Science.gov

Sample records for lose sleep gain

  1. Psychological Adjustment of Adolescents Attempting to Lose or Gain Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, James C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared the psychological adjustment of high school boys and girls trying to reduce or gain weight. Reducers of both sexes and male gainers exhibited lower physical self-esteem. Girls trying to change weight in either direction showed depression and lower global self-esteem. Girls' decisions to gain or lose weight were influenced by psychological…

  2. Who Gains, Who Loses from School Choice: A Research Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Bruce

    Although the school-choice movement has spread quickly, little time has been taken to assess whether the claimed benefits of school choice have actually been realized. This policy brief summarizes empirical evidence to date and addresses the following questions: Who gains from school choice and who loses? Do innovative school organizations arise…

  3. Predicting losing and gaining river reaches in lowland New Zealand based on a statistical methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Zammit, Christian; Dudley, Bruce

    2017-04-01

    The phenomenon of losing and gaining in rivers normally takes place in lowland where often there are various, sometimes conflicting uses for water resources, e.g., agriculture, industry, recreation, and maintenance of ecosystem function. To better support water allocation decisions, it is crucial to understand the location and seasonal dynamics of these losses and gains. We present a statistical methodology to predict losing and gaining river reaches in New Zealand based on 1) information surveys with surface water and groundwater experts from regional government, 2) A collection of river/watershed characteristics, including climate, soil and hydrogeologic information, and 3) the random forests technique. The surveys on losing and gaining reaches were conducted face-to-face at 16 New Zealand regional government authorities, and climate, soil, river geometry, and hydrogeologic data from various sources were collected and compiled to represent river/watershed characteristics. The random forests technique was used to build up the statistical relationship between river reach status (gain and loss) and river/watershed characteristics, and then to predict for river reaches at Strahler order one without prior losing and gaining information. Results show that the model has a classification error of around 10% for "gain" and "loss". The results will assist further research, and water allocation decisions in lowland New Zealand.

  4. Health characteristics associated with gaining and losing private and public health insurance: a national study.

    PubMed

    Jerant, Anthony; Fiscella, Kevin; Franks, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Millions of Americans lack or lose health insurance annually, yet how health characteristics predict insurance acquisition and loss remains unclear. To examine associations of health characteristics with acquisition and loss of private and public health insurance. Prospective observational analysis of 2000 to 2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data for persons aged 18 to 63 on entry, enrolled for 2 years. We modeled year 2 private and public insurance gain and loss. year 2 insurance status [none (reference), any private insurance, or public insurance] among those uninsured in year 1 (N=13,022), and retaining or losing coverage in year 2 among those privately or publicly insured in year 1 (N=47,239). age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, region, urbanity, health status, health conditions, year 1 health expenditures, year 1 and 2 employment status, and (in secondary analyses) skepticism toward medical care and insurance. In adjusted analyses, lower income and education were associated with not gaining and with losing private insurance. Poorer health status was associated with public insurance gain. Smoking and being overweight were associated with not gaining private insurance, and smoking with losing private coverage. Secondary analyses adjusting for medical skepticism yielded similar findings. Social disadvantage and poorer health status are associated with gaining public insurance, whereas social advantage, not smoking, and not being overweight are associated with gaining private insurance, even when adjusting for attitudes toward medical care. Private insurers seem to benefit from relatively low health risk selection.

  5. Who Gains, Who Loses?: The Fiscal Impact of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costrell, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Do school vouchers save the taxpayer money, or do they add to taxpayer burdens? Which groups of taxpayers are most affected, and do they gain or lose? What is the financial impact on public school districts? Usually, these questions are debated in the abstract. Now it is possible to get more concrete answers from the nation's longest-running…

  6. Who Gains, Who Loses?: The Fiscal Impact of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costrell, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Do school vouchers save the taxpayer money, or do they add to taxpayer burdens? Which groups of taxpayers are most affected, and do they gain or lose? What is the financial impact on public school districts? Usually, these questions are debated in the abstract. Now it is possible to get more concrete answers from the nation's longest-running…

  7. Oxygen consumption along bed forms under losing and gaining streamflow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Falco, Natalie; Arnon, Shai; Boano, Fulvio

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that bed forms are the most significant geomorphological structure that drives hyporheic exchange and biogeochemical processes in stream networks. Other studies also demonstrated that due to the hyporheic flow patterns within bed form, biogeochemical processes do not occur uniformly along and within the bed forms. The objective of this work was to systematically evaluate how losing or gaining flow conditions affect oxygen consumption by biofilm along sandy bed forms. We measured the effects of losing and gaining flow conditions on oxygen consumption by combining modeling and experiments in a novel laboratory flume system that enable the control of losing and gaining fluxes. Oxygen consumption was measured after growing a benthic biofilm fed with Sodium Benzoate (as a carbon source) and measuring the distribution of oxygen in the streambed with microelectrodes. The experimental results were analyzed using a novel code that calculates vertical profiles of reaction rates in the presence of hyporheic water fluxes. These experimental observations and modeling revealed that oxygen distribution varied along the bed forms. The zone of oxygen consumption (i.e. depth of penetration) was the largest at the upstream side of the bed form and the smallest in the lee side (at the lowest part of the bed form), regardless of the flow conditions. Also, the zone of oxygen consumption was the largest under losing conditions, the smallest under gaining conditions, and in-between under neutral conditions. The distribution of oxygen consumption rates determined with our new model will be also discussed. Our preliminary results enable us to show the importance of the coupling between flow conditions and oxygen consumption along bed forms and are expected to improve our understanding of nutrient cycling in streams.

  8. The effect of losing and gaining flow conditions on hyporheic exchange in heterogeneous streambeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, A.; Laube, G.; Schmidt, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Arnon, S.

    2016-09-01

    Bed form-induced hyporheic exchange flux (qH) is increasingly viewed as a key process controlling water fluxes and biogeochemical processes in river networks. Despite the fact that streambeds are inherently heterogeneous, the majority of bed form flume-scale studies were done on homogeneous systems. We conducted salt and dye tracer experiments to study the effects of losing and gaining flow conditions on qH using a laboratory recirculating flume system packed with a heterogeneous streambed, and equipped with a drainage system that enabled us to apply losing or gaining fluxes. We found that when either losing or gaining fluxes increased (regardless of whether the flux was upward or downward), qH followed an exponential decline, the volume of the hyporheic flow cell drastically reduced, and the mean residence times declined moderately. A numerical flow model for the heterogeneous streambed was set up and fitted against the experimental data in order to test whether an equivalent homogeneous case exists. The measured qH were accurately predicted with the heterogeneous model, while it was underestimated using a homogeneous model characterized by the geometric mean of the hydraulic conductivity. It was also shown that in order to produce the results of the heterogeneous model with an equivalent hydraulic conductivity, the latter had to be increased as the losing or gaining fluxes increase. The results strongly suggest that it is critical to adequately account for the heterogeneous streambed structure in order to accurately predict the effect of vertical exchange fluxes between the stream and groundwater on hyporheic exchange.

  9. Sociocultural influences on strategies to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles among ten cultural groups.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Busija, Lucy; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Mussap, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This study determined how sociocultural messages to change one's body are perceived by adolescents from different cultural groups. In total, 4904 adolescents, including Australian, Chilean, Chinese, Indo-Fijian, Indigenous Fijian, Greek, Malaysian, Chinese Malaysian, Tongans in New Zealand, and Tongans in Tonga, were surveyed about messages from family, peers, and the media to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles. Groups were best differentiated by family pressure to gain weight. Girls were more likely to receive the messages from multiple sociocultural sources whereas boys were more likely to receive the messages from the family. Some participants in a cultural group indicated higher, and others lower, levels of these sociocultural messages. These findings highlight the differences in sociocultural messages across cultural groups, but also that adolescents receive contrasting messages within a cultural group. These results demonstrate the difficulty in representing a particular message as being characteristic of each cultural group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Overweight adolescent African-American mothers gain weight in spite of intentions to lose weight.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M; Papas, Mia A; Bentley, Margaret E; Cureton, Pamela; Saunders, Alicia; Le, Katherine; Anliker, Jean; Robinson, Noni

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to determine how dietary patterns, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and intention to lose weight were associated with body size among adolescent African-American mothers 1 year after delivery and with changes in body size over the next year. Cross-sectional and longitudinal self-reported measures were collected 1 year after delivery. Weight and height were collected 1 and 2 years after delivery. The subjects were 118 low-income, African-American adolescent mothers recruited after the birth of their first child. Multivariate analysis of covariance and multivariate regression analysis were conducted to examine predictors of body size 1 year after delivery and changes in body size over the next year. Analyses were adjusted for maternal age, education, breastfeeding history, and intervention. One year after delivery, 33.0% of mothers were overweight (body mass index [BMI] > or =95th percentile) and 23.7% were at risk for overweight (BMI > or =85th and <95th percentile). Mothers consumed a daily average of 2,527 kcal and 4.1 high-fat snacks. A total of 11% of normal-weight mothers, 22% of mothers at risk for overweight, and 44% of overweight mothers reported intention to lose weight, chi(2)=10.8, P<.01. Average maternal BMI z score increased 0.13 (3.9 kg) between 1 and 2 years after delivery, P<.01. Dietary patterns, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and intention to lose weight were not related to body size or increase in body size. One year after delivery, overweight among adolescent mothers was common and increased over time. Although nearly half of overweight mothers reported an intention to lose weight, their weight gain did not differ from that of other mothers, suggesting that they lack effective weight-loss behaviors, and may be good candidates for intervention. African-American adolescent mothers have high rates of overweight and snack consumption and may benefit from strategies to identify nutritious, palatable, affordable, and accessible

  11. Flipping the thin film model: Mass transfer by hyporheic exchange in gaining and losing streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCluskey, Alexander H.; Grant, Stanley B.; Stewardson, Michael J.

    2016-10-01

    The exchange of mass between a stream and its hyporheic zone, or "hyporheic exchange," is central to many important ecosystem services. In this paper we show that mass transfer across the streambed by linear mechanisms of hyporheic exchange in a gaining or losing stream can be represented by a thin film model in which (a) the mass transfer coefficient is replaced with the average Darcy flux of water downwelling into the sediment and (b) the driving force for mass transfer is "flipped" from normal to the surface (concentration difference across a boundary layer) to parallel to the surface (concentration difference across downwelling and upwelling zones). Our analysis is consistent with previously published analytical, computational, and experimental studies of hyporheic exchange in the presence of stream-groundwater interactions, and links stream network, advection-dispersion, and stochastic descriptions of solute fate and transport in rivers.

  12. Short sleep duration and weight gain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanjay R; Hu, Frank B

    2008-03-01

    The recent obesity epidemic has been accompanied by a parallel growth in chronic sleep deprivation. Physiologic studies suggest sleep deprivation may influence weight through effects on appetite, physical activity, and/or thermoregulation. This work reviews the literature regarding short sleep duration as an independent risk factor for obesity and weight gain. A literature search was conducted for all articles published between 1966 and January 2007 using the search "sleep" and ("duration" or "hour" or "hours") and ("obesity" or "weight") in the MEDLINE database. Additional references were identified by reviewing bibliographies and contacting experts in the field. Studies reporting the association between sleep duration and at least one measure of weight were included. Thirty-six publications (31 cross-sectional, 5 prospective, and 0 experimental) were identified. Findings in both cross-sectional and cohort studies of children suggested short sleep duration is strongly and consistently associated with concurrent and future obesity. Results from adult cross-sectional analyses were more mixed with 17 of 23 studies supporting an independent association between short sleep duration and increased weight. In contrast, all three longitudinal studies in adults found a positive association between short sleep duration and future weight. This relationship appeared to wane with age. Short sleep duration appears independently associated with weight gain, particularly in younger age groups. However, major study design limitations preclude definitive conclusions. Further research with objective measures of sleep duration, repeated assessments of both sleep and weight, and experimental study designs that manipulate sleep are needed to better define the causal relationship of sleep deprivation on obesity.

  13. Gaining, losing, and dry stream reaches at Bear Creek Valley, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, March and September 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, J.A.; Mitchell, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to delineate stream reaches that were gaining flow, losing flow, or that were dry in the upper reaches of Bear Creek Valley near the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The study included a review of maps and discharge data from a seepage investigation conducted at Bear Creek Valley; preparation of tables showing site identification and discharge and stream reaches that were gaining flow, losing flow, or that were dry; and preparation of maps showing measurement site locations and discharge measurements, and gaining, losing, and dry stream reaches. This report will aid in developing a better understanding of ground-water and surface-water interactions in the upper reaches of Bear Creek.

  14. Stressed and Losing Sleep: Sleep Duration and Perceived Stress among Affluent Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSilva Mousseau, Angela M.; Lund, Terese J.; Liang, Belle; Spencer, Renée; Walsh, Jill

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between stress and sleep duration for adolescent females from affluent backgrounds. Participants were 218 students attending two independent single-sex secondary schools. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression models (cross-sectional and longitudinal) were run to examine the association between stress and…

  15. Stressed and Losing Sleep: Sleep Duration and Perceived Stress among Affluent Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSilva Mousseau, Angela M.; Lund, Terese J.; Liang, Belle; Spencer, Renée; Walsh, Jill

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between stress and sleep duration for adolescent females from affluent backgrounds. Participants were 218 students attending two independent single-sex secondary schools. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression models (cross-sectional and longitudinal) were run to examine the association between stress and…

  16. Short sleep duration and weight gain: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sanjay R.; Hu, Frank B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The recent obesity epidemic has been accompanied by a parallel growth in chronic sleep deprivation. Physiologic studies suggest sleep deprivation may influence weight through effects on appetite, physical activity, and/or thermoregulation. This work reviews the literature regarding short sleep duration as an independent risk factor for obesity and weight gain. Methods A literature search was conducted for all articles published between 1966 and January 2007 using the search “sleep” AND (“duration” OR “hour” OR “hours”) AND (“obesity” OR “weight) in the MEDLINE database. Additional references were identified by reviewing bibliographies and contacting experts in the field. Studies reporting the association between sleep duration and at least one measure of weight were included. Results Thirty-six publications (31 cross-sectional, 5 prospective, and 0 experimental) were identified. Findings in both cross-sectional and cohort studies of children suggested short sleep duration is strongly and consistently associated with concurrent and future obesity. Results from adult cross-sectional analyses were more mixed with 17 of 23 studies supporting an independent association between short sleep duration and increased weight. In contrast, all 3 longitudinal studies in adults found a positive association between short sleep duration and future weight. This relationship appeared to wane with age. Discussion Short sleep duration appears independently associated with weight gain, particularly in younger age groups. However, major study design limitations preclude definitive conclusions. Further research with objective measures of sleep duration, repeated assessments of both sleep and weight and experimental study designs that manipulate sleep are needed to better define the causal relationship of sleep deprivation on obesity. PMID:18239586

  17. Gaining pounds by losing pounds: preferences for lifestyle interventions to reduce obesity.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Mandy; Yi, Deokhee; Avenell, Alison; Douglas, Flora; Aucott, Lorna; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Vale, Luke

    2015-04-01

    While there is evidence that weight-loss interventions reduce morbidity, indications of their acceptability are limited. Understanding preferences for lifestyle interventions will help policymakers design interventions. We used a discrete choice experiment to investigate preferences for lifestyle interventions to reduce adult obesity. Attributes focused on: the components of the programme; weight change; short-term and longer-term health gains; time spent on the intervention and financial costs incurred. Data were collected through a web-based questionnaire, with 504 UK adults responding. Despite evidence that dietary interventions are the most effective way to lose weight, respondents preferred lifestyle interventions involving physical activity. While the evidence suggests that behaviour change support improves effectiveness of interventions, its value to participants was limited. A general preference to maintain current lifestyles, together with the sensitivity of take up to financial costs, suggests financial incentives could be used to help maximise uptake of healthy lifestyle interventions. An important target group for change, men, required more compensation to take up healthier lifestyles. Those of normal weight, who will increase in weight over time if they do not change their lifestyle, required the highest compensation. Policymakers face challenges in inducing people to change their behaviour and adopt healthy lifestyles.

  18. Impacts of Freshets on Hyporheic Exchange Flow under Gaining and Losing Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, L.; Singh, T.; Lewandowski, J.; Nuetzmann, G.; Worman, A. L. E.; Hannah, D. M.; Krause, S.; Gomez-Velez, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has identified streambed morphology, sediment properties, channel discharge and groundwater flux as key factors controlling flow and transport characteristics within hyporheic zones (HZs). While the potential dampening of hyporheic exchange flow (HEF) by groundwater up-welling (or down-welling) has been investigated, particularly for ripple bedforms, the impact of time-varying discharge, causing non-stationarity in advective pumping induced HEF, for different types of streambed morphologies remained largely unclear. In this study, we explore the complex interplay among transient driving forces (freshets) and both streambed morphology and groundwater up-welling/down-welling conditions. We simulate HEF driven by a wide range of freshet scenarios in riffle-pool, dune and ripple bedforms under different magnitudes of gaining and losing conditions. To evaluate the effect of the dynamic forcing while modulated by groundwater fluxes, we chose the following metrics: HEF, HZ extent, and the spatial patterns of residence time (RTD) and oxic/anoxic zones. Our study revealed that HZ emerged, vanished, expanded and contracted during freshet events as a function of freshet duration and symmetry, geomorphology and groundwater up-welling/down-welling conditions. Furthermore, zones of substantially increased residence times or even stagnant water were found to vertically move up and down with the expansions and contractions of HZ, bearing potential impacts for biogeochemical transformations. In addition to substantially affecting HZ size, shape and quantity of HEF, the investigated transient freshet scenarios proved to cause significant changes in hyporheic RTD of relevance for further research into biogeochemical cycling within hyporheic zones and stream-aquifer management at larger scales.

  19. Losing Sleep to Watch the Night-Sky: The Relationship between Sleep-Length and Noctcaelador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; Rose, Callie

    2005-01-01

    For most of history, humans have been watching the night-sky (Hawkins, 1983). Historically, individuals have watched the night-sky for aesthetic appreciation and to gain insights and knowledge (Brecher & Feirtag, 1979). Despite the long history of night-sky watching among humans and the apparent importance of the behavior to large groups of…

  20. Losing Sleep to Watch the Night-Sky: The Relationship between Sleep-Length and Noctcaelador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; Rose, Callie

    2005-01-01

    For most of history, humans have been watching the night-sky (Hawkins, 1983). Historically, individuals have watched the night-sky for aesthetic appreciation and to gain insights and knowledge (Brecher & Feirtag, 1979). Despite the long history of night-sky watching among humans and the apparent importance of the behavior to large groups of…

  1. Parkinsonian tremor loses its alternating aspect during non-REM sleep and is inhibited by REM sleep.

    PubMed Central

    Askenasy, J J; Yahr, M D

    1990-01-01

    Non-REM sleep transforms the waking alternating Parkinsonian tremor into subclinical repetitive muscle contractions whose amplitude and duration decrease as non-REM sleep progresses from stages I to IV. During REM sleep Parkinsonian tremor disappears while the isolated muscle events increase significantly. PMID:2246656

  2. Individualized Treatment of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: What are Patients Gaining? Or Losing?

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of drugs that bind diffusible vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has revolutionized the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The pivotal ranibizumab and aflibercept registration trials featured monthly intravitreal injections for 12 months, during which visual acuities and macular edema rapidly improved for the first 3 months and modest gains or stabilization continued until the primary endpoint. In many subsequent trials, patients were evaluated monthly and treated as-needed (PRN) according to the results of visual acuity (VA) testing, fundus examinations and optical coherence tomography scans. Compared to monthly-treated control groups, PRN treated patients require fewer injections during the first year but they also experience smaller VA gains (1–3 letters). A small number of prospective trials that directly compared monthly with PRN therapy showed that VA gains with discontinuous therapy lag slightly behind those achieved with monthly injections. Physicians recognize that monthly office visits with frequent intraocular injections challenge patients’ compliance, accrue high drug and professional service costs, and clog office schedules with frequently returning patients. To decrease the numbers of both office visits and anti-VEGF injections without sacrificing VA gains, physicians have embraced the treat-and-extend strategy. Treat-and-extend has not been studied as rigorously as PRN but it has become popular among both vitreoretinal specialists and patients. Despite the possible risks associated with discontinuous therapy (decreased VA and increased macular fluid), most physicians individualize treatment (PRN or treat-and-extend) for the majority of their patients. This review chapter explores the many advantages of individualized therapy, while balancing these against suboptimal responses due to the decreased frequency of anti-VEGF injections. PMID:26239466

  3. Individualized Treatment of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: What are Patients Gaining? Or Losing?

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael W

    2015-05-21

    The widespread use of drugs that bind diffusible vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has revolutionized the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The pivotal ranibizumab and aflibercept registration trials featured monthly intravitreal injections for 12 months, during which visual acuities and macular edema rapidly improved for the first 3 months and modest gains or stabilization continued until the primary endpoint. In many subsequent trials, patients were evaluated monthly and treated as-needed (PRN) according to the results of visual acuity (VA) testing, fundus examinations and optical coherence tomography scans. Compared to monthly-treated control groups, PRN treated patients require fewer injections during the first year but they also experience smaller VA gains (1-3 letters). A small number of prospective trials that directly compared monthly with PRN therapy showed that VA gains with discontinuous therapy lag slightly behind those achieved with monthly injections. Physicians recognize that monthly office visits with frequent intraocular injections challenge patients' compliance, accrue high drug and professional service costs, and clog office schedules with frequently returning patients. To decrease the numbers of both office visits and anti-VEGF injections without sacrificing VA gains, physicians have embraced the treat-and-extend strategy. Treat-and-extend has not been studied as rigorously as PRN but it has become popular among both vitreoretinal specialists and patients. Despite the possible risks associated with discontinuous therapy (decreased VA and increased macular fluid), most physicians individualize treatment (PRN or treat-and-extend) for the majority of their patients. This review chapter explores the many advantages of individualized therapy, while balancing these against suboptimal responses due to the decreased frequency of anti-VEGF injections.

  4. Depressive and anxiety disorders: Associated with losing or gaining weight over 2 years?

    PubMed

    de Wit, Leonore M; van Straten, Annemieke; Lamers, Femke; Cuijpers, Pim; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2015-06-30

    This longitudinal study examines to what extent different depressive and anxiety disorders and clinical characteristics are associated with subsequent weight change, while controlling for baseline weight, sociodemographics, health status, psychotropic medication use and (un)healthy lifestyle factors. Data are from a sample of 2447 respondents aged 18-65 years of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Baseline depressive disorders and anxiety disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Weight at baseline and after 2 years was measured and analyzed as continuous change score (mean change in weight 1kg) and in categories of significant weight loss (<1S.D. weight change equaling <4kg), weight maintenance and weight gain (>1S.D., >6kg). After full adjustment for covariates baseline comorbid anxiety and depressive disorder and baseline Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were associated with significant 2-year weight gain. Both current and remitted MDD at baseline and a baseline dysthymia, but none of the anxiety disorders, were associated with significant weight loss. This longitudinal study confirms a U-curved link between depression and weight change over 2 years. Furthermore, a dose-response effect of depression severity on 2-year weight gain was found.

  5. Recent health insurance trends for US families: children gain while parents lose.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Tillotson, Carrie J; Angier, Heather; Wallace, Lorraine S

    2014-05-01

    In the past decade, political and economic changes in the United States (US) have affected health insurance coverage for children and their parents. Most likely these policies have differentially affected coverage patterns for children (versus parents) and for low-income (versus high-income) families. We aimed to examine--qualitatively and quantitatively--the impact of changing health insurance coverage on US families. Primary data from interviews with Oregon families (2008-2010) were analyzed using an iterative process. Qualitative findings guided quantitative analyses of secondary data from the nationally-representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) (1998-2009); we used Joinpoint Regression to assess average annual percent changes (AAPC) in health insurance trends, examining child and parent status and type of coverage stratified by income. Interviewees reported that although children gained coverage, parents lost coverage. MEPS analyses confirmed this trend; the percentage of children uninsured all year decreased from 9.6 % in 1998 to 6.1 % in 2009; AAPC = -3.1 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] from -5.1 to -1.0), while the percentage of parents uninsured all year rose from 13.6 % in 1998 to 17.1 % in 2009, AAPC = 2.7 % (95 % CI 1.8-3.7). Low-income families experienced the most significant changes in coverage. Between 1998 and 2009, as US children gained health insurance, their parents lost coverage. Children's health is adversely affected when parents are uninsured. Investigation beyond children's coverage rates is needed to understand how health insurance policies and changing health insurance coverage trends are impacting children's health.

  6. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Insurance Coverage: Dynamics of Gaining and Losing Coverage over the Life-Course.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Heeju

    2017-04-01

    Health insurance coverage varies substantially between racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, African Americans and people of Hispanic origin had persistently lower insurance coverage rates at all ages. This article describes age- and group-specific dynamics of insurance gain and loss that contribute to inequalities found in traditional cross-sectional studies. It uses the longitudinal 2008 Panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (N=114,345) to describe age-specific patterns of disparity prior to the Affordable Care Act (ACA). A formal decomposition on increment-decrement life-tables of insurance gain and loss shows that coverage disparities are predominately driven by minority groups' greater propensity to lose the insurance that they already have. Uninsured African Americans were faster to gain insurance than non-Hispanic whites but their high rates of insurance loss more than negated this advantage. Disparities from greater rates of loss among minority groups emerge rapidly at the end of childhood and persist throughout adulthood. This is especially true for African Americans and Hispanics and their relative disadvantages again heighten in their 40s and 50s.

  7. Losing Sleep over It: Daily Variation in Sleep Quantity and Quality in Canadian Students' First Semester of University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Dalton, Andrea L.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Daily covariation of sleep quantity and quality with affective, stressful, academic, and social experiences were observed in a sample of Canadian 17-19-year-olds in their first year of university. Participants (N = 191) completed web-based checklists for 14 consecutive days during their first semester. Multilevel models predicting sleep quantity…

  8. Losing Sleep over It: Daily Variation in Sleep Quantity and Quality in Canadian Students' First Semester of University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Dalton, Andrea L.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Daily covariation of sleep quantity and quality with affective, stressful, academic, and social experiences were observed in a sample of Canadian 17-19-year-olds in their first year of university. Participants (N = 191) completed web-based checklists for 14 consecutive days during their first semester. Multilevel models predicting sleep quantity…

  9. Saying 'goodbye' to single-handed practices; what do patients and staff lose or gain?

    PubMed

    van den Hombergh, Pieter; Engels, Yvonne; van den Hoogen, Henk; van Doremalen, Jan; van den Bosch, Wil; Grol, Richard

    2005-02-01

    The practice setting is, next to the GP and staff, an important determinant of the quality of care. Differences between single-handed practices and group practices in practice management and organization could therefore provide clues for improvement. An explorative, cross sectional survey was conducted in 766 general practices in The Netherlands comparing single-handed practices with group practices. The study is looking for answers on aspects of the organization and management that are lost or gained when single-handed GPs and practices are replaced by group practices. Between 1999 and 2003 GPs and their practices were assessed using a validated practice visit method (VIP) consisting of 303 indicators describing 56 dimensions of practice management. Instruments used consisted of questionnaires for patients, GPs, practice assistant and a direct observer in the practice. Single-handed practices (1 GP) were compared to group practices or health centres (>2.0 GPs) comparing raw scores on dimensions of practice management. In addition, data were analysed in a regression model with specific aspects of practice management as dependent variables using a general linear model procedure. Independent variables included 'single-handed/group practice', 'rural/ urban' 'part-time/full-time' and 'male/female'. Group practices scored better on nearly all aspects of infrastructure except those rated by patients. Patients gave single-handed practices higher marks for service, accessibility and even for the facilities. In single-handed practices GPs reported that they worked more and experienced higher levels of job stress. They delegated less of the medical technical tasks but there is no difference in delegation of preventive tasks/treatment of chronic diseases. Group practices had more computerized medical information and more quality assurance activities, but gave less patient information. Single-handed practices spent more hours on continuous medical education. The quality of the

  10. Losing the left side of the world: rightward shift in human spatial attention with sleep onset.

    PubMed

    Bareham, Corinne A; Manly, Tom; Pustovaya, Olga V; Scott, Sophie K; Bekinschtein, Tristan A

    2014-05-28

    Unilateral brain damage can lead to a striking deficit in awareness of stimuli on one side of space called Spatial Neglect. Patient studies show that neglect of the left is markedly more persistent than of the right and that its severity increases under states of low alertness. There have been suggestions that this alertness-spatial awareness link may be detectable in the general population. Here, healthy human volunteers performed an auditory spatial localisation task whilst transitioning in and out of sleep. We show, using independent electroencephalographic measures, that normal drowsiness is linked with a remarkable unidirectional tendency to mislocate left-sided stimuli to the right. The effect may form a useful healthy model of neglect and help in understanding why leftward inattention is disproportionately persistent after brain injury. The results also cast light on marked changes in conscious experience before full sleep onset.

  11. Precision and Deviation Comparison Between Icesat and Envisat in Typical Ice Gaining and Losing Regions of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, W.; Chen, L.; Xie, H.; Hai, G.; Zhang, S.; Tong, X.

    2017-09-01

    This paper analyzes the precision and deviation of elevations acquired from Envisat and The Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) over typical ice gaining and losing regions, i.e. Lambert-Amery System (LAS) in east Antarctica, and Amundsen Sea Sector (ASS) in west Antarctica, during the same period from 2003 to 2008. We used GLA12 dataset of ICESat and Level 2 data of Envisat. Data preprocessing includes data filtering, projection transformation and track classification. Meanwhile, the slope correction is applied to Envisat data and saturation correction for ICESat data. Then the crossover analysis was used to obtain the crossing points of the ICESat tracks, Envisat tracks and ICESat-Envisat tracks separately. The two tracks we chose for cross-over analysis should be in the same campaign for ICESat (within 33 days) or the same cycle for Envisat (within 35 days).The standard deviation of a set of elevation residuals at time-coincident crossovers is calculated as the precision of each satellite while the mean value is calculated as the deviation of ICESat-Envisat. Generally, the ICESat laser altimeter gets a better precision than the Envisat radar altimeter. For Amundsen Sea Sector, the ICESat precision is found to vary from 8.9 cm to 17 cm and the Envisat precision varies from 0.81 m to 1.57 m. For LAS area, the ICESat precision is found to vary from 6.7 cm to 14.3 cm and the Envisat precision varies from 0.46 m to 0.81 m. Comparison result between Envisat and ICESat elevations shows a mean difference of 0.43 ±7.14 m for Amundsen Sea Sector and 0.53 ± 1.23 m over LAS.

  12. Association between sleep duration, weight gain, and obesity for long period.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Masato; Tomata, Yasutake; Watanabe, Takashi; Kakizaki, Masako; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2013-02-01

    Although previous studies showed the long-term effects of sleep duration on risk of weight gain, Western tends to gain weight irrespective of sleep duration over a long period. Conversely, it is showed that body mass index (BMI) decreases during a long period in Japanese and thus, the long-term effect of sleep duration on weight gain and obesity is still unclear in Asia. We followed up 13,629 participants aged 40-79years and prospectively collected data from 1995 to 2006. We divided the participants into five groups according to their self-reported sleep duration: ⩽5h (short sleep), 6h, 7h (reference), 8h, and ⩾9h (long sleep). The main outcome was ⩾5kg weight gain or BMI⩾25kg/m(2) (obesity). We used logistic regression analyses to derive odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for several confounding factors. We observed no association between sleep duration and risk of ⩾5kg weight gain and obesity. After stratification by BMI, long sleepers had a significantly increased risk of ⩾5kg weight gain (OR: 1.36, 95%CI: 1.09-1.70) in obese participants. Among community-dwelling Japanese, only obese long sleepers have a significantly increased long-term risk of ⩾5kg weight gain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Markwald, Rachel R; Melanson, Edward L; Smith, Mark R; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

    2013-04-02

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake--especially at night after dinner--was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to -0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity.

  14. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Markwald, Rachel R.; Melanson, Edward L.; Smith, Mark R.; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake—especially at night after dinner—was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to −0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity. PMID:23479616

  15. Sleep Is Increased By Weight Gain and Decreased By Weight Loss in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhiwei; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Bixler, Edward O.; Fang, Jidong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether weight loss could reverse excessive sleep in high-fat diet-induced obesity. Design: Three groups of mice participated in the study. A weight gain/loss group was fed with high-fat food for 6 weeks (weight gain), and regular food again for 4 weeks (weight loss). A control group and a weight gain only group were fed with regular food and high-fat food, respectively, for 10 weeks after the baseline. Participants: Adult male C57BL/6 mice. Measurements: The amounts of wake, rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-REM sleep (NREMS) were determined at week 0 (baseline), week 6, and week 10. Results: The weight gain/loss group displayed a significant decrease in wakefulness and increases in NREMS and episodes of NREMS during 6 weeks of weight gain, which were reversed during subsequent 4 weeks of weight loss. The weight gain only group displayed significant decrease in wakefulness and increase of NREMS and REMS at both week 6 and week 10. The control group did not show significant sleep alterations during the experiment. Conclusion: These observations indicate that sleep alterations induced by weight gain are reversed by weight loss in obese animals. These data may shed light on the mechanisms underlying the well-established association between obesity and sleepiness in humans and may lead to new therapeutic strategies for these 2 increasingly prevalent problems in the modern societies. Citation: Guan Z; Vgontzas AN; Bixler EO; Fang J. Sleep is increased by weight gain and decreased by weight loss in mice. SLEEP 2008;31(5):627-633. PMID:18517033

  16. Do all sedentary activities lead to weight gain: sleep does not.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Klingenberg, Lars; Sjödin, Anders

    2010-11-01

    To discuss the benefits of having a good night's sleep for body weight stability. Experimental studies have shown that short-term partial sleep restriction decreases glucose tolerance, increases sympathetic tone, elevates cortisol concentrations, decreases the satiety hormone leptin, increases the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin, and increases hunger and appetite. Short sleep duration might increase the risk of becoming obese, because it does not allow the recovery of a hormonal profile facilitating appetite control. Lack of sleep could also lead to weight gain and obesity by increasing the time available for eating and by making the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle more difficult. Furthermore, the increased fatigue and tiredness associated with sleeping too little could lessen one's resolve to follow exercise regimens. Short sleep duration appears to be a novel and independent risk factor for obesity. With the growing prevalence of chronic sleep restriction, any causal association between reduced sleep and obesity would have substantial importance from a public health standpoint. Future research is needed to determine whether sleep extension in sleep-deprived obese individuals will influence appetite control and/or reduce the amount of body fat.

  17. What drives sleep-dependent memory consolidation: greater gain or less loss?

    PubMed

    Fenn, Kimberly M; Hambrick, David Z

    2013-06-01

    When memory is tested after a delay, performance is typically better if the retention interval includes sleep. However, it is unclear what accounts for this well-established effect. It is possible that sleep enhances the retrieval of information, but it is also possible that sleep protects against memory loss that normally occurs during waking activity. We developed a new research approach to investigate these possibilities. Participants learned a list of paired-associate items and were tested on the items after a 12-h interval that included waking or sleep. We analyzed the number of items gained versus the number of items lost across time. The sleep condition showed more items gained and fewer items lost than did the wake condition. Furthermore, the difference between the conditions (favoring sleep) in lost items was greater than the difference in gain, suggesting that loss prevention may primarily account for the effect of sleep on declarative memory consolidation. This finding may serve as an empirical constraint on theories of memory consolidation.

  18. Effects of Experimental Sleep Restriction on Weight Gain, Caloric Intake, and Meal Timing in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, Andrea M.; Dinges, David F.; Goel, Namni

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Examine sleep restriction's effects on weight gain, daily caloric intake, and meal timing. Design: Repeated-measures experiments assessing body weight at admittance and discharge in all subjects (N = 225) and caloric intake and meal timing across days following 2 baseline nights, 5 sleep restriction nights and 2 recovery nights or across days following control condition nights in a subset of subjects (n = 37). Setting: Controlled laboratory environment. Participants: Two hundred twenty-five healthy adults aged 22-50 y (n = 198 sleep-restricted subjects; n = 31 with caloric intake data; n = 27 control subjects; n = 6 with caloric intake data). Interventions: Approximately 8-to-1 randomization to an experimental condition (including five consecutive nights of 4 h time in bed [TIB]/night, 04:00-08:00) or to a control condition (all nights 10 h TIB/night, 22:00-08:00). Measurements and Results: Sleep-restricted subjects gained more weight (0.97 ± 1.4 kg) than control subjects (0.11 ± 1.9 kg; d = 0.51, P = 0.007). Among sleep-restricted subjects, African Americans gained more weight than Caucasians (d = 0.37, P = 0.003) and males gained more weight than females (d = 0.38, P = 0.004). Sleep-restricted subjects consumed extra calories (130.0 ± 43.0% of daily caloric requirement) during days with a delayed bedtime (04:00) compared with control subjects who did not consume extra calories (100.6 ± 11.4%; d = 0.94, P = 0.003) during corresponding days. In sleep-restricted subjects, increased daily caloric intake was due to more meals and the consumption of 552.9 ± 265.8 additional calories between 22:00-03:59. The percentage of calories derived from fat was greater during late-night hours (22:00-03:59, 33.0 ± 0.08%) compared to daytime (08:00-14:59, 28.2 ± 0.05%) and evening hours (15:00-21:59, 29.4 ± 0.06%; Ps < 0.05). Conclusions: In the largest, most diverse healthy sample studied to date under controlled laboratory conditions, sleep restriction

  19. High sleep duration variability is an independent risk factor for weight gain.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Daiki; Takahashi, Osamu; Shimbo, Takuro; Okubo, Tomoya; Arioka, Hiroko; Fukui, Tsuguya

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the association between weight gain and variability of sleep duration. A retrospective cohort study was conducted involving apparently healthy individuals aged 20 years or older who underwent annual health checkup at the Center for Preventive Medicine, St. Luke's International Hospital, between 2007 and 2010. The body mass index (BMI) of each participant was measured, and the change in BMI during the study period was calculated. The sleep duration was obtained using a questionnaire that was filled out by participants each year, and the variability in the sleep duration was calculated by dividing the standard deviation (SD) of the sleep duration for 3 years by the square root of the number of data points. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to explore the association between the change in BMI and the variability of the sleep duration, adjusting for age, sex, alcohol consumption, current smoking, baseline sleep duration, past medical history, and level of physical activity. A total of 21,148 participants were included in this study. The mean age (SD) was 51 (12) years, and 10,993 (49.6%) participants were male. The mean baseline BMI was 22.4 (SD 3.2). According to the self-reported data, the mean sleep duration (SD) was 6.2 (1.0) h, and the mean of the SD of sleep duration for each participant was 0.32 (min-max, 0-7). The result of the linear regression analysis showed that greater variability in the sleep duration was independently related to an increase in BMI (β coefficient = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.01-0.61). The variability of sleep duration is related to body weight gain. Maintaining a constant sleep duration may be recommended for controlling body weight.

  20. Losing Sleep over Tuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2009-01-01

    With two children already in college and three more in the wings, the Nwanguma family knows about sacrifice. The annual tuition bill for Prince George's Community College typically comes to between $3,500 and $4,000 for the oldest son, Chuka. To afford it, Chuma Nwanguma, a Nigerian immigrant, often works overtime in addition to his regular night…

  1. Losing Sleep over Tuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2009-01-01

    With two children already in college and three more in the wings, the Nwanguma family knows about sacrifice. The annual tuition bill for Prince George's Community College typically comes to between $3,500 and $4,000 for the oldest son, Chuka. To afford it, Chuma Nwanguma, a Nigerian immigrant, often works overtime in addition to his regular night…

  2. Short-term weight gain after adenotonsillectomy in children with obstructive sleep apnoea: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Van, M; Khan, I; Hussain, S S M

    2016-03-01

    Children with obstructive sleep apnoea commonly undergo adenotonsillectomy as first-line surgical treatment. This paper aimed to investigate whether this intervention was associated with weight gain after surgery in the paediatric population with obstructive sleep apnoea. Two independent researchers systematically reviewed the literature from 1995 to 2014 for studies on patients who underwent adenotonsillectomy with weight-based measurements before and after surgery. The databases used were Ovid Medline, Embase and PubMed. Six papers satisfied all inclusion criteria. Four of these papers showed a significant weight increase and the others did not. The only high quality, randomised, controlled trial showed a significant increase of weight gain at seven months follow up, even in patients who were already overweight before their surgery. The current evidence points towards an association between adenotonsillectomy and weight gain in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea in the short term.

  3. Consciousness of Social Face: the development and validation of a scale measuring desire to gain face versus fear of losing face.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-An; Cao, Qing; Grigoriou, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of a scale that measures two distinct needs for individuals to manage their social "face". Scale development process resulted in an 11-item Consciousness of Social Face (CSF) scale made up of the following two correlated dimensions: desire to gain face and fear of losing face. The two-factor correlated structure of CSF scale was stable across multiple samples of both students and non-students subjects. The construct validity of CSF scale, including convergent validity, discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity was also demonstrated by examining relationships with other personality or demographical variables.

  4. Effect of Weight Gain on Cardiac Autonomic Control During Wakefulness and Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Taro; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H.; Calvin, Andrew D.; Singh, Prachi; Romero-Corral, Abel; van der Walt, Christelle; Davison, Diane E.; Bukartyk, Jan; Konecny, Tomas; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Somers, Virend K.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased cardiac sympathetic activation during wakefulness, but the effect on sleep-related sympathetic modulation is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fat gain on cardiac autonomic control during wakefulness and sleep in humans. We performed a randomized controlled study to assess the effects of fat gain on heart rate variability (HRV). We recruited 36 healthy volunteers, who were randomized to either a standardized diet to gain approximately 4 kg over 8 weeks followed by an 8 week weight loss period (n=20), or to serve as a weight-maintainer control (n=16). An overnight polysomnogram with power spectral analysis of HRV was performed at baseline, after weight gain, and after weight loss to determine the ratio of low frequency (LF) to high frequency (HF) power, and to examine the relationship between changes in HRV and changes in insulin, leptin and adiponectin levels. Mean weight gain was 3.9 kg in the fat gain group versus 0.1 kg in the maintainer group. LF/HF increased both during wakefulness and sleep after fat gain and returned to baseline after fat loss in the fat gain group, and did not change in the control group. Insulin, leptin and adiponectin also increased after fat gain and fell after fat loss, but no clear pattern of changes were seen that correlated consistently with changes in HRV. Short-term fat gain in healthy subjects is associated with increased cardiac sympathetic activation during wakefulness and sleep but the mechanisms remain unclear. PMID:21357280

  5. Association between weight gain, obesity, and sleep duration: a large-scale 3-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Daiki; Takahashi, Osamu; Deshpande, Gautam A; Shimbo, Takuro; Fukui, Tsuguya

    2012-09-01

    Previous research suggests that sleep duration is associated with obesity and weight gain. However, the majority of these studies are of cross-sectional design, with only a few cohort studies. In order to validate previous findings in a more real-world context, we evaluated the association between sleep duration, obesity, and weight gain in a large, 3-year cohort study. A retrospective cohort study was conducted involving 21,469 apparently healthy individuals aged 20 years or older who underwent annual health check-ups at the Center for Preventive Medicine, St. Luke's International Hospital, between 2005 and 2008. The participants were divided into four groups according to their self-reported average nightly sleep duration (≤5, 6, 7, and ≥8 h). We identified individuals with obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)) and weight gain. Multivariate linear regression analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to explore the association between these variables and sleep duration, adjusting for age, gender, alcohol consumption, current smoking, past medical history, and level of physical activity. Compared with those who slept 7 h, the individuals who slept ≤5 h night were more likely to experience weight gain (β coefficient = 0.03; 95% CI = 0.03-1.1) and to become obese (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1-2.0). No significant difference was seen between subjects who slept more than 8 h and those sleeping 7 h (OR = 1.3; 95% CI = 0.9-1.8). Short sleep (≤5 h) is significantly associated with weight gain and obesity in both male and female adults.

  6. What Role Does Sleep Play in Weight Gain in the First Semester of University?

    PubMed Central

    Roane, BM; Seifer, R; Sharkey, KM; Van Reen, E; Bond, TLY; Raffray, T; Carskadon, MA

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We hypothesized that shorter sleep durations and greater variability in sleep patterns are associated with weight gain in the first semester of university. Methods Students (N=132) completed daily sleep diaries for 9-weeks, completed the MEQ (chronotype) and CES-D (depressed mood) at week9, and self-reported weight/height (weeks 1&9). Mean and variability scores were calculated for sleep duration (TST,TSTv), bedtime (BT,BTv), and wake time (WT,WTv). Results An initial hierarchical regression evaluated (block1) sex, ethnicity; (block2) depressed mood, chronotype; (block3) TST; (block4) BT, WT; and (block5; R2change=0.09, p=0.005) TSTv, BTv, WTv with weight change. A sex-by-TSTv interaction was found. A final model showed that ethnicity, TST, TSTv, and BTv accounted for 31% of the variance in weight change for males; TSTv was the most significant contributor (R2 change=0.21, p<0.001). Conclusions Daily variability in sleep duration contributes to males’ weight gain. Further investigation needs to examine sex-specific outcomes for sleep and weight. PMID:25115969

  7. Longer sleep duration associates with lower adiposity gain in adult short sleepers.

    PubMed

    Chaput, J-P; Després, J-P; Bouchard, C; Tremblay, A

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this longitudinal, observational study was to verify whether a favorable change in sleep duration over 6 years could impact objective indicators of adiposity in adults aged 18-64 years. Short-duration sleepers (≤6 h per day; n=43) at baseline were divided into two groups: (i) those who increased their sleep duration to a 'healthy' length of 7-8 h per day at year 6 (mean increase: 1.52±0.66 h per day; n=23); and (ii) those who maintained their short sleep duration habits (mean change: -0.11±0.38 h per day; n=20). Adult individuals who reported sleeping 7-8 h per day at both baseline and year 6 (n=173) were used as a control group. Change in adiposity indicators for each sleep-duration group was compared by analysis of covariance. We observed that the two short-sleep-duration groups had similar baseline characteristics. However, short-duration sleepers who maintained their short sleep duration experienced a greater increase in body mass index (BMI) (difference: 1.1±0.36 kg m(-2), P<0.05) and fat mass (difference: 2.4±0.64 kg, P<0.05) over the 6-year follow-up period than short-duration sleepers who increased their sleep duration, even after adjustment for relevant covariates. We did not observe any significant difference in adiposity changes between the control group and short-duration sleepers who increased their sleep duration. This study suggests for the first time that shifting sleep duration from a short to a healthier length is associated with an attenuation of fat mass gain.

  8. Weight Gain in Older Adolescent Females: The Internet, Sleep, Coffee, and Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Berkey, Catherine S.; Rockett, Helaine R.H.; Colditz, Graham A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether excessive recreational Internet time, insufficient sleep, regular coffee consumption, or alcoholic beverages promote weight gain. Study design A longitudinal cohort of >5000 girls (Growing Up Today Study), from all over the US and aged 14–21yrs, returned surveys in 2001 reporting typical past-year recreational Internet time, sleep, coffee (with caffeine) and alcohol consumption. We estimated correlations among these four exposures. Each girl also reported her height and weight in 2000 and again in 2001. Multivariate models investigated associations between 1-year change in body mass index (BMI) and same-year exposures, adjusted for adolescent growth/development, activity and inactivity. Results The exposures were highly (p<0.0001) correlated with each other, except for coffee with Internet time (p>0.50). More Internet time, more alcohol, and less sleep were all associated (p<0.05) with same-year BMI increases. Females, aged 18+yrs, who slept ≤5hrs/night (p<0.01) or who consumed alcohol 2+servings/week (p<0.07) gained more BMI from 2000 to 2001. For females in weight-promoting categories of all exposures, this translates to nearly four extra pounds gained over one year. We found no evidence that drinking coffee promotes weight gain. Conclusions Older girls may benefit from replacing recreational Internet time with sleep and by avoiding alcohol. PMID:18614178

  9. Sleep disruption and duration in late pregnancy is associated with excess gestational weight gain among overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Gay, Caryl L; Richoux, Sarah E; Beebe, Kathleen R; Lee, Kathryn A

    2017-06-01

    Poor sleep during pregnancy has been associated with poorer birth outcomes. High body mass index (BMI) is often associated with poor sleep, but little is known about the relationship between gestational weight gain and sleep in late pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships of both gestational weight gain and pre-pregnancy BMI to objective and subjective measures of sleep during late pregnancy. Pregnant women (n=128) were recruited from prenatal clinics and childbirth classes primarily serving low-income women. Their sleep (disruption and duration) was objectively assessed in their last month of pregnancy with 72 hours of wrist actigraphy monitoring. Their perceived sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Pre-pregnancy and late pregnancy height and weight were assessed by self-report and used to calculate BMI and gestational weight gain, which were then grouped into standardized categories. Mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score was 6.8 ± 3.1 (range 2-16). Sixty percent had excess gestational weight gain and it was associated with poorer perceived sleep quality, but was unrelated to objective measures of sleep duration and disruption. Pre-pregnancy BMI was unrelated to all sleep parameters. However, analyses of the interaction of pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain indicated that excess weight gain was associated with shorter sleep duration and more sleep disruption, but only among women who were overweight before pregnancy. Pregnancy is an opportunity to promote long-term women's health with a better understanding of the relationship between weight management and healthy sleep habits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Losing fat, gaining treatments: the use of biomedicine as a cure for folk illnesses in the Andes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This article explores how people in the Andes incorporate beliefs from both biomedical and ethnomedical systems in treating folk illnesses that often involve spiritual beings. The article focuses on the kharisiri—one who is believed to steal fat and blood from unsuspecting humans to make exchanges with the devil. The kharisiri in turn is rewarded with good fortune. Victims of kharisiris, however, fall ill and may die if untreated. Historically, kharisiri victims relied on ethnomedicine for treatment, but it appears biomedical pills are now perceived by some as an effective treatment. By drawing on participants’ attitudes towards biomedicine, and how people in the Andes conceptualize health, this article theorizes as to why biomedical pills are sought to treat kharisiri attacks but not for other folk illnesses. Methods Fieldwork was conducted in Arequipa and Yunguyo among market vendors, who make up a significant portion of Peru’s working population. This type of work increases the risk of different illnesses due to work conditions like exposure to extreme temperatures, long-distance travel, and social dynamics. Biomedical and ethnomedical products are often sold in and around marketplaces, making vendors a compelling group for exploring issues relating to treatment systems. Qualitative data was collected in 2011 with a follow-up visit in 2013. Participant observation, informal conversations, and unstructured interviews with 29 participants informed the study. Results Participants unanimously reported that biomedical pills are not capable of treating folk illnesses such as susto and mal de ojo. Several participants reported that pharmaceutical pills can cure kharisiri victims. Conclusions In comparison to other folk illnesses that involve spiritual beings, those who fall ill from a kharisiri attack lose physical elements (fat and blood) rather than their soul (ánimo) or becoming ill due to a misbalance in reciprocal relations—either with humans

  11. Losing fat, gaining treatments: the use of biomedicine as a cure for folk illnesses in the Andes.

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, Amy; Vindal Ødegaard, Cecilie

    2014-07-03

    This article explores how people in the Andes incorporate beliefs from both biomedical and ethnomedical systems in treating folk illnesses that often involve spiritual beings. The article focuses on the kharisiri-one who is believed to steal fat and blood from unsuspecting humans to make exchanges with the devil. The kharisiri in turn is rewarded with good fortune. Victims of kharisiris, however, fall ill and may die if untreated. Historically, kharisiri victims relied on ethnomedicine for treatment, but it appears biomedical pills are now perceived by some as an effective treatment. By drawing on participants' attitudes towards biomedicine, and how people in the Andes conceptualize health, this article theorizes as to why biomedical pills are sought to treat kharisiri attacks but not for other folk illnesses. Fieldwork was conducted in Arequipa and Yunguyo among market vendors, who make up a significant portion of Peru's working population. This type of work increases the risk of different illnesses due to work conditions like exposure to extreme temperatures, long-distance travel, and social dynamics. Biomedical and ethnomedical products are often sold in and around marketplaces, making vendors a compelling group for exploring issues relating to treatment systems. Qualitative data was collected in 2011 with a follow-up visit in 2013. Participant observation, informal conversations, and unstructured interviews with 29 participants informed the study. Participants unanimously reported that biomedical pills are not capable of treating folk illnesses such as susto and mal de ojo. Several participants reported that pharmaceutical pills can cure kharisiri victims. In comparison to other folk illnesses that involve spiritual beings, those who fall ill from a kharisiri attack lose physical elements (fat and blood) rather than their soul (ánimo) or becoming ill due to a misbalance in reciprocal relations-either with humans or non-human beings such as Pachamama. Because

  12. What do physicians gain (and lose) with experience? Qualitative results from a cross-national study of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lutfey, Karen E; Marceau, Lisa D; Campbell, Stephen M; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; McKinlay, John B

    2010-01-01

    An empirical puzzle has emerged over the last several decades of research on variation in clinical decision making involving mixed effects of physician experience. There is some evidence that physicians with greater experience may provide poorer quality care than their less experienced counterparts, as captured by various quality assurance measures. Physician experience is traditionally narrowly defined as years in practice or age, and there is a need for investigation into precisely what happens to physicians as they gain experience, including the reasoning and clinical skills acquired over time and the ways in which physicians consciously implement those skills into their work. In this study, we are concerned with 1) how physicians conceptualize and describe the meaning of their clinical experience, and 2) how they use their experience in clinical practice. To address these questions, we analyzed qualitative data drawn from in-depth interviews with physicians from the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany as a part of a larger factorial experiment of medical decision making for diabetes. Our results show that common measures of physician experience do not fully capture the skills physicians acquire over time or how they implement those skills in their clinical work. We found that what physicians actually gain over time is complex social, behavioral and intuitive wisdom as well as the ability to compare the present day patient against similar past patients. These active cognitive reasoning processes are essential components of a forward-looking research agenda in the area of physician experience and decision making. Guideline-based outcome measures, accompanied by underdeveloped age- and years-based definitions of experience, may prematurely conclude that more experienced physicians are providing deficient care while overlooking the ways in which they are providing more and better care than their less experienced counterparts. PMID:20356662

  13. Snooze... or Lose!: 10 "No-War" Ways to Improve Your Teen's Sleep Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emsellem, Helene A.

    2006-01-01

    Walk into any first-period high school classroom and it's obvious: teenagers are exhausted. Sleep deprivation is an epidemic as widespread as obesity-and just as damaging. Fortunately, science has answers and Dr. Helene Emsellem has solutions that all parents can use. Affecting the lives of more than 41 million adolescents in the United…

  14. Snooze... or Lose!: 10 "No-War" Ways to Improve Your Teen's Sleep Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emsellem, Helene A.

    2006-01-01

    Walk into any first-period high school classroom and it's obvious: teenagers are exhausted. Sleep deprivation is an epidemic as widespread as obesity-and just as damaging. Fortunately, science has answers and Dr. Helene Emsellem has solutions that all parents can use. Affecting the lives of more than 41 million adolescents in the United…

  15. Greenland Gains Some, Loses More

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-19

    NASA GRACE mission has become a key source of knowledge about global ice mass changes. Studies of Greenland using GRACE and other data indicate that between 2000 and 2008 the Greenland ice sheet lost as much as 1,500 gigatons of mass.

  16. Associations between sleep characteristics and weight gain in an older population: results of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

    PubMed Central

    Kowall, B; Lehnich, A-T; Erbel, R; Moebus, S; Jöckel, K-H; Stang, A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Sleep duration influences weight change in children and young adults, but there is less evidence in middle-aged, and, in particular, older adults. We assessed associations between sleep duration, daytime napping and sleep disturbances, respectively, with change of weight and waist circumference in older subjects. Contrary to previous studies, we also used two points in time to assess sleep characteristics. Methods: We used data from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, a cohort study in Germany with a baseline and two follow-up visits (age 45–74 years, median follow-up 5.1 years for first, 5.2 years for second follow-up visit). In adjusted linear regression models (N=3751), we estimated weight change between baseline and first follow-up visit in relation to various self-reported sleep characteristics measured at baseline. Furthermore, we estimated change of weight and waist circumference, respectively, between first and second follow-up visit in relation to patterns of sleep characteristics measured at baseline and at the first follow-up visit (N=2837). Results: In all analyses, short and long sleep duration, sleep disturbances, and regular daytime napping were associated with <1 kg of weight gain and <1 cm of gain in waist circumference over 5 years compared with the respective reference categories. For example, compared with 7–<8 h night sleep, short night sleep (⩽5 h at baseline) was associated with 0.5 kg of weight gain (95% confidence interval: −0.1; 1.1 kg). Conclusions: Our study gave no evidence that sleep characteristics were associated with clinically relevant weight gain in the older population. PMID:27525820

  17. Acute partial sleep deprivation due to environmental noise increases weight gain by reducing energy expenditure in rodents.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Jennifer B; Teske, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    Chronic partial sleep deprivation (SD) by environmental noise exposure increases weight gain and feeding in rodents, which contrasts weight loss after acute SD by physical methods. This study tested whether acute environmental noise exposure reduced sleep and its effect on weight gain, food intake, physical activity, and energy expenditure (EE). It was hypothesized that acute exposure would (1) increase weight gain and feeding and (2) reduce sleep, physical activity, and EE (total and individual components); and (3) behavioral changes would persist throughout recovery from SD. Three-month old male Sprague-Dawley rats slept ad libitum, were noise exposed (12-h light cycle), and allowed to recover (36 h). Weight gain, food intake, sleep/wake, physical activity, and EE were measured. Acute environmental noise exposure had no effect on feeding, increased weight gain (P < 0.01), and reduced sleep (P < 0.02), physical activity (P < 0.03), total EE (P < 0.05), and several components (P < 0.05). Reductions in EE and physical activity persisted during recovery. Reductions in EE during sleep, rest, and physical activity reduce total EE and contribute to weight gain during acute SD and recovery from SD. These data emphasize the importance of increasing physical activity after SD to prevent obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  18. The effect of partial acclimatization to high altitude on loop gain and central sleep apnoea severity.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Gareth; Ainslie, Philip N; Shepherd, Kelly; Dawson, Andrew; Swart, Marianne; Lucas, Samuel; Burgess, Keith R

    2012-07-01

    Loop gain is an engineering term that predicts the stability of a feedback control system, such as the control of breathing. Based on earlier studies at lower altitudes, it was hypothesized that acclimatization to high altitude would lead to a reduction in loop gain and thus central sleep apnoea (CSA) severity. This study used exposure to very high altitude to induce CSA in healthy subjects to investigate the effect of partial acclimatization on loop gain and CSA severity. Measurements were made on 12 subjects (age 30 ± 10 years, body mass index 22.8 ± 1.9, eight males, four females) at an altitude of 5050 m over a 2-week period upon initial arrival (days 2-4) and following partial acclimatization (days 12-14). Sleep was studied by full polysomnography, and resting arterial blood gases were measured. Loop gain was measured by the 'duty cycle' method (duration of hyperpnoea/cycle length). Partial acclimatization to high-altitude exposure was associated with both an increase in loop gain (duty cycle fell from 0.60 ± 0.05 to 0.55 ± 0.06 (P = 0.03)) and severity of CSA (apnoea-hypopnoea index increased from 76.8 ± 48.8 to 115.9 ± 20.2 (P = 0.01)), while partial arterial carbon dioxide concentration fell from 29 ± 3 to 26 ± 2 (P = 0.01). Contrary to the results at lower altitudes, at high-altitude loop gain and severity of CSA increased. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  19. Losing Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingher, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Reviews five children's books that deal with the theme of losing things and the feelings that can accompany it. Also discusses the loss of intangible things, such as talent, concentration, temper, or patience, and presents five creative activities that deal more with the loss of objects. (LRW)

  20. Restriction of rapid eye movement sleep during adolescence increases energy gain and metabolic efficiency in young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Silva, Neila; Nejm, Mariana Bocca; da Silva, Sylvia Maria Affonso; Suchecki, Deborah; Luz, Jacqueline

    2016-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Sleep curtailment in infancy and adolescence may lead to long-term risk for obesity, but the mechanisms involved have not yet been determined. This study examined the immediate and long-term metabolic effects produced by sleep restriction in young rats. What is the main finding and its importance? Prolonged sleep restriction reduced weight gain (body fat stores) in young animals. After prolonged recovery, sleep-restricted rats tended to save more energy and to store more fat, possibly owing to increased gross food efficiency. This could be the first step to understand this association. Sleep curtailment is associated with obesity and metabolic changes in adults and children. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term metabolic alterations produced by sleep restriction in pubertal male rats. Male Wistar rats (28 days old) were allocated to a control (CTL) group or a sleep-restricted (SR) group. This was accomplished by the single platform technique for 18 h per day for 21 days. These groups were subdivided into the following four time points for assessment: sleep restriction and 1, 2 and 4 months of recovery. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experiment. At the end of each time period, blood was collected for metabolic profiling, and the carcasses were processed for measurement of body composition and energy balance. During the period of sleep restriction, SR animals consumed less food in the home cages. This group also displayed lower body weight, body fat, triglycerides and glucose levels than CTL rats. At the end of the first month of recovery, despite eating as much as CTL rats, SR animals showed greater energy and body weight gain, increased gross food efficiency and decreased energy expenditure. At the end of the second and fourth months of recovery, the groups were no longer different, except for energy gain and gross food efficiency, which remained higher in SR

  1. Losing Sleep over Student Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordova, France A.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past year, a number of journals have reprised many of the questions plaguing higher education--providing a full year's worth of sleepless nights. While each of these issues justifies considerable dialogue and attention, the one issue on which parents, students, the public, and educators can agree is the importance--and the challenge--of…

  2. Losing ground.

    PubMed

    Carter, D

    1993-01-01

    A recent research effort by the Nepalese Topological Survey Branch and the Department of Soil Science and the University of British Columbia, Canada, found with the use of the geographic information system (GIS) that forest cover has expanded, but soil fertility is decreasing at a rapid rate in Nepal. These findings conflict with media allegations which allege forest destruction from farmers' wood-cutting practices and responsibility for flooding in Bangladesh. The research was conducted in the Jhikhu Khola watershed in the Middle Mountains, which is Nepal's most populous region that is intensively used in subsistence farming and grazing. Migration adds to the existing problems of soil erosion, sedimentation, deforestation, and loss in soil fertility. The soil is prone to erosion. Data were collected through the GIS system by aerial photos, field surveys, and soil analysis. Hydrometric stations to measure the sedimentation process were established in 7 places and farmers monitored the climate, water loss and gain, and sediment movement. Interviews were also conducted among the farm population on demographics, livestock, fodder and fuel consumption, crop yields and practices, and fertilizer use. Researchers aimed both to identify the causes of soil degradation and to estimate the productivity, profitability, and sustainability of different land uses and farming systems. Another finding was that, in Jhikhu Khola, the deforestation of the 1960s has been abated by reforestation efforts in the 1980s. This has contributed to a 10% expansion of forest cover, and increase of sloping terrace by 9%, and a decline in grazing land by 9% and shrub land by 6%. Calculations for the year 2000 showed that the fuelwood surplus would drop to 6% from 73% and food surplus of 25% would become a 27% deficit. The 40% deficiency in animal feed would increase to 54%. Although reforestation has added to forest cover, pine tree cultivation occurred on moderate elevations where grazing and

  3. Early adolescent cognitive gains are marked by increased sleep EEG coherence.

    PubMed

    Tarokh, Leila; Carskadon, Mary A; Achermann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Although the increases in cognitive capacities of adolescent humans are concurrent with significant cortical restructuring, functional associations between these phenomena are unclear. We examined the association between cortical development, as measured by the sleep EEG, and cognitive performance in a sample of 9/10 year olds followed up 1 to 3 years later. Our cognitive measures included a response inhibition task (Stroop), an executive control task (Trail Making), and a verbal fluency task (FAS). We correlated sleep EEG measures of power and intra-hemispheric coherence at the initial assessment with performance at that assessment. In addition we correlated the rate of change across assessments in sleep EEG measures with the rate of change in performance. We found no correlation between sleep EEG power and performance on cognitive tasks for the initial assessment. In contrast, we found a significant correlation of the rate of change in intra-hemispheric coherence for the sigma band (11 to 16 Hz) with rate of change in performance on the Stroop (r = 0.61; p<0.02) and Trail Making (r =  -0.51; p<0.02) but no association for the FAS. Thus, plastic changes in connectivity (i.e., sleep EEG coherence) were associated with improvement in complex cognitive function.

  4. Resolution of Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea after Treatment of Anti-Muscle Kinase Receptor-Positive Myasthenia Gravis Despite 60-Pound Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Michael; Singas, Effie; Zleik, Bashar; Greenberg, Harly

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) may be caused by reduced pharyngeal dilator muscle activity. We report a patient with anti-muscle kinase receptor MG with severe OSA and hypoventilation that resolved upon successful treatment of MG despite a 60-lb weight gain. Citation: Morgenstern M, Singas E, Zleik B, Greenberg H. Resolution of severe obstructive sleep apnea after treatment of anti-muscle kinase receptor-positive myasthenia gravis despite 60-pound weight gain. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):813-814. PMID:25024662

  5. Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Sleep: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is sleep? Sleep is a period of unconsciousness during which ...

  6. Sleep deprivation, physical activity and low income are risk factors for inadequate weight gain during pregnancy: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Abeysena, Chrishantha; Jayawardana, Pushpa

    2011-07-01

    To determine the possible risk factors for inadequate gestational weight gain. A population-based cohort study was carried out in Sri Lanka from May 2001 to April 2002. Pregnant women were recruited on or before 16 weeks' gestation and followed up until delivery; the sample size was 710. Trimester-specific exposure status and potential confounding factors were gathered on average at the 12th, 28th and 36th weeks of gestation. Maternal weight was measured at the first antenatal clinic visit and at delivery. Inadequate weight gain was defined as weight gain below the Institute of Medicine recommendations in 2009. Multiple logistic regression was applied and the results were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The risk factors for inadequate weight gain were low per-capita monthly income (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.03, 2.58), multiparity (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.34, 2.87), sleeping <8 h/day during the second, third, or both second and third trimesters (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.05, 2.46), standing and walking ≥5 h/day during the second trimester (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.04, 2.15), and the newborn being of the male sex (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.04, 2.16), controlling for the effect of body mass index and gestational age. Risk factors for inadequate gestational weight gain were low income, being multiparous, sleep deprivation, physical activity in terms of standing and walking, and the male sex of baby. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Protein-losing enteropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007338.htm Protein-losing enteropathy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protein-losing enteropathy is an abnormal loss of protein ...

  8. Gaining Momentum, Losing Ground. Progress Report, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Roundtable, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an update of the progress of Tapping America's Potential (TAP), a coalition of 15 of the nation's leading business organizations, and assesses three years' progress since 2005 in working towards the goal of doubling the number of students earning bachelor's degrees in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) by 2015.…

  9. Upper-Airway Collapsibility and Loop Gain Predict the Response to Oral Appliance Therapy in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Bradley A; Andara, Christopher; Landry, Shane; Sands, Scott A; Joosten, Simon A; Owens, Robert L; White, David P; Hamilton, Garun S; Wellman, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Oral appliances (OAs) are commonly used as an alternative treatment to continuous positive airway pressure for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, OAs have variable success at reducing the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and predicting responders is challenging. Understanding this variability may lie with the recognition that OSA is a multifactorial disorder and that OAs may affect more than just upper-airway anatomy/collapsibility. The objectives of this study were to determine how OA alters AHI and four phenotypic traits (upper-airway anatomy/collapsibility and muscle function, loop gain, and arousal threshold), and baseline predictors of which patients gain the greatest benefit from therapy. In a randomized crossover study, 14 patients with OSA attended two sleep studies with and without their OA. Under each condition, AHI and the phenotypic traits were assessed. Multiple linear regression was used to determine independent predictors of the reduction in AHI. OA therapy reduced the AHI (30 ± 5 vs. 11 ± 2 events/h; P < 0.05), which was driven by improvements in upper-airway anatomy/collapsibility under passive (1.9 ± 0.7 vs. 4.7 ± 0.6 L/min; P < 0.005) and active conditions (2.4 ± 0.9 vs. 6.2 ± 0.4 L/min; P < 0.001). No changes were seen in muscle function, loop gain, or the arousal threshold. Using multivariate analysis, baseline passive upper-airway collapsibility and loop gain were independent predictors of the reduction in AHI (r(2) = 0.70; P = 0.001). Our findings suggest that OA therapy improves the upper-airway collapsibility under passive and active conditions. Importantly, a greater response to therapy occurred in those patients with a mild anatomic compromise and a lower loop gain.

  10. Late effects of sleep restriction: Potentiating weight gain and insulin resistance arising from a high-fat diet in mice.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Edson Mendes; Visniauskas, Bruna; Sandri, Silvana; Migliorini, Silene; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio; Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio; Chagas, Jair Ribeiro; Campa, Ana

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological studies show the association of sleep restriction (SR) with obesity and insulin resistance. Experimental studies are limited to the concurrent or short-term effects of SR. Here, we examined the late effects of SR regarding weight gain and metabolic alterations induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a multiple platform method of SR for 15 days, 21 h daily, followed by 6 weeks of a 30% HFD. Just after SR, serum insulin and resistin concentrations were increased and glycerol content decreased. In addition, resistin, TNF-α, and IL-6 mRNA expression were notably increased in epididymal fat. At the end of the HFD period, mice previously submitted to SR gained more weight (32.3 ± 1.0 vs. 29.4 ± 0.7 g) with increased subcutaneous fat mass, had increments in the expression of the adipogenic genes PPARγ, C/EBPα, and C/EBPβ, and had macrophage infiltration in the epididymal adipose tissue. Furthermore, enhanced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were also observed. The consequences of SR may last for a long period, characterizing SR as a predisposing factor for weight gain and insulin resistance. Metabolic changes during SR seem to prime adipose tissue, aggravating the harmful effects of diet-induced obesity. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  11. The role of high loop gain induced by intermittent hypoxia in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Naomi L; Catcheside, Peter G

    2015-08-01

    Intermittent hypoxia and unstable breathing are key features of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), the most common pathological problem of breathing in sleep. Unstable ventilatory control is characterised by high loop gain (LG), and likely contributes to cyclical airway obstruction by promoting airway collapse during periods of low ventilatory drive. Potential new strategies to treat OSA include manipulations designed to lower LG. However, the contribution of inherent versus induced LG abnormalities in OSA remains unclear. Hence, a better understanding of the mechanisms causing high LG in OSA is needed to guide the design of LG based treatments. OSA patients exhibit abnormal chemoreflex control which contributes to increased LG. These abnormalities have been shown to normalise after continuous positive airway pressure treatment, suggesting induced rather than inherent trait abnormalities. Experimental intermittent hypoxia, mimicking OSA, increases hypoxic chemosensitivity and induces long term facilitation; a sustained increase in ventilatory neural output which outlasts the original stimulus. These neuroplastic changes induce the same abnormalities in chemoreflex control as seen in OSA patients. This review outlines the evidence to support that a key component of high LG in OSA is induced by intermittent hypoxia, and is reversed by simply preventing this inducing stimulus.

  12. Association of short sleep duration with weight gain and obesity at 1-year follow-up: a large-scale prospective study.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Mayumi; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Masaya

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the association between short sleep duration and elevated body mass index (BMI) and obesity in a large sample of Japanese adults over a short period. Prospective design with baseline in 2006 and 1-year follow-up. Workplaces of an electric power company in Japan. 35,247 company employees (31,477 men, 3,770 women) distributed throughout Japan. Measured weight and height and self-reported sleep duration were obtained at annual health checkup in 2006 and 2007. Weight change was defined as the difference in body mass index (BMI) between the baseline and 1 year later. Relative to the reference category (sleep duration 7-8 h), short sleep duration (< 5 and 5-6 h) and long sleep duration > or = 9 h were associated with an increased risk of weight gain among men after adjustment for covariates. Of the non-obese (BMI < 25) men at baseline, 5.8% became obese (BMI > or = 25) 1 year later. Higher incidence of obesity was observed among the groups with shorter sleep duration. Adjusted odds ratios for the development of obesity were 1.91 (95% CI 1.36, 2.67) and 1.50 (95% CI 1.24, 1.80) in men who slept < 5 and 5-6 h, respectively. No significant association between sleep duration and weight gain or obesity was found for women. Short sleep duration was associated with weight gain and the development of obesity over 1 year in men, but not in women.

  13. NIH Loses a Friend

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. NIH Loses a Friend Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Donald ... changingthefaceofmedicine/ . Sincerely, Donald West King, M.D., Chairman Friends of the National Library of Medicine Let Us ...

  14. Losing weight after pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... below the minimum number of calories you need. Breastfeeding If you are breastfeeding, you will want to lose weight slowly. Weight ... not affect your milk supply or your health. Breastfeeding makes your body burn calories. It helps you ...

  15. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... good muscle tone and lose weight. • Avoid tranquilizers, sleeping pills, and antihistamines before bedtime. • Avoid alcohol for at least four hours and heavy meals or snacks for three hours before retiring. • Establish regular sleeping patterns. • Sleep on your side rather than your ...

  16. Losing Libraries, Saving Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This summer, as public libraries continued to get budget hit after budget hit across the country, several readers asked for a comprehensive picture of the ravages of the recession on library service. In partnership with 2010 Movers & Shakers Laura Solomon and Mandy Knapp, Ohio librarians who bought the Losing Libraries domain name,…

  17. Losing Libraries, Saving Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This summer, as public libraries continued to get budget hit after budget hit across the country, several readers asked for a comprehensive picture of the ravages of the recession on library service. In partnership with 2010 Movers & Shakers Laura Solomon and Mandy Knapp, Ohio librarians who bought the Losing Libraries domain name,…

  18. Protein Ingestion before Sleep Increases Muscle Mass and Strength Gains during Prolonged Resistance-Type Exercise Training in Healthy Young Men.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Tim; Res, Peter T; Smeets, Joey S J; van Vliet, Stephan; van Kranenburg, Janneau; Maase, Kamiel; Kies, Arie K; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that protein ingestion before sleep increases muscle protein synthesis rates during overnight recovery from an exercise bout. However, it remains to be established whether dietary protein ingestion before sleep can effectively augment the muscle adaptive response to resistance-type exercise training. Here we assessed the impact of dietary protein supplementation before sleep on muscle mass and strength gains during resistance-type exercise training. Forty-four young men (22 ± 1 y) were randomly assigned to a progressive, 12-wk resistance exercise training program. One group consumed a protein supplement containing 27.5 g of protein, 15 g of carbohydrate, and 0.1 g of fat every night before sleep. The other group received a noncaloric placebo. Muscle hypertrophy was assessed on a whole-body (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), limb (computed tomography scan), and muscle fiber (muscle biopsy specimen) level before and after exercise training. Strength was assessed regularly by 1-repetition maximum strength testing. Muscle strength increased after resistance exercise training to a significantly greater extent in the protein-supplemented (PRO) group than in the placebo-supplemented (PLA) group (+164 ± 11 kg and +130 ± 9 kg, respectively; P < 0.001). In addition, quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area increased in both groups over time (P < 0.001), with a greater increase in the PRO group than in the PLA group (+8.4 ± 1.1 cm(2) vs. +4.8 ± 0.8 cm(2), respectively; P < 0.05). Both type I and type II muscle fiber size increased after exercise training (P < 0.001), with a greater increase in type II muscle fiber size in the PRO group (+2319 ± 368 μm(2)) than in the PLA group (+1017 ± 353 μm(2); P < 0.05). Protein ingestion before sleep represents an effective dietary strategy to augment muscle mass and strength gains during resistance exercise training in young men. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02222415. © 2015

  19. Sleep disturbances, body fat distribution, food intake and/or energy expenditure: pathophysiological aspects.

    PubMed

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Shechter, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have illustrated a relationship between short sleep duration (SSD) and weight gain. Individuals with SSD are heavier and gain more weight over time than normal-duration sleepers. This sleep-obesity relationship may have consequences for obesity treatments, as it appears that short sleepers have reduced ability to lose weight. Laboratory-based clinical studies found that experimental sleep restriction affects energy expenditure and intake, possibly providing a mechanistic explanation for the weight gain observed in chronic short sleepers. Specifically, compared to normal sleep duration, sleep restriction increases food intake beyond the energetic costs of increased time spent awake. Reasons for this increased energy intake after sleep restriction are unclear but may include disrupted appetite-regulating hormones, altered brain mechanisms involved in the hedonic aspects of appetite, and/or changes in sleep quality and architecture. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder at the intersection of sleep and obesity, and the characteristics of the disorder illustrate many of the effects of sleep disturbances on body weight and vice versa. Specifically, while obesity is among the main risk factors for OSA, the disorder itself and its associated disturbances in sleep quality and architecture seem to alter energy balance parameters and may induce further weight gain. Several intervention trials have shown that weight loss is associated with reduced OSA severity. Thus, weight loss may improve sleep, and these improvements may promote further weight loss. Future studies should establish whether increasing sleep duration/improving sleep quality can induce weight loss.

  20. Sleep disturbances, body fat distribution, food intake and/or energy expenditure: pathophysiological aspects

    PubMed Central

    Shechter, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have illustrated a relationship between short sleep duration (SSD) and weight gain. Individuals with SSD are heavier and gain more weight over time than normal-duration sleepers. This sleep-obesity relationship may have consequences for obesity treatments, as it appears that short sleepers have reduced ability to lose weight. Laboratory-based clinical studies found that experimental sleep restriction affects energy expenditure and intake, possibly providing a mechanistic explanation for the weight gain observed in chronic short sleepers. Specifically, compared to normal sleep duration, sleep restriction increases food intake beyond the energetic costs of increased time spent awake. Reasons for this increased energy intake after sleep restriction are unclear but may include disrupted appetite-regulating hormones, altered brain mechanisms involved in the hedonic aspects of appetite, and/or changes in sleep quality and architecture. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder at the intersection of sleep and obesity, and the characteristics of the disorder illustrate many of the effects of sleep disturbances on body weight and vice versa. Specifically, while obesity is among the main risk factors for OSA, the disorder itself and its associated disturbances in sleep quality and architecture seem to alter energy balance parameters and may induce further weight gain. Several intervention trials have shown that weight loss is associated with reduced OSA severity. Thus, weight loss may improve sleep, and these improvements may promote further weight loss. Future studies should establish whether increasing sleep duration/improving sleep quality can induce weight loss. PMID:25372728

  1. [Protein-losing enteropathy].

    PubMed

    Parfenov, A I; Krums, L M

    2017-01-01

    Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is a rare complication of intestinal diseases. Its main manifestation is hypoproteinemic edema. The diagnosis of PLE is based on the verification of protein loss into the intestinal lumen, by determining fecal α1-antitrypsin concentration and clearance. The localization of the affected colonic segment is clarified using radiologic and endoscopic techniques. The mainstay of treatment for PLE is a fat-free diet enriched with medium-chain triglycerides. Surgical resection of the affected segment of the colon may be the treatment of choice for severe hypoproteinemia resistant to drug therapy.

  2. Sleep Apnea Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... as while talking on the phone or driving. Risk factors for sleep apnea include being overweight and having a large neck. Losing even 10 percent of body weight can help reduce the ... be at increased risk for sleep apnea. Smoking and alcohol use increase ...

  3. Sleep, the Athlete, and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Peter Hudson

    2002-01-01

    Presents information to help athletic coaches and trainers gain a better understanding of what happens during sleep and how sleep can affect performance, outlining three practical suggestions for helping athletes improve their sleep quality (identify and obtain the amount of sleep one needs, keep a regular sleep schedule, and create an optimal…

  4. Medical implications of obesity. Losing pounds, gaining years.

    PubMed

    Skelton, N K; Skelton, W P

    1992-07-01

    Through thousands of years of starvation and poor nutrition, the human body has become adept at storing scarce nutrients. Today, in the United States and Canada particularly, the combination of sedentary habits and excessive intake of calories is imposing a dual burden on a physiologic system that is ill-equipped to handle it. Unable to rid itself of calories, the body's only defense is to store them all. The end result is obesity, with all its deleterious effects on health and longevity.

  5. Dredging in the Spratly Islands: Gaining Land but Losing Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Camilo; Caldwell, Iain R.; Birkeland, Charles; McManus, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs on remote islands and atolls are less exposed to direct human stressors but are becoming increasingly vulnerable because of their development for geopolitical and military purposes. Here we document dredging and filling activities by countries in the South China Sea, where building new islands and channels on atolls is leading to considerable losses of, and perhaps irreversible damages to, unique coral reef ecosystems. Preventing similar damage across other reefs in the region necessitates the urgent development of cooperative management of disputed territories in the South China Sea. We suggest using the Antarctic Treaty as a positive precedent for such international cooperation. PMID:27031949

  6. Web Sites that Compare Loans Gain Users, Lose Lenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    Web sites that allow borrowers to compare student loans proliferated in the wake of last year's scandals that exposed conflicts of interest in the lending industry. Now the credit crunch is shifting demand for loan-comparison sites again, providing both new challenges and opportunities. More financial-aid officers are also pointing their students…

  7. Dredging in the Spratly Islands: Gaining Land but Losing Reefs.

    PubMed

    Mora, Camilo; Caldwell, Iain R; Birkeland, Charles; McManus, John W

    2016-03-01

    Coral reefs on remote islands and atolls are less exposed to direct human stressors but are becoming increasingly vulnerable because of their development for geopolitical and military purposes. Here we document dredging and filling activities by countries in the South China Sea, where building new islands and channels on atolls is leading to considerable losses of, and perhaps irreversible damages to, unique coral reef ecosystems. Preventing similar damage across other reefs in the region necessitates the urgent development of cooperative management of disputed territories in the South China Sea. We suggest using the Antarctic Treaty as a positive precedent for such international cooperation.

  8. Gaining Momentum, Losing Ground. Tapping America's Potential, Progress Report 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapping America's Potential, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In July 2005, 15 of America's most prominent business organizations joined together to express their deep concern about the ability of the United States to sustain its scientific and technological leadership in a world where newly energized foreign competitors are investing in the capacity for innovation--the key driver of productivity and…

  9. Eating Well and Losing Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Sodium & High Blood Pressure Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Target Heart Rates 4 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  10. Sleep disturbances in Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Askenasy, J J M

    2003-02-01

    according to the progression of the degenerative process of the disease will diminishe aggravation. The following types of sleep-arousal disturbances have to be considered in PD patients: - Sleep Disturbances, Light Fragmented Sleep (LFS), Abnormal Motor Activity During Sleep (AMADS), REM Behavior Disorders (RBD), Sleep Related Breathing Disorders (SRBD), Sleep Related Hallucinations (SRH), Sleep Related Psychotic Behavior (SRPB). - Arousal Disturbances, Sleep Attacks (SA), Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS), Each syndrome has to receive a score according to its severity. III. The specific therapy consists in: LFS: Benzodiazepines & Nondiazepines. AMADS: Clonazepam, Opioid, Apomorphine infusion; RBD: Clonazepam and dopaminergic agonists; SRBD: CPAP, UPPP, nasal interventions, losing weight; SRH: Clozapine, Risperidone; SRPD: Nortriptyline, Clozapine, Olanzepine; SA-adjustment; EDS-arousing drugs. Each therapeutic approach must be tailored to the individual PD patient.

  11. Variations in the obesity genes FTO, TMEM18 and NRXN3 influence the vulnerability of children to weight gain induced by short sleep duration.

    PubMed

    Prats-Puig, A; Grau-Cabrera, P; Riera-Pérez, E; Cortés-Marina, R; Fortea, E; Soriano-Rodríguez, P; de Zegher, F; Ibánez, L; Bassols, J; López-Bermejo, A

    2013-02-01

    Shorter sleep duration predisposes to obesity, but the mechanisms whereby sleep deprivation affects body weight are poorly understood. We tested whether this association is modulated by the obesity genes FTO, TMEM18 and NRXN3. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, visceral fat (abdominal ultrasound), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and sleep time per 24 h were assessed in 297 asymptomatic children (151 boys, 146 girls; age range 5-9 years; BMI s.d. score range -2.0-4.0). Associations between sleep duration and the abovementioned outcomes were tested for three common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely FTO (rs9939609), TMEM 18 (rs4854344) and NRXN3 (rs10146997), as well as for their combination. TT homozygotes (but not A(*) carriers) for the FTO SNP, exhibited nominal associations between decreasing sleep duration and increasing BMI, waist circumference, visceral fat and HOMA-IR (all P<0.05). Similar associations were observed in children with risk alleles (but not in those without risk alleles) for the TMEM18 and NRXN3 SNPs (P<0.05 to P<0.0001). The three SNPs had additive effects on the negative associations between sleep and, respectively, BMI (P<0.001), waist (P<0.005), visceral fat (P<0.001), HOMA-IR (P=0.010) and SBP (P<0.0005). The combined effects on obesity measures and SBP remained significant after correction for multiple testing. On average, 2 h of sleep less per night was associated with an increase in BMI of 1.0 s.d. (95% confidence interval 0.5-1.6 s.d.) and with 8.0 cm (95% confidence interval 3.6-12.2 cm) more waist circumference in genetically susceptible children. By age 7, common variations in FTO, TMEM18 and NRXN3 influence the vulnerability to metabolic complications of sleep deprivation. Further genetic studies are warranted to replicate these findings in other populations.

  12. Neurobiological Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Alkadhi, Karim; Zagaar, Munder; Alhaider, Ibrahim; Salim, Samina; Aleisa, Abdulaziz

    2013-01-01

    Although the physiological function of sleep is not completely understood, it is well documented that it contributes significantly to the process of learning and memory. Ample evidence suggests that adequate sleep is essential for fostering connections among neuronal networks for memory consolidation in the hippocampus. Sleep deprivation studies are extremely valuable in understanding why we sleep and what are the consequences of sleep loss. Experimental sleep deprivation in animals allows us to gain insight into the mechanism of sleep at levels not possible to study in human subjects. Many useful approaches have been utilized to evaluate the effect of sleep loss on cognitive function, each with relative advantages and disadvantages. In this review we discuss sleep and the detrimental effects of sleep deprivation mostly in experimental animals. The negative effects of sleep deprivation on various aspects of brain function including learning and memory, synaptic plasticity and the state of cognition-related signaling molecules are discussed. PMID:24179461

  13. Nothing to lose: why early career scientists make ideal entrepreneurs.

    PubMed

    Thon, Jonathan N

    2014-12-01

    An entrepreneurial movement within science strives to invert the classical trajectory of academic research careers by positioning trainees at the apex of burgeoning industries. Young scientists today have nothing to lose and everything to gain by pursuing this 'third road', and academic institutes and established companies only stand to benefit from supporting this emerging movement of discovery research with economic purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sleep inspires insight.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ullrich; Gais, Steffen; Haider, Hilde; Verleger, Rolf; Born, Jan

    2004-01-22

    Insight denotes a mental restructuring that leads to a sudden gain of explicit knowledge allowing qualitatively changed behaviour. Anecdotal reports on scientific discovery suggest that pivotal insights can be gained through sleep. Sleep consolidates recent memories and, concomitantly, could allow insight by changing their representational structure. Here we show a facilitating role of sleep in a process of insight. Subjects performed a cognitive task requiring the learning of stimulus-response sequences, in which they improved gradually by increasing response speed across task blocks. However, they could also improve abruptly after gaining insight into a hidden abstract rule underlying all sequences. Initial training establishing a task representation was followed by 8 h of nocturnal sleep, nocturnal wakefulness, or daytime wakefulness. At subsequent retesting, more than twice as many subjects gained insight into the hidden rule after sleep as after wakefulness, regardless of time of day. Sleep did not enhance insight in the absence of initial training. A characteristic antecedent of sleep-related insight was revealed in a slowing of reaction times across sleep. We conclude that sleep, by restructuring new memory representations, facilitates extraction of explicit knowledge and insightful behaviour.

  15. The decision to lose weight.

    PubMed

    Brink, P J; Ferguson, K

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the reasons people give for deciding to lose weight compared by weight history and gender. The sample consisted of 162 Caucasian community volunteers. Data were obtained from an extensive open-ended interview that was analyzed using content analysis. Respondents were categorized into five groups, according to their success at weight loss: Successful, Always Normal Weight, Underweight, Clinically Successful, and Always Obese. The Clinically Successful and Always Obese were included in the category Unsuccessful Dieter. Reasons given for entering a weight-loss regime included attractiveness or appearance, health, fear, self-esteem issues, age, and competition. For the Successful Dieter, attractiveness and health were the two major motivations. Men and women were similar in their reasons for entering a weight-loss program. The issue of what makes a decision of sufficient importance to maintain weight loss remains unexplained. "Centrality" is offered as a possible explanation.

  16. Losing and Saving and Losing Physics in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marder, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Texas has the second-largest population of the states, and played even a larger role in education reform movements of the past 15 years than its size would indicate. In the Fall of 2011, physicists across the country were surprised to learn that six university physics programs in Texas were threatened with closure because of small graduation numbers. Five of them ultimately closed. Many of the faculty at the institutions losing programs came together and formed a consortium that eventually made it possible to continue offering physics,by unconventional means, to their undergraduates. In the Spring of 2013 came an even larger change. Physics had been part of the recommended high school graduation plan in Texas. As part of a bill making sweeping changes to high school graduation requirements and accountability, the physics requirement was removed. Physics may partly be falling victim to the national focus on STEM, which suggests that the various disciplines of science are interchangeable and not individually important. None of the changes in Texas are hard to imagine coming to other states as well.

  17. Sleep apnoea and stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sameer; Culebras, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disorders have been known to physicians for a long time. In his famous aphorisms, Hippocrates said “Sleep or watchfulness exceeding that which is customary, augurs unfavorably”. Modern medicine has been able to disentangle some of the phenomena that disturb sleep. Among the most notable offenders is sleep apnoea that has gained prominence in the past few decades. It is being proposed as one of the potentially modifiable risk factors for vascular diseases including stroke. The pathological mechanisms linking sleep apnoea to vascular risk factors include hypoxia, cardiac arrhythmias, dysautonomia, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and inflammation. In this article, we review literature linking sleep apnoea and stroke, including sleep apnoea as a risk factor for primary prevention with the potential to improve outcome after acute stroke and as a secondary risk factor, amenable to modification and hence vascular risk reduction. PMID:28959482

  18. Sleep-dependent modulation of affectively guided decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Nave, Genevieve; Morgan, Alexandra; Spencer, Rebecca M.C.

    2011-01-01

    A question of great interest in current sleep research is whether and how sleep might facilitate complex cognitive skills such as decision-making. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was used to investigate effects of sleep on affect-guided decision-making. After a brief standardized preview of the IGT that was insufficient to learn its underlying rule, participants underwent a 12-hr delay containing either normal night’s sleep (Sleep-group; N=28) or continuous daytime wake (Wake-group; N=26). Following the delay, both groups performed the full IGT. To control for circadian effects, two additional groups performed both the preview and the full task either in the morning (N=17) or the evening (N=21). In the IGT, 4 decks of cards were presented. Draws from 2 “advantageous decks” yielded low play-money rewards, occasional low losses and, over multiple draws, a net gain. Draws from “disadvantageous” decks yielded high rewards, occasional high losses and, over multiple draws, a net loss. Participants were instructed to win and avoid losing as much as possible and better performance was defined as more advantageous draws. Relative to the wake group, the sleep group showed both superior behavioral outcome (more advantageous draws) and superior rule understanding (blindly judged from statements written at task completion). Neither measure differentiated the two control groups. These results illustrate a role of sleep in optimizing decision-making, a benefit that may be brought about by changes in underlying emotional or cognitive processes. PMID:21535281

  19. How Did Mars Lose Its Atmosphere?

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Though it doesn't look like a nice place to live now, Mars may have had an atmosphere more like ours on Earth! But how did it lose it? One way a planet can lose its atmosphere is through a process ...

  20. You Can Lose What You Never Had

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Cam

    2016-01-01

    An often-used idiom states: "you can't lose what you never had." Yet contrary to this expression, it "is" possible to lose what you never had--at least when special education support is concerned. In Ontario, as in other jurisdictions, special education exists as a codified system. An ever-changing nexus of discourses and…

  1. You Can Lose What You Never Had

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Cam

    2016-01-01

    An often-used idiom states: "you can't lose what you never had." Yet contrary to this expression, it "is" possible to lose what you never had--at least when special education support is concerned. In Ontario, as in other jurisdictions, special education exists as a codified system. An ever-changing nexus of discourses and…

  2. Will Titan lose its veil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, V.

    2007-08-01

    . If the real stock (CH4)real (CH4)crit=1.65.1020 kg, than Titan will lose its veil inevitably (scenario of the "mosaic history"), otherwise (CH4)real (CH4)crit the veil survives down to Titan's dying day ("continuous history"). References [1] H. B. Niemann and 17-co-authors, Nature, 438, 779, (2005). [2] V. Dimitrov, Prog. React. Kin. Mech. 30, N4, 227, (2006).

  3. Sleep debt and obesity.

    PubMed

    Bayon, Virginie; Leger, Damien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Vecchierini, Marie-Françoise; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2014-08-01

    Short sleep duration has been shown to be associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) in many epidemiological studies. Several pathways could link sleep deprivation to weight gain and obesity, including increased food intake, decreased energy expenditure, and changes in levels of appetite-regulating hormones, such as leptin and ghrelin. A relatively new factor that is contributing to sleep deprivation is the use of multimedia (e.g. television viewing, computer, and internet), which may aggravate sedentary behavior and increase caloric intake. In addition, shift-work, long working hours, and increased time commuting to and from work have also been hypothesized to favor weight gain and obesity-related metabolic disorders, because of their strong link to shorter sleep times. This article reviews the epidemiological, biological, and behavioral evidence linking sleep debt and obesity.

  4. Irregular sleep-wake syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal, but the body clock loses its normal circadian cycle. People with changing work shifts and travelers who ... Abbott SM, Reid KJ, Zee PC. Circadian disorders of the sleep-wake ... Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 40. ...

  5. Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Markov, Dimitri; Doghramji, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Sleep disorders are becoming more prevalent. There is an overlap of symptoms related to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and many psychiatric conditions. Complaints of excessive sleepiness, insomnia, cognitive dysfunction, and depressive symptoms can be related to both disease states. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repetitive disruption of sleep by cessation of breathing and was first described in the 19th century by bedside observation during sleep. Physicians observed this cessation of breathing while the patient slept and postulated that these episodes were responsible for subsequent complaints of sleepiness. OSAS can coexist with major depressive disorder, exacerbate depressive symptoms, or be responsible for a large part of the symptom complex of depression. Additionally, in schizophrenia, sleep apnea may develop as a result of chronic neuroleptic treatment and its effect on gains in body weight, a major risk factor for the development of OSAS. It is important to recognize the signs and symptoms of sleep apnea, namely excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, and witnessed apneas. Recognition of the existence of sleep apnea, prompt referral to a sleep specialist, and ultimately treatment of an underlying sleep disorder, such as OSAS, can ameliorate symptoms of psychiatric disease. PMID:20975818

  6. How Can I Lose Weight Safely?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the simple suggestions listed below to get started. Weight management is about long-term success. People who lose ... habits. continue Tips for Success Therefore, the best weight-management strategies are those that you can maintain for ...

  7. Medical Mystery: Losing the sense of smell

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hearing Disorders Medical Mystery: Losing the sense of smell Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... a teenager that took away her sense of smell. Photo courtesy of Malone University Imagine, if you ...

  8. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  9. Sleep Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... PDF 474KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  10. 'Doctor, How Can I Lose Weight?'

    PubMed Central

    Bright-See, Elizabeth

    1983-01-01

    Millions of Canadians are trying to lose weight. According to the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company's recently released height and weight tables, some of them don't need to lose weight from a health standpoint. For those who would benefit from weight loss, a good program includes a balanced, low fat, high fiber diet; exercise; behavior modification and moral support. Few of the popular books and self-help groups offer all these essential components. PMID:21283478

  11. Reflections on reducing insulin to lose weigh.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Val

    Diabulimia is not a recognised medical condition, although it is thought to affect one-third of women with type 1 diabetes. Diabulimia involves deliberately omitting or reducing insulin dosages to lose weight. This article reports the reflections of women with long-duration type 1 diabetes who said that they had manipulated their insulin in the past to lose weight. Many were now dealing with serious heart and neuropathic complications, which they felt were a result of their diabulimia.

  12. Sleep disorders in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sahota, Pradeep K; Jain, Sanjay S; Dhand, Rajiv

    2003-11-01

    Sleep disturbances are frequent during pregnancy. The spectrum of association between pregnancy and sleep disturbances ranges from an increased incidence of insomnia, nocturnal awakenings, and parasomnias (especially restless legs syndrome) to snoring and excessive sleepiness. These disturbances occur as a result of physiologic, hormonal, and physical changes associated with pregnancy. Although the timing and occurrence of different sleep disorders varies, they are most prevalent during the third trimester. Despite reports of the various sleep problems, the exact nature and incidence of sleep disorders in pregnancy is not known. Given that limitation, we are presenting an up-to-date review of the current understanding of the relation between sleep and pregnancy. Studies suggest that pregnancy affects sleep in multiple ways. There are hormonal changes, physiologic changes, physical factors, and behavioral changes in a pregnant woman-all of which may affect her sleep. They may affect the duration and quality of sleep and lead to a variety of sleep disorders. Pregnancy may also affect an existing sleep disorder. Particular attention may be given to obese pregnant women who would gain more weight during pregnancy or those who develop hypertensive conditions (eg, preeclampsia). Snoring may be more common in women with preeclampsia and the pressor responses to obstructive respiratory events during sleep may be enhanced in preeclamptic women when compared with those with obstructive sleep apnea alone. Several investigators have suggested that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may be common in pregnant women despite the presence of intrinsic mechanisms that seem to be geared towards preventing sleep apnea. However, the exact incidence and prevalence of sleep apnea in pregnant women is uncertain. In addition, it is unclear if criteria that are used to define sleep apnea in the general population should be applied to pregnant women. Further investigations are needed to determine

  13. [Sleep talking].

    PubMed

    Challamel, M J

    2001-11-01

    Sleep talking is very common in the general population. Its prevalence remains stable from childhood through adulthood. Sleep talking is often associated with other parasomnias: sleep walking, sleep terrors or REM sleep behavior disorders. It may arise from either REM or non REM sleep, when associated with REM sleep it is more comprehensible and often associated with clear sentences and recall of sleep mentation. Sleep talking is a benign entity and does not require any treatment; however an exceptional organic cause or psychopathology should be suspected if the onset is late (after 25 years); if the mental content is too violent or too emotional.

  14. Sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jonathan C; Chopra, Swati; Schwartz, Alan R

    2016-03-01

    Sleep apnoea is a disorder characterised by repetitive pauses in breathing during sleep caused by airway occlusion (obstructive sleep apnoea) or altered control of breathing (central sleep apnoea). In this Clinical Year in Review, we summarise high-impact research from the past year pertaining to management, diagnosis and cardio-metabolic consequences of sleep apnoea.

  15. Metabolic consequences of sleep and circadian disorders

    PubMed Central

    Depner, Christopher M.; Stothard, Ellen R.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms modulate or control daily physiological patterns with importance for normal metabolic health. Sleep deficiencies associated with insufficient sleep schedules, insomnia with short-sleep duration, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, circadian misalignment, shift work, night eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder may all contribute to metabolic dysregulation. Sleep deficiencies and circadian disruption associated with metabolic dysregulation may contribute to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes potentially by altering timing and amount of food intake, disrupting energy balance, inflammation, impairing glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Given the rapidly increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases, it is important to recognize the role of sleep and circadian disruption in the development, progression, and morbidity of metabolic disease. Some findings indicate sleep treatments and countermeasures improve metabolic health, but future clinical research investigating prevention and treatment of chronic metabolic disorders through treatment of sleep and circadian disruption is needed. PMID:24816752

  16. "Losing Battles": The Tests of Endurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienstra, Phillis

    The works of Eudora Welty challenge the abilities of the oral reader who wishes to interpret them properly. Her novel, "Losing Battles," requires careful attention to the narrative point of view as a guide to its various dimensions of meaning. The narrative shifts through the consciousnesses of various characters of four generations in a rural…

  17. Bubble-fusion professor loses faculty post

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Purdue University in the US has announced that Rusi Taleyarkhan - who was found guilty of scientific misconduct by the university in July - will lose his title of Al Bement Jr Professor of Nuclear Engineering and will not be able to advise graduate students for at least three years. Purdue has also denied an appeal from the researcher about the misconduct verdict.

  18. Sleep Disturbances

    MedlinePlus

    ... PD / Coping with Symptoms & Side Effects / Sleep Disturbances Sleep Disturbances Many people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have ... stay awake during the day. Tips for Better Sleep People with PD — and their care partners too — ...

  19. Sleep disorders - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hypersomina; Daytime sleepiness; Sleep rhythm; Sleep disruptive behaviors; Jet lag ... disrupted sleep schedule include: Irregular sleep-wake syndrome Jet lag syndrome Paradoxical insomnia (the person sleeps a ...

  20. Time, Not Sleep, Unbinds Contexts from Item Memory

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Roy; Tijdens, Ron R.; Meeter, Martijn M.; Sweegers, Carly C. G.; Talamini, Lucia M.

    2014-01-01

    Contextual cues are known to benefit memory retrieval, but whether and how sleep affects this context effect remains unresolved. We manipulated contextual congruence during memory retrieval in human volunteers across 12 h and 24 h intervals beginning with either sleep or wakefulness. Our data suggest that whereas contextual cues lose their potency with time, sleep does not modulate this process. Furthermore, our results are consistent with the idea that sleep's beneficial effect on memory retention depends on the amount of waking time that has passed between encoding and sleep onset. The findings are discussed in the framework of competitive consolidation theory. PMID:24498441

  1. Weight Gain Prevention among Women

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Michele D.; Klem, Mary Lou; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Wing, Rena R.; Weissfeld, Lisa; Qin, Li; Marcus, Marsha D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Women 25 to 45 years old are at risk for weight gain and future obesity. This trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of two interventions relative to a control group in preventing weight gain among normal or overweight women and to identify demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors related to weight gain prevention. Research Methods and Procedures: Healthy women (N = 284), ages 25 to 44, with BMI < 30 were randomized to one of three intervention conditions: a clinic-based group, a correspondence course, or an information-only control. Intervention was provided over 2 years, with a follow-up at Year 3. BMI and factors related to eating and weight were assessed yearly. Results: Over the 3-year study period, 40% (n = 114) of the women remained at or below baseline body weight (±2 lbs), and 60% gained weight (>2 lbs). Intervention had no effect on weight over time. Independently of intervention, women who were older, not actively dieting to lose weight, and who reported less perceived hunger at baseline were more likely to be successful at weight maintenance. Weight maintenance also was associated with increasing dietary restraint (conscious thoughts and purposeful behaviors to control calorie intake) and decreasing dietary disinhibition (the tendency to lose control over eating) over time. Discussion: This study raises concern about the feasibility and efficacy of weight gain prevention interventions because most women were interested in weight loss, rather than weight gain prevention, and the interventions had no effect on weight stability. Novel approaches to the prevention of weight gain are needed. PMID:17495203

  2. In Search of a Good Night's Sleep.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Laura G

    2017-10-01

    A good night's sleep is essential to overall physical, cognitive, and emotional well-being. Sleep deprivation, whether general or related to time changes (e.g., daylight saving time), contributes to decreased cognition, impaired memory, poor coordination, mood fluctuations, increased risk of heart disease and diabetes, and weight gain, among others. The sleep cycle is defined by five stages and two distinct parts-rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep-that work to promote not only the quantity of sleep but also the quality of sleep, which impacts overall health. Each stage of sleep is influenced by various neurochemical actions among the brain regions. The neurochemistry and neuropath-ways related to the sleep/wake cycle as well as the mechanisms of action of sleep-inducing and wake-promoting medications are explored. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(10), 19-26.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... that delivers air pressure through a mask placed over your nose while you sleep. With CPAP (SEE-pap), the air pressure is ... obstructive sleep apnea, involves wearing a pressurized mask over your nose while you sleep. CPAP may eliminate snoring and prevent sleep apnea. ...

  4. Obesity and short sleep: unlikely bedfellows?

    PubMed

    Horne, J

    2011-05-01

    The link between habitual short sleep and obesity is critically examined from a sleep perspective. Sleep estimates are confounded by 'time in bed', naps; the normal distribution of sleep duration. Wide categorizations of 'short sleep', with claims that <7 h sleep is associated with obesity and morbidity, stem from generalizations from 5 h sleepers (<8% of adults) and acute restriction studies involving unendurable sleepiness. Statistically significant epidemiological findings are of questionable clinical concern, even for 5 h sleepers, as any weight gains accumulate slowly over years; easily redressed by e.g. short exercise exposures, contrasting with huge accumulations of 'lost' sleep. Little evidence supports 'more sleep', alone, as an effective treatment for obesity. Impaired sleep quality and quantity are surrogates for many physical and psychological disorders, as can be obesity. Advocating more sleep, in these respects, could invoke unwarranted use of sleep aids including hypnotics. Inadequate sleep in obese children is usually symptomatic of problems not overcome by increasing sleep alone. Interestingly, neuropeptides regulating interactions between sleep, locomotion and energy balance in normal weight individuals, are an avenue for investigation in some obese short sleepers. The real danger of inadequate sleep lies with excessive daytime sleepiness, not obesity.

  5. Gifted Students and Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsh, John; Karnes, Frances; Eiers, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors emphasize that good sleep health is essential if gifted children are to gain the greatest benefit from opportunities to grow intellectually, socially, and spiritually while maintaining good psychological and physical health. The outstanding abilities that characterize these children and enable high levels of…

  6. Gifted Students and Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsh, John; Karnes, Frances; Eiers, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors emphasize that good sleep health is essential if gifted children are to gain the greatest benefit from opportunities to grow intellectually, socially, and spiritually while maintaining good psychological and physical health. The outstanding abilities that characterize these children and enable high levels of…

  7. The "Biggest Loser" Expounds on the Benefits of Losing Pounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section The "Biggest Loser" Expounds on the Benefits of Losing Pounds Past Issues / Winter 2008 ... 186 pounds, going from 361 to 175 pounds. The Twins on Losing Weight Bill: "The only way ...

  8. Overview of sleep & sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Chokroverty, S

    2010-02-01

    Sleep is defined on the basis of behavioural and physiological criteria dividing it into two states: non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep which is subdivided into three stages (N1, N2, N3); and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, muscle atonia and desynchronized EEG. Circadian rhythm of sleep-wakefulness is controlled by the master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. The neuroanatomical substrates of the NREM sleep are located principally in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus and those of REM sleep are located in pons. A variety of significant physiological changes occur in all body systems and organs during sleep as a result of functional alterations in the autonomic and somatic nervous systems. The international classification of sleep disorders (ICSD, ed 2) lists eight categories of sleep disorders along with appendix A and appendix B. The four major sleep complaints include excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia, abnormal movements or behaviour during sleep and inability to sleep at the desired time. The most important step in assessing a patient with a sleep complaint is obtaining a detailed history including family and previous histories, medical, psychiatric, neurological, drug, alcohol and substance abuse disorders. Some important laboratory tests for investigating sleep disorders consist of an overnight polysomnography, multiple sleep latency and maintenance of wakefulness tests as well as actigraphy. General physicians should have a basic knowledge of the salient clinical features of common sleep disorders, such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, narcolepsy-cataplexy syndrome, circadian rhythm sleep disorders (e.g., jet leg, shift work disorder, etc.) and parasomnias (e.g., partial arousal disorders, REM behaviour disorder, etc.) and these are briefly described in this chapter. The principle of treatment of sleep disorders is first to find cause of the sleep

  9. [Sleep genes].

    PubMed

    Prospéro-García, O; Guzmán, K; Méndez-Diaz, M; Herrera-Solís, A; Ruiz-Contreras, A

    Sleep is a non-learned adaptive strategy that depends on the expression of several neurotransmitters and other molecules. The expression of some of these molecules depends on a number of different genes. Sleep disorders are associated with an inadequate expression of some molecules, which therefore indicates that these genes that code for these molecules participate in the regulation of normal sleep. To discuss the evidence on gene regulation over the occurrence of sleep and its architecture, as well as of sleep disorders, which supports the participation of specific genes. We describe the evidence on sleep in mammals, particularly in humans, in addition to studies with twins that demonstrate the influence of genes on sleep regulation. We also discuss several sleep disorders, which in this study only serves to emphasise how certain specific genes, under normal conditions, participate in the expression of sleep. Furthermore, evidence is also provided for other molecules, such as endocannibinoids, involved in sleep regulation. Lastly, we report on studies conducted with different strains of mice that show differences in the amount of sleep they express, possibly as an epiphenomenon of their different genetic loads. A number of different genes have been described as those responsible for making us sleep, although sleeping also depends on our interaction with the environment. This interaction is what makes us express sleep at times that are best suited to favouring our survival.

  10. Patients’ perceptions on losing access to FPs

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Tom; Brown, Judith Belle; Reid, Graham; Stewart, Moira; Thind, Amardeep; Vingilis, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the health care–related experiences of individuals who have lost their FPs. Design A qualitative design using phenomenology. Setting Southwestern Ontario. Participants Eighteen participants (9 women and 9 men, with a mean age of 48.9 years) from urban or rural areas who had lost their FPs. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted, which were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. An iterative approach using immersion and crystallization was employed for analysis. Main findings Participants reported having lost their FPs because of reasons specific to their physicians (eg, illness, retirement, career change) or system issues (eg, poor remuneration for FPs, cutbacks in health care leading to physician emigration). Participants described feelings of loss, abandonment, frustration, and anger related to losing their physicians. They expressed concerns about the difficulty of getting prescription medications, lack of continuity of care related to medical records, and preventive care. They faced considerable hurdles in accessing primary health care, turning to walk-in clinics and emergency departments despite concerns about quality and fragmentation of care. Some of those with chronic medical conditions prevailed upon specialists to help meet primary health care needs. Conclusion Losing access to FPs evoked a variety of strong feelings among these participants. They engaged in a number of strategies to meet their primary care needs but not without reservations. In a health care system appropriately built on primary health care, the lack of access to FPs is regarded as the loss of a basic right to care. PMID:23585623

  11. Male ironman triathletes lose skeletal muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Baumann, Barbara; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether male triathletes in an Ironman triathlon lose body mass in the form of fat mass or skeletal muscle mass in a field study at the Ironman Switzerland in 27 male Caucasian non-professional Ironman triathletes. Pre- and post-race body mass, fat mass and skeletal muscle mass were determined. In addition, total body water, hematological and urinary parameters were measured in order to quantify hydration status. Body mass decreased by 1.8 kg (p< 0.05), skeletal muscle decreased by 1.0 kg (p< 0.05) whereas fat mass showed no changes. Urinary specific gravity, plasma urea and plasma volume increased (p< 0.05). Pre- to post-race change (Delta) in body mass was not associated with ? skeletal muscle mass. Additionally, there was no association between Delta plasma urea and Delta skeletal muscle mass; Delta plasma volume was not associated with Delta total body water (p< 0.05). We concluded that male triathletes in an Ironman triathlon lose 1.8 kg of body mass and 1 kg of skeletal muscle mass, presumably due to a depletion of intramyocellular stored glycogen and lipids.

  12. Healthy Sleep Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  13. What Are Sleep Studies?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Sleep Studies Also known as polysomnography. Sleep studies are ... Sleep Rate This Content: Updated: December 9, 2016 Sleep Infographic Sleep Disorders & Insufficient Sleep: Improving Health through ...

  14. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... to find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious ... to find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious ...

  15. Sleep Talking (Somniloquy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  16. Sleep Behavior and Unemployment Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Antillón, Marina; Mullahy, John

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has reported that habitually short sleep duration is a risk factor for declining health, including increased risk of obesity, diabetes and coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate whether macroeconomic conditions are associated with variation in mean sleep time in the United States, and if so, whether the effect is procyclical or countercyclical. We merge state unemployment rates from 2003 through 2012 with the American Time Use Survey, a nationally representative sample of adults with 24 hour time diaries. We find that higher aggregate unemployment is associated with longer mean sleep duration, with each additional point of state unemployment associated with an additional average 0.83 minutes of sleep (p<0.001), after adjusting for a secular trend of increasing sleep over the time period. Despite a national poll in 2009 that found one-third of Americans reporting losing sleep over the economy, we do not find that higher state unemployment is associated with more sleeplessness. Instead, we find that higher state unemployment is associated with less frequent time use described as “sleeplessness” (marginal effect = 0.05 at 4% unemployment and 0.034 at 14% unemployment, p<0.001), after controlling for a secular trend. PMID:24958451

  17. Sleep behavior and unemployment conditions.

    PubMed

    Antillón, Marina; Lauderdale, Diane S; Mullahy, John

    2014-07-01

    Recent research has reported that habitually short sleep duration is a risk factor for declining health, including increased risk of obesity, diabetes and coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate whether macroeconomic conditions are associated with variation in mean sleep time in the United States, and if so, whether the effect is procyclical or countercyclical. We merge state unemployment rates from 2003 through 2012 with the American Time Use Survey, a nationally representative sample of adults with 24h time diaries. We find that higher aggregate unemployment is associated with longer mean sleep duration, with each additional point of state unemployment associated with an additional average 0.83 min of sleep (p<0.001), after adjusting for a secular trend of increasing sleep over the time period. Despite a national poll in 2009 that found one-third of Americans reporting losing sleep over the economy, we do not find that higher state unemployment is associated with more sleeplessness. Instead, we find that higher state unemployment is associated with less frequent time use described as "sleeplessness" (marginal effect=0.05 at 4% unemployment and 0.034 at 14% unemployment, p<0.001), after controlling for a secular trend. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...

  19. Frequency Dependence of APATS Antenna Gain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    ESD-TR-82-120 HTR-8354 3FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF APATS ANTENNA GAIN 0 By G. A. ROBERTSHAW MARCH 1982 Prepared for DEPUTY FOR SURVEILLANCE AND CONTROL...FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF APATS ANTENNA GAIN 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER MTR-8354 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) G. A. ROBERTSHAW F19628-81-C...employed, each channel will lose 1.76 dB of gain. * E.g., if "a" is aperture length in array azimuth plane, frequency dependence begins for 0 > srFl

  20. Alterations in sleep architecture in response to experimental sleep curtailment are associated with signs of positive energy balance.

    PubMed

    Shechter, Ari; O'Keeffe, Majella; Roberts, Amy L; Zammit, Gary K; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2012-11-01

    Sleep reduction is associated with increased energy intake and weight gain, though few studies have explored the relationship between sleep architecture and energy balance measures in the context of experimental sleep restriction. Fourteen males and 13 females (body mass index: 22-26 kg/m(2)) participated in a crossover sleep curtailment study. Participants were studied under two sleep conditions: short (4 h/night; 0100-0500 h) and habitual (9 h/night; 2200-0700 h), for 5 nights each. Sleep was polysomnographically recorded nightly. Outcome measures included resting metabolic rate (RMR), feelings of appetite-satiety, and ad libitum food intake. Short sleep resulted in reductions in stage 2 sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep duration (P < 0.001), as well as decreased percentage of stage 2 sleep and REM sleep and increased slow wave sleep (SWS) percentage (P < 0.05). Linear mixed model analysis demonstrated a positive association between stage 2 sleep duration and RMR (P = 0.051). Inverse associations were observed between REM sleep duration and hunger (P = 0.031) and between stage 2 sleep duration and appetite for sweet (P = 0.015) and salty (P = 0.046) foods. Stage 2 sleep percentage was inversely related to energy consumed (P = 0.024). Stage 2 sleep (P = 0.005), SWS (P = 0.008), and REM sleep (P = 0.048) percentages were inversely related to fat intake, and SWS (P = 0.040) and REM sleep (P = 0.050) were inversely related to carbohydrate intake. This study demonstrates that changes in sleep architecture are associated with markers of positive energy balance and indicate a means by which exposure to short sleep duration and/or an altered sleep architecture profile may lead to excess weight gain over time.

  1. Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Robert M

    2015-09-01

    Sleep deprivation occurs when inadequate sleep leads to decreased performance, inadequate alertness, and deterioration in health. It is incompletely understood why humans need sleep, although some theories include energy conservation, restoration, and information processing. Sleep deprivation has many deleterious health effects. Residency programs have enacted strict work restrictions because of medically related errors due to sleep deprivation. Because obstetrics is an unpredictable specialty with long irregular hours, enacting a hospitalist program enhances patient safety, decreases malpractice risk, and improves the physician's quality of life by allowing obstetricians to get sufficient rest.

  2. Is sleep deprivation a contributor to obesity in children?

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Chronic lack of sleep (called "sleep deprivation") is common in modern societies with 24/7 availability of commodities. Accumulating evidence supports the role of reduced sleep as contributing to the current obesity epidemic in children and youth. Longitudinal studies have consistently shown that short sleep duration is associated with weight gain and the development of obesity. Recent experimental studies have reported that sleep restriction leads to weight gain in humans. Increased food intake appears to be the main mechanism by which insufficient sleep results in weight gain. Voluntary sleep restriction has been shown to increase snacking, the number of meals eaten per day, and the preference for energy-dense foods. Although the causes of sleep loss in the pediatric population are numerous, more research looking at screen exposure before bedtime and its effects on sleep is needed given the pervasiveness of electronic media devices in today's environment. Health professionals should routinely ask questions about sleep and promote a good night's sleep because insufficient sleep impacts activity and eating behaviors. Future research should examine the clinical benefits of increasing sleep duration on eating behaviors and body weight control and determine the importance of adequate sleep to improve the treatment of obesity.

  3. The effect of losing the twin and losing the partner on mortality.

    PubMed

    Tomassini, Cecilia; Rosina, Alessandro; Billari, Francesco C; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare

    2002-06-01

    Several studies have explored the impact of marital bereavement on mortality, while increasing emphasis has recently been placed on genetic factors influencing longevity - in this paper, we study the impact of losing the spouse and losing the co-twin, for twins aged 50 to 70. We use data from the Danish Twin Registry and the Population Register of Denmark for the period 1968 through 1999. Firstly, we use survival analysis to study mortality after the death of the spouse or the co-twin. We find that the risk of dying is highest in the first year after the death of the spouse, as well as in the second year after the death of the co-twin. We then use event history analysis techniques to show that there is a strong impact of the event 'losing the co-twin' even after controlling for age, sex and zygosity and that this effect is significantly higher in the second year of bereavement. The effect is similar for men and women, and it is higher for monozygotic twins. The latter confirms the influence of genetic factors on survival, while the mortality trajectory with a peak in the second year after the death of the co-twin is consistent with the existence of a twin bereavement effect.

  4. Who gains and who loses with community rating for small business?

    PubMed

    Buchanan, J L; Marquis, M S

    1999-01-01

    This paper compares community rating with experience rating for small businesses using a microsimulation model to determine what firms offer and who within these firms purchases insurance. We generate four years of data and find that our results are remarkably stable through time. Both offer and purchase rates are about five percentage points higher under experience rating, but community rating leads to more stable offerings. Under community rating, high-risk firms and families purchase insurance, whereas under experience rating, it is the low-risk firms and families who are the purchasers. Young families and poor families have the lowest purchase rates, with these rates being disproportionately low under community rating.

  5. Gaining Momentum, Losing Ground. Tapping America's Potential (TAP) Progress Report, 2008. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapping America's Potential, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In July 2005, Business Roundtable and fifteen of America's most prominent business organizations--Tapping America's Potential, the TAP coalition--issued a report stating that "one of the pillars of American economic prosperity--U.S. scientific and technological superiority--is beginning to atrophy even as other nations are developing their own…

  6. Gaining Access or Losing Ground? Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students in Undergraduate Engineering, 1994-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy-Wagner, Valerie C.; Veenstra, Cindy P.; Orr, Marisa K.; Ramirez, Nichole M.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Long, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Expanding access to engineering for underrepresented groups has by and large focused on ethnicity/race and gender, with little understanding of socioeconomic disadvantages. In this study, we use economic, human, and cultural capital theories to frame and then describe access to undergraduate engineering degree programs and bachelor's degrees.…

  7. Gaining Access or Losing Ground? Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students in Undergraduate Engineering, 1994-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy-Wagner, Valerie C.; Veenstra, Cindy P.; Orr, Marisa K.; Ramirez, Nichole M.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Long, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Expanding access to engineering for underrepresented groups has by and large focused on ethnicity/race and gender, with little understanding of socioeconomic disadvantages. In this study, we use economic, human, and cultural capital theories to frame and then describe access to undergraduate engineering degree programs and bachelor's degrees.…

  8. Gaining myocytes or losing fibroblasts: Challenges in cardiac fibroblast reprogramming for infarct repair.

    PubMed

    Nagalingam, Raghu S; Safi, Hamza A; Czubryt, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    Unlike most somatic tissues, the heart possesses a very limited inherent ability to repair itself following damage. Attempts to therapeutically salvage the myocardium after infarction, either by sparing surviving myocytes or by injection of exogenous cells of varied provenance, have met with limited success. Cardiac fibroblasts are numerous, resistant to hypoxia, and amenable to phenotype reprogramming to cardiomyocytes - a potential panacea to an intractable problem. However, the long-term effects of mass conversion of fibroblasts are as-yet unknown. Since fibroblasts play key roles in normal cardiac function, treating these cells as a ready source of replacements for myocytes may have the effect of swapping one problem for another. This review briefly examines the roles of cardiac fibroblasts, recaps the strides made so far in their reprogramming to cardiomyocytes both in vitro and in vivo, and discusses the potential ramifications of large-scale cellular identity swapping. While such therapy offers great promise, the potential repercussions require consideration and careful study.

  9. Categorical School Finance: Who Gains, Who Loses? Working Paper Series 04-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timar, Thomas B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines changes in California's school finance system over the past 35 years. It focuses specifically on the growth of categorical program funding. The study assesses the nature and magnitude of changes, the causes of those changes, the significance of those changes for the capacity of schools to provide high quality educational…

  10. Caregiving, gender, and nutritional status in Nyanza Province, Kenya: grandmothers gain, grandfathers lose.

    PubMed

    Ice, Gillian H; Heh, Victor; Yogo, Jaja; Juma, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Based on anecdotal and qualitative reports, a general assumption is that caregiving negatively impacts grandparents in Africa. The purpose of this article is to determine how caregiving and gender impact nutritional status over four waves of data from Luo elders. Luo elders, aged 60 and over (age 73.6 ± 7.9) were sampled. Participant recruitment was rolling and included 287 Luo grandparents in 2005, 396 in 2006, 389 in 2007, and 390 in 2009. A total of 689 elders participated in at least 1 year. Standard anthropometric measures were used to determine nutritional status. Impact of caregiving was examined using structural equation models. Caregiving positively associated with nutritional status among women. This main effect was mediated by caregiving intensity, which also positively associated with nutritional status. Among men, caregiving negatively associated with nutritional status, although caregiving intensity did not significantly associate with most anthropometric measures. Socioeconomic status (SES) positively associated with five of nine anthropometric measures in women and all measures in men. Several measures indicated that both men and women became larger over time but few of the variables tested predicted growth. The beneficial impact on grandmothers might indicate a coping strategy. These results indicated that researchers should shift away from comparing caregivers to noncaregivers and instead look at the multiple factors which may make some families resilient and others at risk. Human biologists can contribute to this literature by examining the ecological and cultural contexts under which caregiving represents a burden with physiological repercussions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Losing the Lake: Simulations to Promote Gains in Student Knowledge and Interest about Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussbaum, E. Michael; Owens, Marissa C.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Rehmat, Abeera P.; Cordova, Jacqueline R.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Harris, Fred C., Jr.; Dascalu, Sergiu M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change literacy plays a key role in promoting sound political decisions and promoting sustainable consumption patterns. Based on evidence suggesting that student understanding and interest in climate change is best accomplished through studying local effects, we developed a simulation/game exploring the impact of climate change on the…

  12. Winning and Losing: Effects on Impulsive Action

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of wins and losses on impulsive action in gambling (Experiments 1–3) and nongambling tasks (Experiments 4–5). In each experiment, subjects performed a simple task in which they had to win points. On each trial, they had to choose between a gamble and a nongamble. The gamble was always associated with a higher amount but a lower probability of winning than the nongamble. After subjects indicated their choice (i.e., gamble or not), feedback was presented. They had to press a key to start the next trial. Experiments 1–3 showed that, compared to the nongambling baseline, subjects were faster to initiate the next trial after a gambled loss, indicating that losses can induce impulsive actions. In Experiments 4 and 5, subjects alternated between the gambling task and a neutral decision-making task in which they could not win or lose points. Subjects were faster in the neutral decision-making task if they had just lost in the gambling task, suggesting that losses have a general effect on action. Our results challenge the dominant idea that humans become more cautious after suboptimal outcomes. Instead, they indicate that losses in the context of potential rewards are emotional events that increase impulsivity. PMID:27808548

  13. Saving a life but losing the patient.

    PubMed

    Greene, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Gregor Samsa awakes to find himself transformed into a gigantic bug. The creature's inchoate flailing leads Gregor's sister to conclude that Gregor is no more, having been replaced by a brute beast lacking any vestige of human understanding. Sadly, real cases of brain injury and disease can lead to psychological metamorphoses so profound that we cannot easily think that the survivor is the person we knew. I argue that there can be cases in which statements like, "It's just not Gregor anymore," are not merely figures of speech. With this in mind, I consider three possible results of saving a biological life: (1) ordinary cases where saving the life will save the person, with strong duties to save the life; (2) cases where the intervention needed to save the life will replace the person, with strong duties not to save the life; (3) cases in which it is indeterminate whether the person will be saved or replaced. How should we think about indeterminate cases? Impersonal ethical considerations miss the point, while standard person-affecting considerations are inapplicable. I suggest turning attention away from survival towards a richer focus on what I call "personal concern." I show how considerations of personal concern, unlike those of self-interest, need not be tied to survival and how this allows personal concern to provide a basis for ethically substantive discussion of cases where saving a life might result in losing the patient.

  14. Mammalian sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staunton, Hugh

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

  15. Future Directions in Sleep and Developmental Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Lisa J

    2017-01-01

    It is critical for psychologists to gain a better understanding about the intersection between sleep and developmental psychopathology. However, while many strive to answer the question of whether sleep causes developmental psychopathology, or vice versa, ultimately the relationship between sleep and developmental psychopathology is complex and dynamic. This article considers future directions in the field of clinical child and adolescent psychology that go beyond this mechanistic question, highlighting areas important to address for clinicians and researchers who strive to better understand how best to serve children and adolescents with developmental psychopathology. Questions are presented about what is normal in terms of sleep across development, the role of individual variability in terms of sleep needs and vulnerability to sleep loss, and how sleep may serve as a risk or resilience factor for developmental psychopathology, concluding with considerations for interventions.

  16. American Sleep Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sleep Disorders Book Join ASA Press Room American Sleep Association Improving public health by increasing awareness about ... Members Username or Email Password Remember Me Register Sleep Blog Changing Bad Sleep Habits Asthma and Sleep ...

  17. Sleep Terrors (Night Terrors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can contribute to sleep terrors, such as: Sleep deprivation and extreme tiredness Stress Sleep schedule disruptions, travel ... Risk factors Sleep terrors are more common if family members have a history of sleep terrors or ...

  18. Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency? Sleep deprivation (DEP-rih-VA- ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: June 7, 2017 Sleep Infographic Sleep Disorders & Insufficient Sleep: Improving Health through ...

  19. SLEEP DEPRIVATION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report was confined to considering the effects of sleep deprivation , in man, with particular reference to studies of the resulting biochemical...have a limited value when taken separately: the biochemical and physiological changes that occur in response to sleep deprivation may depend...three separate heads: first, the biochemical changes resulting from sleep deprivation ; secondly, the physiological ones; and last, the changes in performance and behaviour. (Author)

  20. 21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. 182.1745 Section... GRAS Food Substances § 182.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxy-methylcellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight...

  1. 21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. 182.1745 Section... (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxy-methylcellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. 182.1745 Section... GRAS Food Substances § 182.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxy-methylcellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. 182.1745 Section... GRAS Food Substances § 182.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxy-methylcellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight...

  4. Is the Fungus Magnaporthe Losing DNA Methylation?

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Ken-ichi; Van Vu, Ba; Kadotani, Naoki; Tanaka, Masaki; Murata, Toshiki; Shiina, Kohta; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    The long terminal repeat retrotransposon, Magnaporthe gypsy-like element (MAGGY), has been shown to be targeted for cytosine methylation in a subset of Magnaporthe oryzae field isolates. Analysis of the F1 progeny from a genetic cross between methylation-proficient (Br48) and methylation-deficient (GFSI1-7-2) isolates revealed that methylation of the MAGGY element was governed by a single dominant gene. Positional cloning followed by gene disruption and complementation experiments revealed that the responsible gene was the DNA methyltransferase, MoDMT1, an ortholog of Neurospora crassa Dim-2. A survey of MAGGY methylation in 60 Magnaporthe field isolates revealed that 42 isolates from rice, common millet, wheat, finger millet, and buffelgrass were methylation proficient while 18 isolates from foxtail millet, green bristlegrass, Japanese panicgrass, torpedo grass, Guinea grass, and crabgrass were methylation deficient. Phenotypic analyses showed that MoDMT1 plays no major role in development and pathogenicity of the fungus. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the average copy number of genomic MAGGY elements was not significantly different between methylation-deficient and -proficient field isolates even though the levels of MAGGY transcript were generally higher in the former group. MoDMT1 gene sequences in the methylation-deficient isolates suggested that at least three independent mutations were responsible for the loss of MoDMT1 function. Overall, our data suggest that MoDMT1 is not essential for the natural life cycle of the fungus and raise the possibility that the genus Magnaporthe may be losing the mechanism of DNA methylation on the evolutionary time scale. PMID:23979580

  5. Case report: obstructive sleep apnea--an air safety risk.

    PubMed

    Panton, S; Norup, P W; Videbaek, R

    1997-12-01

    Aviation safety reports indicate that many incidents are related to fatigue. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by irregular snoring with repeated apnea episodes during sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness. Deprived of sleep, patients suffer from daytime sleepiness and involuntary sleep attacks. The prevalence of OSA among adult men is more than one percent, 0.5% in women. Predisposed are men aged 40-65 yr. Many patients, including pilots, are unaware of their sleeping disturbance and the symptoms are not easily recognized. Therefore, this condition may not be discovered during a regular health examination. However, this condition can be effectively treated. In our opinion, pilots suffering from OSA do not necessarily have to lose their certificate. Diagnosis and treatment can be conducted, followed by regular check-ups. We suggest that questions about sleep be included in pilots' health examinations.

  6. Identifying sleep regulatory genes using a Drosophila model of insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Seugnet, Laurent; Suzuki, Yasuko; Thimgan, Matthew; Donlea, Jeff; Gimbel, Sarah I.; Gottschalk, Laura; Duntley, Steve P.; Shaw, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that sleep must serve an essential biological function, little is known about molecules that underlie sleep regulation. Given that insomnia is a common sleep disorder that disrupts the ability to initiate and maintain restorative sleep, a better understanding of its molecular underpinning may provide crucial insights into sleep regulatory processes. Thus, we created a line of flies using laboratory selection that share traits with human insomnia. After 60 generations insomnia-like (ins-l) flies sleep 60 min a day, exhibit difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and show evidence of daytime cognitive impairment. ins-l flies are also hyperactive and hyper responsive to environmental perturbations. In addition they have difficulty maintaining their balance, have elevated levels of dopamine, are short-lived and show increased levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. While their core molecular clock remains intact, ins-l flies lose their ability to sleep when placed into constant darkness. Whole genome profiling identified genes that are modified in ins-l flies. Among those differentially expressed transcripts genes involved in metabolism, neuronal activity, and sensory perception constituted over-represented categories. We demonstrate that two of these genes are upregulated in human subjects following acute sleep deprivation. Together these data indicate that the ins-l flies are a useful tool that can be used to identify molecules important for sleep regulation and may provide insights into both the causes and long-term consequences of insomnia. PMID:19494137

  7. Sleep Disorders Associated with Primary Mitochondrial Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani, Ryan J.; Stacpoole, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Primary mitochondrial diseases are caused by heritable or spontaneous mutations in nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA. Such pathological mutations are relatively common in humans and may lead to neurological and neuromuscular complication that could compromise normal sleep behavior. To gain insight into the potential impact of primary mitochondrial disease and sleep pathology, we reviewed the relevant English language literature in which abnormal sleep was reported in association with a mitochondrial disease. Design: We examined publications reported in Web of Science and PubMed from February 1976 through January 2014, and identified 54 patients with a proven or suspected primary mitochondrial disorder who were evaluated for sleep disturbances. Measurements and Results: Both nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA mutations were associated with abnormal sleep patterns. Most subjects who underwent polysomnography had central sleep apnea, and only 5 patients had obstructive sleep apnea. Twenty-four patients showed decreased ventilatory drive in response to hypoxia and/or hypercapnia that was not considered due to weakness of the intrinsic muscles of respiration. Conclusions: Sleep pathology may be an underreported complication of primary mitochondrial diseases. The probable underlying mechanism is cellular energy failure causing both central neurological and peripheral neuromuscular degenerative changes that commonly present as central sleep apnea and poor ventilatory response to hypercapnia. Increased recognition of the genetics and clinical manifestations of mitochondrial diseases by sleep researchers and clinicians is important in the evaluation and treatment of all patients with sleep disturbances. Prospective population-based studies are required to determine the true prevalence of mitochondrial energy failure in subjects with sleep disorders, and conversely, of individuals with primary mitochondrial diseases and sleep pathology. Citation: Ramezani RJ

  8. Ancestral sleep.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Moreno, Claudia; Lowden, Arne; Louzada, Fernando; Marqueze, Elaine; Levandovski, Rosa; Pilz, Luisa K; Valeggia, Claudia; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Golombek, Diego A; Czeisler, Charles A; Skene, Debra J; Duffy, Jeanne F; Roenneberg, Till

    2016-04-04

    While we do not yet understand all the functions of sleep, its critical role for normal physiology and behaviour is evident. Its amount and temporal pattern depend on species and condition. Humans sleep about a third of the day with the longest, consolidated episode during the night. The change in lifestyle from hunter-gatherers via agricultural communities to densely populated industrialized centres has certainly affected sleep, and a major concern in the medical community is the impact of insufficient sleep on health [1,2]. One of the causal mechanisms leading to insufficient sleep is altered exposure to the natural light-dark cycle. This includes the wide availability of electric light, attenuated exposure to daylight within buildings, and evening use of light-emitting devices, all of which decrease the strength of natural light-dark signals that entrain circadian systems [3]. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep-Dependent Consolidation of Procedural Motor Memories in Children and Adults: The Pre-Sleep Level of Performance Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Ines; Metzkow-Meszaros, Maila; Knapp, Susanne; Born, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In striking contrast to adults, in children sleep following training a motor task did not induce the expected (offline) gain in motor skill performance in previous studies. Children normally perform at distinctly lower levels than adults. Moreover, evidence in adults suggests that sleep dependent offline gains in skill essentially depend on the…

  10. Sleep-Dependent Consolidation of Procedural Motor Memories in Children and Adults: The Pre-Sleep Level of Performance Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Ines; Metzkow-Meszaros, Maila; Knapp, Susanne; Born, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In striking contrast to adults, in children sleep following training a motor task did not induce the expected (offline) gain in motor skill performance in previous studies. Children normally perform at distinctly lower levels than adults. Moreover, evidence in adults suggests that sleep dependent offline gains in skill essentially depend on the…

  11. Physically Active Rats Lose More Weight during Calorie Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Smyers, Mark E.; Bachir, Kailey Z.; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Novak, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Daily physical activity shows substantial inter-individual variation, and low physical activity is associated with obesity and weight gain. Elevated physical activity is also associated with high intrinsic aerobic capacity, which confers considerable metabolic health benefits. Rats artificially selected for high intrinsic aerobic capacity (high-capacity runners, HCR) are more physically active than their low-capacity counterparts (low-capacity runners, LCR). To test the hypothesis that physical activity counters metabolic thriftiness, we measured physical activity and weight loss during three weeks of 50% calorie restriction (CR) in the HCR and LCR rat lines. At baseline, HCR ate more and were more active than LCR; this was seen in male rats, where LCR are considerably heavier than HCR, as well as in a set of female rats where body weight did not differ between the lines, demonstrating that this effect is consistent across sex and not secondary to body weight. We show for the first time that HCR lose more weight than LCR relative to baseline. Physical activity levels declined throughout CR, and this was more pronounced in HCR than in LCR, yet some aspects of activity remained elevated in HCR relative to LCR even during CR. This is consistent with the idea that low physical activity contributes to metabolic thriftiness during food restriction, allowing LCR to defend body mass, particularly lean mass. This has implications for physical activity during diet-induced weight loss, the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in weight loss during a diet, and the potential evolutionary opposition between metabolic thriftiness and aerobic capacity. PMID:25449411

  12. Medicines for sleep

    MedlinePlus

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... are commonly used to treat allergies. While these sleep aids are not addictive, your body becomes used ...

  13. SLEEP - Williams wearing sleep net

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-05-12

    STS090-377-011 (17 APRIL-3 MAY 1998) --- Astronaut Dafydd R. (Dave) Williams, mission specialist representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), accomplishes more than one purpose when he sleeps in this bunk aboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia. Conducting a Neurolab sleep experiment, Williams wears equipment which includes a sleep net (mesh cap that monitors and records brain waves); a Respiratory Inductance Plethysmograph (RIP) suit for monitoring respiration; and an activity monitor -- a device (out of view) worn on the wrist to detect and record body movement. Data on brain waves, eye movements, respiration, heart rate, and oxygen concentration are routed to a portable data recorder. The entire system has capabilities similar to a fully equipped sleep laboratory on Earth. The sleeping bag is conventional Shuttle ware and not part of the experiment.

  14. Too hot to sleep? Sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of Wahlberg's Epauletted Fruit Bat.

    PubMed

    Downs, Colleen T; Awuah, Adwoa; Jordaan, Maryna; Magagula, Londiwe; Mkhize, Truth; Paine, Christine; Raymond-Bourret, Esmaella; Hart, Lorinda A

    2015-01-01

    The significance of sleep and factors that affect it have been well documented, however, in light of global climate change the effect of temperature on sleep patterns has only recently gained attention. Unlike many mammals, bats (order: Chiroptera) are nocturnal and little is known about their sleep and the effects of ambient temperature (Ta) on their sleep. Consequently we investigated seasonal temperature effects on sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of free-ranging Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi, at a tree roost. Sleep behaviours of E. wahlbergi were recorded, including: sleep duration and sleep incidences (i.e. one eye open and both eyes closed). Sleep differed significantly across all the individuals in terms of sleep duration and sleep incidences. Individuals generally spent more time awake than sleeping. The percentage of each day bats spent asleep was significantly higher during winter (27.6%), compared with summer (15.6%). In summer, 20.7% of the sleeping bats used one eye open sleep, and this is possibly the first evidence of one-eye-sleep in non-marine mammals. Sleep duration decreased with extreme heat as bats spent significantly more time trying to cool by licking their fur, spreading their wings and panting. Skin temperatures of E. wahlbergi were significantly higher when Ta was ≥35°C and no bats slept at these high temperatures. Consequently extremely hot days negatively impact roosting fruit bats, as they were forced to be awake to cool themselves. This has implications for these bats given predicted climate change scenarios.

  15. Sleep Restriction Therapy and Hypnotic Withdrawal versus Sleep Hygiene Education in Hypnotic Using Patients with Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Daniel J.; Schmidt-Nowara, Wolfgang; Jessop, Carol A.; Ahearn, John

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insomnia is a common problem that affects 9% to 15% of the population chronically. The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate that 8 weekly sessions of sleep restriction therapy of insomnia combined with hypnotic reduction instructions following a single session of sleep hygiene education would result in greater improvements in sleep and hypnotic use than sleep hygiene education alone. Methods: Forty-six men and women were recruited from a sleep medicine practice and randomly assigned to sleep hygiene education plus 8 weeks of sleep restriction and hypnotic withdrawal (SR+HW; n = 24), or a sleep hygiene education alone (SHE; n = 22) condition. Pre-randomization, all patients received a single session of instruction in good sleep habits (sleep hygiene education). Results: The SR+HW condition had greater improvements in hypnotic medication usage, sleep onset latency, morning wake time, sleep efficiency, and wake time after sleep onset (trend), than the SHE condition. Continued improvement was seen in TST in the SR+HW group at 6-month follow-up, and gains on all other variables were maintained at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Conclusions: These results provide evidence that more intensive treatment of insomnia (i.e., 8 sessions of SR+HW plus hypnotic withdrawal instructions) results in better outcomes than SHE alone. Citation: Taylor DJ; Schmidt-Nowara W; Jessop CA; Ahearn J. Sleep restriction therapy and hypnotic withdrawal versus sleep hygiene education in hypnotic using patients with insomnia. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(2):169-175. PMID:20411695

  16. Vegetarian Diet: Will It Help Me Lose Weight?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lifestyle Weight loss If I switch to a vegetarian diet, will I lose weight? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. Not necessarily. A vegetarian diet is not inherently a weight-loss diet, ...

  17. The cost of defeat: Capuchin groups travel further, faster and later after losing conflicts with neighbors.

    PubMed

    Crofoot, Margaret C

    2013-09-01

    Although competition between social groups is central to hypotheses about the evolution of human social organization, competitive interactions among group-mates are thought to play a more dominant role in shaping the behavior and ecology of other primate species. However, few studies have directly tested the impact of intergroup conflicts in non-human primates. What is the cost of defeat? To address this question, the movements of six neighboring white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus) social groups living on Barro Colorado Island, Panama were tracked simultaneously using an Automated Radio Telemetry System (ARTS), for a period of six months. Groups moved 13% (441 m) further on days they lost interactions compared with days they won interactions. To cover these larger distances, they traveled faster, stopped less frequently, and remained active later in the evening. Defeat also caused groups to alter their patterns of space use. Losing groups had straighter travel paths than winning groups, larger net displacements and were more likely to change their sleeping site. These results demonstrate that losing groups pay increased travel costs and suggest that they forage in low-quality areas. They provide some of the first direct evidence that intergroup conflicts have important energetic consequences for members of competitively unsuccessful primate social groups. A better understanding of how intergroup competition impacts patterns of individual fitness is thus needed to clarify the role that this group-level process plays in shaping the evolution of human- and non-human primate behavior.

  18. Troubled sleep

    PubMed Central

    Haig, David

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted sleep is probably the most common complaint of parents with a new baby. Night waking increases in the second half of the first year of infant life and is more pronounced for breastfed infants. Sleep-related phenotypes of infants with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes suggest that imprinted genes of paternal origin promote greater wakefulness whereas imprinted genes of maternal origin favor more consolidated sleep. All these observations are consistent with a hypothesis that waking at night to suckle is an adaptation of infants to extend their mothers’ lactational amenorrhea, thus delaying the birth of a younger sib and enhancing infant survival. PMID:24610432

  19. The Influence of Sleep Disordered Breathing on Weight Loss in a National Weight Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Janney, Carol A.; Kilbourne, Amy M.; Germain, Anne; Lai, Zongshan; Hoerster, Katherine D.; Goodrich, David E.; Klingaman, Elizabeth A.; Verchinina, Lilia; Richardson, Caroline R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the influence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) on weight loss in overweight/obese veterans enrolled in MOVE!, a nationally implemented behavioral weight management program delivered by the National Veterans Health Administration health system. Methods: This observational study evaluated weight loss by SDB status in overweight/obese veterans enrolled in MOVE! from May 2008–February 2012 who had at least two MOVE! visits, baseline weight, and at least one follow-up weight (n = 84,770). SDB was defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Primary outcome was weight change (lb) from MOVE! enrollment to 6- and 12-mo assessments. Weight change over time was modeled with repeated-measures analyses. Results: SDB was diagnosed in one-third of the cohort (n = 28,269). At baseline, veterans with SDB weighed 29 [48] lb more than those without SDB (P < 0.001). On average, veterans attended eight MOVE! visits. Weight loss patterns over time were statistically different between veterans with and without SDB (P < 0.001); veterans with SDB lost less weight (−2.5 [0.1] lb) compared to those without SDB (−3.3 [0.1] lb; P = 0.001) at 6 months. At 12 mo, veterans with SDB continued to lose weight whereas veterans without SDB started to re-gain weight. Conclusions: Veterans with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) had significantly less weight loss over time than veterans without SDB. SDB should be considered in the development and implementation of weight loss programs due to its high prevalence and negative effect on health. Citation: Janney CA, Kilbourne AM, Germain A, Lai Z, Hoerster KD, Goodrich DE, Klingaman EA, Verchinina L, Richardson CR. The influence of sleep disordered breathing on weight loss in a national weight management program. SLEEP 2016;39(1):59–65. PMID:26350475

  20. Physical and psychological consequences of weight gain.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, I

    1999-01-01

    Obesity and overweight are clearly associated with many serious conditions, including type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. Excess weight also increases the risk of death. Recent evidence suggests that weight gain itself, even if persons remain within the "normal" weight range, also increases the risk of medical illnesses and premature death. Persons who gain 5.0 to 7.9 kg (11 to 17.3 lb) as adults are 1.9 times more likely to develop type II diabetes mellitus and 1.25 times more likely to develop coronary heart disease than those who lose weight or maintain a stable weight after age 18 years. Gaining 11 to 20 kg (24.2 to 44 lb) or more in adulthood increases the risk of ischemic stroke 1.69 to 2.52 times. The relationship between weight gain and breast cancer has been difficult to study, primarily because postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy can mask the effect of weight gain on cancer risk. Accordingly, weight gain in adulthood has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer only among women who have never used hormone replacement therapy. In addition to its adverse effects on disease outcomes, weight gain also impairs physical functioning, reduces quality of life, and is associated with poor mental health. These psychological and mental health consequences of weight gain can become an added burden for patients with schizophrenia and other mental disorders.

  1. Sleep Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... body and brain shut down for rest and relaxation True False Correct! Incorrect! Although it is a time when your body rests and restores its energy levels, sleep is an active state that affects both your physical and mental ...

  2. Sleep Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... body and brain shut down for rest and relaxation. _____2 . If you regularly doze off unintentionally during ... and restores its energy levels, sleep is an active state that affects both your physical and mental ...

  3. Exercise & Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Back to School, the Healthy Way Exercise & Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... helps kids. Photo: iStock 6 "Bests" About Kids' Exercise At least one hour of physical activity a ...

  4. Sleep Disorders (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... anxiety and the patient's age. Stress caused by learning the cancer diagnosis often causes sleeping problems. Stress, ... control and sleep restriction to work for you. Learning good sleep habits is important. Good sleep habits ...

  5. Sleeping during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Sleeping During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Sleeping During Pregnancy ... have trouble getting enough deep, uninterrupted sleep. Why Sleeping Can Be Difficult The first and most pressing ...

  6. Sleep Apnea Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Sleep > Sleep Apnea Detection Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Sleep Apnea Detection Page Content Article Body Sleep apnea ...

  7. Polysomnography (Sleep Study)

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosed with a sleep disorder. Polysomnography monitors your sleep stages and cycles to identify if or when your ... normal process of falling asleep begins with a sleep stage called non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. During ...

  8. Sleep Apnea (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Obstructive Sleep Apnea KidsHealth > For Parents > Obstructive Sleep Apnea Print ... kids and teens can develop it, too. About Sleep Apnea Sleep apnea happens when a person stops ...

  9. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  10. Pediatric sleep apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... During sleep, all of the muscles in the body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep ...

  11. Sleep and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Sleep and Aging About Sleep We all look forward to a good night's ... health and quality of life. Two Types of Sleep There are two types of sleep: non-rapid ...

  12. Sleep Terrors (Night Terrors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... factors can contribute to sleep terrors, such as: Sleep deprivation and extreme tiredness Stress Fever (in children) Sleeping in unfamiliar surroundings Lights or noise An overfull bladder Sleep terrors sometimes are associated with underlying conditions that ...

  13. American Sleep Apnea Association

    MedlinePlus

    American Sleep Apnea Association Learn About the CPAP Assistance Program About ASAA News about ASAA Who we are Leadership Team Supporting the ASAA Financials Learn Healthy sleep Sleep apnea Other sleep disorders Personal stories Treat Test Yourself ...

  14. Electroencephalographic studies of sleep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. B.; Agnew, H. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Various experimental studies on sleep are described. The following areas are discussed: (1) effect of altered day length on sleep, (2) effect of a partial loss of sleep on subsequent nocturnal sleep; (3) effect of rigid control over sleep-wake-up times; (4) sleep and wakefulness in a time-free environment; (5) distribution of spindles during a full night of sleep; and (6) effect on sleep and performance of swiftly changing shifts of work.

  15. Sleep in Othello

    PubMed Central

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep. Citation: Dimsdale JE. Sleep in Othello. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):280-281. PMID:19960651

  16. Voluntary Self-Control of Sleep to Facilitate Quasi-Continuous Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    sleep stages , etc. (2) Electrodermal Activity and Heart Rate. Inclusion of electro- dermal activity and heart rate recordings into laboratory nap...of sleep and wakefulness, electrodermal activity , heart rate, and oral temperature. (1) EEG and Related Sleep /Wakefulness Measures. Electroen...its multiphasic structure, and the need for specific sleep stages , little insight has been gained into the association between sleep and recovery from

  17. Sleep Tips: 7 Steps to Better Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn every night. Consider simple tips for better sleep, from setting a sleep schedule to including physical activity in your daily ... factors that can interfere with a good night's sleep — from work stress and family responsibilities to unexpected ...

  18. Losing more by losing it: poker experience, sensitivity to losses and tilting severity.

    PubMed

    Palomäki, Jussi; Laakasuo, Michael; Salmela, Mikko

    2014-03-01

    In poker, detrimental decision-making as a result of losing control due to negative emotions is known as tilting. Previous evidence suggests that poker experience is related to better emotion regulation in dealing with poker losses, and possibly to reduced severity of tilting in the game. A correlational on-line study (N = 417) was conducted to operationalize the tilting phenomenon by defining certain experiential characteristics that conceivably protect players from tilting or predispose them to it. These characteristics, as well as a measurement of poker experience, were then used in predicting the severity of tilting. It was hypothesized that (1) players with more poker experience are more likely to perceive having tilted less severely, as a result of accumulating poker experience; (2) players with more poker experience have lower severity of tilting; (3) players with more poker experience report lower emotional sensitivity to losses; and (4) players with a higher emotional sensitivity to losses have higher severity of tilting. Hypotheses 1 and 4 were supported, hypothesis 3 was weakly supported, but contrary to hypothesis 2, poker experience was associated with higher tilting severity. It is argued that these results are sensible if experienced players are less likely to tilt in relative terms, per single hand, but more likely to tilt in the long run.

  19. Assessment of sleep in patients with fibromyalgia: qualitative development of the fibromyalgia sleep diary

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Sleep disturbance is a common experience in fibromyalgia (FM). The field lacks a sleep specific patient reported outcome (PRO) measure developed and validated in a FM population. The study objective is to gain an in-depth understanding of sleep in FM and to develop a PRO measure of it. Methods Research involved the following stages: 1) A literature review conducted to identify key concepts associated with FM patient experience of sleep and PRO measures that have been used to assess this; 2) Qualitative interviews with therapeutic area experts; 3) Focus groups with FM patients who experienced sleep disturbance; 4) Development of a conceptual framework and the Fibromyalgia Sleep Diary (FMSD); and 5) Cognitive interviews with patients to explore content validity of the FMSD. Results The literature review and expert interviews supported sleep disturbance being an important aspect of the FM patient experience, and underscored the need for a new FM specific sleep PRO measure. Results from the focus groups demonstrated that FM patients experience sleep disturbances that they attribute to their FM symptoms, such as pain and stiffness, confirming the importance of understanding more about sleep changes. Aspects of sleep raised by FM patients included poor sleep quality and insufficient quantity including difficulty with falling asleep, getting comfortable, and staying asleep; restlessness; light sleep; not feeling rested upon awakening; and difficulty starting the day. Cognitive interview results showed that the 8-item FMSD, developed to reflect the concepts identified above, was relevant to FM patients with content that was interpreted as intended. Conclusions The FMSD was developed in line with the recommendations of the FDA PRO guidance and ISPOR PRO Task Force. The qualitative evidence generated thus far strongly supports the content validity of the FMSD as a PRO measure of sleep disturbance in FM populations. Psychometric evaluation of the FMSD to

  20. Why radiologists lose their hospital contracts: is your contract secure?

    PubMed

    Muroff, Lawrence R

    2010-03-01

    Previously, a hospital contract meant tenure for the incumbent group of radiologists; however, those days are long gone. Exclusive contracts have morphed into exclusive contracts with carve-outs. Turf erosion has become a fact of life for radiology practices. Now radiologists are losing their hospital contracts in record numbers. Group size, though helpful for a variety of reasons, does not ensure that a practice will be secure in its hospital setting. The reasons that groups lose their hospital contracts are varied, and in this paper, the author discusses the most common ones. Suggestions to help practices avoid this unfortunate fate are presented.

  1. Sleep and immune function.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Freda DeKeyser

    2012-04-01

    Scientists are only beginning to fully understand the purpose of sleep and its underlying mechanisms. Lack of sleep is associated with many diseases, including infection, and with increased mortality. Lack of proper sleep is an important problem in the intensive care unit, and interventions have been designed to improve it. Sleep is associated with immune function, and this relationship is partially based on the physiological basis of sleep, sleep architecture, the sleep-wake cycle, cytokines and the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

  2. IR gain monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Bryan

    2013-10-01

    The gain of the IR channel of WFC3 will be measured using a series of internal flat fields. Using knowledge gained from ground testing and previous cycles, we propose to collect flat field ramps which will be used to create photon transfer curves and give a measure of the gain. This continues the strategy of last cycle's gain monitor, in proposal 13080.

  3. Neuroimmunologic aspects of sleep and sleep loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, N. L.; Szuba, M. P.; Staab, J. P.; Evans, D. L.; Dinges, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    The complex and intimate interactions between the sleep and immune systems have been the focus of study for several years. Immune factors, particularly the interleukins, regulate sleep and in turn are altered by sleep and sleep deprivation. The sleep-wake cycle likewise regulates normal functioning of the immune system. Although a large number of studies have focused on the relationship between the immune system and sleep, relatively few studies have examined the effects of sleep deprivation on immune parameters. Studies of sleep deprivation's effects are important for several reasons. First, in the 21st century, various societal pressures require humans to work longer and sleep less. Sleep deprivation is becoming an occupational hazard in many industries. Second, to garner a greater understanding of the regulatory effects of sleep on the immune system, one must understand the consequences of sleep deprivation on the immune system. Significant detrimental effects on immune functioning can be seen after a few days of total sleep deprivation or even several days of partial sleep deprivation. Interestingly, not all of the changes in immune physiology that occur as a result of sleep deprivation appear to be negative. Numerous medical disorders involving the immune system are associated with changes in the sleep-wake physiology--either being caused by sleep dysfunction or being exacerbated by sleep disruption. These disorders include infectious diseases, fibromyalgia, cancers, and major depressive disorder. In this article, we will describe the relationships between sleep physiology and the immune system, in states of health and disease. Interspersed will be proposals for future research that may illuminate the clinical relevance of the relationships between sleeping, sleep loss and immune function in humans. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  4. Neuroimmunologic aspects of sleep and sleep loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, N. L.; Szuba, M. P.; Staab, J. P.; Evans, D. L.; Dinges, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    The complex and intimate interactions between the sleep and immune systems have been the focus of study for several years. Immune factors, particularly the interleukins, regulate sleep and in turn are altered by sleep and sleep deprivation. The sleep-wake cycle likewise regulates normal functioning of the immune system. Although a large number of studies have focused on the relationship between the immune system and sleep, relatively few studies have examined the effects of sleep deprivation on immune parameters. Studies of sleep deprivation's effects are important for several reasons. First, in the 21st century, various societal pressures require humans to work longer and sleep less. Sleep deprivation is becoming an occupational hazard in many industries. Second, to garner a greater understanding of the regulatory effects of sleep on the immune system, one must understand the consequences of sleep deprivation on the immune system. Significant detrimental effects on immune functioning can be seen after a few days of total sleep deprivation or even several days of partial sleep deprivation. Interestingly, not all of the changes in immune physiology that occur as a result of sleep deprivation appear to be negative. Numerous medical disorders involving the immune system are associated with changes in the sleep-wake physiology--either being caused by sleep dysfunction or being exacerbated by sleep disruption. These disorders include infectious diseases, fibromyalgia, cancers, and major depressive disorder. In this article, we will describe the relationships between sleep physiology and the immune system, in states of health and disease. Interspersed will be proposals for future research that may illuminate the clinical relevance of the relationships between sleeping, sleep loss and immune function in humans. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  5. Sleep Applications to Assess Sleep Quality.

    PubMed

    Fietze, Ingo

    2016-12-01

    This article highlights the potential uses that smartphone applications may have for helping those with sleep problems. Applications in smartphones offer the promised possibility of detection of sleep. From the author's own experience, one can also conclude that sleep applications are approximately as good as polysomnography in detection of sleep time, similar to the conventional wearable actimeters. In the future, sleep applications will help to further enhance awareness of sleep health and to distinguish those who actually poorly and only briefly sleep from those who suffer more likely from paradox insomnia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Learning to Lose: Weight Loss Classes and Personal Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Adult learning takes place not only in educational organisations, but through participation in leisure and special interest groups. Commercially operated weight management organisations recruit large numbers of adults to their classes to learn how to eat healthily and lose weight. They publish readers' "real life" success stories in their…

  7. They Snooze, You Lose: The Educator's Guide to Successful Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burmark, Lynell

    2011-01-01

    In today's increasingly visual world, the art of giving presentations is a much-needed talent. "They Snooze, You Lose", provides a comprehensive guide made especially for teachers and administrators who want to become presentation "stars" in their classrooms, at board meetings, or any time they are in front of an audience. This book describes how…

  8. 5 CFR 352.205 - Appeal of losing agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 352.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights Based on Movement Between Executive Agencies During Emergencies § 352.205 Appeal of losing agency. An appointing officer who intends to employ with reemployment rights an...

  9. 5 CFR 352.205 - Appeal of losing agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 352.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights Based on Movement Between Executive Agencies During Emergencies § 352.205 Appeal of losing agency. An appointing officer who intends to employ with reemployment rights an...

  10. 5 CFR 352.205 - Appeal of losing agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 352.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights Based on Movement Between Executive Agencies During Emergencies § 352.205 Appeal of losing agency. An appointing officer who intends to employ with reemployment rights an...

  11. 5 CFR 352.205 - Appeal of losing agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 352.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights Based on Movement Between Executive Agencies During Emergencies § 352.205 Appeal of losing agency. An appointing officer who intends to employ with reemployment rights an...

  12. 5 CFR 352.205 - Appeal of losing agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 352.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights Based on Movement Between Executive Agencies During Emergencies § 352.205 Appeal of losing agency. An appointing officer who intends to employ with reemployment rights an...

  13. Learning to Lose: Weight Loss Classes and Personal Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Adult learning takes place not only in educational organisations, but through participation in leisure and special interest groups. Commercially operated weight management organisations recruit large numbers of adults to their classes to learn how to eat healthily and lose weight. They publish readers' "real life" success stories in their…

  14. Losing Something In Translation: Turning Requirements Into Specifications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    something like, “The snake fell out of the tree , onto the baby and ate him.” As audience members gasp in revulsion, they hear the punchline, “It loses...that a carnivorous snake in the tree or a colorful rib- bon floating in the breeze? Is the baby being eaten alive or is he simply giggling in delight

  15. Meaning-Making through Narrative: On Not Losing the Plot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Terry

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the process of meaning-making from within the "narrative" mode and in particular considers the difficulty or even impossibility, in certain kinds of organisational and social situations, of constructing viable narratives. This experience is sometimes referred to as "losing the plot", hence the subtitle of…

  16. We're Losing Our Minds: Rethinking American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.; Hersh, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    America is being held back by the quality and quantity of learning in college. This is a true educational emergency! Many college graduates cannot think critically, write effectively, solve problems, understand complex issues, or meet employers' expectations. We are losing our minds--and endangering our social, economic, and scientific leadership.…

  17. Meaning-Making through Narrative: On Not Losing the Plot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Terry

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the process of meaning-making from within the "narrative" mode and in particular considers the difficulty or even impossibility, in certain kinds of organisational and social situations, of constructing viable narratives. This experience is sometimes referred to as "losing the plot", hence the subtitle of…

  18. Analysis of "Babar Loses His Crown." Technical Report No. 169.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, G. M.; And Others

    This report presents the text analysis of "Babar Loses His Crown," a story for beginning readers. (The techniques used in arriving at the analysis are presented in a Reading Center Technical Report, Number 168, "Problems and Techniques of Text Analysis.") Tables are given for a statistical lexical analysis and for a syntactic…

  19. They Snooze, You Lose: The Educator's Guide to Successful Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burmark, Lynell

    2011-01-01

    In today's increasingly visual world, the art of giving presentations is a much-needed talent. "They Snooze, You Lose", provides a comprehensive guide made especially for teachers and administrators who want to become presentation "stars" in their classrooms, at board meetings, or any time they are in front of an audience. This book describes how…

  20. We're Losing Our Minds: Rethinking American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.; Hersh, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    America is being held back by the quality and quantity of learning in college. This is a true educational emergency! Many college graduates cannot think critically, write effectively, solve problems, understand complex issues, or meet employers' expectations. We are losing our minds--and endangering our social, economic, and scientific leadership.…

  1. [Sleep: regulation and phenomenology].

    PubMed

    Vecchierini, M-F

    2013-12-01

    This article describes the two-process model of sleep regulation. The 24-hour sleep-wake cycle is regulated by a homeostatic process and an endogenous, 2 oscillators, circadian process, under the influence of external synchronisers. These two processes are partially independent but influence each other, as shown in the two-sleep-process auto-regulation model. A reciprocal inhibition model of two interconnected neuronal groups, "SP on" and "SP off", explains the regular recurrence of paradoxical sleep. Sleep studies have primarily depended on observation of the subject and have determined the optimal conditions for sleep (position, external conditions, sleep duration and need) and have studied the consequences of sleep deprivation or modifications of sleep schedules. Then, electrophysiological recordings permitted the classification of sleep stages according to the observed EEG patterns. The course of a night's sleep is reported on a "hypnogram". The adult subject falls asleep in non-REM sleep (N1), then sleep deepens progressively to stages N2 and N3 with the appearance of spindles and slow waves (N2). Slow waves become more numerous in stage N3. Every 90minutes REM sleep recurs, with muscle atonia and rapid eye movements. These adult sleep patterns develop progressively during the 2 first years of life as total sleep duration decreases, with the reduction of diurnal sleep and of REM sleep. Around 2 to 4 months, spindles and K complexes appear on the EEG, with the differentiation of light and deep sleep with, however, a predominance of slow wave sleep.

  2. REM sleep behavior disorder and other sleep disturbances in Disney animated films.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, Alex; Schenck, Carlos H; Fonte, Jorge

    2007-08-01

    During a viewing of Disney's animated film Cinderella (1950), one author (AI) noticed a dog having nightmares with dream-enactment that strongly resembled RBD. This prompted a study in which all Disney classic full-length animated films and shorts were analyzed for other examples of RBD. Three additional dogs were found with presumed RBD in the classic films Lady and the Tramp (1955) and The Fox and the Hound (1981), and in the short Pluto's Judgment Day (1935). These dogs were elderly males who would pant, whine, snuffle, howl, laugh, paddle, kick, and propel themselves while dreaming that they were chasing someone or running away. In Lady and the Tramp the dog was also losing both his sense of smell and his memory, two associated features of human RBD. These four films were released before RBD was first formally described in humans and dogs. In addition, systematic viewing of the Disney films identified a broad range of sleep disorders, including nightmares, sleepwalking, sleep related seizures, disruptive snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia and circadian rhythm sleep disorder. These sleep disorders were inserted as comic elements. The inclusion of a broad range of accurately depicted sleep disorders in these films indicates that the Disney screenwriters were astute observers of sleep and its disorders.

  3. Role of Sleep and Sleep Loss in Hormonal Release and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Leproult, Rachel; Van Cauter, Eve

    2011-01-01

    Compared to a few decades ago, adults, as well as children, sleep less. Sleeping as little as possible is often seen as an admirable behavior in contemporary society. However, sleep plays a major role in neuroendocrine function and glucose metabolism. Evidence that the curtailment of sleep duration may have adverse health effects has emerged in the past 10 years. Accumulating evidence from both epidemiologic studies and well-controlled laboratory studies indicates that chronic partial sleep loss may increase the risk of obesity and weight gain. The present chapter reviews epidemiologic studies in adults and children and laboratory studies in young adults indicating that sleep restriction results in metabolic and endocrine alterations, including decreased glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased evening concentrations of cortisol, increased levels of ghrelin, decreased levels of leptin and increased hunger and appetite. Altogether, the evidence points to a possible role of decreased sleep duration in the current epidemic of obesity. Bedtime extension in short sleepers should be explored as a novel behavioral intervention that may prevent weight gain or facilitate weight loss. Avoiding sleep deprivation may help to prevent the development of obesity, particularly in children. PMID:19955752

  4. Role of sleep and sleep loss in hormonal release and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Leproult, Rachel; Van Cauter, Eve

    2010-01-01

    Compared to a few decades ago, adults, as well as children, sleep less. Sleeping as little as possible is often seen as an admirable behavior in contemporary society. However, sleep plays a major role in neuroendocrine function and glucose metabolism. Evidence that the curtailment of sleep duration may have adverse health effects has emerged in the past 10 years. Accumulating evidence from both epidemiologic studies and well-controlled laboratory studies indicates that chronic partial sleep loss may increase the risk of obesity and weight gain. The present chapter reviews epidemiologic studies in adults and children and laboratory studies in young adults indicating that sleep restriction results in metabolic and endocrine alterations, including decreased glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased evening concentrations of cortisol, increased levels of ghrelin, decreased levels of leptin and increased hunger and appetite. Altogether, the evidence points to a possible role of decreased sleep duration in the current epidemic of obesity. Bedtime extension in short sleepers should be explored as a novel behavioral intervention that may prevent weight gain or facilitate weight loss. Avoiding sleep deprivation may help to prevent the development of obesity, particularly in children. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Resting metabolic rate varies by race and by sleep duration

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Dinges, David F; Goel, Namni

    2015-01-01

    Objective Short sleep duration is a significant risk factor for weight gain, particularly in African Americans and men. Increased caloric intake underlies this relationship but it remains unclear whether decreased energy expenditure is a contributory factor. The current study assessed the impact of sleep restriction and recovery sleep on energy expenditure in African American and Caucasian men and women. Methods Healthy adults participated in a controlled laboratory study. After two baseline sleep nights, subjects were randomized to an experimental (n=36; 4h sleep/night for 5 nights followed by 1 night 12h recovery sleep) or control condition (n=11; 10h sleep/night). Resting metabolic rate and respiratory quotient were measured using indirect calorimetry in the morning after overnight fasting. Results Resting metabolic rate—the largest component of energy expenditure—decreased after sleep restriction (−2.6%, p=0.032) and returned to baseline levels after recovery sleep. No changes in resting metabolic rate were observed in control subjects. Relative to Caucasians (n=14), African Americans (n=22) exhibited comparable daily caloric intake but a lower resting metabolic rate (p=0.043) and higher respiratory quotient (p=0.013) regardless of sleep duration. Conclusions Sleep restriction decreased morning resting metabolic rate in healthy adults, suggesting that sleep loss leads to metabolic changes aimed at conserving energy. PMID:26538305

  6. Resting metabolic rate varies by race and by sleep duration.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Dinges, David F; Goel, Namni

    2015-12-01

    Short sleep duration is a significant risk factor for weight gain, particularly in African Americans and men. Increased caloric intake underlies this relationship, but it remains unclear whether decreased energy expenditure is a contributory factor. The current study assessed the impact of sleep restriction and recovery sleep on energy expenditure in African American and Caucasian men and women. Healthy adults participated in a controlled laboratory study. After two baseline sleep nights, subjects were randomized to an experimental (n = 36; 4 h sleep/night for five nights followed by one night with 12 h recovery sleep) or control condition (n = 11; 10 h sleep/night). Resting metabolic rate and respiratory quotient were measured using indirect calorimetry in the morning after overnight fasting. Resting metabolic rate-the largest component of energy expenditure-decreased after sleep restriction (-2.6%, P = 0.032) and returned to baseline levels after recovery sleep. No changes in resting metabolic rate were observed in control subjects. Relative to Caucasians (n = 14), African Americans (n = 22) exhibited comparable daily caloric intake but a lower resting metabolic rate (P = 0.043) and higher respiratory quotient (P = 0.013) regardless of sleep duration. Sleep restriction decreased morning resting metabolic rate in healthy adults, suggesting that sleep loss leads to metabolic changes aimed at conserving energy. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  7. The Neurobiology of Orofacial Pain and Sleep and Their Interactions.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, G J; Sessle, B J

    2016-09-01

    This article provides an overview of the neurobiology of orofacial pain as well as the neural processes underlying sleep, with a particular focus on the mechanisms that underlie pain and sleep interactions including sleep disorders. Acute pain is part of a hypervigilance system that alerts the individual to injury or potential injury of tissues. It can also disturb sleep. Disrupted sleep is often associated with chronic pain states, including those that occur in the orofacial region. The article presents many insights that have been gained in the last few decades into the peripheral and central mechanisms involved in orofacial pain and its modulation, as well as the circuits and processes in the central nervous system that underlie sleep. Although it has become clear that sleep is essential to preserve and maintain health, it has also been found that pain, particularly chronic pain, is commonly associated with disturbed sleep. In the presence of chronic pain, a circular relationship may prevail, with mutual deleterious influences causing an increase in pain and a disruption of sleep. This article also reviews findings that indicate that reducing orofacial pain and improving sleep need to be targeted together in the management of acute to chronic orofacial pain states in order to improve an orofacial pain patient's quality of life, to prevent mood alterations or exacerbation of sleep disorder (e.g., insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing) that can negatively affect their pain, and to promote healing and optimize their health.

  8. Crewmembers sleeping in sleep restraints

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-08-29

    STS085-327-026 (7 - 19 August 1997) --- Payload specialist Bjarni V. Tryggvason, representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), sleeps on the Space Shuttle Discovery's mid-deck floor. Tryggvason elected to not use a pillow, allowing his head to float freely in the Microgravity environment.

  9. Sleep-obesity relation: underlying mechanisms and consequences for treatment.

    PubMed

    St-Onge, M-P

    2017-02-01

    Short sleep duration has been associated with obesity in numerous epidemiological studies. However, such association studies cannot establish evidence of causality. Clinical intervention studies, on the other hand, can provide information on a causal effect of sleep duration on markers of weight gain: energy intake and energy expenditure. Herein is an overview of the science related to the impact of sleep restriction, in the context of clinical intervention studies, on energy intake, energy expenditure and body weight. Additionally, studies that evaluate the impact of sleep restriction on weight loss and the impact of sleep extension on appetite are discussed. Information to date suggests that weight management is hindered when attempted in the context of sleep restriction, and the public should be made aware of the negative consequences of sleep restriction for weight regulation. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  10. Increased food intake and changes in metabolic hormones in response to chronic sleep restriction alternated with short periods of sleep allowance.

    PubMed

    Barf, R Paulien; Desprez, Tifany; Meerlo, Peter; Scheurink, Anton J W

    2012-01-01

    Rodent models for sleep restriction have good face validity when examining food intake and related regulatory metabolic hormones. However, in contrast to epidemiological studies in which sleep restriction is associated with body weight gain, sleep-restricted rats show a decrease in body weight. This difference with the human situation might be caused by the alternation between periods of sleep restriction and sleep allowance that often occur in real life. Therefore, we assessed the metabolic consequences of a chronic sleep restriction protocol that modeled working weeks with restricted sleep time alternated by weekends with sleep allowance. We hypothesized that this protocol could lead to body weight gain. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sleep restriction (SR), forced activity control (FA), and home cage control (HC). SR rats were subjected to chronic sleep restriction by keeping them awake for 20 h per day in slowly rotating drums. To model the human condition, rats were subjected to a 4-wk protocol, with each week consisting of a 5-day period of sleep restriction followed by a 2-day period of sleep allowance. During the first experimental week, SR caused a clear attenuation of growth. In subsequent weeks, two important processes occurred: 1) a remarkable increase in food intake during SR days, 2) an increase in weight gain during the weekends of sleep allowance, even though food intake during those days was comparable to controls. In conclusion, our data revealed that the alternation between periods of sleep restriction and sleep allowance leads to complex changes in food intake and body weight, that prevent the weight loss normally seen in continuous sleep-restricted rats. Therefore, this "week-weekend" protocol may be a better model to study the metabolic consequences of restricted sleep.

  11. [How to characterize and treat sleep complaints in bipolar disorders?

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, P A; Micoulaud Franchi, J-A; Lopez, R; Poirot, I; Brion, A; Royant-Parola, S; Etain, B

    2017-08-01

    Sleep complaints are very common in bipolar disorders (BD) both during acute phases (manic and depressive episodes) and remission (about 80 % of patients with remitted BD have poor sleep quality). Sleep complaints during remission are of particular importance since they are associated with more mood relapses and worse outcomes. In this context, this review discusses the characterization and treatment of sleep complaints in BD. We examined the international scientific literature in June 2016 and performed a literature search with PubMed electronic database using the following headings: "bipolar disorder" and ("sleep" or "insomnia" or "hypersomnia" or "circadian" or "apnoea" or "apnea" or "restless legs"). Patients with BD suffer from sleep and circadian rhythm abnormalities during major depressive episodes (insomnia or hypersomnia, nightmares, nocturnal and/or early awakenings, non-restorative sleep) and manic episodes (insomnia, decreased need for sleep without fatigue), but also some of these abnormalities may persist during remission. These remission phases are characterized by a reduced quality and quantity of sleep, with a longer sleep duration, increased sleep latency, a lengthening of the wake time after sleep onset (WASO), a decrease of sleep efficiency, and greater variability in sleep/wake rhythms. Patients also present frequent sleep comorbidities: chronic insomnia, sleepiness, sleep phase delay syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), and restless legs syndrome (RLS). These disorders are insufficiently diagnosed and treated whereas they are associated with mood relapses, treatment resistance, affect cognitive global functioning, reduce the quality of life, and contribute to weight gain or metabolic syndrome. Sleep and circadian rhythm abnormalities have been also associated with suicidal behaviors. Therefore, a clinical exploration with characterization of these abnormalities and disorders is essential. This exploration should be

  12. Shifting from Implicit to Explicit Knowledge: Different Roles of Early- and Late-Night Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf; Bataghva, Zhamak; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    Sleep has been shown to promote the generation of explicit knowledge as indicated by the gain of insight into previously unrecognized task regularities. Here, we explored whether this generation of explicit knowledge depends on pre-sleep implicit knowledge, and specified the differential roles of slow-wave sleep (SWS) vs. rapid eye movement (REM)…

  13. Shifting from Implicit to Explicit Knowledge: Different Roles of Early- and Late-Night Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf; Bataghva, Zhamak; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    Sleep has been shown to promote the generation of explicit knowledge as indicated by the gain of insight into previously unrecognized task regularities. Here, we explored whether this generation of explicit knowledge depends on pre-sleep implicit knowledge, and specified the differential roles of slow-wave sleep (SWS) vs. rapid eye movement (REM)…

  14. Chronic sleep deprivation and seasonality: implications for the obesity epidemic.

    PubMed

    Cizza, G; Requena, M; Galli, G; de Jonge, L

    2011-11-01

    Sleep duration has progressively fallen over the last 100 years while obesity has increased in the past 30 years. Several studies have reported an association between chronic sleep deprivation and long-term weight gain. Increased energy intake due to sleep loss has been listed as the main mechanism. The consequences of chronic sleep deprivation on energy expenditure have not been fully explored. Sleep, body weight, mood and behavior are subjected to circannual changes. However, in our modern environment seasonal changes in light and ambient temperature are attenuated. Seasonality, defined as cyclic changes in mood and behavior, is a stable personality trait with a strong genetic component. We hypothesize that the attenuation in seasonal changes in the environment may produce negative consequences, especially in individuals more predisposed to seasonality, such as women. Seasonal affective disorder, a condition more common in women and characterized by depressed mood, hypersomnia, weight gain, and carbohydrate craving during the winter, represents an extreme example of seasonality. One of the postulated functions of sleep is energy preservation. Hibernation, a phenomenon characterized by decreased energy expenditure and changes in the state of arousal, may offer useful insight into the mechanisms behind energy preservation during sleep. The goals of this article are to: a) consider the contribution of changes in energy expenditure to the weight gain due to sleep loss; b) review the phenomena of seasonality, hibernation, and their neuroendocrine mechanisms as they relate to sleep, energy expenditure, and body weight regulation.

  15. Chronic sleep deprivation and seasonality: Implications for the obesity epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Cizza, G.; Requena, M.; Galli, G.; de Jonge, L.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep duration has progressively fallen over the last 100 years while obesity has increased in the past 30 years. Several studies have reported an association between chronic sleep deprivation and long-term weight gain. Increased energy intake due to sleep loss has been listed as the main mechanism. The consequences of chronic sleep deprivation on energy expenditure have not been fully explored. Sleep, body weight, mood and behavior are subjected to circannual changes. However, in our modern environment seasonal changes in light and ambient temperature are attenuated. Seasonality, defined as cyclic changes in mood and behavior, is a stable personality trait with a strong genetic component. We hypothesize that the attenuation in seasonal changes in the environment may produce negative consequences, especially in individuals more predisposed to seasonality, such as women. Seasonal affective disorder, a condition more common in women and characterized by depressed mood, hypersomnia, weight gain, and carbohydrate craving during the winter, represents an extreme example of seasonality. One of the postulated functions of sleep is energy preservation. Hibernation, a phenomenon characterized by decreased energy expenditure and changes in the state of arousal, may offer useful insight into the mechanisms behind energy preservation during sleep. The goals of this article are to: a) consider the contribution of changes in energy expenditure to the weight gain due to sleep loss; b) review the phenomena of seasonality, hibernation, and their neuroendocrine mechanisms as they relate to sleep, energy expenditure, and body weight regulation. PMID:21720205

  16. How Much Sleep Is Enough

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Much Sleep Is Enough? The amount of sleep you need ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: June 7, 2017 Sleep Infographic Sleep Disorders & Insufficient Sleep: Improving Health through ...

  17. What Is Sleep Apnea?

    MedlinePlus

    ... CPAP High Blood Pressure Overweight and Obesity Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency Sleep Studies Send a link to ... it because it only occurs during sleep. A family member or bed partner might be the first ...

  18. Changing your sleep habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleep over a 24-hour period. Remember, the quality of sleep and how rested you feel afterward is as ... expect to start your day. Avoid beverages with caffeine or alcohol ... sleep. Find calming, relaxing activities to do before bedtime. ...

  19. Sleep studies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    During a sleep study the sleep cycles and stages of sleep are monitored. Electrodes are placed to monitor continuous recordings of brain waves, electrical activity of muscles, eye movement, respiratory ...

  20. Side Effects: Sleep Problems

    Cancer.gov

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Find out how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleep apnea increase blood pressure and strain the cardiovascular system. Many people with obstructive sleep apnea develop high blood pressure (hypertension), which can increase the risk of heart disease. The more severe the obstructive sleep apnea, the ...

  2. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Sleep and Sleep Disorders Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Data Source Projects and Partners Resources For Clinicians Sleep and Chronic Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  3. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep Do you ever feel sleepy or "zone out" ... The Future Tips for a Good Night's Sleep Sleep: A Dynamic Activity Until the 1950s, most people ...

  4. Treatments for Sleep Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contributing medical factors Non-drug strategies Medications Common sleep changes Many people with Alzheimer’s experience changes in ... at night. Subscribe now Non-drug treatments for sleep changes Non-drug treatments aim to improve sleep ...

  5. IR Gain Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Bryan

    2012-10-01

    The gain of the IR channel of WFC3 will be measured using a series of internal flat fields. Using knowledge gained from ground testing and previous cycles, we propose to collect flat field ramps which will be used to create photon transfer curves and give a measure of the gain.

  6. Notch signaling modulates sleep homeostasis and learning after sleep deprivation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Seugnet, Laurent; Suzuki, Yasuko; Merlin, Gabriel; Gottschalk, Laura; Duntley, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The role of the trans-membrane receptor Notch in the adult brain is poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that bunched, a negative regulator of Notch is involved in sleep homeostasis. Genetic evidence indicates that interfering with bunched activity in the mushroom bodies (MBs) abolishes sleep homeostasis. Combining bunched and Delta loss-of-function mutations rescued normal homeostasis, suggesting that Notch signaling may be involved in regulating sensitivity to sleep loss. Preventing the down regulation of Delta by over-expressing a wild-type transgene in MBs reduces sleep homeostasis and, importantly, prevents learning impairments induced by sleep deprivation. Similar resistance to sleep loss is observed with the Notchspl-1 gain-of-function mutants. Immunohistochemistry reveals that the Notch receptor is expressed in glia, whereas Delta is localized in neurons. Importantly the expression of the intracellular domain of Notch, a dominant activated form of the receptor, in glia is sufficient to prevent learning deficits after sleep deprivation. Together these results identify a novel neuronal-glia signalling pathway dependent on Notch and regulated by bunched. These data highlight the emerging role of neuron-glia interactions in regulating both sleep and learning impairments associated with sleep loss. PMID:21549599

  7. Too Hot to Sleep? Sleep Behaviour and Surface Body Temperature of Wahlberg’s Epauletted Fruit Bat

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Colleen T.; Awuah, Adwoa; Jordaan, Maryna; Magagula, Londiwe; Mkhize, Truth; Paine, Christine; Raymond-Bourret, Esmaella; Hart, Lorinda A.

    2015-01-01

    The significance of sleep and factors that affect it have been well documented, however, in light of global climate change the effect of temperature on sleep patterns has only recently gained attention. Unlike many mammals, bats (order: Chiroptera) are nocturnal and little is known about their sleep and the effects of ambient temperature (Ta) on their sleep. Consequently we investigated seasonal temperature effects on sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of free-ranging Wahlberg’s epauletted fruit bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi, at a tree roost. Sleep behaviours of E. wahlbergi were recorded, including: sleep duration and sleep incidences (i.e. one eye open and both eyes closed). Sleep differed significantly across all the individuals in terms of sleep duration and sleep incidences. Individuals generally spent more time awake than sleeping. The percentage of each day bats spent asleep was significantly higher during winter (27.6%), compared with summer (15.6%). In summer, 20.7% of the sleeping bats used one eye open sleep, and this is possibly the first evidence of one-eye-sleep in non-marine mammals. Sleep duration decreased with extreme heat as bats spent significantly more time trying to cool by licking their fur, spreading their wings and panting. Skin temperatures of E. wahlbergi were significantly higher when Ta was ≥35°C and no bats slept at these high temperatures. Consequently extremely hot days negatively impact roosting fruit bats, as they were forced to be awake to cool themselves. This has implications for these bats given predicted climate change scenarios. PMID:25775371

  8. Sleep Pharmacogenetics: Personalized Sleep-Wake Therapy.

    PubMed

    Holst, Sebastian C; Valomon, Amandine; Landolt, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Research spanning (genetically engineered) animal models, healthy volunteers, and sleep-disordered patients has identified the neurotransmitters and neuromodulators dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, histamine, hypocretin, melatonin, glutamate, acetylcholine, γ-amino-butyric acid, and adenosine as important players in the regulation and maintenance of sleep-wake-dependent changes in neuronal activity and the sleep-wake continuum. Dysregulation of these neurochemical systems leads to sleep-wake disorders. Most currently available pharmacological treatments are symptomatic rather than causal, and their beneficial and adverse effects are often variable and in part genetically determined. To evaluate opportunities for evidence-based personalized medicine with present and future sleep-wake therapeutics, we review here the impact of known genetic variants affecting exposure of and sensitivity to drugs targeting the neurochemistry of sleep-wake regulation and the pathophysiology of sleep-wake disturbances. Many functional polymorphisms modify drug response phenotypes relevant for sleep. To corroborate the importance of these and newly identified variants for personalized sleep-wake therapy, human sleep pharmacogenetics should be complemented with pharmacogenomic investigations, research about sleep-wake-dependent pharmacological actions, and studies in mice lacking specific genes. These strategies, together with future knowledge about epigenetic mechanisms affecting sleep-wake physiology and treatment outcomes, may lead to potent and safe novel therapies for the increasing number of sleep-disordered patients (e.g., in aged populations).

  9. The ambivalence of losing weight after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Warholm, Christine; Marie Øien, Aud; Råheim, Målfrid

    2014-01-01

    This study is grounded in a phenomenological lifeworld perspective. It aims at providing rich descriptions of lived experience of the process of losing weight after obesity surgery. Two women participated in in-depth interviews four times each during the first postoperative year. Based on the women's experiences, a meaning structure--the ambivalence of losing weight after obesity surgery--was identified across the women's processes of change. This consisted of five core themes: movement and activity--freedom but new demands and old restraints; eating habits and digestion--the complexity of change; appearance--smaller, but looser; social relations--stability and change; and being oneself--vulnerability and self-assurance. These core themes changed over time in terms of dominance. The experience of ambivalence is discussed according to a phenomenological perspective of the body as lived experience.

  10. Retractile mesenteritis presenting as protein-losing gastroenteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Bahe; Duerksen, Donald R

    2006-01-01

    Retractile mesenteritis is a rare, idiopathic condition characterized by nonspecific inflammation of the mesenteric adipose tissue. The majority of patients present with abdominal pain and/or a palpable mass. In the present report, a 68-year-old man with peripheral edema and mild hypoalbuminemia is presented. Protein-losing gastroenteropathy was confirmed with an abnormal stool alpha1-antitrypsin clearance test and retractile mesenteritis was diagnosed at laparoscopy. This rare condition may respond to therapy with corticosteroids, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, colchicine, progesterone, tamoxifen or thalidomide. Gastroenterologists should consider the diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy in patients who present with unexplained peripheral edema or hypoalbuminemia. The test of choice to confirm this diagnosis is the stool alpha1-antitrypsin clearance test. PMID:17171198

  11. My Daughter's Gain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Maura

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author relates her and her husband's dilemma in letting their child Hannah live in a residential home. Hannah has electrical status epilecticus during sleep (ESES), or Tassinaris syndrome, a seizure disorder that emerges in the mid- to late-toddler years. Individuals with Tassinaris syndrome often display the sudden onset of…

  12. Losing Thomas & Ella: A Father's Story (A Research Comic).

    PubMed

    Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B

    2015-10-14

    "Losing Thomas & Ella" presents a research comic about one father's perinatal loss of twins. The comic recounts Paul's experience of the hospital and the babies' deaths, and it details the complex grieving process afterward, including themes of anger, distance, relationship stress, self-blame, religious challenges, and resignation. A methodological appendix explains the process of constructing the comic and provides a rationale for the use of comics-based research for illness, death, and grief among practitioners, policy makers, and the bereaved.

  13. Sleep and motor learning: Is there room for consolidation?

    PubMed

    Pan, Steven C; Rickard, Timothy C

    2015-07-01

    It is widely believed that sleep is critical to the consolidation of learning and memory. In some skill domains, performance has been shown to improve by 20% or more following sleep, suggesting that sleep enhances learning. However, recent work suggests that those performance gains may be driven by several factors that are unrelated to sleep consolidation, inviting a reconsideration of sleep's theoretical role in the consolidation of procedural memories. Here we report the first comprehensive investigation of that possibility for the case of motor sequence learning. Quantitative meta-analyses involving 34 articles, 88 experimental groups and 1,296 subjects confirmed the empirical pattern of a large performance gain following sleep and a significantly smaller gain following wakefulness. However, the results also confirm strong moderating effects of 4 previously hypothesized variables: averaging in the calculation of prepost gain scores, build-up of reactive inhibition over training, time of testing, and training duration, along with 1 supplemental variable, elderly status. With those variables accounted for, there was no evidence that sleep enhances learning. Thus, the literature speaks against, rather than for, the enhancement hypothesis. Overall there was relatively better performance after sleep than after wakefulness, suggesting that sleep may stabilize memory. That effect, however, was not consistent across different experimental designs. We conclude that sleep does not enhance motor learning and that the role of sleep in the stabilization of memory cannot be conclusively determined based on the literature to date. We discuss challenges and opportunities for the field, make recommendations for improved experimental design, and suggest approaches to data analysis that eliminate confounds due to averaging over online learning. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Losing a valued member of the medical practice team.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Losing a valued member of your staff can be disruptive, painful, and costly to your medical practice. And despite your best intentions and impeccable employee management policies and skills, things will happen beyond your control, and people move on. Being prepared for that possibility will help you minimize and contain the damage and move your practice forward. This article suggests 15 strategies that you can use to mitigate the effects of losing a valued employee. These include strategies to protect your practice's interests and several that will smooth the transition for your remaining staff. This article also describes 10 ways that losing a valued employee can impact a practice. It offers 10 additional strategies to help you cope with the death of an employee, one of the most difficult challenges a practice manager may ever face. This article further suggests several easy-to-implement practice management techniques that will help you soften the blow of employee turnover. It offers a sample farewell letter to announce an employee's departure from your practice and suggests six knowledge transfer questions to ask before the employee leaves. Finally, this article provides a comprehensive list of more than 30 thoughtful, eye-opening, and revealing questions that you can ask in an employee exit interview or exit survey.

  15. Sleep: A Health Imperative

    PubMed Central

    Luyster, Faith S.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Walsh, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic sleep deficiency, defined as a state of inadequate or mistimed sleep, is a growing and underappreciated determinant of health status. Sleep deprivation contributes to a number of molecular, immune, and neural changes that play a role in disease development, independent of primary sleep disorders. These changes in biological processes in response to chronic sleep deficiency may serve as etiological factors for the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and, ultimately, a shortened lifespan. Sleep deprivation also results in significant impairments in cognitive and motor performance which increase the risk of motor vehicle crashes and work-related injuries and fatal accidents. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society have developed this statement to communicate to national health stakeholders the current knowledge which ties sufficient sleep and circadian alignment in adults to health. Citation: Luyster FS; Strollo PJ; Zee PC; Walsh JK. Sleep: a health imperative. SLEEP 2012;35(6):727-734. PMID:22654183

  16. College residential sleep environment.

    PubMed

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Hartley, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    College students regularly report increased sleep disturbances as well as concomitant reductions in performance (e.g., academic grades) upon entering college. Sleep hygiene refers to healthy sleep practices that are commonly used as first interventions in sleep disturbances. One widely used practice of this sort involves arranging the sleep environment to minimize disturbances from excessive noise and light at bedtime. Communal sleep situations such as those in college residence halls do not easily support this intervention. Following several focus groups, a questionnaire was designed to gather self-reported information on sleep disturbances in a college population. The present study used The Young Adult Sleep Environment Inventory (YASEI) and sleep logs to investigate the sleep environment of college students living in residential halls. A summary of responses indicated that noise and light are significant sleep disturbances in these environments. Recommendations are presented related to these findings.

  17. Sleep problems in children.

    PubMed

    Baweja, R; Calhoun, S; Baweja, R; Singareddy, R

    2013-10-01

    Sleep complaints and sleep disorders are common during childhood and adolescence. The impact of not getting enough sleep may affect children's' physical health as well emotional, cognitive and social development. Insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, parasomnias and sleep disturbances associated with medical and psychiatric disorders are some of the commonly encountered sleep disorders in this age group. Changes in sleep architecture and the amount of sleep requirement associated with each stage of development should be considered during an evaluation of sleep disorders in children. Behavioral treatments should be used initially wherever possible especially considering that most pharmacologic agents used to treat pediatric sleep disorders are off-label. In this review we address the most common sleep problems in children/adolescents as they relate to prevalence, presentation and symptoms, evaluation and management.

  18. Genetics of Sleep and Sleep disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Amita; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Sleep remains one of the least understood phenomena in biology – even its role in synaptic plasticity remains debatable. Since sleep was recognized to be regulated genetically, intense research has launched on two fronts: the development of model organisms for deciphering the molecular mechanisms of sleep and attempts to identify genetic underpinnings of human sleep disorders. In this Review, we describe how unbiased, high-throughput screens in model organisms are uncovering sleep regulatory mechanisms and how pathways, such as the circadian clock network and specific neurotransmitter signals, have conserved effects on sleep from Drosophila to humans. At the same time, genome-wide association (GWA) studies have uncovered ~14 loci increasing susceptibility to sleep disorders, such as narcolepsy and restless leg syndrome. To conclude, we discuss how these different strategies will be critical to unambiguously defining the function of sleep. PMID:21784243

  19. Impact of sleep and sleep loss on glucose homeostasis and appetite regulation

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Kristen L

    2007-01-01

    Synopsis Over the past 30 years there has been an increase in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes, both of which can have serious consequences for longevity and quality of life. Sleep durations may have also decreased over this time period. This chapter reviews laboratory and epidemiologic evidence for an association between sleep loss and impairments in glucose metabolism and appetite regulation, which could increase the risk of diabetes or weight gain. PMID:18516218

  20. Motor memory in childhood: early expression of consolidation phase gains.

    PubMed

    Ashtamker, Lilach; Karni, Avi

    2013-11-01

    Are children faster than adults in consolidating procedural knowledge? In adults, the expression of the full benefits of motor practice requires a few hours of consolidation and sleep. Here we show that, although the processes generating the delayed gains continued beyond the first few hours post-training, children expressed significant gains as early as 1 h post-training, in the awake state. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Labile sleep promotes awareness of abstract knowledge in a serial reaction time task

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, Roumen; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf; Yordanova, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Sleep has been identified as a critical brain state enhancing the probability of gaining insight into covert task regularities. Both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have been implicated with offline re-activation and reorganization of memories supporting explicit knowledge generation. According to two-stage models of sleep function, offline processing of information during sleep is sequential requiring multiple cycles of NREM and REM sleep stages. However, the role of overnight dynamic sleep macrostructure for insightfulness has not been studied so far. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that the frequency of interactions between NREM and REM sleep stages might be critical for awareness after sleep. For that aim, the rate of sleep stage transitions was evaluated in 53 participants who learned implicitly a serial reaction time task (SRTT) in which a determined sequence was inserted. The amount of explicit knowledge about the sequence was established by verbal recall after a night of sleep following SRTT learning. Polysomnography was recorded in this night and in a control night before and was analyzed to compare the rate of sleep-stage transitions between participants who did or did not gain awareness of task regularity after sleep. Indeed, individual ability of explicit knowledge generation was strongly associated with increased rate of transitions between NREM and REM sleep stages and between light sleep stages and slow wave sleep. However, the rate of NREM–REM transitions specifically predicted the amount of explicit knowledge after sleep in a trait-dependent way. These results demonstrate that enhanced lability of sleep goes along with individual ability of knowledge awareness. Observations suggest that facilitated dynamic interactions between sleep stages, particularly between NREM and REM sleep stages play a role for offline processing which promotes rule extraction and awareness. PMID:26441730

  2. Labile sleep promotes awareness of abstract knowledge in a serial reaction time task.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Roumen; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf; Yordanova, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Sleep has been identified as a critical brain state enhancing the probability of gaining insight into covert task regularities. Both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have been implicated with offline re-activation and reorganization of memories supporting explicit knowledge generation. According to two-stage models of sleep function, offline processing of information during sleep is sequential requiring multiple cycles of NREM and REM sleep stages. However, the role of overnight dynamic sleep macrostructure for insightfulness has not been studied so far. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that the frequency of interactions between NREM and REM sleep stages might be critical for awareness after sleep. For that aim, the rate of sleep stage transitions was evaluated in 53 participants who learned implicitly a serial reaction time task (SRTT) in which a determined sequence was inserted. The amount of explicit knowledge about the sequence was established by verbal recall after a night of sleep following SRTT learning. Polysomnography was recorded in this night and in a control night before and was analyzed to compare the rate of sleep-stage transitions between participants who did or did not gain awareness of task regularity after sleep. Indeed, individual ability of explicit knowledge generation was strongly associated with increased rate of transitions between NREM and REM sleep stages and between light sleep stages and slow wave sleep. However, the rate of NREM-REM transitions specifically predicted the amount of explicit knowledge after sleep in a trait-dependent way. These results demonstrate that enhanced lability of sleep goes along with individual ability of knowledge awareness. Observations suggest that facilitated dynamic interactions between sleep stages, particularly between NREM and REM sleep stages play a role for offline processing which promotes rule extraction and awareness.

  3. Pharmacological REM sleep suppression paradoxically improves rather than impairs skill memory.

    PubMed

    Rasch, Björn; Pommer, Julian; Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan

    2009-04-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been considered important for consolidation of memories, particularly of skills. Contrary to expectations, we found that REM sleep suppression by administration of selective serotonin or norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitors after training did not impair consolidation of skills or word-pairs in healthy men but rather enhanced gains in finger tapping accuracy together with sleep spindles. Our results indicate that REM sleep as a unitary phenomenon is not required for skill-memory consolidation.

  4. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  5. A reassessment of the hyperphagia/weight-loss paradox during sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Martins, Paulo J F; D'Almeida, Vânia; Nobrega, José N; Tufik, Sergio

    2006-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is a well-known paradigm to investigate the deleterious effects of prolonged wakefulness. Previous studies have shown that, during sleep deprivation, rats are hyperphagic but, paradoxically, lose body weight. This phenomenon has been attributed to increased metabolism. However, most previous studies have failed to account for food spillage, which may be considerable during sleep deprivation. In the present study, we revisited the issue of feeding changes in sleep-deprived rats and introduced different procedures to allow accurate estimation of food spillage prior to, during, and after 120 hours of sleep deprivation by a single platform technique. Animal Sleep Research Laboratory, Psychobiology Department, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil. The main finding was that, once corrected for spillage, food intake was not significantly increased during sleep deprivation. Increases in food removed from feeders were accompanied by proportional increases in food spillage, resulting in no net changes in food intake. Further, weight loss did occur during the sleep-deprivation period, especially in the first 24 hours, and it was actually explained by a reduction in food intake. The hyperphagia/weight-loss paradox previously seen during prolonged sleep deprivation does not necessarily occur with shorter periods of deprivation. Although we found no evidence of hyperphagia for up to 5 days of sleep deprivation in chow-fed rats, our data suggest that an impairment in the ability to increase food intake in response to increased energy expenditure contributes to the energy deficit during sleep deprivation in rats.

  6. Sleep and Obesity: A focus on animal models

    PubMed Central

    Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.; Teske, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid rise in obesity prevalence in the modern world parallels a significant reduction in restorative sleep (Agras et al., 2004; Dixon et al., 2007; Dixon et al., 2001; Gangwisch and Heymsfield, 2004; Gupta et al., 2002; Sekine et al., 2002; Vioque et al., 2000; Wolk et al., 2003). Reduced sleep time and quality increases the risk for obesity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear (Gangwisch et al., 2005; Hicks et al., 1986; Imaki et al., 2002; Jennings et al., 2007; Moreno et al., 2006). A majority of the theories linking human sleep disturbances and obesity rely on self-reported sleep. However, studies with objective measurements of sleep/wake parameters suggest a U-shaped relationship between sleep and obesity. Studies in animal models are needed to improve our understanding of the association between sleep disturbances and obesity. Genetic and experimenter-induced models mimicking characteristics of human obesity are now available and these animal models will be useful in understanding whether sleep disturbances determine propensity for obesity, or result from obesity. These models exhibit weight gain profiles consistently different from control animals. Thus a careful evaluation of animal models will provide insight into the relationship between sleep disturbances and obesity in humans. In this review we first briefly consider the fundamentals of sleep and key sleep disturbances, such as sleep fragmentation and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), observed in obese individuals. Then we consider sleep deprivation studies and the role of circadian alterations in obesity. We describe sleep/wake changes in various rodent models of obesity and obesity resistance. Finally, we discuss possible mechanisms linking sleep disturbances with obesity. PMID:22266350

  7. Sleep and obesity: a focus on animal models.

    PubMed

    Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M; Teske, Jennifer A

    2012-03-01

    The rapid rise in obesity prevalence in the modern world parallels a significant reduction in restorative sleep (Agras et al., 2004; Dixon et al., 2007, 2001; Gangwisch and Heymsfield, 2004; Gupta et al., 2002; Sekine et al., 2002; Vioque et al., 2000; Wolk et al., 2003). Reduced sleep time and quality increases the risk for obesity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear (Gangwisch et al., 2005; Hicks et al., 1986; Imaki et al., 2002; Jennings et al., 2007; Moreno et al., 2006). A majority of the theories linking human sleep disturbances and obesity rely on self-reported sleep. However, studies with objective measurements of sleep/wake parameters suggest a U-shaped relationship between sleep and obesity. Studies in animal models are needed to improve our understanding of the association between sleep disturbances and obesity. Genetic and experimenter-induced models mimicking characteristics of human obesity are now available and these animal models will be useful in understanding whether sleep disturbances determine propensity for obesity, or result from obesity. These models exhibit weight gain profiles consistently different from control animals. Thus a careful evaluation of animal models will provide insight into the relationship between sleep disturbances and obesity in humans. In this review we first briefly consider the fundamentals of sleep and key sleep disturbances, such as sleep fragmentation and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), observed in obese individuals. Then we consider sleep deprivation studies and the role of circadian alterations in obesity. We describe sleep/wake changes in various rodent models of obesity and obesity resistance. Finally, we discuss possible mechanisms linking sleep disturbances with obesity.

  8. Adolescents' Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…

  9. Adolescents' Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…

  10. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  11. Metabolic consequences of chronic sleep restriction in rats: changes in body weight regulation and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Barf, R P; Van Dijk, G; Scheurink, A J W; Hoffmann, K; Novati, A; Hulshof, H J; Fuchs, E; Meerlo, P

    2012-10-10

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk to develop obesity. In animal studies, however, sleep restriction leads to an attenuation of weight gain that cannot be explained by changes in energy intake. In the present study, we assessed whether the attenuated weight gain under conditions of restricted sleep is a consequence of an overall increase in energy expenditure. Adult male rats were subjected to a schedule of chronic sleep restriction (SR) for 8 days with a 4h window of unrestricted rest per day. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings were performed to quantify the effect of the sleep restriction schedule on sleep-wake patterns. In a separate experiment, we measured sleep restriction-induced changes in body weight, food intake, and regulatory hormones such as glucose, insulin, leptin and corticosterone. To investigate whether a change in energy expenditure underlies the attenuation of weight gain, energy expenditure was measured by the doubly labeled water method from day 5 until day 8 of the SR protocol. Results show a clear attenuation of weight gain during sleep restriction but no change in food intake. Baseline plasma glucose, insulin and leptin levels are decreased after sleep restriction which presumably reflects the nutritional status of the rats. The daily energy expenditure during SR was significantly increased compared to control rats. Together, we conclude that the attenuation of body weight gain in sleep restricted rats is explained by an overall increase in energy expenditure together with an unaltered energy intake. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Sleep-related psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Frase, Lukas; Sixt, Barbara; Nissen, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 19-year-old male student with a Kleine-Levin syndrome who was referred to our sleep laboratory during an episode of hypersomnia, hypersexuality, cognitive impairment and bizarre behaviour. Owing to similar clinical symptoms, he had been misdiagnosed with schizophrenia. This had led to a placement in a facility for persons with chronic schizophrenia, antipsychotic pharmacotherapy for 4 years and side effects, including substantial weight gain and hypertension. After cessation of the antipsychotic medication, the weight and blood pressure normalised. We started a prophylactic treatment with lithium under which the patient had become asymptomatic and had been able to begin a vocational training since treatment. PMID:23839606

  13. Deep sleep after social stress: NREM sleep slow-wave activity is enhanced in both winners and losers of a conflict.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Jeanine; Lancel, Marike; Koolhaas, Jaap M; Meerlo, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Sleep is considered to be a recovery process of prior wakefulness. Not only duration of the waking period affects sleep architecture and sleep EEG, the quality of wakefulness is also highly important. Studies in rats have shown that social defeat stress, in which experimental animals are attacked and defeated by a dominant conspecific, is followed by an acute increase in NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA). However, it is not known whether this effect is specific for the stress of social defeat or a result of the conflict per se. In the present experiment, we examined how sleep is affected in both the winners and losers of a social conflict. Sleep-wake patterns and sleep EEG were recorded in male wild-type Groningen rats that were subjected to 1h of social conflict in the middle of the light phase. All animals were confronted with a conspecific of similar aggression level and the conflict took place in a neutral arena where both individuals had an equal chance to either win or lose the conflict. NREM sleep SWA was significantly increased after the social conflict compared to baseline values and a gentle stimulation control condition. REM sleep was significantly suppressed in the first hours after the conflict. Winners and losers did not differ significantly in NREM sleep time, NREM sleep SWA and REM sleep time immediately after the conflict. Losers tended to have slightly more NREM sleep later in the recovery period. This study shows that in rats a social conflict with an unpredictable outcome has quantitatively and qualitatively largely similar acute effects on subsequent sleep in winners and losers.

  14. INFLUENCE OF SLEEP ON OBESITY IN CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Anton-Paduraru, Dana-teodora; Teslariu, Oana; Mocanu, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a global epidemic with long term implications. The main cause of obesity is an increase in calorie intake and a decrease in physical activity, but also there is clear evidence suggesting a link between the duration and quality of sleep and obesity risk. Good sleep habits are involved in increased ability to concentrate at school, improvement of general state, immune system development, increased quality of life. On the other hand, there are several mechanisms by which chronic sleep deprivation induces weight gain: disturbance of hormones that control hunger center, increased time for meals, reduced physical activity, metabolic changes. Recently, nighttime sleep duration has declined, in contrast with the increasing prevalence of obesity. Childhood sleep habits have a long term effect on weight, with repercussions even into adulthood. This is the reason why there is increasing interest to include sleep quality on the list for childhood obesity prevention. Sleep represents an important and independent risk factor of obesity in children and adolescents and it should be taken into consideration in the management of obesity.

  15. Re-examining sleep׳s effect on motor skills: How to access performance on the finger tapping task?

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro Pereira, Sofia Isabel; Beijamini, Felipe; Vincenzi, Roberta Almeida; Louzada, Fernando Mazzilli

    2015-01-01

    Here our goal was to determine the magnitude of sleep-related motor skill enhancement. Performance on the finger tapping task (FTT) was evaluated after a 90 min daytime nap (n=15) or after quiet wakefulness (n=15). By introducing a slight modification in the formula used to calculate the offline gains we were able to refine the estimated magnitude of sleep׳s effect on motor skills. The raw value of improvement after a nap decreased after this correction (from ~15% to ~5%), but remained significantly higher than the control. These results suggest that sleep does indeed play a role in motor skill consolidation. PMID:26483936

  16. Sleep and Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newborns should get 14 to 17 hours of sleep over a 24-hour period, says the National Sleep Foundation . Some newborns may sleep up to 18 ... breastfeeding is firmly established. continue Helping Your Newborn Sleep Newborns follow their own schedule. Over the next couple of weeks to months, you ...

  17. Employees with Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) lists over 84 different types of sleep disorders that affect the body’s normal cycle of ... factor in the occurrence (Haran, 2005). Sleep Apnea: Over 12 million Americans have sleep apnea; it is more common in men over ...

  18. Sleep and Infant Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Balsam, Peter D.; Fifer, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Human neonates spend the majority of their time sleeping. Despite the limited waking hours available for environmental exploration, the first few months of life are a time of rapid learning about the environment. The organization of neonate sleep differs qualitatively from adult sleep, and the unique characteristics of neonatal sleep may promote…

  19. Sleeping with an Android

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Sleep quality and duration are strong indicators of an individual’s health and quality of lifebut they are difficult to track in everyday life. Mobile apps such as Sleep as Android leverage smartphone sensors to track sleep patterns and make recommendations to improve sleeping habits. PMID:28293622

  20. Sleep and Infant Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Balsam, Peter D.; Fifer, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Human neonates spend the majority of their time sleeping. Despite the limited waking hours available for environmental exploration, the first few months of life are a time of rapid learning about the environment. The organization of neonate sleep differs qualitatively from adult sleep, and the unique characteristics of neonatal sleep may promote…

  1. Dietary nutrients associated with short and long sleep duration. Data from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Grandner, Michael A; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R; Knutson, Kristen L

    2013-05-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with weight gain and obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, psychiatric illness, and performance deficits. Likewise, long sleep duration is also associated with poor physical and mental health. The role of a healthy diet in habitual sleep duration represents a largely unexplored pathway linking sleep and health. This study evaluated associations between habitual sleep parameters and dietary/nutritional variables obtained via the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2008. We hypothesized that habitual very short (<5h) short (5-6h) and long (9+h) sleep durations are associated with intake of a number of dietary nutrient variables. Overall, energy intake varied across very short (2036kcal), short (2201kcal), and long (1926kcal) sleep duration, relative to normal (2151kcal) sleep duration (p=0.001). Normal sleep duration was associated with the greatest food variety (17.8), compared to very short (14.0), short (16.5) and long (16.3) sleep duration (p<0.001). Associations between sleep duration were found across nutrient categories, with significant associations between habitual sleep duration and proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. In stepwise analyses, significant contributors of unique variance included theobromine (long sleep RR=0.910, p<0.05), vitamin C (short sleep RR=0.890, p<0.05), tap water (short sleep RR=0.952, p<0.001; very short (<5h) sleep RR=0.941, p<0.05), lutein+zeaxanthin (short sleep RR=1.123, p<0.05), dodecanoic acid (long sleep RR=0.812, p<0.05), choline (long sleep RR=0.450, p=0.001), lycopene (very short (<5h) sleep RR=0.950, p<0.05), total carbohydrate (very short (<5h) sleep RR=0.494, p<0.05; long sleep RR=0.509, p<0.05), selenium (short sleep RR=0.670, p<0.01) and alcohol (long sleep RR=1.172, p<0.01). Overall, many nutrient variables were associated with short and/or long sleep duration, which may be explained by differences in food variety. Future studies should

  2. The Link Between Inadequate Sleep and Obesity in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Perla A

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past decade. Although an imbalance between caloric intake and physical activity is considered a key factor responsible for the increase, there is emerging evidence suggesting that other factors may be important contributors to weight gain, including inadequate sleep. Overall research evidence suggests that inadequate sleep is associated with obesity. Importantly, the strength and trajectory of the association seem to be influenced by multiple factors including age. Although limited, the emerging evidence suggests young adults might be at the center of a "perfect health storm," exposing them to the highest risk for obesity and inadequate sleep. Unfortunately, the methods necessary for elucidating the complex relationship between sleep and obesity are lacking. Uncovering the underlying factors and trajectories between inadequate sleep and weight gain in different populations may help to identify the windows of susceptibility and to design targeted interventions to prevent the negative impact of obesity and related diseases.

  3. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-03-09

    Nurses are accustomed to helping others with their sleep problems and dealing with issues such as pain that may delay or interrupt sleep. However, they may be less familiar with what constitutes a healthy night's sleep. This article examines what is known about the process and purpose of sleep, and examines the ways in which factors that promote wakefulness and sleep combine to help establish a normal circadian rhythm. Theories relating to the function of sleep are discussed and research is considered that suggests that sleep deficit may lead to metabolic risks, including heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and several types of cancer.

  4. [Natural factors influencing sleep].

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.

  5. Sleep and Stroke.

    PubMed

    Mims, Kimberly Nicole; Kirsch, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Evidence increasingly suggests sleep disorders are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular events, including stroke. Strong data correlate untreated sleep apnea with poorer stroke outcomes and more recent evidence implicates sleep disruption as a possible etiology for increased cerebrovascular events. Also, sleep duration may affect incidence of cardiovascular events. In addition, sleep-disordered breathing, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and parasomnias can occur as a result of cerebrovascular events. Treatment of sleep disorders improve sleep-related symptoms and may also improve stroke recovery and risk of future events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Movement disorders and sleep.

    PubMed

    Driver-Dunckley, Erika D; Adler, Charles H

    2012-11-01

    This article summarizes what is currently known about sleep disturbances in several movement disorders including Parkinson disease, essential tremor, parkinsonism, dystonia, Huntington disease, myoclonus, and ataxias. There is an association between movement disorders and sleep. In some cases the prevalence of sleep disorders is much higher in patients with movement disorder, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. In other cases, sleep difficulties worsen the involuntary movements. In many cases the medications used to treat patients with movement disorder disturb sleep or cause daytime sleepiness. The importance of discussing sleep issues in patients with movement disorders cannot be underestimated.

  7. Sleep disorders in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Oyiengo, Dennis; Louis, Mariam; Hott, Beth; Bourjeily, Ghada

    2014-09-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in pregnancy and may be influenced by a multitude of factors. Pregnancy physiology may predispose to sleep disruption but may also result in worsening of some underlying sleep disorders, and the de novo development of others. Apart from sleep disordered breathing, the impact of sleep disorders on pregnancy, fetal, and neonatal outcomes is poorly understood. In this article, we review the literature and discuss available data pertaining to the most common sleep disorders in perinatal women. These include restless legs syndrome, insomnia, circadian pattern disturbances, narcolepsy, and sleep-disordered breathing.

  8. Occupational Sleep Medicine.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Philip; Drake, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms significantly impact almost all aspects of human behavior and are therefore relevant to occupational sleep medicine, which is focused predominantly around workplace productivity, safety, and health. In this article, 5 main factors that influence occupational functioning are reviewed: (1) sleep deprivation, (2) disordered sleep, (3) circadian rhythms, (4) common medical illnesses that affect sleep and sleepiness, and (5) medications that affect sleep and sleepiness. Consequences of disturbed sleep and sleepiness are also reviewed, including cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor functioning and drowsy driving. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep disorders during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pien, Grace W; Schwab, Richard J

    2004-11-01

    This paper reviews the topic of sleep disorders in pregnant women. We describe changes in sleep architecture and sleep pattern during pregnancy, discuss the impact of the physical and biochemical changes of pregnancy on sleep in pregnant women and examine whether maternal-fetal outcomes may be adversely affected in women with disordered sleep. The literature on common sleep disorders affecting pregnant women, including insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing and restless legs syndrome, is reviewed and recommendations are made for the management of these disorders during pregnancy.

  10. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy.

  11. Awareness of knowledge or awareness of processing? Implications for sleep-related memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The present study assessed the effects of awareness at encoding on off-line learning during sleep. A new framework is suggested according to which two aspects of awareness are distinguished: awareness of task information, and awareness of task processing. The number reduction task (NRT) was employed because it has two levels of organization, an overt one based on explicit knowledge of task instructions, and a covert one based on hidden abstract regularities of task structure (implicit knowledge). Each level can be processed consciously (explicitly) or non-consciously (implicitly). Different performance parameters were defined to evaluate changes between two sessions for each of the four conditions of awareness arising from whether explicit or implicit task information was processed explicitly or implicitly. In two groups of subjects, the interval between the pre-sleep and post-sleep sessions was filled either with early-night sleep, rich in slow wave sleep (SWS), or late-night sleep, rich in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Results show that implicit processing of explicit information was improved in the post-sleep relative to the pre-sleep session only in the early-night group. Independently of sleep stage, changes between sessions occurred for explicit processing of implicit information only in those subjects who gained insight into the task regularity after sleep. It is concluded that SWS but not REM sleep specifically supports gains in computational skills for the processing of information that was accessible by consciousness before sleep.

  12. Sleeping sickness.

    PubMed

    Malvy, D; Chappuis, F

    2011-07-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne disease that flourishes in impoverished, rural parts of sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei and is transmitted by tsetse flies of the genus Glossina. The majority of cases are caused by T. b. gambiense, which gives rise to the chronic, anthroponotic endemic disease in Western and Central Africa. Infection with T. b. rhodesiense leads to the acute, zoonotic form of Eastern and Southern Africa. The parasites live and multiply extracellularly in the blood and tissue fluids of their human host. They have elaborated a variety of strategies for invading hosts, to escape the immune system and to take advantage of host growth factors. HAT is a challenging and deadly disease owing to its complex epidemiology and clinical presentation and, if left untreated, can result in high death rates. As one of the most neglected tropical diseases, HAT is characterized by the limited availability of safe and cost-effective control tools. No vaccine against HAT is available, and the toxicity of existing old and cumbersome drugs precludes the adoption of control strategies based on preventive chemotherapy. As a result, the keystones of interventions against sleeping sickness are active and passive case-finding for early detection of cases followed by treatment, vector control and animal reservoir management. New methods to diagnose and treat patients and to control transmission by the tsetse fly are needed to achieve the goal of global elimination of the disease.

  13. Invention and Gain Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Robert J.; Dixon, Stacey

    1989-01-01

    Gain analysis is applied to the invention of the sewing needle as well as different sewing implements and modes of sewing. The analysis includes a two-subject experiment. To validate the generality of gain heuristics and underlying switching processes, the invention of the assembly line is also analyzed. (TJH)

  14. Invention and Gain Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Robert J.; Dixon, Stacey

    1989-01-01

    Gain analysis is applied to the invention of the sewing needle as well as different sewing implements and modes of sewing. The analysis includes a two-subject experiment. To validate the generality of gain heuristics and underlying switching processes, the invention of the assembly line is also analyzed. (TJH)

  15. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... trying to do so can have many causes. Metabolism slows down as you age . This can cause weight gain if you eat too much, eat the wrong foods, or do not get enough exercise. Drugs that can cause weight gain include: Birth ...

  16. Sleep, Sleep Disturbance and Fertility in Women

    PubMed Central

    Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Perlis, Michael; Zamzow, Jessica; Culnan, Elizabeth; Gracia, Clarisa

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sleep and sleep disturbances are increasingly recognized as determinants of women’s health and well-being, particularly in the context of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause. At present, however, little is known about whether fertility is affected by sleep quantity and quality. That is, to what degree, and by what mechanisms, do sleep and/or its disturbances affect fertility? The purpose of this review is to synthesize what is known about sleep disturbances in relation to reproductive capacity. A model is provided, whereby stress, sleep dysregulation, and circadian misalignment are delineated for their potential relevance to infertility. Ultimately, if it is the case that sleep disturbance is associated with infertility, new avenues for clinical intervention may be possible. PMID:25458772

  17. 42 CFR 136a.34 - Care and treatment of people losing eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Care and treatment of people losing eligibility. 136a.34 Section 136a.34 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....34 Care and treatment of people losing eligibility. (a) Individuals who lose their eligibility on...

  18. 42 CFR 136a.34 - Care and treatment of people losing eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Care and treatment of people losing eligibility. 136a.34 Section 136a.34 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....34 Care and treatment of people losing eligibility. (a) Individuals who lose their eligibility on...

  19. 42 CFR 136a.34 - Care and treatment of people losing eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Care and treatment of people losing eligibility. 136a.34 Section 136a.34 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....34 Care and treatment of people losing eligibility. (a) Individuals who lose their eligibility on...

  20. 42 CFR 136a.34 - Care and treatment of people losing eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Care and treatment of people losing eligibility. 136a.34 Section 136a.34 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....34 Care and treatment of people losing eligibility. (a) Individuals who lose their eligibility on...

  1. Declarative memory consolidation during the first night in a sleep lab: the role of REM sleep and cortisol.

    PubMed

    Goerke, Monique; Cohrs, Stefan; Rodenbeck, Andrea; Grittner, Ulrike; Sommer, Werner; Kunz, Dieter

    2013-07-01

    While the consolidation of declarative memory is supported by slow wave sleep (SWS) in healthy subjects, it has been shown to be associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in patients with insomnia. Sleep during a subject's first night in an unfamiliar environment is often disturbed, and this so-called first-night effect (FNE) has often been used as a model of transient insomnia. Additionally, sleeping for the first time in an unfamiliar environment can lead to increased cortisol secretion, and declarative memory consolidation likely depends on low cortisol levels, especially during the early part of the night. Accounting for intersubject variability in the FNE, we examined the relationship between sleep stages, cortisol secretion and declarative memory performance in 27 healthy young men. Declarative memory performance improved significantly after sleep. Whereas memory performance during the learning session and retrieval testing was strongly associated with cortisol secretion, the overnight gain was not. Post hoc analyses indicated that the overnight gain appears to be modulated by the extent of the FNE: a significant overnight improvement in memory performance was found only in subjects with a weak FNE (n=12). In these subjects, no association was found between any sleep stage and the improvement observed in their memory performance. In subjects with a strong FNE (n=12), however, the overnight change in memory performance was associated with the proportion of REM sleep and the total number of REMs. Disturbed sleep in an unfamiliar environment therefore appears to affect the memory consolidation process.

  2. Why do people lose their friends after a stroke?

    PubMed

    Northcott, Sarah; Hilari, Katerina

    2011-01-01

    It is well-known that people lose friends after a stroke; what is less well understood is why this occurs. This study explored why people lose contact with their friends, and whether there are any protective factors. It also examined how friendship loss and change is perceived by the individual. Participants with a first stroke were recruited from one acute stroke unit in the UK. In-depth qualitative interviews took place between 8 and 15 months post stroke. 29 participants were recruited of whom 10 had aphasia. The main reasons given for losing friends were: loss of shared activities, reduced energy levels, physical disability, aphasia, unhelpful responses of others, environmental barriers, and changing social desires. The subset of participants who experienced the most extensive loss of friends were those who described a sense that they were 'closing in' on themselves leading to a withdrawal from social contact and a new preference for meeting only close friends and family. Those with aphasia experienced the most hurtful negative responses from others and found it more difficult to retain their friends unless they had strong supportive friendship patterns prior to the stroke. The factors which helped to protect friendships included: having a shared history, friends who showed concern, who lived locally, where the friendship was not activity-based, and where the participant had a 'friends-based' social network prior to the stroke. Given the link between depression and loss of friends post stroke, supporting an individual in maintaining a social network is likely to be beneficial. For intervention to be effective, however, it may need to take into account not only the impact of new physical and language disabilities, but also changing social desires. © 2011 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  3. Cool and luminous transients from mass-losing binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejcha, Ondřej; Metzger, Brian D.; Tomida, Kengo

    2016-02-01

    We study transients produced by equatorial disc-like outflows from catastrophically mass-losing binary stars with an asymptotic velocity and energy deposition rate near the inner edge which are proportional to the binary escape velocity vesc. As a test case, we present the first smoothed-particle radiation-hydrodynamics calculations of the mass loss from the outer Lagrange point with realistic equation of state and opacities. The resulting spiral stream becomes unbound for binary mass ratios 0.06 ≲ q ≲ 0.8. For synchronous binaries with non-degenerate components, the spiral-stream arms merge at a radius of ˜10a, where a is the binary semi-major axis, and the accompanying shock thermalizes about 10 per cent of the kinetic power of the outflow. The mass-losing binary outflows produce luminosities reaching up to ˜106 L⊙ and effective temperatures spanning 500 ≲ Teff ≲ 6000 K, which is compatible with many of the class of recently discovered red transients such as V838 Mon and V1309 Sco. Dust readily forms in the outflow, potentially in a catastrophic global cooling transition. The appearance of the transient is viewing angle-dependent due to vastly different optical depths parallel and perpendicular to the binary plane. We predict a correlation between the peak luminosity and the outflow velocity, which is roughly obeyed by the known red transients. Outflows from mass-losing binaries can produce luminous (105 L⊙) and cool (Teff ≲ 1500 K) transients lasting a year or longer, as has potentially been detected by Spitzer surveys of nearby galaxies.

  4. Sleep Duration and Obesity in Adults: What Are the Connections?

    PubMed

    Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny; Lindberg, Eva

    2016-09-01

    Collectively, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on self-reported sleep duration and obesity do not show a clear pattern of association with some showing a negative linear relationship, some showing a U-shaped relationship, and some showing no relationship. Associations between sleep duration and obesity seem stronger in younger adults. Cross-sectional studies using objectively measured sleep duration (actigraphy or polysomnography (PSG)) also show this mixed pattern whereas all longitudinal studies to date using actigraphy or PSG have failed to show a relationship with obesity/weight gain. It is still too early and a too easy solution to suggest that changing the sleep duration will cure the obesity epidemic. Given novel results on emotional stress and poor sleep as mediating factors in the relationship between sleep duration and obesity, detection and management of these should become the target of future clinical efforts as well as future research.

  5. Sleep and eating in childhood: a potential behavioral mechanism underlying the relationship between poor sleep and obesity.

    PubMed

    Burt, Julia; Dube, Laurette; Thibault, Louise; Gruber, Reut

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our study was to examine the associations between sleep and eating behaviors. Specifically, we examined associations between sleep duration and continuity with behaviors that promote eating regardless of true physiologic hunger state including emotional (food intake in response to emotional distress) external (eating in response to the sight or smell of food), and restrained eating (a paradoxical behavior; food intake is initially reduced to lose or maintain body weight, but followed by increased consumption and binge eating). Fifty-six children (29 boys; 27 girls) ages 5 to 12 years participated in the study. Mean age was 7.7±1.9 years, and average body mass index (BMI) was within the healthy range (17.8±4.3 kg/m(2)). Sleep duration, continuity and schedule were assessed using actigraphy and self-reports. The Child Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire-modified version (DEBQ-M) was used to examine levels of emotional, external and restrained eating in the children. Associations between the sleep and eating behaviors were examined using partial correlations and multiple regression analyses. External eating score was negatively associated with sleep duration; emotional eating score was associated with lower levels of sleep continuity; and restrained eating score were associated with a later sleep start and later bedtime. Short sleep duration and poor sleep continuity were associated with higher levels of eating behaviors shown to be associated with increased food intake. Therefore, sleep loss may be associated with diminished self-regulation of appetite in children, increasing the risk for overeating and obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rethinking Sleep Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Hartmut

    2008-01-01

    Visual sleep scoring is the obligatory reference for sleep analysis. An essential step in sleep scoring is sleep staging. This technique was first described in 1937 and later adapted 3 times: first, in 1957, after the detection of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, when electrooculography (EOG) was added; second, in 1968, when sleep staging was standardized and electromyography (EMG) was added; and third, in 2007, to integrate accumulated knowledge from sleep science, adding arousals and respiratory, cardiac, and movement events. In spite of the dramatic changes that have taken place in recording and storing techniques, sleep staging has undergone surprisingly few changes. The argument of the present comment is that sleep staging was appropriate as long as sleep biosignals were recorded in the analog mode as curves on paper, whereas this staging may be insufficient for digitally recorded and stored sleep data. Limitations of sleep staging are critically discussed and alternative strategies of sleep analysis are emphasized. Citation: Schulz H. Rethinking sleep analysis. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(2):99–103. PMID:18468306

  7. Energy expenditure during sleep, sleep deprivation and sleep following sleep deprivation in adult humans.

    PubMed

    Jung, Christopher M; Melanson, Edward L; Frydendall, Emily J; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

    2011-01-01

    Sleep has been proposed to be a physiological adaptation to conserve energy, but little research has examined this proposed function of sleep in humans. We quantified effects of sleep, sleep deprivation and recovery sleep on whole-body total daily energy expenditure (EE) and on EE during the habitual day and nighttime. We also determined effects of sleep stage during baseline and recovery sleep on EE. Seven healthy participants aged 22 ± 5 years (mean ± s.d.) maintained ∼8 h per night sleep schedules for 1 week before the study and consumed a weight-maintenance diet for 3 days prior to and during the laboratory protocol. Following a habituation night, subjects lived in a whole-room indirect calorimeter for 3 days. The first 24 h served as baseline – 16 h wakefulness, 8 h scheduled sleep – and this was followed by 40 h sleep deprivation and 8 h scheduled recovery sleep. Findings show that, compared to baseline, 24 h EE was significantly increased by ∼7% during the first 24 h of sleep deprivation and was significantly decreased by ∼5% during recovery, which included hours awake 25-40 and 8 h recovery sleep. During the night time, EE was significantly increased by ∼32% on the sleep deprivation night and significantly decreased by ∼4% during recovery sleep compared to baseline. Small differences in EE were observed among sleep stages, but wakefulness during the sleep episode was associated with increased energy expenditure. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that sleep conserves energy and that sleep deprivation increases total daily EE in humans.

  8. Energy expenditure during sleep, sleep deprivation and sleep following sleep deprivation in adult humans

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Christopher M; Melanson, Edward L; Frydendall, Emily J; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

    2011-01-01

    Sleep has been proposed to be a physiological adaptation to conserve energy, but little research has examined this proposed function of sleep in humans. We quantified effects of sleep, sleep deprivation and recovery sleep on whole-body total daily energy expenditure (EE) and on EE during the habitual day and nighttime. We also determined effects of sleep stage during baseline and recovery sleep on EE. Seven healthy participants aged 22 ± 5 years (mean ± s.d.) maintained ∼8 h per night sleep schedules for 1 week before the study and consumed a weight-maintenance diet for 3 days prior to and during the laboratory protocol. Following a habituation night, subjects lived in a whole-room indirect calorimeter for 3 days. The first 24 h served as baseline – 16 h wakefulness, 8 h scheduled sleep – and this was followed by 40 h sleep deprivation and 8 h scheduled recovery sleep. Findings show that, compared to baseline, 24 h EE was significantly increased by ∼7% during the first 24 h of sleep deprivation and was significantly decreased by ∼5% during recovery, which included hours awake 25–40 and 8 h recovery sleep. During the night time, EE was significantly increased by ∼32% on the sleep deprivation night and significantly decreased by ∼4% during recovery sleep compared to baseline. Small differences in EE were observed among sleep stages, but wakefulness during the sleep episode was associated with increased energy expenditure. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that sleep conserves energy and that sleep deprivation increases total daily EE in humans. PMID:21059762

  9. Sleep Deprivation of Rats: The Hyperphagic Response Is Real

    PubMed Central

    Koban, Michael; Sita, Luciane V.; Le, Wei Wei; Hoffman, Gloria E.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Chronic sleep deprivation of rats causes hyperphagia without body weight gain. Sleep deprivation hyperphagia is prompted by changes in pathways governing food intake; hyperphagia may be adaptive to sleep deprivation hypermetabolism. A recent paper suggested that sleep deprivation might inhibit ability of rats to increase food intake and that hyperphagia may be an artifact of uncorrected chow spillage. To resolve this, a palatable liquid diet (Ensure) was used where spillage is insignificant. Design: Sleep deprivation of male Sprague Dawley rats was enforced for 10 days by the flowerpot/platform paradigm. Daily food intake and body weight were measured. On day 10, rats were transcardially perfused for analysis of hypothalamic mRNA expression of the orexigen, neuropeptide Y (NPY). Setting: Morgan State University, sleep deprivation and transcardial perfusion; University of Maryland, NPY in situ hybridization and analysis. Measurements and Results: Using a liquid diet for accurate daily measurements, there was no change in food intake in the first 5 days of sleep deprivation. Importantly, from days 6–10 it increased significantly, peaking at 29% above baseline. Control rats steadily gained weight but sleep-deprived rats did not. Hypothalamic NPY mRNA levels were positively correlated to stimulation of food intake and negatively correlated with changes in body weight. Conclusion: Sleep deprivation hyperphagia may not be apparent over the short term (i.e., ≤5 days), but when extended beyond 6 days, it is readily observed. The timing of changes in body weight and food intake suggests that the negative energy balance induced by sleep deprivation prompts the neural changes that evoke hyperphagia. Citation: Koban M; Sita LV; Le WW; Hoffman GE. Sleep deprivation of rats: the hyperphagic response is real. SLEEP 2008;31(7):927-933. PMID:18652088

  10. No Time To Lose - High Throughput Screening To Assess Nanomaterial Safety

    PubMed Central

    Damoiseaux, R; George, S; Li, M; Pokhrel, S; Ji, Z; France, B; Xia, T; Suarez, E; Rallo, R; Mädler, L; Cohen, Y; Hoek, EMV; Nel, A

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials hold great promise for medical, technological and economical benefits. Knowledge concerning the toxicological properties of these novel materials is typically lacking. At the same time, it is becoming evident that some nanomaterials could have a toxic potential in humans and the environment. Animal based systems lack the needed capacity to cope with the abundance of novel nanomaterials being produced, and thus we have to employ in vitro methods with high throughput to manage the rush logistically and use high content readouts wherever needed in order to gain more depth of information. Towards this end, high throughput screening (HTS) and high content screening (HCS) approaches can be used to speed up the safety analysis on a scale that commensurate with the rate of expansion of new materials and new properties. The insights gained from HTS/HCS should aid in our understanding of the tenets of nanomaterial hazard at biological level as well as asset the development of safe-by-design approaches. This review aims to provide a comprehensive introduction to the HTS/HCS methodology employed for safety assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), including data analysis and prediction of potentially hazardous material properties. Given the current pace of nanomaterial development, HTS/HCS is a potentially effective means of keeping up with the rapid progress in this field – we have literally no time to lose. PMID:21301704

  11. No time to lose--high throughput screening to assess nanomaterial safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damoiseaux, R.; George, S.; Li, M.; Pokhrel, S.; Ji, Z.; France, B.; Xia, T.; Suarez, E.; Rallo, R.; Mädler, L.; Cohen, Y.; Hoek, E. M. V.; Nel, A.

    2011-04-01

    Nanomaterials hold great promise for medical, technological and economical benefits. Knowledge concerning the toxicological properties of these novel materials is typically lacking. At the same time, it is becoming evident that some nanomaterials could have a toxic potential in humans and the environment. Animal based systems lack the needed capacity to cope with the abundance of novel nanomaterials being produced, and thus we have to employ in vitro methods with high throughput to manage the rush logistically and use high content readouts wherever needed in order to gain more depth of information. Towards this end, high throughput screening (HTS) and high content screening (HCS) approaches can be used to speed up the safety analysis on a scale that commensurate with the rate of expansion of new materials and new properties. The insights gained from HTS/HCS should aid in our understanding of the tenets of nanomaterial hazard at biological level as well as assist the development of safe-by-design approaches. This review aims to provide a comprehensive introduction to the HTS/HCS methodology employed for safety assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), including data analysis and prediction of potentially hazardous material properties. Given the current pace of nanomaterial development, HTS/HCS is a potentially effective means of keeping up with the rapid progress in this field--we have literally no time to lose.

  12. Sleep restriction and serving accuracy in performance tennis players, and effects of caffeine.

    PubMed

    Reyner, L A; Horne, J A

    2013-08-15

    Athletes often lose sleep on the night before a competition. Whilst it is unlikely that sleep loss will impair sports mostly relying on strength and endurance, little is known about potential effects on sports involving psychomotor performance necessitating judgement and accuracy, rather than speed, as in tennis for example, and where caffeine is 'permitted'. Two studies were undertaken, on 5h sleep (33%) restriction versus normal sleep, on serving accuracy in semi-professional tennis players. Testing (14:00 h-16:00 h) comprised 40 serves into a (1.8 m×1.1 m) 'service box' diagonally, over the net. Study 1 (8 m; 8 f) was within-Ss, counterbalanced (normal versus sleep restriction). Study 2 (6m;6f -different Ss) comprised three conditions (Latin square), identical to Study 1, except for an extra sleep restriction condition with 80 mg caffeine vs placebo in a sugar-free drink, given (double blind), 30 min before testing. Both studies showed significant impairments to serving accuracy after sleep restriction. Caffeine at this dose had no beneficial effect. Study 1 also assessed gender differences, with women significantly poorer under all conditions, and non-significant indications that women were more impaired by sleep restriction (also seen in Study 2). We conclude that adequate sleep is essential for best performance of this type of skill in tennis players and that caffeine is no substitute for 'lost sleep'. 210.

  13. Longitudinal Relations Between Constructive and Destructive Conflict and Couples’ Sleep

    PubMed Central

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Koss, Kalsea J.; Kelly, Ryan J.; Rauer, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined longitudinal relations between interpartner constructive (negotiation) and destructive (psychological and physical aggression) conflict strategies and couples’ sleep over 1 year. Toward explicating processes of effects, we assessed the intervening role of internalizing symptoms in associations between conflict tactics and couples’ sleep. Participants were 135 cohabiting couples (M age = 37 years for women and 39 years for men). The sample included a large representation of couples exposed to economic adversity. Further, 68% were European American and the remainder were primarily African American. At Time 1 (T1), couples reported on their conflict and their mental health (depression, anxiety). At T1 and Time 2, sleep was examined objectively with actigraphs for 7 nights. Three sleep parameters were derived: efficiency, minutes, and latency. Actor–partner interdependence models indicated that husbands’ use of constructive conflict forecasted increases in their own sleep efficiency as well as their own and their wives’ sleep duration over time. Actor and partner effects emerged, and husbands’ and wives’ use of destructive conflict strategies generally predicted worsening of some sleep parameters over time. Several mediation and intervening effects were observed for destructive conflict strategies. Some of these relations reveal that destructive conflict is associated with internalizing symptoms, which in turn are associated with some sleep parameters longitudinally. These findings build on a small, albeit growing, literature linking sleep with marital functioning, and illustrate that consideration of relationship processes including constructive conflict holds promise for gaining a better understanding of factors that influence the sleep of men and women. PMID:25915089

  14. Indoor acoustic gain design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concha-Abarca, Justo Andres

    2002-11-01

    The design of sound reinforcement systems includes many variables and usually some of these variables are discussed. There are criteria to optimize the performance of the sound reinforcement systems under indoor conditions. The equivalent acoustic distance, the necessary acoustic gain, and the potential acoustic gain are parameters which must be adjusted with respect to the loudspeaker array, electric power and directionality of loudspeakers, the room acoustics conditions, the distance and distribution of the audience, and the type of the original sources. The design and installation of front of the house and monitoring systems have individual criteria. This article is about this criteria and it proposes general considerations for the indoor acoustic gain design.

  15. Metabolic consequences of sleep and sleep loss

    PubMed Central

    Van Cauter, Eve; Spiegel, Karine; Tasali, Esra; Leproult, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Reduced sleep duration and quality appear to be endemic in modern society. Curtailment of the bedtime period to minimum tolerability is thought to be efficient and harmless by many. It has been known for several decades that sleep is a major modulator of hormonal release, glucose regulation and cardiovascular function. In particular, slow wave sleep (SWS), thought to be the most restorative sleep stage, is associated with decreased heart rate, blood pressure, sympathetic nervous activity and cerebral glucose utilization, compared with wakefulness. During SWS, the anabolic growth hormone is released while the stress hormone cortisol is inhibited. In recent years, laboratory and epidemiologic evidence have converged to indicate that sleep loss may be a novel risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. The increased risk of obesity is possibly linked to the effect of sleep loss on hormones that play a major role in the central control of appetite and energy expenditure, such as leptin and ghrelin. Reduced leptin and increased ghrelin levels correlate with increases in subjective hunger when individuals are sleep restricted rather than well rested. Given the evidence, sleep curtailment appears to be an important, yet modifiable, risk factor for the metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity. The marked decrease in average sleep duration in the last 50 years coinciding with the increased prevalence of obesity, together with the observed adverse effects of recurrent partial sleep deprivation on metabolism and hormonal processes, may have important implications for public health. PMID:18929315

  16. Metabolic consequences of sleep and sleep loss.

    PubMed

    Van Cauter, Eve; Spiegel, Karine; Tasali, Esra; Leproult, Rachel

    2008-09-01

    Reduced sleep duration and quality appear to be endemic in modern society. Curtailment of the bedtime period to minimum tolerability is thought to be efficient and harmless by many. It has been known for several decades that sleep is a major modulator of hormonal release, glucose regulation and cardiovascular function. In particular, slow wave sleep (SWS), thought to be the most restorative sleep stage, is associated with decreased heart rate, blood pressure, sympathetic nervous activity and cerebral glucose utilization, compared with wakefulness. During SWS, the anabolic growth hormone is released while the stress hormone cortisol is inhibited. In recent years, laboratory and epidemiologic evidence have converged to indicate that sleep loss may be a novel risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. The increased risk of obesity is possibly linked to the effect of sleep loss on hormones that play a major role in the central control of appetite and energy expenditure, such as leptin and ghrelin. Reduced leptin and increased ghrelin levels correlate with increases in subjective hunger when individuals are sleep restricted rather than well rested. Given the evidence, sleep curtailment appears to be an important, yet modifiable, risk factor for the metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity. The marked decrease in average sleep duration in the last 50 years coinciding with the increased prevalence of obesity, together with the observed adverse effects of recurrent partial sleep deprivation on metabolism and hormonal processes, may have important implications for public health.

  17. Controlling the unruly maternal body: Losing and gaining control over the body during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Neiterman, Elena; Fox, Bonnie

    2017-02-01

    This paper examines the feeling of lost control of the body that so many women experience through pregnancy and the postpartum period - why they feel it and how they interpret that feeling - and women's responses to the sense of lost control. For the 63 Canadian women we interviewed, the sense of lost control was related to the degree they felt their bodies changed and the number of physical problems they experienced while pregnant. Many women's references to "luck" as the cause of body changes and problems experienced underscored how little control they felt they had when they were pregnant. At the same time, women felt responsible for the well-being of their babies, and thus experienced guilt about their unruly bodies. Careful attention to diet helped some women, but not others, regain some sense of control; women with past experience of pregnancy who "gave in" to body change were more sanguine. In the postpartum period, body work (especially exercise) functioned to increase women's sense of control, but a variety of motives led them to do this work.

  18. Gaining or Losing Ground? Equity in Offering Advanced Placement Courses in California High Schools 1997-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarate, Maria Estela; Pachon, Harry P.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis by researchers of the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) on Advanced Placement (AP) courses in California public high schools in the mid-1990s concluded that although high school AP programs offered talented youngsters the opportunity to stretch their mental horizons and preview the challenges of college-level coursework, the programs…

  19. How states stand to gain or lose federal funds by opting in or out of the Medicaid expansion.

    PubMed

    Glied, Sherry; Ma, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Following the Supreme Court’s decision in 2012, state officials are now deciding whether to expand their Medicaid programs under the Affordable Care Act. While the states’ costs of participating in the Medicaid expansion have been at the forefront of this discussion, the expansion has much larger implications for the flow of federal funds going to the states. This issue brief examines how participating in the Medicaid expansion will affect the movement of federal funds to each state. States that choose to participate in the expansion will experience a more positive net flow of federal funds than will states that choose not to participate. In addition to providing valuable health insurance benefits to low-income state residents, and steady sources of financing to state health care providers, the Medicaid expansion will be an important source of new federal funds for states.

  20. Trust in the safety of tourist destinations: hard to gain, easy to lose? New insights on the asymmetry principle.

    PubMed

    Eitzinger, Claudia; Wiedemann, Peter M

    2008-08-01

    According to the asymmetry principle of trust, negative events decrease trust to a much higher extent than positive events increase trust. The study at hand intended to verify whether this notion of asymmetry holds true with respect to trust in the safety of tourist destinations. Thus, in contrast to previous research that analyzed trust asymmetry in the context of involuntary technological risks, the present study evaluates the validity of the asymmetry principle of trust in the context of voluntary tourism risks. The hypothesis that negative or risky information on destination safety (absence of proper safety measures and conditions) has a higher impact on distrust than, conversely, positive or nonrisk information on destination safety (provision of proper safety measures and conditions) has on trust was tested in an online survey (N= 640). In contrast to the asymmetry pattern found by Slovic (1993), results of the current work suggest symmetry rather than asymmetry of trust. The presence of proper safety measures and conditions (positive or nonrisk information) was found to have at least the same-and in some cases an even higher-impact on trust than the absence of such measures and conditions (negative or risky information) had on distrust. Findings provide empirical evidence for the thesis that the prevalence of trust asymmetry is dependent on the risk source and demonstrate that trust is symmetric rather than asymmetric in the context of voluntary tourism risks. Furthermore, results imply an influence of positive versus negative expectations as well as of prior trusting relationships on the occurrence of the asymmetry principle.

  1. Sleep-based memory processing facilitates grammatical generalization: Evidence from targeted memory reactivation.

    PubMed

    Batterink, Laura J; Paller, Ken A

    2017-04-01

    Generalization-the ability to abstract regularities from specific examples and apply them to novel instances-is an essential component of language acquisition. Generalization not only depends on exposure to input during wake, but may also improve offline during sleep. Here we examined whether targeted memory reactivation during sleep can influence grammatical generalization. Participants gradually acquired the grammatical rules of an artificial language through an interactive learning procedure. Then, phrases from the language (experimental group) or stimuli from an unrelated task (control group) were covertly presented during an afternoon nap. Compared to control participants, participants re-exposed to the language during sleep showed larger gains in grammatical generalization. Sleep cues produced a bias, not necessarily a pure gain, suggesting that the capacity for memory replay during sleep is limited. We conclude that grammatical generalization was biased by auditory cueing during sleep, and by extension, that sleep likely influences grammatical generalization in general.

  2. Sleep and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Mark R; Krueger, James M

    2011-01-01

    Many pro-inflammatory molecules, such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are somnogenic, while many anti-inflammatory molecules inhibit sleep. Sleep loss increases the production/release of these sleep regulatory pro-inflammatory molecules. Further, sleep changes occurring during various pathologies are mediated by these inflammatory substances in response to pathogen recognition and subsequent inflammatory cellular pathways. This review summarizes information and concepts regarding inflammatory mechanisms of the innate immune system that mediate sleep. Further, we discuss sleep-immune interactions in regards to sleep in general, pathologies, and sleep as a local phenomenon including the central role that extracellular ATP plays in the initiation of sleep.

  3. Sleep: a health imperative.

    PubMed

    Luyster, Faith S; Strollo, Patrick J; Zee, Phyllis C; Walsh, James K

    2012-06-01

    Chronic sleep deficiency, defined as a state of inadequate or mistimed sleep, is a growing and underappreciated determinant of health status. Sleep deprivation contributes to a number of molecular, immune, and neural changes that play a role in disease development, independent of primary sleep disorders. These changes in biological processes in response to chronic sleep deficiency may serve as etiological factors for the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and, ultimately, a shortened lifespan. Sleep deprivation also results in significant impairments in cognitive and motor performance which increase the risk of motor vehicle crashes and work-related injuries and fatal accidents. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society have developed this statement to communicate to national health stakeholders the current knowledge which ties sufficient sleep and circadian alignment in adults to health.

  4. Methylxanthines and sleep.

    PubMed

    Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is widely used to promote wakefulness and counteract fatigue induced by restriction of sleep, but also to counteract the effects of caffeine abstinence. Adenosine is a physiological molecule, which in the central nervous system acts predominantly as an inhibitory neuromodulator. Adenosine is also a sleep-promoting molecule. Caffeine binds to adenosine receptors, and the antagonism of the adenosinergic system is believed to be the mechanism through which caffeine counteracts sleep in humans as well as in other species. The sensitivity for caffeine varies markedly among individuals. Recently, genetic variations in genes related to adenosine metabolism have provided at least a partial explanation for this variability. The main effects of caffeine on sleep are decreased sleep latency, shortened total sleep time, decrease in power in the delta range, and sleep fragmentation. Caffeine may also decrease the accumulation of sleep propensity during waking, thus inducing long-term harmful effects on sleep quality.

  5. Call it worm sleep

    PubMed Central

    Trojanowski, Nicholas F.; Raizen, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans stops feeding and moving during a larval transition stage called lethargus and following exposure to cellular stressors. These behaviors have been termed “sleep-like states”. We argue that these behaviors should instead be called “sleep”. Sleep during lethargus is similar to sleep regulated by circadian timers in insects and mammals, and sleep in response to cellular stress is similar to sleep induced by sickness in other animals. Sleep in mammals and Drosophila shows molecular and functional conservation with C. elegans sleep. The simple neuroanatomy and powerful genetic tools of C. elegans have yielded insights into sleep regulation and hold great promise for future research into sleep regulation and function. PMID:26747654

  6. Patterns of sleep behaviour.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the electroencephalogram as the critical measurement procedure for sleep research, and survey of major findings that have emerged in the last decade on the presence of sleep within the twenty-four-hour cycle. Specifically, intrasleep processes, frequency of stage changes, sequence of stage events, sleep stage amounts, temporal patterns of sleep, and stability of intrasleep pattern in both man and lower animals are reviewed, along with some circadian aspects of sleep, temporal factors, and number of sleep episodes. It is felt that it is particularly critical to take the presence of sleep into account whenever performance is considered. When it is recognized that responsive performance is extremely limited during sleep, it is easy to visualize the extent to which performance is controlled by sleep itself.

  7. Sleep to grow smart?

    PubMed

    Volk, Carina; Huber, Reto

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is undisputable an essential part of our life, if we do not sleep enough we feel the consequences the next day. The importance of sleep for healthy brain functioning has been well studied in adults, but less is known for the role of sleep in the paediatric age. Childhood and adolescence is a critical phase for brain development. The increased need for sleep during this developmental phase fosters the growing recognition for a central role of sleep during development. In this review we summarize the findings that demonstrate a close relationship between sleep and brain maturation, discuss the consequences of insufficient sleep during childhood and adolescence and outline initial attempts that have been made in order to improve sleep in this age range.

  8. [Neurological sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Khatami, Ramin

    2014-11-01

    Neurological sleep disorders are common in the general population and may have a strong impact on quality of life. General practitioners play a key role in recognizing and managing sleep disorders in the general population. They should therefore be familiar with the most important neurological sleep disorders. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the most prevalent and important neurological sleep disorders, including Restless legs syndrome (with and without periodic limb movements in sleep), narcolepsy, NREM- and REM-sleep parasomnias and the complex relationship between sleep and epilepsies. Although narcolepsy is considered as a rare disease, recent discoveries in narcolepsy research provided insight in the function of brain circuitries involved in sleep wake regulation. REM sleep behavioral parasomnia (RBD) is increasingly recognized to represent an early manifestation of neurodegenerative disorders, in particular evolving synucleinopathies. Early diagnosis may thus open new perspectives for developing novel treatment options by targeting neuroprotective substances.

  9. Patterns of sleep behaviour.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the electroencephalogram as the critical measurement procedure for sleep research, and survey of major findings that have emerged in the last decade on the presence of sleep within the twenty-four-hour cycle. Specifically, intrasleep processes, frequency of stage changes, sequence of stage events, sleep stage amounts, temporal patterns of sleep, and stability of intrasleep pattern in both man and lower animals are reviewed, along with some circadian aspects of sleep, temporal factors, and number of sleep episodes. It is felt that it is particularly critical to take the presence of sleep into account whenever performance is considered. When it is recognized that responsive performance is extremely limited during sleep, it is easy to visualize the extent to which performance is controlled by sleep itself.

  10. Parenting and infant sleep.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Avi; Tikotzky, Liat; Scher, Anat

    2010-04-01

    Infant sleep undergoes dramatic evolution during the first year of life. This process is driven by underlying biological forces but is highly dependent on environmental cues including parental influences. In this review the links between infant sleep and parental behaviors, cognitions, emotions and relationships as well as psychopathology are examined within the context of a transactional model. Parental behaviors, particularly those related to bedtime interactions and soothing routines, are closely related to infant sleep. Increased parental involvement is associated with more fragmented sleep. Intervention based on modifying parental behaviors and cognitions have direct effect on infant sleep. It appears that parental personality, psychopathology and related cognitions and emotions contribute to parental sleep-related behaviors and ultimately influence infant sleep. However, the links are bidirectional and dynamic so that poor infant sleep may influence parental behaviors and poor infant sleep appears to be a family stressor and a risk factor for maternal depression.

  11. Shift Work: Improving Daytime Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleeping during the day. Do you have any sleep tips for shift workers? Answers from Timothy Morgenthaler, ... to be awake during the day and to sleep at night. Good daytime sleep is possible, though, ...

  12. Effects of an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist on human sleep, sleep-associated memory consolidation, and blood monocytes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eva-Maria; Linz, Barbara; Diekelmann, Susanne; Besedovsky, Luciana; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1 beta (IL-1) are major players in the interaction between the immune system and the central nervous system. Various animal studies report a sleep-promoting effect of IL-1 leading to enhanced slow wave sleep (SWS). Moreover, this cytokine was shown to affect hippocampus-dependent memory. However, the role of IL-1 in human sleep and memory is not yet understood. We administered the synthetic IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra (IL-1ra) in healthy humans (100mg, subcutaneously, before sleep; n=16) to investigate the role of IL-1 signaling in sleep regulation and sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Inasmuch monocytes have been considered a model for central nervous microglia, we monitored cytokine production in classical and non-classical blood monocytes to gain clues about how central nervous effects of IL-1ra are conveyed. Contrary to our expectation, IL-1ra increased EEG slow wave activity during SWS and non-rapid eye movement (NonREM) sleep, indicating a deepening of sleep, while sleep-associated memory consolidation remained unchanged. Moreover, IL-1ra slightly increased prolactin and reduced cortisol levels during sleep. Production of IL-1 by classical monocytes was diminished after IL-1ra. The discrepancy to findings in animal studies might reflect species differences and underlines the importance of studying cytokine effects in humans. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Preventing Weight Gain Language: English (US) Español ( ...

  14. Antidepressants and Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Depression (major depressive disorder) Can antidepressants cause weight gain? Answers from Daniel K. Hall- ... is a possible side effect of nearly all antidepressants. However, each person responds to antidepressants differently. Some ...

  15. Metamaterials with Gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Ortwin

    2012-02-01

    Nanoplasmonic metamaterials are the key to an extreme control of light and allow us to conceive materials with negative or vanishing refractive index. Indeed, metamaterials enable a multitude of exciting and useful applications, such as subwavelength focusing, invisibility cloaking, and ``trapped rainbow'' stopping of light. The realization of these materials has recently advanced from the microwave to the optical regime. However, at optical wavelengths, metamaterials may suffer from high dissipative losses owing to the metallic nature of their constituent nanoplasmonic meta-molecules. It is therefore not surprising that overcoming loss restrictions by gain is currently one of the most important topics in metamaterials' research. At the same time, providing gain on the nanoplasmonic (metamolecular) level opens up exciting new possibilities such as a whole new type of metamaterial nano-laser with a cavity length of about a tenth of the wavelength. The talk gives an overview of the state of the art of gain-enhanced metamaterials. Particular focus will be placed on nano-plasmonic metamaterials (such as double-fishnet metamaterials) with integrated laser dyes as gain medium. The successful compensation of loss by gain is demonstrated on the meta-molecular level. On the basis of a comprehensive, microscopic Maxwell-Bloch Langevin approach of spatio-temporal light amplification and lasing in gain-enhanced nanoplasmonic (negative-index) metamaterials a methodology based on the discrete Poynting's theorem is introduced that allows dynamic tracing of the flow of electromagnetic energy into and out of ``microscopic'' channels (light field, plasmons, gain medium). It is shown that steady-state amplification can be achieved in nanoplasmonic metamaterials. Finally, a complex spatio-temporal interplay of light-field and coherent absorption dynamics is revealed in the lasing dynamics of a nanoplasmonic gain-enhanced double-fishnet metamaterial.

  16. Partial sleep deprivation by environmental noise increases food intake and body weight in obesity resistant rats

    PubMed Central

    Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Teske, Jennifer A.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Sleep-restriction in humans increases risk for obesity, but previous rodent studies show weight loss following sleep deprivation, possibly due to stressful-methods used to prevent sleep. Obesity-resistant (OR) rats exhibit consolidated-sleep and resistance to weight-gain. We hypothesized that sleep disruption by a less-stressful method would increase body weight, and examined effect of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on body weight in OR and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Design and Methods OR and SD rats (n=12/group) were implanted with transmitters to record sleep/wake. After baseline recording, six SD and six OR rats underwent 8 h PSD during light-phase for 9 d. Sleep was reduced using recordings of random noise. Sleep/wake states were scored as wakefulness (W), slow-wave-sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement-sleep (REMS). Total number of transitions between stages, SWS-delta-power, food intake and body weight were documented. Results Exposure to noise decreased SWS and REMS time, while increasing W time. Sleep-deprivation increased number of transitions between stages and SWS-delta-power. Further, PSD during the rest phase increased recovery-sleep during active phase. The PSD SD and OR rats had greater food intake and body weight compared to controls Conclusions PSD by less-stressful means increases body weight in rats. Also, PSD during rest phase increases active period sleep. PMID:23666828

  17. [Effects of chronic partial sleep deprivation on growth and learning/memory in young rats].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Li, Sheng-Hui; Cui, Mao-Long; Zhang, Yin; Wang, Cheng; Yu, Xiao-Gang; Yan, Chong-Huai

    2009-02-01

    The effects of sleep deprivation on the immature brain remain unknown. Based on a computer controlled chronic sleep deprivation animal model, the effects of chronic partial sleep deprivation on growth, learning and memory in young rats were explored. Twelve weaned male Spraque-Dawley rats (3-week-old) were randomly divided into sleep deprivation, test control and blank control groups. Sleep deprivation was performed using computer-controlled "disc-over-water" technique at 8-11 am daily, for 14 days. The temperature and weights were measured every 7 days. Morris water maze was used to test spatial learning and memory abilities before and 7 and 14 days after sleep deprivation. After 14 days of sleep deprivation, the rats were sacrificed for weighting their major organs. After 14 days of sleep deprivation, the rats' temperature increased significantly. During the sleep deprivation, the rate of weight gain in the sleep deprivation group was much slower than that in the test control and blank control groups. The thymus of the rats subjected to sleep deprivation was much lighter than that of the blank control group. After 7 days of sleep deprivation, the rats showed slower acquisition of reference memory, but were capable of successfully performing the task by repeated exposure to the test. Such impairment of reference memory was not seen 14 days after sleep deprivation. Chronic sleep deprivation can affect growth of immature rats, as well as their abilities to acquire spatial reference memory.

  18. VECSEL gain characterization.

    PubMed

    Mangold, Mario; Wittwer, Valentin J; Sieber, Oliver D; Hoffmann, Martin; Krestnikov, Igor L; Livshits, Daniil A; Golling, Matthias; Südmeyer, Thomas; Keller, Ursula

    2012-02-13

    We present the first full gain characterization of two vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) gain chips with similar designs operating in the 960-nm wavelength regime. We optically pump the structures with continuous-wave (cw) 808-nm radiation and measure the nonlinear reflectivity for 130-fs and 1.4-ps probe pulses as function of probe pulse fluence, pump power, and heat sink temperature. With this technique we are able to measure the saturation behavior for VECSEL gain chips for the first time. The characterization with 1.4-ps pulses resulted in saturation fluences of 40-80 μJ/cm2, while probing with 130-fs pulses yields reduced saturation fluences of 30-50 μJ/cm2 for both structures. For both pulse durations this is lower than previously assumed. A small-signal gain of up to 5% is obtained with this technique. Furthermore, in a second measurement setup, we characterize the spectral dependence of the gain using a tunable cw probe beam. We measure a gain bandwidth of over 26 nm for both structures, full width at half maximum.

  19. [Insomnia and sleep apnea].

    PubMed

    Bayon, V; Léger, D

    2014-02-01

    The presence of insomnia in patients with sleep apnea seems paradoxical as excessive sleepiness is one of the major symptoms of sleep apnea. However, recent research has shown that about half of patients with sleep disorder breathing experience insomnia. Moreover, patients complaining of insomnia or non-restorative sleep may also present with moderate to severe sleep apnea syndromes. Thus, in recent years, clinicians have become more aware of the possible association between insomnia and sleep apnea. This article reviews data published on different aspects of this co-occurrence. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Sleep-related headaches.

    PubMed

    Rains, Jeanetta C; Poceta, J Steven

    2012-11-01

    Irrespective of diagnosis, chronic daily, morning, or "awakening" headache patterns are soft signs of a sleep disorder. Sleep apnea headache may emerge de novo or may present as an exacerbation of cluster, migraine, tension-type, or other headache. Insomnia is the most prevalent sleep disorder in chronic migraine and tension-type headache, and increases risk for depression and anxiety. Sleep disturbance (e.g., sleep loss, oversleeping, schedule shift) is an acute headache trigger for migraine and tension-type headache. Snoring and sleep disturbance are independent risk factors for progression from episodic to chronic headache.

  1. Childhood epilepsy and sleep

    PubMed Central

    Al-Biltagi, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and epilepsy are two well recognized conditions that interact with each other in a complex bi-directional way. Some types of epilepsies have increased activity during sleep disturbing it; while sleep deprivation aggravates epilepsy due to decreased seizure threshold. Epilepsy can deteriorate the sleep-related disorders and at the same time; the parasomnias can worsen the epilepsy. The secretion of sleep-related hormones can also be affected by the occurrence of seizures and supplementation of epileptic patients with some of these sleep-related hormones may have a beneficial role in controlling epilepsy. PMID:25254184

  2. Sleep and sleep disorders in Don Quixote.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; de Riquer, Martín

    2004-01-01

    In Don Quijote de la Mancha, Miguel de Cervantes presents Don Quixote as an amazing character of the 17th century who suffers from delusions and illusions, believing himself to be a medieval knight errant. Besides this neuropsychiatric condition, Cervantes included masterful descriptions of several sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep deprivation, disruptive loud snoring and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. In addition, he described the occurrence of physiological, vivid dreams and habitual, post-prandial sleepiness--the siesta. Cervantes' concept of sleep as a passive state where all cerebral activities are almost absent is in conflict with his description of abnormal behaviours during sleep and vivid, fantastic dreams. His concept of sleep was shared by his contemporary, Shakespeare, and could have been influenced by the reading of the classical Spanish book of psychiatry Examen de Ingenios (1575).

  3. Sleep physiology and sleep disorders in childhood

    PubMed Central

    El Shakankiry, Hanan M

    2011-01-01

    Sleep has long been considered as a passive phenomenon, but it is now clear that it is a period of intense brain activity involving higher cortical functions. Overall, sleep affects every aspect of a child’s development, particularly higher cognitive functions. Sleep concerns are ranked as the fifth leading concern of parents. Close to one third of all children suffer from sleep disorders, the prevalence of which is increased in certain pediatric populations, such as children with special needs, children with psychiatric or medical diagnoses and children with autism or pervasive developmental disorders. The paper reviews sleep physiology and the impact, classification, and management of sleep disorders in the pediatric age group. PMID:23616721

  4. [Actigraphy in sleep medicine and sleep research].

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yoshiyuki; Matsuda, Mika; Chiba, Shigeru

    2009-08-01

    Actigraphy is a method that utilizes a miniaturized computerized wristwatch-like device to monitor and collect data generated by body movements over extended periods of time. It allows estimation of sleep and wakefulness based on motor activity. It provides a noninvasive, objective, and longitudinal method for the diagnostic and post-treatment evaluation of patients with sleep disorders in the ambulatory setting. It has been used for researchers to study sleep disturbances in a variety of populations, most frequently for the evaluation of insomnia, paradoxical insomnia, and circadian rhythm sleep disorders. In addition, it is particularly useful in populations where polysomnography would be difficult to record, such as in patients with dementia and delirium. Actigraphy should be extensively carried out in sleep medicine as well as sleep research.

  5. Breathing and sleep at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Ainslie, Philip N; Lucas, Samuel J E; Burgess, Keith R

    2013-09-15

    We provide an updated review on the current understanding of breathing and sleep at high altitude in humans. We conclude that: (1) progressive changes in pH initiated by the respiratory alkalosis do not underlie early (<48 h) ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH) because this still proceeds in the absence of such alkalosis; (2) for VAH of longer duration (>48 h), complex cellular and neurochemical re-organization occurs both in the peripheral chemoreceptors as well as within the central nervous system. The latter is likely influenced by central acid-base changes secondary to the extent of the initial respiratory responses to initial exposure to high altitude; (3) sleep at high altitude is disturbed by various factors, but principally by periodic breathing; (4) the extent of periodic breathing during sleep at altitude intensifies with duration and severity of exposure; (5) complex interactions between hypoxic-induced enhancement in peripheral and central chemoreflexes and cerebral blood flow--leading to higher loop gain and breathing instability--underpin this development of periodic breathing during sleep; (6) because periodic breathing may elevate rather than reduce mean SaO2 during sleep, this may represent an adaptive rather than maladaptive response; (7) although oral acetazolamide is an effective means to reduce periodic breathing by 50-80%, recent studies using positive airway pressure devices to increase dead space, hyponotics and theophylline are emerging but appear less practical and effective compared to acetazolamide. Finally, we suggest avenues for future research, and discuss implications for understanding sleep pathology.

  6. Identifying Adolescent Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Gill, Jason; Camfferman, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the efficacy of self-report and parental report of adolescent sleep problems and compare these findings to the incidence of adolescents who fulfill clinical criteria for a sleep problem. Sleep and daytime functioning factors that predict adolescents’ self-identification of a sleep problem will also be examined. Method 308 adolescents (aged 13–17 years) from eight socioeconomically diverse South Australian high schools participated in this study. Participants completed a survey battery during class time, followed by a 7-day Sleep Diary and the Flinders Fatigue Scale completed on the final day of the study. Parents completed a Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey. Results The percentage of adolescents fulfilling one or more of the criteria for a sleep problem was inordinately high at 66%. Adolescent self-reporting a sleep problem was significantly lower than the adolescents who had one or more of the clinical criteria for a sleep problem (23.1% vs. 66.6%; χ2 = 17.46, p<.001). Parental report of their adolescent having a sleep problem was significantly lower than adolescent self-report (14.3% vs. 21.1%, p<.001). Adolescents who reported unrefreshing sleep were 4.81 times more likely to report a sleep problem. For every hour that bedtime was delayed, the odds of self-reporting a sleep problem increased by 1.91 times, while each additional 10 minutes taken to fall asleep increased the odds 1.40 times. Conclusion While many adolescents were found to have sleep patterns indicative of a sleep problem, only a third of this number self-identify having a sleep problem, while only a sixth of this number are indicated by parental report. This study highlights important features to target in future sleep education and intervention strategies for both adolescents and parents. PMID:24086501

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic bone disease: Insights in to the relationship between bone and sleep

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Christine M.; Shea, Steven A.; Stone, Katie L.; Cauley, Jane A.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Redline, Susan; Karsenty, Gerard; Orwoll, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and low bone mass are two prevalent conditions, particularly among older adults, a section of the U.S. population that is expected to grow dramatically over the coming years. OSA, the most common form of sleep disordered breathing, has been linked to multiple cardiovascular, metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory derangements and may have adverse effects on bone. However, little is known about how OSA (including the associated hypoxia and sleep loss) affects bone metabolism. In order to gain insight into the relationship between sleep and bone, we review the growing information on OSA and metabolic bone disease and discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms by which OSA may affect bone metabolism/architecture. PMID:25639209

  8. Network-wide reorganization of procedural memory during NREM sleep revealed by fMRI.

    PubMed

    Vahdat, Shahabeddin; Fogel, Stuart; Benali, Habib; Doyon, Julien

    2017-09-11

    Sleep is necessary for the optimal consolidation of newly acquired procedural memories. However, the mechanisms by which motor memory traces develop during sleep remain controversial in humans, as this process has been mainly investigated indirectly by comparing pre- and post-sleep conditions. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography during sleep following motor sequence learning to investigate how newly-formed memory traces evolve dynamically over time. We provide direct evidence for transient reactivation followed by downscaling of functional connectivity in a cortically-dominant pattern formed during learning, as well as gradual reorganization of this representation toward a subcortically-dominant consolidated trace during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Importantly, the putamen functional connectivity within the consolidated network during NREM sleep was related to overnight behavioral gains. Our results demonstrate that NREM sleep is necessary for two complementary processes: the restoration and reorganization of newly-learned information during sleep, which underlie human motor memory consolidation.

  9. WHO in retreat: is it losing its influence?

    PubMed Central

    Godlee, F.

    1994-01-01

    WHO says it has three main functions: to set normative standards; to provide technical advice and assistance on medical matters; and to advocate changes in health policy. During its 46 year history the first two functions have been a constant and uncontroversial backbone through which WHO has earned its reputation for scientific excellence. The third function, advocacy, came to the fore with the launch of Health for All in 1977, after which WHO took a key role in influencing international health policy. WHO's friends and critics alike now say that the organisation is losing its influence and retreating into its technical and biomedical shell. This article maps the changes in WHO's approach over the past 46 years and considers whether fears about its loss of influence are justified. Images p1492-a p1492-b p1493-a p1494-a FIG 1 PMID:7804058

  10. Prevention of GVHD without losing GVL effect: windows of opportunity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Chen, Benny J; Chao, Nelson J

    2011-04-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation has developed into a most successful form of immunotherapy for hematologic malignancies in the past 50 years. However, its effectiveness and wider applications have been greatly limited by the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a potentially lethal side effect associated with this procedure. Since the main effectors for both graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect and GVHD are T lymphocytes and these two processes share many similar pathways, it has not been easy to separate GVL from GVHD. Because the clinically used pan immunosuppressive therapy for GVHD prevention also results in decreased GVL effect, the success of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation relies on a small and unpredictable therapeutic window at the present time. This review discusses how we may widen this therapeutic window so that we can reliably prevent GVHD without losing GVL effect.

  11. ``Losing the Dark:'' A Planetarium PSA about Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Productions, L. N.; Walker, D. C.

    2013-04-01

    Losing the Dark is a PSA video being created for fulldome theaters by Loch Ness Productions under the direction of the International Dark Sky Association Education Committee headed by Dr. Constance Walker of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories. It explains the problems with light pollution, its effects on life, and three ways in which people can implement “wise lighting” practices to mitigate light pollution. The show is also being produced in a flat-screen HD format for use in classical planetarium and non-dome theaters, for presentations by IDA speakers when addressing planning boards, etc. and will be posted on the IDA and other web sites. The final length is six minutes for both versions. Funding has been provided by The International Planetarium Society and the International Dark-Sky Association.

  12. Honeybee society destruction by losing control of self-reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peipei; Su, Beibei; He, Da-Ren

    2004-03-01

    Recently the mechanism of the damage caused by invasion of Apis mellifera capensis honeybee into the normal A. M. Scutellata colonies became interesting for scientists due to the fact that the mechanism may resemble those of cancer vicious hyperplasia, spreading of some epidemic, and turbulence of society induced by some bad society groups. For the mechanism, we suggest a new guess, which means that the losing control of self-reproduction disturbs and throws information structure of the society into confuse. We also simulate the damage process with a cellular automata based on the idea. The simulation shows that the process is equivalent to a non-equilibrium percolation phase transition. This discussion remind us that the management and monitor on the information network between society members may be a more effective way for avoiding the overflow of the destructor sub-colonies.

  13. Surgical management of Menetrier's disease with protein-losing gastropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, H W; Shull, H J; Law, D H; Burko, H; Page, D L

    1975-01-01

    Three patients with Menetrier's disease and protein-losing gastropathy who were studied during a 12 year period have been presented. The characteristic findings which differentiate them from patients with hypertrophic hypersecretory gastropathy, including the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, are: 1) hypertrophy of gastric mucosa with giant rugal folds involving the fundus, cardia and body of the stomach but sparing the antrum; 2) muscosal hypertrophy consisting of gastric mjcus-secreting cells while parietal cells and chief cells are diminished in number and may be absent from many microscopic sections; 3) gastric secretion of large volume containing excess mucus, low to absent hydrochloric acid and protein concentration 5 or 6 times normal (1.7 mg/ml); 4) hypoalbuminemia and hypoglobulinemia due to loss of serum proteins fron gastric mucosa into the gastric lumen; 5) rare association with gastric ulcer. Unlike the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome none of our patients had duodenal ucler or multiple endocrine adenomatosis or a family history of these conditions. We have found no authenticated reports in the literature which document a relationship of Menetrier's disease ( as defined above) with multiple endocrine adenomatosis. Menetrier's disease with protein-losing gastropathy is a potentially lethal disorder of unknown cause with no specific treatment. Resection of the site of gastric protein losses as first done by Waugh is logical and effective. One of our three patients died in hospital before gastrectomy was done. Two others have done well for 11 months and 12 years, respectively, after total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy and Hunt-Lawrence jejunal pouch. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6A. Fig. 6B. Fig. 7. Fig. 8A. Fig. 8B. Fig. 9A. Fig. 9B. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. PMID:1130890

  14. Sleep and Human Aging.

    PubMed

    Mander, Bryce A; Winer, Joseph R; Walker, Matthew P

    2017-04-05

    Older adults do not sleep as well as younger adults. Why? What alterations in sleep quantity and quality occur as we age, and are there functional consequences? What are the underlying neural mechanisms that explain age-related sleep disruption? This review tackles these questions. First, we describe canonical changes in human sleep quantity and quality in cognitively normal older adults. Second, we explore the underlying neurobiological mechanisms that may account for these human sleep alterations. Third, we consider the functional consequences of age-related sleep disruption, focusing on memory impairment as an exemplar. We conclude with a discussion of a still-debated question: do older adults simply need less sleep, or rather, are they unable to generate the sleep that they still need?

  15. Central sleep apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ramar K, et al. The treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based literature review and meta-analyses. SLEEP . 2012;35:17-40. Clodagh MR, Bradley TD. ...

  16. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.

  17. Sleep in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Esbensen, Anna J; Schwichtenberg, Amy J

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience sleep problems at higher rates than the general population. Although individuals with IDD are a heterogeneous group, several sleep problems cluster within genetic syndromes or disorders. This review summarizes the prevalence of sleep problems experienced by individuals with Angelman syndrome, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, Cri du Chat syndrome, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Smith-Magenis syndrome, Williams syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, and idiopathic IDD. Factors associated with sleep problems and the evidence for sleep treatments are reviewed for each neurodevelopmental disorder. Sleep research advancements in neurodevelopmental disorders are reviewed, including the need for consistency in defining and measuring sleep problems, considerations for research design and reporting of results, and considerations when evaluating sleep treatments. PMID:28503406

  18. Aging changes in sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sometimes, a mild antihistamine works better than a sleeping pill for relieving short-term insomnia. However, most health experts do not recommend these types of medicines for older people. Use sleep medicines (such as benzodiazepines) only as recommended, and ...

  19. [Sleep changes with aging].

    PubMed

    Arbus, Christophe; Cochen, Valérie

    2010-03-01

    Many factors contribute to the alteration of sleep in older adults. Most of their complaints can be explained by the modifications of the sleep organisation observed in this population. Sleep architecture is altered with aging. Insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness can reflect an alteration of the circadian rhythm. This population is also frequently exposed to specific sleep disorders such as the restless leg syndrome, periodic limb movements or obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep disorders in patients with Alzheimer's disease is a daily preoccupation at home or in institution. Circadian rhythm modifications and sleep disorders are frequent in this frail population and can induce disturbing behavior disorders. Before the prescription of hypnotics and psychotropic drugs, facing a sleep complaint practitioners should take into account the risks induced by these treatments that should no longer be the unique and reflex treatment in these situations.

  20. [Sleep in neurodevelopmental disorders].

    PubMed

    Idiazábal-Aletxa, M A; Aliagas-Martínez, S

    2009-02-27

    Sleep disorders can affect daytime functioning in a variety of neurodevelopmental disabilities as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and Asperger syndrome. Researchers using behavioural and/or electrophysiological measures have identified differences in sleep architecture among people with autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other developmental disorders. Children with neurodevelopmental disabilities have significant sleep problems, most commonly disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep. Studies of sleep disturbance in children with academic and behavioural problems have underscored the role that primary sleep disorders play in the clinical presentation of symptoms of inattention and behavioural dysregulation. Identification and treatment of sleep disorders in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities may improve daytime behaviour in this patients. When establishing a treatment plan, it is imperative to understand the underlying etiology of the sleep problem, which in many cases is multifactorial.

  1. Sleep in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Vigeta, Sônia Maria Garcia; Hachul, Helena; Tufik, Sergio; de Oliveira, Eleonora Menicucci

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that most influence the perception of sleep quality in postmenopausal women. We used the methodological strategy of the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD), which is based on a theoretical framework of social representations theory. We obtained the data by interviewing 22 postmenopausal Brazilian women who were experiencing insomnia. The women gave accounts of their difficulties with sleep; a variety of dimensions were identified within the data. The onset of sleep disorders might have occurred during childhood or in situations considered to be stressful, and were not necessarily associated with menopause. We found that hormonal alterations occurring during menopause, psychosocial factors, and sleep-breathing disorders triggered occasional sleep disturbances during this time of life. Participants were aware of the consequences of sleep deprivation. In addition, inadequate sleep hygiene habits figured prominently as determinants in the persistence of sleep disturbances.

  2. Why Is Sleep Important

    MedlinePlus

    ... you may have trouble fighting common infections. Daytime Performance and Safety Getting enough quality sleep at the ... example, sleep deficiency has played a role in human errors linked to tragic accidents, such as nuclear ...

  3. Sleep and Health

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep and Health (0:36) Dr. Orfeu Buxton describes how animal and human studies suggest that adequate sleep is crucial for a long and healthy life. choose settings to watch video: Windows Media Player - high | low ...

  4. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Jet Lag Overview Symptoms & Self Test Treatment Narcolepsy Overview & Facts Symptoms Self-Tests & Diagnosis Treatment Restless ... Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders ...

  5. Sleep and Infant Learning.

    PubMed

    Tarullo, Amanda R; Balsam, Peter D; Fifer, William P

    2011-01-01

    Human neonates spend the majority of their time sleeping. Despite the limited waking hours available for environmental exploration, the first few months of life are a time of rapid learning about the environment. The organization of neonate sleep differs qualitatively from adult sleep, and the unique characteristics of neonatal sleep may promote learning. Sleep contributes to infant learning in multiple ways. First, sleep facilitates neural maturation, thereby preparing infants to process and explore the environment in increasingly sophisticated ways. Second, sleep plays a role in memory consolidation of material presented while the infant was awake. Finally, emerging evidence indicates that infants process sensory stimuli and learn about contingencies in their environment even while asleep. As infants make the transition from reflexive to cortically mediated control, learned responses to physiological challenges during sleep may be critical adaptations to promote infant survival.

  6. Pediatric Sleep Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sulman, Cecille G.

    2014-01-01

    Adenotonsillectomy is the most common surgery performed for sleep disordered breathing with good outcomes. Children with obesity, craniofacial disorders, and neurologic impairment are at risk for persistent sleep apnea after adenotonsillectomy. Techniques exist to address obstructive lesions of the palate, tongue base, or craniofacial skeleton in children with persistent sleep apnea. Children with obstructive sleep apnea have a higher rate of peri-operative complications. PMID:24926473

  7. American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sleep Solutions Nierman Practice Management ProSomnus Sleep Technologies Space Maintainers Laboratory ... © American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine, All Rights Reserved. American Academy of Dental Sleep ...

  8. Shifting from implicit to explicit knowledge: different roles of early- and late-night sleep.

    PubMed

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf; Bataghva, Zhamak; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-07-01

    Sleep has been shown to promote the generation of explicit knowledge as indicated by the gain of insight into previously unrecognized task regularities. Here, we explored whether this generation of explicit knowledge depends on pre-sleep implicit knowledge, and specified the differential roles of slow-wave sleep (SWS) vs. rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in this process. Implicit and explicit knowledge (insight) related to a hidden regularity were assessed in an associative motor-learning task (number reduction task, NRT), which was performed in two sessions (initial practice and retest) separated by 3 h of either early-night sleep, rich in SWS, or of late-night sleep, rich in REM sleep. About half of the participants developed signs of implicit rule knowledge (i.e., speeded reaction times for responses determined by the hidden regularity) at initial practice preceding early or late sleep. Of these, half developed explicit knowledge across early-night sleep, significantly more than across late-night sleep. In contrast, late-night subjects preferentially remained on the level of implicit rule knowledge after sleep. Participants who did not develop implicit knowledge before sleep had comparable rates of transition to implicit or explicit knowledge across early and late sleep. If subjects gained explicit knowledge across sleep, this was associated with lower amounts of REM sleep, specifically in the late-night group. SWS predominant during the early night may restructure implicit memory representations in a way that allows creating an explicit representation afterward, whereas REM sleep in the late night appears to stabilize them in their implicit form.

  9. A Suicidal Adolescent's Sleeping Beauty Syndrome: Cessation Orientations toward Dying, Sleep, and Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babow, Irving; Rowe, Robin

    1990-01-01

    In study of hospitalized suicidal youth, account of 16-year-old girl, diagnosed as schizophrenic, is analyzed to gain insight into family's role in suicidal career of adolescent preoccupied with death and dying, sleep, and drugs; the interplay of her construction of reality with her risk-taking, self-injurious way of life; and her perceived…

  10. A Suicidal Adolescent's Sleeping Beauty Syndrome: Cessation Orientations toward Dying, Sleep, and Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babow, Irving; Rowe, Robin

    1990-01-01

    In study of hospitalized suicidal youth, account of 16-year-old girl, diagnosed as schizophrenic, is analyzed to gain insight into family's role in suicidal career of adolescent preoccupied with death and dying, sleep, and drugs; the interplay of her construction of reality with her risk-taking, self-injurious way of life; and her perceived…

  11. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  12. Sleep Fragmentation Hypersensitizes Healthy Young Women to Deep and Superficial Experimental Pain.

    PubMed

    Iacovides, Stella; George, Kezia; Kamerman, Peter; Baker, Fiona C

    2017-07-01

    The effect of sleep deprivation on pain sensitivity has typically been studied using total and partial sleep deprivation protocols. These protocols do not mimic the fragmented pattern of sleep disruption usually observed in individuals with clinical pain conditions. Therefore, we conducted a controlled experiment to investigate the effect of sleep fragmentation on pain perception (deep pain: forearm muscle ischemia, and superficial pain: graded pin pricks applied to the skin) in 11 healthy young women after 2 consecutive nights of sleep fragmentation, compared with a normal night of sleep. Compared with normal sleep, sleep fragmentation resulted in significantly poorer sleep quality, morning vigilance, and global mood. Pin prick threshold decreased significantly (increased sensitivity), as did habituation to ischemic muscle pain (increased sensitivity), over the course of the 2 nights of sleep fragmentation compared with the night of normal sleep. Sleep fragmentation did not increase the maximum pain intensity reported during muscle ischemia (no increase in gain), and nor did it increase the number of spontaneous pains reported by participants. Our data show that sleep fragmentation in healthy, young, pain-free women increases pain sensitivity in superficial and deep tissues, indicating a role for sleep disruption, through sleep fragmentation, in modulating pain perception. Our findings that pain-free, young women develop hyperalgesia to superficial and deep muscle pain after short-term sleep disruption highlight the need for effective sleep management strategies in patients with pain. Findings also suggest the possibility that short-term sleep disruption associated with recurrent acute pain could contribute to increased risk for future chronic pain conditions. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Short sleep is a questionable risk factor for obesity and related disorders: statistical versus clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Horne, Jim

    2008-03-01

    Habitually insufficient sleep could contribute towards obesity, metabolic syndrome, etc., via sleepiness-related inactivity and excess energy intake; more controversially, through more direct physiological changes. Epidemiological studies in adult/children point to small clinical risk only in very short (around 5h in adults), or long sleepers, developing over many years, involving hundreds of hours of 'too little' or 'too much' sleep. Although acute 4h/day sleep restriction leads to glucose intolerance and incipient metabolic syndrome, this is too little sleep and cannot be sustained beyond a few days. Few obese adults/children are short sleepers, and few short sleeping adults/children are obese or suffer obesity-related disorders. For adults, about 7h uninterrupted daily sleep is 'healthy'. Extending sleep, even with hypnotics, to lose weight, may take years, compared with the rapidity of utilising extra sleep time to exercise and evaluate one's diet. The real health risk of inadequate sleep comes from a sleepiness-related accident.

  14. [Normal and disordered sleep].

    PubMed

    Arnulf, I

    2007-07-01

    Normal sleep is a complex and reversible state of brain functioning, including reduced inputs and outputs, blunted reflexes, and metabolic and cognitive changes. Evidence supports a role for sleep in the consolidation of an array of learning and memory tasks. Sleep deprivation and fragmentation result in executive dysfunction, increased appetite/weight and cellular stress. Sleep is a vital, complex but plastic function that can be modulated depending on individual heritage and motivation. The major role of sleep in attention and memory raises about concern the reduction in sleep duration recently pointed in teenagers and young adults. Sleep disorders are numerous and various. Their mechanism is not always identified, but may result from a central dysfunction in sleep-wake (e.g. narcolepsy) or circadian (e.g. advanced sleep phase syndrome) systems, from the sleep-related loss of compensation of reflexes normally effective during wakefulness (breathing is the most vulnerable function during sleep), or from other diseases preventing sleep (e.g. psychiatric insomnia, restless legs syndrome).

  15. Sleep and Your Preschooler

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Sleep and Your Preschooler KidsHealth > For Parents > Sleep and Your Preschooler Print A A A What's ... Preschoolers need about 11 to 12 hours of sleep each day, which can include a nap. There's ...

  16. Physiology of Sleep.

    PubMed

    Carley, David W; Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF Far from a simple absence of wakefulness, sleep is an active, regulated, and metabolically distinct state, essential for health and well-being. In this article, the authors review the fundamental anatomy and physiology of sleep and its regulation, with an eye toward interactions between sleep and metabolism.

  17. Sleep and Your Preschooler

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Sleep and Your Preschooler KidsHealth > For Parents > Sleep and Your Preschooler A A A What's in ... Preschoolers need about 11 to 12 hours of sleep each day, which can include a nap. There's ...

  18. Sleep, sleepiness and yawning.

    PubMed

    Giganti, F; Zilli, I; Aboudan, S; Salzarulo, P

    2010-01-01

    This chapter will discuss the relationship between yawning, sleep onset, awakening and sleepiness. Models concerning wake-sleep regulation will be discussed in relation to yawning. Yawning close to sleep, before and after, will be examined in several conditions and populations. Also, the time course of yawning and sleepiness assessed by subjective estimates will be described.

  19. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly-Foley, Georgina

    2016-08-31

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The CPD article discussed strategies to promote healthy sleep. It considered theories related to the function of sleep and the potential consequences of sleep deficit.

  20. Pediatric sleep pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Pelayo, Rafael; Yuen, Kin

    2012-10-01

    This article reviews common sleep disorders in children and pharmacologic options for them. Discussions of pediatric sleep pharmacology typically focus on treatment of insomnia. Although insomnia is a major concern in this population, other conditions of concern in children are presented, such as narcolepsy, parasomnias, restless legs syndrome, and sleep apnea.

  1. Does inadequate sleep play a role in vulnerability to obesity?

    PubMed

    Knutson, Kristen L

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly worldwide, which is cause for concern because obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, reduces life expectancy, and impairs quality of life. A better understanding of the risk factors for obesity is therefore a critical global health concern, and human biologists can play an important role in identifying these risk factors in various populations. The objective of this review is to present the evidence that inadequate sleep may be a novel risk factor associated with increased vulnerability to obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease. Experimental studies have found that short-term sleep restriction is associated with impaired glucose metabolism, dysregulation of appetite, and increased blood pressure. Observational studies have observed cross-sectional associations between short sleep duration (generally <6 h per night) and increased body mass index or obesity, prevalent diabetes, and prevalent hypertension. Some studies also reported an association between self-reported long sleep duration (generally >8 h per night) and cardiometabolic disease. A few prospective studies have found a significant increased risk of weight gain, incident diabetes, and incident hypertension associated with inadequate sleep. Given the potential link between inadequate sleep and obesity, a critical next step is to identify the social, cultural, and environmental determinants of sleep, which would help to identify vulnerable populations. Future human biology research should consider variation in sleep characteristics among different populations and determine whether the associations between sleep and obesity observed in Western populations persist elsewhere.

  2. Impact of lifestyle and technology developments on sleep.

    PubMed

    Shochat, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Although the physiological and psychological mechanisms involved in the development of sleep disorders remain similar throughout history, factors that potentiate these mechanisms are closely related to the "zeitgeist", ie, the sociocultural, technological and lifestyle trends which characterize an era. Technological advancements have afforded modern society with 24-hour work operations, transmeridian travel and exposure to a myriad of electronic devices such as televisions, computers and cellular phones. Growing evidence suggests that these advancements take their toll on human functioning and health via their damaging effects on sleep quality, quantity and timing. Additional behavioral lifestyle factors associated with poor sleep include weight gain, insufficient physical exercise and consumption of substances such as caffeine, alcohol and nicotine. Some of these factors have been implicated as self-help aids used to combat daytime sleepiness and impaired daytime functioning. This review aims to highlight current lifestyle trends that have been shown in scientific investigations to be associated with sleep patterns, sleep duration and sleep quality. Current understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these associations will be presented, as well as some of the reported consequences. Available therapies used to treat some lifestyle related sleep disorders will be discussed. Perspectives will be provided for further investigation of lifestyle factors that are associated with poor sleep, including developing theoretical frameworks, identifying underlying mechanisms, and establishing appropriate therapies and public health interventions aimed to improve sleep behaviors in order to enhance functioning and health in modern society.

  3. Impact of lifestyle and technology developments on sleep

    PubMed Central

    Shochat, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Although the physiological and psychological mechanisms involved in the development of sleep disorders remain similar throughout history, factors that potentiate these mechanisms are closely related to the “zeitgeist”, ie, the sociocultural, technological and lifestyle trends which characterize an era. Technological advancements have afforded modern society with 24-hour work operations, transmeridian travel and exposure to a myriad of electronic devices such as televisions, computers and cellular phones. Growing evidence suggests that these advancements take their toll on human functioning and health via their damaging effects on sleep quality, quantity and timing. Additional behavioral lifestyle factors associated with poor sleep include weight gain, insufficient physical exercise and consumption of substances such as caffeine, alcohol and nicotine. Some of these factors have been implicated as self-help aids used to combat daytime sleepiness and impaired daytime functioning. This review aims to highlight current lifestyle trends that have been shown in scientific investigations to be associated with sleep patterns, sleep duration and sleep quality. Current understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these associations will be presented, as well as some of the reported consequences. Available therapies used to treat some lifestyle related sleep disorders will be discussed. Perspectives will be provided for further investigation of lifestyle factors that are associated with poor sleep, including developing theoretical frameworks, identifying underlying mechanisms, and establishing appropriate therapies and public health interventions aimed to improve sleep behaviors in order to enhance functioning and health in modern society. PMID:23616726

  4. CGRP neurons mediate sleep-specific circadian output in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kunst, Michael; Hughes, Michael E.; Raccuglia, Davide; Felix, Mario; Li, Michael; Barnett, Gregory; Duah, Janelle; Nitabach, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Imbalances in amount and timing of sleep are harmful to physical and mental health. Therefore, the study of the underlying mechanisms is of great biological importance. Proper timing and amount of sleep is regulated by both the circadian clock and homeostatic sleep drive. However, very little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the circadian clock regulates sleep. In this study we describe a novel role for DIURETIC HORMONE 31 (DH31), the fly homologue of the vertebrate neuropeptide CALCITONIN GENE RELATED PEPTIDE (CGRP), as a circadian wake-promoting signal that awakens the fly in anticipation of dawn. Results Analysis of loss-of-function and gain-of-function Drosophila mutants demonstrates that DH31 suppresses sleep late at night. DH31 is expressed by a subset of dorsal circadian clock neurons that also express the receptor for the circadian neuropeptide PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF). PDF secreted by the ventral pacemaker subset of circadian clock neurons acts on PDF receptors in the DH31-expressing dorsal clock neurons to increase DH31 secretion before dawn. Activation of PDFR in DH31 positive DN1 specifically affects sleep and has no effect on circadian rhythms, thus constituting a dedicated locus for circadian regulation of sleep. Conclusions We identified a novel signaling molecule (DH31) as part of a neuropeptide relay mechanism for circadian control of sleep. Our results indicate that outputs of the clock controlling sleep and locomotor rhythms are mediated via distinct neuronal/cellular channels. PMID:25455031

  5. Metabolic effects of sleep disruption, links to obesity and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nedeltcheva, Arlet V.; Scheer, Frank A.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the review To highlight the adverse metabolic effects of sleep disruption and to open ground for research aimed at preventive measures. This area of research is especially relevant given the increasing prevalence of voluntary sleep curtailment, sleep disorders, diabetes, and obesity. Resent findings Epidemiological studies have established an association between decreased self-reported sleep duration and an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Experimental laboratory studies have demonstrated that decreasing either the amount or quality of sleep decreases insulin sensitivity and decreases glucose tolerance. Experimental sleep restriction also causes physiological and behavioral changes that promote a positive energy balance. While sleep restriction increases energy expenditure due to increased wakefulness, it can lead to a disproportionate increase in food intake, decrease in physical activity, and weight gain. Summary Sleep disruption has detrimental effects on metabolic health. These insights may help in the development of new preventative and therapeutic approaches against obesity and T2D based on increasing the quality and/or quantity of sleep. PMID:24937041

  6. Changes in taste preference and steps taken after sleep curtailment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shannon L; Ludy, Mary-Jon; Tucker, Robin M

    2016-09-01

    A substantial proportion of the population does not achieve the recommended amount of sleep. Previous work demonstrates that sleep alterations perturb energy balance by disrupting appetite hormones, increasing energy intake, and decreasing physical activity. This study explored the influence of sleep duration on taste perception as well as effects on dietary intake and physical activity. Participants (n=24 habitual short sleepers and n=27 habitual long sleepers, 82.4% female, 88.2% white, 25.2±7.7years) completed two randomized taste visits; one following short sleep duration (≤7h) and one following long sleep duration (>7h). Taste perception measures included sweet and salt detection thresholds (ascending 3-alternative, forced-choice method), as well as sweet preference (Monell 2-series, forced-choice, paired-comparison, tracking method). Steps and sleep were tracked via FitBit, an activity monitoring device. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls and analyzed using Nutritionist Pro. Habitual long-sleepers had a higher sweet taste preference (p=0.042) and took fewer steps (p=0.036) following sleep curtailment compared to the night where they slept >7h but did not experience changes in dietary intake or detection thresholds. Habitual short-sleepers did not experience changes in taste perception, activity, or dietary intake following sleep alteration. Habitual long-sleepers may be at greater risk of gaining weight when typical sleep patterns are disrupted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Does inadequate sleep play a role in vulnerability to obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Kristen L.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly worldwide, which is cause for concern because obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, reduces life expectancy and impairs quality of life. A better understanding of the risk factors for obesity is therefore a critical global health concern and human biologists can play an important role in identifying these risk factors in various populations. The objective of this review is to present the evidence that inadequate sleep may be a novel risk factor associated with increased vulnerability to obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease. Experimental studies have found that short-term sleep restriction is associated with impaired glucose metabolism, dysregulation of appetite and increased blood pressure. Observational studies have observed cross-sectional associations between short sleep duration (generally <6 hours per night) and increased body mass index or obesity, prevalent diabetes and prevalent hypertension. Some studies also reported an association between self-reported long sleep duration (generally >8 hours per night) and cardiometabolic disease. A few prospective studies have found a significant increased risk of weight gain, incident diabetes and incident hypertension associated with inadequate sleep. Given the potential link between inadequate sleep and obesity, a critical next step is to identify the social, cultural and environmental determinants of sleep, which would help to identify vulnerable populations. Future human biology research should consider variation in sleep characteristics among different populations and determine whether the associations between sleep and obesity observed in Western populations persist elsewhere. PMID:22275135

  8. Why does consciousness fade in early sleep?

    PubMed

    Tononi, Giulio; Massimini, Marcello

    2008-01-01

    Consciousness fades during deep nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep early in the night, yet cortical neurons remain active, keep receiving sensory inputs, and can display patterns of synchronous activity. Why then does consciousness fade? According to the integrated information theory of consciousness, what is critical for consciousness is not firing rates, sensory input, or synchronization per se, but rather the ability of a system to integrate information. If consciousness is the capacity to integrate information, then the brain should be able to generate consciousness to the extent that it has a large repertoire of available states (information), yet it cannot be decomposed into a collection of causally independent subsystems (integration). A key prediction stemming from this hypothesis is that such ability should be greatly reduced in deep NREM sleep; the dreamless brain either breaks down into causally independent modules, shrinks its repertoire of possible responses, or both. In this article, we report the results of a series of experiments in which we employed a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation and high-density electroencephalography (TMS/hd-EEG) to directly test this prediction in humans. Altogether, TMS/hdEEG measurements suggest that the sleeping brain, despite being active and reactive, loses its ability of entering states that are both integrated and differentiated; it either breaks down in causally independent modules, responding to TMS with a short and local activation, or it bursts into an explosive and aspecific response, producing a full-fledged slow wave.

  9. Should I Gain Weight?

    MedlinePlus

    ... If you're having trouble with your body image, talk about how you feel with someone you like and trust who's been through it — maybe a parent, doctor, counselor, coach, or teacher. continue It's the Growth, Not the Gain No ...

  10. Sleep and sleep disorders in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Guidozzi, F

    2013-04-01

    Sleep disorders in the menopause are common. Although these disorders may be due to the menopause itself and/or the associated vasomotor symptoms, the etiology is multifactorial and includes a number of other associated conditions. They may simply arise as part of the aging process and not be specifically related to the decrease in estrogen levels or, alternatively, because of breathing or limb movement syndromes, depression, anxiety, co-morbid medical diseases, medication, pain and/or psychosocial factors. The most commonly encountered sleep disorders in menopausal women include insomnia, nocturnal breathing disturbances and the associated sleep disorders that accompany the restless leg syndrome, periodic leg movement syndrome, depression and anxiety. This review article addresses sleep and the sleep disorders associated with menopause and briefly the role that hormone therapy may play in alleviating these disorders.

  11. Genetic Dissociation of Daily Sleep and Sleep Following Thermogenetic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dubowy, Christine; Moravcevic, Katarina; Yue, Zhifeng; Wan, Joy Y.; Van Dongen, Hans P.A.; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep rebound—the increase in sleep that follows sleep deprivation—is a hallmark of homeostatic sleep regulation that is conserved across the animal kingdom. However, both the mechanisms that underlie sleep rebound and its relationship to habitual daily sleep remain unclear. To address this, we developed an efficient thermogenetic method of inducing sleep deprivation in Drosophila that produces a substantial rebound, and applied the newly developed method to assess sleep rebound in a screen of 1,741 mutated lines. We used data generated by this screen to identify lines with reduced sleep rebound following thermogenetic sleep deprivation, and to probe the relationship between habitual sleep amount and sleep following thermogenetic sleep deprivation in Drosophila. Methods: To develop a thermogenetic method of sleep deprivation suitable for screening, we thermogenetically stimulated different populations of wake-promoting neurons labeled by Gal4 drivers. Sleep rebound following thermogenetically-induced wakefulness varies across the different sets of wake-promoting neurons that were stimulated, from very little to quite substantial. Thermogenetic activation of neurons marked by the c584-Gal4 driver produces both strong sleep loss and a substantial rebound that is more consistent within genotypes than rebound following mechanical or caffeine-induced sleep deprivation. We therefore used this driver to induce sleep deprivation in a screen of 1,741 mutagenized lines generated by the Drosophila Gene Disruption Project. Flies were subjected to 9 h of sleep deprivation during the dark period and released from sleep deprivation 3 h before lights-on. Recovery was measured over the 15 h following sleep deprivation. Following identification of lines with reduced sleep rebound, we characterized baseline sleep and sleep depth before and after sleep deprivation for these hits. Results: We identified two lines that consistently exhibit a blunted increase in the

  12. Sleep and psychoneuroimmunology.

    PubMed

    Opp, Mark R

    2006-08-01

    Personal experience indicates we sleep differently when sick. Data reviewed demonstrate the extent to which sleep is altered during the course of infection of host organisms by several classes of pathogens. One important unanswered question is whether or not the alterations in sleep during infection are of functional relevance. That is, does the way we sleep when sick facilitate or impede recovery? One retrospective, preclinical study suggests that sleep changes during infection are of functional relevance. Toth and colleagues [102] analyzed sleep responses of rabbits to three different microbial infections. Those rabbits that exhibited robust increases in NREM sleep were more likely to survive than those that exhibited long periods of NREM sleep suppression. These tantalizing data suggest that the precise alterations in sleep through the course of infection are important determinants of morbidity and mortality. Data from healthy subjects demonstrate a role for at least two cytokines in the regulation of spontaneous, physiologic NREM sleep. A second critical yet unanswered question is whether or not cytokines mediate infection-induced alterations in sleep. The hypothesis that cytokines mediate infection-induced alterations in sleep is logical based on observations of the impact of infection on levels of cytokines in the peripheral immune system and in the brain. No attempts have been made to intervene with cytokine systems in brain during the course of infection to determine if there is an impact on infection-induced alterations in sleep. Although substantial progress has been made in elucidating the myriad mechanisms by which cytokines regulate and modulate sleep, much remains to be determined with respect to mechanistic and functional aspects of infection-induced alterations in sleep.

  13. Sleep disorders in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Costa e Silva, Jorge Alberto

    2006-10-01

    Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or staying asleep, in staying awake, or in adhering to a consistent sleep/wake schedule. Narcolepsy affects as many individuals as does multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease. Sleep problems are especially prevalent in schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses, and every year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add billions to the national health care bill in industrialized countries. Although psychiatrists often treat patients with insomnia secondary to depression, most patients discuss their insomnia with general care physicians, making it important to provide this group with clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of insomnia. Once the specific medical, behavioral, or psychiatric causes of the sleep problem have been identified, appropriate treatment can be undertaken. Chronic insomnia has multiple causes arising from medical disorders, psychiatric disorders, primary sleep disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, social or therapeutic use of drugs, or maladaptive behaviors. The emerging concepts of sleep neurophysiology are consistent with the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance hypothesis of mood disorders, which proposes that depression is associated with an increased ratio of central cholinergic to aminergic neurotransmission. The characteristic sleep abnormalities of depression may reflect a relative predominance of cholinergic activity. Antidepressant medications presumably reduce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep either by their anticholinergic properties or by enhancing aminergic neurotransmission. Intense and prolonged dreams often accompany abrupt withdrawal

  14. Behavioural and neural modulation of win-stay but not lose-shift strategies as a function of outcome value in Rock, Paper, Scissors.

    PubMed

    Forder, Lewis; Dyson, Benjamin James

    2016-09-23

    Competitive environments in which individuals compete for mutually-exclusive outcomes require rational decision making in order to maximize gains but often result in poor quality heuristics. Reasons for the greater reliance on lose-shift relative to win-stay behaviour shown in previous studies were explored using the game of Rock, Paper, Scissors and by manipulating the value of winning and losing. Decision-making following a loss was characterized as relatively fast and relatively inflexible both in terms of the failure to modulate the magnitude of lose-shift strategy and the lack of significant neural modulation. In contrast, decision-making following a win was characterized as relatively slow and relatively flexible both in terms of a behavioural increase in the magnitude of win-stay strategy and a neural modulation of feedback-related negativity (FRN) and stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) following outcome value modulation. The win-stay/lose-shift heuristic appears not to be a unified mechanism, with the former relying on System 2 processes and the latter relying on System 1 processes. Our ability to play rationally appears more likely when the outcome is positive and when the value of wins are low, highlighting how vulnerable we can be when trying to succeed during competition.

  15. Behavioural and neural modulation of win-stay but not lose-shift strategies as a function of outcome value in Rock, Paper, Scissors

    PubMed Central

    Forder, Lewis; Dyson, Benjamin James

    2016-01-01

    Competitive environments in which individuals compete for mutually-exclusive outcomes require rational decision making in order to maximize gains but often result in poor quality heuristics. Reasons for the greater reliance on lose-shift relative to win-stay behaviour shown in previous studies were explored using the game of Rock, Paper, Scissors and by manipulating the value of winning and losing. Decision-making following a loss was characterized as relatively fast and relatively inflexible both in terms of the failure to modulate the magnitude of lose-shift strategy and the lack of significant neural modulation. In contrast, decision-making following a win was characterized as relatively slow and relatively flexible both in terms of a behavioural increase in the magnitude of win-stay strategy and a neural modulation of feedback-related negativity (FRN) and stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) following outcome value modulation. The win-stay/lose-shift heuristic appears not to be a unified mechanism, with the former relying on System 2 processes and the latter relying on System 1 processes. Our ability to play rationally appears more likely when the outcome is positive and when the value of wins are low, highlighting how vulnerable we can be when trying to succeed during competition. PMID:27658703

  16. Sleep, Health, and Society.

    PubMed

    Grandner, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    Biological needs for sleep are met by engaging in behaviors that are largely influenced by the environment, social norms and demands, and societal influences and pressures. Insufficient sleep duration and sleep disorders such as insomnia and sleep apnea are highly prevalent in the US population. This article outlines some of these downstream factors, including cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk, neurocognitive dysfunction, and mortality, as well as societal factors such as age, sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomics. This review also discusses societal factors related to sleep, such as globalization, health disparities, public policy, public safety, and changing patterns of use of technology.

  17. Disordered eating partly mediates the relationship between poor sleep quality and high body mass index.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Shin-Shyuan Sally; Brown, Rhonda Frances

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the relationship between poor sleep quality and high body mass index (BMI) in a community-derived sample. In addition, we explored the premise that disordered eating (i.e. eating late at night and/or binge eating, which can occur at night) may partly explain the relationship. An online survey asked 330 participants about their height and weight, recent sleep quality, and recent experiences of binge-eating and night-time eating. Using multiple regression analyses, high BMI was shown to be related to shorter sleep duration, increased sleep latency, use of sleeping medications and worse binge-eating, whereas worse sleep quality was related to worse night-eating, after controlling for depression and demographics. Using mediational analyses, binge-eating was shown to partly mediate the relationship between worse sleep quality to higher BMI, whereas night-eating mediated the reverse association of high BMI to worse sleep quality. The results suggest that night- and/or binge-eating may partly explain the observed relationship between worse sleep quality and overweight/obesity. Thus, the relationship may simply reflect that overweight people are more likely to binge-eat while they wait for sleep to come, and this may contribute to weight gain over time. In addition, the results may indicate that eating rather than weight gain or obesity may be responsible for causing the sleep deficits in overweight people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep in the Military

    PubMed Central

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Shih, Regina A.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Geyer, Lily; Fisher, Michael P.; Griffin, Beth Ann; Haas, Ann C.; Kurz, Jeremy; Steinberg, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sleep disturbances are a common reaction to stress and are linked to a host of physical and mental health problems. Given the unprecedented demands placed on U.S. military forces since 2001, there has been growing concern about the prevalence and consequences of sleep problems for servicemembers. Sleep problems often follow a chronic course, persisting long after servicemembers return home from combat deployments, with consequences for their reintegration and the readiness and resiliency of the force. Therefore, it is critical to understand the role of sleep problems in servicemembers’ health and functioning and the policies and programs available to promote healthy sleep. This study provides the first comprehensive review of sleep-related policies and programs across the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), along with a set of actionable recommendations for DoD, commanders, researchers, and medical professionals who treat U.S. servicemembers. The two-year multimethod study also examined the rates and correlates of sleep problems among post-deployed servicemembers, finding negative effects on mental health, daytime impairment, and perceived operational readiness. The research reviewed evidence-based interventions to treat sleep disturbances among servicemembers and veterans and exposed several individual- and system-level barriers to achieving healthy sleep. Implementing evidence-based treatments is just one step toward improving sleep across the force; as the research recommendations highlight, it is equally important that policies and programs also focus on preventing sleep problems and their consequences. PMID:28083395

  19. [Sleep duration and metabolism].

    PubMed

    Viot-Blanc, V

    2015-12-01

    Sleep duration has gradually diminished during the last decade while obesity and type 2 diabetes have become epidemics. Experimental sleep curtailment leads to increased appetite, hormonal disturbances and, especially, insulin resistance. Numerous epidemiological studies have therefore examined whether habitual short sleep is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A large majority of cross-sectional studies have confirmed an association between short, and also long sleep duration and obesity in adults more than in the elderly. Short sleep is strongly associated to obesity in children and adolescents. Prospective studies, including studies in children, are not conclusive with regard to the effect of short sleep on the incidence of obesity. Both short and long sleep durations are associated with diabetes, but only short sleep duration seems predictive of future diabetes. Insomnia seems to be a strong contributor to short sleep duration but the association of insomnia with obesity is not clear. Insomnia is associated with type 2 diabetes and also predictive of a higher incidence. Other studies have shown that short sleep duration and insomnia are associated with, and sometime predictive of, other components of the metabolic syndrome, especially hypertension and the risk of coronary disease. The treatment of short sleep duration and insomnia with regard to their effects on the metabolic syndrome merits further study.

  20. Sleep habits and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Larcher, S; Benhamou, P-Y; Pépin, J-L; Borel, A-L

    2015-09-01

    Sleep duration has been constantly decreasing over the past 50 years. Short sleep duration, sleep quality and, recently, long sleep duration have all been linked to poor health outcomes, increasing the risk of developing metabolic diseases and cardiovascular events. Beyond the duration of sleep, the timing of sleep may also have consequences. Having a tendency to go early to bed (early chronotype) compared with the habit of going to bed later (late chronotype) can interfere considerably with social schedules (school, work). Eventually, a misalignment arises in sleep timing between work days and free days that has been described as 'social jet lag'. The present review looks at how different sleep habits can interfere with diabetes, excluding sleep breathing disorders, and successively looks at the effects of sleep duration, chronotype and social jet lag on the risk of developing diabetes as well as on the metabolic control of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Finally, this review addresses the current state of knowledge of physiological mechanisms that could be linking sleep habits and metabolic health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuroimaging in sleep medicine.

    PubMed

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Desseilles, Martin; Petit, Dominique; Mazza, Stéphanie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Maquet, Pierre

    2007-06-01

    The development of neuroimaging techniques has made possible the characterization of cerebral function throughout the sleep-wake cycle in normal human subjects. Indeed, human brain activity during sleep is segregated within specific cortical and subcortical areas in relation to the sleep stage, sleep physiological events and previous waking activity. This approach has allowed sleep physiological theories developed from animal data to be confirmed, but has also introduced original concepts about the neurobiological mechanisms of sleep, dreams and memory in humans. In contrast, at present, few neuroimaging studies have been dedicated to human sleep disorders. The available work has brought interesting data that describe some aspects of the pathophysiology and neural consequences of disorders such as insomnia, sleep apnea and narcolepsy. However, the interpretation of many of these results is restricted by limited sample size and spatial/temporal resolution of the employed technique. The use of neuroimaging in sleep medicine is actually restrained by concerns resulting from the technical experimental settings and the characteristics of the diseases. Nevertheless, we predict that future studies, conducted with state of the art techniques on larger numbers of patients, will be able to address these issues and contribute significantly to the understanding of the neural basis of sleep pathologies. This may finally offer the opportunity to use neuroimaging, in addition to the clinical and electrophysiological assessments, as a helpful tool in the diagnosis, classification, treatment and monitoring of sleep disorders in humans.

  2. Family Disorganization, Sleep Hygiene, and Adolescent Sleep Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billows, Michael; Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Johnston, Anna; McCappin, Stephanie; Hudson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The link between sleep hygiene and adolescent sleep is well documented, though evidence suggests contributions from other factors, particularly the family environment. The present study examined whether sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between family disorganization and self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and daytime…

  3. Sleep and Sleep Problems: From Birth to 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Mond, Courtney; Mindell, Jodi A.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is an important aspect of a child's early development and is essential to family well-being. During their first 3 years, infants and toddlers spend more than 50% of their lives sleeping. However, concerns about sleep and sleep problems are among the most common issues brought to the attention of pediatricians. Although sleep is one of the…

  4. Sleep and Sleep Problems: From Birth to 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Mond, Courtney; Mindell, Jodi A.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is an important aspect of a child's early development and is essential to family well-being. During their first 3 years, infants and toddlers spend more than 50% of their lives sleeping. However, concerns about sleep and sleep problems are among the most common issues brought to the attention of pediatricians. Although sleep is one of the…

  5. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND SLEEP

    PubMed Central

    Krystal, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Psychiatric disorders and sleep are related in important ways. In contrast to the longstanding view of this relationship which viewed sleep problems as symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there is growing experimental evidence that the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sleep is complex and includes bi-directional causation. In this article we provide the evidence that supports this point of view, reviewing the data on the sleep disturbances seen in patients with psychiatric disorders but also reviewing the data on the impact of sleep disturbances on psychiatric conditions. Although much has been learned about the psychiatric disorders-sleep relationship, additional research is needed to better understand these relationships. This work promises to improve our ability to understand both of these phenomena and to allow us to better treat the many patients with sleep disorders and with psychiatric disorders. PMID:23099143

  6. A prospect theory explanation of the disposition to trade losing investments for less than market price.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, D J

    2002-06-01

    Investors have a proven general reluctance to realize losses. The theory of "mental accounting" suggests that losses are easier to accept when mentally integrated with either preceding losses or with compensatory gains. Mental integration is made easier when a failed asset is exchanged against a new, apparently profitable, acquisition. The alternative is to sell the existing asset on the open market before re-investing the proceeds as desired. This is emotionally less appealing than "rolling over" a losing investment into a new venture by way of an asset trade. The psychological benefits of exchanging rather than selling a failed asset come at a cost. It is typical of trade-in arrangements, e.g., where one trades an old car against a new one, that the effective sale price of the existing asset is less than current market value. Acceptance of this low price adds to the investor's total monetary loss on the existing asset but is essential to an overall package deal apart from which that asset would often remain belatedly unsold.

  7. Sleep deprivation of rats: the hyperphagic response is real.

    PubMed

    Koban, Michael; Sita, Luciane V; Le, Wei Wei; Hoffman, Gloria E

    2008-07-01

    Chronic sleep deprivation of rats causes hyperphagia without body weight gain. Sleep deprivation hyperphagia is prompted by changes in pathways governing food intake; hyperphagia may be adaptive to sleep deprivation hypermetabolism. A recent paper suggested that sleep deprivation might inhibit ability of rats to increase food intake and that hyperphagia may be an artifact of uncorrected chow spillage. To resolve this, a palatable liquid diet (Ensure) was used where spillage is insignificant. Sleep deprivation of male Sprague Dawley rats was enforced for 10 days by the flowerpot/platform paradigm. Daily food intake and body weight were measured. On day 10, rats were transcardially perfused for analysis of hypothalamic mRNA expression of the orexigen, neuropeptide Y (NPY). Morgan State University, sleep deprivation and transcardial perfusion; University of Maryland, NPY in situ hybridization and analysis. Using a liquid diet for accurate daily measurements, there was no change in food intake in the first 5 days of sleep deprivation. Importantly, from days 6-10 it increased significantly, peaking at 29% above baseline. Control rats steadily gained weight but sleep-deprived rats did not. Hypothalamic NPY mRNA levels were positively correlated to stimulation of food intake and negatively correlated with changes in body weight. Sleep deprivation hyperphagia may not be apparent over the short term (i.e., < or = 5 days), but when extended beyond 6 days, it is readily observed. The timing of changes in body weight and food intake suggests that the negative energy balance induced by sleep deprivation prompts the neural changes that evoke hyperphagia.

  8. Energy Expenditure is Affected by Rate of Accumulation of Sleep Deficit in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Aimee M.; Stephenson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Short sleep is a putative risk factor for obesity. However, prolonged total sleep deprivation (TSD) leads to negative energy balance and weight loss in rodents, whereas sleep-restricted humans tend to gain weight. We hypothesized that energy expenditure (V̇O2) is influenced by the rate of accumulation of sleep deficit in rats. Design and Intervention: Six Sprague-Dawley rats underwent chronic sleep-restriction (CSR, 6-h sleep opportunity at ZT0-6 for 10 days) and stimulus-control protocols (CON, 12-h sleep opportunity for 10 days, matched number of stimuli) in a balanced cross-over design. Four additional rats underwent TSD (4 days). Sleep was manipulated using a motor-driven walking wheel. Measurements and Results: Electroencephalography, electromyography, and body temperature were measured by telemetry, and V̇O2, by respirometry. Total sleep deficits of 55.1 ± 6.4 hours, 31.8 ± 6.8 hours, and 38.2 ± 2.3 hours accumulated over the CSR, CON, and TSD protocols, respectively. Responses to TSD confirmed previous reports of elevated V̇O2 and body temperature. These responses were attenuated in CSR, despite a greater cumulative sleep deficit. Rate of rise of O2 was strongly correlated with rate of accumulation of sleep deficit, above a threshold deficit of 3.6 h·day−1. Conclusion: The change in V̇O2 is affected by rate of accumulation of sleep deficit and not the total sleep loss accrued. Negative energy balance, observed during TSD, is strongly attenuated when brief daily sleep opportunities are available to rats (CSR), despite greater accumulated sleep deficit. Citation: Caron AM; Stephenson R. Energy expenditure is affected by rate of accumulation of sleep deficit in rats. SLEEP 2010;33(9):1226-1235. PMID:20857870

  9. Gain Coupling VECSELs (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TP-2013-0028 GAIN COUPLING VECSELs (POSTPRINT) Robert Bedford Optoelectronic Technology Branch Aerospace Components...COUPLING VECSELs (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62204F 6. AUTHOR(S) Robert Bedford...Clearance Date 28 December 2012. Report contains color. 14. ABSTRACT Vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers ( VECSELs ) provide a flexible

  10. Losing memories overnight: a unique form of human amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christine N.; Frascino, Jennifer C.; Kripke, Donald L.; McHugh, Paul R.; Treisman, Glenn J.; Squire, Larry R.

    2010-01-01

    Since an automobile accident in 2005, patient FL has reported difficulty retaining information from one day to the next. During the course of any given day, she describes her memory as normal. However, memory for each day disappears during a night of sleep. She reports good memory for events that occurred before the accident. Although this pattern of memory impairment is, to our knowledge, unique to the medical literature, it was depicted in the fictional film “50 First Dates”. On formal testing, FL performed moderately well when trying to remember material that she had learned during the same day, but she exhibited no memory at all for material that she knew had been presented on a previous day. For some tests, unbeknownst to FL, material learned on the previous day was intermixed with material learned on the same day as the test. On these occasions, FL’s memory was good. Thus, she was able to remember events from earlier days when memory was tested covertly. FL performed differently in a number of ways from individuals who were instructed to consciously feign her pattern of memory impairment. It was also the impression of those who worked with FL that she believed she had the memory impairment that she described and that she was not intentionally feigning amnesia. On the basis of her neuropsychological findings, together with a normal neurological exam, normal MRI findings, and psychiatric evaluation, we suggest that FL exhibits a unique form of functional amnesia and that its characterization may have been influenced by knowledge of how amnesia was depicted in a popular film. She subsequently improved (and began retaining day-to-day memory) at Johns Hopkins University where she was in a supportive in-patient environment and was shown how to take control of her condition by interrupting her sleep at 4-hour intervals. PMID:20493889

  11. The impact of sleep deprivation on food desire in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Greer, Stephanie M; Goldstein, Andrea N; Walker, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence supports a link between sleep loss and obesity. However, the detrimental impact of sleep deprivation on central brain mechanisms governing appetitive food desire remains unknown. Here we report that sleep deprivation significantly decreases activity in appetitive evaluation regions within the human frontal cortex and insular cortex during food desirability choices, combined with a converse amplification of activity within the amygdala. Moreover, this bi-directional change in the profile of brain activity is further associated with a significant increase in the desire for weight-gain promoting high-calorie foods following sleep deprivation, the extent of which is predicted by the subjective severity of sleep loss across participants. These findings provide an explanatory brain mechanism by which insufficient sleep may lead to the development/maintenance of obesity through diminished activity in higher-order cortical evaluation regions, combined with excess subcortical limbic responsivity, resulting in the selection of foods most capable of triggering weight-gain.

  12. Microbiota fingerprints lose individually identifying features over time.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, David; Leung, Marcus H Y; Lee, Patrick K H

    2017-01-09

    Humans host individually unique skin microbiota, suggesting that microbiota traces transferred from skin to surfaces could serve as forensic markers analogous to fingerprints. While it is known that individuals leave identifiable microbiota traces on surfaces, it is not clear for how long these traces persist. Moreover, as skin and surface microbiota change with time, even persistent traces may lose their forensic potential as they would cease to resemble the microbiota of the person who left them. We followed skin and surface microbiota within households for four seasons to determine whether accurate microbiota-based matching of individuals to their households could be achieved across long time delays. While household surface microbiota traces could be matched to the correct occupant or occupants with 67% accuracy, accuracy decreased substantially when skin and surface samples were collected in different seasons, and particularly when surface samples were collected long after skin samples. Most OTUs persisted on skin or surfaces for less than one season, indicating that OTU loss was the major cause of decreased matching accuracy. OTUs that were more useful for individual identification persisted for less time and were less likely to be deposited from skin to surface, suggesting a trade-off between the longevity and identifying value of microbiota traces. While microbiota traces have potential forensic value, unlike fingerprints they are not static and may degrade in a way that preferentially erases features useful in identifying individuals.

  13. Indemnification: Win/lose or win/win

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, G.M.

    1996-08-01

    Some of you may be wondering how an oil company employee came to be speaking on indemnity. I`ve been wondering that myself and have even considered the possibility that the conference thought it might be interesting to have a presentation in which the sacrificial lamb is led to the slaughter. I hope that`s not the case. I am not speaking today as a representative of Conoco or as a spokesperson for the operator perspective. I do not intend to tell you what position to take with respect to contractual indemnification. My purpose is to share with you some of my thoughts on indemnification and provide you with some perspective in which to consider your own objectives in structuring indemnities and evaluate whether your current positions meet those objectives. What is contractual indemnification? To some, it is a vehicle by which to transfer all the risk inherent in their operations to another party. Others view it as a means of protecting a deductible or self-insured retention. Some think of it as a bloodbath. There are a few who believe that it is a game in which the only way to win is to ensure the other party loses. The states of Texas and Louisiana believe contractual indemnities are {open_quotes}inequities foisted on certain contractors.{close_quotes} I would like to propose that indemnity can be nothing more than an economic transaction which attempts to allocate risk in a cost effective manner.

  14. Marginal Zone Lymphoma Complicated by Protein Losing Enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Nadine; Bauerfeind, Peter; Herzog, Guido; Heinrich, Henriette; Sauter, Matthias; Lenggenhager, Daniela; Reiner, Cäcilia; Manz, Markus G; Goede, Jeroen S; Misselwitz, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Protein losing enteropathy (PLE) refers to excessive intestinal protein loss, resulting in hypoalbuminemia. Underlying pathologies include conditions leading to either reduced intestinal barrier or lymphatic congestion. We describe the case of a patient with long-lasting diffuse abdominal problems and PLE. Repetitive endoscopies were normal with only minimal lymphangiectasia in biopsies. Further evaluations revealed an indolent marginal zone lymphoma with minor bone marrow infiltration. Monotherapy with rituximab decreased bone marrow infiltration of the lymphoma but did not relieve PLE. Additional treatments with steroids, octreotide, a diet devoid of long-chain fatty-acids, and parenteral nutrition did not prevent further clinical deterioration with marked weight loss (23 kg), further reduction in albumin concentrations (nadir 8 g/L), and a pronounced drop in performance status. Finally, immunochemotherapy with rituximab and bendamustine resulted in hematological remission and remarkable clinical improvement. 18 months after therapy the patient remains free of gastrointestinal complaints and has regained his body weight with normal albumin levels. We demonstrate a case of PLE secondary to indolent marginal zone lymphoma. No intestinal pathologies were detected, contrasting a severe and almost lethal clinical course. Immunochemotherapy relieved lymphoma and PLE, suggesting that a high suspicion of lymphoma is warranted in otherwise unexplained cases of PLE.

  15. Marginal Zone Lymphoma Complicated by Protein Losing Enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Stanek, Nadine; Bauerfeind, Peter; Herzog, Guido; Heinrich, Henriette; Sauter, Matthias; Lenggenhager, Daniela; Reiner, Cäcilia; Manz, Markus G.; Goede, Jeroen S.

    2016-01-01

    Protein losing enteropathy (PLE) refers to excessive intestinal protein loss, resulting in hypoalbuminemia. Underlying pathologies include conditions leading to either reduced intestinal barrier or lymphatic congestion. We describe the case of a patient with long-lasting diffuse abdominal problems and PLE. Repetitive endoscopies were normal with only minimal lymphangiectasia in biopsies. Further evaluations revealed an indolent marginal zone lymphoma with minor bone marrow infiltration. Monotherapy with rituximab decreased bone marrow infiltration of the lymphoma but did not relieve PLE. Additional treatments with steroids, octreotide, a diet devoid of long-chain fatty-acids, and parenteral nutrition did not prevent further clinical deterioration with marked weight loss (23 kg), further reduction in albumin concentrations (nadir 8 g/L), and a pronounced drop in performance status. Finally, immunochemotherapy with rituximab and bendamustine resulted in hematological remission and remarkable clinical improvement. 18 months after therapy the patient remains free of gastrointestinal complaints and has regained his body weight with normal albumin levels. We demonstrate a case of PLE secondary to indolent marginal zone lymphoma. No intestinal pathologies were detected, contrasting a severe and almost lethal clinical course. Immunochemotherapy relieved lymphoma and PLE, suggesting that a high suspicion of lymphoma is warranted in otherwise unexplained cases of PLE. PMID:27891267

  16. Sleep and the epidemic of obesity in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Van Cauter, Eve; Knutson, Kristen L

    2008-12-01

    Sleep is an important modulator of neuroendocrine function and glucose metabolism in children as well as in adults. In recent years, sleep curtailment has become a hallmark of modern society with both children and adults having shorter bedtimes than a few decades ago. This trend for shorter sleep duration has developed over the same time period as the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity. There is rapidly accumulating evidence from both laboratory and epidemiological studies to indicate that chronic partial sleep loss may increase the risk of obesity and weight gain. The present article reviews laboratory evidence indicating that sleep curtailment in young adults results in a constellation of metabolic and endocrine alterations, including decreased glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, elevated sympathovagal balance, increased evening concentrations of cortisol, increased levels of ghrelin, decreased levels of leptin, and increased hunger and appetite. We also review cross-sectional epidemiological studies associating short sleep with increased body mass index and prospective epidemiological studies that have shown an increased risk of weight gain and obesity in children and young adults who are short sleepers. Altogether, the evidence points to a possible role of decreased sleep duration in the current epidemic of obesity.

  17. Move It or Lose It: Cloud-Based Data Storage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2010-01-01

    There was a time when school districts showed little interest in storing or backing up their data to remote servers. Nothing seemed less secure than handing off data to someone else. But in the last few years the buzz around cloud storage has grown louder, and the idea that data backup could be provided as a service has begun to gain traction in…

  18. Move It or Lose It: Cloud-Based Data Storage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2010-01-01

    There was a time when school districts showed little interest in storing or backing up their data to remote servers. Nothing seemed less secure than handing off data to someone else. But in the last few years the buzz around cloud storage has grown louder, and the idea that data backup could be provided as a service has begun to gain traction in…

  19. Winning or losing a bet and the perception of randomness.

    PubMed

    Zysberg, Leehu; Kimhi, Shaul

    2013-03-01

    This study examines the potential effects of random gain, loss, or neutral outcomes on individuals' judgments of randomness in life and in unpredictable life events. Based on existing evidence, we hypothesize that experiencing gain would decrease the perception of randomness, whereas loss would have the opposite effect. One-hundred and ten students participated in a random bet for academic credit required for their introductory psychology course, where they could experience gain (bonus credit), loss (no credit), or neutral (exact credit as promised) outcomes. In addition, they filled out a questionnaire on their beliefs in randomness in general and in various everyday life events, as well as their judgment of the extent to which each event was pre-determined. The results provide partial support for our hypotheses. The participants experiencing a 'neutral' result report the highest level of randomness in general and in everyday life events, as well as the highest extent to which the events were judged as pre-determined. Randomness was judged as lower in both the 'loss' and 'gain' conditions. These patterns only emerge after controlling for gender and religiosity. The results are discussed in light of existing evidence and directions for future studies.

  20. Genetic Dissociation of Daily Sleep and Sleep Following Thermogenetic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dubowy, Christine; Moravcevic, Katarina; Yue, Zhifeng; Wan, Joy Y; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-05-01

    Sleep rebound-the increase in sleep that follows sleep deprivation-is a hallmark of homeostatic sleep regulation that is conserved across the animal kingdom. However, both the mechanisms that underlie sleep rebound and its relationship to habitual daily sleep remain unclear. To address this, we developed an efficient thermogenetic method of inducing sleep deprivation in Drosophila that produces a substantial rebound, and applied the newly developed method to assess sleep rebound in a screen of 1,741 mutated lines. We used data generated by this screen to identify lines with reduced sleep rebound following thermogenetic sleep deprivation, and to probe the relationship between habitual sleep amount and sleep following thermogenetic sleep deprivation in Drosophila. To develop a thermogenetic method of sleep deprivation suitable for screening, we thermogenetically stimulated different populations of wake-promoting neurons labeled by Gal4 drivers. Sleep rebound following thermogenetically-induced wakefulness varies across the different sets of wake-promoting neurons that were stimulated, from very little to quite substantial. Thermogenetic activation of neurons marked by the c584-Gal4 driver produces both strong sleep loss and a substantial rebound that is more consistent within genotypes than rebound following mechanical or caffeine-induced sleep deprivation. We therefore used this driver to induce sleep deprivation in a screen of 1,741 mutagenized lines generated by the Drosophila Gene Disruption Project. Flies were subjected to 9 h of sleep deprivation during the dark period and released from sleep deprivation 3 h before lights-on. Recovery was measured over the 15 h following sleep deprivation. Following identification of lines with reduced sleep rebound, we characterized baseline sleep and sleep depth before and after sleep deprivation for these hits. We identified two lines that consistently exhibit a blunted increase in the duration and depth of sleep after

  1. Sleep from an Islamic perspective

    PubMed Central

    BaHammam, Ahmed S.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allνh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry. PMID:21977062

  2. Sleep from an Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Bahammam, Ahmed S

    2011-10-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allνh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry.

  3. [From neuronal recovery to the reorganisation of neuronal circuits: a review of the functions of sleep].

    PubMed

    Montes-Rodríguez, C J; Rueda-Orozco, P E; Urteaga-Urías, E; Aguilar-Roblero, R; Prospero-García, O

    To analyse the data and concepts that have been produced in relation to one of the functions that have been suggested for sleep, namely, neuronal recovery. Sleep is a state of consciousness that is different to that of arousal. Mammals devote an important part of their lives to sleeping; for example, as humans, we sleep for a third of our lives, but why do we spend so much time in a state where we lose contact with our surroundings? What would happen if we didn't sleep? Total sleep deprivation alters cognitive processes such as memory or attention, and if this deprivation is prolonged, the individual deteriorates and dies. It has been suggested that sleep provides the organism with time to recover from the wear and tear that occurs during the waking state and, given that the first effects of the absence of sleep are seen to affect processes that are directly dependent on the brain, it has been claimed that its main purpose is to allow neuronal recovery. In this work we analyse some of the studies on the effects of total sleep deprivation in humans and rats, as well as the relationship between sleep and the neurotrophin system, which promotes neuronal survival and recovery. Finally, the latest theories about the function of sleep are discussed. Neuron recovery is not the ultimate purpose of sleep; rather it is to allow for maintenance and reorganisation of neuronal circuits, including new synapse formation, which enables existing neuronal networks to be modified by the effect of experience, and all this makes it possible for the brain to work properly and to adapt itself to the environment.

  4. Sleep medicine in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ning-Hung; Hang, Liang-Wen; Lin, Chia-Mo

    The sleep medicine is a young medical science in Taiwan. It began from less than 10 sleep beds 20 years ago in four hospitals all over Taiwan. By the organization of sleep team in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and the initiation of Taiwan Society of Sleep Medicine, sleep medicine becomes a popular medicine in the past decades. The setting of Sleep Society in 2002 is the milestone to promote the sleep medicine, educate the public and professionals, and control of the quality of clinical practice. Epidemiologic study in Taiwan shows many Taiwanese suffer from sleep disorders and hence more sleep institutes are needed. Accreditation has become a mission of the Taiwan Society of Sleep Medicine. Technicians, sleep centers, sleep specialists and sleep phycologists are gradually certified by the society. 215 sleep technicians, 307 sleep physicians, 31 iCBT therapists and 21 sleep centers are certified by the society till 2015. The first sleep related medical courses are initiated in the Department of Respiratory Therapy in Chang Gung University from 2003. For the following years, eight medical courses are set in six Universities now. Given the fact that the Asian accounts for the largest proportion of population in the world, investigation on the OSA in Asian population is essential. In this article, we aimed to demonstrate the outcomes of OSA-related research in Asia. In particular, the progress driven by the studies in Taiwan will be discussed. Data were obtained online from the Science Citation Index Expanded database of the Thomson Reuters' Web of Science Core Collection. Keywords including "apnea" and "hyponea" were used to search by applying the filters of the title and the publication years between 1991 and 2014. In total, 2623 articles were hit, subject to the criteria for data search. Among the 2623 articles, sleep and breathing related articles (128, 4.95 %) were the most frequently reported. Japan is the country that published the highest amount of OSA

  5. Relations Between Toddler Sleep Characteristics, Sleep Problems, and Temperament.

    PubMed

    Molfese, Victoria J; Rudasill, Kathleen M; Prokasky, Amanda; Champagne, Carly; Holmes, Molly; Molfese, Dennis L; Bates, John E

    2015-01-01

    Two sources of information (parent-reported sleep diaries and actigraph records) were used to investigate how toddler sleep characteristics (bed time/sleep onset, wake time/sleep offset, total nighttime sleep, and total sleep time) are related to sleep problems and temperament. There were 64 toddler participants in the study. Consistent with studies of older children, parent reports differed from actigraph-based records. The findings that parent-reported and actigraph-recorded sleep characteristics varied as a function of parent report of toddler sleep problems and temperament add needed information on toddler sleep. Such information may contribute to improving parents' awareness of their child's sleep characteristics and correlates of problem sleep.

  6. A "Sleep 101" Program for College Students Improves Sleep Hygiene Knowledge and Reduces Maladaptive Beliefs about Sleep.

    PubMed

    Kloss, Jacqueline D; Nash, Christina O; Walsh, Colleen M; Culnan, Elizabeth; Horsey, Sarah; Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Sensitizing young adults about sleep hygiene knowledge and helpful sleep attitudes may have the potential to instill long-lasting healthy sleep practices. Towards these ends, evaluation of psychoeducational program "Sleep 101" tailored to college students was undertaken. Following two weeks of sleep-log recordings, participants were randomly assigned to a Sleep 101 (experimental) condition or a sleep monitoring (control) condition. The Sleep 101 condition was comprised of two 90-minute workshops aimed to educate students about healthy sleep practices, helpful thoughts about sleep, and ways to improve sleep. The sleep monitoring group received a sleep hygiene handout and completed sleep logs for the study duration. Sleep 101 participants endorsed fewer maladaptive beliefs and attitudes about sleep, increased sleep hygiene knowledge, and reduced sleep onset latency compared to the sleep monitoring participants. Brief psychoeducational courses may be a cost-effective way to alleviate current, and/or prevent future, sleep problems in young adults.

  7. Sleep and immune function.

    PubMed

    Besedovsky, Luciana; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Sleep and the circadian system exert a strong regulatory influence on immune functions. Investigations of the normal sleep-wake cycle showed that immune parameters like numbers of undifferentiated naïve T cells and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines exhibit peaks during early nocturnal sleep whereas circulating numbers of immune cells with immediate effector functions, like cytotoxic natural killer cells, as well as anti-inflammatory cytokine activity peak during daytime wakefulness. Although it is difficult to entirely dissect the influence of sleep from that of the circadian rhythm, comparisons of the effects of nocturnal sleep with those of 24-h periods of wakefulness suggest that sleep facilitates the extravasation of T cells and their possible redistribution to lymph nodes. Moreover, such studies revealed a selectively enhancing influence of sleep on cytokines promoting the interaction between antigen presenting cells and T helper cells, like interleukin-12. Sleep on the night after experimental vaccinations against hepatitis A produced a strong and persistent increase in the number of antigen-specific Th cells and antibody titres. Together these findings indicate a specific role of sleep in the formation of immunological memory. This role appears to be associated in particular with the stage of slow wave sleep and the accompanying pro-inflammatory endocrine milieu that is hallmarked by high growth hormone and prolactin levels and low cortisol and catecholamine concentrations.

  8. Sleep-related violence.

    PubMed

    Moldofsky, H; Gilbert, R; Lue, F A; MacLean, A W

    1995-11-01

    We hypothesized that sleep-related violent behavior associated with parasomnias occurs as the result of a diathesis and is precipitated by stressors and mediated by disturbed nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep physiology. Sixty-four consecutive adult patients (mean age 30 years) who were investigated for sleepwalking or sleep terrors were categorized according to clinical history into three groups: serious violence during sleep to other people or to property or self (n = 26); harmful, but not destructive behavior (n = 12); and nonviolent behavior (n = 26). Log linear analysis showed that a diathesis (childhood parasomnia and/or family history of parasomnia) and a stressor (psychologic distress, substance abuse and sleep schedule disorder) predicted the presence of sleepwalking or night terror. Serious violent acts were more likely to occur with males (p < 0.004) who showed sleep schedule disorder (p < 0.03). Both harmful and serious violent sleep behavior occurred with drug abuse (p < 0.009). In comparison to all other groups, those who were violent to other people were males who experienced more stressors (p < 0.02), drank excessive caffeinated beverages, abused drugs (p < 0.03) and showed less stage 4 sleep (p < 0.02) and less alpha (7.5-11 Hz) electroencephalogram NREM sleep (p < 0.02) on polysomnography. Being male and having < 2% stage 4 sleep provided 89% sensitivity, 80% specificity and 81% diagnostic accuracy for individuals who were violent to others. The forensic implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. [Placebo analgesia and sleep].

    PubMed

    Chouchou, F; Lavigne, G-J

    2014-10-01

    The placebo response is a psychobiological phenomenon for clinical benefits following the administration of an inert substance whatever its form. This phenomenon can be attributed to a wide range of neurobiological processes, such as expectations of relief, the Pavlovian conditioning and learning, emotional regulation, and reward mechanisms, which are themselves under the influence of processes that take place during sleep. The study of placebo analgesia in healthy from a placebo conditioning associated with analgesic suggestions has highlighted a relationship between sleep, expectations of relief and placebo analgesia: when the induction is persuasive before sleep, expectations of relief modulate placebo response the next morning and paradoxical sleep correlates negatively with both expectations and the placebo response. When the analgesic experience before sleep is less persuasive, expectations of relief are still present but no longer interact with placebo analgesia while paradoxical sleep no longer correlates with the analgesic placebo response. Sleep-processes especially during paradoxical sleep seem to influence the relationship between expectations of relief and placebo analgesia. In this review, we describe the relationship between sleep and placebo analgesia, the mechanisms involved in the placebo response (e.g., conditioning, learning, memory, reward) and their potential link with sleep that could make it a special time for the building placebo response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Headache, drugs and sleep.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Alexander D; Leschziner, Guy D; Peatfield, Richard C

    2014-09-01

    Headache and sleep mechanisms share multiple levels of physiological interaction. Pharmacological treatment of headache syndromes may be associated with a broad range of sleep disturbances, either as a direct result of the pharmacology of the drug used, or by unmasking physiological alterations in sleep propensity seen as part of the headache symptom complex. This review summarises known sleep and circadian effects of various drugs commonly used in the management of headache disorders, with particular attention paid to abnormal sleep function emerging as a result of treatment. Literature searches were performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, and the Cochrane database using search terms and strings relating to generic drug names of commonly used compounds in the treatment of headache and their effect on sleep in humans with review of additional pre-clinical evidence where theoretically appropriate. Medications used to treat headache disorders may have a considerable impact on sleep physiology. However, greater attention is needed to characterise the direction of the changes of these effects on sleep, particularly to avoid exacerbating detrimental sleep complaints, but also to potentially capitalise on homeostatically useful properties of sleep which may reduce the individual burden of headache disorders on patients. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Chronic hiccups and sleep.

    PubMed

    Arnulf, I; Boisteanu, D; Whitelaw, W A; Cabane, J; Garma, L; Derenne, J P

    1996-04-01

    To explore the effect of sleep on hiccups, we studied eight patients aged 20-81 years, all males with chronic hiccups lasting 7 days to 7 years, by means of overnight polysomnography. The incidence of new bouts of hiccups and the likelihood of hiccups being present were both highest in wakefulness and became progressively lower through stages I-IV of slow wave sleep (SWS) to rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). There was a significant tendency for hiccups to disappear at sleep onset and REMS onset. Of all 21 bouts of hiccups that were observed to stop, 10/21 did so during an apnea or hypopnea. Frequency of hiccups within a bout slowed progressively from wakefulness through the stages of SWS to REMS. For the whole group, mean frequency decreased significantly from wakefulness [(25.6 +/- 12.1), (mean +/- SD)] to sleep onset or stage I (22.3 +/- 12.2). Sleep latency was increased from 8 +/- 16.3 minutes when hiccups were absent to 16.35 +/- 19.9 minutes when it was present. Sleep efficiency was poor because of long waking periods, and there were deficiencies of both SWS and REMS. Hiccups themselves were not responsible for any arousals or awakenings. We conclude that neural mechanisms responsible for hiccups are strongly influenced by sleep state and that hiccups disrupt sleep onset but not established sleep.

  12. Sleep, Cognition and Dementia.

    PubMed

    Porter, Verna R; Buxton, William G; Avidan, Alon Y

    2015-12-01

    The older patient population is growing rapidly around the world and in the USA. Almost half of seniors over age 65 who live at home are dissatisfied with their sleep, and nearly two-thirds of those residing in nursing home facilities suffer from sleep disorders. Chronic and pervasive sleep complaints and disturbances are frequently associated with excessive daytime sleepiness and may result in impaired cognition, diminished intellect, poor memory, confusion, and psychomotor retardation all of which may be misinterpreted as dementia. The key sleep disorders impacting patients with dementia include insomnia, hypersomnolence, circadian rhythm misalignment, sleep disordered breathing, motor disturbances of sleep such as periodic leg movement disorder of sleep and restless leg syndrome, and parasomnias, mostly in the form of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is a pre-clinical marker for a class of neurodegenerative diseases, the "synucleinopathies", and requires formal polysomnographic evaluation. Untreated sleep disorders may exacerbate cognitive and behavioral symptoms in patients with dementia and are a source of considerable stress for bed partners and family members. When left untreated, sleep disturbances may also increase the risk of injury at night, compromise health-related quality of life, and precipitate and accelerate social and economic burdens for caregivers.

  13. Genetic analysis of sleep

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Amanda; Sehgal, Amita

    2010-01-01

    Almost 20 years ago, the gene underlying fatal familial insomnia was discovered, and first suggested the concept that a single gene can regulate sleep. In the two decades since, there have been many advances in the field of behavioral genetics, but it is only in the past 10 years that the genetic analysis of sleep has emerged as an important discipline. Major findings include the discovery of a single gene underlying the sleep disorder narcolepsy, and identification of loci that make quantitative contributions to sleep characteristics. The sleep field has also expanded its focus from mammalian model organisms to Drosophila, zebrafish, and worms, which is allowing the application of novel genetic approaches. Researchers have undertaken large-scale screens to identify new genes that regulate sleep, and are also probing questions of sleep circuitry and sleep function on a molecular level. As genetic tools continue to be refined in each model organism, the genes that support a specific function in sleep will become more apparent. Thus, while our understanding of sleep still remains rudimentary, rapid progress is expected from these recently initiated studies. PMID:20551171

  14. Sleep and vascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Plante, Gérard E

    2006-10-01

    It is not surprising that cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure and coronary insufficiency can give rise to varying degrees of sleep impairment; it is less readily appreciated that certain physiologic events occurring during sleep-as well as long-term unsatisfactory sleep-may cause or increase the risk of cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, stroke, and cardiac arrythmias. Heart rate abnormalities during sleep in normotensive subjects predict later cardiovascular disease, and their early identification alerts the physician to undertake preventive measures. Maneuvers, such as induction of hypoxia, can elicit abnormal blood pressure responses during sleep, and such responses have been used to identify impending cardiovascular problems that could become therapeutic targets. The spontaneously hypertensive rat has been used to examine the effect of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity on the heart under a variety of experimental conditions, including quiet and paradoxical sleep. The results have disclosed significant differences between the responses of spontaneously hypertensive rats and normal rats to SNS stimulation. Exploration of other pathophysiologic pathways affected by exposure to light and dark, including those responsive to the cyclic production of melatonin, will improve our understanding of the effect of disruptions of the circadian cycle on cardiovascular function. There is growing evidence that melatonin can influence important processes such as fluid, nitrogen, and acid-base balance. Human subjects whose nocturnal arterial blood pressure fails to show the "normal" decrement during sleep ("nondippers") are also prone to sleep poorly, exhibit increased SNS activity during sleep, and have an increased risk of total and cardiovascular disease mortality. Chronic sleep deficit is now known to be a risk factor for obesity and may contribute to the visceral form of obesity that underlies the metabolic syndrome

  15. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ju; Lee, Jung Hie; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review circadian rhythm sleep disorders, including underlying causes, diagnostic considerations, and typical treatments. Methods Literature review and discussion of specific cases. Results Survey studies 1,2 suggest that up to 3% of the adult population suffers from a circadian rhythm sleep disorder (CRSD). However, these sleep disorders are often confused with insomnia, and an estimated 10% of adult and 16% of adolescent sleep disorders patients may have a CRSD 3-6. While some CRSD (such as jet lag) can be self-limiting, others when untreated can lead to adverse medical, psychological, and social consequences. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders classifies CRSD as dyssomnias, with six subtypes: Advanced Sleep Phase Type, Delayed Sleep Phase Type, Irregular Sleep Wake Type, Free Running Type, Jet Lag Type, and Shift Work Type. The primary clinical characteristic of all CRSD is an inability to fall asleep and wake at the desired time. It is believed that CRSD arise from a problem with the internal biological clock (circadian timing system) and/or misalignment between the circadian timing system and the external 24-hour environment. This misalignment can be the result of biological and/or behavioral factors. CRSD can be confused with other sleep or medical disorders. Conclusions Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are a distinct class of sleep disorders characterized by a mismatch between the desired timing of sleep and the ability to fall asleep and remain asleep. If untreated, CRSD can lead to insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness, with negative medical, psychological, and social consequences. It is important for physicians to recognize potential circadian rhythm sleep disorders so that appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and referral can be made. PMID:25368503

  16. Comparison of a novel non-contact biomotion sensor with wrist actigraphy in estimating sleep quality in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Pallin, Michael; O'Hare, Emer; Zaffaroni, Alberto; Boyle, Patricia; Fagan, Ciara; Kent, Brian; Heneghan, Conor; de Chazal, Philip; McNicholas, Walter T

    2014-08-01

    Ambulatory monitoring is of major clinical interest in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. We compared a novel non-contact biomotion sensor, which provides an estimate of both sleep time and sleep-disordered breathing, with wrist actigraphy in the assessment of total sleep time in adult humans suspected of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Both systems were simultaneously evaluated against polysomnography in 103 patients undergoing assessment for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in a hospital-based sleep laboratory (84 male, aged 55 ± 14 years and apnoea-hypopnoea index 21 ± 23). The biomotion sensor demonstrated similar accuracy to wrist actigraphy for sleep/wake determination (77.3%: biomotion; 76.5%: actigraphy), and the biomotion sensor demonstrated higher specificity (52%: biomotion; 34%: actigraphy) and lower sensitivity (86%: biomotion; 94%: actigraphy). Notably, total sleep time estimation by the biomotion sensor was superior to actigraphy (average overestimate of 10 versus 57 min), especially at a higher apnoea-hypopnoea index. In post hoc analyses, we assessed the improved apnoea-hypopnoea index accuracy gained by combining respiratory measurements from polysomnography for total recording time (equivalent to respiratory polygraphy) with total sleep time derived from actigraphy or the biomotion sensor. Here, the number of misclassifications of obstructive sleep apnoea severity compared with full polysomnography was reduced from 10/103 (for total respiratory recording time alone) to 7/103 and 4/103 (for actigraphy and biomotion sensor total sleep time estimate, respectively). We conclude that the biomotion sensor provides a viable alternative to actigraphy for sleep estimation in the assessment of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. As a non-contact device, it is suited to longitudinal assessment of sleep, which could also be combined with polygraphy in ambulatory studies.

  17. Effects of acute sleep deprivation on motor and reversal learning in mice.

    PubMed

    Varga, Andrew W; Kang, Mihwa; Ramesh, Priyanka V; Klann, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Sleep supports the formation of a variety of declarative and non-declarative memories, and sleep deprivation often impairs these types of memories. In human subjects, natural sleep either during a nap or overnight leads to long-lasting improvements in visuomotor and fine motor tasks, but rodent models recapitulating these findings have been scarce. Here we present evidence that 5h of acute sleep deprivation impairs mouse skilled reach learning compared to a matched period of ad libitum sleep. In sleeping mice, the duration of total sleep time during the 5h of sleep opportunity or during the first bout of sleep did not correlate with ultimate gain in motor performance. In addition, we observed that reversal learning during the skilled reaching task was also affected by sleep deprivation. Consistent with this observation, 5h of sleep deprivation also impaired reversal learning in the water-based Y-maze. In conclusion, acute sleep deprivation negatively impacts subsequent motor and reversal learning and memory.

  18. Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Motor and Reversal Learning in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Andrew W.; Kang, Mihwa; Ramesh, Priyanka V.; Klann, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Sleep supports the formation of a variety of declarative and non-declarative memories, and sleep deprivation often impairs these types of memories. In human subjects, natural sleep either during a nap or overnight leads to long-lasting improvements in visuomotor and fine motor tasks, but rodent models recapitulating these findings have been scarce. Here we present evidence that 5 hours of acute sleep deprivation impairs mouse skilled reach learning compared to a matched period of ad libitum sleep. In sleeping mice, the duration of total sleep time during the 5 hours of sleep opportunity or during the first bout of sleep did not correlate with ultimate gain in motor performance. In addition, we observed that reversal learning during the skilled reaching task was also affected by sleep deprivation. Consistent with this observation, 5 hours of sleep deprivation also impaired reversal learning in the water-based Y-maze. In conclusion, acute sleep deprivation negatively impacts subsequent motor and reversal learning and memory. PMID:25046627

  19. Current Concepts in the Neurophysiologic Basis of Sleep; a Review

    PubMed Central

    Ezenwanne, EB

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sleep is a very vital physiological mechanism, which involves complex interactions in the nervous system. These interactions are not well understood and have been a subject of controversy in contemporary medical practice. Objectives: To review of the neurophysiological factors in the subject of sleep, and recent research findings that forms the basis for the current knowledge on sleep. Methods: Information sources consulted included, published works of past researchers, current articles on sleep in conference papers, recent editions of textbooks on neuroscience, articles in seminar papers, reports extracted from newspaper and magazine articles on sleep, reports accessed from the Internet using Google Search Engines and lecture notes. Results: It was noted that emphasis has now shifted from the concept that sleep was predominantly the product of activities in the neural systems in phylogenetically old reticular core of the brain through withdrawal of sensory input, to emphasis on the role of neurotransmitter systems, especially - Ach, serotonin and GABA. This review also noted that, among others, emphasis is further shifting to the PGO waves which is fast gaining prominence as the mechanism involved in the production of REM sleep and dreams in particular. Conclusion: It became obvious from this review, that full knowledge of the neurophysiological processes involved in sleep production appear generally to still be more of speculative, and are yet far from full understanding. PMID:23209972

  20. Physiological changes, sleep, and morning mood in an isolated environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Mizuno, Koh; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Murai, Tadashi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu; Orasanu, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous isolation studies have shown increased 24-h urine volumes and body weight gains in subjects. This project examined those and other physiological variables in relationship to sleep motor activity, subjective sleep quality, mood, and complaints during confinement. METHODS: Six male and two female subjects lived for 7 d in the National Space Development Agency of Japan's isolation chamber, which simulates the interior of the Japanese Experiment Module. Each 24-h period included 6 h of sleep, 3 meals, and 20 min of exercise. Each morning, subjects completed Sleep Sensation and Complaint Index questionnaires. Catecholamine and creatinine excretion, urine volume, and body weight were measured on the 2 d before and 2 d after confinement, and sleep motor activity was measured during confinement. RESULTS: Confinement produced no significant change in body weight, urine volume, or questionnaire results. In contrast, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and sleep motor activity exhibited significant differences during confinement (p < 0.05). Higher nocturnal norepinephrine excretion correlated with higher sleep motor activity. CONCLUSION: The 24-h epinephrine values were slightly higher than normal throughout the experiment, but lower than for subjects working under time-stress. High sympathetic activity (as indicated by norepinephrine) may have interfered with sleep.

  1. Helicopter high gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, T. B.; Nunn, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    High gain control is explored through a design study of the CH-47B helicopter. The plans are designed to obtain the maximum bandwidth possible given the hardware constraints. Controls are designed with modal control theory to specific bandwidths and closed loop mode shapes. Comparisons are made to an earlier complementary filter approach. Bandwidth improvement by removal of limitations is explored in order to establish hardware and mechanization options. Improvements in the pitch axis control system and in the rate gyro sensor noise characteristics in all axes are discussed. The use of rotor state feedback is assessed.

  2. Leaders as combat fighter pilots. Research project targets leaders who support money-losing business strategies.

    PubMed

    Mitlyng, J W; Francis, D M; Wenzel, F J

    2001-01-01

    When strategic plans go awry and begin losing money, the smart thing to do is change course. But some leaders get so involved with the plan, they fail to navigate properly and fly right into the target. The organization can lose millions. Examine why this happens and what you can do to prevent it from happening in your organization.

  3. 25 CFR 115.808 - Could trust fund investments made by OTFM lose money?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Could trust fund investments made by OTFM lose money? 115.808 Section 115.808 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES... § 115.808 Could trust fund investments made by OTFM lose money? The value of trust fund investments...

  4. Triathletes Lose Their Advantageous Pain Modulation under Acute Psychosocial Stress.

    PubMed

    Geva, Nirit; Pruessner, Jens; Defrin, Ruth

    2017-02-01

    Triathletes, who constantly engage in intensely stressful sport, were recently found to exhibit greater pain tolerance and more efficient pain inhibition capabilities than nonathletes. However, pain inhibition correlated negatively with retrospective reports of mental stress during training and competition. The aim of the current study was to test pain inhibition capabilities of triathletes under acute, controlled psychological stress manipulation. Participants were 25 triathletes and ironman triathletes who underwent the measurement of pain threshold, pain intolerance, tonic suprathreshold pain, and conditioned pain modulation before and during exposure to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST). Perceived ratings of stress and anxiety, autonomic variables, and salivary cortisol levels were obtained as indices of stress. The MIST induced a significant stress reaction manifested in the subjective and objective indices. Overall, a significant reduction in pain threshold and in conditioned pain modulation efficacy was observed after the MIST, which reached the baseline levels observed previously in nonathletes. Paradoxically, the magnitude of this stress-induced hyperalgesia (SIH) correlated negatively with the magnitude of the stress response; low-stress responders exhibited greater SIH than high-stress responders. The results suggest that under acute psychological stress, triathletes not only react with SIH and a reduction in pain modulation but also lose their advantageous pain modulation over nonathletes. The stronger the stress response recorded, the weaker the SIH. It appears that triathletes are not resilient to stress, responding with an increase in the sensitivity to pain as well as a decrease in pain inhibition. The possible effects of athletes' baseline pain profile and stress reactivity on SIH are discussed.

  5. Fontan-associated protein-losing enteropathy and plastic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Kurt R; Stringer, Kathleen A; Donohue, Janet E; Yu, Sunkyung; Shaver, Ashley; Caruthers, Regine L; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Fifer, Carlen; Goldberg, Caren; Russell, Mark W

    2015-04-01

    To characterize the medical history, disease progression, and treatment of current-era patients with the rare diseases Fontan-associated protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) and plastic bronchitis. A novel survey that queried demographics, medical details, and treatment information was piloted and placed online via a Facebook portal, allowing social media to power the study. Participation regardless of PLE or plastic bronchitis diagnosis was allowed. Case control analyses compared patients with PLE and plastic bronchitis with uncomplicated control patients receiving the Fontan procedure. The survey was completed by 671 subjects, including 76 with PLE, 46 with plastic bronchitis, and 7 with both. Median PLE diagnosis was 2.5 years post-Fontan. Hospitalization for PLE occurred in 71% with 41% hospitalized ≥ 3 times. Therapy varied significantly. Patients with PLE more commonly had hypoplastic left ventricle (62% vs 44% control; OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.43-5.53), chylothorax (66% vs 41%; OR 2.96, CI 1.65-5.31), and cardiothoracic surgery in addition to staged palliation (17% vs 5%; OR 4.27, CI 1.63-11.20). Median plastic bronchitis diagnosis was 2 years post-Fontan. Hospitalization for plastic bronchitis occurred in 91% with 61% hospitalized ≥ 3 times. Therapy was very diverse. Patients with plastic bronchitis more commonly had chylothorax at any surgery (72% vs 51%; OR 2.47, CI 1.20-5.08) and seasonal allergies (52% vs 36%; OR 1.98, CI 1.01-3.89). Patient-specific factors are associated with diagnoses of PLE or plastic bronchitis. Treatment strategies are diverse without clear patterns. These results provide a foundation upon which to design future therapeutic studies and identify a clear need for forming consensus approaches to treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards a no-lose theorem for naturalness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtin, David; Saraswat, Prashant

    2016-03-01

    We derive a phenomenological no-lose theorem for naturalness up to the TeV scale, which applies when quantum corrections to the Higgs mass from top quarks are canceled by perturbative beyond Standard Model (BSM) particles (top partners) of similar multiplicity due to to some symmetry. Null results from LHC searches already seem to disfavor such partners if they are colored. Any partners with SM charges and ˜TeV masses will be exhaustively probed by the LHC and a future 100 TeV collider. Therefore, we focus on neutral top partners. While these arise in twin Higgs theories, we analyze neutral top partners as model-independently as possible using effective field theory and simplified model methods. We classify all perturbative neutral top partner structures in order to compute their irreducible low-energy signatures at proposed future lepton and hadron colliders, as well as the irreducible tunings suffered in each scenario. Central to our theorem is the assumption that SM-charged BSM states appear in the UV completion of neutral naturalness, which is the case in all known examples. Direct production at the 100 TeV collider then allows this scale to be probed at the ˜10 TeV level. We find that proposed future colliders probe any such scenario of naturalness with tuning of 10% or better. This provides very strong model-independent motivation for both new lepton and hadron colliders, which in tandem act as discovery machines for general naturalness. We put our results in context by discussing other possibilities for naturalness, including "swarms" of top partners, inherently nonperturbative or exotic physics, or theories without SM-charged states in the UV completion. Realizing a concrete scenario which avoids our arguments while still lacking experimental signatures remains an open model-building challenge.

  7. Partial Sleep Deprivation Reduces the Efficacy of Orexin-A to Stimulate Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure.

    PubMed

    DePorter, Danielle P; Coborn, Jamie E; Teske, Jennifer A

    2017-10-01

    Sufficient sleep is required for weight maintenance. Sleep deprivation due to noise exposure stimulates weight gain by increasing hyperphagia and reducing energy expenditure (EE). Yet the mechanistic basis underlying the weight gain response is unclear. Orexin-A promotes arousal and negative energy balance, and orexin terminals project to the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), which is involved in sleep-to-wake transitions. To determine whether sleep deprivation reduces orexin function in VLPO and to test the hypothesis that sleep deprivation would attenuate the orexin-A-stimulated increase in arousal, physical activity (PA), and EE. Electroencephalogram, electromyogram, distance traveled, and EE were determined in male Sprague-Dawley rats following orexin-A injections into VLPO both before and after acute (12-h) and chronic (8 h/d, 9 d) sleep deprivation by noise exposure. Orexin-A in the VLPO significantly increased arousal, PA, total EE, and PA-related EE and reduced sleep and respiratory quotient before sleep deprivation. In contrast to after acute sleep deprivation in which orexin-A failed to stimulate EE during PA only, orexin-A failed to significantly increase arousal, PA, fat oxidation, total EE, and PA-related EE after chronic sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation may reduce sensitivity to endogenous stimuli that enhance EE due to PA and thus stimulate weight gain. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  8. Neuroregulators and sleep mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Holman, R B; Elliott, G R; Barchas, J D

    1975-01-01

    Information which has emerged thus far relates to the overall transmitter mechanisms of sleep. The data, while conflicting, point to the involvement of many neuroregulators at numerous integrative levels of the process. However the long term question still remain: what triggers and maintain sleep, what stops sleep, what occurs to the body and brain during sleep--in essence, why sleep? These questions are now problems for behavioral neurochemists, whereas in a previous era, they were problems for philosophers. Unfortunately, our answers to date, while in another idiom, have hardly been more complete or satisfying. To answer these questions, it will be necessary to understand, in detail, the manner in which neurobiochemical processes relate to the functional physiology of sleep. Although existing studies have given invaluable insight into the neurochemical anatomy of sleep, we have only recently acquired the technical and biochemical expertise necessary to investigate sleep as it occurs normally. Future research must focus on the dynamic changes associated with the regulatory mechanisms of neurotransmitters. Many questions can be asked. With sleep transitions, what changes occur in transmitter content, synthesis, or release? Are there changes in metabolic pathways, reflecting a shift from intra- to interneuronal metabolism? What changes occur in pre- and postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors to affect sensitivity? What constraints do genetic (245) and environmental (246) factors impose upon these mechanisms? Knowledge of such parameters will allow us to construct more complete models of the neuroregulatory basis of sleep and waking. However, as we acquire this knowledge, we must avoid the temptation of assuming causation when the evidence merely shows correlation. Neuroregulation are involved in the control of number different behaviors; and, at present, we have few, if any, methods of establishing causative links between a specific neuroregulator and a specific

  9. How To Discuss Sleep With Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How To Discuss Sleep With Your Doctor Doctors might not detect sleep ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: June 7, 2017 Sleep Infographic Sleep Disorders & Insufficient Sleep: Improving Health through ...

  10. PROCESSES ORGANISMIC: SLEEP AND DREAMING

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter reviews studies relating biological and mental activity during sleep and discusses how sleep affects waking behavior. The research shows that sleep and waking behaviors—-both physiological and cognitive--are more directly related than previously imagined....

  11. Dementia - behavior and sleep problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000029.htm Dementia - behavior and sleep problems To use the sharing features on this ... sleep and stay asleep Tips for Behavior and Sleep Problems Having a daily routine may help. Calmly ...

  12. How Is Sleep Apnea Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Sleep Apnea Treated? Sleep apnea is treated with lifestyle ... children grow. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Sleep Apnea Research: The HeartBeat Study 06/07/2012 ...

  13. Sleep apnea and panic attacks.

    PubMed

    Edlund, M J; McNamara, M E; Millman, R P

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 301 sleep apnea patients demonstrated that obstructive sleep apnea may cause nocturnal panic attack symptoms. Sleep apnea should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nocturnal panic disorder.

  14. Strategies for Getting Enough Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Enough Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Strategies How To Discuss Sleep Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Insomnia Restless Legs Syndrome Sleep Apnea Sleep Studies Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ...

  15. Body image and strategies to lose weight and increase muscle among boys and girls.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2003-01-01

    This study examined factors that influence body image and strategies to either lose weight or increase muscle among children. Participants were 237 boys and 270 girls. Body mass index (BMI), body dissatisfaction, cognitions and behaviors to both lose weight and increase muscles, as well as self-esteem and positive and negative affect, were evaluated. Self-esteem was associated with body satisfaction, positive affect predicted strategies to lose weight and increase muscles, and negative affect predicted body dissatisfaction and cognitions to lose weight and increase muscles. Boys were more likely to focus on changing muscles. Respondents with higher BMIs were more focused on losing weight butnot muscle. The discussion focuses on health risk behaviors related to eating and exercise among children.

  16. The risk of mothers’ losing an only child in China1

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Quanbao; Li, Ying; Sánchez-Barricarte, Jesús J.

    2017-01-01

    China’s one-child policy has been quite successful in bringing down the fertility level and has produced a large number of one-child families, but their risk of losing the only child has not drawn enough attention. In this paper, using an extension of Goldman and Lord(1983)’s method to measure widowhood, we also use period life table data to examine age-specific and cumulative probabilities of mothers losing their only child. We find that a mother faces a probability of 14.94 percent of losing a son, and 12.21 percent of losing a daughter. As the age of first-time mothers increases, the probability of losing a child declines. Urban and rural mothers have different indices regarding the loss of children. Based on these findings we discuss the prospects for China’s one-child policy. PMID:24103488

  17. Streamflow gain and loss of selected streams in northern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freiwald, David A.

    1987-01-01

    This map shows streamflow gain and loss measurements (seepage runs) on the Crooked, Osage, and Spavinaw Creeks, and Illinois, Kings, Mulberry, Spring, and Strawberry Rivers during the low-flow conditions from September 1982 to October 1984. Data indicated that streamflow gains and losses resulted from differences in lithology of the predominately carbonate rocks and from the presence of faults. The Kings and Strawberry Rivers and Osage Creek were gaining streams throughout their length, however wastewater discharges precluded an accurate determination on Osage Creek. Crooked and Spavinaw Creeks and the Illinois, Spring, and Mulberry Rivers generally were gaining streams throughout most of their lengths although short losing reaches were identified. The largest gains in streamflow generally occurred were Mississippian formation predominated near the streams. Faults that intersected the stream channels primarily were responsible for streamflow losses. The specific conductance of water increased in the stream reaches that had the most significant streamflow gains. The specific conductance of water in tributaries was generally higher than that in larger streams. (Author 's abstract)

  18. Effect of shortened sleep on energy expenditure, core body temperature, and appetite: a human randomised crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Hibi, Masanobu; Kubota, Chie; Mizuno, Tomohito; Aritake, Sayaka; Mitsui, Yuki; Katashima, Mitsuhiro; Uchida, Sunao

    2017-01-01

    The effects of sleep restriction on energy metabolism and appetite remain controversial. We examined the effects of shortened sleep duration on energy metabolism, core body temperature (CBT), and appetite profiles. Nine healthy men were evaluated in a randomised crossover study under two conditions: a 3.5-h sleep duration and a 7-h sleep duration for three consecutive nights followed by one 7-h recovery sleep night. The subjects’ energy expenditure (EE), substrate utilisation, and CBT were continually measured for 48 h using a whole-room calorimeter. The subjects completed an appetite questionnaire every hour while in the calorimeter. Sleep restriction did not affect total EE or substrate utilisation. The 48-h mean CBT decreased significantly during the 3.5-h sleep condition compared with the 7-h sleep condition (7-h sleep, 36.75 ± 0.11 °C; 3.5-h sleep, 36.68 ± 0.14 °C; p = 0.016). After three consecutive nights of sleep restriction, fasting peptide YY levels and fullness were significantly decreased (p = 0.011), whereas hunger and prospective food consumption were significantly increased, compared to those under the 7-h sleep condition. Shortened sleep increased appetite by decreasing gastric hormone levels, but did not affect EE, suggesting that greater caloric intake during a shortened sleep cycle increases the risk of weight gain. PMID:28071649

  19. The patient experience of sleep problems and their treatment in the context of current delusions and hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Waite, Felicity; Evans, Nicole; Myers, Elissa; Startup, Helen; Lister, Rachel; Harvey, Allison G; Freeman, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing recognition that sleep problems are common in patients with psychosis, that they exacerbate delusions and hallucinations and should be a treatment target. The aim of this study was to gain a patient perspective on the nature of sleep problems in psychosis and experience of treatment. A qualitative, semi-structured interview-based study to explore patient accounts of sleep problems and associated psychological treatment. Ten patients with recent delusions and hallucinations, who had experienced sleep problems and received psychological treatment during a clinical trial (the Better Sleep Trial), were interviewed. Responses were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Patients reported experiencing problems of getting to sleep, staying asleep, too much sleep, nightmares, and erratic sleep patterns. These sleep problems caused emotional distress, fatigue, and reduction in daytime activities. Worry and psychotic experiences disturbed sleep, while consequent tiredness meant that patients coped poorly with voices and persecutory fears. Treatment for sleep problems was viewed very positively and considered to have wide-ranging impacts. Sleep disturbance is a major problem for patients with psychosis, which should be treated more often in services using evidence-based interventions. Psychological interventions for sleep problems are valued by patients with psychosis. Patients with current distressing psychotic experiences report wide-ranging benefits from a brief psychological intervention for sleep problems. © 2015 The Authors. Psychology and Psychotherapy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the British Psychological Society.

  20. Partial sleep deprivation by environmental noise increases food intake and body weight in obesity-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Teske, Jennifer A; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M

    2013-07-01

    Sleep restriction in humans increases risk for obesity, but previous rodent studies show weight loss following sleep deprivation, possibly due to stressful methods used to prevent sleep. Obesity-resistant (OR) rats exhibit consolidated-sleep and resistance to weight gain. It was hypothesized that sleep disruption by a less-stressful method would increase body weight, and the effect of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on body weight in OR and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was examined. OR and SD rats (n = 12/group) were implanted with transmitters to record sleep/wake. After baseline recording, six SD and six OR rats underwent 8 h PSD during light phase for 9 days. Sleep was reduced using recordings of random noise. Sleep/wake states were scored as wakefulness (W), slow-wave-sleep (SWS), and rapid-eye-movement-sleep (REMS). Total number of transitions between stages, SWS-delta-power, food intake, and body weight were documented. Exposure to noise decreased SWS and REMS time, while increasing W time. Sleep-deprivation increased the number of transitions between stages and SWS-delta-power. Further, PSD during the rest phase increased recovery sleep during the active phase. The PSD SD and OR rats had greater food intake and body weight compared to controls PSD by less-stressful means increases body weight in rats. Also, PSD during the rest phase increases active period sleep. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  1. Effect of shortened sleep on energy expenditure, core body temperature, and appetite: a human randomised crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Hibi, Masanobu; Kubota, Chie; Mizuno, Tomohito; Aritake, Sayaka; Mitsui, Yuki; Katashima, Mitsuhiro; Uchida, Sunao

    2017-01-10

    The effects of sleep restriction on energy metabolism and appetite remain controversial. We examined the effects of shortened sleep duration on energy metabolism, core body temperature (CBT), and appetite profiles. Nine healthy men were evaluated in a randomised crossover study under two conditions: a 3.5-h sleep duration and a 7-h sleep duration for three consecutive nights followed by one 7-h recovery sleep night. The subjects' energy expenditure (EE), substrate utilisation, and CBT were continually measured for 48 h using a whole-room calorimeter. The subjects completed an appetite questionnaire every hour while in the calorimeter. Sleep restriction did not affect total EE or substrate utilisation. The 48-h mean CBT decreased significantly during the 3.5-h sleep condition compared with the 7-h sleep condition (7-h sleep, 36.75 ± 0.11 °C; 3.5-h sleep, 36.68 ± 0.14 °C; p = 0.016). After three consecutive nights of sleep restriction, fasting peptide YY levels and fullness were significantly decreased (p = 0.011), whereas hunger and prospective food consumption were significantly increased, compared to those under the 7-h sleep condition. Shortened sleep increased appetite by decreasing gastric hormone levels, but did not affect EE, suggesting that greater caloric intake during a shortened sleep cycle increases the risk of weight gain.

  2. Iii. Sleep assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Avi

    2015-03-01

    Sleep is a complex phenomenon that could be understood and assessed at many levels. Sleep could be described at the behavioral level (relative lack of movements and awareness and responsiveness) and at the brain level (based on EEG activity). Sleep could be characterized by its duration, by its distribution during the 24-hr day period, and by its quality (e.g., consolidated versus fragmented). Different methods have been developed to assess various aspects of sleep. This chapter covers the most established and common methods used to assess sleep in infants and children. These methods include polysomnography, videosomnography, actigraphy, direct observations, sleep diaries, and questionnaires. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are highlighted. © 2015 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. Unihemispheric sleep in crocodilians?

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michael L; Peters, Richard A; Tisdale, Ryan K; Lesku, John A

    2015-10-01

    Reduced vigilance is the conspicuous cost of sleep in most animals. To mitigate against this cost, some birds and aquatic mammals have evolved the ability to sleep with one-half of their brain at a time, a phenomenon known as unihemispheric sleep. During unihemispheric sleep the eye neurologically connected to the 'awake' hemisphere remains open while the other eye is closed. Such unilateral eye closure (UEC) has been observed across avian and non-avian reptiles, but has received little attention in the latter. Here, we explored the use of UEC in juvenile saltwater crocodiles (1) under baseline conditions, and in the presence of (2) other young crocodiles and (3) a human. Crocodiles increased the amount of UEC in response to the human, and preferentially oriented their open eye towards both stimuli. These results are consistent with observations on unihemispherically sleeping cetaceans and birds, and could have implications for our understanding of the evolution of unihemispheric sleep.

  4. Sleep and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2012-01-01

    While there is ample agreement that the cognitive role of sleep is explained by sleep-dependent synaptic changes, consensus is yet to be established as to the nature of these changes. Some researchers believe that sleep promotes global synaptic downscaling, leading to a non-Hebbian reset of synaptic weights that is putatively necessary for the acquisition of new memories during ensuing waking. Other investigators propose that sleep also triggers experience-dependent, Hebbian synaptic upscaling able to consolidate recently acquired memories. Here, I review the molecular and physiological evidence supporting these views, with an emphasis on the calcium signaling pathway. I argue that the available data are consistent with sleep promoting experience-dependent synaptic embossing, understood as the simultaneous non-Hebbian downscaling and Hebbian upscaling of separate but complementary sets of synapses, heterogeneously activated at the time of memory encoding and therefore differentially affected by sleep.

  5. Violence in sleep.

    PubMed

    Siclari, Francesca; Khatami, Ramin; Urbaniok, Frank; Nobili, Lino; Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Cramer Bornemann, Michel A; Bassetti, Claudio L

    2010-12-01

    Although generally considered as mutually exclusive, violence and sleep can coexist. Violence related to the sleep period is probably more frequent than generally assumed and can be observed in various conditions including parasomnias (such as arousal disorders and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder), epilepsy (in particular nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy) and psychiatric diseases (including delirium and dissociative states). Important advances in the fields of genetics, neuroimaging and behavioural neurology have expanded the understanding of the mechanisms underlying violence and its particular relation to sleep. The present review outlines the different sleep disorders associated with violence and aims at providing information on diagnosis, therapy and forensic issues. It also discusses current pathophysiological models, establishing a link between sleep-related violence and violence observed in other settings.

  6. [Brain temperature and sleep].

    PubMed

    Kharakoz, D P

    2013-01-01

    Temperature as a regulator of sleep is considered. Phenomenological data are presented indicating that there is a causal (not just a correlative) relationship between the changes in brain temperature and sleep phases in the wake-sleep cycle. An earlier suggested phase-transitional concept of the recovery function of sleep was shown to be the theoretical background for this relationship. According to the concept, sleep is an evolutionary developed mechanism of purification of the molecular composition of membranes in fast synapses, whose exocytosis depends on fluid-to-solid phase transition in the membrane. The concept suggests the answer to the question of why the recovery function is incompatible with the wake state and it states that the temperature changes (its decrease during the slow-wave sleep) is a necessary condition of the recovery process. Finally, some practically valuable issues from the concept are considered, including those that at first glance may seem paradoxical.

  7. Sleep, epilepsy, and autism.

    PubMed

    Accardo, Jennifer A; Malow, Beth A

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this review article is to explore the links between sleep and epilepsy and the treatment of sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Epilepsy and sleep have bidirectional relationships, and problems with both are highly prevalent in children with ASD. Literature is reviewed to support the view that sleep is particularly important to address in the context of ASD. Identification and management of sleep disorders may improve seizure control and challenging behaviors. In closing, special considerations for evaluating and treating sleep disorders in children with ASD and epilepsy are reviewed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Autism and Epilepsy". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The underlying interactome of childhood obesity: the potential role of sleep.

    PubMed

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2012-02-01

    Fine-tuning and integration between social rhythms and biological rhythms should be a priority for all, especially for children. As such, the opportunity to sleep should fit the evolving needs for sleep in a child. Unfortunately, children today are highly unlikely to obtain sufficient sleep or live under stable and regular schedules. Poor or dysregulated sleep affects the regulation of homeostatic and hormonal systems underlying somatic and intellectual growth, maturation, and bioenergetics. Therefore, in the prevention and management of childhood obesity, assessments of the “obesogenic” lifestyle, such as dietary and physical activity patterns, need to be coupled with accurate evaluation of the quality and quantity of sleep and with the potential co-existence of sleep-disordered breathing or other sleep disorders. Incorporation of sleep as an integral component of many childhood research studies on obesity should be done a priori rather than as an afterthought. Although parents and health professionals have meticulously delineated,observed, and quantified normal patterns of activities such as eating or playing, the absence of reliable sleep health data in children is all the more puzzling considering that young children engage in sleeping activities more than in any other activity during the 24-hour cycle. Therefore, the most forgotten, overlooked, or even actively ignored behavior of this century is undoubtedly childhood sleep. Trends aiming to reduce sleep in children have emerged, and regrettably continue to gain momentum. In parallel with such undesirable consequences, leading to the blatant disregard of sleep as a vital function rather than a commodity, a reciprocal increase in obesity rates has emerged. The mechanistic links between sleep and metabolism are now emerging, and should prompt incorporation of measures aiming to align sleep with any other antiobesity campaign. To paraphrase a well-known dictum “Somni sano in corpore sano” (healthy sleep

  9. The Underlying Interactome of Childhood Obesity: The Potential Role of Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Spruyt, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Fine-tuning and integration between social rhythms and biological rhythms should be a priority for all, especially for children. As such, the opportunity to sleep should fit the evolving needs for sleep in a child. Unfortunately, children today are highly unlikely to obtain sufficient sleep or live under stable and regular schedules. Poor or dysregulated sleep affects the regulation of homeostatic and hormonal systems underlying somatic and intellectual growth, maturation, and bioenergetics. Therefore, in the prevention and management of childhood obesity, assessments of the “obesogenic” lifestyle, such as dietary and physical activity patterns, need to be coupled with accurate evaluation of the quality and quantity of sleep and with the potential co-existence of sleep-disordered breathing or other sleep disorders. Incorporation of sleep as an integral component of many childhood research studies on obesity should be done a priori rather than as an afterthought. Although parents and health professionals have meticulously delineated, observed, and quantified normal patterns of activities such as eating or playing, the absence of reliable sleep health data in children is all the more puzzling considering that young children engage in sleeping activities more than in any other activity during the 24-hour cycle. Therefore, the most forgotten, overlooked, or even actively ignored behavior of this century is undoubtedly childhood sleep. Trends aiming to reduce sleep in children have emerged, and regrettably continue to gain momentum. In parallel with such undesirable consequences, leading to the blatant disregard of sleep as a vital function rather than a commodity, a reciprocal increase in obesity rates has emerged. The mechanistic links between sleep and metabolism are now emerging, and should prompt incorporation of measures aiming to align sleep with any other antiobesity campaign. To paraphrase a well-known dictum “Somni sano in corpore sano

  10. Elevated Sleep Quality and Orexin Receptor mRNA in Obesity Resistant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Teske, Jennifer A.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if resistance to weight gain is associated with alterations in sleep/wake states and orexin receptor gene expression. Design Three-month old obesity susceptible Sprague-Dawley (SD) and obesity resistant (OR) rats were fed standard rodent chow. Sleep/wake cycle was measured by radiotelemetry and orexin receptor profiles in sleep/wake regulatory areas of the brain were quantified by quantitative RT-PCR. Subjects Adult male obesity susceptible SD and selectively-bred OR rats. Measurements Body weight, food intake, energy efficiency, percent time spent in active wake, quiet wake, slow-wave sleep (SWS), rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, number and mean duration of sleep/wake episodes, number of stage transitions, SWS sleep delta power and orexin receptor mRNA levels were measured. Results Obesity resistant rats weighed significantly less and had lower energy efficiency than SD rats. Food intake was not different between SD and OR rats. Time spent in quiet wake was similar between groups, and therefore active wake and quiet wake were combined and are referred to as ‘wakefulness’. Obesity resistant rats spent significantly more time in wakefulness and less time in SWS compared to SD rats during the 24 h recording period. Relative to SD rats, OR rats had significantly fewer sleep/wake episodes and the duration of the episodes were prolonged, indicating less fragmented sleep. Further, OR rats had fewer transitions between sleep stages, which indicates that OR rats were behaviorally more stable and had more consolidated sleep than obesity susceptible SD rats. Obesity resistant rats exhibited lower delta power during SWS sleep, indicating a lower sleep drive. Our results demonstrated greater orexin receptor gene expression in sleep regulatory brain areas in OR rats. Conclusion These results demonstrate that prolonged wakefulness, better sleep quality, lower sleep drive and greater orexin signaling may confer protection against obesity. PMID:20498657

  11. NREM2 and Sleep Spindles Are Instrumental to the Consolidation of Motor Sequence Memories

    PubMed Central

    Laventure, Samuel; Fogel, Stuart; Lungu, Ovidiu; Albouy, Geneviève; Sévigny-Dupont, Pénélope; Vien, Catherine; Sayour, Chadi; Carrier, Julie; Benali, Habib; Doyon, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies have convincingly demonstrated that sleep plays a critical role in motor sequence learning (MSL) consolidation, the specific contribution of the different sleep stages in this type of memory consolidation is still contentious. To probe the role of stage 2 non-REM sleep (NREM2) in this process, we used a conditioning protocol in three different groups of participants who either received an odor during initial training on a motor sequence learning task and were re-exposed to this odor during different sleep stages of the post-training night (i.e., NREM2 sleep [Cond-NREM2], REM sleep [Cond-REM], or were not conditioned during learning but exposed to the odor during NREM2 [NoCond]). Results show that the Cond-NREM2 group had significantly higher gains in performance at retest than both the Cond-REM and NoCond groups. Also, only the Cond-NREM2 group yielded significant changes in sleep spindle characteristics during cueing. Finally, we found that a change in frequency of sleep spindles during cued-memory reactivation mediated the relationship between the experimental groups and gains in performance the next day. These findings strongly suggest that cued-memory reactivation during NREM2 sleep triggers an increase in sleep spindle activity that is then related to the consolidation of motor sequence memories. PMID:27032084

  12. Evaluating the Evidence Surrounding Pontine Cholinergic Involvement in REM Sleep Generation

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Kevin P.; Horner, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep – characterized by vivid dreaming, motor paralysis, and heightened neural activity – is one of the fundamental states of the mammalian central nervous system. Initial theories of REM sleep generation posited that induction of the state required activation of the “pontine REM sleep generator” by cholinergic inputs. Here, we review and evaluate the evidence surrounding cholinergic involvement in REM sleep generation. We submit that: (i) the capacity of pontine cholinergic neurotransmission to generate REM sleep has been firmly established by gain-of-function experiments, (ii) the function of endogenous cholinergic input to REM sleep generating sites cannot be determined by gain-of-function experiments; rather, loss-of-function studies are required, (iii) loss-of-function studies show that endogenous cholinergic input to the PTF is not required for REM sleep generation, and (iv) cholinergic input to the pontine REM sleep generating sites serve an accessory role in REM sleep generation: reinforcing non-REM-to-REM sleep transitions making them quicker and less likely to fail. PMID:26388832

  13. Evaluating the Evidence Surrounding Pontine Cholinergic Involvement in REM Sleep Generation.

    PubMed

    Grace, Kevin P; Horner, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep - characterized by vivid dreaming, motor paralysis, and heightened neural activity - is one of the fundamental states of the mammalian central nervous system. Initial theories of REM sleep generation posited that induction of the state required activation of the "pontine REM sleep generator" by cholinergic inputs. Here, we review and evaluate the evidence surrounding cholinergic involvement in REM sleep generation. We submit that: (i) the capacity of pontine cholinergic neurotransmission to generate REM sleep has been firmly established by gain-of-function experiments, (ii) the function of endogenous cholinergic input to REM sleep generating sites cannot be determined by gain-of-function experiments; rather, loss-of-function studies are required, (iii) loss-of-function studies show that endogenous cholinergic input to the PTF is not required for REM sleep generation, and (iv) cholinergic input to the pontine REM sleep generating sites serve an accessory role in REM sleep generation: reinforcing non-REM-to-REM sleep transitions making them quicker and less likely to fail.

  14. Isolated sleep paralysis.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Neena S; Parkar, Shubhangi R; Tambe, Ravindra

    2005-10-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a cardinal symptom of narcolepsy. However, little is available in the literature about isolated sleep paralysis. This report discusses the case of a patient with isolated sleep paralysis who progressed from mild to severe SP over 8 years. He also restarted drinking alcohol to be able to fall asleep and allay his anxiety symptoms. The patient was taught relaxation techniques and he showed complete remission of the symptoms of SP on follow up after 8 months.

  15. The role of sleep duration in the regulation of energy balance: effects on energy intakes and expenditure.

    PubMed

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2013-01-15

    Short sleep duration and obesity are common occurrence in today's society. An extensive literature from cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies shows a relationship between short sleep and prevalence of obesity and weight gain. However, causality cannot be inferred from such studies. Clinical intervention studies have examined whether reducing sleep in normal sleepers, typically sleeping 7-9 h/night, can affect energy intake, energy expenditure, and endocrine regulators of energy balance. The aim of this review is to evaluate studies that have assessed food intake, energy expenditure, and leptin and ghrelin levels after periods of restricted and normal sleep. Most studies support the notion that restricting sleep increases food intake, but the effects on energy expenditure are mixed. Differences in methodology and component of energy expenditure analyzed may account for the discrepancies. Studies examining the effects of sleep on leptin and ghrelin have provided conflicting results with increased, reduced, or unchanged leptin and ghrelin levels after restricted sleep compared to normal sleep. Energy balance of study participants and potential sex differences may account for the varied results. Studies should strive for constant energy balance and feeding schedules when assessing the role of sleep on hormonal profile. Although studies suggest that restricting sleep may lead to weight gain via increased food intake, research is needed to examine the impact on energy expenditure and endocrine controls. Also, studies have been of short duration, and there is little knowledge on the reverse question: does increasing sleep duration in short sleepers lead to negative energy balance?

  16. The Pittsburgh Sleep Diary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Reynolds CF, 3. d.; Kupfer, D. J.; Buysse, D. J.; Coble, P. A.; Hayes, A. J.; Machen, M. A.; Petrie, S. R.; Ritenour, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Increasingly, there is a need in both research and clinical practice to document and quantify sleep and waking behaviors in a comprehensive manner. The Pittsburgh Sleep Diary (PghSD) is an instrument with separate components to be completed at bedtime and waketime. Bedtime components relate to the events of the day preceding the sleep, waketime components to the sleep period just completed. Two-week PghSD data is presented from 234 different subjects, comprising 96 healthy young middle-aged controls, 37 older men, 44 older women, 29 young adult controls and 28 sleep disorders patients in order to demonstrate the usefulness, validity and reliability of various measures from the instrument. Comparisons are made with polysomnographic and actigraphic sleep measures, as well as personality and circadian type questionnaires. The instrument was shown to have sensitivity in detecting differences due to weekends, age, gender, personality and circadian type, and validity in agreeing with actigraphic estimates of sleep timing and quality. Over a 12-31 month delay, PghSD measures of both sleep timing and sleep quality showed correlations between 0.56 and 0.81 (n = 39, P < 0.001).

  17. [Sleep and movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Poryazova, R; Bassetti, C L

    2007-01-01

    The three different states of being (wakefulness, NREM and REM sleep) are associated with profound neurophysiological and neurochemical changes in the brain. These changes explain the existence of movement disorders appearing only or preferentially during sleep, and the effects of sleep on movement disorders. Sleep-related movement disorders are of clinical relevance for multiple reasons: 1) high frequency (e.g. restless legs syndrome (RLS)); 2) diagnostic relevance (e.g. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) as first manifestation of Parkinson disorder); 3) diagnostic uncertainty (e.g. parasomnias vs nocturnal epilepsy); 4) association with injuries (e.g. RBD, sleepwalking), sleep disruption/daytime sleepiness (e.g. RLS), and psycho-social burden (e.g. enuresis); 5) requirement of specific treatments (e.g. nocturnal epilepsy, stridor, RBD). This article gives an overview on clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, work-up and treatment of sleep-related movement disorders (e.g. RLS, bruxism), parasomnias (e.g. sleepwalking, RBD), sleep-related epilepsies, and on sleep-associated manifestations of movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy).

  18. Cystic fibrosis and sleep.

    PubMed

    Katz, Eliot S

    2014-09-01

    Sleep disturbances are frequently observed in cystic fibrosis (CF). The resultant sleep fragmentation, short sleep duration, and gas-exchange abnormalities are postulated to contribute to the neurocognitive, cardiovascular, and metabolic abnormalities associated with CF. There are no outcomes data to establish the optimal procedure for screening and treating CF patients for sleep-related respiratory abnormalities. Therapy with supplemental oxygen and bilevel ventilation are widely considered to be effective in the short term, but there are few evidence-based data to support long-term improvements in morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Pittsburgh Sleep Diary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Reynolds CF, 3. d.; Kupfer, D. J.; Buysse, D. J.; Coble, P. A.; Hayes, A. J.; Machen, M. A.; Petrie, S. R.; Ritenour, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Increasingly, there is a need in both research and clinical practice to document and quantify sleep and waking behaviors in a comprehensive manner. The Pittsburgh Sleep Diary (PghSD) is an instrument with separate components to be completed at bedtime and waketime. Bedtime components relate to the events of the day preceding the sleep, waketime components to the sleep period just completed. Two-week PghSD data is presented from 234 different subjects, comprising 96 healthy young middle-aged controls, 37 older men, 44 older women, 29 young adult controls and 28 sleep disorders patients in order to demonstrate the usefulness, validity and reliability of various measures from the instrument. Comparisons are made with polysomnographic and actigraphic sleep measures, as well as personality and circadian type questionnaires. The instrument was shown to have sensitivity in detecting differences due to weekends, age, gender, personality and circadian type, and validity in agreeing with actigraphic estimates of sleep timing and quality. Over a 12-31 month delay, PghSD measures of both sleep timing and sleep quality showed correlations between 0.56 and 0.81 (n = 39, P < 0.001).

  20. Sleep State Switching

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Clifford B.; Fuller, Patrick M.; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Lu, Jun; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    We take for granted the ability to fall asleep or to snap out of sleep into wakefulness, but these changes in behavioral state require specific switching mechanisms in the brain that allow well-defined state transitions. In this review, we examine the basic circuitry underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, and discuss a theoretical framework wherein the interactions between reciprocal neuronal circuits enable relatively rapid and complete state transitions. We also review how homeostatic, circadian, and allostatic drives help regulate sleep state switching, and discuss how breakdown of the switching mechanism may contribute to sleep disorders such as narcolepsy. PMID:21172606

  1. Sleep in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traon, A. Pavy-le; Roussel, B.

    1993-09-01

    Manned space flights have shown it is possible to sleep in microgravity. However, some sleep disturbances have been reported which influence performance of the crew and safety of space flight. This paper reviews the main studies of in-flight sleep in animal and man. Most disturbances are related to phase lags due to operational requirements. Factors which can disturb in-flight sleep are analysed: • environmental factors. Some of them are secondary to space flight ergonomics. Conversely, effects of microgravity on light-dark alternance are less known and lead to interesting problems of fundamental research, • psychological factors, especially during long duration flights.

  2. Headaches and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Freedom, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Headaches and sleep disorders are associated in a complex manner. Both the disorders are common in the general population, but the relationship between the two is more than coincidental. Sleep disorders can exacerbate headache sand the converse is also true. Treatment of sleep disorders can have a positive impact on the treatment of headaches. Screening for sleep disorders should be considered in all patients with headaches. This can be accomplished with brief screening tools. Those who screen positively can be further evaluated or referred to asleep specialist.

  3. Nonepileptic paroxysmal sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Frenette, Eric; Guilleminault, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Events occurring during nighttime sleep in children can be easily mislabeled, as witnesses are usually not immediately available. Even when observers are present, description of the events can be sketchy, as these individuals are frequently aroused from their own sleep. Errors of perception are thus common and can lead to diagnosis of epilepsy where other sleep-related conditions are present, sometimes initiating unnecessary therapeutic interventions, especially with antiepileptic drugs. Often not acknowledged, paroxysmal nonepileptic behavioral and motor episodes in sleep are encountered much more frequently than their epileptic counterpart. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) 2nd edition displays an extensive list of such conditions that can be readily mistaken for epilepsy. The most prevalent ones are reviewed, such as nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias, comprised of sleepwalking, confusional arousals and sleep terrors, periodic leg movements of sleep, repetitive movement disorders, benign neonatal myoclonus, and sleep starts. Apnea of prematurity is also briefly reviewed. Specific issues regarding management of these selected disorders, both for diagnostic consideration and for therapeutic intervention, are addressed.

  4. Sleep, Memory & Brain Rhythms.

    PubMed

    Watson, Brendon O; Buzsáki, György

    2015-01-01

    Sleep occupies roughly one-third of our lives, yet the scientific community is still not entirely clear on its purpose or function. Existing data point most strongly to its role in memory and homeostasis: that sleep helps maintain basic brain functioning via a homeostatic mechanism that loosens connections between overworked synapses, and that sleep helps consolidate and re-form important memories. In this review, we will summarize these theories, but also focus on substantial new information regarding the relation of electrical brain rhythms to sleep. In particular, while REM sleep may contribute to the homeostatic weakening of overactive synapses, a prominent and transient oscillatory rhythm called "sharp-wave ripple" seems to allow for consolidation of behaviorally relevant memories across many structures of the brain. We propose that a theory of sleep involving the division of labor between two states of sleep-REM and non-REM, the latter of which has an abundance of ripple electrical activity-might allow for a fusion of the two main sleep theories. This theory then postulates that sleep performs a combination of consolidation and homeostasis that promotes optimal knowledge retention as well as optimal waking brain function.

  5. [Sleep disorders in childhood].

    PubMed

    Briellmann-Bucher, R; Bassetti, C; Donati, F; Vassella, F; Hess, C W

    1995-03-25

    Sleep disorders in childhood are frequent and usually harmless. They rarely point to a serious disease. Difficulty in falling asleep and nightly awakenings are age-dependent and transitory. While the largely harmless somnambulism and pavor nocturnus occur in the deep sleep of the first third of the night, the anxiety dreams of REM sleep appear preferentially in the second half of the night. Other disorders such as nocturnal enuresis and talking in sleep may occur during the whole night. It is very important to inform the parents because this helps to counter fears and false expectations. Consistent sleep hygiene needs to be developed with avoidance of irregular sleep rhythm and an unrestful sleep environment. Sometimes it is necessary to learn new behaviour patterns with the child. Only exceptionally is drug therapy indicated. However, nocturnal breathing disorders and nocturnal epilepsy do have a pathological significance and need specific therapy. In order to clarify the reasons for sleep disorders, it is necessary to keep a sleep diary, to undertake specific examinations (e.g. psychological, pneumological, neurological, urological, otorhinolaryngological and possibly using diagnostic equipment such as video-polysomnography).

  6. Recognising sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    How, C H; Hsu, P P; Tan, K L

    2015-03-01

    Most people spend a third of their lives sleeping, and thus, sleep has a major impact on all of us. As sleep is a function and not a structure, it is challenging to treat and prevent its complications. Sleep apnoea is one such complication, with serious and potentially life-threatening consequences. Local studies estimate that about 15% of Singapore's population is afflicted with sleep apnoea. The resulting sleep fragmentation may result in poor quality of sleep, leading to daytime sleepiness. Sleep apnoea may also be the underlying cause of high blood pressure, memory loss, poor concentration and work performance, motor vehicle accidents, and marital problems. Evaluation involves a sleep study, followed by patient education, and an individualised step-wise management approach should be explored. Many patients will require follow-up for a long period of time, as management options may not offer a permanent cure; other contributory causes may arise at different phases of their lives, compounded by genetic and hormonal issues, ethnicity and the modern hazards of a fast-paced society.

  7. [Sleep-wake transition disorders].

    PubMed

    Honma, H; Kobayashi, R; Koyama, T

    1998-02-01

    The term sleep-wake transition disorders refers to a group of parasomnias that occur during the transition from wakefulness to sleep or from one sleep stage to another. Rhythmic movement disorder, sleep starts, sleep talking, and nocturnal leg cramps--these four disorders belong to sleep-wake transition disorders in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders. Although these are common disorders, little attention is given to them and their mechanisms are remain unclear. The majority of patients are not so severe as to require any treatment. Their prognosis are usually well. This article describes sleep-wake transition disorders concerning the clinical features, differential diagnosis, treatment, etc.

  8. Association between sleep hygiene and sleep quality in medical students.

    PubMed

    Brick, Cameron A; Seely, Darbi L; Palermo, Tonya M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether subjective sleep quality was reduced in medical students, and whether demographics and sleep hygiene behaviors were associated with sleep quality. A Web-based survey was completed by 314 medical students, containing questions about demographics, sleep habits, exercise habits, caffeine, tobacco and alcohol use, and subjective sleep quality (using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). Correlation and regression analyses tested for associations among demographics, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep quality. As hypothesized, medical students' sleep quality was significantly worse than a healthy adult normative sample (t = 5.13, p < .001). Poor sleep quality in medical students was predicted by several demographic and sleep hygiene variables, and future research directions are proposed.

  9. Sleep and sleep disordered breathing in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Knauert, Melissa P; Malik, Vipin; Kamdar, Biren B

    2014-10-01

    Sleep is a fundamental physiological process necessary for recovery from acute illness. Unfortunately for hospitalized patients, sleep is often short, fragmented, and poor in quality, and may be associated with adverse outcomes including inpatient delirium. Many factors contribute to poor sleep in the hospital setting, including preexisting sleep deprivation, sleep disordered breathing, environmental noise and light, patient care activities, and medications. Sleep disordered breathing increases the risk of potentially life-threatening cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic consequences, and therefore should be diagnosed and treated in hospitalized patients. Mitigating the sequelae associated with poor sleep quality and sleep disordered breathing requires early identification of modifiable factors impacting a patient's sleep, including engagement of a multidisciplinary team. In this article, we review the current knowledge of sleep in hospitalized patients with a detailed focus on patients with sleep disordered breathing. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  11. Cognitive Neuroscience of Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Poe, Gina R.; Walsh, Christine M.; Bjorness, Theresa E.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanism is at the heart of understanding, and this chapter addresses underlying brain mechanisms and pathways of cognition and the impact of sleep on these processes, especially those serving learning and memory. This chapter reviews the current understanding of the relationship between sleep/waking states and cognition from the perspective afforded by basic neurophysiological investigations. The extensive overlap between sleep mechanisms and the neurophysiology of learning and memory processes provide a foundation for theories of a functional link between the sleep and learning systems. Each of the sleep states, with its attendant alterations in neurophysiology, is associated with facilitation of important functional learning and memory processes. For rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, salient features such as PGO waves, theta synchrony, increased acetylcholine, reduced levels of monoamines and, within the neuron, increased transcription of plasticity-related genes, cumulatively allow for freely occurring bidirectional plasticity (long-term potentiation (LTP) and its reversal, depotentiation). Thus, REM sleep provides a novel neural environment in which the synaptic remodeling essential to learning and cognition can occur, at least within the hippocampal complex. During nonREM sleep Stage 2 spindles, the cessation and subsequent strong bursting of noradrenergic cells and coincident reactivation of hippocampal and cortical targets would also increase synaptic plasticity, allowing targeted bidirectional plasticity in the neocortex as well. In delta nonREM sleep, orderly neuronal reactivation events in phase with slow wave delta activity, together with high protein synthesis levels, would facilitate the events that convert early LTP to long lasting LTP. Conversely, delta sleep does not activate immediate early genes associated with de novo LTP. This nonREM sleep-unique genetic environment combined with low acetylcholine levels may serve to reduce the strength of

  12. Cognitive neuroscience of sleep.

    PubMed

    Poe, Gina R; Walsh, Christine M; Bjorness, Theresa E

    2010-01-01

    Mechanism is at the heart of understanding, and this chapter addresses underlying brain mechanisms and pathways of cognition and the impact of sleep on these processes, especially those serving learning and memory. This chapter reviews the current understanding of the relationship between sleep/waking states and cognition from the perspective afforded by basic neurophysiological investigations. The extensive overlap between sleep mechanisms and the neurophysiology of learning and memory processes provide a foundation for theories of a functional link between the sleep and learning systems. Each of the sleep states, with its attendant alterations in neurophysiology, is associated with facilitation of important functional learning and memory processes. For rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, salient features such as PGO waves, theta synchrony, increased acetylcholine, reduced levels of monoamines and, within the neuron, increased transcription of plasticity-related genes, cumulatively allow for freely occurring bidirectional plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP) and its reversal, depotentiation. Thus, REM sleep provides a novel neural environment in which the synaptic remodelling essential to learning and cognition can occur, at least within the hippocampal complex. During non-REM sleep Stage 2 spindles, the cessation and subsequent strong bursting of noradrenergic cells and coincident reactivation of hippocampal and cortical targets would also increase synaptic plasticity, allowing targeted bidirectional plasticity in the neocortex as well. In delta non-REM sleep, orderly neuronal reactivation events in phase with slow wave delta activity, together with high protein synthesis levels, would facilitate the events that convert early LTP to long-lasting LTP. Conversely, delta sleep does not activate immediate early genes associated with de novo LTP. This non-REM sleep-unique genetic environment combined with low acetylcholine levels may serve to reduce the strength of

  13. [Sleep disorders and dementia].

    PubMed

    Hess, C W

    1997-08-27

    A clinically relevant sleep-wake disturbance is found in up to half the patients with dementia, and the sundowning agitation is a common cause of institutionalisation of demented geriatric patients. The circadian rhythm of demented patients is levelled off with increased daytime sleep and disrupted night sleep. Particularly in vascular dementia, Korsakow syndrome, Parkinson's disease, and depression the alteration of sleep architecture may be pronounced, whereas in Alzheimer's disease prominent hypersomnolence or insomnia is typically only found in later stages of the diseases. Greatly increased daytime sleepiness or striking insomnia at the very beginning of suspected dementia should thus prompt the search for other, possibly treatable causes of dementia. Neuropathological and neurophysiological studies support the hypothesis of a deteriorated hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (harbouring the biological clock) as a cause for the deranged circadian sleep-wake system in dementia. Management of sundowning behaviour includes restriction of daytime sleep, exposure to bright lights, and social interaction schedules during the day. The benzodiazepines and analogues usually not being sufficiently effectual, low doses of mild neuroleptics are often needed. Whether recent reports on efficacy of melatonin in elderly insomniacs also apply to demented patients is yet uncertain. The careful search and treatment of possible extracerebral physiologic factors causing reversible hypersomnia or insomnia is an important requisite. Polysomnographic studies are needed to recognise treatable sleep disturbance which could deteriorate or mimic dementia and sundowning. Particularly, a sleep-apnea-hypopnea syndrome must be searched for at the beginning of a suspected dementia, when successful treatment is still possible. Sleep studies should also identify periodic leg movements of sleep with restless legs and/or increased daytime sleepiness, and hyperkinetic parasomnias such as REM sleep

  14. Sleep in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Christoph J; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian

    2004-04-01

    Sleep research on eating disorders has addressed two major questions: (1) the effects of chronic starvation in anorexia nervosa and of rapidly fluctuating eating patterns in bulimia nervosa on the sleep regulating processes and (2) the search for a significant neurobiological relationship between eating disorders and major depression. At present, the latter question appears to be resolved, since most of the available evidences clearly underline the notion that eating disorders (such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa) and affective disorders are two distinct entities. Regarding the effects of starvation on sleep regulation, recent research in healthy humans and in animals demonstrates that such a condition results in a fragmentation of sleep and a reduction of slow wave sleep. Although several peptides are supposed to be involved in these regulatory processes (i.e. CCK, orexin, leptin), their mode of action is still poorly understood. In opposite to these experimentally induced sleep disturbances are the findings that the sleep patterns in eating disorder patients per se do not markedly differ from those in healthy subjects. However, when focusing on the so-called restricting anorexics, who maintain their chronic underweight by strictly dieting, the expected effects of malnutrition on sleep can be ascertained. Furthermore, at least partial weight restoration results in a 'deepening' of nocturnal sleep in the anorexic patients. However, our knowledge about the neurobiological systems (as well as their circadian pattern of activity) that transmit the effects of starvation and of weight restoration on sleep is still limited and should be extended to metabolic signals mediating sleep.

  15. Companionable sleep: Social regulation of sleep and co-sleeping in Egyptian families

    PubMed Central

    Worthman, Carol M.; Brown, Ryan A.

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study examines family sleep patterns and quality in a setting of normative napping and co-sleeping. Participants comprised 78 members of 16 families from two locales in Egypt, Cairo and village. Each family member provided a history of sleeping arrangements, one week of continuous activity records, and details of each sleep event. Sleep records documented late-onset and dispersed sleep patterns with extensive co-sleeping. Of recorded sleep events, 69% involved co-sleeping, 24% included more than one co-sleeper, and only 21% were solitary. Mid-late afternoon napping occurred on 31% of days and night sleep onsets averaged after midnight. Age and gender structured sleep arrangements and together with locale, extensively explained sleep behavior (onset, duration, total) and quality. Co-sleepers had fewer night arousals, shorter and less variable night sleep duration, and less total sleep. Increased solitary sleep in adolescents and young adults was associated with increased sleep dysregulation, including exaggerated phase shifts in males and more nighttime arousals in females. Where normative, co-sleeping may provide psychosensory stimuli that moderate arousal and stabilize sleep. Such moderating features may address important self-regulatory developmental needs during adolescence. PMID:17371117

  16. Animal Models of Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Linda A; Bhargava, Pavan

    2013-01-01

    Problems with sleep affect a large part of the general population, with more than half of all people in the United States reporting difficulties with sleep or insufficient sleep at various times and about 40 million affected chronically. Sleep is a complex physiologic process that is influenced by many internal and environmental factors, and problems with sleep are often related to specific personal circumstances or are based on subjective reports from the affected person. Although human subjects are used widely in the study of sleep and sleep disorders, the study of animals has been invaluable in developing our understanding about the physiology of sleep and the underlying mechanisms of sleep disorders. Historically, the use of animals for the study of sleep disorders has arguably been most fruitful for the condition of narcolepsy, in which studies of dogs and mice revealed previously unsuspected mechanisms for this condition. The current overview considers animal models that have been used to study 4 of the most common human sleep disorders—insomnia, narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome, and sleep apnea—and summarizes considerations relevant to the use of animals for the study of sleep and sleep disorders. Animal-based research has been vital to the elucidation of mechanisms that underlie sleep, its regulation, and its disorders and undoubtedly will remain crucial for discovering and validating sleep mechanisms and testing interventions for sleep disorders. PMID:23582416

  17. Disrupted Nighttime Sleep in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Thomas; Dauvilliers, Yves; Mignot, Emmanuel; Montplaisir, Jacques; Paul, Josh; Swick, Todd; Zee, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Characterize disrupted nighttime sleep (DNS) in narcolepsy, an important symptom of narcolepsy. Methods: A panel of international narcolepsy experts was convened in 2011 to build a consensus characterization of DNS in patients with narcolepsy. A literature search of the Medline (1965 to date), Medline In-Process (latest weeks), Embase (1974 to date), Embase Alert (latest 8 weeks), and Biosis (1965 to date) databases was conducted using the following search terms: narcolepsy and disrupted nighttime sleep, disturbed nighttime sleep, fragmented sleep, consolidated sleep, sleep disruption, and narcolepsy questionnaire. The purpose of the literature search was to identify publications characterizing the nighttime sleep of patients with narcolepsy. The panel reviewed the literature. Nocturnal sleep can also be disturbed by REM sleep abnormalities such as vivid dreaming and REM sleep behavior disorder; however, these were not reviewed in the current paper, as we were evaluating for idiopathic sleep disturbances. Results: The literature reviewed provide a consistent characterization of nighttime sleep in patients with narcolepsy as fragmented, with reports of frequent, brief nightly awakenings with difficulties returning to sleep and associated reports of poor sleep quality. Polysomnographic studies consistently report frequent awakenings/arousals after sleep onset, more stage 1 (S1) sleep, and more frequent shifts to S1 sleep or wake from deeper stages of sleep. The consensus of the International Experts' Panel on Narcolepsy was that DNS can be distressing for patients with narcolepsy and that treatment of DNS warrants consideration. Conclusions: Clinicians involved in the management of patients with narcolepsy should investigate patients' quality of nighttime sleep, give weight and consideration to patient reports of nighttime sleep experience, and consider DNS a target for treatment. Citation: Roth T; Dauvilliers Y; Mignot E; Montplaisir J; Paul J

  18. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes’ closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use-dependent process (local sleep). PMID:27471418

  19. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase.

  20. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Key points Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common and the severity increases as pregnancy progresses. Frequent snoring, older age and high pre-pregnancy body mass index (>25 kg⋅m−2) could be reliable indicators for SDB in early pregnancy. SDB screening tools, including questionnaires, used in the nonpregnant population have poor predictive ability in pregnancy. Accumulating evidence suggests that SDB during pregnancy may be associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously because several studies failed to adjust for potential maternal confounders and have other study limitations. There are no pregnancy-specific practice guidelines for SDB treatment. Many clinicians and practices follow recommendations for the treatment in the general population. Women with pre-existing SDB might need to be reassessed, particularly after the sixth month of pregnancy, because symptoms can worsen with nasal congestion and weight gain. Educational aims To highlight the prevalence and severity of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in the pregnant population. To inform readers about risk factors for SDB in pregnancy. To explore the impact of SDB on adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, and biological pathways for associated adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. To introduce current management options for SDB in pregnancy, including medical and behavioural approaches. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the