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Sample records for lose sleep gain

  1. Sleep Loses Out for Many Hooked on Video Games

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159434.html Sleep Loses Out for Many Hooked on Video Games ... Bloodborne," "Fallout" and "Call of Duty" worth losing sleep over? For plenty of gamers, the answer is ...

  2. The Persistence of Gaining and Losing Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, J. P.; Frye, A.

    2012-12-01

    Streams are commonly classified as "gaining" or "losing", according to their relationships with groundwater. However, the gaining and losing nature of a stream can vary in space and time. Understanding the spatial and temporal persistence of gaining and losing reaches is essential for understanding controls on stream health. This is particularly important during low flow conditions. Hydrologic models are typically designed to simulate high flows, and are challenged by low flow. This problem will become more important as hydrologists are asked to forecast the increasing occurrence of low flows as a consequence of climate change. Low flow discharges have been a focus of research as they are occurring earlier in the summer and have longer durations throughout the fall. A concern is how low flow will affect water resources and its users in the region when demand is at its highest. As low flow discharges continue to persist, debate over these rights will continue as well. This study we used chloride as a chemical tracer to monitor gains and losses of stream discharge of small watershed in Southwestern, Idaho. Six conductivity probes were spaced evenly 200m apart along a control reach 1200m in total length. Tracers were performed at least once a month at this site throughout the winter and spring and even more often during the summer dry down to understand the temporal changes occurring. Spatial variations were observed by performing basin wide tracers over a stream length of ~9km during the spring and late summer. Results show that stream baseflow is dependent on the winter snowpack and spring rains in order to recharge the deep groundwater systems and to create a hydrologic connection between the stream and local hillslopes. As a result, when winter snowpack's and spring rains are mild, this connectivity is cut off much sooner producing low flow conditions much earlier in the summer.

  3. Psychological Adjustment of Adolescents Attempting to Lose or Gain Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, James C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared the psychological adjustment of high school boys and girls trying to reduce or gain weight. Reducers of both sexes and male gainers exhibited lower physical self-esteem. Girls trying to change weight in either direction showed depression and lower global self-esteem. Girls' decisions to gain or lose weight were influenced by psychological…

  4. Hyporheic exchange and oxygen consumption under losing and gaining flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnon, S.; Fox, A.; De Falco, N.; Boano, F.

    2013-12-01

    The exchange of water between the surface and subsurface environments plays a crucial role in hydrological, biogeochemical, and ecological processes. The exchange of water is driven by the local morphology of the streambed (hyporheic exchange) and regional forcing of the hydraulic gradient, which results in losing or gaining flow conditions. We measured the effects of losing and gaining flow conditions on hyporheic exchange fluxes by conducting tracer experiments using a novel laboratory flume system (640 cm long and 30 cm wide) under various combinations of overlying velocities and losing/gaining fluxes. Tracer experiments for measuring hyporheic exchange were done using NaCl as conservative tracer, and dye tracer to visualize the active region where water exchange processes occur. Hyporheic exchange fluxes were analyzed based on a new conceptual framework, which relies on a solute mass balance with sink/source terms due to losing/gaining fluxes to evaluate water exchange between surface flow and streambed sediments. This combination of experimental observations and modeling revealed that hyporheic exchange fluxes under losing and gaining flow conditions was similar. Interfacial transport increases proportional to the square of the overlying velocity, and linearly with increasing fluxes of losing and gaining conditions in the sand bed. When the regional hydraulic forcing becomes larger, the hyporheic exchange becomes smaller. Thus, losing and gaining flow conditions becomes the dominant mechanism of water exchange at a certain flux, which depends on the competitive interaction between the overlying velocity in the stream and the losing/gaining fluxes. This type of coupling is expected to regulate nutrient and contaminant transport and microbial activity in streams and rivers. Indeed, we demonstrated using oxygen distribution along the bedform, which was measured using microelectrodes, that the local hydraulic conditions have a strong influent on microbial activity

  5. Who Gains, Who Loses?: The Fiscal Impact of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costrell, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Do school vouchers save the taxpayer money, or do they add to taxpayer burdens? Which groups of taxpayers are most affected, and do they gain or lose? What is the financial impact on public school districts? Usually, these questions are debated in the abstract. Now it is possible to get more concrete answers from the nation's longest-running…

  6. Hyporheic exchange in heterogeneous streambeds under losing and gaining flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnon, S.; Fox, A.; Laube, G.; Schmidt, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that stream-groundwater interactions (gaining or losing flow conditions) have a major impact on hyporheic exchange fluxes. However, the physical complexity of natural streams has limited our ability to study these types of interactions systematically in the field, and to evaluate their importance to biogeochemical processes and nutrient cycling. In this work we were able to quantify the effect of losing and gaining fluxes on hyporheic exchange in heterogeneous streambeds by combining experiments in a laboratory flume and modeling. Tracer experiments were conducted for measuring hyporheic exchange with using a dye and NaCl under various combinations of overlying water velocities and losing or gaining fluxes. The goal of the modeling was to extent and to supplement the hydraulic conditions covered by the flume experiments with a wide range of scenarios. In the model, the surface water domain was represented by a CFD model which generates the head distribution. Subsurface flow and transport is simulated in 3D using MIN3P. The flume experiments revealed that hyporheic exchange fluxes under losing and gaining flow conditions were similar, and became smaller in a comparable manner when the losing or gaining flux increases. Heterogeneity had little effect on hyporheic exchange under gaining flow conditions due to the compaction of the hyporheic zone. However, local hydraulic conductivity led to preferential flow paths of stream water under neutral conditions (strong horizontal flow component) and losing conditions (strong vertical flow component). Preferential flow paths were also evident under gaining conditions but affected mainly the upwelling groundwater. The model was set up to resemble the conditions in the flume, and reproduced the flume data very well. The propagation of dye fronts as observed in the flume is currently implemented into the model. The combination of experimental and modeling results enable us to systematically study the

  7. Oxygen consumption along bed forms under losing and gaining streamflow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Falco, Natalie; Arnon, Shai; Boano, Fulvio

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that bed forms are the most significant geomorphological structure that drives hyporheic exchange and biogeochemical processes in stream networks. Other studies also demonstrated that due to the hyporheic flow patterns within bed form, biogeochemical processes do not occur uniformly along and within the bed forms. The objective of this work was to systematically evaluate how losing or gaining flow conditions affect oxygen consumption by biofilm along sandy bed forms. We measured the effects of losing and gaining flow conditions on oxygen consumption by combining modeling and experiments in a novel laboratory flume system that enable the control of losing and gaining fluxes. Oxygen consumption was measured after growing a benthic biofilm fed with Sodium Benzoate (as a carbon source) and measuring the distribution of oxygen in the streambed with microelectrodes. The experimental results were analyzed using a novel code that calculates vertical profiles of reaction rates in the presence of hyporheic water fluxes. These experimental observations and modeling revealed that oxygen distribution varied along the bed forms. The zone of oxygen consumption (i.e. depth of penetration) was the largest at the upstream side of the bed form and the smallest in the lee side (at the lowest part of the bed form), regardless of the flow conditions. Also, the zone of oxygen consumption was the largest under losing conditions, the smallest under gaining conditions, and in-between under neutral conditions. The distribution of oxygen consumption rates determined with our new model will be also discussed. Our preliminary results enable us to show the importance of the coupling between flow conditions and oxygen consumption along bed forms and are expected to improve our understanding of nutrient cycling in streams.

  8. Losing Neutrality: The Neural Basis of Impaired Emotional Control without Sleep.

    PubMed

    Simon, Eti Ben; Oren, Noga; Sharon, Haggai; Kirschner, Adi; Goldway, Noam; Okon-Singer, Hadas; Tauman, Rivi; Deweese, Menton M; Keil, Andreas; Hendler, Talma

    2015-09-23

    Sleep deprivation has been shown recently to alter emotional processing possibly associated with reduced frontal regulation. Such impairments can ultimately fail adaptive attempts to regulate emotional processing (also known as cognitive control of emotion), although this hypothesis has not been examined directly. Therefore, we explored the influence of sleep deprivation on the human brain using two different cognitive-emotional tasks, recorded using fMRI and EEG. Both tasks involved irrelevant emotional and neutral distractors presented during a competing cognitive challenge, thus creating a continuous demand for regulating emotional processing. Results reveal that, although participants showed enhanced limbic and electrophysiological reactions to emotional distractors regardless of their sleep state, they were specifically unable to ignore neutral distracting information after sleep deprivation. As a consequence, sleep deprivation resulted in similar processing of neutral and negative distractors, thus disabling accurate emotional discrimination. As expected, these findings were further associated with a decrease in prefrontal connectivity patterns in both EEG and fMRI signals, reflecting a profound decline in cognitive control of emotion. Notably, such a decline was associated with lower REM sleep amounts, supporting a role for REM sleep in overnight emotional processing. Altogether, our findings suggest that losing sleep alters emotional reactivity by lowering the threshold for emotional activation, leading to a maladaptive loss of emotional neutrality. Significance statement: Sleep loss is known as a robust modulator of emotional reactivity, leading to increased anxiety and stress elicited by seemingly minor triggers. In this work, we aimed to portray the neural basis of these emotional impairments and their possible association with frontal regulation of emotional processing, also known as cognitive control of emotion. Using specifically suited EEG and f

  9. Sociocultural influences on strategies to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles among ten cultural groups.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Busija, Lucy; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Mussap, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This study determined how sociocultural messages to change one's body are perceived by adolescents from different cultural groups. In total, 4904 adolescents, including Australian, Chilean, Chinese, Indo-Fijian, Indigenous Fijian, Greek, Malaysian, Chinese Malaysian, Tongans in New Zealand, and Tongans in Tonga, were surveyed about messages from family, peers, and the media to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles. Groups were best differentiated by family pressure to gain weight. Girls were more likely to receive the messages from multiple sociocultural sources whereas boys were more likely to receive the messages from the family. Some participants in a cultural group indicated higher, and others lower, levels of these sociocultural messages. These findings highlight the differences in sociocultural messages across cultural groups, but also that adolescents receive contrasting messages within a cultural group. These results demonstrate the difficulty in representing a particular message as being characteristic of each cultural group.

  10. Losing Sleep to Watch the Night-Sky: The Relationship between Sleep-Length and Noctcaelador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; Rose, Callie

    2005-01-01

    For most of history, humans have been watching the night-sky (Hawkins, 1983). Historically, individuals have watched the night-sky for aesthetic appreciation and to gain insights and knowledge (Brecher & Feirtag, 1979). Despite the long history of night-sky watching among humans and the apparent importance of the behavior to large groups of…

  11. Losing Sleep over It: Daily Variation in Sleep Quantity and Quality in Canadian Students' First Semester of University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Dalton, Andrea L.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Daily covariation of sleep quantity and quality with affective, stressful, academic, and social experiences were observed in a sample of Canadian 17-19-year-olds in their first year of university. Participants (N = 191) completed web-based checklists for 14 consecutive days during their first semester. Multilevel models predicting sleep quantity…

  12. The snooze of lose: Rapid reaching reveals that losses are processed more slowly than gains.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Craig S; Gallivan, Jason P; Wong, Jeremy D; Wispinski, Nathan J; Enns, James T

    2015-08-01

    Decision making revolves around weighing potential gains and losses. Research in economic decision making has emphasized that humans exercise disproportionate caution when making explicit choices involving loss. By comparison, research in perceptual decision making has revealed a processing advantage for targets associated with potential gain, though the effects of loss have been explored less systematically. Here, we use a rapid reaching task to measure the relative sensitivity (Experiment 1) and the time course (Experiments 2 and 3) of rapid actions with regard to the reward valence and probability of targets. We show that targets linked to a high probability of gain influence actions about 100 ms earlier than targets associated with equivalent probability and value of loss. These findings are well accounted for by a model of stimulus response in which reward modulates the late, postpeak phase of the activity. We interpret our results within a neural framework of biased competition that is resolved in spatial maps of behavioral relevance. As implied by our model, all visual stimuli initially receive positive activation. Gain stimuli can build off of this initial activation when selected as a target, whereas loss stimuli have to overcome this initial activation in order to be avoided, accounting for the observed delay between valences. Our results bring clarity to the perceptual effects of losses versus gains and highlight the importance of considering the timeline of different biasing factors that influence decisions. PMID:26097977

  13. Individualized Treatment of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: What are Patients Gaining? Or Losing?

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of drugs that bind diffusible vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has revolutionized the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The pivotal ranibizumab and aflibercept registration trials featured monthly intravitreal injections for 12 months, during which visual acuities and macular edema rapidly improved for the first 3 months and modest gains or stabilization continued until the primary endpoint. In many subsequent trials, patients were evaluated monthly and treated as-needed (PRN) according to the results of visual acuity (VA) testing, fundus examinations and optical coherence tomography scans. Compared to monthly-treated control groups, PRN treated patients require fewer injections during the first year but they also experience smaller VA gains (1–3 letters). A small number of prospective trials that directly compared monthly with PRN therapy showed that VA gains with discontinuous therapy lag slightly behind those achieved with monthly injections. Physicians recognize that monthly office visits with frequent intraocular injections challenge patients’ compliance, accrue high drug and professional service costs, and clog office schedules with frequently returning patients. To decrease the numbers of both office visits and anti-VEGF injections without sacrificing VA gains, physicians have embraced the treat-and-extend strategy. Treat-and-extend has not been studied as rigorously as PRN but it has become popular among both vitreoretinal specialists and patients. Despite the possible risks associated with discontinuous therapy (decreased VA and increased macular fluid), most physicians individualize treatment (PRN or treat-and-extend) for the majority of their patients. This review chapter explores the many advantages of individualized therapy, while balancing these against suboptimal responses due to the decreased frequency of anti-VEGF injections. PMID:26239466

  14. Individualized Treatment of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: What are Patients Gaining? Or Losing?

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of drugs that bind diffusible vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has revolutionized the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The pivotal ranibizumab and aflibercept registration trials featured monthly intravitreal injections for 12 months, during which visual acuities and macular edema rapidly improved for the first 3 months and modest gains or stabilization continued until the primary endpoint. In many subsequent trials, patients were evaluated monthly and treated as-needed (PRN) according to the results of visual acuity (VA) testing, fundus examinations and optical coherence tomography scans. Compared to monthly-treated control groups, PRN treated patients require fewer injections during the first year but they also experience smaller VA gains (1-3 letters). A small number of prospective trials that directly compared monthly with PRN therapy showed that VA gains with discontinuous therapy lag slightly behind those achieved with monthly injections. Physicians recognize that monthly office visits with frequent intraocular injections challenge patients' compliance, accrue high drug and professional service costs, and clog office schedules with frequently returning patients. To decrease the numbers of both office visits and anti-VEGF injections without sacrificing VA gains, physicians have embraced the treat-and-extend strategy. Treat-and-extend has not been studied as rigorously as PRN but it has become popular among both vitreoretinal specialists and patients. Despite the possible risks associated with discontinuous therapy (decreased VA and increased macular fluid), most physicians individualize treatment (PRN or treat-and-extend) for the majority of their patients. This review chapter explores the many advantages of individualized therapy, while balancing these against suboptimal responses due to the decreased frequency of anti-VEGF injections.

  15. Recent health insurance trends for US families: children gain while parents lose.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Tillotson, Carrie J; Angier, Heather; Wallace, Lorraine S

    2014-05-01

    In the past decade, political and economic changes in the United States (US) have affected health insurance coverage for children and their parents. Most likely these policies have differentially affected coverage patterns for children (versus parents) and for low-income (versus high-income) families. We aimed to examine--qualitatively and quantitatively--the impact of changing health insurance coverage on US families. Primary data from interviews with Oregon families (2008-2010) were analyzed using an iterative process. Qualitative findings guided quantitative analyses of secondary data from the nationally-representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) (1998-2009); we used Joinpoint Regression to assess average annual percent changes (AAPC) in health insurance trends, examining child and parent status and type of coverage stratified by income. Interviewees reported that although children gained coverage, parents lost coverage. MEPS analyses confirmed this trend; the percentage of children uninsured all year decreased from 9.6 % in 1998 to 6.1 % in 2009; AAPC = -3.1 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] from -5.1 to -1.0), while the percentage of parents uninsured all year rose from 13.6 % in 1998 to 17.1 % in 2009, AAPC = 2.7 % (95 % CI 1.8-3.7). Low-income families experienced the most significant changes in coverage. Between 1998 and 2009, as US children gained health insurance, their parents lost coverage. Children's health is adversely affected when parents are uninsured. Investigation beyond children's coverage rates is needed to understand how health insurance policies and changing health insurance coverage trends are impacting children's health.

  16. Recent health insurance trends for US families: children gain while parents lose.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Tillotson, Carrie J; Angier, Heather; Wallace, Lorraine S

    2014-05-01

    In the past decade, political and economic changes in the United States (US) have affected health insurance coverage for children and their parents. Most likely these policies have differentially affected coverage patterns for children (versus parents) and for low-income (versus high-income) families. We aimed to examine--qualitatively and quantitatively--the impact of changing health insurance coverage on US families. Primary data from interviews with Oregon families (2008-2010) were analyzed using an iterative process. Qualitative findings guided quantitative analyses of secondary data from the nationally-representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) (1998-2009); we used Joinpoint Regression to assess average annual percent changes (AAPC) in health insurance trends, examining child and parent status and type of coverage stratified by income. Interviewees reported that although children gained coverage, parents lost coverage. MEPS analyses confirmed this trend; the percentage of children uninsured all year decreased from 9.6 % in 1998 to 6.1 % in 2009; AAPC = -3.1 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] from -5.1 to -1.0), while the percentage of parents uninsured all year rose from 13.6 % in 1998 to 17.1 % in 2009, AAPC = 2.7 % (95 % CI 1.8-3.7). Low-income families experienced the most significant changes in coverage. Between 1998 and 2009, as US children gained health insurance, their parents lost coverage. Children's health is adversely affected when parents are uninsured. Investigation beyond children's coverage rates is needed to understand how health insurance policies and changing health insurance coverage trends are impacting children's health. PMID:23817728

  17. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Markwald, Rachel R; Melanson, Edward L; Smith, Mark R; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

    2013-04-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake--especially at night after dinner--was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to -0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity.

  18. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Markwald, Rachel R.; Melanson, Edward L.; Smith, Mark R.; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake—especially at night after dinner—was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to −0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity. PMID:23479616

  19. Sleep Is Increased By Weight Gain and Decreased By Weight Loss in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhiwei; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Bixler, Edward O.; Fang, Jidong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether weight loss could reverse excessive sleep in high-fat diet-induced obesity. Design: Three groups of mice participated in the study. A weight gain/loss group was fed with high-fat food for 6 weeks (weight gain), and regular food again for 4 weeks (weight loss). A control group and a weight gain only group were fed with regular food and high-fat food, respectively, for 10 weeks after the baseline. Participants: Adult male C57BL/6 mice. Measurements: The amounts of wake, rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-REM sleep (NREMS) were determined at week 0 (baseline), week 6, and week 10. Results: The weight gain/loss group displayed a significant decrease in wakefulness and increases in NREMS and episodes of NREMS during 6 weeks of weight gain, which were reversed during subsequent 4 weeks of weight loss. The weight gain only group displayed significant decrease in wakefulness and increase of NREMS and REMS at both week 6 and week 10. The control group did not show significant sleep alterations during the experiment. Conclusion: These observations indicate that sleep alterations induced by weight gain are reversed by weight loss in obese animals. These data may shed light on the mechanisms underlying the well-established association between obesity and sleepiness in humans and may lead to new therapeutic strategies for these 2 increasingly prevalent problems in the modern societies. Citation: Guan Z; Vgontzas AN; Bixler EO; Fang J. Sleep is increased by weight gain and decreased by weight loss in mice. SLEEP 2008;31(5):627-633. PMID:18517033

  20. What drives sleep-dependent memory consolidation: greater gain or less loss?

    PubMed

    Fenn, Kimberly M; Hambrick, David Z

    2013-06-01

    When memory is tested after a delay, performance is typically better if the retention interval includes sleep. However, it is unclear what accounts for this well-established effect. It is possible that sleep enhances the retrieval of information, but it is also possible that sleep protects against memory loss that normally occurs during waking activity. We developed a new research approach to investigate these possibilities. Participants learned a list of paired-associate items and were tested on the items after a 12-h interval that included waking or sleep. We analyzed the number of items gained versus the number of items lost across time. The sleep condition showed more items gained and fewer items lost than did the wake condition. Furthermore, the difference between the conditions (favoring sleep) in lost items was greater than the difference in gain, suggesting that loss prevention may primarily account for the effect of sleep on declarative memory consolidation. This finding may serve as an empirical constraint on theories of memory consolidation.

  1. Losing Sleep over Tuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2009-01-01

    With two children already in college and three more in the wings, the Nwanguma family knows about sacrifice. The annual tuition bill for Prince George's Community College typically comes to between $3,500 and $4,000 for the oldest son, Chuka. To afford it, Chuma Nwanguma, a Nigerian immigrant, often works overtime in addition to his regular night…

  2. What Role Does Sleep Play in Weight Gain in the First Semester of University?

    PubMed

    Roane, Brandy M; Seifer, Ronald; Sharkey, Katherine M; Van Reen, Eliza; Bond, Tamara L Y; Raffray, Tifenn; Carskadon, Mary A

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that shorter sleep durations and greater variability in sleep patterns are associated with weight gain in the first semester of university. Students (N = 132) completed daily sleep diaries for 9 weeks, completed the MEQ (chronotype) and CES-D (depressed mood) at week 9, and self-reported weight/height (weeks 1 & 9). Mean and variability scores were calculated for sleep duration (TST, TSTv), bedtime (BT, BTv), and wake time (WT, WTv). An initial hierarchical regression evaluated (block 1) sex, ethnicity; (block 2) depressed mood, chronotype; (block 3) TST; (block 4) BT, WT; and (block 5; R(2) change = 0.09, p = 0.005) TSTv, BTv, WTv with weight change. A sex-by-TSTv interaction was found. A final model showed that ethnicity, TST, TSTv, and BTv accounted for 31% of the variance in weight change for males; TSTv was the most significant contributor (R(2) change = 0.21, p < 0.001). Daily variability in sleep duration contributes to males' weight gain. Further investigation needs to examine sex-specific outcomes for sleep and weight.

  3. Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? Can certain diseases/conditions disrupt sleep? What is ... sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? Can certain diseases/conditions disrupt sleep? What is ...

  4. Losing fat, gaining treatments: the use of biomedicine as a cure for folk illnesses in the Andes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This article explores how people in the Andes incorporate beliefs from both biomedical and ethnomedical systems in treating folk illnesses that often involve spiritual beings. The article focuses on the kharisiri—one who is believed to steal fat and blood from unsuspecting humans to make exchanges with the devil. The kharisiri in turn is rewarded with good fortune. Victims of kharisiris, however, fall ill and may die if untreated. Historically, kharisiri victims relied on ethnomedicine for treatment, but it appears biomedical pills are now perceived by some as an effective treatment. By drawing on participants’ attitudes towards biomedicine, and how people in the Andes conceptualize health, this article theorizes as to why biomedical pills are sought to treat kharisiri attacks but not for other folk illnesses. Methods Fieldwork was conducted in Arequipa and Yunguyo among market vendors, who make up a significant portion of Peru’s working population. This type of work increases the risk of different illnesses due to work conditions like exposure to extreme temperatures, long-distance travel, and social dynamics. Biomedical and ethnomedical products are often sold in and around marketplaces, making vendors a compelling group for exploring issues relating to treatment systems. Qualitative data was collected in 2011 with a follow-up visit in 2013. Participant observation, informal conversations, and unstructured interviews with 29 participants informed the study. Results Participants unanimously reported that biomedical pills are not capable of treating folk illnesses such as susto and mal de ojo. Several participants reported that pharmaceutical pills can cure kharisiri victims. Conclusions In comparison to other folk illnesses that involve spiritual beings, those who fall ill from a kharisiri attack lose physical elements (fat and blood) rather than their soul (ánimo) or becoming ill due to a misbalance in reciprocal relations—either with humans

  5. Snooze... or Lose!: 10 "No-War" Ways to Improve Your Teen's Sleep Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emsellem, Helene A.

    2006-01-01

    Walk into any first-period high school classroom and it's obvious: teenagers are exhausted. Sleep deprivation is an epidemic as widespread as obesity-and just as damaging. Fortunately, science has answers and Dr. Helene Emsellem has solutions that all parents can use. Affecting the lives of more than 41 million adolescents in the United…

  6. Associations between sleep characteristics and weight gain in an older population: results of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

    PubMed Central

    Kowall, B; Lehnich, A-T; Erbel, R; Moebus, S; Jöckel, K-H; Stang, A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Sleep duration influences weight change in children and young adults, but there is less evidence in middle-aged, and, in particular, older adults. We assessed associations between sleep duration, daytime napping and sleep disturbances, respectively, with change of weight and waist circumference in older subjects. Contrary to previous studies, we also used two points in time to assess sleep characteristics. Methods: We used data from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, a cohort study in Germany with a baseline and two follow-up visits (age 45–74 years, median follow-up 5.1 years for first, 5.2 years for second follow-up visit). In adjusted linear regression models (N=3751), we estimated weight change between baseline and first follow-up visit in relation to various self-reported sleep characteristics measured at baseline. Furthermore, we estimated change of weight and waist circumference, respectively, between first and second follow-up visit in relation to patterns of sleep characteristics measured at baseline and at the first follow-up visit (N=2837). Results: In all analyses, short and long sleep duration, sleep disturbances, and regular daytime napping were associated with <1 kg of weight gain and <1 cm of gain in waist circumference over 5 years compared with the respective reference categories. For example, compared with 7–<8 h night sleep, short night sleep (⩽5 h at baseline) was associated with 0.5 kg of weight gain (95% confidence interval: −0.1; 1.1 kg). Conclusions: Our study gave no evidence that sleep characteristics were associated with clinically relevant weight gain in the older population. PMID:27525820

  7. Losing Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingher, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Reviews five children's books that deal with the theme of losing things and the feelings that can accompany it. Also discusses the loss of intangible things, such as talent, concentration, temper, or patience, and presents five creative activities that deal more with the loss of objects. (LRW)

  8. Amount of weight loss or gain influences the severity of respiratory events in sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Kulkas, A; Leppänen, T; Sahlman, J; Tiihonen, P; Mervaala, E; Kokkarinen, J; Randell, J; Seppä, J; Töyräs, J; Tuomilehto, H

    2015-10-01

    Severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is estimated based on respiratory events per hour [i.e., apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)]. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of weight change on the severity of respiratory events. Respiratory event severity, including duration and morphology, was estimated by determining parameters quantifying obstruction and desaturation event lengths and areas, respectively. Respiratory events of 54 OSA patients treated with dietary intervention were evaluated at baseline and after 5-year follow-up in subgroups with different levels of weight change. AHI, oxygen desaturation index (ODI) and obstruction event severities decreased during weight loss. In lower level weight loss, the decrease was milder in obstruction severity than in AHI and ODI, indicating that the decrease in the number of events is more focused on less severe events. In weight gain groups, parameters incorporating obstruction event severity, AHI and ODI increased, although increase was greater in parameters incorporating obstruction event severity. The number and severity of respiratory events were modulated differently by the level of weight change. AHI misses this change in the severity of respiratory events. Therefore, parameters incorporating information on the respiratory event severities may bring additional information on the health effects obtained with dietary treatment of OSA.

  9. Losing ground.

    PubMed

    Carter, D

    1993-01-01

    A recent research effort by the Nepalese Topological Survey Branch and the Department of Soil Science and the University of British Columbia, Canada, found with the use of the geographic information system (GIS) that forest cover has expanded, but soil fertility is decreasing at a rapid rate in Nepal. These findings conflict with media allegations which allege forest destruction from farmers' wood-cutting practices and responsibility for flooding in Bangladesh. The research was conducted in the Jhikhu Khola watershed in the Middle Mountains, which is Nepal's most populous region that is intensively used in subsistence farming and grazing. Migration adds to the existing problems of soil erosion, sedimentation, deforestation, and loss in soil fertility. The soil is prone to erosion. Data were collected through the GIS system by aerial photos, field surveys, and soil analysis. Hydrometric stations to measure the sedimentation process were established in 7 places and farmers monitored the climate, water loss and gain, and sediment movement. Interviews were also conducted among the farm population on demographics, livestock, fodder and fuel consumption, crop yields and practices, and fertilizer use. Researchers aimed both to identify the causes of soil degradation and to estimate the productivity, profitability, and sustainability of different land uses and farming systems. Another finding was that, in Jhikhu Khola, the deforestation of the 1960s has been abated by reforestation efforts in the 1980s. This has contributed to a 10% expansion of forest cover, and increase of sloping terrace by 9%, and a decline in grazing land by 9% and shrub land by 6%. Calculations for the year 2000 showed that the fuelwood surplus would drop to 6% from 73% and food surplus of 25% would become a 27% deficit. The 40% deficiency in animal feed would increase to 54%. Although reforestation has added to forest cover, pine tree cultivation occurred on moderate elevations where grazing and

  10. Resolution of severe obstructive sleep apnea after treatment of anti-muscle kinase receptor-positive myasthenia gravis despite 60-pound weight gain.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Michael; Singas, Effie; Zleik, Bashar; Greenberg, Harly

    2014-07-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) may be caused by reduced pharyngeal dilator muscle activity. We report a patient with anti-muscle kinase receptor MG with severe OSA and hypoventilation that resolved upon successful treatment of MG despite a 60-lb weight gain.

  11. Gaining Momentum, Losing Ground. Progress Report, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Roundtable, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an update of the progress of Tapping America's Potential (TAP), a coalition of 15 of the nation's leading business organizations, and assesses three years' progress since 2005 in working towards the goal of doubling the number of students earning bachelor's degrees in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) by 2015.…

  12. Bottle bill loses, nuclear power gains

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    The November 3, 1987 elections saw a number of environmental-related referenda defeated for what was seen as economic reasons. Maine voters decided 59 to 41 percent against a proposal which would have closed down the Maine Yankee Nuclear Power Plant. In the District of Columbia, a litter reducing bill that would have required a 5 to 20 cent deposit on cans and bottles was defeated by 55 to 45 percent. Finally, in California, Indian Wells voters supported a project to build a one billion dollar resort in the nearby desert.

  13. Protein-losing enteropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007338.htm Protein-losing enteropathy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protein-losing enteropathy is an abnormal loss of protein ...

  14. [Protein-losing enteropathy].

    PubMed

    Amiot, A

    2015-07-01

    Protein-losing enteropathy is a rare syndrome of gastrointestinal protein loss. The primary causes can be classified into lymphatic leakage due to increased interstitial pressure and increased leakage of protein-rich fluids due to erosive or non-erosive gastrointestinal disorders. The diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy should be considered in patients with chronic diarrhea and peripheral oedema. The diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy is most commonly based on the determination of fecal alpha-1 antitrypsin clearance. Most protein-losing enteropathy cases are the result of either lymphatic obstruction or a variety of gastrointestinal disorders and cardiac diseases, while primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease) is less common. Treatment of protein-losing enteropathy targets the underlying disease but also includes dietary modification, such as high-protein and low-fat diet along with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation. PMID:25618488

  15. Losing weight after pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... below the minimum number of calories you need. Breastfeeding If you are breastfeeding, you will want to lose weight slowly. Weight ... not affect your milk supply or your health. Breastfeeding makes your body burn calories. It helps you ...

  16. Sleep disturbances, body fat distribution, food intake and/or energy expenditure: pathophysiological aspects.

    PubMed

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Shechter, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have illustrated a relationship between short sleep duration (SSD) and weight gain. Individuals with SSD are heavier and gain more weight over time than normal-duration sleepers. This sleep-obesity relationship may have consequences for obesity treatments, as it appears that short sleepers have reduced ability to lose weight. Laboratory-based clinical studies found that experimental sleep restriction affects energy expenditure and intake, possibly providing a mechanistic explanation for the weight gain observed in chronic short sleepers. Specifically, compared to normal sleep duration, sleep restriction increases food intake beyond the energetic costs of increased time spent awake. Reasons for this increased energy intake after sleep restriction are unclear but may include disrupted appetite-regulating hormones, altered brain mechanisms involved in the hedonic aspects of appetite, and/or changes in sleep quality and architecture. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder at the intersection of sleep and obesity, and the characteristics of the disorder illustrate many of the effects of sleep disturbances on body weight and vice versa. Specifically, while obesity is among the main risk factors for OSA, the disorder itself and its associated disturbances in sleep quality and architecture seem to alter energy balance parameters and may induce further weight gain. Several intervention trials have shown that weight loss is associated with reduced OSA severity. Thus, weight loss may improve sleep, and these improvements may promote further weight loss. Future studies should establish whether increasing sleep duration/improving sleep quality can induce weight loss.

  17. Losing Libraries, Saving Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This summer, as public libraries continued to get budget hit after budget hit across the country, several readers asked for a comprehensive picture of the ravages of the recession on library service. In partnership with 2010 Movers & Shakers Laura Solomon and Mandy Knapp, Ohio librarians who bought the Losing Libraries domain name, "LJ" launched…

  18. Sleep disorders and fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Roizenblatt, Suely; Neto, Nilton Salles Rosa; Tufik, Sergio

    2011-10-01

    Disordered sleep is such a prominent symptom in fibromyalgia that the American College of Rheumatology included symptoms such as waking unrefreshed, fatigue, tiredness, and insomnia in the 2010 diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia. Even though sleep recording is not part of the routine evaluation, polysomnography may disclose primary sleep disorders in patients with fibromyalgia, including obstructive sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome. In addition, genetic background and environmental susceptibility link fibromyalgia and further sleep disorders. Among nonpharmacological treatment proposed for sleep disturbance in fibromyalgia, positive results have been obtained with sleep hygiene and cognitive-behavioral therapy. The effect of exercise is contradictory, but overweight or obese patients with fibromyalgia should be encouraged to lose weight. Regarding the approved antidepressants, amitriptyline proved to be superior to duloxetine and milnacipran for sleep disturbances. New perspectives remain on the narcolepsy drug sodium oxybate, which recently was approved for sleep management in fibromyalgia.

  19. Sleep, the Athlete, and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Peter Hudson

    2002-01-01

    Presents information to help athletic coaches and trainers gain a better understanding of what happens during sleep and how sleep can affect performance, outlining three practical suggestions for helping athletes improve their sleep quality (identify and obtain the amount of sleep one needs, keep a regular sleep schedule, and create an optimal…

  20. Protein-Losing Gastroenteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Pops, Martin A.

    1966-01-01

    In the past 10 years with the development of improved methods, particularly radioisotope techniques, it has been demonstrated that a number of patients with gastrointestinal disease and depletion of plasma proteins become hypoproteinemic because of actual leakage of albumin and other plasma proteins into the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. The site of protein leakage is variable depending on the underlying pathological state but the loss of protein-containing lymph through the gastrointestinal lymphatic channels seems to be the major mechanism for hypoproteinemia. It has become apparent that there exists a normal mechanism for secretion of plasma proteins into the gastrointestinal tract as part of the overall metabolism of the plasma proteins. When the process is exaggerated so that resynthesis of plasma protein cannot keep pace with its degradation, sometimes severe hypoproteinemia is the result. Such a pathological process has now been described in approximately 40 disease states. A review of all the techniques which can demonstrate gastroenteric protein loss reveals that there are no widely available quantitative tests but that accurate quantitation is not necessary for the diagnosis of protein losing gastroenteropathy. PMID:18730025

  1. Eating Well and Losing Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Sodium & High Blood Pressure Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) ...

  2. Dredging in the Spratly Islands: Gaining Land but Losing Reefs.

    PubMed

    Mora, Camilo; Caldwell, Iain R; Birkeland, Charles; McManus, John W

    2016-03-01

    Coral reefs on remote islands and atolls are less exposed to direct human stressors but are becoming increasingly vulnerable because of their development for geopolitical and military purposes. Here we document dredging and filling activities by countries in the South China Sea, where building new islands and channels on atolls is leading to considerable losses of, and perhaps irreversible damages to, unique coral reef ecosystems. Preventing similar damage across other reefs in the region necessitates the urgent development of cooperative management of disputed territories in the South China Sea. We suggest using the Antarctic Treaty as a positive precedent for such international cooperation. PMID:27031949

  3. Dredging in the Spratly Islands: Gaining Land but Losing Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Camilo; Caldwell, Iain R.; Birkeland, Charles; McManus, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs on remote islands and atolls are less exposed to direct human stressors but are becoming increasingly vulnerable because of their development for geopolitical and military purposes. Here we document dredging and filling activities by countries in the South China Sea, where building new islands and channels on atolls is leading to considerable losses of, and perhaps irreversible damages to, unique coral reef ecosystems. Preventing similar damage across other reefs in the region necessitates the urgent development of cooperative management of disputed territories in the South China Sea. We suggest using the Antarctic Treaty as a positive precedent for such international cooperation. PMID:27031949

  4. Dredging in the Spratly Islands: Gaining Land but Losing Reefs.

    PubMed

    Mora, Camilo; Caldwell, Iain R; Birkeland, Charles; McManus, John W

    2016-03-01

    Coral reefs on remote islands and atolls are less exposed to direct human stressors but are becoming increasingly vulnerable because of their development for geopolitical and military purposes. Here we document dredging and filling activities by countries in the South China Sea, where building new islands and channels on atolls is leading to considerable losses of, and perhaps irreversible damages to, unique coral reef ecosystems. Preventing similar damage across other reefs in the region necessitates the urgent development of cooperative management of disputed territories in the South China Sea. We suggest using the Antarctic Treaty as a positive precedent for such international cooperation.

  5. Web Sites that Compare Loans Gain Users, Lose Lenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    Web sites that allow borrowers to compare student loans proliferated in the wake of last year's scandals that exposed conflicts of interest in the lending industry. Now the credit crunch is shifting demand for loan-comparison sites again, providing both new challenges and opportunities. More financial-aid officers are also pointing their students…

  6. Gaining Momentum, Losing Ground. Tapping America's Potential, Progress Report 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapping America's Potential, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In July 2005, 15 of America's most prominent business organizations joined together to express their deep concern about the ability of the United States to sustain its scientific and technological leadership in a world where newly energized foreign competitors are investing in the capacity for innovation--the key driver of productivity and…

  7. Cross border health care provision: who gains, who loses.

    PubMed

    Levaggi, Rosella; Menoncin, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The diffusion of the welfare state has produced a widespread involvement of the public sector in financing the production of private goods for paternalistic reasons. In this chapter we model the production of health care as a merit impure local public good whose consumption is subsidized and whose access is free, but not unlimited. The impure local public good aspect means that the production of health care spreads its benefits beyond the geographical boundaries of the Region where it is produced. Finally, we include the (optional) provision of an equalization grant that allows reduction of fiscal imbalance among Regions. In this framework we study the possible effects of cross border provision of health care. We assume that information is complete and symmetric and that there is no comparative advantage in local provision. In this context devolution is always suboptimal for the whole community: the lack of coordination means that the impure public good is under-provided. However, more efficient Regions may be better off because of the impure public good nature of health care. PMID:24864389

  8. Neurobiological consequences of sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Alkadhi, Karim; Zagaar, Munder; Alhaider, Ibrahim; Salim, Samina; Aleisa, Abdulaziz

    2013-05-01

    Although the physiological function of sleep is not completely understood, it is well documented that it contributes significantly to the process of learning and memory. Ample evidence suggests that adequate sleep is essential for fostering connections among neuronal networks for memory consolidation in the hippocampus. Sleep deprivation studies are extremely valuable in understanding why we sleep and what are the consequences of sleep loss. Experimental sleep deprivation in animals allows us to gain insight into the mechanism of sleep at levels not possible to study in human subjects. Many useful approaches have been utilized to evaluate the effect of sleep loss on cognitive function, each with relative advantages and disadvantages. In this review we discuss sleep and the detrimental effects of sleep deprivation mostly in experimental animals. The negative effects of sleep deprivation on various aspects of brain function including learning and memory, synaptic plasticity and the state of cognition-related signaling molecules are discussed.

  9. Neurobiological Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Alkadhi, Karim; Zagaar, Munder; Alhaider, Ibrahim; Salim, Samina; Aleisa, Abdulaziz

    2013-01-01

    Although the physiological function of sleep is not completely understood, it is well documented that it contributes significantly to the process of learning and memory. Ample evidence suggests that adequate sleep is essential for fostering connections among neuronal networks for memory consolidation in the hippocampus. Sleep deprivation studies are extremely valuable in understanding why we sleep and what are the consequences of sleep loss. Experimental sleep deprivation in animals allows us to gain insight into the mechanism of sleep at levels not possible to study in human subjects. Many useful approaches have been utilized to evaluate the effect of sleep loss on cognitive function, each with relative advantages and disadvantages. In this review we discuss sleep and the detrimental effects of sleep deprivation mostly in experimental animals. The negative effects of sleep deprivation on various aspects of brain function including learning and memory, synaptic plasticity and the state of cognition-related signaling molecules are discussed. PMID:24179461

  10. Nothing to lose: why early career scientists make ideal entrepreneurs.

    PubMed

    Thon, Jonathan N

    2014-12-01

    An entrepreneurial movement within science strives to invert the classical trajectory of academic research careers by positioning trainees at the apex of burgeoning industries. Young scientists today have nothing to lose and everything to gain by pursuing this 'third road', and academic institutes and established companies only stand to benefit from supporting this emerging movement of discovery research with economic purpose. PMID:25458606

  11. Nothing to lose: why early career scientists make ideal entrepreneurs.

    PubMed

    Thon, Jonathan N

    2014-12-01

    An entrepreneurial movement within science strives to invert the classical trajectory of academic research careers by positioning trainees at the apex of burgeoning industries. Young scientists today have nothing to lose and everything to gain by pursuing this 'third road', and academic institutes and established companies only stand to benefit from supporting this emerging movement of discovery research with economic purpose.

  12. Long-term subjective and objective sleep analysis of total sleep time and sleep quality in real life settings.

    PubMed

    Merilahti, Juho; Saarinen, Ari; Parkka, Juha; Antila, Kari; Mattila, Elina; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2007-01-01

    Sleep quality is one of the key elements of the human health status. By observing sleep patterns we can gain information about personal wellbeing. Consumer electronic sleep analysis solutions are now available for use in long-term conditions. In this study we compare different measures for total sleep time and sleep quality. We analyzed visually long- term sleep data collected with actigraphy, sleep logs and ambient sensors to gain more reliable results and compared these results to each single method's output. Correlations of visually analyzed total sleep time between actigraphy total sleep time (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.662, p <0.01) and sleep log total sleep time (r = 0.787, p <0.01) were high. Also comparison between subjective and objective sleep quality was analyzed and small, but significant correlation was found (r = 0.270, p < 0.01).

  13. Sleep and Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper ... Work SIDS Sleep apnea Sleep Debt Sleep Deprivation Sleep Disorders Sleep history Sleep hygiene sleep length Sleep Need ...

  14. Sleep-dependent modulation of affectively guided decision-making.

    PubMed

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Nave, Genevieve; Morgan, Alexandra; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2012-02-01

    A question of great interest in current sleep research is whether and how sleep might facilitate complex cognitive skills such as decision-making. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was used to investigate effects of sleep on affect-guided decision-making. After a brief standardized preview of the IGT that was insufficient to learn its underlying rule, participants underwent a 12-h delay containing either a normal night's sleep (Sleep group; N = 28) or continuous daytime wake (Wake group; N = 26). Following the delay, both groups performed the full IGT. To control for circadian effects, two additional groups performed both the preview and the full task either in the morning (N = 17) or the evening (N = 21). In the IGT, four decks of cards were presented. Draws from two 'advantageous decks' yielded low play-money rewards, occasional low losses and, over multiple draws, a net gain. Draws from 'disadvantageous' decks yielded high rewards, occasional high losses and, over multiple draws, a net loss. Participants were instructed to win and avoid losing as much as possible, and better performance was defined as more advantageous draws. Relative to the wake group, the sleep group showed both superior behavioral outcome (more advantageous draws) and superior rule understanding (blindly judged from statements written at task completion). Neither measure differentiated the two control groups. These results illustrate a role of sleep in optimizing decision-making, a benefit that may be brought about by changes in underlying emotional or cognitive processes. PMID:21535281

  15. Sleep-dependent modulation of affectively guided decision-making.

    PubMed

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Nave, Genevieve; Morgan, Alexandra; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2012-02-01

    A question of great interest in current sleep research is whether and how sleep might facilitate complex cognitive skills such as decision-making. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was used to investigate effects of sleep on affect-guided decision-making. After a brief standardized preview of the IGT that was insufficient to learn its underlying rule, participants underwent a 12-h delay containing either a normal night's sleep (Sleep group; N = 28) or continuous daytime wake (Wake group; N = 26). Following the delay, both groups performed the full IGT. To control for circadian effects, two additional groups performed both the preview and the full task either in the morning (N = 17) or the evening (N = 21). In the IGT, four decks of cards were presented. Draws from two 'advantageous decks' yielded low play-money rewards, occasional low losses and, over multiple draws, a net gain. Draws from 'disadvantageous' decks yielded high rewards, occasional high losses and, over multiple draws, a net loss. Participants were instructed to win and avoid losing as much as possible, and better performance was defined as more advantageous draws. Relative to the wake group, the sleep group showed both superior behavioral outcome (more advantageous draws) and superior rule understanding (blindly judged from statements written at task completion). Neither measure differentiated the two control groups. These results illustrate a role of sleep in optimizing decision-making, a benefit that may be brought about by changes in underlying emotional or cognitive processes.

  16. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  17. Sleep Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... PDF 474KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  18. Losing and Saving and Losing Physics in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marder, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Texas has the second-largest population of the states, and played even a larger role in education reform movements of the past 15 years than its size would indicate. In the Fall of 2011, physicists across the country were surprised to learn that six university physics programs in Texas were threatened with closure because of small graduation numbers. Five of them ultimately closed. Many of the faculty at the institutions losing programs came together and formed a consortium that eventually made it possible to continue offering physics,by unconventional means, to their undergraduates. In the Spring of 2013 came an even larger change. Physics had been part of the recommended high school graduation plan in Texas. As part of a bill making sweeping changes to high school graduation requirements and accountability, the physics requirement was removed. Physics may partly be falling victim to the national focus on STEM, which suggests that the various disciplines of science are interchangeable and not individually important. None of the changes in Texas are hard to imagine coming to other states as well.

  19. How Did Mars Lose Its Atmosphere?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Though it doesn't look like a nice place to live now, Mars may have had an atmosphere more like ours on Earth! But how did it lose it? One way a planet can lose its atmosphere is through a process ...

  20. You Can Lose What You Never Had

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Cam

    2016-01-01

    An often-used idiom states: "you can't lose what you never had." Yet contrary to this expression, it "is" possible to lose what you never had--at least when special education support is concerned. In Ontario, as in other jurisdictions, special education exists as a codified system. An ever-changing nexus of discourses and…

  1. Sleep Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Sleep Quiz Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... on. Photo: iStock Take the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Sleep Quiz TRUE OR FALSE ? _____1. ...

  2. Sleep Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » About the NHLBI » Organization » National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) » Patient & Public Information » Sleep Quiz National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Research Professional Education Patient & Public Information Communications ...

  3. Metabolic consequences of sleep and circadian disorders

    PubMed Central

    Depner, Christopher M.; Stothard, Ellen R.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms modulate or control daily physiological patterns with importance for normal metabolic health. Sleep deficiencies associated with insufficient sleep schedules, insomnia with short-sleep duration, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, circadian misalignment, shift work, night eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder may all contribute to metabolic dysregulation. Sleep deficiencies and circadian disruption associated with metabolic dysregulation may contribute to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes potentially by altering timing and amount of food intake, disrupting energy balance, inflammation, impairing glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Given the rapidly increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases, it is important to recognize the role of sleep and circadian disruption in the development, progression, and morbidity of metabolic disease. Some findings indicate sleep treatments and countermeasures improve metabolic health, but future clinical research investigating prevention and treatment of chronic metabolic disorders through treatment of sleep and circadian disruption is needed. PMID:24816752

  4. Metabolic consequences of sleep and circadian disorders.

    PubMed

    Depner, Christopher M; Stothard, Ellen R; Wright, Kenneth P

    2014-07-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms modulate or control daily physiological patterns with importance for normal metabolic health. Sleep deficiencies associated with insufficient sleep schedules, insomnia with short-sleep duration, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, circadian misalignment, shift work, night eating syndrome, and sleep-related eating disorder may all contribute to metabolic dysregulation. Sleep deficiencies and circadian disruption associated with metabolic dysregulation may contribute to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes potentially by altering timing and amount of food intake, disrupting energy balance, inflammation, impairing glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity. Given the rapidly increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases, it is important to recognize the role of sleep and circadian disruption in the development, progression, and morbidity of metabolic disease. Some findings indicate sleep treatments and countermeasures improve metabolic health, but future clinical research investigating prevention and treatment of chronic metabolic disorders through treatment of sleep and circadian disruption is needed.

  5. Will Titan lose its veil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, V.

    2007-08-01

    . If the real stock (CH4)real (CH4)crit=1.65.1020 kg, than Titan will lose its veil inevitably (scenario of the "mosaic history"), otherwise (CH4)real (CH4)crit the veil survives down to Titan's dying day ("continuous history"). References [1] H. B. Niemann and 17-co-authors, Nature, 438, 779, (2005). [2] V. Dimitrov, Prog. React. Kin. Mech. 30, N4, 227, (2006).

  6. [Sleep psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Chiba, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders are serious issues in modern society. There has been marked scientific interest in sleep for a century, with the discoveries of the electrical activity of the brain (EEG), sleep-wake system, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and circadian rhythm system. Additionally, the advent of video-polysomnography in clinical research has revealed some of the consequences of disrupted sleep and sleep deprivation in psychiatric disorders. Decades of clinical research have demonstrated that sleep disorders are intimately tied to not only physical disease (e. g., lifestyle-related disease) but psychiatric illness. According to The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2005), sleep disorders are classified into 8 major categories: 1) insomnia, 2) sleep-related breathing disorders, 3) hypersomnias of central origin, 4) circadian rhythm sleep disorders, 5) parasomnias, 6) sleep-related movement disorders, 7) isolated symptoms, and 8) other sleep disorders. Several sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleepwalking, REM sleep behavior disorder, and narcolepsy, may be comorbid or possibly mimic numerous psychiatric disorders, and can even occur due to psychiatric pharmacotherapy. Moreover, sleep disorders may exacerbate underlying psychiatric disorders when left untreated. Therefore, psychiatrists should pay attention to the intimate relationship between sleep disorders and psychiatric symptoms. Sleep psychiatry is an academic field focusing on interrelations between sleep medicine and psychiatry. This mini-review summarizes recent findings in sleep psychiatry. Future research on the bidirectional relation between sleep disturbance and psychiatric symptoms will shed light on the pathophysiological view of psychiatric disorders and sleep disorders. PMID:24050022

  7. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Sleep and Sleep Disorders Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... CDC.gov . Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep and Chronic Disease How Much Sleep Do ...

  8. Medical Mystery: Losing the sense of smell

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hearing Disorders Medical Mystery: Losing the sense of smell Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... a teenager that took away her sense of smell. Photo courtesy of Malone University Imagine, if you ...

  9. Obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    White, David P; Younes, Magdy K

    2012-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder characterized by repetitive collapse of the pharyngeal airway during sleep. Control of pharyngeal patency is a complex process relating primarily to basic anatomy and the activity of many pharyngeal dilator muscles. The control of these muscles is regulated by a number of processes including respiratory drive, negative pressure reflexes, and state (sleep) effects. In general, patients with OSA have an anatomically small airway the patency of which is maintained during wakefulness by reflex-driven augmented dilator muscle activation. At sleep onset, muscle activity falls, thereby compromising the upper airway. However, recent data suggest that the mechanism of OSA differs substantially among patients, with variable contributions from several physiologic characteristics including, among others: level of upper airway dilator muscle activation required to open the airway, increase in chemical drive required to recruit the pharyngeal muscles, chemical control loop gain, and arousal threshold. Thus, the cause of sleep apnea likely varies substantially between patients. Other physiologic mechanisms likely contributing to OSA pathogenesis include falling lung volume during sleep, shifts in blood volume from peripheral tissues to the neck, and airway edema. Apnea severity may progress over time, likely due to weight gain, muscle/nerve injury, aging effects on airway anatomy/collapsibility, and changes in ventilatory control stability.

  10. Time, not sleep, unbinds contexts from item memory.

    PubMed

    Cox, Roy; Tijdens, Ron R; Meeter, Martijn M; Sweegers, Carly C G; Talamini, Lucia M

    2014-01-01

    Contextual cues are known to benefit memory retrieval, but whether and how sleep affects this context effect remains unresolved. We manipulated contextual congruence during memory retrieval in human volunteers across 12 h and 24 h intervals beginning with either sleep or wakefulness. Our data suggest that whereas contextual cues lose their potency with time, sleep does not modulate this process. Furthermore, our results are consistent with the idea that sleep's beneficial effect on memory retention depends on the amount of waking time that has passed between encoding and sleep onset. The findings are discussed in the framework of competitive consolidation theory. PMID:24498441

  11. Gifted Students and Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsh, John; Karnes, Frances; Eiers, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors emphasize that good sleep health is essential if gifted children are to gain the greatest benefit from opportunities to grow intellectually, socially, and spiritually while maintaining good psychological and physical health. The outstanding abilities that characterize these children and enable high levels of…

  12. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  13. Sleep Talking (Somniloquy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  14. Sleep Apnea Information Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Sleep Apnea? Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder characterized by brief interruptions of breathing during sleep. ... better ways to prevent, treat, and ultimately cure sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea. NIH Patient Recruitment for ...

  15. Healthy Sleep Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  16. Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...

  17. Sleep behavior and unemployment conditions.

    PubMed

    Antillón, Marina; Lauderdale, Diane S; Mullahy, John

    2014-07-01

    Recent research has reported that habitually short sleep duration is a risk factor for declining health, including increased risk of obesity, diabetes and coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate whether macroeconomic conditions are associated with variation in mean sleep time in the United States, and if so, whether the effect is procyclical or countercyclical. We merge state unemployment rates from 2003 through 2012 with the American Time Use Survey, a nationally representative sample of adults with 24h time diaries. We find that higher aggregate unemployment is associated with longer mean sleep duration, with each additional point of state unemployment associated with an additional average 0.83 min of sleep (p<0.001), after adjusting for a secular trend of increasing sleep over the time period. Despite a national poll in 2009 that found one-third of Americans reporting losing sleep over the economy, we do not find that higher state unemployment is associated with more sleeplessness. Instead, we find that higher state unemployment is associated with less frequent time use described as "sleeplessness" (marginal effect=0.05 at 4% unemployment and 0.034 at 14% unemployment, p<0.001), after controlling for a secular trend.

  18. Alterations in sleep architecture in response to experimental sleep curtailment are associated with signs of positive energy balance.

    PubMed

    Shechter, Ari; O'Keeffe, Majella; Roberts, Amy L; Zammit, Gary K; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2012-11-01

    Sleep reduction is associated with increased energy intake and weight gain, though few studies have explored the relationship between sleep architecture and energy balance measures in the context of experimental sleep restriction. Fourteen males and 13 females (body mass index: 22-26 kg/m(2)) participated in a crossover sleep curtailment study. Participants were studied under two sleep conditions: short (4 h/night; 0100-0500 h) and habitual (9 h/night; 2200-0700 h), for 5 nights each. Sleep was polysomnographically recorded nightly. Outcome measures included resting metabolic rate (RMR), feelings of appetite-satiety, and ad libitum food intake. Short sleep resulted in reductions in stage 2 sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep duration (P < 0.001), as well as decreased percentage of stage 2 sleep and REM sleep and increased slow wave sleep (SWS) percentage (P < 0.05). Linear mixed model analysis demonstrated a positive association between stage 2 sleep duration and RMR (P = 0.051). Inverse associations were observed between REM sleep duration and hunger (P = 0.031) and between stage 2 sleep duration and appetite for sweet (P = 0.015) and salty (P = 0.046) foods. Stage 2 sleep percentage was inversely related to energy consumed (P = 0.024). Stage 2 sleep (P = 0.005), SWS (P = 0.008), and REM sleep (P = 0.048) percentages were inversely related to fat intake, and SWS (P = 0.040) and REM sleep (P = 0.050) were inversely related to carbohydrate intake. This study demonstrates that changes in sleep architecture are associated with markers of positive energy balance and indicate a means by which exposure to short sleep duration and/or an altered sleep architecture profile may lead to excess weight gain over time.

  19. Is sleep deprivation a contributor to obesity in children?

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Chronic lack of sleep (called "sleep deprivation") is common in modern societies with 24/7 availability of commodities. Accumulating evidence supports the role of reduced sleep as contributing to the current obesity epidemic in children and youth. Longitudinal studies have consistently shown that short sleep duration is associated with weight gain and the development of obesity. Recent experimental studies have reported that sleep restriction leads to weight gain in humans. Increased food intake appears to be the main mechanism by which insufficient sleep results in weight gain. Voluntary sleep restriction has been shown to increase snacking, the number of meals eaten per day, and the preference for energy-dense foods. Although the causes of sleep loss in the pediatric population are numerous, more research looking at screen exposure before bedtime and its effects on sleep is needed given the pervasiveness of electronic media devices in today's environment. Health professionals should routinely ask questions about sleep and promote a good night's sleep because insufficient sleep impacts activity and eating behaviors. Future research should examine the clinical benefits of increasing sleep duration on eating behaviors and body weight control and determine the importance of adequate sleep to improve the treatment of obesity.

  20. Mammalian sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staunton, Hugh

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

  1. Total sleep deprivation, chronic sleep restriction and sleep disruption.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Amy C; Banks, Siobhan

    2010-01-01

    Sleep loss may result from total sleep deprivation (such as a shift worker might experience), chronic sleep restriction (due to work, medical conditions or lifestyle) or sleep disruption (which is common in sleep disorders such as sleep apnea or restless legs syndrome). Total sleep deprivation has been widely researched, and its effects have been well described. Chronic sleep restriction and sleep disruption (also known as sleep fragmentation) have received less experimental attention. Recently, there has been increasing interest in sleep restriction and disruption as it has been recognized that they have a similar impact on cognitive functioning as a period of total sleep deprivation. Sleep loss causes impairments in cognitive performance and simulated driving and induces sleepiness, fatigue and mood changes. This review examines recent research on the effects of sleep deprivation, restriction and disruption on cognition and neurophysiologic functioning in healthy adults, and contrasts the similarities and differences between these three modalities of sleep loss.

  2. Changing your sleep habits

    MedlinePlus

    Insomnia - sleep habits; Sleep disorder - sleep habits; Problems falling asleep; Sleep hygiene ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 86. Vaughn BV. Disorders of sleep. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  3. Sleep disorders - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Insomnia; Narcolepsy; Hypersomina; Daytime sleepiness; Sleep rhythm; Sleep disruptive behaviors; Jet lag ... excessive daytime sleepiness) Problems sticking to a regular sleep schedule (sleep rhythm problem) Unusual behaviors during sleep ( ...

  4. Protein-losing nephropathy in small animals.

    PubMed

    Littman, Meryl P

    2011-01-01

    Genetic and acquired defects of glomerular permselectivity may lead to proteinuria and protein-losing nephropathy (PLN). Morbidity and mortality from complications of PLN may be severe even before progression to azotemia and renal failure. Leakage of plasma proteins into the glomerular filtrate can damage tubular cells and the function of the entire nephron. Detection, localization, and treatment of proteinuria are important to decrease the clinical signs and complications of PLN and the likelihood of progression to renal failure. Thorough diagnostic work-ups help to identify subsets of glomerular disease and their response to specific treatment protocols. PMID:21251510

  5. Protein-losing enteropathies in dogs.

    PubMed

    Dossin, Olivier; Lavoué, Rachel

    2011-03-01

    Protein-losing enteropathy is common in dogs but rare in cats. In the vast majority of cases, it is associated with inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal lymphoma, or intestinal lymphangiectasia. The diagnosis is based on identification of hypoalbuminemia and ruling out urinary loss and liver failure. Identification of the intestinal lesion with appropriate biopsy method is important to rule out neoplasm or infectious causes. The treatment is based on intensive nutritional support, therapy for the causative condition, and early monitoring of possibly life-threatening complications, such as hypocobalaminemia, massive pleural or abdominal fluid collection, thromboembolism, and hypocalcemia or hypomagnesemia.

  6. Sleep Tight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2000-01-01

    At the same time their biological systems program them for later sleep and waking times, adolescents' schedules and lifestyles keep them from getting a healthy amount of sleep. Although a few schools have altered their schedules, most are confounded by costs and contractual complications. Minnesota schools are leaders. (MLH)

  7. Patients’ perceptions on losing access to FPs

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Tom; Brown, Judith Belle; Reid, Graham; Stewart, Moira; Thind, Amardeep; Vingilis, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the health care–related experiences of individuals who have lost their FPs. Design A qualitative design using phenomenology. Setting Southwestern Ontario. Participants Eighteen participants (9 women and 9 men, with a mean age of 48.9 years) from urban or rural areas who had lost their FPs. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted, which were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. An iterative approach using immersion and crystallization was employed for analysis. Main findings Participants reported having lost their FPs because of reasons specific to their physicians (eg, illness, retirement, career change) or system issues (eg, poor remuneration for FPs, cutbacks in health care leading to physician emigration). Participants described feelings of loss, abandonment, frustration, and anger related to losing their physicians. They expressed concerns about the difficulty of getting prescription medications, lack of continuity of care related to medical records, and preventive care. They faced considerable hurdles in accessing primary health care, turning to walk-in clinics and emergency departments despite concerns about quality and fragmentation of care. Some of those with chronic medical conditions prevailed upon specialists to help meet primary health care needs. Conclusion Losing access to FPs evoked a variety of strong feelings among these participants. They engaged in a number of strategies to meet their primary care needs but not without reservations. In a health care system appropriately built on primary health care, the lack of access to FPs is regarded as the loss of a basic right to care. PMID:23585623

  8. Ancestral sleep.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Moreno, Claudia; Lowden, Arne; Louzada, Fernando; Marqueze, Elaine; Levandovski, Rosa; Pilz, Luisa K; Valeggia, Claudia; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Golombek, Diego A; Czeisler, Charles A; Skene, Debra J; Duffy, Jeanne F; Roenneberg, Till

    2016-04-01

    While we do not yet understand all the functions of sleep, its critical role for normal physiology and behaviour is evident. Its amount and temporal pattern depend on species and condition. Humans sleep about a third of the day with the longest, consolidated episode during the night. The change in lifestyle from hunter-gatherers via agricultural communities to densely populated industrialized centres has certainly affected sleep, and a major concern in the medical community is the impact of insufficient sleep on health [1,2]. One of the causal mechanisms leading to insufficient sleep is altered exposure to the natural light-dark cycle. This includes the wide availability of electric light, attenuated exposure to daylight within buildings, and evening use of light-emitting devices, all of which decrease the strength of natural light-dark signals that entrain circadian systems [3].

  9. Ancestral sleep.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Moreno, Claudia; Lowden, Arne; Louzada, Fernando; Marqueze, Elaine; Levandovski, Rosa; Pilz, Luisa K; Valeggia, Claudia; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Golombek, Diego A; Czeisler, Charles A; Skene, Debra J; Duffy, Jeanne F; Roenneberg, Till

    2016-04-01

    While we do not yet understand all the functions of sleep, its critical role for normal physiology and behaviour is evident. Its amount and temporal pattern depend on species and condition. Humans sleep about a third of the day with the longest, consolidated episode during the night. The change in lifestyle from hunter-gatherers via agricultural communities to densely populated industrialized centres has certainly affected sleep, and a major concern in the medical community is the impact of insufficient sleep on health [1,2]. One of the causal mechanisms leading to insufficient sleep is altered exposure to the natural light-dark cycle. This includes the wide availability of electric light, attenuated exposure to daylight within buildings, and evening use of light-emitting devices, all of which decrease the strength of natural light-dark signals that entrain circadian systems [3]. PMID:27046809

  10. Sleep and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are two types of sleep: non-rapid eye movement -- or NREM sleep -- and rapid eye movement -- or REM sleep. NREM sleep includes four stages, ranging from light to deep sleep. Then we go into REM sleep, the most active ... During REM sleep, the eyes move back and forth beneath the eyelids and ...

  11. Medicines for sleep

    MedlinePlus

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... the-counter (OTC) sleeping pills contain antihistamines. These medicines are commonly used to treat allergies. While these ...

  12. Identifying sleep regulatory genes using a Drosophila model of insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Seugnet, Laurent; Suzuki, Yasuko; Thimgan, Matthew; Donlea, Jeff; Gimbel, Sarah I.; Gottschalk, Laura; Duntley, Steve P.; Shaw, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that sleep must serve an essential biological function, little is known about molecules that underlie sleep regulation. Given that insomnia is a common sleep disorder that disrupts the ability to initiate and maintain restorative sleep, a better understanding of its molecular underpinning may provide crucial insights into sleep regulatory processes. Thus, we created a line of flies using laboratory selection that share traits with human insomnia. After 60 generations insomnia-like (ins-l) flies sleep 60 min a day, exhibit difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and show evidence of daytime cognitive impairment. ins-l flies are also hyperactive and hyper responsive to environmental perturbations. In addition they have difficulty maintaining their balance, have elevated levels of dopamine, are short-lived and show increased levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. While their core molecular clock remains intact, ins-l flies lose their ability to sleep when placed into constant darkness. Whole genome profiling identified genes that are modified in ins-l flies. Among those differentially expressed transcripts genes involved in metabolism, neuronal activity, and sensory perception constituted over-represented categories. We demonstrate that two of these genes are upregulated in human subjects following acute sleep deprivation. Together these data indicate that the ins-l flies are a useful tool that can be used to identify molecules important for sleep regulation and may provide insights into both the causes and long-term consequences of insomnia. PMID:19494137

  13. Misinformed leaders lose influence over pigeon flocks.

    PubMed

    Watts, Isobel; Nagy, Máté; Burt de Perera, Theresa; Biro, Dora

    2016-09-01

    In animal groups where certain individuals have disproportionate influence over collective decisions, the whole group's performance may suffer if these individuals possess inaccurate information. Whether in such situations leaders can be replaced in their roles by better-informed group mates represents an important question in understanding the adaptive consequences of collective decision-making. Here, we use a clock-shifting procedure to predictably manipulate the directional error in navigational information possessed by established leaders within hierarchically structured flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia). We demonstrate that in the majority of cases when leaders hold inaccurate information they lose their influence over the flock. In these cases, inaccurate information is filtered out through the rearrangement of hierarchical positions, preventing errors by former leaders from propagating down the hierarchy. Our study demonstrates that flexible decision-making structures can be valuable in situations where 'bad' information is introduced by otherwise influential individuals. PMID:27624797

  14. Misinformed leaders lose influence over pigeon flocks.

    PubMed

    Watts, Isobel; Nagy, Máté; Burt de Perera, Theresa; Biro, Dora

    2016-09-01

    In animal groups where certain individuals have disproportionate influence over collective decisions, the whole group's performance may suffer if these individuals possess inaccurate information. Whether in such situations leaders can be replaced in their roles by better-informed group mates represents an important question in understanding the adaptive consequences of collective decision-making. Here, we use a clock-shifting procedure to predictably manipulate the directional error in navigational information possessed by established leaders within hierarchically structured flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia). We demonstrate that in the majority of cases when leaders hold inaccurate information they lose their influence over the flock. In these cases, inaccurate information is filtered out through the rearrangement of hierarchical positions, preventing errors by former leaders from propagating down the hierarchy. Our study demonstrates that flexible decision-making structures can be valuable in situations where 'bad' information is introduced by otherwise influential individuals.

  15. Sleep-Dependent Consolidation of Procedural Motor Memories in Children and Adults: The Pre-Sleep Level of Performance Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Ines; Metzkow-Meszaros, Maila; Knapp, Susanne; Born, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In striking contrast to adults, in children sleep following training a motor task did not induce the expected (offline) gain in motor skill performance in previous studies. Children normally perform at distinctly lower levels than adults. Moreover, evidence in adults suggests that sleep dependent offline gains in skill essentially depend on the…

  16. Sleeping position and rectal temperature.

    PubMed

    Petersen, S A; Anderson, E S; Lodemore, M; Rawson, D; Wailoo, M P

    1991-08-01

    The effects of sleeping position upon body temperature were assessed by continuous monitoring of rectal temperature in 137 babies sleeping at home under conditions chosen by their parents. There were three groups of subjects: (1) normal babies aged 12-22 weeks whose temperature rhythms were developed, (2) normal babies aged 6-12 weeks who were developing their night time temperature rhythms, and (3) babies the night after diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus immunisation, whose temperature rhythms were disturbed. Sleeping in the prone position was not associated with higher rectal temperatures at any time of night in young babies, nor did it exaggerate the disturbance of rectal temperature rhythm after immunisation. In older normal babies the prone position did not disturb rectal temperature in the first part of the night, though prone sleepers warmed a little faster prior to walking, especially in warm conditions. Prone sleepers were, however, born earlier in gestation and tended to be of lower birth weight. Normal babies can therefore thermoregulate effectively whatever their sleeping posture, even in warm conditions, though the prone position may make it slightly more difficult to lose heat. It is difficult to see how the prone position, even interacting with warm conditions, could induce lethal hyperthermia in otherwise normal babies. Perhaps the prone position is associated with other risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome.

  17. Sleeping sickness

    MedlinePlus

    Human African trypanosomiasis ... Kirchoff LV. Agents of African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolan R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ...

  18. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many of the body's cells also show increased production and reduced breakdown of proteins during deep sleep. ... deep sleep, REM sleep is associated with increased production of proteins. One study found that REM sleep ...

  19. American Sleep Apnea Association

    MedlinePlus

    American Sleep Apnea Association Learn About the CPAP Assistance Program About ASAA News about ASAA Who we are Leadership Team Supporting the ASAA Financials Learn Healthy sleep Sleep apnea Other sleep ...

  20. Pediatric sleep apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... During sleep, all of the muscles in the body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep ...

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  2. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Snoring and Sleep Apnea Snoring and Sleep Apnea Patient Health Information ... newsroom@entnet.org . Insight into sleeping disorders and sleep apnea Forty-five percent of normal adults snore ...

  3. Refreshing Sleep and Sleep Continuity Determine Perceived Sleep Quality.

    PubMed

    Libman, Eva; Fichten, Catherine; Creti, Laura; Conrod, Kerry; Tran, Dieu-Ly; Grad, Roland; Jorgensen, Mary; Amsel, Rhonda; Rizzo, Dorrie; Baltzan, Marc; Pavilanis, Alan; Bailes, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Sleep quality is a construct often measured, employed as an outcome criterion for therapeutic success, but never defined. In two studies we examined appraised good and poor sleep quality in three groups: a control group, individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, and those with insomnia disorder. In Study 1 we used qualitative methodology to examine good and poor sleep quality in 121 individuals. In Study 2 we examined sleep quality in 171 individuals who had not participated in Study 1 and evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality. Across all six samples and both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the daytime experience of feeling refreshed (nonrefreshed) in the morning and the nighttime experience of good (impaired) sleep continuity characterized perceived good and poor sleep. Our results clarify sleep quality as a construct and identify refreshing sleep and sleep continuity as potential clinical and research outcome measures. PMID:27413553

  4. Sleep quality influences subsequent motor skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Appleman, Erica R; Albouy, Genevieve; Doyon, Julien; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; King, Bradley R

    2016-06-01

    While the influence of sleep on motor memory consolidation has been extensively investigated, its relation to initial skill acquisition is less well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of sleep quality and quantity on subsequent motor skill acquisition in young adults without sleep disorders. Fifty-five healthy adults (mean age = 23.8 years; 34 women) wore actigraph wristbands for 4 nights, which provided data on sleep patterns before the experiment, and then returned to the laboratory to engage in a motor sequence learning task (explicit 5-item finger sequence tapping task). Indicators of sleep quality and quantity were then regressed on a measure of motor skill acquisition (Gains Within Training, GWT). Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO; i.e., the total amount of time the participants spent awake after falling asleep) was significantly and negatively related to GWT. This effect was not because of general arousal level, which was measured immediately before the motor task. Conversely, there was no relationship between GWT and sleep duration or self-reported sleep quality. These results indicate that sleep quality, as assessed by WASO and objectively measured with actigraphy before the motor task, significantly impacts motor skill acquisition in young healthy adults without sleep disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Sleep in Othello

    PubMed Central

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep. Citation: Dimsdale JE. Sleep in Othello. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):280-281. PMID:19960651

  6. Electroencephalographic studies of sleep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. B.; Agnew, H. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Various experimental studies on sleep are described. The following areas are discussed: (1) effect of altered day length on sleep, (2) effect of a partial loss of sleep on subsequent nocturnal sleep; (3) effect of rigid control over sleep-wake-up times; (4) sleep and wakefulness in a time-free environment; (5) distribution of spindles during a full night of sleep; and (6) effect on sleep and performance of swiftly changing shifts of work.

  7. Gaining Momentum, Losing Ground. Tapping America's Potential (TAP) Progress Report, 2008. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapping America's Potential, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In July 2005, Business Roundtable and fifteen of America's most prominent business organizations--Tapping America's Potential, the TAP coalition--issued a report stating that "one of the pillars of American economic prosperity--U.S. scientific and technological superiority--is beginning to atrophy even as other nations are developing their own…

  8. Another health insurance gap: gaining and losing coverage among natives and immigrants at older ages.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Adriana M; Hardy, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    As the immigrant population grows older and larger, limitations on access to health insurance may create a new subgroup of people who remain outside or on the margin of coverage. Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) data from the 2004 and 2008 panels, we address the health insurance gap between foreign-born and native-born adults among those aged 50-64 and the 65 and older, two sub-populations that have received relatively little attention in past research. We argue that current practices leave a significant minority of older foreign-born residents inconsistently covered or without any insurance. We find that health insurance coverage for older immigrants is both less likely and more episodic even when compositional differences in SES and assimilation are controlled.

  9. Losing the Lake: Simulations to Promote Gains in Student Knowledge and Interest about Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussbaum, E. Michael; Owens, Marissa C.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Rehmat, Abeera P.; Cordova, Jacqueline R.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Harris, Fred C., Jr.; Dascalu, Sergiu M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change literacy plays a key role in promoting sound political decisions and promoting sustainable consumption patterns. Based on evidence suggesting that student understanding and interest in climate change is best accomplished through studying local effects, we developed a simulation/game exploring the impact of climate change on the…

  10. Gaining Access or Losing Ground? Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students in Undergraduate Engineering, 1994-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy-Wagner, Valerie C.; Veenstra, Cindy P.; Orr, Marisa K.; Ramirez, Nichole M.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Long, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Expanding access to engineering for underrepresented groups has by and large focused on ethnicity/race and gender, with little understanding of socioeconomic disadvantages. In this study, we use economic, human, and cultural capital theories to frame and then describe access to undergraduate engineering degree programs and bachelor's degrees.…

  11. Gaining myocytes or losing fibroblasts: Challenges in cardiac fibroblast reprogramming for infarct repair.

    PubMed

    Nagalingam, Raghu S; Safi, Hamza A; Czubryt, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    Unlike most somatic tissues, the heart possesses a very limited inherent ability to repair itself following damage. Attempts to therapeutically salvage the myocardium after infarction, either by sparing surviving myocytes or by injection of exogenous cells of varied provenance, have met with limited success. Cardiac fibroblasts are numerous, resistant to hypoxia, and amenable to phenotype reprogramming to cardiomyocytes - a potential panacea to an intractable problem. However, the long-term effects of mass conversion of fibroblasts are as-yet unknown. Since fibroblasts play key roles in normal cardiac function, treating these cells as a ready source of replacements for myocytes may have the effect of swapping one problem for another. This review briefly examines the roles of cardiac fibroblasts, recaps the strides made so far in their reprogramming to cardiomyocytes both in vitro and in vivo, and discusses the potential ramifications of large-scale cellular identity swapping. While such therapy offers great promise, the potential repercussions require consideration and careful study. PMID:26640115

  12. Sleep: The hebbian reinforcement of the local inhibitory synapses.

    PubMed

    Touzet, Claude

    2015-09-01

    Sleep is ubiquitous among the animal realm, and represents about 30% of our lives. Despite numerous efforts, the reason behind our need for sleep is still unknown. The Theory of neuronal Cognition (TnC) proposes that sleep is the period of time during which the local inhibitory synapses (in particular the cortical ones) are replenished. Indeed, as long as the active brain stays awake, hebbian learning guarantees that efficient inhibitory synapses lose their efficiency – just because they are efficient at avoiding the activation of the targeted neurons. Since hebbian learning is the only known mechanism of synapse modification, it follows that to replenish the inhibitory synapses' efficiency, source and targeted neurons must be activated together. This is achieved by a local depolarization that may travel (wave). The period of time during which such slow waves are experienced has been named the "slow-wave sleep" (SWS). It is cut into several pieces by shorter periods of paradoxical sleep (REM) which activity resembles that of the awake state. Indeed, SWS – because it only allows local neural activation – decreases the excitatory long distance connections strength. To avoid losing the associations built during the awake state, these long distance activations are played again during the REM sleep. REM and SWS sleeps act together to guarantee that when the subject awakes again, his inhibitory synaptic efficiency is restored and his (excitatory) long distance associations are still there. PMID:26138624

  13. Sleep: The hebbian reinforcement of the local inhibitory synapses.

    PubMed

    Touzet, Claude

    2015-09-01

    Sleep is ubiquitous among the animal realm, and represents about 30% of our lives. Despite numerous efforts, the reason behind our need for sleep is still unknown. The Theory of neuronal Cognition (TnC) proposes that sleep is the period of time during which the local inhibitory synapses (in particular the cortical ones) are replenished. Indeed, as long as the active brain stays awake, hebbian learning guarantees that efficient inhibitory synapses lose their efficiency – just because they are efficient at avoiding the activation of the targeted neurons. Since hebbian learning is the only known mechanism of synapse modification, it follows that to replenish the inhibitory synapses' efficiency, source and targeted neurons must be activated together. This is achieved by a local depolarization that may travel (wave). The period of time during which such slow waves are experienced has been named the "slow-wave sleep" (SWS). It is cut into several pieces by shorter periods of paradoxical sleep (REM) which activity resembles that of the awake state. Indeed, SWS – because it only allows local neural activation – decreases the excitatory long distance connections strength. To avoid losing the associations built during the awake state, these long distance activations are played again during the REM sleep. REM and SWS sleeps act together to guarantee that when the subject awakes again, his inhibitory synaptic efficiency is restored and his (excitatory) long distance associations are still there.

  14. The Influence of Sleep Disordered Breathing on Weight Loss in a National Weight Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Janney, Carol A.; Kilbourne, Amy M.; Germain, Anne; Lai, Zongshan; Hoerster, Katherine D.; Goodrich, David E.; Klingaman, Elizabeth A.; Verchinina, Lilia; Richardson, Caroline R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the influence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) on weight loss in overweight/obese veterans enrolled in MOVE!, a nationally implemented behavioral weight management program delivered by the National Veterans Health Administration health system. Methods: This observational study evaluated weight loss by SDB status in overweight/obese veterans enrolled in MOVE! from May 2008–February 2012 who had at least two MOVE! visits, baseline weight, and at least one follow-up weight (n = 84,770). SDB was defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Primary outcome was weight change (lb) from MOVE! enrollment to 6- and 12-mo assessments. Weight change over time was modeled with repeated-measures analyses. Results: SDB was diagnosed in one-third of the cohort (n = 28,269). At baseline, veterans with SDB weighed 29 [48] lb more than those without SDB (P < 0.001). On average, veterans attended eight MOVE! visits. Weight loss patterns over time were statistically different between veterans with and without SDB (P < 0.001); veterans with SDB lost less weight (−2.5 [0.1] lb) compared to those without SDB (−3.3 [0.1] lb; P = 0.001) at 6 months. At 12 mo, veterans with SDB continued to lose weight whereas veterans without SDB started to re-gain weight. Conclusions: Veterans with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) had significantly less weight loss over time than veterans without SDB. SDB should be considered in the development and implementation of weight loss programs due to its high prevalence and negative effect on health. Citation: Janney CA, Kilbourne AM, Germain A, Lai Z, Hoerster KD, Goodrich DE, Klingaman EA, Verchinina L, Richardson CR. The influence of sleep disordered breathing on weight loss in a national weight management program. SLEEP 2016;39(1):59–65. PMID:26350475

  15. 21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. 182.1745 Section... (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxy-methylcellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose...

  16. 21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. 182.1745 Section... GRAS Food Substances § 182.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxy-methylcellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight...

  17. 21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. 182.1745 Section... GRAS Food Substances § 182.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxy-methylcellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight...

  18. 21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. 182.1745 Section... GRAS Food Substances § 182.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxy-methylcellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight...

  19. Neuroimmunologic aspects of sleep and sleep loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, N. L.; Szuba, M. P.; Staab, J. P.; Evans, D. L.; Dinges, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    The complex and intimate interactions between the sleep and immune systems have been the focus of study for several years. Immune factors, particularly the interleukins, regulate sleep and in turn are altered by sleep and sleep deprivation. The sleep-wake cycle likewise regulates normal functioning of the immune system. Although a large number of studies have focused on the relationship between the immune system and sleep, relatively few studies have examined the effects of sleep deprivation on immune parameters. Studies of sleep deprivation's effects are important for several reasons. First, in the 21st century, various societal pressures require humans to work longer and sleep less. Sleep deprivation is becoming an occupational hazard in many industries. Second, to garner a greater understanding of the regulatory effects of sleep on the immune system, one must understand the consequences of sleep deprivation on the immune system. Significant detrimental effects on immune functioning can be seen after a few days of total sleep deprivation or even several days of partial sleep deprivation. Interestingly, not all of the changes in immune physiology that occur as a result of sleep deprivation appear to be negative. Numerous medical disorders involving the immune system are associated with changes in the sleep-wake physiology--either being caused by sleep dysfunction or being exacerbated by sleep disruption. These disorders include infectious diseases, fibromyalgia, cancers, and major depressive disorder. In this article, we will describe the relationships between sleep physiology and the immune system, in states of health and disease. Interspersed will be proposals for future research that may illuminate the clinical relevance of the relationships between sleeping, sleep loss and immune function in humans. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  20. Assessment of sleep in patients with fibromyalgia: qualitative development of the fibromyalgia sleep diary

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Sleep disturbance is a common experience in fibromyalgia (FM). The field lacks a sleep specific patient reported outcome (PRO) measure developed and validated in a FM population. The study objective is to gain an in-depth understanding of sleep in FM and to develop a PRO measure of it. Methods Research involved the following stages: 1) A literature review conducted to identify key concepts associated with FM patient experience of sleep and PRO measures that have been used to assess this; 2) Qualitative interviews with therapeutic area experts; 3) Focus groups with FM patients who experienced sleep disturbance; 4) Development of a conceptual framework and the Fibromyalgia Sleep Diary (FMSD); and 5) Cognitive interviews with patients to explore content validity of the FMSD. Results The literature review and expert interviews supported sleep disturbance being an important aspect of the FM patient experience, and underscored the need for a new FM specific sleep PRO measure. Results from the focus groups demonstrated that FM patients experience sleep disturbances that they attribute to their FM symptoms, such as pain and stiffness, confirming the importance of understanding more about sleep changes. Aspects of sleep raised by FM patients included poor sleep quality and insufficient quantity including difficulty with falling asleep, getting comfortable, and staying asleep; restlessness; light sleep; not feeling rested upon awakening; and difficulty starting the day. Cognitive interview results showed that the 8-item FMSD, developed to reflect the concepts identified above, was relevant to FM patients with content that was interpreted as intended. Conclusions The FMSD was developed in line with the recommendations of the FDA PRO guidance and ISPOR PRO Task Force. The qualitative evidence generated thus far strongly supports the content validity of the FMSD as a PRO measure of sleep disturbance in FM populations. Psychometric evaluation of the FMSD to

  1. Quantitative genetic research on sleep: a review of normal sleep, sleep disturbances and associated emotional, behavioural, and health-related difficulties.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Nicola L; Gregory, Alice M

    2013-02-01

    Over the past 50 years, well over 100 twin studies have focussed on understanding factors contributing to variability in normal sleep-wake characteristics and sleep disturbances. Whilst we have gained a great deal from these studies, there is still much to be learnt. Twin studies can be used in multiple ways to answer questions beyond simply estimating heritability. This paper provides a comprehensive review of some of the most important findings from twin studies relating to sleep to date, with a focus on studies investigating genetic and environmental influences contributing to i) objective and subjective measures of normal sleep characteristics (e.g., sleep stage organisation, sleep quality); as well as sleep disturbances and disorders such as dyssomnias (e.g., insomnia, narcolepsy) and parasomnias (e.g., sleepwalking, bruxism); ii) the persistence of sleep problems from childhood to adulthood, and the possibility that the aetiological influences on sleep change with age; iii) the associations between sleep disturbances, emotional, behavioural and health-related problems; and iv) processes of gene-environment correlation and interaction. We highlight avenues for further research, emphasising the need to further consider the aetiology of longitudinal associations between sleep disturbances and psychopathology; the genetic and environmental overlap between sleep and numerous phenotypes; and processes of gene-environment interplay and epigenetics. PMID:22560641

  2. Sleep in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Disorders of sleep are an integral part of neurodegenerative diseases and include insomnia, sleep-wake cycle disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness that may be manifested as persistent somnolence or sudden onset of sleep episodes, obstructive and central sleep apnea, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and restless legs syndrome. The origin of these sleep disorders is multifactorial including degeneration of the brain areas that modulate sleep, the symptoms of the disease, and the effect of medications. Treatment of sleep disorders in patients with neurodegenerative diseases should be individualized and includes behavioral therapy, sleep hygiene, bright light therapy, melatonin, hypnotics, waking-promoting agents, and continuous positive airway pressure. PMID:26972029

  3. Physically active rats lose more weight during calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Smyers, Mark E; Bachir, Kailey Z; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Novak, Colleen M

    2015-02-01

    Daily physical activity shows substantial inter-individual variation, and low physical activity is associated with obesity and weight gain. Elevated physical activity is also associated with high intrinsic aerobic capacity, which confers considerable metabolic health benefits. Rats artificially selected for high intrinsic aerobic capacity (high-capacity runners, HCR) are more physically active than their low-capacity counterparts (low-capacity runners, LCR). To test the hypothesis that physical activity counters metabolic thriftiness, we measured physical activity and weight loss during three weeks of 50% calorie restriction (CR) in the HCR and LCR rat lines. At baseline, HCR ate more and were more active than LCR; this was seen in male rats, where LCR are considerably heavier than HCR, as well as in a set of female rats where body weight did not differ between the lines, demonstrating that this effect is consistent across sex and not secondary to body weight. We show for the first time that HCR lose more weight than LCR relative to baseline. Physical activity levels declined throughout CR, and this was more pronounced in HCR than in LCR, yet some aspects of activity remained elevated in HCR relative to LCR even during CR. This is consistent with the idea that low physical activity contributes to metabolic thriftiness during food restriction, allowing LCR to defend body mass, particularly lean mass. This has implications for physical activity during diet-induced weight loss, the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in weight loss during a diet, and the potential evolutionary opposition between metabolic thriftiness and aerobic capacity.

  4. The cost of defeat: Capuchin groups travel further, faster and later after losing conflicts with neighbors.

    PubMed

    Crofoot, Margaret C

    2013-09-01

    Although competition between social groups is central to hypotheses about the evolution of human social organization, competitive interactions among group-mates are thought to play a more dominant role in shaping the behavior and ecology of other primate species. However, few studies have directly tested the impact of intergroup conflicts in non-human primates. What is the cost of defeat? To address this question, the movements of six neighboring white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus) social groups living on Barro Colorado Island, Panama were tracked simultaneously using an Automated Radio Telemetry System (ARTS), for a period of six months. Groups moved 13% (441 m) further on days they lost interactions compared with days they won interactions. To cover these larger distances, they traveled faster, stopped less frequently, and remained active later in the evening. Defeat also caused groups to alter their patterns of space use. Losing groups had straighter travel paths than winning groups, larger net displacements and were more likely to change their sleeping site. These results demonstrate that losing groups pay increased travel costs and suggest that they forage in low-quality areas. They provide some of the first direct evidence that intergroup conflicts have important energetic consequences for members of competitively unsuccessful primate social groups. A better understanding of how intergroup competition impacts patterns of individual fitness is thus needed to clarify the role that this group-level process plays in shaping the evolution of human- and non-human primate behavior.

  5. Role of Sleep and Sleep Loss in Hormonal Release and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Leproult, Rachel; Van Cauter, Eve

    2011-01-01

    Compared to a few decades ago, adults, as well as children, sleep less. Sleeping as little as possible is often seen as an admirable behavior in contemporary society. However, sleep plays a major role in neuroendocrine function and glucose metabolism. Evidence that the curtailment of sleep duration may have adverse health effects has emerged in the past 10 years. Accumulating evidence from both epidemiologic studies and well-controlled laboratory studies indicates that chronic partial sleep loss may increase the risk of obesity and weight gain. The present chapter reviews epidemiologic studies in adults and children and laboratory studies in young adults indicating that sleep restriction results in metabolic and endocrine alterations, including decreased glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased evening concentrations of cortisol, increased levels of ghrelin, decreased levels of leptin and increased hunger and appetite. Altogether, the evidence points to a possible role of decreased sleep duration in the current epidemic of obesity. Bedtime extension in short sleepers should be explored as a novel behavioral intervention that may prevent weight gain or facilitate weight loss. Avoiding sleep deprivation may help to prevent the development of obesity, particularly in children. PMID:19955752

  6. American Academy of Sleep Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... need to excel in the profession of sleep technology. Sleep Education SleepEducation.org provides patients and the general public with comprehensive, accurate information about healthy sleep and sleep disorders, along with ...

  7. Sleep studies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... person during sleep may also be used. The test is performed for people who suffer from insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, obstructive sleep apnea, breathing difficulties during sleep, or behavior disturbances ...

  8. Aging changes in sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... a health care provider to find out whether depression or another health condition is affecting your sleep. COMMON PROBLEMS Insomnia is one of the more common sleep problems in the elderly. Other sleep disorders , such as restless legs syndrome, ...

  9. Isolated sleep paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep paralysis - isolated; Parasomnia - isolated sleep paralysis ... Episodes of isolated sleep paralysis last from a few seconds to 1 or 2 minutes. During these episodes the person is unable to move ...

  10. Do placebos alter sleep?

    PubMed

    Adam, K; Adamson, L; Brezinová, V; Oswald, I

    1976-01-24

    Deliberate suggestion that an inert capsule was a sleeping pill was found not to influence subjective ratings of sleep quality or anxiety or the electrophysiologically recorded features of sleep in 10 volunteers aged 41-62 years. PMID:1247770

  11. Do placebos alter sleep?

    PubMed

    Adam, K; Adamson, L; Brezinová, V; Oswald, I

    1976-01-24

    Deliberate suggestion that an inert capsule was a sleeping pill was found not to influence subjective ratings of sleep quality or anxiety or the electrophysiologically recorded features of sleep in 10 volunteers aged 41-62 years.

  12. Sleep Troubles, Heart Troubles?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161037.html Sleep Troubles, Heart Troubles? American Heart Association says it's ... 19, 2016 MONDAY, Sept. 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Sleep disorders -- including too little or too much sleep -- ...

  13. Treatments for Sleep Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contributing medical factors Non-drug strategies Medications Common sleep changes Many people with Alzheimer’s experience changes in ... at night. Subscribe now Non-drug treatments for sleep changes Non-drug treatments aim to improve sleep ...

  14. Sleep and your health

    MedlinePlus

    ... back pain, heart disease, and conditions such as asthma that make it hard to breathe. Depression , anxiety, and substance abuse also make sleep hard to come by. Some medicines disrupt sleep. Stress about sleeping . After several nights of tossing and ...

  15. Overview of sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Roldan, Glenn; Ang, Robert C

    2006-03-01

    Sleep disorders are common and can affect anyone, from every social class and every ethnic background. It is estimated that more than 70 million Americans are afflicted by chronic sleep disorders. Currently about 88 sleep disorders are described by the International Classification of Sleep Disorders as established by The American Academy of Sleep Medicine. This article describes the dyssomnias and parasomnias most commonly seen in the clinical setting of the sleep disorder clinic or laboratory. PMID:16530646

  16. REM sleep behavior disorder and other sleep disturbances in Disney animated films.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, Alex; Schenck, Carlos H; Fonte, Jorge

    2007-08-01

    During a viewing of Disney's animated film Cinderella (1950), one author (AI) noticed a dog having nightmares with dream-enactment that strongly resembled RBD. This prompted a study in which all Disney classic full-length animated films and shorts were analyzed for other examples of RBD. Three additional dogs were found with presumed RBD in the classic films Lady and the Tramp (1955) and The Fox and the Hound (1981), and in the short Pluto's Judgment Day (1935). These dogs were elderly males who would pant, whine, snuffle, howl, laugh, paddle, kick, and propel themselves while dreaming that they were chasing someone or running away. In Lady and the Tramp the dog was also losing both his sense of smell and his memory, two associated features of human RBD. These four films were released before RBD was first formally described in humans and dogs. In addition, systematic viewing of the Disney films identified a broad range of sleep disorders, including nightmares, sleepwalking, sleep related seizures, disruptive snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia and circadian rhythm sleep disorder. These sleep disorders were inserted as comic elements. The inclusion of a broad range of accurately depicted sleep disorders in these films indicates that the Disney screenwriters were astute observers of sleep and its disorders. PMID:17512793

  17. Increased food intake and changes in metabolic hormones in response to chronic sleep restriction alternated with short periods of sleep allowance.

    PubMed

    Barf, R Paulien; Desprez, Tifany; Meerlo, Peter; Scheurink, Anton J W

    2012-01-01

    Rodent models for sleep restriction have good face validity when examining food intake and related regulatory metabolic hormones. However, in contrast to epidemiological studies in which sleep restriction is associated with body weight gain, sleep-restricted rats show a decrease in body weight. This difference with the human situation might be caused by the alternation between periods of sleep restriction and sleep allowance that often occur in real life. Therefore, we assessed the metabolic consequences of a chronic sleep restriction protocol that modeled working weeks with restricted sleep time alternated by weekends with sleep allowance. We hypothesized that this protocol could lead to body weight gain. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sleep restriction (SR), forced activity control (FA), and home cage control (HC). SR rats were subjected to chronic sleep restriction by keeping them awake for 20 h per day in slowly rotating drums. To model the human condition, rats were subjected to a 4-wk protocol, with each week consisting of a 5-day period of sleep restriction followed by a 2-day period of sleep allowance. During the first experimental week, SR caused a clear attenuation of growth. In subsequent weeks, two important processes occurred: 1) a remarkable increase in food intake during SR days, 2) an increase in weight gain during the weekends of sleep allowance, even though food intake during those days was comparable to controls. In conclusion, our data revealed that the alternation between periods of sleep restriction and sleep allowance leads to complex changes in food intake and body weight, that prevent the weight loss normally seen in continuous sleep-restricted rats. Therefore, this "week-weekend" protocol may be a better model to study the metabolic consequences of restricted sleep. PMID:22012696

  18. Sleep Pharmacogenetics: Personalized Sleep-Wake Therapy.

    PubMed

    Holst, Sebastian C; Valomon, Amandine; Landolt, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Research spanning (genetically engineered) animal models, healthy volunteers, and sleep-disordered patients has identified the neurotransmitters and neuromodulators dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, histamine, hypocretin, melatonin, glutamate, acetylcholine, γ-amino-butyric acid, and adenosine as important players in the regulation and maintenance of sleep-wake-dependent changes in neuronal activity and the sleep-wake continuum. Dysregulation of these neurochemical systems leads to sleep-wake disorders. Most currently available pharmacological treatments are symptomatic rather than causal, and their beneficial and adverse effects are often variable and in part genetically determined. To evaluate opportunities for evidence-based personalized medicine with present and future sleep-wake therapeutics, we review here the impact of known genetic variants affecting exposure of and sensitivity to drugs targeting the neurochemistry of sleep-wake regulation and the pathophysiology of sleep-wake disturbances. Many functional polymorphisms modify drug response phenotypes relevant for sleep. To corroborate the importance of these and newly identified variants for personalized sleep-wake therapy, human sleep pharmacogenetics should be complemented with pharmacogenomic investigations, research about sleep-wake-dependent pharmacological actions, and studies in mice lacking specific genes. These strategies, together with future knowledge about epigenetic mechanisms affecting sleep-wake physiology and treatment outcomes, may lead to potent and safe novel therapies for the increasing number of sleep-disordered patients (e.g., in aged populations).

  19. Shifting from Implicit to Explicit Knowledge: Different Roles of Early- and Late-Night Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf; Bataghva, Zhamak; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    Sleep has been shown to promote the generation of explicit knowledge as indicated by the gain of insight into previously unrecognized task regularities. Here, we explored whether this generation of explicit knowledge depends on pre-sleep implicit knowledge, and specified the differential roles of slow-wave sleep (SWS) vs. rapid eye movement (REM)…

  20. Too Hot to Sleep? Sleep Behaviour and Surface Body Temperature of Wahlberg’s Epauletted Fruit Bat

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Colleen T.; Awuah, Adwoa; Jordaan, Maryna; Magagula, Londiwe; Mkhize, Truth; Paine, Christine; Raymond-Bourret, Esmaella; Hart, Lorinda A.

    2015-01-01

    The significance of sleep and factors that affect it have been well documented, however, in light of global climate change the effect of temperature on sleep patterns has only recently gained attention. Unlike many mammals, bats (order: Chiroptera) are nocturnal and little is known about their sleep and the effects of ambient temperature (Ta) on their sleep. Consequently we investigated seasonal temperature effects on sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of free-ranging Wahlberg’s epauletted fruit bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi, at a tree roost. Sleep behaviours of E. wahlbergi were recorded, including: sleep duration and sleep incidences (i.e. one eye open and both eyes closed). Sleep differed significantly across all the individuals in terms of sleep duration and sleep incidences. Individuals generally spent more time awake than sleeping. The percentage of each day bats spent asleep was significantly higher during winter (27.6%), compared with summer (15.6%). In summer, 20.7% of the sleeping bats used one eye open sleep, and this is possibly the first evidence of one-eye-sleep in non-marine mammals. Sleep duration decreased with extreme heat as bats spent significantly more time trying to cool by licking their fur, spreading their wings and panting. Skin temperatures of E. wahlbergi were significantly higher when Ta was ≥35°C and no bats slept at these high temperatures. Consequently extremely hot days negatively impact roosting fruit bats, as they were forced to be awake to cool themselves. This has implications for these bats given predicted climate change scenarios. PMID:25775371

  1. Genetics of Sleep and Sleep disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Amita; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Sleep remains one of the least understood phenomena in biology – even its role in synaptic plasticity remains debatable. Since sleep was recognized to be regulated genetically, intense research has launched on two fronts: the development of model organisms for deciphering the molecular mechanisms of sleep and attempts to identify genetic underpinnings of human sleep disorders. In this Review, we describe how unbiased, high-throughput screens in model organisms are uncovering sleep regulatory mechanisms and how pathways, such as the circadian clock network and specific neurotransmitter signals, have conserved effects on sleep from Drosophila to humans. At the same time, genome-wide association (GWA) studies have uncovered ~14 loci increasing susceptibility to sleep disorders, such as narcolepsy and restless leg syndrome. To conclude, we discuss how these different strategies will be critical to unambiguously defining the function of sleep. PMID:21784243

  2. Sleep for cognitive enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is essential for effective cognitive functioning. Loosing even a few hours of sleep can have detrimental effects on a wide variety of cognitive processes such as attention, language, reasoning, decision making, learning and memory. While sleep is necessary to ensure normal healthy cognitive functioning, it can also enhance performance beyond the boundaries of the normal condition. This article discusses the enhancing potential of sleep, mainly focusing on the domain of learning and memory. Sleep is known to facilitate the consolidation of memories learned before sleep as well as the acquisition of new memories to be learned after sleep. According to a widely held model this beneficial effect of sleep relies on the neuronal reactivation of memories during sleep that is associated with sleep-specific brain oscillations (slow oscillations, spindles, ripples) as well as a characteristic neurotransmitter milieu. Recent research indicates that memory processing during sleep can be boosted by (i) cueing memory reactivation during sleep; (ii) stimulating sleep-specific brain oscillations; and (iii) targeting specific neurotransmitter systems pharmacologically. Olfactory and auditory cues can be used, for example, to increase reactivation of associated memories during post-learning sleep. Intensifying neocortical slow oscillations (the hallmark of slow wave sleep (SWS)) by electrical or auditory stimulation and modulating specific neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and glutamate likewise facilitates memory processing during sleep. With this evidence in mind, this article concludes by discussing different methodological caveats and ethical issues that should be considered when thinking about using sleep for cognitive enhancement in everyday applications. PMID:24765066

  3. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  4. Narcolepsy and familial advanced sleep-phase syndrome: molecular genetics of sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Tafti, Mehdi; Dauvilliers, Yves; Overeem, Sebastiaan

    2007-06-01

    Sleep disorders are very prevalent and represent an emerging worldwide epidemic. However, research into the molecular genetics of sleep disorders remains surprisingly one of the least active fields. Nevertheless, rapid progress is being made in several prototypical disorders, leading recently to the identification of the molecular pathways underlying narcolepsy and familial advanced sleep-phase syndrome. Since the first reports of spontaneous and induced loss-of-function mutations leading to hypocretin deficiency in human and animal models of narcolepsy, the role of this novel neurotransmission pathway in sleep and several other behaviors has gained extensive interest. Also, very recent studies using an animal model of familial advanced sleep-phase syndrome shed new light on the regulation of circadian rhythms. PMID:17467264

  5. Sodium Oxybate-Induced Sleep Driving and Sleep-Related Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Douglas Mckay; Maze, Tanisha; Shafazand, Shirin

    2011-01-01

    Hypnosedative-induced complex behaviors have gained increased attention in recent years as a potential complication of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-receptor agonist use. Sodium oxybate (SO), the sodium salt of γ-hydroxybutyrate, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, has been associated with dose-dependent rates of somnambulism; however, there is limited information about complex motor behaviors with SO. We describe a patient with narcolepsy-cataplexy who experienced one episode of sleep-driving and at least two sleep-related eating episodes with therapeutic doses of SO. Citation: Wallace DM; Maze T; Shafazand S. Sodium oxybate-induced sleep driving and sleep-related eating disorder. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(3):310-311. PMID:21677903

  6. Adolescents' Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…

  7. Labile sleep promotes awareness of abstract knowledge in a serial reaction time task

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, Roumen; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf; Yordanova, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Sleep has been identified as a critical brain state enhancing the probability of gaining insight into covert task regularities. Both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have been implicated with offline re-activation and reorganization of memories supporting explicit knowledge generation. According to two-stage models of sleep function, offline processing of information during sleep is sequential requiring multiple cycles of NREM and REM sleep stages. However, the role of overnight dynamic sleep macrostructure for insightfulness has not been studied so far. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that the frequency of interactions between NREM and REM sleep stages might be critical for awareness after sleep. For that aim, the rate of sleep stage transitions was evaluated in 53 participants who learned implicitly a serial reaction time task (SRTT) in which a determined sequence was inserted. The amount of explicit knowledge about the sequence was established by verbal recall after a night of sleep following SRTT learning. Polysomnography was recorded in this night and in a control night before and was analyzed to compare the rate of sleep-stage transitions between participants who did or did not gain awareness of task regularity after sleep. Indeed, individual ability of explicit knowledge generation was strongly associated with increased rate of transitions between NREM and REM sleep stages and between light sleep stages and slow wave sleep. However, the rate of NREM–REM transitions specifically predicted the amount of explicit knowledge after sleep in a trait-dependent way. These results demonstrate that enhanced lability of sleep goes along with individual ability of knowledge awareness. Observations suggest that facilitated dynamic interactions between sleep stages, particularly between NREM and REM sleep stages play a role for offline processing which promotes rule extraction and awareness. PMID:26441730

  8. Impact of sleep and sleep loss on glucose homeostasis and appetite regulation

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Kristen L

    2007-01-01

    Synopsis Over the past 30 years there has been an increase in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes, both of which can have serious consequences for longevity and quality of life. Sleep durations may have also decreased over this time period. This chapter reviews laboratory and epidemiologic evidence for an association between sleep loss and impairments in glucose metabolism and appetite regulation, which could increase the risk of diabetes or weight gain. PMID:18516218

  9. Sleep and Infant Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Balsam, Peter D.; Fifer, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Human neonates spend the majority of their time sleeping. Despite the limited waking hours available for environmental exploration, the first few months of life are a time of rapid learning about the environment. The organization of neonate sleep differs qualitatively from adult sleep, and the unique characteristics of neonatal sleep may promote…

  10. Sleep Disorders (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... The two main phases of sleep are rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM): REM sleep, also known as "dream sleep," ... taken during sleep that show: Brain wave changes. Eye movements. Breathing rate. Blood pressure . Heart rate and electrical ...

  11. Sleep disorders in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Oyiengo, Dennis; Louis, Mariam; Hott, Beth; Bourjeily, Ghada

    2014-09-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in pregnancy and may be influenced by a multitude of factors. Pregnancy physiology may predispose to sleep disruption but may also result in worsening of some underlying sleep disorders, and the de novo development of others. Apart from sleep disordered breathing, the impact of sleep disorders on pregnancy, fetal, and neonatal outcomes is poorly understood. In this article, we review the literature and discuss available data pertaining to the most common sleep disorders in perinatal women. These include restless legs syndrome, insomnia, circadian pattern disturbances, narcolepsy, and sleep-disordered breathing.

  12. Movement disorders and sleep.

    PubMed

    Driver-Dunckley, Erika D; Adler, Charles H

    2012-11-01

    This article summarizes what is currently known about sleep disturbances in several movement disorders including Parkinson disease, essential tremor, parkinsonism, dystonia, Huntington disease, myoclonus, and ataxias. There is an association between movement disorders and sleep. In some cases the prevalence of sleep disorders is much higher in patients with movement disorder, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. In other cases, sleep difficulties worsen the involuntary movements. In many cases the medications used to treat patients with movement disorder disturb sleep or cause daytime sleepiness. The importance of discussing sleep issues in patients with movement disorders cannot be underestimated.

  13. [Diabetes and sleeping habits].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shinsuke; Inaba, Masaaki

    2012-07-01

    Number of diabetic patients has continued to increase in the world, disturbance of sleep habits have been pointed out as one of the factor recently. Sleep habits are categorized into quantity and quality of sleep. Inappropriate sleep duration and decline in quality of sleep have caused the exacerbation and onset of diabetes. On the other hand, it is known that many patients with diabetes have already suffered from sleep disorders. Here, we will give an outline of the relationship between sleep habits and diabetes.

  14. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-03-01

    Nurses are accustomed to helping others with their sleep problems and dealing with issues such as pain that may delay or interrupt sleep. However, they may be less familiar with what constitutes a healthy night's sleep. This article examines what is known about the process and purpose of sleep, and examines the ways in which factors that promote wakefulness and sleep combine to help establish a normal circadian rhythm. Theories relating to the function of sleep are discussed and research is considered that suggests that sleep deficit may lead to metabolic risks, including heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and several types of cancer.

  15. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-03-01

    Nurses are accustomed to helping others with their sleep problems and dealing with issues such as pain that may delay or interrupt sleep. However, they may be less familiar with what constitutes a healthy night's sleep. This article examines what is known about the process and purpose of sleep, and examines the ways in which factors that promote wakefulness and sleep combine to help establish a normal circadian rhythm. Theories relating to the function of sleep are discussed and research is considered that suggests that sleep deficit may lead to metabolic risks, including heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and several types of cancer. PMID:26959472

  16. Occupational Sleep Medicine.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Philip; Drake, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms significantly impact almost all aspects of human behavior and are therefore relevant to occupational sleep medicine, which is focused predominantly around workplace productivity, safety, and health. In this article, 5 main factors that influence occupational functioning are reviewed: (1) sleep deprivation, (2) disordered sleep, (3) circadian rhythms, (4) common medical illnesses that affect sleep and sleepiness, and (5) medications that affect sleep and sleepiness. Consequences of disturbed sleep and sleepiness are also reviewed, including cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor functioning and drowsy driving. PMID:26972034

  17. Sleep disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Ward, Teresa; Mason, Thornton B A

    2002-12-01

    Sleep disorders are common in childhood, and may affect multiple aspects of a child's life and the lives of other family members. A sleep disorder assessment should begin with detailed sleep history and a review of interrelated health issues. Factors contributing to disturbed sleep may be discovered or confirmed by a thorough physical examination. Thereafter, appropriate ancillary testing can provide support for a specific clinical diagnosis. The spectrum of childhood sleep disorders includes OSA, narcolepsy, RLS/PLMD, sleep onset association disorder, and parasomnias. Diagnosing sleep disorders in children remains a challenge; however, a multidisciplinary approach may provide an opportunity for productive collaboration and, thereby, more effective patient management. Centers treating pediatric sleep disorders may include providers from a variety of disciplines in pediatric healthcare, such as child psychology, pulmonology, neurology, psychiatry, nursing, and otolaryngology. Over the last decade, research in pediatric sleep disorders has expanded greatly, paralleled by an increased awareness of the importance of adequate, restorative sleep in childhood. PMID:12587368

  18. INFLUENCE OF SLEEP ON OBESITY IN CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Anton-Paduraru, Dana-teodora; Teslariu, Oana; Mocanu, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a global epidemic with long term implications. The main cause of obesity is an increase in calorie intake and a decrease in physical activity, but also there is clear evidence suggesting a link between the duration and quality of sleep and obesity risk. Good sleep habits are involved in increased ability to concentrate at school, improvement of general state, immune system development, increased quality of life. On the other hand, there are several mechanisms by which chronic sleep deprivation induces weight gain: disturbance of hormones that control hunger center, increased time for meals, reduced physical activity, metabolic changes. Recently, nighttime sleep duration has declined, in contrast with the increasing prevalence of obesity. Childhood sleep habits have a long term effect on weight, with repercussions even into adulthood. This is the reason why there is increasing interest to include sleep quality on the list for childhood obesity prevention. Sleep represents an important and independent risk factor of obesity in children and adolescents and it should be taken into consideration in the management of obesity.

  19. INFLUENCE OF SLEEP ON OBESITY IN CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Anton-Paduraru, Dana-teodora; Teslariu, Oana; Mocanu, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a global epidemic with long term implications. The main cause of obesity is an increase in calorie intake and a decrease in physical activity, but also there is clear evidence suggesting a link between the duration and quality of sleep and obesity risk. Good sleep habits are involved in increased ability to concentrate at school, improvement of general state, immune system development, increased quality of life. On the other hand, there are several mechanisms by which chronic sleep deprivation induces weight gain: disturbance of hormones that control hunger center, increased time for meals, reduced physical activity, metabolic changes. Recently, nighttime sleep duration has declined, in contrast with the increasing prevalence of obesity. Childhood sleep habits have a long term effect on weight, with repercussions even into adulthood. This is the reason why there is increasing interest to include sleep quality on the list for childhood obesity prevention. Sleep represents an important and independent risk factor of obesity in children and adolescents and it should be taken into consideration in the management of obesity. PMID:27483699

  20. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy. PMID:1621022

  1. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy.

  2. Sleep, sleep disturbance, and fertility in women.

    PubMed

    Kloss, Jacqueline D; Perlis, Michael L; Zamzow, Jessica A; Culnan, Elizabeth J; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2015-08-01

    Sleep and sleep disturbances are increasingly recognized as determinants of women's health and well-being, particularly in the context of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause. At present, however, little is known about whether fertility is affected by sleep quantity and quality. That is, to what degree, and by what mechanisms, do sleep and/or its disturbances affect fertility? The purpose of this review is to synthesize what is known about sleep disturbances in relation to reproductive capacity. A model is provided, whereby stress, sleep dysregulation, and circadian misalignment are delineated for their potential relevance to infertility. Ultimately, if it is the case that sleep disturbance is associated with infertility, new avenues for clinical intervention may be possible.

  3. Ostriches Sleep like Platypuses

    PubMed Central

    Lesku, John A.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Fuller, Andrea; Maloney, Shane K.; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. SWS is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while REM sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. However, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas), the most basal (or ‘ancient’) group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of SWS and REM sleep, suggesting that these states became temporally segregated in the common ancestor to marsupial and eutherian mammals. Whether sleep in basal birds resembles that of monotremes or other mammals and birds is unknown. Here, we provide the first description of brain activity during sleep in ostriches (Struthio camelus), a member of the most basal group of living birds. We found that the brain activity of sleeping ostriches is unique. Episodes of REM sleep were delineated by rapid eye movements, reduced muscle tone, and head movements, similar to those observed in other birds and mammals engaged in REM sleep; however, during REM sleep in ostriches, forebrain activity would flip between REM sleep-like activation and SWS-like slow waves, the latter reminiscent of sleep in the platypus. Moreover, the amount of REM sleep in ostriches is greater than in any other bird, just as in platypuses, which have more REM sleep than other mammals. These findings reveal a recurring sequence of steps in the evolution of sleep in which SWS and REM sleep arose from a single heterogeneous state that became temporally segregated into two distinct states. This common trajectory suggests that forebrain activation during REM sleep is an evolutionarily new feature, presumably involved in performing new sleep functions not found in more basal animals. PMID:21887239

  4. Metabolic consequences of chronic sleep restriction in rats: changes in body weight regulation and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Barf, R P; Van Dijk, G; Scheurink, A J W; Hoffmann, K; Novati, A; Hulshof, H J; Fuchs, E; Meerlo, P

    2012-10-10

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk to develop obesity. In animal studies, however, sleep restriction leads to an attenuation of weight gain that cannot be explained by changes in energy intake. In the present study, we assessed whether the attenuated weight gain under conditions of restricted sleep is a consequence of an overall increase in energy expenditure. Adult male rats were subjected to a schedule of chronic sleep restriction (SR) for 8 days with a 4h window of unrestricted rest per day. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings were performed to quantify the effect of the sleep restriction schedule on sleep-wake patterns. In a separate experiment, we measured sleep restriction-induced changes in body weight, food intake, and regulatory hormones such as glucose, insulin, leptin and corticosterone. To investigate whether a change in energy expenditure underlies the attenuation of weight gain, energy expenditure was measured by the doubly labeled water method from day 5 until day 8 of the SR protocol. Results show a clear attenuation of weight gain during sleep restriction but no change in food intake. Baseline plasma glucose, insulin and leptin levels are decreased after sleep restriction which presumably reflects the nutritional status of the rats. The daily energy expenditure during SR was significantly increased compared to control rats. Together, we conclude that the attenuation of body weight gain in sleep restricted rats is explained by an overall increase in energy expenditure together with an unaltered energy intake. PMID:22995976

  5. Rethinking Sleep Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Hartmut

    2008-01-01

    Visual sleep scoring is the obligatory reference for sleep analysis. An essential step in sleep scoring is sleep staging. This technique was first described in 1937 and later adapted 3 times: first, in 1957, after the detection of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, when electrooculography (EOG) was added; second, in 1968, when sleep staging was standardized and electromyography (EMG) was added; and third, in 2007, to integrate accumulated knowledge from sleep science, adding arousals and respiratory, cardiac, and movement events. In spite of the dramatic changes that have taken place in recording and storing techniques, sleep staging has undergone surprisingly few changes. The argument of the present comment is that sleep staging was appropriate as long as sleep biosignals were recorded in the analog mode as curves on paper, whereas this staging may be insufficient for digitally recorded and stored sleep data. Limitations of sleep staging are critically discussed and alternative strategies of sleep analysis are emphasized. Citation: Schulz H. Rethinking sleep analysis. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(2):99–103. PMID:18468306

  6. Mass-losing red giants in open clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.

    1987-01-01

    Mass-losing stars in open clusters with main-sequence turn-offs at intermediate mass have been searched for by using the IRAS data base. The absence of many strong 60 micron sources in open clusters implies that intermediate-mass stars lose much of their mass during an intense wind phase of rather short duration. For stars of about seven solar masses, this phase, if it exists at all, lasts for not much more than 100,000 yr. For stars of about four solar masses, the intense wind phase appears to last considerably less than 10 million yr; it may well last for less than a million yr.

  7. Sleeping Birds Do Not Respond to Predator Odour

    PubMed Central

    Amo, Luisa; Caro, Samuel P.; Visser, Marcel E.

    2011-01-01

    Background During sleep animals are relatively unresponsive and unaware of their environment, and therefore, more exposed to predation risk than alert and awake animals. This vulnerability might influence when, where and how animals sleep depending on the risk of predation perceived before going to sleep. Less clear is whether animals remain sensitive to predation cues when already asleep. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally tested whether great tits are able to detect the chemical cues of a common nocturnal predator while sleeping. We predicted that birds exposed to the scent of a mammalian predator (mustelid) twice during the night would not go into torpor (which reduces their vigilance) and hence would not reduce their body temperature as much as control birds, exposed to the scent of another mammal that does not represent a danger for the birds (rabbit). As a consequence of the higher body temperature birds exposed to the scent of a predator are predicted to have a higher resting metabolic rate (RMR) and to lose more body mass. In the experiment, all birds decreased their body temperature during the night, but we did not find any influence of the treatment on body temperature, RMR, or body mass. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that birds are not able to detect predator chemical cues while sleeping. As a consequence, antipredatory strategies taken before sleep, such as roosting sites inspection, may be crucial to cope with the vulnerability to predation risk while sleeping. PMID:22110676

  8. Energy expenditure during sleep, sleep deprivation and sleep following sleep deprivation in adult humans.

    PubMed

    Jung, Christopher M; Melanson, Edward L; Frydendall, Emily J; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

    2011-01-01

    Sleep has been proposed to be a physiological adaptation to conserve energy, but little research has examined this proposed function of sleep in humans. We quantified effects of sleep, sleep deprivation and recovery sleep on whole-body total daily energy expenditure (EE) and on EE during the habitual day and nighttime. We also determined effects of sleep stage during baseline and recovery sleep on EE. Seven healthy participants aged 22 ± 5 years (mean ± s.d.) maintained ∼8 h per night sleep schedules for 1 week before the study and consumed a weight-maintenance diet for 3 days prior to and during the laboratory protocol. Following a habituation night, subjects lived in a whole-room indirect calorimeter for 3 days. The first 24 h served as baseline – 16 h wakefulness, 8 h scheduled sleep – and this was followed by 40 h sleep deprivation and 8 h scheduled recovery sleep. Findings show that, compared to baseline, 24 h EE was significantly increased by ∼7% during the first 24 h of sleep deprivation and was significantly decreased by ∼5% during recovery, which included hours awake 25-40 and 8 h recovery sleep. During the night time, EE was significantly increased by ∼32% on the sleep deprivation night and significantly decreased by ∼4% during recovery sleep compared to baseline. Small differences in EE were observed among sleep stages, but wakefulness during the sleep episode was associated with increased energy expenditure. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that sleep conserves energy and that sleep deprivation increases total daily EE in humans.

  9. Sleep Duration and Obesity in Adults: What Are the Connections?

    PubMed

    Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny; Lindberg, Eva

    2016-09-01

    Collectively, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on self-reported sleep duration and obesity do not show a clear pattern of association with some showing a negative linear relationship, some showing a U-shaped relationship, and some showing no relationship. Associations between sleep duration and obesity seem stronger in younger adults. Cross-sectional studies using objectively measured sleep duration (actigraphy or polysomnography (PSG)) also show this mixed pattern whereas all longitudinal studies to date using actigraphy or PSG have failed to show a relationship with obesity/weight gain. It is still too early and a too easy solution to suggest that changing the sleep duration will cure the obesity epidemic. Given novel results on emotional stress and poor sleep as mediating factors in the relationship between sleep duration and obesity, detection and management of these should become the target of future clinical efforts as well as future research. PMID:27372108

  10. Metabolic consequences of sleep and sleep loss

    PubMed Central

    Van Cauter, Eve; Spiegel, Karine; Tasali, Esra; Leproult, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Reduced sleep duration and quality appear to be endemic in modern society. Curtailment of the bedtime period to minimum tolerability is thought to be efficient and harmless by many. It has been known for several decades that sleep is a major modulator of hormonal release, glucose regulation and cardiovascular function. In particular, slow wave sleep (SWS), thought to be the most restorative sleep stage, is associated with decreased heart rate, blood pressure, sympathetic nervous activity and cerebral glucose utilization, compared with wakefulness. During SWS, the anabolic growth hormone is released while the stress hormone cortisol is inhibited. In recent years, laboratory and epidemiologic evidence have converged to indicate that sleep loss may be a novel risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. The increased risk of obesity is possibly linked to the effect of sleep loss on hormones that play a major role in the central control of appetite and energy expenditure, such as leptin and ghrelin. Reduced leptin and increased ghrelin levels correlate with increases in subjective hunger when individuals are sleep restricted rather than well rested. Given the evidence, sleep curtailment appears to be an important, yet modifiable, risk factor for the metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity. The marked decrease in average sleep duration in the last 50 years coinciding with the increased prevalence of obesity, together with the observed adverse effects of recurrent partial sleep deprivation on metabolism and hormonal processes, may have important implications for public health. PMID:18929315

  11. Sleep to grow smart?

    PubMed

    Volk, Carina; Huber, Reto

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is undisputable an essential part of our life, if we do not sleep enough we feel the consequences the next day. The importance of sleep for healthy brain functioning has been well studied in adults, but less is known for the role of sleep in the paediatric age. Childhood and adolescence is a critical phase for brain development. The increased need for sleep during this developmental phase fosters the growing recognition for a central role of sleep during development. In this review we summarize the findings that demonstrate a close relationship between sleep and brain maturation, discuss the consequences of insufficient sleep during childhood and adolescence and outline initial attempts that have been made in order to improve sleep in this age range. PMID:26742664

  12. [Neurological sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Khatami, Ramin

    2014-11-01

    Neurological sleep disorders are common in the general population and may have a strong impact on quality of life. General practitioners play a key role in recognizing and managing sleep disorders in the general population. They should therefore be familiar with the most important neurological sleep disorders. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the most prevalent and important neurological sleep disorders, including Restless legs syndrome (with and without periodic limb movements in sleep), narcolepsy, NREM- and REM-sleep parasomnias and the complex relationship between sleep and epilepsies. Although narcolepsy is considered as a rare disease, recent discoveries in narcolepsy research provided insight in the function of brain circuitries involved in sleep wake regulation. REM sleep behavioral parasomnia (RBD) is increasingly recognized to represent an early manifestation of neurodegenerative disorders, in particular evolving synucleinopathies. Early diagnosis may thus open new perspectives for developing novel treatment options by targeting neuroprotective substances.

  13. Sleep locally, act globally.

    PubMed

    Rattenborg, Niels C; Lima, Steven L; Lesku, John A

    2012-10-01

    In most animals, sleep is considered a global brain and behavioral state. However, recent intracortical recordings have shown that aspects of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and wakefulness can occur simultaneously in different parts of the cortex in mammals, including humans. Paradoxically, however, NREM sleep still manifests as a global behavioral shutdown. In this review, the authors examine this paradox from an evolutionary perspective. On the basis of strategic modeling, they suggest that in animals with brains composed of heavily interconnected and functionally interdependent units, a global regulator of sleep maintains the behavioral shutdown that defines sleep and thereby ensures that local use-dependent functions are performed in a safe and efficient manner. This novel perspective has implications for understanding deficits in human cognitive performance resulting from sleep deprivation, sleep disorders such as sleepwalking, changes in consciousness that occur during sleep, and the function of sleep itself. PMID:22572533

  14. Patterns of sleep behaviour.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the electroencephalogram as the critical measurement procedure for sleep research, and survey of major findings that have emerged in the last decade on the presence of sleep within the twenty-four-hour cycle. Specifically, intrasleep processes, frequency of stage changes, sequence of stage events, sleep stage amounts, temporal patterns of sleep, and stability of intrasleep pattern in both man and lower animals are reviewed, along with some circadian aspects of sleep, temporal factors, and number of sleep episodes. It is felt that it is particularly critical to take the presence of sleep into account whenever performance is considered. When it is recognized that responsive performance is extremely limited during sleep, it is easy to visualize the extent to which performance is controlled by sleep itself.

  15. Sleep and the Endocrine System.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. PMID:26972038

  16. Irregular sleep-wake syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Kanuther N, Harrington J, Lee-Chiong T. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Clin Chest Med . 2010;31:319-325. Zee PC, Vitello MV. Circadian rhythm sleep disorder: irregular sleep wake rhythm. Sleep Med ...

  17. Sleep and the Endocrine System.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed.

  18. Sleep and the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed.

  19. How Is Sleep Apnea Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics CPAP High Blood Pressure Overweight and Obesity Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency Sleep Studies Send a link to ... For more information, go to the Health Topics Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency article.) If treatment and enough sleep ...

  20. The Phenomenon of Sleep Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of sleep where vivid dreams occur (known as REM sleep), your arms and legs are temporarily paralyzed so ... alien abductions." Since breathing can be irregular during REM sleep, those experiencing sleep paralysis may feel like they' ...

  1. [Sleep and dreams in pictures].

    PubMed

    Stoll, R T

    1995-04-11

    Human life is divided into two thirds wakefulness and one third sleep. A newborn child sleeps to strengthen, the adult for regeneration. At the end of life man sinks down into the sleep of death: Hypnos and Thanatos are twin sons of the Queen of Night. Myths from different cultures are influenced by the experience of sleep and its inner world of pictures, the dreams. Artists, painters and sculptors let their visions float steadily into new pictures, and creatures of sleep formed out of diverse materials. Devine sleep, sleep for new life, sleep of health, creative sleep, prophetic sleep, sleep for revelation and for decisions. PMID:7732243

  2. 5 CFR 352.205 - Appeal of losing agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 352.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights Based on Movement Between Executive Agencies During Emergencies § 352.205 Appeal of losing agency. An appointing officer who intends to employ with reemployment rights an...

  3. 5 CFR 352.205 - Appeal of losing agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 352.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights Based on Movement Between Executive Agencies During Emergencies § 352.205 Appeal of losing agency. An appointing officer who intends to employ with reemployment rights an...

  4. 5 CFR 352.205 - Appeal of losing agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 352.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights Based on Movement Between Executive Agencies During Emergencies § 352.205 Appeal of losing agency. An appointing officer who intends to employ with reemployment rights an...

  5. 5 CFR 352.205 - Appeal of losing agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 352.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights Based on Movement Between Executive Agencies During Emergencies § 352.205 Appeal of losing agency. An appointing officer who intends to employ with reemployment rights an...

  6. 5 CFR 352.205 - Appeal of losing agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 352.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights Based on Movement Between Executive Agencies During Emergencies § 352.205 Appeal of losing agency. An appointing officer who intends to employ with reemployment rights an...

  7. They Snooze, You Lose: The Educator's Guide to Successful Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burmark, Lynell

    2011-01-01

    In today's increasingly visual world, the art of giving presentations is a much-needed talent. "They Snooze, You Lose", provides a comprehensive guide made especially for teachers and administrators who want to become presentation "stars" in their classrooms, at board meetings, or any time they are in front of an audience. This book describes how…

  8. Meaning-Making through Narrative: On Not Losing the Plot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Terry

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the process of meaning-making from within the "narrative" mode and in particular considers the difficulty or even impossibility, in certain kinds of organisational and social situations, of constructing viable narratives. This experience is sometimes referred to as "losing the plot", hence the subtitle of the article. When…

  9. 21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. 182.1745 Section 182.1745 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1745...

  10. We're Losing Our Minds: Rethinking American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.; Hersh, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    America is being held back by the quality and quantity of learning in college. This is a true educational emergency! Many college graduates cannot think critically, write effectively, solve problems, understand complex issues, or meet employers' expectations. We are losing our minds--and endangering our social, economic, and scientific leadership.…

  11. Learning to Lose: Weight Loss Classes and Personal Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Adult learning takes place not only in educational organisations, but through participation in leisure and special interest groups. Commercially operated weight management organisations recruit large numbers of adults to their classes to learn how to eat healthily and lose weight. They publish readers' "real life" success stories in their…

  12. Longitudinal relations between constructive and destructive conflict and couples' sleep.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Kelly, Ryan J; Koss, Kalsea J; Rauer, Amy J

    2015-06-01

    We examined longitudinal relations between interpartner constructive (negotiation) and destructive (psychological and physical aggression) conflict strategies and couples' sleep over 1 year. Toward explicating processes of effects, we assessed the intervening role of internalizing symptoms in associations between conflict tactics and couples' sleep. Participants were 135 cohabiting couples (M age = 37 years for women and 39 years for men). The sample included a large representation of couples exposed to economic adversity. Further, 68% were European American and the remainder were primarily African American. At Time 1 (T1), couples reported on their conflict and their mental health (depression, anxiety). At T1 and Time 2, sleep was examined objectively with actigraphs for 7 nights. Three sleep parameters were derived: efficiency, minutes, and latency. Actor-partner interdependence models indicated that husbands' use of constructive conflict forecasted increases in their own sleep efficiency as well as their own and their wives' sleep duration over time. Actor and partner effects emerged, and husbands' and wives' use of destructive conflict strategies generally predicted worsening of some sleep parameters over time. Several mediation and intervening effects were observed for destructive conflict strategies. Some of these relations reveal that destructive conflict is associated with internalizing symptoms, which in turn are associated with some sleep parameters longitudinally. These findings build on a small, albeit growing, literature linking sleep with marital functioning, and illustrate that consideration of relationship processes including constructive conflict holds promise for gaining a better understanding of factors that influence the sleep of men and women.

  13. Childhood epilepsy and sleep

    PubMed Central

    Al-Biltagi, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and epilepsy are two well recognized conditions that interact with each other in a complex bi-directional way. Some types of epilepsies have increased activity during sleep disturbing it; while sleep deprivation aggravates epilepsy due to decreased seizure threshold. Epilepsy can deteriorate the sleep-related disorders and at the same time; the parasomnias can worsen the epilepsy. The secretion of sleep-related hormones can also be affected by the occurrence of seizures and supplementation of epileptic patients with some of these sleep-related hormones may have a beneficial role in controlling epilepsy. PMID:25254184

  14. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  15. Sleep Disturbances in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Jayesh; Virdi, Sundeep; Winokur, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disturbances are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and play a critical role in the morbidity and mortality associated with the illness. Subjective and objective assessments of sleep in patients with schizophrenia have identified certain consistent findings. Findings related to the sleep structure abnormalities have shown correlations with important clinical aspects of the illness. Disruption of specific neurotransmitter systems and dysregulation of clock genes may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia-related sleep disturbances. Antipsychotic medications play an important role in the treatment of sleep disturbances in these patients and have an impact on their sleep structure.

  16. [Insomnia and sleep apnea].

    PubMed

    Bayon, V; Léger, D

    2014-02-01

    The presence of insomnia in patients with sleep apnea seems paradoxical as excessive sleepiness is one of the major symptoms of sleep apnea. However, recent research has shown that about half of patients with sleep disorder breathing experience insomnia. Moreover, patients complaining of insomnia or non-restorative sleep may also present with moderate to severe sleep apnea syndromes. Thus, in recent years, clinicians have become more aware of the possible association between insomnia and sleep apnea. This article reviews data published on different aspects of this co-occurrence. PMID:24602685

  17. Sleep and sleep disorders in Don Quixote.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; de Riquer, Martín

    2004-01-01

    In Don Quijote de la Mancha, Miguel de Cervantes presents Don Quixote as an amazing character of the 17th century who suffers from delusions and illusions, believing himself to be a medieval knight errant. Besides this neuropsychiatric condition, Cervantes included masterful descriptions of several sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep deprivation, disruptive loud snoring and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. In addition, he described the occurrence of physiological, vivid dreams and habitual, post-prandial sleepiness--the siesta. Cervantes' concept of sleep as a passive state where all cerebral activities are almost absent is in conflict with his description of abnormal behaviours during sleep and vivid, fantastic dreams. His concept of sleep was shared by his contemporary, Shakespeare, and could have been influenced by the reading of the classical Spanish book of psychiatry Examen de Ingenios (1575).

  18. Sleep physiology and sleep disorders in childhood

    PubMed Central

    El Shakankiry, Hanan M

    2011-01-01

    Sleep has long been considered as a passive phenomenon, but it is now clear that it is a period of intense brain activity involving higher cortical functions. Overall, sleep affects every aspect of a child’s development, particularly higher cognitive functions. Sleep concerns are ranked as the fifth leading concern of parents. Close to one third of all children suffer from sleep disorders, the prevalence of which is increased in certain pediatric populations, such as children with special needs, children with psychiatric or medical diagnoses and children with autism or pervasive developmental disorders. The paper reviews sleep physiology and the impact, classification, and management of sleep disorders in the pediatric age group. PMID:23616721

  19. Effects of an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist on human sleep, sleep-associated memory consolidation, and blood monocytes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eva-Maria; Linz, Barbara; Diekelmann, Susanne; Besedovsky, Luciana; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1 beta (IL-1) are major players in the interaction between the immune system and the central nervous system. Various animal studies report a sleep-promoting effect of IL-1 leading to enhanced slow wave sleep (SWS). Moreover, this cytokine was shown to affect hippocampus-dependent memory. However, the role of IL-1 in human sleep and memory is not yet understood. We administered the synthetic IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra (IL-1ra) in healthy humans (100mg, subcutaneously, before sleep; n=16) to investigate the role of IL-1 signaling in sleep regulation and sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Inasmuch monocytes have been considered a model for central nervous microglia, we monitored cytokine production in classical and non-classical blood monocytes to gain clues about how central nervous effects of IL-1ra are conveyed. Contrary to our expectation, IL-1ra increased EEG slow wave activity during SWS and non-rapid eye movement (NonREM) sleep, indicating a deepening of sleep, while sleep-associated memory consolidation remained unchanged. Moreover, IL-1ra slightly increased prolactin and reduced cortisol levels during sleep. Production of IL-1 by classical monocytes was diminished after IL-1ra. The discrepancy to findings in animal studies might reflect species differences and underlines the importance of studying cytokine effects in humans. PMID:25535859

  20. Effects of an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist on human sleep, sleep-associated memory consolidation, and blood monocytes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eva-Maria; Linz, Barbara; Diekelmann, Susanne; Besedovsky, Luciana; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1 beta (IL-1) are major players in the interaction between the immune system and the central nervous system. Various animal studies report a sleep-promoting effect of IL-1 leading to enhanced slow wave sleep (SWS). Moreover, this cytokine was shown to affect hippocampus-dependent memory. However, the role of IL-1 in human sleep and memory is not yet understood. We administered the synthetic IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra (IL-1ra) in healthy humans (100mg, subcutaneously, before sleep; n=16) to investigate the role of IL-1 signaling in sleep regulation and sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Inasmuch monocytes have been considered a model for central nervous microglia, we monitored cytokine production in classical and non-classical blood monocytes to gain clues about how central nervous effects of IL-1ra are conveyed. Contrary to our expectation, IL-1ra increased EEG slow wave activity during SWS and non-rapid eye movement (NonREM) sleep, indicating a deepening of sleep, while sleep-associated memory consolidation remained unchanged. Moreover, IL-1ra slightly increased prolactin and reduced cortisol levels during sleep. Production of IL-1 by classical monocytes was diminished after IL-1ra. The discrepancy to findings in animal studies might reflect species differences and underlines the importance of studying cytokine effects in humans.

  1. Sleep restriction and serving accuracy in performance tennis players, and effects of caffeine.

    PubMed

    Reyner, L A; Horne, J A

    2013-08-15

    Athletes often lose sleep on the night before a competition. Whilst it is unlikely that sleep loss will impair sports mostly relying on strength and endurance, little is known about potential effects on sports involving psychomotor performance necessitating judgement and accuracy, rather than speed, as in tennis for example, and where caffeine is 'permitted'. Two studies were undertaken, on 5h sleep (33%) restriction versus normal sleep, on serving accuracy in semi-professional tennis players. Testing (14:00 h-16:00 h) comprised 40 serves into a (1.8 m×1.1 m) 'service box' diagonally, over the net. Study 1 (8 m; 8 f) was within-Ss, counterbalanced (normal versus sleep restriction). Study 2 (6m;6f -different Ss) comprised three conditions (Latin square), identical to Study 1, except for an extra sleep restriction condition with 80 mg caffeine vs placebo in a sugar-free drink, given (double blind), 30 min before testing. Both studies showed significant impairments to serving accuracy after sleep restriction. Caffeine at this dose had no beneficial effect. Study 1 also assessed gender differences, with women significantly poorer under all conditions, and non-significant indications that women were more impaired by sleep restriction (also seen in Study 2). We conclude that adequate sleep is essential for best performance of this type of skill in tennis players and that caffeine is no substitute for 'lost sleep'. 210. PMID:23916998

  2. Regulation of Sleep by Neuropeptide Y-Like System in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    He, Chunxia; Yang, Yunyan; Zhang, Mingming; Price, Jeffrey L.; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2013-01-01

    Sleep is important for maintenance of normal physiology in animals. In mammals, neuropeptide Y (NPY), a homolog of Drosophila neuropeptide F (NPF), is involved in sleep regulation, with different effects in human and rat. However, the function of NPF on sleep in Drosophila melanogaster has not yet been described. In this study, we investigated the effects of NPF and its receptor-neuropeptide F receptor (NPFR1) on Drosophila sleep. Male flies over-expressing NPF or NPFR1 exhibited increased sleep during the nighttime. Further analysis demonstrated that sleep episode duration during nighttime was greatly increased and sleep latency was significantly reduced, indicating that NPF and NPFR1 promote sleep quality, and their action on sleep is not because of an impact of the NPF signal system on development. Moreover, the homeostatic regulation of flies after sleep deprivation was disrupted by altered NPF signaling, since sleep deprivation decreased transcription of NPF in control flies, and there were less sleep loss during sleep deprivation and less sleep gain after sleep deprivation in flies overexpressing NPF and NPFR1 than in control flies, suggesting that NPF system auto-regulation plays an important role in sleep homeostasis. However, these effects did not occur in females, suggesting a sex-dependent regulatory function in sleep for NPF and NPFR1. NPF in D1 brain neurons showed male-specific expression, providing the cellular locus for male-specific regulation of sleep by NPF and NPFR1. This study brings a new understanding into sleep studies of a sexually dimorphic regulatory mode in female and male flies. PMID:24040211

  3. Identifying Adolescent Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Gill, Jason; Camfferman, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the efficacy of self-report and parental report of adolescent sleep problems and compare these findings to the incidence of adolescents who fulfill clinical criteria for a sleep problem. Sleep and daytime functioning factors that predict adolescents’ self-identification of a sleep problem will also be examined. Method 308 adolescents (aged 13–17 years) from eight socioeconomically diverse South Australian high schools participated in this study. Participants completed a survey battery during class time, followed by a 7-day Sleep Diary and the Flinders Fatigue Scale completed on the final day of the study. Parents completed a Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey. Results The percentage of adolescents fulfilling one or more of the criteria for a sleep problem was inordinately high at 66%. Adolescent self-reporting a sleep problem was significantly lower than the adolescents who had one or more of the clinical criteria for a sleep problem (23.1% vs. 66.6%; χ2 = 17.46, p<.001). Parental report of their adolescent having a sleep problem was significantly lower than adolescent self-report (14.3% vs. 21.1%, p<.001). Adolescents who reported unrefreshing sleep were 4.81 times more likely to report a sleep problem. For every hour that bedtime was delayed, the odds of self-reporting a sleep problem increased by 1.91 times, while each additional 10 minutes taken to fall asleep increased the odds 1.40 times. Conclusion While many adolescents were found to have sleep patterns indicative of a sleep problem, only a third of this number self-identify having a sleep problem, while only a sixth of this number are indicated by parental report. This study highlights important features to target in future sleep education and intervention strategies for both adolescents and parents. PMID:24086501

  4. Adenosine and Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bjorness, Theresa E; Greene, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Over the last several decades the idea that adenosine (Ado) plays a role in sleep control was postulated due in large part to pharmacological studies that showed the ability of Ado agonists to induce sleep and Ado antagonists to decrease sleep. A second wave of research involving in vitro cellular analytic approaches and subsequently, the use of neurochemical tools such as microdialysis, identified a population of cells within the brainstem and basal forebrain arousal centers, with activity that is both tightly coupled to thalamocortical activation and under tonic inhibitory control by Ado. Most recently, genetic tools have been used to show that Ado receptors regulate a key aspect of sleep, the slow wave activity expressed during slow wave sleep. This review will briefly introduce some of the phenomenology of sleep and then summarize the effect of Ado levels on sleep, the effect of sleep on Ado levels, and recent experiments using mutant mouse models to characterize the role for Ado in sleep control and end with a discussion of which Ado receptors are involved in such control. When taken together, these various experiments suggest that while Ado does play a role in sleep control, it is a specific role with specific functional implications and it is one of many neurotransmitters and neuromodulators affecting the complex behavior of sleep. Finally, since the majority of adenosine-related experiments in the sleep field have focused on SWS, this review will focus largely on SWS; however, the role of adenosine in REM sleep behavior will be addressed. PMID:20190965

  5. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... as much as 25 to 30 pounds. This weight gain is not simply due to eating more. ... or a dietitian about how to make a healthy eating plan and set ... be causing the weight gain without talking with your provider.

  6. My Daughter's Gain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Maura

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author relates her and her husband's dilemma in letting their child Hannah live in a residential home. Hannah has electrical status epilecticus during sleep (ESES), or Tassinaris syndrome, a seizure disorder that emerges in the mid- to late-toddler years. Individuals with Tassinaris syndrome often display the sudden onset of…

  7. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... daytime drowsiness that can result in accidents, lost productivity and relationship problems. The National Sleep Foundation estimates ... the person just enough to restart the breathing process. Sleep apnea is generally defined as the presence ...

  8. Delirium: is sleep important?

    PubMed

    Watson, Paula L; Ceriana, Piero; Fanfulla, Francesco

    2012-09-01

    Delirium and poor sleep quality are common and often co-exist in hospitalised patients. A link between these disorders has been hypothesised but whether this link is a cause-and-effect relationship or simply an association resulting from shared mechanisms is yet to be determined. Potential shared mechanisms include: abnormalities of neurotransmitters, tissue ischaemia, inflammation and sedative exposure. Sedatives, while decreasing sleep latency, often cause a decrease in slow wave sleep and stage rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and therefore may not provide the same restorative properties as natural sleep. Mechanical ventilation, an important cause of sleep disruption in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, may lead to sleep disruption not only from the discomfort of the endotracheal tube but also as a result of ineffective respiratory efforts and by inducing central apnoea events if not properly adjusted for the patient's physiologic needs. When possible, efforts should be made to optimise the patient-ventilator interaction to minimise sleep disruptions.

  9. Sleep and Infant Learning

    PubMed Central

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Balsam, Peter D.; Fifer, William P.

    2010-01-01

    Human neonates spend the majority of their time sleeping. Despite the limited waking hours available for environmental exploration, the first few months of life are a time of rapid learning about the environment. The organization of neonate sleep differs qualitatively from adult sleep, and the unique characteristics of neonatal sleep may promote learning. Sleep contributes to infant learning in multiple ways. First, sleep facilitates neural maturation, thereby preparing infants to process and explore the environment in increasingly sophisticated ways. Second, sleep plays a role in memory consolidation of material presented while the infant was awake. Finally, emerging evidence indicates that infants process sensory stimuli and learn about contingencies in their environment even while asleep. As infants make the transition from reflexive to cortically mediated control, learned responses to physiological challenges during sleep may be critical adaptations to promote infant survival. PMID:21311602

  10. Sleeping during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... your partner) up at night. continue Finding a Good Sleeping Position Early in your pregnancy, try to get ... may safely improve your chances of getting a good night's sleep: Cut out caffeinated drinks like soda, coffee, and ...

  11. Sleep and Aging: Insomnia

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Sleep and Aging Insomnia Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint ... us | contact us | site map National Institute on Aging | U.S. National Library of Medicine | National Institutes of ...

  12. American Sleep Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Codes and Names Join ASA Press Room American Sleep Association Improving public health by increasing awareness about ... Members Username or Email Password Remember Me Register Sleep Blog Signs and Symptoms of Insomnia Anxiety Disorder ...

  13. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia. PMID:27553980

  14. Sleep and Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Your Newborn Sleep Establishing a bedtime routine (bathing, reading, singing) will help your baby relax and sleep ...

  15. [Sleep in cetaceans].

    PubMed

    Liamin, O I; Mukhametov, L M

    2013-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, cetaceans have adapted to sleep in conditions that can be considered extreme for warm-blooded and air breathing animals. Studies of sleep in cetaceans have led to the discovery of an unusual type of sleep called unihemispheric slow wave sleep. The ability of cetaceans to sleep during swimming and to close only one eye at a time are two other features of their sleep, directly related to its unihemispheric nature. Paradoxical sleep in the form it is recorded in all terrestrial mammals is absent in cetaceans. The pattern of sleep in cetaceans allows them to 1) monitor the environment for predators and conspecifics to maintain group coherence, 2) surface regularly for breathing and 3) maintain effective thermoregulation.

  16. Sleep disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Hoban, Timothy F

    2010-01-01

    Although sleep disorders such as insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea are common in both children and adults, the clinical features and treatments for these conditions differ considerably between these two populations. Whereas an adult with obstructive sleep apnea typically presents with a history of obesity, snoring, and prominent daytime somnolence, a child with the condition is more likely to present with normal body weight, tonsillar hypertrophy, and inattentiveness during school classes. The adult with suspected sleep apnea almost always undergoes a baseline polysomnogram and proceeds to treatment only if this test confirms the diagnosis, while many children with suspected sleep apnea are treated empirically with adenotonsillectomy without ever receiving a sleep study to verify the diagnosis. This article reviews sleep disorders in children, with a particular focus on age-related changes in sleep, conditions that primarily affect children, and disorders for which clinical manifestations and treatment differ substantially from the adult population. PMID:20146688

  17. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.

  18. Sleep Hygiene and Sleep Quality in Italian and American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    LeBOURGEOIS, MONIQUE K.; GIANNOTTI, FLAVIA; CORTESI, FLAVIA; WOLFSON, AMY; HARSH, JOHN

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in adolescent sleep hygiene and sleep quality. Participants were 1348 students (655 males; 693 females) aged 12–17 years from public school systems in Rome, Italy (n = 776) and Southern Mississippi (n = 572). Participants completed the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale and the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale. Reported sleep hygiene and sleep quality were significantly better for Italian than American adolescents. A moderate linear relationship was observed between sleep hygiene and sleep quality in both samples (Italians: R = .40; Americans: R = .46). Separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that sleep hygiene accounted for significant variance in sleep quality, even after controlling for demographic and health variables (Italians: R2 = .38; Americans: R2 = .44). The results of this study suggest that there are cultural differences in sleep quality and sleep hygiene practices, and that sleep hygiene practices are importantly related to adolescent sleep quality. PMID:15251909

  19. Pediatric Sleep Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sulman, Cecille G.

    2014-01-01

    Adenotonsillectomy is the most common surgery performed for sleep disordered breathing with good outcomes. Children with obesity, craniofacial disorders, and neurologic impairment are at risk for persistent sleep apnea after adenotonsillectomy. Techniques exist to address obstructive lesions of the palate, tongue base, or craniofacial skeleton in children with persistent sleep apnea. Children with obstructive sleep apnea have a higher rate of peri-operative complications. PMID:24926473

  20. Case Series: Evaluation of Behavioral Sleep Intervention for Medicated Children With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Vetrayan, Jayachandran; Othman, Suhana; Victor Paulraj, Smily Jesu Priya

    2013-03-25

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness and feasibility of behavioral sleep intervention for medicated children with ADHD. Method: Six medicated children (five boys, one girl; aged 6-12 years) with ADHD participated in a 4-week sleep intervention program. The main behavioral strategies used were Faded Bedtime With Response Cost (FBRC) and positive reinforcement. Within a case-series design, objective measure (Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children [SDSC]) and subjective measure (sleep diaries) were used to record changes in children's sleep. Results: For all six children, significant decrease was found in the severity of children's sleep problems (based on SDSC data). Bedtime resistance and mean sleep onset latency were reduced following the 4-week intervention program according to sleep diaries data. Gains were generally maintained at the follow-up. Parents perceived the intervention as being helpful. Conclusion: Based on the initial data, this intervention shows promise as an effective and feasible treatment. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX).

  1. Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunil; Kavuru, Mani

    2010-01-01

    Sleep and its disorders are increasingly becoming important in our sleep deprived society. Sleep is intricately connected to various hormonal and metabolic processes in the body and is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Research shows that sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may have profound metabolic and cardiovascular implications. Sleep deprivation, sleep disordered breathing, and circadian misalignment are believed to cause metabolic dysregulation through myriad pathways involving sympathetic overstimulation, hormonal imbalance, and subclinical inflammation. This paper reviews sleep and metabolism, and how sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may be altering human metabolism. PMID:20811596

  2. [Normal and disordered sleep].

    PubMed

    Arnulf, I

    2007-07-01

    Normal sleep is a complex and reversible state of brain functioning, including reduced inputs and outputs, blunted reflexes, and metabolic and cognitive changes. Evidence supports a role for sleep in the consolidation of an array of learning and memory tasks. Sleep deprivation and fragmentation result in executive dysfunction, increased appetite/weight and cellular stress. Sleep is a vital, complex but plastic function that can be modulated depending on individual heritage and motivation. The major role of sleep in attention and memory raises about concern the reduction in sleep duration recently pointed in teenagers and young adults. Sleep disorders are numerous and various. Their mechanism is not always identified, but may result from a central dysfunction in sleep-wake (e.g. narcolepsy) or circadian (e.g. advanced sleep phase syndrome) systems, from the sleep-related loss of compensation of reflexes normally effective during wakefulness (breathing is the most vulnerable function during sleep), or from other diseases preventing sleep (e.g. psychiatric insomnia, restless legs syndrome). PMID:17652992

  3. Sleep and Your Preschooler

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Sleep and Your Preschooler KidsHealth > For Parents > Sleep and Your Preschooler Print A A A Text ... Preschoolers need about 11 to 12 hours of sleep each day, which can include a nap. There's ...

  4. What Is Sleep Apnea?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Sleep Apnea? Español Sleep apnea (AP-ne-ah) is ... many people. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Sleep Apnea Research: The HeartBeat Study 06/07/2012 ...

  5. Teenagers and sleep

    MedlinePlus

    Starting around puberty, kids start getting tired later at night. While it might seem like they need less sleep, in fact, teens need more than 9 hours of sleep a night. Unfortunately, most teens do not get the sleep they need.

  6. The ambivalence of losing weight after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Warholm, Christine; Marie Øien, Aud; Råheim, Målfrid

    2014-01-01

    This study is grounded in a phenomenological lifeworld perspective. It aims at providing rich descriptions of lived experience of the process of losing weight after obesity surgery. Two women participated in in-depth interviews four times each during the first postoperative year. Based on the women's experiences, a meaning structure--the ambivalence of losing weight after obesity surgery--was identified across the women's processes of change. This consisted of five core themes: movement and activity--freedom but new demands and old restraints; eating habits and digestion--the complexity of change; appearance--smaller, but looser; social relations--stability and change; and being oneself--vulnerability and self-assurance. These core themes changed over time in terms of dominance. The experience of ambivalence is discussed according to a phenomenological perspective of the body as lived experience. PMID:24480033

  7. Shifting from implicit to explicit knowledge: Different roles of early- and late-night sleep

    PubMed Central

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger,, Rolf; Bataghva, Zhamak; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    Sleep has been shown to promote the generation of explicit knowledge as indicated by the gain of insight into previously unrecognized task regularities. Here, we explored whether this generation of explicit knowledge depends on pre-sleep implicit knowledge, and specified the differential roles of slow-wave sleep (SWS) vs. rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in this process. Implicit and explicit knowledge (insight) related to a hidden regularity were assessed in an associative motor-learning task (number reduction task, NRT), which was performed in two sessions (initial practice and retest) separated by 3 h of either early-night sleep, rich in SWS, or of late-night sleep, rich in REM sleep. About half of the participants developed signs of implicit rule knowledge (i.e., speeded reaction times for responses determined by the hidden regularity) at initial practice preceding early or late sleep. Of these, half developed explicit knowledge across early-night sleep, significantly more than across late-night sleep. In contrast, late-night subjects preferentially remained on the level of implicit rule knowledge after sleep. Participants who did not develop implicit knowledge before sleep had comparable rates of transition to implicit or explicit knowledge across early and late sleep. If subjects gained explicit knowledge across sleep, this was associated with lower amounts of REM sleep, specifically in the late-night group. SWS predominant during the early night may restructure implicit memory representations in a way that allows creating an explicit representation afterward, whereas REM sleep in the late night appears to stabilize them in their implicit form. PMID:18626095

  8. Losing a valued member of the medical practice team.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Losing a valued member of your staff can be disruptive, painful, and costly to your medical practice. And despite your best intentions and impeccable employee management policies and skills, things will happen beyond your control, and people move on. Being prepared for that possibility will help you minimize and contain the damage and move your practice forward. This article suggests 15 strategies that you can use to mitigate the effects of losing a valued employee. These include strategies to protect your practice's interests and several that will smooth the transition for your remaining staff. This article also describes 10 ways that losing a valued employee can impact a practice. It offers 10 additional strategies to help you cope with the death of an employee, one of the most difficult challenges a practice manager may ever face. This article further suggests several easy-to-implement practice management techniques that will help you soften the blow of employee turnover. It offers a sample farewell letter to announce an employee's departure from your practice and suggests six knowledge transfer questions to ask before the employee leaves. Finally, this article provides a comprehensive list of more than 30 thoughtful, eye-opening, and revealing questions that you can ask in an employee exit interview or exit survey. PMID:25807601

  9. Genetic Dissociation of Daily Sleep and Sleep Following Thermogenetic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dubowy, Christine; Moravcevic, Katarina; Yue, Zhifeng; Wan, Joy Y.; Van Dongen, Hans P.A.; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep rebound—the increase in sleep that follows sleep deprivation—is a hallmark of homeostatic sleep regulation that is conserved across the animal kingdom. However, both the mechanisms that underlie sleep rebound and its relationship to habitual daily sleep remain unclear. To address this, we developed an efficient thermogenetic method of inducing sleep deprivation in Drosophila that produces a substantial rebound, and applied the newly developed method to assess sleep rebound in a screen of 1,741 mutated lines. We used data generated by this screen to identify lines with reduced sleep rebound following thermogenetic sleep deprivation, and to probe the relationship between habitual sleep amount and sleep following thermogenetic sleep deprivation in Drosophila. Methods: To develop a thermogenetic method of sleep deprivation suitable for screening, we thermogenetically stimulated different populations of wake-promoting neurons labeled by Gal4 drivers. Sleep rebound following thermogenetically-induced wakefulness varies across the different sets of wake-promoting neurons that were stimulated, from very little to quite substantial. Thermogenetic activation of neurons marked by the c584-Gal4 driver produces both strong sleep loss and a substantial rebound that is more consistent within genotypes than rebound following mechanical or caffeine-induced sleep deprivation. We therefore used this driver to induce sleep deprivation in a screen of 1,741 mutagenized lines generated by the Drosophila Gene Disruption Project. Flies were subjected to 9 h of sleep deprivation during the dark period and released from sleep deprivation 3 h before lights-on. Recovery was measured over the 15 h following sleep deprivation. Following identification of lines with reduced sleep rebound, we characterized baseline sleep and sleep depth before and after sleep deprivation for these hits. Results: We identified two lines that consistently exhibit a blunted increase in the

  10. Sleep disorders in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Costa e Silva, Jorge Alberto

    2006-10-01

    Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or staying asleep, in staying awake, or in adhering to a consistent sleep/wake schedule. Narcolepsy affects as many individuals as does multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease. Sleep problems are especially prevalent in schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses, and every year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add billions to the national health care bill in industrialized countries. Although psychiatrists often treat patients with insomnia secondary to depression, most patients discuss their insomnia with general care physicians, making it important to provide this group with clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of insomnia. Once the specific medical, behavioral, or psychiatric causes of the sleep problem have been identified, appropriate treatment can be undertaken. Chronic insomnia has multiple causes arising from medical disorders, psychiatric disorders, primary sleep disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, social or therapeutic use of drugs, or maladaptive behaviors. The emerging concepts of sleep neurophysiology are consistent with the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance hypothesis of mood disorders, which proposes that depression is associated with an increased ratio of central cholinergic to aminergic neurotransmission. The characteristic sleep abnormalities of depression may reflect a relative predominance of cholinergic activity. Antidepressant medications presumably reduce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep either by their anticholinergic properties or by enhancing aminergic neurotransmission. Intense and prolonged dreams often accompany abrupt withdrawal

  11. Changes in taste preference and steps taken after sleep curtailment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shannon L; Ludy, Mary-Jon; Tucker, Robin M

    2016-09-01

    A substantial proportion of the population does not achieve the recommended amount of sleep. Previous work demonstrates that sleep alterations perturb energy balance by disrupting appetite hormones, increasing energy intake, and decreasing physical activity. This study explored the influence of sleep duration on taste perception as well as effects on dietary intake and physical activity. Participants (n=24 habitual short sleepers and n=27 habitual long sleepers, 82.4% female, 88.2% white, 25.2±7.7years) completed two randomized taste visits; one following short sleep duration (≤7h) and one following long sleep duration (>7h). Taste perception measures included sweet and salt detection thresholds (ascending 3-alternative, forced-choice method), as well as sweet preference (Monell 2-series, forced-choice, paired-comparison, tracking method). Steps and sleep were tracked via FitBit, an activity monitoring device. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls and analyzed using Nutritionist Pro. Habitual long-sleepers had a higher sweet taste preference (p=0.042) and took fewer steps (p=0.036) following sleep curtailment compared to the night where they slept >7h but did not experience changes in dietary intake or detection thresholds. Habitual short-sleepers did not experience changes in taste perception, activity, or dietary intake following sleep alteration. Habitual long-sleepers may be at greater risk of gaining weight when typical sleep patterns are disrupted. PMID:27184237

  12. Impact of lifestyle and technology developments on sleep

    PubMed Central

    Shochat, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Although the physiological and psychological mechanisms involved in the development of sleep disorders remain similar throughout history, factors that potentiate these mechanisms are closely related to the “zeitgeist”, ie, the sociocultural, technological and lifestyle trends which characterize an era. Technological advancements have afforded modern society with 24-hour work operations, transmeridian travel and exposure to a myriad of electronic devices such as televisions, computers and cellular phones. Growing evidence suggests that these advancements take their toll on human functioning and health via their damaging effects on sleep quality, quantity and timing. Additional behavioral lifestyle factors associated with poor sleep include weight gain, insufficient physical exercise and consumption of substances such as caffeine, alcohol and nicotine. Some of these factors have been implicated as self-help aids used to combat daytime sleepiness and impaired daytime functioning. This review aims to highlight current lifestyle trends that have been shown in scientific investigations to be associated with sleep patterns, sleep duration and sleep quality. Current understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these associations will be presented, as well as some of the reported consequences. Available therapies used to treat some lifestyle related sleep disorders will be discussed. Perspectives will be provided for further investigation of lifestyle factors that are associated with poor sleep, including developing theoretical frameworks, identifying underlying mechanisms, and establishing appropriate therapies and public health interventions aimed to improve sleep behaviors in order to enhance functioning and health in modern society. PMID:23616726

  13. The neurology of sleep.

    PubMed

    Swick, Todd J

    2005-11-01

    Neurology, by virtue of its study of the brain, is the primary medical science for the elucidation of the anatomy, physiology, pathology and, ultimately, the function of sleep. There has been nothing short of a revolution in the science of sleep over the past 50 years. From the discovery of REM sleep to the identification of Hypocretin/Orexin the basic science and clinical field of sleep medicine has blossomed. This article will explore the anatomy, physiology, biochemistry and, to a limited extent, pathophysiology of the sleep/wake centers of the brain. The field of chronobiology will also be touched upon.

  14. Sleep in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Richardson, P

    1996-07-01

    The article examines relationships between pregnancy and maternal sleep. Specifically, sleep as a restorative process is considered with regard for the metabolic and arousal demands of childbearing. The analysis draws attention to the limited number of studies in the area and the need for greater research interest in pregnancy sleep phenomena. The available evidence indicates that maternal slow-wave and rapid eye movement which are key to anabolic activity and neural-cerebral recharge, are protected throughout pregnancy until perhaps the last 3 to 4 weeks before delivery. The sleep disturbances about which term gravidas complain appear to be based on increased periods of wakefulness after sleep onset. PMID:8717994

  15. Behavioral state-specific inhibitory postsynaptic potentials impinge on cat lumbar motoneurons during active sleep.

    PubMed

    Morales, F R; Boxer, P; Chase, M H

    1987-11-01

    High-gain intracellular records were obtained from lumbar motoneurons in intact, undrugged cats during naturally occurring states of wakefulness, quiet sleep, and active sleep. Spontaneous, discrete, inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) were found to impinge on lumbar motoneurons during all states of sleep and wakefulness. IPSPs which occurred during wakefulness and quiet sleep were of relatively low amplitude and had a low frequency of occurrence. During the state of active sleep there occurred a great increase in inhibitory input. This was the result of the appearance of large-amplitude IPSPs and of an increase in the frequency of low-amplitude IPSPs which were indistinguishable from those recorded during wakefulness and quiet sleep. In addition to a difference in amplitude, the time course of the large IPSPs recorded during active sleep further differentiated them from the smaller IPSPs recorded during wakefulness, quiet sleep, and active sleep; i.e., their rise-time and half-width were of longer duration and their rate-of-rise was significantly faster. We suggest that the large, active sleep-specific IPSPs reflect the activity of a group of inhibitory interneurons which are inactive during wakefulness and quiet sleep and which discharge during active sleep. These as yet unidentified interneurons would then serve as the last link in the brain stem-spinal cord inhibitory system which is responsible for producing muscle atonia during the state of active sleep. PMID:3666087

  16. Autism and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Devnani, Preeti A; Hegde, Anaita U

    2015-01-01

    "Autism Spectrum Disorders" (ASDs) are neurodevelopment disorders and are characterized by persistent impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication. Sleep problems in ASD, are a prominent feature that have an impact on social interaction, day to day life, academic achievement, and have been correlated with increased maternal stress and parental sleep disruption. Polysomnography studies of ASD children showed most of their abnormalities related to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep which included decreased quantity, increased undifferentiated sleep, immature organization of eye movements into discrete bursts, decreased time in bed, total sleep time, REM sleep latency, and increased proportion of stage 1 sleep. Implementation of nonpharmacotherapeutic measures such as bedtime routines and sleep-wise approach is the mainstay of behavioral management. Treatment strategies along with limited regulated pharmacotherapy can help improve the quality of life in ASD children and have a beneficial impact on the family. PubMed search was performed for English language articles from January 1995 to January 2015. Following key words: Autism spectrum disorder, sleep disorders and autism, REM sleep and autism, cognitive behavioral therapy, sleep-wise approach, melatonin and ASD were used. Only articles reporting primary data relevant to the above questions were included. PMID:26962332

  17. Sleep habits and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Larcher, S; Benhamou, P-Y; Pépin, J-L; Borel, A-L

    2015-09-01

    Sleep duration has been constantly decreasing over the past 50 years. Short sleep duration, sleep quality and, recently, long sleep duration have all been linked to poor health outcomes, increasing the risk of developing metabolic diseases and cardiovascular events. Beyond the duration of sleep, the timing of sleep may also have consequences. Having a tendency to go early to bed (early chronotype) compared with the habit of going to bed later (late chronotype) can interfere considerably with social schedules (school, work). Eventually, a misalignment arises in sleep timing between work days and free days that has been described as 'social jet lag'. The present review looks at how different sleep habits can interfere with diabetes, excluding sleep breathing disorders, and successively looks at the effects of sleep duration, chronotype and social jet lag on the risk of developing diabetes as well as on the metabolic control of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Finally, this review addresses the current state of knowledge of physiological mechanisms that could be linking sleep habits and metabolic health.

  18. [Sleep duration and metabolism].

    PubMed

    Viot-Blanc, V

    2015-12-01

    Sleep duration has gradually diminished during the last decade while obesity and type 2 diabetes have become epidemics. Experimental sleep curtailment leads to increased appetite, hormonal disturbances and, especially, insulin resistance. Numerous epidemiological studies have therefore examined whether habitual short sleep is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A large majority of cross-sectional studies have confirmed an association between short, and also long sleep duration and obesity in adults more than in the elderly. Short sleep is strongly associated to obesity in children and adolescents. Prospective studies, including studies in children, are not conclusive with regard to the effect of short sleep on the incidence of obesity. Both short and long sleep durations are associated with diabetes, but only short sleep duration seems predictive of future diabetes. Insomnia seems to be a strong contributor to short sleep duration but the association of insomnia with obesity is not clear. Insomnia is associated with type 2 diabetes and also predictive of a higher incidence. Other studies have shown that short sleep duration and insomnia are associated with, and sometime predictive of, other components of the metabolic syndrome, especially hypertension and the risk of coronary disease. The treatment of short sleep duration and insomnia with regard to their effects on the metabolic syndrome merits further study. PMID:26603959

  19. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  20. Dreaming without REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Oudiette, Delphine; Dealberto, Marie-José; Uguccioni, Ginevra; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Merino-Andreu, Milagros; Tafti, Mehdi; Garma, Lucile; Schwartz, Sophie; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2012-09-01

    To test whether mental activities collected from non-REM sleep are influenced by REM sleep, we suppressed REM sleep using clomipramine 50mg (an antidepressant) or placebo in the evening, in a double blind cross-over design, in 11 healthy young men. Subjects were awakened every hour and asked about their mental activity. The marked (81%, range 39-98%) REM-sleep suppression induced by clomipramine did not substantially affect any aspects of dream recall (report length, complexity, bizarreness, pleasantness and self-perception of dream or thought-like mentation). Since long, complex and bizarre dreams persist even after suppressing REM sleep either partially or totally, it suggests that the generation of mental activity during sleep is independent of sleep stage.

  1. Sleep-related violence.

    PubMed

    Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Cramer Bornemann, Michel A

    2005-03-01

    Most violent behaviors arise from wakefulness. It is important to realize that violent behaviors that may have forensic science implications can arise from the sleep period. By virtue of the fact that these behaviors arise from sleep, they are executed without conscious awareness, and, therefore, without culpability. The most common underlying conditions arising from sleep are disorders of arousal (sleepwalking and sleep terrors), the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and nocturnal seizures. In addition, there are a number of psychiatric conditions (dissociative disorders, malingering, and Munchausen syndrome by proxy) that actually arise from periods of wakefulness occurring during the sleep period. The clinical and medico-legal evaluation of such cases is outlined, and should be performed by a multidisciplinary team of experienced sleep medicine practitioners. PMID:15743554

  2. Sleep and moral awareness.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Christopher M; Gunia, Brian C; Wagner, David T

    2015-04-01

    The implications of sleep for morality are only starting to be explored. Extending the ethics literature, we contend that because bringing morality to conscious attention requires effort, a lack of sleep leads to low moral awareness. We test this prediction with three studies. A laboratory study with a manipulation of sleep across 90 participants judging a scenario for moral content indicates that a lack of sleep leads to low moral awareness. An archival study of Google Trends data across 6 years highlights a national dip in Web searches for moral topics (but not other topics) on the Monday after the Spring time change, which tends to deprive people of sleep. Finally, a diary study of 127 participants indicates that (within participants) nights with a lack of sleep are associated with low moral awareness the next day. Together, these three studies suggest that a lack of sleep leaves people less morally aware, with important implications for the recognition of morality in others.

  3. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Kanathur, Naveen; Harrington, John; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo

    2010-06-01

    Because there is insufficient cellular energy for organisms to perform their functions at the same constant rate and at the same time, all biologic processes show rhythmicity, each with its own unique frequency, amplitude, and phase. Optimal sleep and wakefulness requires proper timing and alignment of desired sleep-wake schedules and circadian rhythm-related periods of alertness. Persistent or recurrent mismatch between endogenous circadian rhythms and the conventional sleep-wake schedules of the environmental day can give rise to several circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Evaluation of suspected circadian rhythm sleep disorders requires proper monitoring of sleep diaries, often over several days to weeks. This article discusses the disorders of the circadian sleep-wake cycle and the therapeutic measures to correct the same.

  4. Sleep Patterns and Sleep Disruptions in School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeh, Avi; Raviv, Amiram; Gruber, Reut

    2000-01-01

    Assessed sleep patterns, sleep disruptions, and sleepiness of second-, fourth-, and sixth-graders. Found that older children had more delayed sleep onset times and increased reported daytime sleepiness than younger; girls spent more time in sleep than boys and had increased percentage of motionless sleep; and 18 percent of children had fragmented…

  5. Family Disorganization, Sleep Hygiene, and Adolescent Sleep Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billows, Michael; Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Johnston, Anna; McCappin, Stephanie; Hudson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The link between sleep hygiene and adolescent sleep is well documented, though evidence suggests contributions from other factors, particularly the family environment. The present study examined whether sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between family disorganization and self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and daytime…

  6. Sleep and Sleep Problems: From Birth to 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Mond, Courtney; Mindell, Jodi A.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is an important aspect of a child's early development and is essential to family well-being. During their first 3 years, infants and toddlers spend more than 50% of their lives sleeping. However, concerns about sleep and sleep problems are among the most common issues brought to the attention of pediatricians. Although sleep is one of the…

  7. Plasmonics: Loss and gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulton, Rupert F.

    2012-04-01

    Providing sufficient gain to overcome loss remains a fundamental challenge for light amplification in miniaturized plasmonic devices. Ongoing research gives hope for a cautious but optimistic outlook.

  8. Cardiovascular physiology and sleep.

    PubMed

    Murali, Narayana S; Svatikova, Anna; Somers, Virend K

    2003-05-01

    Sleep is a natural periodic suspension of consciousness during which processes of rest and restoration occur. The cognitive, reparative and regenerative accompaniments of sleep appear to be essential for maintenance of health and homeostasis. This brief overview will examine the cardiovascular responses to normal and disordered sleep, and their physiologic and pathologic implications. In the past, sleep was believed to be a passive state. The tableau of sleep as it unfolds is anything but a passive process. The brain's activity is as complex as wakefulness, never "resting" during sleep. Following the demise of the 'passive theory of sleep' (the reticular activating system is fatigued during the waking day and hence becomes inactive), there arose the 'active theory of sleep' (sleep is due to an active general inhibition of the brain) (1). Hess demonstrated the active nature of sleep in cats, inducing "physiological sleep" with electrical stimulation of the diencephalon (2). Classical experiments of transection of the cat brainstem (3) at midpontine level inhibited sleep completely, implying that centers below this level were involved in the induction of sleep (1, 4). For the first time, measurement of sleep depth without awakening the sleeper using the electroencephalogram (EEG) was demonstrated in animals by Caton and in humans, by Berger (1). This was soon followed by discovery of the rapid eye movement sleep periods (REM) by Aserinski and Kleitman (5), demonstration of periodical sleep cycles and their association with REM sleep (6, 7). Multiple studies and steady discoveries (4) made polysomnography, with its ability to perform simultaneous whole night recordings of EEG, electromyogram (EMG), and electrooculogram (EOC), a major diagnostic tool in study of sleep disorders. This facility has been of further critical importance in allowing evaluation of the interaction between sleep and changes in hemodynamics and autonomic cardiovascular control. Consequently the

  9. Invention and Gain Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Robert J.; Dixon, Stacey

    1989-01-01

    Gain analysis is applied to the invention of the sewing needle as well as different sewing implements and modes of sewing. The analysis includes a two-subject experiment. To validate the generality of gain heuristics and underlying switching processes, the invention of the assembly line is also analyzed. (TJH)

  10. Relations Between Toddler Sleep Characteristics, Sleep Problems, and Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Rudasill, Kathleen M.; Prokasky, Amanda; Champagne, Carly; Holmes, Molly; Molfese, Dennis; Bates, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Two sources of information (parent reported sleep diaries and actigraph records) were used to investigate how toddler sleep characteristics (bed time/sleep onset, wake time/sleep offset, total nighttime sleep and total sleep time) are related to sleep problems and temperament. There were 64 toddler participants in the study. Consistent with studies of older children, parent reports differed from actigraph based records. The findings that parent reported and actigraph recorded sleep characteristics varied as a function of parent report of toddler sleep problems and temperament add needed information on toddler sleep. Such information may contribute to improving parents’ awareness of their child’s sleep characteristics and correlates of problem sleep. PMID:26151612

  11. [Headache and sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Masayuki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Headache and sleep problems are both some of the most commonly reported symptoms in clinical practice. There is a clear association between chronic headache and sleep disorders, especially headaches occurring during the night or early morning. Identification of sleep problems in chronic headache patients is worthwhile because treatment of sleep disorders among chronic headache patients may be followed by improve of the headache. Morning headache has been recognised as an obstructive sleep apnoea related symptom. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure usually reduced headache, however, we often encounter obstructive sleep apnoea patients who present various characteristics of morning headache that often do not fulfil the criteria for "sleep apnoea headache" according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders: 2nd edition (ICHD-2) criteria. The pathophysiologic background for a relation between obstructive sleep apnoea and morning headache is multifactorial. We should also be noted that tension-type headache and migraine might be coexisted in obstructive sleep apnoea patients. In addition, we review the relationship between migraine and sleep disorders such as restless legs syndrome, narcolepsy and parasomnia (dream enacting behaviour) including our studies. PMID:25672689

  12. [Advanced sleep phase syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ondzé, B; Espa, F; Ming, L C; Chakkar, B; Besset, A; Billiard, M

    2001-11-01

    The Advanced Sleep Phase Syndrome (ASPS) is a sleep disorder characterized by an early sleep onset and early awakening without any disturbance of the sleep structure. The management of this disease requires clinical and laboratory investigations in an attempt to confirm the phase advance of body core temperature and melatonin rhythm. The use of light therapy, possibly associated with chronotherapy or melatonin intake has been proposed. The evolution is variable. Seven subjects, aged 15 to 72 were diagnosed in our sleep disorders unit by mean of sleep log, actigraphy, sleep and temperature recording. The sleep onset and sleep offset times were approximately the same according to sleep log, actigraphy and night polysomnography. The nadir of body core temperature was at 01:38 +/- 01:03. Two familial cases were identified of which 1 was investigated in constant routine condition with hourly blood sampling. An advanced phase of melatonin and cortisol was evidenced. The disease temporarily improved in 3 cases with light therapy and in one case with the association of light therapy and chronotherapy. These data show the difficulties of the management and the treatment of this rarely diagnosed disease. PMID:11924025

  13. Sleep, Cognition and Dementia.

    PubMed

    Porter, Verna R; Buxton, William G; Avidan, Alon Y

    2015-12-01

    The older patient population is growing rapidly around the world and in the USA. Almost half of seniors over age 65 who live at home are dissatisfied with their sleep, and nearly two-thirds of those residing in nursing home facilities suffer from sleep disorders. Chronic and pervasive sleep complaints and disturbances are frequently associated with excessive daytime sleepiness and may result in impaired cognition, diminished intellect, poor memory, confusion, and psychomotor retardation all of which may be misinterpreted as dementia. The key sleep disorders impacting patients with dementia include insomnia, hypersomnolence, circadian rhythm misalignment, sleep disordered breathing, motor disturbances of sleep such as periodic leg movement disorder of sleep and restless leg syndrome, and parasomnias, mostly in the form of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is a pre-clinical marker for a class of neurodegenerative diseases, the "synucleinopathies", and requires formal polysomnographic evaluation. Untreated sleep disorders may exacerbate cognitive and behavioral symptoms in patients with dementia and are a source of considerable stress for bed partners and family members. When left untreated, sleep disturbances may also increase the risk of injury at night, compromise health-related quality of life, and precipitate and accelerate social and economic burdens for caregivers. PMID:26478197

  14. Sleep, Cognition and Dementia.

    PubMed

    Porter, Verna R; Buxton, William G; Avidan, Alon Y

    2015-12-01

    The older patient population is growing rapidly around the world and in the USA. Almost half of seniors over age 65 who live at home are dissatisfied with their sleep, and nearly two-thirds of those residing in nursing home facilities suffer from sleep disorders. Chronic and pervasive sleep complaints and disturbances are frequently associated with excessive daytime sleepiness and may result in impaired cognition, diminished intellect, poor memory, confusion, and psychomotor retardation all of which may be misinterpreted as dementia. The key sleep disorders impacting patients with dementia include insomnia, hypersomnolence, circadian rhythm misalignment, sleep disordered breathing, motor disturbances of sleep such as periodic leg movement disorder of sleep and restless leg syndrome, and parasomnias, mostly in the form of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is a pre-clinical marker for a class of neurodegenerative diseases, the "synucleinopathies", and requires formal polysomnographic evaluation. Untreated sleep disorders may exacerbate cognitive and behavioral symptoms in patients with dementia and are a source of considerable stress for bed partners and family members. When left untreated, sleep disturbances may also increase the risk of injury at night, compromise health-related quality of life, and precipitate and accelerate social and economic burdens for caregivers.

  15. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ju; Lee, Jung Hie; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review circadian rhythm sleep disorders, including underlying causes, diagnostic considerations, and typical treatments. Methods Literature review and discussion of specific cases. Results Survey studies 1,2 suggest that up to 3% of the adult population suffers from a circadian rhythm sleep disorder (CRSD). However, these sleep disorders are often confused with insomnia, and an estimated 10% of adult and 16% of adolescent sleep disorders patients may have a CRSD 3-6. While some CRSD (such as jet lag) can be self-limiting, others when untreated can lead to adverse medical, psychological, and social consequences. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders classifies CRSD as dyssomnias, with six subtypes: Advanced Sleep Phase Type, Delayed Sleep Phase Type, Irregular Sleep Wake Type, Free Running Type, Jet Lag Type, and Shift Work Type. The primary clinical characteristic of all CRSD is an inability to fall asleep and wake at the desired time. It is believed that CRSD arise from a problem with the internal biological clock (circadian timing system) and/or misalignment between the circadian timing system and the external 24-hour environment. This misalignment can be the result of biological and/or behavioral factors. CRSD can be confused with other sleep or medical disorders. Conclusions Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are a distinct class of sleep disorders characterized by a mismatch between the desired timing of sleep and the ability to fall asleep and remain asleep. If untreated, CRSD can lead to insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness, with negative medical, psychological, and social consequences. It is important for physicians to recognize potential circadian rhythm sleep disorders so that appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and referral can be made. PMID:25368503

  16. Cool and luminous transients from mass-losing binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejcha, Ondřej; Metzger, Brian D.; Tomida, Kengo

    2016-02-01

    We study transients produced by equatorial disc-like outflows from catastrophically mass-losing binary stars with an asymptotic velocity and energy deposition rate near the inner edge which are proportional to the binary escape velocity vesc. As a test case, we present the first smoothed-particle radiation-hydrodynamics calculations of the mass loss from the outer Lagrange point with realistic equation of state and opacities. The resulting spiral stream becomes unbound for binary mass ratios 0.06 ≲ q ≲ 0.8. For synchronous binaries with non-degenerate components, the spiral-stream arms merge at a radius of ˜10a, where a is the binary semi-major axis, and the accompanying shock thermalizes about 10 per cent of the kinetic power of the outflow. The mass-losing binary outflows produce luminosities reaching up to ˜106 L⊙ and effective temperatures spanning 500 ≲ Teff ≲ 6000 K, which is compatible with many of the class of recently discovered red transients such as V838 Mon and V1309 Sco. Dust readily forms in the outflow, potentially in a catastrophic global cooling transition. The appearance of the transient is viewing angle-dependent due to vastly different optical depths parallel and perpendicular to the binary plane. We predict a correlation between the peak luminosity and the outflow velocity, which is roughly obeyed by the known red transients. Outflows from mass-losing binaries can produce luminous (105 L⊙) and cool (Teff ≲ 1500 K) transients lasting a year or longer, as has potentially been detected by Spitzer surveys of nearby galaxies.

  17. Losing the Dark: A Planetarium PSA about Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Carolyn Collins; Walker, Constance

    2015-03-01

    Losing the Dark is a six-minute PSA video created for fulldome theaters by Loch Ness Productions, the International Dark Sky Association Education Committee headed by Dr. Constance Walker of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Dome3, Adler Planetarium, and Babak Tafreshi (The World at Night). It explains light pollution, its effects, and ways to implement ``wise lighting`` practices to mitigate light pollution. The show is also made in flat-screen HD format for classical planetariums, non-dome theaters, and for presentatons by IDA speakers.

  18. 42 CFR 136a.34 - Care and treatment of people losing eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Care and treatment of people losing eligibility. 136a.34 Section 136a.34 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....34 Care and treatment of people losing eligibility. (a) Individuals who lose their eligibility...

  19. 42 CFR 136a.34 - Care and treatment of people losing eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Care and treatment of people losing eligibility. 136a.34 Section 136a.34 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....34 Care and treatment of people losing eligibility. (a) Individuals who lose their eligibility...

  20. Central Sleep Apnea at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Keith R; Ainslie, Philip N

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of central sleep apnea (CSA) at high altitude is usually attributed to Angelo Mosso who published in 1898. It can occur in susceptible individuals at altitude above 2000 m, but at very high altitude, say above 5000 m, it will occur in most subjects. Severity is correlated with ventilatory responsiveness, particularly to hypoxia. Theoretically, it should spontaneously improve with time and acclimatization. Although the time course of resolution is not well described, it appears to persist for more than a month at 5000 m.It occurs due to the interaction of hypocapnia with stages 1 and 2 NREM sleep, in the presence of increased loop-gain. The hypocapnia is secondary to hypoxic ventilatory drive. With acclimatization, one might expect that the increase in PaO2 and cerebral blood flow (CBF) would mitigate the CSA. However, over time, both the hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses increase, causing an increase in loop gain which is a counteracting force.The severity of the CSA can be reduced by descent, supplemental oxygen therapy, oral or intravenous acetazolamide. Recent studies suggest that acute further increases in cerebral blood flow will substantially, but temporarily, reduce central sleep apnea, without altering acid based balance. Very recently, bi-level noninvasive ventilation has also been shown to help (mechanism unknown). Sleep quality can be improved independent of the presence of CSA by the use of benzodiazepine sedation. PMID:27343103

  1. Guide to Understanding Your Sleep Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... ASAA Financials Learn Healthy sleep Sleep apnea Other sleep disorders Personal stories Treat Test Yourself Diagnosis Treatment Options ... a result of sleep-disordered breathing or other sleep disorders. Each arousal sends you back to a lighter ...

  2. PROCESSES ORGANISMIC: SLEEP AND DREAMING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews studies relating biological and mental activity during sleep and discusses how sleep affects waking behavior. The research shows that sleep and waking behaviors—-both physiological and cognitive--are more directly related than previously imagined....

  3. Dementia - behavior and sleep problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000029.htm Dementia - behavior and sleep problems To use the sharing features on this ... sleep and stay asleep Tips for Behavior and Sleep Problems Having a daily routine may help. Calmly ...

  4. Effects of acute sleep deprivation on motor and reversal learning in mice.

    PubMed

    Varga, Andrew W; Kang, Mihwa; Ramesh, Priyanka V; Klann, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Sleep supports the formation of a variety of declarative and non-declarative memories, and sleep deprivation often impairs these types of memories. In human subjects, natural sleep either during a nap or overnight leads to long-lasting improvements in visuomotor and fine motor tasks, but rodent models recapitulating these findings have been scarce. Here we present evidence that 5h of acute sleep deprivation impairs mouse skilled reach learning compared to a matched period of ad libitum sleep. In sleeping mice, the duration of total sleep time during the 5h of sleep opportunity or during the first bout of sleep did not correlate with ultimate gain in motor performance. In addition, we observed that reversal learning during the skilled reaching task was also affected by sleep deprivation. Consistent with this observation, 5h of sleep deprivation also impaired reversal learning in the water-based Y-maze. In conclusion, acute sleep deprivation negatively impacts subsequent motor and reversal learning and memory.

  5. No time to lose--high throughput screening to assess nanomaterial safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damoiseaux, R.; George, S.; Li, M.; Pokhrel, S.; Ji, Z.; France, B.; Xia, T.; Suarez, E.; Rallo, R.; Mädler, L.; Cohen, Y.; Hoek, E. M. V.; Nel, A.

    2011-04-01

    Nanomaterials hold great promise for medical, technological and economical benefits. Knowledge concerning the toxicological properties of these novel materials is typically lacking. At the same time, it is becoming evident that some nanomaterials could have a toxic potential in humans and the environment. Animal based systems lack the needed capacity to cope with the abundance of novel nanomaterials being produced, and thus we have to employ in vitro methods with high throughput to manage the rush logistically and use high content readouts wherever needed in order to gain more depth of information. Towards this end, high throughput screening (HTS) and high content screening (HCS) approaches can be used to speed up the safety analysis on a scale that commensurate with the rate of expansion of new materials and new properties. The insights gained from HTS/HCS should aid in our understanding of the tenets of nanomaterial hazard at biological level as well as assist the development of safe-by-design approaches. This review aims to provide a comprehensive introduction to the HTS/HCS methodology employed for safety assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), including data analysis and prediction of potentially hazardous material properties. Given the current pace of nanomaterial development, HTS/HCS is a potentially effective means of keeping up with the rapid progress in this field--we have literally no time to lose.

  6. No Time To Lose - High Throughput Screening To Assess Nanomaterial Safety

    PubMed Central

    Damoiseaux, R; George, S; Li, M; Pokhrel, S; Ji, Z; France, B; Xia, T; Suarez, E; Rallo, R; Mädler, L; Cohen, Y; Hoek, EMV; Nel, A

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials hold great promise for medical, technological and economical benefits. Knowledge concerning the toxicological properties of these novel materials is typically lacking. At the same time, it is becoming evident that some nanomaterials could have a toxic potential in humans and the environment. Animal based systems lack the needed capacity to cope with the abundance of novel nanomaterials being produced, and thus we have to employ in vitro methods with high throughput to manage the rush logistically and use high content readouts wherever needed in order to gain more depth of information. Towards this end, high throughput screening (HTS) and high content screening (HCS) approaches can be used to speed up the safety analysis on a scale that commensurate with the rate of expansion of new materials and new properties. The insights gained from HTS/HCS should aid in our understanding of the tenets of nanomaterial hazard at biological level as well as asset the development of safe-by-design approaches. This review aims to provide a comprehensive introduction to the HTS/HCS methodology employed for safety assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), including data analysis and prediction of potentially hazardous material properties. Given the current pace of nanomaterial development, HTS/HCS is a potentially effective means of keeping up with the rapid progress in this field – we have literally no time to lose. PMID:21301704

  7. Physiological changes, sleep, and morning mood in an isolated environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Mizuno, Koh; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Murai, Tadashi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu; Orasanu, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous isolation studies have shown increased 24-h urine volumes and body weight gains in subjects. This project examined those and other physiological variables in relationship to sleep motor activity, subjective sleep quality, mood, and complaints during confinement. METHODS: Six male and two female subjects lived for 7 d in the National Space Development Agency of Japan's isolation chamber, which simulates the interior of the Japanese Experiment Module. Each 24-h period included 6 h of sleep, 3 meals, and 20 min of exercise. Each morning, subjects completed Sleep Sensation and Complaint Index questionnaires. Catecholamine and creatinine excretion, urine volume, and body weight were measured on the 2 d before and 2 d after confinement, and sleep motor activity was measured during confinement. RESULTS: Confinement produced no significant change in body weight, urine volume, or questionnaire results. In contrast, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and sleep motor activity exhibited significant differences during confinement (p < 0.05). Higher nocturnal norepinephrine excretion correlated with higher sleep motor activity. CONCLUSION: The 24-h epinephrine values were slightly higher than normal throughout the experiment, but lower than for subjects working under time-stress. High sympathetic activity (as indicated by norepinephrine) may have interfered with sleep.

  8. Cool and Luminous Transients from Mass-Losing Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejcha, Ondrej; Metzger, Brian D.; Tomida, Kengo

    2016-01-01

    We study transients produced by equatorial disk-like outflows from catastrophically mass-losing binary stars with an asymptotic velocity and energy deposition rate near the inner edge which are proportional to the binary escape velocity. As a test case, we present the first smoothed-particle radiation-hydrodynamics calculations of the mass loss from the outer Lagrange point with realistic equation of state and opacities. The mass-losing binary outflows produce luminosities reaching up to 106 L⊙ and the effective temperatures are between 500 and 6000 K, which is compatible with those of many of the class of recently-discovered red transients such as V838 Mon and V1309 Sco. Dust readily forms in the outflow, potentially in a catastrophic global cooling transition. The appearance of the transient is viewing angle-dependent due to vastly different optical depths parallel and perpendicular to the binary plane. We predict a correlation between the peak luminosity and the outflow velocity, which is roughly obeyed by the known red transients.

  9. How states stand to gain or lose federal funds by opting in or out of the Medicaid expansion.

    PubMed

    Glied, Sherry; Ma, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Following the Supreme Court’s decision in 2012, state officials are now deciding whether to expand their Medicaid programs under the Affordable Care Act. While the states’ costs of participating in the Medicaid expansion have been at the forefront of this discussion, the expansion has much larger implications for the flow of federal funds going to the states. This issue brief examines how participating in the Medicaid expansion will affect the movement of federal funds to each state. States that choose to participate in the expansion will experience a more positive net flow of federal funds than will states that choose not to participate. In addition to providing valuable health insurance benefits to low-income state residents, and steady sources of financing to state health care providers, the Medicaid expansion will be an important source of new federal funds for states.

  10. Trust in the safety of tourist destinations: hard to gain, easy to lose? New insights on the asymmetry principle.

    PubMed

    Eitzinger, Claudia; Wiedemann, Peter M

    2008-08-01

    According to the asymmetry principle of trust, negative events decrease trust to a much higher extent than positive events increase trust. The study at hand intended to verify whether this notion of asymmetry holds true with respect to trust in the safety of tourist destinations. Thus, in contrast to previous research that analyzed trust asymmetry in the context of involuntary technological risks, the present study evaluates the validity of the asymmetry principle of trust in the context of voluntary tourism risks. The hypothesis that negative or risky information on destination safety (absence of proper safety measures and conditions) has a higher impact on distrust than, conversely, positive or nonrisk information on destination safety (provision of proper safety measures and conditions) has on trust was tested in an online survey (N= 640). In contrast to the asymmetry pattern found by Slovic (1993), results of the current work suggest symmetry rather than asymmetry of trust. The presence of proper safety measures and conditions (positive or nonrisk information) was found to have at least the same-and in some cases an even higher-impact on trust than the absence of such measures and conditions (negative or risky information) had on distrust. Findings provide empirical evidence for the thesis that the prevalence of trust asymmetry is dependent on the risk source and demonstrate that trust is symmetric rather than asymmetric in the context of voluntary tourism risks. Furthermore, results imply an influence of positive versus negative expectations as well as of prior trusting relationships on the occurrence of the asymmetry principle.

  11. Impact on the individual: what do patients and carers gain, lose and expect from being involved in research?

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, Joanne; Wykes, Til; Taylor, Joseph; Crowther, Adam; Szmukler, George

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Study feasibility and deliverability can benefit from involving patients and carers in the research process, known as patient and public involvement (PPI). There is less evidence on the experiences of patients and carers themselves and we require more information across a range of studies, health conditions and research stages. Aims: This study explored how patients and carers in eight diagnostic research specialties have been involved in research, their motivations and the impact involvement had on them. Method: 143 patients and carers across the Clinical Research Network (CRN) responded to an online semi-structured questionnaire (developed using participatory methodology). Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed. Results: A range of benefits were reported, including providing a life focus and an improved relationship with illness. Less positive experiences regarding time and money and lack of acknowledgement were also reported, along with suggestions for improvement. Conclusions: PPI confers many benefits on patients and carers which could increase PPI recruitment if made explicit. More involvement in study recruitment and dissemination would increase the effectiveness of PPI input. Involving a more varied socioeconomic demographic and at an earlier stage is vital. Financial support for lower earners and greater feedback following involvement should also be explored. PMID:26733079

  12. Trust in the safety of tourist destinations: hard to gain, easy to lose? New insights on the asymmetry principle.

    PubMed

    Eitzinger, Claudia; Wiedemann, Peter M

    2008-08-01

    According to the asymmetry principle of trust, negative events decrease trust to a much higher extent than positive events increase trust. The study at hand intended to verify whether this notion of asymmetry holds true with respect to trust in the safety of tourist destinations. Thus, in contrast to previous research that analyzed trust asymmetry in the context of involuntary technological risks, the present study evaluates the validity of the asymmetry principle of trust in the context of voluntary tourism risks. The hypothesis that negative or risky information on destination safety (absence of proper safety measures and conditions) has a higher impact on distrust than, conversely, positive or nonrisk information on destination safety (provision of proper safety measures and conditions) has on trust was tested in an online survey (N= 640). In contrast to the asymmetry pattern found by Slovic (1993), results of the current work suggest symmetry rather than asymmetry of trust. The presence of proper safety measures and conditions (positive or nonrisk information) was found to have at least the same-and in some cases an even higher-impact on trust than the absence of such measures and conditions (negative or risky information) had on distrust. Findings provide empirical evidence for the thesis that the prevalence of trust asymmetry is dependent on the risk source and demonstrate that trust is symmetric rather than asymmetric in the context of voluntary tourism risks. Furthermore, results imply an influence of positive versus negative expectations as well as of prior trusting relationships on the occurrence of the asymmetry principle. PMID:18627538

  13. [Sleep and neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Mayer, G

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the physiology of sleep-wake regulation can contribute to an understanding of the pathophysiology and symptoms of neurological diseases and is helpful for initiating specific therapies for sleep-wake cycle stabilization. Based on historically important observations on the close relationship between sleep and neurological diseases, new insights and developments in selected neurological entities are presented in this review article. PMID:27167889

  14. Sodium oxybate-induced sleep driving and sleep-related eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Douglas McKay; Maze, Tanisha; Shafazand, Shirin

    2011-06-15

    Hypnosedative-induced complex behaviors have gained increased attention in recent years as a potential complication of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-receptor agonist use. Sodium oxybate (SO), the sodium salt of γ-hydroxybutyrate, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, has been associated with dose-dependent rates of somnambulism; however, there is limited information about complex motor behaviors with SO. We describe a patient with narcolepsy-cataplexy who experienced one episode of sleep-driving and at least two sleep-related eating episodes with therapeutic doses of SO. PMID:21677903

  15. Sleep in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traon, A. Pavy-le; Roussel, B.

    1993-09-01

    Manned space flights have shown it is possible to sleep in microgravity. However, some sleep disturbances have been reported which influence performance of the crew and safety of space flight. This paper reviews the main studies of in-flight sleep in animal and man. Most disturbances are related to phase lags due to operational requirements. Factors which can disturb in-flight sleep are analysed: • environmental factors. Some of them are secondary to space flight ergonomics. Conversely, effects of microgravity on light-dark alternance are less known and lead to interesting problems of fundamental research, • psychological factors, especially during long duration flights.

  16. Headaches and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Freedom, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Headaches and sleep disorders are associated in a complex manner. Both the disorders are common in the general population, but the relationship between the two is more than coincidental. Sleep disorders can exacerbate headache sand the converse is also true. Treatment of sleep disorders can have a positive impact on the treatment of headaches. Screening for sleep disorders should be considered in all patients with headaches. This can be accomplished with brief screening tools. Those who screen positively can be further evaluated or referred to asleep specialist.

  17. Nonepileptic paroxysmal sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Frenette, Eric; Guilleminault, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Events occurring during nighttime sleep in children can be easily mislabeled, as witnesses are usually not immediately available. Even when observers are present, description of the events can be sketchy, as these individuals are frequently aroused from their own sleep. Errors of perception are thus common and can lead to diagnosis of epilepsy where other sleep-related conditions are present, sometimes initiating unnecessary therapeutic interventions, especially with antiepileptic drugs. Often not acknowledged, paroxysmal nonepileptic behavioral and motor episodes in sleep are encountered much more frequently than their epileptic counterpart. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) 2nd edition displays an extensive list of such conditions that can be readily mistaken for epilepsy. The most prevalent ones are reviewed, such as nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias, comprised of sleepwalking, confusional arousals and sleep terrors, periodic leg movements of sleep, repetitive movement disorders, benign neonatal myoclonus, and sleep starts. Apnea of prematurity is also briefly reviewed. Specific issues regarding management of these selected disorders, both for diagnostic consideration and for therapeutic intervention, are addressed. PMID:23622294

  18. Recognising sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    How, Choon How; Hsu, Pon Poh; Tan, Kah Leong Alvin

    2015-01-01

    Most people spend a third of their lives sleeping, and thus, sleep has a major impact on all of us. As sleep is a function and not a structure, it is challenging to treat and prevent its complications. Sleep apnoea is one such complication, with serious and potentially life-threatening consequences. Local studies estimate that about 15% of Singapore’s population is afflicted with sleep apnoea. The resulting sleep fragmentation may result in poor quality of sleep, leading to daytime sleepiness. Sleep apnoea may also be the underlying cause of high blood pressure, memory loss, poor concentration and work performance, motor vehicle accidents, and marital problems. Evaluation involves a sleep study, followed by patient education, and an individualised step-wise management approach should be explored. Many patients will require follow-up for a long period of time, as management options may not offer a permanent cure; other contributory causes may arise at different phases of their lives, compounded by genetic and hormonal issues, ethnicity and the modern hazards of a fast-paced society. PMID:25820844

  19. The Pittsburgh Sleep Diary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Reynolds CF, 3. d.; Kupfer, D. J.; Buysse, D. J.; Coble, P. A.; Hayes, A. J.; Machen, M. A.; Petrie, S. R.; Ritenour, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Increasingly, there is a need in both research and clinical practice to document and quantify sleep and waking behaviors in a comprehensive manner. The Pittsburgh Sleep Diary (PghSD) is an instrument with separate components to be completed at bedtime and waketime. Bedtime components relate to the events of the day preceding the sleep, waketime components to the sleep period just completed. Two-week PghSD data is presented from 234 different subjects, comprising 96 healthy young middle-aged controls, 37 older men, 44 older women, 29 young adult controls and 28 sleep disorders patients in order to demonstrate the usefulness, validity and reliability of various measures from the instrument. Comparisons are made with polysomnographic and actigraphic sleep measures, as well as personality and circadian type questionnaires. The instrument was shown to have sensitivity in detecting differences due to weekends, age, gender, personality and circadian type, and validity in agreeing with actigraphic estimates of sleep timing and quality. Over a 12-31 month delay, PghSD measures of both sleep timing and sleep quality showed correlations between 0.56 and 0.81 (n = 39, P < 0.001).

  20. [Sleep disorders in epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Kotova, O V; Akarachkova, E S

    2014-01-01

    The review of the literature on sleep disorders in epilepsy over the last two decades is presented. Paroxysmal phenomena of epileptic origin, nonepileptic paroxysms, antiepileptic drugs, polypragmasia and comorbid depression may affect sleep in epilepsy.Shortening of sleep time may cause seizures, hallucinations and depression because sleep plays an important role in the regulation of excitatory and inhibitory processes in the brain both in healthy people and in patients with epilepsy. According to the literature data, drugs (short treatment courses of hypnotics) or nonpharmacological methods should be used for treatment insomnia inpatients with epilepsy.

  1. Recognising sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    How, C H; Hsu, P P; Tan, K L

    2015-03-01

    Most people spend a third of their lives sleeping, and thus, sleep has a major impact on all of us. As sleep is a function and not a structure, it is challenging to treat and prevent its complications. Sleep apnoea is one such complication, with serious and potentially life-threatening consequences. Local studies estimate that about 15% of Singapore's population is afflicted with sleep apnoea. The resulting sleep fragmentation may result in poor quality of sleep, leading to daytime sleepiness. Sleep apnoea may also be the underlying cause of high blood pressure, memory loss, poor concentration and work performance, motor vehicle accidents, and marital problems. Evaluation involves a sleep study, followed by patient education, and an individualised step-wise management approach should be explored. Many patients will require follow-up for a long period of time, as management options may not offer a permanent cure; other contributory causes may arise at different phases of their lives, compounded by genetic and hormonal issues, ethnicity and the modern hazards of a fast-paced society.

  2. Sleep and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kimberly A; Trupp, Robin J

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation occurs for many reasons but, when chronic in nature, has many consequences for optimal health and performance. Despite its high prevalence, sleep-disordered breathing is underrecognized and undertreated. This is especially true in the setting of heart failure, where sleep-disordered breathing affects more than 50% of patients. Although the optimal strategy to best identify patients is currently unknown, concerted and consistent efforts to support early recognition, diagnosis, and subsequent treatment should be encouraged. Optimization of guideline-directed medical therapy and concurrent treatment of sleep-disordered breathing are necessary to improve outcomes in this complex high-risk population. PMID:26567495

  3. The underlying interactome of childhood obesity: the potential role of sleep.

    PubMed

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2012-02-01

    Fine-tuning and integration between social rhythms and biological rhythms should be a priority for all, especially for children. As such, the opportunity to sleep should fit the evolving needs for sleep in a child. Unfortunately, children today are highly unlikely to obtain sufficient sleep or live under stable and regular schedules. Poor or dysregulated sleep affects the regulation of homeostatic and hormonal systems underlying somatic and intellectual growth, maturation, and bioenergetics. Therefore, in the prevention and management of childhood obesity, assessments of the “obesogenic” lifestyle, such as dietary and physical activity patterns, need to be coupled with accurate evaluation of the quality and quantity of sleep and with the potential co-existence of sleep-disordered breathing or other sleep disorders. Incorporation of sleep as an integral component of many childhood research studies on obesity should be done a priori rather than as an afterthought. Although parents and health professionals have meticulously delineated,observed, and quantified normal patterns of activities such as eating or playing, the absence of reliable sleep health data in children is all the more puzzling considering that young children engage in sleeping activities more than in any other activity during the 24-hour cycle. Therefore, the most forgotten, overlooked, or even actively ignored behavior of this century is undoubtedly childhood sleep. Trends aiming to reduce sleep in children have emerged, and regrettably continue to gain momentum. In parallel with such undesirable consequences, leading to the blatant disregard of sleep as a vital function rather than a commodity, a reciprocal increase in obesity rates has emerged. The mechanistic links between sleep and metabolism are now emerging, and should prompt incorporation of measures aiming to align sleep with any other antiobesity campaign. To paraphrase a well-known dictum “Somni sano in corpore sano” (healthy sleep

  4. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... If this is the case, preventing further weight gain is a worthy goal. As people age, their body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This ...

  5. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  6. NREM2 and Sleep Spindles Are Instrumental to the Consolidation of Motor Sequence Memories

    PubMed Central

    Laventure, Samuel; Fogel, Stuart; Lungu, Ovidiu; Albouy, Geneviève; Sévigny-Dupont, Pénélope; Vien, Catherine; Sayour, Chadi; Carrier, Julie; Benali, Habib; Doyon, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies have convincingly demonstrated that sleep plays a critical role in motor sequence learning (MSL) consolidation, the specific contribution of the different sleep stages in this type of memory consolidation is still contentious. To probe the role of stage 2 non-REM sleep (NREM2) in this process, we used a conditioning protocol in three different groups of participants who either received an odor during initial training on a motor sequence learning task and were re-exposed to this odor during different sleep stages of the post-training night (i.e., NREM2 sleep [Cond-NREM2], REM sleep [Cond-REM], or were not conditioned during learning but exposed to the odor during NREM2 [NoCond]). Results show that the Cond-NREM2 group had significantly higher gains in performance at retest than both the Cond-REM and NoCond groups. Also, only the Cond-NREM2 group yielded significant changes in sleep spindle characteristics during cueing. Finally, we found that a change in frequency of sleep spindles during cued-memory reactivation mediated the relationship between the experimental groups and gains in performance the next day. These findings strongly suggest that cued-memory reactivation during NREM2 sleep triggers an increase in sleep spindle activity that is then related to the consolidation of motor sequence memories. PMID:27032084

  7. NREM2 and Sleep Spindles Are Instrumental to the Consolidation of Motor Sequence Memories.

    PubMed

    Laventure, Samuel; Fogel, Stuart; Lungu, Ovidiu; Albouy, Geneviève; Sévigny-Dupont, Pénélope; Vien, Catherine; Sayour, Chadi; Carrier, Julie; Benali, Habib; Doyon, Julien

    2016-03-01

    Although numerous studies have convincingly demonstrated that sleep plays a critical role in motor sequence learning (MSL) consolidation, the specific contribution of the different sleep stages in this type of memory consolidation is still contentious. To probe the role of stage 2 non-REM sleep (NREM2) in this process, we used a conditioning protocol in three different groups of participants who either received an odor during initial training on a motor sequence learning task and were re-exposed to this odor during different sleep stages of the post-training night (i.e., NREM2 sleep [Cond-NREM2], REM sleep [Cond-REM], or were not conditioned during learning but exposed to the odor during NREM2 [NoCond]). Results show that the Cond-NREM2 group had significantly higher gains in performance at retest than both the Cond-REM and NoCond groups. Also, only the Cond-NREM2 group yielded significant changes in sleep spindle characteristics during cueing. Finally, we found that a change in frequency of sleep spindles during cued-memory reactivation mediated the relationship between the experimental groups and gains in performance the next day. These findings strongly suggest that cued-memory reactivation during NREM2 sleep triggers an increase in sleep spindle activity that is then related to the consolidation of motor sequence memories. PMID:27032084

  8. NREM2 and Sleep Spindles Are Instrumental to the Consolidation of Motor Sequence Memories.

    PubMed

    Laventure, Samuel; Fogel, Stuart; Lungu, Ovidiu; Albouy, Geneviève; Sévigny-Dupont, Pénélope; Vien, Catherine; Sayour, Chadi; Carrier, Julie; Benali, Habib; Doyon, Julien

    2016-03-01

    Although numerous studies have convincingly demonstrated that sleep plays a critical role in motor sequence learning (MSL) consolidation, the specific contribution of the different sleep stages in this type of memory consolidation is still contentious. To probe the role of stage 2 non-REM sleep (NREM2) in this process, we used a conditioning protocol in three different groups of participants who either received an odor during initial training on a motor sequence learning task and were re-exposed to this odor during different sleep stages of the post-training night (i.e., NREM2 sleep [Cond-NREM2], REM sleep [Cond-REM], or were not conditioned during learning but exposed to the odor during NREM2 [NoCond]). Results show that the Cond-NREM2 group had significantly higher gains in performance at retest than both the Cond-REM and NoCond groups. Also, only the Cond-NREM2 group yielded significant changes in sleep spindle characteristics during cueing. Finally, we found that a change in frequency of sleep spindles during cued-memory reactivation mediated the relationship between the experimental groups and gains in performance the next day. These findings strongly suggest that cued-memory reactivation during NREM2 sleep triggers an increase in sleep spindle activity that is then related to the consolidation of motor sequence memories.

  9. Evaluating the Evidence Surrounding Pontine Cholinergic Involvement in REM Sleep Generation

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Kevin P.; Horner, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep – characterized by vivid dreaming, motor paralysis, and heightened neural activity – is one of the fundamental states of the mammalian central nervous system. Initial theories of REM sleep generation posited that induction of the state required activation of the “pontine REM sleep generator” by cholinergic inputs. Here, we review and evaluate the evidence surrounding cholinergic involvement in REM sleep generation. We submit that: (i) the capacity of pontine cholinergic neurotransmission to generate REM sleep has been firmly established by gain-of-function experiments, (ii) the function of endogenous cholinergic input to REM sleep generating sites cannot be determined by gain-of-function experiments; rather, loss-of-function studies are required, (iii) loss-of-function studies show that endogenous cholinergic input to the PTF is not required for REM sleep generation, and (iv) cholinergic input to the pontine REM sleep generating sites serve an accessory role in REM sleep generation: reinforcing non-REM-to-REM sleep transitions making them quicker and less likely to fail. PMID:26388832

  10. Evaluating the Evidence Surrounding Pontine Cholinergic Involvement in REM Sleep Generation.

    PubMed

    Grace, Kevin P; Horner, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep - characterized by vivid dreaming, motor paralysis, and heightened neural activity - is one of the fundamental states of the mammalian central nervous system. Initial theories of REM sleep generation posited that induction of the state required activation of the "pontine REM sleep generator" by cholinergic inputs. Here, we review and evaluate the evidence surrounding cholinergic involvement in REM sleep generation. We submit that: (i) the capacity of pontine cholinergic neurotransmission to generate REM sleep has been firmly established by gain-of-function experiments, (ii) the function of endogenous cholinergic input to REM sleep generating sites cannot be determined by gain-of-function experiments; rather, loss-of-function studies are required, (iii) loss-of-function studies show that endogenous cholinergic input to the PTF is not required for REM sleep generation, and (iv) cholinergic input to the pontine REM sleep generating sites serve an accessory role in REM sleep generation: reinforcing non-REM-to-REM sleep transitions making them quicker and less likely to fail. PMID:26388832

  11. Evaluating the Evidence Surrounding Pontine Cholinergic Involvement in REM Sleep Generation.

    PubMed

    Grace, Kevin P; Horner, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep - characterized by vivid dreaming, motor paralysis, and heightened neural activity - is one of the fundamental states of the mammalian central nervous system. Initial theories of REM sleep generation posited that induction of the state required activation of the "pontine REM sleep generator" by cholinergic inputs. Here, we review and evaluate the evidence surrounding cholinergic involvement in REM sleep generation. We submit that: (i) the capacity of pontine cholinergic neurotransmission to generate REM sleep has been firmly established by gain-of-function experiments, (ii) the function of endogenous cholinergic input to REM sleep generating sites cannot be determined by gain-of-function experiments; rather, loss-of-function studies are required, (iii) loss-of-function studies show that endogenous cholinergic input to the PTF is not required for REM sleep generation, and (iv) cholinergic input to the pontine REM sleep generating sites serve an accessory role in REM sleep generation: reinforcing non-REM-to-REM sleep transitions making them quicker and less likely to fail.

  12. The role of sleep duration in the regulation of energy balance: effects on energy intakes and expenditure.

    PubMed

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2013-01-15

    Short sleep duration and obesity are common occurrence in today's society. An extensive literature from cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies shows a relationship between short sleep and prevalence of obesity and weight gain. However, causality cannot be inferred from such studies. Clinical intervention studies have examined whether reducing sleep in normal sleepers, typically sleeping 7-9 h/night, can affect energy intake, energy expenditure, and endocrine regulators of energy balance. The aim of this review is to evaluate studies that have assessed food intake, energy expenditure, and leptin and ghrelin levels after periods of restricted and normal sleep. Most studies support the notion that restricting sleep increases food intake, but the effects on energy expenditure are mixed. Differences in methodology and component of energy expenditure analyzed may account for the discrepancies. Studies examining the effects of sleep on leptin and ghrelin have provided conflicting results with increased, reduced, or unchanged leptin and ghrelin levels after restricted sleep compared to normal sleep. Energy balance of study participants and potential sex differences may account for the varied results. Studies should strive for constant energy balance and feeding schedules when assessing the role of sleep on hormonal profile. Although studies suggest that restricting sleep may lead to weight gain via increased food intake, research is needed to examine the impact on energy expenditure and endocrine controls. Also, studies have been of short duration, and there is little knowledge on the reverse question: does increasing sleep duration in short sleepers lead to negative energy balance?

  13. Sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Thorpy, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    Depression, dementia, and physiologic changes contribute to the high prevalence of sleep disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Antiparkinsonian drugs also play a role in insomnia by increasing daytime sleepiness and affecting motor symptoms and depression. Common types of sleep disturbances in PD patients include nocturnal sleep disruption and excessive daytime sleepiness, restless legs syndrome, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep apnea, sleep walking and sleep talking, nightmares, sleep terrors, and panic attacks. A thorough assessment should include complete medical and psychiatric histories, sleep history, and a 1- to 2-week sleep diary or Epworth Sleepiness Scale evaluation. Polysomnography or actigraphy may also be indicated. Treatment should address underlying factors such as depression or anxiety. Hypnotic therapy for sleep disturbances in PD patients should be approached with care because of the risks of falling, agitation, drowsiness, and hypotension. Behavioral interventions may also be useful. PMID:15259535

  14. Animal Models of Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Linda A; Bhargava, Pavan

    2013-01-01

    Problems with sleep affect a large part of the general population, with more than half of all people in the United States reporting difficulties with sleep or insufficient sleep at various times and about 40 million affected chronically. Sleep is a complex physiologic process that is influenced by many internal and environmental factors, and problems with sleep are often related to specific personal circumstances or are based on subjective reports from the affected person. Although human subjects are used widely in the study of sleep and sleep disorders, the study of animals has been invaluable in developing our understanding about the physiology of sleep and the underlying mechanisms of sleep disorders. Historically, the use of animals for the study of sleep disorders has arguably been most fruitful for the condition of narcolepsy, in which studies of dogs and mice revealed previously unsuspected mechanisms for this condition. The current overview considers animal models that have been used to study 4 of the most common human sleep disorders—insomnia, narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome, and sleep apnea—and summarizes considerations relevant to the use of animals for the study of sleep and sleep disorders. Animal-based research has been vital to the elucidation of mechanisms that underlie sleep, its regulation, and its disorders and undoubtedly will remain crucial for discovering and validating sleep mechanisms and testing interventions for sleep disorders. PMID:23582416

  15. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase. PMID:26758201

  16. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use-dependent process (local sleep). PMID:27471418

  17. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes’ closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use-dependent process (local sleep). PMID:27471418

  18. WHO in retreat: is it losing its influence?

    PubMed Central

    Godlee, F.

    1994-01-01

    WHO says it has three main functions: to set normative standards; to provide technical advice and assistance on medical matters; and to advocate changes in health policy. During its 46 year history the first two functions have been a constant and uncontroversial backbone through which WHO has earned its reputation for scientific excellence. The third function, advocacy, came to the fore with the launch of Health for All in 1977, after which WHO took a key role in influencing international health policy. WHO's friends and critics alike now say that the organisation is losing its influence and retreating into its technical and biomedical shell. This article maps the changes in WHO's approach over the past 46 years and considers whether fears about its loss of influence are justified. Images p1492-a p1492-b p1493-a p1494-a FIG 1 PMID:7804058

  19. Losing images in digital radiology: more than you think.

    PubMed

    Oglevee, Catherine; Pianykh, Oleg

    2015-06-01

    It is a common belief that the shift to digital imaging some 20 years ago helped medical image exchange and got rid of any potential image loss that was happening with printed image films. Unfortunately, this is not the case: despite the most recent advances in digital imaging, most hospitals still keep losing their imaging data, with these losses going completely unnoticed. As a result, not only does image loss affect the faith in digital imaging but it also affects patient diagnosis and daily quality of clinical work. This paper identifies the origins of invisible image losses, provides methods and procedures to detect image loss, and demonstrates modes of action that can be taken to stop the problem from happening. PMID:25514841

  20. Shining evolutionary light on human sleep and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Charles L; Samson, David R; Krystal, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is essential to cognitive function and health in humans, yet the ultimate reasons for sleep-i.e. 'why' sleep evolved-remain mysterious. We integrate findings from human sleep studies, the ethnographic record, and the ecology and evolution of mammalian sleep to better understand sleep along the human lineage and in the modern world. Compared to other primates, sleep in great apes has undergone substantial evolutionary change, with all great apes building a sleeping platform or 'nest'. Further evolutionary change characterizes human sleep, with humans having the shortest sleep duration, yet the highest proportion of rapid eye movement sleep among primates. These changes likely reflect that our ancestors experienced fitness benefits from being active for a greater portion of the 24-h cycle than other primates, potentially related to advantages arising from learning, socializing and defending against predators and hostile conspecifics. Perspectives from evolutionary medicine have implications for understanding sleep disorders; we consider these perspectives in the context of insomnia, narcolepsy, seasonal affective disorder, circadian rhythm disorders and sleep apnea. We also identify how human sleep today differs from sleep through most of human evolution, and the implications of these changes for global health and health disparities. More generally, our review highlights the importance of phylogenetic comparisons in understanding human health, including well-known links between sleep, cognitive performance and health in humans.

  1. Behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of sleep and sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Deboer, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The definition of what sleep is depends on the method that is applied to record sleep. Behavioral and (electro)-physiological measures of sleep clearly overlap in mammals and birds , but it is often unclear how these two relate in other vertebrates and invertebrates. Homeostatic regulation of sleep, where the amount of sleep depends on the amount of previous waking, can be observed in physiology and behavior in all animals this was tested in. In mammals and birds, sleep is generally subdivided into two states, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and REM sleep. In mammals the combination of behavioral sleep and the changes in the slow-wave range of the NREM sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) can explain and predict the occurrence and depth of sleep in great detail. For REM sleep this is far less clear. Finally, the discovery that slow-waves in the NREM sleep EEG are influenced locally on the cortex depending on prior waking behavior is an interesting new development that asks for an adaptation of the concept of homeostatic regulation of sleep. Incorporating local sleep into models of sleep regulation is needed to obtain a comprehensive picture.

  2. Shining evolutionary light on human sleep and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Charles L; Samson, David R; Krystal, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is essential to cognitive function and health in humans, yet the ultimate reasons for sleep-i.e. 'why' sleep evolved-remain mysterious. We integrate findings from human sleep studies, the ethnographic record, and the ecology and evolution of mammalian sleep to better understand sleep along the human lineage and in the modern world. Compared to other primates, sleep in great apes has undergone substantial evolutionary change, with all great apes building a sleeping platform or 'nest'. Further evolutionary change characterizes human sleep, with humans having the shortest sleep duration, yet the highest proportion of rapid eye movement sleep among primates. These changes likely reflect that our ancestors experienced fitness benefits from being active for a greater portion of the 24-h cycle than other primates, potentially related to advantages arising from learning, socializing and defending against predators and hostile conspecifics. Perspectives from evolutionary medicine have implications for understanding sleep disorders; we consider these perspectives in the context of insomnia, narcolepsy, seasonal affective disorder, circadian rhythm disorders and sleep apnea. We also identify how human sleep today differs from sleep through most of human evolution, and the implications of these changes for global health and health disparities. More generally, our review highlights the importance of phylogenetic comparisons in understanding human health, including well-known links between sleep, cognitive performance and health in humans. PMID:27470330

  3. [Sleeping and eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Golan, Galia; Latzer, Yael; Tzischinsky, Orna

    2002-06-01

    Over the last three decades there has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of eating disorders (ED) in western society. The main syndromes are anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and non-specified eating disorders (ED-NOS). These disorders are with high morbidity and life threatening complications. Sleep disturbances are predominant symptom in these disorders. Researches have examined sleep disorders among people suffering from eating disorders, using different methods: sleep polysomnography, actigraph and self report questionnaires. The article presents the diagnostic criteria of eating disorders, sleep structure and review of researches, which examined sleep patterns among people with AN, BN and binge eating disorder (BED). In addition the article reviews the night eating syndrome. This syndrome is considered to be a combination of eating disorder and sleeping disorder. The article describes the characteristic sleep-wake patterns of each syndrome and in comparison to the control group. The discussion suggests some possible explanations for the discrepancies between subjective and objective experience of sleep.

  4. Adenosine and sleep

    SciTech Connect

    Yanik, G.M. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Behavioral and biochemical approaches have been used to determine the relative contribution of endogenous adenosine and adenosine receptors to the sleep-wake cycle in the rat. Adenosine concentrations in specific areas of the rat brain were not affected by 24 hours of total sleep deprivation, or by 24 or 48 hours of REM sleep deprivation. In order to assess the effect of REM sleep deprivation on adenosine A/sub 1/ receptors, /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding was measured. The Bmax values for /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding to membrane preparations of the cortices and corpus striata from 48 hour REM sleep-deprived animals were increased 14.8% and 23%, respectively. These increases were not maintained following the cessation of sleep deprivation and recovered within 2 hours. The results of a 96 hour REM deprivation experiment were similar to those of the 48 hour REM sleep deprivation experiment. However, these increases were not evident in similar structures taken from stress control animals, and conclusively demonstrated that the changes in /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding resulted from REM sleep deprivation and not from stress.

  5. Genotyping Sleep Disorders Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shadan, Farhad F.; Dawson, Arthur; Cronin, John W.; Jamil, Shazia M.; Grizas, Alexandra P.; Koziol, James A.; Kline, Lawrence E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The genetic susceptibility factors underlying sleep disorders might help us predict prognoses and responses to treatment. Several candidate polymorphisms for sleep disorders have been proposed, but there has as yet inadequate replication or validation that the candidates may be useful in the clinical setting. Methods To assess the validity of several candidate associations, we obtained saliva deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples and clinical information from 360 consenting research participants who were undergoing clinical polysomnograms. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped. These were thought to be related to depression, circadian sleep disorders, sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome (RLS), excessive sleepiness, or to slow waves in sleep. Results With multivariate generalized linear models, the association of TEF rs738499 with depressive symptoms was confirmed. Equivocal statistical evidence of association of rs1801260 (the C3111T SNP in the CLOCK gene) with morningness/eveningness and an association of Apolipoprotein E (APOE) rs429358 with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were obtained, but these associations were not strong enough to be of clinical value by themselves. Predicted association of SNPs with sleep apnea, RLS, and slow wave sleep were not confirmed. Conclusion The SNPs tested would not, by themselves, be of use for clinical genotyping in a sleep clinic. PMID:20396431

  6. Habitability sleep accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, H. T.

    1985-01-01

    Schematic outlines are presented with various design requirements for the accommodation of the spacecrew of Space Stations. The primary concern is for sleeping accommodations. Some other general requirements given are for a rest place, entertainment, dressing area, personal item stowage, body restraint, total privacy, external viewing, and grooming provisions. Several plans are given for sleep quarters concepts.

  7. Sleep and metabolic function

    PubMed Central

    Morselli, Lisa L.; Guyon, Aurore; Spiegel, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Evidence for the role of sleep on metabolic and endocrine function has been reported more than four decades ago. In the past 30 years, the prevalence of obesity and diabetes has greatly increased in industrialized countries, and self-imposed sleep curtailment, now very common, is starting to be recognized as a contributing factor, alongside with increased caloric intake and decreased physical activity. Furthermore, obstructive sleep apnea, a chronic condition characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction leading to intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation, has also become highly prevalent as a consequence of the epidemic of obesity and has been shown to contribute, in a vicious circle, to the metabolic disturbances observed in obese patients. In this article, we summarize the current data supporting the role of sleep in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the hormones involved in the regulation of appetite. We also review the results of the epidemiologic and laboratory studies that investigated the impact of sleep duration and quality on the risk of developing diabetes and obesity, as well as the mechanisms underlying this increased risk. Finally, we discuss how obstructive sleep apnea affects glucose metabolism and the beneficial impact of its treatment, the continuous positive airway pressure. In conclusion, the data available in the literature highlight the importance of getting enough good sleep for metabolic health. PMID:22101912

  8. Sleep, memory, and learning.

    PubMed

    Blissitt, P A

    2001-08-01

    The relationship of sleep to memory and learning is complex. Sleep affects memory, and memory must be present for learning to occur. A number of studies have been conducted to increase our understanding of their relationship. In addition to the numerous scientific investigations of each concept separately, sleep, memory, and learning have been studied together to determine (a) the effect of sleep on memory and learning, (b) the effect of sleep deprivation in general on memory and learning, (c) the effect of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation on memory and learning, (d) the effect of memory and learning on REM sleep, and (e) the effect of non-REM sleep loss on memory and learning. Neuroanatomic correlates have been pursued as well with most attention to the hippocampus. Despite considerable efforts to date, many of the studies reveal contradictory or inconclusive findings. Much remains unknown, and additional work is needed. Implications for nursing include those that have a direct effect on the patient, the nurse, and nursing science.

  9. Sleep, Memory & Brain Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Brendon O.; Buzsáki, György

    2015-01-01

    Sleep occupies roughly one-third of our lives, yet the scientific community is still not entirely clear on its purpose or function. Existing data point most strongly to its role in memory and homeostasis: that sleep helps maintain basic brain functioning via a homeostatic mechanism that loosens connections between overworked synapses, and that sleep helps consolidate and re-form important memories. In this review, we will summarize these theories, but also focus on substantial new information regarding the relation of electrical brain rhythms to sleep. In particular, while REM sleep may contribute to the homeostatic weakening of overactive synapses, a prominent and transient oscillatory rhythm called “sharp-wave ripple” seems to allow for consolidation of behaviorally relevant memories across many structures of the brain. We propose that a theory of sleep involving the division of labor between two states of sleep–REM and non-REM, the latter of which has an abundance of ripple electrical activity–might allow for a fusion of the two main sleep theories. This theory then postulates that sleep performs a combination of consolidation and homeostasis that promotes optimal knowledge retention as well as optimal waking brain function. PMID:26097242

  10. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  11. Ventilatory control and airway anatomy in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Wellman, Andrew; Jordan, Amy S; Malhotra, Atul; Fogel, Robert B; Katz, Eliot S; Schory, Karen; Edwards, Jill K; White, David P

    2004-12-01

    Ventilatory instability may play an important role in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea. We hypothesized that the influence of ventilatory instability in this disorder would vary depending on the underlying collapsibility of the upper airway. To test this hypothesis, we correlated loop gain with apnea-hypopnea index during supine, nonrapid eye movement sleep in three groups of patients with obstructive sleep apnea based on pharyngeal closing pressure: negative pressure group (pharyngeal closing pressure less than -1 cm H(2)O), atmospheric pressure group (between -1 and +1 cm H(2)O), and positive pressure group (greater than +1 cm H(2)O). Loop gain was measured by sequentially increasing proportional assist ventilation until periodic breathing developed, which occurred in 24 of 25 subjects. Mean loop gain for all three groups was 0.37 +/- 0.11. A significant correlation was found between loop gain and apnea-hypopnea index in the atmospheric group only (r = 0.88, p = 0.0016). We conclude that loop gain has a substantial impact on apnea severity in certain patients with sleep apnea, particularly those with a pharyngeal closing pressure near atmospheric.

  12. Sleep and Headache.

    PubMed

    Dosi, Claudia; Figura, Mariagrazia; Ferri, Raffaele; Bruni, Oliviero

    2015-06-01

    The interaction between sleep and headache or migraine is powerful and an elevated comorbidity between these 2 disorders has been reported in either adults or children. This comobidity is linked to common neurophysiological and neuroanatomical substrates that are genetically based strongly. The first reports on this relationship were related to the prevalence of parasomnias and sleep-disordered breathing in headache but recent research has expanded the comorbidity to several other sleep disorders, such as restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements during sleep, and narcolepsy. The assessment of children with headache should always include an accurate anamnesis for the presence of sleep problems either in the child or in the relatives; no correct approach for treating children and adolescents is possible without an integrated method of evaluation and management.

  13. [Violent behavior during sleep].

    PubMed

    Poyares, Dalva; Almeida, Carlos Maurício Oliveira de; Silva, Rogerio Santos da; Rosa, Agostinho; Guilleminault, Christian

    2005-05-01

    Cases of violent behavior during sleep have been reported in the literature. However, the incidence of violent behavior during sleep is not known. One epidemiological study showed that approximately 2% of the general population, predominantly males, presented violent behavior while asleep. In the present study, the authors describe clinical and medico-legal aspects involved in violent behavior investigation. Violent behavior refers to self-injury or injury to another during sleep. It happens most frequently following partial awakening in the context of arousal disorders (parasomnias). The most frequently diagnosed sleep disorders are REM behavior disorder and somnambulism. Violent behavior might be precipitated by stress, use of alcohol or drugs, sleep deprivation or fever. PMID:16082451

  14. Sleep Loss and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Norah S.; Meier-Ewert, Hans K.; Haack, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Controlled, experimental studies on the effects of acute sleep loss in humans have shown that mediators of inflammation are altered by sleep loss. Elevations in these mediators have been found to occur in healthy, rigorously screened individuals undergoing experimental vigils of more than 24 hours, and have also been seen in response to various durations of sleep restricted to between 25 and 50% of a normal 8 hour sleep amount. While these altered profiles represent small changes, such sub-clinical shifts in basal inflammatory cytokines are known to be associated with the future development of metabolic syndrome disease in healthy, asymptomatic individuals. Although the mechanism of this altered inflammatory status in humans undergoing experimental sleep loss is unknown, it is likely that autonomic activation and metabolic changes play key roles. PMID:21112025

  15. Sleep Symptoms Associated with Intake of Specific Dietary Nutrients

    PubMed Central

    Grandner, Michael A.; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R.; Knutson, Kristen L.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep symptoms are associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic disease. The potential role of diet has been largely unexplored. Data from the 2007–2008 NHANES were used (N=4,552) to determine which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms in a nationally-representative sample. Survey items assessed difficulty falling asleep, sleep maintenance difficulties, non-restorative sleep, and daytime sleepiness. Analyses were adjusted for energy intake, other dietary factors, exercise, BMI and sociodemographics. Population-weighted, logistic regression, with backwards-stepwise selection, examined which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms. Odds ratios (ORs) reflect the difference in odds of sleep symptoms associated with a doubling in nutrient. Nutrients that were independently associated with difficulty falling asleep included (in order): Alpha-Carotene (OR=0.96), Selenium (OR=0.80), Dodecanoic Acid (OR=0.91), Calcium (OR=0.83), and Hexadecanoic Acid (OR=1.10). Nutrients that were independently associated with sleep maintenance difficulties included: Salt (OR=1.19), Butanoic Acid (0,81), Carbohydrate (OR=0.71), Dodecanoic Acid (OR=0.90), Vitamin D (OR=0.84),, Lycopene (OR=0.98), Hexanoic Acid (OR= 1.25), and Moisture (OR=1.27). Nutrients that were independently associated with non-restorative sleep included Butanoic Acid (OR=1.09), Calcium (OR=0.81), Vitamin C (OR=0.92), Water (OR=0.98), Moisture (OR= 1.41), and Cholesterol (OR= 1.10). Nutrients that were independently associated with sleepiness included: Moisture (OR=1.20), Theobromine (OR=1.04), Potassium (OR= 0.70), Water (OR=0.97). These results suggest novel associations between sleep symptoms and diet/metabolism, potentially explaining associations between sleep and cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:23992533

  16. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  17. Partial sleep deprivation and energy balance in adults: an emerging issue for consideration by dietetics practitioners.

    PubMed

    Shlisky, Julie D; Hartman, Terryl J; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Rogers, Connie J; Sharkey, Neil A; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M

    2012-11-01

    During the past 30 years, rates of partial sleep deprivation and obesity have increased in the United States. Evidence linking partial sleep deprivation, defined as sleeping <6 hours per night, to energy imbalance is relevant to weight gain prevention and weight loss promotion. With a majority of Americans overweight or obese, weight loss is a recommended strategy for reducing comorbid conditions. Our purpose was to review the literature regarding the role of partial sleep deprivation on energy balance and weight regulation. An inverse relationship between obesity and sleep duration has been demonstrated in cross-sectional and prospective studies. Several intervention studies have tested mechanisms by which partial sleep deprivation affects energy balance. Reduced sleep may disrupt appetitive hormone regulation, specifically increasing ghrelin and decreasing leptin and, thereby, influence energy intake. Increased wakefulness also may promote food intake episodes and energy imbalance. Energy expenditure may not be greatly affected by partial sleep deprivation, although additional and more accurate methods of measurements may be necessary to detect subtle changes in energy expenditure. Body weight loss achieved by reduced energy intake and/or increased energy expenditure combined with partial sleep deprivation may contribute to undesirable body composition change with proportionately more fat-free soft tissue mass lost compared with fat mass. Evaluating sleep patterns and recommending regular, sufficient sleep for individuals striving to manage weight may be prudent.

  18. The critical role of sleep spindles in hippocampal-dependent memory: a pharmacology study

    PubMed Central

    Mednick, Sara C.; McDevitt, Elizabeth A.; Walsh, James K.; Wamsley, Erin; Paulus, Martin; Kanady, Jennifer C.; Drummond, Sean P.A.

    2013-01-01

    An important function of sleep is the consolidation of memories, and features of sleep, such as rapid eye movement (REM) or sleep spindles, have been shown to correlate with improvements in discrete memory domains. Because of the methodological difficulties in modulating sleep, however, a causal link between specific sleep features and human memory consolidation is lacking. Here, we experimentally manipulated specific sleep features during a daytime nap via direct pharmacological intervention. Using zolpidem (ambien), a short-acting GABAA agonist hypnotic, we show increased sleep spindle density and decreased REM sleep, compared to placebo and sodium oxybate (xyrem). Naps with increased spindles produced significantly better verbal memory and significantly worse perceptual learning, but did not affect motor learning. The experimental spindles were similar to control spindles in amplitude and frequency suggesting that the experimental intervention enhanced normal sleep processes. Furthermore, using statistical methods, we demonstrate for the first time a critical role of spindles in human hippocampal memory performance. The gains in memory consolidation exceed sleep alone or control conditions, and demonstrate the potential for targeted, exceptional memory enhancement in healthy adults with pharmacologically modified sleep. PMID:23467365

  19. Sleep At Camp: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pravda, Myra

    1997-01-01

    Among 40 camp directors surveyed, the majority believed that campers get enough sleep, but that staff members and directors do not get enough sleep. Addresses how sleep deprivation can affect job performance and offers strategies for helping staff understand the importance of sleep to keep them alert and functioning in their job. Includes…

  20. The sleep-friendly ICU.

    PubMed

    Sareli, Aharon E; Schwab, Richard J

    2008-07-01

    Achieving restorative sleep in the ICU remains a challenge for most patients. Various environmental and nonenvironmental factors affect sleep patterns in the ICU. This article discusses the effects and relative importance of these factors on sleep patterns in the critical care setting. In addition, the implications of sleep pattern alteration on human physiology and homeostatic mechanisms are considered.

  1. The Neuroprotective Aspects of Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is an important component of human life, yet many people do not understand the relationship between the brain and the process of sleeping. Sleep has been proven to improve memory recall, regulate metabolism, and reduce mental fatigue. A minimum of 7 hours of daily sleep seems to be necessary for proper cognitive and behavioral function. The emotional and mental handicaps associated with chronic sleep loss as well as the highly hazardous situations which can be contributed to the lack of sleep is a serious concern that people need to be aware of. When one sleeps, the brain reorganizes and recharges itself, and removes toxic waste byproducts which have accumulated throughout the day. This evidence demonstrates that sleeping can clear the brain and help maintain its normal functioning. Multiple studies have been done to determine the effects of total sleep deprivation; more recently some have been conducted to show the effects of sleep restriction, which is a much more common occurrence, have the same effects as total sleep deprivation. Each phase of the sleep cycle restores and rejuvenates the brain for optimal function. When sleep is deprived, the active process of the glymphatic system does not have time to perform that function, so toxins can build up, and the effects will become apparent in cognitive abilities, behavior, and judgment. As a background for this paper we have reviewed literature and research of sleep phases, effects of sleep deprivation, and the glymphatic system of the brain and its restorative effect during the sleep cycle. PMID:26594659

  2. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed.

  3. [Sleep rhythm and cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Maemura, Koji

    2012-07-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common problem in general adult population. Recent evidence suggests the link between the occurrence of cardiovascular events and several sleep disturbances including sleep apnea syndrome, insomnia and periodic limb movements during sleep. Sleep duration may affect the cardiovascular outcome. Shift work also may increase the risk of ischemic heart disease. Normalization of sleep rhythm has a potential to be a therapeutic target of ischemic heart diseases, although further study is required to evaluate the preventive effect on cardiovascular events. Here we describe the current understandings regarding the roles of sleep disorders during the pathogenesis of cardiovascular events. PMID:22844804

  4. Does obstructive sleep apnea worsen during REM sleep?

    PubMed

    Peregrim, I; Grešová, S; Pallayová, M; Fulton, B L; Štimmelová, J; Bačová, I; Mikuľaková, A; Tomori, Z; Donič, V

    2013-01-01

    Although it is thought that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is worse during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep than in non-REM (NREM) sleep there are some uncertainties, especially about apnoe-hypopnoe-index (AHI). Several studies found no significant difference in AHI between both sleep stages. However, REM sleep is associated more with side sleeping compared to NREM sleep, which suggests that body position is a possible confounding factor. The main purpose of this study was to compare the AHI in REM and NREM sleep in both supine and lateral body position. A retrospective study was performed on 422 consecutive patients who underwent an overnight polysomnography. Women had higher AHI in REM sleep than NREM sleep in both supine (46.05+/-26.26 vs. 23.91+/-30.96, P<0.01) and lateral (18.16+/-27.68 vs. 11.30+/-21.09, P<0.01) body position. Men had higher AHI in REM sleep than NREM sleep in lateral body position (28.94+/-28.44 vs. 23.58+/-27.31, P<0.01), however, they did not reach statistical significance in supine position (49.12+/-32.03 in REM sleep vs. 45.78+/-34.02 in NREM sleep, P=0.50). In conclusion, our data suggest that REM sleep is a contributing factor for OSA in women as well as in men, at least in lateral position. PMID:24020811

  5. Shining evolutionary light on human sleep and sleep disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L.; Samson, David R.; Krystal, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is essential to cognitive function and health in humans, yet the ultimate reasons for sleep—i.e. ‘why’ sleep evolved—remain mysterious. We integrate findings from human sleep studies, the ethnographic record, and the ecology and evolution of mammalian sleep to better understand sleep along the human lineage and in the modern world. Compared to other primates, sleep in great apes has undergone substantial evolutionary change, with all great apes building a sleeping platform or ‘nest’. Further evolutionary change characterizes human sleep, with humans having the shortest sleep duration, yet the highest proportion of rapid eye movement sleep among primates. These changes likely reflect that our ancestors experienced fitness benefits from being active for a greater portion of the 24-h cycle than other primates, potentially related to advantages arising from learning, socializing and defending against predators and hostile conspecifics. Perspectives from evolutionary medicine have implications for understanding sleep disorders; we consider these perspectives in the context of insomnia, narcolepsy, seasonal affective disorder, circadian rhythm disorders and sleep apnea. We also identify how human sleep today differs from sleep through most of human evolution, and the implications of these changes for global health and health disparities. More generally, our review highlights the importance of phylogenetic comparisons in understanding human health, including well-known links between sleep, cognitive performance and health in humans. PMID:27470330

  6. Are sleep disturbances preclinical markers of Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Altair B; Kohlmeier, Kristi A; Barreto, George E

    2015-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurobehavioral disorder characterized by motor symptoms and signs, and non-motor abnormalities such as olfactory dysfunction, pain, sleep disorders and cognitive impairment. Amongst these alterations, sleep disturbances play an important role in the pathology, but presence of disturbed sleep is not currently considered in diagnosis. However, sleeping problems may precede by many years the classic motor abnormalities of PD and should be clinically evaluated as a potential marker before disease onset. The first disturbance reported with this potential was the disorder REM sleep behaviour and currently several other disturbances have gained importance as potential markers, such as excessive daytime sleepiness, restless legs syndrome and new evidence also points to changes in circadian rhythms. Here we present a brief review of the major evidence indicating that sleep disturbances precede the motor symptoms in PD and neurodegeneration occurs in regions that could underlie these phenomena in order to provide support for the conclusion that disturbances of sleep should be considered as valuable preclinical markers for PD.

  7. Physiology of REM sleep, cataplexy, and sleep paralysis.

    PubMed

    Hishikawa, Y; Shimizu, T

    1995-01-01

    The main neural structures generating muscle atonia and other phenomena characteristic of REM sleep are present in dorsolateral portions of the pons in the brainstem. Occurrence of REM sleep and the NREM-REM sleep cycle are probably determined by a balance or interaction between the cholinergic and cholinoceptive REM sleep-on neuronal populations and the monoaminergic REM sleep-off neuronal population. Neural activities producing generalized muscle atonia in REM sleep originate mainly in dorsolateral portions of the pontine reticular formation, descend through the medulla and spinal cord, and inhibit the motoneurons in the brainstem and spinal cord, bringing about postural atonia. Cataplexy and sleep paralysis are pathological, dissociated manifestations of the generalized muscle atonia characteristic REM sleep. Cataplexy is triggered by emotional stimuli, probably through activation of the neural structure generating the muscle atonia of REM sleep. During long-lasting cataplectic attacks, narcoleptic humans often experience sleep paralysis and vivid hypnagogic hallucinations in the latter sleep state. Sleep paralysis is caused by the marked dissociation between level of alertness and muscle atonia that often occurs in SOREM sleep episodes. Frequent SOREM sleep episodes in narcoleptic humans and dogs may occur when some of the neural mechanisms producing wakefulness and/or NREM sleep that normally inhibit the occurrence of REM sleep are abnormally weak, or when neural mechanisms facilitating the occurrence of REM sleep are hypersensitive or hyperactive, or both. Both abnormalities may contribute to the occurrence of SOREM sleep episodes and sleep paralysis, and also to the emotional triggering of cataplexy. Frequent occurrence of SOREM sleep episodes seems to be prerequisite but not sufficient for the occurrence of cataplexy. Some additional neural activities induced by emotion also contribute by inhibiting and/or activating the disturbed neural mechanisms related

  8. [Circadian rhythm sleep disorder].

    PubMed

    Mishima, Kazuo

    2013-12-01

    Primary pathophysiology of circadian rhythm sleep disorders(CRSDs) is a misalignment between the endogenous circadian rhythm phase and the desired or socially required sleep-wake schedule, or dysfunction of the circadian pacemaker and its afferent/efferent pathways. CRSDs consist of delayed sleep phase type, advanced sleep phase type, free-running type, irregular sleep-wake type, shift work type and jet lag type. Chronotherapy using strong zeitgebers (time cues), such as bright light and melatonin/ melatonin type 2 receptor agonist, is effective when administered with proper timing. Bright light is the strongest entraining agent of circadian rhythms. Bright light therapy (appropriately-timed exposure to bright light) for CRSDs is an effective treatment option, and can shift the sleep-wake cycle to earlier or later times, in order to correct for misalignment between the circadian system and the desired sleep-wake schedule. Timed administration of melatonin, either alone or in combination with light therapy has also been shown to be useful in the treatment of CRSDs.

  9. Sleep, vigilance, and thermosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Romeijn, Nico; Raymann, Roy J E M; Møst, Els; Te Lindert, Bart; Van Der Meijden, Wisse P; Fronczek, Rolf; Gomez-Herrero, German; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of sleep and wakefulness is well modeled with two underlying processes: a circadian and a homeostatic one. So far, the parameters and mechanisms of additional sleep-permissive and wake-promoting conditions have been largely overlooked. The present overview focuses on one of these conditions: the effect of skin temperature on the onset and maintenance of sleep, and alertness. Skin temperature is quite well suited to provide the brain with information on sleep-permissive and wake-promoting conditions because it changes with most if not all of them. Skin temperature changes with environmental heat and cold, but also with posture, environmental light, danger, nutritional status, pain, and stress. Its effect on the brain may thus moderate the efficacy by which the clock and homeostat manage to initiate or maintain sleep or wakefulness. The review provides a brief overview of the neuroanatomical pathways and physiological mechanisms by which skin temperature can affect the regulation of sleep and vigilance. In addition, current pitfalls and possibilities of practical applications for sleep enhancement are discussed, including the recent finding of impaired thermal comfort perception in insomniacs.

  10. Insomnia and sleep misperception.

    PubMed

    Bastien, C H; Ceklic, T; St-Hilaire, P; Desmarais, F; Pérusse, A D; Lefrançois, J; Pedneault-Drolet, M

    2014-10-01

    Sleep misperception is often observed in insomnia individuals (INS). The extent of misperception varies between different types of INS. The following paper comprised sections which will be aimed at studying the sleep EEG and compares it to subjective reports of sleep in individuals suffering from either psychophysiological insomnia or paradoxical insomnia and good sleeper controls. The EEG can be studied without any intervention (thus using the raw data) via either PSG or fine quantitative EEG analyses (power spectral analysis [PSA]), identifying EEG patterns as in the case of cyclic alternating patterns (CAPs) or by decorticating the EEG while scoring the different transient or phasic events (K-Complexes or sleep spindles). One can also act on the on-going EEG by delivering stimuli so to study their impact on cortical measures as in the case of event-related potential studies (ERPs). From the paucity of studies available using these different techniques, a general conclusion can be reached: sleep misperception is not an easy phenomenon to quantify and its clinical value is not well recognized. Still, while none of the techniques or EEG measures defined in the paper is available and/or recommended to diagnose insomnia, ERPs might be the most indicated technique to study hyperarousal and sleep quality in different types of INS. More research shall also be dedicated to EEG patterns and transient phasic events as these EEG scoring techniques can offer a unique insight of sleep misperception. PMID:25179115

  11. Insomnia and sleep misperception.

    PubMed

    Bastien, C H; Ceklic, T; St-Hilaire, P; Desmarais, F; Pérusse, A D; Lefrançois, J; Pedneault-Drolet, M

    2014-10-01

    Sleep misperception is often observed in insomnia individuals (INS). The extent of misperception varies between different types of INS. The following paper comprised sections which will be aimed at studying the sleep EEG and compares it to subjective reports of sleep in individuals suffering from either psychophysiological insomnia or paradoxical insomnia and good sleeper controls. The EEG can be studied without any intervention (thus using the raw data) via either PSG or fine quantitative EEG analyses (power spectral analysis [PSA]), identifying EEG patterns as in the case of cyclic alternating patterns (CAPs) or by decorticating the EEG while scoring the different transient or phasic events (K-Complexes or sleep spindles). One can also act on the on-going EEG by delivering stimuli so to study their impact on cortical measures as in the case of event-related potential studies (ERPs). From the paucity of studies available using these different techniques, a general conclusion can be reached: sleep misperception is not an easy phenomenon to quantify and its clinical value is not well recognized. Still, while none of the techniques or EEG measures defined in the paper is available and/or recommended to diagnose insomnia, ERPs might be the most indicated technique to study hyperarousal and sleep quality in different types of INS. More research shall also be dedicated to EEG patterns and transient phasic events as these EEG scoring techniques can offer a unique insight of sleep misperception.

  12. Losing memories overnight: a unique form of human amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christine N.; Frascino, Jennifer C.; Kripke, Donald L.; McHugh, Paul R.; Treisman, Glenn J.; Squire, Larry R.

    2010-01-01

    Since an automobile accident in 2005, patient FL has reported difficulty retaining information from one day to the next. During the course of any given day, she describes her memory as normal. However, memory for each day disappears during a night of sleep. She reports good memory for events that occurred before the accident. Although this pattern of memory impairment is, to our knowledge, unique to the medical literature, it was depicted in the fictional film “50 First Dates”. On formal testing, FL performed moderately well when trying to remember material that she had learned during the same day, but she exhibited no memory at all for material that she knew had been presented on a previous day. For some tests, unbeknownst to FL, material learned on the previous day was intermixed with material learned on the same day as the test. On these occasions, FL’s memory was good. Thus, she was able to remember events from earlier days when memory was tested covertly. FL performed differently in a number of ways from individuals who were instructed to consciously feign her pattern of memory impairment. It was also the impression of those who worked with FL that she believed she had the memory impairment that she described and that she was not intentionally feigning amnesia. On the basis of her neuropsychological findings, together with a normal neurological exam, normal MRI findings, and psychiatric evaluation, we suggest that FL exhibits a unique form of functional amnesia and that its characterization may have been influenced by knowledge of how amnesia was depicted in a popular film. She subsequently improved (and began retaining day-to-day memory) at Johns Hopkins University where she was in a supportive in-patient environment and was shown how to take control of her condition by interrupting her sleep at 4-hour intervals. PMID:20493889

  13. Management of common sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramar, Kannan; Olson, Eric J

    2013-08-15

    Sleep disorders are common and affect sleep quality and quantity, leading to increased morbidity. Patients with sleep disorders can be categorized as those who cannot sleep, those who will not sleep, those with excessive daytime sleepiness, and those with increased movements during sleep. Insomnia, defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep that results in daytime impairment, is diagnosed using history findings and treated with cognitive behavior therapy, with or without sleep hypnotics. Restless legs syndrome is characterized by an urge to move the legs that worsens with rest, is relieved by movement, and often occurs in the evening or at night. Restless legs syndrome is treated based on the frequency of symptoms. Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. It is diagnosed using a sleep log or actigraphy, followed by overnight polysomnography and a multiple sleep latency test. Narcolepsy is treated with stimulants, such as modafinil; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; or gamma hydroxybutyric acid (sodium oxybate). Patients with snoring and witnessed apneas may have obstructive sleep apnea, which is diagnosed using overnight polysomnography. Continuous positive airway pressure is the most common and effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is characterized by increased muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep, resulting in the patient acting out dreams with possible harmful consequences. It is diagnosed based on history and polysomnography findings, and treated with environmental safety measures and melatonin or clonazepam.

  14. Management of common sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramar, Kannan; Olson, Eric J

    2013-08-15

    Sleep disorders are common and affect sleep quality and quantity, leading to increased morbidity. Patients with sleep disorders can be categorized as those who cannot sleep, those who will not sleep, those with excessive daytime sleepiness, and those with increased movements during sleep. Insomnia, defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep that results in daytime impairment, is diagnosed using history findings and treated with cognitive behavior therapy, with or without sleep hypnotics. Restless legs syndrome is characterized by an urge to move the legs that worsens with rest, is relieved by movement, and often occurs in the evening or at night. Restless legs syndrome is treated based on the frequency of symptoms. Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. It is diagnosed using a sleep log or actigraphy, followed by overnight polysomnography and a multiple sleep latency test. Narcolepsy is treated with stimulants, such as modafinil; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; or gamma hydroxybutyric acid (sodium oxybate). Patients with snoring and witnessed apneas may have obstructive sleep apnea, which is diagnosed using overnight polysomnography. Continuous positive airway pressure is the most common and effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is characterized by increased muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep, resulting in the patient acting out dreams with possible harmful consequences. It is diagnosed based on history and polysomnography findings, and treated with environmental safety measures and melatonin or clonazepam. PMID:23944726

  15. Behavioural and neural modulation of win-stay but not lose-shift strategies as a function of outcome value in Rock, Paper, Scissors

    PubMed Central

    Forder, Lewis; Dyson, Benjamin James

    2016-01-01

    Competitive environments in which individuals compete for mutually-exclusive outcomes require rational decision making in order to maximize gains but often result in poor quality heuristics. Reasons for the greater reliance on lose-shift relative to win-stay behaviour shown in previous studies were explored using the game of Rock, Paper, Scissors and by manipulating the value of winning and losing. Decision-making following a loss was characterized as relatively fast and relatively inflexible both in terms of the failure to modulate the magnitude of lose-shift strategy and the lack of significant neural modulation. In contrast, decision-making following a win was characterized as relatively slow and relatively flexible both in terms of a behavioural increase in the magnitude of win-stay strategy and a neural modulation of feedback-related negativity (FRN) and stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) following outcome value modulation. The win-stay/lose-shift heuristic appears not to be a unified mechanism, with the former relying on System 2 processes and the latter relying on System 1 processes. Our ability to play rationally appears more likely when the outcome is positive and when the value of wins are low, highlighting how vulnerable we can be when trying to succeed during competition. PMID:27658703

  16. Relationship of sleep hygiene awareness, sleep hygiene practices, and sleep quality in university students.

    PubMed

    Brown, Franklin C; Buboltz, Walter C; Soper, Barlow

    2002-01-01

    College students are known for their variable sleep schedules. Such schedules, along with other common student practices (e.g., alcohol and caffeine consumption), are associated with poor sleep hygiene. Researchers have demonstrated in clinical populations that improving sleep hygiene knowledge and practices is an effective treatment for insomnia. However, researchers who have examined relationships between sleep hygiene and practices in nonclinical samples and overall sleep quality have produced inconsistent findings, perhaps because of questionable measures. In this study, the authors used psychometrically sound instruments to examine these variables and to counter the shortcomings in previous investigations. Their findings suggest that knowledge of sleep hygiene is related to sleep practices, which, in turn, is related to overall sleep quality. The data from their regression modeling indicated that variable sleep schedules, going to bed thirsty, environmental noise, and worrying while falling asleep contribute to poor sleep quality. PMID:12244643

  17. Sleep-active neuron specification and sleep induction require FLP-11 neuropeptides to systemically induce sleep

    PubMed Central

    Turek, Michal; Besseling, Judith; Spies, Jan-Philipp; König, Sabine; Bringmann, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is an essential behavioral state. It is induced by conserved sleep-active neurons that express GABA. However, little is known about how sleep neuron function is determined and how sleep neurons change physiology and behavior systemically. Here, we investigated sleep in Caenorhabditis elegans, which is induced by the single sleep-active neuron RIS. We found that the transcription factor LIM-6, which specifies GABAergic function, in parallel determines sleep neuron function through the expression of APTF-1, which specifies the expression of FLP-11 neuropeptides. Surprisingly FLP-11, and not GABA, is the major component that determines the sleep-promoting function of RIS. FLP-11 is constantly expressed in RIS. At sleep onset RIS depolarizes and releases FLP-11 to induce a systemic sleep state. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12499.001 PMID:26949257

  18. Chimpanzee sleep stages.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freemon, F. R.; Mcnew, J. J.; Adey, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    The electroencephalogram and electro-oculogram of two unrestrained juvenile chimpanzees was monitored for 7 consecutive nights using telemetry methods. Of the sleeping time, 23% was spent in the rapid eye movement of REM type of sleep, whereas 8, 4, 15, and 10% were spent in non-REM stages 1 through 4, respectively. Seven to nine periods of REM sleep occurred per night. The average time from the beginning of one REM period to the beginning of the next was approximately 85 min.

  19. Successful therapy for protein-losing enteropathy caused by chronic neuronopathic Gaucher disease

    PubMed Central

    Mhanni, A.A.; Kozenko, M.; Hartley, J.N.; Deneau, M.; El-Matary, W.; Rockman-Greenberg, C.

    2015-01-01

    Gaucher disease (OMIM #230800) is caused by β-glucosidase deficiency and primarily involves the mononuclear phagocyte system (also called Reticuloendothelial System or Macrophage System). The disease is classified into three main phenotypes based on the presence or absence of neurological manifestations: non-neuronopathic (type 1), acute neuronopathic (type 2) and chronic neuronopathic (type 3). Typical manifestations include hepatosplenomegaly, skeletal deformities, hematological abnormalities, interstitial lung fibrosis and neurodegeneration in neuronopathic cases. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy with resultant protein losing enteropathy (PLE) has only been rarely described. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy may lead to intestinal lymphatic obstruction and secondary lymphangiectasia resulting in chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain and weight loss. Fecal protein loss with secondary hypoalbuminemia can be significant. We report a male with Chronic Neuronopathic Gaucher disease (GD) (homozygous for c.1448T > C (NM_000157.3) GBA mutation) who at 16 years of age developed intractable abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. This was caused by PLE secondary to intestinal lymphangiectasia caused by calcified mesenteric lymphadenopathy despite prior long term enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and/or substrate reduction therapy (SRT). His older similarly affected sister who had been receiving treatment with ERT and/or SRT remains stable on these treatments with no evidence of mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Medical management with total parenteral nutrition, daily medium chain triglyceride-oil (MCT) supplementation, low dose oral budesonide, continued oral SRT and an increased dose of parenteral ERT has stabilized his condition with resolution of the gastrointestinal symptoms and appropriate weight gain. PMID:27014572

  20. A prospect theory explanation of the disposition to trade losing investments for less than market price.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, D J

    2002-06-01

    Investors have a proven general reluctance to realize losses. The theory of "mental accounting" suggests that losses are easier to accept when mentally integrated with either preceding losses or with compensatory gains. Mental integration is made easier when a failed asset is exchanged against a new, apparently profitable, acquisition. The alternative is to sell the existing asset on the open market before re-investing the proceeds as desired. This is emotionally less appealing than "rolling over" a losing investment into a new venture by way of an asset trade. The psychological benefits of exchanging rather than selling a failed asset come at a cost. It is typical of trade-in arrangements, e.g., where one trades an old car against a new one, that the effective sale price of the existing asset is less than current market value. Acceptance of this low price adds to the investor's total monetary loss on the existing asset but is essential to an overall package deal apart from which that asset would often remain belatedly unsold.

  1. Successful therapy for protein-losing enteropathy caused by chronic neuronopathic Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Mhanni, A A; Kozenko, M; Hartley, J N; Deneau, M; El-Matary, W; Rockman-Greenberg, C

    2016-03-01

    Gaucher disease (OMIM #230800) is caused by β-glucosidase deficiency and primarily involves the mononuclear phagocyte system (also called Reticuloendothelial System or Macrophage System). The disease is classified into three main phenotypes based on the presence or absence of neurological manifestations: non-neuronopathic (type 1), acute neuronopathic (type 2) and chronic neuronopathic (type 3). Typical manifestations include hepatosplenomegaly, skeletal deformities, hematological abnormalities, interstitial lung fibrosis and neurodegeneration in neuronopathic cases. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy with resultant protein losing enteropathy (PLE) has only been rarely described. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy may lead to intestinal lymphatic obstruction and secondary lymphangiectasia resulting in chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain and weight loss. Fecal protein loss with secondary hypoalbuminemia can be significant. We report a male with Chronic Neuronopathic Gaucher disease (GD) (homozygous for c.1448T > C (NM_000157.3) GBA mutation) who at 16 years of age developed intractable abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. This was caused by PLE secondary to intestinal lymphangiectasia caused by calcified mesenteric lymphadenopathy despite prior long term enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and/or substrate reduction therapy (SRT). His older similarly affected sister who had been receiving treatment with ERT and/or SRT remains stable on these treatments with no evidence of mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Medical management with total parenteral nutrition, daily medium chain triglyceride-oil (MCT) supplementation, low dose oral budesonide, continued oral SRT and an increased dose of parenteral ERT has stabilized his condition with resolution of the gastrointestinal symptoms and appropriate weight gain. PMID:27014572

  2. A prospect theory explanation of the disposition to trade losing investments for less than market price.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, D J

    2002-06-01

    Investors have a proven general reluctance to realize losses. The theory of "mental accounting" suggests that losses are easier to accept when mentally integrated with either preceding losses or with compensatory gains. Mental integration is made easier when a failed asset is exchanged against a new, apparently profitable, acquisition. The alternative is to sell the existing asset on the open market before re-investing the proceeds as desired. This is emotionally less appealing than "rolling over" a losing investment into a new venture by way of an asset trade. The psychological benefits of exchanging rather than selling a failed asset come at a cost. It is typical of trade-in arrangements, e.g., where one trades an old car against a new one, that the effective sale price of the existing asset is less than current market value. Acceptance of this low price adds to the investor's total monetary loss on the existing asset but is essential to an overall package deal apart from which that asset would often remain belatedly unsold. PMID:12090518

  3. Amoco technique gains support

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Amoco Corp.`s low-cost horizontal drilling technique and equipment are gaining acceptance in the oilpatch after five years of design and fine-tuning work. The system is purely mechanical, and it`s designed to operate with a workover rig instead of a drilling rig. It`s engineered to drill short-radius horizontal wells with lateral sup to 1,000 feet, so far.

  4. Pathophysiology and clinical presentations of salt-losing tubulopathies.

    PubMed

    Seyberth, Hannsjörg W

    2016-03-01

    At least three renal tubular segments are involved in the pathophysiology of salt-losing tubulopathies (SLTs). Whether the pathogenesis starts either in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle (TAL) or in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT), it is the function of the downstream-localized aldosterone sensitive distal tubule (ASDT) to contribute to the adaptation process. In isolated TAL defects (loop disorders) ASDT adaptation is supported by upregulation of DCT, whereas in DCT disorders the ASDT is complemented by upregulation of TAL function. This upregulation has a major impact on the clinical presentation of SLT patients. Taking into account both the symptoms and signs of primary tubular defect and of the secondary reactions of adaptation, a clinical diagnosis can be made that eventually leads to an appropriate therapy. In addition to salt wasting, as occurs in all SLTs, characteristic features of loop disorders are hypo- or isosthenuric polyuria and hypercalciuria, whereas characteristics of DCT disorders are hypokalemia and (symptomatic) hypomagnesemia. In both SLT categories, replacement of urinary losses is the primary goal of treatment. In loop disorders COX inhibitors are also recommended to mitigate polyuria, and in DCT disorders magnesium supplementation is essential for effective treatment. Of note, the combination of a salt- and potassium-rich diet together with an adequate fluid intake is always the basis of long-term treatment in all SLTs.

  5. Mass-losing M supergiants in the solar neighborhood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; Kleinmann, S. G.

    1990-01-01

    A list of the 21 mass-losing red supergiants (20 M type, one G type; L greater than 100,000 solar luminosities) within 2.5 kpc of the sun is compiled. These supergiants are highly evolved descendants of main-sequence stars with initial masses larger than 20 solar masses. The surface density is between about 1 and 2/sq kpc. As found previously, these stars are much less concentrated toward the Galactic center than W-R stars, which are also highly evolved massive stars. Although with considerable uncertainty, it is estimated that the mass return by the M supergiants is somewhere between 0.00001 and 0.00003 solar mass/sq kpc yr. In the hemisphere facing the Galactic center there is much less mass loss from M supergiants than from W-R stars, but, in the anticenter direction, the M supergiants return more mass than do the W-R stars. The duration of the M supergiant phase appears to be between 200,000 and 400,000 yr. During this phase, a star of initially at least 20 solar masses returns perhaps 3-10 solar masses into the interstellar medium.

  6. Everolimus for Primary Intestinal Lymphangiectasia With Protein-Losing Enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, Michio; Hori, Tomohiro; Kanda, Kaori; Kawamoto, Norio; Ibuka, Takashi; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Fukao, Toshiyuki

    2016-03-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL), also known as Waldmann's disease, is an exudative enteropathy resulting from morphologic abnormalities in the intestinal lymphatics. In this article, we describe a 12-year-old boy with PIL that led to protein-losing enteropathy characterized by diarrhea, hypoalbuminemia associated with edema (serum albumin level: 1.0 g/dL), and hypogammaglobulinemia (serum IgG level: 144 mg/dL). Severe hypoalbuminemia, electrolyte abnormalities, and tetany persisted despite a low-fat diet and propranolol. Everolimus (1.6 mg/m(2)/day) was added to his treatment as an antiangiogenic agent. With everolimus treatment, the patient's diarrhea resolved and replacement therapy for hypoproteinemia was less frequent. Hematologic and scintigraphy findings also improved (serum albumin level: 2.5 g/dL). There were no adverse reactions during the 12-month follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of everolimus use in a patient with PIL. PMID:26908672

  7. Clinical Considerations of Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Little REM Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Dae Lim

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more severe during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep than during non-REM sleep. We aimed to determine the features of patients with OSA who experience little REM sleep. Methods Patients with a chief complaint of sleep-disordered breathing were enrolled. All subjects underwent overnight polysomnography (PSG) and completed questionnaires on sleep quality. Patients were divided into the following three groups according to the proportion of REM sleep detected in overnight PSG: little REM sleep [REM sleep <20% of total sleep time (TST)], normal REM sleep (20–25% of TST), and excessive REM sleep (>25% of TST). Multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to the data. The success rate of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration was estimated in these groups. Results The age and body mass index of the patients were 47.9±15.9 years (mean±SD) and 25.2±4.1 kg/m2, respectively. The 902 patients comprised 684 (76%) men and 218 (24%) women. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in the little-REM-sleep group was 22.1±24.4 events/hour, which was significantly higher than those in the other two groups (p<0.05). Multiple logistic regression showed that a higher AHI (p<0.001; odds ratio, 1.512; 95% confidence interval, 1.020–1.812) was independently predictive of little REM sleep. The titration success rate was lower in the little-REM-sleep group than in the normal-REM-sleep group (p=0.038). Conclusions The AHI is higher and the success rate of CPAP titration is lower in OSA patients with little REM sleep than those with normal REM sleep.

  8. Sustained Sleep Fragmentation Induces Sleep Homeostasis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Baud, Maxime O.; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Petit, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep fragmentation (SF) is an integral feature of sleep apnea and other prevalent sleep disorders. Although the effect of repetitive arousals on cognitive performance is well documented, the effects of long-term SF on electroencephalography (EEG) and molecular markers of sleep homeostasis remain poorly investigated. To address this question, we developed a mouse model of chronic SF and characterized its effect on EEG spectral frequencies and the expression of genes previously linked to sleep homeostasis including clock genes, heat shock proteins, and plasticity-related genes. Design: N/A. Setting: Animal sleep research laboratory. Participants : Sixty-six C57BL6/J adult mice. Interventions: Instrumental sleep disruption at a rate of 60/h during 14 days Measurements and Results: Locomotor activity and EEG were recorded during 14 days of SF followed by recovery for 2 days. Despite a dramatic number of arousals and decreased sleep bout duration, SF minimally reduced total quantity of sleep and did not significantly alter its circadian distribution. Spectral analysis during SF revealed a homeostatic drive for slow wave activity (SWA; 1–4 Hz) and other frequencies as well (4–40 Hz). Recordings during recovery revealed slow wave sleep consolidation and a transient rebound in SWA, and paradoxical sleep duration. The expression of selected genes was not induced following chronic SF. Conclusions: Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) increased sleep pressure confirming that altered quality with preserved quantity triggers core sleep homeostasis mechanisms. However, it did not induce the expression of genes induced by sleep loss, suggesting that these molecular pathways are not sustainably activated in chronic diseases involving SF. Citation: Baud MO, Magistretti PJ, Petit JM. Sustained sleep fragmentation induces sleep homeostasis in mice. SLEEP 2015;38(4):567–579. PMID:25325477

  9. Morvan's syndrome and the sustained absence of all sleep rhythms for months or years: An hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Touzet, Claude

    2016-09-01

    Despite the predation costs, sleep is ubiquitous in the animal realm. Humans spend a third of their life sleeping, and the quality of sleep has been related to co-morbidity, Alzheimer disease, etc. Excessive wakefulness induces rapid changes in cognitive performances, and it is claimed that one could die of sleep deprivation as quickly as by absence of water. In this context, the fact that a few people are able to go without sleep for months, even years, without displaying any cognitive troubles requires explanations. Theories ascribing sleep to memory consolidation are unable to explain such observations. It is not the case of the theory of sleep as the hebbian reinforcement of the inhibitory synapses (ToS-HRIS). Hebbian learning (Long Term Depression - LTD) guarantees that an efficient inhibitory synapse will lose its efficiency just because it is efficient at avoiding the activation of the post-synaptic neuron. This erosion of the inhibition is replenished by hebbian learning (Long Term Potentiation - LTP) when pre and post-synaptic neurons are active together - which is exactly what happens with the travelling depolarization waves of the slow-wave sleep (SWS). The best documented cases of months-long insomnia are reports of patients with Morvan's syndrome. This syndrome has an autoimmune cause that impedes - among many things - the potassium channels of the post-synaptic neurons, increasing LTP and decreasing LTD. We hypothesize that the absence of inhibitory efficiency erosion during wakefulness (thanks to a decrease of inhibitory LTD) is the cause for an absence of slow-wave sleep (SWS), which results also in the absence of REM sleep. PMID:27515199

  10. Morvan's syndrome and the sustained absence of all sleep rhythms for months or years: An hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Touzet, Claude

    2016-09-01

    Despite the predation costs, sleep is ubiquitous in the animal realm. Humans spend a third of their life sleeping, and the quality of sleep has been related to co-morbidity, Alzheimer disease, etc. Excessive wakefulness induces rapid changes in cognitive performances, and it is claimed that one could die of sleep deprivation as quickly as by absence of water. In this context, the fact that a few people are able to go without sleep for months, even years, without displaying any cognitive troubles requires explanations. Theories ascribing sleep to memory consolidation are unable to explain such observations. It is not the case of the theory of sleep as the hebbian reinforcement of the inhibitory synapses (ToS-HRIS). Hebbian learning (Long Term Depression - LTD) guarantees that an efficient inhibitory synapse will lose its efficiency just because it is efficient at avoiding the activation of the post-synaptic neuron. This erosion of the inhibition is replenished by hebbian learning (Long Term Potentiation - LTP) when pre and post-synaptic neurons are active together - which is exactly what happens with the travelling depolarization waves of the slow-wave sleep (SWS). The best documented cases of months-long insomnia are reports of patients with Morvan's syndrome. This syndrome has an autoimmune cause that impedes - among many things - the potassium channels of the post-synaptic neurons, increasing LTP and decreasing LTD. We hypothesize that the absence of inhibitory efficiency erosion during wakefulness (thanks to a decrease of inhibitory LTD) is the cause for an absence of slow-wave sleep (SWS), which results also in the absence of REM sleep.

  11. Efficacy of a brief treatment for nightmares and sleep disturbances for veterans.

    PubMed

    Balliett, Noelle E; Davis, Joanne L; Miller, Katherine E

    2015-11-01

    Nightmares and sleep disturbances are common complaints among military Veterans (Plumb & Zelman, 2009) and may be difficult to eradicate (Forbes, Phelps, & McHugh, 2001). A treatment protocol (Exposure, Relaxation, and Rescription Therapy [ERRT]) targeting nightmares and sleep disturbances, which has been used effectively in civilian populations, was adapted for the military (ERRT-M). A pilot study evaluated the efficacy of ERRT-M in improving sleep quality and quantity and reducing nightmares, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in a trauma-exposed, Veteran sample (N = 19). At 1 week after treatment, analyses revealed improvements in nightmare frequency and severity, depression, sleep quality, and insomnia severity. Treatment gains were maintained at a 2-month follow-up. Fifty percent of the sample was considered treatment responders (i.e., no nightmares in the previous week). Results of this pilot study suggest that directly targeting sleep and nightmares is successful in alleviating sleep disturbances and related psychopathology in some Veterans.

  12. Move It or Lose It: Cloud-Based Data Storage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2010-01-01

    There was a time when school districts showed little interest in storing or backing up their data to remote servers. Nothing seemed less secure than handing off data to someone else. But in the last few years the buzz around cloud storage has grown louder, and the idea that data backup could be provided as a service has begun to gain traction in…

  13. Sleep stage classification by body movement index and respiratory interval indices using multiple radar sensors.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masayuki; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Suzumura, Kazuki; Matsui, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    Disturbed sleep has become more common in recent years. To increase the quality of sleep, undergoing sleep observation has gained interest as an attempt to resolve possible problems. In this paper, we evaluate a non-restrictive and non-contact method for classifying real-time sleep stages and report on its potential applications. The proposed system measures body movements and respiratory signals of a sleeping person using a multiple 24-GHz microwave radar placed beneath the mattress. We determined a body-movement index to identify wake and sleep periods, and fluctuation indices of respiratory intervals to identify sleep stages. For identifying wake and sleep periods, the rate agreement between the body-movement index and the reference result using the R&K method was 83.5 ± 6.3%. One-minute standard deviations, one of the fluctuation indices of respiratory intervals, had a high degree of contribution and showed a significant difference across the three sleep stages (REM, LIGHT, and DEEP; p <; 0.001). Although the degree that the 5-min fractal dimension contributed-another fluctuation index-was not as high as expected, its difference between REM and DEEP sleep was significant (p <; 0.05). We applied a linear discriminant function to classify wake or sleep periods and to estimate the three sleep stages. The accuracy was 79.3% for classification and 71.9% for estimation. This is a novel system for measuring body movements and body-surface movements that are induced by respiration and for measuring high sensitivity pulse waves using multiple radar signals. This method simplifies measurement of sleep stages and may be employed at nursing care facilities or by the general public to increase sleep quality.

  14. Sleep stage classification by body movement index and respiratory interval indices using multiple radar sensors.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masayuki; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Suzumura, Kazuki; Matsui, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    Disturbed sleep has become more common in recent years. To increase the quality of sleep, undergoing sleep observation has gained interest as an attempt to resolve possible problems. In this paper, we evaluate a non-restrictive and non-contact method for classifying real-time sleep stages and report on its potential applications. The proposed system measures body movements and respiratory signals of a sleeping person using a multiple 24-GHz microwave radar placed beneath the mattress. We determined a body-movement index to identify wake and sleep periods, and fluctuation indices of respiratory intervals to identify sleep stages. For identifying wake and sleep periods, the rate agreement between the body-movement index and the reference result using the R&K method was 83.5 ± 6.3%. One-minute standard deviations, one of the fluctuation indices of respiratory intervals, had a high degree of contribution and showed a significant difference across the three sleep stages (REM, LIGHT, and DEEP; p <; 0.001). Although the degree that the 5-min fractal dimension contributed-another fluctuation index-was not as high as expected, its difference between REM and DEEP sleep was significant (p <; 0.05). We applied a linear discriminant function to classify wake or sleep periods and to estimate the three sleep stages. The accuracy was 79.3% for classification and 71.9% for estimation. This is a novel system for measuring body movements and body-surface movements that are induced by respiration and for measuring high sensitivity pulse waves using multiple radar signals. This method simplifies measurement of sleep stages and may be employed at nursing care facilities or by the general public to increase sleep quality. PMID:26738053

  15. Central sleep apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... spine (neck) Severe obesity Certain medicines, such as narcotic painkillers If the apnea is not associated with ... the lungs get enough oxygen while sleeping. If narcotic medicine is causing the apnea, the dosage may ...

  16. Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... August 19, 2014 Gary H. Gibbons Why Do Fruit Flies Take Naps? NHLBI Investigator Studies Connections Between Sleep Patterns and Gene Networks in Fruit Flies Read all Director's Messages Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ ...

  17. What Are Sleep Studies?

    MedlinePlus

    ... August 19, 2014 Gary H. Gibbons Why Do Fruit Flies Take Naps? NHLBI Investigator Studies Connections Between Sleep Patterns and Gene Networks in Fruit Flies Read all Director's Messages Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ ...

  18. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD.

  19. Getting Enough Sleep?

    MedlinePlus

    ... bedtime. Food can give you a burst of energy. Avoid bright lights right before bed, including the ones that come from the TV or the computer. Sleep in a dark room. Darkness tells your body it’s time for ...

  20. Sleep during Transcendental Meditation.

    PubMed

    Younger, J; Adriance, W; Berger, R J

    1975-06-01

    Electroencephalograms (EEGs) and DC electrooculograms (EOGs) were recorded during Transcendental Meditation periods for 8 experienced Ss. The records, scored blind showed that all but 2 Ss spent considerable portions of their meditation periods in unambiguous physiological sleep.

  1. Adult obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Amy S; McSharry, David G; Malhotra, Atul

    2014-02-22

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is an increasingly common disorder of repeated upper airway collapse during sleep, leading to oxygen desaturation and disrupted sleep. Features include snoring, witnessed apnoeas, and sleepiness. Pathogenesis varies; predisposing factors include small upper airway lumen, unstable respiratory control, low arousal threshold, small lung volume, and dysfunctional upper airway dilator muscles. Risk factors include obesity, male sex, age, menopause, fluid retention, adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and smoking. Obstructive sleep apnoea causes sleepiness, road traffic accidents, and probably systemic hypertension. It has also been linked to myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, and diabetes mellitus though not definitively. Continuous positive airway pressure is the treatment of choice, with adherence of 60-70%. Bi-level positive airway pressure or adaptive servo-ventilation can be used for patients who are intolerant to continuous positive airway pressure. Other treatments include dental devices, surgery, and weight loss. PMID:23910433

  2. Sleep and its disorders.

    PubMed

    Vgontzas, A N; Kales, A

    1999-01-01

    Sleep disorders are very prevalent in the general population and are associated with significant medical, psychological, and social disturbances. Insomnia is the most common. When chronic, it usually reflects psychological/behavioral disturbances. Most insomniacs can be evaluated in an office setting, and a multidimensional approach is recommended, including sleep hygiene measures, psychotherapy, and medication. The parasomnias, including sleepwalking, night terrors, and nightmares, have benign implications in childhood but often reflect psychopathology or significant stress in adolescents and adults and organicity in the elderly. Excessive daytime sleepiness is typically the most frequent complaint and often reflects organic dysfunction. Narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia are chronic brain disorders with an onset at a young age, whereas sleep apnea is more common in middle age and is associated with obesity and cardiovascular problems. Therapeutic naps, medications, and supportive therapy are recommended for narcolepsy and hypersomnia; continuous positive airway pressure, weight loss, surgery, and oral devices are the common treatments for sleep apnea. PMID:10073285

  3. Problems sleeping during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... which is often worse at night. Stress and dreams. Many pregnant women worry about the baby or ... which can make it hard to sleep. Vivid dreams and nightmares are common during pregnancy. Dreaming and ...

  4. Key sleep neurologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    St. Louis, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sleep disorders are frequent comorbidities in neurologic patients. This review focuses on clinical aspects and prognosis of 3 neurologic sleep disorders: narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED), and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Narcolepsy causes pervasive, enduring excessive daytime sleepiness, adversely affecting patients' daily functioning. RLS/WED is characterized by an uncomfortable urge to move the legs before sleep, often evolving toward augmentation and resulting in daylong bothersome symptoms. RBD causes potentially injurious dream enactment behaviors that often signify future evolution of overt synucleinopathy neurodegeneration in as many as 81% of patients. Timely recognition, referral for polysomnography, and longitudinal follow-up of narcolepsy, RLS/WED, and RBD patients are imperatives for neurologists in providing quality comprehensive patient care. PMID:24605270

  5. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD. PMID:26065126

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jaquis, J

    1987-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is estimated to affect 2 million to 3 million Americans. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a breathing pattern characterized by periods of apnea alternating with periods of arousal and breathing, a pattern that recurs throughout the sleep cycle. It is important for the nurse practitioner to be able to recognize the signs and symptoms of the syndrome in order to initiate diagnostic testing. The role of the nurse practitioner also involves education of the client and family regarding the disease process and treatment modalities. The client and client's family will need help in coping with the diagnosis and possibly with the physical and psychological symptoms experienced. This article outlines the disease process, treatment modalities, possible complications and the role of the nurse practitioner in assisting the client with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

  7. Sleep paralysis among medical students.

    PubMed

    Penn, N E; Kripke, D F; Scharff, J

    1981-03-01

    Sleep paralysis is a sensation of an inability to speak or move other muscles when falling asleep or awakening. Sleep paralysis by itself has been reported as occurring infrequently and many clinicians are uncertain of its significance. In contrast, sleep paralysis in conjunction with sleep attacks has been reported as a concomitant of narcolepsy. To further examine the incidence of sleep paralysis, the responses of 80 first-year medical students, 16.25% had experienced predormital, postdormital, or both types of sleep paralysis. These episodes occurred infrequently--only once or twice for most of these students. Reports of sleep paralysis were not associated with sleep attacks or cataplexy. These results support two previous studies which found that sleep paralysis alone occurs frequently among normals.

  8. Metabolic complications of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Qanta A

    2008-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a widely prevalent disorder, hallmarked by partial or total upper airway obstruction during sleep. These events fracture sleep integrity resulting in chronic partial sleep deprivation with destructive metabolic sequelae, the focus of this review.

  9. At-a-Glance: Healthy Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor if you suspect you have a sleep disorder, such as insomnia, sleep apnea, rest- less legs ... Learn More More information on healthy sleep and sleep disorders is available from the National Heart, Lung, and ...

  10. Sleep during transcendental meditation.

    PubMed

    Pagano, R R; Rose, R M; Stivers, R M; Warrenburg, S

    1976-01-23

    Five experienced practitioners of transcendental meditation spent appreciable parts of meditation sesions in sleep stages 2, 3, and 4. Time spent in each sleep stage varied both between sessions for a given subject and between subjects. In addition, we compare electroencephalogram records made during meditation with those made during naps taken at the same time of day. The range of states observed during meditation does not support the view that meditation produces a single, unique state of consciousness.

  11. Weighing the balance: how analgesics used in chronic pain influence sleep?

    PubMed

    Bohra, Miqdad H; Kaushik, Chhavi; Temple, Daniel; Chung, Sharon A; Shapiro, Colin M

    2014-08-01

    Pain and sleep share a bidirectional relationship, with each influencing the other. Several excellent reviews have explored this relationship. In this article, we revisit the evidence and explore existing research on this complex inter-relationship. The primary focus of the article is on the pharmacological treatment of chronic non-malignant pain and the main purpose is to review the effect of various pharmacological agents used in the management of chronic pain on sleep. This has not been comprehensively done before. We explore the clinical use of these agents, their impact on sleep architecture and sleep physiology, the mechanism of action on sleep parameters and sleep disorders associated with these agents. Pharmacological classes reviewed include antidepressants, opioid analgesics, anti-epileptics, cannabinoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, drugs most commonly used to manage chronic pain. The objective is to help health professionals gain better insight into the complex effect that commonly used analgesics have on an individual's sleep and how this could impact on the effectiveness of the drug as an analgesic. We conclude that antidepressants have both positive and negative effects on sleep, so do opioids, but in the latter case the evidence shifts towards the counterproductive side. Some anticonvulsants are sleep sparing and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are sleep neutral. Cannabinoids remain an underexplored and researched group.

  12. Weighing the balance: how analgesics used in chronic pain influence sleep?

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Chhavi; Temple, Daniel; Chung, Sharon A; Shapiro, Colin M

    2014-01-01

    Pain and sleep share a bidirectional relationship, with each influencing the other. Several excellent reviews have explored this relationship. In this article, we revisit the evidence and explore existing research on this complex inter-relationship. The primary focus of the article is on the pharmacological treatment of chronic non-malignant pain and the main purpose is to review the effect of various pharmacological agents used in the management of chronic pain on sleep. This has not been comprehensively done before. We explore the clinical use of these agents, their impact on sleep architecture and sleep physiology, the mechanism of action on sleep parameters and sleep disorders associated with these agents. Pharmacological classes reviewed include antidepressants, opioid analgesics, anti-epileptics, cannabinoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, drugs most commonly used to manage chronic pain. The objective is to help health professionals gain better insight into the complex effect that commonly used analgesics have on an individual’s sleep and how this could impact on the effectiveness of the drug as an analgesic. We conclude that antidepressants have both positive and negative effects on sleep, so do opioids, but in the latter case the evidence shifts towards the counterproductive side. Some anticonvulsants are sleep sparing and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are sleep neutral. Cannabinoids remain an underexplored and researched group. PMID:26516542

  13. Augmenting CPT to Improve Sleep Impairment in PTSD: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Galovski, Tara E.; Mott, Juliette; Blain, Leah M.; Elwood, Lisa; Gloth, Chelsea; Fletcher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite the success of empirically supported treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), sleep impairment frequently remains refractory following treatment for PTSD. This single-site, randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of sleep-directed hypnosis as a complement to an empirically supported psychotherapy for PTSD (cognitive processing therapy; CPT). Method Participants completed either 3 weeks of hypnosis (n = 52) or a symptom monitoring control condition (n = 56) before beginning standard CPT. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate differential patterns of change to determine whether hypnosis resulted in improvements in sleep, PTSD, and depression. An intervening variable approach was then used to determine whether improvements in sleep achieved during hypnosis augmented change in PTSD and depression during CPT. Results After the initial phase of treatment (hypnosis or symptom monitoring), the hypnosis condition showed significantly greater improvement than the control condition in sleep and depression, but not PTSD. After CPT, both conditions demonstrated significant improvement in sleep and PTSD; however, the hypnosis condition demonstrated greater improvement in depressive symptoms. As sleep improved, there were corresponding improvements in PTSD and depression, with a stronger relationship between sleep and PTSD. Conclusion Hypnosis was effective in improving sleep impairment, but those improvements did not augment gains in PTSD recovery during the trauma-focused intervention. Public Health Significance: This study suggests that hypnosis may be a viable treatment option in a stepped-care approach for treating sleep impairment in individuals suffering from PTSD. PMID:26689303

  14. Sleep Duration, Restfulness, and Screens in the Sleep Environment

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten K.; Franckle, Rebecca L.; Ganter, Claudia; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Smith, Lauren; Land, Thomas; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Associations of inadequate sleep with numerous health outcomes among youth necessitate identifying its modifiable determinants. Television (TV) has been associated with sleep curtailment, but little is known about small screens (eg, smartphones), which can be used in bed and emit notifications. Therefore, we examined associations of different screens in sleep environments with sleep duration and perceived insufficient rest or sleep. METHODS: Participants included 2048 fourth- and seventh-graders participating in the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study in 2012 to 2013. Using linear and log binomial regression, we examined cross-sectional associations of small screens and TVs in sleep environments and screen time with weekday sleep duration and perceived insufficient rest or sleep in the past week. RESULTS: Children who slept near a small screen (compared with never) reported 20.6 fewer minutes of sleep (95% confidence interval [CI], −29.7 to −11.4) and had a higher prevalence of perceived insufficient rest or sleep (prevalence ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.60). Children who slept in a room with a TV (compared with no TV) reported 18.0 fewer minutes of sleep (95% CI, −27.9 to −8.1). TV or DVD viewing and video or computer game playing were associated with both sleep outcomes (P < .01). Some associations were stronger among Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and older children (P < .05 for heterogeneity). CONCLUSIONS: Sleeping near a small screen, sleeping with a TV in the room, and more screen time were associated with shorter sleep durations. Presence of a small screen, but not a TV, in the sleep environment and screen time were associated with perceived insufficient rest or sleep. These findings caution against unrestricted screen access in children’s bedrooms. PMID:25560435

  15. Estimating individual optimal sleep duration and potential sleep debt

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Shingo; Katayose, Yasuko; Nakazaki, Kyoko; Motomura, Yuki; Oba, Kentaro; Katsunuma, Ruri; Terasawa, Yuri; Enomoto, Minori; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Hida, Akiko; Mishima, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that dynamics of sleep time obtained over consecutive days of extended sleep in a laboratory reflect an individual’s optimal sleep duration (OSD) and that the difference between OSD and habitual sleep duration (HSD) at home represents potential sleep debt (PSD). We found that OSD varies among individuals and PSD showed stronger correlation with subjective/objective sleepiness than actual sleep time, interacting with individual’s vulnerability of sleep loss. Furthermore, only 1 h of PSD takes four days to recover to their optimal level. Recovery from PSD was also associated with the improvement in glycometabolism, thyrotropic activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Additionally, the increase (rebound) in total sleep time from HSD at the first extended sleep would be a simple indicator of PSD. These findings confirmed self-evaluating the degree of sleep debt at home as a useful clinical marker. To establish appropriate sleep habits, it is necessary to evaluate OSD, vulnerability to sleep loss, and sleep homeostasis characteristics on an individual basis. PMID:27775095

  16. The development of sleep-wake rhythms and the search for elemental circuits in the infant brain.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Mark S; Gall, Andrew J; Todd, William D

    2014-06-01

    Despite the predominance of sleep in early infancy, developmental science has yet to play a major role in shaping concepts and theories about sleep and its associated ultradian and circadian rhythms. Here we argue that developmental analyses help us to elucidate the relative contributions of the brainstem and forebrain to sleep-wake control and to dissect the neural components of sleep-wake rhythms. Developmental analysis also makes it clear that sleep-wake processes in infants are the foundation for those of adults. For example, the infant brainstem alone contains a fundamental sleep-wake circuit that is sufficient to produce transitions among wakefulness, quiet sleep, and active sleep. In addition, consistent with the requirements of a "flip-flop" model of sleep-wake processes, this brainstem circuit supports rapid transitions between states. Later in development, strengthening bidirectional interactions between the brainstem and forebrain contribute to the consolidation of sleep and wake bouts, the elaboration of sleep homeostatic processes, and the emergence of diurnal or nocturnal circadian rhythms. The developmental perspective promoted here critically constrains theories of sleep-wake control and provides a needed framework for the creation of fully realized computational models. Finally, with a better understanding of how this system is constructed developmentally, we will gain insight into the processes that govern its disintegration due to aging and disease.

  17. Mindfulness-based intervention for prodromal sleep disturbances in older adults: design and methodology of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Black, David S; O'Reilly, Gillian A; Olmstead, Richard; Breen, Elizabeth C; Irwin, Michael R

    2014-09-01

    Sleep problems are prevalent among older adults, often persist untreated, and are predictive of health detriments. Given the limitations of conventional treatments, non-pharmacological treatments such as mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are gaining popularity for sleep ailments. However, nothing is yet known about the impact of MBIs on sleep in older adults with prodromal sleep disturbances. This article details the design and methodology of a 6-week parallel-group RCT calibrated to test the treatment effect of the Mindful Awareness Practices (MAPs) program versus sleep hygiene education for improving sleep quality, as the main outcome, in older adults with prodromal sleep disturbances. Older adults with current sleep disturbances will be recruited from the urban Los Angeles community. Participants will be randomized into two standardized treatment conditions, MAPs and sleep hygiene education. Each condition will consist of weekly 2-hour group-based classes over the course of the 6-week intervention. The primary objective of this study is to determine if mindfulness meditation practice as engaged through the MAPs program leads to improved sleep quality relative to sleep hygiene education in older adults with prodromal sleep disturbances.

  18. Sleep Disturbances in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Zdanys, Kristina F; Steffens, David C

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disturbances are a common presenting symptom of older-age adults to their physicians. This article explores normal changes in sleep pattern with aging and primary sleep disorders in the elderly. Behavioral factors and primary psychiatric disorders affecting sleep in this population are reviewed. Further discussion examines sleep changes associated with 2 common forms of neurocognitive disorder: Alzheimer disease and Lewy Body Dementia. Common medical illnesses in the elderly are discussed in relation to sleep symptoms. Nonpharmacological and pharmacologic treatment strategies are summarized, with emphasis placed on risk of side effects in older adults. Future targets are considered.

  19. Perspective on Sleep and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Monjan, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    There is a strong body of data directly interrelating sleep problems with mood disorders. There is a growing data base directly associating sleep disorders with attention and memory problems. Motor disorders, especially involving the dopaminergic system, may produce sleep problems, including a possible association between disordered sleep and nocturnal falls. Sleep disorders may be causal conditions for metabolic diseases and increased risk for morbidity and mortality. Sleep and health are directly interrelated. To further probe these issues, especially as related to the aging process, investigators need to utilize tools and concepts from genomics and epigenetics, proteomics, metabolomics, any future …omics, molecular neuroimaging, and cognitive neuroscience. PMID:21173893

  20. [Sleep disturbance in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Nomura, Takashi; Inoue, Yuichi; Nakashima, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) complain about sleep disturbances. These symptoms originate from motor symptoms, nocturnal problems, psychiatric symptoms, and other sleep disorders including Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), Restless legs syndrome (RLS), and Sleep apnea syndrome (SAS). Especially, RBD is paid attention to prodromal symptoms of PD. Also, one third of patients with PD have RBD symptoms. Moreover, RBD is one of aggravating factors of motor symptoms, autonomic dysfunctions, and dementia. Now, the evidence based medicine for sleep disturbances is lack in patients with PD. We need to evaluate various causes of sleep disturbances in detail and deal with individuals.

  1. Helicopter high gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, T. B.; Nunn, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    High gain control is explored through a design study of the CH-47B helicopter. The plans are designed to obtain the maximum bandwidth possible given the hardware constraints. Controls are designed with modal control theory to specific bandwidths and closed loop mode shapes. Comparisons are made to an earlier complementary filter approach. Bandwidth improvement by removal of limitations is explored in order to establish hardware and mechanization options. Improvements in the pitch axis control system and in the rate gyro sensor noise characteristics in all axes are discussed. The use of rotor state feedback is assessed.

  2. Collapsible high gain antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cribb, H. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A lightweight small high gain antenna which is capable of being packaged in a collapsed form and automatically expanded when in use is described. The antenna includes a cylindrical housing having a rod with a piston adjacent to one end extending through it. Attached to the outer end of the rod in a normally collapsed state is a helical wire coil. When the gas producing means is activated the piston and rod are shifted outwardly to expand the wire coil. A latch is provided for holding the helical coil in the expanded position.

  3. Feedbacks Between Bioclogging and Infiltration in Losing River Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcomer, M. E.; Hubbard, S. S.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Schmidt, C.; Maier, U.; Thullner, M.; Ulrich, C.; Rubin, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Reduction in riverbed permeability due to biomass growth is a well-recognized yet poorly understood process associated with losing connected and disconnected rivers. Although several studies have focused on riverbed bioclogging processes at the pore-scale, few studies have quantified bioclogging feedback cycles at the scale relevant for water resources management, or at the meander-scale. At this scale, often competing hydrological-biological processes influence biomass dynamics and infiltration. Disconnection begins when declines in the water table form an unsaturated zone beneath the river maximizing seepage. Simultaneously, bioclogging reduces the point-scale infiltration flux and can either limit the nutrient flux and reduce bioclogging, or preferentially focus infiltration elsewhere and enhance bioclogging. These feedbacks are highly dependent on geomorphology and seasonal patterns of discharge and water temperature. To assess the mutual influences of disconnection, biomass growth, and temperature changes on infiltration in a geomorphologically complex river system, we built a 3D numerical model, conditioned on field data, using the reactive-transport simulator MIN3P. Results show that in disconnected regions of the river, biomass growth reduced vertical seepage downward and extended the unsaturated zone length; however these changes were contingent upon disconnection. Mid-way through the seasonal cycle, biomass declined in these same regions due to limited nutrient flux. Seepage and biomass continued to oscillate with a lag correlation of 1 month. Connected regions, however, showed the largest infiltration rates, nutrient fluxes, and concentrations of biomass. Despite the reduction in conductivity from biomass, flow remains high in connected regions because the feedback between bioclogging and infiltration is not as pronounced due to the sharpening hydraulic gradient. Bioclogging ultimately shapes the pattern of flow, however geomorphology dominates the

  4. Smoking Cessation and Weight Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated determinants of weight gain after quitting smoking in two smoking treatment outcome studies. Results indicated abstinence resulted in weight gain, and postquitting weight gain was predicted by pretreatment tobacco use, a history of weight problems, and eating patterns. Relapse to smoking did not follow weight gain. (Author/BL)

  5. 25 CFR 115.808 - Could trust fund investments made by OTFM lose money?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Could trust fund investments made by OTFM lose money? 115.808 Section 115.808 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES... § 115.808 Could trust fund investments made by OTFM lose money? The value of trust fund investments...

  6. Sleeping Worries Away or Worrying Away Sleep? Physiological Evidence on Sleep-Emotion Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Talamini, Lucia M.; Bringmann, Laura F.; de Boer, Marieke; Hofman, Winni F.

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that sleep might serve a role in emotional coping. However, most findings are based on subjective reports of sleep quality, while the relation with underlying sleep physiology is still largely unknown. In this study, the impact of an emotionally distressing experience on the EEG correlates of sleep was assessed. In addition, the association between sleep physiological parameters and the extent of emotional attenuation over sleep was determined. The experimental set up involved presentation of an emotionally neutral or distressing film fragment in the evening, followed by polysomnographic registration of undisturbed, whole-night sleep and assessment of emotional reactivity to film cues on the next evening. We found that emotional distress induced mild sleep deterioration, but also an increase in the proportion of slow wave sleep (SWS) and altered patterning of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Indeed, while REM sleep occurrence normally increases over the course of the night, emotional distress flattened this distribution and correlated with an increased number of REM periods. While sleep deterioration was negatively associated to emotional attenuation over sleep, the SWS response was positively related to such attenuation and may form part of a compensatory response to the stressor. Interestingly, trait-like SWS characteristics also correlated positively with the extent of emotion attenuation over sleep. The combined results provide strong evidence for an intimate reciprocal relation between sleep physiology and emotional processing. Moreover, individual differences in subjects' emotional and sleep responses suggest there may be a coupling of certain emotion and sleep traits into distinct emotional sleep types. PMID:23671601

  7. Sleep · 8: Paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, G; Brouillette, R

    2005-01-01

    In the past 25 years there has been increasing recognition of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) as a common condition of childhood. Morbidity includes impairment of growth, cardiovascular complications, learning impairment, and behavioural problems. Diagnosis and treatment of this condition in children differs in many respects from that in adults. We review here the key features of paediatric OSA, highlighting differences from adult OSA, and suggest future directions for research. PMID:15923253

  8. Characterizing Sleep Issues Using Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Chunara, Rumi; Chatterjee, Arnaub K; Bhandari, Aman; Fitzgerald, Timothy P; Jain, Sachin H; Brownstein, John S

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep issues such as insomnia affect over 50 million Americans and can lead to serious health problems, including depression and obesity, and can increase risk of injury. Social media platforms such as Twitter offer exciting potential for their use in studying and identifying both diseases and social phenomenon. Objective Our aim was to determine whether social media can be used as a method to conduct research focusing on sleep issues. Methods Twitter posts were collected and curated to determine whether a user exhibited signs of sleep issues based on the presence of several keywords in tweets such as insomnia, “can’t sleep”, Ambien, and others. Users whose tweets contain any of the keywords were designated as having self-identified sleep issues (sleep group). Users who did not have self-identified sleep issues (non-sleep group) were selected from tweets that did not contain pre-defined words or phrases used as a proxy for sleep issues. Results User data such as number of tweets, friends, followers, and location were collected, as well as the time and date of tweets. Additionally, the sentiment of each tweet and average sentiment of each user were determined to investigate differences between non-sleep and sleep groups. It was found that sleep group users were significantly less active on Twitter (P=.04), had fewer friends (P<.001), and fewer followers (P<.001) compared to others, after adjusting for the length of time each user's account has been active. Sleep group users were more active during typical sleeping hours than others, which may suggest they were having difficulty sleeping. Sleep group users also had significantly lower sentiment in their tweets (P<.001), indicating a possible relationship between sleep and pyschosocial issues. Conclusions We have demonstrated a novel method for studying sleep issues that allows for fast, cost-effective, and customizable data to be gathered. PMID:26054530

  9. Do birds sleep in flight?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rattenborg, Niels C.

    2006-09-01

    The following review examines the evidence for sleep in flying birds. The daily need to sleep in most animals has led to the common belief that birds, such as the common swift ( Apus apus), which spend the night on the wing, sleep in flight. The electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings required to detect sleep in flight have not been performed, however, rendering the evidence for sleep in flight circumstantial. The neurophysiology of sleep and flight suggests that some types of sleep might be compatible with flight. As in mammals, birds exhibit two types of sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep. Whereas, SWS can occur in one or both brain hemispheres at a time, REM sleep only occurs bihemispherically. During unihemispheric SWS, the eye connected to the awake hemisphere remains open, a state that may allow birds to visually navigate during sleep in flight. Bihemispheric SWS may also be possible during flight when constant visual monitoring of the environment is unnecessary. Nevertheless, the reduction in muscle tone that usually accompanies REM sleep makes it unlikely that birds enter this state in flight. Upon landing, birds may need to recover the components of sleep that are incompatible with flight. Periods of undisturbed postflight recovery sleep may be essential for maintaining adaptive brain function during wakefulness. The recent miniaturization of EEG recording devices now makes it possible to measure brain activity in flight. Determining if and how birds sleep in flight will contribute to our understanding of a largely unexplored aspect of avian behavior and may also provide insight into the function of sleep.

  10. Sleep and respiration in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Prisk, G K

    1998-01-01

    Sleep studies conducted during the STS-90 Neurolab mission are explored. The relationship between sleep, melatonin, and circadian phase is reviewed. The study contained both sleep and awake components. The objectives of the sleep component were to test five hypotheses: that circadian rhythms of core body temperature and urinary melatonin are synchronized to required sleep-wake schedules, that spaceflight results in substantial disruption of sleep, that the pattern of chest and abdominal wall motion alters during the different sleep stages in microgravity, that arterial oxygen saturation is reduced during some stages of sleep in microgravity, and that pre-sleep administration of melatonin during microgravity results in improved sleep quality. The awake component tested three hypotheses: that ventilatory response to carbon dioxide is increased during exposure to microgravity and that this exacerbates sleep disruption, that ventilatory response to hypoxia is increased by exposure to microgravity, and that the improved sleep resulting from the pre-sleep administration of melatonin enhances next day cognition when compared to placebo.

  11. Sleep Disturbances in Frontotemporal Dementia.

    PubMed

    McCarter, Stuart J; St Louis, Erik K; Boeve, Bradley F

    2016-09-01

    Sleep disorders appear to be frequent comorbidities in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness commonly occur in patients with FTD and significantly contribute to caregiver burden and burnout. Sleep is severely fragmented in FTD patients, likely secondary to behavioral disturbances, other primary sleep disorders such as sleep disordered breathing and restless leg syndrome, and neurodegeneration of nuclei involved in sleep and wakefulness. Treatment of primary sleep disorders may improve excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality and may improve daytime cognitive functioning. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder is rare in FTD and may be confused with excessive nocturnal activity due to disturbed circadian rhythm. The relationship between FTD, sleep quality, and sleep disorders requires further study to better understand the contribution of disturbed sleep to daytime neurocognitive functioning and quality of life in FTD. Further, future studies should focus on comparing sleep disturbances between different FTD syndromes, especially behavioral variant FTD and primary progressive aphasia. Comorbid sleep disorders should be promptly sought and treated in patients with FTD to improve patient and caregiver quality of life. PMID:27485946

  12. Sleep and respiration in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    Sleep studies conducted during the STS-90 Neurolab mission are explored. The relationship between sleep, melatonin, and circadian phase is reviewed. The study contained both sleep and awake components. The objectives of the sleep component were to test five hypotheses: that circadian rhythms of core body temperature and urinary melatonin are synchronized to required sleep-wake schedules, that spaceflight results in substantial disruption of sleep, that the pattern of chest and abdominal wall motion alters during the different sleep stages in microgravity, that arterial oxygen saturation is reduced during some stages of sleep in microgravity, and that pre-sleep administration of melatonin during microgravity results in improved sleep quality. The awake component tested three hypotheses: that ventilatory response to carbon dioxide is increased during exposure to microgravity and that this exacerbates sleep disruption, that ventilatory response to hypoxia is increased by exposure to microgravity, and that the improved sleep resulting from the pre-sleep administration of melatonin enhances next day cognition when compared to placebo.

  13. Streamflow gain and loss of selected streams in northern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freiwald, David A.

    1987-01-01

    This map shows streamflow gain and loss measurements (seepage runs) on the Crooked, Osage, and Spavinaw Creeks, and Illinois, Kings, Mulberry, Spring, and Strawberry Rivers during the low-flow conditions from September 1982 to October 1984. Data indicated that streamflow gains and losses resulted from differences in lithology of the predominately carbonate rocks and from the presence of faults. The Kings and Strawberry Rivers and Osage Creek were gaining streams throughout their length, however wastewater discharges precluded an accurate determination on Osage Creek. Crooked and Spavinaw Creeks and the Illinois, Spring, and Mulberry Rivers generally were gaining streams throughout most of their lengths although short losing reaches were identified. The largest gains in streamflow generally occurred were Mississippian formation predominated near the streams. Faults that intersected the stream channels primarily were responsible for streamflow losses. The specific conductance of water increased in the stream reaches that had the most significant streamflow gains. The specific conductance of water in tributaries was generally higher than that in larger streams. (Author 's abstract)

  14. Sleep and Delinquency: Does the Amount of Sleep Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinkinbeard, Samantha S.; Simi, Pete; Evans, Mary K.; Anderson, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep, a key indicator of health, has been linked to a variety of indicators of well-being such that people who get an adequate amount generally experience greater well-being. Further, a lack of sleep has been linked to a wide range of negative developmental outcomes, yet sleep has been largely overlooked among researchers interested in adolescent…

  15. Sleep duration, sleep quality and body weight: parallel developments.

    PubMed

    Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Adam, Tanja C; Hursel, Rick; Rutters, Femke; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-09-10

    The increase in obesity, including childhood obesity, has developed over the same time period as the progressive decrease in self-reported sleep duration. Since epidemiological studies showed an inverse relationship between short or disturbed sleep and obesity, the question arose, how sleep duration and sleep quality are associated with the development of obesity. In this review, the current literature on these topics has been evaluated. During puberty, changes in body mass index (BMI) are inversely correlated to changes in sleep duration. During adulthood, this relationship remains and at the same time unfavorable metabolic and neuro-endocrinological changes develop, that promote a positive energy balance, coinciding with sleep disturbance. Furthermore, during excessive weight loss BMI and fat mass decrease, in parallel, and related with an increase in sleep duration. In order to shed light on the association between sleep duration, sleep quality and obesity, until now it only has been shown that diet-induced body-weight loss and successive body-weight maintenance contribute to sleep improvement. It remains to be demonstrated whether body-weight management and body composition improve during an intervention concomitantly with spontaneous sleep improvement compared with the same intervention without spontaneous sleep improvement.

  16. Marital/Cohabitation Status and History in Relation to Sleep in Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Matthews, Karen A.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Sowers, MaryFran; Hall, Martica H.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine whether current and/or history of marital/cohabitation status are associated with sleep, independent of demographic and general health risk factors. Design: Longitudinal, observational study of women, with sleep measured via multi-night in-home polysomnography and up to 35 nights of actigraphy. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: Caucasian (n = 170), African American (n = 138), and Chinese women (n = 59); mean age 51 years. Interventions: None. Measurements: Sleep quality was assessed via questionnaire. Sleep duration, continuity, and architecture were calculated using in-home polysomnography (PSG). Sleep continuity was also assessed by actigraphy. Categories of marital/cohabiting status or changes in status were inclusive of women who were legally married or living as married as well as transitions into or out of those partnership categories. Results: Partnered (married or cohabiting) women at the time of the sleep study had better sleep quality and PSG and actigraphy-assessed sleep continuity than unpartnered women; however, with covariate adjustment, most of these associations became non-significant. Analyses of women's relationship histories over the 6-8 years prior to the sleep study showed advantages in sleep for women who were consistently partnered versus women who were unpartnered throughout this interval, or those who had lost or gained a partner over that time course. These results persisted after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusions: The stable presence of a partner is an independent correlate of better sleep quality and continuity in women. Citation: Troxel WM; Buysse DJ; Matthews KA; Kravitz HM; Bromberger JT; Sowers M; Hall MH. Marital/cohabitation status and history in relation to sleep in midlife women. SLEEP 2010;33(7):973-981. PMID:20614858

  17. Obstructive sleep apnoea and schizophrenia--a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Kalucy, Megan J; Grunstein, Ron; Lambert, Timothy; Glozier, Nicholas

    2013-10-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with significantly increased physical morbidity and mortality particularly secondary to cardiometabolic disorders. In people with schizophrenia, rates of obesity and the metabolic syndrome are high compared to the general population. Whilst the weight gain secondary to antipsychotic medication is largely to blame, other factors include inactivity, poor diet and possibly the illness itself. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common and frequently under-recognized condition which may be associated with disabling symptoms including daytime sleepiness, cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety and long term increases in morbidity and mortality secondary to cardiometabolic disease. As the primary risk factor is obesity, elevated rates of sleep apnoea would therefore seem likely in association with schizophrenia. Thus, OSA might represent a treatable cause of psychiatric and physical co-morbidity in patients with schizophrenia. A review of the literature revealed a paucity of quality research in this area. Available data suggest increased rates of sleep apnoea in schizophrenia and that psychotic symptoms may improve when co-morbid sleep apnoea is treated. Health practitioners may be unaware of the need to screen for sleep apnoea in patients with schizophrenia and the disorder may be significantly under-recognised. Research is required to clarify the epidemiology, consequences and management of sleep apnoea in association with schizophrenia. PMID:23528272

  18. Altered salience network connectivity predicts macronutrient intake after sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhuo; Spaeth, Andrea M.; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Senhua; Hu, Siyuan; Goel, Namni; Detre, John A.; Dinges, David F.; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-01-01

    Although insufficient sleep is a well-recognized risk factor for overeating and weight gain, the neural mechanisms underlying increased caloric (particularly fat) intake after sleep deprivation remain unclear. Here we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and examined brain connectivity changes associated with macronutrient intake after one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD). Compared to the day following baseline sleep, healthy adults consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat and a lower percentage of calories from carbohydrates during the day following TSD. Subjects also exhibited increased brain connectivity in the salience network from the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) to bilateral putamen and bilateral anterior insula (aINS) after TSD. Moreover, dACC-putamen and dACC-aINS connectivity correlated with increased fat and decreased carbohydrate intake during the day following TSD, but not during the day following baseline sleep. These findings provide a potential neural mechanism by which sleep loss leads to increased fat intake. PMID:25645575

  19. Obstructive sleep apnoea and schizophrenia--a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Kalucy, Megan J; Grunstein, Ron; Lambert, Timothy; Glozier, Nicholas

    2013-10-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with significantly increased physical morbidity and mortality particularly secondary to cardiometabolic disorders. In people with schizophrenia, rates of obesity and the metabolic syndrome are high compared to the general population. Whilst the weight gain secondary to antipsychotic medication is largely to blame, other factors include inactivity, poor diet and possibly the illness itself. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common and frequently under-recognized condition which may be associated with disabling symptoms including daytime sleepiness, cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety and long term increases in morbidity and mortality secondary to cardiometabolic disease. As the primary risk factor is obesity, elevated rates of sleep apnoea would therefore seem likely in association with schizophrenia. Thus, OSA might represent a treatable cause of psychiatric and physical co-morbidity in patients with schizophrenia. A review of the literature revealed a paucity of quality research in this area. Available data suggest increased rates of sleep apnoea in schizophrenia and that psychotic symptoms may improve when co-morbid sleep apnoea is treated. Health practitioners may be unaware of the need to screen for sleep apnoea in patients with schizophrenia and the disorder may be significantly under-recognised. Research is required to clarify the epidemiology, consequences and management of sleep apnoea in association with schizophrenia.

  20. Sleep education for paradoxical insomnia.

    PubMed

    Geyer, James D; Lichstein, Kenneth L; Ruiter, Megan E; Ward, L Charles; Carney, Paul R; Dillard, Stephenie C

    2011-01-01

    This case study series investigated a new treatment for paradoxical insomnia patients as there is no standard treatment for this patient group at this time. Four paradoxical insomnia patients had a polysomnography (PSG) sleep study, an unsuccessful brief course of behavioral treatment for insomnia, and then a novel sleep education treatment comprising review of their PSG with video and exploration of the discrepancy between their reported and observed sleep experience. Two patients responded well to sleep education, mainly with improved self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and Insomnia Severity Index scores; and the other two, who exhibited sleep architecture anomalies, were unresponsive. These findings suggest that sleep education holds promise for some paradoxical insomnia patients. Suggestions for future studies are given.

  1. Common Sleep Problems (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... stages 1, 2, 3, 4, and REM (rapid eye movement) sleep make up a sleep cycle . One complete ... person can wake up easily. During these stages, eye movements slow down and eventually stop, heart and breathing ...

  2. Your Guide to Healthy Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleep apnea. This condition occurs more frequently in African Americans, Asians, Native Americans, and Hispanics than in Caucasians. More than one-half of all people who have sleep apnea are not diagnosed. People ...

  3. Sleep in High Stress Occupations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn-Evans, Erin

    2014-01-01

    High stress occupations are associated with sleep restriction, circadian misalignment and demanding workload. This presentation will provide an overview of sleep duration, circadian misalignment and fatigue countermeasures and performance outcomes during spaceflight and commercial aviation.

  4. Sleep Can Affect Male Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161569.html Sleep Can Affect Male Fertility Study found too little ... appears to be 7 to 8 hours of sleep a night, said study author Lauren Wise, a ...

  5. New Clues to Sleeping Sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161284.html New Clues to Sleeping Sickness Disease-causing parasites found ... people with no symptoms of the disease, a new study finds. Sleeping sickness affects 4,000 to ...

  6. Sleep deprivation and false memories.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences.

  7. Is it time for bed? Short sleep duration increases risk for obesity in Mexican American children

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Suzanna M.; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Greenspan, Louise C.; Deardorff, Julianna; Penilla, Carlos; Flores, Elena; Pasch, Lauri A.; Gregorich, Steve E.; Butte, Nancy F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cross-sectional studies show that sleep is related to childhood obesity. We aimed to examine the longitudinal impact of sleep on obesity risk in Mexican American children. Design and Methods We evaluated 229 Mexican American 8–10-year-olds and their mothers at baseline and 12- and 24-month follow-ups. Sleep duration and anthropometrics were collected. Age- and gender-specific BMI z-scores (BMIz) were calculated based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. Sleep duration was estimated using accelerometry. Children were also categorized as long or short sleepers, using the National Sleep Foundation’s recommendation to define adequate sleep duration (10–11 hours for 5- to 12-year-olds). Using linear regressions, we examined whether sleep duration predicted BMIz, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and weight gain at 24 months. Results Children were mostly short sleepers (82%). Children who slept less were more likely to have a higher BMI z-score, WHtR and weight gain at 24-month follow-up (β = −0.07, P = 0.01; β = −0.11, P < 0.01; β = −0.14, P = 0.02, respectively), after controlling for baseline weight status, child gender, maternal BMI and occupation. Conclusion In Mexican American children, shorter sleep duration at baseline was associated with increased weight status over 24 months. PMID:25454984

  8. Model-based estimation of loop gain using spontaneous breathing: A validation study

    PubMed Central

    Gederi, Elnaz; Nemati, Shamim; Edwards, Bradley A.; Clifford, Gari D.; Malhotra, Atul; Wellman, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive assessment of ventilatory control stability or loop gain (which is a key contributor in a number of sleep-related breathing disorders) has proven to be cumbersome. We present a novel multivariate autoregressive model that we hypothesize will enable us to make time-varying measurements of loop gain using nothing more than spontaneous fluctuations in ventilation and CO2. The model is adaptive to changes in the feedback control loop and therefore can account for system non-stationarities (e.g. changes in sleep state) and it is resistant to artifacts by using a signal quality measure. We tested this method by assessing its ability to detect a known increase in loop gain induced by proportional assist ventilation (PAV). Subjects were studied during sleep while breathing on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) alone (to stabilize the airway) or on CPAP + PAV. We show that the method tracked the PAV-induced increase in loop gain, demonstrating its time-varying capabilities, and it remained accurate in the face of measurement related artifacts. The model was able to detect a statistically significant increase in loop gain from 0.14 ± 10 on CPAP alone to 0.21 ± 0.13 on CPAP + PAV (p < 0.05). Furthermore, our method correctly detected that the PAV-induced increase in loop gain was predominantly driven by an increase in controller gain. Taken together, these data provide compelling evidence for the validity of this technique. PMID:25038522

  9. Habitual sleep length and patterns of recovery sleep after 24 hour and 36 hour sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Benoit, O; Foret, J; Bouard, G; Merle, B; Landau, J; Marc, M E

    1980-12-01

    Five long sleepers (LS) and 5 short sleepers (SS) were selected from 310 medical students. Nine regular sleepers (RS) were used as a control. The sleep was recorded during 3 reference nights, one recovery night after a 36 h sleep deprivation (R2), one morning sleep after a 24 h sleep deprivation (D1) and the night following D1(R1). According to previous data slow wave sleep (SWS) amounts were the same in the 3 groups while stage 2 and paradoxical sleep (PS) amounts increased with the sleep duration. The hourly distribution of intervening wakefulness and SWS were similar for all groups. When compared to RS or SS the hourly distribution in LS of PS was lower until the sixth hour. As a function of experimental conditions, sleep patterns of LS were the most affected. In R2 the sleep of LS more closely resembled that of RS or SS than in reference nights, while in R1 LS' sleep was the most disturbed. Morning sleep durations were very similar for all groups, but in LS intervening wakefulness was increased and PS was decreased when compared to RS and SS. Negative correlations (Spearman rank test) were found between the morning increase of body temperature after a sleep-deprived night and both TST and PS durations. In all recorded sleep periods, SWS amounts were positively correlated with prior wakefulness duration and the PS amount with TST. PMID:6160990

  10. [Obstructive sleep apnea in women].

    PubMed

    Turányi, Csilla Zita; Pintér, Nóra; Dunai, Andrea; Novák, Márta

    2014-12-28

    The prevalence of sleep disturbances and their symptomatic manifestations may be different in men and women. Women with obstructive sleep apnea are less likely to be diagnosed with sleep apnea compared to men, probably due to atypical symptoms such as morning headaches, symptoms of depression and daytime fatigue. There is a great importance of diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders regarding quality of life, co-morbidity and mortality in both genders.

  11. [Sleep related eating disorder].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuichi; Komada, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) or night eating syndrome (NES). Critical reviews of the literature on both disorders have suggested that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. The feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with amnesia. Conversely, NES could be considered as an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Both conditions clearly concentrate to occur during young adulthood, and are often relentless and chronic. Misunderstanding and low awareness of SRED and NES have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of the two disorders. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias such as sleep walking. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is ineffective, but pharmacotherapy is very effective in controlling SRED. Especially, studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED.

  12. [Sleep related eating disorder].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuichi; Komada, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) or night eating syndrome (NES). Critical reviews of the literature on both disorders have suggested that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. The feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with amnesia. Conversely, NES could be considered as an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Both conditions clearly concentrate to occur during young adulthood, and are often relentless and chronic. Misunderstanding and low awareness of SRED and NES have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of the two disorders. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias such as sleep walking. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is ineffective, but pharmacotherapy is very effective in controlling SRED. Especially, studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED. PMID:21077298

  13. Autoimmune sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Silber, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    A number of autoantibodies, some paraneoplastic, are associated with sleep disorders. Morvan syndrome and limbic encephalitis, associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies, principally against CASPR2 and LGI1, can result in profound insomnia and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Patients with aquaporin-4 antibodies and neuromyelitis optica may develop narcolepsy in association with other evidence of hypothalamic dysfunction, sometimes as the initial presentation. Central sleep apnea and central neurogenic hypoventilation are found in patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibody encephalitis, and obstructive sleep apnea, stridor, and hypoventilation are prominent features of a novel tauopathy associated with IgLON5 antibodies. In addition, paraneoplastic diseases may involve the hypothalamus and cause sleep disorders, particularly narcolepsy and RBD in those with Ma1 and Ma2 antibodies. Patients with antineuronal nuclear autoantibodies type 2 may develop stridor. Several lines of evidence suggest that narcolepsy is an autoimmune disorder. There is a strong relationship with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQB1*06:02 haplotype and polymorphisms in the T-cell receptor alpha locus and purinergic receptor P2Y11 genes. Patients with recent-onset narcolepsy may have high titers of antistreptococcal or other antibodies, although none has yet been shown to be disease-specific but, supporting an immune basis, recent evidence indicates that narcolepsy in children can be precipitated by one type of vaccination against the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic. PMID:27112685

  14. Sleep in thyrotoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, G. R.; Putcha, Venkata; Lakshmi, G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Pattern of sleep in hyperthyroid state / thyrotoxicosis has not been systematically studied. It is being characterized as poor without further elaboration. We analyzed the pattern of sleep in a large sample of individuals with thyrotoxicosis who came to our endocrine center in southern India. Materials and Methods: We identified individuals with the diagnosis of ‘thyrotoxicosis’ from our electronic medical record database, and evaluated clinical parameters and pattern of their sleep: difficulty in falling asleep (DFA), difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS), excess daytime sleepiness). In the first phase, univariate analysis with logistic regression was performed. Multivariate logistic regression was performed in the next phase on variables with a P-value < 0.1: these were considered as potential categories/ variables. Results: In model response variable with DFA, multivariate logistic regression predicted that subjects with abnormal appetite (more 1.7 or less 2.2), change in bowel motion (loose 1.5 or constipation 2.8), in mood (easy loss of temper 3.4), change of voice -- hoarse 7.4 or moderately hoarse 3.1), tended to have higher chances of difficulty in falling asleep (DFA). Patients with tremor (yes = 5.4) had greater likelihood of difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS). Conclusions: Individuals with hyperthyroidism/thyrotoxicosis principally had difficulty in falling asleep DFA, which was related to hyperkinetic features. PMID:21584162

  15. Sleep Disorders, Epilepsy, and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malow, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to describe the clinical data linking autism with sleep and epilepsy and to discuss the impact of treating sleep disorders in children with autism either with or without coexisting epileptic seizures. Studies are presented to support the view that sleep is abnormal in individuals with autistic spectrum…

  16. Neurocognitive Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Namni; Rao, Hengyi; Durmer, Jeffrey S.; Dinges, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is associated with considerable social, financial, and health-related costs, in large measure because it produces impaired cognitive performance due to increasing sleep propensity and instability of waking neurobehavioral functions. Cognitive functions particularly affected by sleep loss include psychomotor and cognitive speed, vigilant and executive attention, working memory, and higher cognitive abilities. Chronic sleep-restriction experiments—which model the kind of sleep loss experienced by many individuals with sleep fragmentation and premature sleep curtailment due to disorders and lifestyle—demonstrate that cognitive deficits accumulate to severe levels over time without full awareness by the affected individual. Functional neuroimaging has revealed that frequent and progressively longer cognitive lapses, which are a hallmark of sleep deprivation, involve distributed changes in brain regions including frontal and parietal control areas, secondary sensory processing areas, and thalamic areas. There are robust differences among individuals in the degree of their cognitive vulnerability to sleep loss that may involve differences in prefrontal and parietal cortices, and that may have a basis in genes regulating sleep homeostasis and circadian rhythms. Thus, cognitive deficits believed to be a function of the severity of clinical sleep disturbance may be a product of genetic alleles associated with differential cognitive vulnerability to sleep loss. PMID:19742409

  17. Sleep disorders in the elderly

    MedlinePlus

    ... They can lead to dependence and can make sleep problems worse over time if you don't use them correctly. Your ... side effects, and falls before you begin taking sleep medications. If ... at any time when you are using sleeping pills. Alcohol can ...

  18. Sleep quality and temperament among university students: differential associations with nighttime sleep duration and sleep disruptions.

    PubMed

    Lukowski, Angela F; Milojevich, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    Sleep-temperament associations have not yet been examined among university students, despite awareness of the high incidence of sleep problems in this population. The present study was conducted (a) to examine whether sleep quality was associated with temperament among university-attending young adults and (b) to determine whether particular components of sleep quality were differentially associated with temperament. University students completed questionnaires designed to assess sleep quality and temperament. Poor sleep quality was associated with increased negative affect and orienting sensitivity as well as decreased effortful control; regression analyses revealed differential associations between components of nighttime sleep quality and temperament ratings. The presented study reveals conceptual continuity in sleep-temperament relations from infancy to young adulthood and highlights important avenues for future research.

  19. Sleep-Dependent Reactivation of Ensembles in Motor Cortex Promotes Skill Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Dhakshin S.; Gulati, Tanuj; Ganguly, Karunesh

    2015-01-01

    Despite many prior studies demonstrating offline behavioral gains in motor skills after sleep, the underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. To investigate the neurophysiological basis for offline gains, we performed single-unit recordings in motor cortex as rats learned a skilled upper-limb task. We found that sleep improved movement speed with preservation of accuracy. These offline improvements were linked to both replay of task-related ensembles during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and temporal shifts that more tightly bound motor cortical ensembles to movements; such offline gains and temporal shifts were not evident with sleep restriction. Interestingly, replay was linked to the coincidence of slow-wave events and bursts of spindle activity. Neurons that experienced the most consistent replay also underwent the most significant temporal shift and binding to the motor task. Significantly, replay and the associated performance gains after sleep only occurred when animals first learned the skill; continued practice during later stages of learning (i.e., after motor kinematics had stabilized) did not show evidence of replay. Our results highlight how replay of synchronous neural activity during sleep mediates large-scale neural plasticity and stabilizes kinematics during early motor learning. PMID:26382320

  20. Sleep characteristics in twins.

    PubMed

    Hori, A

    1986-03-01

    Polysomnograms were recorded for three consecutive nights on 14 male students (mean age, 16), comprising 4 identical and 3 fraternal twin pairs. The number of body movements and the measures related to the REM cycle, which correlated among the identical twins without reference to the physical parameters, were considered to be determined by a genetic trait. The sleep spindle density was in almost complete concordance between the identical twins and was associated with some physical parameters, which suggests that sleep spindles rather reflect the individual development. %S3, %SREM and the number of SREM showed a relationship to the physical parameters, without heritability. Twitch movements during REM sleep correlated not only between the identical twins but also between the fraternal twins.

  1. Optimizing sleep/wake schedules in space: Sleep during chronic nocturnal sleep restriction with and without diurnal naps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollicone, Daniel J.; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.; Dinges, David F.

    2007-02-01

    Effective sleep/wake schedules for space operations must balance severe time constraints with allocating sufficient time for sleep in order to sustain high levels of neurobehavioral performance. Developing such schedules requires knowledge about the relationship between scheduled "time in bed" (TIB) and actual physiological sleep obtained. A ground-based laboratory study in N=93 healthy adult subjects was conducted to investigate physiological sleep obtained in a range of restricted sleep schedules. Eighteen different conditions with restricted nocturnal anchor sleep, with and without diurnal naps, were examined in a response surface mapping paradigm. Sleep efficiency was found to be a function of total TIB per 24 h regardless of how the sleep was divided among nocturnal anchor sleep and diurnal nap sleep periods. The amounts of sleep stages 1+2 and REM showed more complex relationships with the durations of the anchor and nap sleep periods, while slow-wave sleep was essentially preserved among the different conditions of the experiment. The results of the study indicated that when sleep was chronically restricted, sleep duration was largely unaffected by whether the sleep was placed nocturnally or split between nocturnal anchor sleep periods and daytime naps. Having thus assessed that split-sleep schedules are feasible in terms of obtaining physiological sleep, further research will reveal whether these schedules and the associated variations in the distribution of sleep stages may be advantageous in mitigating neurobehavioral performance impairment in the face of limited time for sleep.

  2. Respiratory rate variability in sleeping adults without obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Williams, Jeffrey; Alrehaili, Ghadah A; McLean, Anna; Pirouz, Ramin; Amdur, Richard; Jain, Vivek; Ahari, Jalil; Bawa, Amandeep; Kimbro, Shawn

    2016-09-01

    Characterizing respiratory rate variability (RRV) in humans during sleep is challenging, since it requires the analysis of respiratory signals over a period of several hours. These signals are easily distorted by movement and volitional inputs. We applied the method of spectral analysis to the nasal pressure transducer signal in 38 adults with no obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index <5, who underwent all-night polysomnography (PSG). Our aim was to detect and quantitate RRV during the various sleep stages, including wakefulness. The nasal pressure transducer signal was acquired at 100 Hz and consecutive frequency spectra were generated for the length of the PSG with the Fast Fourier Transform. For each spectrum, we computed the amplitude ratio of the first harmonic peak to the zero frequency peak (H1/DC), and defined as RRV as (100 - H1/DC) %. RRV was greater during wakefulness compared to any sleep stage, including rapid-eye-movement. Furthermore, RRV correlated with the depth of sleep, being lowest during N3. Patients spent most their sleep time supine, but we found no correlation between RRV and body position. There was a correlation between respiratory rate and sleep stage, being greater in wakefulness than in any sleep stage. We conclude that RRV varies according to sleep stage. Moreover, spectral analysis of nasal pressure signal appears to provide a valid measure of RRV during sleep. It remains to be seen if the method can differentiate normal from pathological sleep patterns.

  3. Sleep deficiency and sleep health problems in chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Victor; Shao, Jesus; Zhang, Kai; Mulvey, Martha; Ming, Xue; Wagner, George C

    2012-01-01

    A survey of sleep schedules, sleep health, and the impact on school performance was conducted in 585 adolescents in a high school in China. A high level of early and circadian-disadvantaged sleep/wake schedules during weekdays was observed. Significantly shorter sleep duration on weekdays was reported (P < 0.0001). Older teenagers slept significantly less than the younger teenagers (P < 0.0001). Complaints of inadequate sleep and sleepiness during weekdays were prevalent. Night awakenings were reported in 32.2% of students. Students with a sleep length of less than 7 hours, complaint of inadequate sleep, or excessive daytime sleepiness during weekdays were more likely to report an adverse effect of poor sleep on performance. The present observations are qualitatively similar to those reported in our study in American adolescents, particularly with respect to Chinese adolescents exhibiting a similar sleep deficiency on weekdays. We concluded that sleep deficiency and sleep health problems were prevalent in the participating adolescents in China, and were perceived to adversely affect school performance. PMID:23641162

  4. Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep.

    PubMed

    Halson, Shona L

    2014-05-01

    Sleep has numerous important physiological and cognitive functions that may be particularly important to elite athletes. Recent evidence, as well as anecdotal information, suggests that athletes may experience a reduced quality and/or quantity of sleep. Sleep deprivation can have significant effects on athletic performance, especially submaximal, prolonged exercise. Compromised sleep may also influence learning, memory, cognition, pain perception, immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, changes in glucose metabolism and neuroendocrine function as a result of chronic, partial sleep deprivation may result in alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, appetite, food intake and protein synthesis. These factors can ultimately have a negative influence on an athlete's nutritional, metabolic and endocrine status and hence potentially reduce athletic performance. Research has identified a number of neurotransmitters associated with the sleep-wake cycle. These include serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid, orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone, cholinergic, galanin, noradrenaline, and histamine. Therefore, nutritional interventions that may act on these neurotransmitters in the brain may also influence sleep. Carbohydrate, tryptophan, valerian, melatonin and other nutritional interventions have been investigated as possible sleep inducers and represent promising potential interventions. In this review, the factors influencing sleep quality and quantity in athletic populations are examined and the potential impact of nutritional interventions is considered. While there is some research investigating the effects of nutritional interventions on sleep, future research may highlight the importance of nutritional and dietary interventions to enhance sleep. PMID:24791913

  5. Cetacean sleep: an unusual form of mammalian sleep.

    PubMed

    Lyamin, Oleg I; Manger, Paul R; Ridgway, Sam H; Mukhametov, Lev M; Siegel, Jerome M

    2008-10-01

    Our knowledge of the form of lateralized sleep behavior, known as unihemispheric slow wave sleep (USWS), seen in all members of the order Cetacea examined to date, is described. We trace the discovery of this phenotypically unusual form of mammalian sleep and highlight specific aspects that are different from sleep in terrestrial mammals. We find that for cetaceans sleep is characterized by USWS, a negligible amount or complete absence of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and a varying degree of movement during sleep associated with body size, and an asymmetrical eye state. We then compare the anatomy of the mammalian somnogenic system with what is known in cetaceans, highlighting areas where additional knowledge is needed to understand cetacean sleep. Three suggested functions of USWS (facilitation of movement, more efficient sensory processing and control of breathing) are discussed. Lastly, the possible selection pressures leading to this form of sleep are examined, leading us to the suggestion that the selection pressure necessitating the evolution of cetacean sleep was most likely the need to offset heat loss to the water from birth and throughout life. Aspects such as sentinel functions and breathing are likely to be proximate evolutionary phenomenon of this form of sleep.

  6. Respiratory rate variability in sleeping adults without obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Williams, Jeffrey; Alrehaili, Ghadah A; McLean, Anna; Pirouz, Ramin; Amdur, Richard; Jain, Vivek; Ahari, Jalil; Bawa, Amandeep; Kimbro, Shawn

    2016-09-01

    Characterizing respiratory rate variability (RRV) in humans during sleep is challenging, since it requires the analysis of respiratory signals over a period of several hours. These signals are easily distorted by movement and volitional inputs. We applied the method of spectral analysis to the nasal pressure transducer signal in 38 adults with no obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index <5, who underwent all-night polysomnography (PSG). Our aim was to detect and quantitate RRV during the various sleep stages, including wakefulness. The nasal pressure transducer signal was acquired at 100 Hz and consecutive frequency spectra were generated for the length of the PSG with the Fast Fourier Transform. For each spectrum, we computed the amplitude ratio of the first harmonic peak to the zero frequency peak (H1/DC), and defined as RRV as (100 - H1/DC) %. RRV was greater during wakefulness compared to any sleep stage, including rapid-eye-movement. Furthermore, RRV correlated with the depth of sleep, being lowest during N3. Patients spent most their sleep time supine, but we found no correlation between RRV and body position. There was a correlation between respiratory rate and sleep stage, being greater in wakefulness than in any sleep stage. We conclude that RRV varies according to sleep stage. Moreover, spectral analysis of nasal pressure signal appears to provide a valid measure of RRV during sleep. It remains to be seen if the method can differentiate normal from pathological sleep patterns. PMID:27597768

  7. Crowding in the city: losing and winning competitors of an invasive bird.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Brito, Dailos; Carrete, Martina; Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G; Ibáñez, Carlos; Tella, José L

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species can take advantage of resources unexploited by natives (opportunism hypothesis) or they can exploit the same resources but more aggressively or efficiently (competition hypothesis), thus impacting native species. However, invasive species tend to exploit anthropogenic habitats that are inefficiently used by natives such as urban environments. Focusing on the ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri), one of the most invasive birds worldwide, we combined observations of interspecific aggressions, species-specific cavity-nest preferences and the spatial distribution of the native cavity-nesting vertebrate community to determine the invasion process as well as its potential impacts on native species in a Mediterranean city. Our results support the competition hypothesis, suggesting that ring-necked parakeets are outcompeting native species sharing nest-site preferences. Parakeets initiated and won most interspecific aggressions, which were directed towards competitors but also towards predators. This behaviour could explain the spatial arrangement of natives, with most bird species breeding close to parakeets possibly to take advantage of their effective antipredatory behaviour. However, temporal and spatial patterns of segregation suggest that a threatened bat species is negatively affected by parakeets. This demonstrates that common species gain benefits and threatened ones (in this study, a bat and possibly a falcon) lose nest sites due to invaders. Therefore, the conservation status of the native species that pay the costs of competition with invaders should be considered. This scenario of winners and losers may, however, shift towards more losers if the ring-necked parakeet population continues to grow, thus requiring close monitoring and control/eradication programs to avoid further impacts.

  8. Immunological changes following protein losing enteropathy after surgery total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) by cytomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocsi, József; Lenz, Dominik; Mittag, Anja; Sauer, Ursula; Wild, Lena; Hess, John; Schranz, Dietmar; Hambsch, Jörg; Schneider, Peter; Tárnok, Attila

    2008-02-01

    Complex immunophenotyping single-cell analysis are essential for systems biology and cytomics. The application of cytomics in immunology and cardiac research and diagnostics is very broad, ranging from the better understanding of the cardiovascular cell biology to the identification of heart function and immune consequences after surgery. TCPC or Fontan-type circulation is an accepted palliative surgery for patients with a functionally univentricular heart. Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), the enteric loss of proteins, is a potential late complication after TCPC surgery. PLE etiology is poorly understood, but immunological factors seem to play a role. This study was aimed to gain insight into immune phenotype alterations following post-TCPC PLE. Patients were studied during routine follow-up up to 5yrs after surgery, blood samples of TCPC patients without (n=21, age 6.8+/-2.6 years at surgery; mean+/-SD) and with manifest PLE (n=12, age 12.8+/- 4.5 years at sampling) and age matched healthy children (control, n=22, age 8.6+/-2.5 years) were collected. Routine laboratory, immune phenotype and serological parameters were determined. Following PLE the immune phenotype dramatically changed with signs of acute inflammation (increased neutrophil and monocyte count, CRP, IL-8). In contrast, lymphocyte count (NK-cells, αβTCR +CD4 +, αβTCR +CD8 + cells) decreased (p<0.001). The residual T-cells had elevated CD25 and CD69 expression. In PLE-patients unique cell populations with CD3 +αβ/γδTCR - and αβTCR +CD4 -8 - phenotype were present in increased frequencies. Our studies show dramatically altered leukocyte phenotype after PLE in TCPC patients. These alterations resemble to changes in autoimmune diseases. We conclude that autoimmune processes may play a role in etiology and pathophysiology of PLE.

  9. Crowding in the City: Losing and Winning Competitors of an Invasive Bird

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Brito, Dailos; Carrete, Martina; Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G.; Ibáñez, Carlos; Tella, José L.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species can take advantage of resources unexploited by natives (opportunism hypothesis) or they can exploit the same resources but more aggressively or efficiently (competition hypothesis), thus impacting native species. However, invasive species tend to exploit anthropogenic habitats that are inefficiently used by natives such as urban environments. Focusing on the ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri), one of the most invasive birds worldwide, we combined observations of interspecific aggressions, species-specific cavity-nest preferences and the spatial distribution of the native cavity-nesting vertebrate community to determine the invasion process as well as its potential impacts on native species in a Mediterranean city. Our results support the competition hypothesis, suggesting that ring-necked parakeets are outcompeting native species sharing nest-site preferences. Parakeets initiated and won most interspecific aggressions, which were directed towards competitors but also towards predators. This behaviour could explain the spatial arrangement of natives, with most bird species breeding close to parakeets possibly to take advantage of their effective antipredatory behaviour. However, temporal and spatial patterns of segregation suggest that a threatened bat species is negatively affected by parakeets. This demonstrates that common species gain benefits and threatened ones (in this study, a bat and possibly a falcon) lose nest sites due to invaders. Therefore, the conservation status of the native species that pay the costs of competition with invaders should be considered. This scenario of winners and losers may, however, shift towards more losers if the ring-necked parakeet population continues to grow, thus requiring close monitoring and control/eradication programs to avoid further impacts. PMID:24945439

  10. Pathophysiology of Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Veasey, Sigrid C.; Morgan, Barbara J.; O'Donnell, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep-induced apnea and disordered breathing refers to intermittent, cyclical cessations or reductions of airflow, with or without obstructions of the upper airway (OSA). In the presence of an anatomically compromised, collapsible airway, the sleep-induced loss of compensatory tonic input to the upper airway dilator muscle motor neurons leads to collapse of the pharyngeal airway. In turn, the ability of the sleeping subject to compensate for this airway obstruction will determine the degree of cycling of these events. Several of the classic neurotransmitters and a growing list of neuromodulators have now been identified that contribute to neurochemical regulation of pharyngeal motor neuron activity and airway patency. Limited progress has been made in developing pharmacotherapies with acceptable specificity for the treatment of sleep-induced airway obstruction. We review three types of major long-term sequelae to severe OSA that have been assessed in humans through use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment and in animal models via long-term intermittent hypoxemia (IH): 1) cardiovascular. The evidence is strongest to support daytime systemic hypertension as a consequence of severe OSA, with less conclusive effects on pulmonary hypertension, stroke, coronary artery disease, and cardiac arrhythmias. The underlying mechanisms mediating hypertension include enhanced chemoreceptor sensitivity causing excessive daytime sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity, combined with overproduction of superoxide ion and inflammatory effects on resistance vessels. 2) Insulin sensitivity and homeostasis of glucose regulation are negatively impacted by both intermittent hypoxemia and sleep disruption, but whether these influences of OSA are sufficient, independent of obesity, to contribute significantly to the “metabolic syndrome” remains unsettled. 3) Neurocognitive effects include daytime sleepiness and impaired memory and concentration. These effects reflect

  11. The impact of daylight saving time on sleep and related behaviours.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Yvonne

    2013-08-01

    Daylight saving time is currently adopted in over 70 countries and imposes a twice yearly 1 h change in local clock time. Relative ease in adjustment of sleep patterns is assumed by the general population but this review suggests that the scientific data challenge a popular understanding of the clock change periods. The start of daylight saving time in the spring is thought to lead to the relatively inconsequential loss of 1 h of sleep on the night of the transition, but data suggests that increased sleep fragmentation and sleep latency present a cumulative effect of sleep loss, at least across the following week, perhaps longer. The autumn transition is often popularised as a gain of 1 h of sleep but there is little evidence of extra sleep on that night. The cumulative effect of five consecutive days of earlier rise times following the autumn change again suggests a net loss of sleep across the week. Indirect evidence of an increase in traffic accident rates, and change in health and regulatory behaviours which may be related to sleep disruption suggest that adjustment to daylight saving time is neither immediate nor without consequence.

  12. Nurses' views of factors affecting sleep for hospitalized children and their families: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Stremler, Robyn; Adams, Sherri; Dryden-Palmer, Karen

    2015-08-01

    Light, noise, and interruptions from hospital staff lead to frequent awakenings and detrimental changes to sleep quantity and quality for children who are hospitalized and their parents who stay with them overnight. An understanding of nurses' views on how care affects sleep for the hospitalized child and parent is crucial to the development of strategies to decrease sleep disturbance in hospital. The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to gain an understanding of nurses' views on their role in and influence on sleep for families; perceived barriers and facilitators of patient and parent sleep at night; strategies nurses use to preserve sleep; the distribution, between parent and nurse, of care for the child at night; views of the parent as a recipient of nursing care at night; and the nature of interactions between nurses and families at night. Thirty registered nurses from general pediatric and critical care units participated in one of four semi-structured focus groups. Four main influences on sleep were identified: child factors; environmental factors; nurse-parent interaction factors; and nursing care factors. Some of these restricted nurses' ability to optimize sleep, but many factors were amenable to intervention. Balancing strategies to preserve sleep with the provision of nursing assessment and intervention was challenging and complicated by the difficult nature of work outside of usual waking hours. Nurses highlighted the need for formal policy and mentoring related to provision of nursing care at night in pediatric settings.

  13. Managing price, gaining profit.

    PubMed

    Marn, M V; Rosiello, R L

    1992-01-01

    The fastest and most effective way for a company to realize maximum profit is to get its pricing right. The right price can boost profit faster than increasing volume will; the wrong price can shrink it just as quickly. Yet many otherwise tough-minded managers miss out on significant profits because they shy away from pricing decisions for fear that they will alienate their customers. Worse, if management isn't controlling its pricing policies, there's a good chance that the company's clients are manipulating them to their own advantage. McKinsey & Company's Michael Marn and Robert Rosiello show managers how to gain control of the pricing puzzle and capture untapped profit potential by using two basic concepts: the pocket price waterfall and the pocket price band. The pocket price waterfall reveals how price erodes between a company's invoice figure and the actual amount paid by the customer--the transaction price. It tracks the volume purchase discounts, early payment bonuses, and frequent customer incentives that squeeze a company's profits. The pocket price band plots the range of pocket prices over which any given unit volume of a single product sells. Wide price bands are commonplace: some manufacturers' transaction prices for a given product range 60%; one fastener supplier's price band ranged up to 500%. Managers who study their pocket price waterfalls and bands can identify unnecessary discounting at the transaction level, low-performance accounts, and misplaced marketing efforts. The problems, once identified, are typically easy and inexpensive to remedy. PMID:10121318

  14. Acting to gain information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenchein, Stanley J.; Burns, J. Brian; Chapman, David; Kaelbling, Leslie P.; Kahn, Philip; Nishihara, H. Keith; Turk, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This report is concerned with agents that act to gain information. In previous work, we developed agent models combining qualitative modeling with real-time control. That work, however, focused primarily on actions that affect physical states of the environment. The current study extends that work by explicitly considering problems of active information-gathering and by exploring specialized aspects of information-gathering in computational perception, learning, and language. In our theoretical investigations, we analyzed agents into their perceptual and action components and identified these with elements of a state-machine model of control. The mathematical properties of each was developed in isolation and interactions were then studied. We considered the complexity dimension and the uncertainty dimension and related these to intelligent-agent design issues. We also explored active information gathering in visual processing. Working within the active vision paradigm, we developed a concept of 'minimal meaningful measurements' suitable for demand-driven vision. We then developed and tested an architecture for ongoing recognition and interpretation of visual information. In the area of information gathering through learning, we explored techniques for coping with combinatorial complexity. We also explored information gathering through explicit linguistic action by considering the nature of conversational rules, coordination, and situated communication behavior.

  15. Managing price, gaining profit.

    PubMed

    Marn, M V; Rosiello, R L

    1992-01-01

    The fastest and most effective way for a company to realize maximum profit is to get its pricing right. The right price can boost profit faster than increasing volume will; the wrong price can shrink it just as quickly. Yet many otherwise tough-minded managers miss out on significant profits because they shy away from pricing decisions for fear that they will alienate their customers. Worse, if management isn't controlling its pricing policies, there's a good chance that the company's clients are manipulating them to their own advantage. McKinsey & Company's Michael Marn and Robert Rosiello show managers how to gain control of the pricing puzzle and capture untapped profit potential by using two basic concepts: the pocket price waterfall and the pocket price band. The pocket price waterfall reveals how price erodes between a company's invoice figure and the actual amount paid by the customer--the transaction price. It tracks the volume purchase discounts, early payment bonuses, and frequent customer incentives that squeeze a company's profits. The pocket price band plots the range of pocket prices over which any given unit volume of a single product sells. Wide price bands are commonplace: some manufacturers' transaction prices for a given product range 60%; one fastener supplier's price band ranged up to 500%. Managers who study their pocket price waterfalls and bands can identify unnecessary discounting at the transaction level, low-performance accounts, and misplaced marketing efforts. The problems, once identified, are typically easy and inexpensive to remedy.

  16. Sleep of the great.

    PubMed

    Whitelaw, W A; Black, A J

    2000-02-01

    Both Lewis Carroll and William Shakespeare appear to have made clinical observations of sleep apnea syndromes long before they were discovered by medical science, and to have understood something about their physiological mechanisms. The somnolent dormouse in Alice in Wonderland indicates that his problem is one of sleep and breathing and is subject to modern treatment for obstructive apnea. Shakespeare in Henry IV presents a case of obstructive apnea along with a case of Cheyne-Stokes breathing and uses the plot of these history plays to explain by analogy the theoretical basis for periodic breathing. PMID:10722864

  17. Benefits of Sleep Extension on Sustained Attention and Sleep Pressure Before and During Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Arnal, Pierrick J.; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; van Beers, Pascal; Bayon, Virginie; Bougard, Clément; Rabat, Arnaud; Millet, Guillaume Y.; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of 6 nights of sleep extension on sustained attention and sleep pressure before and during total sleep deprivation and after a subsequent recovery sleep. Design: Subjects participated in two experimental conditions (randomized cross-over design): extended sleep (EXT, 9.8 ± 0.1 h (mean ± SE) time in bed) and habitual sleep (HAB, 8.2 ± 0.1 h time in bed). In each condition, subjects performed two consecutive phases: (1) 6 nights of either EXT or HAB (2) three days in-laboratory: baseline, total sleep deprivation and after 10 h of recovery sleep. Setting: Residential sleep extension and sleep performance laboratory (continuous polysomnographic recording). Participants: 14 healthy men (age range: 26–37 years). Interventions: EXT vs. HAB sleep durations prior to total sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Total sleep time and duration of all sleep stages during the 6 nights were significantly higher in EXT than HAB. EXT improved psychomotor vigilance task performance (PVT, both fewer lapses and faster speed) and reduced sleep pressure as evidenced by longer multiple sleep latencies (MSLT) at baseline compared to HAB. EXT limited PVT lapses and the number of involuntary microsleeps during total sleep deprivation. Differences in PVT lapses and speed and MSLT at baseline were maintained after one night of recovery sleep. Conclusion: Six nights of extended sleep improve sustained attention and reduce sleep pressure. Sleep extension also protects against psychomotor vigilance task lapses and microsleep degradation during total sleep deprivation. These beneficial effects persist after one night of recovery sleep. Citation: Arnal PJ, Sauvet F, Leger D, van Beers P, Bayon V, Bougard C, Rabat A, Millet GY, Chennaoui M. Benefits of sleep extension on sustained attention and sleep pressure before and during total sleep deprivation and recovery. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1935–1943. PMID:26194565

  18. Sleep and brain energy levels: ATP changes during sleep.

    PubMed

    Dworak, Markus; McCarley, Robert W; Kim, Tae; Kalinchuk, Anna V; Basheer, Radhika

    2010-06-30

    Sleep is one of the most pervasive biological phenomena, but one whose function remains elusive. Although many theories of function, indirect evidence, and even common sense suggest sleep is needed for an increase in brain energy, brain energy levels have not been directly measured with modern technology. We here report that ATP levels, the energy currency of brain cells, show a surge in the initial hours of spontaneous sleep in wake-active but not in sleep-active brain regions of rat. The surge is dependent on sleep but not time of day, since preventing sleep by gentle handling of rats for 3 or 6 h also prevents the surge in ATP. A significant positive correlation was observed between the surge in ATP and EEG non-rapid eye movement delta activity (0.5-4.5 Hz) during spontaneous sleep. Inducing sleep and delta activity by adenosine infusion into basal forebrain during the normally active dark period also increases ATP. Together, these observations suggest that the surge in ATP occurs when the neuronal activity is reduced, as occurs during sleep. The levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (P-AMPK), well known for its role in cellular energy sensing and regulation, and ATP show reciprocal changes. P-AMPK levels are lower during the sleep-induced ATP surge than during wake or sleep deprivation. Together, these results suggest that sleep-induced surge in ATP and the decrease in P-AMPK levels set the stage for increased anabolic processes during sleep and provide insight into the molecular events leading to the restorative biosynthetic processes occurring during sleep.

  19. Psychiatric disorders and sleep issues.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Eliza L

    2014-09-01

    Sleep issues are common in people with psychiatric disorders, and the interaction is complex. Sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, can precede and predispose to psychiatric disorders, can be comorbid with and exacerbate psychiatric disorders, and can occur as part of psychiatric disorders. Sleep disorders can mimic psychiatric disorders or result from medication given for psychiatric disorders. Impairment of sleep and of mental health may be different manifestations of the same underlying neurobiological processes. For the primary care physician, key tools include recognition of potential sleep effects of psychiatric medications and familiarity with treatment approaches for insomnia in depression and anxiety.

  20. Methodology in clinical sleep research.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A; Poyares, D; Moraes, W; Cintra, F

    2007-05-01

    This review presents traditional and cutting-edge interventions in sleep research, including descriptions of the relationship of rapid eye movement-non-rapid eye movement sleep with the autonomous nervous system, and dream research methodology. Although sleep and dreaming are overlapping and non- separable phenomena, they are not typically addressed simultaneously in the scientific sleep research literature. Therefore, a more extensive overview of dream research has been included with a focus on objective dream content analysis and the theory of neurocognitive analysis. A bridge is made between dream content analysis and current sleep research methodologies.

  1. Sleep and Early Cortical Development

    PubMed Central

    Olini, Nadja; Huber, Reto; LeBourgeois, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is increasingly recognized as a key process in neurodevelopment. Animal data show that sleep is essential for the maturation of fundamental brain functions, and growing epidemiological findings indicate that children with early sleep disturbance suffer from later cognitive, attentional, and psychosocial problems. Still, major gaps exist in understanding processes underlying links between sleep and neurodevelopment. One challenge is to translate findings from animal research to humans. In this review, we describe parallels and differences in sleep and development of the cortex in humans and animals and discuss emerging questions. PMID:26807347

  2. Markov Analysis of Sleep Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. W.; Lee, J.-S.; Robinson, P. A.; Jeong, D.-U.

    2009-05-01

    A new approach, based on a Markov transition matrix, is proposed to explain frequent sleep and wake transitions during sleep. The matrix is determined by analyzing hypnograms of 113 obstructive sleep apnea patients. Our approach shows that the statistics of sleep can be constructed via a single Markov process and that durations of all states have modified exponential distributions, in contrast to recent reports of a scale-free form for the wake stage and an exponential form for the sleep stage. Hypnograms of the same subjects, but treated with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, are analyzed and compared quantitatively with the pretreatment ones, suggesting potential clinical applications.

  3. Sleep Disturbances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Robinson-Shelton, Althea; Malow, Beth A

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are extremely prevalent in children with neurodevelopmental disorders compared to typically developing children. The diagnostic criteria for many neurodevelopmental disorders include sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbance in this population is often multifactorial and caused by the interplay of genetic, neurobiological and environmental overlap. These disturbances often present either as insomnia or hypersomnia. Different sleep disorders present with these complaints and based on the clinical history and findings from diagnostic tests, an appropriate diagnosis can be made. This review aims to provide an overview of causes, diagnosis, and treatment of sleep disturbances in neurodevelopmental disorders that present primarily with symptoms of hypersomnia and/or insomnia. PMID:26719309

  4. On Comparing Transition Rate Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuterberg, Sven-Eric

    This report is about the problem of making transition or enrollment rate gains comparable. It is shown that measures based on the proportions themselves, i.e. the difference between proportions, the proportion ratio and the residual gain ratio do not make the gains comparable. Instead a non-linear transformation has to be done. Two such…

  5. Sleep EEG in growth disorders.

    PubMed

    Taylor, B J; Brook, C G

    1986-08-01

    The sleep of 30 children with disorders of growth and development was studied because of the known association between sleep and the secretion of hormones. Thirty three normal children were studied for comparison. The sleep of two consecutive nights was monitored at home using a small portable electroencephalogram and electro-oculogram recorder. Within the normal group there were no significant differences between sexes nor between the first and second nights of recording. There was a significant decrease in total sleep time with increasing age due to reduction in the amounts of rapid eye movement sleep and stage IV sleep. There was no change in rapid eye movement latency or overall rapid eye movement activity between the three age groups. Children with genetic short stature and those with poor growth as a result of poor eating habits had an increased percentage of rapid eye movement sleep. A significant decrease in the percentage of stage IV sleep, increased amount of rapid eye movement sleep (especially active rapid eye movement sleep), and decreased rapid eye movement cycling time was found in five children with severe psychosocial deprivation. Children with constitutional delay of growth and puberty had an increased rapid eye movement cycling time and thus less rapid eye movement sleep over the whole night.

  6. Sleep deprivation in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Stefan; Herrmann, Eva; Kaiser, Walter

    2004-06-01

    Rest at night in forager honey bees (Apis mellifera) meets essential criteria of sleep. This paper reports the effect of a 12-h total sleep deprivation (SD) by forced activity on the behaviour of these animals. The behaviour of sleep-deprived animals is compared with that of control animals under LD [periodic alternation between light (L) and darkness (D)] 12 : 12 hours. SD for 12 h during the first D period resulted in a significant difference with respect to the parameter 'hourly amount of antennal immobility' between sleep-deprived and control animals during the remaining L and D periods. This difference did not occur in the L period following the deprivation night, but rather it became obvious at the beginning of the following D period. The increase of the amount of antennal immobility in sleep-deprived bees was accompanied by an increase of the duration of episodes of antennal immobility. Moreover, the latency from 'lights off' to the first episode of antennal immobility lasting 20 s or longer ('deep sleep latency') tended to be shorter in sleep-deprived than in control animals. Disturbing the bees during the day (L period) did not result in such differences between disturbed and control animals. Highest reaction thresholds in sleeping honey bees occur during long episodes of antennal immobility. We therefore conclude that honey bees compensate a sleep deficit by intensification (deepening) of the sleep process and thus that sleep in honey bees, like that in other arthropods and mammals, is controlled by regulatory mechanisms.

  7. Sleep Disorders in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Jehan, Shazia; Masters-Isarilov, Alina; Salifu, Idoko; Zizi, Ferdinand; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Gupta, Ravi; Brzezinski, Amnon; McFarlane, Samy I

    2015-01-01

    One of the core symptoms of the menopausal transition is sleep disturbance. Peri-menopausal women often complain of difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep with frequent nocturnal and early morning awakenings. Factors that may play a role in this type of insomnia include vasomotor symptoms, changing reproductive hormone levels, circadian rhythm abnormalities, mood disorders, coexistent medical conditions, and lifestyle. Other common sleep problems in this age group, such as obstructive sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome, can also worsen the sleep quality. Exogenous melatonin use reportedly induces drowsiness and sleep and may ameliorate sleep disturbances, including the nocturnal awakenings associated with old age and the menopausal transition. Recently, more potent melatonin analogs (selective melatonin-1 (MT1) and melatonin-2 (MT2) receptor agonists) with prolonged effects and slow-release melatonin preparations have been developed. They were found effective in increasing total sleep time and sleep efficiency as well as in reducing sleep latency in insomnia patients. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on the changes in hormonal status to sleep problems among menopausal and postmenopausal women. PMID:26512337

  8. Sleep Dysfunction and Gastrointestinal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Khanijow, Vikesh; Prakash, Pia; Emsellem, Helene A; Borum, Marie L; Doman, David B

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation and impaired sleep quality have been associated with poor health outcomes. Many patients experience sleep disturbances, which can increase the risk of medical conditions such as hypertension, obesity, stroke, and heart disease as well as increase overall mortality. Recent studies have suggested that there is a strong association between sleep disturbances and gastrointestinal diseases. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6, have been associated with sleep dysfunction. Alterations in these cytokines have been seen in certain gastrointestinal diseases, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disorders, and colorectal cancer. It is important for gastroenterologists to be aware of the relationship between sleep disorders and gastrointestinal illnesses to ensure good care for patients. This article reviews the current research on the interplay between sleep disorders, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:27134599

  9. Sleep Dysfunction and Gastrointestinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Khanijow, Vikesh; Prakash, Pia; Emsellem, Helene A.; Borum, Marie L.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation and impaired sleep quality have been associated with poor health outcomes. Many patients experience sleep disturbances, which can increase the risk of medical conditions such as hypertension, obesity, stroke, and heart disease as well as increase overall mortality. Recent studies have suggested that there is a strong association between sleep disturbances and gastrointestinal diseases. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6, have been associated with sleep dysfunction. Alterations in these cytokines have been seen in certain gastrointestinal diseases, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disorders, and colorectal cancer. It is important for gastroenterologists to be aware of the relationship between sleep disorders and gastrointestinal illnesses to ensure good care for patients. This article reviews the current research on the interplay between sleep disorders, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:27134599

  10. Airflow models gaining clout

    SciTech Connect

    Post, N.M.

    1994-10-10

    Move over, mock-ups. So long, smoke bombs. Take a walk, wind tunnels. Computational fluid dynamics, a spaceage simulation technique, is gaining velocity in the building community. And the design of inner spaces may never be the same. CFD is an equation-intensive computer modeling method that can simulate transient and steady-state airflow patterns and temperature gradients, indoors or out. CFD is used to downsize heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems, locate air outlets, and in general, create spaces that offer creature comfort, provide quality air and use less energy. The method is good for new construction, retrofits and forensic work, for example to investigate a building fire or a contaminant. In a room, CFD helps engineers consider, over a period of time, the combined impacts of ventilation, size, shape, contents, weather, even fenestration. For its first decade or two, CFD stayed the near-exclusive domain of aerospace, defense and electronics. With few exceptions, the building community could not afford the supercomputers that were needed to run the tens of thousands of equations involved. However, in the past few years, thanks to the increasing power and decreasing cost of computers, CFD simulation became practical. Curtain wall designers are even using it, though not without some controversy. Indoor air quality specialists, smoke and fire-spread researchers, laboratory designers, energy engineers, code writers, architects, and plant and building engineers are uncharacteristically upbeat about the tool. {open_quotes}CFD modeling is so many light years ahead of design tools that exist,{close_quotes} says Mariano Rodriguez, director of research and development for architect The Hillier Group, Princeton, N.J. {open_quotes}It`s the next step up from a wind tunnel test, and you don`t need a $300,000 wind tunnel.{close_quotes}

  11. Diet/Energy Balance Affect Sleep and Wakefulness Independent of Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Isaac J.; Pack, Allan I.; Veasey, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Excessive daytime sleepiness commonly affects obese people, even in those without sleep apnea, yet its causes remain uncertain. We sought to determine whether acute dietary changes could induce or rescue wake impairments independent of body weight. Design: We implemented a novel feeding paradigm that generates two groups of mice with equal body weight but opposing energetic balance. Two subsets of mice consuming either regular chow (RC) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 w were switched to the opposite diet for 1 w. Sleep recordings were conducted at Week 0 (baseline), Week 8 (pre-diet switch), and Week 9 (post-diet switch) for all groups. Sleep homeostasis was measured at Week 8 and Week 9. Participants: Young adult, male C57BL/6J mice. Measurements and Results: Differences in total wake, nonrapid eye movement (NREM), and rapid eye movement (REM) time were quantified, in addition to changes in bout fragmentation/consolidation. At Week 9, the two diet switch groups had similar body weight. However, animals switched to HFD (and thus gaining weight) had decreased wake time, increased NREM sleep time, and worsened sleep/wake fragmentation compared to mice switched to RC (which were in weight loss). These effects were driven by significant sleep/wake changes induced by acute dietary manipulations (Week 8 → Week 9). Sleep homeostasis, as measured by delta power increase following sleep deprivation, was unaffected by our feeding paradigm. Conclusions: Acute dietary manipulations are sufficient to alter sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight and without effects on sleep homeostasis. Citation: Perron IJ, Pack AI, Veasey S. Diet/energy balance affect sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1893–1903. PMID:26158893

  12. Endothelial function and sleep: associations of flow-mediated dilation with perceived sleep quality and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Denise C; Ziegler, Michael G; Milic, Milos S; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Mills, Paul J; Loredo, José S; Von Känel, Roland; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2014-02-01

    Endothelial function typically precedes clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease and provides a potential mechanism for the associations observed between cardiovascular disease and sleep quality. This study examined how subjective and objective indicators of sleep quality relate to endothelial function, as measured by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). In a clinical research centre, 100 non-shift working adults (mean age: 36 years) completed FMD testing and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, along with a polysomnography assessment to obtain the following measures: slow wave sleep, percentage rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, REM sleep latency, total arousal index, total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, sleep efficiency and apnea-hypopnea index. Bivariate correlations and follow-up multiple regressions examined how FMD related to subjective (i.e., Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores) and objective (i.e., polysomnography-derived) indicators of sleep quality. After FMD showed bivariate correlations with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores, percentage REM sleep and REM latency, further examination with separate regression models indicated that these associations remained significant after adjustments for sex, age, race, hypertension, body mass index, apnea-hypopnea index, smoking and income (Ps < 0.05). Specifically, as FMD decreased, scores on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index increased (indicating decreased subjective sleep quality) and percentage REM sleep decreased, while REM sleep latency increased (Ps < 0.05). Poorer subjective sleep quality and adverse changes in REM sleep were associated with diminished vasodilation, which could link sleep disturbances to cardiovascular disease.

  13. 'Obesity Gene' Doesn't Affect Ability to Lose Weight: Report

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161090.html 'Obesity Gene' Doesn't Affect Ability to Lose Weight: ... 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Having the so-called "obesity gene" doesn't affect people's ability to shed ...

  14. Sleep and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, David A; Harding, Susan M

    2010-08-01

    Ambulatory BP studies indicate that even small increases in BP, particularly nighttime BP levels, are associated with significant increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, sleep-related diseases that induce increases in BP would be anticipated to substantially affect cardiovascular risk. Both sleep deprivation and insomnia have been linked to increases in incidence and prevalence of hypertension. Likewise, sleep disruption attributable to restless legs syndrome increases the likelihood of having hypertension. Observational studies demonstrate a strong correlation between the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the risk and severity of hypertension, whereas prospective studies of patients with OSA demonstrate a positive relationship between OSA and risk of incident hypertension. Intervention trials with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) indicate a modest, but inconsistent effect on BP in patients with severe OSA and a greater likelihood of benefit in patients with most CPAP adherence. Additional prospective studies are needed to reconcile observational studies suggesting that OSA is a strong risk factor for hypertension with the modest antihypertensive effects of CPAP observed in intervention studies.

  15. Electronic sleep analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Electronic instrument automatically monitors the stages of sleep of a human subject. The analyzer provides a series of discrete voltage steps with each step corresponding to a clinical assessment of level of consciousness. It is based on the operation of an EEG and requires very little telemetry bandwidth or time.

  16. Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea*

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Susheel P.; Schneider, Hartmut; Schwartz, Alan R.; Smith, Philip L.

    2010-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disease characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway obstruction that result in recurrent arousals and episodic oxyhemoglobin desaturations during sleep. Significant clinical consequences of the disorder cover a wide spectrum, including daytime hypersomnolence, neurocognitive dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, metabolic dysfunction, and cor pulmonale. The major risk factors for the disorder include obesity, male gender, and age. Current understanding of the pathophysiologic basis of the disorder suggests that a balance of anatomically imposed mechanical loads and compensatory neuromuscular responses are important in maintaining upper airway patency during sleep. OSA develops in the presence of both elevated mechanical loads on the upper airway and defects in compensatory neuromuscular responses. A sleep history and physical examination is important in identification of patients and appropriate referral for polysomnography. Understanding nuances in the spectrum of presenting complaints and polysomnography correlates are important for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Knowledge of common patterns of OSA may help to identify patients and guide therapy. PMID:17625094

  17. Interactions between sleep disorders and oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Huynh, N T; Emami, E; Helman, J I; Chervin, R D

    2014-04-01

    Dental sleep medicine is a rapidly growing field that is in close and direct interaction with sleep medicine and comprises many aspects of human health. As a result, dentists who encounter sleep health and sleep disorders may work with clinicians from many other disciplines and specialties. The main sleep and oral health issues that are covered in this review are obstructive sleep apnea, chronic mouth breathing, sleep-related gastroesophageal reflux, and sleep bruxism. In addition, edentulism and its impact on sleep disorders are discussed. Improving sleep quality and sleep characteristics, oral health, and oral function involves both pathophysiology and disease management. The multiple interactions between oral health and sleep underscore the need for an interdisciplinary clinical team to manage oral health-related sleep disorders that are commonly seen in dental practice. PMID:23815461

  18. Interactions between sleep disorders and oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Huynh, N T; Emami, E; Helman, J I; Chervin, R D

    2014-04-01

    Dental sleep medicine is a rapidly growing field that is in close and direct interaction with sleep medicine and comprises many aspects of human health. As a result, dentists who encounter sleep health and sleep disorders may work with clinicians from many other disciplines and specialties. The main sleep and oral health issues that are covered in this review are obstructive sleep apnea, chronic mouth breathing, sleep-related gastroesophageal reflux, and sleep bruxism. In addition, edentulism and its impact on sleep disorders are discussed. Improving sleep quality and sleep characteristics, oral health, and oral function involves both pathophysiology and disease management. The multiple interactions between oral health and sleep underscore the need for an interdisciplinary clinical team to manage oral health-related sleep disorders that are commonly seen in dental practice.

  19. Genetic and immunologic aspects of sleep and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Parish, James M

    2013-05-01

    The study of genetics is providing new and exciting insights into the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. Both normal sleep and several types of sleep disturbances have been found to have significant genetic influences, as have traits of normal sleep, such as those evident in EEG patterns and the circadian sleep-wake cycle. The circadian sleep-wake cycle is based on a complex feedback loop of genetic transcription over a 24-h cycle. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) have familial aggregation, and several genes have a strong association with them. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms linked to RLS/PLMS, although none has a definite functional correlation. Narcolepsy/cataplexy are associated with HLA DQB1*0602 and a T-cell receptor α locus, although functional correlations have not been evident. Obstructive sleep apnea is a complex disorder involving multiple traits, such as anatomy of the oropharynx, ventilatory control, and traits associated with obesity. Although there is clear evidence of familial aggregation in the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, no specific gene or locus has been identified for it. Angiotensin-converting enzyme has been proposed as a risk variant, but evidence is weak. Fatal familial insomnia and advanced sleep phase syndrome are sleep disorders with a definite genetic basis. PMID:23648914

  20. Sleep smart-optimizing sleep for declarative learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Feld, Gordon B; Diekelmann, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a spurt of new publications documenting sleep's essential contribution to the brains ability to form lasting memories. For the declarative memory domain, slow wave sleep (the deepest sleep stage) has the greatest beneficial effect on the consolidation of memories acquired during preceding wakefulness. The finding that newly encoded memories become reactivated during subsequent sleep fostered the idea that reactivation leads to the strengthening and transformation of the memory trace. According to the active system consolidation account, trace reactivation leads to the redistribution of the transient memory representations from the hippocampus to the long-lasting knowledge networks of the cortex. Apart from consolidating previously learned information, sleep also facilitates the encoding of new memories after sleep, which probably relies on the renormalization of synaptic weights during sleep as suggested by the synaptic homeostasis theory. During wakefulness overshooting potentiation causes an imbalance in synaptic weights that is countered by synaptic downscaling during subsequent sleep. This review briefly introduces the basic concepts and central findings of the research on sleep and memory, and discusses implications of this lab-based work for everyday applications to make the best possible use of sleep's beneficial effect on learning and memory. PMID:26029150

  1. Genetics of human sleep behavioral phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Pei-Ken; Ptáček, Louis J; Fu, Ying-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Quality sleep is critical for daily functions of human beings and thus the timing and duration of sleep are tightly controlled. However, rare genetic variants affecting sleep regulatory mechanisms can result in sleep phenotypes of extremely deviated sleep/wake onset time or duration. Using genetic analyses in families with multiple members expressing particular sleep phenotypes, these sleep-associated genetic variants can be identified. Deciphering the nature of these genetic variants using animal models or biochemical methods helps further our understanding of sleep processes. In this chapter, we describe the methods for studying genetics of human sleep behavioral phenotypes.

  2. Objective and subjective measures for sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Zhong-Xin

    2007-07-01

    Subjective and objective measures of sleep structure or quality could help to characterize the chronic sleep disturbances, with relation to patients' risk factor profiles and co-morbidities. Studies have shown that discrepancies can occur between subjective data regarding sleep disturbances and the impact of insomnia and objective assays, and surrogate markers of sleep and sleep disturbances. Both objective and subjective measures should be incorporated into clinic studies. It seems likely that sleep quality is represented by a combination of more than one subjective sleep parameter. Objective and subjective assessments of sleep quality may relate to different parameters. Future studies incorporated both subjective and objective measures could help to address the sleep disorders.

  3. ISRUC-Sleep: A comprehensive public dataset for sleep researchers.

    PubMed

    Khalighi, Sirvan; Sousa, Teresa; Santos, José Moutinho; Nunes, Urbano

    2016-02-01

    To facilitate the performance comparison of new methods for sleep patterns analysis, datasets with quality content, publicly-available, are very important and useful. We introduce an open-access comprehensive sleep dataset, called ISRUC-Sleep. The data were obtained from human adults, including healthy subjects, subjects with sleep disorders, and subjects under the effect of sleep medication. Each recording was randomly selected between PSG recordings that were acquired by the Sleep Medicine Centre of the Hospital of Coimbra University (CHUC). The dataset comprises three groups of data: (1) data concerning 100 subjects, with one recording session per subject; (2) data gathered from 8 subjects; two recording sessions were performed per subject, and (3) data collected from one recording session related to 10 healthy subjects. The polysomnography (PSG) recordings, associated with each subject, were visually scored by two human experts. Comparing the existing sleep-related public datasets, ISRUC-Sleep provides data of a reasonable number of subjects with different characteristics such as: data useful for studies involving changes in the PSG signals over time; and data of healthy subjects useful for studies involving comparison of healthy subjects with the patients, suffering from sleep disorders. This dataset was created aiming to complement existing datasets by providing easy-to-apply data collection with some characteristics not covered yet. ISRUC-Sleep can be useful for analysis of new contributions: (i) in biomedical signal processing; (ii) in development of ASSC methods; and (iii) on sleep physiology studies. To evaluate and compare new contributions, which use this dataset as a benchmark, results of applying a subject-independent automatic sleep stage classification (ASSC) method on ISRUC-Sleep dataset are presented.

  4. INTERDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Aggregation Behaviors of a Two-Species System with Lose-Lose Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mei-Xia; Lin, Zhen-Quan; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ke, Jian-Hong

    2010-06-01

    We propose an aggregation evolution model of two-species (A- and B-species) aggregates to study the prevalent aggregation phenomena in social and economic systems. In this model, A- and B-species aggregates perform self-exchange-driven growths with the exchange rate kernels K (k,l) = Kkl and L(k,l) = Lkl, respectively, and the two species aggregates perform self-birth processes with the rate kernels J1(k) = J1k and J2(k) = J2k, and meanwhile the interaction between the aggregates of different species A and B causes a lose-lose scheme with the rate kernel H(k,l) = Hkl. Based on the mean-field theory, we investigated the evolution behaviors of the two species aggregates to study the competitions among above three aggregate evolution schemes on the distinct initial monomer concentrations A0 and B0 of the two species. The results show that the evolution behaviors of A- and B-species are crucially dominated by the competition between the two self-birth processes, and the initial monomer concentrations A0 and B0 play important roles, while the lose-lose scheme play important roles in some special cases.

  5. EDITORIAL: Advanced fractions? or use it or lose it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1997-09-01

    kind of mixture of skill, knowledge and understanding required for successful mathematical operations is use it or lose it. We went `decimal' a long time ago, and the ideas of pence as 12ths of a shilling and shillings as 20ths of a pound are positively mediaeval for everyone under 40 or so. Remember farthings? In those days fractions were everywhere. Nowadays they are somewhat esoteric for the average citizen - and physicist. Yet fractions are vital in advanced mathematics, e.g. involving the differentiation and integration of polynomial fractions, as Peter Gill pointed out. This is why he was teaching simple fractions to his students, and possibly why their competence at these was such a good indicator of success in their end-of-year mathematics exam. What can we conclude from all this? I suggest two things. First, that fractions as illustrated above might well be considered as advanced mathematics, a fit and intriguing topic for an A-level course. Ordinary citizens should be taught - very thoroughly - to understand and use that useful kind of fraction based on dividing things into 100 parts, called percentages. Secondly, and more fundamentally, we should learn from this example to take a hard look at what we teach and what we need to teach, removing or adapting those things that exist in syllabuses and the National Curriculum for reasons of purely historical inertia. I hope that the IoP Working Party on Mathematics and Physics, due to report in the autumn, has looked hard at issues like this. And, of course, anyone interested in this topic is cordially invited to the Education Group's 16 - 19 Day Conference, which this year is about this vexed question of what mathematics physics learners need - and how they get it. At IoP Headquarters on Saturday, 15 November 1997. Details from Catherine Wilson.

  6. Fear of losing money? Aversive conditioning with secondary reinforcers.

    PubMed

    Delgado, M R; Labouliere, C D; Phelps, E A

    2006-12-01

    Money is a secondary reinforcer that acquires its value through social communication and interaction. In everyday human behavior and laboratory studies, money has been shown to influence appetitive or reward learning. It is unclear, however, if money has a similar impact on aversive learning. The goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of money in aversive learning, comparing it with primary reinforcers that are traditionally used in fear conditioning paradigms. A series of experiments were conducted in which participants initially played a gambling game that led to a monetary gain. They were then presented with an aversive conditioning paradigm, with either shock (primary reinforcer) or loss of money (secondary reinforcer) as the unconditioned stimulus. Skin conductance responses and subjective ratings indicated that potential monetary loss modulated the conditioned response. Depending on the presentation context, the secondary reinforcer was as effective as the primary reinforcer during aversive conditioning. These results suggest that stimuli that acquire reinforcing properties through social communication and interaction, such as money, can effectively influence aversive learning.

  7. Sleep Schedules and Daytime Functioning in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Amy R.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    Studied relationship between adolescents' sleep/wake habits and daytime functioning. Found that self-reported total sleep times decreased from age 13 to 19 years. Struggling or failing students obtained less sleep, went to bed later, and had greater weekend delays of sleep than those with better grades. Students with inadequate sleep reported…

  8. To sleep or not to sleep: the ecology of sleep in artificial organisms

    PubMed Central

    Acerbi, Alberto; McNamara, Patrick; Nunn, Charles L

    2008-01-01

    Background All animals thus far studied sleep, but little is known about the ecological factors that generate differences in sleep characteristics across species, such as total sleep duration or division of sleep into multiple bouts across the 24-hour period (i.e., monophasic or polyphasic sleep activity). Here we address these questions using an evolutionary agent-based model. The model is spatially explicit, with food and sleep sites distributed in two clusters on the landscape. Agents acquire food and sleep energy based on an internal circadian clock coded by 24 traits (one for each hour of the day) that correspond to "genes" that evolve by means of a genetic algorithm. These traits can assume three different values that specify the agents' behavior: sleep (or search for a sleep site), eat (or search for a food site), or flexibly decide action based on relative levels of sleep energy and food energy. Individuals with higher fitness scores leave more offspring in the next generation of the simulation, and the model can therefore be used to identify evolutionarily adaptive circadian clock parameters under different ecological conditions. Results We systematically varied input parameters related to the number of food and sleep sites, the degree to which food and sleep sites overlap, and the rate at which food patches were depleted. Our results reveal that: (1) the increased costs of traveling between more spatially separated food and sleep clusters select for monophasic sleep, (2) more rapid food patch depletion reduces sleep times, and (3) agents spend more time attempting to acquire the "rarer" resource, that is, the average time spent sleeping is positively correlated with the number of food patches and negatively correlated with the number of sleep patches. "Flexible" genes, in general, do not appear to be advantageous, though their arrangements in the agents' genome show characteristic patterns that suggest that selection acts on their distribution. Conclusion

  9. Common sleep disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Carter, Kevin A; Hathaway, Nathanael E; Lettieri, Christine F

    2014-03-01

    Up to 50% of children will experience a sleep problem. Early identification of sleep problems may prevent negative consequences, such as daytime sleepiness, irritability, behavioral problems, learning difficulties, motor vehicle crashes in teenagers, and poor academic performance. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs in 1% to 5% of children. Polysomnography is needed to diagnose the condition because it may not be detected through history and physical examination alone. Adenotonsillectomy is the primary treatment for most children with obstructive sleep apnea. Parasomnias are common in childhood; sleepwalking, sleep talking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors tend to occur in the first half of the night, whereas nightmares are more common in the second half of the night. Only 4% of parasomnias will persist past adolescence; thus, the best management is parental reassurance and proper safety measures. Behavioral insomnia of childhood is common and is characterized by a learned inability to fall and/or stay asleep. Management begins with consistent implementation of good sleep hygiene practices, and, in some cases, use of extinction techniques may be appropriate. Delayed sleep phase disorder is most common in adolescence, presenting as difficulty falling asleep and awakening at socially acceptable times. Treatment involves good sleep hygiene and a consistent sleep-wake schedule, with nighttime melatonin and/or morning bright light therapy as needed. Diagnosing restless legs syndrome in children can be difficult; management focuses on trigger avoidance and treatment of iron deficiency, if present. PMID:24695508

  10. Monoamines and sleep in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Nall, Aleksandra; Sehgal, Amita

    2014-06-01

    Sleep is an important physiological state, but its function and regulation remain elusive. Drosophila melanogaster is a useful model organism for studying sleep because it has a well-established diurnal activity pattern, including consolidated periods of quiescence that share many characteristics with human sleep. Sleep behavior is regulated by circadian and homeostatic processes and is modulated by environmental and physiological context cues. These cues are communicated to sleep circuits by neurohormones and neuromodulators. A major class of neuromodulators, monoamines, has been found to be essential in various aspects of sleep regulation. Dopamine promotes arousal and sleep-dependent memory formation as well as daily activity. Octopamine, the insect homolog of norepinephrine, promotes wake and may play a role in circadian clock-dependent sleep and arousal. Serotonin promotes sleep and modulates circadian entrainment to light. The different monoamines each signal through multiple receptors in various brain regions in response to different conditions. How these separate circuits integrate their inputs into a single program of behavior is an open field of study for which Drosophila will continue to be a useful model. Monoamine biosynthetic pathways and receptors are conserved between flies and humans, and, thus far, their roles in modulating sleep also appear to be conserved. PMID:24886188

  11. Sleep disorders in kidney disease.

    PubMed

    De Santo, R M; Perna, A; Di Iorio, B R; Cirillo, M

    2010-03-01

    Sleep disorders are common in patients with end stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. However also a well functioning renal graft does not cure the poor sleep pattern which now emerges as a problem even in early chronic kidney disease (CKD). When patients are made aware for the first time of a disease such as CKD, which may brink to dialysis or at the best to a renal transplant patients begin to experience a disordered sleep. Sleeping disorders include insomnia (I), sleep apnoea (SAS), restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), excessive daily sleeping (EDS), sleepwalking, nightmares, and narcolepsy. Disordered sleep did not meet the clinical and scientific interest it deserves, in addition and we do not have a well defined solution for sleeping complaints. However, awareness that a poor sleep is associated with poor quality of life and carries an increase in mortality risk has recently stimulated interest in the field. There are many putative causes for a disordered sleep in chronic kidney disease and in end-stage renal disease. For a unifying hypothesis demographic factors, lifestyles, disease related factors, psychological factors, treatment related factors, and social factor must be taken into consideration. PMID:20424573

  12. [Quality of sleep in students].

    PubMed

    Micu, Alina; Cojocaru, Cristian; Luca, Gianina; Mihăescu, Traian

    2012-01-01

    Sleep quality is an important factor involved in students' learning process. Using different methods, actual studies suggest that complaints about sleep problems are common in young medical students. The aim of this study was to evaluate if is any relation between factors like medium and lifestyle among students of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Grigore T Popa" from Iaşi. The study group included 30 students (2 of them were excluded) who performed a polisomnography, self reported Epworth questionnaire and two weeks sleep diary. Coffee, energy drinks, green and black tea and alcohol intake were recorded. In our evaluation it was used sleep disturbance index (SDI), for sleep quality description. In those two weeks, the mean sleep hours was 7.8 (95% CI 7.6-8), greater in female than in male. The results suggest a significant correlation between psychical excitants and sleep fragmentation. More, excessive daytime somnolence declared is not in concordance with sleep quality observed in sleep recorded with polysomnography. It looks to be in correlation with bad sleep habits and psychical excitants intake. PMID:22545485

  13. CONTROL OF SLEEP AND WAKEFULNESS

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ritchie E.; Basheer, Radhika; McKenna, James T.; Strecker, Robert E.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the brain mechanisms controlling sleep and wakefulness. Wakefulness promoting systems cause low-voltage, fast activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Multiple interacting neurotransmitter systems in the brain stem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain converge onto common effector systems in the thalamus and cortex. Sleep results from the inhibition of wake-promoting systems by homeostatic sleep factors such as adenosine and nitric oxide and GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, resulting in large-amplitude, slow EEG oscillations. Local, activity-dependent factors modulate the amplitude and frequency of cortical slow oscillations. Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep results in conservation of brain energy and facilitates memory consolidation through the modulation of synaptic weights. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep results from the interaction of brain stem cholinergic, aminergic, and GABAergic neurons which control the activity of glutamatergic reticular formation neurons leading to REM sleep phenomena such as muscle atonia, REMs, dreaming, and cortical activation. Strong activation of limbic regions during REM sleep suggests a role in regulation of emotion. Genetic studies suggest that brain mechanisms controlling waking and NREM sleep are strongly conserved throughout evolution, underscoring their enormous importance for brain function. Sleep disruption interferes with the normal restorative functions of NREM and REM sleep, resulting in disruptions of breathing and cardiovascular function, changes in emotional reactivity, and cognitive impairments in attention, memory, and decision making. PMID:22811426

  14. Control of sleep and wakefulness.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ritchie E; Basheer, Radhika; McKenna, James T; Strecker, Robert E; McCarley, Robert W

    2012-07-01

    This review summarizes the brain mechanisms controlling sleep and wakefulness. Wakefulness promoting systems cause low-voltage, fast activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Multiple interacting neurotransmitter systems in the brain stem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain converge onto common effector systems in the thalamus and cortex. Sleep results from the inhibition of wake-promoting systems by homeostatic sleep factors such as adenosine and nitric oxide and GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, resulting in large-amplitude, slow EEG oscillations. Local, activity-dependent factors modulate the amplitude and frequency of cortical slow oscillations. Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep results in conservation of brain energy and facilitates memory consolidation through the modulation of synaptic weights. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep results from the interaction of brain stem cholinergic, aminergic, and GABAergic neurons which control the activity of glutamatergic reticular formation neurons leading to REM sleep phenomena such as muscle atonia, REMs, dreaming, and cortical activation. Strong activation of limbic regions during REM sleep suggests a role in regulation of emotion. Genetic studies suggest that brain mechanisms controlling waking and NREM sleep are strongly conserved throughout evolution, underscoring their enormous importance for brain function. Sleep disruption interferes with the normal restorative functions of NREM and REM sleep, resulting in disruptions of breathing and cardiovascular function, changes in emotional reactivity, and cognitive impairments in attention, memory, and decision making.

  15. Sleep disorders in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sabry, Alaa A; Abo-Zenah, Hamdy; Wafa, Ehab; Mahmoud, Khaled; El-Dahshan, Khaled; Hassan, Ahmed; Abbas, Tarek Medhat; Saleh, Abd El-Baset M; Okasha, Kamal

    2010-03-01

    The prevalence of sleep disorders is higher in patients with kidney failure than the general population. We studied the prevalence of sleep disorders in 88 (mean age; 41.59 +/- 16.3 years) chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients at the Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Egypt over 4-month period. The investigated sleep disorders included insomnia, restless leg syndrome (RLS), obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), narcolepsy and sleep walking, and we used a questionnaire in accordance with those of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group, the Berlin questionnaire, Italian version of Epworth Sleepiness Scale, International Classification of Sleep Disorders, and the specific questions of Hatoum's sleep questionnaire. The prevalence of sleep disorders was 79.5% in our patients, and the most common sleep abnormality was insomnia (65.9%), followed by RLS (42%), OSAS (31.8%), snoring (27.3%), EDS (27.3%), narcolepsy (15.9%), and sleep walking (3.4%). Insomnia correlated with anemia (r=0.31, P= 0.003), anxiety (r=0.279, P= 0.042), depression (r=0.298, P= 0.24) and RLS (r=0.327, P= 0.002). Also, RLS correlated with hypoalbuminemia (r=0.41, P= < 0.0001), anemia (r=0.301 and P= 0.046), hyperphosphatemia (r=0.343 and P= 0.001). EDS correlated with OSAS (r=0.5, P= < 0.0001), snoring (r=0.341, P= 0.001), and social worry (r=0.27, P= 0.011). Sleep disorders are quite common in the HD patients, especially those who are anemic and hypoalbuminemic. Assessment of sleep quality, preferably with polysomnography, is necessary to confirm our results. Interventional studies for management of sleep disorders in HD patients are warranted. PMID:20228517

  16. Cutaneous warming promotes sleep onset.

    PubMed

    Raymann, Roy J E M; Swaab, Dick F; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2005-06-01

    Sleep occurs in close relation to changes in body temperature. Both the monophasic sleep period in humans and the polyphasic sleep periods in rodents tend to be initiated when core body temperature is declining. This decline is mainly due to an increase in skin blood flow and consequently skin warming and heat loss. We have proposed that these intrinsically occurring changes in core and skin temperatures could modulate neuronal activity in sleep-regulating brain areas (Van Someren EJW, Chronobiol Int 17: 313-54, 2000). We here provide results compatible with this hypothesis. We obtained 144 sleep-onset latencies while directly manipulating core and skin temperatures within the comfortable range in eight healthy subjects under controlled conditions. The induction of a proximal skin temperature difference of only 0.78 +/- 0.03 degrees C (mean +/- SE) around a mean of 35.13 +/- 0.11 degrees C changed sleep-onset latency by 26%, i.e., by 3.09 minutes [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.91 to 4.28] around a mean of 11.85 min (CI, 9.74 to 14.41), with faster sleep onsets when the proximal skin was warmed. The reduction in sleep-onset latency occurred despite a small but significant decrease in subjective comfort during proximal skin warming. The induction of changes in core temperature (delta = 0.20 +/- 0.02 degrees C) and distal skin temperature (delta = 0.74 +/- 0.05 degrees C) were ineffective. Previous studies have demonstrated correlations between skin temperature and sleep-onset latency. Also, sleep disruption by ambient temperatures that activate thermoregulatory defense mechanisms has been shown. The present study is the first to experimentally demonstrate a causal contribution to sleep-onset latency of skin temperature manipulations within the normal nocturnal fluctuation range. Circadian and sleep-appetitive behavior-induced variations in skin temperature might act as an input signal to sleep-regulating systems. PMID:15677527

  17. Sleep to forget: interference of fear memories during sleep

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, A; Makam, M; Kroeger, D; Colas, D; de Lecea, L; Heller, H Craig

    2016-01-01

    Memories are consolidated and strengthened during sleep. Here we show that memories can also be weakened during sleep. We used a fear-conditioning paradigm in mice to condition footshock to an odor (conditioned stimulus (CS)). Twenty-four hours later, presentation of the CS odor during sleep resulted in an enhanced fear response when tested during subsequent wake. However, if the re-exposure of the CS odor during sleep was preceded by bilateral microinjections of a protein synthesis inhibitor into the basolateral amygdala, the subsequent fear response was attenuated. These findings demonstrate that specific fear memories can be selectively reactivated and either strengthened or attenuated during sleep, suggesting the potential for developing sleep therapies for emotional disorders. PMID:24081009

  18. Scaling and jumping: gravity loses grip on small jumpers.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Melanie N; Bobbert, Maarten F; Knoek van Soest, A J

    2006-06-21

    There are several ways to quantify jumping performance, a common definition being the height gained by the body's centre of mass (CM) in the airborne phase. Under this definition, jump height is determined by take-off velocity. According to the existing literature on jumping and scaling, take-off velocity, and hence jumping performance is independent of size because the energy that differently sized geometrically scaled jumpers can generate with their muscles is proportional to their mass. In this article it is shown, based on a simple energy balance, that it is incorrect to presume that jump height does not depend on size. Contrary to common belief, size as such has does have an effect on take-off velocity, putting small jumpers at a mechanical advantage, as is shown analytically. To quantify the effect of size on take-off velocity, a generic jumper model was scaled geometrically and evaluated numerically. While a 70-kg jumper took off at 2.65 m/s and raised its CM by 0.36 m after take-off, a perfectly geometrically similar jumper of 0.7 g reached a take-off velocity of 3.46 m/s and raised its CM by 0.61 m. The reason for the better performance of small jumpers is their higher efficacy in transforming the energy generated by the actuators into energy due to vertical velocity of the CM. Considering the ecological and evolutionary relevance of different definitions of jump height, size-dependent efficacy might explain why habitual jumping is especially prominent among small animals such as insects.

  19. Sleep disorders, obesity, and aging: the role of orexin.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Joshua P; Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Butterick, Tammy A; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M; Teske, Jennifer A

    2015-03-01

    The hypothalamic neuropeptides orexin A and B (hypocretin 1 and 2) are important homeostatic mediators of central control of energy metabolism and maintenance of sleep/wake states. Dysregulation or loss of orexin signaling has been linked to narcolepsy, obesity, and age-related disorders. In this review, we present an overview of our current understanding of orexin function, focusing on sleep disorders, energy balance, and aging, in both rodents and humans. We first discuss animal models used in studies of obesity and sleep, including loss of function using transgenic or viral-mediated approaches, gain of function models using exogenous delivery of orexin receptor agonist, and naturally-occurring models in which orexin responsiveness varies by individual. We next explore rodent models of orexin in aging, presenting evidence that orexin loss contributes to age-related changes in sleep and energy balance. In the next section, we focus on clinical importance of orexin in human obesity, sleep, and aging. We include discussion of orexin loss in narcolepsy and potential importance of orexin in insomnia, correlations between animal and human studies of age-related decline, and evidence for orexin involvement in age-related changes in cognitive performance. Finally, we present a summary of recent studies of orexin in neurodegenerative disease. We conclude that orexin acts as an integrative homeostatic signal influencing numerous brain regions, and that this pivotal role results in potential dysregulation of multiple physiological processes when orexin signaling is disrupted or lost.

  20. Sleep disorders, obesity, and aging: the role of orexin

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Joshua P.; Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Butterick, Tammy A.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.; Teske, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamic neuropeptides orexin A and B (hypocretin 1 and 2) are important homeostatic mediators of central control of energy metabolism and maintenance of sleep/wake states. Dysregulation or loss of orexin signaling has been linked to narcolepsy, obesity, and age-related disorders. In this review, we present an overview of our current understanding of orexin function, focusing on sleep disorders, energy balance, and aging, in both rodents and humans. We first discuss animal models used in studies of obesity and sleep, including loss of function using transgenic or viral-mediated approaches, gain of function models using exogenous delivery of orexin receptor agonist, and naturally-occurring models in which orexin responsiveness varies by individual. We next explore rodent models of orexin in aging, presenting evidence that orexin loss contributes to age-related changes in sleep and energy balance. In the next section, we focus on clinical importance of orexin in human obesity, sleep, and aging. We include discussion of orexin loss in narcolepsy and potential importance of orexin in insomnia, correlations between animal and human studies of age-related decline, and evidence for orexin involvement in age-related changes in cognitive performance. Finally, we present a summary of recent studies of orexin in neurodegenerative disease. We conclude that orexin acts as an integrative homeostatic signal influencing numerous brain regions, and that this pivotal role results in potential dysregulation of multiple physiological processes when orexin signaling is disrupted or lost. PMID:25462194

  1. Role of corticosterone on sleep homeostasis induced by REM sleep deprivation in rats.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ricardo Borges; Tufik, Sergio; Suchecki, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Sleep is regulated by humoral and homeostatic processes. If on one hand chronic elevation of stress hormones impair sleep, on the other hand, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation induces elevation of glucocorticoids and time of REM sleep during the recovery period. In the present study we sought to examine whether manipulations of corticosterone levels during REM sleep deprivation would alter the subsequent sleep rebound. Adult male Wistar rats were fit with electrodes for sleep monitoring and submitted to four days of REM sleep deprivation under repeated corticosterone or metyrapone (an inhibitor of corticosterone synthesis) administration. Sleep parameters were continuously recorded throughout the sleep deprivation period and during 3 days of sleep recovery. Plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone were also evaluated. Metyrapone treatment prevented the elevation of corticosterone plasma levels induced by REM sleep deprivation, whereas corticosterone administration to REM sleep-deprived rats resulted in lower corticosterone levels than in non-sleep deprived rats. Nonetheless, both corticosterone and metyrapone administration led to several alterations on sleep homeostasis, including reductions in the amount of non-REM and REM sleep during the recovery period, although corticosterone increased delta activity (1.0-4.0 Hz) during REM sleep deprivation. Metyrapone treatment of REM sleep-deprived rats reduced the number of REM sleep episodes. In conclusion, reduction of corticosterone levels during REM sleep deprivation resulted in impairment of sleep rebound, suggesting that physiological elevation of corticosterone levels resulting from REM sleep deprivation is necessary for plentiful recovery of sleep after this stressful event.

  2. Better you lose than I do: neural networks involved in winning and losing in a real time strictly competitive game.

    PubMed

    Votinov, Mikhail; Pripfl, Juergen; Windischberger, Christian; Sailer, Uta; Lamm, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Many situations in daily life require competing with others for the same goal. In this case, the joy of winning is tied to the fact that the rival suffers. In this fMRI study participants played a competitive game against another player, in which every trial had opposite consequences for the two players (i.e., if one player won, the other lost, or vice versa). Our main aim was to disentangle brain activation for two different types of winning. Participants could either win a trial in a way that it increased their payoff; or they could win a trial in a way that it incurred a monetary loss to their opponent. Two distinct brain networks were engaged in these two types of winning. Wins with a monetary gain activated the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, an area associated with the processing of rewards. In contrast, avoidance of loss/other-related monetary loss evoked activation in areas related to mentalizing, such as the temporo-parietal junction and precuneus. However, both types of winnings shared activation in the striatum. Our findings extend recent evidence from neuroeconomics by suggesting that we consider our conspecifics' payoff even when we directly compete with them. PMID:26047332

  3. Better you lose than I do: neural networks involved in winning and losing in a real time strictly competitive game

    PubMed Central

    Votinov, Mikhail; Pripfl, Juergen; Windischberger, Christian; Sailer, Uta; Lamm, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Many situations in daily life require competing with others for the same goal. In this case, the joy of winning is tied to the fact that the rival suffers. In this fMRI study participants played a competitive game against another player, in which every trial had opposite consequences for the two players (i.e., if one player won, the other lost, or vice versa). Our main aim was to disentangle brain activation for two different types of winning. Participants could either win a trial in a way that it increased their payoff; or they could win a trial in a way that it incurred a monetary loss to their opponent. Two distinct brain networks were engaged in these two types of winning. Wins with a monetary gain activated the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, an area associated with the processing of rewards. In contrast, avoidance of loss/other-related monetary loss evoked activation in areas related to mentalizing, such as the temporo-parietal junction and precuneus. However, both types of winnings shared activation in the striatum. Our findings extend recent evidence from neuroeconomics by suggesting that we consider our conspecifics’ payoff even when we directly compete with them. PMID:26047332

  4. Sleep symptoms associated with intake of specific dietary nutrients.

    PubMed

    Grandner, Michael A; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R; Knutson, Kristen L

    2014-02-01

    Sleep symptoms are associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic disease. The potential role of diet has been largely unexplored. Data from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (n = 4552) to determine which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms in a nationally representative sample. Survey items assessed difficulty falling asleep, sleep maintenance difficulties, non-restorative sleep and daytime sleepiness. Analyses were adjusted for energy intake, other dietary factors, exercise, body mass index (BMI) and sociodemographics. Population-weighted, logistic regression, with backwards-stepwise selection, examined which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms. Odds ratios (ORs) reflect the difference in odds of sleep symptoms associated with a doubling in nutrient. Nutrients that were associated independently with difficulty falling asleep included (in order): alpha-carotene (OR = 0.96), selenium (OR = 0.80), dodecanoic acid (OR = 0.91), calcium (OR = 0.83) and hexadecanoic acid (OR = 1.10). Nutrients that were associated independently with sleep maintenance difficulties included: salt (OR = 1.19), butanoic acid (0.81), carbohydrate (OR = 0.71), dodecanoic acid (OR = 0.90), vitamin D (OR = 0.84), lycopene (OR = 0.98), hexanoic acid (OR = 1.25) and moisture (OR = 1.27). Nutrients that were associated independently with non-restorative sleep included butanoic acid (OR = 1.09), calcium (OR = 0.81), vitamin C (OR = 0.92), water (OR = 0.98), moisture (OR = 1.41) and cholesterol (OR = 1.10). Nutrients that were associated independently with sleepiness included: moisture (OR = 1.20), theobromine (OR = 1.04), potassium (OR = 0.70) and water (OR = 0.97). These results suggest novel associations between sleep symptoms and diet/metabolism, potentially explaining associations between sleep and cardiometabolic diseases.

  5. Overview on Sleep Bruxism for Sleep Medicine Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Carra, Maria Clotilde; Huynh, Nelly; Fleury, Bernard; Lavigne, Gilles

    2015-09-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) is a common sleep-related jaw motor disorder observed in 8% of the adult population. SB diagnosis is based on history of tooth grinding and clenching and is confirmed by the polysomnographic recording of the electromyographic activity of jaw muscles during sleep. SB may be associated with orofacial pain, headaches, and sleep-disordered breathing. Managing SB cannot be done without a comprehensive clinical and, when indicated, polysomnographic differential diagnosis of other comorbidities, which need to be taken into account to select the best treatment approach.

  6. Non-contact screening system with two microwave radars in the diagnosis of sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masayuki; Ueki, Katsuhiko; Kurita, Akira; Tojima, Hirokazu; Matsui, Takemi

    2013-01-01

    There are two key problems in applying Doppler radar to a diagnosis system for sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. The first is noise associated with body movement and the second is the body position in bed and the change of the sleeping posture. We propose a new automatic gain control and a real-time radar-output channel selection method which is based on a spectrum shape analysis. There are three types of sleep apnea: central sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea and mixed sleep apnea. In this paper we paid attention to the obstructive sleep apnea and attempted to detect the disorder of corrugated shape compared with usual breathing or the paradoxical movement of the reversed phase with chest and abdominal radar signals. A prototype of the system was set up at a sleep disorder center in a hospital and field tests were carried out with eight subjects. Despite the subjects engaging in frequent body movements while sleeping, the system was quite effective in the diagnosis of sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (r=0.98). PMID:23920557

  7. Non-contact screening system with two microwave radars in the diagnosis of sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masayuki; Ueki, Katsuhiko; Kurita, Akira; Tojima, Hirokazu; Matsui, Takemi

    2013-01-01

    There are two key problems in applying Doppler radar to a diagnosis system for sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. The first is noise associated with body movement and the second is the body position in bed and the change of the sleeping posture. We propose a new automatic gain control and a real-time radar-output channel selection method which is based on a spectrum shape analysis. There are three types of sleep apnea: central sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea and mixed sleep apnea. In this paper we paid attention to the obstructive sleep apnea and attempted to detect the disorder of corrugated shape compared with usual breathing or the paradoxical movement of the reversed phase with chest and abdominal radar signals. A prototype of the system was set up at a sleep disorder center in a hospital and field tests were carried out with eight subjects. Despite the subjects engaging in frequent body movements while sleeping, the system was quite effective in the diagnosis of sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (r=0.98).

  8. Diagnosing Sleep Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Are You Sleep-Deprived? Diagnosing Sleep Disorders Past Issues / Summer 2012 Table of Contents ... reach REM sleep during their naps. What are Sleep Studies? Sleep studies are tests that measure how ...

  9. Advances in Sleep Studies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Advances in Sleep Studies Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents `` ... sleep patterns and possible problems diagnosed What Are Sleep Studies? Sleep studies are tests that measure how ...

  10. Diagnosing Sleep Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Diagnosing Sleep Disorders Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... tests when trying to diagnose a sleep disorder: Sleep history and sleep log If you believe you ...

  11. What Can You Do About Sleep Apnea?

    MedlinePlus

    ... seem to stop breathing, they may have a sleep disturbance known as obstructive sleep apnea. It's estimated that more than 15 million ... men. But only one in 10 people with sleep apnea is actually diagnosed. Barbara Peck: When John ...

  12. American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Proposal Submissions Open for 2017 More news... Dental Sleep Medicine: An area of dental practice that focuses ... the use of oral appliance therapy to treat sleep-disordered breathing, including snoring and obstructive sleep apnea ( ...

  13. Find a Sleep Center Near You

    MedlinePlus

    ... miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in Sleep Insomnia Overview & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis & Self Tests Treatment ... Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient ...

  14. In Brief: Your Guide to Healthy Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... in calories and carbohydrates. Could You Have a Sleep Disorder? If you are spending enough time in bed ... of the estimated 40 million Americans with a sleep disorder. The most common sleep disorders are insomnia (trouble ...

  15. Insufficient Sleep Is a Public Health Epidemic

    MedlinePlus

    ... clock access to technology and work schedules, but sleep disorders such as insomnia or obstructive sleep apnea also ... collaboration between CDC and the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research to support development and expansion of adequate ...

  16. Sleep On It: How Snoozing Strengthens Memories

    MedlinePlus

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Sleep On It How Snoozing Strengthens Memories When you learn something new, the best way to remember it is to sleep on it. That’s because sleeping ...

  17. Sleep deprivation: consequences for students.

    PubMed

    Marhefka, Julie King

    2011-09-01

    During the adolescent years, a delayed pattern of the sleep-wake cycle occurs. Many parents and health care providers are not aware that once established, these poor sleep habits can continue into adulthood. Early school hours start a pattern of sleep loss that begins a cycle of daytime sleepiness, which may affect mood, behavior, and increase risk for accidents or injury. These sleep-deprived habits established in adolescence can often lead to problems during college years. Sleep hygiene can be initiated to help break the cycle, along with education and implementation of a strict regimen. Monitoring all adolescents and college-aged students for sleep insufficiency is imperative to improve both academic and emotional well-being. PMID:21846079

  18. Managing Sleep Disturbances in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances, particularly daytime sleepiness and insomnia, are common problems reported by patients suffering from liver cirrhosis. Poor sleep negatively impacts patients' quality of life and cognitive functions and increases mortality. Although sleep disturbances can be an early sign of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), many patients without HE still complain of poor quality sleep. The pathophysiology of these disturbances is not fully understood but is believed to be linked to impaired hepatic melatonin metabolism. This paper provides an overview for the clinician of common comorbidities contributing to poor sleep in patients with liver disease, mainly restless leg syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea. It discusses nondrug and pharmacologic treatment options in these patients, such as the use of light therapy and histamine (H1) blockers. PMID:27242950

  19. Maternal and infant sleep postpartum.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    New parents should be aware that infants' sleep is unlike that of adults and that meeting their infant's needs is likely to disrupt their own sleep. They will need to adjust their routine to manage their own sleep needs. Parental sleep patterns in the postpartum period are tied to the infant's development of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm, and the infant's feeds. Close contact with the mother and exposure to light/dark cues appear to assist in the development of the infant's circadian rhythm. The composition of breastmilk varies over the course of 24 hours and some components produced at night are likely to contribute to the infant's day/night entrainment. There is no clear evidence that using artificial feeds improves maternal sleep. Most infants need night feeds but requirements for nighttime feeds vary with the individual.

  20. Sleep Homeostasis in Infant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Blumberg, Mark S.; Middlemis-Brown, Jessica E.; Johnson, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Homeostatic regulation is a defining characteristic of sleep but has rarely been examined in infants. This study presents an automated method of sleep deprivation in which 5-day-old rats were shocked whenever the nuchal muscle became atonic. The intensity of shock was always set at the minimal level required to maintain arousal. Deprived pups exhibited rapid increases in sleep pressure, as evidenced by increased attempts to enter sleep and subsequent increases in sensory threshold; this increased sensory threshold was not due to sensory adaptation of peripheral receptors. In addition, myoclonic twitching was suppressed during the 30-min deprivation period, leading to rebound twitching during recovery sleep. These results provide the earliest demonstration of the homeostatic regulation of sleep in an altricial mammal. PMID:15598134