated by random distributions of non-resolved scatterers. We will describe the applications of this concept to correct distortions and aberrations in ultrasonic imaging and in NDT. In the second part of the talk we will describe the concept of time-reversal processors to get ultrafast ultrasonic images with typical frame rates of order of 10.000 F/s. It is the field of ultrafast ultrasonic imaging that has plenty medical applications and can be of great interest in NDT. We will describe some applications in the biomedical domain: Quantitative Elasticity imaging of tissues by following shear wave propagation to improve cancer detection and Ultrafast Doppler imaging that allows ultrasonic functional imaging.
From the time-reversal mirror to the instantaneous time mirror
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fink, Mathias; Fort, Emmanuel
2017-05-01
Because time and space play a similar role in wave propagation, wave control can be obtained by manipulating spatial boundaries or by manipulating time boundaries. These two dual approaches will be discussed in this paper in the context of the generation of time-reversed waves. The first approach uses the "time-reversal mirror" approach with wave manipulation along a spatial boundary sampled by a finite number of antennas. In the second approach, waves are manipulated from a time boundary and we show that "instantaneous time mirrors", simultaneously acting in the entire space can also radiate time-reversed waves.
Wave-Based Turing Machine: Time Reversal and Information Erasing.
Perrard, S; Fort, E; Couder, Y
2016-08-26
The investigation of dynamical systems has revealed a deep-rooted difference between waves and objects regarding temporal reversibility and particlelike objects. In nondissipative chaos, the dynamic of waves always remains time reversible, unlike that of particles. Here, we explore the dynamics of a wave-particle entity. It consists in a drop bouncing on a vibrated liquid bath, self-propelled and piloted by the surface waves it generates. This walker, in which there is an information exchange between the particle and the wave, can be analyzed in terms of a Turing machine with waves as the information repository. The experiments reveal that in this system, the drop can read information backwards while erasing it. The drop can thus backtrack on its previous trajectory. A transient temporal reversibility, restricted to the drop motion, is obtained in spite of the system being both dissipative and chaotic.
Wave-Based Turing Machine: Time Reversal and Information Erasing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perrard, S.; Fort, E.; Couder, Y.
2016-08-01
The investigation of dynamical systems has revealed a deep-rooted difference between waves and objects regarding temporal reversibility and particlelike objects. In nondissipative chaos, the dynamic of waves always remains time reversible, unlike that of particles. Here, we explore the dynamics of a wave-particle entity. It consists in a drop bouncing on a vibrated liquid bath, self-propelled and piloted by the surface waves it generates. This walker, in which there is an information exchange between the particle and the wave, can be analyzed in terms of a Turing machine with waves as the information repository. The experiments reveal that in this system, the drop can read information backwards while erasing it. The drop can thus backtrack on its previous trajectory. A transient temporal reversibility, restricted to the drop motion, is obtained in spite of the system being both dissipative and chaotic.
Magnetospheric response and reconfiguration times following IMF By reversals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tenfjord, P.; Østgaard, N.; Strangeway, R.; Haaland, S.; Snekvik, K.; Laundal, K. M.; Reistad, J. P.; Milan, S. E.
2017-01-01
The interaction between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and the geomagnetic field at the dayside magnetopause leads to transfer of momentum and energy which changes the magnetospheric configuration, but only after a certain time. In this study we quantify this time, to advance our understanding of the causes for the delayed response of the magnetosphere. We study the response and reconfiguration time of the inner magnetosphere to IMF By reversals. A superposed epoch analysis of magnetic field measurements from four Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite spacecraft at different local times both for negative to positive IMF By reversals and for positive to negative reversals is presented. The magnetospheric response time at geosynchronous orbit to the sudden change of IMF By is less than 15 (˜10) min from the bow shock (magnetopause) arrival time, while the reconfiguration time is less than 46 (˜41) min. These results are consistent with a By component induced on closed magnetic field lines due to the asymmetric loading of flux following asymmetric dayside reconnection when IMF By≠0. Our results also confirm our earlier studies that nightside reconnection is not required for generating a By component on closed field lines.
Time reversal and the spatio-temporal matched filter
Lehman, S K; Poggio, A J; Kallman, J S; Meyer, A W; Candy, J V
2004-03-08
It is known that focusing of an acoustic field by a time-reversal mirror (TRM) is equivalent to a spatio-temporal matched filter under conditions where the Green's function of the field satisfies reciprocity and is time invariant, i.e. the Green's function is independent of the choice of time origin. In this letter, it is shown that both reciprocity and time invariance can be replaced by a more general constraint on the Green's function that allows a TRM to implement the spatio-temporal matched filter even when conditions are time varying.
Pressure sensitivity kernels applied to time-reversal acoustics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raghukumar, Kaustubha
Time-reversal is a method of focusing sound in the ocean that has found a variety of applications in recent years, ranging from underwater communications to biological stone destruction. In order to produce a focal spot, the time-reversal process first needs to acquire the Green's function between source and receiver. This Green's function is time-reversed and retransmitted in order to produce a spatio-temporal focal spot at the original source location. If the medium properties in between the source and receiver change between the acquisition of the Green's function and the subsequent retransmission, the quality of the focal spot can degrade or even disappear. However, the time-reversal focal spot has been found to be surprisingly robust to changes in medium properties, which are chiefly sound speed fluctuations in underwater acoustics. At 445 Hz, the focal spot was seen to persist for a week, while at 3.5 kHz, the focal spot persists for about an hour. Sensitivity kernels have the ability to linearly map sound speed perturbations to a perturbation of an acoustic parameter such as travel-time or pressure. Sensitivity kernels have a Fresnel-like interference pattern with regions of positive and negative sensitivities in the medium. Time-reversal, which causes different arrival paths to arrive at the same time, results in overlapping sensitivity kernels that leads to a net reduction in pressure sensitivity at the focal spot. Upon expressing the pressure at the focal spot in terms of sensitivity kernels, source transmissions are derived that are even more robust than time-reversal. The theory developed using pressure sensitivity kernels is tested on experimental data, along with an internal wave model, using various metrics. The linear limitations of the kernels are explored in the context of time-evolving Green's functions. The optimized source functions are then tested using experimental Green's functions and their behavior is seen to be in the right sense. Finally
Quantum state transfer through time reversal of an optical channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hush, M. R.; Bentley, C. D. B.; Ahlefeldt, R. L.; James, M. R.; Sellars, M. J.; Ugrinovskii, V.
2016-12-01
Rare-earth ions have exceptionally long coherence times, making them an excellent candidate for quantum information processing. A key part of this processing is quantum state transfer. We show that perfect state transfer can be achieved by time reversing the intermediate quantum channel, and suggest using a gradient echo memory (GEM) to perform this time reversal. We propose an experiment with rare-earth ions to verify these predictions, where an emitter and receiver crystal are connected with an optical channel passed through a GEM. We investigate the effect experimental imperfections and collective dynamics have on the state transfer process. We demonstrate that super-radiant effects can enhance coupling into the optical channel and improve the transfer fidelity. We lastly discuss how our results apply to state transfer of entangled states.
Reversible and Irreversible Time-Dependent Behavior of GRCop-84
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, Bradley A.; Arnold, Steven M.; Ellis, David L.
2017-01-01
A series of mechanical tests were conducted on a high-conductivity copper alloy, GRCop-84, in order to understand the time dependent response of this material. Tensile, creep, and stress relaxation tests were performed over a wide range of temperatures, strain rates, and stress levels to excite various amounts of time-dependent behavior. At low applied stresses the deformation behavior was found to be fully reversible. Above a certain stress, termed the viscoelastic threshold, irreversible deformation was observed. At these higher stresses the deformation was observed to be viscoplastic. Both reversible and irreversible regions contained time dependent deformation. These experimental data are documented to enable characterization of constitutive models to aid in design of high temperature components.
The double slit experiment and the time reversed fire alarm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halabi, Tarek
2011-03-01
When both slits of the double slit experiment are open, closing one paradoxically increases the detection rate at some points on the detection screen. Feynman famously warned that temptation to "understand" such a puzzling feature only draws us into blind alleys. Nevertheless, we gain insight into this feature by drawing an analogy between the double slit experiment and a time reversed fire alarm. Much as closing the slit increases probability of a future detection, ruling out fire drill scenarios, having heard the fire alarm, increases probability of a past fire (using Bayesian inference). Classically, Bayesian inference is associated with computing probabilities of past events. We therefore identify this feature of the double slit experiment with a time reversed thermodynamic arrow. We believe that much of the enigma of quantum mechanics is simply due to some variation of time's arrow.
Time-reversal MUSIC imaging of extended targets.
Marengo, Edwin A; Gruber, Fred K; Simonetti, Francesco
2007-08-01
This paper develops, within a general framework that is applicable to rather arbitrary electromagnetic and acoustic remote sensing systems, a theory of time-reversal "MUltiple Signal Classification" (MUSIC)-based imaging of extended (nonpoint-like) scatterers (targets). The general analysis applies to arbitrary remote sensing geometry and sheds light onto how the singular system of the scattering matrix relates to the geometrical and propagation characteristics of the entire transmitter-target-receiver system and how to use this effect for imaging. All the developments are derived within exact scattering theory which includes multiple scattering effects. The derived time-reversal MUSIC methods include both interior sampling, as well as exterior sampling (or enclosure) approaches. For presentation simplicity, particular attention is given to the time-harmonic case where the informational wave modes employed for target interrogation are purely spatial, but the corresponding generalization to broadband fields is also given. This paper includes computer simulations illustrating the derived theory and algorithms.
Broadband performance of a moving time reversing array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabra, Karim G.; Dowling, David R.
2003-09-01
Acoustic time reversal exploits reciprocity between sources and receivers to generate backward propagating waves that automatically focus at their point of origin. In underwater acoustics, an array of transducers that can both transmit and receive, referred to as a time reversing array (TRA) or time reversal mirror (TRM), generates the back-propagating waves. Such arrays have been shown to spatially and temporally focus sound in unknown complicated multipath environments, and are therefore of interest for active sonar and underwater communication applications. Although stationary vertical linear TRAs have been favored in prior studies, practical applications of acoustic time reversal in underwater environments are likely to involve towed, tilted, horizontal, or bottom-mounted arrays. In particular, array motion introduces Doppler effects and eliminates source-receiver reciprocity, two factors that potentially impact the automatic focusing capability of TRAs. This paper presents the results from a theoretical and computational investigation into how array motion and orientation influence TRA retrofocusing in the shallow ocean. Here, the TRA tow speed is assumed constant, and the array is assumed to be straight and linear (vertical, horizontal, or tilted). And, for simplicity, the TRA is assumed to respond to a stationary point source emitting a broadband pulse. When a TRA moves, the retrofocus is predicted to shift in the direction of array motion due to the translation of the array between its reception and broadcast times. In addition, the performance of a towed horizontal TRA is predicted to degrade more rapidly with towing speed than that of an equivalent (but clearly idealized) towed vertical array because of range-dependent Doppler phase differences that do not influence the vertical array. However, short tilted arrays may approach vertical array performance and appear to be a potentially versatile compromise for implementing TRA concepts in active sonar or
A digital matched filter for reverse time chaos
Bailey, J. Phillip Beal, Aubrey N.; Dean, Robert N.; Hamilton, Michael C.
2016-07-15
The use of reverse time chaos allows the realization of hardware chaotic systems that can operate at speeds equivalent to existing state of the art while requiring significantly less complex circuitry. Matched filter decoding is possible for the reverse time system since it exhibits a closed form solution formed partially by a linear basis pulse. Coefficients have been calculated and are used to realize the matched filter digitally as a finite impulse response filter. Numerical simulations confirm that this correctly implements a matched filter that can be used for detection of the chaotic signal. In addition, the direct form of the filter has been implemented in hardware description language and demonstrates performance in agreement with numerical results.
Parity and Time-Reversal Violation in Atomic Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, B. M.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.
2015-10-01
Studying the violation of parity and time-reversal invariance in atomic systems has proven to be a very effective means of testing the electroweak theory at low energy and searching for physics beyond it. Recent developments in both atomic theory and experimental methods have led to the ability to make extremely precise theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of these effects. Such studies are complementary to direct high-energy searches, and can be performed for only a fraction of the cost. We review the recent progress in the field of parity and time-reversal violation in atoms, molecules, and nuclei, and examine the implications for physics beyond the Standard Model, with an emphasis on possible areas for development in the near future.
Test of Time-Reversal Invariance at COSY (TRIC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eversheim, D.; Valdau, Yu.; Lorentz, B.
2016-02-01
At the Cooler Synchrotron COSY a novel (P-even, T-odd) null test of time-reversal invariance to an accuracy of 10-6 is planned as an internal target transmission experiment. The parity conserving time-reversal violating observable is the total cross-section asymmetry Ay,xz. This quantity is measured using a polarized proton beam with an energy of 135 MeV and an internal tensor polarized deuteron target from the PAX atomic beam source. The reaction rate will be determined by the lifetime of the beam. Consequently, the accuracy of the current measurement of the circulating proton beam is crucial for this experiment. Thus, the cooler synchroton ring serves as an ideal forward spectrometer, as a detector, and an accelerator.
Test of time-reversal invariance at COSY (TRIC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eversheim, D.; Valdau, Yu.; Lorentz, B.
2013-03-01
At the Cooler Synchrotron COSY a novel (P-even, T-odd) null test of time-reversal invariance to an accuracy of 10 - 6 is planned as an internal target transmission experiment. The parity conserving time-reversal violating observable is the total cross-section asymmetry Ay,xz. This quantity is measured using a polarized proton beam with an energy of 135 MeV and an internal tensor polarized deuteron target from the PAX atomic beam source. The reaction rate will be measured by means of an integrating beam current transformer. Thus, in this experiment the cooler synchroton ring serves as ideal forward spectrometer, as a detector, and an accelerator.
Tests of time reversal invariance via transmission experiments
Conzett, H.E.
1989-06-01
The existing formalism used to describe spin observables in neutron transmission experiments is found to be inadequate. A suitable formalism is developed, through which time-reversal violating (and parity non-conserving) forward scattering amplitudes are identified, along with their corresponding spin observables. It is noted that new and more precise tests of T-symmetry are provided in transmission experiments and that such investigations are applicable more generally in nuclear and particle physics.
Search for time reversal invariance violation in neutron transmission
Bowman, J. David; Gudkov, Vladimir
2014-12-29
Time reversal invariance violating (TRIV) effects in neutron transmission through a nuclear target are discussed. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a class of experiments that are free from false asymmetries. We discuss the enhancement of TRIV effects for neutron energies corresponding to p-wave resonances in the compound nuclear system. Finaly, we analyze a model experiment and show that such tests can have a discovery potential of 10^{2}-10^{4} compared to current limits.
Time reversal in photoacoustic tomography and levitation in a cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palamodov, V. P.
2014-12-01
A class of photoacoustic acquisition geometries in {{{R}}n} is considered such that the spherical mean transform admits an exact filtered back projection reconstruction formula. The reconstruction is interpreted as a time reversion mirror that reproduces exactly an arbitrary source distribution in the cavity. A series of examples of non-uniqueness of the inverse potential problem is constructed based on the same geometrical technique.
Pressure Sensitivity Kernels Applied to Time-reversal Acoustics
2009-06-29
diversity in passive time reversal com- munications,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, October 2006, Vol. 120, Issue 4, pp. 2067-2076. xvi 5...communications. J. Acoustic Soc. Am., 115:2468–2468, 2004. [3] P. Gerstoft. Inversion of seismo-acoustic data using genetic algorithms and a posteriori...average of focal spots tends to have high stability.[6] The presence of spatial diversity (large arrays) has the same effect as an ensemble average and
Search for time reversal invariance violation in neutron transmission
Bowman, J. David; Gudkov, Vladimir
2014-12-29
Time reversal invariance violating (TRIV) effects in neutron transmission through a nuclear target are discussed. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a class of experiments that are free from false asymmetries. We discuss the enhancement of TRIV effects for neutron energies corresponding to p-wave resonances in the compound nuclear system. Finaly, we analyze a model experiment and show that such tests can have a discovery potential of 102-104 compared to current limits.
Imaging volcanic infrasound sources using time reversal mirror algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Keehoon; Lees, Jonathan M.
2015-09-01
We investigate the capability of Time Reversal Mirror (TRM) algorithm to image local acoustic sources (<3.5 km) associated with complex, sustained volcanic eruptions. Accurate source localization for volcano infrasound (low-frequency acoustic waves) is often challenging due to pronounced volcanic topography and emergent arrivals of infrasound signals. While the accuracy of the conventional approaches (e.g. triangulation and semblance method) can be severely compromised by the complex volcanic settings, a TRM-based method may have the potential to properly image acoustic sources by the use of full waveform information and numerical modelling of the time-reversed wavefield. We apply the TRM algorithm to a pyroclastic-laden eruption (sustained for ˜60 s) at Santiaguito Volcano, Guatemala, and show that an ordinary TRM operation can undergo significant reduction of its focusing power due to strong topographic propagation effects (e.g. reflection and diffraction). We propose a weighted imaging condition to compensate for complicated transmission loss of the time-reversed wavefield and demonstrate that the presented condition significantly improves the focusing quality of TRM in the presence of complex topography. The consequent TRM source images exhibit remarkable agreement with the visual observation of the eruption implying that the TRM method with a proper imaging condition can be used to localize and track acoustic sources associated with complex volcanic eruptions.
Prolonged and tunable residence time using reversible covalent kinase inhibitors
Bradshaw, J. Michael; McFarland, Jesse M.; Paavilainen, Ville O.; Bisconte, Angelina; Tam, Danny; Phan, Vernon T.; Romanov, Sergei; Finkle, David; Shu, Jin; Patel, Vaishali; Ton, Tony; Li, Xiaoyan; Loughhead, David G.; Nunn, Philip A.; Karr, Dane E.; Gerritsen, Mary E.; Funk, Jens Oliver; Owens, Timothy D.; Verner, Erik; Brameld, Ken A.; Hill, Ronald J.; Goldstein, David M.; Taunton, Jack
2015-01-01
Drugs with prolonged, on-target residence time often show superior efficacy, yet general strategies for optimizing drug-target residence time are lacking. Here, we demonstrate progress toward this elusive goal by targeting a noncatalytic cysteine in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) with reversible covalent inhibitors. Utilizing an inverted orientation of the cysteine-reactive cyanoacrylamide electrophile, we identified potent and selective BTK inhibitors that demonstrate biochemical residence times spanning from minutes to 7 days. An inverted cyanoacrylamide with prolonged residence time in vivo remained bound to BTK more than 18 hours after clearance from the circulation. The inverted cyanoacrylamide strategy was further utilized to discover fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) kinase inhibitors with residence times of several days, demonstrating generalizability of the approach. Targeting noncatalytic cysteines with inverted cyanoacrylamides may serve as a broadly applicable platform that facilitates “residence time by design”, the ability to modulate and improve the duration of target engagement in vivo. PMID:26006010
Prolonged and tunable residence time using reversible covalent kinase inhibitors.
Bradshaw, J Michael; McFarland, Jesse M; Paavilainen, Ville O; Bisconte, Angelina; Tam, Danny; Phan, Vernon T; Romanov, Sergei; Finkle, David; Shu, Jin; Patel, Vaishali; Ton, Tony; Li, Xiaoyan; Loughhead, David G; Nunn, Philip A; Karr, Dane E; Gerritsen, Mary E; Funk, Jens Oliver; Owens, Timothy D; Verner, Erik; Brameld, Ken A; Hill, Ronald J; Goldstein, David M; Taunton, Jack
2015-07-01
Drugs with prolonged on-target residence times often show superior efficacy, yet general strategies for optimizing drug-target residence time are lacking. Here we made progress toward this elusive goal by targeting a noncatalytic cysteine in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) with reversible covalent inhibitors. Using an inverted orientation of the cysteine-reactive cyanoacrylamide electrophile, we identified potent and selective BTK inhibitors that demonstrated biochemical residence times spanning from minutes to 7 d. An inverted cyanoacrylamide with prolonged residence time in vivo remained bound to BTK for more than 18 h after clearance from the circulation. The inverted cyanoacrylamide strategy was further used to discover fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) kinase inhibitors with residence times of several days, demonstrating the generalizability of the approach. Targeting of noncatalytic cysteines with inverted cyanoacrylamides may serve as a broadly applicable platform that facilitates 'residence time by design', the ability to modulate and improve the duration of target engagement in vivo.
Breaking time reversal symmetry in a circuit topological insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owens, Clai; Jia, Ningyuan; Sommer, Ariel; Schuster, David; Simon, Jonathan
2014-05-01
Materials exhibiting knotted band-structures provide a unique window on interplay between topology and quantum mechanics under well-controlled conditions. The main difficulty is engineering a strong background gauge field for the electrically neutral ``particles'' that comprise such materials. In cold atom systems, the leading candidates include Raman couplings, lattice modulation, and optical flux lattices; however no scalable approach has yet been demonstrated. Meta-materials have seen substantial success, both in coupled optical waveguides, and circuit networks. Here we describe progress towards time reversal breaking in a circuit, to split up- and down- spin Chern bands. This work is essential for studies of fractional quantum hall physics, where spin-flip collisions effectively reverse the magnetic field and destroy the many-body state. We present the design of a 1D transmission line that breaks time reversal symmetry via periodic capacitance modulation. We extend this approach to a 2D geometry, realizing a Floquet topological insulator with an isolated ground Chern-band. These tools are compatible with circuit quantum electrodynamics techniques, and thus provide an exciting route to studies of topologically ordered phases of matter.
Induced Time-Reversal Symmetry Breaking Observed in Microwave Billiards
Dietz, B.; Friedrich, T.; Miski-Oglu, M.; Richter, A.; Schaefer, F.; Harney, H. L.; Weidenmueller, H. A.
2007-02-16
Using reciprocity, we investigate the breaking of time-reversal (T) symmetry due to a ferrite embedded in a flat microwave billiard. Transmission spectra of isolated single resonances are not sensitive to T violation, whereas those of pairs of nearly degenerate resonances do depend on the direction of time. For their theoretical description a scattering matrix model from nuclear physics is used. The T-violating matrix elements of the effective Hamiltonian for the microwave billiard with the embedded ferrite are determined experimentally as functions of the magnetization of the ferrite.
Reverse time migration for extended obstacles: electromagnetic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Junqing; Chen, Zhiming; Huang, Guanghui
2013-08-01
We propose a new single-frequency reverse time migration (RTM) algorithm for imaging extended targets using electromagnetic waves. The imaging functional is defined as the imaginary part of the cross-correlation of the Green function for the Helmholtz equation and the back-propagated electromagnetic field. The resolution of our RTM method for both penetrable and non-penetrable extended targets is studied by virtue of the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff identity for the time-harmonic Maxwell equation. The analysis implies that our imaging functional is always positive and thus may have better stability properties. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the powerful imaging quality and confirm our theoretical results.
Induced time-reversal symmetry breaking observed in microwave billiards.
Dietz, B; Friedrich, T; Harney, H L; Miski-Oglu, M; Richter, A; Schäfer, F; Weidenmüller, H A
2007-02-16
Using reciprocity, we investigate the breaking of time-reversal (T) symmetry due to a ferrite embedded in a flat microwave billiard. Transmission spectra of isolated single resonances are not sensitive to T violation, whereas those of pairs of nearly degenerate resonances do depend on the direction of time. For their theoretical description a scattering matrix model from nuclear physics is used. The T-violating matrix elements of the effective Hamiltonian for the microwave billiard with the embedded ferrite are determined experimentally as functions of the magnetization of the ferrite.
Inversion of ocean environmental variations via time-reversal acoustics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jianlong; Xu, Wen; Jin, Liling
2012-05-01
Time-reversal (TR) processing is derived from the invariance of the wave equation for a lossless medium to change of the sign of the time variable. By retransmitting the TR version of the time-dispersed received signal propagated from a probe source (PS) to a source-receiver array (SRA), one can reacquire the probing pulse at the PS location (time compression and spatial focusing) when the waveguide environment is time invariant. However, if some environmental variations occur between the two transmissions, the retrofocusing signal will be defocused. This paper presents an inversion method of ocean environmental variations, which exploits the focusing/defocusing effect measured at the PS location in the presence of environmental perturbations between the PS transmission and the SRA retransmission. Specifically, inversion of the sound speed profile represented in terms of the empirical orthogonal functions is developed. Examples of the method applied to synthetic data are provided to demonstrate the method’s feasibility.
Statistical Stability and Time-Reversal Imgaing in Random Media
Berryman, J; Borcea, L; Papanicolaou, G; Tsogka, C
2002-02-05
Localization of targets imbedded in a heterogeneous background medium is a common problem in seismic, ultrasonic, and electromagnetic imaging problems. The best imaging techniques make direct use of the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the array response matrix, as recent work on time-reversal acoustics has shown. Of the various imaging functionals studied, one that is representative of a preferred class is a time-domain generalization of MUSIC (MUltiple Signal Classification), which is a well-known linear subspace method normally applied only in the frequency domain. Since statistical stability is not characteristic of the frequency domain, a transform back to the time domain after first diagonalizing the array data in the frequency domain takes optimum advantage of both the time-domain stability and the frequency-domain orthogonality of the relevant eigenfunctions.
Shear elasticity estimation from surface wave: the time reversal approach.
Brum, J; Catheline, S; Benech, N; Negreira, C
2008-12-01
In this work the shear elasticity of soft solids is measured from the surface wave speed estimation. An external source creates mechanical waves which are detected using acoustic sensors. The surface wave speed estimation is extracted from the complex reverberated elastic field through a time-reversal analysis. Measurements in a hard and a soft gelatin-based phantom are validated by independent transient elastography estimations. In contrast with other elasticity assessment methods, one advantage of the present approach is its low sound technology cost. Experiments performed in cheese and soft phantoms allows one to envision applications in the food industry and medicine.
Time-Reversal Acoustics and Maximum-Entropy Imaging
Berryman, J G
2001-08-22
Target location is a common problem in acoustical imaging using either passive or active data inversion. Time-reversal methods in acoustics have the important characteristic that they provide a means of determining the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the scattering operator for either of these problems. Each eigenfunction may often be approximately associated with an individual scatterer. The resulting decoupling of the scattered field from a collection of targets is a very useful aid to localizing the targets, and suggests a number of imaging and localization algorithms. Two of these are linear subspace methods and maximum-entropy imaging.
The effect of transducer directivity on time reversal focusing.
Anderson, Brian E; Clemens, Miles; Willardson, Matthew L
2017-07-01
This letter explores the effect of the directivity of a source on time reversal acoustic focusing of energy. A single loudspeaker produces an airborne focus of sound in a reverberation chamber and in a classroom. Individual foci are created at microphone positions that surround the loudspeaker. The primary axis of the loudspeaker is then rotated and experiments are repeated to average out the room response. Focal amplitude, temporal quality of the foci, and spatial focusing quality are compared to determine the optimal angle to aim a directional source axis relative to the desired focal position.
Experimental implementation of reverse time migration for nondestructive evaluation applications.
Anderson, Brian E; Griffa, Michele; Bas, Pierre-Yves Le; Ulrich, Timothy J; Johnson, Paul A
2011-01-01
Reverse time migration (RTM) is a commonly employed imaging technique in seismic applications (e.g., to image reservoirs of oil). Its standard implementation cannot account for multiple scattering/reverberation. For this reason it has not yet found application in nondestructive evaluation (NDE). This paper applies RTM imaging to NDE applications in bounded samples, where reverberation is always present. This paper presents a fully experimental implementation of RTM, whereas in seismic applications, only part of the procedure is done experimentally. A modified RTM imaging condition is able to localize scatterers and locations of disbonding. Experiments are conducted on aluminum samples with controlled scatterers.
Probing material nonlinearity at various depths by time reversal mirrors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Payan, C.; Ulrich, T. J.; Le Bas, P. Y.; Griffa, M.; Schuetz, P.; Remillieux, M. C.; Saleh, T. A.
2014-04-01
In this Letter, the time reversal mirror is used to focus elastic energy at a prescribed location and to analyze the amplitude dependence of the focus signal, thus providing the nonlinearity of the medium. By varying the frequency content of the focused waveforms, the technique can be used to probe the surface, by penetrating to a depth defined by the wavelength of the focused waves. The validity of this concept is shown in the presence of gradual and distributed damage in concrete by comparing actual results with a reference nonlinear measurement and X ray tomography images.
Time-Reversal-Breaking Weyl Fermions in Magnetic Heusler Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhijun; Vergniory, M. G.; Kushwaha, S.; Hirschberger, Max; Chulkov, E. V.; Ernst, A.; Ong, N. P.; Cava, Robert J.; Bernevig, B. Andrei
2016-12-01
Weyl fermions have recently been observed in several time-reversal-invariant semimetals and photonics materials with broken inversion symmetry. These systems are expected to have exotic transport properties such as the chiral anomaly. However, most discovered Weyl materials possess a substantial number of Weyl nodes close to the Fermi level that give rise to complicated transport properties. Here we predict, for the first time, a new family of Weyl systems defined by broken time-reversal symmetry, namely, Co-based magnetic Heusler materials X Co2Z (X =IVB or VB; Z =IVA or IIIA). To search for Weyl fermions in the centrosymmetric magnetic systems, we recall an easy and practical inversion invariant, which has been calculated to be -1 , guaranteeing the existence of an odd number of pairs of Weyl fermions. These materials exhibit, when alloyed, only two Weyl nodes at the Fermi level—the minimum number possible in a condensed matter system. The Weyl nodes are protected by the rotational symmetry along the magnetic axis and separated by a large distance (of order 2 π ) in the Brillouin zone. The corresponding Fermi arcs have been calculated as well. This discovery provides a realistic and promising platform for manipulating and studying the magnetic Weyl physics in experiments.
Electromagnetic time reversal focusing of near field waves in metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chabalko, Matthew J.; Sample, Alanson P.
2016-12-01
Precise control of electromagnetic energy on a deeply subwavelength scale in the near field regime is a fundamentally challenging problem. In this letter we demonstrate the selective focusing of electromagnetic energy via the electromagnetic time reversal in the near field of a metamaterial. Our analysis begins with fundamental mathematics, and then is extended to the experimental realm where focusing in space and time of the magnetic fields in the near field of a 1-Dimensional metamaterial is shown. Under time reversal focusing, peak instantaneous fields at receiver locations are at minimum ˜200% greater than other receivers. We then leverage the strong selective focusing capabilities of the system to show individual and selective powering of light emitting diodes connected to coil receivers placed in the near field of the metamaterial. Our results show the possibility of improving display technologies, near field imaging systems, increasing channel capacity of near field communication systems, and obtaining a greater control of energy delivery in wireless power transfer systems.
Path specific Doppler compensation in time-reversal communications.
Jesus, Sérgio M; Siddiqui, Salman I; Silva, António
2015-04-01
Passive time reversal (pTR) is a low complexity receiver scheme that uses multichannel probing for time signal refocusing, thus reducing time spreading and improving inter-symbol interference. Recognizing that signals traveling through different paths are subject to arrival-angle-related Doppler displacements, this letter proposes a further improvement to pTR that applies correcting frequency shifts optimized for beams formed along each specific path arrival angle. The proposed channel equalizer is tested with real data, and the results show that the proposed approach outperforms both pTR and the modified pTR channel combiners providing an MSE gain of 4.9 and 4.2 dB, respectively.
Topological aspects of systems with broken time-reversal symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raghu, Srinivas
This thesis deals with two topics involving topological "vortex-like" defects arising due to the breaking of time-reversal symmetry. A recurring theme shall be the interplay between the bulk properties and the physics at the boundaries of such systems. In the first part of the thesis, we construct direct analogs of quantum Hall effect edge modes in photonic systems with broken time-reversal symmetry. We will show how "photonic crystals" built out of time-reversal breaking Faraday effect media can exhibit "chiral" edge modes in which light propagates unidirectionally along boundaries across which the Faraday axis reverses. The crucial feature underlying this idea is that the photon bands of interest have non-zero Chern numbers (topological integers, which in the case at hand, represent the winding number of the Berry gauge connection of the bands). Using both numerical diagonalization and simple analytical models, we show how to construct photon bands with non-zero Chern invariants, and we use them to realize the precise classical counterpart of the electronic edge modes of the quantum Hall effect. To study these modes numerically, we have designed and implemented novel real-space treatments of the source-free Maxwell normal mode problem on a discrete network. In the second part of the thesis, we focus on extreme type II superconductors in externally applied magnetic fields. Motivated by experiments of Ong and collaborators on the Nernst effect in the cuprate superconductors, we consider a model of a superconductor which permits fluctuations only in the phase of the order parameter. In the presence of the magnetic field, a net vorticity is induced in the system, and we consider the various static and thermoelectric signatures of these superconducting vortices. Using numerical simulations, analytical calculations, and arguments from duality, we study thermoelectric transport and boundary diamagnetic currents. We conclude that such simple models of superconductors
Time reversal invariance - a test in free neutron decay
Lising, Laura Jean
1999-01-01
Time reversal invariance violation plays only a small role in the Standard Model, and the existence of a T-violating effect above the predicted level would be an indication of new physics. A sensitive probe of this symmetry in the weak interaction is the measurement of the T-violating ''D''-correlation in the decay of free neutrons. The triple-correlation Dσ_{n}∙p_{e} x p_{v} involves three kinematic variables, the neutron spin, electron momentu, and neutrino (or proton) momentum, and changes sign under time reversal. This experiment detects the decay products of a polarized cold neutron beam with an octagonal array of scintillation and solid-state detectors. Data from first run at NIST's Cold Neutron Research Facility give a D-coefficient of -0.1 ± 1.3(stat.) ± 0.7(syst) x 10^{-3} This measurement has the greatest bearing on extensions to the Standard model that incorporate leptoquarks, although exotic fermion and lift-right symmetric models also allow a D as large as the present limit.
Topological Field Theory of Time-Reversal Invariant Insulators
Qi, Xiao-Liang; Hughes, Taylor; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-03-19
We show that the fundamental time reversal invariant (TRI) insulator exists in 4 + 1 dimensions, where the effective field theory is described by the 4 + 1 dimensional Chern-Simons theory and the topological properties of the electronic structure is classified by the second Chern number. These topological properties are the natural generalizations of the time reversal breaking (TRB) quantum Hall insulator in 2 + 1 dimensions. The TRI quantum spin Hall insulator in 2 + 1 dimensions and the topological insulator in 3 + 1 dimension can be obtained as descendants from the fundamental TRI insulator in 4 + 1 dimensions through a dimensional reduction procedure. The effective topological field theory, and the Z{sub 2} topological classification for the TRI insulators in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions are naturally obtained from this procedure. All physically measurable topological response functions of the TRI insulators are completely described by the effective topological field theory. Our effective topological field theory predicts a number of novel and measurable phenomena, the most striking of which is the topological magneto-electric effect, where an electric field generates a magnetic field in the same direction, with an universal constant of proportionality quantized in odd multiples of the fine structure constant {alpha} = e{sup 2}/hc. Finally, we present a general classification of all topological insulators in various dimensions, and describe them in terms of a unified topological Chern-Simons field theory in phase space.
Applications of Time-Reversal Processing for Planetary Surface Communications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barton, Richard J.
2007-01-01
Due to the power constraints imposed on wireless sensor and communication networks deployed on a planetary surface during exploration, energy efficient transfer of data becomes a critical issue. In situations where groups of nodes within a network are located in relatively close proximity, cooperative communication techniques can be utilized to improve the range, data rate, power efficiency, and lifetime of the network. In particular, if the point-to-point communication channels on the network are well modeled as frequency non-selective, distributed or cooperative beamforming can employed. For frequency-selective channels, beamforming itself is not generally appropriate, but a natural generalization of it, time-reversal communication (TRC), can still be effective. Time-reversal processing has been proposed and studied previously for other applications, including acoustical imaging, electromagnetic imaging, underwater acoustic communication, and wireless communication channels. In this paper, we study both the theoretical advantages and the experimental performance of cooperative TRC for wireless communication on planetary surfaces. We give a brief introduction to TRC and present several scenarios where TRC could be profitably employed during planetary exploration. We also present simulation results illustrating the performance of cooperative TRC employed in a complex multipath environment and discuss the optimality of cooperative TRC for data aggregation in wireless sensor networks
Ultrasound breast imaging using frequency domain reverse time migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, O.; Zuberi, M. A. H.; Pratt, R. G.; Duric, N.
2016-04-01
Conventional ultrasonography reconstruction techniques, such as B-mode, are based on a simple wave propagation model derived from a high frequency approximation. Therefore, to minimize model mismatch, the central frequency of the input pulse is typically chosen between 3 and 15 megahertz. Despite the increase in theoretical resolution, operating at higher frequencies comes at the cost of lower signal-to-noise ratio. This ultimately degrades the image contrast and overall quality at higher imaging depths. To address this issue, we investigate a reflection imaging technique, known as reverse time migration, which uses a more accurate propagation model for reconstruction. We present preliminary simulation results as well as physical phantom image reconstructions obtained using data acquired with a breast imaging ultrasound tomography prototype. The original reconstructions are filtered to remove low-wavenumber artifacts that arise due to the inclusion of the direct arrivals. We demonstrate the advantage of using an accurate sound speed model in the reverse time migration process. We also explain how the increase in computational complexity can be mitigated using a frequency domain approach and a parallel computing platform.
Evaluation of a patch antenna applicator for time reversal hyperthemia.
Dobsícek Trefná, Hana; Vrba, Jan; Persson, Mikael
2010-01-01
To describe the design, analysis and evaluation of a new antenna array system for microwave hyperthermia. The proposed antenna array was evaluated by the focusing method based on the time-reversal principle. Power absorption distributions in a cylindrical homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantom were calculated for the frequency range 500-900 MHz. Two set-ups with 12 and 16 antennas were analysed by comparing the changes in focusing areas enclosed by the 50%, 75% and 90% iso-SAR contours. For a more quantitative evaluation of the results the average power absorption ratio and remaining tissue maximum index were calculated. The sharpest focusing area in the centre of the phantom, 151 mm(2) (9 x 20 mm) (90% iso-SAR), was obtained by using 16 antennas at frequency 900 MHz. The largest focusing area of 280 mm(2) (13 x 24 mm) (90% iso-SAR) was obtained by using 16 antennas at 500 MHz. The SAR focus was steered in the desired radial direction obtaining a 43 mm(2) 90% iso-SAR focus-width in a semi-three-dimensional neck phantom. The results showed qualitative agreement between three dimensions (3D) and two dimensions (2D) for the performance indicators. The conducted study confirms the feasibility of the time-reversal-based focusing methods for microwave hyperthermia. The proposed system shows promise and is suitable for further development in the treatment of head and neck tumours, and extremities application.
Acoustic emission localization in beams based on time reversed dispersion.
Ernst, R; Dual, J
2014-08-01
The common approach for the localization of acoustic emission sources in beams requires at least two measurements at different positions on the structure. The acoustic emission event is then located by evaluating the difference of the arrival times of the elastic waves. Here a new method is introduced, which allows the detection and localization of multiple acoustic emission sources with only a single, one point, unidirectional measurement. The method makes use of the time reversal principle and the dispersive behavior of the flexural wave mode. Whereas time-of-arrival (TOA) methods struggle with the distortion of elastic waves due to phase dispersion, the method presented uses the dispersive behavior of guided waves to locate the origin of the acoustic emission event. Therefore, the localization algorithm depends solely on the measured wave form and not on arrival time estimation. The method combines an acoustic emission experiment with a numerical simulation, in which the measured and time reversed displacement history is set as the boundary condition. In this paper, the method is described in detail and the feasibility is experimentally demonstrated by breaking pencil leads on aluminum beams and pultruded carbon fiber reinforced plastic beams according to ASTM E976 (Hsu-Nielsen source). It will be shown, that acoustic emissions are successfully localized even on anisotropic structures and in the case of geometrical complexities such as notches, which lead to reflections, and cross sectional changes, which affect the wave speed. The overall relative error in localizing the acoustic emission sources was found to be below 5%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Real-time image subtraction using phase reversal technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venkateswara Rao, Vuyyuru; Krishna Mohan, Nandigana K.
1999-10-01
A simple coherent interferometric processing method for image subtraction in real-time is presented. The proposed method is based on interferometric principle using Mach- Zehnder interferometer. The phase reversal is accomplished by varying the pressure within an air-filled quartz cell inserted in one of the arms of the interferometer. Initially, the interferometer is aligned to obtain broad interference fringes in the cell region. Then the input imageries are introduced in both the arms of the interferometer and adjusted for exact registration as seen in the plane of observation. By introducing a phase change of (pi) -rad between the two arms of the interferometer, the difference between the inputs is detected in real-time on the monitor. Phase shift calibration and information processing of the proposed method is presented with the results.
Rattleback dynamics and its reversal time of rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Yoichiro; Nakanishi, Hiizu
2017-06-01
A rattleback is a rigid, semielliptic toy which exhibits unintuitive behavior; when it is spun in one direction, it soon begins pitching and stops spinning, then it starts to spin in the opposite direction, but in the other direction, it seems to spin just steadily. This puzzling behavior results from the slight misalignment between the principal axes for the inertia and those for the curvature; the misalignment couples the spinning with the pitching and the rolling oscillations. It has been shown that under the no-slip condition and without dissipation the spin can reverse in both directions, and Garcia and Hubbard obtained the formula for the time required for the spin reversal tr [Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 418, 165 (1988), 10.1098/rspa.1988.0078]. In this work, we reformulate the rattleback dynamics in a physically transparent way and reduce it to a three-variable dynamics for spinning, pitching, and rolling. We obtain an expression of the Garcia-Hubbard formula for tr by a simple product of four factors: (1) the misalignment angle, (2) the difference in the inverses of inertia moment for the two oscillations, (3) that in the radii for the two principal curvatures, and (4) the squared frequency of the oscillation. We perform extensive numerical simulations to examine validity and limitation of the formula, and find that (1) the Garcia-Hubbard formula is good for both spinning directions in the small spin and small oscillation regime, but (2) in the fast spin regime especially for the steady direction, the rattleback may not reverse and shows a rich variety of dynamics including steady spinning, spin wobbling, and chaotic behavior reminiscent of chaos in a dissipative system.
Inversion of Ocean Environmental Variations via Time Reversal Acoustics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jianlong; Xu, Wen; Jin, Liling
2010-09-01
Time reversal (TR) processing is derived from the invariance of the wave equation for a lossless medium to change in the sign of the time variable. By retransmitting the TR version of the time-dispersed received signal propagated from a probe source (PS) to a source-receiver array, one can reacquire the transmitted pulse at the PS location (time compression and spatial focusing) when the waveguide environment is time invariant. However, if some environmental variations occur between the two transmissions, the retrofocusing signal will be defocused. This paper presents a novel method of environmental variation inversion by the focused/defocused signals measured at the PS location with environmental perturbations between the PS transmission and the SRA retransmission. Because the sound speed profile (SSP) plays a critical role in an uncertain ocean environment, inversion of the SSP represented in terms of the empirical orthogonal functions is developed and discussed in detail. Examples of the method applied to synthetic data are provided to demonstrate the method's feasibility.
On the Application of Time-Reversed Space-Time Block Code to Aeronautical Telemetry
2014-06-01
Keying (SOQPSK), bit error rate (BER), Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ( OFDM ), Generalized time-reversed space-time block codes (GTR-STBC) 16...Alamouti code [4]) is optimum [2]. Although OFDM is generally applied on a per subcarrier basis in frequency selective fading, it is not a viable
Experimental demonstration of the time reversal Aharonov-Casher effect.
Bergsten, Tobias; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Sekine, Yoshiaki; Nitta, Junsaku
2006-11-10
We demonstrate the time reversal Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect in small arrays of mesoscopic semiconductor rings. By using an electrostatic gate we can control the spin precession rate and follow the AC phase over several interference periods. We show that we control the precession rate in two different gate voltage ranges; in the lower range the gate voltage dependence is strong and linear and in the higher range the dependence in almost an order of magnitude weaker. We also see the second harmonic of the AC interference, oscillating with half the period. We finally map the AC phase to the spin-orbit interaction parameter alpha and find it is consistent with Shubnikov-de Haas analysis.
Topological Anderson insulators in systems without time-reversal symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Ying; Avishai, Y.; Wang, X. R.
2016-06-01
Occurrence of the topological Anderson insulator (TAI) in a HgTe quantum well suggests that when time-reversal symmetry (TRS) is maintained, the pertinent topological phase transition, marked by re-entrant 2 e2/h quantized conductance contributed by helical edge states, is driven by disorder. Here we show that when TRS is broken, the physics of the TAI becomes even richer. The pattern of longitudinal conductance and nonequilibrium local current distribution displays novel TAI phases characterized by nonzero Chern numbers, indicating the occurrence of multiple chiral edge modes. Tuning either disorder or Fermi energy (in both topologically trivial and nontrivial phases), drives transitions between these distinct TAI phases, characterized by jumps of the quantized conductance from 0 to e2/h and from e2/h to 2 e2/h . An effective medium theory based on the Born approximation yields an accurate description of different TAI phases in parameter space.
Time-reversal-breaking induced quantum spin Hall effect.
Luo, Wei; Shao, D X; Deng, Ming-Xun; Deng, W Y; Sheng, L
2017-02-21
We show that quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect does not occur in a square lattice model due to cancellation of the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling coming from different hopping paths. However, we show that QSH effect can be induced by the presence of staggered magnetic fluxes alternating directions square by square. When the resulting Peierls phase takes a special value , the system has a composite symmetry ΘΡ- with Θ the time-reversal operator and Ρ- transforming the Peierls phase from γ to γ - , which protects the gapless edge states. Once the phase deviates from , the edge states open a gap, as the composite symmetry is broken. We further investigate the effect of a Zeeman field on the QSH state, and find that the edge states remain gapless for . This indicates that the QSH effect is immune to the magnetic perturbation.
Structures for time-reversed inversion in filter banks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaidyanathan, P. P.; Chen, Tsuhan
1994-12-01
Anticausal inversion of IIR transfer functions has gained importance in recent years, in the efficient implementation of IIR digital filter banks. In this paper we first introduce the idea of a causal dual, as an intermediate step in the implementation of anticausal IIR inverses. With time reversal operators at the input and output of the causal dual, we get the anticausal inverse of the original structure. The causal dual eliminates the need for similarity transformations, during a key step called blockwise state transfer, in implementing anticausal inverses. In the paper we identify efficient structures for causal duals of standard structures like the direct-form, cascade-form, coupled form, and IIR lattice structures, including the tapped lattice.
Time-reversal-breaking induced quantum spin Hall effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Wei; Shao, D. X.; Deng, Ming-Xun; Deng, W. Y.; Sheng, L.
2017-02-01
We show that quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect does not occur in a square lattice model due to cancellation of the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling coming from different hopping paths. However, we show that QSH effect can be induced by the presence of staggered magnetic fluxes alternating directions square by square. When the resulting Peierls phase takes a special value , the system has a composite symmetry ΘΡ- with Θ the time-reversal operator and Ρ- transforming the Peierls phase from γ to γ - , which protects the gapless edge states. Once the phase deviates from , the edge states open a gap, as the composite symmetry is broken. We further investigate the effect of a Zeeman field on the QSH state, and find that the edge states remain gapless for . This indicates that the QSH effect is immune to the magnetic perturbation.
Magnetotelluric inversion via reverse time migration algorithm of seismic data
Ha, Taeyoung . E-mail: tyha@math.snu.ac.kr; Shin, Changsoo . E-mail: css@model.snu.ac.kr
2007-07-01
We propose a new algorithm for two-dimensional magnetotelluric (MT) inversion. Our algorithm is an MT inversion based on the steepest descent method, borrowed from the backpropagation technique of seismic inversion or reverse time migration, introduced in the middle 1980s by Lailly and Tarantola. The steepest descent direction can be calculated efficiently by using the symmetry of numerical Green's function derived from a mixed finite element method proposed by Nedelec for Maxwell's equation, without calculating the Jacobian matrix explicitly. We construct three different objective functions by taking the logarithm of the complex apparent resistivity as introduced in the recent waveform inversion algorithm by Shin and Min. These objective functions can be naturally separated into amplitude inversion, phase inversion and simultaneous inversion. We demonstrate our algorithm by showing three inversion results for synthetic data.
Magnetotelluric inversion via reverse time migration algorithm of seismic data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ha, Taeyoung; Shin, Changsoo
2007-07-01
We propose a new algorithm for two-dimensional magnetotelluric (MT) inversion. Our algorithm is an MT inversion based on the steepest descent method, borrowed from the backpropagation technique of seismic inversion or reverse time migration, introduced in the middle 1980s by Lailly and Tarantola. The steepest descent direction can be calculated efficiently by using the symmetry of numerical Green's function derived from a mixed finite element method proposed by Nédélec for Maxwell's equation, without calculating the Jacobian matrix explicitly. We construct three different objective functions by taking the logarithm of the complex apparent resistivity as introduced in the recent waveform inversion algorithm by Shin and Min. These objective functions can be naturally separated into amplitude inversion, phase inversion and simultaneous inversion. We demonstrate our algorithm by showing three inversion results for synthetic data.
Time-reversal-breaking induced quantum spin Hall effect
Luo, Wei; Shao, D. X.; Deng, Ming-Xun; Deng, W. Y.; Sheng, L.
2017-01-01
We show that quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect does not occur in a square lattice model due to cancellation of the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling coming from different hopping paths. However, we show that QSH effect can be induced by the presence of staggered magnetic fluxes alternating directions square by square. When the resulting Peierls phase takes a special value , the system has a composite symmetry ΘΡ− with Θ the time-reversal operator and Ρ− transforming the Peierls phase from γ to γ − , which protects the gapless edge states. Once the phase deviates from , the edge states open a gap, as the composite symmetry is broken. We further investigate the effect of a Zeeman field on the QSH state, and find that the edge states remain gapless for . This indicates that the QSH effect is immune to the magnetic perturbation. PMID:28220858
Time reversal and charge conjugation in an embedding quantum simulator
Zhang, Xiang; Shen, Yangchao; Zhang, Junhua; Casanova, Jorge; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique; Yung, Man-Hong; Zhang, Jing-Ning; Kim, Kihwan
2015-01-01
A quantum simulator is an important device that may soon outperform current classical computations. A basic arithmetic operation, the complex conjugate, however, is considered to be impossible to be implemented in such a quantum system due to the linear character of quantum mechanics. Here, we present the experimental quantum simulation of such an unphysical operation beyond the regime of unitary and dissipative evolutions through the embedding of a quantum dynamics in the electronic multilevels of a 171Yb+ ion. We perform time reversal and charge conjugation, which are paradigmatic examples of antiunitary symmetry operators, in the evolution of a Majorana equation without the tomographic knowledge of the evolving state. Thus, these operations can be applied regardless of the system size. Our approach offers the possibility to add unphysical operations to the toolbox of quantum simulation, and provides a route to efficiently compute otherwise intractable quantities, such as entanglement monotones. PMID:26239028
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kugler, T.; Rausch, M. H.; Fröba, A. P.
2015-11-01
The paper reports on binary diffusion coefficient data for the gaseous systems argon-neon, krypton-helium, ammonia-helium, nitrous oxide-nitrogen, and propane-helium measured using a Loschmidt cell combined with holographic interferometry between (293.15 and 353.15) K as well as between (1 and 10) bar. The investigations on the noble gas systems aimed to validate the measurement apparatus by comparing the binary diffusion coefficients measured as a function of temperature and pressure with theoretical data. In previous studies, it was already shown that the raw concentration-dependent data measured with the applied setup are affected by systematic effects if pure gases are used prior to the diffusion process. Hence, the concentration-dependent measurement data were processed to obtain averaged binary diffusion coefficients at a mean mole fraction of 0.5. The data for the molecular gas systems complete literature data on little investigated systems of technical interest and point out the capabilities of the applied measurement apparatus. Further experimental data are reported for the systems argon-helium, krypton-argon, krypton-neon, xenon-helium, xenon-krypton, nitrous oxide-carbon dioxide, and propane-carbon dioxide at 293.15 K, 2 bar, and a mean mole fraction of 0.5.
Head parameter sensitivity study of the intrinsic field reversal time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
George, Peter K.; Jury, Jason C.; Judy, Jack
1999-04-01
Studies to establish the key head sensitivity parameters affecting the intrinsic field reversal time are reported. The effect of supply voltage, eddy current damping, head moment, and turns are investigated using the nonlinear, eddy current damped, thin-film write head model proposed by Klaassen and Hirko [IEEE Trans. Magn. 32, 3524 (1996)]. The model is realized using PSPICE circuit simulation. Eddy current time constant dependencies derived by Wood, Williams, and Hong [IEEE Trans. Magn. 26, 2954 (1990)] are used to explore materials with magnetizations ranging from 4πMS=10-20 kG, resistivities of 25 and 125 μΩ-cm and heads with 10-15 turns. Confirmation of the above writer sensitivities has been investigated using a short yoke 37 turn, high moment, low eddy current CoTaZr inductive head. From the experimentally determined model parameters, rise time results are computed for an improved 10 turn writer design. The results are shown to approach or exceed the limiting dynamics of the spin system.
Object detection and imaging with acoustic time reversal mirrors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fink, Mathias
1993-11-01
Focusing an acoustic wave on an object of unknown shape through an inhomogeneous medium of any geometrical shape is a challenge in underground detection. Optimal detection and imaging of objects needs the development of such focusing techniques. The use of a time reversal mirror (TRM) represents an original solution to this problem. It realizes in real time a focusing process matched to the object shape, to the geometries of the acoustic interfaces and to the geometries of the mirror. It is a self adaptative technique which compensates for any geometrical distortions of the mirror structure as well as for diffraction and refraction effects through the interfaces. Two real time 64 and 128 channel prototypes have been built in our laboratory and TRM experiments demonstrating the TRM performance through inhomogeneous solid and liquid media are presented. Applications to medical therapy (kidney stone detection and destruction) and to nondestructive testing of metallurgical samples of different geometries are described. Extension of this study to underground detection and imaging will be discussed.
Least-squares reverse time migration in elastic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Zhiming; Liu, Yang; Sen, Mrinal K.
2017-02-01
Elastic reverse time migration (RTM) can yield accurate subsurface information (e.g. PP and PS reflectivity) by imaging the multicomponent seismic data. However, the existing RTM methods are still insufficient to provide satisfactory results because of the finite recording aperture, limited bandwidth and imperfect illumination. Besides, the P- and S-wave separation and the polarity reversal correction are indispensable in conventional elastic RTM. Here, we propose an iterative elastic least-squares RTM (LSRTM) method, in which the imaging accuracy is improved gradually with iteration. We first use the Born approximation to formulate the elastic de-migration operator, and employ the Lagrange multiplier method to derive the adjoint equations and gradients with respect to reflectivity. Then, an efficient inversion workflow (only four forward computations needed in each iteration) is introduced to update the reflectivity. Synthetic and field data examples reveal that the proposed LSRTM method can obtain higher-quality images than the conventional elastic RTM. We also analyse the influence of model parametrizations and misfit functions in elastic LSRTM. We observe that Lamé parameters, velocity and impedance parametrizations have similar and plausible migration results when the structures of different models are correlated. For an uncorrelated subsurface model, velocity and impedance parametrizations produce fewer artefacts caused by parameter crosstalk than the Lamé coefficient parametrization. Correlation- and convolution-type misfit functions are effective when amplitude errors are involved and the source wavelet is unknown, respectively. Finally, we discuss the dependence of elastic LSRTM on migration velocities and its antinoise ability. Imaging results determine that the new elastic LSRTM method performs well as long as the low-frequency components of migration velocities are correct. The quality of images of elastic LSRTM degrades with increasing noise.
Least-squares reverse time migration in elastic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Zhiming; Liu, Yang; Sen, Mrinal K.
2016-11-01
Elastic reverse time migration (RTM) can yield more subsurface information (e.g. PP and PS reflectivity) by imaging the multi-component seismic data. However, the existing RTM methods are still insufficient to provide satisfactory results because of the finite recording aperture, limited bandwidth and imperfect illumination. Besides, the P- and S-wave separation and the polarity reversal correction are indispensable in conventional elastic RTM. Here, we propose an iterative elastic least-squares RTM (LSRTM) method, in which the imaging accuracy is improved gradually with iteration. We first use the Born approximation to formulate the elastic de-migration operator, and employ the Lagrange multiplier method to derive the adjoint equations and gradients with respect to reflectivity. Then, an efficient inversion workflow (only four forward computations needed in each iteration) is introduced to update the reflectivity. Synthetic and field data examples reveal that the proposed LSRTM method can obtain higher-quality images than the conventional elastic RTM. We also analyze the influence of model parameterizations and misfit functions in elastic LSRTM. We observe that Lamé parameters, velocity and impedance parameterizations have similar and plausible migration results when the structures of different models are correlated. For an uncorrelated subsurface model, velocity and impedance parameterizations produce fewer artifacts caused by parameter crosstalk than the Lamé coefficient parameterization. Correlation- and convolution-type misfit functions are effective when amplitude errors are involved and the source wavelet is unknown, respectively. Finally, we discuss the dependence of elastic LSRTM on migration velocities and its anti-noise ability. Imaging results determine that the new elastic LSRTM method performs well as long as the low-frequency components of migration velocities are correct. The quality of images of elastic LSRTM degrades with increasing noise.
3D seismic reverse time migration on GPGPU
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Guofeng; Liu, Yaning; Ren, Li; Meng, Xiaohong
2013-09-01
Reverse time migration (RTM) is a powerful seismic imaging method for the interpretation of steep-dips and subsalt regions; however, implementation of the RTM method is computationally expensive. In this paper, we present a fast and computationally inexpensive implementation of RTM using a NVIDIA general purpose graphic processing unit (GPGPU) powered with Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). To accomplish this, we introduced a random velocity boundary in the source propagation kernel. By creating a random velocity layer at the left, right, and bottom boundaries, the wave fields that encounter the boundary regions are pseudo-randomized. Reflections off the random layers have minimal coherent correlation in the reverse direction. This process eliminates the need to write the wave fields to a disk, which is important when using a GPU because of the limited bandwidth of the PCI-E that is connected to the CPU and GPU. There are four GPU kernels in the code: shot, receiver, modeling, and imaging. The shot and receiver insertion kernels are simple and are computed using a GPU because the wave fields reside in GPU's memory. The modeling kernel is computed using Micikevicius's tiling method, which uses shared memory to improve bandwidth usage in 2D and 3D finite difference problems. In the imaging kernel, we also use this tiling method. A Tesla C2050 GPU with 4 GB memory and 480 stream processing units was used to test the code. The shot and receiver modeling kernel occupancy achieved 85%, and the imaging kernel occupancy was 100%. This means that the code achieved a good level of optimization. A salt model test verified the correct and effective implementation of the GPU RTM code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buttig, D.; Vogel, E.; Bich, E.; Hassel, E.
2011-10-01
A new variant of the Loschmidt technique has been developed for measuring binary diffusion coefficients in gas mixtures in a temperature range from 10 to 80 °C and for pressures between 0.1 and 1 MPa. The two half cells of the thermostatted diffusion cell have a rectangular cross section and are fixed one upon the other. They can be connected and separated by means of a sliding plate provided with a pneumatically operated seal. The concentration in both half cells is determined simultaneously during the diffusion process using an optical system for holographic interferometry for each. The change in the refractive index results in an interference pattern which is recorded as a function of time. The concentrations of the diffusing components are derived by means of the Lorentz-Lorenz equation. The binary diffusion coefficients are calculated via the integrated ideal diffusion equation for the complete mole fraction range performing only a unique diffusion experiment. The performance of the apparatus is demonstrated on first measurements on the argon-neon system at 293.15 K. Separate refractive index measurements are carried out leading to values for the first refractivity virial coefficient of the pure gases with an estimated uncertainty of ±0.1%. This low uncertainty is required for the aimed uncertainty of ±0.5...1% for the diffusion measurements to determine the concentration and density dependences of the binary diffusion coefficient.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.
Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers nine materials for remediating reversals in handicapped students at the early childhood and elementary levels. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession…
Elastic Reverse Time Migration (RTM) From Surface Topography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akram, Naveed; Chen, Xiaofei
2017-04-01
Seismic Migration is a promising data processing technique to construct subsurface images by projecting the recorded seismic data at surface back to their origins. There are numerous Migration methods. Among them, Reverse Time Migration (RTM) is considered a robust and standard imaging technology in present day exploration industry as well as in academic research field because of its superior performance compared to traditional migration methods. Although RTM is extensive computing and time consuming but it can efficiently handle the complex geology, highly dipping reflectors and strong lateral velocity variation all together. RTM takes data recorded at the surface as a boundary condition and propagates the data backwards in time until the imaging condition is met. It can use the same modeling algorithm that we use for forward modeling. The classical seismic exploration theory assumes flat surface which is almost impossible in practice for land data. So irregular surface topography has to be considered in simulation of seismic wave propagation, which is not always a straightforward undertaking. In this study, Curved grid finite difference method (CG-FDM) is adapted to model elastic seismic wave propagation to investigate the effect of surface topography on RTM results and explore its advantages and limitations with synthetic data experiments by using Foothill model with topography as the true model. We focus on elastic wave propagation rather than acoustic wave because earth actually behaves as an elastic body. Our results strongly emphasize on the fact that irregular surface topography must be considered for modeling of seismic wave propagation to get better subsurface images specially in mountainous scenario and suggest practitioners to properly handled the geometry of data acquired on irregular topographic surface in their imaging algorithms.
Elastic Reverse Time Migration (RTM) From Surface Topography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naveed, A.; Chen, X.
2016-12-01
Seismic Migration is a promising data processing technique to construct subsurface images by projecting the recorded seismic data at surface back to their origins. There are numerous Migration methods. Among them, Reverse Time Migration (RTM) is considered a robust and standard imaging technology in present day exploration industry as well as in academic research field because of its superior performance compared to traditional migration methods. Although RTM is extensive computing and time consuming but it can efficiently handle the complex geology, highly dipping reflectors and strong lateral velocity variation all together. RTM takes data recorded at the surface as a boundary condition and propagates the data backwards in time until the imaging condition is met. It can use the same modeling algorithm that we use for forward modeling. The classical seismic exploration theory assumes flat surface which is almost impossible in practice for land data. So irregular surface topography has to be considered in simulation of seismic wave propagation, which is not always a straightforward undertaking. In this study, Curved grid finite difference method (CG-FDM) is adapted to model elastic seismic wave propagation to investigate the effect of surface topography on RTM results and explore its advantages and limitations with synthetic data experiments by using Foothill model with topography as the true model. We focus on elastic wave propagation rather than acoustic wave because earth actually behaves as an elastic body. Our results strongly emphasize on the fact that irregular surface topography must be considered for modeling of seismic wave propagation to get better subsurface images specially in mountainous scenario and suggest practitioners to properly handled the geometry of data acquired on irregular topographic surface in their imaging algorithms.
The time dependence of reversed archeomagnetic flux patches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terra-Nova, Filipe; Amit, Hagay; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.
2016-04-01
Archeomagnetic field models may provide important insights to the geodynamo. Here we investigate the existence and mobility of reversed flux patches (RFPs) in archeomagnetic field model CALS3k.4b of Korte and Constable (2011; PEPI, 188, 247-259). We introduce topological algorithms to define, identify and track RPFs. In addition, we explore the relations between RFPs and dipole changes, and apply robustness tests to the RFPs. In contrast to previous definitions, patches that reside on the geographic equator are adequately identified based on our RFPs definition that takes the magnetic equator as a reference. Most RFPs exhibit a westward drift and migrate towards higher latitudes. Undulations of the magnetic equator and RFPs oppose the axial dipole moment (ADM). Filtered models show a tracking behaviour similar to the non-filtered model, and surprisingly new RFPs occasionally emerge. The advection and diffusion of RFPs have worked in unison to yield the decrease of the ADM at recent times. The absence of RFPs in the period 550-1440 AD is related to a low in intermediate degrees of the geomagnetic power spectrum. We thus hypothesize that the RFPs are strongly dependent on intermediate spherical harmonic degrees 4 and above. Comparison of tracking of RFPs among various archeomagnetic field models was also performed and gives more complex results.
The time dependence of reversed archeomagnetic flux patches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terra-Nova, Filipe; Amit, Hagay; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.
2015-02-01
Archeomagnetic field models may provide important insights to the geodynamo. Here we investigate the existence and mobility of reversed flux patches (RFPs) in an archeomagnetic field model. We introduce topological algorithms to define, identify, and track RFPs. In addition, we explore the relations between RFPs and dipole changes and apply robustness tests to the RFPs. In contrast to previous definitions, patches that reside on the geographic equator are adequately identified based on our RFPs definition. Most RFPs exhibit a westward drift and migrate toward higher latitudes. Undulations of the magnetic equator and RFPs oppose the axial dipole moment (ADM). Filtered models show a tracking behavior similar to the nonfiltered model, and surprisingly new RFPs occasionally emerge. The advection and diffusion of RFPs have worked in unison to yield the decrease of the ADM at recent times. The absence of RFPs in the period 550-1440 A.D. is related to a low in intermediate degrees of the geomagnetic power spectrum. We thus hypothesize that the RFPs are strongly dependent on intermediate spherical harmonic degrees 4 and above.
Pseudo-spectral reverse time migration based on wavefield decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Zengli; Liu, Jianjun; Xu, Feng; Li, Yongzhang
2017-02-01
The accuracy of seismic numerical simulations and the effectiveness of imaging conditions are important in reverse time migration studies. Using the pseudo-spectral method, the precision of the calculated spatial derivative of the seismic wavefield can be improved, increasing the vertical resolution of images. Low-frequency background noise, generated by the zero-lag cross-correlation of mismatched forward-propagated and backward-propagated wavefields at the impedance interfaces, can be eliminated effectively by using the imaging condition based on the wavefield decomposition technique. The computation complexity can be reduced when imaging is performed in the frequency domain. Since the Fourier transformation in the z-axis may be derived directly as one of the intermediate results of the spatial derivative calculation, the computation load of the wavefield decomposition can be reduced, improving the computation efficiency of imaging. Comparison of the results for a pulse response in a constant-velocity medium indicates that, compared with the finite difference method, the peak frequency of the Ricker wavelet can be increased by 10-15 Hz for avoiding spatial numerical dispersion, when the second-order spatial derivative of the seismic wavefield is obtained using the pseudo-spectral method. The results for the SEG/EAGE and Sigsbee2b models show that the signal-to-noise ratio of the profile and the imaging quality of the boundaries of the salt dome migrated using the pseudo-spectral method are better than those obtained using the finite difference method.
Spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry in topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karnaukhov, Igor N.
2017-06-01
The system of spinless fermions on a hexagonal lattice is studied. We have considered tight-binding model with the hopping integrals between the nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor lattice sites, that depend on the direction of the link. The links are divided on three types depending on the direction, the hopping integrals are defined by different phases along the links. The energy of the system depends on the phase differences, the solutions for the phases, that correspond to the minimums of the energy, lead to a topological insulator state with the nontrivial Chern numbers. We have analyzed distinct topological states and phase transitions, the behavior of the chiral gapless edge modes, have defined the Chern numbers. The band structure of topological insulator (TI) is calculated, the ground-state phase diagram in the parameter space is obtained. We propose a novel mechanism of realization of TI, when the TI state is result of spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry due to nontrivial stable solutions for the phases that determine the hopping integrals along the links and show that the Haldane model [1] can be implemented in real compounds of the condensed matter physics.
Pseudospectral reverse time migration based on wavefield decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Zengli; Liu, Jianjun; Xu, Feng; Li, Yongzhang
2017-05-01
The accuracy of seismic numerical simulations and the effectiveness of imaging conditions are important in reverse time migration studies. Using the pseudospectral method, the precision of the calculated spatial derivative of the seismic wavefield can be improved, increasing the vertical resolution of images. Low-frequency background noise, generated by the zero-lag cross-correlation of mismatched forward-propagated and backward-propagated wavefields at the impedance interfaces, can be eliminated effectively by using the imaging condition based on the wavefield decomposition technique. The computation complexity can be reduced when imaging is performed in the frequency domain. Since the Fourier transformation in the z-axis may be derived directly as one of the intermediate results of the spatial derivative calculation, the computation load of the wavefield decomposition can be reduced, improving the computation efficiency of imaging. Comparison of the results for a pulse response in a constant-velocity medium indicates that, compared with the finite difference method, the peak frequency of the Ricker wavelet can be increased by 10-15 Hz for avoiding spatial numerical dispersion, when the second-order spatial derivative of the seismic wavefield is obtained using the pseudospectral method. The results for the SEG/EAGE and Sigsbee2b models show that the signal-to-noise ratio of the profile and the imaging quality of the boundaries of the salt dome migrated using the pseudospectral method are better than those obtained using the finite difference method.
Time Reversal Acoustic Communication Using Filtered Multitone Modulation
Sun, Lin; Chen, Baowei; Li, Haisen; Zhou, Tian; Li, Ruo
2015-01-01
The multipath spread in underwater acoustic channels is severe and, therefore, when the symbol rate of the time reversal (TR) acoustic communication using single-carrier (SC) modulation is high, the large intersymbol interference (ISI) span caused by multipath reduces the performance of the TR process and needs to be removed using the long adaptive equalizer as the post-processor. In this paper, a TR acoustic communication method using filtered multitone (FMT) modulation is proposed in order to reduce the residual ISI in the processed signal using TR. In the proposed method, FMT modulation is exploited to modulate information symbols onto separate subcarriers with high spectral containment and TR technique, as well as adaptive equalization is adopted at the receiver to suppress ISI and noise. The performance of the proposed method is assessed through simulation and real data from a trial in an experimental pool. The proposed method was compared with the TR acoustic communication using SC modulation with the same spectral efficiency. Results demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the performance of the TR process and reduce the computational complexity of adaptive equalization for post-process. PMID:26393586
Time reversal violation in radiative beta decay: experimental plans
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behr, J. A.; McNeil, J.; Anholm, M.; Gorelov, A.; Melconian, D.; Ashery, D.
2017-01-01
Some explanations for the excess of matter over antimatter in the universe involve sources of time reversal violation (TRV) in addition to the one known in the standard model of particle physics. We plan to search for TRV in a correlation between the momenta of the beta, neutrino, and the radiative gamma sometimes emitted in nuclear beta decay. Correlations involving three (out of four) momenta are sensitive at lowest order to different TRV physics than observables involving spin, such as electric dipole moments and spin-polarized beta decay correlations. Such experiments have been done in radiative kaon decay, but not in systems involving the lightest generation of quarks. An explicit low-energy physics model being tested produces TRV effects in the Fermi beta decay of the neutron, tritium, or some positron-decaying isotopes. We will present plans to measure the TRV asymmetry in radiative beta decay of laser-trapped 38mK at better than 0.01 sensitivity, including suppression of background from positron annihilation. Supported by NSERC, D.O.E., Israel Science Foundation. TRIUMF receives federal funding via a contribution agreement with the National Research Council of Canada.
Time-Reverse Imaging for the Tsunami Source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hossen, J.; Cummins, P. R.
2013-12-01
Many tsunami source inversion techniques have already been developed to derive source models with the assumption that tsunami generation is due to slip on a single large fault. Therefore, these inversion techniques cannot determine to what extent subsidiary phenomena - such as submarine landslides, block movement, or slip on splay faults - have contributed to the tsunami generation. We are proposing a new method that can be used to derive source models without requiring the assumption of slip on a fault of pre-determined geometry, but rather inverts directly for sea surface displacement. The proposed method is based on ''Time Reverse Imaging (TRI)'' technique, which has been used in underwater acoustic and medical imaging. We have applied TRI to recover the initial sea surface displacement associated with the tsunami source. This approach requires observations with good azimuthal coverage around the source area. It also requires a numerical model that will be run backward with a collection of point sources that coincide with observation locations. Synthetic numerical experiments show that if a good enough coverage of observations is available, TRI yields a good approximation to the spatial distribution of the initial source model. To show the application of this method we have chosen the tsunami triggered by the March 11, 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, for which an unprecedented number of high-quality observations are available. We use both near- and far-field tsunami observations in our study. We will compare the findings of the TRI result with other more conventional methods of source inversion.
The Loschmidt echo in classically chaotic systems: Quantum chaos, irreversibility and decoherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cucchietti, Fernando M.
2004-10-01
The Loschmidt echo (LE) is a measure of the sensitivity of quantum mechanics to perturbations in the evolution operator. It is defined as the overlap of two wave functions evolved from the same initial state but with slightly different Hamiltonians. Thus, it also serves as a quantification of irreversibility in quantum mechanics. In this thesis the LE is studied in systems that have a classical counterpart with dynamical instability, that is, classically chaotic. An analytical treatment that makes use of the semiclassical approximation is presented. It is shown that, under certain regime of the parameters, the LE decays exponentially. Furthermore, for strong enough perturbations, the decay rate is given by the Lyapunov exponent of the classical system. Some particularly interesting examples are given. The analytical results are supported by thorough numerical studies. In addition, some regimes not accessible to the theory are explored, showing that the LE and its Lyapunov regime present the same form of universality ascribed to classical chaos. In a sense, this is evidence that the LE is a robust temporal signature of chaos in the quantum realm. Finally, the relation between the LE and the quantum to classical transition is explored, in particular with the theory of decoherence. Using two different approaches, a semiclassical approximation to Wigner functions and a master equation for the LE, it is shown that the decoherence rate and the decay rate of the LE are equal. The relationship between these quantities results mutually beneficial, in terms of the broader resources of decoherence theory and of the possible experimental realization of the LE.
Fingerprinting Reverse Proxies Using Timing Analysis of TCP Flows
2013-09-01
sites can increase their client throughput by utilizing reverse proxy servers that increase their potential for sales or advertising . From a more... advertising . The ability to reliably identify reverse proxies is valuable to better understand a network topology as well as identify possible vector...As the Internet spread globally, privacy and security became more desirable for online communication, banking, e -commerce, and data storage to name a
Time Reversal Signal Processing in Communications - A Feasibility Study
Meyer, A W; Candy, J V; Poggio, A J
2002-01-30
A typical communications channel is subjected to a variety of signal distortions, including multipath, that corrupt the information being transmitted and reduce the effective channel capacity. The mitigation of the multipath interference component is an ongoing concern for communication systems operating in complex environments such as might be experienced inside buildings, urban environments, and hilly or heavily wooded areas. Communications between mobile units and distributed sensors, so important to national security, are dependent upon flawless conveyance of information in complex environments. The reduction of this multipath corruption necessitates better channel equalization, i.e., the removal of channel distortion to extract the transmitted information. But, the current state of the art in channel equalization either requires a priori knowledge of the channel or the use of a known training sequence and adaptive filtering. If the ''assumed'' model within the equalization processor does not at least capture the dominant characteristics of the channel, then the received information may still be highly distorted and possibly useless. Also, the processing required for classical equalization is demanding in computational resources. To remedy this situation, many techniques have been investigated to replace classical equalization. Such a technique, the subject of this feasibility study, is Time Reversal Signal Processing (TRSP). Multipath is particularly insidious and a major factor in the deterioration of communication channels. Unlike most other characteristics that corrupt a communications channel, the detrimental effects of multipath cannot be overcome by merely increasing the transmitted power. Although the power in a signal diminishes as a function of the distance between the transmitter and receiver, multipath further degrades a signal by creating destructive interference that results in a loss of received power in a very localized area, a loss often
Fold, Transcritical and Pitchfork Singularities for Time-Reversible Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buzzi, C. A.; Silva, P. R.; Teixeira, M. A.
This paper deals with a class of singularly perturbed reversible planar vector fields around the origin where the normal hyperbolicity assumption is not assumed. We exhibit conditions for the existence of infinitely many periodic orbits and heteroclinic cycles converging to singular orbits with respect to the Hausdorf distance. In addition, generic normal forms of such singularities are presented.
Least-squares reverse-time migration of Cranfield VSP data for monitoring CO2 injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
TAN, S.; Huang, L.
2012-12-01
Cost-effective monitoring for carbon utilization and sequestration requires high-resolution imaging with a minimal amount of data. Least-squares reverse-time migration is a promising imaging method for this purpose. We apply least-squares reverse-time migration to a portion of the 3D vertical seismic profile data acquired at the Cranfield enhanced oil recovery field in Mississippi for monitoring CO2 injection. Conventional reverse-time migration of limited data suffers from significant image artifacts and a poor image resolution. Lease-squares reverse-time migration can reduce image artifacts and improves the image resolution. We demonstrate the significant improvements of least-squares reverse-time migration by comparing its migration images of the Cranfield VSP data with that obtained using the conventional reverse-time migration.
TIME EVOLUTION OF THE REVERSE SHOCK IN SN 1006
Frank Winkler, P.; Hamilton, Andrew J. S.; Long, Knox S.; Fesen, Robert A. E-mail: andrew.hamilton@colorado.edu E-mail: Robert.Fesen@snr.dartmouth.edu
2011-12-01
The Schweizer-Middleditch star, located behind the SN 1006 remnant and near its center in projection, provides the opportunity to study cold, expanding ejecta within the SN 1006 shell through UV absorption. Especially notable is an extremely sharp red edge to the Si II 1260 A feature, which stems from the fastest moving ejecta on the far side of the SN 1006 shell-material that is just encountering the reverse shock. Comparing Hubble Space Telescope far-UV spectra obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph in 2010 and with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph in 1999, we have measured the change in this feature over the intervening 10.5 year baseline. We find that the sharp red edge of the Si II feature has shifted blueward by 0.19 {+-} 0.05 #Angstrom#, which means that the material hitting the reverse shock in 2010 was moving slower by 44 {+-} 11 km s{sup -1} than the material that was hitting it in 1999, a change corresponding to -4.2 {+-} 1.0 km s{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. This is the first observational confirmation of a long-predicted dynamic effect for a reverse shock: that the shock will work its way inward through expanding supernova ejecta and encounter ever-slower material as it proceeds. We also find that the column density of shocked Si II (material that has passed through the reverse shock) has decreased by 7% {+-} 2% over the 10 year period. The decrease could indicate that in this direction the reverse shock has been plowing through a dense clump of Si, leading to pressure and density transients.
Directed Current Without Dissipation: Reincarnation of a Maxwell-Loschmidt Demon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goychuk, Igor; Haenggi, Peter
We investigate whether for initially localized particles a directed current in rocked periodic structures is possible in absence of a dissipative mechanism. With a pure Hamiltonian dynamics the breaking of Time-Reversal-Invariante presents anecessary condition to find nonzero current values. Numerical studies are presented for the classical Hamiltonian dynamical case. These support the fact that indeed a finite current does occur when a time-reversal symmetry-breaking signal, such as a harmonic mixing signal, is acting. To gain analytical insight we consider the coherent driven quantum transport in a one-dimensional tight-binding lattice. Here, a finite coherent current is absent for initially localized preparations; it emerges, however, when the initial preparation (with zero initial current) possesses finite coherence. The presence of phase fluctuations will eventually kill any finite current, thereby rendering the nondissipative currents a transient phenomenon.
Time-reversed lasing in the terahertz range and its preliminary study in sensor applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Yun; Liu, Huaqing; Deng, Xiaohua; Wang, Guoping
2017-02-01
Time-reversed lasing in a uniform slab and a grating structure are investigated in the terahertz range. The results show that both the uniform slab and grating can support terahertz time-reversed lasing. Nevertheless, due to the tunable effective refractive index, the grating structure can not only exhibit time-reversed lasing more effectively and flexibly than a uniform slab, but also can realize significant absorption in a broader operating frequency range. Furthermore, applications of terahertz time-reversed lasing for novel concentration/thickness sensors are preliminarily studied in a single-channel coherent perfect absorber system.
Propagation of time-reversed Lamb waves in bovine cortical bone in vitro.
Lee, Kang Il; Yoon, Suk Wang
2015-01-01
The present study aims to investigate the propagation of time-reversed Lamb waves in bovine cortical bone in vitro. The time-reversed Lamb waves were successfully launched at 200 kHz in 18 bovine tibiae through a time reversal process of Lamb waves. The group velocities of the time-reversed Lamb waves in the bovine tibiae were measured using the axial transmission technique. They showed a significant correlation with the cortical thickness and tended to follow the theoretical group velocity of the lowest order antisymmetrical Lamb wave fairly well, consistent with the behavior of the slow guided wave in long cortical bones.
Cross-correlation least-squares reverse time migration in the pseudo-time domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qingyang; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhenchun
2017-08-01
The least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) method with higher image resolution and amplitude is becoming increasingly popular. However, the LSRTM is not widely used in field land data processing because of its sensitivity to the initial migration velocity model, large computational cost and mismatch of amplitudes between the synthetic and observed data. To overcome the shortcomings of the conventional LSRTM, we propose a cross-correlation least-squares reverse time migration algorithm in pseudo-time domain (PTCLSRTM). Our algorithm not only reduces the depth/velocity ambiguities, but also reduces the effect of velocity error on the imaging results. It relieves the accuracy requirements on the migration velocity model of least-squares migration (LSM). The pseudo-time domain algorithm eliminates the irregular wavelength sampling in the vertical direction, thus it can reduce the vertical grid points and memory requirements used during computation, which makes our method more computationally efficient than the standard implementation. Besides, for field data applications, matching the recorded amplitudes is a very difficult task because of the viscoelastic nature of the Earth and inaccuracies in the estimation of the source wavelet. To relax the requirement for strong amplitude matching of LSM, we extend the normalized cross-correlation objective function to the pseudo-time domain. Our method is only sensitive to the similarity between the predicted and the observed data. Numerical tests on synthetic and land field data confirm the effectiveness of our method and its adaptability for complex models.
Entropy of seismic electric signals: Analysis in natural time under time reversal
Varotsos, P.A.; Skordas, E.S.; Sarlis, N.V.; Lazaridou, M.S.; Tanaka, H.K.
2006-03-15
Electric signals have been recently recorded at the Earth's surface with amplitudes appreciably larger than those hitherto reported. Their entropy in natural time is smaller than that of a 'uniform' distribution. The same holds for their entropy upon time reversal. Such a behavior, which is also found by numerical simulations in fractional Brownian motion time series and in an on-off intermittency model, stems from infinitely ranged long range temporal correlations and hence these signals are probably seismic electric signal activities (critical dynamics). This classification is strikingly confirmed since three strong nearby earthquakes occurred (which is an extremely unusual fact) after the original submission of the present paper. The entropy fluctuations are found to increase upon approaching bursting, which is reminiscent of the behavior identifying sudden cardiac death individuals when analyzing their electrocardiograms.
Entropy of seismic electric signals: Analysis in natural time under time reversal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varotsos, P. A.; Sarlis, N. V.; Skordas, E. S.; Tanaka, H. K.; Lazaridou, M. S.
2006-03-01
Electric signals have been recently recorded at the Earth’s surface with amplitudes appreciably larger than those hitherto reported. Their entropy in natural time is smaller than that of a “uniform” distribution. The same holds for their entropy upon time reversal. Such a behavior, which is also found by numerical simulations in fractional Brownian motion time series and in an on-off intermittency model, stems from infinitely ranged long range temporal correlations and hence these signals are probably seismic electric signal activities (critical dynamics). This classification is strikingly confirmed since three strong nearby earthquakes occurred (which is an extremely unusual fact) after the original submission of the present paper. The entropy fluctuations are found to increase upon approaching bursting, which is reminiscent of the behavior identifying sudden cardiac death individuals when analyzing their electrocardiograms.
Time-Reversal MUSIC Imaging with Time-Domain Gating Technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Heedong; Ogawa, Yasutaka; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Ohgane, Takeo
A time-reversal (TR) approach with multiple signal classification (MUSIC) provides super-resolution for detection and localization using multistatic data collected from an array antenna system. The theory of TR-MUSIC assumes that the number of antenna elements is greater than that of scatterers (targets). Furthermore, it requires many sets of frequency-domain data (snapshots) in seriously noisy environments. Unfortunately, these conditions are not practical for real environments due to the restriction of a reasonable antenna structure as well as limited measurement time. We propose an approach that treats both noise reduction and relaxation of the transceiver restriction by using a time-domain gating technique accompanied with the Fourier transform before applying the TR-MUSIC imaging algorithm. Instead of utilizing the conventional multistatic data matrix (MDM), we employ a modified MDM obtained from the gating technique. The resulting imaging functions yield more reliable images with only a few snapshots regardless of the limitation of the antenna arrays.
Electric Dipole Moments in Radioactive Nuclei, Tests of Time Reversal Symmetry
Auerbach, N.
2010-11-24
The research of radioactive nuclei opens new possibilities to study fundamental symmetries, such as time reversal and reflection symmetry. Such nuclei often provide conditions to check in an optimal way certain symmetries and the violation of such symmetries. We will discuss the possibility of obtaining improved limits on violation of time reversal symmetry using pear shaped radioactive nuclei. An effective method to test time reversal invariance in the non-strange sector is to measure parity and time reversal violating (T-P-odd) electromagnetic moments, (such as the static electric dipole moment). Parity and time reversal violating components in the nuclear force may produce P-T-odd moments in nuclei which in turn induce such moments in atoms. We will discuss the possibility that in some reflection asymmetric, heavy nuclei (which are radioactive) these moments are enhanced by several orders of magnitude. Present and future experiments, which will test this idea, will be mentioned.
Fast time-reversible algorithms for molecular dynamics of rigid-body systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kajima, Yasuhiro; Hiyama, Miyabi; Ogata, Shuji; Kobayashi, Ryo; Tamura, Tomoyuki
2012-06-01
In this paper, we present time-reversible simulation algorithms for rigid bodies in the quaternion representation. By advancing a time-reversible algorithm [Y. Kajima, M. Hiyama, S. Ogata, and T. Tamura, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 80, 114002 (2011), 10.1143/JPSJ.80.114002] that requires iterations in calculating the angular velocity at each time step, we propose two kinds of iteration-free fast time-reversible algorithms. They are easily implemented in codes. The codes are compared with that of existing algorithms through demonstrative simulation of a nanometer-sized water droplet to find their stability of the total energy and computation speeds.
Time reversal technique for health monitoring of metallic structure using Lamb waves.
Gangadharan, R; Murthy, C R L; Gopalakrishnan, S; Bhat, M R
2009-12-01
Time reversal active sensing using Lamb waves is investigated for health monitoring of a metallic structure. Experiments were conducted on an aluminum plate to study the time reversal behavior of A(0) and S(0) Lamb wave modes under narrow band and broad band pulse excitation. Damage in the form of a notch was introduced in the plate to study the changes in the characteristics of the time reversed Lamb wave modes experimentally. Time-frequency analysis of the time reversed signal was carried out to extract the damage information. A measure of damage based on wavelet transform was derived to quantify the hidden damage information in the time reversed signal. It has been shown that time reversal can be used to achieve temporal recompression of Lamb waves under broadband signal excitation. Further, the broad band excitation can also improve the resolution of the technique in detecting closely located defects. This is demonstrated by picking up the reflection of waves from the edge of the plate, from a defect close to the edge of the plate and from defects located near to each other. This study shows the effectiveness of Lamb wave time reversal for temporal recompression of dispersive Lamb waves for damage detection in health monitoring applications.
Health monitoring of bolted joints using the time reversal method and piezoelectric transducers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Wang; Shaopeng, Liu; Junhua, Shao; Yourong, Li
2016-02-01
In this paper, the time reversal method based on piezoelectric active sensing is investigated for health monitoring of bolted joints. Experiments are conducted on bolted joints to study the relationship between the time reversal focused signal peak amplitudes and the bolt preload. Two piezoelectric patches are bonded on two different sides of a bolted joint. Any one of the piezoelectric patches can be used as an actuator to generate an ultrasonic wave, and the other one can be used as a sensor to detect the propagated wave. With the time reversal method, the received response signal is reversed in the time domain and then is re-emitted as an excitation signal to acquire the time reversal focused signals. The experimental results show that the time reversal focused signal peak amplitudes increase with the increasing bolt preload until reaching saturation, and when the bolt preload increases to a certain value, the focused signal peak amplitudes will remain unchanged. Experiments show that the surface roughness of the bolted joint impacts the saturation value. A higher surface roughness value corresponds to a higher saturation value. In addition, the proposed method has a high signal to noise ratio benefiting from the time reversal method time and space focusing ability.
Compensatory plasticity in the olfactory epithelium: age, timing, and reversibility
Barber, Casey N.
2015-01-01
Like other biological systems, olfaction responds “homeostatically” to enduring change in the stimulus environment. This adaptive mechanism, referred to as compensatory plasticity, has been studied almost exclusively in developing animals. Thus it is unknown if this phenomenon is limited to ontogenesis and irreversible, characteristics common to some other forms of plasticity. Here we explore the effects of odor deprivation on the adult mouse olfactory epithelium (OE) using nasal plugs to eliminate nasal airflow unilaterally. Plugs were in place for 2–6 wk after which electroolfactograms (EOGs) were recorded from the occluded and open sides of the nasal cavity. Mean EOG amplitudes were significantly greater on the occluded than on the open side. The duration of plugging did not affect the results, suggesting that maximal compensation occurs within 2 wk or less. The magnitude of the EOG difference between the open and occluded side in plugged mice was comparable to adults that had undergone surgical naris occlusion as neonates. When plugs were removed after 4 wk followed by 2 wk of recovery, mean EOG amplitudes were not significantly different between the always-open and previously plugged sides of the nasal cavity suggesting that this form of plasticity is reversible. Taken together, these results suggest that compensatory plasticity is a constitutive mechanism of olfactory receptor neurons that allows these cells to recalibrate their stimulus-response relationship to fit the statistics of their current odor environment. PMID:26269548
Reverse Space-Time Nonlocal Sasa-Satsuma Equation and Its Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Caiqin; Xiao, Dongmei; Zhu, Zuo-nong
2017-05-01
The Sasa-Satsuma equation is an integrable high-order nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, and also is a complex modified KdV-type equation. It can describe the propagation of femtosecond pulses in optical fibers. Very recently, Ablowitz and Mussliman introduced a class of reverse space-time and reverse time nonlinear integrable equations, including the reverse space nonlocal NLS equation, the real and complex reverse space-time nonlocal mKdV, sine-Gordon, Davey-Stewartson equations, etc. So, what is nonlocal version of high-order NLS? In this paper, we introduce a reverse space-time nonlocal Sasa-Satsuma equation, i.e., a reverse space-time nonlocal high-order NLS equation, and derive its solutions with the binary Darboux transformation method. Periodic solutions, and some localized solutions, such as dark soliton, W-shaped soliton, M-shaped soliton and breather soliton of the reverse space-time nonlocal Sasa-Satsuma equation are constructed.
Universality class of XY -like spin glasses lacking time-reversal symmetry
Gingras, M.J.P. )
1991-10-01
{ital XY}-like spin-glass models without time-reversal symmetry are considered, with attention focused on the gauge glass and the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya {ital XY} spin glass. A mean-field approximation of the replicated Ginzburg-Landau free energy of these models is used to show that, due to the lack of time-reversal symmetry, these models have two soft (massless) modes at the transition. A consequence of this result is that all {ital XY}-like spin glasses lacking time-reversal symmetry belong to the same universality class, but which is a different one from that found for Ising and isotropic vector spin glasses.
Probing the interior of a solid volume with time reversal and nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy.
Le Bas, P Y; Ulrich, T J; Anderson, B E; Guyer, R A; Johnson, P A
2011-10-01
A nonlinear scatterer is simulated in the body of a sample and demonstrates a technique to locate and define the elastic nature of the scatterer. Using the principle of time reversal, elastic wave energy is focused at the interface between blocks of optical grade glass and aluminum. Focusing of energy at the interface creates nonlinear wave scattering that can be detected on the sample perimeter with time-reversal mirror elements. The nonlinearly generated scattered signal is bandpass filtered about the nonlinearly generated components, time reversed and broadcast from the same mirror elements, and the signal is focused at the scattering location on the interface. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America
Time reversibility of intracranial human EEG recordings in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van der Heyden, M. J.; Diks, C.; Pijn, J. P. M.; Velis, D. N.
1996-02-01
Intracranial electroencephalograms from patients suffering from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy were tested for time reversibility. If the recorded time series is irreversible, the input of the recording system cannot be a realisation of a linear Gaussian random process. We confirmed experimentally that the measurement equipment did not introduce irreversibility in the recorded output when the input was a realisation of a linear Gaussian random process. In general, the non-seizure recordings are reversible, whereas the seizure recordings are irreversible. These results suggest that time reversibility is a useful property for the characterisation of human intracranial EEG recordings in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.
Time reversal invariance of quantum kinetic equations: Nonequilibrium Green functions formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scharnke, Miriam; Schlünzen, Niclas; Bonitz, Michael
2017-06-01
Time reversal symmetry is a fundamental property of many quantum mechanical systems. The relation between statistical physics and time reversal is subtle and not all statistical theories conserve this particular symmetry, most notably hydrodynamic equations and kinetic equations such as the Boltzmann equation. In this article, it is shown analytically that quantum kinetic generalizations of the Boltzmann equation that are derived using the nonequilibrium Green functions formalism as well as all approximations that stem from Φ-derivable self-energies are time reversal invariant.
Time reversibility from visibility graphs of nonstationary processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacasa, Lucas; Flanagan, Ryan
2015-08-01
Visibility algorithms are a family of methods to map time series into networks, with the aim of describing the structure of time series and their underlying dynamical properties in graph-theoretical terms. Here we explore some properties of both natural and horizontal visibility graphs associated to several nonstationary processes, and we pay particular attention to their capacity to assess time irreversibility. Nonstationary signals are (infinitely) irreversible by definition (independently of whether the process is Markovian or producing entropy at a positive rate), and thus the link between entropy production and time series irreversibility has only been explored in nonequilibrium stationary states. Here we show that the visibility formalism naturally induces a new working definition of time irreversibility, which allows us to quantify several degrees of irreversibility for stationary and nonstationary series, yielding finite values that can be used to efficiently assess the presence of memory and off-equilibrium dynamics in nonstationary processes without the need to differentiate or detrend them. We provide rigorous results complemented by extensive numerical simulations on several classes of stochastic processes.
Mapping the three-body system - decay time and reversibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehto, H. J.; Kotiranta, S.; Valtonen, M. J.; Heinämäki, P.; Mikkola, S.; Chernin, A. D.
2008-08-01
In this paper we carry out a quantitative analysis of the three-body systems and map them as a function of decaying time and initial configuration, look at this problem as an example of a simple deterministic system and ask to what extent the orbits are really predictable. We have investigated the behaviour of about 200000 general Newtonian three-body systems using the simplest initial conditions. Within our resolution these cover all the possible states where the objects are initially at rest and have no angular momentum. We have determined the decay time-scales of the triple systems and show that the distribution of this parameter is fractal in appearance. Some areas that appear stable on large scales exhibit very narrow strips of instability and the overall pattern, dominated by resonances, reminds us of a traditional Maasai warrior shield. Also an attempt is made to recover the original starting configuration of the three bodies by backward integration. We find there are instances where the evolution to the future and to the past lead to different orbits, in spite of time symmetric initial conditions. This implies that even in simple deterministic systems there exists an arrow of time.
Time Reversed Electromagnetics as a Novel Method for Wireless Power Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Challa, Anu; Anlage, Steven M.; Tesla Team
Taking advantage of ray-chaotic enclosures, time reversal has been shown to securely transmit information via short-wavelength waves between two points, yielding noise at all other sites. In this presentation, we propose a method to adapt the signal-focusing technique to electromagnetic signals in order to transmit energy to portable devices. Relying only on the time-reversal invariance properties of waves, the technique is unencumbered by the inversely-proportional-to-distance path loss or precise orientation requirements of its predecessors, making it attractive for power transfer applications. We inject a short microwave pulse into a complex, wave-chaotic chamber and collect the resulting long time-domain signal at a designated transceiver. The signal is then time reversed and emitted from the collection site, collapsing as a time-reversed replica of the initial pulse at the injection site. When amplified, this reconstruction is robust, as measured through metrics of peak-to-peak voltage and energy transfer ratio. We experimentally demonstrate that time reversed collapse can be made on a moving target, and propose a way to selectively target devices through nonlinear time-reversal. University of Maryland Gemstone Team TESLA: Frank Cangialosi, Anu Challa, Tim Furman, Tyler Grover, Patrick Healey, Ben Philip, Brett Potter, Scott Roman, Andrew Simon, Liangcheng Tao, Alex Tabatabai.
Reverse time migration: A seismic processing application on the connection machine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fiebrich, Rolf-Dieter
1987-01-01
The implementation of a reverse time migration algorithm on the Connection Machine, a massively parallel computer is described. Essential architectural features of this machine as well as programming concepts are presented. The data structures and parallel operations for the implementation of the reverse time migration algorithm are described. The algorithm matches the Connection Machine architecture closely and executes almost at the peak performance of this machine.
Mechanism, time-reversal symmetry, and topology of superconductivity in noncentrosymmetric systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheurer, M. S.
2016-05-01
We analyze the possible interaction-induced superconducting instabilities in noncentrosymmetric systems based on symmetries of the normal state. It is proven that pure electron-phonon coupling will always lead to a fully gapped superconductor that does not break time-reversal symmetry and is topologically trivial. We show that topologically nontrivial behavior can be induced by magnetic doping without gapping out the resulting Kramers pair of Majorana edge modes. In the case of superconductivity arising from the particle-hole fluctuations associated with a competing instability, the properties of the condensate crucially depend on the time-reversal behavior of the order parameter of the competing instability. When the order parameter preserves time-reversal symmetry, we obtain exactly the same properties as in the case of phonons. If it is odd under time reversal, the Cooper channel of the interaction will be fully repulsive leading to sign changes of the gap and making spontaneous time-reversal-symmetry breaking possible. To discuss topological properties, we focus on fully gapped time-reversal-symmetric superconductors and derive constraints on possible pairing states that yield necessary conditions for the emergence of topologically nontrivial superconductivity. These conditions might serve as a tool in the search for topological superconductors. We also discuss implications for oxide heterostructures and single-layer FeSe.
Reversal of age-related neural timing delays with training
Anderson, Samira; White-Schwoch, Travis; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Kraus, Nina
2013-01-01
Neural slowing is commonly noted in older adults, with consequences for sensory, motor, and cognitive domains. One of the deleterious effects of neural slowing is impairment of temporal resolution; older adults, therefore, have reduced ability to process the rapid events that characterize speech, especially in noisy environments. Although hearing aids provide increased audibility, they cannot compensate for deficits in auditory temporal processing. Auditory training may provide a strategy to address these deficits. To that end, we evaluated the effects of auditory-based cognitive training on the temporal precision of subcortical processing of speech in noise. After training, older adults exhibited faster neural timing and experienced gains in memory, speed of processing, and speech-in-noise perception, whereas a matched control group showed no changes. Training was also associated with decreased variability of brainstem response peaks, suggesting a decrease in temporal jitter in response to a speech signal. These results demonstrate that auditory-based cognitive training can partially restore age-related deficits in temporal processing in the brain; this plasticity in turn promotes better cognitive and perceptual skills. PMID:23401541
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Guofeng; Kong, Qingzhao; Wu, Fanghong; Ruan, Jiabiao; Song, Gangbing
2016-03-01
Corrosion pits on pipelines lead to the formation of small holes, which cause further pipeline damage and even catastrophic consequences. Since many pipelines are located underground, the detection of corrosion pits on pipelines in real time is still an engineering challenge. In this paper, an experimental feasibility study on pipeline corrosion pit detection using the time reversal technique with a piezoceramic transducer as a time reversal mirror was investigated. A specimen of steel pipeline section was fabricated with an artificially drilled hole, which was to mimic a corrosion pit. By gradually increasing the depth of the hole, the evolution of the corrosion pit on the pipeline was simulated and studied. Two piezoceramic transducers were employed to generate a stress wave to propagate along the pipeline and to detect the propagated stress wave. With both the properties of sensing and actuating functions, a piezoceramic transducer was used as a time reversal mirror, which first detected the propagated stress wave signal and then sent ‘back’ the time-reversed signal as a propagating stress wave. With the inherent auto-focusing property of the time reversal technique, the detected time-reversed stress wave had a distinct focused peak. A corrosion pit on a pipeline, as a structural defect, reduces the energy of the focused signal received by the piezoceramic sensor and the attenuation ratio of the focused signal depends strongly on the degree of corrosion depth. Experimental results show that the amplitudes of the focused signal peak decrease with the increase of corrosion pit depth and we can use the peak amplitude of the focused signal to determine the state of pipeline corrosion. The time reversal based method proposed in this paper shows the potential to quantitatively monitor the damage degree of corrosion pits on pipelines in real time.
Ultra-fast reverse recovery time measurement for wide-bandgap diodes
Mauch, Daniel L.; Zutavern, Fred J.; Delhotal, Jarod J.; ...
2017-03-01
A system is presented that is capable of measuring sub-nanosecond reverse recovery times of diodes in wide-bandgap materials over a wide range of forward biases (0 – 1 A) and reverse voltages (0 – 10 kV). The system utilizes the step recovery technique and comprises a cable pulser based on a silicon (Si) Photoconductive Semiconductor Switch (PCSS) triggered with an Ultra Short Pulse Laser (USPL), a pulse charging circuit, a diode biasing circuit, and resistive and capacitive voltage monitors. The PCSS based cable pulser transmits a 130 ps rise time pulse down a transmission line to a capacitively coupled diode,more » which acts as the terminating element of the transmission line. The temporal nature of the pulse reflected by the diode provides the reverse recovery characteristics of the diode, measured with a high bandwidth capacitive probe integrated into the cable pulser. Furthermore, this system was used to measure the reverse recovery times (including the creation and charging of the depletion region) for two Avogy gallium nitride (GaN) diodes; the initial reverse recovery time was found to be 4 ns and varied minimally over reverse biases of 50 – 100 V and forward current of 1 – 100 mA.« less
Experimental study on multiple-input/multiple-output communication with time reversal in deep ocean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimura, Takuya; Kida, Yukihiro; Deguchi, Mitsuyasu; Watanabe, Yoshitaka; Ochi, Hiroshi
2017-07-01
Multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) communication using adaptive time reversal is examined by comparing orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) with simulated MIMO test signals by synthesizing experimental data in deep ocean. The experiment was carried out in a 1,100-m-depth area at a range of 10 km with a bandwidth of 500 ± 50 Hz. Although time variance is not included in analysis of OFDM, it is impossible to increase the numbers of MIMO channels with OFDM. On the other hand, with adaptive time reversal, it is possible to achieve 8 × 20 and 6 × 20 MIMO communication with binary phase shift keying (BPSK) and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), respectively, in spite of time variance and input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) degradation due to synthesized signals. Thus, it is demonstrated that adaptive time reversal shows a much better performance than OFDM in MIMO underwater acoustic communication.
Time reversal seismic source imaging using peak average power ratio (PAPR) parameter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franczyk, Anna; Leśniak, Andrzej; Gwiżdż, Damian
2017-04-01
The time reversal method has become a standard technique for the location of seismic sources. It has been used both for acoustic and elastic numerical modelling and for 2D and 3D propagation models. Although there are many studies concerning its application to point sources, little so far has been done to generalise the time reversal method to the study of sequences of seismic events. The need to describe such processes better motivates the analysis presented in this paper. The synthetic time reversal imaging experiments presented in this work were conducted for sources with the same origin time as well as for the sources with a slight delay in origin time. For efficient visualisation of the seismic wave propagation and interference, a new coefficient—peak average power ratio—was introduced. The paper also presents a comparison of visualisation based on the proposed coefficient against a commonly used visualisation based on a maximum value.
Time reversal seismic source imaging using peak average power ratio (PAPR) parameter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franczyk, Anna; Leśniak, Andrzej; Gwiżdż, Damian
2017-03-01
The time reversal method has become a standard technique for the location of seismic sources. It has been used both for acoustic and elastic numerical modelling and for 2D and 3D propagation models. Although there are many studies concerning its application to point sources, little so far has been done to generalise the time reversal method to the study of sequences of seismic events. The need to describe such processes better motivates the analysis presented in this paper. The synthetic time reversal imaging experiments presented in this work were conducted for sources with the same origin time as well as for the sources with a slight delay in origin time. For efficient visualisation of the seismic wave propagation and interference, a new coefficient—peak average power ratio—was introduced. The paper also presents a comparison of visualisation based on the proposed coefficient against a commonly used visualisation based on a maximum value.
Time reversal of flexural waves in a beam at audible frequency.
Francoeur, Dany; Berry, Alain
2008-08-01
There has been very limited work on the application of time reversal to the propagation of audible frequency waves in mechanical structures. The present work concentrates on the application of time reversal to the focusing of audible range, flexural waves in an infinite beam, and to the detection of local heterogeneity in such a beam. Practical applications of time reversal of flexural waves in structures include vibration energy focusing, detection of vibratory or acoustic sources, and detection of defects in mechanical structures. An analytical model of flexural wave propagation in the beam as well as sensing and emission using piezoelectric transducers is presented. Time reversal experiments are conducted and compared to the model results in either a homogeneous beam or a beam with point mass heterogeneities. In the various situations tested, it is shown that time reversal effectively compensates the spreading in time of the impulse due to the dispersive propagation of flexural waves. One interesting aspect of this property is the generation of large amplitude impulsive responses in the beam using remote actuators. Finally, the "Decomposition de l'Operateur de Retournement Temporel" approach is examined to detect and localize point mass scatterers in the beam.
Time reversal focusing of elastic waves in plates for an educational demonstration.
Heaton, Christopher; Anderson, Brian E; Young, Sarah M
2017-02-01
The purpose of this research is to develop a visual demonstration of time reversal focusing of vibrations in a thin plate. Various plate materials are tested to provide optimal conditions for time reversal focusing. Specifically, the reverberation time in each plate and the vibration coupling efficiency from a shaker to the plate are quantified to illustrate why a given plate provides the best spatially confined focus as well as the highest focal amplitude possible. A single vibration speaker and a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) are used to provide the time reversal focusing. Table salt is sprinkled onto the plate surface to allow visualization of the high amplitude, spatially localized time reversal focus; the salt is thrown upward only at the focal position. Spatial mapping of the vibration focusing on the plate using the SLDV is correlated to the visual salt jumping demonstration. The time reversal focusing is also used to knock over an object when the object is placed at the focal position; some discussion of optimal objects to use for this demonstration are given.
Time reversal imaging and cross-correlations techniques by normal mode theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montagner, J.; Fink, M.; Capdeville, Y.; Phung, H.; Larmat, C.
2007-12-01
Time-reversal methods were successfully applied in the past to acoustic waves in many fields such as medical imaging, underwater acoustics, non destructive testing and recently to seismic waves in seismology for earthquake imaging. The increasing power of computers and numerical methods (such as spectral element methods) enables one to simulate more and more accurately the propagation of seismic waves in heterogeneous media and to develop new applications, in particular time reversal in the three-dimensional Earth. Generalizing the scalar approach of Draeger and Fink (1999), the theoretical understanding of time-reversal method can be addressed for the 3D- elastic Earth by using normal mode theory. It is shown how to relate time- reversal methods on one hand, with auto-correlation of seismograms for source imaging and on the other hand, with cross-correlation between receivers for structural imaging and retrieving Green function. The loss of information will be discussed. In the case of source imaging, automatic location in time and space of earthquakes and unknown sources is obtained by time reversal technique. In the case of big earthquakes such as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of december 2004, we were able to reconstruct the spatio-temporal history of the rupture. We present here some new applications at the global scale of these techniques on synthetic tests and on real data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Kaiyuan; Rizzo, Piervincenzo
2017-04-01
We present a numerical study on the application of time reversal principles to highly nonlinear solitary waves (HNSWs) propagating along a one-dimensional granular crystal. HNSWs are compact non-dispersive waves that have been recently investigated in many fields of engineering including lensing, impact absorption, and nondestructive evaluation. Time reversal is instead a method to reconstruct a wave at the location where the wave was originated by reversing the same wave scattered at any other point. The overall principle applied in the present research is that a solitary pulse can be induced by a piezo-actuator inserted in the chain; the pulse travels forward and is captured by a second piezo-actuator, acting as a sensor; here, the signal is reversed in the time domain and then reapplied by the second piezo-actuator; the reversed signal travels backward through the chain, is sensed by the first piezo-actuator, and is collected as a reconstructed signal of the original one. In this study, we hypothesize and verify numerically that the original and reconstructed pulses are identical if the chain is uniform, whereas the reversibility is broken if an impurity is introduced.
On the numerical implementation of time-reversal mirrors for tomographic imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masson, Yder; Cupillard, Paul; Capdeville, Yann; Romanowicz, Barbara
2014-03-01
A general approach for constructing numerical equivalents of time-reversal mirrors is introduced. These numerical mirrors can be used to regenerate an original wavefield locally within a confined volume of arbitrary shape. Though time-reversal mirrors were originally designed to reproduce a time-reversed version of an original wavefield, the proposed method is independent of the time direction and can be used to regenerate a wavefield going either forward in time or backward in time. Applications to computational seismology and tomographic imaging of such local wavefield reconstructions are discussed. The key idea of the method is to directly express the source terms constituting the time-reversal mirror by introducing a spatial window function into the wave equation. The method is usable with any numerical method based on the discrete form of the wave equation, for example, with finite difference (FD) methods and with finite/spectral elements methods. The obtained mirrors are perfect in the sense that no additional error is introduced into the reconstructed wavefields apart from rounding errors that are inherent in floating-point computations. They are fully transparent as they do not interact with waves that are not part of the original wavefield and are permeable to these. We establish a link between some hybrid methods introduced in seismology, such as wave-injection, and the proposed time-reversal mirrors. Numerical examples based on FD and spectral elements methods in the acoustic, the elastic and the visco-elastic cases are presented. They demonstrate the accuracy of the method and illustrate some possible applications. An alternative implementation of the time-reversal mirrors based on the discretization of the surface integrals in the representation theorem is also introduced. Though it is out of the scope of the paper, the proposed method also apply to numerical schemes for modelling of other types of waves such as electro-magnetic waves.
Audio signal separation via a combination procedure of time-reversal and deconvolution process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Bo-Hsien; Too, Gee-Pinn; Lee, Sony
2010-07-01
Time-reversal method (TRM) is based on principle of reciprocity of sound by propagating of a reversal signal in time series to compensate distortion due to path effect in propagation and to focus the signal at the original source location. In recent years, the technique has been applied in optics, ultrasound and underwater acoustic communication. In the present study, a procedure for audio signal separation is developed by applying time-reversal and deconvolution process. The procedure separates sources from audio signal in time domain. The advantages of this procedure are to separate a specific source from a combination signal of multiple sources and to reduce reverberation effectively. Finally, a deconvolution process of finding impulse response function (IRF) is developed where single value decomposition (SVD) and Tikhonov regularization process are used to solve ill-conditioned and singular linear systems. In addition, the effect of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and number of array sensors are discussed in details.
Generation of very high pressure pulses with 1-bit time reversal in a solid waveguide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montaldo, Gabriel; Roux, Phillippe; Derode, Arnaud; Negreira, Carlos; Fink, Mathias
2001-12-01
The use of piezoelectric transducer arrays has opened up the possibility of electronic steering and focusing of acoustic beams to track kidney stones. However, owing to the limited pressure delivered by each transducer (typically 10 bar), the number of transducers needed to reach an amplitude at the focus on the order of 1000 bars is typically of some hundreds of elements. We present here a new solution based on 1-bit time reversal in a solid waveguide to obtain, with a small number of transducers, a very high amplitude pulse in tissues located in front of the waveguide. The idea is to take advantage of the temporal dispersion in the waveguide to create, after time reversal, a temporally recompressed pulse with a stronger amplitude. The aim of this work is threefold: first, we experimentally demonstrate 1-bit time reversal between a point source in water and several transducers fastened to one section of a finite-length cylindrical waveguide. Second, we numerically and experimentally study the temporal and spatial focusing at the source as a function of the characteristics of the ``solid waveguide-time reversal mirror (TRM)'' system: length and diameter of the guide, number of transducers of the TRM. Last, we show that the instantaneous power delivered in water at the focus of the solid waveguide is much higher than the power directly transmitted into water from a classically focused transducer. The combination of 1-bit time reversal and a solid waveguide leads to shock wave lithotripsy with low-power electronics.
Efficiency Statistics and Bounds for Systems with Broken Time-Reversal Symmetry.
Jiang, Jian-Hua; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Segal, Dvira
2015-07-24
Universal properties of the statistics of stochastic efficiency for mesoscopic time-reversal symmetry broken energy transducers are revealed in the Gaussian approximation. We also discuss how the second law of thermodynamics restricts the statistics of stochastic efficiency. The tight-coupling limit becomes unfavorable, characterized by an infinitely broad distribution of efficiency at all times, when time-reversal symmetry breaking leads to an asymmetric Onsager response matrix. The underlying physics is demonstrated through the quantum Hall effect and further elaborated in a triple-quantum-dot three-terminal thermoelectric engine.
Time-resolved imaging of pulse-induced magnetization reversal with a microwave assist field
Rao, Siddharth; Rhensius, Jan; Bisig, Andre; Mawass, Mohamad-Assaad; Weigand, Markus; Kläui, Mathias; Bhatia, Charanjit S.; Yang, Hyunsoo
2015-01-01
The reversal of the magnetization under the influence of a field pulse has been previously predicted to be an incoherent process with several competing phenomena such as domain wall relaxation, spin wave-mediated instability regions, and vortex-core mediated reversal dynamics. However, there has been no study on the direct observation of the switching process with the aid of a microwave signal input. We report a time-resolved imaging study of magnetization reversal in patterned magnetic structures under the influence of a field pulse with microwave assistance. The microwave frequency is varied to demonstrate the effect of resonant microwave-assisted switching. We observe that the switching process is dominated by spin wave dynamics generated as a result of magnetic instabilities in the structures, and identify the frequencies that are most dominant in magnetization reversal. PMID:26023723
Time-resolved VUV spectroscopy in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hedqvist, Anders; Rachlew-Källne, Elisabeth
1998-09-01
Time-resolved VUV spectroscopy has been used to investigate the effects of impurities in a reversed field pinch operating with a resistive shell. Results of electron temperature, impurity ion densities, particle confinement time and 0741-3335/40/9/004/img1 together with a description of the interpretation and the equipment are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armitage, N. P.
2014-07-01
Optical spectroscopies are most often used to probe dynamical correlations in materials, but they are also a probe of symmetry. Polarization anisotropies are of course sensitive to structural anisotropies, but have been much less used as a probe of more exotic symmetry breakings in ordered states. In this paper, a Jones transfer matrix formalism is discussed to infer the existence of exotic broken symmetry states of matter from their electrodynamic response for a full complement of possible broken symmetries including reflection, rotation, rotation reflection, inversion, and time reversal. A specific condition to distinguish the case of macroscopic time-reversal symmetry breaking is particularly important as in a dynamical experiment like optics, one must distinguish reciprocity from time-reversal symmetry as dissipation violates strict time-reversal symmetry of an experiment. Different forms of reciprocity can be distinguished, but only one is a sufficient (but not necessary) condition for macroscopic time-reversal symmetry breaking. I show the constraints that a Jones matrix develops under the presence or absence of such symmetries. These constraints typically appear in the form of an algebra relating matrix elements or overall constraints (transposition, unitarity, hermiticity, normality, etc.) on the form of the Jones matrix. I work out a number of examples including the trivial case of a ferromagnet and the less trivial cases of magnetoelectrics and vector and scalar spin "chiral" states. I show that the formalism can be used to demonstrate that Kerr rotation must be absent in time-reversal symmetric chiral materials. The formalism here is discussed with an eye towards its use in time-domain terahetrz spectroscopy in transmission, but with small modifications it is more generally applicable.
Experimental demonstration of the utility of pressure sensitivity kernels in time-reversal.
Raghukumar, Kaustubha; Cornuelle, Bruce D; Hodgkiss, William S; Kuperman, William A
2010-09-01
Pressure sensitivity kernels were recently applied to time-reversal acoustics in an attempt to explain the enhanced stability of the time-reversal focal spot [Raghukumar et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124, 98-112 (2008)]. The theoretical framework developed was also used to derive optimized source functions, closely related to the inverse filter. The use of these optimized source functions results in an inverse filter-like focal spot which is more robust to medium sound speed fluctuations than both time-reversal and the inverse filter. In this paper the theory is applied to experimental data gathered during the Focused Acoustic Fields experiment, conducted in 2005, north of Elba Island in Italy. Sensitivity kernels are calculated using a range-independent sound-speed profile, for a geometry identical to that used in the experiment, and path sensitivities are identified with observed arrivals. The validity of the kernels in tracking time-evolving Green's functions is studied, along with limitations that result from a linearized analysis. An internal wave model is used to generate an ensemble of sound speed profiles, which are then used along with the calculated sensitivity kernels to derive optimized source functions. Focal spots obtained using the observed Green's functions with these optimized source functions are then compared to those obtained using time-reversal and the inverse-filter. It is shown that these functions are able to provide a focal spot superior to time-reversal while being more robust to sound speed fluctuations than the inverse filter or time-reversal.
Armstrong, Irene T.; Judson, Melissa; Munoz, Douglas P.; Johansson, Roland S.; Flanagan, J. Randall
2013-01-01
Although eye movement onset typically precedes hand movement onset when reaching to targets presented in peripheral vision, arm motor commands appear to be issued at around the same time, and possibly in advance, of eye motor commands. A fundamental question, therefore, is whether eye movement initiation is linked or yoked to hand movement. We addressed this issue by having participants reach to targets after adapting to a visuomotor reversal (or 180° rotation) between the position of the unseen hand and the position of a cursor controlled by the hand. We asked whether this reversal, which we expected to increase hand reaction time (HRT), would also increase saccadic reaction time (SRT). As predicted, when moving the cursor to targets under the reversal, HRT increased in all participants. SRT also increased in all but one participant, even though the task for the eyes—shifting gaze to the target—was unaltered by the reversal of hand position feedback. Moreover, the effects of the reversal on SRT and HRT were positively correlated across participants; those who exhibited the greatest increases in HRT also showed the greatest increases in SRT. These results indicate that the mechanisms underlying the initiation of eye and hand movements are linked. In particular, the results suggest that the initiation of an eye movement to a manual target depends, at least in part, on the specification of hand movement. PMID:23847494
Enhanced focal-resolution of dipole sources using aeroacoustic time-reversal in a wind tunnel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mimani, A.; Moreau, D. J.; Prime, Z.; Doolan, C. J.
2016-05-01
This paper presents the first application of the Point-Time-Reversal-Sponge-Layer (PTRSL) damping technique to enhance the focal-resolution of experimental flow-induced dipole sources obtained using the Time-Reversal (TR) source localization method. Experiments were conducted in an Anechoic Wind Tunnel for the case of a full-span cylinder located in a low Mach number cross-flow. The far-field acoustic pressure sampled using two line arrays of microphones located above and below the cylinder exhibited a dominant Aeolian tone. The aeroacoustic TR simulations were implemented using the time-reversed signals whereby the source map revealed the lift-dipole nature at the Aeolian tone frequency. A PTRSL (centred at the predicted dipole location) was shown to reduce the size of dipole focal spots to 7/20th of a wavelength as compared to one wavelength without its use, thereby dramatically enhancing the focal-resolution of the TR technique.
Time reversal of parametrical driving and the stability of the parametrically excited pendulum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stannarius, Ralf
2009-02-01
It is well known that the periodic driving of a parametrically excited pendulum can stabilize or destabilize its stationary states, depending upon the frequency, wave form, and amplitude of the parameter modulations. We discuss the effect of time reversal of the periodic driving function for the parametric pendulum at small elongations. Such a time reversal usually leads to different solutions of the equations of motion and to different stability properties of the system. Two interesting exceptions are discussed, and two conditions are formulated for which the character of the solutions of the system is not influenced by a time reversal of the driving function, even though the trajectories of the dynamic variables are different.
Time-reversal acoustics and ultrasound-assisted convection-enhanced drug delivery to the brain.
Olbricht, William; Sistla, Manjari; Ghandi, Gaurav; Lewis, George; Sarvazyan, Armen
2013-08-01
Time-reversal acoustics is an effective way of focusing ultrasound deep inside heterogeneous media such as biological tissues. Convection-enhanced delivery is a method of delivering drugs into the brain by infusing them directly into the brain interstitium. These two technologies are combined in a focusing system that uses a "smart needle" to simultaneously infuse fluid into the brain and provide the necessary feedback for focusing ultrasound using time-reversal acoustics. The effects of time-reversal acoustics-focused ultrasound on the spatial distribution of infused low- and high-molecular weight tracer molecules are examined in live, anesthetized rats. Results show that exposing the rat brain to focused ultrasound significantly increases the penetration of infused compounds into the brain. The addition of stabilized microbubbles enhances the effect of ultrasound exposure.
Time-reversal acoustics and ultrasound-assisted convection-enhanced drug delivery to the brain
Olbricht, William; Sistla, Manjari; Ghandi, Gaurav; Lewis, George; Sarvazyan, Armen
2013-01-01
Time-reversal acoustics is an effective way of focusing ultrasound deep inside heterogeneous media such as biological tissues. Convection-enhanced delivery is a method of delivering drugs into the brain by infusing them directly into the brain interstitium. These two technologies are combined in a focusing system that uses a “smart needle” to simultaneously infuse fluid into the brain and provide the necessary feedback for focusing ultrasound using time-reversal acoustics. The effects of time-reversal acoustics-focused ultrasound on the spatial distribution of infused low- and high-molecular weight tracer molecules are examined in live, anesthetized rats. Results show that exposing the rat brain to focused ultrasound significantly increases the penetration of infused compounds into the brain. The addition of stabilized microbubbles enhances the effect of ultrasound exposure. PMID:23927197
Time-reversal-breaking topological phases in antiferromagnetic Sr2FeOsO6 films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Xiao-Yu; Kanungo, Sudipta; Yan, Binghai; Liu, Chao-Xing
2016-12-01
In this work, we studied time-reversal-breaking topological phases as a result of the interplay between antiferromagnetism and inverted band structures in antiferromagnetic double perovskite transition-metal Sr2FeOsO6 films. By combining the first-principles calculations and analytical models, we demonstrate that the quantum anomalous Hall phase and chiral topological superconducting phase can be realized in this system. We find that to achieve time-reversal-breaking topological phases in antiferromagnetic materials, it is essential to break the combined symmetry of time reversal and inversion, which generally exists in antiferromagnetic structures. As a result, we can utilize an external electric gate voltage to induce the phase transition between topological phases and trivial phases, thus providing an electrically controllable topological platform for future transport experiments.
Multi-channel time-reversal receivers for multi and 1-bit implementations
Candy, James V.; Chambers, David H.; Guidry, Brian L.; Poggio, Andrew J.; Robbins, Christopher L.
2008-12-09
A communication system for transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprising digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. In one embodiment a transmitter is adapted to transmit the signal, a multiplicity of receivers are adapted to receive the signal, a digitizer digitizes the signal, and a time-reversal signal processor is adapted to time-reverse the digitized signal. An embodiment of the present invention includes multi bit implementations. Another embodiment of the present invention includes 1-bit implementations. Another embodiment of the present invention includes a multiplicity of receivers used in the step of transmitting the signal through the channel medium.
Signatures of broken parity and time-reversal symmetry in generalized string-net models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lake, Ethan; Wu, Yong-Shi
2016-09-01
We study indicators of broken time-reversal and parity symmetries in gapped topological phases of matter. We focus on phases realized by Levin-Wen string-net models and generalize the string-net model to describe phases which break parity and time-reversal symmetries. We do this by introducing an extra degree of freedom into the string-net graphical calculus, which takes the form of a branch cut located at each vertex of the underlying string-net lattice. We also work with string-net graphs defined on arbitrary (nontrivalent) graphs, which reveals otherwise hidden information about certain configurations of anyons in the string-net graph. Most significantly, we show that objects known as higher Frobenius-Schur indicators can provide several efficient ways to detect whether a given topological phase breaks parity or time-reversal symmetry.
Time-reversal Aharonov-Casher effect in mesoscopic rings with spin-orbit interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Zhenyue; Wang, Yong; Xia, Ke; Xie, X. C.; Ma, Zhongshui
2007-09-01
The time-reversal Aharonov-Casher (AC) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 319 (1984)] interference effect in the mesoscopic ring structures, based on the experiment in Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 196803 (2006), is studied theoretically. The transmission curves are calculated from the scattering matrix formalism, and the time-reversal AC interference frequency is singled out from the Fourier spectra in numerical simulations. This frequency is in good agreement with analytical result. It is also shown that in the absence of magnetic field, the Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak type [JETP Lett. 33, 94 (1981)] (time reversal) AC interference is retained under the influence of strong disorder, while the Aharonov-Bohm type [Phys. Rev. 115, 485 (1959)] AC interference is suppressed.
Keselman, Anna; Fu, Liang; Stern, Ady; Berg, Erez
2013-09-13
We propose a setup to realize time-reversal-invariant topological superconductors in quantum wires, proximity coupled to conventional superconductors. We consider a model of quantum wire with strong spin-orbit coupling and proximity coupling to two s-wave superconductors. When the relative phase between the two superconductors is ϕ=π a Kramers pair of Majorana zero modes appears at each edge of the wire. We study the robustness of the phase in the presence of both time-reversal-invariant and time-reversal-breaking perturbations. In addition, we show that the system forms a natural realization of a fermion parity pump, switching the local fermion parity of both edges when the relative phase between the superconductors is changed adiabatically by 2π.
Polar Kerr effect studies of time reversal symmetry breaking states in heavy fermion superconductors
Schemm, E. R.; Levenson-Falk, E. M.; Kapitulnik, A.
2016-11-30
The connection between chiral superconductivity and topological order has emerged as an active direction in research as more instances of both have been identified in condensed matter systems. Moreover, with the notable exception of ^{3}He-B, all of the known or suspected chiral – that is to say time-reversal symmetry-breaking (TRSB) – superfluids arise in heavy fermion superconductors, although the vast majority of heavy fermion superconductors preserve time-reversal symmetry. We review recent experimental efforts to identify TRSB states in heavy fermion systems via measurement of polar Kerr effect, which is a direct consequence of TRSB.
Polar Kerr effect studies of time reversal symmetry breaking states in heavy fermion superconductors
Schemm, E. R.; Levenson-Falk, E. M.; Kapitulnik, A.
2016-11-30
The connection between chiral superconductivity and topological order has emerged as an active direction in research as more instances of both have been identified in condensed matter systems. Moreover, with the notable exception of 3He-B, all of the known or suspected chiral – that is to say time-reversal symmetry-breaking (TRSB) – superfluids arise in heavy fermion superconductors, although the vast majority of heavy fermion superconductors preserve time-reversal symmetry. We review recent experimental efforts to identify TRSB states in heavy fermion systems via measurement of polar Kerr effect, which is a direct consequence of TRSB.
The Born Rule and Time-Reversal Symmetry of Quantum Equations of Motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilyin, Aleksey V.
2016-07-01
It was repeatedly underlined in literature that quantum mechanics cannot be considered a closed theory if the Born Rule is postulated rather than derived from the first principles. In this work the Born Rule is derived from the time-reversal symmetry of quantum equations of motion. The derivation is based on a simple functional equation that takes into account properties of probability, as well as the linearity and time-reversal symmetry of quantum equations of motion. The derivation presented in this work also allows to determine certain limits to applicability of the Born Rule.
Multiple line arrays for the characterization of aeroacoustic sources using a time-reversal method.
Mimani, A; Doolan, C J; Medwell, P R
2013-10-01
This letter investigates the use of multiple line arrays (LAs) in a Time-Reversal Mirror for localizing and characterizing multipole aeroacoustic sources in a uniform subsonic mean flow using a numerical Time-Reversal (TR) method. Regardless of the original source characteristics, accuracy of predicting the source location can be significantly improved using at least two LAs. Furthermore, it is impossible to determine the source characteristics using a single LA, rather a minimum of two are required to establish either the monopole or dipole source nature, while four LAs (fully surrounding the source) are required for characterizing a lateral quadrupole source.
The ℤ2 index of disordered topological insulators with time reversal symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katsura, Hosho; Koma, Tohru
2016-02-01
We study disordered topological insulators with time reversal symmetry. Relying on the noncommutative index theorem which relates the Chern number to the projection onto the Fermi sea and the magnetic flux operator, we give a precise definition of the ℤ2 index which is a noncommutative analogue of the Atiyah-Singer ℤ2 index. We prove that the noncommutative ℤ2 index is robust against any time reversal symmetric perturbation including disorder potentials as long as the spectral gap at the Fermi level does not close.
Topology of time-reversal invariant energy bands with adiabatic structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gat, Omri; Robbins, J. M.
2017-09-01
We classify the topology of bands defined by the energy states of quantum systems with scale separation between slow and fast degrees of freedom, invariant under fermionic time reversal. Classical phase space transforms differently from momentum space under time reversal, and as a consequence the topology of adiabatic bands is different from that of Bloch bands. We show that bands defined over a two-dimensional phase space are classified by the Chern number, whose parity must be equal to the parity of the band rank. Even-rank bands are equivalently classified by the Kane-Mele index, an integer equal to one half the Chern number.
Polar Kerr effect studies of time reversal symmetry breaking states in heavy fermion superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schemm, E. R.; Levenson-Falk, E. M.; Kapitulnik, A.
2017-04-01
The connection between chiral superconductivity and topological order has emerged as an active direction in research as more instances of both have been identified in condensed matter systems. With the notable exception of 3He-B, all of the known or suspected chiral - that is to say time-reversal symmetry-breaking (TRSB) - superfluids arise in heavy fermion superconductors, although the vast majority of heavy fermion superconductors preserve time-reversal symmetry. Here we review recent experimental efforts to identify TRSB states in heavy fermion systems via measurement of polar Kerr effect, which is a direct consequence of TRSB.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruber, Fred K.; Marengo, Edwin A.; Devaney, Anthony J.
2004-06-01
The time-reversal imaging with multiple signal classification method for the location of point targets developed within the framework of the Born approximation in Lehman and Devaney [``Transmission mode time-reversal super-resolution imaging,'' J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 2742-2753 (2003)] is generalized to incorporate multiple scattering between the targets. It is shown how the same method can be used in the location of point targets even if there is multiple scattering between them. On the other hand, both the conventional images and the calculated values of the target scattering amplitudes are scattering model-dependent.
Colloquium: Time-reversal violation with quantum-entangled B mesons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernabéu, J.; Martínez-Vidal, F.
2015-01-01
Symmetry transformations have been proven a bedrock tool for understanding the nature of particle interactions, formulating, and testing fundamental theories. Based on the up to now unbroken C P T symmetry, the violation of the C P symmetry between matter and antimatter by weak interactions, discovered in the decay of kaons in 1964 and observed more recently in 2001 in B mesons, strongly suggests that the behavior of these particles under weak interactions must also be asymmetric under time reversal T . However, until recent years there has not been a direct detection of the expected time-reversal violation in the time evolution of any system. This Colloquium examines the field of time-reversal symmetry breaking in the fundamental laws of physics. For transitions, its observation requires an asymmetry with exchange of initial and final states. A discussion is given of the conceptual basis for such an exchange with unstable particles, using the quantum properties of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement available at B meson factories combined with the decay as a filtering measurement. The method allows a clear-cut separation of different transitions between flavor and C P eigenstates in the decay of neutral B mesons. These ideas have been implemented for the experiment by the BABAR Collaboration at SLAC's B factory. The results, presented in 2012, prove beyond any doubt the violation of time-reversal invariance in the time evolution between these two states of the neutral B meson.
Effective time reversal and echo dynamics in the transverse field Ising model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitt, Markus; Kehrein, Stefan
2016-09-01
The question of thermalisation in closed quantum many-body systems has received a lot of attention in the past few years. An intimately related question is whether a closed quantum system shows irreversible dynamics. However, irreversibility and what we actually mean by this in a quantum many-body system with unitary dynamics has been explored very little. In this work we investigate the dynamics of the Ising model in a transverse magnetic field involving an imperfect effective time reversal. We propose a definition of irreversibility based on the echo peak decay of observables. Inducing the effective time reversal by different protocols we find an algebraic decay of the echo peak heights or an ever persisting echo peak indicating that the dynamics in this model is well reversible.
Imaging Low-Frequency Earthquakes with Geometric-Mean Reverse Time Migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakata, N.; Beroza, G. C.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.
2015-12-01
Time reversal is a powerful tool to image directly both the location and mechanism of sources. This technique assumes seismic velocities in the medium and propagates time-reversed observations of ground motion from each receiver location. Assuming an accurate velocity model and adequate array aperture, the waves will focus at the source location. Although multiple sensors are used simultaneously to estimate the source parameters, we can only image temporally compact sources due to a technical limitation of back projection. In this study, we propose a new approach for passive seismic migration that contains crosscorrelation within the time-reversal scheme. We first individually extrapolate wavefields at each receiver, and then crosscorrelate these wavefields (as a product in the frequency domain: Geometric-mean RTM, GmRTM). Because of the correlation, we can accumulate the energy of sources along the time axis in the image domain and enhance the source signals when the source has extended duration. As a test of this technique, we apply our RTM to synthetic earthquake waveforms and low-frequency earthquakes in Mexico. Results in Guerrero are compared with tectonic tremor locations determined with an independent technique, namely the Tremor Energy and Polarization (TREP) method. We successfully improve the SNR of the source image compared with conventional time-reversal imaging.
El-Nawawy, Ahmed A; Abdelmohsen, Aly M; Hassouna, Hadir M
2017-09-03
To evaluate the role of echocardiography in reducing shock reversal time in pediatric septic shock. A prospective study conducted in the pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital from September 2013 to May 2016. Ninety septic shock patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio for comparing the serial echocardiography-guided therapy in the study group with the standard therapy in the control group regarding clinical course, timely treatment, and outcomes. Shock reversal was significantly higher in the study group (89% vs. 67%), with significantly reduced shock reversal time (3.3 vs. 4.5 days). Pediatric intensive care unit stay in the study group was significantly shorter (8±3 vs. 14±10 days). Mortality due to unresolved shock was significantly lower in the study group. Fluid overload was significantly lower in the study group (11% vs. 44%). In the study group, inotropes were used more frequently (89% vs. 67%) and initiated earlier (12[0.5-24] vs. 24[6-72]h) with lower maximum vasopressor inotrope score (120[30-325] vs. 170[80-395]), revealing predominant use of milrinone (62% vs. 22%). Serial echocardiography provided crucial data for early recognition of septic myocardial dysfunction and hypovolemia that was not apparent on clinical assessment, allowing a timely management and resulting in shock reversal time reduction among children with septic shock. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Time Reversal Mirrors and Cross Correlation Functions in Acoustic Wave Propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fishman, Louis; Jonsson, B. Lars G.; de Hoop, Maarten V.
2009-03-01
In time reversal acoustics (TRA), a signal is recorded by an array of transducers, time reversed, and then retransmitted into the configuration. The retransmitted signal propagates back through the same medium and retrofocuses on the source that generated the signal. If the transducer array is a single, planar (flat) surface, then this configuration is referred to as a planar, one-sided, time reversal mirror (TRM). In signal processing, for example, in active-source seismic interferometry, the measurement of the wave field at two distinct receivers, generated by a common source, is considered. Cross correlating these two observations and integrating the result over the sources yield the cross correlation function (CCF). Adopting the TRM experiments as the basic starting point and identifying the kinematically correct correspondences, it is established that the associated CCF signal processing constructions follow in a specific, infinite recording time limit. This perspective also provides for a natural rationale for selecting the Green's function components in the TRM and CCF expressions. For a planar, one-sided, TRM experiment and the corresponding CCF signal processing construction, in a three-dimensional homogeneous medium, the exact expressions are explicitly calculated, and the connecting limiting relationship verified. Finally, the TRM and CCF results are understood in terms of the underlying, governing, two-way wave equation, its corresponding time reversal invariance (TRI) symmetry, and the absence of TRI symmetry in the associated one-way wave equations, highlighting the role played by the evanescent modal contributions.
Time reversal invariance violating and parity conserving effects in neutron-deuteron scattering
Song, Young-Ho; Gudkov, Vladimir; Lazauskas, Rimantas
2011-08-15
Time reversal invariance violating and parity conserving effects for low-energy elastic neutron-deuteron scattering are calculated for meson exchange and effective field theory type potentials in a distorted wave-born approximation using realistic hadronic wave functions, obtained by solving three-body Faddeev equations in configuration space.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norbury, John W.
1989-01-01
The invariance of classical electromagnetism under charge-conjugation, parity, and time-reversal (CPT) is studied by considering the motion of a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields. Upon applying CPT transformations to various physical quantities and noting that the motion still behaves physically demonstrates invariance.
A Modified Lamb Wave Time-Reversal Method for Health Monitoring of Composite Structures
Zeng, Liang; Lin, Jing; Huang, Liping
2017-01-01
Because the time reversal operator of Lamb waves varies with frequency in composite structures, the reconstructed signal deviates from the input signal even in undamaged cases. The damage index captures the discrepancy between the two signals without differentiating the effects of time reversal operator from those of damage. This results in the risk of false alarm. To solve this issue, a modified time reversal method (MTRM) is proposed. In this method, the frequency dependence of the time reversal operator is compensated by two steps. First, an amplitude modulation is placed on the input signal, which is related to the excitability, detectability, and attenuation of the Lamb wave mode. Second, the damage index is redefined to measure the deviation between the reconstructed signal and the modulated input signal. This could indicate the presence of damage with better performance. An experimental investigation is then conducted on a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminate to illustrate the effectiveness of the MTRM for identifying damage. The results show that the MTRM may provide a promising tool for health monitoring of composite structures. PMID:28445395
Derivation of the Time-Reversal Anomaly for (2 +1 )-Dimensional Topological Phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tachikawa, Yuji; Yonekura, Kazuya
2017-09-01
We prove an explicit formula conjectured recently by Wang and Levin for the anomaly of time-reversal symmetry in (2 +1 )-dimensional fermionic topological quantum field theories. The crucial step is to determine the cross-cap state in terms of the modular S matrix and T2 eigenvalues, generalizing the recent analysis by Barkeshli et al. in the bosonic case.
Agrahari, J K; Kapuria, S
2016-08-01
To develop an effective baseline-free damage detection strategy using the time-reversal process (TRP) of Lamb waves in thin walled structures, it is essential to develop a good understanding of the parameters that affect the amplitude dispersion and consequently the time reversibility of the Lamb wave signal. In this paper, the effects of adhesive layer between the transducers and the host plate, the tone burst count of the excitation signal, the plate thickness, and the piezoelectric transducer thickness on the time reversibility of Lamb waves in metallic plates are studied using experiments and finite element simulations. The effect of adhesive layer on the forward propagation response and frequency tuning has been also studied. The results show that contrary to the general expectation, the quality of the reconstruction of the input signal after the TRP may increase with the increase in the adhesive layer thickness at certain frequency ranges. Similarly, an increase in the tone burst count resulting in a narrowband signal does not necessarily enhance the time reversibility at all frequencies, contrary to what has been reported earlier. For a given plate thickness, a thinner transducer yields a better reconstruction, but for a given transducer thickness, the similarity of the reconstructed signal may not be always higher for a thicker plate. It is important to study these effects to achieve the best quality of reconstruction in undamaged plates, for effective damage detection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glasgow, Scott Alan; Corson, John; Verhaaren, Chris
2010-07-01
Free energies of dissipative media are reviewed. Then we use free-energy-optimal excitation and de-excitation fields to generate a dielectric’s time-reversal spectrum, with several properties: a) The spectrum generalizes the time-reversal parity from “even” and “odd” of conservative systems to an interval [-1,+1] of “time-reversal eigenvalues” λ in dissipative media. b) It yields eigenmodes that are complete: any state of the medium is optimally excitable or de-excitable by them. c) These excitations are orthogonal with respect to the work function of the medium and, so, d) characterize field excitations for the given medium that, when superimposed, only do work on the medium, not on each other via the medium-field interaction mechanism. Notions of en masse potential and kinetic energy in the dissipative medium arise through even (λ=+1) and odd (λ=-1) parity, but also other energy notions via alternative parity (|λ|<1) under time reversal.
Jamie S. Sanderlin; Peter M. Waser; James E. Hines; James D. Nichols
2012-01-01
Metapopulation ecology has historically been rich in theory, yet analytical approaches for inferring demographic relationships among local populations have been few. We show how reverse-time multi-state captureÂrecapture models can be used to estimate the importance of local recruitment and interpopulation dispersal to metapopulation growth. We use 'contribution...
Stopping and time reversal of light in dynamic photonic structures via Bloch oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longhi, Stefano
2007-02-01
It is theoretically shown that storage and time reversal of light pulses can be achieved in a coupled-resonator optical waveguide by dynamic tuning of the cavity resonances without maintaining the translational invariance of the system. The control exploits the Bloch oscillation motion of a light pulse in the presence of a refractive index ramp, and it is therefore rather different from the mechanism of adiabatic band compression and reversal proposed by Yanik and Fan in recent works [Phys. Rev. Lett., 92, 083901 (2004); 93, 173903 (2004)].
Fluctuation theorem, nonlinear response, and the regularity of time reversal symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porta, Marcello
2010-06-01
The Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem (FT) implies an infinite set of identities between correlation functions that can be seen as a generalization of Green-Kubo formula to the nonlinear regime. As an application, we discuss a perturbative check of the FT relation through these identities for a simple Anosov reversible system; we find that the lack of differentiability of the time reversal operator implies a violation of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation relation. Finally, a brief comparison to Lebowitz-Spohn FT is reported.
Fluctuation theorem, nonlinear response, and the regularity of time reversal symmetry.
Porta, Marcello
2010-06-01
The Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem (FT) implies an infinite set of identities between correlation functions that can be seen as a generalization of Green-Kubo formula to the nonlinear regime. As an application, we discuss a perturbative check of the FT relation through these identities for a simple Anosov reversible system; we find that the lack of differentiability of the time reversal operator implies a violation of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation relation. Finally, a brief comparison to Lebowitz-Spohn FT is reported.
Effect of ocean currents on the performance of a time-reversing array in shallow water.
Sabra, Karim G; Dowling, David R
2003-12-01
Active acoustic time reversal may be accomplished by recording sounds with an array of transducers--a time-reversing array (TRA) or time-reversal mirror (TRM)--and then replaying the recorded and time-reversed sounds from the same array to produce back-propagating waves that converge at the location(s) of the remote sound source(s). Future active sonar and underwater communication systems suitable for use in unknown shallow ocean waters may be developed from the automatic spatial and temporal focusing properties of TRAs. However, ocean currents affect time reversal because they alter acoustic reciprocity in the environment. This paper presents a theoretical and computational investigation into how ocean currents influence TRA retrofocusing in shallow ocean environments for various array orientations. The case of TRA retrofocusing in a three-dimensional range-independent sound channel with a steady horizontal ocean current is covered here, based on a normal-mode propagation model valid for low Mach number currents. The main finding is that in the presence of ocean currents (typically <1 m/s), a TRA performs well (the associated retrofocus amplitude decay is less than 1 dB) except that a retrofocus shift (up to a few wavelengths at 500 Hz at a range of 2.5 km) may occur due to the differing interaction between the ocean current profile and each acoustic normal mode. In addition, TRA performance is predicted to depend on the array orientation relative to the ocean current direction, especially for horizontal arrays.
High spatial resolution imaging for structural health monitoring based on virtual time reversal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Jian; Shi, Lihua; Yuan, Shenfang; Shao, Zhixue
2011-05-01
Lamb waves are widely used in structural health monitoring (SHM) of plate-like structures. Due to the dispersion effect, Lamb wavepackets will be elongated and the resolution for damage identification will be strongly affected. This effect can be automatically compensated by the time reversal process (TRP). However, the time information of the compensated waves is also removed at the same time. To improve the spatial resolution of Lamb wave detection, virtual time reversal (VTR) is presented in this paper. In VTR, a changing-element excitation and reception mechanism (CERM) rather than the traditional fixed excitation and reception mechanism (FERM) is adopted for time information conservation. Furthermore, the complicated TRP procedure is replaced by simple signal operations which can make savings in the hardware cost for recording and generating the time-reversed Lamb waves. After the effects of VTR for dispersive damage scattered signals are theoretically analyzed, the realization of VTR involving the acquisition of the transfer functions of damage detecting paths under step pulse excitation is discussed. Then, a VTR-based imaging method is developed to improve the spatial resolution of the delay-and-sum imaging with a sparse piezoelectric (PZT) wafer array. Experimental validation indicates that the damage scattered wavepackets of A0 mode in an aluminum plate are partly recompressed and focalized with their time information preserved by VTR. Both the single damage and the dual adjacent damages in the plate can be clearly displayed with high spatial resolution by the proposed VTR-based imaging method.
Vogt, Katrin; Yarali, Ayse; Tanimoto, Hiromu
2015-01-01
Animals need to associate different environmental stimuli with each other regardless of whether they temporally overlap or not. Drosophila melanogaster displays olfactory trace conditioning, where an odor is followed by electric shock reinforcement after a temporal gap, leading to conditioned odor avoidance. Reversing the stimulus timing in olfactory conditioning results in the reversal of memory valence such that an odor that follows shock is later on approached (i.e. relief conditioning). Here, we explored the effects of stimulus timing on memory in another sensory modality, using a visual conditioning paradigm. We found that flies form visual memories of opposite valence depending on stimulus timing and can associate a visual stimulus with reinforcement despite being presented with a temporal gap. These results suggest that associative memories with non-overlapping stimuli and the effect of stimulus timing on memory valence are shared across sensory modalities. PMID:26430885
Laforest, M.; Baugh, J.; Laflamme, R.
2006-03-15
Within the context of quantum teleportation, a proposed interpretation of bipartite entanglement describes teleportation as consisting of a qubit of information evolving along and against the flow of time of an external observer. We investigate the physicality of such a model by applying time reversal to the Schroedinger equation in the teleportation context. To do so, we first present the theory of time reversal applied to the circuit model. We then show that the outcome of a teleportationlike circuit is consistent with the usual tensor product treatment and is therefore independent of the physical quantum system used to encode the information. Finally, we illustrate these concepts with a proof-of-principle experiment on a liquid-state NMR quantum-information processor. The experimental results are consistent with the interpretation that information can be seen as flowing backward in time through entanglement.
Germano Filho, P A; Cavalcanti, I L; Barrucand, L; Verçosa, N
2015-08-01
Magnesium potentiates neuromuscular blockade. Sugammadex reverses rocuronium-induced blockade. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pre-treatment with magnesium sulphate on sugammadex reversal time for neuromuscular blockade. Seventy-three patients were randomly assigned to receive magnesium sulphate (40 mg.kg(-1) ) or saline intravenously. After anaesthetic induction, continuous train-of-four monitoring was performed and rocuronium was administered (0.6 mg.kg(-1) ). When a second twitch appeared, the patients received sugammadex (2 mg.kg(-1) ). The median (IQR [range]) reversal time of moderate neuromuscular blockade to a train-of-four ratio of 0.9 facilitated by sugammadex was 115 (93-177.5 [68-315]) s in the magnesium group and 120 (105-140 [70-298]) s in the saline group (p = 0.79). The median (IQR [range]) clinical duration was 45 (35.5-53 [22-102]) min in the magnesium group and 37 (31-43 [19-73]) min in the saline group (p = 0.031). Pre-treatment with magnesium did not significantly affect sugammadex reversal time of moderate neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium.
Multi-scale symbolic time reverse analysis of gas-liquid two-phase flow structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hongmei; Zhai, Lusheng; Jin, Ningde; Wang, Youchen
Gas-liquid two-phase flows are widely encountered in production processes of petroleum and chemical industry. Understanding the dynamic characteristics of multi-scale gas-liquid two-phase flow structures is of great significance for the optimization of production process and the measurement of flow parameters. In this paper, we propose a method of multi-scale symbolic time reverse (MSTR) analysis for gas-liquid two-phase flows. First, through extracting four time reverse asymmetry measures (TRAMs), i.e. Euclidean distance, difference entropy, percentage of constant words and percentage of reversible words, the time reverse asymmetry (TRA) behaviors of typical nonlinear systems are investigated from the perspective of multi-scale analysis, and the results show that the TRAMs are sensitive to the changing of dynamic characteristics underlying the complex nonlinear systems. Then, the MSTR analysis is used to study the conductance signals from gas-liquid two-phase flows. It is found that the multi-scale TRA analysis can effectively reveal the multi-scale structure characteristics and nonlinear evolution properties of the flow structures.
Performance of the RealStar Chikungunya Virus Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Kit▿
Panning, Marcus; Hess, Markus; Fischer, Waldemar; Grywna, Klaus; Pfeffer, Martin; Drosten, Christian
2009-01-01
A novel commercial Chikungunya virus real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) kit was evaluated on a comprehensive panel of original patient samples. The assay was 100% sensitive and specific in comparison to a published real-time RT-PCR. Viral loads from both assays were highly correlated. The kit proved to be suitable for routine use in patient care. PMID:19625474
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Castelli, Michael G.; Arnold, Steven M.
2000-01-01
Structural materials for the design of advanced aeropropulsion components are usually subject to loading under elevated temperatures, where a material's viscosity (resistance to flow) is greatly reduced in comparison to its viscosity under low-temperature conditions. As a result, the propensity for the material to exhibit time-dependent deformation is significantly enhanced, even when loading is limited to a quasi-linear stress-strain regime as an effort to avoid permanent (irreversible) nonlinear deformation. An understanding and assessment of such time-dependent effects in the context of combined reversible and irreversible deformation is critical to the development of constitutive models that can accurately predict the general hereditary behavior of material deformation. To this end, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field developed a unique experimental technique that identifies the existence of and explicitly determines a threshold stress k, below which the time-dependent material deformation is wholly reversible, and above which irreversible deformation is incurred. This technique is unique in the sense that it allows, for the first time, an objective, explicit, experimental measurement of k. The underlying concept for the experiment is based on the assumption that the material s time-dependent reversible response is invariable, even in the presence of irreversible deformation.
Time reversal for photoacoustic tomography based on the wave equation of Nachman, Smith, and Waag
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kowar, Richard
2014-02-01
One goal of photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is to estimate an initial pressure function φ from pressure data measured at a boundary surrounding the object of interest. This paper is concerned with a time reversal method for PAT that is based on the dissipative wave equation of Nachman, Smith, and Waag [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 1584 (1990), 10.1121/1.400317]. This equation is a correction of the thermoviscous wave equation such that its solution has a finite wave front speed and, in contrast, it can model several relaxation processes. In this sense, it is more accurate than the thermoviscous wave equation. For simplicity, we focus on the case of one relaxation process. We derive an exact formula for the time reversal image I, which depends on the relaxation time τ1 and the compressibility κ1 of the dissipative medium, and show I (τ1,κ1)→φ for κ1→0. This implies that I =φ holds in the dissipation-free case and that I is similar to φ for sufficiently small compressibility κ1. Moreover, we show for tissue similar to water that the small wave number approximation I0 of the time reversal image satisfies I0=η0*xφ with accent="true">η̂0(|k|)≈const. for |k|≪1/c0τ1, where φ denotes the initial pressure function. For such tissue, our theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that the time reversal image I is very similar to the initial pressure function φ and that a resolution of σ ≈0.036mm is feasible (for exact measurement data).
Yang, Qiang; Xu, Xiao; Lai, Puxiang; Xu, Daxiong; Wang, Lihong V
2013-11-01
Focusing light inside highly scattering media is a challenging task in biomedical optical imaging, manipulation, and therapy. A recent invention has overcome this challenge by time reversing ultrasonically encoded diffuse light to an ultrasound-modulated volume inside a turbid medium. In this technique, a photorefractive (PR) crystal or polymer can be used as the phase conjugate mirror for optical time reversal. Accordingly, a relatively long ultrasound burst, whose duration matches the PR response time of the PR material, is usually used to encode the diffuse light. This long burst results in poor focusing resolution along the acoustic axis. In this work, we propose to use two intersecting ultrasound beams, emitted from two ultrasonic transducers at different frequencies, to modulate the diffuse light at the beat frequency within the intersection volume. We show that the time reversal of the light encoded at the beat frequency can converge back to the intersection volume. Experimentally, an acoustic axial resolution of ~1.1 mm was demonstrated inside turbid media, agreeing with theoretical estimation.
True amplitude cross-correlation imaging condition for Reverse Time Migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arntsen, Børge; Raknes, Espen B.
2017-04-01
Reverse Time Migration has gained popularity the last decade and is now extensively used for imaging of active source seismic reflection data and also earthquake data recorded on dense arrays. In Acoustic Reverse Time Migration the image is formed by using a classical imaging condition involving time and spatial cross-correlations of forward modeled pressure and reverse-time extrapolated measured data. The image at a given position is interpreted as a wavefield due to virtual sources at depth, but is incorrectly scaled with a factor rougly inversely proportional to the cosine of the scattering angle. We use results from seismic interferometry to show that the true reflectivity can be obtained by a simple modification of the classical imaging condition. The correct expression for the reflectivity is obtained by cross-correlation of derivatives of the forward modeled wavefield with the backward extrapolated data. By using finite-difference or finite-element schemes the implementation of the modified imaging condition is straightforward and only requires a simple diffrentiation of the forward wavefield. For analysis of the reflectivity in terms of contrast velocities and denities the modification will obviously be important. This kind of analysis assumes that the estimated reflectivity has the correct angle behaviour.
Study of parity and time reversal violation in neutron-nucleus interactions
Yen, Yi-Fen; Bowman, J.D.; Frankle, C.M.; Crawford, B.E. |
1994-12-31
The parity and time-reversal symmetries can be studies in neutron-nucleus interactions. Parity non-conserving asymmetries have been observed for many p-wave resonances in a compound nucleus and measurements were performed on several nuclei in the mass region of A{approximately}100 and A{approximately}230. The statistical model of the compound nucleus provides a theoretical basis for extracting mean-squared matrix elements from the experimental asymmetry data, and for interpreting the mean-squared matrix elements. The constraints on the weak meson-exchange couplings calculated from the compound-nucleus asymmetry data agree qualitatively with the results from few-body and light-nuclei experiments. The tests of time-reversal invariance in various experiments using thermal, epithermal and MeV neutrons are being developed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shang, Xuefeng; de Hoop, Maarten V.; van der Hilst, Robert D.
2012-08-01
We present a wave equation prestack depth migration to image crust and mantle structures using multi-component earthquake data recorded at dense seismograph arrays. Transmitted P and S waves recorded on the surface are back propagated using an elastic wave equation solver. The wave modes are separated after the reverse-time continuation of the wavefield from the surface, and subjected to a (cross-correlation type) imaging condition forming an inverse scattering transform. Reverse time migration (RTM) does not make assumptions about the presence or properties of interfaces - notably, it does not assume that interfaces are (locally) horizontal. With synthetic experiments, and different background models, we show that passive source RTM can reconstruct dipping and vertically offset interfaces even in the presence of complex wave phenomena (such as caustics and point diffraction) and that its performance is superior to traditional receiver function analysis, e.g., common conversion point (CCP) stacking, in complex geological environments.
Hinojosa, Alberto; Fernandes, Rafael M; Chubukov, Andrey V
2014-10-17
We argue that superconductivity in the coexistence region with spin-density-wave (SDW) order in weakly doped Fe pnictides erdiffers qualitatively from the ordinary s(+-) state outside the coexistence region as it develops an additional gap component which is a mixture of intrapocket singlet (s(++)) and interpocket spin-triplet pairings (the t state). The coupling constant for the t channel is proportional to the SDW order and involves interactions that do not contribute to superconductivity outside of the SDW region. We argue that the s(+-)- and t-type superconducting orders coexist at low temperatures, and the relative phase between the two is, in general, different from 0 or π, manifesting explicitly the breaking of the time-reversal symmetry promoted by long-range SDW order. We argue that time reversal may get broken even before true superconductivity develops.
A compact time reversal emitter-receiver based on a leaky random cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luong, Trung-Dung; Hies, Thomas; Ohl, Claus-Dieter
2016-11-01
Time reversal acoustics (TRA) has gained widespread applications for communication and measurements. In general, a scattering medium in combination with multiple transducers is needed to achieve a sufficiently large acoustical aperture. In this paper, we report an implementation for a cost-effective and compact time reversal emitter-receiver driven by a single piezoelectric element. It is based on a leaky cavity with random 3-dimensional printed surfaces. The random surfaces greatly increase the spatio-temporal focusing quality as compared to flat surfaces and allow the focus of an acoustic beam to be steered over an angle of 41°. We also demonstrate its potential use as a scanner by embedding a receiver to detect an object from its backscatter without moving the TRA emitter.
Time reverse modeling of acoustic emissions in a reinforced concrete beam.
Kocur, Georg Karl; Saenger, Erik H; Grosse, Christian U; Vogel, Thomas
2016-02-01
The time reverse modeling (TRM) is applied for signal-based acoustic emission (AE) analysis of reinforced concrete (RC) specimens. TRM uses signals obtained from physical experiments as input. The signals are re-emitted numerically into a structure in a time-reversed manner, where the wavefronts interfere and appear as dominant concentrations of energy at the origin of the AE. The experimental and numerical results presented for selected AE signals confirm that TRM is capable of localizing AE activity in RC caused by concrete cracking. The accuracy of the TRM results is corroborated by three-dimensional crack distributions obtained from X-ray computed tomography images. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A compact time reversal emitter-receiver based on a leaky random cavity
Luong, Trung-Dung; Hies, Thomas; Ohl, Claus-Dieter
2016-01-01
Time reversal acoustics (TRA) has gained widespread applications for communication and measurements. In general, a scattering medium in combination with multiple transducers is needed to achieve a sufficiently large acoustical aperture. In this paper, we report an implementation for a cost-effective and compact time reversal emitter-receiver driven by a single piezoelectric element. It is based on a leaky cavity with random 3-dimensional printed surfaces. The random surfaces greatly increase the spatio-temporal focusing quality as compared to flat surfaces and allow the focus of an acoustic beam to be steered over an angle of 41°. We also demonstrate its potential use as a scanner by embedding a receiver to detect an object from its backscatter without moving the TRA emitter. PMID:27811957
Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light
Wang, Ying Min; Judkewitz, Benjamin; DiMarzio, Charles A.; Yang, Changhuei
2012-01-01
Fluorescence imaging is one of the most important research tools in biomedical sciences. However, scattering of light severely impedes imaging of thick biological samples beyond the ballistic regime. Here we directly show focusing and high-resolution fluorescence imaging deep inside biological tissues by digitally time-reversing ultrasound-tagged light with high optical gain (~5×105). We confirm the presence of a time-reversed optical focus along with a diffuse background—a corollary of partial phase conjugation—and develop an approach for dynamic background cancellation. To illustrate the potential of our method, we image complex fluorescent objects and tumour microtissues at an unprecedented depth of 2.5 mm in biological tissues at a lateral resolution of 36 μm×52 μm and an axial resolution of 657 μm. Our results set the stage for a range of deep-tissue imaging applications in biomedical research and medical diagnostics. PMID:22735456
The Organization of Behavior Over Time: Insights from Mid-Session Reversal
Rayburn-Reeves, Rebecca M.; Cook, Robert G.
2016-01-01
What are the mechanisms by which behavior is organized sequentially over time? The recently developed mid-session reversal (MSR) task offers new insights into this fundamental question. The typical MSR task is arranged to have a single reversed discrimination occurring in a consistent location within each session and across sessions. In this task, we examine the relevance of time, reinforcement, and other factors as the switching cue in the sequential modulation of control in MSR. New analyses also highlight some of the potential mechanisms underlying this serially organized behavior. MSR provides new evidence and we offer some ideas about how cues interact to compete for the control of behavior within and across sessions. We suggest that MSR is an excellent preparation for studying the competition among psychological states and their resolution toward action. PMID:27942272
Time reversal odd fragmentation functions in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering
Mulders, P.J.; Levelt, J.
1994-04-01
In semi-inclusive scattering of polarized leptons from unpolarized hadrons, one can measure a time reversal odd structure function. It shows up as a sin({phi}) asymmetry of the produced hadrons. This asymmetry can be expressed as the product of a twist-three {open_quotes}hadron {r_arrow} quark{close_quotes} profile function and a time reversal odd twist-two {open_quotes}quark {r_arrow} hadron{close_quotes} fragmentation function. This fragmentation function can only be measured for nonzero transverse momenta of the produced hadron. Its appearance is a consequence of final state interactions between the produced hadron and the rest of the final state.
Time-reversed particle dynamics calculation with field line tracing at Titan - an update
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bebesi, Zsofia; Erdos, Geza; Szego, Karoly; Juhasz, Antal; Lukacs, Katalin
2014-05-01
We use CAPS-IMS Singles data of Cassini measured between 2004 and 2010 to investigate the pickup process and dynamics of ions originating from Titan's atmosphere. A 4th order Runge-Kutta method was applied to calculate the test particle trajectories in a time reversed scenario, in the curved magnetic environment. We evaluated the minimum variance directions along the S/C trajectory for all Cassini flybys during which the CAPS instrument was in operation, and assumed that the field was homogeneous perpendicular to the minimum variance direction. We calculated the magnetic field lines with this method along the flyby orbits and we could determine those observational intervals when Cassini and the upper atmosphere of Titan could be magnetically connected. We used three ion species (1, 2 and 16 amu ions) for time reversed tracking, and also considered the categorization of Rymer et al. (2009) and Nemeth et al. (2011) for further features studies.
Sodemann, Inti; Fu, Liang
2015-11-20
It is well known that a nonvanishing Hall conductivity requires broken time-reversal symmetry. However, in this work, we demonstrate that Hall-like currents can occur in second-order response to external electric fields in a wide class of time-reversal invariant and inversion breaking materials, at both zero and twice the driving frequency. This nonlinear Hall effect has a quantum origin arising from the dipole moment of the Berry curvature in momentum space, which generates a net anomalous velocity when the system is in a current-carrying state. The nonlinear Hall coefficient is a rank-two pseudotensor, whose form is determined by point group symmetry. We discus optimal conditions to observe this effect and propose candidate two- and three-dimensional materials, including topological crystalline insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides, and Weyl semimetals.
Berry curvature induced nonlinear Hall effect in time-reversal invariant materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sodemann, Inti; Fu, Liang
2015-03-01
It is well-known that a non-vanishing Hall conductivity requires time-reversal symmetry breaking. However, in this work, we demonstrate that a Hall-like transverse current can occur in second-order response to an external electric field in a wide class of time-reversal invariant and inversion breaking materials. This nonlinear Hall effect arises from the dipole moment of the Berry curvature in momentum space, which generates a net anomalous velocity when the system is in a current-carrying state. We show that the nonlinear Hall coefficient is a rank-two pseudo-tensor, whose form is determined by point group symmetry. We will describe the optimal conditions and candidate materials to observe this effect. IS is supported by the Pappalardo Fellowship in Physics. LF is supported by DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-SC0010526.
Study on the time difference of solar polar field reversal between the north and south hemisphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukuya, D.; Kusano, K.
2013-12-01
Dynamo is a mechanism whereby the kinetic energy of plasma is converted to the magnetic energy. This mechanism works to generate and maintain the solar and stellar magnetic field. Since the sun is only a star whose magnetic field can be directly observed, the understanding of solar dynamo can provide clues to clarify dynamo mechanisms. On the other hand, because solar activities, which are caused by solar dynamo, can influence the Earth's climate, solar variability is an important issue also to understand long-term evolution of the Earth's climate. It is widely known that the polarity of the solar magnetic fields on the north and south poles periodically reverses at every sunspot maxima. It is also known that the reversal at one pole is followed by that on the other pole. The time difference of magnetic field reversal between the poles was first noted by Babcock (1959) from the very first observation of polar field. Recently, it was confirmed by detailed observations with the HINODE satellite (Shiota et al. 2012). Svalgaard and Kamide (2013) indicated that there is a relationship between the time difference of the polarity reversal and the hemispheric asymmetry of the sunspot activity. However, the mechanisms for the hemispheric asymmetry are still open to be revealed. In this paper, we study the asymmetric feature of the solar dynamo based on the flux transport dynamo model (Chatterjee et al. 2004) to explain the time difference of magnetic polarity reversal between the north and south poles. In order to calculate long-term variations of solar activities, we use the mean field kinematic dynamo model, which is derived from magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equation through the mean field and other approximations. We carried out the mean field dynamo simulations using the updated SURYA code which was developed originally by Choudhuri and his collaborators (2004). We decomposed the symmetric and asymmetric components of magnetic field, which correspond respectively to the
Square root of gerbe holonomy and invariants of time-reversal-symmetric topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gawȩdzki, Krzysztof
2017-10-01
The Feynman amplitudes with the two-dimensional Wess-Zumino action functional have a geometric interpretation as bundle gerbe holonomy. We present details of the construction of a distinguished square root of such holonomy and of a related 3 d-index and briefly recall the application of those to the building of topological invariants for time-reversal-symmetric two- and three-dimensional crystals, both static and periodically forced.
Time-reversal duality of high-efficiency RF power amplifiers
Reveyrand, T; Ramos, I; Popovic, Z
2012-12-06
The similarity between RF power amplifiers and rectifiers is discussed. It is shown that the same high-efficiency harmonically-terminated power amplifier can be operated in a dual rectifier mode. Nonlinear simulations with a GaN HEMT transistor model show the time-reversal intrinsic voltage and current waveform relationship between a class-F amplifier and rectifier. Measurements on a class-F-1 amplifier and rectifier at 2.14 GHz demonstrate over 80% efficiency in both cases.
Semiclassical matrix model for quantum chaotic transport with time-reversal symmetry
Novaes, Marcel
2015-10-15
We show that the semiclassical approach to chaotic quantum transport in the presence of time-reversal symmetry can be described by a matrix model. In other words, we construct a matrix integral whose perturbative expansion satisfies the semiclassical diagrammatic rules for the calculation of transport statistics. One of the virtues of this approach is that it leads very naturally to the semiclassical derivation of universal predictions from random matrix theory.
Induced Violation of Time-Reversal Invariance in the Regime of Weakly Overlapping Resonances
Dietz, B.; Miski-Oglu, M.; Schaefer, F.; Friedrich, T.; Harney, H. L.; Weidenmueller, H. A.; Richter, A.; Verbaarschot, J.
2009-08-07
We measure the complex scattering amplitudes of a flat microwave cavity (a 'chaotic billiard'). Time-reversal (T) invariance is partially broken by a magnetized ferrite placed within the cavity. We extend the random-matrix approach to T violation in scattering, determine the parameters from some properties of the scattering amplitudes, and successfully predict others. Our work constitutes the most precise test of the random-matrix theoretical approach to T violation so far available.
Transmission fluctuations in chaotic microwave billiards with and without time-reversal symmetry.
Schanze, H; Alves, E R; Lewenkopf, C H; Stöckmann, H J
2001-12-01
Transmission fluctuations have been studied in a microwave billiard in dependence to the number of attached wave guides on its entrance and exit. To investigate the influence of breaking time-reversal symmetry, ferrite cylinders were introduced into the billiard. The obtained transmission intensity distributions are compared with predictions from the random matrix theory. Because of the strong absorption caused by the ferrites, the existing statistical scattering theories had to be modified, by incorporating a number of additional absorbing scattering channels.
Induced violation of time-reversal invariance in the regime of weakly overlapping resonances.
Dietz, B; Friedrich, T; Harney, H L; Miski-Oglu, M; Richter, A; Schäfer, F; Verbaarschot, J; Weidenmüller, H A
2009-08-07
We measure the complex scattering amplitudes of a flat microwave cavity (a "chaotic billiard"). Time-reversal (T) invariance is partially broken by a magnetized ferrite placed within the cavity. We extend the random-matrix approach to T violation in scattering, determine the parameters from some properties of the scattering amplitudes, and successfully predict others. Our work constitutes the most precise test of the random-matrix theoretical approach to T violation so far available.
Numerical Solution of the Problem of the Computational Time Reversal in the Quadrant
2005-09-21
condition with a finite support in a hyperboilc equation, given the Cauchy data at the lateral surface. A stability estimate for this ill-posed problem...implies refocusing of the time reversed wave field. Two such two-dimensional inverse problems are solved numerically in the case when the domain is a ...inverse problem for a hyperbolic equation with the Cauchy data at a lateral surface. Consider the standard Cauchy problem for the hyperbolic equation utt
Elastic reverse-time migration based on amplitude-preserving P- and S-wave separation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jia-Jia; Luan, Xi-Wu; Fang, Gang; Liu, Xin-Xin; Pan, Jun; Wang, Xiao-Jie
2016-09-01
Imaging the PP- and PS-wave for the elastic vector wave reverse-time migration requires separating the P- and S-waves during the wave field extrapolation. The amplitude and phase of the P- and S-waves are distorted when divergence and curl operators are used to separate the P- and S-waves. We present a P- and S-wave amplitude-preserving separation algorithm for the elastic wavefield extrapolation. First, we add the P-wave pressure and P-wave vibration velocity equation to the conventional elastic wave equation to decompose the P- and S-wave vectors. Then, we synthesize the scalar P- and S-wave from the vector Pand S-wave to obtain the scalar P- and S-wave. The amplitude-preserved separated P- and S-waves are imaged based on the vector wave reverse-time migration (RTM). This method ensures that the amplitude and phase of the separated P- and S-wave remain unchanged compared with the divergence and curl operators. In addition, after decomposition, the P-wave pressure and vibration velocity can be used to suppress the interlayer reflection noise and to correct the S-wave polarity. This improves the image quality of P- and S-wave in multicomponent seismic data and the true-amplitude elastic reverse time migration used in prestack inversion.
Time reversal invariance for a one-dimensional model of contact acoustic nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanloeuil, Philippe; Francis Rose, L. R.; Veidt, Martin; Wang, Chun H.
2017-04-01
The interaction of a one-dimensional (1D) wave packet with a contact interface characterized by a unilateral contact law is investigated analytically and through a finite difference model. It is shown that this interaction leads to the generation of higher harmonic, sub-harmonic and zero-frequency components in the reflected wave, resulting in a pulse distortion that is attributable to contact acoustic nonlinearity. However, the results also show that the re-emission of a time reversed version of this distorted first reflection results in a healing of the distortions and a perfect recovery of the original pulse shape, thereby demonstrating time reversal invariance for this type of contact acoustic nonlinearity. A step-by-step analysis of the contact interaction provides insights into both the distortion arising from the first interaction and the subsequent healing during the second interaction. These findings suggest that time reversal invariance should also apply more generally for scatterers exhibiting non-dissipative contact acoustic nonlinearity.
Breast cancer detection based on time reversal and the optical theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marengo, Edwin A.; Tu, Jing
2015-03-01
We report a wave physics-based approach to change detection which can be used to detect anomalies in biological tissues such as cancer lesions from active sensing data. Of particular interest are nonionizing radiation methods such as microwave breast imaging, ultrasound imaging, and diffuse optical tomography. The biological medium surrounding the target of interest, e.g., a tumor, is assumed to be highly nonhomogeneous and reverberating. This implies that there are in general multiple paths for the propagation of wave signals from an interior domain where the target of interest is located to the sensing aperture where the scattered fields are measured. Two physical concepts are used to exploit this rich multipath environment so as to enhance change detection performance: wave time reversal, and the optical theorem which describes energy conservation in scattering phenomena. Previous related work has reported the use of time reversal for breast cancer detection. We use not only time reversal, but also the optical theorem, and propose novel algorithms based on both.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patacchini, L.; Hutchinson, I. H.
2009-04-01
A new explicit time-reversible orbit integrator for the equations of motion in a static homogeneous magnetic field - called Cyclotronic integrator - is presented. Like Spreiter and Walter's Taylor expansion algorithm, for sufficiently weak electric field gradients this second order method does not require a fine resolution of the Larmor motion; it has however the essential advantage of being symplectic, hence time-reversible. The Cyclotronic integrator is only subject to a linear stability constraint ( ΩΔ t < π, Ω being the Larmor angular frequency), and is therefore particularly suitable to electrostatic Particle In Cell codes with uniform magnetic field where Ω is larger than any other characteristic frequency, yet a resolution of the particles' gyromotion is required. Application examples and a detailed comparison with the well-known (time-reversible) Boris algorithm are presented; it is in particular shown that implementation of the Cyclotronic integrator in the kinetic codes SCEPTIC and Democritus can reduce the cost of orbit integration by up to a factor of ten.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Jami L.; Shragge, Jeffrey; van Wijk, Kasper
2015-03-01
We propose a new reconstruction algorithm for photoacoustic and laser-ultrasound imaging based on reverse time migration (RTM), a time reversal imaging algorithm originally developed for exploration seismology. RTM inherently handles strong velocity heterogeneity and complex propagation paths. A successful RTM analysis with appropriate handling of boundary conditions results in enhanced signal-to-noise, accurately located structures, and minimal artifacts. A laser-ultrasound experiment begins with a source wave field generated at the surface that propagates through the sample. Acoustic scatterers in the propagation path give rise to a scattered wave field, which travels to the surface and is recorded by acoustic detectors. To reconstruct the laser-ultrasound image, a synthetic source function is forward propagated and cross-correlated with the time-reversed and back-propagated recorded (scattered) wave field to image the scatterers at the correct location. Conversely, photoacoustic waves are generated by chromophores within the sample and propagate "one-way" to the detection surface. We utilize the velocity model validated by the laser-ultrasound reconstruction to accurately reconstruct the photoacoustic image with RTM. This approach is first validated with simulations, where inclusions behave both as a photoacoustic source and an acoustic scatterer. Subsequently, we demonstrate the capabilities of RTM with tissue phantom experiments using an all-optical, multi-channel acquisition geometry.
Damage imaging in a laminated composite plate using an air-coupled time reversal mirror
Le Bas, P. -Y.; Remillieux, M. C.; Pieczonka, L.; ...
2015-11-03
We demonstrate the possibility of selectively imaging the features of a barely visible impact damage in a laminated composite plate by using an air-coupled time reversal mirror. The mirror consists of a number of piezoelectric transducers affixed to wedges of power law profiles, which act as unconventional matching layers. The transducers are enclosed in a hollow reverberant cavity with an opening to allow progressive emission of the ultrasonic wave field towards the composite plate. The principle of time reversal is used to focus elastic waves at each point of a scanning grid spanning the surface of the plate, thus allowingmore » localized inspection at each of these points. The proposed device and signal processing removes the need to be in direct contact with the plate and reveals the same features as vibrothermography and more features than a C-scan. More importantly, this device can decouple the features of the defect according to their orientation, by selectively focusing vector components of motion into the object, through air. For instance, a delamination can be imaged in one experiment using out-of-plane focusing, whereas a crack can be imaged in a separate experiment using in-plane focusing. As a result, this capability, inherited from the principle of time reversal, cannot be found in conventional air-coupled transducers.« less
Damage imaging in a laminated composite plate using an air-coupled time reversal mirror
Le Bas, P. -Y.; Remillieux, M. C.; Pieczonka, L.; Ten Cate, J. A.; Anderson, B. E.; Ulrich, T. J.
2015-11-03
We demonstrate the possibility of selectively imaging the features of a barely visible impact damage in a laminated composite plate by using an air-coupled time reversal mirror. The mirror consists of a number of piezoelectric transducers affixed to wedges of power law profiles, which act as unconventional matching layers. The transducers are enclosed in a hollow reverberant cavity with an opening to allow progressive emission of the ultrasonic wave field towards the composite plate. The principle of time reversal is used to focus elastic waves at each point of a scanning grid spanning the surface of the plate, thus allowing localized inspection at each of these points. The proposed device and signal processing removes the need to be in direct contact with the plate and reveals the same features as vibrothermography and more features than a C-scan. More importantly, this device can decouple the features of the defect according to their orientation, by selectively focusing vector components of motion into the object, through air. For instance, a delamination can be imaged in one experiment using out-of-plane focusing, whereas a crack can be imaged in a separate experiment using in-plane focusing. As a result, this capability, inherited from the principle of time reversal, cannot be found in conventional air-coupled transducers.
Time-reversal techniques for MISO and MIMO wireless communication systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fouda, Ahmed E.; Teixeira, Fernando L.; Yavuz, Mehmet E.
2012-10-01
We consider the application of different time-reversal (TR) signal processing and beamforming techniques to multiple-input single-output (MISO) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communication systems. Conventional TR beamforming provides spatial focusing at the intended receiver; however, it does not yield perfect channel equalization. Time-reversed pilot can be normalized to provide perfect equalization at the expense of power level. This equalization is particularly important for high data rates where the bit error rate performance is dominated by internal noise due to intersymbol interference. To increase physical layer covertness, TR beamforming is combined with the multiple-signal-classification (MUSIC) technique to produce null fields at eavesdroppers. This technique is also applied to MIMO setups to eliminate interuser interference and hence increase system capacity. Differential TR is used to obtain and update pilot signals for passive moving receivers, i.e., those that cannot (or do not) transmit pilot signals. Time-reversed differential backscattered signal is able to provide satisfactory spatial and temporal focusing at the moving receiver.
Momentum-independent reflectionless transmission in the non-Hermitian time-reversal symmetric system
Zhang, X.Z.; Song, Z.
2013-12-15
We theoretically study the non-Hermitian systems, the non-Hermiticity of which arises from the unequal hopping amplitude (UHA) dimers. The distinguishing features of these models are that they have full real spectra if all of the eigenvectors are time-reversal (T) symmetric rather than parity-time-reversal (PT) symmetric, and that their Hermitian counterparts are shown to be an experimentally accessible system, which have the same topological structures as that of the original ones but modulated hopping amplitudes within the unbroken region. Under the reflectionless transmission condition, the scattering behavior of momentum-independent reflectionless transmission (RT) can be achieved in the concerned non-Hermitian system. This peculiar feature indicates that, for a certain class of non-Hermitian systems with a balanced combination of the RT dimers, the defects can appear fully invisible to an outside observer. -- Highlights: •We investigate the non-Hermitian system with time reversal symmetry. •The Hermitian counterpart is experimentally accessible system. •The behavior of momentum-independent reflectionless transmission can be achieved. •A balanced combination of reflectionless transmission dimers leads to invisibility. •It paves an alternative way for the design of invisible cloaking devices.
Van Vliet, Carolyne M
2012-11-01
Nonequilibrium processes require that the density operator of an interacting system with Hamiltonian H(t) = H(0)(t)+λV converges and produces entropy. Employing projection operators in the state space, the density operator is developed to all orders of perturbation and then resummed. In contrast to earlier treatments by Van Hove [Physica 21, 517 (1955)] and others [U. Fano, Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 74 (1959); U. Fano, in Lectures on the Many-Body Problem, Vol 2, edited by E. R. Caniello (Academic Press, New York, 1964); R. Zwanzig, in Lectures in Theoretical Physics, Vol. III, edited by W. E. Britten, B. W. Downs, and J. Downs (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1961), pp. 116-141; K. M. Van Vliet, J. Math. Phys. 19, 1345 (1978); K. M. Van Vliet, Can. J. Phys. 56, 1206 (1978)], closed expressions are obtained. From these we establish the time-reversal symmetry property P(γ,t|γ',t') = Pγ',t'|γ,t), where the tilde refers to the time-reversed protocol; also a nonstationary Markovian master equation is derived. Time-reversal symmetry is then applied to thermostatted systems yielding the Crooks-Tasaki fluctuation theorem (FT) and the quantum Jarzynski work-energy theorem, as well as the general entropy FT. The quantum mechanical concepts of work and entropy are discussed in detail. Finally, we present a nonequilibrium extension of Mazo's lemma of linear response theory, obtaining some applications via this alternate route.
Time-reversal techniques for MISO and MIMO wireless communication systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fouda, Ahmed E.; Teixeira, Fernando L.; Yavuz, Mehmet E.
2012-10-01
We consider the application of different time-reversal (TR) signal processing and beamforming techniques to multiple-input single-output (MISO) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communication systems. Conventional TR beamforming provides spatial focusing at the intended receiver; however, it does not yield perfect channel equalization. Time-reversed pilot can be normalized to provide perfect equalization at the expense of power level. This equalization is particularly important for high data rates where the bit error rate performance is dominated by internal noise due to intersymbol interference. To increase physical layer covertness, TR beamforming is combined with the multiple-signal-classification (MUSIC) technique to produce null fields at eavesdroppers. This technique is also applied to MIMO setups to eliminate interuser interference and hence increase system capacity. Differential TR is used to obtain and update pilot signals for passive moving receivers, i.e., those that cannot (or do not) transmit pilot signals. Time-reversed differential backscattered signal is able to provide satisfactory spatial and temporal focusing at the moving receiver.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishida, H.; Wortmann, D.
2016-03-01
The embedding potential defined on the boundary surface of a semi-infinite crystal relates the value and normal derivative of generalized Bloch states propagating or decaying toward the interior of the crystal. It becomes Hermitian when the electron energy ɛ is located in a projected bulk band gap at a given wave vector k in the surface Brillouin zone (SBZ). If one plots the real eigenvalues of the embedding potential for a time-reversal invariant insulator in the projected bulk band gap along a path ɛ =ɛ0(k ) passing between two time-reversal invariant momentum (TRIM) points in the SBZ, then, they form Kramers doublets at both end points. We will demonstrate that the Z2 topological invariant, ν , which is either 0 or 1, depending on the product of time-reversal polarizations at the two TRIM points, can be determined from the two different ways these eigenvalues are connected between the two TRIM points. Furthermore, we will reveal a relation, ν =P mod 2, where P denotes the number of poles that the embedding potential exhibits along the path. We also discuss why gapless surface states crossing the bulk band gap inevitably occur on the surface of topological band insulators from the view point of the embedding theory.
Differential geometric invariants for time-reversal symmetric Bloch-bundles: The “Real” case
De Nittis, Giuseppe; Gomi, Kiyonori
2016-05-15
Topological quantum systems subjected to an even (resp. odd) time-reversal symmetry can be classified by looking at the related “Real” (resp. “Quaternionic”) Bloch-bundles. If from one side the topological classification of these time-reversal vector bundle theories has been completely described in De Nittis and Gomi [J. Geom. Phys. 86, 303–338 (2014)] for the “Real” case and in De Nittis and Gomi [Commun. Math. Phys. 339, 1–55 (2015)] for the “Quaternionic” case, from the other side it seems that a classification in terms of differential geometric invariants is still missing in the literature. With this article and its companion [G. De Nittis and K. Gomi (unpublished)] we want to cover this gap. More precisely, we extend in an equivariant way the theory of connections on principal bundles and vector bundles endowed with a time-reversal symmetry. In the “Real” case we generalize the Chern-Weil theory and we show that the assignment of a “Real” connection, along with the related differential Chern class and its holonomy, suffices for the classification of “Real” vector bundles in low dimensions.
Excitonic instabilities and spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking on the honeycomb lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wei; Punnoose, Alexander
2014-01-01
We elucidate the close relationship between spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking and the physics of excitonic instabilities in strongly correlated multiband systems. The underlying mechanism responsible for the spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry in a many-body system is closely related to the Cooper-like pairing instability of interband particle-hole pairs involving higher-order symmetries. Studies of such pairing instabilities have, however, mainly focused on the mean-field aspects of the virtual exciton condensate, which ignores the presence of the underlying collective Fermi-liquid excitations. We show that this relationship can be exploited to systematically derive the coupling of the condensate order parameter to the intraband Fermi-liquid particle-hole excitations. Surprisingly, we find that the static susceptibility is negative in the ordered phase when the coupling to the Fermi-liquid collective excitations are included, suggesting that a uniform condensate of virtual excitons, with or without time-reversal breaking, is an unstable phase at T =0.
Damage imaging in a laminated composite plate using an air-coupled time reversal mirror
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Bas, P.-Y.; Remillieux, M. C.; Pieczonka, L.; Ten Cate, J. A.; Anderson, B. E.; Ulrich, T. J.
2015-11-01
We demonstrate the possibility of selectively imaging the features of a barely visible impact damage in a laminated composite plate by using an air-coupled time reversal mirror. The mirror consists of a number of piezoelectric transducers affixed to wedges of power law profiles, which act as unconventional matching layers. The transducers are enclosed in a hollow reverberant cavity with an opening to allow progressive emission of the ultrasonic wave field towards the composite plate. The principle of time reversal is used to focus elastic waves at each point of a scanning grid spanning the surface of the plate, thus allowing localized inspection at each of these points. The proposed device and signal processing removes the need to be in direct contact with the plate and reveals the same features as vibrothermography and more features than a C-scan. More importantly, this device can decouple the features of the defect according to their orientation, by selectively focusing vector components of motion into the object, through air. For instance, a delamination can be imaged in one experiment using out-of-plane focusing, whereas a crack can be imaged in a separate experiment using in-plane focusing. This capability, inherited from the principle of time reversal, cannot be found in conventional air-coupled transducers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Tiggelen, B. A.; Skipetrov, S. E.; Page, J. H.
2017-05-01
Previous work has established that the localized regime of wave transport in open media is characterized by a position-dependent diffusion coefficient. In this work we study how the concept of position-dependent diffusion affects the delay time, the transverse confinement, the coherent backscattering, and the time reversal of waves. Definitions of energy transport velocity of localized waves are proposed. We start with a phenomenological model of radiative transfer and then present a novel perturbational approach based on the self-consistent theory of localization. The latter allows us to obtain results relevant for realistic experiments in disordered quasi-1D wave guides and 3D slabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnal, Bastien; Pernot, Mathieu; Fink, Mathias; Tanter, Mickael
2012-08-01
This Letter presents a time reversal cavity that has both a high reverberation time and a good transmission factor. A multiple scattering medium has been embedded inside a fluid-filled reverberating cavity. This allows creating smart ultrasonic sources able to generate very high pressure pulses at the focus outside the cavity with large steering capabilities. Experiments demonstrate a 25 dB gain in pressure at the focus. This concept will enable us to convert conventional ultrasonic imaging probes driven by low power electronics into high power probes for therapeutic applications requiring high pressure focused pulses, such as histotripsy or lithotripsy.
Gunji, Y; Nakamura, T
1991-01-01
In the present paper the self-consistency or operational closure of autopoiesis is described by introducing time explicitly. It is an extension of Spencer-Brown's idea of time, however. The definition of time is segregated into two parts, corresponding to the syntax and semantics of language, respectively. In this context, time reversibility is defined by the formalization of the relationship between time and self-consistency. This idea has also been discussed in the context of designation and/or naming. Here we will discuss it in the context of cellular automata and explain the structure of one-to-many type mappings. Our approach is the first attempt to extend autopoietic systems in terms of dynamics. It illustrates how to introduce an autopoietic time which looks irreversible, but without the concept of entropy.
Application of Carbonate Reservoir using waveform inversion and reverse-time migration methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, W.; Kim, H.; Min, D.; Keehm, Y.
2011-12-01
Recent exploration targets of oil and gas resources are deeper and more complicated subsurface structures, and carbonate reservoirs have become one of the attractive and challenging targets in seismic exploration. To increase the rate of success in oil and gas exploration, it is required to delineate detailed subsurface structures. Accordingly, migration method is more important factor in seismic data processing for the delineation. Seismic migration method has a long history, and there have been developed lots of migration techniques. Among them, reverse-time migration is promising, because it can provide reliable images for the complicated model even in the case of significant velocity contrasts in the model. The reliability of seismic migration images is dependent on the subsurface velocity models, which can be extracted in several ways. These days, geophysicists try to obtain velocity models through seismic full waveform inversion. Since Lailly (1983) and Tarantola (1984) proposed that the adjoint state of wave equations can be used in waveform inversion, the back-propagation techniques used in reverse-time migration have been used in waveform inversion, which accelerated the development of waveform inversion. In this study, we applied acoustic waveform inversion and reverse-time migration methods to carbonate reservoir models with various reservoir thicknesses to examine the feasibility of the methods in delineating carbonate reservoir models. We first extracted subsurface material properties from acoustic waveform inversion, and then applied reverse-time migration using the inverted velocities as a background model. The waveform inversion in this study used back-propagation technique, and conjugate gradient method was used in optimization. The inversion was performed using the frequency-selection strategy. Finally waveform inversion results showed that carbonate reservoir models are clearly inverted by waveform inversion and migration images based on the
Two effective approaches to reduce data storage in reverse time migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Weijia; Fu, Li-Yun
2013-07-01
Prestack reverse time migration (RTM) requires extensive data storage since it computes wavefields in forward time and accesses wavefields in reverse order. We first review several successful schemes that have been proposed to reduce data storage, but require more computational redundancies. We propose two effective strategies to reduce data storage during RTM. The first strategy is based on the Nyquist sampling theorem, which involves no extra computational cost. The fact is that the time sampling intervals required by numerical algorithms or given by field records is generally several times smaller than that satisfied by the Nyquist sampling theorem. Therefore, we can correlate the source wavefields with the receiver wavefields at the Nyquist time step, which helps decrease storage of time history. The second strategy is based on a lossless compression algorithm, which is widely used in computer science and information theory. The compression approach reduces storage significantly at a little computational cost. Numerical examples show that the two proposed strategies are effective and efficient.
Cheng, Ruey-Kuang; Etchegaray, Mikel; Meck, Warren H
2007-12-01
Methamphetamine intoxication has long-term consequences on dopaminergic function and corticostriatal-mediated behaviors in humans and other animals. In order to determine the potential impact on timing and temporal memory, we examined methamphetamine dose regimens that have been linked to neurotoxicity in adult (8 months) male rats. Rats that were given repetitive, high-dose methamphetamine (3.0 mg/kg ip x 4 injections/2 h) or saline injections were trained on a 2-s vs 8-s bisection procedure using auditory and visual signal durations. Following the high-dose regimen, baseline timing performance was reestablished prior to the rats' receiving reversal training in which the spatial/temporal mapping of the anchor durations (2 s and 8 s) to response options (left or right lever) was reversed. Low-dose methamphetamine (0.5 mg/kg ip) or saline injections were subsequently used to evaluate the effectiveness of the neurotoxic doses in terms of modifying the horizontal leftward shifts associated with increases in clock speed. Overall, the results indicate that MAP intoxication leads to reduced auditory/visual differences in clock speed, deficits in reversal learning, distortions in temporal memory, and lowered dopaminergic regulation of clock speed consistent with damage to prefrontal cortex and corticostriatal circuitry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Binlin; Cai, W.; Gayen, S. K.
2012-12-01
An optical tomography approach for locating fluorescent targets embedded inside a turbid medium is introduced. It uses multi-source probing and multi-detector signal acquisition to collect diffuse fluorescence signal, and time reversal matrix formalism with subspace based signal processing for image reconstruction. It could provide three-dimensional position co-ordinates of two small fluorescent targets embedded in Intralipid-20% suspension of thickness ˜60 times the transport mean free path with an accuracy of ˜1 mm. Fast reconstruction and high spatial resolution make the approach potentially suited for detecting and locating contrast-enhanced breast tumor at early stages of growth.
Kolafa, Jirí
2004-02-01
An improved method for classic molecular dynamics of polarizable molecules is proposed. The method uses a predictor, one evaluation of the electrostatic field per integration step, and relaxation (damping). The self-consistent solution is approximated with error of the second order (with respect to the timestep). The time reversibility (long-time energy conservation) error is of the (2n - 1)th order, where n is the predictor length. The method is easy to implement, efficient, accurate, and suitable for any model of polarizability.
Maes, Michaël; Willebrords, Joost; Crespo Yanguas, Sara; Cogliati, Bruno; Vinken, Mathieu
2016-01-01
Summary Although connexin production is mainly regulated at the protein level, altered connexin gene expression has been identified as the underlying mechanism of several pathologies. When studying the latter, appropriate methods to quantify connexin mRNA levels are required. The present chapter describes a well-established reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction procedure optimized for analysis of hepatic connexins. The method includes RNA extraction and subsequent quantification, generation of complementary DNA, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and data analysis. PMID:27207283
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, J.; Reyes-Montes, J.; Young, R.
2013-12-01
The characterization of microseismic (MS) sources provides valuable information on fracture propagation during engineering operations such as hydraulic fracturing in reservoir development, mine excavations, and extraction of geothermal resources. The general approach requires the evaluation of the seismic moment tensor components. We present a feasibility study for the evaluation of MS source mechanisms using a comprehensive workflow including event location using grid-search based waveform stacking, velocity updating from passive traveltime tomography, and moment tensor evaluation based on time reversal imaging. The workflow is designed to minimize the bias introduced to the moment tensor from the errors in hypocenter and velocity model. Specifically, the first step is to calculate a traveltime table for both P- and S-wave direct arrivals. The Eikonal equation solver is based on a finite difference scheme named Fast Sweeping Method (FSM). The grid search is later applied to the continuous data streams for all trial origin time and hypocenter locations. The semblance is used to quantify the match between the traveltime table and the waveform. The grid point that minimises the residual is considered as the source location. If a large number of microseismic events are recovered, passive traveltime tomography can be performed to simultaneously relocate the events and update the velocity model illuminated by the microseismicity. As a result, the discrepancy between the observed and the calculated traveltime is decreased and the bias in the following moment tensor evaluation due to the errors from hypocenter locations and velocity models is reduced. In the last step, instead of iterative inversion we employed a time reversal operation that back propagates the time-reversed three-component full waveform signal into the tomographic velocity model. The strain tensor recorded at the hypocenter location as a function of time is considered as the moment tensor that initially
Time reversal imaging for sensor networks with optimal compensation in time.
Derveaux, Grégoire; Papanicolaou, George; Tsogka, Chrysoula
2007-04-01
Using extensive numerical simulations, several distributed sensor imaging algorithms for localized damage in a structure are analyzed. Given a configuration of ultrasonic transducers, a full response matrix for the healthy structure is assumed known. It is used as a basis for comparison with the response matrix that is recorded when there is damage. Numerical simulations are done with the wave equation in two dimensions. The healthy structure contains many scatterers. The aim is to image point-like defects with several regularly distributed sensors. Because of the complexity of the environment, the recorded traces have a lot of delay spread and travel time migration does not work so well. Instead, the traces are back propagated numerically assuming that there is some knowledge of the background. Since the time at which the back propagated field will focus on the defects is unknown, the Shannon entropy or the bounded variation norm of the image is computed and the time where it is minimal is picked. This imaging method performs well because it produces a tight image near the location of the defects at the time of refocusing. When there are several defects, the singular value decomposition of the response matrix is also carried out.
Least-squares reverse-time migration with cost-effective computation and memory storage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xuejian; Liu, Yike; Huang, Xiaogang; Li, Peng
2016-06-01
Least-squares reverse-time migration (LSRTM), which involves several iterations of reverse-time migration (RTM) and Born modeling procedures, can provide subsurface images with better balanced amplitudes, higher resolution and fewer artifacts than standard migration. However, the same source wavefield is repetitively computed during the Born modeling and RTM procedures of different iterations. We developed a new LSRTM method with modified excitation-amplitude imaging conditions, where the source wavefield for RTM is forward propagated only once while the maximum amplitude and its excitation-time at each grid are stored. Then, the RTM procedure of different iterations only involves: (1) backward propagation of the residual between Born modeled and acquired data, and (2) implementation of the modified excitation-amplitude imaging condition by multiplying the maximum amplitude by the back propagated data residuals only at the grids that satisfy the imaging time at each time-step. For a complex model, 2 or 3 local peak-amplitudes and corresponding traveltimes should be confirmed and stored for all the grids so that multiarrival information of the source wavefield can be utilized for imaging. Numerical experiments on a three-layer and the Marmousi2 model demonstrate that the proposed LSRTM method saves huge computation and memory cost.
A New Characteristic Function for Fast Time-Reverse Seismic Event Location
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendriyana, Andri; Bauer, Klaus; Weber, Michael; Jaya, Makky; Muksin, Muksin
2015-04-01
Microseismicity produced by natural activities is usually characterized by low signal-to-noise ratio and huge amount of data as recording is conducted for a long period of time. Locating microseismic events is preferably carried out using migration-based methods such as time-reverse modeling (TRM). The original TRM is based on backpropagating the wavefield from the receiver down to the source location. Alternatively, we are using a characteristic function (CF) derived from the measured wavefield as input for the TRM. The motivation for such a strategy is to avoid undesired contributions from secondary arrivals which may generate artifacts in the final images. In this presentation, we introduce a new CF as input for TRM method. To obtain this CF, initially we apply kurtosis-based automatic onset detection and convolution with a given wavelet. The convolution with low frequency wavelets allows us to conduct time-reverse modeling using coarser sampling hence it will reduce computing time. We apply the method to locate seismic events measured along an active part of the Sumatra Fault around the Tarutung pull-apart basin (North Sumatra, Indonesia). The results show that seismic events are well-determined since they are concentrated along the Sumatran fault. Internal details of the Tarutung basin structure could be derived. Our results are consistent with those obtained from inversion of manually picked travel time data.
Time-reversal symmetric resolution of unity without background integrals in open quantum systems
Hatano, Naomichi; Ordonez, Gonzalo
2014-12-15
We present a new complete set of states for a class of open quantum systems, to be used in expansion of the Green’s function and the time-evolution operator. A remarkable feature of the complete set is that it observes time-reversal symmetry in the sense that it contains decaying states (resonant states) and growing states (anti-resonant states) parallelly. We can thereby pinpoint the occurrence of the breaking of time-reversal symmetry at the choice of whether we solve Schrödinger equation as an initial-condition problem or a terminal-condition problem. Another feature of the complete set is that in the subspace of the central scattering area of the system, it consists of contributions of all states with point spectra but does not contain any background integrals. In computing the time evolution, we can clearly see contribution of which point spectrum produces which time dependence. In the whole infinite state space, the complete set does contain an integral but it is over unperturbed eigenstates of the environmental area of the system and hence can be calculated analytically. We demonstrate the usefulness of the complete set by computing explicitly the survival probability and the escaping probability as well as the dynamics of wave packets. The origin of each term of matrix elements is clear in our formulation, particularly, the exponential decays due to the resonance poles.
The Reversal of Time Sequence and abrupt direction change of Astrophysical Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Biping
2015-08-01
The discrepancy in the propagation times from different parts of a moving source can result in an apparent transverse velocity exceeding the speed of light, which is the well known scenario of superluminal motion.This work shows that the same effect of time delay can even reverse the time sequence of appearance of components in a parsec-scale jets of active galactic nuclei like 3C 279. At such a scale, a component, reproduced somewhere in jet earlier but more distant from the observer, travels longer time to the observer, so that it can emerge later than those ones with shorter distance to the observer which actually generated later.Interestingly, this scenario well explains the increasing samples of abrupt change of jet direction exhibited by the long base line observation of jets of active galactic nuclei.Revealing such an effect of time reversal is of importance in the understanding of the nature of jets in different systems from active galactic nuclei to X-ray binaries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucia, Umberto
2016-02-01
The balance of forces and processes between the system and the environment and the processes inside the system are the result of the flows of the quanta. Moreover, the transition between two thermodynamic states is the consequence of absorption or emission of quanta, but, during the transition, the entropy variation due to the irreversibility occurs and it breaks any symmetry of time. Consequently, the irreversibility is the result of a transition, a process, an interaction between the system and its environment. This interaction results completely time-irreversible for any real process because of irreversibility. As a consequence, a proof of the third law is obtained proving that the zero temperature state can be achieved only for an infinite work lost for dissipation or in an infinite time. The fundamental role of time both in equilibrium and in non equilibrium analysis is pointed out. Moreover, the non equilibrium temperature is related to the entropy generation and its fluctuation rate; indeed, non-stationary temperature means that the system has not yet attained free energy minimum state, i.e., the maximum entropy state; the consequence is that the zero temperature state can be achieved only for an infinite work lost for dissipation or in an infinite time. In engineering thermodynamics the efficiency is always obtained without any consideration on time, while, here, just the time is introduced as a fundamental quantity of the analysis of non equilibrium states.
Tomography, Adjoint Methods, Time-Reversal, and Banana-Doughnut Kernels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tape, C.; Tromp, J.; Liu, Q.
2004-12-01
We demonstrate that Fréchet derivatives for tomographic inversions may be obtained based upon just two calculations for each earthquake: one calculation for the current model and a second, `adjoint', calculation that uses time-reversed signals at the receivers as simultaneous, fictitious sources. For a given model~m, we consider objective functions χ(m) that minimize differences between waveforms, traveltimes, or amplitudes. We show that the Fréchet derivatives of such objective functions may be written in the generic form δ χ=∫ VK_m( {x}) δ ln m( {x}) d3 {x}, where δ ln m=δ m/m denotes the relative model perturbation. The volumetric kernel Km is defined throughout the model volume V and is determined by time-integrated products between spatial and temporal derivatives of the regular displacement field {s} and the adjoint displacement field {s} obtained by using time-reversed signals at the receivers as simultaneous sources. In waveform tomography the time-reversed signal consists of differences between the data and the synthetics, in traveltime tomography it is determined by synthetic velocities, and in amplitude tomography it is controlled by synthetic displacements. For each event, the construction of the kernel Km requires one forward calculation for the regular field {s} and one adjoint calculation involving the fields {s} and {s}. For multiple events the kernels are simply summed. The final summed kernel is controlled by the distribution of events and stations and thus determines image resolution. In the case of traveltime tomography, the kernels Km are weighted combinations of banana-doughnut kernels. We demonstrate also how amplitude anomalies may be inverted for lateral variations in elastic and anelastic structure. The theory is illustrated based upon 2D spectral-element simulations.
The influence of heavy doping effects on the reverse recovery storage time of a diode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, S. C.; Van Overstraeten, R. J.
1983-05-01
During the reverse recovery process in a modern Si p- n junction diode, the value of JEO/ JBO (the ratio of emitter to base dark saturation currents) increases and the recombination of carriers in the emitter becomes important due to heavy doping effects. A theory is developed to take these effects into account. The emitter and the base components of the current during the reverse recovery phase are found to vary with time. However, their sum remains equal to the constant reverse current JR, which flows in the external circuit. The ratio of the total quantity of charge present in the base to that present in the emitter is found to increase rapidly with time. Values of the storage time ts for different values of JEO/ JBO are calculated. In a typical case, the storage time is reduced by a factor 5 in a diode with JEO/ JBO = 2. In such cases, the values of lifetime τB calculated using measured ts values and the Kingston's formula, become inaccurate. Theoretical expression for the total charge QBS left in the base at t = ts in a base dominated diode is derived. An earlier semi-empirical formula known as Kuno's formula is derived theoretically. It is found that the formula is valid both for the base dominated diode as well as in a diode with large contribution of the emitter but only when JR/ JF is small. According to this formula ts vs 1n(1 + JF/ JR) plot is approximately a straight line with slope approximately equal to τB in both cases. For large values of JR/ JF when ts values are small, the correct formula shows that the plot is highly curved. An analysis of this part of the curve yields a value of JEO/ JBO.
Geomagnetic Field Reversals and Life on the Earth in Phanerozoic Time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pechersky, D. M.
2014-10-01
Global paleomagnetic and biostratigraphic data are generalized. As a result it is found out that the direct connection between geomagnetic reversals, biozones and maxima of mass extinction of a biota is absent. At the same time it is noted close to a synchronous total picture of consistent changes of biozones and geomagnetic polarity. It is explained by the general source - the Earth's diurnal rotation. The reversal polarity of a geomagnetic field prevailed during the Phanerozoic that is agreed with the Earth's counterclockwise rotation. Change of polarity of a field, most likely, is connected with acceleration or deceleration of rotation speed of the internal core relative to the Earth's mantle. Lack of direct interrelation between changes in the biosphere and geomagnetic field indicate a lack of influence of a field on life evolution on Earth. It follows also from the fact that life on Earth developed from primitive unicellular forms to mammals and the man and diversity of biota was grew against a close condition of a geomagnetic field during ~2,5 billion years and irrespective of numerous geomagnetic reversals. Main conclusion: evolutionary development of life on Earth doesn't depend both on large changes of a geomagnetic field, and on the extreme catastrophic events conducting to mass extinction of a biota.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fouda, Ahmed E.
Time-reversal (TR) was originated in acoustics as a technique for re-focusing waves around their source location. Under certain conditions, the wave equation is invariant under TR, therefore, waves emanated from a source or scattered from a passive target, and recorded by a transceivers array, will retrace their forward path and automatically focus at the source/target location if back propagated in a time-reversed (last-in first-out) fashion from that array. Focusing resolution of time-reversed back propagation in rich scattering environments beats that in free space, yielding what is known as 'superresolution'. Moreover, under ultrawideband (UWB) operation, TR exhibits the distinctive property of 'statistical stability', which makes it an attractive technique for imaging in disordered media whose characteristics are not known deterministically (random media). Over the past few years, TR has been exploited in a variety of electromagnetic sensing and imaging applications such as ground penetrating radar, breast cancer detection, nondestructive testing, and through-wall imaging. In addition, TR has been extensively applied in UWB wireless communication providing myriad of advantages including reduced receiver complexity, power saving, increased system capacity, and enhanced information secrecy. In this work, we introduce new TR-based signal processing techniques for imaging, tracking, and communicating with targets/users embedded in rich scattering environments. We start by demonstrating, both numerically and experimentally, the statistical stability of UWB TR imaging in inhomogeneous random media, under different combinations of random medium parameters and interrogating signal properties. We examine conditions under which frequency decorrelation in random media provides a more effective 'self-averaging' and therefore better statistical stability. Then, we devise a technique for detecting and tracking multiple moving targets in cluttered environments based on
Time-reversal symmetry breaking and spontaneous Hall effect without magnetic dipole order.
Machida, Yo; Nakatsuji, Satoru; Onoda, Shigeki; Tayama, Takashi; Sakakibara, Toshiro
2010-01-14
Spin liquids are magnetically frustrated systems, in which spins are prevented from ordering or freezing, owing to quantum or thermal fluctuations among degenerate states induced by the frustration. Chiral spin liquids are a hypothetical class of spin liquids in which the time-reversal symmetry is macroscopically broken in the absence of an applied magnetic field or any magnetic dipole long-range order. Even though such chiral spin-liquid states were proposed more than two decades ago, an experimental realization and observation of such states has remained a challenge. One of the characteristic order parameters in such systems is a macroscopic average of the scalar spin chirality, a solid angle subtended by three nearby spins. In previous experimental reports, however, the spin chirality was only parasitic to the non-coplanar spin structure associated with a magnetic dipole long-range order or induced by the applied magnetic field, and thus the chiral spin-liquid state has never been found. Here, we report empirical evidence that the time-reversal symmetry can be broken spontaneously on a macroscopic scale in the absence of magnetic dipole long-range order. In particular, we employ the anomalous Hall effect to directly probe the broken time-reversal symmetry for the metallic frustrated magnet Pr(2)Ir(2)O(7). An onset of the Hall effect is observed at zero field in the absence of uniform magnetization, within the experimental accuracy, suggesting an emergence of a chiral spin liquid. The origin of this spontaneous Hall effect is ascribed to chiral spin textures, which are inferred from the magnetic measurements indicating the spin ice-rule formation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ying; Zhou, Hui; Chen, Hanming; Sheng, Shanbo; Yuan, Sanyi
2015-11-01
Traditionally, finite difference method is chosen as a fast and accurate solution method for numerical simulation of wave equation. However, finite difference method faces obstacles when surface topography and irregular interfaces exist. Boundary-conforming grids by the elliptic method provide an optimal choice for finite difference wavefield simulation in complicated domains containing not only surface topography but also irregular interfaces. By such grids, the calculations of spatial derivatives are transformed by a chain rule into those in the regular computational space, where traditional finite difference schemes are still applicable. Boundary-conforming grids are superior to other irregular grid methods, such as interpolation method, mapping method and unstructured grids, on the aspects of generality, in accuracy and stability. This paper comprehensively applies the elliptic method and acoustic wave equation simulation, reverse time migration, perfectly matched layers in such boundary-conforming grids. The two-dimensional acoustic wave equation is compactly reformulated in boundary-conforming grids by the elliptic method for forward modeling and reverse time migration, and the symmetric and compact form of perfectly matched layers expressed in curvilinear coordinate system are applied to suppress artificial reflections. A stable and explicit second order accuracy finite difference method is used for discretization. Two models are presented to evaluate the ability of boundary-conforming grids to deal with surface topography and complex interfaces, and to demonstrate the feasibility of wavefield propagation and reverse time migration. Comparisons between the numerical simulations with and without the perfectly matched layers are performed to show the effect of the reformulated perfectly matched layer.
Passive optical coherence elastography using a time-reversal approach (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Zorgani, Ali; Fink, Mathias; Catheline, Stefan; Boccara, A. Claude
2017-02-01
Background and motivation - Conventional Optical Coherence Elastography (OCE) methods consist in launching controlled shear waves in tissues, and measuring their propagation speed using an ultrafast imaging system. However, the use of external shear sources limits transfer to clinical practice, especially for ophthalmic applications. Here, we propose a totally passive OCE method for ocular tissues based on time-reversal of the natural vibrations. Methods - Experiments were first conducted on a tissue-mimicking phantom containing a stiff inclusion. Pulsatile motions were reproduced by stimulating the phantom surface with two piezoelectric actuators excited asynchronously at low frequencies (50-500 Hz). The resulting random displacements were tracked at 190 frames/sec using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), with a 10x5µm² resolution over a 3x2mm² field-of-view (lateral x depth). The shear wavefield was numerically refocused (i.e. time-reversed) at each pixel using noise-correlation algorithms. The focal spot size yields the shear wavelength. Results were validated by comparison with shear wave speed measurements obtained from conventional active OCE. In vivo tests were then conducted on anesthetized rats. Results - The stiff inclusion of the phantom was delineated on the wavelength map with a wavelength ratio between the inclusion and the background (1.6) consistent with the speed ratio (1.7). This validates the wavelength measurements. In vivo, natural shear waves were detected in the eye and wavelength maps of the anterior segment showed a clear elastic contrast between the cornea, the sclera and the iris. Conclusion - We validated the time-reversal approach for passive elastography using SD-OCT imaging at low frame-rate. This method could accelerate the clinical transfer of ocular elastography.
Axis retrieval of a supersonic source in a reverberant space using time reversal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahenc, Guillaume; Éric Bavu; Hamery, Pascal; Hengy, Sébastien; Melon, Manuel
2017-08-01
Localizing the axis of the Mach cone created by the supersonic displacement of a bullet in a reverberant environment is a challenging task, not only because of the high velocity of the moving source, but also because of the multiple wave reflections off of the walls. Although time reversal (TR) techniques allow static acoustic source localization in a reverberant space, they have not been explored yet on non stationary waves caused by supersonic displacements in urban canyons. The acoustic wave produced by a supersonic projectile has a conical wavefront and a N-shaped acoustic pressure signature. In this paper, this acoustic wave is reproduced using a line array of point-like sources (simulations) and loudspeakers (experiments). During the propagation of this conical wave in an urban canyon, the resulting pressure signals are measured using a time reversal array flush mounted into the ground. These acoustic signals allow to automatically retrieve with a high accuracy the location of the Mach cone axis using time reversal techniques. This inverse problem is solved using the maximization of a fourth-order statistical criterion of the backpropagated pressures. This criterion allows to estimate the intersections between the Mach cone axis and several vertical planes in the urban canyon. These estimations are then fitted to a 3D trajectory with a robust three dimensional interpolation technique based on the Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm. This method allows to automatically retrieve the axis of the supersonic source with an angular accuracy of less than 0.5° and a misdistance of 0.5 cm for both numerical simulations and experimental measurements.
Manhart, Michael; Haldane, Allan
2012-01-01
Monomorphic loci evolve through a series of substitutions on a fitness landscape. Understanding how mutation, selection, and genetic drift drive this process, and uncovering the structure of the fitness landscape from genomic data are two major goals of evolutionary theory. Population genetics models of the substitution process have traditionally focused on the weak-selection regime, which is accurately described by diffusion theory. Predictions in this regime can be considered universal in the sense that many population models exhibit equivalent behavior in the diffusion limit. However, a growing number of experimental studies suggest that strong selection plays a key role in some systems, and thus there is a need to understand universal properties of models without a priori assumptions about selection strength. Here we study time reversibility in a general substitution model of a monomorphic haploid population. We show that for any time-reversible population model, such as the Moran process, substitution rates obey an exact scaling law. For several other irreversible models, such as the simple Wright-Fisher process and its extensions, the scaling law is accurate up to selection strengths that are well outside the diffusion regime. Time reversibility gives rise to a power-law expression for the steady-state distribution of populations on an arbitrary fitness landscape. The steady-state behavior is dominated by weak selection and is thus adequately described by the diffusion approximation, which guarantees universality of the steady-state formula and its applicability to the problem of reconstructing fitness landscapes from DNA or protein sequence data. PMID:22838027
Deconvolution of acoustic emissions for source localization using time reverse modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocur, Georg Karl
2017-01-01
Impact experiments on small-scale slabs made of concrete and aluminum were carried out. Wave motion radiated from the epicenter of the impact was recorded as voltage signals by resonant piezoelectric transducers. Numerical simulations of the elastic wave propagation are performed to simulate the physical experiments. The Hertz theory of contact is applied to estimate the force impulse, which is subsequently used for the numerical simulation. Displacements at the transducer positions are calculated numerically. A deconvolution function is obtained by comparing the physical (voltage signal) and the numerical (calculated displacement) experiments. Acoustic emission signals due to pencil-lead breaks are recorded, deconvolved and applied for localization using time reverse modeling.
Observation of coherence in the time-reversed relativistic photoelectric effect.
Tashenov, S; Banaś, D; Beyer, H; Brandau, C; Fritzsche, S; Gumberidze, A; Hagmann, S; Hillenbrand, P-M; Jörg, H; Kojouharov, I; Kozhuharov, Ch; Lestinsky, M; Litvinov, Yu A; Maiorova, A V; Schaffner, H; Shabaev, V M; Spillmann, U; Stöhlker, Th; Surzhykov, A; Trotsenko, S
2014-09-12
The photoelectric effect has been studied in the regime of hard x rays and strong Coulomb fields via its time-reversed process of radiative recombination (RR). In the experiment, the relativistic electrons recombined into the 2p_{3/2} excited state of hydrogenlike uranium ions, and both the RR x rays and the subsequently emitted characteristic x rays were detected in coincidence. This allowed us to observe the coherence between the magnetic substates in a highly charged ion and to identify the contribution of the spin-orbit interaction to the RR process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Białous, Małgorzata; Yunko, Vitalii; Bauch, Szymon; Ławniczak, Michał; Dietz, Barbara; Sirko, Leszek
2016-09-01
We present experimental studies of the power spectrum and other fluctuation properties in the spectra of microwave networks simulating chaotic quantum graphs with violated time reversal invariance. On the basis of our data sets, we demonstrate that the power spectrum in combination with other long-range and also short-range spectral fluctuations provides a powerful tool for the identification of the symmetries and the determination of the fraction of missing levels. Such a procedure is indispensable for the evaluation of the fluctuation properties in the spectra of real physical systems like, e.g., nuclei or molecules, where one has to deal with the problem of missing levels.
Effective dissipation: Breaking time-reversal symmetry in driven microscopic energy transmission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Aidan I.; Sivak, David A.
2016-09-01
At molecular scales, fluctuations play a significant role and prevent biomolecular processes from always proceeding in a preferred direction, raising the question of how limited amounts of free energy can be dissipated to obtain directed progress. We examine the system and process characteristics that efficiently break time-reversal symmetry at fixed energy loss; in particular for a simple model of a molecular machine, an intermediate energy barrier produces unusually high asymmetry for a given dissipation. We relate the symmetry-breaking factors found in this model to recent observations of biomolecular machines.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Folégot, Thomas; Prada, Claire; Fink, Mathias
2003-06-01
Time reversal operator (TRO) decompositions are performed in a model of an ocean wave guide containing a target and having different kinds of bottom. The objective is to study the effects of bottom reverberation and absorption by means of ultrasonic experiments. It is shown experimentally that the echo from a target can be separated from the bottom reverberation. Reverberation eigenvectors are back propagated in the wave guide leading to focus on the bottom. An amplitude correction is applied to both reverberation and signal eigenvectors to compensate for bottom absorption and thus to improve target resolution.
Connecting the dots: Time-reversal symmetric Weyl semimetals with tunable Fermi arcs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dwivedi, Vatsal; Ramamurthy, Srinidhi T.
2016-12-01
We propose a one-parameter family of noninteracting lattice models for Weyl semimetals with four Weyl nodes and tunable Fermi arcs. These two-band model Hamiltonians are time-reversal symmetric with T2=+1 , and tuning the parameter changes the connectivity of the Fermi arcs continuously without affecting the location and chiralities of the Weyl nodes in the bulk Brillouin zone. The bulk polarization and magnetization are shown to vary with this parameter, a dependence inaccessible to the low energy effective field theory.
Order from disorder in closed systems via time-reversal violation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldman, T.; Sharp, D. H.
2012-03-01
Definitions of entropy usually assume time-reversal (T) invariance of interactions, yet microscopically T is known to be violated. We present a detailed computational example of (uncharged) particle species separation (Maxwell demon) using an interaction that violates both parity (P) and T so that PT is preserved, consistent with the CPT invariance required in quantum field theory (C is charge conjugation). This illustrates how T-violating forces can produce more organized states from disorganized ones, contrary to expectations based on increase of entropy. We also outline several scenarios in which T-violating forces could lead to an organized state in the early Universe, starting from a still earlier disorganized state.
Time reversal of continuous-wave, monochromatic signals in elastic media
Anderson, Brian E; Guyer, Robert A; Ulrich, Timothy J; Johnson, Paul A
2009-01-01
Experimental observations of spatial focusing of continuous-wave, steady-state elastic waves in a reverberant elastic cavity using time reversal are reported here. Spatially localized focusing is achieved when multiple channels are employed, while a single channel does not yield such focusing. The amplitude of the energy at the focal location increases as the square of the number of channels used, while the amplitude elsewhere in the medium increases proportionally with the number of channels used. The observation is important in the context of imaging in solid laboratory samples as well as problems involving continuous-wave signals in Earth.
Mesoscopic fluctuations in disordered superconductors with broken time-reversal symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryu, Shinsei; Furusaki, Akira; Ludwig, Andreas; Mudry, Christopher
2005-03-01
The mesoscopic regime in the problem of Anderson localization is a scaling regime in which disorder effects remain weak. It can be realized in quasi-one and higher dimensional systems. Fluctuations in the global density of states, the local density of states, as well as in the conductance were first studied for conventional metals in the pioneering works of Stone and Lee on the one hand, and Altshuler, Kravtsov, and Lerner, on the other hand. Here we extend the analysis of the conductance fluctuations by Altshuler, Kravtsov, and Lerner to dirty superconductors with broken time-reversal symmetry in near two spatial dimensions.
Noncolocated Time-Reversal MUSIC: High-SNR Distribution of Null Spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciuonzo, Domenico; Rossi, Pierluigi Salvo
2017-04-01
We derive the asymptotic distribution of the null spectrum of the well-known Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) in its computational Time-Reversal (TR) form. The result pertains to a single-frequency non-colocated multistatic scenario and several TR-MUSIC variants are here investigated. The analysis builds upon the 1st-order perturbation of the singular value decomposition and allows a simple characterization of null-spectrum moments (up to the 2nd order). This enables a comparison in terms of spectrums stability. Finally, a numerical analysis is provided to confirm the theoretical findings.
Effective Field Theory and Time-Reversal Violation in Light Nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mereghetti, E.; van Kolck, U.
2015-10-01
Thanks to the unnaturally small value of the QCD vacuum angle [Formula: see text], time-reversal violation ([Formula: see text]) offers a window into physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. We review the effective field theory framework that establishes a clean connection between (a) [Formula: see text] mechanisms, which can be represented by higher-dimensional operators involving SM fields and symmetries, and (b) hadronic interactions, which allow for controlled calculations of low-energy observables involving strong interactions. The chiral properties of [Formula: see text] mechanisms lead to a pattern that should be identifiable in measurements of the electric dipole moments of the nucleon and light nuclei.
Time-reversal-symmetric single-photon wave packets for free-space quantum communication.
Trautmann, N; Alber, G; Agarwal, G S; Leuchs, G
2015-05-01
Readout and retrieval processes are proposed for efficient, high-fidelity quantum state transfer between a matter qubit, encoded in the level structure of a single atom or ion, and a photonic qubit, encoded in a time-reversal-symmetric single-photon wave packet. They are based on controlling spontaneous photon emission and absorption of a matter qubit on demand in free space by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. As these processes do not involve mode selection by high-finesse cavities or photon transport through optical fibers, they offer interesting perspectives as basic building blocks for free-space quantum-communication protocols.
Folégot, Thomas; Prada, Claire; Fink, Mathias
2003-06-01
Time reversal operator (TRO) decompositions are performed in a model of an ocean wave guide containing a target and having different kinds of bottom. The objective is to study the effects of bottom reverberation and absorption by means of ultrasonic experiments. It is shown experimentally that the echo from a target can be separated from the bottom reverberation. Reverberation eigenvectors are back propagated in the wave guide leading to focus on the bottom. An amplitude correction is applied to both reverberation and signal eigenvectors to compensate for bottom absorption and thus to improve target resolution.
Heat Transport via Low-Dimensional Systems with Broken Time-Reversal Symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamaki, Shuji; Sasada, Makiko; Saito, Keiji
2017-09-01
We consider heat transport via systems with broken time-reversal symmetry. We apply magnetic fields to the one-dimensional charged particle systems with transverse motions. The standard momentum conservation is not satisfied. To focus on this effect clearly, we introduce a solvable model. We exactly demonstrate that the anomalous transport with a new exponent can appear. We numerically show the violation of the standard relation between the power-law decay in the equilibrium correlation and the diverging exponent of the thermal conductivity in the open system.
Universal transport properties of open microwave cavities with and without time-reversal symmetry.
Schanze, H; Stöckmann, H-J; Martínez-Mares, M; Lewenkopf, C H
2005-01-01
We measure the transmission through asymmetric and reflection-symmetric chaotic microwave cavities in dependence on the number of attached waveguides. Ferrite cylinders are placed inside the cavities to break time-reversal symmetry. The phase-breaking properties of the ferrite and its range of applicability are discussed in detail. We use the random matrix theory accounting for absorption effects to calculate the universal distribution of transmission coefficients T and their energy derivatives dT/depsilon. Using the absorption strength as a fitting parameter, we find good agreement between universal transmission fluctuations predicted by the theory and the experimental data.
Depth profile of a time-reversal focus in an elastic solid
Remillieux, Marcel C.; Anderson, Brian E.; Ulrich, T. J.; Le Bas, Pierre -Yves; Payan, Cedric
2015-04-01
The out-of-plane velocity component is focused on the flat surface of an isotropic solid sample using the principle of time reversal. This experiment is often reproduced in the context of nondestructive testing for imaging features near the surface of the sample. However, it is not clear how deep the focus extends into the bulk of the sample and what its profile is. In this paper, this question is answered using both numerical simulations and experimental data. The profiles of the foci are expressed in terms of the wavelengths of the dominant waves, based on the interpretation of the Lamb’s problem and the use of the diffraction limit.
Białous, Małgorzata; Yunko, Vitalii; Bauch, Szymon; Ławniczak, Michał; Dietz, Barbara; Sirko, Leszek
2016-09-30
We present experimental studies of the power spectrum and other fluctuation properties in the spectra of microwave networks simulating chaotic quantum graphs with violated time reversal invariance. On the basis of our data sets, we demonstrate that the power spectrum in combination with other long-range and also short-range spectral fluctuations provides a powerful tool for the identification of the symmetries and the determination of the fraction of missing levels. Such a procedure is indispensable for the evaluation of the fluctuation properties in the spectra of real physical systems like, e.g., nuclei or molecules, where one has to deal with the problem of missing levels.
Locating the Origin of Scattered Waves By Simulating Time Reversal of the Seismic Wavefield
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myers, S. C.; Pitarka, A.; Sjogreen, B.; Petersson, A.; Simmons, N. A.; Johannesson, G.
2014-12-01
The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is a series of underground chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) that are improving our physical understanding how explosion sources generate seismic waves. Better understanding the origin of S-waves from explosions is a primary goal of the SPE. Even at distances of a few kilometers from the SPE sources, seismic recordings include arrivals of unknown origin that could originate as S-waves at the explosive source or from topographic and subsurface scatterers. Back propagation of time reversed seismograms has been used to determine the location of seismic events (e.g. Tromp et al., 2005; Larmat et al., 2006), and Myers et al. (2007) demonstrated that the time-reversal method can be used to determine the origin of direct and scattered waves in seismic simulations. In this study we identify the origin of distinct features in synthetic seismograms that are generated by elastic, finite-difference simulation of seismic propagation from SPE explosions through a model that has been developed specifically for the SPE. The SPE model includes 3-dimensional velocity discontinuities at geologic boundaries, as well as free-surface topography. Although the largest arrivals in the synthetic seismograms are expected to originate at the explosion source, other prominent features are likely to originate as scattered energy from model discontinuities. Scattering sources in the SPE model that are needed in order to match synthetic seismograms to field recordings of SPE shots will be identified. Conversely, model structures may be removed if they result in disagreement between synthetic seismograms and field recordings. Ultimately, we plan to constrain the origin of prominent features in field recordings of SPE shots by directly using the field recordings as inputs to time reversal simulations. Direct use of field recordings will require development of methods that account for the uncertainty of the seismic model through which
Jin, Yuanwei; Ying, Yujie; Zhao, Deshuang
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present and demonstrate a low complexity elastic wave signaling and reception method to achieve high data rate communication on dispersive solid elastic media, such as metal pipes, using piezoelectric transducers of PZT (lead zirconate titanate). Data communication is realized using pulse position modulation (PPM) as the signaling method and the elastic medium as the communication channel. The communication system first transmits a small number of training pulses to probe the dispersive medium. The time-reversed probe signals are then utilized as the information carrying waveforms. Rapid timing acquisition of transmitted waveforms for demodulation over elastic medium is made possible by exploring the reciprocity property of guided elastic waves. The experimental tests were conducted using a National Instrument PXI system for waveform excitation and data acquisition. Data telemetry bit rates of 10 kbps, 20 kbps, 50 kbps and 100 kbps with the average bit error rates of 0, 5.75 x 10-4, 1.09 x 10-2 and 5.01 x 10-2, respectively, out of a total of 40, 000 transmitted bits were obtained when transmitting at the center frequency of 250 kHz and a 500 kHz bandwidth on steel pipe specimens. To emphasize the influence of time reversal, no complex processing techniques, such as adaptive channel equalization or error correction coding, were employed. PMID:23881122
Imaging of human tooth using ultrasound based chirp-coded nonlinear time reversal acoustics.
Dos Santos, Serge; Prevorovsky, Zdenek
2011-08-01
Human tooth imaging sonography is investigated experimentally with an acousto-optic noncoupling set-up based on the chirp-coded nonlinear time reversal acoustic concept. The complexity of the tooth internal structure (enamel-dentine interface, cracks between internal tubules) is analyzed by adapting the nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) with the objective of the tomography of damage. Optimization of excitations using intrinsic symmetries, such as time reversal (TR) invariance, reciprocity, correlation properties are then proposed and implemented experimentally. The proposed medical application of this TR-NEWS approach is implemented on a third molar human tooth and constitutes an alternative of noncoupling echodentography techniques. A 10 MHz bandwidth ultrasonic instrumentation has been developed including a laser vibrometer and a 20 MHz contact piezoelectric transducer. The calibrated chirp-coded TR-NEWS imaging of the tooth is obtained using symmetrized excitations, pre- and post-signal processing, and the highly sensitive 14 bit resolution TR-NEWS instrumentation previously calibrated. Nonlinear signature coming from the symmetry properties is observed experimentally in the tooth using this bi-modal TR-NEWS imaging after and before the focusing induced by the time-compression process. The TR-NEWS polar B-scan of the tooth is described and suggested as a potential application for modern echodentography. It constitutes the basis of the self-consistent harmonic imaging sonography for monitoring cracks propagation in the dentine, responsible of human tooth structural health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A two-dimensional pseudospectral model for time reversal and nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy.
Goursolle, Thomas; Callé, Samuel; Dos Santos, Serge; Bou Matar, Olivier
2007-12-01
One way to characterize metallic materials in the presence of defects like dislocation networks is to measure their large dynamic nonlinear elastic response. In this numerical study, a new method combining the nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) method with a time reversal (TR) process is proposed. This method, called NEWS-TR, uses nonlinear analysis as a pretreatment of time reversal and then consists of retrofocusing only nonlinear components on the defect position. A two-dimensional pseudospectral time domain algorithm is developed here to validate the NEWS-TR method as a potential technique for damage location. Hysteretic nonlinear behavior of the materials being studied is introduced using the Preisach-Mayergoyz model. Moreover, in order to extend this solver in two dimensions, the Kelvin notation is used to modify the elastic coefficient tensor. Simulations performed on a metallic sample show the feasibility and value of the NEWS-TR methodology for microdamage imaging. Retrofocusing quality depends on different parameters such as the filtering method used to keep only nonlinear components and the nonlinear effect measured. In harmonic generation, pulse inversion filtering seems to be a more appropriate filtering method than classical harmonic filtering for most defect positions, mainly because of its ability to filter all fundamental components.
Song, Aijun; Badiey, Mohsen
2012-01-01
Multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) techniques can lead to significant improvements of underwater acoustic communication capabilities. In this paper, receivers based on time reversal processing are developed for high frequency underwater MIMO channels. Time reversal followed by a single channel decision feedback equalizer, aided by frequent channel updates, is used to compensate for the time-varying inter-symbol interference. A parallel interference cancellation method is incorporated to suppress the co-channel interference in the MIMO system. The receiver performance is demonstrated by a 2008 shallow water experiment in Kauai, Hawaii. In the experiment, high frequency MIMO signals centered at 16 kHz were transmitted every hour during a 35 h period from an 8-element source array to a wide aperture 16-element vertical receiving array at 4 km range. The interference cancellation method is shown to generate significant performance enhancement, on average 2-4 dB in the output signal-to-noise ratio per data stream, throughout the 35 h MIMO transmissions. Further, communication performance and achieved data rates exhibit significant changes over the 35 h period as a result of stratification of the water column. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.
Shimoda, M; Oda, S; Hirayama, A; Imai, M; Komatsu, F; Hoshikawa, K; Shigematsu, H; Nishiyama, J; Osada, T
2016-09-01
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is characterized by thunderclap headache and diffuse segmental vasoconstriction that resolves spontaneously within 3 months. Previous reports have proposed that vasoconstriction first involves small distal arteries and then progresses toward major vessels at the time of thunderclap headache remission. The purpose of this study was to confirm centripetal propagation of vasoconstriction on MRA at the time of thunderclap headache remission compared with MRA at the time of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome onset. Of the 39 patients diagnosed with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome at our hospital during the study period, participants comprised the 16 patients who underwent MR imaging, including MRA, within 72 hours of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome onset (initial MRA) and within 48 hours of thunderclap headache remission. In 14 of the 16 patients (87.5%), centripetal propagation of vasoconstriction occurred from the initial MRA to remission of thunderclap headache, with typical segmental vasoconstriction of major vessels. These mainly involved the M1 portion of the MCA (10 cases), P1 portion of the posterior cerebral artery (10 cases), and A1 portion of the anterior cerebral artery (5 cases). This study found evidence of centripetal propagation of vasoconstriction on MRA obtained at the time of thunderclap headache remission, compared with MRA obtained at the time of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome onset. If clinicians remain unsure of the diagnosis during early-stage reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, this time point represents the best opportunity to diagnose reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome with confidence. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
3D Modeling of Earthquakes using Time-Reversal or Adjoint Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Liu, Q.; Tromp, J.
2006-12-01
The availability of global broad-band seismic data has allowed for detailed modeling of slip on a fault plane for many recent large earthquakes. This is a difficult process involving many trade-offs between model parameters. Although the whole waveform contains information about the earthquake, most studies focus on limited parts of the time series to extract source information. This is in part to avoid errors from not accurately accounting for 3D structure along the propagation path. By modeling earthquakes using 3D structure one could use more of the time series to constrain the source process, thereby reducing the trade-offs. Further, the effect of assuming a 1D structure in the source region on source models has not been carefully studied, especially for subduction zones where the structure is often very heterogeneous. Traditional inversion techniques require computation of a large Green's function library, which can become very computationally expensive in the case of 3D modeling. A 3D time-stepping method would require two simulations for each sub fault, once a location and orientation of the fault plane has been chosen. An alternative would be to use an `adjoint' method, which computes the gradient of the misfit function for a given model in only two simulations (Tarantola Geoph.~1984, Tromp et al.~GJI 2005). Combining this with a conjugate gradient method, we can obtain a final model from much fewer 3D simulations than by computing the whole Green's function library, reducing the computational cost. In it's simplest form an adjoint method for inverting for source parameters can be viewed as a time-reversal experiment performed with a wave-propagation code (McMechan GJRAS 1982). The recorded seismograms are inserted as simultaneous sources at the location of the receiver and the computed wave field (which we call the adjoint wavefield) is recorded on an array around the earthquake location. A special case is the source-scanning or stacking algorithm as used
Efficient reverse time migration based on fractional Laplacian viscoacoustic wave equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qingqing; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Qingchen; Chen, Hanming; Sheng, Shanbo
2016-01-01
Due to the energy attenuation and phase distortion of seismic waves propagating in viscous media, it is difficult to obtain high resolution and amplitude preserved migration images without compensating the viscous effects. In this paper, we provide a reverse time migration (RTM) scheme based on a viscoacoustic wave equation with fractional Laplacian operators to compensate the viscous effects. First, we develop a high-efficiency method for simulating wave propagation based on the viscoacoustic wave equation. Since the method is independent of the number of different Q values, the numerical simulation examples show that the proposed simulation method is more efficient than the conventional blocked method. When the number of different Q values of a geological model is more than 2, we can obtain a speed-up ratio of about 4.5 with almost the same accuracy as the conventional blocked method. Secondly, we completely split the viscoacoustic wave equation into the amplitude attenuation and phase dispersion equations to achieve a more reasonable Q-compensated RTM algorithm. Finally, we test the Q-compensated reverse time migration approach using a simple graben model and a more realistic modified Marmousi model. We compare our Q-compensated RTM results to those obtained by the conventional RTM method. The compensated migration results are highly close to those obtained by the conventional RTM of seismic data without attenuation. The proposed method is also tested using field seismic data, the result shows that the energy of the deeper part is enhanced, and the events become more continuous.
Time reversibility and nonequilibrium thermodynamics of second-order stochastic processes.
Ge, Hao
2014-02-01
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a general second-order stochastic system is investigated. We prove that at steady state, under inversion of velocities, the condition of time reversibility over the phase space is equivalent to the antisymmetry of spatial flux and the symmetry of velocity flux. Then we show that the condition of time reversibility alone cannot always guarantee the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Comparing the two conditions together, we find that the frictional force naturally emerges as the unique odd term of the total force at thermodynamic equilibrium, and is followed by the Einstein relation. The two conditions respectively correspond to two previously reported different entropy production rates. In the case where the external force is only position dependent, the two entropy production rates become one. We prove that such an entropy production rate can be decomposed into two non-negative terms, expressed respectively by the conditional mean and variance of the thermodynamic force associated with the irreversible velocity flux at any given spatial coordinate. In the small inertia limit, the former term becomes the entropy production rate of the corresponding overdamped dynamics, while the anomalous entropy production rate originates from the latter term. Furthermore, regarding the connection between the first law and second law, we find that in the steady state of such a limit, the anomalous entropy production rate is also the leading order of the Boltzmann-factor weighted difference between the spatial heat dissipation densities of the underdamped and overdamped dynamics, while their unweighted difference always tends to vanish.
Unexpected edge conduction in mercury telluride quantum wells under broken time-reversal symmetry
Ma, Eric Yue; Calvo, M. Reyes; Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Muhlbauer, Mathias; Brune, Christoph; Cui, Yong -Tao; Lai, Keji; Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Yang, Yongliang; Baenninger, Matthias; Konig, Markus; Ames, Christopher; Buhmann, Hartmut; Leubner, Philipp; Molenkamp, Laurens W.; Zhang, Shou -Cheng; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Kelly, Michael A.; Shen, Zhi -Xun
2015-05-26
The realization of quantum spin Hall effect in HgTe quantum wells is considered a milestone in the discovery of topological insulators. Quantum spin Hall states are predicted to allow current flow at the edges of an insulating bulk, as demonstrated in various experiments. A key prediction yet to be experimentally verified is the breakdown of the edge conduction under broken time-reversal symmetry. Here we first establish a systematic framework for the magnetic field dependence of electrostatically gated quantum spin Hall devices. We then study edge conduction of an inverted quantum well device under broken time-reversal symmetry using microwave impedance microscopy, and compare our findings to a non-inverted device. At zero magnetic field, only the inverted device shows clear edge conduction in its local conductivity profile, consistent with theory. Surprisingly, the edge conduction persists up to 9 T with little change. Finally, this indicates physics beyond simple quantum spin Hall model, including material-specific properties and possibly many-body effects.
Parhizgar, Fariborz; Black-Schaffer, Annica M
2017-08-29
We study time-reversal-invariant topological superconductivity in topological insulator (TI) thin films including both intra- and inter-surface pairing. We find a nontrivial topology for multiple different configurations. For intra-surface pairing a π-phase difference between the intra-surface pairing states is required. We show that in this case the resulting topological phase is highly tunable by both an applied electric field and varied chemical potential. For spin-singlet inter-surface pairing, a sign-changing tunnel coupling present in many TI thin films is needed, and again, the topology can be tuned by electric field or doping. Notably, we find that the required inter-surface pairing strength for achieving nontrivial topology can still be subdominant compared to the intra-surface pairing. Finally, for spin-triplet inter-surface pairing we prove that the superconducting state is always topological nontrivial. We show that thin films of Cu-doped Bi2Se3 will likely host such spin-triplet inter-surface pairing. Taken together, these results show that time-reversal-invariant topological superconductivity is common in superconducting TI thin films and that the topological phase and its Kramers pair of Majorana edge modes is highly tunable with an applied electric field and varied chemical potential.
Bogoliubov Fermi Surfaces in Superconductors with Broken Time-Reversal Symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agterberg, D. F.; Brydon, P. M. R.; Timm, C.
2017-03-01
It is commonly believed that, in the absence of disorder or an external magnetic field, there are three possible types of superconducting excitation gaps: The gap is nodeless, it has point nodes, or it has line nodes. Here, we show that, for an even-parity nodal superconducting state which spontaneously breaks time-reversal symmetry, the low-energy excitation spectrum generally does not belong to any of these categories; instead, it has extended Bogoliubov Fermi surfaces. These Fermi surfaces can be visualized as two-dimensional surfaces generated by "inflating" point or line nodes into spheroids or tori, respectively. These inflated nodes are topologically protected from being gapped by a Z2 invariant, which we give in terms of a Pfaffian. We also show that superconducting states possessing these Fermi surfaces can be energetically stable. A crucial ingredient in our theory is that more than one band is involved in the pairing; since all candidate materials for even-parity superconductivity with broken time-reversal symmetry are multiband systems, we expect these Z2-protected Fermi surfaces to be ubiquitous.
Imaging Faults with Reverse-Time Migration for Geothermal Exploration at Jemez Pueblo in New Mexico
Huang, Lianjie; Albrecht, Michael; Kaufman, Greg; Kelley, Shari; Rehfeldt, Kenneth; Zhang, Zhifu
2011-01-01
The fault zones at Jemez Pueblo may dominate the flow paths of hot water, or confine the boundaries of the geothermal reservoir. Therefore, it is crucial to image the geometry of these fault zones for geothermal exploration in the area. We use reverse-time migration with a separation imaging condition to image the faults at Jemez Pueblo. A finite-difference full-wave equation method with a perfectly-matching-layer absorbing boundary condition is used for backward propagation of seismic reflection data from receivers and forward propagation of wavefields from sources. In the imaging region, the wavefields are separated into the upgoing and downgoing waves, and leftgoing and rightgoing waves. The upgoing and downgoing waves are used to obtain the downward-looking image, and the leftgoing and rightgoing waves are used to form the left-looking image and right-looking image from sources. The left-looking and right-looking images are normally weaker than the downward-looking image because the reflections from the fault zones are much weaker than those from sedimentary layers, but these migration results contain the images of the faults. We apply our reverse-time migration with a wavefield separation imaging condition to seismic data acquired at Jemez Pueblo, and our preliminary results reveal many faults in the area.
Gâteau, Jérôme; Marsac, Laurent; Pernot, Mathieu; Aubry, Jean-Francois; Tanter, Mickaël; Fink, Mathias
2010-01-01
Brain treatment through the skull with High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) can be achieved with multichannel arrays and adaptive focusing techniques such as time-reversal. This method requires a reference signal to be either emitted by a real source embedded in brain tissues or computed from a virtual source, using the acoustic properties of the skull derived from CT images. This non-invasive computational method focuses with precision, but suffers from modeling and repositioning errors that reduce the accessible acoustic pressure at the focus in comparison with fully experimental time-reversal using an implanted hydrophone. In this paper, this simulation-based targeting has been used experimentally as a first step for focusing through an ex vivo human skull at a single location. It has enabled the creation of a cavitation bubble at focus that spontaneously emitted an ultrasonic wave received by the array. This active source signal has allowed 97%±1.1% of the reference pressure (hydrophone-based) to be restored at the geometrical focus. To target points around the focus with an optimal pressure level, conventional electronic steering from the initial focus has been combined with bubble generation. Thanks to step by step bubble generation, the electronic steering capabilities of the array through the skull were improved. PMID:19770084
Unexpected edge conduction in mercury telluride quantum wells under broken time-reversal symmetry
Ma, Eric Yue; Calvo, M. Reyes; Wang, Jing; ...
2015-05-26
The realization of quantum spin Hall effect in HgTe quantum wells is considered a milestone in the discovery of topological insulators. Quantum spin Hall states are predicted to allow current flow at the edges of an insulating bulk, as demonstrated in various experiments. A key prediction yet to be experimentally verified is the breakdown of the edge conduction under broken time-reversal symmetry. Here we first establish a systematic framework for the magnetic field dependence of electrostatically gated quantum spin Hall devices. We then study edge conduction of an inverted quantum well device under broken time-reversal symmetry using microwave impedance microscopy,more » and compare our findings to a non-inverted device. At zero magnetic field, only the inverted device shows clear edge conduction in its local conductivity profile, consistent with theory. Surprisingly, the edge conduction persists up to 9 T with little change. Finally, this indicates physics beyond simple quantum spin Hall model, including material-specific properties and possibly many-body effects.« less
The effective chiral Lagrangian from dimension-six parity and time-reversal violation
Vries, J. de; Mereghetti, E.; Timmermans, R.G.E.; Kolck, U. van
2013-11-15
We classify the parity- and time-reversal-violating operators involving quark and gluon fields that have effective dimension six: the quark electric dipole moment, the quark and gluon chromo-electric dipole moments, and four four-quark operators. We construct the effective chiral Lagrangian with hadronic and electromagnetic interactions that originate from them, which serves as the basis for calculations of low-energy observables. The form of the effective interactions depends on the chiral properties of these operators. We develop a power-counting scheme and calculate within this scheme, as an example, the parity- and time-reversal-violating pion–nucleon form factor. We also discuss the electric dipole moments of the nucleon and light nuclei. -- Highlights: •Classification of T-odd dimension-six sources based on impact on observables. •Building of the chiral Lagrangian for each dimension-six source. •Calculation of the PT-odd pion–nucleon form factor for each source. •Discussion of hadronic EDMs for each source and comparison with the theta term.
Time-reversal optical tomography: detecting and locating extended targets in a turbid medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Binlin; Cai, W.; Xu, M.; Gayen, S. K.
2012-03-01
Time Reversal Optical Tomography (TROT) is developed to locate extended target(s) in a highly scattering turbid medium, and estimate their optical strength and size. The approach uses Diffusion Approximation of Radiative Transfer Equation for light propagation along with Time Reversal (TR) Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) scheme for signal and noise subspaces for assessment of target location. A MUSIC pseudo spectrum is calculated using the eigenvectors of the TR matrix T, whose poles provide target locations. Based on the pseudo spectrum contours, retrieval of target size is modeled as an optimization problem, using a "local contour" method. The eigenvalues of T are related to optical strengths of targets. The efficacy of TROT to obtain location, size, and optical strength of one absorptive target, one scattering target, and two absorptive targets, all for different noise levels was tested using simulated data. Target locations were always accurately determined. Error in optical strength estimates was small even at 20% noise level. Target size and shape were more sensitive to noise. Results from simulated data demonstrate high potential for application of TROT in practical biomedical imaging applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumitrescu, E.; Tewari, Sumanta
2013-12-01
We show that the pair of Majorana modes at each end of a 1D spin triplet superconductor with Δ↑↑=-Δ↓↓=pΔ0 (two time reversed copies of the Kitaev p-wave chain) are topologically robust to perturbations such as mixing by the Sz=0 component of the order parameter (Δ↑↓=Δ↓↑), transverse hopping, nonagnetic disorder, and also, importantly, to time-reversal (TR) breaking perturbations such as applied Zeeman fields/magnetic impurities and the mixing by the Sy=0 component of the order parameter (Δ↑↑=Δ↓↓). We show that the robustness to TR-breaking results from a hidden chiral symmetry, which places the system in the BDI class in the presence of the generic TR-breaking perturbations (the TR-invariant system is both DIII and BDI). Our work has important implications for the quasi-1D organic superconductors (TMTSF)2X (X =PF6,CIO4) (Bechgaard salts) and Li0.9Mo6O17, which have been proposed as triplet superconductors with equal spin pairing (Δ↑↑,Δ↓↓≠0,Δ↑↓=0) in the presence of magnetic fields.
Extraordinary focusing of sound above a soda can array without time reversal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maznev, A. A.; Gu, Gen; Sun, Shu-yuan; Xu, Jun; Shen, Yong; Fang, Nicholas; Zhang, Shu-yi
2015-04-01
Recently, Lemoult et al (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 064301) used time reversal to focus sound above an array of soda cans into a spot much smaller than the acoustic wavelength in air. In this study, we show that equally sharp focusing can be achieved without time reversal, by arranging transducers around a nearly circular array of soda cans. The size of the focal spot at the center of the array is made progressively smaller as the frequency approaches the Helmholtz resonance frequency of a can from below, and, near the resonance, becomes smaller than the size of a single can. We show that the locally resonant metamaterial formed by soda cans supports a guided wave at frequencies below the Helmholtz resonance frequency. The small focal spot results from a small wavelength of this guided wave near the resonance in combination with a near field effect making the acoustic field concentrate at the opening of a can. The focusing is achieved with propagating rather than evanescent waves. No sub-diffraction-limited focusing is observed if the diffraction limit is defined with respect to the wavelength of the guided mode in the metamaterial medium rather than the wavelength of the bulk wave in air.
Iterative Time-Reversed Ultrasonically Encoded Light Focusing in Backscattering Mode
Ruan, Haowen; Jang, Mooseok; Judkewitz, Benjamin; Yang, Changhuei
2014-01-01
The Time-Reversed Ultrasound-Encoded (TRUE) light technique enables noninvasive focusing deep inside scattering media. However, the time-reversal procedure usually has a low signal-to-noise ratio because the intensity of ultrasound-encoded light is intrinsically low. Consequently, the contrast and resolution of TRUE focus is far from ideal, especially in the backscattering geometry, which is more practical in many biomedical applications. To improve the light intensity and resolution of TRUE focus, we developed an iterative TRUE (iTRUE) light focusing technique that employs the TRUE focus itself as a signal source (rather than diffused light) for subsequent TRUE procedures. Importantly, this iTRUE technique enables light focusing in backscattering mode. Here, we demonstrate the concept by focusing light in between scattering layers in a backscattering configuration and show that the light intensity at the focus is progressively enhanced by a factor of ~20. By scanning across a fluorescent bead between these two scattering layers, the focusing resolution in the ultrasound axial and lateral directions was improved ~2-fold and ~3-fold, respectively. We further explored the application of iTRUE in biological samples by focusing light between 1 mm thick chicken tissue and cartilage, and light intensity enhancements of the same order were also observed. PMID:25412687
Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Ansari, Majid; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Rostami, Mohsen; Nourian, Ruhollah; Kordi, Ramin
2015-02-01
Low thickness of Transversus Abdominis, Internal Oblique and External Oblique muscles may play a role in development of low back pain. Ultrasonography is increasingly utilized to measure the thickness of these muscles. Prandial state has recently been proposed as a confounding factor in such measurements. We aimed to compare the reversal time of the postprandial thickness of these muscles with preprandial values. The measurement errors of ultrasonographic values were also assessed in both immediate preprandial and postprandial states. Interventional cross-sectional study. The ultrasonographic thickness of lateral abdominal muscles was measured at rest and during abdominal drawing-in maneuver in 20 healthy participants before and after consumption of a specific meal. Postprandial ultrasound measurements continued every 15 min until their thickness reached 95% of their preprandial values. There was a statistically significant reduction in postprandial thickness of these muscles (all p-values <0.001 on both sides). The reversal times were 1.5, 1.3 and 1.2 h for Transversus Abdominis, Internal Oblique, and External Oblique muscles, respectively. Standard Error of Measurement and Smallest Detectable Change were in the range of 0.007-0.013 mm and 0.020-0.035 mm, respectively. To limit the effects of prandial state on the sonographic thickness of lateral abdominal muscles, we recommend measuring these values at least 1.5-2 h after food consumption. For the future studies, controlling the participants according to their prandial state is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Time-reversal symmetry breaking type II Weyl state in YbMnBi2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borisenko, Sergey
Detection of Dirac, Majorana and Weyl fermions in real materials may significantly strengthen the bridge between high-energy and condensed-matter physics. While the presence of Dirac fermions is well established in graphene and topological insulators, Majorana particles have been reported recently and evidence for Weyl fermions in non-centrosymmetric crystals has been found only a couple of months ago, the ``magnetic'' Weyl fermions are still elusive despite numerous theoretical predictions and intense experimental search. In order to detect a time-reversal symmetry breaking Weyl state we designed two materials with Fermi velocities superior to that of graphene and I will present the experimental evidence of realization of such a state in one of them, YbMnBi2. We model the time reversal symmetry breaking observed by magnetization measurements by a canted antiferromagnetic state and find a number of Weyl points both above and below the Fermi level. Using angle-resolved photoemission, we directly observe these latter Weyl points and a hallmark of the exotic state - the arc of the surface states which connects these points. Our results not only provide a fundamental link between the two areas of physics, but also demonstrate the practical way to design novel materials with exotic properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Candy, James V.; Poggio, Andrew J.; Chambers, David H.; Guidry, Brian L.; Robbins, Christopher L.; Kent, Claudia A.
2005-10-01
The development of time-reversal (T/R) communication systems is a recent signal processing research area dominated by applying T/R techniques to communicate in hostile environments. The fundamental concept is based on time-reversing the impulse response or Green's function characterizing the uncertain communications channel to mitigate deleterious dispersion and multipath effects. In this paper, we extend point-to-point to array-to-point communications by first establishing the basic theory to define and solve the underlying multichannel communications problem and then developing various realizations of the resulting T/R receivers. We show that not only do these receivers perform well in a hostile environment, but they also can be implemented with a ``1 bit'' analog-to-digital converter design structure. We validate these results by performing proof-of-principle acoustic communications experiments in air. It is shown that the resulting T/R receivers are capable of extracting the transmitted coded sequence from noisy microphone array measurements with zero-bit error.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Queiroz, Raquel; Schnyder, Andreas P.
2015-01-01
Noncentrosymmetric superconductors with strong spin-orbit coupling and the B phase of 3He are possible realizations of topological superconductors with time-reversal symmetry. The nontrivial topology of these time-reversal invariant superconductors manifests itself at the material surface in the form of helical Majorana modes. In this paper, using extensive numerical simulations, we investigate the stability and properties of these Majorana states under strong surface disorder, which influences both bulk and surface states. To characterize the effects of strong disorder, we compute the level spacing statistics and the local density of states of both two- and three-dimensional topological superconductors. The Majorana surface states, which are located in the outermost layers of the superconductor, are protected against weak disorder due to their topological characteristic. Sufficiently strong disorder, on the other hand, partially localizes the surface layers, with a more pronounced effect on states with energies close to the gap than on those with energies close to zero. In particular, we observe that for all disorder strengths and configurations there always exist two extended states at zero energy that can carry thermal current. At the crossover from weak to strong disorder the surface state wave functions and the local density of states show signs of critical delocalization. We find that at this crossover the edge density of states of two-dimensional topological superconductors exhibits a zero-energy divergence, reminiscent of the Dyson singularity of quasi-one-dimensional dirty superconductors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Yee, Ho-Ung
2011-08-01
We present two new results on relativistic hydrodynamics with anomalies and external electromagnetic fields, “chiral magnetohydrodynamics” (CMHD). First, we study CMHD in four dimensions at second order in the derivative expansion assuming the conformal/Weyl invariance. We classify all possible independent conformal second order viscous corrections to the energy-momentum tensor and to the U(1) current in the presence of external electric and/or magnetic fields, and identify 18 terms that originate from the triangle anomaly. We then propose and motivate the following guiding principle to constrain the CMHD: the anomaly-induced terms that are even under the time-reversal invariance should not contribute to the local entropy production rate. This allows us to fix 13 out of the 18 transport coefficients that enter the second order formulation of CMHD. We also relate one of our second order transport coefficients to the chiral shear waves. Our second subject is hydrodynamics with (N+1)-gon anomaly in an arbitrary 2N dimensions. The effects from the (N+1)-gon anomaly appear in hydrodynamics at (N-1)th order in the derivative expansion, and we identify precisely N such corrections to the U(1) current. The time-reversal constraint is powerful enough to allow us to find the analytic expressions for all transport coefficients. We confirm the validity of our results (and of the proposed guiding principle) by an explicit fluid/gravity computation within the AdS/CFT correspondence.
Kharzeev, D.E.; Yee, H.-U.
2011-08-25
We present two new results on relativistic hydrodynamics with anomalies and external electromagnetic fields, 'chiral magnetohydrodynamics' (CMHD). First, we study CMHD in four dimensions at second order in the derivative expansion assuming the conformal/Weyl invariance. We classify all possible independent conformal second order viscous corrections to the energy-momentum tensor and to the U(1) current in the presence of external electric and/or magnetic fields, and identify 18 terms that originate from the triangle anomaly. We then propose and motivate the following guiding principle to constrain the CMHD: the anomaly-induced terms that are even under the time-reversal invariance should not contribute to the local entropy production rate. This allows us to fix 13 out of the 18 transport coefficients that enter the second order formulation of CMHD. We also relate one of our second order transport coefficients to the chiral shear waves. Our second subject is hydrodynamics with (N+1)-gon anomaly in an arbitrary 2N dimensions. The effects from the (N+1)-gon anomaly appear in hydrodynamics at (N-1)th order in the derivative expansion, and we identify precisely N such corrections to the U(1) current. The time-reversal constraint is powerful enough to allow us to find the analytic expressions for all transport coefficients. We confirm the validity of our results (and of the proposed guiding principle) by an explicit fluid/gravity computation within the AdS/CFT correspondence.
Bittner, S; Dietz, B; Harney, H L; Miski-Oglu, M; Richter, A; Schäfer, F
2014-03-01
Scattering experiments with microwave cavities were performed and the effects of broken time-reversal invariance (TRI), induced by means of a magnetized ferrite placed inside the cavity, on an isolated doublet of nearly degenerate resonances were investigated. All elements of the effective Hamiltonian of this two-level system were extracted. As a function of two experimental parameters, the doublet and the associated eigenvectors could be tuned to coalesce at a so-called exceptional point (EP). The behavior of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors when encircling the EP in parameter space was studied, including the geometric amplitude that builds up in the case of broken TRI. A one-dimensional subspace of parameters was found where the differences of the eigenvalues are either real or purely imaginary. There, the Hamiltonians were found to be PT invariant under the combined operation of parity (P) and time reversal (T) in a generalized sense. The EP is the point of transition between both regions. There a spontaneous breaking of PT occurs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bittner, S.; Dietz, B.; Harney, H. L.; Miski-Oglu, M.; Richter, A.; Schäfer, F.
2014-03-01
Scattering experiments with microwave cavities were performed and the effects of broken time-reversal invariance (TRI), induced by means of a magnetized ferrite placed inside the cavity, on an isolated doublet of nearly degenerate resonances were investigated. All elements of the effective Hamiltonian of this two-level system were extracted. As a function of two experimental parameters, the doublet and the associated eigenvectors could be tuned to coalesce at a so-called exceptional point (EP). The behavior of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors when encircling the EP in parameter space was studied, including the geometric amplitude that builds up in the case of broken TRI. A one-dimensional subspace of parameters was found where the differences of the eigenvalues are either real or purely imaginary. There, the Hamiltonians were found to be PT invariant under the combined operation of parity (P) and time reversal (T) in a generalized sense. The EP is the point of transition between both regions. There a spontaneous breaking of PT occurs.
Optical focusing inside scattering media with time-reversed ultrasound microbubble encoded light
Ruan, Haowen; Jang, Mooseok; Yang, Changhuei
2015-01-01
Focusing light inside scattering media in a freely addressable fashion is challenging, as the wavefront of the scattered light is highly disordered. Recently developed ultrasound-guided wavefront shaping methods are addressing this challenge, albeit with relatively low modulation efficiency and resolution limitations. In this paper, we present a new technique, time-reversed ultrasound microbubble encoded (TRUME) optical focusing, which can focus light with improved efficiency and sub-ultrasound wavelength resolution. This method ultrasonically destroys microbubbles, and measures the wavefront change to compute and render a suitable time-reversed wavefront solution for focusing. We demonstrate that the TRUME technique can create an optical focus at the site of bubble destruction with a size of ∼2 μm. We further demonstrate a twofold enhancement in addressable focus resolution in a microbubble aggregate target by exploiting the nonlinear pressure-to-destruction response of the microbubbles. The reported technique provides a deep tissue-focusing solution with high efficiency, resolution, and specificity. PMID:26597439
Newmark-Beta-FDTD method for super-resolution analysis of time reversal waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Sheng-Bing; Shao, Wei; Ma, Jing; Jin, Congjun; Wang, Xiao-Hua
2017-09-01
In this work, a new unconditionally stable finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method with the split-field perfectly matched layer (PML) is proposed for the analysis of time reversal (TR) waves. The proposed method is very suitable for multiscale problems involving microstructures. The spatial and temporal derivatives in this method are discretized by the central difference technique and Newmark-Beta algorithm, respectively, and the derivation results in the calculation of a banded-sparse matrix equation. Since the coefficient matrix keeps unchanged during the whole simulation process, the lower-upper (LU) decomposition of the matrix needs to be performed only once at the beginning of the calculation. Moreover, the reverse Cuthill-Mckee (RCM) technique, an effective preprocessing technique in bandwidth compression of sparse matrices, is used to improve computational efficiency. The super-resolution focusing of TR wave propagation in two- and three-dimensional spaces is included to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.
Deterministic time-reversible thermostats: chaos, ergodicity, and the zeroth law of thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patra, Puneet Kumar; Sprott, Julien Clinton; Hoover, William Graham; Griswold Hoover, Carol
2015-09-01
The relative stability and ergodicity of deterministic time-reversible thermostats, both singly and in coupled pairs, are assessed through their Lyapunov spectra. Five types of thermostat are coupled to one another through a single Hooke's-law harmonic spring. The resulting dynamics shows that three specific thermostat types, Hoover-Holian, Ju-Bulgac, and Martyna-Klein-Tuckerman, have very similar Lyapunov spectra in their equilibrium four-dimensional phase spaces and when coupled in equilibrium or nonequilibrium pairs. All three of these oscillator-based thermostats are shown to be ergodic, with smooth analytic Gaussian distributions in their extended phase spaces (coordinate, momentum, and two control variables). Evidently these three ergodic and time-reversible thermostat types are particularly useful as statistical-mechanical thermometers and thermostats. Each of them generates Gibbs' universal canonical distribution internally as well as for systems to which they are coupled. Thus they obey the zeroth law of thermodynamics, as a good heat bath should. They also provide dissipative heat flow with relatively small nonlinearity when two or more such temperature baths interact and provide useful deterministic replacements for the stochastic Langevin equation.
Signatures of time-reversal-invariant topological superconductivity in the Josephson effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mellars, Ehren; Béri, Benjamin
2016-11-01
For Josephson junctions based on s -wave superconductors, time-reversal symmetry is known to allow for powerful relations between the normal-state junction properties, the excitation spectrum, and the Josephson current. Here we provide analogous relations for Josephson junctions involving one-dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological superconductors supporting Majorana-Kramers pairs, considering both topological-topological and s -wave-topological junctions. Working in the regime where the junction is much shorter than the superconducting coherence length, we obtain a number of analytical and numerical results that hold for arbitrary normal-state conductance and the most general forms of spin-orbit coupling. The signatures of topological superconductivity we find include the fractional ac Josephson effect, which arises in topological-topological junctions provided that the energy relaxation is sufficiently slow. We also show, for both junction types, that robust signatures of topological superconductivity arise in the dc Josephson effect in the form of switches in the Josephson current due to zero-energy crossings of Andreev levels. The junction spin-orbit coupling enters the Josephson current only in the topological-topological case and in a manner determined by the switch locations, thereby allowing quantitative predictions for experiments with the normal-state conductance, the induced gaps, and the switch locations as inputs.
Precise discussion of time-reversal asymmetries in B-meson decays
Morozumi, Takuya; Okane, Hideaki; Umeeda, Hiroyuki
2015-02-26
BaBar collaboration announced that they observed time reversal (T) asymmetry through B meson system. In the experiment, time dependencies of two distinctive processes, B_ →B¯^{0} and B¯^{0} → B_ (– expresses CP value) are compared with each other. In our study, we examine event number difference of these two processes. In contrast to the BaBar asymmetry, the asymmetry of events number includes the overall normalization difference for rates. Time dependence of the asymmetry is more general and it includes terms absent in one used by BaBar collaboration. Both of the BaBar asymmetry and ours are naively thought to be T-odd since two processes compared are related with flipping time direction. We investigate the time reversal transformation property of our asymmetry. Using our notation, one can see that the asymmetry is not precisely a T-odd quantity, taking into account indirect CP and CPT violation of K meson systems. The effect of ^{ ϵ}K is extracted and gives rise to O(10^{–3}) contribution. The introduced parameters are invariant under rephasing of quarks so that the coefficients of our asymmetry are expressed as phase convention independent quantities. Some combinations of the asymmetry enable us to extract parameters for wrong sign decays of B_{d} meson, CPT violation, etc. As a result, we also study the reason why the T-even terms are allowed to contribute to the asymmetry, and find that several conditions are needed for the asymmetry to be a T-odd quantity.
Precise discussion of time-reversal asymmetries in B-meson decays
Morozumi, Takuya; Okane, Hideaki; Umeeda, Hiroyuki
2015-02-26
BaBar collaboration announced that they observed time reversal (T) asymmetry through B meson system. In the experiment, time dependencies of two distinctive processes, B_ →B¯0 and B¯0 → B_ (– expresses CP value) are compared with each other. In our study, we examine event number difference of these two processes. In contrast to the BaBar asymmetry, the asymmetry of events number includes the overall normalization difference for rates. Time dependence of the asymmetry is more general and it includes terms absent in one used by BaBar collaboration. Both of the BaBar asymmetry and ours are naively thought to be T-oddmore » since two processes compared are related with flipping time direction. We investigate the time reversal transformation property of our asymmetry. Using our notation, one can see that the asymmetry is not precisely a T-odd quantity, taking into account indirect CP and CPT violation of K meson systems. The effect of ϵK is extracted and gives rise to O(10–3) contribution. The introduced parameters are invariant under rephasing of quarks so that the coefficients of our asymmetry are expressed as phase convention independent quantities. Some combinations of the asymmetry enable us to extract parameters for wrong sign decays of Bd meson, CPT violation, etc. As a result, we also study the reason why the T-even terms are allowed to contribute to the asymmetry, and find that several conditions are needed for the asymmetry to be a T-odd quantity.« less
Seismic Reverse Time Migration Using A New Wave-Field Extrapolator and a New Imaging Condition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moradpouri, Farzad; Moradzadeh, Ali; Pestana, Reynam C.; Soleimani Monfared, Mehrdad
2016-10-01
Prestack reverse time migration (RTM), as a two way wave-field extrapolation method, can image steeply dipping structures without any dip limitation at the expense of potential increase in imaging artifacts. In this paper, an efficient symplectic scheme, called Leapfrog-Rapid Expansion Method (L-REM), is first introduced to extrapolate the wavefield and its derivative in the same time step with high accuracy and free numerical dispersion using a Ricker wavelet of a maximum frequency of 25 Hz. Afterwards, in order to suppress the artifacts as a characteristic of RTM, a new imaging condition based on Poynting vector and a type of weighting function is presented. The capability of the proposed new imaging condition is then tested on synthetic data. The obtained results indicate that the proposed imaging condition is able to suppress the RTM artifacts effectively. They also show the ability of the proposed approach for improving the amplitude and compensate for illumination.
Statistical analysis of strait time index and a simple model for trend and trend reversal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Kan; Jayaprakash, C.
2003-06-01
We analyze the daily closing prices of the Strait Time Index (STI) as well as the individual stocks traded in Singapore's stock market from 1988 to 2001. We find that the Hurst exponent is approximately 0.6 for both the STI and individual stocks, while the normal correlation functions show the random walk exponent of 0.5. We also investigate the conditional average of the price change in an interval of length T given the price change in the previous interval. We find strong correlations for price changes larger than a threshold value proportional to T; this indicates that there is no uniform crossover to Gaussian behavior. A simple model based on short-time trend and trend reversal is constructed. We show that the model exhibits statistical properties and market swings similar to those of the real market.
Fractional Spin and Josephson Effect in Time-Reversal-Invariant Topological Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camjayi, Alberto; Arrachea, Liliana; Aligia, Armando; von Oppen, Felix
2017-07-01
Time-reversal-invariant topological superconducting (TRITOPS) wires are known to host a fractional spin ℏ/4 at their ends. We investigate how this fractional spin affects the Josephson current in a TRITOPS-quantum dot-TRITOPS Josephson junction, describing the wire in a model that can be tuned between a topological and a nontopological phase. We compute the equilibrium Josephson current of the full model by continuous-time Monte Carlo simulations and interpret the results within an effective low-energy theory. We show that in the topological phase, the 0-to-π transition is quenched via formation of a spin singlet from the quantum-dot spin and the fractional spins associated with the two adjacent topological superconductors.
Broken time reversal symmetry states in superconductors using the ultrafast pump-probe method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setty, Chandan; Hu, Jiangping
2015-03-01
The excitation of vibrational modes by ultrafast optical pulses can be a useful probe of the electronic ground state in a solid through the electron-phonon interactions. In this work, we show that the phase of the oscillations of reflectivity/transmissivity as a function of the delay time can contain signatures of broken time reversal symmetry (BTRS) in the superconducting ground state. To illustrate this, we consider a simple Hamiltonian consisting of a two band electronic part and a phononic part; additionally, we include terms which couple electrons to phonons and light. In the absence of dissipation, we show that on entry into the BTRS superconducting state, the phase of the reflectivity oscillations deviates from the normal state values of +/- π/2 in a continuous fashion. We will also comment on the effects of dissipation and the dependence of our result on the opacity of the superconductor.
The MTV experiment: a test of time reversal symmetry using polarized 8Li
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murata, J.; Baba, H.; Behr, J. A.; Hirayama, Y.; Iguri, T.; Ikeda, M.; Kato, T.; Kawamura, H.; Kishi, R.; Levy, C. D. P.; Nakaya, Y.; Ninomiya, K.; Ogawa, N.; Onishi, J.; Openshaw, R.; Pearson, M.; Seitaibashi, E.; Tanaka, S.; Tanuma, R.; Totsuka, Y.; Toyoda, T.
2014-01-01
The MTV ( Mott Polarimetry for T- Violation Experiment) experiment at TRIUMF-ISAC ( Isotope Separator and ACcelerator), which aims to achieve the highest precision test of time reversal symmetry in polarized nuclear beta decay by measuring a triple correlation ( R-correlation), is motivated by the search for a new physics beyond the Standard Model. In this experiment, the existence of non-zero transverse electron polarization is examined utilizing the analyzing power of Mott scattering from a thin metal foil. Backward scattering electron tracks are measured using a multi-wire drift chamber for the first time. The MTV experiment was commissioned at ISAC in 2009 using an 80 % polarized 8Li beam at 107 pps, resulting in 0.1 % statistical precision on the R-parameter in the first physics run performed in 2010. Next generation cylindrical drift chamber (CDC) is now being installed for the future run.
Time-Reversal Acoustic Focusing with Liquid Resonator for Medical Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinelnikov, Yegor D.; Sutin, Alexandre Y.; Sarvazyan, Armen P.
2007-05-01
Time Reversal Acoustic (TRA) focusing system based on the use of liquid filled resonators with single or few transducers is demonstrated to effectively converge acoustic energy in space and time. Because the wavelength in liquid is typically smaller than in solids, liquid based TRA focusing resonators can have smaller dimensions than solid resonators. The efficiency of liquid-based TRA focusing resonators to transmit acoustic power to soft tissues is improved by impedance matching of the acoustic transducer assembly to the surrounding liquid. Experiments were conducted to understand the properties of TRA focusing with the liquid-filled resonators and possible application of the TRA systems for biomedical applications. The factors defining the efficiency of liquid based TRA focusing resonators were explored. In media with high attenuation, the binary mode of ultrasound delivery yielded noticeably narrower focusing of ultrasound than conventional analog focusing.
Time reversible and symplectic integrators for molecular dynamics simulations of rigid molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamberaj, H.; Low, R. J.; Neal, M. P.
2005-06-01
Molecular dynamics integrators are presented for translational and rotational motion of rigid molecules in microcanonical, canonical, and isothermal-isobaric ensembles. The integrators are all time reversible and are also, in some approaches, symplectic for the microcanonical ensembles. They are developed utilizing the quaternion representation on the basis of the Trotter factorization scheme using a Hamiltonian formalism. The structure is similar to that of the velocity Verlet algorithm. Comparison is made with standard integrators in terms of stability and it is found that a larger time step is stable with the new integrators. The canonical and isothermal-isobaric molecular dynamics simulations are defined by using a chain thermostat approach according to generalized Nosé-Hoover and Andersen methods.
Multisource least-squares migration and prism wave reverse time migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Wei
Least-squares migration has been shown to be able to produce high quality migration images, but its computational cost is considered to be too high for practical imaging. In this dissertation, a multisource least-squares migration algorithm (MLSM) is proposed to increase the computational efficiency by utilizing the blended sources processing technique. The MLSM algorithm is implemented with both the Kirchhoff migration and reverse time migration methods. In the last chapter, a new method is proposed to migrate prism waves separately to illuminate vertical reflectors such as salt flanks. Its advantage over standard RTM method is that it does not require modifying the migration velocity model. There are three main chapters in this dissertation. In Chapter 2, the MLSM algorithm is implemented with Kirchhoff migration and random time-shift encoding functions. Numerical results with Kirchhoff least-squares migration on the 2D SEG/EAGE salt model show that an accurate image is obtained by migrating a supergather of 320 phase-encoded shots. When the encoding functions are the same for every iteration, the I/O cost of MLSM is reduced by 320 times. Empirical results show that the crosstalk noise introduced by blended sources is more effectively reduced when the encoding functions are changed at every iteration. The analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) suggests that an acceptable number of iterations are needed to enhance the SNR to an acceptable level. The benefit is that Kirchhoff MLSM is a few times faster than standard LSM, and produces much more resolved images than standard Kirchhoff migration. In Chapter 3, the MLSM algorithm is implemented with the reverse time migration method and a new parameterization, where the migration image of each shot gather is updated separately and an ensemble of prestack images is produced along with common image gathers. The merits of prestack plane-wave LSRTM are the following: (1) plane-wave prestack LSRTM can sometimes offer
Ma, Cheng; Xu, Xiao; Liu, Yan; Wang, Lihong V.
2014-01-01
The ability to steer and focus light inside scattering media has long been sought for a multitude of applications. To form optical foci inside scattering media, the only feasible strategy at present is to guide photons by using either implanted1 or virtual2–4 guide stars, which can be inconvenient and limits potential applications. Here, we report a scheme for focusing light inside scattering media by employing intrinsic dynamics as guide stars. By time-reversing the perturbed component of the scattered light adaptively, we show that it is possible to focus light to the origin of the perturbation. Using the approach, we demonstrate non-invasive dynamic light focusing onto moving targets and imaging of a time-variant object obscured by highly scattering media. Anticipated applications include imaging and photoablation of angiogenic vessels in tumours as well as other biomedical uses. PMID:25530797
Digital Sequences and a Time Reversal-Based Impact Region Imaging and Localization Method
Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Qian, Weifeng
2013-01-01
To reduce time and cost of damage inspection, on-line impact monitoring of aircraft composite structures is needed. A digital monitor based on an array of piezoelectric transducers (PZTs) is developed to record the impact region of impacts on-line. It is small in size, lightweight and has low power consumption, but there are two problems with the impact alarm region localization method of the digital monitor at the current stage. The first one is that the accuracy rate of the impact alarm region localization is low, especially on complex composite structures. The second problem is that the area of impact alarm region is large when a large scale structure is monitored and the number of PZTs is limited which increases the time and cost of damage inspections. To solve the two problems, an impact alarm region imaging and localization method based on digital sequences and time reversal is proposed. In this method, the frequency band of impact response signals is estimated based on the digital sequences first. Then, characteristic signals of impact response signals are constructed by sinusoidal modulation signals. Finally, the phase synthesis time reversal impact imaging method is adopted to obtain the impact region image. Depending on the image, an error ellipse is generated to give out the final impact alarm region. A validation experiment is implemented on a complex composite wing box of a real aircraft. The validation results show that the accuracy rate of impact alarm region localization is approximately 100%. The area of impact alarm region can be reduced and the number of PZTs needed to cover the same impact monitoring region is reduced by more than a half. PMID:24084123
Digital sequences and a time reversal-based impact region imaging and localization method.
Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Qian, Weifeng
2013-10-01
To reduce time and cost of damage inspection, on-line impact monitoring of aircraft composite structures is needed. A digital monitor based on an array of piezoelectric transducers (PZTs) is developed to record the impact region of impacts on-line. It is small in size, lightweight and has low power consumption, but there are two problems with the impact alarm region localization method of the digital monitor at the current stage. The first one is that the accuracy rate of the impact alarm region localization is low, especially on complex composite structures. The second problem is that the area of impact alarm region is large when a large scale structure is monitored and the number of PZTs is limited which increases the time and cost of damage inspections. To solve the two problems, an impact alarm region imaging and localization method based on digital sequences and time reversal is proposed. In this method, the frequency band of impact response signals is estimated based on the digital sequences first. Then, characteristic signals of impact response signals are constructed by sinusoidal modulation signals. Finally, the phase synthesis time reversal impact imaging method is adopted to obtain the impact region image. Depending on the image, an error ellipse is generated to give out the final impact alarm region. A validation experiment is implemented on a complex composite wing box of a real aircraft. The validation results show that the accuracy rate of impact alarm region localization is approximately 100%. The area of impact alarm region can be reduced and the number of PZTs needed to cover the same impact monitoring region is reduced by more than a half.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aspect, Alain
In the early 1980's, observation of a magneto-resistance anomaly in metallic thin films was attributed to the phenomenon of weak localization of electrons and to time-reversal symmetry breaking due to a magnetic field acting upon charged particles. We have observed weak localization of ultra-cold atoms in a 2D configuration, placed in a disordered potential created by a laser speckle. In order to manipulate time-reversal symmetry with our neutral atoms, we take advantage of the slow evolution of our system, and we observe the suppression and revival of weak localization when time reversal symmetry is cancelled and reestablished. References: K. Muller, J. Richard, V. V. Volchkov, V. Denechaud, P. Bouyer, A. Aspect, and V. Josse, ''Suppression and Revival of Weak Localization through Control of Time-Reversal Symmetry,'' Physical Review Letters 114 (20) (2015) and references in. Work supported by the ERC Avanced Grant Quantatop.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarlis, N. V.; Christopoulos, S.-R. G.; Bemplidaki, M. M.
2015-01-01
The entropy S in natural time as well as the entropy in natural time under time reversal S- have already found useful applications in the physics of complex systems, e.g., in the analysis of electrocardiograms (ECGs). Here, we focus on the complexity measures Λl which result upon considering how the statistics of the time series Δ S≤ft[\\equiv S- S-\\right] changes upon varying the scale l. These scale-specific measures are ratios of the standard deviations σ(Δ S_l) and hence independent of the mean value and the standard deviation of the data. They focus on the different dynamics that appear on different scales. For this reason, they can be considered complementary to other standard measures of heart rate variability in ECG, like SDNN, as well as other complexity measures already defined in natural time. An application to the analysis of ECG —when solely using NN intervals— is presented: We show how Λl can be used to separate ECG of healthy individuals from those suffering from congestive heart failure and sudden cardiac death.
Rakotoarisoa, Ifanila; Fischer, Jeoffrey; Valeau, Vincent; Marx, David; Prax, Christian; Brizzi, Laurent-Emmanuel
2014-11-01
This study focuses on the identification of intermittent aeroacoustic sources in flows by using the time-domain beamforming technique. It is first shown that this technique can be seen as a time-reversal (TR) technique, working with approximate Green functions in the case of a shear flow. Some numerical experiments investigate the case of an array measurement of a generic acoustic pulse emitted in a wind-tunnel flow, with a realistic multi-arm spiral array. The results of the time-domain beamforming successfully match those given by a numerical TR technique over a wide range of flow speeds (reaching the transonic regime). It is shown how the results should be analyzed in a focusing plane parallel to the microphone array in order to estimate the location and emission time of the pulse source. An experimental application dealing with the aeroacoustic radiation of a bluff body in a wind-tunnel flow is also considered, and shows that some intermittent events can be clearly identified in the noise radiation. Time-domain beamforming is then an efficient tool for analyzing intermittent acoustic sources in flows, and is a computationally cheaper alternative to the numerical TR technique, which should be used for complex configurations where the Green function is not available.
2008-10-16
TOJ Tennessee Tech UNIVERSITY Time-Reversal Based Range Extension Technique for Ultra-wideband (UWB) Sensors and Applications in Tactical...for Ultra-wideband (UWB) Sensors and Applications in Tactical Communications and Networking 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER N00014-07-1...and ARO—is to build a general purpose testbed with time reversal capability at the transmitter side. The envisioned application is for UWB sensors
Structure-guided residence time optimization of a dabigatran reversal agent.
Schiele, Felix; van Ryn, Joanne; Litzenburger, Tobias; Ritter, Michael; Seeliger, Daniel; Nar, Herbert
2015-01-01
Novel oral anticoagulants are effective and safe alternatives to vitamin-K antagonists for anticoagulation therapy. However, anticoagulation therapy in general is associated with an elevated risk of bleeding. Idarucizumab is a reversal agent for the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate (Pradaxa®) and is currently in Phase 3 studies. Here, we report data on the antibody fragment aDabi-Fab2, a putative backup molecule for idarucizumab. Although aDabi-Fab2 completely reversed effects of dabigatran in a rat model in vivo, we observed significantly reduced duration of action compared to idarucizumab. Rational protein engineering, based on the X-ray structure of aDabi-Fab2, led to the identification of mutant Y103W. The mutant had optimized shape complementarity to dabigatran while maintaining an energetically favored hydrogen bond. It displayed increased affinity for dabigatran, mainly driven by a slower off-rate. Interestingly, the increased residence time translated into longer duration of action in vivo. It was thus possible to further enhance the efficacy of aDabi-Fab2 based on rational design, giving it the potential to serve as a back-up candidate for idarucizumab.
Structure-guided residence time optimization of a dabigatran reversal agent
Schiele, Felix; van Ryn, Joanne; Litzenburger, Tobias; Ritter, Michael; Seeliger, Daniel; Nar, Herbert
2015-01-01
Novel oral anticoagulants are effective and safe alternatives to vitamin-K antagonists for anticoagulation therapy. However, anticoagulation therapy in general is associated with an elevated risk of bleeding. Idarucizumab is a reversal agent for the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate (Pradaxa®) and is currently in Phase 3 studies. Here, we report data on the antibody fragment aDabi-Fab2, a putative backup molecule for idarucizumab. Although aDabi-Fab2 completely reversed effects of dabigatran in a rat model in vivo, we observed significantly reduced duration of action compared to idarucizumab. Rational protein engineering, based on the X-ray structure of aDabi-Fab2, led to the identification of mutant Y103W. The mutant had optimized shape complementarity to dabigatran while maintaining an energetically favored hydrogen bond. It displayed increased affinity for dabigatran, mainly driven by a slower off-rate. Interestingly, the increased residence time translated into longer duration of action in vivo. It was thus possible to further enhance the efficacy of aDabi-Fab2 based on rational design, giving it the potential to serve as a back-up candidate for idarucizumab. PMID:26047352
Rethinking fast and slow based on a critique of reaction-time reverse inference.
Krajbich, Ian; Bartling, Björn; Hare, Todd; Fehr, Ernst
2015-07-02
Do people intuitively favour certain actions over others? In some dual-process research, reaction-time (RT) data have been used to infer that certain choices are intuitive. However, the use of behavioural or biological measures to infer mental function, popularly known as 'reverse inference', is problematic because it does not take into account other sources of variability in the data, such as discriminability of the choice options. Here we use two example data sets obtained from value-based choice experiments to demonstrate that, after controlling for discriminability (that is, strength-of-preference), there is no evidence that one type of choice is systematically faster than the other. Moreover, using specific variations of a prominent value-based choice experiment, we are able to predictably replicate, eliminate or reverse previously reported correlations between RT and selfishness. Thus, our findings shed crucial light on the use of RT in inferring mental processes and strongly caution against using RT differences as evidence favouring dual-process accounts.
Candy, J V; Chambers, D H; Robbins, C L; Guidry, B L; Poggio, A J; Dowla, F; Hertzog, C A
2006-01-12
The development of multichannel time-reversal (T/R) processing techniques continues to progress rapidly especially when the need to communicate in a highly reverberative environment becomes critical. The underlying T/R concept is based on time-reversing the Green's function characterizing the uncertain communications channel investigating the deleterious dispersion and multipath effects. In this paper, attention is focused on two major objectives: (1) wideband communications leading to a time reference modulation technique; and (2) multichannel acoustic communications in a tunnel (or cave or pipe) with many obstructions, multipath returns, severe background noise, disturbances, long propagation paths ({approx}180) with disruptions (bends). For this extremely hostile environment, it is shown that multichannel T/R receivers can easily be extended to the wideband designs while demonstrating their performance in both the ''canonical'' stairwell of our previous work as well as a tunnel-like structure. Acoustic information signals are transmitted with an 8-element host or base station array to two client receivers with a significant loss in signal levels due to the propagation environment. In this paper, the results of the new wideband T/R processor and modulation scheme are discussed to demonstrate the overall performance for both high (24-bit) and low (1-bit) bit level analog-to-digital (A/D) converter designs. These results are validated by performing proof-of-principle acoustic communications experiments in air. It is shown that the resulting T/R receivers are capable of extracting the transmitted coded sequence from noisy microphone array measurements with zero-bit error.
Lee, Kang Il; Yoon, Suk Wang
2017-04-11
The present study aims to investigate the feasibility of using the time-reversed Lamb wave as a new method for noninvasive characterization of long cortical bones. The group velocity of the time-reversed Lamb wave launched by using the modified time reversal method was measured in 15 bovine tibiae, and their correlations with the bone properties of the tibia were examined. The group velocity of the time-reversed Lamb wave showed significant positive correlations with the bone properties (r=0.55-0.81). The best univariate predictor of the group velocity of the time-reversed Lamb wave was the cortical thickness, yielding an adjusted squared correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.64. These results imply that the group velocity of the time-reversed Lamb wave, in addition to the velocities of the first arriving signal and the slow guided wave, could potentially be used as a discriminator for osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yoo, Ju Eun; Lee, Cheonghoon; Park, SungJun; Ko, GwangPyo
2017-02-01
Human noroviruses are widespread and contagious viruses causing nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR (real-time RT-qPCR) is currently the gold standard for sensitive and accurate detection for these pathogens and serves as a critical tool in outbreak prevention and control. Different surveillance teams, however, may use different assays and variability in specimen conditions may lead to disagreement in results. Furthermore, the norovirus genome is highly variable and continuously evolving. These issues necessitate the re-examination of the real-time RT-qPCR's robustness in the context of accurate detection as well as the investigation of practical strategies to enhance assay performance. Four widely referenced real-time RT-qPCR assays (Assay A-D) were simultaneously performed to evaluate characteristics such as PCR efficiency, detection limit, as well as sensitivity and specificity with RT-PCR, and to assess the most accurate method for detecting norovirus genogroups I and II. Overall, Assay D was evaluated to be the most precise and accurate assay in this study. A Zen internal quencher, which decreases nonspecific fluorescence during the PCR reaction, was added to Assay D's probe which further improved assay performance. This study compared several detection assays for noroviruses and an improvement strategy based on such comparisons provided useful characterizations of a highly optimized real-time RT-qPCR assay for norovirus detection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nojima, Kazuhisa; Ge, Sheng; Katayama, Yoshinori; Ueno, Shoogo; Iramina, Keiji
2010-05-01
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the stimulus frequency and pulses number of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the inter-reversal time (IRT) of perceptual reversal on the right superior parietal lobule (SPL). The spinning wheel illusion was used as the ambiguous figures stimulation in this study. To investigate the rTMS effect over the right SPL during perceptual reversal, 0.25 Hz 60 pulse, 1 Hz 60 pulse, 0.5 Hz 120 pulse, 1 Hz 120 pulse, and 1 Hz 240 pulse biphasic rTMS at 90% of resting motor threshold was applied over the right SPL and the right posterior temporal lobe (PTL), respectively. As a control, a no TMS was also conducted. It was found that rTMS on 0.25 Hz 60 pulse and 1 Hz 60 pulse applied over the right SPL caused shorter IRT. In contrast, it was found that rTMS on 1 Hz 240-pulse applied over the right SPL caused longer IRT. On the other hand, there is no significant difference between IRTs when the rTMS on 0.5 Hz 120 pulse and 1 Hz 120 pulse were applied over the right SPL. Therefore, the applying of rTMS over the right SPL suggests that the IRT of perceptual reversal is effected by the rTMS conditions such as the stimulus frequency and the number of pulses.
Multipathing Via Three Parameter Common Image Gathers (CIGs) From Reverse Time Migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostadhassan, M.; Zhang, X.
2015-12-01
A noteworthy problem for seismic exploration is effects of multipathing (both wanted or unwanted) caused by subsurface complex structures. We show that reverse time migration (RTM) combined with a unified, systematic three parameter framework that flexibly handles multipathing can be accomplished by adding one more dimension (image time) to the angle domain common image gather (ADCIG) data. RTM is widely used to generate prestack depth migration images. When using the cross-correlation image condition in 2D prestack migration in RTM, the usual practice is to sum over all the migration time steps. Thus all possible wave types and paths automatically contribute to the resulting image, including destructive wave interferences, phase shifts, and other distortions. One reason is that multipath (prismatic wave) contributions are not properly sorted and mapped in the ADCIGs. Also, multipath arrivals usually have different instantaneous attributes (amplitude, phase and frequency), and if not separated, the amplitudes and phases in the final prestack image will not stack coherently across sources. A prismatic path satisfies an image time for it's unique path; Cavalca and Lailly (2005) show that RTM images with multipaths can provide more complete target information in complex geology, as multipaths usually have different incident angles and amplitudes compared to primary reflections. If the image time slices within a cross-correlation common-source migration are saved for each image time, this three-parameter (incident angle, depth, image time) volume can be post-processed to generate separate, or composite, images of any desired subset of the migrated data. Images can by displayed for primary contributions, any combination of primary and multipath contributions (with or without artifacts), or various projections, including the conventional ADCIG (angle vs depth) plane. Examples show that signal from the true structure can be separated from artifacts caused by multiple
Time-reversal symmetry breaking hidden order in Sr2(Ir,Rh)O4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Jaehong; Sidis, Yvan; Louat, Alex; Brouet, Véronique; Bourges, Philippe
2017-04-01
Layered 5d transition iridium oxides, Sr2(Ir,Rh)O4, are described as unconventional Mott insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling. The undoped compound, Sr2IrO4, is a nearly ideal two-dimensional pseudospin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet, similarly to the insulating parent compound of high-temperature superconducting copper oxides. Using polarized neutron diffraction, we here report a hidden magnetic order in pure and doped Sr2(Ir,Rh)O4, distinct from the usual antiferromagnetic pseudospin ordering. We find that time-reversal symmetry is broken while the lattice translation invariance is preserved in the hidden order phase. The onset temperature matches that of the odd-parity hidden order recently highlighted using optical second-harmonic generation experiments. The novel magnetic order and broken symmetries can be explained by the loop-current model, previously predicted for the copper oxide superconductors.
Time-reversal Studies in Photorecombination and Photoionization Experiments with Ion Beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, A.; Schippers, S.; Aguilar, A.; Alvarez, I.; Bannister, M. E.; Bozek, J.; Cisneros, C.; Covington, A. M.; Dunn, G. H.; Gharaibeh, M. F.; Hinojosa, G.; Ricz, S.; Schlachter, A. S.; Phaneuf, R. A.
2003-08-01
The principle of detailed balance relates the cross sections σPR for photorecombination (PR) and σPI for photoionization (PI) of ions on a state-to-state level. Measuring one or the other of the two cross sections provides direct information about the time-reversed process. Measurements carried out at the Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, for PI of C2+ and Sc2+ are compared with experimental results from the heavy-ion storage ring TSR, Heidelberg, on PR of C3+ and Sc3+, respectively. From that comparison, state selective cross sections can be inferred both for PR and PI. Both experimental approaches provide possibilities for high-resolution spectroscopy of multiply excited states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagasawa, Fumiya; Takagi, Jun; Kunihashi, Yoji; Kohda, Makoto; Nitta, Junsaku
2012-02-01
A geometric phase of electron spin is studied in arrays of InAlAs/InGaAs two-dimensional electron gas rings. By increasing the radius of the rings, the time-reversal symmetric Aharonov-Casher oscillations of the electrical resistance are shifted towards weaker spin-orbit interaction regions with their shortened period. We conclude that the shift is due to a modulation of the spin geometric phase, the maximum modulation of which is approximately 1.5 rad. We further show that the Aharonov-Casher oscillations in various radius arrays collapse onto a universal curve if the radius and the strength of Rashba spin-orbit interaction are taken into account. The result is interpreted as the observation of the effective spin-dependent flux through a ring.
The stability problem of reverse time migration for viscoacoustic VTI media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Xiao-Dong; Ge, Zhong-Hui; Li, Zhen-Chun; Hong, Ying
2016-12-01
In real strata anisotropy and viscosity extensively exists. They degraded waveforms in amplitude, resulting in which reducing of image resolution. To obtain high-precision imaging of deep reservoirs, we extended the separated viscous and anisotropic reverse time migration (RTM) to a stable viscoacoustic anisotropic RTM for vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) media, based on single generalized standard and linear solid (GSLS) media theory.. We used a pseudo-spectral method to develop the numerical simulation. By introducing a regularization operator to eliminate the high-frequency instability problem, we built a stable inverse propagator and achieved viscoacoustic VTI media RTM. High-resolution imaging results were obtained after correcting for the effects of anisotropy and viscosity. Synthetic tests verify the validity and accuracy of algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Binlin; Alrubaiee, Mohammad; Gayen, S. K.
2016-03-01
Time reversal optical tomography (TROT), a recently introduced diffuse optical imaging approach, is used to detect, locate, and obtain cross-section images of tumors inside a "model human breast." The model cancerous breast is assembled as a semi-cylindrical slab of uniform thickness using ex vivo human breast tissues with two pieces of tumors embedded in it. The experimental arrangement used a 750-nm light beam from a Ti:sapphire laser to illuminate an end face (source plane) of the sample in a multi-source probing scheme. A multi-detector signal acquisition scheme measured transmitted light intensity distribution on the other end face (detector plane). The perturbations in light intensity distribution in the detector plane were analyzed using TROT to obtain locations of the tumor pieces in three dimensions and estimate their cross sections. The estimated locations and dimensions of targets are in good agreement with the results of a corroborating magnetic resonance imaging experiment.
Time-reversal symmetry breaking hidden order in Sr2(Ir,Rh)O4
Jeong, Jaehong; Sidis, Yvan; Louat, Alex; Brouet, Véronique; Bourges, Philippe
2017-01-01
Layered 5d transition iridium oxides, Sr2(Ir,Rh)O4, are described as unconventional Mott insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling. The undoped compound, Sr2IrO4, is a nearly ideal two-dimensional pseudospin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet, similarly to the insulating parent compound of high-temperature superconducting copper oxides. Using polarized neutron diffraction, we here report a hidden magnetic order in pure and doped Sr2(Ir,Rh)O4, distinct from the usual antiferromagnetic pseudospin ordering. We find that time-reversal symmetry is broken while the lattice translation invariance is preserved in the hidden order phase. The onset temperature matches that of the odd-parity hidden order recently highlighted using optical second-harmonic generation experiments. The novel magnetic order and broken symmetries can be explained by the loop-current model, previously predicted for the copper oxide superconductors. PMID:28436436
Time-reversal symmetry breaking hidden order in Sr2(Ir,Rh)O4.
Jeong, Jaehong; Sidis, Yvan; Louat, Alex; Brouet, Véronique; Bourges, Philippe
2017-04-24
Layered 5d transition iridium oxides, Sr2(Ir,Rh)O4, are described as unconventional Mott insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling. The undoped compound, Sr2IrO4, is a nearly ideal two-dimensional pseudospin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet, similarly to the insulating parent compound of high-temperature superconducting copper oxides. Using polarized neutron diffraction, we here report a hidden magnetic order in pure and doped Sr2(Ir,Rh)O4, distinct from the usual antiferromagnetic pseudospin ordering. We find that time-reversal symmetry is broken while the lattice translation invariance is preserved in the hidden order phase. The onset temperature matches that of the odd-parity hidden order recently highlighted using optical second-harmonic generation experiments. The novel magnetic order and broken symmetries can be explained by the loop-current model, previously predicted for the copper oxide superconductors.
The TRIC Experiment: A P-even Time-Reversal Invariance Test at COSY
Eversheim, P.D.
2005-10-26
At the cooler synchrotron COSY at Juelich a novel (P-even, T-odd) true null test was proposed, that is supposed to measure the time-reversal invariance sensitive observable, the total cross-section correlation Ay,xz, to an accuracy of 10-6. This observable is measured in a transmission experiment of a circulating vector polarized (Py) proton beam through an internal tensor polarized (Pxz) atomic deuteron target. The experiment uses the COSY facility as an accelerator, an ideal forward spectrometer, and as a detector. At present the experimental focus lies on the development of a precise current measurement via a Beam-Current-Transformer (BCT), its precise read-out and analysis. So far, we succeeded to meet the BCT's accuracy specification. With the help of this accurate current measurement the development of a proper long living proton beam in COSY at the optimum energy, where the experiment has its highest sensitivity, is in progress.
Time-reversal invariant SU(2 ) Hofstadter problem in three-dimensional lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yi
2015-05-01
We formulate the three-dimensional SU(2 ) Landau level problem in cubic lattices with time-reversal invariance. By taking a Landau-type SU(2 ) gauge, the system can be reduced into one dimension, as characterized by the SU(2 ) generalization of the usual Harper equations with a periodic spin-dependent gauge potential. The surface spectra indicate the spatial separation of helical states with opposite eigenvalues of a lattice helicity operator. The band topology is investigated from both the analysis of the boundary helical Fermi surfaces and the calculation of the Z2 index based on the bulk wave functions. The transition between a three-dimensional weak topological insulator to a strong one is studied as varying the anisotropy of hopping parameters.
Reflection-mode time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into turbid media.
Lai, Puxiang; Xu, Xiao; Liu, Honglin; Suzuki, Yuta; Wang, Lihong V
2011-08-01
Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing was recently proposed to deliver light dynamically to a tight region inside a scattering medium. In this letter, we report the first development of a reflection-mode TRUE optical focusing system. A high numerical aperture light guide is used to transmit the diffusely reflected light from a turbid medium to a phase-conjugate mirror (PCM), which is sensitive only to the ultrasound-tagged light. From the PCM, a phase conjugated wavefront of the tagged light is generated and conveyed by the same light guide back to the turbid medium, subsequently converging to the ultrasonic focal zone. We present experimental results from this system, which has the ability to focus light in a highly scattering medium with a round-trip optical penetration thickness (extinction coefficient multiplied by round-trip depth) as large as 160.
Time-reversal and rotation symmetry breaking superconductivity in Dirac materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chirolli, Luca; de Juan, Fernando; Guinea, Francisco
2017-05-01
We consider mixed symmetry superconducting phases in Dirac materials in the odd-parity channel, where pseudoscalar and vector order parameters can coexist due to their similar critical temperatures when attractive interactions are of a finite range. We show that the coupling of these order parameters to unordered magnetic dopants favors the condensation of time-reversal symmetry breaking (TRSB) phases, characterized by a condensate magnetization, rotation symmetry breaking, and simultaneous ordering of the dopant moments. We find a rich phase diagram of mixed TRSB phases characterized by peculiar bulk quasiparticles, with Weyl nodes and nodal lines, and distinctive surface states. These findings are consistent with recent experiments on NbxBi2Se3 that report evidence of point nodes, nematicity, and TRSB superconductivity induced by Nb magnetic moments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koch, Jens; Houck, A. A.; Girvin, S. M.; Le Hur, Karyn
2010-03-01
Recently, theoretical studies have advertised EM resonator arrays, coherently coupled to artificial atoms (e.g., superconducting qubits) as a new venue for constructing quantum simulators for strongly correlated states of matter [1]. Here, we explore the possibilities of breaking time-reversal symmetry in such interacting photon systems by coupling transmission line resonators via a superconducting circuit. We demonstrate that, given an external magnetic field and a mechanism for breaking particle-hole symmetry, such a circuit can produce complex phases in the hopping amplitudes for photons. Finally, we address the prospects of this scheme for studying new quantum phase transitions in interacting photon systems, and the realization of novel 2D lattices for photons, such as the Kagome lattice. [4pt] [1] M. J. Hartmann, F. G. S. L. Brandão, and M. B. Plenio, Laser & Photonics Review 2, 527 (2008), and references therein.
Depth profile of a time-reversal focus in an elastic solid.
Remillieux, Marcel C; Anderson, Brian E; Ulrich, T J; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Payan, Cedric
2015-04-01
The out-of-plane velocity component is focused on the flat surface of an isotropic solid sample using the principle of time reversal. This experiment is often reproduced in the context of nondestructive testing for imaging features near the surface of the sample. However, it is not clear how deep the focus extends into the bulk of the sample and what its profile is. In this paper, this question is answered using both numerical simulations and experimental data. The profiles of the foci are expressed in terms of the wavelengths of the dominant waves, based on the interpretation of the Lamb's problem and the use of the diffraction limit. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Time reversal symmetric topological exciton condensate in bilayer HgTe quantum wells.
Budich, Jan Carl; Trauzettel, Björn; Michetti, Paolo
2014-04-11
We investigate a bilayer system of critical HgTe quantum wells, each featuring a spin-degenerate pair of massless Dirac fermions. In the presence of an electrostatic interlayer Coulomb coupling, we determine the exciton condensate order parameter of the system self-consistently. Calculating the bulk topological Z2 invariant of the resulting mean-field Hamiltonian, we discover a novel time reversal symmetric topological exciton condensate state, coined the helical topological exciton condensate. We argue that this phase can exist for experimentally relevant parameters. Interestingly, due to its multiband nature, the present bilayer model exhibits a nontrivial interplay between spontaneous symmetry breaking and topology: Depending on which symmetry the condensate order parameter spontaneously picks in combined orbital and spin space, stable minima in the free energy corresponding to both trivial and nontrivial gapped states can be found.
Thermodynamic glass transition in a spin glass without time-reversal symmetry.
Baños, Raquel Alvarez; Cruz, Andres; Fernandez, Luis Antonio; Gil-Narvion, Jose Miguel; Gordillo-Guerrero, Antonio; Guidetti, Marco; Iñiguez, David; Maiorano, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo; Martin-Mayor, Victor; Monforte-Garcia, Jorge; Muñoz Sudupe, Antonio; Navarro, Denis; Parisi, Giorgio; Perez-Gaviro, Sergio; Ruiz-Lorenzo, Juan Jesus; Schifano, Sebastiano Fabio; Seoane, Beatriz; Tarancon, Alfonso; Tellez, Pedro; Tripiccione, Raffaele; Yllanes, David
2012-04-24
Spin glasses are a longstanding model for the sluggish dynamics that appear at the glass transition. However, spin glasses differ from structural glasses in a crucial feature: they enjoy a time reversal symmetry. This symmetry can be broken by applying an external magnetic field, but embarrassingly little is known about the critical behavior of a spin glass in a field. In this context, the space dimension is crucial. Simulations are easier to interpret in a large number of dimensions, but one must work below the upper critical dimension (i.e., in d < 6) in order for results to have relevance for experiments. Here we show conclusive evidence for the presence of a phase transition in a four-dimensional spin glass in a field. Two ingredients were crucial for this achievement: massive numerical simulations were carried out on the Janus special-purpose computer, and a new and powerful finite-size scaling method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grusdt, Fabian; Abanin, Dmitry; Demler, Eugene
2013-05-01
Recently experiments with ultracold atoms started to explore topological phases in 1D optical lattices. While transport measurements are challenging in these systems, ways to directly measure topological quantum numbers using a combination of Bloch oscillations and Ramsey interferometry have been explored (Atala et al., arXiv:1212.0572). In this talk I will present ways to measure the Z2 topological quantum numbers of two and three dimensional time-reversal invariant (TR) topological insulators. In this case non-Abelian Bloch oscillations can be combined with Ramsey interferometry to map out the topological properties of a given band-structure. Our method is very general and works even in the presence of accidental degeneracies. The applicability of the scheme is discussed for different theoretically proposed implementations of TR topological insulators using ultracold atoms. F. G. is grateful to Harvard University for hospitality and acknowledges financial support from Graduate School Materials Science in Mainz (MAINZ).
Depth profile of a time-reversal focus in an elastic solid
Remillieux, Marcel C.; Anderson, Brian E.; Ulrich, T. J.; ...
2015-04-01
The out-of-plane velocity component is focused on the flat surface of an isotropic solid sample using the principle of time reversal. This experiment is often reproduced in the context of nondestructive testing for imaging features near the surface of the sample. However, it is not clear how deep the focus extends into the bulk of the sample and what its profile is. In this paper, this question is answered using both numerical simulations and experimental data. The profiles of the foci are expressed in terms of the wavelengths of the dominant waves, based on the interpretation of the Lamb’s problemmore » and the use of the diffraction limit.« less
Time-reversal-invariant topological superfluids in Bose-Fermi mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Midtgaard, Jonatan Melkær; Wu, Zhigang; Bruun, G. M.
2017-09-01
A mixed dimensional system of fermions in two layers immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is shown to be a promising setup to realize topological superfluids with time-reversal symmetry (TRS). The induced interaction between the fermions mediated by the BEC gives rise to a competition between p -wave pairing within each layer and s -wave pairing between the layers. When the layers are far apart, intralayer pairing dominates and the system forms a topological superfluid either with or without TRS. With decreasing layer separation or increasing BEC coherence length, interlayer pairing sets in. We show that this leads either to a second-order transition breaking TRS where the edge modes gradually become gapped or to a first-order transition to a topologically trivial s -wave superfluid. Our results provide a realistic road map for experimentally realizing a topological superfluid with TRS in a cold atomic system.
Time-reversal-invariance-violating nucleon-nucleon potential in the 1 /Nc expansion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samart, Daris; Schat, Carlos; Schindler, Matthias R.; Phillips, Daniel R.
2016-08-01
We apply the large-Nc expansion to the time-reversal-invariance-violating (TV) nucleon-nucleon potential. The operator structures contributing to next-to-next-to-leading order in the large-Nc counting are constructed. For the TV and parity-violating case we find a single operator structure at leading order. The TV but parity-conserving potential contains two leading-order terms, which, however, are suppressed by 1 /Nc compared to the parity-violating potential. Comparison with phenomenological potentials, including the chiral effective field theory potential in the TV parity-violating case, leads to large-Nc scaling relations for TV meson-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon couplings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trani, F.; Campagnano, G.; Tagliacozzo, A.; Lucignano, P.
2016-10-01
We study possible applications of high critical temperature nodal superconductors for the search for Majorana bound states in the DIII class. We propose a microscopic analysis of the proximity effect induced by d -wave superconductors on a semiconductor wire with strong spin-orbit coupling. We characterize the induced superconductivity on the wire employing a numerical self-consistent tight-binding Bogoliubov-de Gennes approach, and analytical considerations on the Green's function. The order parameter induced on the wire, the pair correlation function, and the renormalization of the Fermi points are analyzed in detail, as well as the topological phase diagram in the case of weak coupling. We highlight optimal Hamiltonian parameters to access the nontrivial topological phase which could display time-reversal invariant Majorana doublets at the boundaries of the wire.
Acoustic Longitudinal Field NIF Optic Feature Detection Map Using Time-Reversal & MUSIC
Lehman, S K
2006-02-09
We developed an ultrasonic longitudinal field time-reversal and MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) based detection algorithm for identifying and mapping flaws in fused silica NIF optics. The algorithm requires a fully multistatic data set, that is one with multiple, independently operated, spatially diverse transducers, each transmitter of which, in succession, launches a pulse into the optic and the scattered signal measured and recorded at every receiver. We have successfully localized engineered ''defects'' larger than 1 mm in an optic. We confirmed detection and localization of 3 mm and 5 mm features in experimental data, and a 0.5 mm in simulated data with sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio. We present the theory, experimental results, and simulated results.
Schemm, E R; Gannon, W J; Wishne, C M; Halperin, W P; Kapitulnik, A
2014-07-11
Models of superconductivity in unconventional materials can be experimentally differentiated by the predictions they make for the symmetries of the superconducting order parameter. In the case of the heavy-fermion superconductor UPt3, a key question is whether its multiple superconducting phases preserve or break time-reversal symmetry (TRS). We tested for asymmetry in the phase shift between left and right circularly polarized light reflected from a single crystal of UPt3 at normal incidence and found that this so-called polar Kerr effect appears only below the lower of the two zero-field superconducting transition temperatures. Our results provide evidence for broken TRS in the low-temperature superconducting phase of UPt3, implying a complex two-component order parameter for superconductivity in this system.
Thermodynamic glass transition in a spin glass without time-reversal symmetry
Baños, Raquel Alvarez; Cruz, Andres; Fernandez, Luis Antonio; Gil-Narvion, Jose Miguel; Gordillo-Guerrero, Antonio; Guidetti, Marco; Iñiguez, David; Maiorano, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo; Martin-Mayor, Victor; Monforte-Garcia, Jorge; Muñoz Sudupe, Antonio; Navarro, Denis; Parisi, Giorgio; Perez-Gaviro, Sergio; Ruiz-Lorenzo, Juan Jesus; Schifano, Sebastiano Fabio; Seoane, Beatriz; Tarancon, Alfonso; Tellez, Pedro; Tripiccione, Raffaele; Yllanes, David
2012-01-01
Spin glasses are a longstanding model for the sluggish dynamics that appear at the glass transition. However, spin glasses differ from structural glasses in a crucial feature: they enjoy a time reversal symmetry. This symmetry can be broken by applying an external magnetic field, but embarrassingly little is known about the critical behavior of a spin glass in a field. In this context, the space dimension is crucial. Simulations are easier to interpret in a large number of dimensions, but one must work below the upper critical dimension (i.e., in d < 6) in order for results to have relevance for experiments. Here we show conclusive evidence for the presence of a phase transition in a four-dimensional spin glass in a field. Two ingredients were crucial for this achievement: massive numerical simulations were carried out on the Janus special-purpose computer, and a new and powerful finite-size scaling method. PMID:22493229
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koussis, A. S.; Mazi, K.; Lykoudis, S.; Argyriou, A.
2003-04-01
Source signal identification is a forensic task, within regulatory and legal activities. Estimation of the contaminant's release history by reverse-solution (stepping back in time) of the mass transport equation, partialC/partialt + u partialC/partialx = D partial^2C/ partialx^2, is an ill-posed problem (its solution is non-unique and unstable). For this reason we propose the recovery of the source signal from measured concentration profile data through a numerical technique that is based on the premise of advection-dominated transport. We derive an explicit numerical scheme by discretising the pure advection equation, partialC/ partialt + u partial C/partialx = 0, such that it also models gradient-transport by matching numerical diffusion (leading truncation error term) to physical dispersion. The match is achieved by appropriate choice of the scheme’s spatial weighting coefficient q as function of the grid Peclet number P = u Δx/D: θ = 0.5 - P-1. This is a novel and efficient direct solution approach for the signal identification problem at hand that can accommodate space-variable transport parameters as well. First, we perform numerical experiments to define proper grids (in terms of Courant {bf C} = uΔt/Δx and grid Peclet P numbers) for control of spurious oscillations (instability). We then assess recovery of source signals, from perfect as well as from error-seeded field data, considering field data resulting from single- and double-peaked source signals. With perfect data, the scheme recovers source signals with very good accuracy. With imperfect data, however, additional data conditioning is required for control of signal noise. Alternating reverse profile computation with Savitzky-Golay low-pass filtering allows the recovery of well-timed and smooth source signals that satisfy mass conservation very well. Current research focuses on: a) optimising the performance of Savitzky-Golay filters, through selection of appropriate parameters (order of least
Studies of parity and time reversal symmetries in neutron scattering from165Ho
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haase, D. G.; Gould, C. R.; Koster, J. E.; Roberson, N. R.; Seagondollar, L. W.; Soderstrum, J. P.; Schneider, M. B.; Zhu, X.
1988-12-01
We describe searches for parity and time reversal violations in the scattering of polarized neutrons from polarized and aligned165Ho targets. We have completed a search with 7.1 and 11.0 MeV neutrons for PoddTodd terms in the elastic scattering forward amplitude of the form s. ( I×K), where s is the neutron spin, I is the target spin and k is the neutron momentum vector. The target was a single crystal of holmium, polarized horizontally along its b axis by a 1 Tesla magnetic field. The neutrons were polarized vertically. Differences in the neutron transmission were measured for neutrons with spins parallel (antiparallel) to I×k. The P,T violating analyzing powers were found to be consistent with zero at the few 10-3 level: ρP,T(7.1 MeV)=-0.88 (±2.02) x 10-3, ρP,T(11.0 MeV)=-0.4 (±2.88) x 10-3. We have also attempted to find enhancements with MeV neutrons in P-violation due to the term s k. We are preparing an aligned target cryostat for investigations of PevenTodd terms {bd(Ik)(I×k)s} in neutron scattering. The target will be a single crystal cylinder of165Ho cooled to 100 mK in a bath of liquid helium and rotated by a shaft from a room temperature stepping motor. The cylinder will be oriented vertically and the alignment ( c) axis oriented horizontally. Warming or rotation of the sample allows one to separate effects that mimic the sought-after time reversal violating term.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bian, A.; Gantela, C.
2014-12-01
Strong multiples were observed in marine seismic data of Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment (LARSE).It is crucial to eliminate these multiples in conventional ray-based or one-way wave-equation based depth image methods. As long as multiples contain information of target zone along travelling path, it's possible to use them as signal, to improve the illumination coverage thus enhance the image quality of structural boundaries. Reverse time migration including multiples is a two-way wave-equation based prestack depth image method that uses both primaries and multiples to map structural boundaries. Several factors, including source wavelet, velocity model, back ground noise, data acquisition geometry and preprocessing workflow may influence the quality of image. The source wavelet is estimated from direct arrival of marine seismic data. Migration velocity model is derived from integrated model building workflow, and the sharp velocity interfaces near sea bottom needs to be preserved in order to generate multiples in the forward and backward propagation steps. The strong amplitude, low frequency marine back ground noise needs to be removed before the final imaging process. High resolution reverse time image sections of LARSE Lines 1 and Line 2 show five interfaces: depth of sea-bottom, base of sedimentary basins, top of Catalina Schist, a deep layer and a possible pluton boundary. Catalina Schist shows highs in the San Clemente ridge, Emery Knoll, Catalina Ridge, under Catalina Basin on both the lines, and a minor high under Avalon Knoll. The high of anticlinal fold in Line 1 is under the north edge of Emery Knoll and under the San Clemente fault zone. An area devoid of any reflection features are interpreted as sides of an igneous plume.
Cheng, Xiao-wen; Zhou, Li; Zhao, Jin; Fang, Shi-song; Yu, Lei; Ye, Bao-ying; He, Jian-fan; Lu, Xing; Zhang, Zai-qing; Yang, Hong
2004-09-01
To apply fluorescent real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in detecting influenza viruses. A total of 207 oral swab samples were obtained in 16 collections from SARS patients and suspected influenza outbreak cases. They were subjected to influenza virus detection by fluorescent real-time RT-PCR, MDCK cell culture, and hemagglutinin inhibition assay. Out of 207 samples, 79 (38.16%) were positive for influenza viruses when tested by fluorescent real-time PCR, and 62 (29.95%) positive when tested by MDCK cell culture. There was a statistically significant difference between them (chi square=8.64, P less than 0.005). From 104 cases in 9 collections dual serum samples were obtainable. When tested with hemagglutinin inhibition assay, 64 cases (61.54%) showed a 4-fold increase against H3N2 antigen. This study showed that fluorescent real-time PCR is a reliable, sensitive, and fast method for detecting influenza viruses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiaobin, Hong; Jianxi, Zhou; Peisong, Lin; Guojian, Huang
2017-10-01
According to damage detection of strand wire structures covered by anchor clip, an ultrasonic guided wave damage imaging detection method based on dual time reversal was suggested. It utilizes the characteristic of the guided waves traversing the whole tested region and the characteristic of time reversal making the signals gathered in the source at the same time. First, a modulation signal is excited by piezoceramic transducers at one end of the detected region of the strand and the reflection signals and the transmission signals are acquired. Then, a non-defective finite element simulation model corresponding to the detected strand is established. The extracted reflection and transmission damage signals can be imported respectively into the non-defective simulation model after time reversal processing to re-spread. The propagation of the reversal signal in the simulation model causes the model nodes to produce a displacement. These displacements can be extracted separately and calculated by dual time reversal operation, which means multiplying the nodes of the same coordinates at each of the two results. Finally, the result of the focusing operation is accumulated at all times and the damage region can be calculated. The focus results are presented by the point cloud. Experimental results show that the difficulties of traditional time focusing in strand wire structures can be overcome, and the damage region can be imaged preliminarily with a small relative error.
Estimation of contributions to population growth: a reverse-time capture-recapture approach
Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Lebreton, J.D.; Pradel, R.
2000-01-01
We consider methods for estimating the relative contributions of different demographic components, and their associated vital rates, to population growth. We identify components of the population at time i (including a component for animals not in the population at i). For each such component we ask the following question: 'What is the probability that an individual randomly selected from the population at time i + 1 was a member of this component at i?' The estimation methods for these probabilities ((i) are based on capture-recapture studies of marked animal populations and use reverse-time modeling. We consider several different sampling situations and present example analyses for meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus. The relationship between these (i parameters and elasticities (and other parameters based on projection matrix asymptotics) is noted and discussed. We conclude by suggesting that model-based asymptotics be viewed as demographic theory and that direct estimation approaches be used to test this theory with data from sampled populations with marked animals.
A nodal discontinuous Galerkin method for reverse-time migration on GPU clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modave, A.; St-Cyr, A.; Mulder, W. A.; Warburton, T.
2015-11-01
Improving both accuracy and computational performance of numerical tools is a major challenge for seismic imaging and generally requires specialized implementations to make full use of modern parallel architectures. We present a computational strategy for reverse-time migration (RTM) with accelerator-aided clusters. A new imaging condition computed from the pressure and velocity fields is introduced. The model solver is based on a high-order discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method for the pressure-velocity system with unstructured meshes and multirate local time stepping. We adopted the MPI+X approach for distributed programming where X is a threaded programming model. In this work we chose OCCA, a unified framework that makes use of major multithreading languages (e.g. CUDA and OpenCL) and offers the flexibility to run on several hardware architectures. DGTD schemes are suitable for efficient computations with accelerators thanks to localized element-to-element coupling and the dense algebraic operations required for each element. Moreover, compared to high-order finite-difference schemes, the thin halo inherent to DGTD method reduces the amount of data to be exchanged between MPI processes and storage requirements for RTM procedures. The amount of data to be recorded during simulation is reduced by storing only boundary values in memory rather than on disk and recreating the forward wavefields. Computational results are presented that indicate that these methods are strong scalable up to at least 32 GPUs for a three-dimensional RTM case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jen-Chieh; Zhou, Yufeng
2017-03-01
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been used widely in the noninvasive treatment of kidney calculi. The fine fragments less than 2 mm in size can be discharged by urination, which determines the success of ESWL. Although ultrasonic and fluorescent imaging are used to localize the calculi, it's challenging to monitor the stone comminution progress, especially at the late stage of ESWL when fragments spread out as a cloud. The lack of real-time and quantitative evaluation makes this procedure semi-blind, resulting in either under- or over-treatment after the legal number of pulses required by FDA. The time reversal operator (TRO) method has the ability to detect point-like scatterers, and the number of non-zero eigenvalues of TRO is equal to that of the scatterers. In this study, the validation of TRO method to identify stones was illustrated from both numerical and experimental results for one to two stones with various sizes and locations. Furthermore, the parameters affecting the performance of TRO method has also been investigated. Overall, TRO method is effective in identifying the fragments in a stone cluster in real-time. Further development of a detection system and evaluation of its performance both in vitro and in vivo during ESWL is necessary for application.
An efficient higher-order PML in WLP-FDTD method for time reversed wave simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Xiao-Kun; Shao, Wei; Ou, Haiyan; Wang, Bing-Zhong
2016-09-01
Derived from a stretched coordinate formulation, a higher-order complex frequency shifted (CFS) perfectly matched layer (PML) is proposed for the unconditionally stable finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method based on weighted Laguerre polynomials (WLPs). The higher-order PML is implemented with an auxiliary differential equation (ADE) approach. In order to further improve absorbing performance, the parameter values of stretching functions in the higher-order PML are optimized by the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). The optimal solutions can be chosen from the Pareto front for trading-off between two independent objectives. It is shown in a numerical test that the higher-order PML is efficient in terms of attenuating propagating waves and reducing late time reflections. Moreover, the higher-order PML can be placed very close to the wall when analyzing the channel characteristics of time reversal (TR) waves in a multipath indoor environment. Numerical examples of TR wave propagation demonstrate the availability of the proposed method.
Observation of Time-Reversal Violation in the B0 Meson System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; So, R. Y.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Bondioli, M.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; West, C. A.; Eisner, A. M.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Chao, D. S.; Cheng, C. H.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K. T.; Hitlin, D. G.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F. C.; Rakitin, A. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Huard, Z.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sun, L.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Spaan, B.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Lee, C. L.; Morii, M.; Edwards, A. J.; Adametz, A.; Uwer, U.; Lacker, H. M.; Lueck, T.; Dauncey, P. D.; Mallik, U.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rubin, A. E.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Chavez, C. A.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Prencipe, E.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; Behn, E.; Cenci, R.; Hamilton, B.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Dallapiccola, C.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Sciolla, G.; Cheaib, R.; Lindemann, D.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Biassoni, P.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; De Nardo, G.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Martinelli, M.; Raven, G.; Jessop, C. P.; LoSecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Torrence, E.; Feltresi, E.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Pompili, A.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simi, G.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Akar, S.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Sitt, S.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Pacetti, S.; Rossi, A.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Perez, A.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Piredda, G.; Bünger, C.; Grünberg, O.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Schröder, H.; Voss, C.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Benitez, J. F.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Field, R. C.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va'vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Randle-Conde, A.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Miyashita, T. S.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D. R.; Soffer, A.; Lund, P.; Spanier, S. M.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Zambito, S.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Bernabeu, J.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Villanueva-Perez, P.; Ahmed, H.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Choi, H. H. F.; King, G. J.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Tasneem, N.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Wu, S. L.
2012-11-01
Although CP violation in the B meson system has been well established by the B factories, there has been no direct observation of time-reversal violation. The decays of entangled neutral B mesons into definite flavor states (B0 or B¯0), and J/ψKL0 or cc¯KS0 final states (referred to as B+ or B-), allow comparisons between the probabilities of four pairs of T-conjugated transitions, for example, B¯0→B- and B-→B¯0, as a function of the time difference between the two B decays. Using 468×106 BB¯ pairs produced in Υ(4S) decays collected by the BABAR detector at SLAC, we measure T-violating parameters in the time evolution of neutral B mesons, yielding ΔST+=-1.37±0.14(stat)±0.06(syst) and ΔST-=1.17±0.18(stat)±0.11(syst). These nonzero results represent the first direct observation of T violation through the exchange of initial and final states in transitions that can only be connected by a T-symmetry transformation.
Observation of time-reversal violation in the B0 meson system.
Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Brown, D N; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Lynch, G; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Asgeirsson, D J; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; So, R Y; Khan, A; Blinov, V E; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Yushkov, A N; Bondioli, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Atmacan, H; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Vitug, G M; Campagnari, C; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; West, C A; Eisner, A M; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Martinez, A J; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Chao, D S; Cheng, C H; Echenard, B; Flood, K T; Hitlin, D G; Ongmongkolkul, P; Porter, F C; Rakitin, A Y; Andreassen, R; Huard, Z; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Sun, L; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Wagner, S R; Ayad, R; Toki, W H; Spaan, B; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Bernard, D; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Playfer, S; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Fioravanti, E; Garzia, I; Luppi, E; Munerato, M; Piemontese, L; Santoro, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Contri, R; Guido, E; Lo Vetere, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Bhuyan, B; Prasad, V; Lee, C L; Morii, M; Edwards, A J; Adametz, A; Uwer, U; Lacker, H M; Lueck, T; Dauncey, P D; Mallik, U; Chen, C; Cochran, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Derkach, D; Grosdidier, G; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Malaescu, B; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Sigamani, M; Cowan, G; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Gradl, W; Griessinger, K; Hafner, A; Prencipe, E; Barlow, R J; Jackson, G; Lafferty, G D; Behn, E; Cenci, R; Hamilton, B; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Dallapiccola, C; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Sciolla, G; Cheaib, R; Lindemann, D; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Biassoni, P; Neri, N; Palombo, F; Stracka, S; Cremaldi, L; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sonnek, P; Summers, D J; Nguyen, X; Simard, M; Taras, P; De Nardo, G; Monorchio, D; Onorato, G; Sciacca, C; Martinelli, M; Raven, G; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Wang, W F; Honscheid, K; Kass, R; Brau, J; Frey, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Feltresi, E; Gagliardi, N; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Akar, S; Ben-Haim, E; Bomben, M; Bonneaud, G R; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Marchiori, G; Ocariz, J; Sitt, S; Biasini, M; Manoni, E; Pacetti, S; Rossi, A; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Casarosa, G; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Oberhof, B; Paoloni, E; Perez, A; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Lopes Pegna, D; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Anulli, F; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Piredda, G; Bünger, C; Grünberg, O; Hartmann, T; Leddig, T; Schröder, H; Voss, C; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Aston, D; Bard, D J; Bartoldus, R; Benitez, J F; Cartaro, C; Convery, M R; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Ebert, M; Field, R C; Franco Sevilla, M; Fulsom, B G; Gabareen, A M; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Lewis, P; Lindquist, B; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Muller, D R; Neal, H; Nelson, S; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Snyder, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, A P; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Young, C C; Ziegler, V; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Randle-Conde, A; Sekula, S J; Bellis, M; Burchat, P R; Miyashita, T S; Puccio, E M T; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Gorodeisky, R; Guttman, N; Peimer, D R; Soffer, A; Lund, P; Spanier, S M; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schwitters, R F; Wray, B C; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Zambito, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Bernabeu, J; Martinez-Vidal, F; Oyanguren, A; Villanueva-Perez, P; Ahmed, H; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bernlochner, F U; Choi, H H F; King, G J; Kowalewski, R; Lewczuk, M J; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Tasneem, N; Gershon, T J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Wu, S L
2012-11-21
Although CP violation in the B meson system has been well established by the B factories, there has been no direct observation of time-reversal violation. The decays of entangled neutral B mesons into definite flavor states (B(0) or B(0)), and J/ψK(L)(0) or ccK(S)(0) final states (referred to as B(+) or B(-)), allow comparisons between the probabilities of four pairs of T-conjugated transitions, for example, B(0) → B(-) and B(-) → B(0), as a function of the time difference between the two B decays. Using 468 × 10(6) BB pairs produced in Υ(4S) decays collected by the BABAR detector at SLAC, we measure T-violating parameters in the time evolution of neutral B mesons, yielding ΔS(T)(+) = -1.37 ± 0.14(stat) ± 0.06(syst) and ΔS(T)(-) = 1.17 ± 0.18(stat) ± 0.11(syst). These nonzero results represent the first direct observation of T violation through the exchange of initial and final states in transitions that can only be connected by a T-symmetry transformation.
Time-reversal transcranial ultrasound beam focusing using a k-space method.
Jing, Yun; Meral, F Can; Clement, Greg T
2012-02-21
This paper proposes the use of a k-space method to obtain the correction for transcranial ultrasound beam focusing. Mirroring past approaches, a synthetic point source at the focal point is numerically excited, and propagated through the skull, using acoustic properties acquired from registered computed tomography of the skull being studied. The received data outside the skull contain the correction information and can be phase conjugated (time reversed) and then physically generated to achieve a tight focusing inside the skull, by assuming quasi-plane transmission where shear waves are not present or their contribution can be neglected. Compared with the conventional finite-difference time-domain method for wave propagation simulation, it will be shown that the k-space method is significantly more accurate even for a relatively coarse spatial resolution, leading to a dramatically reduced computation time. Both numerical simulations and experiments conducted on an ex vivo human skull demonstrate that precise focusing can be realized using the k-space method with a spatial resolution as low as only 2.56 grid points per wavelength, thus allowing treatment planning computation on the order of minutes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambrozinski, Lukasz; Stepinski, Tadeusz; Packo, Pawel; Uhl, Tadeusz
2012-02-01
Active ultrasonic arrays are very useful for structural health monitoring (SHM) of large plate-like structures. Large areas of a plate can be monitored from a fixed position but it normally requires precise information on material properties. Self-focusing methods can perform well without the exact knowledge of a medium and array parameters. In this paper a method for selective focusing of Lamb waves will be presented. The algorithm is an extension of the DORT method (French acronym for decomposition of time-reversal operator) where the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is used for the time-frequency representation (TFR) of nonstationary signals instead of the discrete Fourier transform. The performance of the methods is compared and verified in the paper using both simulated and experimental data. It is shown that the extension of the DORT method with the use of TFR considerably improved its resolving ability. To experimentally evaluate the performance of the proposed method, a linear array of small piezoelectric transducers attached to an aluminum plate was used to obtain interelement responses, required for beam self-focusing on targets present in the plate. The array was used for the transmission of signals calculated with the DORT-CWT algorithm. To verify the self-focusing effect the backpropagated field generated in the experiment was sensed using laser scanning vibrometer.
Comparison of a subrank to a full-rank time-reversal operator in a dynamic ocean.
Edelmann, Geoffrey F; Lingevitch, Joseph F; Gaumond, Charles F; Fromm, David M; Calvo, David C
2007-11-01
This paper investigates the application of time-reversal techniques to the detection and ensonification of a target of interest. The focusing method is based on a generalization of time-reversal operator techniques. A subrank time-reversal operator is derived and implemented using a discrete set of transmission beams to ensonify a region of interest. In a dynamic ocean simulation, target focusing using a subrank matrix is shown to be superior to using a full-rank matrix, specifically when the subrank matrix is captured in a period shorter than the coherence time of the modeled environment. Backscatter from the point target was propagated to a vertical 64-element source-receiver array and processed to form the sub-rank time-reversal operator matrix. The eigenvector corresponding to the strongest eigenvalue of the time-reversal operator was shown to focus energy on the target in simulation. Modeled results will be augmented by a limited at-sea experiment conducted on the New Jersey shelf in April-May 2004 measured low-frequency backscattered signal from an artificial target (echo repeater).
Imaging Fracking Zones by Microseismic Reverse Time Migration for Downhole Microseismic Monitoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Y.; Zhang, H.
2015-12-01
Hydraulic fracturing is an engineering tool to create fractures in order to better recover oil and gas from low permeability reservoirs. Because microseismic events are generally associated with fracturing development, microseismic monitoring has been used to evaluate the fracking process. Microseismic monitoring generally relies on locating microseismic events to understand the spatial distribution of fractures. For the multi-stage fracturing treatment, fractures created in former stages are strong scatterers in the medium and can induce strong scattering waves on the waveforms for microseismic events induced during later stages. In this study, we propose to take advantage of microseismic scattering waves to image fracking zones by using seismic reverse time migration method. For downhole microseismic monitoring that involves installing a string of seismic sensors in a borehole near the injection well, the observation geometry is actually similar to the VSP (vertical seismic profile) system. For this reason, we adapt the VSP migration method for the common shot gather to the common event gather. Microseismic reverse-time migration method involves solving wave equation both forward and backward in time for each microseismic event. At current stage, the microseismic RTM is based on 2D acoustic wave equation (Zhang and Sun, 2008), solved by the finite-difference method with PML absorbing boundary condition applied to suppress the reflections of artificial boundaries. Additionally, we use local wavefield decomposition instead of cross-correlation imaging condition to suppress the imaging noise. For testing the method, we create a synthetic dataset for a downhole microseismic monitoring system with multiple fracking stages. It shows that microseismic migration using individual event is able to clearly reveal the fracture zone. The shorter distance between fractures and the microseismic event the clearer the migration image is. By summing migration images for many
Calculating the Source Sensitivity of Basin Guided Waves by Time-Reversed Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Day, S.; Roten, D.; Olsen, K.
2008-12-01
Simulations of earthquake rupture on the southern San Andreas fault (e.g., TeraShake; ShakeOut) reveal large amplifications associated with channeling of seismic energy along contiguous sedimentary basins. Geometrically similar excitation patterns can be recognized repeatedly in different SAF simulations (e.g., Love wave-like energy with predominant period around 4 seconds, channeled southwestwardly from the San Gabriel basin into Los Angeles basin), yet the amplitudes with which these distinct wavefield patterns are excited differ, depending upon source details (slip distribution, direction and velocity of rupture). To improve understanding of the excitation of the high-amplitude patterns, we propose a numerical method for determining the sensitivity of a given wavefield pattern (i.e., one identified in a simulation, such as the above-cited sedimentary channeling effect identified in the ShakeOut simulations) to perturbations of the source kinematics. We first define a functional (phi(u), where u is the wavefield perturbation) that isolates the wavefield feature of interest and is proportional to its level of excitation. We then calculate the pullback of that functional onto the source by means of a single time-reversed (i.e., adjoint) simulation. The resulting functional (G*phi) now acts on the space of sources (slip functions) rather than wavefields, so given any source perturbation, we can calculate the resulting feature excitation without actually doing any forward wavefield simulations. In practice, the kernel of the pulled-back functional G*phi itself gives much insight into the feature-excitation sensitivity, and the time-reversal simulation itself helps ellucidate the wave propagation process leading to the wavefield feature in question. We applied this method to analyze the source sensitivity of the San Gabriel/Los Angeles channeled wave seen in ShakeOut simulations, finding: (i) Excitation is relatively insensitive to slip on the southernmost ~60 km long
Fully parametric imaging with reversible tracer (18)F-FLT within a reasonable time.
Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Maeda, Yukito; Hatakeyama, Tetsuhiro; Yamamoto, Yuka; Nishiyama, Yoshihiro
2017-03-01
PET enables quantitative imaging of the rate constants K 1, k 2, k 3, and k 4, with a reversible two tissue compartment model (2TCM). A new method is proposed for computing all of these rates within a reasonable time, less than 1 min. A set of differential equations for the reversible 2TCM was converted into a single formula consisting of differential and convolution terms. The validity was tested on clinical data with (18)F-FLT PET for patients with glioma (n = 39). Parametric images were generated with the formula that was developed. Parametric values were extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) for glioma from the images generated, and they were compared with those obtained with the non-linear fitting method. We performed simulation studies for testing accuracy by generating simulated images, assuming clinically expected ranges of the parametric values. The computation time was about 20 s, and the quality of the images generated was acceptable. The values obtained for K 1 for grade IV tumor were 0.24 ± 0.23 and 0.26 ± 0.25 ml(-1) min(-1) g(-1) for the image-based and ROI-based methods, respectively. The values were 0.21 ± 0.12 and 0.21 ± 0.12 min(-1) for k 2, 0.13 ± 0.07 and 0.13 ± 0.07 min(-1) for k 3, and 0.052 ± 0.020 and 0.054 ± 0.021 min(-1) for k 4. The differences between the methods were not significant. Regression analysis showed correlations of r = 0.94, 0.86, 0.71, and 0.52 for these parameters. Simulation demonstrated that the accuracy was within acceptable ranges, namely, the correlations were r = 0.99, r = 0.97, r = 0.99, and r = 0.91 for K 1, k 2, k 3, and k 4, respectively, between estimated and assumed values. This results suggest that parametric images can be obtained fully within reasonable time, accuracy, and quality.
Imaging of first-order surface-related multiples by reverse time migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xuejian; Liu, Yike; Hu, Hao; Li, Peng; Khan, Majid
2016-11-01