... diet; VLCD; Low-calorie diet; LCD; Very low energy diet; Weight loss - rapid weight loss; Overweight - rapid ... AM, Aveyard P. Clinical effectiveness of very-low-energy diets in the management of weight loss: a ...
Fine, Eugene J; Feinman, Richard D
BACKGROUND: It is commonly held that "a calorie is a calorie", i.e. that diets of equal caloric content will result in identical weight change independent of macronutrient composition, and appeal is frequently made to the laws of thermodynamics. We have previously shown that thermodynamics does not support such a view and that diets of different macronutrient content may be expected to induce different changes in body mass. Low carbohydrate diets in particular have claimed a "metabolic advantage" meaning more weight loss than in isocaloric diets of higher carbohydrate content. In this review, for pedagogic clarity, we reframe the theoretical discussion to directly link thermodynamic inefficiency to weight change. The problem in outline: Is metabolic advantage theoretically possible? If so, what biochemical mechanisms might plausibly explain it? Finally, what experimental evidence exists to determine whether it does or does not occur? RESULTS: Reduced thermodynamic efficiency will result in increased weight loss. The laws of thermodynamics are silent on the existence of variable thermodynamic efficiency in metabolic processes. Therefore such variability is permitted and can be related to differences in weight lost. The existence of variable efficiency and metabolic advantage is therefore an empiric question rather than a theoretical one, confirmed by many experimental isocaloric studies, pending a properly performed meta-analysis. Mechanisms are as yet unknown, but plausible mechanisms at the metabolic level are proposed. CONCLUSIONS: Variable thermodynamic efficiency due to dietary manipulation is permitted by physical laws, is supported by much experimental data, and may be reasonably explained by plausible mechanisms.
Obesity is an established risk factor for numerous chronic diseases, and successful treatment will have an important impact on medical resources utilization, health care costs, and patient quality of life. With over 60% of our population being overweight, physicians face a major challenge in assisting patients in the process of weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. Low-calorie diets can lower total body weight by an average of 8% in the short term. These diets are well-tolerated and characterize successful strategies in maintaining significant weight loss over a 5-year period. Very-low-calorie diets produce a more rapid weight loss but should only be used for fewer than 16 weeks because of clinical adverse effects. Diets that are severely restricted in carbohydrates (3%–10% of total energy intake) and do not emphasize a reduction of energy intake may be effective in reducing weight in the short term, but there is no evidence that they are sustainable or innocuous in the long term because their high saturated-fat content may be atherogenic. Fat restriction in a weight-loss regimen is beneficial, but the optimal percentage has yet to be determined. Longitudinal trials are needed to resolve these issues. In this article I discuss the evidence for and pitfalls of various types of weight-loss diets and identify issues that physicians need to address in weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. PMID:16389240
Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in investigations of dietary factors, genetic factors, and their interactive effects on obesity and weight loss. Recent findings Even with a tremendous body of research conducted, controversy still abounds regarding the relative effectiveness of various weight-loss diets. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have made great strides in unraveling the genetic basis of regulation of body weight. In prospective cohorts, reproducible evidence is emerging to show interactions between genetic factors and dietary factors such as sugar-sweetened beverage on obesity. In randomized clinical trials, individuals’ genotypes have also been found to modify diet interventions on weight loss, weight maintenance, and changes in related metabolic traits such as lipids, insulin resistance, and blood pressure. However, replication, functional exploration, and translation of the findings into personalized diet interventions remain the chief challenges. Summary Preliminary but promising data have emerged to lend support to gene–diet interaction in determining weight loss and maintenance; and studies in the area hold great promise to inform future personalized diet interventions on the reduction of obesity and related health problems. PMID:24345984
In light of the widespread phenomena of diet failure and excessive dieting, this paper presents a theoretical economic analysis of the decision-making process of weight-loss dieting. The paper incorporates behavioral elements involved in the process of dieting: effort exerted in dieting, influence of social norms concerning body weight, time-inconsistent present biased preferences, and a distinction between naiveté and sophistication. The model explains cyclic dieting and provides interesting insights on the extent of weight-loss dieting. The extent of dieting is an increasing function of initial body weight and a decreasing function of the effort exerted in dieting and the strength of social norms concerning ideal weight. Income and diet strictness have an ambiguous effect. In addition, greater dieting efforts are not necessarily balanced against a slowdown in body metabolism or a higher initial body weight.
Marsh, Kate; Zeuschner, Carol; Saunders, Angela; Reid, Michelle
A vegetarian is a person who consumes a diet consisting mostly of plant based foods including fruit, vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds and grains. Some vegetarians also consume eggs and dairy foods. Individuals choose to follow a vegetarian diet for a range of reasons, including animal rights and religion, but two common reasons are the health and environmental benefits of plant based eating.
Most weight loss among wrestlers is accomplished by a combination of fasting, induced sweating, and reduced fluid intake resulting in dehydration in the final days prior to competition. The effects of acute thermal dehydration on cardiovascular dynamics are related to a reduction in plasma volume. (JN)
... 0.5 to 2 pounds (0.2 to 0.9 kilograms) a week is the typical recommendation. In some situations, faster weight loss can be safe if it's done the right way — such as a very low calorie diet with medical supervision, or a brief quick- ...
LEANDRO-MERHI, Vania Aparecida; SREBERNICH, Silvana Mariana; GONÇALVES, Gisele Mara Silva; de AQUINO, José Luiz Braga
Background Weight loss and malnutrition may be caused by many factors, including type of disease and treatment. Aim The present study investigated the occurrence of in-hospital weight loss and related factors. Method This cross-sectional study investigated the following variables of 456 hospitalized patients: gender, age, disease, weight variation during hospital stay, and type and acceptance of the prescribed diet. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparing patients' weight in the first three days in hospital stay and determining which factors affect weight. The generalized estimating equation was used for comparing the food acceptance rates. The significance level was set at 5%. Results The most prescribed diet was the regular (28.8%) and 45.5% of the patients lost weight during their stay. Acceptance of hospital food increased from the first to the third days of stay (p=0.0022) but weight loss was still significant (p<0.0001). Age and type of prescribed diet did not affect weight loss during the study period but type of disease and gender did. Patients with neoplasms (p=0.0052) and males (p=0.0002) lost more weight. Conclusion Weight loss during hospital stay was associated only with gender and type of disease. PMID:25861060
Reid, Michelle A; Marsh, Kate A; Zeuschner, Carol L; Saunders, Angela V; Baines, Surinder K
Surveys over the past 10 years have shown that Australians are increasingly consuming more plant-based vegetarian meals. Many studies demonstrate the health benefits of vegetarian diets. As with any type of eating plan, vegetarian diets must be well planned to ensure nutritional needs are being met. This clinical focus project shows that well planned vegetarian diets can meet almost all the nutritional needs of children and adults of all ages. Sample single-day lacto-ovo-vegetarian meal plans were developed to comply with the nutrient reference values - including the increased requirements for iron and zinc at 180% and 150%, respectively, for vegetarians - for both sexes and all age groups set by Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council and the New Zealand Ministry of Health. With the exception of vitamin D, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and extended iron requirements in pregnancy for vegetarians, the meal plans meet key requirements with respect to energy; protein; carbohydrate; total fat; saturated, poly- and monounsaturated fats; α-linolenic acid; fibre; iron; zinc; calcium; folate; and vitamins A, C, E and B₁₂.
Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J
Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models), but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie"). Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1) dietary carbohydrate, via its effect on hormone levels
Moore, Wendy J; McGrievy, Michael E; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M
The goal of the present study was to examine dietary adherence and acceptability among participants from the New DIETs study who were randomized to one of four plant-based diets (vegan, vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) or an omnivore diet. Primary outcomes at two- and six months included dietary adherence (24-hour dietary recalls), weight loss and changes in animal product intake (mg cholesterol) by adherence status, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Power of Food Scale (PFS), dietary acceptability (Food Acceptability Questionnaire), and impact of diet preference on adherence. No differences were found in dietary adherence or changes in FAQ, TFEQ, or PFS among the groups. At six months, non-adherent vegan and vegetarian participants (n=16) had a significantly greater decrease in cholesterol intake (-190.2 ± 199.2 mg) than non-adherent pesco-vegetarian/semi-vegetarian (n=15, -2.3 ± 200.3 mg, P=0.02) or omnivore participants (n=7, 17.0 ± 36.0, P=0.04). Non-adherent vegan/vegetarian participants lost significantly more weight at six months (-6.0 ± 6.7%) than non-adherent omnivore participants (-0.4 ± 0.6%, P=0.04). Dietary preference had no impact on adherence at six months. Due to equal rates of adherence and acceptability among the diet groups, instructing participants to follow vegan or vegetarian diets may have a greater impact on weight loss and animal product intake than providing instruction in more moderate approaches even among non-adherent participants.
Zemel, Michael B.; Teegarden, Dorothy; Loan, Marta Van; Schoeller, Dale A.; Matkovic, Velimir; Lyle, Roseann M.; Craig, Bruce A.
A 12-week randomized controlled multi-center clinical trial was conducted in 106 overweight and obese adults. Diets were designed to produce a 2,093 kJ/day energy deficit with either low calcium (LC; ~600 mg/day), high calcium (HC; ~1,400 mg/day), or high dairy (HD; three dairy servings, diet totaling ~1,400 mg/day). Ninety-three subjects completed the trial, and 68 met all a priori weekly compliance criteria. Both HC and HD contained comparable levels of calcium, but HC was only ~30% as effective as HD in suppressing 1,25-(OH)2D and exerted no significant effects on weight loss or body composition compared to LC. In the group that met compliance criteria, HD resulted in ~two-fold augmentation of fat loss compared to LC and HC (HD: -4.43 ± 0.53 kg; LC: -2.69 ± 0.0.53 kg; HC: -2.23 ± 0.73kg, p < 0.025); assessment of all completers and an intent-to-treat analysis produced similar trends. HD augmentated central (trunk) fat loss (HD: -2.38 ± 0.30 kg; HC: -1.42 ± 0.30 kg; LC: -1.36 ± 0.42 kg, p < 0.05) and waist circumference (HD: -7.65 ± 0.75 cm; LC: -4.92 ± 0.74 cm; LC: -4.95 ± 1.05 cm, p < 0.025). Similar effects were noted among all subjects completing the study and in an intent-to-treat analysis. These data indicate that dairy-rich diets augment weight loss by targeting the fat compartment during energy restriction. PMID:22253969
With the increasing obesity epidemic comes the search for effective dietary approaches for calorie restriction and weight loss. Here I examine whether fasting is the latest 'fad diet' as portrayed in popular media and discuss whether it is a safe and effective approach or whether it is an idiosyncratic diet trend that promotes short-term weight loss, with no concern for long-term weight maintenance. Fasting has long been used under historical and experimental conditions and has recently been popularised by 'intermittent fasting' or 'modified fasting' regimes, in which a very low-calorie allowance is allowed, on alternate days (ADF) or 2 days a week (5:2 diet), where 'normal' eating is resumed on non-diet days. It is a simple concept, which makes it easy to follow with no difficult calorie counting every other day. This approach does seem to promote weight loss, but is linked to hunger, which can be a limiting factor for maintaining food restriction. The potential health benefits of fasting can be related to both the acute food restriction and chronic influence of weight loss; the long-term effect of chronic food restriction in humans is not yet clear, but may be a potentially interesting future dietary strategy for longevity, particularly given the overweight epidemic. One approach does not fit all in the quest to achieve body weight control, but this could be a dietary strategy for consideration. With the obesity epidemic comes the search for dietary strategies to (i) prevent weight gain, (ii) promote weight loss and (iii) prevent weight regain. With over half of the population of the United Kingdom and other developed countries being collectively overweight or obese, there is considerable pressure to achieve these goals, from both a public health and a clinical perspective. Certainly not one dietary approach will solve these complex problems. Although there is some long-term success with gastric surgical options for morbid obesity, there is still a requirement
Gabel, Kathe A.; Lund, Robin J.
Addresses three claims of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets: weight loss is attributed to the composition of the diet; insulin promotes the storage of fat, thereby, by limiting carbohydrates, dieters will decrease levels of insulin and body fat; and weight loss is the result of fat loss. The paper examines relevant scientific reports and notes…
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... and recommend modest portions, according to Dr. David Katz. He is president of the American College of ... that you are actually able to stick to," Katz noted. The MIND diet, which incorporates elements of ...
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend 3 daily servings of lowfat or nonfat dairy products, however, two-thirds of Americans do not meet that goal. Including lowfat or nonfat yogurt as part of an overall healthful diet can be a positive step towards meeting the DGA. Yogurt contains cal...
Knäuper, Bärbel; Cheema, Surkhraj; Rabiau, Marjorie; Borten, Odelia
The low achievement rates among dieters could be partially due to ineffective dieting strategies, or an inability to adhere to them in the long term. The present research examines the effectiveness of self-set dieting rules for achieving dieting goals. Specifically, it investigates how the types of dieting rules and the extent to which dieters adhere to them predict dieting success. A prospective study with reassessment after two months was conducted and analyzed in 2003. Participants were 132 currently dieting females recruited on a university campus. They completed measures assessing self-set dieting rules, dieting goal, and height and weight at Time 1 and Time 2. Data were analyzed using chi(2) tests and multiple linear regression. Overall, adherence to self-set dieting rules was markedly low. Reduction of caloric intake and increase of exercise predicted weight loss success. Sustained adherence to the dieting rules 'reducing calories' and 'increasing exercise' was found to be effective for achieving self-set dieting goals. The findings suggest that encouraging long-term adherence to effective rules could help increase the number of successful self-controlled dieting efforts.
Tang, Minghua; O'Connor, Lauren E; Campbell, Wayne W
High-protein (>30% of energy from protein or >1.2 g/kg/day) and moderately high-protein (22% to 29% of energy from protein or 1.0 to 1.2 g/kg/day) diets are popular for weight loss, but the effect of dietary protein on bone during weight loss is not well understood. Protein may help preserve bone mass during weight loss by stimulating insulin-like growth factor 1, a potent bone anabolism stimulator, and increasing intestinal calcium absorption. Protein-induced acidity is considered to have minimal effect on bone resorption in adults with normal kidney function. Both the quantity and predominant source of protein influence changes in bone with diet-induced weight loss. Higher-protein, high-dairy diets may help attenuate bone loss during weight loss.
D'Anci, Kristen E; Watts, Kara L; Kanarek, Robin B; Taylor, Holly A
To examine how a low-carbohydrate diet affects cognitive performance, women participated in one of two weight-loss diet regimens. Participants self-selected a low-carbohydrate (n=9) or a reduced-calorie balanced diet similar to that recommended by the American Dietetic Association (ADA diet) (n=10). Seventy-two hours before beginning their diets and then 48 h, 1, 2, and 3 weeks after starting, participants completed a battery of cognitive tasks assessing visuospatial memory, vigilance attention, memory span, a food-related paired-associates a food Stroop, and the Profile of Moods Scale (POMS) to assess subjective mood. Results showed that during complete withdrawal of dietary carbohydrate, low-carbohydrate dieters performed worse on memory-based tasks than ADA dieters. These impairments were ameliorated after reintroduction of carbohydrates. Low-carbohydrate dieters reported less confusion (POMS) and responded faster during an attention vigilance task (CPT) than ADA dieters. Hunger ratings did not differ between the two diet conditions. The present data show memory impairments during low-carbohydrate diets at a point when available glycogen stores would be at their lowest. A commonly held explanation based on preoccupation with food would not account for these findings. The results also suggest better vigilance attention and reduced self-reported confusion while on the low-carbohydrate diet, although not tied to a specific time point during the diet. Taken together the results suggest that weight-loss diet regimens differentially impact cognitive behavior.
Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles
Background Ketogenic diets are an effective healthy way of losing weight since they promote a non-atherogenic lipid profile, lower blood pressure and decrease resistance to insulin with an improvement in blood levels of glucose and insulin. On the other hand, Mediterranean diet is well known to be one of the healthiest diets, being the basic ingredients of such diet the olive oil, red wine and vegetables. In Spain the fish is an important component of such diet. The objective of this study was to determine the dietary effects of a protein ketogenic diet rich in olive oil, salad, fish and red wine. Methods A prospective study was carried out in 31 obese subjects (22 male and 19 female) with the inclusion criteria whose body mass index and age was 36.46 ± 2.22 and 38.48 ± 2.27, respectively. This Ketogenic diet was called "Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet" (SKMD) due to the incorporation of virgin olive oil as the principal source of fat (≥30 ml/day), moderate red wine intake (200–400 ml/day), green vegetables and salads as the main source of carbohydrates and fish as the main source of proteins. It was an unlimited calorie diet. Statistical differences between the parameters studied before and after the administration of the "Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean diet" (week 0 and 12) were analyzed by paired Student's t test. Results There was an extremely significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in body weight (108.62 kg→ 94.48 kg), body mass index (36.46 kg/m2→31.76 kg/m2), systolic blood pressure (125.71 mmHg→109.05 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (84.52 mmHg→ 75.24 mmHg), total cholesterol (208.24 mg/dl→186.62 mg/dl), triacylglicerols (218.67 mg/dl→113.90 mg/dl) and glucose (109.81 mg/dl→ 93.33 mg/dl). There was a significant (p = 0.0167) reduction in LDLc (114.52 mg/dl→105.95 mg/dl) and an extremely significant increase in HDLc (50.10 mg/dl→54.57 mg/dl). The most affected parameter was the triacylglicerols (47.91% of reduction). Conclusion The
Paoli, Antonio; Bianco, Antonino; Grimaldi, Keith A; Lodi, Alessandra; Bosco, Gerardo
Weight loss protocols can only be considered successful if they deliver consistent results over the long term-a goal which is often elusive, so much so that the term "yo-yo" is used to describe the perennial weight loss/weight regain battle common in obesity. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts (KEMEPHY) combined with the acknowledged health benefits of traditional Mediterranean nutrition may favor long term weight loss. We analysed 89 male and female obese subjects, aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from being overweight. The subjects followed a staged diet protocol over a period of 12 months: 20 day of KEMEPHY; 20 days low carb-non ketogenic; 4 months Mediterranean normocaloric nutrition; a second 20 day ketogenic phase followed by 6 months of Mediterranean normocaloric nutrition. For the majority of subjects (88.25%) there was significant loss of weight (from 100.7 ± 16.54 to 84.59 ± 9.71 kg; BMI from 35.42 ± 4.11 to 30.27 ± 3.58) and body fat (form 43.44% ± 6.34% to 33.63% ± 7.6%) during both ketogenic phases followed by successful maintenance, without weight regain, during the 6 month stabilization phase with only 8 subjects failing to comply. There were also significant and stable decreases in total cholesterol, LDLc, triglycerides and glucose levels over the 12 month study period. HDLc showed small increases after the ketogenic phases but over the full 12 months there was no significant change. No significant changes were observed in ALT, AST, Creatinine or BUN. The combination of a biphasic KEMEPHY diet separated by longer periods of maintenance nutrition, based on the traditional Mediterranean diet, led to successful long term weight loss and improvements in health risk factors in a majority of subjects; compliance was very high which was a key determinant of the results seen.
We studied the effects of weight loss induced by either a low-fat normal diet or restriction of high-fat diet on hepatic steatosis, inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue, and blood monocytes of obese mice. In mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity, weight loss was achieved by switching from ...
Bray, George A.; Smith, Steven R.; DeJonge, Lilian; de Souza, Russell; Rood, Jennifer; Champagne, Catherine M.; Laranjo, Nancy; Carey, Vincent; Obarzanek, Eva; Loria, Catherine M.; Anton, Stephen D.; Ryan, Donna H.; Greenway, Frank L.; Williamson, Donald; Sacks, Frank M.
Background Weight loss reduces energy expenditure, but the contribution of different macronutrients to this change is unclear. Hypothesis We tested the hypothesis that macronutrient composition of the diet might affect the partitioning of energy expenditure during weight loss. Design A sub-study of 99 participants from the POUNDS LOST trial had total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by doubly labeled water and resting energy expenditure (REE) measured by indirect calorimetry at baseline and repeated at 6 months in 89 participants. Participants were randomly assigned to one of 4 diets with either 15% or 25% protein and 20% or 40% fat. Results TEE and REE were positively correlated with each other and with fat free mass and body fat, at baseline and 6 months. The average weight loss of 8.1±0.65 kg (LSmean±SE) reduced TEE by 120±56 kcal/d and REE by 136±18 kcal/d. A greater weight loss at 6 months was associated with a greater decrease in TEE and REE. Participants eating the high fat diet lost significantly more fat free mass (1.52±0.55 kg) than the low fat diet group (p<0.05). Participants eating the low fat diet had significantly higher measures of physical activity than the high fat group. Conclusion A greater weight loss was associated with a larger decrease in both TEE and REE. The low fat diet was associated with significant changes in fat free body mass and energy expenditure from physical activity compared to the high fat diet. PMID:21946707
Gaesser, Glenn A; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Sawyer, Brandon J
Diet and/or exercise are routinely advised as methods for weight loss in overweight/obese individuals, particularly those who are at high risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, physical activity and structured exercise programs rarely result in significant loss of body weight or body fat, and weight-loss diets have extraordinarily high recidivism rates. Despite only modest effects on body weight, exercise and ad libitum nutrient-dense diets for overweight/obese individuals have many health benefits, including skeletal muscle adaptations that improve fat and glucose metabolism, and insulin action; enhance endothelial function; have favorable changes in blood lipids, lipoproteins, and hemostatic factors; and reduce blood pressure, postprandial lipemia and glycemia, and proinflammatory markers. These lifestyle-induced adaptations occur independently of changes in body weight or body fat. Thus, overweight/obese men and women who are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes as a result of sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, and excess body weight should be encouraged to engage in regular physical activity and improve their diet, regardless of whether the healthier lifestyle leads to weight loss.
Chiba, Mitsuro; Tsuda, Satoko; Komatsu, Masafumi; Tozawa, Haruhiko; Takayama, Yuko
Overweight and obesity are global health concerns. Various effective weight-loss diets have been developed, including the Atkins diet. The Atkins diet is known as an extreme low-carbohydrate diet. This diet reduces body weight and has gained widespread popularity. However, the metabolite profiles of such a diet have been shown to be detrimental to colonic health. Therefore, a concern for the long-term health effects of this diet exists. We encountered a case in which ulcerative colitis developed while the patient was following the Atkins diet. A man, 172 cm in height and weighing 72 kg, at age 36 years followed a low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet. His weight decreased to 66 kg as desired. Thereafter he noticed bloody stool. Colonoscopy revealed diffuse inflammation limited to the rectum, and he was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. He underwent an educational hospitalization for ulcerative colitis. A plant-based/semivegetarian diet was provided during hospitalization. Bloody stool disappeared during hospitalization and he achieved remission without medication for inflammatory bowel disease. This case indicates that an onset of ulcerative colitis can be an adverse event to a low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet. PMID:26824967
Chiba, Mitsuro; Tsuda, Satoko; Komatsu, Masafumi; Tozawa, Haruhiko; Takayama, Yuko
Overweight and obesity are global health concerns. Various effective weight-loss diets have been developed, including the Atkins diet. The Atkins diet is known as an extreme low-carbohydrate diet. This diet reduces body weight and has gained widespread popularity. However, the metabolite profiles of such a diet have been shown to be detrimental to colonic health. Therefore, a concern for the long-term health effects of this diet exists. We encountered a case in which ulcerative colitis developed while the patient was following the Atkins diet.A man, 172 cm in height and weighing 72 kg, at age 36 years followed a low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet. His weight decreased to 66 kg as desired. Thereafter he noticed bloody stool. Colonoscopy revealed diffuse inflammation limited to the rectum, and he was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. He underwent an educational hospitalization for ulcerative colitis. A plant-based/semivegetarian diet was provided during hospitalization. Bloody stool disappeared during hospitalization and he achieved remission without medication for inflammatory bowel disease.This case indicates that an onset of ulcerative colitis can be an adverse event to a low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet.
Paoli, Antonio; Bianco, Antonino; Grimaldi, Keith A; Lodi, Alessandra; Bosco, Gerardo
Weight loss protocols can only be considered successful if they deliver consistent results over the long term—a goal which is often elusive, so much so that the term “yo-yo” is used to describe the perennial weight loss/weight regain battle common in obesity. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts (KEMEPHY) combined with the acknowledged health benefits of traditional Mediterranean nutrition may favor long term weight loss. We analysed 89 male and female obese subjects, aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from being overweight. The subjects followed a staged diet protocol over a period of 12 months: 20 day of KEMEPHY; 20 days low carb-non ketogenic; 4 months Mediterranean normocaloric nutrition; a second 20 day ketogenic phase followed by 6 months of Mediterranean normocaloric nutrition. For the majority of subjects (88.25%) there was significant loss of weight (from 100.7 ± 16.54 to 84.59 ± 9.71 kg; BMI from 35.42 ± 4.11 to 30.27 ± 3.58) and body fat (form 43.44% ± 6.34% to 33.63% ± 7.6%) during both ketogenic phases followed by successful maintenance, without weight regain, during the 6 month stabilization phase with only 8 subjects failing to comply. There were also significant and stable decreases in total cholesterol, LDLc, triglycerides and glucose levels over the 12 month study period. HDLc showed small increases after the ketogenic phases but over the full 12 months there was no significant change. No significant changes were observed in ALT, AST, Creatinine or BUN. The combination of a biphasic KEMEPHY diet separated by longer periods of maintenance nutrition, based on the traditional Mediterranean diet, led to successful long term weight loss and improvements in health risk factors in a majority of subjects; compliance was very high which was a key determinant of the results seen. PMID:24352095
Wu, T; Gao, X; Chen, M; van Dam, R M
Diet and exercise are two of the commonest strategies to reduce weight. Whether a diet-plus-exercise intervention is more effective for weight loss than a diet-only intervention in the long-term has not been conclusively established. The objective of this study was to systemically review the effect of diet-plus-exercise interventions vs. diet-only interventions on both long-term and short-term weight loss. Studies were retrieved by searching MEDLINE and Cochrane Library (1966 - June 2008). Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials comparing the effect of diet-plus-exercise interventions vs. diet-only interventions on weight loss for a minimum of 6 months among obese or overweight adults. Eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria. Data were independently extracted by two investigators using a standardized protocol. We found that the overall standardized mean differences between diet-plus-exercise interventions and diet-only interventions at the end of follow-up were -0.25 (95% confidence interval [CI]-0.36 to -0.14), with a P-value for heterogeneity of 0.4. Because there were two outcome measurements, weight (kg) and body mass index (kg m(-2)), we also stratified the results by weight and body mass index outcome. The pooled weight loss was 1.14 kg (95% CI 0.21 to 2.07) or 0.50 kg m(-2) (95% CI 0.21 to 0.79) greater for the diet-plus-exercise group than the diet-only group. We did not detect significant heterogeneity in either stratum. Even in studies lasting 2 years or longer, diet-plus-exercise interventions provided significantly greater weight loss than diet-only interventions. In summary, a combined diet-plus-exercise programme provided greater long-term weight loss than a diet-only programme. However, both diet-only and diet-plus-exercise programmes are associated with partial weight regain, and future studies should explore better strategies to limit weight regain and achieve greater long-term weight loss.
Romero, Aida A.; Funes, Abi K.; Cid-Barria, Macarena; Cabrillana, María E.; Monclus, María A.; Simón, Layla; Vicenti, Amanda E.; Fornés, Miguel W.
Fat increment (0.05% cholesterol, chol) in standard diet promoted a significant increase in serum and sperm membrane chol, which ultimately altered membrane-coupled sperm specific functions: osmotic resistance, acrosomal reaction, and sperm capacitation in White New Zealand rabbits. These changes were also associated with a reduction in motility percentage and appearance of abnormal sperm morphology. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary olive oil (OO, 7% v/w) administration to several male hypercholesterolemic rabbits (hypercholesterolemic rabbits, HCR) with altered fertility parameters. These HCR males were achieved by feeding normal rabbits with a high-fat diet (0.05% chol). HCR were associated with a modest non-significant increase in body weight (standard diet, 4.08±0.17 Kg, versus high-fat diet, 4.37±0.24 Kg). Hypercholesterolemic rabbits presented a marked decrease in semen volume, sperm cell count, and percentage of sperm motility, associated with a significant increase in sperm cell abnormalities. Moreover, sperm capacitation measured by the characteristic phosphorylated protein pattern in and induced acrosomal reaction were also altered suggesting sperm dysfunction. However, the administration of OO (for 16 weeks) to rabbits that were fed with 50% of the high-fat diet normalized serum chol. Curiously, OO supply succeeded to attenuate the seminal and sperm alterations observed in HCR group. Administration of OO alone did not cause any significant changes in above mentioned parameters. These data suggest that OO administration to HCR male rabbits recovers the loss of semen quality and sperm functionality. PMID:23326331
Sofer, Sigal; Eliraz, Abraham; Kaplan, Sara; Voet, Hillary; Fink, Gershon; Kima, Tzadok; Madar, Zecharia
This study was designed to investigate the effect of a low-calorie diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner on anthropometric, hunger/satiety, biochemical, and inflammatory parameters. Hormonal secretions were also evaluated. Seventy-eight police officers (BMI >30) were randomly assigned to experimental (carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner) or control weight loss diets for 6 months. On day 0, 7, 90, and 180 blood samples and hunger scores were collected every 4 h from 0800 to 2000 hours. Anthropometric measurements were collected throughout the study. Greater weight loss, abdominal circumference, and body fat mass reductions were observed in the experimental diet in comparison to controls. Hunger scores were lower and greater improvements in fasting glucose, average daily insulin concentrations, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)), T-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were observed in comparison to controls. The experimental diet modified daily leptin and adiponectin concentrations compared to those observed at baseline and to a control diet. A simple dietary manipulation of carbohydrate distribution appears to have additional benefits when compared to a conventional weight loss diet in individuals suffering from obesity. It might also be beneficial for individuals suffering from insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Further research is required to confirm and clarify the mechanisms by which this relatively simple diet approach enhances satiety, leads to better anthropometric outcomes, and achieves improved metabolic response, compared to a more conventional dietary approach.
Gormally, Jim; Rardin, David
Compared behavioral counseling with nutrition education. Initial weight losses were similar. Behavioral participants consumed fewer calories but often used diets that were nutritionally unsound. Behavioral treatment appears best for moderate obesity, but procedures are needed for nutrition education, promoting fitness, and teaching independent…
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with and without weight loss (WL) on apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome. The diet of 19 men with metabolic syndrome (age, 24–62 years) was first standardized to a North America...
Seimon, Radhika V; Roekenes, Jessica A; Zibellini, Jessica; Zhu, Benjamin; Gibson, Alice A; Hills, Andrew P; Wood, Rachel E; King, Neil A; Byrne, Nuala M; Sainsbury, Amanda
Energy restriction induces physiological effects that hinder further weight loss. Thus, deliberate periods of energy balance during weight loss interventions may attenuate these adaptive responses to energy restriction and thereby increase the efficiency of weight loss (i.e. the amount of weight or fat lost per unit of energy deficit). To address this possibility, we systematically searched MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, PubMed and Cinahl and reviewed adaptive responses to energy restriction in 40 publications involving humans of any age or body mass index that had undergone a diet involving intermittent energy restriction, 12 with direct comparison to continuous energy restriction. Included publications needed to measure one or more of body weight, body mass index, or body composition before and at the end of energy restriction. 31 of the 40 publications involved 'intermittent fasting' of 1-7-day periods of severe energy restriction. While intermittent fasting appears to produce similar effects to continuous energy restriction to reduce body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass and improve glucose homeostasis, and may reduce appetite, it does not appear to attenuate other adaptive responses to energy restriction or improve weight loss efficiency, albeit most of the reviewed publications were not powered to assess these outcomes. Intermittent fasting thus represents a valid--albeit apparently not superior--option to continuous energy restriction for weight loss.
Seip, Richard L; Volek, Jeff S; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Kraemer, William J; Ruaño, Gualberto
Background Genetic factors that predict responses to diet may ultimately be used to individualize dietary recommendations. We used physiogenomics to explore associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and changes in relative body fat (Δ%BF) to low fat and low carbohydrate diets. Methods We assessed Δ%BF using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 93 healthy adults who consumed a low carbohydrate diet (carbohydrate ~12% total energy) (LC diet) and in 70, a low fat diet (fat ~25% total energy) (LF diet). Fifty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from 28 candidate genes involved in food intake, energy homeostasis, and adipocyte regulation were ranked according to probability of association with the change in %BF using multiple linear regression. Results Dieting reduced %BF by 3.0 ± 2.6% (absolute units) for LC and 1.9 ± 1.6% for LF (p < 0.01). SNPs in nine genes were significantly associated with Δ%BF, with four significant after correction for multiple statistical testing: rs322695 near the retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB) (p < 0.005), rs2838549 in the hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFKL), and rs3100722 in the histamine N-methyl transferase (HNMT) genes (both p < 0.041) due to LF; and the rs5950584 SNP in the angiotensin receptor Type II (AGTR2) gene due to LC (p < 0.021). Conclusion Fat loss under LC and LF diet regimes appears to have distinct mechanisms, with PFKL and HNMT and RARB involved in fat restriction; and AGTR2 involved in carbohydrate restriction. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic mechanisms underlying the Δ%BF to low carbohydrate and low fat diets. PMID:18254975
Le Prell, C. G.; Gagnon, P. M; Bennett, D. C.; Ohlemiller, K. K.
Oxidative stress has been broadly implicated as a cause of cell death and neural degeneration in multiple disease conditions; however, the evidence for successful intervention with dietary antioxidant manipulations has been mixed. In this study, we investigated the potential for protection of cells in the inner ear using a dietary supplement with multiple antioxidant components, selected for their potential interactive effectiveness. Protection against permanent threshold shift (PTS) was observed in CBA/J mice maintained on a diet supplemented with a combination of β-carotene, vitamins C and E, and magnesium when compared to PTS in control mice maintained on a nutritionally complete control diet. Although hair cell survival was not enhanced, noise-induced loss of Type II fibrocytes in the lateral wall was significantly reduced (p<0.05), and there was a trend towards less noise-induced loss in strial cell density in animals maintained on the supplemented diet. Taken together, our data suggest that pre-noise oral treatment with the high-nutrient diet can protect cells in the inner ear and reduce PTS in mice. Demonstration of functional and morphological preservation of cells in the inner ear with oral administration of this antioxidant supplemented diet supports the possibility of translation to human patients, and suggests an opportunity to evaluate antioxidant protection in mouse models of oxidative stress-related disease and pathology. PMID:21708355
Tisdale, M. J.; Brennan, R. A.; Fearon, K. C.
An attempt has been made to reverse cachexia and to selectively deprive the tumour of metabolic substrates for energy production by feeding a ketogenic regime, since ketone bodies are considered important in maintaining homeostasis during starvation. As a model we have used a transplantable mouse adenocarcinoma of the colon (MAC 16) which produces extensive weight loss without a reduction in food intake. When mice bearing the MAC16 tumour were fed on diets in which up to 80% of the energy was supplied as medium chain triglycerides (MCT) with or without arginine 3-hydroxybutyrate host weight loss was reduced in proportion to the fat content of the diet, and there was also a reduction in the percentage contribution of the tumour to the final body weight. The increase in carcass weight in tumour-bearing mice fed high levels of MCT was attributable to an increase in both the fat and the non-fat carcass mass. Blood levels of free fatty acids (FFA) were significantly reduced by MCT addition. The levels of both acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate were elevated in mice fed the high fat diets, and tumour-bearing mice fed the normal diet did not show increased plasma levels of ketone bodies over the non-tumour-bearing group despite the loss of carcass lipids. Both blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were reduced in mice bearing the MAC16 tumour and this was not significantly altered by feeding the high fat diets. The elevation in ketone bodies may account for the retention of both the fat and the non-fat carcass mass. This is the first example of an attempt to reverse cachexia by a diet based on metabolic differences between tumour and host tissues, which aims to selectively feed the host at the expense of the tumour. PMID:3620317
Gomes, Silvio Pires; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Misawa, Rúbia; Girotti, Priscila Azevedo; Castelucci, Patrìcia; Blazquez, Francisco Hernandez Javier; de Melo, Mariana Pereira; Ribeiro, Antonio Augusto Coppi
Protein deficiency is one of the biggest public health problems in the world, accounting for about 30-40% of hospital admissions in developing countries. Nutritional deficiencies lead to alterations in the peripheral nervous system and in the digestive system. Most studies have focused on the effects of protein-deficient diets on the enteric neurons, but not on sympathetic ganglia, which supply extrinsic sympathetic input to the digestive system. Hence, in this study, we investigated whether a protein-restricted diet would affect the quantitative structure of rat coeliac ganglion neurons. Five male Wistar rats (undernourished group) were given a pre- and postnatal hypoproteinic diet receiving 5% casein, whereas the nourished group (n = 5) was fed with 20% casein (normoproteinic diet). Blood tests were carried out on the animals, e.g., glucose, leptin, and triglyceride plasma concentrations. The main structural findings in this study were that a protein-deficient diet (5% casein) caused coeliac ganglion (78%) and coeliac ganglion neurons (24%) to atrophy and led to neuron loss (63%). Therefore, the fall in the total number of coeliac ganglion neurons in protein-restricted rats contrasts strongly with no neuron losses previously described for the enteric neurons of animals subjected to similar protein-restriction diets. Discrepancies between our figures and the data for enteric neurons (using very similar protein-restriction protocols) may be attributable to the counting method used. In light of this, further systematic investigations comparing 2-D and 3-D quantitative methods are warranted to provide even more advanced data on the effects that a protein-deficient diet may exert on sympathetic neurons. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
It is also necessary to emphasize that as well as the weight loss, ketogenic diets are healthier because they promote a non-atherogenic lipid profile, lower blood pressure and diminish resistance to insulin with an improvement in blood levels of glucose and insulin. Such diets also have antineoplastic benefits, do not alter renal or liver functions, do not produce metabolic acidosis by Ketosis, have many neurological benefits in central nervous system, do not produce osteoporosis and could increase the perfomance in aerobic sports.
Tang, Liang; Gao, Xiaohang; Yang, Xiaoying; Liu, Chentao; Wang, Xudan; Han, Yanqi; Zhao, Xinjuan; Chi, Aiping; Sun, Lijun
Resistance exercise has been proved to be effective in improving bone quality in both animal and human studies. However, the issue about whether resistance exercise can inhibit obesity-induced bone loss has not been previously investigated. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of ladder-climbing training, one of the resistance exercises, on bone mechanical properties and microarchitecture in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese rats. Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to the Control, HF + sedentary (HF-S) and HF + ladder-climbing training (HF-LCT) groups. Rats in the HF-LCT group performed ladder-climbing training for 8 weeks. The results showed that ladder-climbing training significantly reduced body and fat weight, and increased muscle mass along with a trend toward enhanced muscle strength in diet-induced obese rats. MicroCT analysis demonstrated that obesity-induced bone loss and architecture deterioration were significantly mitigated by ladder-climbing training, as evidenced by increased trabecular bone mineral density, bone volume over total volume, trabecular number and thickness, and decreased trabecular separation and structure model index. However, neither HF diet nor ladder-climbing training had an impact on femoral biomechanical properties. Moreover, ladder-climbing training significantly increased serum adiponectin, decreased serum leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 levels, and downregulated myostatin (MSTN) expression in diet-induced obese rats. Taken together, ladder-climbing training prevents bone loss and microarchitecture deterioration in diet-induced obese rats through multiple mechanisms including increasing mechanical loading on bone due to improved skeletal muscle mass and strength, regulating the levels of myokines and adipokines, and suppressing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It indicates that resistance exercise may be a promising therapy for treating obesity-induced bone loss.
Frankham, Patrick; Gosselin, Caroline; Cabanac, Michel
Background The physiological and behavioral responses to hypocaloric diet are to increase energy intake to defend a steady body weight. We utilized the method of "negative alliesthesia" for measuring the hedonic reponse to sweet stimulus before (Initial session) and 3 months after entering a weight loss program. The negative alliesthesia test is known by physiologists but few clinical data exist. It is based on the observation that repeated pleasant gustatory stimuli turn into unpleasantness in the process of alliesthesia. At first visit participants repeatedly ingested sweet stimuli until they found them unpleasant and rated quantitatively on a linear analogue scale their hedonic experience. This procedure was repeated every 3 min until participants felt displeasure to end the session. The same protocol was followed after three months of following a weight loss diet. Dieting energy intake was from 1400 – 2000 kcal/d for 8 wk. Energy composition was 50% carb:25% prot: 25% lipid. After 8 wk caloric intake increased by 50 kcal/wk, to reach daily intake of 1800 – 2400 kcal/d. Energy composition was 50% carb:22% prot: 27% lipid. We report results on the effect of slow weight loss on negative alliesthesia in ten obese female participants enrolled in a commercial diet program based on Canada's Food Guide (Mincavi®). Results Results showed that diet lowered the mean BMI (Initial session 36.8 +/- 1.8 vs. 3 mo 34.9 +/- 1.8 kg/m2). At 3 mo the onset of negative alliesthesia, time to abandon experimental session, was shortened (Initial session 33 vs. 3 mo 24 min). The same trend was observed in the time to reach indifference (Initial session 21.9 +/- 3.8 vs. 3 mo 16.2 +/-2.4 min). There was no observed difference in maximum (Initial session +79.5 +/- 11.7; 3 mo +94.5 +/- 9.9 mm) and minimum (Initial session -90.0 +/- 14.4; 3 mo -106 +/- 11.1 mm) hedonic rating. Conclusion Earlier onset of negative alliesthesia, as seen in our participants, is not consistent with previous
Mulder, Monique T.; Verhoeven, Adrie J. M.; van Wietmarschen, Herman; Boessen, Ruud; Pellis, Linette P.; van t Spijker, Adriaan; Timman, Reinier; Ozcan, Behiye; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.
Aims A very low calorie diet improves the metabolic regulation of obesity related type 2 diabetes, but not for all patients, which leads to frustration in patients and professionals alike. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model of diet-induced weight loss in type 2 diabetes. Methods 192 patients with type 2 diabetes and BMI>27 kg/m2 from the outpatient diabetes clinic of the Erasmus Medical Center underwent an 8-week very low calorie diet. Baseline demographic, psychological and physiological parameters were measured and the C-index was calculated of the model with the largest explained variance of relative weight loss using backward linear regression analysis. The model was internally validated using bootstrapping techniques. Results Weight loss after the diet was 7.8±4.6 kg (95%CI 7.2–8.5; p<0.001) and was independently associated with the baseline variables fasting glucose (B = -0.33 (95%CI -0.49, -0.18), p = 0.001), anxiety (HADS; B = -0.22 (95%CI -0.34, -0.11), p = 0.001), numb feeling in extremities (B = 1.86 (95%CI 0.85, 2.87), p = 0.002), insulin dose (B = 0.01 (95%CI 0.00, 0.02), p = 0.014) and waist-to-hip ratio (B = 6.79 (95%CI 2.10, 11.78), p = 0.003). This model explained 25% of the variance in weight loss. The C-index of this model to predict successful (≥5%) weight loss was 0.74 (95%CI 0.67–0.82), with a sensitivity of 0.93 (95% CI 0.89–0.97) and specificity of 0.29 (95% CI 0.16–0.42). When only the obese T2D patients (BMI≥30 kg/m2; n = 181) were considered, age also contributed to the model (B = 0.06 (95%CI 0.02, 0.11), p = 0.008), whereas waist-to-hip ratio did not. Conclusions Diet-induced weight loss in overweight adults with T2D was predicted by five baseline parameters, which were predominantly diabetes related. However, failure seems difficult to predict. We propose to test this prediction model in future prospective diet intervention studies in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27494531
McVay, Megan A; Voils, Corrine I; Coffman, Cynthia J; Geiselman, Paula J; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Mayer, Stephanie B; Smith, Valerie A; Gaillard, Leslie; Turner, Marsha J; Yancy, William S
Individuals undertaking a weight loss effort have a choice among proven dietary approaches. Factors contributing to choice of either a low-fat/low-calorie diet or a low-carbohydrate diet, two of the most studied and popular dietary approaches, are unknown. The current study used data from participants randomized to the 'choice' arm of a trial examining whether being able to choose a diet regimen yields higher weight loss than being randomly assigned to a diet. At study entry, participants attended a group session during which they were provided tailored feedback indicating which diet was most consistent with their food preferences using the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), information about both diets, and example meals for each diet. One week later, they indicated which diet they chose to follow during the 48-week study, with the option of switching diets after 12 weeks. Of 105 choice arm participants, 44 (42%) chose the low-fat/low-calorie diet and 61 (58%) chose the low-carbohydrate diet. In bivariate analyses, diet choice was not associated with age, race, sex, education, BMI, or diabetes (all p > 0.05). Low-carbohydrate diet choice was associated with baseline higher percent fat intake (p = 0.007), lower percent carbohydrate intake (p = 0.02), and food preferences consistent with a low-carbohydrate diet according to FPQ (p < 0.0001). In a multivariable logistic regression model, only FPQ diet preference was associated with diet choice (p = 0.001). Reported reasons for diet choice were generally similar for those choosing either diet; however, concerns about negative health effects of the unselected diet was rated as more influential among participants selecting the low-fat diet. Only three low-carbohydrate and two low-fat diet participants switched diets at 12 weeks. Results suggest that when provided a choice between two popular weight loss dietary approaches, an individual's selection is likely influenced by baseline dietary
Varady, K A
Dietary restriction is an effective strategy for weight loss in obese individuals. The most common form of dietary restriction implemented is daily calorie restriction (CR), which involves reducing energy by 15-60% of usual caloric intake every day. Another form of dietary restriction employed is intermittent CR, which involves 24 h of ad libitum food consumption alternated with 24 h of complete or partial food restriction. Although both diets are effective for weight loss, it remains unknown whether one of these interventions produces superior changes in body weight and body composition when compared to the other. Accordingly, this review examines the effects of daily CR versus intermittent CR on weight loss, fat mass loss and lean mass retention in overweight and obese adults. Results reveal similar weight loss and fat mass loss with 3 to 12 weeks' intermittent CR (4-8%, 11-16%, respectively) and daily CR (5-8%, 10-20%, respectively). In contrast, less fat free mass was lost in response to intermittent CR versus daily CR. These findings suggest that these diets are equally as effective in decreasing body weight and fat mass, although intermittent CR may be more effective for the retention of lean mass.
Pettey, L A; Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D
Thirty-six barrows were used in a series of 3 P-balance experiments in which growing and finishing pigs were fed highly digestible, semi-purified diets at or below the dietary available P requirement to estimate the effect of BW on endogenous P loss. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 were conducted with pigs averaging 27, 59, and 98 kg of BW, respectively. In each experiment, pigs were placed in metabolism crates and allotted by weight and litter to 3 dietary treatments. The basal diet consisted of sucrose, dextrose, cornstarch, and casein fortified with minerals (except P) and vitamins. Diets 1, 2, and 3 in Exp. 1 were the basal diet with 0, 0.078, or 0.157% added P, respectively, from monosodium phosphate. In Exp. 2 and 3, diets 1, 2, and 3 were the basal diet with 0, 0.067, and 0.134% added P, respectively, from monosodium phosphate. Within replicate, pigs were fed equal amounts of feed twice daily. Pigs were adjusted to treatments for 7 d before a 6-d, marker-to-marker collection of feces and urine. Phosphorus intakes for pigs fed the 3 diets ranged from 1.73 to 3.91 g/d in Exp. 1, from 2.18 to 5.32 g/d in Exp. 2, and from 1.96 to 6.26 g/d in Exp. 3. Fecal P excretion and P absorption increased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing P intake. In the 3 experiments, urinary P excretion (g/d) was low for pigs fed diet 1 (0.010, 0.011, 0.019) and diet 2 (0.013, 0.058, 0.084) and was low for pigs fed diet 3 in Exp. 1 (0.037); however, urinary P was greater in pigs fed diet 3 in Exp. 2 and 3 (0.550 and 0.486, respectively). When P absorption (Y, g/d) was regressed on P intake (X, g/d) in Exp. 1, 2, and 3, the relationships were linear (P < 0.01): Y = -0.110 + 0.971X (R2 = 0.999), Y = -0.156 + 0.939X (R2 = 0.998), and Y = -0.226 + 0.8919X (R2 = 0.982), respectively. Thus, our estimates of endogenous P loss at zero P intake were 110, 156, and 226 mg/d for 27-, 59-, and 98-kg pigs, respectively. When these Y-intercepts were regressed on BW, the relationship was Y = 63.06 + 1.632X (R
Scheller, Erica L; Khoury, Basma; Moller, Kayla L; Wee, Natalie K Y; Khandaker, Shaima; Kozloff, Kenneth M; Abrishami, Simin H; Zamarron, Brian F; Singer, Kanakadurga
The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise over the past three decades leading to significant increases in obesity-related medical care costs from metabolic and non-metabolic sequelae. It is now clear that expansion of body fat leads to an increase in inflammation with systemic effects on metabolism. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity, there is also an expansion of bone marrow adipocytes. However, the persistence of these changes after weight loss has not been well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high-fat diet (HFD) and subsequent weight loss on skeletal parameters in C57Bl6/J mice. Male mice were given a normal chow diet (ND) or 60% HFD at 6 weeks of age for 12, 16, or 20 weeks. A third group of mice was put on HFD for 12 weeks and then on ND for 8 weeks to mimic weight loss. After these dietary challenges, the tibia and femur were removed and analyzed by micro computed-tomography for bone morphology. Decalcification followed by osmium staining was used to assess bone marrow adiposity, and mechanical testing was performed to assess bone strength. After 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, mice had significant weight gain relative to controls. Body mass returned to normal after weight loss. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) volume in the tibia increased after 16 weeks of HFD and persisted in the 20-week HFD group. Weight loss prevented HFD-induced MAT expansion. Trabecular bone volume fraction, mineral content, and number were decreased after 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, relative to ND controls, with only partial recovery after weight loss. Mechanical testing demonstrated decreased fracture resistance after 20 weeks of HFD. Loss of mechanical integrity did not recover after weight loss. Our study demonstrates that HFD causes long-term, persistent changes in bone quality, despite prevention of marrow adipose tissue accumulation, as demonstrated through changes in bone morphology and mechanical strength in a mouse
Scheller, Erica L.; Khoury, Basma; Moller, Kayla L.; Wee, Natalie K. Y.; Khandaker, Shaima; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Abrishami, Simin H.; Zamarron, Brian F.; Singer, Kanakadurga
The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise over the past three decades leading to significant increases in obesity-related medical care costs from metabolic and non-metabolic sequelae. It is now clear that expansion of body fat leads to an increase in inflammation with systemic effects on metabolism. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity, there is also an expansion of bone marrow adipocytes. However, the persistence of these changes after weight loss has not been well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high-fat diet (HFD) and subsequent weight loss on skeletal parameters in C57Bl6/J mice. Male mice were given a normal chow diet (ND) or 60% HFD at 6 weeks of age for 12, 16, or 20 weeks. A third group of mice was put on HFD for 12 weeks and then on ND for 8 weeks to mimic weight loss. After these dietary challenges, the tibia and femur were removed and analyzed by micro computed-tomography for bone morphology. Decalcification followed by osmium staining was used to assess bone marrow adiposity, and mechanical testing was performed to assess bone strength. After 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, mice had significant weight gain relative to controls. Body mass returned to normal after weight loss. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) volume in the tibia increased after 16 weeks of HFD and persisted in the 20-week HFD group. Weight loss prevented HFD-induced MAT expansion. Trabecular bone volume fraction, mineral content, and number were decreased after 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, relative to ND controls, with only partial recovery after weight loss. Mechanical testing demonstrated decreased fracture resistance after 20 weeks of HFD. Loss of mechanical integrity did not recover after weight loss. Our study demonstrates that HFD causes long-term, persistent changes in bone quality, despite prevention of marrow adipose tissue accumulation, as demonstrated through changes in bone morphology and mechanical strength in a mouse
Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Davidson, Charis R; Wilcox, Sara
Studies have found that people following plant-based eating styles, such as vegan or vegetarian diets, often have different demographic characteristics, eating styles, and physical activity (PA) levels than individuals following an omnivorous dietary pattern. There has been no research examining if there are differences in these characteristics among people who are willing to participate in a weight loss intervention using plant-based dietary approaches as compared to a standard reduced calorie approach, which does not exclude food groups. The present study compared baseline characteristics (demographics, dietary intake, eating behaviors (Eating Behavior Inventory), and PA (Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire)) of participants enrolling in two different 6-month behavioral weight loss studies: the mobile Pounds Off Digitally (mPOD) study, which used a standard reduced calorie dietary approach and the New Dietary Interventions to Enhance the Treatments for weight loss (New DIETs) study, which randomized participants to follow one of five different dietary approaches (vegan, vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, or omnivorous diets). There were no differences in baseline demographics with the exception of New DIETs participants being older (48.5±8.3years versus 42.9±11.2, P=0.001) and having a higher Body Mass Index (BMI, 35.2±5.3kg/m(2) versus 32.6±4.7kg/m(2), P=0.001) than mPOD participants. In age- and BMI-adjusted models, there were no differences in EBI scores or in any dietary variables, with the exception of vitamin C (85.6±5.9mg/d mPOD versus 63.4±7.4mg/d New DIETs, P=0.02). New DIETs participants reported higher levels of intentional PA/day (180.0±18.1kcal/d) than mPOD participants (108.8±14.4kcal/d, P=0.003), which may have been the result of New DIETs study recommendations to avoid increasing or decreasing PA during the study. The findings of this study demonstrate that using plant-based dietary approaches for weight loss
Hochstenbach-Waelen, Ananda; Soenen, Stijn; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S
Diets higher in protein content result in increased satiety and energy expenditure. In the short term, gelatin showed stronger hunger suppression and less subsequent energy intake compared with other proteins. The present study investigated whether a supra-sustained gelatin-milk protein (GMP) diet promotes weight loss compared with a sustained milk protein (SMP) diet and a supra-sustained milk protein (SSMP) diet during an 8-week diet period. A total of seventy-two healthy subjects (31·2 (sd 4·8) kg/m2; 43 (sd 10) years) followed one of the three diets in a subject-specific amount: SMP, SSMP or GMP diet. During weeks 1-4, energy intake was 100 % of individual energy requirement: 10, 40 and 50 % of energy (En %) as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SMP diet), and 20, 30 and 50 En % as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SSMP diet or GMP diet). During weeks 5-8, energy intake was 33 % of individual energy requirement: 30, 35 and 35 En % as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SMP diet), and 60, 5 and 35 En % as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SSMP diet or GMP diet). Thus, absolute protein intake was kept constant throughout per subject. Significant decreases in BMI (P < 0·0001) were similar between the GMP ( - 1·7 (sd 0·5) kg/m2) and the SMP ( - 2·1 (sd 0·8) kg/m2) and SSMP ( - 1·6 (sd 0·5) kg/m2) diets. Decreases in fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM) and FM %, and increases in FFM % were similar between the GMP and both control diets. Changes in RQ differed (P < 0·05) between the GMP ( - 0·01 (sd 0·06)) and SSMP ( - 0·04 (sd 0·04)) diets. Changes in HDL concentrations differed (P < 0·05) between the GMP ( - 0·21 (sd 0·18) mmol/l) and the SMP and SSMP diets ( - 0·08 (sd 0·18) mmol/l and - 0·09 (sd 0·26) mmol/l, respectively). In conclusion, a gelatin-milk protein diet does not induce more beneficial effects during an 8-week weight-loss period compared with a SMP or
Jalava, Mika; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Kummu, Matti; Porkka, Miina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli
There is a pressing need to improve food security and reduce environmental impacts of agricultural production globally. Two of the proposed measures are diet change from animal-based to plant-based foodstuffs and reduction of food losses and waste. These two measures are linked, as diet change affects production and consumption of foodstuffs and consequently loss processes through their different water footprints and loss percentages. This paper takes this link into account for the first time and provides an assessment of the combined potential contribution of diet change and food loss reduction for reducing water footprints and water scarcity. We apply scenarios in which we change diets to follow basic dietary recommendations, limit animal-based protein intake to 25% of total protein intake, and halve food losses to study single and combined effects of diet change and loss reduction. Dietary recommendations alone would achieve 6% and 7% reductions of blue and green water consumption, respectively, while changing diets to contain less animal products would result in savings of 11% and 18%, respectively. Halving food loss would alone achieve 12% reductions for both blue and green water. Combining the measures would reduce water consumption by 23% and 28%, respectively, lowering water scarcity in areas with a population of over 600 million. At a global scale, effects of diet change and loss reduction were synergistic with loss reductions being more effective under changed diet. This demonstrates the importance of considering the link between diet change and loss reduction in assessments of food security and resource use.
Nedeltcheva, A. V.; Imperial, J. G.; Penev, P. D.
Insufficient sleep is associated with changes in glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and insulin action. Despite widespread use of weight-loss diets for metabolic risk reduction, the effects of insufficient sleep on glucose regulation in overweight dieters are not known. To examine the consequences of recurrent sleep restriction on 24-hour blood glucose control during diet-induced weight loss, 10 overweight and obese adults (3F/7M; mean [SD] age 41  y; BMI 27.4 [2.0] kg/m2) completed two 14-day treatments with hypocaloric diet and 8.5 or 5.5-h nighttime sleep opportunity in random order 7  months apart. Oral and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) data, fasting lipids and free-fatty acids (FFA), and 24-hour blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and counter-regulatory hormone measurements were collected after each treatment. Participants had comparable weight loss (1.0 [0.3] BMI units) during each treatment. Bedtime restriction reduced sleep by 131  min/day. Recurrent sleep curtailment decreased 24-hour serum insulin concentrations (i.e. enhanced 24-hour insulin economy) without changes in oral glucose tolerance and 24-hour glucose control. This was accompanied by a decline in fasting blood glucose, increased fasting FFA which suppressed normally following glucose ingestion, and lower total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. Sleep-loss-related changes in counter-regulatory hormone secretion during the IVGTT limited the utility of the test in this study. In conclusion, sleep restriction enhanced 24-hour insulin economy without compromising glucose homeostasis in overweight individuals placed on a balanced hypocaloric diet. The changes in fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid and FFA concentrations in sleep-restricted dieters resembled the pattern of human metabolic adaptation to reduced carbohydrate availability. PMID:22513492
Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.
Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/d deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (≤45 points per 1000 kcal; n=40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n=29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for total fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P=0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for lean mass and baseline fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. PMID:23671029
Background A review of the literature has revealed that the rates of overweight and obesity have been increasing in Australia over the last two decades and that wellness mobile phone apps play a significant role in monitoring and managing individuals’ weight. Although mobile phone app markets (iTunes and Google Play) list thousands of mobile phone health apps, it is not always clear whether those apps are supported by credible sources. Likewise, despite the prevailing use of mobile phone apps to aid with weight management, the usability features of these apps are not well characterized. Objective The research explored how usability taxonomy could inform the popularity of downloaded, socially focused wellness mobile phone apps, in particular weight loss and diet apps. The aim of the study was to investigate the Australian mobile phone app stores (iTunes and Google Play) in order to examine the usability features of the most popular (ie, most downloaded) wellness apps. Methods The design of this study comprises 3 main stages: stage 1, identifying apps; stage 2, development of weight loss and diet evaluation framework; and stage 3, application of the evaluation framework. Each stage includes specific data collection, analysis tools, and techniques. Results The study has resulted in the development of a justified evaluation framework for weight loss and diet mobile phone apps. Applying the evaluation framework to the identified apps has shown that the most downloaded iTunes and Google Play apps are not necessarily the most usable or effective. In addition, the research found that search algorithms for iTunes and Google Play are biased toward apps’ titles and keywords that do not accurately define the real functionality of the app. Moreover, the study has also analyzed the apps’ user reviews, which served as justification for the developed evaluation framework. Conclusions The analysis has shown that ease of use, reminder, bar code scanning, motivation, usable for
Webb, Densie; Donovan, Sharon M; Meydani, Simin Nikbin
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend three daily servings of low- or nonfat dairy products, yet two-thirds of individuals in the United States do not meet that goal. Including low- or nonfat yogurt as part of an overall healthful diet can be a positive step toward meeting the DGA recommendations. Yogurt naturally contains calcium and potassium, and some products are fortified with vitamin D. All of these nutrients were identified in the DGA as "nutrients of concern," because typical intake falls far short of recommended intakes. Yogurt can also be an excellent source of high-quality protein, which promotes satiety, helps in maintaining a healthy body weight, and aids muscle and bone growth. In addition, yogurt is low in sodium and contributes 1.0% or less of added sugars to the diets of most individuals in the United States; however, 90% of children and adults consume less than 8 ounces (1 cup) of yogurt per week. Thus, consuming 1 serving of yogurt per day would help to meet the DGA-recommended dairy servings and would provide nutrients of concern.
Phillips, Stuart M
Thermodynamics dictates that for body weight (i.e. stored substrate) loss to occur a person must ingest less energy than they expend. Athletes, who owing to their oftentimes large daily energy expenditures, may have greater flexibility than non-athletes in this regard; however, they may also have different goals for weight loss. In particular, weight lost may be less important to an athlete than from which compartment the weight is lost: fat or lean. A critical question is thus, what balance of macronutrients might promote a greater fat loss, a relative retention of lean mass, and still allow athletic performance to remain uncompromised? It is the central thesis of this review that dietary protein should be a nutrient around which changes in macronutrient composition should be framed. The requirement for protein to sustain lean mass increases while in negative energy balance and protein, as macronutrient, may have advantages with respect to satiety during energy balance, and it may allow greater fat loss during a negative energy balance. However, athletes should be mindful of the fact that increasing dietary protein intake while in negative energy balance would come at the 'expense' of another macronutrient. Most recently there has been interest in lower carbohydrate diets, which may not allow performance to be sustained given the importance of dietary carbohydrate in high-intensity exercise. The relative merits of higher protein diets for athletes are discussed.
Seimon, Radhika V.; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A.; Nguyen, Amy D.; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Lau, Jackie
Background Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Methods Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5–6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1–3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)–(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Results Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1–3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05). There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01). Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups. Conclusion Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces
Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Hajimiresmaiel, Seyed Javad; Ajami, Marjan; Mohseni-Bandpei, Anoushiravan; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Dowlatshahi, Kamran; Javedan, Gholamali; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza
Low calorie diets are always difficult for obese subjects to follow and lead to metabolic and behavioral adaptation. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of caffeine treatment with calorie shifting diet (CSD) on weight loss. Female subjects (n=60; BMI≥25) completed 4-weeks control diet, 6-weeks CSD (3 repeated phases; each 2-weeks) and 4-weeks follow-up diet, with or without caffeine treatment (5 mg/Kg/day). The first 11 days of each phase included calorie restriction with four meals every day and 4 hours intervals. Significant weight and fat loss were observed after 4-weeks of CSD (5.7 ± 1.24 Kg and 4.84 ± 1.53 Kg) or CSD+Caffeine (7.57 ± 2.33 Kg and 5.24 ± 2.07 Kg) which was consistent for one month of the follow-up (CSD: 5.24 ± 1.83 Kg and 4.3 ± 1.62 Kg, CSD+Caffeine: 12.11 ± 2.31 Kg and 9.85 ± 1.6 Kg, p < 0.05 vs CSD group) and correlated to the restricted energy intake (p < 0.05). During three CSD phases, RMR tended to remain unchanged in both groups.While, CSD or CSD + Caffeine treatments, significantly decreased plasma glucose, total-cholesterol, and triacylglycerol (p < 0.05), even during follow-up period (p < 0.05). HDL-cholesterol was not changed by CSD. Feeling of hunger decreased and subject’s satisfaction increased after 4-weeks of CSD (p < 0.05) and remained low to the end of study, while satiety was not affected. Coffeine increased the effect of CSD on feeling of hunger and subject’s satisfaction after week 7 (p < 0.05 vs. CSD). These findings indicated that combination of caffeine treatment with CSD could be an effective alternative approach to weight and fat loss with small changes in RMR and improved tolerance of subjects to the new diet. PMID:25237367
Carbonneau, Élise; Royer, Marie-Michelle; Richard, Caroline; Couture, Patrick; Desroches, Sophie; Lemieux, Simone; Lamarche, Benoît
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) consumed before and after weight loss on eating behavioral traits as measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this fixed sequence study, 19 men with MetS (National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria), aged between 24 and 62 years, first consumed a five-week standardized North American control diet followed by a five-week MedDiet, both under weight-maintaining controlled-feeding conditions. This was followed by a 20-week caloric restriction weight loss period in free-living conditions, without specific recommendations towards adhering to the principles of the MedDiet. Participants were finally subjected to a final five-week MedDiet phase under isoenergetic controlled-feeding conditions. The MedDiet before weight loss had no impact on eating behavioral traits. Body weight reduction by caloric restriction (−10.2% of initial weight) was associated with increased cognitive restraint (p < 0.0001) and with reduced disinhibition (p = 0.02) and susceptibility to hunger (p = 0.01). Feeding the MedDiet for five weeks under isoenergetic conditions after the weight loss phase had no further impact on eating behavioral traits. Results of this controlled-feeding study suggest that consumption of the MedDiet per se has no effect on eating behavioral traits as measured by TFEQ, unless it is combined with significant weight loss. PMID:28335489
Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T
Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice.
Schulz, Carla; Paulus, Kerstin; Jöhren, Olaf; Lehnert, Hendrik
Resistance to brain-mediated effects of leptin is a characteristic feature of obesity, resulting from alterations in leptin receptor signaling in hypothalamic neurons and/or transport across the blood-brain-barrier. We have shown previously, that the latter can be circumvented by intranasal (i.n.) application of leptin in lean rats. This prompted us to test i.n. leptin in animals with diet-induced obesity (DIO) as a basis for future human administration. DIO was induced in male Wistar rats by feeding a cafeteria diet for 25 or 32 wk, respectively. Consecutively, these DIO animals (seven to eight per treatment) and standard diet rats (lean) (14-15 per treatment, matched for age and diet duration) were treated with 0.1, 0.2 mg/kg leptin, or control solution i.n. daily for 4 wk before onset of dark period. Energy intake and body weight were measured daily; blood glucose, serum insulin, and leptin were measured before and after treatment. Expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. We demonstrate, for the first time, that i.n. leptin reduces appetite and induces weight loss in DIO to the same extent as in lean rats. Our findings are supported accordingly by an altered expression pattern of anorexigenic and orexigenic neuropeptides in the hypothalamus, e.g. proopiomelanocortin, cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript, neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein. It now appears clear that i.n. leptin is effectively acting in obese animals in the same fashion as in their lean counterparts. These findings now clearly warrant studies in humans and may open new perspectives in the treatment of obesity.
Giménez, R; Cabrera, C; Olalla, M; Ruiz, M D; López, M C
The ascorbic acid content was determined in 25 different diet supplements commercially available to the consumer in two pharmaceutical forms (pills and ampoules). These products are widely consumed by several population groups (elderly people, sportsmen, adolescents, children, etc.). High-performance liquid chromatography was used as the analytical technique. The proposed method has been validated with good linearity, reproducibility, recovery and accuracy, and can be used in routine analyses and in quality control. The ascorbic acid content in pills ranged from 15.62 to 50.16 mg/g, and in that ampoules from 2.12 to 8.83 mg/ml. Depending on the dosage rates, these levels would represent approximately 20-50% of the daily dietary intake recommended by the National Research Council. Possible losses in the manufacturing process and stability during storage for 30 days at 40 +/- 2 degrees C without light, were tested. In relation to the ascorbic acid concentrations stated on the labels, a loss of 12.0-21.9% in pills and of 11.7-18.0% in ampoules was detected. In relation to the stability conditions, the losses are of 1.8-24.8% in pills and of 10.4-19.3% in ampoules. The pasteurisation and sterilisation processes produced a mean loss of ascorbic acid in ampoules of 2.1 and 1.4%, respectively. A statistically significant direct correlation was observed between ascorbic acid loss and content in proteins, humidity, ash, and fructose. The influence of the pharmaceutical form was also tested. Data revealed that the control of losses during the manufacturing and commercialisation process of these products is necessary to ensure the intake of vitamin C from these products by the consumer.
Sullivan, Elinor L; Cameron, Judy L
To study changes in energy balance occurring during the initial phases of dieting, 18 adult ovariectomized female monkeys were placed on a low-fat diet, and available calories were reduced by 30% compared with baseline consumption for 1 mo. Surprisingly, there was not significant weight loss; however, daily activity level (measured by accelerometry) decreased soon after diet initiation and reached statistical significance by the 4th wk of dieting (18 +/- 5.6% decrease, P = 0.02). During a 2nd mo of dieting, available calories were reduced by 60% compared with baseline consumption, leading to 6.4 +/- 1.7% weight loss and further suppression of activity. Metabolic rate decreased by 68 +/- 12 kcal/day, with decreased activity accounting for 41 +/- 9 kcal/day, and the metabolic activity of the weight lost accounting for 21 +/- 5 kcal/day. A second group of three monkeys was trained to run on a treadmill for 1 h/day, 5 days/wk, at 80% maximal capacity, leading to increased calorie expenditure of 69.6 +/- 10.7 kcal/day (equivalent to 49 kcal/day for 7 days). We conclude that a diet-induced decrease in physical activity is the primary mechanism the body uses to defend against diet-induced weight loss, and undertaking a level of exercise that is recommended to counteract weight gain and promote weight loss is able to prevent the compensatory decrease in physical activity-associated energy expenditure that slows diet-induced weight loss.
Karlsson, J; Hallgren, P; Kral, J; Lindroos, A K; Sjöström, L; Sullivan, M
Sixty moderately obese women (mean BMI = 33, mean age = 43), randomized to a lactovegetarian or regular 1300-kcal weight-reducing diet were followed at 3, 8 and 24 months. Weight follow-up was 92%, while 47% complied with the program throughout with no differences between the two diets with respect to compliance rate, weight loss or behavioral test results. Over 24 months compliers lost a mean 3.9 kg compared to a gain of 1.8 kg in the non-compliers. Short-term improvements in mental well-being measured by the Mood Adjective Check List deteriorated after 2 years to lower levels than at entry. Self-assessed motivation to diet was inversely related to mental well-being at two years. Positive long-term changes of functional status (Sickness Impact Profile) were found. Though subjective prediction of success measured after 3 weeks on diet predicted short-term and maximum weight loss, it did not predict ultimate outcome. More difficulties in resisting emotional and social eating cues (high disinhibition score on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) before and during the diet predicted weight gain. The more initial health-related dysfunction (SIP) the greater the weight regain. Psychological characteristics at baseline did not predict compliance or overall weight loss. The magnitude of weight loss after 24 months was related to amount and duration of maximum weight loss.
Ringling, Rebecca E.; Gastecki, Michelle L.; Woodford, Makenzie L.; Lum-Naihe, Kelly J.; Grant, Ryan W.; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J.; Padilla, Jaume
We tested the hypothesis that loss of Nlrp3 would protect mice from Western diet-induced adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and associated glucose intolerance and cardiovascular complications. Five-week old C57BL6J wild-type (WT) and Nlrp3 knockout (Nlrp3-/-) mice were randomized to either a control diet (10% kcal from fat) or Western diet (45% kcal from fat and 1% cholesterol) for 24 weeks (n = 8/group). Contrary to our hypothesis that obesity-mediated white AT inflammation is Nlrp3-dependent, we found that Western diet-induced expression of AT inflammatory markers (i.e., Cd68, Cd11c, Emr1, Itgam, Lgals, Il18, Mcp1, Tnf, Ccr2, Ccl5 mRNAs, and Mac-2 protein) were not accompanied by increased caspase-1 cleavage, a hallmark feature of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Furthermore, Nlrp3 null mice were not protected from Western diet-induced white or brown AT inflammation. Although Western diet promoted glucose intolerance in both WT and Nlrp3-/- mice, Nlrp3-/- mice were protected from Western diet-induced aortic stiffening. Additionally, Nlrp3-/- mice exhibited smaller cardiomyocytes and reduced cardiac fibrosis, independent of diet. Collectively, these findings suggest that presence of the Nlrp3 gene is not required for Western diet-induced AT inflammation and/or glucose intolerance; yet Nlrp3 appears to play a role in potentiating arterial stiffening, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. PMID:27583382
Millstein, Rachel A.
Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg), 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2), 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%), and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg). All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI. PMID:25525513
Toubro, S.; Astrup, A.
OBJECTIVES: To compare importance of rate of initial weight loss for long term outcome in obese patients and to compare efficacy of two different weight maintenance programmes. DESIGN: Subjects were randomised to either rapid or slow initial weight loss. Completing patients were re-randomised to one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib diet or fixed energy intake diet. Patients were followed up one year later. SETTING: University research department in Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 43 (41 women) obese adults (body mass index 27-40) who were otherwise healthy living in or around Copenhagen. INTERVENTIONS: 8 weeks of low energy diet (2 MJ/day) or 17 weeks of conventional diet (5 MJ/day), both supported by an anorectic compound (ephedrine 20 mg and caffeine 200 mg thrice daily); one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet or fixed energy intake diet (< or = 7.8 MJ/day), both with reinforcement sessions 2-3 times monthly. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean initial weight loss and proportion of patients maintaining a weight loss of > 5 kg at follow up. RESULTS: Mean initial weight loss was 12.6 kg (95% confidence interval 10.9 to 14.3 kg) in rapid weight loss group and 12.6 (9.9 to 15.3) kg in conventional diet group. Rate of initial weight loss had no effect on weight maintenance after 6 or 12 months of weight maintenance or at follow up. After weight maintenance programme, the ad lib group had maintained 13.2 (8.1 to 18.3) kg of the initial weight loss of 13.5 (11.4 to 15.5) kg, and the fixed energy intake group had maintained 9.7 (6.1 to 13.3) kg of the initial 13.8 (11.8 to 15.7) kg weight loss (group difference 3.5 (-2.4 to 9.3) kg). Regained weight at follow up was greater in fixed energy intake group than in ad lib group (11.3 (7.1 to 15.5) kg v 5.4 (2.3 to 8.6) kg, group difference 5.9 (0.7 to 11.1) kg, P < 0.03). At follow up, 65% of ad lib group and 40% of fixed energy intake group had maintained a weight loss of > 5 kg (P
Pirgozliev, V; Bravo, D; Mirza, M W; Rose, S P
An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of a supplementary mixture of essential oils, with and without exogenous xylanase, on performance, carcass composition, dietary nitrogen (N)-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), dry matter retention (DMR), N retention (NR), fat digestibility (FD) coefficients, and endogenous mucin losses (measured as sialic acid, SA) when fed to broiler chickens. Three hundred male Ross 308 broilers in total were reared in floor pens from 0 to 21 d of age. Birds were fed 1 of 3 wheat-based diets: basal diet (215 g/kg CP, 12.12 MJ/kg AME) with either no additive (control diet; C) or 100 g/tonne of a standardized combination of 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde, and 2% capsicum oleoresin (diet XT); or a combination of XT and commercial xylanase enzyme at a rate of 100 g of XT and 2,000 units (U) of xylanase/kg (diet XYL), respectively. Each diet was randomly allocated to 10 pens with 10 birds. Feeding XT and XYL diets improved birds' growth performance (P<0.05). Birds fed XT and XYL diets had an improved caloric conversion ratio (P<0.05) and consumed 1.3 MJ less AMEn per kilogram of growth compared to birds fed the control diet only. Feeding XT improved only the dietary FD coefficient (P<0.05) compared to control-fed birds, but the dietary FD coefficient did not differ for XYL diet (P>0.05). Birds fed XYL diet excreted 35% less endogenous mucin compared to control-fed birds (P<0.05). Birds fed XT alone gained more carcass protein than the control-fed birds (P<0.05) but did not differ from the birds fed XYL diet (P>0.05). There was no indication of a negative interaction between dietary essential oils and xylanase.
Kenyon, Mandy L.; Rutledge, Thomas R.; Liao, Patricia S.; Gupta, Samir; Herbst, Karen L.; Zarrinpar, Amir
Background & Aims Many companies provide genetic tests for obesity-related polymorphisms (nutrigenetics) and make dietary recommendations for weight loss based on the results. We performed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether more participants who followed a nutrigenetic-guided diet lost ≥5% of their body weight than participants on a standard balanced diet, for 8 and 24 weeks. Methods We performed a prospective study of 51 obese or overweight US veterans on an established weight management program at the Veterans Administration San Diego Healthcare System (the MOVE! Program). Participants were randomly assigned to groups placed on a nutrigenetic-guided diet (balanced, low-carbohydrate, low-fat, or Mediterranean; n=30) or a standard balanced diet (n=21). Nutrigenetic diets were selected based on results from the Pathway FIT test (Pathway Genomics; San Diego, CA). Results There was no significant difference in the percentage of participants on the balanced diet vs the nutrigenetic-guided diet who lost 5% of their body weight at 8 weeks (35.0%±20.9% vs 26.9%±17.1%, respectively; P=.28) or at 24 weeks. Both groups had difficulty adhering to the diets. However, adherence to the nutrigenetic-guided diet correlated with weight loss (r=0.74; P= 4.0 × 10−5), but not adherence to standard therapy (r=0.34; P=.23). Participants who had low-risk polymorphisms for obesity lost more weight than all other participants at 8 weeks (5.0% vs 2.9%, respectively; P=.02), and had significantly greater reductions in body mass index (6.4% vs 3.6% respectively; P=.03) and waist circumference (6.5% vs 2.6% respectively; P=.02) at 24 weeks. Conclusions In a prospective study, a nutrigenetic-based diet did not increase weight loss compared with a standard balanced diet. However, genetic features can identify individuals most likely to benefit from a balanced diet weight loss strategy; these findings require further investigation. ClincialTrials.gov number: NCT01859403
Turner, Tonya F.; Nance, Laura M.; Strickland, William D.; Malcolm, Robert J.; Pechon, Susan; O'Neil, Patrick M.
Objective. Dietary fiber can reduce hunger and enhance satiety, but fiber intake during hypocaloric weight loss diets typically falls short of recommended levels. We examined the nutritional effects and acceptability of two high-fiber hypocaloric diets differing in sources of fiber: (a) beans or (b) fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Methods. Subjects were 2 men, 18 women, mean age = 46.9, and mean BMI = 30.6. Subjects completed 3-day food diaries in each of the two baseline weeks. Subjects were then randomized to four weeks on one of two 1400-calorie diets including 25–35 g fiber primarily from 1.5 cups beans/day or from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Recommended fiber-rich foods were provided. Subjects kept weekly 3-day food diaries and were assessed weekly. Results. Diet conditions did not differ on outcome measures. Both diets increased fiber intake from 16.6 g/day (SD = 7.1) at baseline to (treatment average) 28.4 g/day (SD = 6.5) (P < 0.001). Fiber intake was consistent over treatment. Caloric intake dropped from 1623.1 kcal/day (SD = 466.9) (baseline) to 1322.2 kcal/day (SD = 275.8) (P = 0.004). Mean weight loss was 1.4 kg (SD = 1.5; P < 0.001). Energy density and self-reported hunger decreased (P's < 0.01) while self-reported fullness increased (P < 0.05). Both diets were rated as potentially acceptable as long as six months. Conclusions. Both diets significantly increased fiber intake by 75%, increased satiation, and reduced hunger. Results support increasing fiber in weight loss diets with a variety of fiber sources. PMID:24555159
Yackobovitch-Gavan, Michal; Nagelberg, Nessia; Demol, Sharon; Phillip, Moshe; Shalitin, Shlomit
The aims of this study were to compare the effects of weight-loss diets of different macronutrient compositions on weight and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and to examine the relationship between changes in HRQOL parameters and weight loss during weight-loss programs in obese adolescents. Seventy one adolescents (12-18 years, BMI>95th percentile) were randomly allocated to one of three 12-week diet regimens: low-carbohydrate low-fat (LCLF), low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) or high-carbohydrate low-fat (HCLF) diets. Weight, height and fat-mass were measured, and the PedsQL 4.0 questionnaires were administered to the participants at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Significant similar reductions in BMI, BMI-SDS, and fat percentage occurred in all groups. A significant improvement in HRQOL was found only in the LCLF and HCLF groups. For the entire sample, positive correlations were found between emotional and psychosocial functioning at baseline and the reduction in BMI, BMI-SDS, and fat percentage. By multiple regression analysis, higher baseline emotional functioning and BMI-SDS were significant predictors to higher reduction in BMI-SDS during the intervention. Our results support the importance of evaluating and improving psychosocial functioning before initiation of a weight-loss intervention program in adolescents, and the importance of low-fat diets in weight-loss interventions for adolescents.
Hanley, David A; Whiting, Susan J
A popular concept in nutrition and lay literature is that of the role of a diet high in acid or protein in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. A diet rich in fruit and vegetable intake is thought to enhance bone health as the result of its greater potassium and lower "acidic" content than a diet rich in animal protein and sodium. Consequently, there have been a number of studies of diet manipulation to enhance potassium and "alkaline" content of the diet to improve bone density or other parameters of bone health. Although acid loading or an acidic diet featuring a high protein intake may be associated with an increase in calciuria, the evidence supporting a role of these variables in the development of osteoporosis is not consistent. Similarly, intervention studies with a more alkaline diet or use of supplements of potassium citrate or bicarbonate have not consistently shown a bone health benefit. In the elderly, inadequate protein intake is a greater problem for bone health than protein excess.
Zibellini, Jessica; Seimon, Radhika V; Lee, Crystal M Y; Gibson, Alice A; Hsu, Michelle S H; Shapses, Sue A; Nguyen, Tuan V; Sainsbury, Amanda
Diet-induced weight loss has been suggested to be harmful to bone health. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (using a random-effects model) to quantify the effect of diet-induced weight loss on bone. We included 41 publications involving overweight or obese but otherwise healthy adults who followed a dietary weight-loss intervention. The primary outcomes examined were changes from baseline in total hip, lumbar spine, and total body bone mineral density (BMD), as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Secondary outcomes were markers of bone turnover. Diet-induced weight loss was associated with significant decreases of 0.010 to 0.015 g/cm(2) in total hip BMD for interventions of 6, 12, or 24 (but not 3) months' duration (95% confidence intervals [CIs], -0.014 to -0.005, -0.021 to -0.008, and -0.024 to -0.000 g/cm(2), at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively). There was, however, no statistically significant effect of diet-induced weight loss on lumbar spine or whole-body BMD for interventions of 3 to 24 months' duration, except for a significant decrease in total body BMD (-0.011 g/cm(2); 95% CI, -0.018 to -0.003 g/cm(2)) after 6 months. Although no statistically significant changes occurred in serum concentrations of N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP), interventions of 2 or 3 months in duration (but not of 6, 12, or 24 months' duration) induced significant increases in serum concentrations of osteocalcin (0.26 nmol/L; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.39 nmol/L), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) (4.72 nmol/L; 95% CI, 2.12 to 7.30 nmol/L) or N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) (3.70 nmol/L; 95% CI, 0.90 to 6.50 nmol/L bone collagen equivalents [BCEs]), indicating an early effect of diet-induced weight loss to promote bone breakdown. These data show that in overweight and obese individuals, a single diet-induced weight-loss intervention induces a small decrease in total hip BMD, but not lumbar spine
Varady, Krista A; Dam, Vi T; Klempel, Monica C; Horne, Matthew; Cruz, Rani; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Santosa, Sylvia
Cardiovascular disease risk is associated with excess body weight and elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. This study examines how an alternate-day fasting (ADF) diet high (HF) or low (LF) in fat affects plasma FFA profiles in the context of weight loss, and changes in body composition and lipid profiles. After a 2-week weight maintenance period, 29 women (BMI 30-39.9 kg/m(2)) 25-65 years old were randomized to an 8-week ADF-HF (45% fat) diet or an ADF-LF (25% fat) diet with 25% energy intake on fast days and ad libitum intake on feed days. Body weight, BMI and waist circumference were assessed weekly and body composition was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total and individual FFA and plasma lipid concentrations were measured before and after weight loss. Body weight, BMI, fat mass, total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglyceride concentrations decreased (P < 0.05) in both groups. Total FFA concentrations also decreased (P < 0.001). In the ADF-LF group, decreases were found in several more FFAs than in the ADF-HF group. In the ADF-HF group, FFA concentrations were positively correlated with waist circumference. Depending on the macronutrient composition of a diet, weight loss with an ADF diet decreases FFA concentrations through potentially different mechanisms.
Korczak, Dieter; Kister, Christine
The report examines which diets are successful as therapy for overweight and obese persons. In general all considered diets are effective. Besides the food the patients have to change the kinesic behaviour and the lifestyle to achieve sustained success.
We studied the effects of blueberry consumption in early development on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats later in life. Weanling female rats were fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry powder from PND 21 to PND34 (short-term group), or PND21 to PND81 (chro...
Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for optimal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been extensively studied. In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented...
Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for optimal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been extensively studied. In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented...
Strasser, Barbara; Fuchs, Dietmar
An association between mood disturbance, the inability to lose or to stop gaining weight, and a craving for carbohydrates is manifested by many people who are overweight or are becoming so. In a recent study, we observed that low-calorie weight loss diet lowered not only levels of leptin but also levels of essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP) significantly. The disturbed metabolism of TRP might affect biosynthesis of serotonin and could thereby increase the susceptibility for mood disturbances and carbohydrate craving, increasing the cessation probability of weight reduction programs. Alternatively, moderate physical exercise – a potent stimulus to modulate (reduce/normalize) proinflammatory cytokines, which may affect TRP levels – could be helpful in improving mood status and preventing uncontrolled weight gain. In contrast, excessive physical exercise may induce breakdown of TRP when proinflammatory cascades together with TRP-degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 are stimulated, which may lead to neuropsychiatric symptoms such as fatigue and low mood. PMID:27199566
Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Jenkins, David J A; Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber A
This study assessed the effect of changes in glycemic index (GI) and load (GL) on weight loss and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among individuals with type 2 diabetes beginning a vegan diet or diet following the 2003 American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommendations. The study was a 22-wk, randomized trial of 99 participants with type 2 diabetes who were counseled to follow 1 of 2 diet treatments. GI and GL changes were assessed based on 3-d dietary records. The relationships between GI/GL and changes in weight and HbA1C were calculated. In an intention-to-treat analysis (n = 99), the vegan group reduced GI to a greater extent than the ADA group (P < 0.05), but GL was reduced further in the ADA than the vegan group (P < 0.001). GI predicted changes in weight (P = 0.001), adjusting for changes in fiber, carbohydrate, fat, alcohol, energy intake, steps per day, group, and demographics, such that for every point decrease in GI, participants lost ~0.2 kg (0.44 lb). GI was not a predictor for changes in HbA1C after controlling for weight loss (P = 0.33). Weight loss was a predictor of changes in HbA1C (P = 0.047). GL was not related to weight loss or changes in HbA1C. A low-GI diet appears to be one of the determinants of success of a vegan or ADA diet in reducing body weight among people with type 2 diabetes. The reduction of body weight, in turn, was predictive of decreasing HbA1C.
Witbracht, Megan G; Laugero, Kevin D; Van Loan, Marta D; Adams, Sean H; Keim, Nancy L
The overall objective of this study was to examine the relationship between executive function, specifically decision-making, and weight loss. We used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to characterize decision-making and compared performance on this task to weight loss in obese women (n=29) participating in a 12-week controlled, calorie-reduced intervention. We hypothesized that a greater amount of weight loss over the course of the intervention would be associated with better performance on the IGT, assessed at the end of the intervention. The intervention led to significant weight loss of 5.8±3.1 kg (p<0.05) and fat loss of 5.1±3.0 kg (p<0.05). Body weight and fat mass losses over the 12-week intervention varied widely, ranging from -12.5 kg to 0.0 kg for body weight and -10.4 kg to +0.8 kg for fat mass. A greater amount of body weight loss was correlated (r=0.425; p<0.01) with a higher total score on the IGT. Similarly, the reduction in body fat mass was also correlated with the IGT score (r=0.408; p<0.05). We examined other physiological (salivary cortisol), metabolic (resting energy expenditure), and behavioral (food intake; dietary restraint) factors that might be related to differences in the magnitude of weight loss. Of these variables, ad libitum consumption of energy, fat and protein during a buffet meal was inversely related to weight loss (r=-0.428; p<0.05; r=-0.375; p<0.05 and r=-0.472; p=0.01, respectively). The present study is the first to report an association between diet-induced weight loss and performance on the IGT, and this association was specific to the loss of body fat. Our results suggest that differences in weight loss may be linked to executive function that involves decision-making about events that have emotionally or socially salient ramifications. These findings underscore the need to further investigate higher cognitive and neuroendocrine pathways that may influence or be altered by the process of dieting and weight loss.
Luchtman, Dirk W; Chee, Melissa J S; Doslikova, Barbora; Marks, Daniel L; Baracos, Vickie E; Colmers, William F
Some animals and humans fed a high-energy diet (HED) are diet-resistant (DR), remaining as lean as individuals who were naïve to HED. Other individuals become obese during HED exposure and subsequently defend the obese weight (Diet-Induced Obesity- Defenders, DIO-D) even when subsequently maintained on a low-energy diet. We hypothesized that the body weight setpoint of the DIO-D phenotype resides in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), where anorexigenic melanocortins, including melanotan II (MTII), increase presynaptic GABA release, and the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) inhibits it. After prolonged return to low-energy diet, GABA inputs to PVN neurons from DIO-D rats exhibited highly attenuated responses to MTII compared with those from DR and HED-naïve rats. In DIO-D rats, melanocortin-4 receptor expression was significantly reduced in dorsomedial hypothalamus, a major source of GABA input to PVN. Unlike melanocortin responses, NPY actions in PVN of DIO-D rats were unchanged, but were reduced in neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus; in PVN of DR rats, NPY responses were paradoxically increased. MTII-sensitivity was restored in DIO-D rats by several weeks' refeeding with HED. The loss of melanocortin sensitivity restricted to PVN of DIO-D animals, and its restoration upon prolonged refeeding with HED suggest that their melanocortin systems retain the ability to up- and downregulate around their elevated body weight setpoint in response to longer-term changes in dietary energy density. These properties are consistent with a mechanism of body weight setpoint.
Mudge, Joanne [NCGR
Joanne Mudge on "Phytophthora capsici - Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH): A Widespread Mechanism for Rapid Mutation" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.
Winn, Nathan C; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Gastecki, Michelle L; Welly, Rebecca J; Scroggins, Rebecca J; Zidon, Terese M; Gaines, T'Keaya L; Woodford, Makenzie L; Karasseva, Natalia G; Kanaley, Jill A; Sacks, Harold S; Padilla, Jaume
We tested the hypothesis that female mice null for uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) would have increased susceptibility to Western diet-induced "whitening" of brown adipose tissue (AT) and glucose intolerance. Six-week-old C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and UCP1 knockout (UCP1(-/-)) mice, housed at 25°C, were randomized to either a control diet (10% kcal from fat) or Western diet (45% kcal from fat and 1% cholesterol) for 28 wk. Loss of UCP1 had no effect on energy intake, energy expenditure, spontaneous physical activity, weight gain, or visceral white AT mass. Despite similar susceptibility to weight gain compared with WT, UCP1(-/-) exhibited whitening of brown AT evidenced by a striking ~500% increase in mass and appearance of large unilocular adipocytes, increased expression of genes related to inflammation, immune cell infiltration, and endoplasmic reticulum/oxidative stress (P < 0.05), and decreased mitochondrial subunit protein (COX I, II, III, and IV, P < 0.05), all of which were exacerbated by Western diet (P < 0.05). UCP1(-/-) mice also developed liver steatosis and glucose intolerance, which was worsened by Western diet. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that loss of UCP1 exacerbates Western diet-induced whitening of brown AT, glucose intolerance, and induces liver steatosis. Notably, the adverse metabolic manifestations of UCP1(-/-) were independent of changes in body weight, visceral adiposity, and energy expenditure. These novel findings uncover a previously unrecognized metabolic protective role of UCP1 that is independent of its already established role in energy homeostasis.
Korczak, Dieter; Kister, Christine
The report examines which diets are successful as therapy for overweight and obese persons. In general all considered diets are effective. Besides the food the patients have to change the kinesic behaviour and the lifestyle to achieve sustained success. PMID:23904889
Perry-Hunnicutt, Christina; Newman, Ian M.
This report describes the dieting practices of 796 Nebraskans in grades 8 and 10. The results presented in this report are based on questions from the 1989 National Adolescent Health Survey administered to a total of 1,689 adolescents. These topics are covered: (1) incidence of dieting in adolescent males and females; (2) methods used by dieters…
Velázquez, Kandy T; Enos, Reilly T; Carson, Meredith S; Cranford, Taryn L; Bader, Jackie E; Chatzistamou, Ioulia; Singh, Udai P; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Davis, J Mark; Carson, James A; Murphy, E Angela
Obesity presents a significant public health concern given its association with increased cancer incidence, unfavorable prognosis, and metastasis. However, there is very little literature on the effects of weight loss, following obesity, on risk for colon cancer or liver cancer. Therefore, we sought to study whether intentional weight loss through diet manipulation was capable of mitigating colon and liver cancer in mice. We fed mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) comprised of 47% carbohydrates, 40% fat, and 13% protein for 20 wk to mimic human obesity. Subsequently, azoxymethane (AOM) was used to promote colon and liver carcinogenesis. A subset of obese mice was then switched to a low-fat diet (LFD) containing 67.5% carbohydrate, 12.2% fat, and 20% protein to promote intentional weight loss. Body weight loss and excess fat reduction did not protect mice from colon cancer progression and liver dysplastic lesion in the AOM-chemical-cancer model even though these mice had improved blood glucose and leptin levels. Intentional weight loss in AOM-treated mice actually produced histological changes that resemble dysplastic alterations in the liver and presented a higher percentage of F4/80(+)CD206(+) macrophages and activated T cells (CD4(+)CD69(+)) in the spleen and lymph nodes, respectively. In addition, the liver of AOM-treated mice exposed to a HFD during the entire period of the experiment exhibited a marked increase in proliferation and pNF-κB activation. Altogether, these data suggest that intentional weight loss following chemical-induced carcinogenesis does not affect colon tumorigenesis but may in fact negatively impact liver repair mechanisms.
Zheng, Yan; Ceglarek, Uta; Huang, Tao; Li, Lerong; Rood, Jennifer; Ryan, Donna H; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Thiery, Joachim; Shai, Iris; Qi, Lu
Background: Circulating amino acids, such as branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs), have been associated with diabetes risk; however, little is known about how a long-term dietary intervention for weight loss affects circulating amino acids. Objectives: We examined the effects of weight-loss diets on long-term changes in plasma amino acids and the associations of these changes with weight loss and the improvement of insulin resistance. Design: We repeatedly measured plasma amino acid profiles over 2 y in overweight or obese participants from 2 randomized, dietary intervention, weight-loss trials [774 subjects from the POUNDS LOST (Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies Trial) and 318 subjects from the DIRECT (Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial)]. Results: Intervention diets consistently lowered most of the amino acid concentrations, including BCAAs and AAAs, in both trials. In the POUNDS LOST, average-protein diets (15% of daily energy) showed stronger effects than did high-protein diets (25% of daily energy) on reducing concentrations of the diabetes-associated BCAA valine at 6 mo independent of the weight change. In both trials, weight loss was directly related to the concurrent reduction of the BCAAs leucine and isoleucine, the AAAs tyrosine and phenylalanine, and 4 other amino acids. For example, per kilogram of weight loss, there was a 0.04-SD decrease in log tyrosine (∼0.6 μmol/L) in both trials. In addition, we showed that reductions in alanine and the AAA tyrosine were significantly related to improved insulin resistance (measured with the use of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), independent of weight loss, in both trials (both P < 0.05). For example, per 1-SD decrease in log tyrosine (∼17 μmol/L), there was a 0.04-SD (∼3%) improvement in insulin resistance in the POUNDS LOST and a 0.13-SD (∼8%) improvement in insulin resistance in the DIRECT. Conclusion: Our findings
Oliván, Blanca; Teixeira, Julio; Bose, Mousumi; Bawa, Baani; Chang, Tangel; Summe, Heather; Lee, Hongchan; Laferrère, Blandine
Objective To examine the effect of an equivalent weight loss, by gastric bypass surgery (GBP) or by diet, on peptide YY3–36 (PYY3–36), ghrelin, and leptin levels and to determine the effect of diabetes status on PYY3–36 levels. Summary Background Data The increased PYY3–36 levels after GBP may be involved in the magnitude and the sustainability of weight loss after surgery. Methods Of the 30 morbidly obese women who participated in the study, 21 had type 2 diabetes mellitus, and were studied before and after equivalent weight loss of 10 kg by either GBP (n = 11) or by diet (n = 10). Results PYY3–36 levels were higher in obese diabetic as compared with nondiabetic individuals (64.1 ± 34.4 pg/mL vs. 39.9 ± 21.1 pg/mL; P < 0.05). PYY3–36 levels increased markedly in response to oral glucose after GBP (peak: 72.3 ± 20.5 pg/mL–132.7 ± 49.7 pg/mL; P < 0.001; AUC0–180: 51.5 ± 23.3 pg/mL.min−1–91.1 ± 32.2 pg/mL.min−1 P < 0.001), but not after diet (peak: 85.5 ± 51.9 pg/mL–84.8 ± 41.13 pg/mL; P = NS; AUC0–180: 68.3 ± 38.5 pg/mL.min−1–61.1 ± 42.2 pg/mL.min−1 P = NS). Fasting ghrelin levels increased after diet (425 ± 91 pg/mL–519 ± 105 pg/mL; P < 0.05), but did not change after GBP (506 ± 121 pg/mL–482 ± 196 pg/mL; P = NS). Conclusions Diabetes status seems to be a determinant of PYY3–36 levels. GBP, but not diet-induced weight loss, resulted in markedly increased glucose-stimulated PYY3–36 levels. The increase in stimulated PYY3–36 levels after GBP is likely a result of the surgery rather than a secondary outcome of weight loss. Changes in PYY3–36 levels and ghrelin could contribute to the success of GBP in sustaining weight loss. PMID:19474685
Milagro, Fermin I; Campión, Javier; Cordero, Paúl; Goyenechea, Estíbaliz; Gómez-Uriz, Ana M; Abete, Itziar; Zulet, Maria A; Martínez, J Alfredo
Epigenetics could help to explain individual differences in weight loss after an energy-restriction intervention. Here, we identify novel potential epigenetic biomarkers of weight loss, comparing DNA methylation patterns of high and low responders to a hypocaloric diet. Twenty-five overweight or obese men participated in an 8-wk caloric restriction intervention. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and treated with bisulfite. The basal and endpoint epigenetic differences between high and low responders were analyzed by methylation microarray, which was also useful in comparing epigenetic changes due to the nutrition intervention. Subsequently, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used to validate several relevant CpGs and the surrounding regions. DNA methylation levels in several CpGs located in the ATP10A and CD44 genes showed statistical baseline differences depending on the weight-loss outcome. At the treatment endpoint, DNA methylation levels of several CpGs on the WT1 promoter were statistically more methylated in the high than in the low responders. Finally, different CpG sites from WT1 and ATP10A were significantly modified as a result of the intervention. In summary, hypocaloric-diet-induced weight loss in humans could alter DNA methylation status of specific genes. Moreover, baseline DNA methylation patterns may be used as epigenetic markers that could help to predict weight loss.
Thiebaud, Nicolas; Johnson, Melissa C.; Butler, Jessica L.; Bell, Genevieve A.; Ferguson, Kassandra L.; Fadool, Andrew R.; Fadool, James C.; Gale, Alana M.; Gale, David S.
Currently, 65% of Americans are overweight, which leads to well-supported cardiovascular and cognitive declines. Little, however, is known concerning obesity's impact on sensory systems. Because olfaction is linked with ingestive behavior to guide food choice, its potential dysfunction during obesity could evoke a positive feedback loop to perpetuate poor ingestive behaviors. To determine the effect of chronic energy imbalance and reveal any structural or functional changes associated with obesity, we induced long-term, diet-induced obesity by challenging mice to high-fat diets: (1) in an obesity-prone (C57BL/6J) and obesity-resistant (Kv1.3−/−) line of mice, and compared this with (2) late-onset, genetic-induced obesity in MC4R−/− mice in which diabetes secondarily precipitates after disruption of the hypothalamic axis. We report marked loss of olfactory sensory neurons and their axonal projections after exposure to a fatty diet, with a concomitant reduction in electro-olfactogram amplitude. Loss of olfactory neurons and associated circuitry is linked to changes in neuronal proliferation and normal apoptotic cycles. Using a computer-controlled, liquid-based olfactometer, mice maintained on fatty diets learn reward-reinforced behaviors more slowly, have deficits in reversal learning demonstrating behavioral inflexibility, and exhibit reduced olfactory discrimination. When obese mice are removed from their high-fat diet to regain normal body weight and fasting glucose, olfactory dysfunctions are retained. We conclude that chronic energy imbalance therefore presents long-lasting structural and functional changes in the operation of the sensory system designed to encode external and internal chemical information and leads to altered olfactory- and reward-driven behaviors. PMID:24828650
Knowles, Catherine J.; Cebova, Martina; Pinz, Ilka M.
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cardiomyopathy, and mechanisms linking the underlying risk and dietary factors are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that dietary intake of saturated fat increases the levels of sphingolipids, namely ceramide and sphingomyelin in cardiac cell membranes that disrupt caveolae, specialized membrane micro-domains and important for cellular signaling. C57BL/6 mice were fed two high-fat diets: palmitate diet (21% total fat, 47% is palmitate), and MCT diet (21% medium-chain triglycerides, no palmitate). We established that high-palmitate feeding for 12 weeks leads to 40% and 50% increases in ceramide and sphingomyelin, respectively, in cellular membranes. Concomitant with sphingolipid accumulation, we observed a 40% reduction in systolic contractile performance. To explore the relationship of increased sphingolipids with caveolins, we analyzed caveolin protein levels and intracellular localization in isolated cardiomyocytes. In normal cardiomyocytes, caveolin-1 and caveolin-3 co-localize at the plasma membrane and the T-tubule system. However, mice maintained on palmitate lost 80% of caveolin-3, mainly from the T-tubule system. Mice maintained on MCT diet had a 90% reduction in caveolin-1. These data show that caveolin isoforms are sensitive to the lipid environment. These data are further supported by similar findings in human cardiac tissue samples from non-obese, obese, non-obese cardiomyopathic, and obese cardiomyopathic patients. To further elucidate the contractile dysfunction associated with the loss of caveolin-3, we determined the localization of the ryanodine receptor and found lower expression and loss of the striated appearance of this protein. We suggest that palmitate-induced loss of caveolin-3 results in cardiac contractile dysfunction via a defect in calcium-induced calcium release. PMID:23585895
Schaefer, Ernst J; Gleason, Joi A; Dansinger, Michael L
Although there is consensus about restriction of dietary saturated and trans fatty acids, cholesterol, and sugars, there is debate about what the optimal total fat and carbohydrate content of the diet should be for weight loss and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk reduction. The overall evidence that dietary composition plays an important role in determining caloric intake is limited. Three recent randomized trials have indicated that low-carbohydrate diets are more effective in promoting weight loss in overweight and obese subjects over 4 to 6 months, but not over 1 year. In our own randomized trial no such differences were noted, and compliance with extreme diets was limited. Moreover little attempt has been made to control for the type of carbohydrate used in the low-fat, high-carbohydrate arms of these trials. Available evidence suggests that restriction of sugars and carbohydrates having a high glycemic index would be preferable to total carbohydrate restriction, and that an increased intake of fiber and essential fats (especially omega-3 fatty acids) is also important for overall heart disease risk reduction.
Paoli, A; Rubini, A; Volek, J S; Grimaldi, K A
Very-low-carbohydrate diets or ketogenic diets have been in use since the 1920s as a therapy for epilepsy and can, in some cases, completely remove the need for medication. From the 1960s onwards they have become widely known as one of the most common methods for obesity treatment. Recent work over the last decade or so has provided evidence of the therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets in many pathological conditions, such as diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, acne, neurological diseases, cancer and the amelioration of respiratory and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The possibility that modifying food intake can be useful for reducing or eliminating pharmaceutical methods of treatment, which are often lifelong with significant side effects, calls for serious investigation. This review revisits the meaning of physiological ketosis in the light of this evidence and considers possible mechanisms for the therapeutic actions of the ketogenic diet on different diseases. The present review also questions whether there are still some preconceived ideas about ketogenic diets, which may be presenting unnecessary barriers to their use as therapeutic tools in the physician's hand. PMID:23801097
Paoli, A; Rubini, A; Volek, J S; Grimaldi, K A
Very-low-carbohydrate diets or ketogenic diets have been in use since the 1920s as a therapy for epilepsy and can, in some cases, completely remove the need for medication. From the 1960s onwards they have become widely known as one of the most common methods for obesity treatment. Recent work over the last decade or so has provided evidence of the therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets in many pathological conditions, such as diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, acne, neurological diseases, cancer and the amelioration of respiratory and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The possibility that modifying food intake can be useful for reducing or eliminating pharmaceutical methods of treatment, which are often lifelong with significant side effects, calls for serious investigation. This review revisits the meaning of physiological ketosis in the light of this evidence and considers possible mechanisms for the therapeutic actions of the ketogenic diet on different diseases. The present review also questions whether there are still some preconceived ideas about ketogenic diets, which may be presenting unnecessary barriers to their use as therapeutic tools in the physician's hand.
Georgiadis, Manolis M.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Stavrou, Nektarios A.
Background: Gradual elevation of body weight leads numerous individuals to dieting and weight loss behaviours. Nevertheless, the prevalence of obesity continues to rise in industrialised countries. The examination of the motivational determinants of dietary modification ("dieting") in order to identify clusters of individuals in the…
Morales-Falo, Eva María; Sánchez-Moreno, Carmen; Esteban, Alberto; Alburquerque, Juan José; Garaulet, Marta
Introducción: El método de pérdida de peso (dieta mediterránea, terapia de comportamiento y educación nutricional) ha mostrado ser efectivo en el tratamiento de la obesidad. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar y comparar la calidad de las dietas ingeridas antes y durante el tratamiento mediante el Índice de Alimentación Saludable (IAS) y su relación con diferentes variables. Materiales y métodos: La muestra fue de 392 pacientes (330 mujeres, 62 hombres), edad 39,3 ± 11,5 años y IMC de 31,2 ± 5,3 kg/m2. A partir del recuerdo-24 h previo al tratamiento y del registro dietético 7 días se estimó el IAS de “antes” y “durante” tratamiento. El IAS consta de 10 variables que representan el cumplimiento de objetivos nutricionales para la población española (SENC, 2004). Resultados: Dieta previa, presentó un IAS “necesita mejorar” (68,6 ± 11,6) con lípidos (%) (43,9 ± 8,4) y AGS (% lípidos) (67,4 ± 20,1) elevados, además el contenido en AGM (% lípidos) (27,8 ± 15,1) fue insuficiente. El IAS varió en función del IMC siendo el de obesos inferior al de personas con sobrepeso (65,1 ± 11,6 vs 69, 2 ± 13,9; P < 0,05). La dieta ingerida durante el tratamiento mejoró notablemente IAS (91,4 ± 9,7). El IAS de las mujeres fue superior (92,3 ± 9,1) al de los hombres (84,4 ± 12,0) (P < 0,05). Aquellos que alcanzaron la meta de pérdida de peso adquirieron mejores valores de IAS durante el tratamiento que los que no la alcanzaron (92,1 ± 9,2 vs 87,9 ± 11,7) (P < 0,05). Conclusiones: Según el IAS, la calidad de la dieta estudiada durante el tratamiento de pérdida de peso mejoró significativamente en relación a la dieta habitual del paciente. El IAS de la dieta durante el tratamiento se asocia con el sexo, el estado ponderal (sobrepeso y obesidad) y con el éxito del tratamiento (> 5% de pérdida del peso inicial).
Porcello, L A
This discussion of fad diets may be concluded by comparing the 14 selected diets with the standards previously outlined for desirable weight reducing plans. Many of the popular diets supply large quantities of saturated fat and cholesterol, which are dietary components that have been associated with cardiovascular disease. Ketogenic diets are not appropriate for athletes because of problems with secondary dehydration and hyponatremia. Almost all of the diets are nutritionally inadequate. The rate of anticipated weight loss will vary according to the age, sex, weight, basal energy requirement, and activity level of an individual. However, it is expected that weight loss will be excessively rapid if a competitive athlete consumes a diet of less than 1000 calories per day. These hypocaloric diets cannot meet the training demands of athletes and will promote loss of lean body mass and carbohydrate stores. Many of the ketogenic diets do not restrict calories; therefore, weight loss will depend upon individual daily caloric consumption. The Cambridge Diet and starvation diets produce weight loss far in excess of that desired for an athlete in training. Long-term eating patterns to maintain weight loss are not encouraged in any of the 14 selected fad diets. In fact, most of these diets promote patterns of poor nutrition. Not one of the diets provides options or choices for dieters to use in accommodating food preference and lifestyle patterns. Some of the diets are fairly easy to comply with and others require special foods and supplements. None of the 14 diets reviewed fulfull all of the standards for a sound weight reduction diet plan.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Wendołowicz, Agnieszka; Konarzewska, Beata; Ostrowska, Lucyna
Introduction The research conducted among patients with depression shows that such patients commit a range of nutritional mistakes which may predispose them to the development of many diseases including obesity and its complications. Aim of the study Aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a balanced weight loss diet in a group of women with recurrent depressive disorders. Material and methods 60 women suffering from depression, aged 41-64 (mean 52 ±5.3) on a six-month weight loss diet took part in the study. The patients’ nutrition was assessed both in terms of quality and quantity, they were also subjected to anthropometric tests and their body composition was analysed. Results An average reduction in the women's body weight was 4.1 ±3.1 kg. The percentage content of the fatty tissue was reduced by 2.5 ±1.1% on average after modification of the nutrition (a statistically significant decrease in the frequency of wheat bread, cream, fat pork and eggs was observed). A considerable reduction in the mean energy value of the diet and a decrease in the total fat supply was also implemented. Conclusions It seems that the dietary procedure which is aimed at obtaining the most advantageous effects of the reduction in the body mass of obese patients suffering from depression should be based not only on proper selection of food products and reduction in the energy value of the diet, but it should also take into account actions aimed at introducing permanent lifestyle changes including increased motivation of the patients to undertake physical activity. PMID:27582679
Flannery, Brenna M; He, Kaiyu; Pestka, James J
The trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a potent ribotoxic mycotoxin produced by the cereal blight fungus Fusarium graminearum, commonly contaminates grain-based foods. Oral exposure to DON causes decreased food intake, reduced weight gain and body weight loss in experimental animals - effects that have been linked to dysregulation of hormones responsible for mediating satiety at the central nervous system level. When diet-induced obese (DIO) mice are fed DON, they consume less food, eventually achieving body weights of control diet-fed mice. Here, we extended these findings by characterizing: (1) reversibility of DON-induced body weight loss and anorexia in DIO mice and (2) the role of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) which has been previously linked to initiation of the ribotoxic stress response. The results demonstrated that DON-induced weight loss was reversible in DIO mice and this effect corresponded to initiation of a robust hyperphagic response. When DIO mice deficient in PKR were exposed to DON, they exhibited weight suppression similar to DIO wild-type fed the toxin, suggesting the toxin's weight effects were not dependent on PKR. Taken together, DON's effects on food consumption and body weight are not permanent and, furthermore, PKR is not an essential signaling molecule for DON's anorectic and weight effects.
Goday, A; Bellido, D; Sajoux, I; Crujeiras, A B; Burguera, B; García-Luna, P P; Oleaga, A; Moreno, B; Casanueva, F F
Brackground: The safety and tolerability of very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diets are a current concern in the treatment of obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Objective: Evaluating the short-term safety and tolerability of a VLCK diet (<50 g of carbohydrate daily) in an interventional weight loss program including lifestyle and behavioral modification support (Diaprokal Method) in subjects with T2DM. Methods: Eighty-nine men and women, aged between 30 and 65 years, with T2DM and body mass index between 30 and 35 kg m−2 participated in this prospective, open-label, multi-centric randomized clinical trial with a duration of 4 months. Forty-five subjects were randomly assigned to the interventional weight loss (VLCK diet), and 44 to the standard low-calorie diet. Results: No significant differences in the laboratory safety parameters were found between the two study groups. Changes in the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio in VLCK diet were not significant and were comparable to control group. Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen did not change significantly relative to baseline nor between groups. Weight loss and reduction in waist circumference in the VLCK diet group were significantly larger than in control subjects (both P<0.001). The decline in HbA1c and glycemic control was larger in the VLCK diet group (P<0.05). No serious adverse events were reported and mild AE in the VLCK diet group declined at last follow-up. Conclusions: The interventional weight loss program based on a VLCK diet is most effective in reducing body weight and improvement of glycemic control than a standard hypocaloric diet with safety and good tolerance for T2DM patients. PMID:27643725
Desgorces, F D; Le Page, C; Police, C; Neveux, N; Cottart, C H; Blanc, M C; Raison, J; Toussaint, J F; Noirez, P
Perturbations of energy balance induce compensatory processes that may alter expected weight loss. In obese patients, our aim was to investigate the relationships that occurred between fasting plasma concentrations of anorexigenic peptides and metabolic parameters, appetite, physical capacity, and weight loss in the 5 first days of a program associating exercise and caloric reduction. Thirteen obese women were monitored from day 1 to day 5 with 2 exercise sessions in day 2 and day 4. We measured, in a fasted state, changes in body weight, hunger ratings, and plasma concentrations of fatty acids, triglycerides, leptin, insulin, amylin, peptide YY, and insulin-resistance index. Physical performance was assessed by a 6-min walking test. The program resulted in significantly reduced body weight (0.75±0.4 kg; p=0.001), of plasma concentrations of triglycerides, insulin, amylin, peptide YY, and the insulin-resistance index, and also increased fatty acids (p<0.05). Hunger ratings were increased (p<0.05). Program-induced changes in fatty acids, leptin, and insulin concentrations were related to physical performance (r(2)=0.45, 0.59, and 0.52; p<0.05, respectively) and to weight loss (r(2)=0.65, 0.57, 0.55; p<0.05, respectively). Five days of diet and exercise induced weight loss, improved lipid profile, and decreased insulin resistance while hunger ratings increased. Subjects with higher physical capacity lost more weight, presented higher increases in fatty acids and lower changes of leptin and insulin concentrations suggesting a better metabolic flexibility. To reduce the compensatory responses that can occur with energy imbalances, our study supports to account for individual activity level before prescribing weight-loss program associating diet and exercise.
Tremblay, A; Lepage, C; Panahi, S; Couture, C; Drapeau, V
The aim of this study was to assess energy intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), appetite sensations, eating behaviours and sleep duration and quality in obese women resistant to body weight loss when subjected to a diet-based weight-reducing programme. A pooled cohort of obese women (n = 75; aged 39 ± 8 years; body mass index: 33 ± 4 kg m(-2)) participated in a 12-16-week diet-based weight loss programme targeting a daily energy deficit of 500-700 kcal d(-1). Women were classified in tertiles a posteriori based on the response of their body weight to dietary supervision (high, moderate and low responders). Post-intervention, mean weight loss was 3.3 ± 2.8 kg and explained by the 2.9 ± 2.6 kg reduction in fat mass. Mean weight loss was 6.2 ± 1.6, 3.4 ± 0.6 and 0.2 ± 1.4 kg in participants classified in the high, middle and low tertiles, respectively. Women in the low tertile reduced their daily energy intake and susceptibility to hunger during the programme to a lesser extent than those in the high tertile and had higher fasting hunger in response to the dietary intervention. Women in the high tertile maintained their RMR, which was in contrast to the significant decrease predicted by their weight loss. They also reported a significant improvement in sleep quality and an increase in sleep duration compared with other tertiles. The differences in the response of body weight to dietary supervision may be explained, in part, by variations in energy intake, eating behaviours, appetite sensations and sleep duration and quality.
Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; de Melo, Ingrid Sofia Vieira; de Oliveira, Suzana Lima; da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha
The role of very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in the long-term management of obesity is not well established. The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether individuals assigned to a VLCKD (i.e. a diet with no more than 50 g carbohydrates/d) achieve better long-term body weight and cardiovascular risk factor management when compared with individuals assigned to a conventional low-fat diet (LFD; i.e. a restricted-energy diet with less than 30% of energy from fat). Through August 2012, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ScienceDirect,Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, ClinicalTrials.gov and grey literature databases were searched, using no date or language restrictions, for randomised controlled trials that assigned adults to a VLCKD or a LFD, with 12 months or more of follow-up. The primary outcome was bodyweight. The secondary outcomes were TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic and diastolic blood pressure,glucose, insulin, HbA1c and C-reactive protein levels. A total of thirteen studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. In the overall analysis,five outcomes revealed significant results. Individuals assigned to a VLCKD showed decreased body weight (weighted mean difference 20·91 (95% CI 21·65, 20·17) kg, 1415 patients), TAG (weighted mean difference 20·18 (95% CI 20·27, 20·08) mmol/l, 1258 patients)and diastolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference 21·43 (95% CI 22·49, 20·37) mmHg, 1298 patients) while increased HDL-C(weighted mean difference 0·09 (95% CI 0·06, 0·12) mmol/l, 1257 patients) and LDL-C (weighted mean difference 0·12 (95% CI 0·04,0·2) mmol/l, 1255 patients). Individuals assigned to a VLCKD achieve a greater weight loss than those assigned to a LFD in the longterm; hence, a VLCKD may be an alternative tool against obesity.
Qi, Qibin; Durst, Ronen; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Leitersdorf, Eran; Shpitzen, Shoshi; Li, Yanping; Wu, Hongyu; Champagne, Catherine M; Hu, Frank B; Stampfer, Meir J; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Shai, Iris; Qi, Lu
Little is known about whether cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) genetic variation may modify the effect of weight-loss diets varying in fat content on changes in lipid levels. We analyzed the interaction between the CETP variant rs3764261 and dietary interventions on changes in lipid levels among 732 overweight/obese adults from a 2 year randomized weight-loss trial [Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST)], and replicated the findings in 171 overweight/obese adults from an independent 2 year weight-loss trial [Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT)]. In the POUNDS LOST, participants with the CETP rs3764261 CC genotype on the high-fat diet had larger increases in HDL cholesterol (P = 0.001) and decreases in triglycerides (P = 0.007) than those on the low-fat diet at 6 months, while no significant difference between these two diets was observed among participants carrying other genotypes. The gene-diet interactions on changes in HDL-cholesterol and tri-glyc-erides were replicated in the DIRECT (pooled P for interaction ≤ 0.01). Similar results on trajectory of changes in HDL cholesterol and triglycerides over the 2 year intervention were observed in both trials. Our study provides replicable evidence that individuals with the CETP rs3764261 CC genotype might derive greater effects on raising HDL cholesterol and lowering triglycerides by choosing a low-carbohydrate/high-fat weight-loss diet instead of a low-fat diet.
Qi, Qibin; Durst, Ronen; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Leitersdorf, Eran; Shpitzen, Shoshi; Li, Yanping; Wu, Hongyu; Champagne, Catherine M.; Hu, Frank B.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Bray, George A.; Sacks, Frank M.; Shai, Iris; Qi, Lu
Little is known about whether cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) genetic variation may modify the effect of weight-loss diets varying in fat content on changes in lipid levels. We analyzed the interaction between the CETP variant rs3764261 and dietary interventions on changes in lipid levels among 732 overweight/obese adults from a 2 year randomized weight-loss trial [Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST)], and replicated the findings in 171 overweight/obese adults from an independent 2 year weight-loss trial [Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT)]. In the POUNDS LOST, participants with the CETP rs3764261 CC genotype on the high-fat diet had larger increases in HDL cholesterol (P = 0.001) and decreases in triglycerides (P = 0.007) than those on the low-fat diet at 6 months, while no significant difference between these two diets was observed among participants carrying other genotypes. The gene-diet interactions on changes in HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were replicated in the DIRECT (pooled P for interaction ≤ 0.01). Similar results on trajectory of changes in HDL cholesterol and triglycerides over the 2 year intervention were observed in both trials. Our study provides replicable evidence that individuals with the CETP rs3764261 CC genotype might derive greater effects on raising HDL cholesterol and lowering triglycerides by choosing a low-carbohydrate/high-fat weight-loss diet instead of a low-fat diet. PMID:25548261
Madruga, Samanta W; Azevedo, Mario Renato de; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Menezes, Ana M B; Hallal, Pedro C
Evidence has shown the negative effects of unsupervised diets and those with excessive calorie restriction. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of adolescents engaging in weight loss dieting and associated factors. This was a cross-sectional study of 4,452 adolescents born in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 1993. The outcome was defined as adolescents that reported having practiced some type of weight loss dieting in the previous 12 months. Prevalence of such dieting was 8.6% (95%CI: 7.7;9.4), and was higher in girls. Elevated maternal body mass index (BMI) was associated with dieting among girls. The adolescent's and parents' view of the adolescent's weight, excess weight, and consumption of diet or light soft drinks were associated with adolescent dieting. There was a positive association between dieting and socioeconomic status. The findings provide important backing for policies aimed at improving adolescents' diet, since they express a major concern over weight and thus a significant percentage of individuals with erroneous and unhealthy behaviors.
Pilvi, Taru K; Harala, Saara; Korpela, Riitta; Mervaala, Eero M
The aim of the study was to compare the effect of different whey protein-containing high-Ca diets on weight loss and weight regain in a model of diet-induced obesity. Obesity was induced in C57BL/6J mice with a high-fat (60 % of energy) diet. Weight loss by energy restriction was performed on four different high-Ca diets (1.8 % CaCO3) containing different whey proteins (18 % of energy): alpha-lactalbumin (ALA), beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), lactoferrin (LF) and whey protein isolate (WPI). After 7 weeks of energy restriction some of the mice were killed and the rest were fed with the same diets ad libitum for 7 weeks. The mice on the LF diet lost significantly more weight than mice on the WPI diet. The body fat content in the ALA and LF groups was significantly lower than in the WPI group (P < 0.05) and the LF group differed significantly even from the BLG group (P < 0.05). Ad libitum feeding after weight loss resulted in weight regain in all groups and only the ALA diet significantly reduced fat accumulation during weight regain. The weight regain was most pronounced in the LF group, but the adipocyte size was still significantly smaller than in the other groups. There were no differences in food intake or apparent fat digestibility between the groups. It can be concluded that a high-Ca diet with ALA significantly improves the outcome of weight loss and subsequent weight regain during the feeding of a high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice, in comparison with WPI.
Imayama, Ikuyo; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Alfano, Catherine M; Wang, Chiachi; Xiao, Liren; Wener, Mark H; Campbell, Kristin L; Duggan, Catherine; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Kong, Angela; Mason, Caitlin E; Wang, Ching-Yun; Blackburn, George L; Bain, Carolyn E; Thompson, Henry J; McTiernan, Anne
Obese and sedentary persons have increased risk for cancer; inflammation is a hypothesized mechanism. We examined the effects of a caloric restriction weight loss diet and exercise on inflammatory biomarkers in 439 women. Overweight and obese postmenopausal women were randomized to 1-year: caloric restriction diet (goal of 10% weight loss, N = 118), aerobic exercise (225 min/wk of moderate-to-vigorous activity, N = 117), combined diet + exercise (N = 117), or control (N = 87). Baseline and 1-year high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), leukocyte, and neutrophil levels were measured by investigators blind to group. Inflammatory biomarker changes were compared using generalized estimating equations. Models were adjusted for baseline body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, and age. Four hundred and thirty-eight (N = 1 in diet + exercise group was excluded) were analyzed. Relative to controls, hs-CRP decreased by geometric mean (95% confidence interval, P value): 0.92 mg/L (0.53-1.31, P < 0.001) in the diet and 0.87 mg/L (0.51-1.23, P < 0.0001) in the diet + exercise groups. IL-6 decreased by 0.34 pg/mL (0.13-0.55, P = 0.001) in the diet and 0.32 pg/mL (0.15-0.49, P < 0.001) in the diet + exercise groups. Neutrophil counts decreased by 0.31 × 10(9)/L (0.09-0.54, P = 0.006) in the diet and 0.30 × 10(9)/L (0.09-0.50, P = 0.005) in the diet + exercise groups. Diet and diet + exercise participants with 5% or more weight loss reduced inflammatory biomarkers (hs-CRP, SAA, and IL-6) compared with controls. The diet and diet + exercise groups reduced hs-CRP in all subgroups of baseline BMI, waist circumference, CRP level, and fasting glucose. Our findings indicate that a caloric restriction weight loss diet with or without exercise reduces biomarkers of inflammation in postmenopausal women, with potential clinical significance for cancer risk reduction.
Badman, Michael K; Kennedy, Adam R; Adams, Andrew C; Pissios, Pavlos; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria
In mice of normal weight and with diet-induced obesity, a high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) causes weight loss, reduced circulating glucose and lipids, and dramatic changes in hepatic gene expression. Many of the effects of KD are mediated by fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). We tested the effects of KD feeding on ob/ob mice to determine if metabolic effects would occur in obesity secondarily to leptin deficiency. We evaluated the effect of prolonged KD feeding on weight, energy homeostasis, circulating metabolites, glucose homeostasis, and gene expression. Subsequently, we evaluated the effects of leptin and fasting on FGF21 expression in ob/ob mice. KD feeding of ob/ob mice normalized fasting glycemia and substantially reduced insulin and lipid levels in the absence of weight loss. KD feeding was associated with significant increases in lipid oxidative genes and reduced expression of lipid synthetic genes, including stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1, but no change in expression of inflammatory markers. In chow-fed ob/ob mice, FGF21 mRNA was elevated 10-fold compared with wild-type animals, and no increase from this elevated baseline was seen with KD feeding. Administration of leptin to chow-fed ob/ob mice led to a 24-fold induction of FGF21. Fasting also induced hepatic FGF21 in ob/ob mice. Thus, KD feeding improved ob/ob mouse glucose homeostasis without weight loss or altered caloric intake. These data demonstrate that manipulation of dietary macronutrient composition can lead to marked improvements in metabolic profile of leptin-deficient obese mice in the absence of weight loss.
Bertz, Fredrik; Sparud-Lundin, Carina; Winkvist, Anna
The increase in overweight and obesity among women is a growing concern, and reproduction is associated with persistent weight gain. We have shown that dietary behavioural modification treatment, with or without exercise, results in weight loss and maintenance of weight loss. The aim of this study was to provide an explanatory model of how overweight and obese women achieve weight loss during, and after, participating in a post-partum diet and/or exercise intervention. Using Grounded Theory, we performed and analysed 29 interviews with 21 women in a 12-week Swedish post-partum lifestyle intervention with a 9-month follow-up. Interviews were made after the intervention and at the 9-month follow-up. To overcome initial barriers to weight loss, the women needed a 'Catalytic Interaction' (CI) from the care provider. It depended on individualised, concrete, specific and useful information, and an emotional bond through joint commitment, trust and accountability. Weight loss was underpinned by gradual introduction of conventional health behaviours. However, the implementation depended on the experience of the core category process 'Transformative Lifestyle Change' (TLC). This developed through a transformative process of reciprocal changes in cognitions, emotions, body, environment, behaviours and perceived self. Women accomplishing the stages of the TLC process were successful in weight loss, in contrast to those who did not. The TLC process, dependent on initiation through CI, led to implementation and integration of recognised health behaviours, resulting in sustainable weight loss. The TLC model, including the CI construct and definition of barriers, facilitators and strategies provides an explanatory model of this process.
Sørensen, Thorkild I. A; Boutin, Philippe; Taylor, Moira A; Larsen, Lesli H; Verdich, Camilla; Petersen, Liselotte; Holst, Claus; Echwald, Søren M; Dina, Christian; Toubro, Søren; Petersen, Martin; Polak, Jan; Clément, Karine; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Langin, Dominique; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Stich, Vladimir; Macdonald, Ian; Arner, Peter; Saris, Wim H. M; Pedersen, Oluf; Astrup, Arne; Froguel, Philippe
Objectives: To study if genes with common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with obesity-related phenotypes influence weight loss (WL) in obese individuals treated by a hypo-energetic low-fat or high-fat diet. Design: Randomised, parallel, two-arm, open-label multi-centre trial. Setting: Eight clinical centres in seven European countries. Participants: 771 obese adult individuals. Interventions: 10-wk dietary intervention to hypo-energetic (−600 kcal/d) diets with a targeted fat energy of 20%–25% or 40%–45%, completed in 648 participants. Outcome Measures: WL during the 10 wk in relation to genotypes of 42 SNPs in 26 candidate genes, probably associated with hypothalamic regulation of appetite, efficiency of energy expenditure, regulation of adipocyte differentiation and function, lipid and glucose metabolism, or production of adipocytokines, determined in 642 participants. Results: Compared with the noncarriers of each of the SNPs, and after adjusting for gender, age, baseline weight and centre, heterozygotes showed WL differences that ranged from −0.6 to 0.8 kg, and homozygotes, from −0.7 to 3.1 kg. Genotype-dependent additional WL on low-fat diet ranged from 1.9 to −1.6 kg in heterozygotes, and from 3.8 kg to −2.1 kg in homozygotes relative to the noncarriers. Considering the multiple testing conducted, none of the associations was statistically significant. Conclusions: Polymorphisms in a panel of obesity-related candidate genes play a minor role, if any, in modulating weight changes induced by a moderate hypo-energetic low-fat or high-fat diet. PMID:16871334
Cheng, Hoi Lun; Griffin, Hayley J; Bryant, Christian E; Rooney, Kieron B; Steinbeck, Katharine S; O'Connor, Helen T
Young overweight women are at risk of iron and zinc deficiency. This study assessed iron, zinc and inflammatory status during a 12-month weight loss trial in young women (18-25 y; BMI >=27.5 kg/m2) randomised to a higher-protein (HP: 32% protein; 12.2 mg/day iron; 11.7 mg/day zinc) or lower-protein (LP: 20%; 9.9 mg/day; 7.6 mg/day respectively) diet with contrasting haem iron and zinc content. In completers (HP: n=21; LP: n=15), HP participants showed higher median ferritin (52.0 vs 39.0 μg/L; p=0.021) and lower median soluble transferrin receptor-ferritin index (sTfR-F; 0.89 vs 1.05; p=0.024) although concentrations remained within normal range for both diets. Median C-reactive protein (CRP; HP: 3.54; LP: 4.63 mg/L) and hepcidin (HP: 5.70; LP: 8.25 ng/mL) were not elevated at baseline, and no longitudinal between-diet differences were observed for zinc and CRP. Compared to those with <5% weight loss, HP participants losing >=10% weight showed lower median sTfR-F (0.76 vs 1.03; p=0.019) at six months. Impact of >=10% weight loss on iron was more apparent in LP participants who exhibited greater mean serum iron (20.0 vs 13.5 μmol/L; p=0.002), transferrin saturation (29.8% vs 19.4%; p=0.001) and lower sTfR (1.24 vs 1.92 mg/L; p=0.034) at 12 months. Results show normal iron and zinc status can be maintained during 12 months of energy restriction. In the absence of elevated baseline inflammation and hepcidin, a more favourable iron profile in those with >=10% weight loss may reflect stronger compliance or the potential influence of iron regulatory mechanisms unrelated to inflammatory hepcidin reduction.
Gao, Zhaohui; Novick, Marsha; Muller, Matthew D; Williams, Ronald J; Spilk, Samson; Leuenberger, Urs A; Sinoway, Lawrence I
Obesity is a disease of oxidative stress (OS). Acute hyperoxia (breathing 100 % O(2)) can evoke coronary vasoconstriction by the oxidative quenching of nitric oxide (NO). To examine if weight loss would alter the hyperoxia-related coronary constriction seen in obese adolescents, we measured the coronary blood flow velocity (CBV) response to hyperoxia using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography before and after a 4-week diet and exercise regimen in 6 obese male adolescents (age 13-17 years, BMI 36.5 ± 2.3 kg/m(2)). Six controls of similar age and BMI were also studied. The intervention group lost 9 ± 1 % body weight, which was associated with a reduced resting heart rate (HR), reduced diastolic blood pressure (BP), and reduced RPP (all P < 0.05). Before weight loss, hyperoxia reduced CBV by 33 ± 3 %. After weight loss, CBV only fell by 15 ± 3 % (P < 0.05). In the control group, CBV responses to hyperoxia were unchanged during the two trials. Thus weight loss: (1) reduces HR, BP, and RPP; and (2) attenuates the OS-related coronary constrictor response seen in obese adolescents. We postulate that: (1) the high RPP before weight loss led to higher myocardial O(2) consumption, higher coronary flow and greater NO production, and in turn a large constrictor response to hyperoxia; and (2) weight loss decreased myocardial oxygen demand and NO levels. Under these circumstances, hyperoxia-induced vasoconstriction was attenuated.
Guo, Emily L.; Katta, Rajani
Patients presenting with hair loss should be screened by medical history, dietary history and physical exam for risk factors for nutrient deficiency. If warranted, laboratory studies may be performed. In patients with no risk factors, further laboratory evaluation searching for nutritional deficiencies is not warranted. For patients with nutritional deficiencies, it is clear that those deficiencies should be corrected. Further research is required to determine whether any benefit exists for nutrient supplementation in the absence of documented deficiency. At this time, patients must be informed that such research is lacking and that in fact some supplements carry the risk of worsening hair loss or the risk of toxicity. PMID:28243487
Guo, Emily L; Katta, Rajani
Patients presenting with hair loss should be screened by medical history, dietary history and physical exam for risk factors for nutrient deficiency. If warranted, laboratory studies may be performed. In patients with no risk factors, further laboratory evaluation searching for nutritional deficiencies is not warranted. For patients with nutritional deficiencies, it is clear that those deficiencies should be corrected. Further research is required to determine whether any benefit exists for nutrient supplementation in the absence of documented deficiency. At this time, patients must be informed that such research is lacking and that in fact some supplements carry the risk of worsening hair loss or the risk of toxicity.
Bommarco, Riccardo; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C; Meyer, Birgit; Potts, Simon G; Pöyry, Juha; Roberts, Stuart P M; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Ockinger, Erik
Habitat loss poses a major threat to biodiversity, and species-specific extinction risks are inextricably linked to life-history characteristics. This relationship is still poorly documented for many functionally important taxa, and at larger continental scales. With data from five replicated field studies from three countries, we examined how species richness of wild bees varies with habitat patch size. We hypothesized that the form of this relationship is affected by body size, degree of host plant specialization and sociality. Across all species, we found a positive species-area slope (z = 0.19), and species traits modified this relationship. Large-bodied generalists had a lower z value than small generalists. Contrary to predictions, small specialists had similar or slightly lower z value compared with large specialists, and small generalists also tended to be more strongly affected by habitat loss as compared with small specialists. Social bees were negatively affected by habitat loss (z = 0.11) irrespective of body size. We conclude that habitat loss leads to clear shifts in the species composition of wild bee communities.
Siersbæk, Majken; Varticovski, Lyuba; Yang, Shutong; Baek, Songjoon; Nielsen, Ronni; Mandrup, Susanne; Hager, Gordon L; Chung, Jay H; Grøntved, Lars
Epigenetic factors have been suggested to play an important role in metabolic memory by trapping and maintaining initial metabolic changes within the transcriptional regulatory machinery. In this study we fed mice a high fat diet (HFD) for seven weeks followed by additional five weeks of chow, to identify HFD-mediated changes to the hepatic transcriptional program that may persist after weight loss. Mice fed a HFD displayed increased fasting insulin levels, hepatosteatosis and major changes in hepatic gene transcription associated with modulation of H3K27Ac at enhancers, but no significant changes in chromatin accessibility, indicating that HFD-regulated gene transcription is primarily controlled by modulating the activity of pre-established enhancers. After return to the same body weight as chow fed control mice, the fasting insulin, glucose, and hepatic triglyceride levels were fully restored to normal levels. Moreover, HFD-regulated H3K27Ac and mRNA levels returned to similar levels as control mice. These data demonstrates that the transcription regulatory landscape in the liver induced by HFD is highly dynamic and can be reversed by weight loss. This provides hope for efficient treatment of early obesity-associated changes to hepatic complications by simple weight loss intervention without persistent reprograming of the liver transcriptome.
Siersbæk, Majken; Varticovski, Lyuba; Yang, Shutong; Baek, Songjoon; Nielsen, Ronni; Mandrup, Susanne; Hager, Gordon L.; Chung, Jay H.; Grøntved, Lars
Epigenetic factors have been suggested to play an important role in metabolic memory by trapping and maintaining initial metabolic changes within the transcriptional regulatory machinery. In this study we fed mice a high fat diet (HFD) for seven weeks followed by additional five weeks of chow, to identify HFD-mediated changes to the hepatic transcriptional program that may persist after weight loss. Mice fed a HFD displayed increased fasting insulin levels, hepatosteatosis and major changes in hepatic gene transcription associated with modulation of H3K27Ac at enhancers, but no significant changes in chromatin accessibility, indicating that HFD-regulated gene transcription is primarily controlled by modulating the activity of pre-established enhancers. After return to the same body weight as chow fed control mice, the fasting insulin, glucose, and hepatic triglyceride levels were fully restored to normal levels. Moreover, HFD-regulated H3K27Ac and mRNA levels returned to similar levels as control mice. These data demonstrates that the transcription regulatory landscape in the liver induced by HFD is highly dynamic and can be reversed by weight loss. This provides hope for efficient treatment of early obesity-associated changes to hepatic complications by simple weight loss intervention without persistent reprograming of the liver transcriptome. PMID:28071704
Tabet, Fatiha; Cuesta Torres, Luisa F.; Ong, Kwok Leung; Shrestha, Sudichhya; Choteau, Sébastien A.; Barter, Philip J.; Clifton, Peter; Rye, Kerry-Anne
Background and Aims microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenous non-coding RNAs that regulate metabolic processes, including obesity. The levels of circulating miRNAs are affected by metabolic changes in obesity, as well as in diet-induced weight loss. Circulating miRNAs are transported by high-density lipoproteins (HDL) but the regulation of HDL-associated miRNAs after diet-induced weight loss has not been studied. We aim to determine if HDL-associated miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223 levels are altered by diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese males. Methods HDL were isolated from 47 subjects following 12 weeks weight loss comparing a high protein diet (HP, 30% of energy) with a normal protein diet (NP, 20% of energy). HDL-associated miRNAs (miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223) at baseline and after 12 weeks of weight loss were quantified by TaqMan miRNA assays. HDL particle sizes were determined by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. Serum concentrations of human HDL constituents were measured immunoturbidometrically or enzymatically. Results miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223 were present on HDL from overweight and obese subjects at baseline and after 12 weeks of the HP and NP weight loss diets. The HP diet induced a significant decrease in HDL-associated miR-223 levels (p = 0.015), which positively correlated with changes in body weight (r = 0.488, p = 0.032). Changes in miR-223 levels were not associated to changes in HDL composition or size. Conclusion HDL-associated miR-223 levels are significantly decreased after HP diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese males. This is the first study reporting changes in HDL-associated miRNA levels with diet-induced weight loss. PMID:26962854
Palma, D; Oliva, C A; Taddei, J A; Fagundes-Neto, U
Forty weaned male infants were studied during their first year of life, all hospitalized with acute diarrhea in the Gastroenterology and Metabolism Unit of the Hospital "Umberto I", São Paulo, SP, Brazil. We evaluated and quantified water fecal losses, employing the metabolic bed technique, relating the feeding formula employed with the different causal enteropathogenic agents. 67.5% of the studied infants were under six months and 40% under three months of age. Two groups were randomly assembled to receive, lactose or lactose free feeding formulae. Twenty one patients received a lactose-containing formula (Ninho 10%) and the other 19 children were fed caseine (Portagen) formulae. According to coproculture results and identification of enteropathogenic agents, we divided the studied infants relating feeding formula with the presence or absence of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC): I-13 with positive coproculture for EPEC and diets which included lactose--(L/EPEC+); II--eight with negative coproculture for EPEC and diets which included lactose--(L/EPEC-); III--seven with positive coproculture for EPEC and lactose free diets--(G/EPEC+); IV--12 with negative coproculture for EPEC and lactose free diets. (G/EPEC-). The most frequently isolated agent at coproculture was EPEC, in 20 of the cases (50%), followed by Campylobacter (7.5%). It was also possible to observe that the frequencies of EIEC, Salmonella and Rotavirus were all equal (2.5%). Mixed infections occurred only between EPEC and EIEC, registering a frequency of 5%. The EIEC samples, associated to EPEC 0111 were serotyped as 0 28 ac: H- and 0 152:H-. The use of metabolic bed made the evaluation of fecal volumes possible by a simple and quick technique, thus allowing a closer clinical monitoring, as well as a more reliable evaluation of the patients hospitalized with acute diarrhea. Average acceptance volumes of the formulae--either with or without lactose--were always below the amount recommended
Urs, Sumithra; Henderson, Terry; Le, Phuong; Rosen, Clifford J.; Liaw, Lucy
We recently characterized Sprouty1 (Spry1), a growth factor signaling inhibitor as a regulator of marrow progenitor cells promoting osteoblast differentiation at the expense of adipocytes. Adipose tissue specific Spry1 expression in mice resulted in increased bone mass and reduced body fat while conditional knockout of Spry1 had the opposite effect with decreased bone and increased body fat. Because Spry1 suppresses normal fat development, we tested the hypothesis that Spry1 expression prevents high fat diet-induced obesity, bone loss, and associated lipid abnormalities and demonstrate that Spry1 has a long-term protective effect on mice fed a high caloric diet. We studied diet-induced obesity in mice with fatty acid binding promoter (aP2)-driven expression or conditional knockout of Spry1 in adipocytes. Phenotyping was performed by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microCT, histology and blood analysis. In conditional Spry1 null mice, high fat diet increased body fat by 40%, impaired glucose regulation, and led to liver steatosis. However, over-expression of Spry1 led to 35% lower body fat, reduced bone loss, and normal metabolic function compared to single transgenics. This protective phenotype was associated with decreased circulating insulin (70%) and leptin (54%) compared to controls on a high fat diet. Additionally, Spry1 expression decreased adipose tissue inflammation by 45%. We show that conditional Spry1 expression in adipose tissue protects against high fat diet-induced obesity and associated bone loss. PMID:22142492
Duckworth, Lauren C; Gately, Paul J; Radley, Duncan; Cooke, Carlton B; King, Roderick F G J; Hill, Andrew J
This study aimed to evaluate the weight loss and hunger motivation effects of an energy-restricted high-protein (HP) diet in overweight and obese children. In total, 95 overweight and obese children attended an 8-week (maximum) program of physical activity, reduced-energy intake, and behavior change education. Children were randomly assigned to one of two isoenergetic diets (standard (SP): 15% protein; HP: 25% protein), based on individually estimated energy requirements. Anthropometry and body composition were assessed at the start and end of the program and appetite and mood ratings completed on the first 3 consecutive weekdays of each week children attended camp. The HP diet had no greater effect on weight loss, body composition, or changes in appetite or mood when compared to the SP diet. Overall, campers lost 5.2 +/- 3.0 kg in body weight and reduced their BMI standard deviation score (sds) by 0.25. Ratings of desire to eat increased significantly over the duration of the intervention, irrespective of diet. This is the third time we have reported an increase in hunger motivation in weight-loss campers and replicates our previous failure to block this with a higher protein diet. Further work is warranted into the management of hunger motivation as a result of negative energy balance.
Gibson, Cheryl A; Kirk, Erik P; LeCheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W; Huang, Guoyuan; Donnelly, Joseph E
Background To adequately assess individual studies and synthesize quantitative research on weight loss studies, transparent reporting of data is required. The authors examined the reporting quality of randomized trials in the weight loss literature, focusing exclusively on subject characteristics as they relate to enrollment, allocation, and follow-up. Methods An extensive literature review, which included a computerized search of the MEDLINE database, manual searches of bibliographic references, and cross-referencing of 92 review articles was conducted. A checklist, based on CONSORT recommendations, was used to collect information on whether or not authors reported age, gender, co-morbid disease, medication use, race/ethnicity, and postmenopausal status. Also tracked was whether or not initial and final sample size was reported and stratified by gender. Results Of 604 possible articles, 231 articles met eligibility criteria. Important subject characteristics were not reported as the following breakdown indicates: age (11%), gender (4%), race/ethnicity (86%), co-morbid disease states (34%), and medication use (92%). Additionally, 21% of articles failed to report initial sample size by gender while 69% neglected to report final sample size by gender. Conclusion Inadequate reporting can create difficulties with interpretation and can lead to biased results receiving false credibility. The quality of reporting for weight loss studies needs considerable improvement. PMID:15727681
Sainsbury, A; Evans, I R; Wood, R E; Seimon, R V; King, N A; Hills, A P; Byrne, N M
The majority of weight loss studies fail to standardize conditions such as diet and exercise via a weight maintenance period prior to commencement of the trial. This study aimed to determine whether a weight stabilization period is necessary to establish stable baseline hormone concentrations. Fifty-one obese male participants with a body mass index of 30-40 kg m(-2) and aged 25-54 years underwent 4 weeks on an energy balance diet that was designed to achieve weight stability. Blood samples were collected in the fasting state at commencement and completion of the 4-week period, and circulating concentrations of 18 commonly measured hormones were determined. During the 4-week weight maintenance period, participants achieved weight stability within -1.5 ± 0.2 kg (-1.4 ± 0.2%) of their initial body weight. Significant reductions in serum insulin (by 18 ± 6.5%) and leptin (by 21 ± 6.0%) levels occurred, but no significant changes were observed for gut-derived appetite-regulating hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY), nor thyroid, adrenal, gonadal or somatotropic hormones. There were no significant correlations between the change in body weight and the change in circulating concentrations of insulin or leptin over the 4-week period, indicating that the observed changes were not due to weight loss, albeit significant negative correlations were observed between the changes in body weight and plasma ghrelin and peptide YY levels. This study demonstrates the need for baseline weight maintenance periods to stabilize serum levels of insulin and leptin in studies specifically investigating effects on these parameters in the obese. However, this does not apply to circulating levels of gut-derived appetite-regulating hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY), nor thyroid, adrenal, gonadal or somatotropic hormones.
Hannah, William N; Harrison, Stephen A
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is the most common liver disease in developed countries. Weight reduction of 3% to 5% is associated with improved steatosis; reductions of 5% to 7% are necessary for decreased inflammation; with 7% to 10%, individuals may experience NAFLD/NASH remission and regression of fibrosis. No specific dietary intervention has proven beneficial beyond calorie restriction. Physical activity without weight loss seems to decrease hepatic steatosis. Bariatric surgery is associated with decreased cardiovascular risk and improved overall mortality in addition to reduction in hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis.
Schreurs, A. -S.; Shirazi-Fard, Y.; Shahnazari, M.; Alwood, J. S.; Truong, T. A.; Tahimic, C. G. T.; Limoli, C. L.; Turner, N. D.; Halloran, B.; Globus, R. K.
Bone loss caused by ionizing radiation is a potential health concern for radiotherapy patients, radiation workers and astronauts. In animal studies, exposure to ionizing radiation increases oxidative damage in skeletal tissues, and results in an imbalance in bone remodeling initiated by increased bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Therefore, we evaluated various candidate interventions with antioxidant or antiinflammatory activities (antioxidant cocktail, dihydrolipoic acid, ibuprofen, dried plum) both for their ability to blunt the expression of resorption-related genes in marrow cells after irradiation with either gamma rays (photons, 2 Gy) or simulated space radiation (protons and heavy ions, 1 Gy) and to prevent bone loss. Dried plum was most effective in reducing the expression of genes related to bone resorption (Nfe2l2, Rankl, Mcp1, Opg, TNF-α) and also preventing later cancellous bone decrements caused by irradiation with either photons or heavy ions. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with DP may prevent the skeletal effects of radiation exposures either in space or on Earth.
Schreurs, A. -S.; Shirazi-Fard, Y.; Shahnazari, M.; ...
Bone loss caused by ionizing radiation is a potential health concern for radiotherapy patients, radiation workers and astronauts. In animal studies, exposure to ionizing radiation increases oxidative damage in skeletal tissues, and results in an imbalance in bone remodeling initiated by increased bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Therefore, we evaluated various candidate interventions with antioxidant or antiinflammatory activities (antioxidant cocktail, dihydrolipoic acid, ibuprofen, dried plum) both for their ability to blunt the expression of resorption-related genes in marrow cells after irradiation with either gamma rays (photons, 2 Gy) or simulated space radiation (protons and heavy ions, 1 Gy) and to prevent bone loss.more » Dried plum was most effective in reducing the expression of genes related to bone resorption (Nfe2l2, Rankl, Mcp1, Opg, TNF-α) and also preventing later cancellous bone decrements caused by irradiation with either photons or heavy ions. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with DP may prevent the skeletal effects of radiation exposures either in space or on Earth.« less
Schreurs, A-S; Shirazi-Fard, Y; Shahnazari, M; Alwood, J S; Truong, T A; Tahimic, C G T; Limoli, C L; Turner, N D; Halloran, B; Globus, R K
Bone loss caused by ionizing radiation is a potential health concern for radiotherapy patients, radiation workers and astronauts. In animal studies, exposure to ionizing radiation increases oxidative damage in skeletal tissues, and results in an imbalance in bone remodeling initiated by increased bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Therefore, we evaluated various candidate interventions with antioxidant or anti-inflammatory activities (antioxidant cocktail, dihydrolipoic acid, ibuprofen, dried plum) both for their ability to blunt the expression of resorption-related genes in marrow cells after irradiation with either gamma rays (photons, 2 Gy) or simulated space radiation (protons and heavy ions, 1 Gy) and to prevent bone loss. Dried plum was most effective in reducing the expression of genes related to bone resorption (Nfe2l2, Rankl, Mcp1, Opg, TNF-α) and also preventing later cancellous bone decrements caused by irradiation with either photons or heavy ions. Thus, dietary supplementation with DP may prevent the skeletal effects of radiation exposures either in space or on Earth.
Schreurs, A.-S.; Shirazi-Fard, Y.; Shahnazari, M.; Alwood, J. S.; Truong, T. A.; Tahimic, C. G. T.; Limoli, C. L.; Turner, N. D.; Halloran, B.; Globus, R. K.
Bone loss caused by ionizing radiation is a potential health concern for radiotherapy patients, radiation workers and astronauts. In animal studies, exposure to ionizing radiation increases oxidative damage in skeletal tissues, and results in an imbalance in bone remodeling initiated by increased bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Therefore, we evaluated various candidate interventions with antioxidant or anti-inflammatory activities (antioxidant cocktail, dihydrolipoic acid, ibuprofen, dried plum) both for their ability to blunt the expression of resorption-related genes in marrow cells after irradiation with either gamma rays (photons, 2 Gy) or simulated space radiation (protons and heavy ions, 1 Gy) and to prevent bone loss. Dried plum was most effective in reducing the expression of genes related to bone resorption (Nfe2l2, Rankl, Mcp1, Opg, TNF-α) and also preventing later cancellous bone decrements caused by irradiation with either photons or heavy ions. Thus, dietary supplementation with DP may prevent the skeletal effects of radiation exposures either in space or on Earth. PMID:26867002
Having lived through the Great Depression and World War II, older adults now face the challenge of vision loss in record numbers. Depression is closely associated with functional loss and social isolation in late-life vision loss. The principles of assisting those who are aging will also benefit those who are aging with a visual impairment. They…
Al-Barazanji, Kamal; McNulty, Judi; Binz, Jane; Generaux, Claudia; Benson, William; Young, Andrew; Chen, Lihong
G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed predominantly in pancreatic β-cells and gastrointestinal enteroendocrine cells. Metformin is a first-line treatment of type 2 diabetes, with minimal weight loss in humans. In this study, we investigated the effects of GSK2041706 [2-([(1S)-1-(1-[3-(1-methylethyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-4-piperidinyl)ethyl]oxy)-5-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]pyrazine], a GPR119 agonist, and metformin as monotherapy or in combination on body weight in a diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model. Relative to vehicle controls, 14-day treatment with GSK2041706 (30 mg/kg b.i.d.) or metformin at 30 and 100 mg/kg b.i.d. alone caused a 7.4%, 3.5%, and 4.4% (all P < 0.05) weight loss, respectively. The combination of GSK2041706 with metformin at 30 or 100 mg/kg resulted in a 9.5% and 16.7% weight loss, respectively. The combination of GSK2041706 and metformin at 100 mg/kg caused a significantly greater weight loss than the projected additive weight loss of 11.8%. This body weight effect was predominantly due to a loss of fat. Cumulative food intake was reduced by 17.1% with GSK2041706 alone and 6.6% and 8.7% with metformin at 30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively. The combination of GSK2041706 with metformin caused greater reductions in cumulative food intake (22.2% at 30 mg/kg and 37.5% at 100 mg/kg) and higher fed plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide tyrosine tyrosine levels and decreased plasma insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide levels compared with their monotherapy groups. In addition, we characterized the effect of GSK2041706 and metformin as monotherapy or in combination on neuronal activation in the appetite regulating centers in fasted DIO mice. In conclusion, our data demonstrate the beneficial effects of combining a GPR119 agonist with metformin in the regulation of body weight in DIO mice.
Trevaskis, James L; Turek, Victoria F; Wittmer, Carrie; Griffin, Peter S; Wilson, Julie K; Reynolds, James M; Zhao, Yu; Mack, Christine M; Parkes, David G; Roth, Jonathan D
In rodents, ovariectomy (OVX) elicits weight gain and diminished responsiveness to homeostatic signals. Here we characterized the response of obese OVX rats to peripheral amylin. Rats received sham surgery (SHAM), OVX, or OVX with hormonal replacement (17β-estradiol, 2 μg per 4 d; OVX+E) and were infused with vehicle or amylin (50 μg/kg · d) for 28 d. Amylin reduced body weight (5.1 ± 1.1%) and food intake (10.9 ± 3.4%) in SHAM rats but was twice as efficacious in OVX rats in reducing weight (11.2 ± 1.9%) and food intake (23.0 ± 2.0%). There were no differences between amylin-treated SHAM and OVX+E rats. OVX decreased metabolic rate (∼24%) and increased respiratory exchange ratio relative to SHAM. Amylin partially normalized metabolic rate (13% increase) in OVX rats and decreased respiratory exchange ratio in OVX and SHAM rats. Regarding central mechanisms, amylin infusion corrected the OVX-induced decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Additionally, amylin increased neurogenesis (∼2-fold) within the area postrema of OVX rats. To assess the contribution of endogenous leptin to amylin-mediated weight loss in OVX rats, amylin was administered to SHAM or OVX Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In SHAM rats, amylin infusion reduced food intake but not body weight, whereas in OVX Zucker diabetic fatty rats, food intake, body weight, and insulin were reduced. Overall, amylin induced greater body weight loss in the absence of estradiol via central and peripheral actions that did not require leptin. These findings support the clinical investigation of amylin in low estradiol (e.g. postmenopausal) states.
Laferrère, Blandine; Teixeira, Julio; McGinty, James; Tran, Hao; Egger, Joseph R.; Colarusso, Antonia; Kovack, Betty; Bawa, Baani; Koshy, Ninan; Lee, Hongchan; Yapp, Kimberly; Olivan, Blanca
Context: Gastric bypass surgery (GBP) results in rapid weight loss, improvement of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and increase in incretins levels. Diet-induced weight loss also improves T2DM and may increase incretin levels. Objective: Our objective was to determine whether the magnitude of the change of the incretin levels and effect is greater after GBP compared with a low caloric diet, after equivalent weight loss. Design and Methods: Obese women with T2DM studied before and 1 month after GBP (n = 9), or after a diet-induced equivalent weight loss (n = 10), were included in the study. Patients from both groups were matched for age, body weight, body mass index, diabetes duration and control, and amount of weight loss. Setting: This outpatient study was conducted at the General Clinical Research Center. Main Outcome Measures: Glucose, insulin, proinsulin, glucagon, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 levels were measured after 50-g oral glucose. The incretin effect was measured as the difference in insulin levels in response to oral and to an isoglycemic iv glucose load. Results: At baseline, none of the outcome variables (fasting and stimulated values) were different between the GBP and diet groups. Total GLP-1 levels after oral glucose markedly increased six times (peak:17 ± 6 to 112 ± 54 pmol/liter; P < 0.001), and the incretin effect increased five times (9.4 ± 27.5 to 44.8 ± 12.7%; P < 0.001) after GBP, but not after diet. Postprandial glucose levels (P = 0.001) decreased more after GBP. Conclusions: These data suggest that early after GBP, the greater GLP-1 and GIP release and improvement of incretin effect are related not to weight loss but rather to the surgical procedure. This could be responsible for better diabetes outcome after GBP. PMID:18430778
Yu, Fei; Hao, Shuai; Yang, Bo; Zhao, Yue; Yang, Jun
noise exposure compared to control (p < 0.05). The average number of young rat SGCs from the ID group were significantly decreased in the basal turn of the cochlea compared to the control (p < 0.05). Therefore, ID without anemia delayed the recovery from noise-induced hearing loss and ribbon synapses damage, increased SGCs loss, and upregulated prestin after noise exposure. Thus, the cochleae in rat pups with ID without anemia were potentially susceptible to loud noise exposure, and this deficit may be attributed to the reduction of ribbon synapses and SGCs.
Yu, Fei; Hao, Shuai; Yang, Bo; Zhao, Yue; Yang, Jun
noise exposure compared to control (p < 0.05). The average number of young rat SGCs from the ID group were significantly decreased in the basal turn of the cochlea compared to the control (p < 0.05). Therefore, ID without anemia delayed the recovery from noise-induced hearing loss and ribbon synapses damage, increased SGCs loss, and upregulated prestin after noise exposure. Thus, the cochleae in rat pups with ID without anemia were potentially susceptible to loud noise exposure, and this deficit may be attributed to the reduction of ribbon synapses and SGCs. PMID:27483303
van der Logt, Elise M J; Blokzijl, Tjasso; van der Meer, Roelof; Faber, Klaas Nico; Dijkstra, Gerard
The Western diet, rich in fat and red meat, predisposes for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, little is known about mechanisms involved. Red meat contains high levels of heme, a well-known inducer of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Pharmacological induction of HO-1 ameliorates experimental colitis. We analyzed the effect of a westernized high-fat (HF) diet supplemented with heme on intestinal HO-1 expression and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Mice were fed chow or HF diets for 2 weeks. In the second week, the HF diet was supplemented with or without 0.5 μmol/g heme. Subsequently, the 3 diet groups were given drinking water with or without 4% DSS to induce colitis. Significant body weight reduction was first observed after 4 days in the chow/DSS mice (-5±3%), whereas this was evident already after 2 days (-6±2%) in HF/DSS mice, showing increased weight loss compared to chow/DSS mice in the following days. Heme supplementation further aggravated DSS-induced weight loss in HF mice (-18±4% vs. -7±5% for HF+heme/DSS vs. HF/DSS, P<.01). Heme increased HO-1 expression in the colon epithelium but decreased villin messenger RNA levels, indicating epithelial damage. In contrast, heme did not affect DSS-induced colon shortening and histological scores of epithelial damage and inflammation. A westernized diet accelerates DSS-induced weight loss in mice, which is further aggravated by heme, despite the induction of HO-1 in the colon epithelium. Our data warrant a detailed analysis of the association of (red) meat-containing diets and the development of IBD.
Context: The benefits of high protein diets for sparing lean body mass and sustaining skeletal muscle protein metabolism during short-term weight loss in normal-weight adults are not well described. Objective: Determine the effects of varying levels of dietary protein intake on body compos...
Deluis, Daniel Antonio; Sagrado, Manuel Gonzalez; Aller, Rocio; Izaola, Olatz; Conde, Rosa
It has been demonstrated that the polymorphism 385 C/A of fatty acid amide hydrolase was associated with obesity. We decided to investigate the role of a polymorphism (cDNA 385 C->A) on insulin resistance and weight loss secondary to a low-fat vs a low-carbohydrate diet. A population of 248 patients with obesity was analyzed. Basal measurements were performed, and values were compared to those at the end of a 3-month period in which subjects received either diet I (low fat) or diet II (low carbohydrate). One hundred seventy-eight patients (71.8%) had the genotype C358C (wild-type group), and 70 (28.2%) patients had the genotype C358A (62 patients, 25%) or A358A (8 patients, 3.2%) (mutant-type group). With diet I, body mass index, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressures decreased in the wild-type and mutant-type groups. With diet II, body mass index, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressures decreased in both genotypes. With diet I, leptin, glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin sensitivity (HOMA) decreased in the wild-type group. In the mutant-type group, only cholesterol decreased in a significant way. With diet II, leptin, interleukin-6, glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin, HOMA, and C-reactive protein decreased in the wild-type genotype. The allele A358 of fatty acid amide hydrolase was associated with a lack of improvement on glucose insulin, HOMA, and leptin levels in both diets after weight loss.
Obesity - diet myths and facts; Overweight - diet myths and fact; Weight-loss diet myths and facts ... evidence: using the proposed effect of breakfast on obesity to show 2 practices that distort scientific evidence. ...
Woodruff, Sarah J; Hanning, Rhona M; Lambraki, Irene; Storey, Kate E; McCargar, Linda
The objective was to describe weight concerns, dieting, and meal skipping of adolescents and to determine associations with the Healthy Eating Index-C (HEI-C). Data, that were collected using the Food Behaviour Questionnaire, revealed that participants (male=810, female=1016) in grades 9/10 reported weight concerns (n=518), dieting (n=364), and skipping breakfast (n=498), lunch (n=252), and/or dinner (n=129). Of those dieting or weight concerned (n=602), 61% were healthy weight and of those not dieting or weight concerned (n=1224), 13% were overweight/obese. The ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that HEI-C was likely to be rated lower among those weight concerned and dieting (p<.001), and among those that skipped the breakfast meal (p<.001). The current study identified inappropriate weight concerns and dieting that compromised diet quality and has implications for future intervention and policy development.
Background Food consumption advisories are often posted when industrial activities are expected to affect the quality and availability of traditional foods used by First Nations. We were recently involved in a project and asked to summarize details regarding the impacts of traditional food consumption advisories with respect to compliance, broader changes in diet and loss of confidence in traditional foods by people. Methods Our review was not conducted as a formal systematic comprehensive review; rather, we focused on primary and grey literature presenting academic, health practitioner and First Nations viewpoints on the topic available from literature databases (i.e., PubMed, Web of KnowledgeSM) as well as the internet search engine Google. Some information came from personal communications. Results Our overview suggests that when communicated effectively and clearly, and when community members are involved in the process, consumption advisories can result in a decrease in contaminant load in people. On the other hand, consumption advisories can lead to cultural loss and have been linked to a certain amount of social, psychological, nutritional, economic and lifestyle disruption. In some cases, communities have decided to ignore consumption advisories opting to continue with traditional lifestyles believing that the benefits of doing so outweigh the risk of following advisories. Conclusions We identified that there are both positive and negative aspects to the issuance of traditional food consumption advisories. A number of variables need to be recognized during the development and implementation of advisories in order to ensure a balance between human health, maintenance of cultures and industrial activity. PMID:21651789
Haqq, Andrea M; Lien, Lillian F; Boan, Jarol; Arlotto, Michelle; Slentz, Cris A; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Rochon, James; Gallup, Dianne; McMahon, Ross L; Bain, James R; Stevens, Robert; Millington, David; Butler, Mark D; Newgard, Christopher B; Svetkey, Laura P
This paper outlines the rationale and design of the Study of the Effects of Diet on Metabolism and Nutrition (STEDMAN) weight loss project, in which detailed biologic profiling of three hundred and fifty obese individuals (body mass index (BMI): 30-50 kg/m(2)) will be conducted as they lose weight via seven distinct interventions. These profiles will be compared to those of fifty normal, healthy, control participants (BMI: 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). The interventions include the following: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, dietary interventions of differing macronutrient composition and diverse pharmacologic interventions. Outcome variables include eight conventional metabolites and CRP measured by standard clinical chemistry techniques, twenty hormones of energy balance and fuel homeostasis measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) or by enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA), ten pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines measured using Luminex xMAP technology, one hundred and one intermediary metabolites measured by targeted mass-spectrometry-based methods, and physiologic variables such as body composition measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), air displacement plethysmography, and abdominal computerized tomography (CT), insulin sensitivity measured by intravenous glucose tolerance test (IV-GTT) and metabolic rate measured by indirect calorimetry. Results from this study will expand our knowledge of the biology of obesity and weight regulation and may lead to targeted strategies for its treatment and control.
Shu, Lei; Beier, Eric; Sheu, Tzong; Zhang, Hengwei; Zuscik, Michael J; Puzas, Edward J; Boyce, Brendan F; Mooney, Robert A; Xing, Lianping
Obesity is a severe health problem in children, afflicting several organ systems including bone. However, the role of obesity on bone homeostasis and bone cell function in children has not been studied in detail. Here we used young mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to model childhood obesity and investigate the effect of HFD on the phenotype of cells within the bone marrow environment. Five-week-old male mice were fed a HFD for 3, 6, and 12 weeks. Decreased bone volume was detected after 3 weeks of HFD treatment. After 6 and 12 weeks, HFD-exposed mice had less bone mass and increased osteoclast numbers. Bone marrow cells, but not spleen cells, from HFD-fed mice had increased osteoclast precursor frequency, elevated osteoclast formation, and bone resorption activity, as well as increased expression of osteoclastogenic regulators including RANKL, TNF, and PPAR-gamma. Bone formation rate and osteoblast and adipocyte numbers were also increased in HFD-fed mice. Isolated bone marrow cells also had a corresponding elevation in the expression of positive regulators of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Our findings indicate that in juvenile mice, HFD-induced bone loss is mainly due to increased osteoclast bone resorption by affecting the bone marrow microenvironment. Thus, targeting osteoclast formation may present a new therapeutic approach for bone complications in obese children.
Rhyu, Hyun-seung; Cho, Su-Youn
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the weight loss through 3 weeks of ketogenic diet on performance-related physical fitness and inflammatory cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The subjects selected for this research were 20 Taekwondo athletes of the high schools who participated in a summer camp training program. The subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 10 subjects to each group: the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the non-ketogenic diet (NKD) group. Body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors (2,000 m sprint, Wingate test, grip force, back muscle strength, sit-up, 100 m sprint, standing broad jump, single leg standing) and cytokines (Iinterleukin-6, Interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) were analyzed before and after 3weeks of ketogenic diet. No difference between the KD and NKD groups in weight, %body fat, BMI and fat free mass. However, the KD group, compared to the NKD group, finished 2,000 m sprint in less time after weight loss, and also felt less fatigue as measured by the Wingate test and showed less increase in tumor necrosis factor-α. This result suggests that KD diet can be helpful for weight category athletes, such as Taekwondo athletes, by improving aerobic capacity and fatigue resistance capacity, and also by exerting positive effect on inflammatory response. PMID:25426472
Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Su-Youn
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the weight loss through 3 weeks of ketogenic diet on performance-related physical fitness and inflammatory cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The subjects selected for this research were 20 Taekwondo athletes of the high schools who participated in a summer camp training program. The subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 10 subjects to each group: the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the non-ketogenic diet (NKD) group. Body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors (2,000 m sprint, Wingate test, grip force, back muscle strength, sit-up, 100 m sprint, standing broad jump, single leg standing) and cytokines (Iinterleukin-6, Interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) were analyzed before and after 3weeks of ketogenic diet. No difference between the KD and NKD groups in weight, %body fat, BMI and fat free mass. However, the KD group, compared to the NKD group, finished 2,000 m sprint in less time after weight loss, and also felt less fatigue as measured by the Wingate test and showed less increase in tumor necrosis factor-α. This result suggests that KD diet can be helpful for weight category athletes, such as Taekwondo athletes, by improving aerobic capacity and fatigue resistance capacity, and also by exerting positive effect on inflammatory response.
Urs, Sumithra; Henderson, Terry; Le, Phuong; Rosen, Clifford J; Liaw, Lucy
We recently characterised Sprouty1 (Spry1), a growth factor signalling inhibitor as a regulator of marrow progenitor cells promoting osteoblast differentiation at the expense of adipocytes. Adipose tissue-specific Spry1 expression in mice resulted in increased bone mass and reduced body fat, while conditional knockout of Spry1 had the opposite effect with decreased bone mass and increased body fat. Because Spry1 suppresses normal fat development, we tested the hypothesis that Spry1 expression prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity, bone loss and associated lipid abnormalities, and demonstrate that Spry1 has a long-term protective effect on mice fed a high-energy diet. We studied diet-induced obesity in mice with fatty acid binding promoter-driven expression or conditional knockout of Spry1 in adipocytes. Phenotyping was performed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microCT, histology and blood analysis. In conditional Spry1-null mice, a high-fat diet increased body fat by 40 %, impaired glucose regulation and led to liver steatosis. However, overexpression of Spry1 led to 35 % (P < 0·05) lower body fat, reduced bone loss and normal metabolic function compared with single transgenics. This protective phenotype was associated with decreased circulating insulin (70 %) and leptin (54 %; P < 0·005) compared with controls on a high-fat diet. Additionally, Spry1 expression decreased adipose tissue inflammation by 45 %. We show that conditional Spry1 expression in adipose tissue protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity and associated bone loss.
Thornton, Daniel H; Branch, Lyn C; Sunquist, Melvin E
The relative influence of habitat loss vs. habitat fragmentation per se (the breaking apart of habitat) on species distribution and abundance is a topic of debate. Although some theoretical studies predict a strong negative effect of fragmentation, consensus from empirical studies is that habitat fragmentation has weak effects compared with habitat loss and that these effects are as likely to be positive as negative. However, few empirical investigations of this issue have been conducted on tropical or wide-ranging species that may be strongly influenced by changes in patch size and edge that occur with increasing fragmentation. We tested the relative influence of habitat loss and fragmentation by examining occupancy of forest patches by 20 mid- and large-sized Neotropical mammal species in a fragmented landscape of northern Guatemala. We related patch occupancy of mammals to measures of habitat loss and fragmentation and compared the influence of these two factors while controlling for patch-level variables. Species responded strongly to both fragmentation and loss, and response to fragmentation generally was negative. Our findings support previous assumptions that conservation of large mammals in the tropics will require conservation strategies that go beyond prevention of habitat loss to also consider forest cohesion or other aspects of landscape configuration.
Background Studies have suggested that moderately high protein diets may be more appropriate than conventional low-fat high carbohydrate diets for individuals at risk of developing the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. However in most such studies sources of dietary carbohydrate may not have been appropriate and protein intakes may have been excessively high. Thus, in a proof-of-concept study we compared two relatively low-fat weight loss diets - one high in protein and the other high in fiber-rich, minimally processed cereals and legumes - to determine whether a relatively high protein diet has the potential to confer greater benefits. Methods Eighty-three overweight or obese women, 18-65 years, were randomized to either a moderately high protein (30% protein, 40% carbohydrate) diet (HP) or to a high fiber, relatively high carbohydrate (50% carbohydrate, > 35 g total dietary fiber, 20% protein) diet (HFib) for 8 weeks. Energy intakes were reduced by 2000 - 4000 kJ per day in order to achieve weight loss of between 0.5 and 1 kg per week. Results Participants on both diets lost weight (HP: -4.5 kg [95% confidence interval (CI):-3.7, -5.4 kg] and HFib: -3.3 kg [95% CI: -4.2, -2.4 kg]), and reduced total body fat (HP: -4.0 kg [5% CI:-4.6, -3.4 kg] and HFib: -2.5 kg [95% CI: -3.5, -1.6 kg]), and waist circumference (HP: -5.4 cm [95% CI: -6.3, -4.5 cm] and HFib: -4.7 cm [95% CI: -5.8, -3.6 cm]), as well as total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose and blood pressure. However participants on HP lost more body weight (-1.3 kg [95% CI: -2.5, -0.1 kg; p = 0.039]) and total body fat (-1.3 kg [95% CI: -2.4, -0.1; p = 0.029]). Diastolic blood pressure decreased more on HP (-3.7 mm Hg [95% CI: -6.2, -1.1; p = 0.005]). Conclusions A realistic high protein weight-reducing diet was associated with greater fat loss and lower blood pressure when compared with a high carbohydrate, high fiber diet in high risk overweight and obese women. PMID:21524314
Nielsen, Lone V; Nielsen, Mette S; Schmidt, Julie B; Pedersen, Sue D; Sjödin, Anders
A preoperative weight loss of 8 % is a prerequisite to undergo bariatric surgery (BS) in Denmark. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a 7- or an 11-week low-energy diet (LCD) for achieving preoperative target weight before BS. A total of thirty obese patients (BMI 46·0 (sd 4·4) kg/m(2)) followed an LCD (Cambridge Weight Plan(®), 4184 kJ/d (1000 kcal/d)) for 7 or 11 weeks as preparation for BS. Anthropometric measurements including body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), blood parameters and blood pressure were assessed at weeks 0, 7 and 11. At week 7, the majority of patients (77 %) had reached their target weight, and this was achieved after 5·4 (sem 0·3) weeks. Mean weight loss was 9·3 (sem 0·5) % (P < 0·01) and consisted of 41·6 % fat-free mass (FFM) and 58·4 % fat mass. The weight loss was accompanied by a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (7·1 (sem 2·3) and 7·3 (sem 1·8) mmHg, respectively, all P < 0·01) as well as an improved metabolic profile (8·2 (sem 1·8) % decrease in fasting glucose (P < 0·01), 28·6 (sem 6·4) % decrease in fasting insulin (P < 0·01), 23·1 (sem 2·2) % decrease in LDL (P < 0·01), and 9·7 (sem 4·7) % decrease in TAG (P < 0·05)). Weight, FFM and fat mass continued to decrease from week 7 to 11 (all P < 0·01), whereas no additional improvements was observed in the metabolic parameters. Severely obese patients can safely achieve preoperative target weight on an LCD within 7 weeks as part of preparation for BS. However, the considerable reduction in FFM in severely obese subjects needs further investigation.
Wang, Tiange; Huang, Tao; Zheng, Yan; Rood, Jennifer; Bray, George A.; Sacks, Frank M.; Qi, Lu
Objective Weight loss intervention through diet modification has been widely used to improve obesity-related hyperglycemia; however, little is known about whether genetic variation modifies the intervention effect. We examined the interaction between weight-loss diets and genetic variation of fasting glucose on changes in glycemic traits in a dietary intervention trial. Research Design and Methods The Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial is a randomized, controlled 2-year weight-loss trial. We assessed overall genetic variation of fasting glucose by calculating a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 14 fasting glucose-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms, and examined the progression in fasting glucose and insulin levels, and insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity in 733 adults from this trial. Results The GRS was associated with 6-month changes in fasting glucose (P<0.001), fasting insulin (P=0.042), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, P=0.009) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S, P=0.043). We observed significant interaction between the GRS and dietary fat on 6-month changes in fasting glucose, HOMA-IR and HOMA-S after multivariable adjustment (P-interaction=0.007, 0.045, and 0.028, respectively). After further adjustment for weight loss, the interaction remained significant on change in fasting glucose (P=0.015). In the high-fat diet group, participants in the highest GRS tertile showed increased fasting glucose, whereas participants in the lowest tertile showed decreased fasting glucose (P-trend<0.001); in contrast, the genetic association was not significant in the low-fat diet group (P-trend=0.087). Conclusions Our data suggest that participants with a higher genetic risk may benefit more by eating a low-fat diet to improve glucose metabolism. PMID:27113490
Background There is a lack of research about the experiences of participating in weight-reducing interventions. The aim of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators to weight-loss experienced by participants in a diet intervention for middle-aged to older women in the general population in Northern Sweden. Method In the intervention the women were randomised to eat either a Palaeolithic-type diet or a diet according to Nordic Nutrition recommendations for 24 months. A strategic selection was made of women from the two intervention groups as well as from the drop-outs in relation to social class, civil status and age. Thematic structured interviews were performed with twelve women and analysed with qualitative content analyses. Results The results showed that the women in the dietary intervention experienced two main barriers – struggling with self (related to difficulties in changing food habits, health problems, lack of self-control and insecurity) and struggling with implementing the diet (related to social relations and project-related difficulties) – and two main facilitators– striving for self-determination (related to having clear goals) and receiving support (from family/friends as well as from the project) – for weight-loss. There was a greater emphasis on barriers than on facilitators. Conclusion It is important to also include drop-outs from diet interventions in order to fully understand barriers to weight-loss. A gender-relational approach can bring new insights into understanding experiences of barriers to weight-loss. Trial registration ClinicalTrials gov NCT00692536. PMID:24739099
Lobley, Gerald E; Holtrop, Grietje; Horgan, Graham W; Bremner, David M; Fyfe, Claire; Johnstone, Alexandra M
High-protein diets are an effective means for weight loss (WL), but the mechanisms are unclear. One hypothesis relates to the release of gut hormones by either protein or amino acids (AA). The present study involved overweight and obese male volunteers (n 18, mean BMI 36·8 kg/m2) who consumed a maintenance diet for 7 d followed by fully randomised 10 d treatments with three iso-energetic WL diets, i.e. with either normal protein (NP, 15% of energy) or high protein (HP, 30%) or with a combination of protein and free AA, each 15% of energy (NPAA). Psychometric ratings of appetite were recorded hourly. On day 10, plasma samples were taken at 30 min intervals over two consecutive 5 h periods (covering post-breakfast and post-lunch) and analysed for AA, glucose and hormones (insulin, total glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, active ghrelin and total peptide YY (PYY)) plus leucine kinetics (first 5 h only). Composite hunger was 16% lower for the HP diet than for the NP diet (P<0·01) in the 5 h period after both meals. Plasma essential AA concentrations were greatest within 60 min of each meal for the NPAA diet, but remained elevated for 3-5 h after the HP diet. The three WL diets showed no difference for either fasting concentrations or the postprandial net incremental AUC (net AUCi) for insulin, ghrelin or PYY. No strong correlations were observed between composite hunger scores and net AUCi for either AA or gut peptides. Regulation of hunger may involve subtle interactions, and a range of signals may need to be integrated to produce the overall response.
Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.
Leslie, W S; Taylor, R; Harris, L; Lean, M E J
Aim: To provide a systematic review, of published data, to compare weight losses following very low calorie (<800 kcal per day VLCD) or low-energy liquid-formula (>800 kcal per day LELD) diets, in people with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Systematic electronic searches of Medline (1946–2015) and Embase (1947–2015) to identify published studies using formula total diet replacement diets (VLCD/LELD). Random effects meta-analysis using weighted mean difference (WMD) in body weight between groups (with and without diabetes) as the summary estimate. Results: Final weight loss, in the five included studies, weighted for study sizes, (n=569, mean BMI=35.5–42.6 kg/m2), was not significantly different between participants with and without T2DM: −1.2 kg; 95% CI: −4.1 to 1.6 kg). Rates of weight loss were also similar in the two groups −0.6 kg per week (T2DM) and 0.5 kg per week (no diabetes), and for VLCD (<800 kcal per day) and LELD (>800 kcal per day). Conclusions: Weight losses with liquid-formula diets are very similar for VLCD and LELD and for obese subjects with or without T2DM. They can potentially achieve new weight loss/ maintenance targets of >15–20% for people with severe and medically complicated obesity. PMID:27698345
Mason, Ashley E; Epel, Elissa S; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Lustig, Robert H; Acree, Michael; Kristeller, Jean; Cohn, Michael; Dallman, Mary; Moran, Patricia J; Bacchetti, Peter; Laraia, Barbara; Hecht, Frederick M; Daubenmier, Jennifer
Many individuals with obesity report over eating despite intentions to maintain or lose weight. Two barriers to long-term weight loss are reward-driven eating, which is characterized by a lack of control over eating, a preoccupation with food, and a lack of satiety; and psychological stress. Mindfulness training may address these barriers by promoting awareness of hunger and satiety cues, self-regulatory control, and stress reduction. We examined these two barriers as potential mediators of weight loss in the Supporting Health by Integrating Nutrition and Exercise (SHINE) randomized controlled trial, which compared the effects of a 5.5-month diet and exercise intervention with or without mindfulness training on weight loss among adults with obesity. Intention-to-treat multiple mediation models tested whether post-intervention reward-driven eating and psychological stress mediated the impact of intervention arm on weight loss at 12- and 18-months post-baseline among 194 adults with obesity (BMI: 30-45). Mindfulness (relative to control) participants had significant reductions in reward-driven eating at 6 months (post-intervention), which, in turn, predicted weight loss at 12 months. Post-intervention reward-driven eating mediated 47.1% of the total intervention arm effect on weight loss at 12 months [β = -0.06, SE(β) = 0.03, p = .030, 95% CI (-0.12, -0.01)]. This mediated effect was reduced when predicting weight loss at 18 months (p = .396), accounting for 23.0% of the total intervention effect, despite similar weight loss at 12 months. Psychological stress did not mediate the effect of intervention arm on weight loss at 12 or 18 months. In conclusion, reducing reward-driven eating, which can be achieved using a diet and exercise intervention that includes mindfulness training, may promote weight loss (clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT00960414).
Ishikawa, Yuko; Kudo, Hideki; Kagawa, Yasuo; Sakamoto, Shinobu
Zinc is required for many biological functions including DNA synthesis, cell division, gene expression and the activity of various enzymes in humans and animals. Zinc concentrations in the plasma and erythrocytes are lower and urinary zinc excretion and serum insulin levels are higher in subjects with obesity. The effects of a weight-loss program based on a hypocaloric balanced diet were investigated on 23 obese females, who had a body mass index of more than 25.0 and had dieted for 6 months at the Nutrition Clinic, Institute of Nutrition Sciences, Kagawa Nutrition University, Tokyo, Japan. The subjects ranged in age from 29 to 76 (54.3 +/- 13.0) years old. The hypocaloric balanced diet significantly reduced the body weight, body mass index, body fat percentage and amount of body fat with a slight lowering of blood pressure and plasma levels of triglyceride. Interestingly, the plasma concentrations of zinc were markedly enhanced at the end of the program.
Objective Previously, four months of a blueberry-enriched (BB) antioxidant diet prevented impaired object recognition memory in aged rats. Experiment 1 determined whether one and two-month BB diets would have a similar effect and whether the benefits would disappear promptly after terminating the d...
Finelli, C; Crispino, P; Gioia, S; La Sala, N; D'amico, L; La Grotta, M; Miro, O; Colarusso, D
Depressed levels of atheroprotective large HDL particles are common in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increases in large HDL particles are favourably associated with reduced CVD event risk and coronary plaque burden. The objective of the study is to compare the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets and weight loss for increasing blood levels of large HDL particles at 1 year. This study was performed by screening for body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome in 160 consecutive subjects referred to our out-patient Metabolic Unit in South Italy. We administered dietary advice to four small groups rather than individually. A single team comprised of a dietitian and physician administered diet-specific advice to each group. Large HDL particles at baseline and 1 year were measured using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Dietary intake was assessed via 3-day diet records. Although 1-year weight loss did not differ between diet groups (mean 4.4 %), increases in large HDL particles paralleled the degree of carbohydrate restriction across the four diets (p<0.001 for trend). Regression analysis indicated that magnitude of carbohydrate restriction (percentage of calories as carbohydrate at 1 year) and weight loss were each independent predictors of 1-year increases in large HDL concentration. Changes in HDL cholesterol concentration were modestly correlated with changes in large HDL particle concentration (r=0.47, p=.001). In conclusion, reduction of excess dietary carbohydrate and body weight improved large HDL levels. Comparison trials with cardiovascular outcomes are needed to more fully evaluate these findings.
Finelli, C.; Crispino, P.; Gioia, S.; La Sala, N.; D'amico, L.; La Grotta, M.; Miro, O.; Colarusso, D.
Depressed levels of atheroprotective large HDL particles are common in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increases in large HDL particles are favourably associated with reduced CVD event risk and coronary plaque burden. The objective of the study is to compare the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets and weight loss for increasing blood levels of large HDL particles at 1 year. This study was performed by screening for body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome in 160 consecutive subjects referred to our out-patient Metabolic Unit in South Italy. We administered dietary advice to four small groups rather than individually. A single team comprised of a dietitian and physician administered diet-specific advice to each group. Large HDL particles at baseline and 1 year were measured using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Dietary intake was assessed via 3-day diet records. Although 1-year weight loss did not differ between diet groups (mean 4.4 %), increases in large HDL particles paralleled the degree of carbohydrate restriction across the four diets (p<0.001 for trend). Regression analysis indicated that magnitude of carbohydrate restriction (percentage of calories as carbohydrate at 1 year) and weight loss were each independent predictors of 1-year increases in large HDL concentration. Changes in HDL cholesterol concentration were modestly correlated with changes in large HDL particle concentration (r=0.47, p=.001). In conclusion, reduction of excess dietary carbohydrate and body weight improved large HDL levels. Comparison trials with cardiovascular outcomes are needed to more fully evaluate these findings. PMID:27103896
Klevenhusen, F; Kreuzer, M; Soliva, C R
Ruminant husbandry constitutes the most important source of anthropogenic methane (CH4). In addition to enteric (animal-derived) CH4, excreta are another source of CH4, especially when stored anaerobically. Increasing the proportion of dietary concentrate is often considered as the primary CH4 mitigation option. However, it is unclear whether this is still valid when diets to be compared are energy-balanced. In addition, non-structural carbohydrates and side effects on nitrogen (N) emissions may be important. In this experiment, diet types representing either forage-only or mixed diets were examined for their effects on CH4 and N emissions from animals and their slurries in 18 lactating cows. Apart from a hay-only diet, treatments included two mixed diets consisting of maize stover, pelleted whole maize plants and gluten or barley straw and grain and soy bean meal. The diets were balanced in crude protein and net energy for lactation. After adaptation, data and samples were collected for 8 days including a 2-day CH4 measurement in respiratory chambers. Faeces and urine, combined proportionately according to excretion, were used to determine slurry-derived CH4 and N emissions. Slurry was stored for 15 weeks at either 14°C or 27°C, and temperatures were classified as 'cool' and 'warm', respectively. The low-starch hay-only diet had high organic matter and fibre digestibility and proved to be equally effective on the cows' performance as mixed diets. The enteric CH4 formation remained unaffected by the diet except when related to digested fibre. In this case emission was lowest with the hay-only diet (61 v. 88 to 101 g CH4/kg digested NDF). Feeding the hay diet resulted in the highest slurry-CH4 production after 7 weeks of storage at 14°C and 27°C, and after 15 weeks at 14°C. CH4 emissions were, in general, about 10-fold higher at 27°C compared with 14°C but only after 15 weeks of storage. Urinary N losses were highest with the barley diet and lowest with the
Age-related memory loss was a marginal issue in medical discussions during early modern times and until well into the second half of the 17th century. There are many possible explanations: the lack of similar traditions in antiquity and in the Middle Ages, insufficient physiological and morphological knowledge of the brain, and the underlying conflict between idealistic and materialistic perspectives on the functions of the soul and the conditions of these in old age. After these boundaries had been pushed back by the influence of Cartesianism and Iatromechanism, the problem of age-related memory loss was increasingly regarded as a physical illness and began to receive more attention. This trend first occurred in medicine, before spreading to the literary world, where the novel "Gulliver's Travels" is one clear and famous example.
Background Many studies have investigated endogenous loss of proteins and amino acids (AAs) at the ileal level in growing pigs. However, only a few studies have researched this subject in piglets. Knowledge regarding AA ileal digestibility in piglets would be helpful during the formulation of diets for weaning piglets, rather than just using coefficients obtained in growing pigs. Therefore, in this study, we sought to estimate endogenous protein and AA ileal losses in piglets. Furthermore, apparent and true ileal digestibility (AID and TID) of protein and AAs from casein were measured. Results The average flow of protein was 20.8 g/kg of dry matter intake (DMI). Basal protein loss, as estimated by regression, was 16.9 g/kg DMI. Glutamic acid, arginine, and aspartic acid (2.2, 1.4, and 1.2 g/kg DMI, respectively) were the AAs for which greater losses were seen. The AID of protein and AAs increased as the protein level in the diet increased. A higher increment in AID was observed between diets with 80 and160 g CP/kg of feed; this finding was mainly attributable to increases in glycine and arginine (46.1% and 18%, respectively). The TID of protein was 97.8, and the TID of AAs varied from 93.9 for histidine to 100.2 for phenylalanine. Conclusions The basal endogenous protein loss in piglets was 16.9 g/kg DMI. Endogenous protein was rich in glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and arginine, which represented 32.7% of endogenous protein loss in weaning piglets. The TID of casein was high and varied from 93.0 for histidine to 100.2 for phenylalanine. PMID:24053636
Dutton, Gareth R; Laitner, Melissa H; Perri, Michael G
The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate, synthesize, and interpret findings from recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary and lifestyle weight loss interventions examining the effects of (1) diet composition, (2) use of food provision, and (3) modality of treatment delivery on weight loss. Trials comparing different dietary approaches indicated that reducing carbohydrate intake promoted greater initial weight loss than other approaches but did not appear to significantly improve long-term outcomes. Food provision appears to enhance adherence to reduction in energy intake and produce greater initial weight losses. The long-term benefits of food provision are less clear. Trials comparing alternative treatment modalities suggest that phone-based treatment produce short- and long-term weight reductions equivalent to face-to-face interventions. The use of Internet and mobile technologies are associated with smaller reductions in body weight than face-to-face interventions. Based on this review, clinical implications and future research directions are provided.
This pilot study tested whether varying protein source and quantity in a reduced energy diet would result in significant differences in weight, body composition, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system activity in midlife adults. Eighteen subjects enrolled in a 5 month weight reduction study, invol...
Parr, Evelyn B.; Camera, Donny M.; Burke, Louise M.; Phillips, Stuart M.; Coffey, Vernon G.; Hawley, John A.
Background Interactions between diet, physical activity and genetic predisposition contribute to variable body mass changes observed in response to weight loss interventions. Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) may act as ‘biomarkers’ that are associated with the rate of change in weight loss, and/or play a role in regulating the biological variation, in response to energy restriction. Objective To quantify targeted c-miRNAs with putative roles in energy metabolism and exercise adaptations following a 16 wk diet and exercise intervention in individuals with large (high responders; HiRes) versus small (low responders; LoRes) losses in body mass. Methods From 89 male and female overweight/obese participants who completed the intervention (energy restriction from diet, 250 kcal/d, and exercise, 250 kcal/d), subgroups of HiRes (>10% body mass loss, n = 22) and LoRes (<5% body mass loss, n = 18) were identified. From resting plasma samples collected after an overnight fast pre and post intervention, RNA was extracted, quantified and reverse transcribed. Thirteen c-miRNA selected a priori were analysed using a customised 96-well miScript miRNA PCR Array. Results Loss of body mass (-11.0 ± 2.3 kg vs. -3.0 ± 1.3 kg; P<0.01) and fat mass (-11.1 ± 2.6 kg vs. -3.9 ± 1.6 kg; P<0.01) was greater for HiRes than LoRes (P<0.001). Expression of c-miR-935 was higher in LoRes compared to HiRes pre- (~47%; P = 0.025) and post- (~100%; P<0.01) intervention and was the only c-miRNA differentially expressed at baseline between groups. The abundance of c-miR-221-3p and -223-3p increased pre- to post-intervention in both groups (~57–69% and ~25–90%, P<0.05). There was a post-intervention increase in c-miR-140 only in LoRes compared to HiRes (~23%, P = 0.016). Conclusion The differential expression and responses of selected c-miRNAs in overweight/obese individuals to an exercise and diet intervention suggests a putative role for these ‘biomarkers’ in the prediction or detection
Jackson, Ellen E.; Rendina-Ruedy, Elisabeth; Smith, Brenda J.; Lacombe, Veronique A.
Diabetes is a chronic inflammatory disease that carries a high risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the pathophysiological link between these disorders is not well known. We hypothesize that TLR4 signaling mediates high fat diet (HFD)-induced peripheral and cardiac glucose metabolic derangements. Mice with a loss-of-function mutation in TLR4 (C3H/HeJ) and age-matched control (C57BL/6) mice were fed either a high-fat diet or normal diet for 16 weeks. Glucose tolerance and plasma insulin were measured. Protein expression of glucose transporters (GLUT), AKT (phosphorylated and total), and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α and SOCS-3) were quantified in the heart using Western Blotting. Both groups fed a long-term HFD had increased body weight, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as impaired glucose tolerance compared to mice fed a normal diet. TLR4-mutant mice were partially protected against long-term HFD-induced insulin resistance. In control mice, feeding a HFD decreased cardiac crude membrane GLUT4 protein content, which was partially rescued in TLR4-mutant mice. TLR4-mutant mice fed a HFD also had increased expression of GLUT8, a novel isoform, compared to mice fed a normal diet. GLUT8 content was positively correlated with SOCS-3 and IL-6 expression in the heart. No significant differences in cytokine expression were observed between groups, suggesting a lack of inflammation in the heart following a HFD. Loss of TLR4 function partially restored a healthy metabolic phenotype, suggesting that TLR4 signaling is a key mechanism in HFD-induced peripheral and cardiac insulin resistance. Our data further suggest that TLR4 exerts its detrimental metabolic effects in the myocardium through a cytokine-independent pathway. PMID:26539824
Jackson, Ellen E; Rendina-Ruedy, Elisabeth; Smith, Brenda J; Lacombe, Veronique A
Diabetes is a chronic inflammatory disease that carries a high risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the pathophysiological link between these disorders is not well known. We hypothesize that TLR4 signaling mediates high fat diet (HFD)-induced peripheral and cardiac glucose metabolic derangements. Mice with a loss-of-function mutation in TLR4 (C3H/HeJ) and age-matched control (C57BL/6) mice were fed either a high-fat diet or normal diet for 16 weeks. Glucose tolerance and plasma insulin were measured. Protein expression of glucose transporters (GLUT), AKT (phosphorylated and total), and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α and SOCS-3) were quantified in the heart using Western Blotting. Both groups fed a long-term HFD had increased body weight, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as impaired glucose tolerance compared to mice fed a normal diet. TLR4-mutant mice were partially protected against long-term HFD-induced insulin resistance. In control mice, feeding a HFD decreased cardiac crude membrane GLUT4 protein content, which was partially rescued in TLR4-mutant mice. TLR4-mutant mice fed a HFD also had increased expression of GLUT8, a novel isoform, compared to mice fed a normal diet. GLUT8 content was positively correlated with SOCS-3 and IL-6 expression in the heart. No significant differences in cytokine expression were observed between groups, suggesting a lack of inflammation in the heart following a HFD. Loss of TLR4 function partially restored a healthy metabolic phenotype, suggesting that TLR4 signaling is a key mechanism in HFD-induced peripheral and cardiac insulin resistance. Our data further suggest that TLR4 exerts its detrimental metabolic effects in the myocardium through a cytokine-independent pathway.
Gotthardt, Juliet D.; Verpeut, Jessica L.; Yeomans, Bryn L.; Yang, Jennifer A.; Yasrebi, Ali; Bello, Nicholas T.
Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%–52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%–13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%–42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%–60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%–32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%–75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy. PMID:26653760
Gotthardt, Juliet D; Verpeut, Jessica L; Yeomans, Bryn L; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A; Bello, Nicholas T
Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy.
Dairy foods in a moderate energy restricted diet do not enhance central fat, weight & intra-abdominal adipose tissue loss or reduce adipocyte size & inflammatory markers in overweight & obese adults; Controlled feeding study
Background: Research on the role of dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective: A 15 week controlled feeding study to answer the question: do dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a mode...
The overall objective of this study was to examine the relationship between executive function, specifically decision making, and weight loss. We used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to characterize decision making and compared performance on this task to weight loss in obese women (n=29) participatin...
Fragua, V; Barroeta, A C; Manzanilla, E G; Codony, R; Villaverde, C
Esterified fatty acid oils (EAOs) are obtained from esterification of vegetable acid oils with glycerol. These fat sources have the same fatty acid (FA) composition as their respective native oils but new chemical properties. Several studies have confirmed the potential of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to reduce fat mass (FM) in humans and rodents. This study investigates the use of EAOs with different MCFA proportions on food preferences, digestibility and weight loss management in dogs. A basal diet was supplemented with 8% of three different fat sources: C0: soya bean-canola EAO, C20: soya bean-canola (80%) coconut (20%) EAO and C40: soya bean-canola (60%) coconut (40%) EAO. Food preference of these EAOs was tested using a two-pan preference test. Dogs presented a higher daily food intake of C20 and C40 compared to C0 (C20: 155 ± 18.6 g vs. C0: 17 ± 7.0 g, p < 0.001; C40: 117 ± 13.9 g vs. C0: 28 ± 10.5 g, p < 0.05 respectively). Also, the digestibility of the three experimental diets was tested. C20 and C40 showed higher ether extract, total FA and saturated FA digestibilities (p < 0.05) than C0 diet. Lastly, the three diets were investigated in a 14-week weight loss study, following 16 weeks of ad libitum feeding to induce overweight condition. Body weight (BW) reduction was lower (C0: 20.1 ± 2.32%, C20: 14.6 ± 1.43% and C40: 15.7 ± 1.23%, p < 0.05) and FM was higher (FM, 18.7 ± 3.42%, 27.9 ± 3.90% and 28.2 ± 2.88% for C0, C20 and C40, respectively, p < 0.05) for diets C20 and C40 than for C0. Feeding diets with MCFA at these inclusion levels to experimentally overweight dogs during 14 weeks do not result in faster weight loss compared to unsaturated long-chain FA.
Varela-López, Alfonso; Ochoa, Julio J.; Llamas-Elvira, José M.; López-Frías, Magdalena; Planells, Elena; Ramirez-Tortosa, MCarmen; Ramirez-Tortosa, Cesar L.; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L.
During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA)-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD) preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur. Serum osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, ostroprotegerin, parathyroid hormone, urinary F2-isoprostanes, and lymphocytes DNA strand breaks were also measured. BMD was lower in aged rats fed a diet without CoQ10 respect than their younger counterparts, whereas older animals receiving CoQ10 showed the highest BMD. F2-isoprostanes and DNA strand breaks showed that oxidative stress was higher during aging. Supplementation with CoQ10 prevented oxidative damage to lipid and DNA, in young and old animals, respectively. Reduced oxidative stress associated to CoQ10 supplementation of this n-3 PUFA-rich diet might explain the higher BMD found in aged rats in this group of animals. PMID:28241421
Varela-López, Alfonso; Ochoa, Julio J; Llamas-Elvira, José M; López-Frías, Magdalena; Planells, Elena; Ramirez-Tortosa, MCarmen; Ramirez-Tortosa, Cesar L; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L
During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA)-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD) preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur. Serum osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, ostroprotegerin, parathyroid hormone, urinary F₂-isoprostanes, and lymphocytes DNA strand breaks were also measured. BMD was lower in aged rats fed a diet without CoQ10 respect than their younger counterparts, whereas older animals receiving CoQ10 showed the highest BMD. F₂-isoprostanes and DNA strand breaks showed that oxidative stress was higher during aging. Supplementation with CoQ10 prevented oxidative damage to lipid and DNA, in young and old animals, respectively. Reduced oxidative stress associated to CoQ10 supplementation of this n-3 PUFA-rich diet might explain the higher BMD found in aged rats in this group of animals.
Pasiakos, S M; Margolis, L M; McClung, J P; Cao, J J; Whigham, L D; Combs, G F; Young, A J
To determine whole-body protein turnover responses to high-protein diets during weight loss, 39 adults (age, 21±1 years; VO2peak, 48±1 ml kg(-1) min(-1); body mass index, 25±1 kg m(2)) were randomized to diets providing protein at the recommend dietary allowance (RDA), 2 × -RDA or 3 × -RDA. A 10-day weight maintenance period preceded a 21-day, 40% energy deficit. Postabsorptive (FASTED) and postprandial (FED) whole-body protein turnover was determined during weight maintenance (day 10) and energy deficit (day 31) using [1-(13)C]leucine. FASTED flux, synthesis and breakdown were lower (P<0.05) for energy deficit than weight maintenance. Protein flux and synthesis were higher (P<0.05) for FED than FASTED. Feeding attenuated (P<0.05) breakdown during weight maintenance but not energy deficit. Oxidation increased (P<0.05) between dietary protein levels and feeding stimulated oxidation, although oxidative responses to feeding were higher (P<0.05) for energy deficit than weight maintenance. FASTED net balance decreased between dietary protein levels, but in the FED state, net balance was lower for 3 × -RDA as compared with RDA and 2 × -RDA (diet-by-state, P<0.05). Consuming dietary protein at levels above the RDA, particularly 3 × -RDA, during short-term weight loss increases protein oxidation with concomitant reductions in net protein balance.
Rabkin, S W; Campbell, H
The objectives were to determine whether epicardial fat (EAT) is subject to modification, and whether various strategies accomplish this end point and the relationship between weight loss and EAT. A systematic review of the literature following meta-analysis guidelines was conducted using the search strategy 'epicardial fat' OR 'epicardial adipose tissue' AND 'diet' OR 'exercise' OR 'bariatric surgery (BS)' OR 'change in body weight' limited to humans. Eleven articles were identified with 12 intervention approaches of which eight studies showed a statistically significant reduction in EAT. A random-effects meta-analysis suggests an overall significant reduction of 1.12 standardized units (95% CI = [-1.71, -0.54], P value < 0.01). While there is a large amount of heterogeneity across study groups, a substantial amount of this variability can be accounted for by considering intervention type and change in body mass index (BMI). These variables were incorporated into a random-effects meta-regression model. Using this analysis, significant EAT reduction occurred with diet and BS but not with exercise. BMI reductions correlated significantly with EAT reductions for diet-based interventions, i.e. for some but not all interventions. In conclusion, EAT, a factor that is significantly associated with coronary artery disease, can be modified. The type of intervention, in addition to the amount of weight loss achieved, is predictive of the amount of EAT reduction.
Jones, Kim Wagner; Eller, Lindsay K.; Parnell, Jill A.; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K.; Edwards, Alun L.; Reimer, Raylene A.
Background/Objectives A diet rich in dairy and calcium (Ca) has been variably associated with improvements in body composition and decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to determine if a dietary pattern high in dairy and Ca improves weight loss and subjective appetite to a greater extent than a low dairy/Ca diet during energy restriction in overweight and obese adults with metabolic syndrome. Subjects/Methods 49 participants were randomized to one of two treatment groups: CONTROL [low dairy, ~700 mg/day Ca, −500 kcal/d] or DAIRY/CA [high dairy, ~1400 mg/day Ca, −500 kcal/d] for 12wk. Body composition, subjective ratings of appetite, food intake, plasma satiety hormones, glycemic response and inflammatory cytokines were measured. Results CONTROL (−2.2±0.5 kg) and DAIRY/CA (−3.3±0.6 kg) had similar weight loss. Based on self-reported energy intake, the percent of expected weight loss achieved was higher with DAIRY/CA (82.1±19.4%) than CONTROL (32.2±7.7%)(P=0.03). Subjects in the DAIRY/CA group reported feeling more satisfied (P=0.01) and had lower dietary fat intake (P=0.02) over 12wk compared to CONTROL. Compared to CONTROL, DAIRY/CA had higher plasma levels of peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY, P=0.01) during the meal tolerance test at wk12. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was reduced at 30 min with DAIRY/CA compared to CONTROL (P=0.04). Conclusions In conclusion, a dairy and Ca rich diet was not associated with greater weight loss than control. Modest increases in plasma PYY concentrations with increased dairy/Ca intake, however, may contribute to enhanced sensations of satisfaction and reduced dietary fat intake during energy restriction. Registered Trial: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00564551). PMID:23462943
Wealleans, A L; Bold, R M; Dersjant-Li, Y; Awati, A
Improving the efficiency of P use by pigs is especially important for lactating sows, whose metabolic requirements for P and Ca are high. The effect of a sp. phytase on lactating sow performance and nutrient digestibility was investigated using the combined data set for 6 studies. Treatments included a nutritionally adequate positive control diet (PC), a negative control diet (NC; with an average reduction of 0.16% available phosphorous and 0.15% Ca vs. PC), and NC supplemented with a sp. phytase at 250, 500, 1,000 or 2,000 phytase unit (FTU)/kg, respectively. Phosphorus and Ca deficiency in the NC resulted in significantly higher BW loss compared with the PC. All phytase treatments maintained BW loss at the same level as the PC. Increasing doses of phytase significantly ( < 0.05) reduced sow BW loss and increased energy intake, with improvements most apparent in sows older than parity 5. The positive effects on BW and energy intake were not observed in first-parity sows. This may be a consequence of fewer first parity sows in the data set. The apparent total tract digestibility of DM, OM, and CP were not affected by phytase supplementation. Digestible P and Ca were significantly improved (linear, < 0.0001; quadratic, < 0.0001) by increasing the dose of phytase supplementation. Significantly lower apparent total tract digestibility of energy, Ca, and P was found in the NC treatment vs. the PC treatment, whereas no significant differences were found between phytase treatment and the PC treatment. In conclusion, phytase supplementation at a level of 250 FTU/kg can replace 0.16% available phosphorous and 0.15% Ca; however, increasing the phytase dose can further reduce BW loss in sows fed P- and Ca- deficient diets.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT...
This study determined the effects of a high-fat diet and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency (PAI-1-/-) on bone structure in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in lungs. Reduction in bone volume fraction (BV/TV) by 22% and 21%, trabecular number (Tb.N) by 8% and 4% and bone mineral de...
Khoo, Joan; Dhamodaran, Subbiah; Chen, Dan-Dan; Yap, Siew-Yoon; Chen, Richard Yuan-Tud; Tian, Roger Ho-Heng
The adipokines chemerin and adiponectin are reciprocally related in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and inflammation in obesity. Weight loss increases adiponectin and reduces chemerin, insulin resistance, and inflammation, but the effects of caloric restriction and physical activity are difficult to separate in combined lifestyle modification. We compared effects of diet- or exercise-induced weight loss on chemerin, adiponectin, insulin resistance, and inflammation in obese men. Eighty abdominally obese Asian men (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m(2), waist circumference [WC] ≥ 90 cm, mean age 42.6 years) were randomized to reduce daily intake by ~500 kilocalories (n = 40) or perform moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise (200-300 min/week) (n = 40) to increase energy expenditure by a similar amount for 24 weeks. The diet and exercise groups had similar decreases in energy deficit (-456 ± 338 vs. -455 ± 315 kcal/day), weight (-3.6 ± 3.4 vs. -3.3 ± 4.6 kg), and WC (-3.4 ± 4.4 vs. -3.6 ± 3.2 cm). The exercise group demonstrated greater reductions in fat mass (-3.9 ± 3.5 vs. -2.7 ± 5.3 kg), serum chemerin (-9.7 ± 11.1 vs. -4.3 ± 12.4 ng/ml), the inflammatory marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-2.11 ± 3.13 vs. -1.49 ± 3.08 mg/L), and insulin resistance as measured by homeostatic model assessment (-2.45 ± 1.88 vs. -1.38 ± 3.77). Serum adiponectin increased only in the exercise group. Exercise-induced fat mass loss was more effective than dieting for improving adipokine profile, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation in obese men, underscoring metabolic benefits of increased physical activity.
Josse, Andrea R; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Phillips, Stuart M
Weight loss can have substantial health benefits for overweight or obese persons; however, the ratio of fat:lean tissue loss may be more important. We aimed to determine how daily exercise (resistance and/or aerobic) and a hypoenergetic diet varying in protein and calcium content from dairy foods would affect the composition of weight lost in otherwise healthy, premenopausal, overweight, and obese women. Ninety participants were randomized to 3 groups (n = 30/group): high protein, high dairy (HPHD), adequate protein, medium dairy (APMD), and adequate protein, low dairy (APLD) differing in the quantity of total dietary protein and dairy food-source protein consumed: 30 and 15%, 15 and 7.5%, or 15 and <2% of energy, respectively. Body composition was measured by DXA at 0, 8, and 16 wk and MRI (n = 39) to assess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume at 0 and 16 wk. All groups lost body weight (P < 0.05) and fat (P < 0.01); however, fat loss during wk 8-16 was greater in the HPHD group than in the APMD and APLD groups (P < 0.05). The HPHD group gained lean tissue with a greater increase during 8-16 wk than the APMD group, which maintained lean mass and the APLD group, which lost lean mass (P < 0.05). The HPHD group also lost more VAT as assessed by MRI (P < 0.05) and trunk fat as assessed by DXA (P < 0.005) than the APLD group. The reduction in VAT in all groups was correlated with intakes of calcium (r = 0.40; P < 0.05) and protein (r = 0.32; P < 0.05). Therefore, diet- and exercise-induced weight loss with higher protein and increased dairy product intakes promotes more favorable body composition changes in women characterized by greater total and visceral fat loss and lean mass gain.
Josse, Andrea R.; Atkinson, Stephanie A.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Phillips, Stuart M.
Weight loss can have substantial health benefits for overweight or obese persons; however, the ratio of fat:lean tissue loss may be more important. We aimed to determine how daily exercise (resistance and/or aerobic) and a hypoenergetic diet varying in protein and calcium content from dairy foods would affect the composition of weight lost in otherwise healthy, premenopausal, overweight, and obese women. Ninety participants were randomized to 3 groups (n = 30/group): high protein, high dairy (HPHD), adequate protein, medium dairy (APMD), and adequate protein, low dairy (APLD) differing in the quantity of total dietary protein and dairy food-source protein consumed: 30 and 15%, 15 and 7.5%, or 15 and <2% of energy, respectively. Body composition was measured by DXA at 0, 8, and 16 wk and MRI (n = 39) to assess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume at 0 and 16 wk. All groups lost body weight (P < 0.05) and fat (P < 0.01); however, fat loss during wk 8–16 was greater in the HPHD group than in the APMD and APLD groups (P < 0.05). The HPHD group gained lean tissue with a greater increase during 8–16 wk than the APMD group, which maintained lean mass and the APLD group, which lost lean mass (P < 0.05). The HPHD group also lost more VAT as assessed by MRI (P < 0.05) and trunk fat as assessed by DXA (P < 0.005) than the APLD group. The reduction in VAT in all groups was correlated with intakes of calcium (r = 0.40; P < 0.05) and protein (r = 0.32; P < 0.05). Therefore, diet- and exercise-induced weight loss with higher protein and increased dairy product intakes promotes more favorable body composition changes in women characterized by greater total and visceral fat loss and lean mass gain. PMID:21775530
Ogden, Lorraine Garratt; MacLean, Paul Scown; Giles, Erin Danielle; Wyatt, Holly Roxanna
Background. Individuals attempting weight reduction have varying success when participating in the same intervention. Identifying physiological factors associated with greater weight loss could improve outcomes. Methods. Sixty-one adults (BMI 27–30 kg/m2) participated in a 16-week group-based, cognitive-behavioral control weight loss program. Concentrations of 12 fasting hormones and cytokines related to adiposity, satiety/hunger, and inflammation were measured using the Milliplex human metabolic human panel before and after weight loss. Participants were grouped based on ≥8% (successful group, SG) or <8% weight loss (less successful group, LSG). Results. The SG had 46 subjects (75.4%), while the LSG had 15 (24.6%). There were no differences in baseline sex distribution, age, weight, BMI, and body composition between groups. In the SG, baseline to the 16-week levels decreased significantly for c-peptide (1,030 versus 891 pg/mL, P = 0.002), insulin (665 versus 541 pg/mL, P = 0.001), and leptin (0.83 versus 0.58 ng/mL/kg fat, P < 0.001). None of the baseline analytes predicted greater weight loss. Conclusions. Successful weight loss was associated with changes in adiposity (less fat mass) and unfavorable hunger signals. No baseline biomarker profile was associated with weight loss success. Behavioral factors may have outweighed physiological signals for determining successful weight loss. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00429650. PMID:24363955
Berenshtein, Eduard; Eliashar, Ron; Chevion, Mordechai
Whether the diabetic heart benefits from ischemic preconditioning (IPC), similar to the non-diabetic heart, is a subject of controversy. We recently proposed new roles for iron and ferritin in IPC-protection in Type 1-like streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat heart. Here, we investigated iron homeostasis in Cohen diabetic sensitive rat (CDs) that develop hyperglycemia when fed on a high-sucrose/low-copper diet (HSD), but maintain normoglycemia on regular-diet (RD). Control Cohen-resistant rats (CDr) maintain normoglycemia on either diet. The IPC procedure improved the post-ischemic recovery of normoglycemic hearts (CDr-RD, CDr-HSD and CDs-RD). CDs-HSD hearts failed to show IPC-associated protection. The recovery of these CDs-HSD hearts following I/R (without prior IPC) was better than their RD controls. During IPC ferritin levels increased in normoglycemic hearts, and its level was maintained nearly constant during the subsequent prolonged ischemia, but decayed to its baseline level during the reperfusion phase. In CDs-HSD hearts the baseline levels of ferritin and ferritin-saturation with iron were notably higher than in the controls, and remained unchanged during the entire experiment. This unique and abnormal pattern of post-ischemic recovery of CDs-HSD hearts is associated with marked changes in myocardial iron homeostasis, and suggests that iron and iron-proteins play a causative role/s in the etiology of diabetes-associated cardiovascular disorders. PMID:27458721
Blevins, James E; Thompson, Benjamin W; Anekonda, Vishwanath T; Ho, Jacqueline M; Graham, James L; Roberts, Zachary S; Hwang, Bang H; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Wolden-Hanson, Tami; Nelson, Jarrell; Kaiyala, Karl J; Havel, Peter J; Bales, Karen L; Morton, Gregory J; Schwartz, Michael W; Baskin, Denis G
Based largely on a number of short-term administration studies, growing evidence suggests that central oxytocin is important in the regulation of energy balance. The goal of the current work is to determine whether long-term third ventricular (3V) infusion of oxytocin into the central nervous system (CNS) is effective for obesity prevention and/or treatment in rat models. We found that chronic 3V oxytocin infusion between 21 and 26 days by osmotic minipumps both reduced weight gain associated with the progression of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and elicited a sustained reduction of fat mass with no decrease of lean mass in rats with established diet-induced obesity. We further demonstrated that these chronic oxytocin effects result from 1) maintenance of energy expenditure at preintervention levels despite ongoing weight loss, 2) a reduction in respiratory quotient, consistent with increased fat oxidation, and 3) an enhanced satiety response to cholecystokinin-8 and associated decrease of meal size. These weight-reducing effects persisted for approximately 10 days after termination of 3V oxytocin administration and occurred independently of whether sucrose was added to the HFD. We conclude that long-term 3V administration of oxytocin to rats can both prevent and treat diet-induced obesity.
Hansen, Henrik H; Hansen, Gitte; Paulsen, Sarah; Vrang, Niels; Mark, Michael; Jelsing, Jacob; Klein, Thomas
Linagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. DPP-IV inhibitors are considered weight neutral, suggesting that elevation of endogenous incretin levels is not sufficient to promote weight loss per se. Here we evaluated the effect of linagliptin in combination with subcutaneous treatment of GLP-1(7-36) on body weight regulation in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Linagliptin administered perorally (1.5mg/kg, b.i.d.), but not subcutaneously (0.5mg/kg, b.i.d.), evoked a very modest body weight loss (2.2%) after 28 days of treatment. GLP-1 (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) treatment alone induced a body weight loss of 4.1%. In contrast, combined linagliptin (1.5mg/kg, p.o., or 0.5mg/kg, s.c.) and GLP-1 (0.5mg/kg) treatment evoked a marked anorectic response with both routes of linagliptin administration being equally effective on final body weight loss (7.5-8.0%). In comparison, liraglutide monotherapy (0.2mg/kg, s.c., b.i.d.) reduced body weight by 10.1%. Interestingly, the weight lowering effect of combined linagliptin and GLP-1 treatment was associated with a marked increase in chow preference, being more pronounced as compared to liraglutide treatment. In addition, linagliptin and GLP-1 co-treatment, but not liraglutide, specifically increased prepro-dynorphin mRNA levels in the caudate-putamen, an effect not obtained with administration of the compounds individually. In conclusion, co-treatment with linagliptin and GLP-1 synergistically reduces body weight in obese rats. The anti-obesity effect was caused by appetite suppression with a concomitant change in diet preference, which may potentially be associated with increased dynorphin activity in forebrain regions involved in reward anticipation and habit learning.
Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Davidson, Charis R; Wingard, Ellen E; Billings, Deborah L
The aim of this randomized pilot was to assess the feasibility of a dietary intervention among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) comparing a vegan to a low-calorie (low-cal) diet. Overweight (body mass index, 39.9 ± 6.1 kg/m(2)) women with PCOS (n = 18; age, 27.8 ± 4.5 years; 39% black) who were experiencing infertility were recruited to participate in a 6-month randomized weight loss study delivered through nutrition counseling, e-mail, and Facebook. Body weight and dietary intake were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months. We hypothesized that weight loss would be greater in the vegan group. Attrition was high at 3 (39%) and 6 months (67%). All analyses were conducted as intention-to-treat and presented as median (interquartile range). Vegan participants lost significantly more weight at 3 months (-1.8% [-5.0%, -0.9%] vegan, 0.0 [-1.2%, 0.3%] low-cal; P = .04), but there was no difference between groups at 6 months (P = .39). Use of Facebook groups was significantly related to percent weight loss at 3 (P < .001) and 6 months (P = .05). Vegan participants had a greater decrease in energy (-265 [-439, 0] kcal/d) and fat intake (-7.4% [-9.2%, 0] energy) at 6 months compared with low-cal participants (0 [0, 112] kcal/d, P = .02; 0 [0, 3.0%] energy, P = .02). These preliminary results suggest that engagement with social media and adoption of a vegan diet may be effective for promoting short-term weight loss among women with PCOS; however, a larger trial that addresses potential high attrition rates is needed to confirm these results.
Hoevenaars, Femke P M; Keijer, Jaap; Herreman, Laure; Palm, Inge; Hegeman, Maria A; Swarts, Hans J M; van Schothorst, Evert M
Restriction of a high-fat diet (HFD) and a change to a low-fat diet (LFD) are two interventions that were shown to promote weight loss and improve parameters of metabolic health in obesity. Examination of the biochemical and molecular responses of white adipose tissue (WAT) to these interventions has not been performed so far. Here, male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice, harboring an intact nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase gene, were fed a purified 40 energy% HFD for 14 weeks to induce obesity. Afterward, mice were divided into three dietary groups: HFD (maintained on HFD), LFD (changed to LFD with identical ingredients), and HFD-CR (restricted to 70 % of the HFD). The effects of the interventions were examined after 5 weeks. Beneficial effects were seen for both HFD-CR and LFD (compared to HFD) regarding physiological parameters (body weight and fat mass) and metabolic parameters, including circulating insulin and leptin levels. Macrophage infiltration in WAT was reduced by both interventions, although more effectively by HFD-CR. Strikingly, molecular parameters in WAT differed between HFD-CR and LFD, with increased activation of mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism in HFD-CR mice. Our results confirm that restriction of the amount of dietary intake and reduction in the dietary energy content are both effective in inducing weight loss. The larger decrease in WAT inflammation and increase in mitochondrial carbohydrate metabolism may be due to a larger degree of energy restriction in HFD-CR, but could also be due to superior effectiveness of dietary restriction in weight loss strategies.
Last, Allen R; Wilson, Stephen A
Americans spend dollar 33 billion annually on weight loss products and services, and a large portion of this money is spent on low-carbohydrate diets. Because of their higher protein and fat content and lower fiber and carbohydrate content, concerns have been raised about the potential health consequences of low-carbohydrate diets. Published long-term data are lacking. Short-term studies comparing traditional low-fat diets with low-carbohydrate diets found lower triglyceride levels, higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, similar low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and lower A1C levels in persons on low-carbohydrate diets. These diets induce greater weight loss at three and six months than traditional low-fat diets; however, by one year there is no significant difference in maintained weight loss. Weight loss is directly related to calorie content and the ability to maintain caloric restriction; the proportions of nutrients in the diet are irrelevant. Low-carbohydrate diets had lower dropout rates than low-fat diets in several studies, possibly because of the high protein content and low glycemic index, which can be appetite suppressing. Data indicate that low-carbohydrate diets are a safe, reasonable alternative to low-fat diets for weight loss. Additional studies are needed to investigate the long-term safety and effectiveness of these and other approaches to weight loss.
Varela-Lopez, Alfonso; Bullon, Pedro; Battino, Maurizio; Ramirez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Ochoa, Julio J; Cordero, Mario D; Ramirez-Tortosa, César L; Rubini, Corrado; Zizzi, Antonio; Quiles, José L
An age-dependent model of the periodontium was reproduced to evaluate the effect of life-long feeding on a low coenzyme Q10 dosage in n-6, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid or monounsaturated fatty acid-based diets on periodontal tissues of young and old rats. Results shown that exacerbated age-related alveolar bone loss previously associated to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet was attenuated by coenzyme Q10 Gene expression analysis suggests that involved mechanisms might be related to a restored capacity of mitochondria to adapt to aging in gingival cells from rats fed on n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid. In particular, this could be due to an age-related increase of the rate of mitochondrial biogenesis and a better oxidative and respiratory balance in these animals. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that supplementation with coenzyme Q10 could counteract the negative effects of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid on alveolar bone loss (a major feature of periodontitis) associated to age.
... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ...
Laitner, Melissa H.; Perri, Michael G.
The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate, synthesize, and interpret findings from recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary and lifestyle weight loss interventions examining the effects of 1) diet composition, 2) use of food provision, and 3) modality of treatment delivery on weight loss. Trials comparing different dietary approaches indicated that reducing carbohydrate intake promoted greater initial weight loss than other approaches but did not appear to significantly improve long-term outcomes. Food provision appears to enhance adherence to reduction in energy intake and produce greater initial weight losses. The long-term benefits of food provision are less clear. Trials comparing alternative treatment modalities suggest that phone-based treatment produce short- and long-term weight reductions equivalent to face-to-face interventions. The use of Internet and mobile technologies are associated with smaller reductions in body weight than face-to-face interventions. Based on this review, clinical implications and future research directions are provided. PMID:25092578
Garcia‐Alvarez, A.; Alzahrnai, A. H.; Karanxha, J.; Stretchberry, D. R.; Contrera, K. J.; Utria, A. F.; Cheskin, L. J.
Summary Background Alternate‐day‐fasting (ADF) has been proposed as an effective dieting method. Studies have found that it also can increase life span in rodents, and reduce inflammation in humans. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the efficacy of ADF compared to very‐low‐calorie dieting (VLCD) in terms of weight loss, and reduction of fat mass and fat‐free mass. Methods Systematic review: PubMed literature searches were performed. Fixed review procedures were applied. Studies were evaluated for quality. Twenty‐eight studies were included. Meta‐analysis: 10/28 studies (four ADF and six matched VLCD) were further analyzed. Results After adjustment for BMI and duration, there was no significant difference in mean body weight loss (VLCD 0.88 kg more weight loss than ADF, 95% CI: −4.32, 2.56) or fat‐free mass (VLCD 1.69 kg more fat‐free mass loss than ADF, 95% CI: −3.62, 0.23); there was a significant difference observed in fat mass (ADF 3.31 kg more fat mass loss than VLCD, 95% CI: 0.05, 6.56). Meta‐analysis showed that, among ADF studies, the pooled change in body weight, fat mass and fat‐free mass was 4.30 kg (95% CI: 3.41, 5.20), 4.06 kg (95% CI: 2.99, 5.13) and 0.72 kg (95% CI: −0.07, 1.51), respectively, while among VLCD studies, the pooled change was 6.28 kg (95% CI: 6.08, 6.49), 4.22 kg (95% CI: 3.95, 4.50) and 2.24 kg (95% CI: 1.95, 2.52), respectively. Conclusions Our results from both the systematic review and the meta‐analysis suggest that ADF is an efficacious dietary method, and may be superior to VLCD for some patients because of ease of compliance, greater fat‐mass loss and relative preservation of fat‐free mass. Head‐to‐head randomized clinical trials are needed to further assess relative efficacy of these two approaches. PMID:27708846
... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...
Huang, Tao; Huang, Jinyan; Qi, Qibin; Li, Yanping; Bray, George A.; Rood, Jennifer; Sacks, Frank M.
OBJECTIVE A common variant rs236918 in the PCSK7 gene has the strongest association with iron homeostasis and is related to insulin resistance. Dietary carbohydrate (CHO) modulates the genetic effect on insulin resistance. We examined whether 2-year weight-loss diets modify the effect of PCSK7 genetic variants on changes in fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance in a randomized, controlled trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were analyzed in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial, which is a randomized, controlled 2-year weight-loss trial using diets that differed in macronutrient proportions. PCSK7 rs236918 was genotyped in 730 overweight or obese adults (80% whites) in this trial. We assessed the progression in fasting insulin and glucose levels, and insulin resistance by genotypes. RESULTS During the 6-month weight-loss phase, the PCSK7 rs236918 G allele was significantly associated with greater decreases in fasting insulin levels in the high–dietary CHO group (P for interaction = 0.04), while the interaction for changes in HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P for interaction = 0.06) did not reach significant levels in white subjects. The G allele was significantly associated with a greater decrease in fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR in response to high dietary CHO levels (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). From 6 months to 2 years (weight-regain phase), the interactions became attenuated due to the regaining of weight (P for interactions = 0.08 and 0.06, respectively). In addition, we observed similar and even stronger results in the whole-study samples from the trial. CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest that PCSK7 genotypes may interact with dietary CHO intake on changes in insulin sensitivity in the white Americans. PMID:25504030
St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Bosarge, Aubrey; Goree, Laura Lee T.; Darnell, Betty
Objective Medium chain triglyceride (MCT) consumption may have a beneficial impact on weight management, however, some studies point to a negative impact of MCT oil consumption on cardiovascular disease risk. This study examined the effects of MCT oil consumption, as part of a weight loss diet, on metabolic risk profile compared to olive oil. Design Thirty-one men and women, age 19–50 y and body mass index 27–33 kg/m2, completed this randomized, controlled, 16-week weight loss program. Oils were consumed at a level of ~12% of the subjects’ prescribed energy intakes in the form of muffins and liquid oil. Results After controlling for body weight, there was a significant effect of time on fasting serum glucose (P = 0.0177) and total cholesterol (P = 0.0386) concentrations, and on diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.0413), with reductions in these variables occurring over time; there was no time-by-diet interaction for any of the parameters studied. Two of the 3 subjects in the MCT oil group with evidence of the metabolic syndrome at baseline did not have metabolic syndrome at endpoint. In the olive oil group, 6 subjects had the metabolic syndrome at baseline; 2 subjects no longer had metabolic syndrome at endpoint, 1 person developed metabolic syndrome, and 4 subjects did not have any change in their metabolic syndrome status. Conclusions Our results suggest that MCT oil can be incorporated into a weight loss program without fear of adversely affecting metabolic risk factors. Distinction should be made regarding chain length when it comes to discussing the effects of saturated fats on metabolic risk factors. PMID:18845704
de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Sagrado, M G; Conde, R
Decreased expression or function of UCP3 (uncoupling protein 3) could reduce energy expenditure and increase the storage of energy as fat. Some studies have pointed to a role of UCP3 in the regulation of whole body energy homeostasis, diet induced obesity, and regulation of lipids as metabolic substrates. The C/C genotype of a polymorphism in the UCP3 promoter (-55C-->T) is associated with an increased expression of UCP3 mRNA in muscle. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of -55CT polymorphism of UCP3 gene on adipocytokines response and weight loss secondary to a hypocaloric diet in obese patients. A population of 107 obese (body mass index >30) nondiabetic outpatients was analyzed in a prospective way. Before and after three months of a hypocaloric diet, an indirect calorimetry, tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance, blood pressure, a serial assessment of nutritional intake with 3-day written food records, and biochemical analysis were performed. The lifestyle modification program consisted of a hypocaloric diet (1520 kcal, 52% of carbohydrates, 25% of lipids and 23% of proteins). The exercise program consisted of aerobic exercise for at least 3 times per week (60 minutes each). The mean age was 49.5+/-34.5 years and the mean BMI 34.5+/-4.8, with 27 males (25.3%) and 80 females (74.7%). Ninety patients (25 males/65 females) (83.6%) had the genotype 55CC (wild group) and 17 patients (2 male/15 females) (16.4%) 55CT (mutant group). The percentage of responders (weight loss) was similar in both groups (wild group: 84.7% vs. mutant group: 81.8%). BMI, weight, fat mass, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio decreased in the wild group and RMR and VO (2) were increased. In the mutant group, BMI and weight decreased. Leptin and IL-6 levels have a significant decrease in the wild group (9.6%: p<0.05) and (30.5%: p<0.05), respectively. Patients with -55CC genotype have a significant decrease in leptin
Nejatbakhsh, R; Riyahi, S; Farrokhi, A; Rostamkhani, S; Mahmazi, S; Yazdinezhad, A; Kazemi, M; Shokri, S
This study was established a model of obesity to estimate the impact of fennel and cumin as anti-obesity extracts on body weight, body mass index (BMI), food consumption, leptin concentration, sperm quality and testis architecture to determine the reversibility of reproductive function of obese animals. Male rats were randomly assigned to either a normal or high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Then, we divided 56 adult rats into seven groups: control (CO); obesity (OB); fennel 100 and 200 mg/kg; cumin 50 and 100 mg/kg; and fennel 100 mg/kg plus cumin 50 mg/kg. From weeks 9-16, the animals treated extracts by gavages daily. We analysed leptin concentration, sperm quality and apoptosis of testis along with evaluating changes in body weight. Body weight of animals increased 25% at week 8. However, body weight, BMI, leptin concentration and apoptosis indices of OB rats increased at the end of study. However, the relative sperm parameters decreased. Nevertheless, fennel and cumin treatment improved sperm quality, and spermatogenic cells apoptosis following weight loss. Concomitant with weight loss, leptin concentration and food consumption decreased. In conclusion, fennel and cumin as supplements may ameliorate sperm quality of obese animals following weight loss and reduction in leptin concentration.
Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study
Van Loan, Marta D.; Keim, Nancy L.; Adams, Sean H.; Souza, Elaine; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; Thomas, Anthony; Witbracht, Megan; Gertz, Erik R.; Piccolo, Brian; Bremer, Andrew A.; Spurlock, Michael
Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD) or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD). All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P = 0.02) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered. PMID:21941636
Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study.
Van Loan, Marta D; Keim, Nancy L; Adams, Sean H; Souza, Elaine; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Thomas, Anthony; Witbracht, Megan; Gertz, Erik R; Piccolo, Brian; Bremer, Andrew A; Spurlock, Michael
Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD) or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD). All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P = 0.02) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered.
In this single case study, the author presented an in-depth description and analysis of a coaching intervention with focus on weight loss, conducted over 10 sessions in the course of 17 months. The client was a well-educated woman in her late 30s, who had tried many different forms of dieting over the years—with little and no lasting effect. In his coaching approach, the author went beyond a pure behavioural change model, that is, based on the Health Belief Model, and tried to take a whole-life perspective, where the client learned to link specific events and habits in her work life and everyday life with specific eating habits. In their collaborative practice, coach and coachee initiated changes both in regard to diet, physical activity, and healthy life style, in general. In a theoretical section, the change in understanding with regard to overeating was presented. Finally, an intra-active model—viewing the client as a self-reflective individual—was used as theoretical basis. A narrative analysis of the first session and a cross-session examination was presented to show, analyse, and understand the procedure of the coaching approach. Finally, the voice of the coachee was heard in regard to her personal experiences during the process. The data material was based on audio recordings of selected sessions, notes written by the coach from every session, and final written reflections by the coachee. PMID:26282867
Josse, Andrea R; Gburcik, Valentina; Raymond, Frederic; Good, Liam; Atherton, Philip J
Background: A hypothesis exists whereby an exercise- or dietary-induced negative energy balance reduces human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) mass through the formation of brown-like adipocyte (brite) cells. However, the validity of biomarkers of brite formation has not been robustly evaluated in humans, and clinical data that link brite formation and weight loss are sparse. Objectives: We used rosiglitazone and primary adipocytes to stringently evaluate a set of biomarkers for brite formation and determined whether the expression of biomarker genes in scWAT could explain the change in body composition in response to exercise training combined with calorie restriction in obese and overweight women (n = 79). Design: Gene expression was derived from exon DNA microarrays and preadipocytes from obesity-resistant and -sensitive mice treated with rosiglitazone to generate candidate brite biomarkers from a microarray. These biomarkers were evaluated against data derived from scWAT RNA from obese and overweight women before and after supervised exercise 5 d/wk for 16 wk combined with modest calorie restriction (∼0.84 MJ/d). Results: Forty percent of commonly used brite gene biomarkers exhibited an exon or strain-specific regulation. No biomarkers were positively related to weight loss in human scWAT. Greater weight loss was significantly associated with less uncoupling protein 1 expression (P = 0.006, R2 = 0.09). In a follow-up global analysis, there were 161 genes that covaried with weight loss that were linked to greater CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α activity (z = 2.0, P = 6.6 × 10−7), liver X receptor α/β agonism (z = 2.1, P = 2.8 × 10−7), and inhibition of leptin-like signaling (z = −2.6, P = 3.9 × 10−5). Conclusion: We identify a subset of robust RNA biomarkers for brite formation and show that calorie-restriction–mediated weight loss in women dynamically remodels scWAT to take on a more-white rather than a more-brown adipocyte phenotype
Treviño, Samuel; Aguilar-Alonso, Patrícia; Flores Hernandez, Jose Angel; Brambila, Eduardo; Guevara, Jorge; Flores, Gonzalo; Lopez-Lopez, Gustavo; Muñoz-Arenas, Guadalupe; Morales-Medina, Julio Cesar; Toxqui, Veronica; Venegas, Berenice; Diaz, Alfonso
A high calorie intake can induce the appearance of the metabolic syndrome (MS), which is a serious public health problem because it affects glucose levels and triglycerides in the blood. Recently, it has been suggested that MS can cause complications in the brain, since chronic hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are risk factors for triggering neuronal death by inducing a state of oxidative stress and inflammatory response that affect cognitive processes. This process, however, is not clear. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the consumption of a high-calorie diet (HCD) on both neurodegeneration and spatial memory impairment in rats. Our results demonstrated that HCD (90 day consumption) induces an alteration of the main energy metabolism markers, indicating the development of MS in rats. Moreover, an impairment of spatial memory was observed. Subsequently, the brains of these animals showed activation of an inflammatory response (increase in reactive astrocytes and interleukin1-β as well as tumor necrosis factor-α) and oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation), causing a reduction in the number of neurons in the temporal cortex and hippocampus. Altogether, these results suggest that a HCD promotes the development of MS and contributes to the development of a neurodegenerative process and cognitive failure. In this regard, it is important to understand the relationship between MS and neuronal damage in order to prevent the onset of neurodegenerative disorders.
... help lower blood pressure. To follow the DASH diet for weight loss, you eat plenty of: Non-starchy vegetables and ... Waugh R, Sherwood A. Effects of the DASH diet alone and in ... loss on blood pressure and cardiovascular biomarkers in men ...
Ishida, H; Uesugi, T; Hirai, K; Toda, T; Nukaya, H; Yokotsuka, K; Tsuji, K
The effects of the plant isoflavones, daidzin and genistin, on bone loss in ovariectomized (ovx) rats fed a calcium-deficient diet were investigated. Daidzin and genistin were orally administered to ovx rats for 4 weeks. The femurs of these rats showed significantly lower density, strength (breaking forces), ash weight and calcium and phosphorus content (p<0.01) in comparison with those of sham-operated rats. These changes were largely prevented in animals receiving oral daidzin or genistin for 4 weeks at a dose of 50 mg/kg/d and in animals receiving subcutaneous estrone (7.5 microg/kg/d) as a positive control. Ovariectomy caused atrophy of the uterus and increased the ratio of the urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline to endogenous creatinine excretion. This was prevented by administration of daidzin or estrone, but, interestingly, not genistin. The preventive effect of daidzin treatment on bone loss in ovariectomized rats appears to be due to suppression of bone turnover. Genistin has a different mechanism of action from daidzin.
Ochner, Christopher N; Lowe, Michael R
This study examined relationships between changes in dietary calcium intake, energy intake, and body weight following a weight loss diet. One hundred three overweight or obese women lost weight over 22 wk. Dietary calcium and energy intake were assessed using the Block 98 FFQ (Block) and 5-d food records (FR) at intervention end and 6- and 18-mo follow-up. Pearson correlations were used to relate changes in dietary calcium to energy intake. We used regression analyses to examine relationships between changes in dietary calcium, energy intake, and weight regain. Changes in dietary calcium and energy intake were correlated (r = 0.32; P = 0.033), but neither variable alone predicted weight regain. From 6- to 18-mo follow-up, greater dietary calcium intake inversely predicted weight regain when controlling for changes in energy intake (P = 0.048 Block and 0.025 FR), whereas higher energy intake positively predicted weight regain when controlling for changes in dietary calcium intake (P = 0.009 Block and 0.049 FR) (combined R(2) = 0.153 Block and 0.178 FR). Dietary calcium may oppose weight regain, reducing the effect of greater energy intake. Our results encourage future research on the potential relationship between dietary calcium and weight loss maintenance and suggest that controlling for dietary calcium may increase the ability of energy intake to predict weight change.
Robinson, P H; Fredeen, A H; Chalupa, W; Julien, W E; Sato, H; Fujieda, T; Suzuki, H
Dairy cows, 20 at each of two sites, were used to determine responses to ruminally protected Lys and Met in a full lactation study. Cows were fed corn silage twice daily for ad libitum intake and a concentrate four times daily in proportion to milk production. At Truro, cows were fed 2.7 kg/d of alfalfa and timothy hay DM at 0600 and at 1500 h. At Fredericton, cows were fed 2.7 kg of timothy silage DM at 0600 h and 2.7 kg of alfalfa hay DM at 1500 h. Diets were designed to meet, but not to exceed, recommendations for ruminally degradable CP and intestinally digestible protein. Ten cows at each site were fed ruminally protected L-Lys.HCl (19 g/d) and DL-Met (6.5 g/d). Cows fed AA at each site produced more milk, lactose, protein, and fat; milk protein and fat percentages were also higher. No time x treatment interactions occurred for any production parameter. In spite of similar production responses between sites, cows fed AA consumed more DM at Truro, but those at Fredericton did not. Thus, gross efficiency of utilization of dietary N for milk N was increased with AA at Fredericton but not at Truro. However, considering the increased intake of CP by cows fed AA at Truro, an event that would have been expected to depress efficiency of utilization of dietary N, the lack of difference at Truro between treatments can be interpreted as an improvement, relative to expectations, because of AA feeding. High producing dairy cows fed a diet that was adequate in CP responded to ruminally protected Lys and Met primarily with increased production of milk protein and fat throughout the full lactation.
Fisas, Angels; Codony, Xavier; Romero, Gonzalo; Dordal, Alberto; Giraldo, Jesus; Mercé, Ramon; Holenz, Jörg; Heal, David; Buschmann, Helmut; Pauwels, Petrus Johan
E-6837 is a novel, selective and high-affinity 5-HT6 receptor ligand (pKi: 9.13) which in vitro demonstrates partial agonism at a presumably silent rat 5-HT6 receptor and full agonism at a constitutively active human 5-HT6 receptor by monitoring the cAMP signaling pathway. The effects of chronic treatment with E-6837 were determined in diet-induced obese (DIO)-rats on changes in body weight, food and water intake, plasma indices of comorbid risk factors, and weight regain on compound withdrawal. The centrally acting antiobesity drug, sibutramine, was used as the reference comparator. Sustained body weight loss and decreased cumulative food intake of DIO-rats was observed with E-6837 (30 mg kg−1, p.o., twice a day) during the 4-week treatment period. The onset of the E-6837 effect on body weight was slower than that of sibutramine (5 mg kg−1, p.o.), while its maximal effect was greater, that is −15.7 versus −11.0%. E-6837-induced weight loss was exclusively mediated by a decrease (31.7%) in fat mass, with a concomitant reduction (49.6%) in plasma leptin. Reduced obesity was also reflected in improved glycemic control. Although weight regain occurred after withdrawal from either compound, the body weights after E-6837 (−6.6%) remained lower than after sibutramine (−3.8%) indicating that the greater efficacy of the former did not result in profound rebound hyperphagia/weight gain. These results show that the 5-HT6 receptor partial agonist, E-6837, is a promising new approach to the management of obesity with the potential to produce greater sustained weight loss than sibutramine. PMID:16783408
Pasiakos, Stefan M; Cao, Jay J; Margolis, Lee M; Sauter, Edward R; Whigham, Leah D; McClung, James P; Rood, Jennifer C; Carbone, John W; Combs, Gerald F; Young, Andrew J
The purpose of this work was to determine the effects of varying levels of dietary protein on body composition and muscle protein synthesis during energy deficit (ED). A randomized controlled trial of 39 adults assigned the subjects diets providing protein at 0.8 (recommended dietary allowance; RDA), 1.6 (2×-RDA), and 2.4 (3×-RDA) g kg(-1) d(-1) for 31 d. A 10-d weight-maintenance (WM) period was followed by a 21 d, 40% ED. Body composition and postabsorptive and postprandial muscle protein synthesis were assessed during WM (d 9-10) and ED (d 30-31). Volunteers lost (P<0.05) 3.2 ± 0.2 kg body weight during ED regardless of dietary protein. The proportion of weight loss due to reductions in fat-free mass was lower (P<0.05) and the loss of fat mass was higher (P<0.05) in those receiving 2×-RDA and 3×-RDA compared to RDA. The anabolic muscle response to a protein-rich meal during ED was not different (P>0.05) from WM for 2×-RDA and 3×-RDA, but was lower during ED than WM for those consuming RDA levels of protein (energy × protein interaction, P<0.05). To assess muscle protein metabolic responses to varied protein intakes during ED, RDA served as the study control. In summary, we determined that consuming dietary protein at levels exceeding the RDA may protect fat-free mass during short-term weight loss.
Goldman-Huertas, Benjamin; Mitchell, Robert F; Lapoint, Richard T; Faucher, Cécile P; Hildebrand, John G; Whiteman, Noah K
Herbivory is a key innovation in insects, yet has only evolved in one-third of living orders. The evolution of herbivory likely involves major behavioral changes mediated by remodeling of canonical chemosensory modules. Herbivorous flies in the genus Scaptomyza (Drosophilidae) are compelling species in which to study the genomic architecture linked to the transition to herbivory because they recently evolved from microbe-feeding ancestors and are closely related to Drosophila melanogaster. We found that Scaptomyza flava, a leaf-mining specialist on plants in the family (Brassicaceae), was not attracted to yeast volatiles in a four-field olfactometer assay, whereas D. melanogaster was strongly attracted to these volatiles. Yeast-associated volatiles, especially short-chain aliphatic esters, elicited strong antennal responses in D. melanogaster, but weak antennal responses in electroantennographic recordings from S. flava. We sequenced the genome of S. flava and characterized this species' odorant receptor repertoire. Orthologs of odorant receptors, which detect yeast volatiles in D. melanogaster and mediate critical host-choice behavior, were deleted or pseudogenized in the genome of S. flava. These genes were lost step-wise during the evolution of Scaptomyza. Additionally, Scaptomyza has experienced gene duplication and likely positive selection in paralogs of Or67b in D. melanogaster. Olfactory sensory neurons expressing Or67b are sensitive to green-leaf volatiles. Major trophic shifts in insects are associated with chemoreceptor gene loss as recently evolved ecologies shape sensory repertoires.
Meal replacements and fibre supplement as a strategy for weight loss. Proprietary PGX® meal replacement and PGX® fibre supplement in addition to a calorie-restricted diet to achieve weight loss in a clinical setting.
Reichert, Ronald G; Reimer, Raylene A; Kacinik, Veronica; Pal, Sebely; Gahler, Roland J; Wood, Simon
Meal replacements and viscous soluble fibre represent safe and sustainable aids for weight loss. Our purpose was to determine if PGX® meal replacements and PGX(®) fibre complex in combination with a calorie-restricted diet would aid in weight loss in a clinical setting. Fifty-two overweight and obese participants (49 women, 3 men; average age 47.1 years) with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 33.8 ± 6.4 kg/m(2) consumed 57 g of proprietary PGX® meal replacement product at breakfast and another 57 g at lunch for 12 weeks. In addition to the meal replacements, they were also asked to consume 5 g/day of PGX® fibre in the form of granules, powder or capsules together with 250 mlwater. A registered dietician recommended low-fat, low-glycaemic-index foods for snacks and the dinner menus such that each volunteer was consuming a total of 1200 kcal/day. All participants (n = 52) lost a significant amount of weight from baseline (-4.69 ± 3.73 kg), which was further reflected in the reductions in their waist (-7.11 ± 6.35 cm) and hip circumference (-5.59 ± 3.58 cm) over the 12-week study (p < 0.0001). BMI scores (n = 51) were reduced by 1.6 ± 1.4 kg/m(2). The use of PGX® meal replacements and PGX(®) fibre along with a controlled dietary caloric intake is of benefit for short-term weight loss.
Nadeau, Daniel A
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem with significant lifetime health care costs. The majority of Americans do not achieve minimal targets for exercise, and individuals with T2DM typically engage in less exercise than the general adult population. However, those patients with T2DM who are sufficiently self-motivated to manage their condition have the potential to reverse diabetes and prevent its complications through behavioral and pharmacologic interventions. Marked improvements are possible through increased awareness and selection of healthy eating options, a willingness to incorporate vigorous exercise into their lifestyle, and the use of newer medications that essentially eliminate the risk of hypoglycemia while facilitating weight loss and the achievement of ideal glucose targets. For self-motivated patients, daily aerobic activity of 45 to 60 minutes per day may be a suitable target. For those who have cardiovascular clearance, high-intensity interval training accomplishes high levels of cardiometabolic fitness with shorter training periods by alternating moderate and intense exertion. Suitable medications that have a low risk of hypoglycemia during exercise include metformin, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and sodium-glucose linked transporter-2 inhibitors. Specific daily caloric goals and incorporation of a mainly plant-based diet should be considered as a primary target for diabetes management. Self-management is important to achieving diabetes treatment goals, and mobile applications can be useful tools to support lifestyle changes in patients with T2DM.
Karimi, Golgis; Azadbakht, Leila; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad
Background: Little is known about the effects of a low energy dense diet on weight maintenance and cardiovascular risks following a recent weight reduction. Therefore, we assessed if weight maintenance, lipid profiles, and glycemic control differ between low energy density (LED) diet and usual diet consumers following a recent weight reduction. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial study in a parallel design, we recruited 70 patients with the history of weight reduction in the recent 1 year. LED diet contained 30% fat, 15% protein, and 55% carbohydrate was administered to the test group, and a usual diet including 35% fat, 15% protein, and 50% carbohydrate was prescribed to the control group for 7 months. Dietary intake was assessed by using 3 days food records. Biochemical markers and anthropometric measures were done according to the standard protocol. Results: Weight reduced in LED diet consumers compared to usual diet consumers (−0.3 ± 0.2 vs. 1.3 ± 0.4%, P = 0.002). The results was the same regarding waist circumference (−0.4 ± 0.2 vs. 0.3 ± 0.1%, P = 0.004). Fasting blood sugar also decreased in LED diet group (−9.5 ± 0.8 vs. 0.4 ± 1.0%, P = 0.0001). LED diet group had a drop in percent change of their total cholesterol (−0.4 ± 0.5 vs. 2.05 ± 0.4%, P = 0.04) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (4.8 ± 0.9 vs. −0.3 ± 0.9%, P = 0.002). Conclusion: Our findings confirmed beneficial effects of LED diet on attenuating weight regain in subjects with history of recent weight reduction. It might be derived from higher consumption of fruits, vegetables, and fiber among LED diet than usual diet consumers. PMID:27904578
... Lifestyle Weight loss If I switch to a vegetarian diet, will I lose weight? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. Not necessarily. A vegetarian diet is not inherently a weight-loss diet, ...
Watson, Nerylee; Dyer, Kathryn; Buckley, Jonathan; Brinkworth, Grant; Coates, Alison; Parfitt, Gaynor; Howe, Peter; Noakes, Manny; Murphy, Karen
Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP) diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat) to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23%) on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction) followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index) 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m², aged 55 ± 8 years) with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8) who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: -7.8 ± 0.6 kg), there were significant reductions in HbA1c (-1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001) and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance.
... slowly. Some ways of treating obesity, such as weight-loss surgery and very low-calorie diets (VLCDs), may increase ... of developing gallstones by promoting rapid weight loss. Weight-loss surgery is an operation on the stomach and/or ...
Marinho, R; Ropelle, E R; Cintra, D E; De Souza, C T; Da Silva, A S R; Bertoli, F C; Colantonio, E; D'Almeida, V; Pauli, J R
Hepatic insulin resistance is the major contributor to fasting hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. The protein kinase Akt plays a central role in the suppression of gluconeogenesis involving forkhead box O1 (Foxo1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), and in the control of glycogen synthesis involving the glycogen synthase kinase beta (GSK3β) in the liver. It has been demonstrated that endosomal adaptor protein APPL1 interacts with Akt and blocks the association of Akt with its endogenous inhibitor, tribbles-related protein 3 (TRB3), improving the action of insulin in the liver. Here, we demonstrated that chronic exercise increased the basal levels and insulin-induced Akt serine phosphorylation in the liver of diet-induced obese mice. Endurance training was able to increase APPL1 expression and the interaction between APPL1 and Akt. Conversely, training reduced both TRB3 expression and TRB3 and Akt association. The positive effects of exercise on insulin action are reinforced by our findings that showed that trained mice presented an increase in Foxo1 phosphorylation and Foxo1/PGC-1α association, which was accompanied by a reduction in gluconeogenic gene expressions (PEPCK and G6Pase). Finally, exercised animals demonstrated increased at basal and insulin-induced GSK3β phosphorylation levels and glycogen content at 24 h after the last session of exercise. Our findings demonstrate that exercise increases insulin action, at least in part, through the enhancement of APPL1 and the reduction of TRB3 expression in the liver of obese mice, independently of weight loss.
The effects of high glycemic load (HG) and low glycemic load (LG) diets on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition changes in response to caloric restriction (CR) remains controversial. Objective To examine the effects of two CR diets differing primarily in glycemic load on RMR and the % o...
... certain diseases, such as thyroid problems, diabetes, or lupus. If you take certain medicines or have chemotherapy for cancer, you may also lose your hair. Other causes are stress, a low protein diet, a family history, or poor nutrition. Treatment for hair loss depends ...
Heartburn - bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and gas. You may also need a bland ...
Balantekin, Katherine N; Savage, Jennifer S; Marini, Michele E; Birch, Leann L
Dieting to lose weight is common among female adolescents. This research investigated the association between maternal and paternal encouragement to diet and their daughters' self-reported "early dieting" (prior to age 11 y) and adolescent dieting (between 11 y and 15 y), and how parental encouragement to diet is related to changes in daughters' BMI percentiles. Participants in this study were 174 non-Hispanic white girls and their parents, assessed when daughters were 9-, 11-, 13-, and 15 y. The Parent Encouragement of Child Weight Loss Scale was used to measure encouragement to diet. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between parental encouragement to diet and daughters' reports of dieting by 11 y and by 15 y, adjusting for daughters' weight status at baseline. Compared with girls whose mothers didn't encourage dieting, girls who were encouraged to diet were twice as likely to diet by 11 y; girls who were encouraged by their fathers were also twice as likely to diet by 11 y. Girls who were encouraged to diet by both parents were 8 times more likely to report early dieting than girls who were not. Neither maternal nor paternal encouragement predicted the emergence of dieting during adolescence. Girls who dieted and had parental encouragement to do so had increases in BMI percentile from 9 y to 15 y. Findings reveal that parental encouragement to diet may be counterproductive and that parents need alternative approaches to promote healthy patterns of intake and growth among young girls.
Moran, Lisa J.; Brinkworth, Grant D.; Martin, Sean; Wycherley, Thomas P.; Stuckey, Bronwyn; Lutze, Janna; Clifton, Peter M.; Wittert, Gary A.; Noakes, Manny
Introduction Obesity is associated with reduced testosterone and worsened erectile and sexual function in men. Weight loss improves these outcomes. High protein diets potentially offer anthropometric and metabolic benefits, but their effects on reproductive and sexual outcomes is not known. Aim To examine the long-term effects of weight loss with a higher protein or carbohydrate diet on testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, erectile dysfunction, lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual desire in overweight and obese men. Methods One-hundred and eighteen overweight or obese men (body mass index 27–40 kg/m2, age 20–65 years) were randomly assigned to an energy restricted higher protein low fat (35% protein, 40% carbohydrate, 25% fat; n = 57) or higher carbohydrate low fat diet (17% protein, 58% carbohydrate, 25% fat, n = 61) diet for 52 weeks (12 weeks weight loss, 40 weeks weight maintenance). Primary outcomes were serum total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and calculated free testosterone. Secondary outcomes were erectile function as assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) (total score and erectile function domain), lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual desire. Results Total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and free testosterone increased (P<0.001) and the total IIEF increased (P = 0.017) with no differences between diets (P≥0.244). Increases in testosterone (P = 0.037) and sex hormone binding globulin (P<0.001) and improvements in the total IIEF (P = 0.041) occurred from weeks 0–12 with a further increase in testosterone from week 12–52 (P = 0.002). Increases in free testosterone occurred from week 12–52 (p = 0.002). The IIEF erectile functon domain, lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual desire did not change in either group (P≥0.126). Conclusions In overweight and obese men, weight loss with both high protein and carbohydrate diets improve testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and overall
Heindel, Jerrold J; vom Saal, Frederick S
We report information from two workshops sponsored by the National Institutes of Health that were held to a) assess whether dietary estrogens could significantly impact end points in experimental animals, and b) involve program participants and feed manufacturers to address the problems associated with measuring and eliminating batch-to-batch variability in rodent diets that may lead to conflicting findings in animal experiments within and between laboratories. Data were presented at the workshops showing that there is significant batch-to-batch variability in estrogenic content of commercial animal diets, and that this variability results in differences in experimental outcomes. A combination of methods were proposed to determine levels of total estrogenic activity and levels of specific estrogenic constituents in soy-containing, casein-containing, and other soy-free rodent diets. Workshop participants recommended that researchers pay greater attention to the type of diet being used in animal studies and choose a diet whose estrogenic activity (or lack thereof) is appropriate for the experimental model and end points of interest. Information about levels of specific phytoestrogens, as well as estrogenic activity caused by other contaminants and measured by bioassay, should be disclosed in scientific publications. This will require laboratory animal diet manufacturers to provide investigators with information regarding the phytoestrogen content and other estrogenic compounds in commercial diets used in animal research.
IFPA Meeting 2010 Workshops Report II: Placental pathology; trophoblast invasion; fetal sex; parasites and the placenta; decidua and embryonic or fetal loss; trophoblast differentiation and syncytialisation.
Al-Khan, A; Aye, I L; Barsoum, I; Borbely, A; Cebral, E; Cerchi, G; Clifton, V L; Collins, S; Cotechini, T; Davey, A; Flores-Martin, J; Fournier, T; Franchi, A M; Fretes, R E; Graham, C H; Godbole, G; Hansson, S R; Headley, P L; Ibarra, C; Jawerbaum, A; Kemmerling, U; Kudo, Y; Lala, P K; Lassance, L; Lewis, R M; Menkhorst, E; Morris, C; Nobuzane, T; Ramos, G; Rote, N; Saffery, R; Salafia, C; Sarr, D; Schneider, H; Sibley, C; Singh, A T; Sivasubramaniyam, T S; Soares, M J; Vaughan, O; Zamudio, S; Lash, G E
Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting. At IFPA Meeting 2010 diverse topics were discussed in twelve themed workshops, six of which are summarized in this report. 1. The placental pathology workshop focused on clinical correlates of placenta accreta/percreta. 2. Mechanisms of regulation of trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling were discussed in the trophoblast invasion workshop. 3. The fetal sex and intrauterine stress workshop explored recent work on placental sex differences and discussed them in the context of whether boys live dangerously in the womb.4. The workshop on parasites addressed inflammatory responses as a sign of interaction between placental tissue and parasites. 5. The decidua and embryonic/fetal loss workshop focused on key regulatory mediators in the decidua, embryo and fetus and how alterations in expression may contribute to different diseases and adverse conditions of pregnancy. 6. The trophoblast differentiation and syncytialisation workshop addressed the regulation of villous cytotrophoblast differentiation and how variations may lead to placental dysfunction and pregnancy complications.
Nikokavoura, Efsevia A; Johnston, Kelly L; Broom, John; Wrieden, Wendy L; Rolland, Catherine
Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects between 2% and 26% of reproductive-age women in the UK, and accounts for up to 75% of anovulatory infertility. The major symptoms include ovarian disruption, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and polycystic ovaries. Interestingly, at least half of the women with PCOS are obese, with the excess weight playing a pathogenic role in the development and progress of the syndrome. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions; however, optimal dietary guidelines are missing. Although many different dietary approaches have been investigated, data on the effectiveness of very low-calorie diets on PCOS are very limited. Materials and methods The aim of this paper was to investigate how overweight/obese women with PCOS responded to LighterLife Total, a commercial very low-calorie diet, in conjunction with group behavioral change sessions when compared to women without PCOS (non-PCOS). Results PCOS (n=508) and non-PCOS (n=508) participants were matched for age (age ±1 unit) and body mass index (body mass index ±1 unit). A 12-week completers analysis showed that the total weight loss did not differ significantly between PCOS (n=137) and non-PCOS participants (n=137) (−18.5±6.6 kg vs −19.4±5.7 kg, P=0.190). Similarly, the percentage of weight loss achieved by both groups was not significantly different (PCOS 17.1%±5.6% vs non-PCOS 18.2%±4.4%, P=0.08). Conclusion Overall, LighterLife Total could be an effective weight-loss strategy in overweight/obese women with PCOS. However, further investigations are needed to achieve a thorough way of understanding the physiology of weight loss in PCOS. PMID:26508882
Cavani, Francesco; Smargiassi, Alberto
Rats fed calcium-deprived diet develop osteoporosis due to enhanced bone resorption, secondary to parathyroid overactivity resulting from nutritional hypocalcemia. Therefore, rats provide a good experimental animal model for studying bone modelling alterations during biochemical osteoporosis. Three-month-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 4 groups: (1) baseline, (2) normal diet for 4 weeks, (3) calcium-deprived diet for 4 weeks, and (4) calcium-deprived diet for 4 weeks and concomitant administration of PTH (1-34) 40 µg/Kg/day. Histomorphometrical analyses were made on cortical and trabecular bone of lumbar vertebral body as well as of mid-diaphysis and distal metaphysis of femur. In all rats fed calcium-deprived diet, despite the reduction of trabecular number (due to the maintenance of mineral homeostasis), an intense activity of bone deposition occurs on the surface of the few remaining trabeculae (in answering to mechanical stresses and, consequently, to maintain the skeletal homeostasis). Different responses were detected in different sites of cortical bone, depending on their main function in answering mineral or skeletal homeostasis. This study represents the starting point for work-in-progress researches, with the aim of defining in detail timing and manners of evolution and recovery of biochemical osteoporosis. PMID:26064895
Ferretti, Marzia; Cavani, Francesco; Smargiassi, Alberto; Roli, Laura; Palumbo, Carla
Rats fed calcium-deprived diet develop osteoporosis due to enhanced bone resorption, secondary to parathyroid overactivity resulting from nutritional hypocalcemia. Therefore, rats provide a good experimental animal model for studying bone modelling alterations during biochemical osteoporosis. Three-month-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 4 groups: (1) baseline, (2) normal diet for 4 weeks, (3) calcium-deprived diet for 4 weeks, and (4) calcium-deprived diet for 4 weeks and concomitant administration of PTH (1-34) 40 µg/Kg/day. Histomorphometrical analyses were made on cortical and trabecular bone of lumbar vertebral body as well as of mid-diaphysis and distal metaphysis of femur. In all rats fed calcium-deprived diet, despite the reduction of trabecular number (due to the maintenance of mineral homeostasis), an intense activity of bone deposition occurs on the surface of the few remaining trabeculae (in answering to mechanical stresses and, consequently, to maintain the skeletal homeostasis). Different responses were detected in different sites of cortical bone, depending on their main function in answering mineral or skeletal homeostasis. This study represents the starting point for work-in-progress researches, with the aim of defining in detail timing and manners of evolution and recovery of biochemical osteoporosis.
Zhang, Xiaomin; Qi, Qibin; Liang, Jun; Hu, Frank B; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is implicated in the regulation of blood pressure (BP), and NPY pathways in the hypothalamus are sensitive to dietary fat. We evaluated the potential effect of a functional variant rs16147 located in the NPY gene promoter region on the association between 2-year diet intervention and change in multiple BP measures in the randomized Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies Trial. The NPY rs16147 was genotyped in 723 obese adults who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets differing in the target percentages of energy derived from fat, protein, and carbohydrate. The changes of 4 BP phenotypes, including systolic BP, diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure, during 2-year diet intervention were analyzed. In the total participants and participants with hypertension, we observed significant and consistent interactions between rs16147 genotype and dietary fat intake on changes in multiple BP phenotypes at 2 years (all P for interactions <0.05). The risk allele (C allele) was associated with a greater reduction of BP phenotypes in response to low-fat diet, whereas an opposite genetic effect was observed in response to high-fat diet. In addition, the C allele was related to greater changes in 4 BP phenotypes in hypertensive compared with nonhypertensive participants. Our data suggest that NPY rs16147 may modulate the association between dietary fat intake and changes in BP phenotypes, and the C allele exerts a long-term beneficial effect on lowering BP in response to low-fat diet in obese and hypertensive subjects.
... animal products The lacto vegetarian diet, which includes plant foods plus dairy products The lacto-ovo vegetarian diet, which includes both dairy products and eggs People who follow vegetarian diets can get ...
Coughlan, Karen S.; Halang, Luise; Woods, Ina
ABSTRACT Transgenic transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) mice expressing the A315T mutation under control of the murine prion promoter progressively develop motor function deficits and are considered a new model for the study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); however, premature sudden death resulting from intestinal obstruction halts disease phenotype progression in 100% of C57BL6/J congenic TDP-43A315T mice. Similar to our recent results in SOD1G93A mice, TDP-43A315T mice fed a standard pellet diet showed increased 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation at postnatal day (P)80, indicating elevated energetic stress during disease progression. We therefore investigated the effects of a high-fat jelly diet on bioenergetic status and lifespan in TDP-43A315T mice. In contrast to standard pellet-fed mice, mice fed high-fat jelly showed no difference in AMPK activation up to P120 and decreased phosphorylation of acetly-CoA carboxylase (ACC) at early-stage time points. Exposure to a high-fat jelly diet prevented sudden death and extended survival, allowing development of a motor neuron disease phenotype with significantly decreased body weight from P80 onward that was characterised by deficits in Rotarod abilities and stride length measurements. Development of this phenotype was associated with a significant motor neuron loss as assessed by Nissl staining in the lumbar spinal cord. Our work suggests that a high-fat jelly diet improves the pre-clinical utility of the TDP-43A315T model by extending lifespan and allowing the motor neuron disease phenotype to progress, and indicates the potential benefit of this diet in TDP-43-associated ALS. PMID:27491077
Coughlan, Karen S; Halang, Luise; Woods, Ina; Prehn, Jochen H M
Transgenic transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) mice expressing the A315T mutation under control of the murine prion promoter progressively develop motor function deficits and are considered a new model for the study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); however, premature sudden death resulting from intestinal obstruction halts disease phenotype progression in 100% of C57BL6/J congenic TDP-43(A315T) mice. Similar to our recent results in SOD1(G93A) mice, TDP-43(A315T) mice fed a standard pellet diet showed increased 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation at postnatal day (P)80, indicating elevated energetic stress during disease progression. We therefore investigated the effects of a high-fat jelly diet on bioenergetic status and lifespan in TDP-43(A315T) mice. In contrast to standard pellet-fed mice, mice fed high-fat jelly showed no difference in AMPK activation up to P120 and decreased phosphorylation of acetly-CoA carboxylase (ACC) at early-stage time points. Exposure to a high-fat jelly diet prevented sudden death and extended survival, allowing development of a motor neuron disease phenotype with significantly decreased body weight from P80 onward that was characterised by deficits in Rotarod abilities and stride length measurements. Development of this phenotype was associated with a significant motor neuron loss as assessed by Nissl staining in the lumbar spinal cord. Our work suggests that a high-fat jelly diet improves the pre-clinical utility of the TDP-43(A315T) model by extending lifespan and allowing the motor neuron disease phenotype to progress, and indicates the potential benefit of this diet in TDP-43-associated ALS.
Macdiarmid, Jennie I
The concept of a healthy and environmentally sustainable diet is not new, but with increasing concern about future global food security and climate change there is a renewed interest in this topic. Dietary intakes in UK accounts for approximately 20-30% of total annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), with the greatest contributions coming from high intakes of meat and dairy products. Dietary proposals to help mitigate climate change (i.e. reduce GHGE) have focused on reducing consumption of meat and dairy products, but this must be considered in the context of the whole diet, alongside any possible nutritional consequences for health. Bringing together health and environmental impact of the diet raises the question of whether a healthy diet can also be an environmentally sustainable diet. While recent research showed that it is possible to achieve a realistic diet that meets dietary requirement for health and has lower GHGE, it cannot be assumed that a healthy diet will always have lower GHGE. With different combinations of food it is possible to consume a diet that meets dietary requirements for health, but has high GHGE. It is important to understand what constitutes a sustainable diet, but this then needs to be communicated effectively to try and change well-established dietary intakes of the population. Studies show that understanding of sustainable diets is poor and there are many misconceptions (e.g. the overestimation of the protein requirements for a healthy diet), which could contribute to the barriers towards changing dietary intakes.
Bone can be adversely affected by obesity and cancer-associated complications including wasting. The objective of this study was to determine whether a high-fat diet and a deficiency in monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) altered bone structural defects found in male C57BL/6 mice with Lewis lung...
Harris Jackson, Kristina; West, Sheila G; Vanden Heuvel, John P; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Ross, Alastair B; Hill, Alison M; Grieger, Jessica A; Lemieux, Susan K; Kris-Etherton, Penny M
Background: Higher whole-grain (WG) intake is associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, there is inconsistent clinical evidence with regard to the benefit of WGs compared with refined grains (RGs) on MetS. Objective: We hypothesized that consuming WGs in the place of RGs would improve MetS criteria in individuals with or at risk of MetS. Design: A randomized, controlled, open-label parallel study was conducted in 50 overweight and obese individuals with increased waist circumference and one or more other MetS criteria. Participants consumed a controlled weight-loss diet containing either WG or RG (control) products for 12 wk. Body composition, MetS criteria and related markers, and plasma alkylresorcinols (compliance marker of WG intake) were measured at baseline and at 6 and 12 wk. A subgroup (n = 28) underwent magnetic resonance imaging to quantify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (AT). Results: Baseline variables were not significantly different between groups; however, the RG group tended to have higher triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P = 0.06). Alkylresorcinols increased with consumption of the WG diet and did not change with consumption of the RG diet (time × treatment, P < 0.0001), which showed dietary compliance. There were no differences in anthropometric changes between groups; however, weight, body mass index, and percentage of body AT decreased at both 6 and 12 wk (P < 0.05), and reductions in percentage of abdominal AT occurred by 6 wk and did not change between 6 and 12 wk (P = 0.09). Both glucose (P = 0.02) and HDL cholesterol (P = 0.04) were lower with the consumption of the WG compared with the RG diet. However, when noncompliant individuals (n = 3) were removed, the glucose effect was stronger (P = 0.01) and the HDL-cholesterol effect was no longer significant (P = 0.14). Conclusions: Replacing RGs with WGs within a weight-loss diet does not beneficially affect abdominal
Tsoulis, Michael W.; Chang, Pauline E.; Moore, Caroline J.; Chan, Kaitlyn A.; Gohir, Wajiha; Petrik, James J.; Vickers, Mark H.; Connor, Kristin L.; Sloboda, Deborah M.
Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to metabolic and reproductive dysfunction. We have shown previously that female rat offspring born to mothers fed a high-fat (HF) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation enter puberty early and display aberrant reproductive cyclicity. The mechanisms driving this reproductive phenotype are currently unknown thus we investigated whether changes in ovarian function were involved. Wistar rats were mated and randomized to: dams fed a control diet (CON) or dams fed a HF diet from conception until the end of lactation (HF). Ovaries were collected from fetuses at Embryonic Day (E) 20, and neonatal ovaries at Day 4 (P4), prepubertal ovaries at P27 and adult ovaries at P120. In a subset of offspring, the effects of a HF diet fed postweaning were evaluated. The present study shows that fetuses of mothers fed a HF diet had significantly fewer oocytes at E20, and in neonates, have reduced AMH signaling that may facilitate an increased number of assembled primordial follicles. Both prepubertally and in adulthood, ovaries show increased follicular atresia. As adults, offspring have reduced FSH responsiveness, low expression levels of estrogen receptor alpha (Eralpha), the oocyte-secreted factor, Gdf9, oocyte-specific RNA binding protein, Dazl, and high expression levels of the granulosa-cell derived factor, AMH, in antral follicles. Together, these data suggest that ovarian compromise in offspring born to HF-fed mothers may arise from changes already observable in the fetus and neonate and in the long term, associated with increased follicular atresia through adulthood. PMID:26962114
Wycherley, T P; Brinkworth, G D; Clifton, P M; Noakes, M
Background: A high-protein (HP), low-fat weight-loss diet may be advantageous for improving cardiometabolic health outcomes and body composition. To date, only limited research has been conducted in male participants. Objective: To evaluate the medium to long-term effects of two, low-fat, hypocaloric diets differing in carbohydrate:protein ratio on body composition and cardiometabolic health outcomes in overweight and obese males. Design: One hundred and twenty males (age 50.8±9.3 (s.d.) years, body mass index 33.0±3.9 kg m−2) were randomly assigned and consumed a low-fat, isocaloric, energy-restricted diet (7 MJ per day) with either HP (protein:carbohydrate:fat %energy, 35:40:25) or high carbohydrate (HC; 17:58:25). Body weight, body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed at baseline and after 12 and 52 weeks. Results: Sixty-eight participants completed the study (HP, n=33; HC, n=35). At 1 year both the groups experienced similar reductions in body weight (HP, −12.3±8.0 kg (−12%); HC, −10.9±8.6 kg (−11%); P=0.83 time × group interaction) and fat mass (−9.9±6.0 kg (−27%) vs −7.3±5.8 kg (−22%); P=0.11). Participants who consumed the HP diet lost less fat-free mass (−2.6±3.7 kg (−4%) vs −3.8±4.7 kg (−6%); P<0.01). Both groups experienced similar increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (8%) and reductions in total cholesterol (−7%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (−9%), triglycerides (−24%), glucose (−3%), insulin (−38%), blood pressure (−7/−12%) and C-reactive protein (−29%), (P⩾0.14). Conclusion: In overweight and obese men, both a HP and HC diet reduced body weight and improved cardiometabolic risk factors. Consumption of a HP diet was more effective for improving body composition compared with an HC diet. PMID:23448804
Whale, Katie; Gillison, Fiona B; Smith, Paula C
This study investigated how people's attitudes and motivations towards losing weight are influenced by societal pressures surrounding weight loss, their interaction with the obesogenic environment and individuals' attitudes and motivations towards weight. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 women currently attending commercial weight-loss programmes. Participants experienced conflicting messages regarding weight norms, with the media portraying powerful social norms relating to thinness and beauty, and changes to the food environment and interactions with family and friends commonly undermining weight-loss activities and promoting increased consumption. Providing social and environmental support for the behaviours needed to produce weight loss may need to be a primary focus for obesity policy.
Prasad, Vikram; Lorenz, John N; Miller, Marian L; Vairamani, Kanimozhi; Nieman, Michelle L; Wang, Yigang; Shull, Gary E
Acute inhibition of the NHE1 Na(+)/H(+) exchanger protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury and chronic inhibition attenuates development of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. To determine the cardiac effects of chronic inhibition of NHE1 under non-pathological conditions we used NHE1-null mice as a model of long-term NHE1 inhibition. Cardiovascular performance was relatively normal in Nhe1(-/-) mice although cardiac contractility and relaxation were slightly improved in mutant mice of the FVB/N background. GSH levels and GSH:GSSG ratios were elevated in Nhe1(-/-) hearts indicating an enhanced redox potential. Consistent with a reduced need for antioxidant protection, expression of heat shock proteins Hsp60 and Hsp25 was lower in Nhe1(-/-) hearts. Similarly, expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 was reduced, with no increase in expression of other ROS scavenging enzymes. GLUT1 levels were increased in Nhe1(-/-) hearts, the number of lipid droplets in myocytes was reduced, and PDK4 expression was refractory to high-fat diet-induced upregulation observed in wild-type hearts. High-fat diet-induced stress was attenuated in Nhe1(-/-) hearts, as indicated by smaller increases in phosphorylation of Hsp25 and α-B crystallin, and there was better preservation of insulin sensitivity, as evidenced by PKB/Akt phosphorylation. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were lower and high-fat diet-induced hepatic lipid accumulation was reduced in Nhe1(-/-) mice, demonstrating extracardiac effects of NHE1 ablation. These data indicate that long-term ablation of NHE1 activity increases the redox potential, mitigates high-fat diet-induced myocardial stress and fatty liver disease, leads to better preservation of insulin sensitivity, and may alter both cardiac and systemic metabolic substrate handling in mice.
Claycombe, Kate J; Vomhof-DeKrey, Emilie E; Roemmich, James N; Rhen, Turk; Ghribi, Othman
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT thermogenesis and BW of offspring in utero is not yet known. We fed obese-prone Sprague-Dawley dams 8% LP or 20% normal protein (NP) diets for 3 weeks prior to breeding and through pregnancy. BW and gene expression of interscapular BAT (iBAT) thermogenic markers were measured in male fetal (gestation day 18) and neonatal (day 0 or 1) offspring. BW of neonatal LP males was lower than NP males but no difference was observed in females. Gene and protein expression of UCP-1 and transcription factors PRDM16 and PPARα in iBAT were 2- to 6-fold greater in LP than in NP male neonatal offspring. FNDC5, a precursor of irisin and activator of thermogenesis, was expressed 2-fold greater in neonatal LP iBAT than NP males. However, fetal iBAT UCP-1, PRDM16, PPARα and irisin mRNA did not differ between LP and NP groups. Maternal LP diet had no effects on placental irisin and UCP-2 expression. These results suggest that prenatal protein restriction increases the risk for low BW through mechanisms affecting full-term offspring iBAT thermogenesis but not greatly altering fetal iBAT or placental thermogenesis.
Volpe, Stella Lucia
The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed.
Metabolic syndrome, a constellation of metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is one of the fastest growing disease entities in the world. Weight loss is thought to be a key to improving all aspects of metabolic syndrome. Research studies have suggested benefits from ...
Argo, Caroline McG; Dugdale, Alexandra H A; McGowan, Catherine M
The addition of hay soaking to current nutritional advice for weight loss management for equine obesity lacks clinical evidence. Twelve overweight/obese horses and ponies were used to test the hypothesis that feeding soaked hay at 1.25% of body mass (BM) daily as dry matter (DM) before soaking would elicit weight losses within the target 0.5-1.0% of BM weekly. Six animals were used to evaluate the impact of nutrient-leaching on the digestibility and daily intakes of dietary energy and nutrients. Soaked hay DM was corrected in accordance with the 'insoluble' ADF content of fresh and soaked hays. The ADF-based method was validated using a test-soaking protocol. Animals fed soaked hay for 6 weeks lost 0.98 ± 0.10% of BM weekly. The most weight loss sensitive animal lost ~2% of BM weekly. Soaking hay did not alter DM gross energy concentrations, incurred losses of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and ash and increased acid detergent fibre (ADF) concentrations. Digestibilities of GE, DM, ash and WSC were unaltered but soaking increased uncorrected values for crude protein (+12%) and ADF (+13.5%) digestibility. Corrected DM provision was only 1% of BM daily, providing 64% of maintenance DE requirements, a 23.5% increase in the intended magnitude of energy restriction. Hay soaking leached nutrients, reduced DM and DE provision and was associated with accelerated weight losses over those expected had fresh-hay been fed to the same level. The ADF-based method will allow the predictive evaluation of individual hays to direct feeding management and prevent inadvertently severe DM and energy restriction.
ANDRADE, Camila Garcia da Costa; LOBO, Amanda
Background Bariatric surgery is an effective tool in treating severe obesity. It provides significant weight loss in morbidly obese people accompanied by improvement in comorbidities and quality of life. Aim To investigate the weight loss outcomes in the first month after bariatric surgery after introduction of solids three weeks postoperatively. Methods Thirty-two charts of patients who underwent bariatric surgery were analyzed at a private nutritional clinic in São Sebastião do Paraíso, MG, Brazil; 93,75% of the subjects underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and 6,25% vertical gastrectomy. The subjects were 16 to 60 years. A body mass index of 30 to 69 Kg/m2 was obtained. Patients were instructed to eat small amounts several times a day, eat slowly, chew foods thoroughly, substitute sugar for sweetener, stop drinking gassy beverages, set the utensils down in between meals, drink only in between meals, avoid processed condiments and fried and greasy foods. Results In the first month after surgery, the mean weight loss was 9,7% and the percentage of excess weight loss was 23,9%. It was found that there was significant statistical difference in relation to initial and final weight (p=0,00; p<0,05). Conclusion This protocol provides more freedom of choice in health care once one does not have to go on food intake modifications for more than three weeks; more nutritional guidelines is followed and prospective weight loss is presented. PMID:25409958
List, Edward O.; Jensen, Elizabeth; Kowalski, Jesse; Buchman, Mathew; Berryman, Darlene E.; Kopchick, John J.
Previously, our laboratory reported that weight-cycled mice outlive their obese counterparts. To gain a better mechanistic understanding of these results, we evaluated cellular senescence in white adipose tissue (WAT) of lean, obese, and weight cycled mice. Our results show that at the end of a 28 day weight loss cycle cellular senescence is significantly reduced in multiple WAT depots compared to obese mice, which also corresponds to a reduction in circulating activin A (a marker of senescence). These findings suggest that a previously undescribed benefit to weight loss may be a reduction of cellular senescence in WAT. PMID:28035346
Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Nonaka, Kazuhisa
This experiment aimed to determine the changes in chemical composition, fermentation profile, in situ disappearance characteristics, and nutrient losses of ensiled total mixed ration (TMR) containing steam-flaked corn or brown rice (BR) during storage. TMRs for dairy cows, containing either steam-flaked corn or BR at 31.9% with 15.2% rye silage, 40.5% alfalfa silage, 5.0% beet pulp and 7.0% soybean meal, were prepared (dry matter (DM) basis). Each TMR was placed in a plastic drum silo, stored at 23°C in an air-conditioned room and sampled 0, 7, 14, 30, 90 and 210 days after preparation. In both grain sources, the fermentation products increased, while DM and starch storage losses increased and starch content greatly decreased during storage. The rapidly degradable fraction and effective ruminal degradability of DM, crude protein and starch increased during storage. These changes of dietary characteristics were large during 30 days of storage, but small after 90 days of storage. Replacing corn with BR led to increased fermentation products, starch loss and effective ruminal degradability of the ensiled TMR. These results indicate that the ensiling process of TMR changes the dietary characteristics and replacing corn with BR in TMR had a large impact on these dietary characteristics.
Huang, Wei; Bansode, Rishipal; Mehta, Madhu; Mehta, Kamal D.
Obesity is an energy balance disorder in which intake is greater than expenditure, with most excess calories stored as triglyceride (TG). We previously reported that mice lacking β-isoform of protein kinase C (PKCβ), a diacylglycerol- and phospholipid-dependent kinase, exhibit marked reduction in the whole body TG content, including white adipose tissue (WAT) mass. To investigate the role of this signaling kinase in metabolic adaptations to severe dietary stress, we studied the impact of a high fat diet (HFD) on PKCβ expression and the effect of PKCβ deficiency on profound weight gain. We now report that HFD selectively increased PKCβ expression in obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice, specifically in WAT; the expression levels were little or unchanged in the liver, muscle, kidney, and heart. Basal PKCβ expression was also found to be elevated in WAT of obese ob/ob mice. Remarkably, mice lacking PKCβ were resistant to HFD-induced obesity showing significantly reduced WAT and slightly higher core body temperatures. Unlike lean lipodystrophic mouse models, these mice did not have fatty livers or exhibited insulin resistance. Moreover, PKCβ−/− mice exhibited changes in lipid metabolism gene expression and such alterations were accompanied by significant changes in serum adipokines. These observations suggest that PKCβ deficiency induced a unique metabolic state congruous with obesity resistance, thus raising the possibility that dysregulation of PKCβ expression could contribute to dietary fat-induced obesity and related disorders. PMID:19296465
Adoption of diet-related self-monitoring behaviors varies by race/ethnicity, education, and baseline binge eating score among overweight-to-obese postmenopausal women in a 12-month dietary weight loss intervention.
Kong, Angela; Beresford, Shirley A A; Imayama, Ikuyo; Duggan, Catherine; Alfano, Catherine M; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Johnson, Donna B; Wang, Ching-Yun; Xiao, Liren; Bain, Carolyn E; McTiernan, Anne
Recent research has identified self-monitoring behaviors as important strategies for both initial weight loss and weight loss maintenance, but relatively little is known about adopters and nonadopters of these behaviors. To test our hypothesis that key characteristics distinguish adopters from nonadopters, we examined the demographic characteristics and eating behaviors (eg, restrained, uncontrolled, emotional, and binge eating) associated with more frequent compared with less frequent use of these behaviors. Baseline demographic characteristics and eating behaviors as well as 12-month self-monitoring behaviors (ie, self-weighing, food journaling, monitoring energy intake) were assessed in 123 postmenopausal women enrolled in a dietary weight loss intervention. Logistic regression models were used to test associations of self-monitoring use with demographic characteristics and eating behaviors. Nonwhites, compared with non-Hispanic whites, were less likely to monitor energy intake regularly (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-0.97; P < .05), controlling for intervention arm and baseline body mass index. Participants with a college degree or higher education were less likely to self-weigh daily (adjusted OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.13-0.67; P < .01) compared with individuals who attended some college or less. Those with higher baseline binge eating scores were less likely to monitor energy intake (adjusted OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.97; P < .01) compared with participants with lower binge eating scores. In summary, use of diet-related self-monitoring behaviors varied by race/ethnicity, education, and binge eating score in postmenopausal women who completed a year-long dietary weight loss intervention. Improved recognition of groups less likely to self-monitor may be helpful in promoting these behaviors in future interventions.
Walewski, José L.; Ge, Fengxia; Lobdell, Harrison; Levin, Nancy; Schwartz, Gary J.; Vasselli, Joseph; Pomp, Afons; Dakin, Gregory; Berk, Paul D.
Objective Microarray studies identified Ch12:orf39 (Spexin) as the most dysregulated gene in obese human fat. Therefore we examined its role in obesity pathogenesis. Design and Methods Spexin effects on food intake, meal patterns, body weight, Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER), and locomotor activity were monitored electronically in C57BL/6J mice or Wistar rats with dietary-induced obesity (DIO). Its effects on adipocyte [3H]-oleate uptake were determined. Results In humans, Spexin gene expression was down-regulated 14.9-fold in obese omental and subcutaneous fat. Circulating Spexin changed in parallel, correlating (r = −0.797) with Leptin. In rats, Spexin (35 μg/kg/day s.c) reduced caloric intake ~32% with corresponding weight loss. Meal patterns were unaffected. In mice, Spexin (25 μg/kg/day i.p.) significantly reduced the RER at night, and increased locomotion. Spexin incubation in vitro significantly inhibited facilitated fatty acid (FA) uptake into DIO mouse adipocytes. Conditioned taste aversion testing (70μg/kg/day i.p.) demonstrated no aversive Spexin effects. Conclusions Spexin gene expression is markedly down-regulated in obese human fat. The peptide produces weight loss in DIO rodents. Its effects on appetite and energy regulation are presumably central; those on adipocyte FA uptake appear direct and peripheral. Spexin is a novel hormone involved in weight regulation, with potential for obesity therapy. PMID:24550067
Tapper-Gardzina, Yvonne; Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E
Despite the billions of dollars spent each year on weight-loss diets and products, few individuals maintain their weight loss after initiating popular diet programs. One diet that has raised safety concerns among the scientific community is the low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet. This article evaluates the scientific validity of this diet so that clinicians can appropriately advise patients.
Bertz, Fredrik; Winkvist, Anna; Brekke, Hilde K
The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary changes during and after a dietary treatment shown to result in significant and sustained weight loss among lactating overweight and obese women. This is crucial before clinical implementation. Data were collected from the LEVA (in Swedish: Livsstil för Effektiv Viktminskning under Amning [Lifestyle for Effective Weight Loss During Lactation]) randomized controlled factorial trial with a 12-week intervention and a 1-year follow up. At 10 to 14 weeks postpartum, 68 lactating Swedish women with a prepregnancy body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) of 25 to 35 were randomized to structured dietary treatment, physical exercise treatment, combined treatment, or usual care (controls) for a 12-week intervention, with a 1-year follow-up. Dietary intake was assessed with 4-day weighed dietary records. Recruitment took place between 2007 and 2010. The main outcome measures were changes in macro- and micronutrient intake from baseline to 12 weeks and 1 year. Main and interaction effects of the treatments were analyzed by a 2×2 factorial approach using a General Linear Model adjusted for relevant covariates (baseline intake and estimated underreporting). It was found that at baseline, the women had an intake of fat and sucrose above, and an intake of total carbohydrates and fiber below, recommended levels. At 12 weeks and 1 year, the dietary treatment led to reduced intake of energy (P<0.001 and P=0.005, respectively), fat (both P values <0.001), and sucrose (P<0.001 and P=0.050). At 12 weeks, total carbohydrates were reduced (P<0.001). A majority of women in all groups reported low intakes of vitamin D, folate, and/or iron. In conclusion, a novel dietary treatment led to reduced intake of fat and carbohydrates. Diet composition changed to decreased proportions of fat and sucrose, and increased proportions of complex carbohydrates, protein and fiber. Weight loss through dietary treatment was achieved with a diet in line with
... página en español Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads Related Items Weight Loss Challenge Diet Ads and ... control Information Network . The Truth Behind Weight Loss Ads Claims to watch out for include: Lose weight ...
Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J
This paper provides a historical summary of military nutrition research into the role of diet for sustaining soldier physical performance. Studies of underfeeding document that physical performance is preserved during several days of underfeeding provided sufficient carbohydrate and minerals are consumed to minimize the diuresis associated with semi-starvation diets and serial intake of carbohydrate is available to support metabolism during prolonged work. The Military Recommended Dietary Allowances, AR 40-25, currently recommends that when restricted rations are required, that the ration contain at least 1,100-1,500 kcal, 50-70 g of protein, and a minimum of 100 g of carbohydrate on a daily basis. This low energy diet, however, is not recommended for subsistence for longer than 10 consecutive days. Dietary carbohydrate intakes of approximately 300-400 g will more closely match the quantity of carbohydrate oxidized to meet daily energy requirements during field operations. Research into the potential advantages of dietary supplements has generally not proved advantageous when compared to eating a well balanced diet. Future investigations of the role of diet for sustaining soldier health and performance should be directed toward a better understanding of the influence of energy intake and macro-nutrient composition for preserving lean body mass, reducing susceptibility to illness and injury and enhancing recovery during and after sustained operations.
Cioccia, A M; Gonzalez, E; Perez, M; Mora, J A; Romer, H; Molina, E; Hevia, P
Recently we reported on the application of a method for protein determination which measures nitrogen in Kjeldahl digests colorimetrically. This procedure has the advantage of eliminating the distillation and titration steps of the Kjeldahl method and it is ideal for nutritional studies, since many samples can be run in a single day. Accordingly, the purpose of the present report was to extend the application of this method to the determination of the protein content of commercially available foods such as dairy products, dry cereals or cereal based products and legumes and also to evaluate this method in the determination of the protein content of the mixtures of cooked foods served during lunch at the cafeteria of the Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas. In both cases the results of the colorimetric nitrogen agreed very well with those obtained by the macro Kjeldahl, indicating that the colorimetric method may be used in monitoring the protein content of commercial foods and in evaluating the protein offered in institutional food services. Finally, to further demonstrate the value of this method in clinical trials, we used it to monitor the daily nitrogen intake and nitrogen losses in 43 male young children with acute diarrhoea, and 15 with persistent diarrhoea fed liquid formulae, and showed that protein digestibility and retention were higher in persistent than in acute diarrhoea. The severity of acute diarrhoea affected negatively (r = -0.62) the percentage of protein absorbed, whereas the protein absorbed (r = 0.70) and retained (r = 0.55) correlated positively with protein consumption.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
... you on a gluten-free diet. Gluten-free food labeling requirements The U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( ... History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Meetings & Events Technology Advancement & Transfer Health Information Diabetes Digestive Diseases Kidney ...
... allowed on a clear liquid diet include: Broth Fruit juices without pulp, such as apple juice Ice chips ... skin) Eggs, fish and poultry Refined white bread Fruit and vegetable juice with no pulp Low-fiber cereals Milk, yogurt ...
... Omega-3 Publication Diet and MS Research Review Paper With increasing interest in the possible role of ... for people with MS. A recent research review paper by Pavan Bhargava, MD, provides information and current ...
... grains Legumes Seeds Nuts May include eggs and milk A vegetarian diet contains no animal proteins. A ... proteins or animal by-products such as eggs, milk, or honey. Lacto-vegetarian: includes plant foods plus ...
... Nutrition and healthy eating By Mayo Clinic Staff Gout, a painful form of arthritis, occurs when high ... is eliminated from the body in urine. A gout diet may help decrease uric acid levels in ...
Diet - heart disease; CAD - diet; Coronary artery disease - diet; Coronary heart disease - diet ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead ...
Marsh, Kate A; Munn, Elizabeth A; Baines, Surinder K
A vegetarian diet can easily meet human dietary protein requirements as long as energy needs are met and a variety of foods are eaten. Vegetarians should obtain protein from a variety of plant sources, including legumes, soy products, grains, nuts and seeds. Eggs and dairy products also provide protein for those following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet. There is no need to consciously combine different plant proteins at each meal as long as a variety of foods are eaten from day to day, because the human body maintains a pool of amino acids which can be used to complement dietary protein. The consumption of plant proteins rather than animal proteins by vegetarians may contribute to their reduced risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease.
Bailey, Bruce W; Jacobsen, Dennis J; Donnelly, Joseph E
The objective of this study was to determine if a formula diet of 520 kilocalorie (kcal, 2177 kilojoules [kJ]) compared to 850 kcal (3558 kJ) produces significantly greater weight loss and improved weight maintenance in a clinical outpatient setting. The investigation was a retrospective analysis of data from 1887 participants who underwent weight loss between December 1994 and January 2003. Participants were between the ages of 18 and 70 and completed a minimum of 12 weeks of a very-low-energy diet (VLED; 520 kcal) or a low-energy diet (LED; 850 kcal). Participants attended weekly meetings, were weighed, and received instruction in behavioral skills. Following active weight loss, participants transitioned to weight maintenance and were prescribed an individual structured meal plan aimed at maintaining body weight. Both levels of energy intake produced significant weight loss over 12 weeks (P < 0.05). Weight loss was 15.2 +/- 4.1% and 14.3 +/- 3.7% of initial body weight for participants in the VLED (n = 1231) and LED (n = 656), respectively. After controlling for baseline body weight, there was no significant difference between diets. Similarly, there was no significant difference in weight regain between VLED and LED after 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks of weight maintenance. VLED did not produce a greater weight loss than the LED. LED provides similar weight loss with a lower incidence of adverse events and diminished need for medical monitoring. We conclude LED is an efficacious, safe, and less burdensome diet compared to VLED.
Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Are high-protein diets safe for weight loss? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, ... 26, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/high-protein- ...
Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work ...
... the diet; Hypokalemia - potassium in the diet; Chronic kidney disease - potassium in diet; Kidney failure - potassium in diet ... are also excellent sources of potassium. People with kidney problems, especially those on dialysis, should not eat ...
A nutrition and diet group was established to lend support to and instill dieting techniques and correct eating habits in a group of 10 girls. Weight loss goals were established but no specific demands were made. (JN)
Price, James H.; Allensworth, Diane D.
The most popular fad diets, weight control devices, salons, and diet clubs are examined and the claims of each are evaluated in relation to their long-term success in producing weight loss and control. (JMF)
Tendler, David; Lin, Sauyu; Yancy, William S; Mavropoulos, John; Sylvestre, Pam; Rockey, Don C; Westman, Eric C
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is an increasingly common condition that may progress to hepatic cirrhosis. This pilot study evaluated the effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet on obesity-associated fatty liver disease. Five patients with a mean body mass index of 36.4 kg/m(2) and biopsy evidence of fatty liver disease were instructed to follow the diet (<20 g/d of carbohydrate) with nutritional supplementation for 6 months. Patients returned for group meetings biweekly for 3 months, then monthly for the second 3 months. The mean weight change was -12.8 kg (range 0 to -25.9 kg). Four of 5 posttreatment liver biopsies showed histologic improvements in steatosis (P=.02) inflammatory grade (P=.02), and fibrosis (P=.07). Six months of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet led to significant weight loss and histologic improvement of fatty liver disease. Further research is into this approach is warranted.
This paper compares the efficacy of two widely used weight-loss diets differing in macronutrient composition - a low-carbohydrate diet versus a low-fat diet. Although "a calorie is a calorie" under the controlled conditions of a metabolic unit (i.e., only the level of calorie intake matters and not ...
Austin, J.E.; Serie, J.R.; Noyes, J.H.
We examined diets of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) breeding in southwestern Manitoba during 1977-81. Percent volume of animal foods consumed did not differ between males and females nor among prenesting, rapid follicle growth, laying, incubation, and renesting periods in females (mean = 50.1%). Tubers and shoots of fennelleaf pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and midge larvae (Chironomidae) were the predominant foods, comprising on average 45% and 23% of the diet volume, respectively. Continued importance of plant foods to canvasbacks throughout reproduction contrasts with the mostly invertebrate diets of other prairie-breeding ducks, and does not fit current theories of nutritional ecology of breeding anatids (i.e., females meet the protein requirements of reproduction by consuming a high proportion of animal foods).
Lowe, M R
The relationship between dieting and body mass has a long and controversial history. This paper aims to help resolve this issue by making two key distinctions. The first is between dieting as a cause of weight gain/regain and as a proxy risk factor for identifying non-obese individuals prone to weight gain for reasons other than dieting. The second is between the body mass that is attained following one or more weight loss/regain cycles and the body mass that might have been reached had dieting never been undertaken. Evidence is reviewed on the relation between recent diet-induced weight loss and sustained weight loss (weight suppression), on the one hand, and weight regain, on the other hand. Furthermore, the reason that a history of dieting in non-obese individuals reflects a susceptibility to future weight gain is explained. It is concluded that (i) diet-induced weight loss hastens weight regain but a history of weight loss diets does not cause weight gain beyond that which would occur in the absence of dieting, and (ii) weight loss dieting in non-obese individuals does not cause future weight gain but is simply a proxy risk factor reflecting a personal vulnerability to weight gain and living in an obesogenic environment.
Gryka, A; Broom, J; Rolland, C
The current climate change has been most likely caused by the increased greenhouse gas emissions. We have looked at the major greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and estimated the reduction in the CO(2) emissions that would occur with the theoretical global weight loss. The calculations were based on our previous weight loss study, investigating the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body composition and resting metabolic rate of obese volunteers with type 2 diabetes. At 6 months, we observed decreases in weight, fat mass, fat free mass and CO(2) production. We estimated that a 10 kg weight loss of all obese and overweight people would result in a decrease of 49.560 Mt of CO(2) per year, which would equal to 0.2% of the CO(2) emitted globally in 2007. This reduction could help meet the CO(2) emission reduction targets and unquestionably would be of a great benefit to the global health.
Saunders, Richard R; Saunders, Muriel D; Donnelly, Joseph E; Smith, Bryan K; Sullivan, Debra K; Guilford, Brianne; Rondon, Mary F
Of 79 overweight adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities who participated in a weight loss intervention, 73 completed the 6-month diet phase. The emphasis in the intervention was consumption of high volume, low calorie foods and beverages, including meal-replacement shakes. Lower calorie frozen entrees were recommended to control portion size. A walking activity was encouraged. Participants attended monthly meetings in which a small amount of cash was exchanged for self-recorded intake and exercise records completed on picture-based forms. Average weight loss was 13.2 pounds (6.3%) of baseline weight at 6 months, with weight loss shown by 64 of the 73 individuals enrolled. Those completing a 6-month follow-up phase showed weight loss of 9.4% of baseline. Increased choice and control are discussed as possible contributors to individual success.
As a major source of nutrition information for the public, physicians have a responsibility to assist their patients to make safe choices about weight loss programs. While most diet programs result in weight loss, the "quick fix" potentially is harmful. This article describes weight control options and their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:8471909
Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S; Lemmens, Sofie G; Westerterp, Klaas R
Obesity is a serious health problem because of its co-morbidities. The solution, implying weight loss and long-term weight maintenance, is conditional on: (i) sustained satiety despite negative energy balance, (ii) sustained basal energy expenditure despite BW loss due to (iii) a sparing of fat-free mass (FFM), being the main determinant of basal energy expenditure. Dietary protein has been shown to assist with meeting these conditions, since amino acids act on the relevant metabolic targets. This review deals with the effects of different protein diets during BW loss and BW maintenance thereafter. Potential risks of a high protein diet are dealt with. The required daily intake is 0·8-1·2 g/kg BW, implying sustaining the original absolute protein intake and carbohydrate and fat restriction during an energy-restricted diet. The intake of 1·2 g/kg BW is beneficial to body composition and improves blood pressure. A too low absolute protein content of the diet contributes to the risk of BW regain. The success of the so-called 'low carb' diet that is usually high in protein can be attributed to the relatively high-protein content per se and not to the relatively lower carbohydrate content. Metabolic syndrome parameters restore, mainly due to BW loss. With the indicated dosage, no kidney problems have been shown in healthy individuals. In conclusion, dietary protein contributes to the treatment of obesity and the metabolic syndrome, by acting on the relevant metabolic targets of satiety and energy expenditure in negative energy balance, thereby preventing a weight cycling effect.
... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION ▶ Nutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the Non-transfused ... Nutrition with Connie Schroepfer, MS, RD: Dec 2016 Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...
Crowe, T C
Low-carbohydrate diets have re-emerged into the public spotlight and are enjoying a high degree of popularity as people search for a solution to the population's ever-expanding waistline. The current evidence though indicates that low-carbohydrate diets present no significant advantage over more traditional energy-restricted diets on long-term weight loss and maintenance. Furthermore, a higher rate of adverse side-effects can be attributed to low-carbohydrate dieting approaches. Short-term efficacy of low-carbohydrate diets has been demonstrated for some lipid parameters of cardiovascular risk and measures of glucose control and insulin sensitivity, but no studies have ascertained if these effects represent a change in primary outcome measures. Low-carbohydrate diets are likely effective and not harmful in the short term and may have therapeutic benefits for weight-related chronic diseases although weight loss on such a program should be undertaken under medical supervision. While new commercial incarnations of the low-carbohydrate diet are now addressing overall dietary adequacy by encouraging plenty of high-fibre vegetables, fruit, low-glycaemic-index carbohydrates and healthier fat sources, this is not the message that reaches the entire public nor is it the type of diet adopted by many people outside of the world of a well-designed clinical trial. Health effects of long-term ad hoc restriction of inherently beneficial food groups without a concomitant reduction in body weight remains unanswered.
Roltsch, Mark H; Flohr, Judith A; Brevard, Patricia B
The purpose of this study was to examine the metabolic consequences of a moderate variation in dietary fat content of male endurance athletes during submaximal exercise. Six males (age, 29.8 +/- 11 years; weight, 72.3 +/- 10 kg) with an average maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) of 66 +/- 10 ml/kg/min were tested on their normal diet and 3 experimental diets. The energy contributions from protein, carbohydrates, and fats were 16/59/22 (3% alcohol), 14/53/33, 13/72/15, and 16/61/23% for the normal diet (N), fat supplemented diet (F), high carbohydrate diet (C), and adjusted normal diet (AN), respectively. The F diet was designed to significantly increase fat content compared to the normal diet and be easily maintained by the athletes. Caloric content of the F, C, and AN diets were adjusted to meet estimated total daily energy expenditure. The difference between the N and AN diets is that the AN has been adjusted to meet estimated total daily energy expenditure. The diets were randomly assigned after substrate utilization testing on the N diet and were consumed for 7 days prior to testing. Substrate utilization was recorded at steady state (73 +/- 1.4% of VO(2max)) while running on a treadmill for 40 min. There were no significant differences in respiratory exchange ratio between any of the dietary manipulations. No significant differences were observed for lactate, VO2, or HR during submaximal testing on the N, F, C, and AN diets. These data indicate that a fat supplemented diet did not affect substrate utilization during 40 min of steady-state submaximal exercise when compared to a high carbohydrate diet or the participant's normal and adjusted normal diets.
Asatryan, Liana; Khoja, Sheraz; Rodgers, Kathleen E; Alkana, Ronald L; Tsukamoto, Hidekatsu; Davies, Daryl L.
The present investigation tested the role of ATP-activated P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) in alcohol-induced brain damage using a model that combines intragastric (iG) ethanol feeding and high fat diet in C57BL/6J mice (Hybrid). The Hybrid paradigm caused increased levels of pro-inflammatory markers, changes in microglia and astrocytes, reduced levels of neuronal marker NeuN and increased P2X7R expression in ethanol-sensitive brain regions. Observed changes in P2X7R and NeuN expression were more pronounced in Hybrid paradigm with inclusion of additional weekly binges. In addition, high fat diet during Hybrid exposure aggravated the increase in P2X7R expression and activation of glial cells. PMID:26198936
Asatryan, Liana; Khoja, Sheraz; Rodgers, Kathleen E; Alkana, Ronald L; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Davies, Daryl L
The present investigation tested the role of ATP-activated P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) in alcohol-induced brain damage using a model that combines intragastric (iG) ethanol feeding and high fat diet in C57BL/6J mice (Hybrid). The Hybrid paradigm caused increased levels of pro-inflammatory markers, changes in microglia and astrocytes, reduced levels of neuronal marker NeuN and increased P2X7R expression in ethanol-sensitive brain regions. Observed changes in P2X7R and NeuN expression were more pronounced in Hybrid paradigm with inclusion of additional weekly binges. In addition, high fat diet during Hybrid exposure aggravated the increase in P2X7R expression and activation of glial cells.
Vining, Virginia L; Cotugna, Nancy; Fang, Chengshun; Sue Snider, O
There is little research involving the US male population regarding weight control and behavior that may affect weight status. Gender-specific weight-control programs for men aren't the standard. Our study objectives were to survey dieting and health habits of an adult male employee population and to determine if the population would be interested in gender-specific programming. Demographics, weight-control practices and interest in gender-specific weight-control programs were examined cross sectionally. A 50-question web-based survey was posted via email from October 2-30, 2014 to male employees at a Mid-Atlantic university. Statistical analyses included frequencies, means and percentages. Chi square and t tests were conducted. The 254 participants were ages 18-65+ years, predominantly white, college educated with annual incomes above $50,000. Sources of nutrition knowledge ranged from a high of web sites (65 %) to a low of registered dietitians (9 %). Macronutrient restrictions reported for dieting were carbohydrates 77 %, fats 40 % and protein 19 %. The >30 age group was more likely to have: decreased amount of food intake P = .001), reducing overall calories (P = .047), skipping meals (P = .006) or trying commercial programs (P = .011). There was nothing of significance for those <30. Among all respondents, interest in gender-specific programs was compared with these variables: current weight satisfaction (P = .032), education (P = .008), income (P = . 006) and BMI (P = .004). Men who were dissatisfied with their weight were most likely to be interested in a gender-specific weight control program, especially those over age 30 years. Further research should address whether offering male-specific diet programs would offer incentive and motivation for males to lose and maintain weight loss.
... dangerous. Before using an over-the-counter or herbal diet remedy, talk with your health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...
Li, Sophia; Micheletti, Robert
Millions of people suffer from rheumatic diseases such as gout, fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. These can be incapacitating and detrimental to quality of life. Diet, nutrition, and weight loss have shown promise in alleviating some of this disease burden. These lifestyle changes may give patients a feeling of control and ownership over their disease as well as a nonpharmacologic means of treatment. This article reviews the available research on the effects of diet and nutrition on rheumatoid disease.
Rušavý, Zdeněk; Žourek, Michal
The diabetic diet is one of the pillars of diabetes treatment. The rapid development of knowledge relating to the treatment of diabetes also includes diet. The paper focuses on the importance of a diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and prevention of atherosclerosis. Its main goal is to assess the impact of a composition of macronutrients on individuals with type 2 diabetes. The paper is divided into several parts, each of which ends with a conclusion. The first part examines weight reduction. The diet aimed at a weight loss is effective, it can effectively prevent diabetes, it leads to improvements in glucose control and reduction of the risk factors for atherosclerosis, however it will not impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality until after more than 20 years. The second part deals with "healthy" foods. The studies exploring this area are not convincing. The only really rational component of food in relation to atherosclerosis is dietary fibres. Important is a balanced diet combined with regular physical activities. The third part focuses on the composition of macronutrients. It turns out that, considering a low-calorie diet, the effects of high- and low-carbohydrate diets on people with diabetes are similar with regard to weight loss and lowering of HbA1c, however the low-carbohydrate diet is associated with lower glycemic variability and a reduced need for anti-diabetic drugs. We do not know how the comparison of the two extreme diets would come out regarding individuals with a high energy diet. Currently it is useful to focus on the quality of individual macronutrients. Choose foods containing carbohydrates with a low glycemic index and high fibre foods, prefer fats that contain a low proportion of saturated fatty acids. The fourth part discusses the recent recommendation of the Czech Diabetes Society regarding the composition of macronutrients in the diabetic diet. As compared with the diet proposed earlier, lower intake of fibre
Observational evidence for mass loss from cool stars is reviewed. Spectra line profiles are used for the derivation of mass-loss rates with the aid of the equation of continuity. This equation implies steady mass loss with spherical symmetry. Data from binary stars, Mira variables, and red giants in globular clusters are examined. Silicate emission is discussed as a useful indicator of mass loss in the middle infrared spectra. The use of thermal millimeter-wave radiation, Very Large Array (VLA) measurement of radio emission, and OH/IR masers are discussed as a tool for mass loss measurement. Evidence for nonsteady mass loss is also reviewed.
Barnard, Neal D; Katcher, Heather I; Jenkins, David J A; Cohen, Joshua; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle
Vegetarian and vegan diets offer significant benefits for diabetes management. In observational studies, individuals following vegetarian diets are about half as likely to develop diabetes, compared with non-vegetarians. In clinical trials in individuals with type 2 diabetes, low-fat vegan diets improve glycemic control to a greater extent than conventional diabetes diets. Although this effect is primarily attributable to greater weight loss, evidence also suggests that reduced intake of saturated fats and high-glycemic-index foods, increased intake of dietary fiber and vegetable protein, reduced intramyocellular lipid concentrations, and decreased iron stores mediate the influence of plant-based diets on glycemia. Vegetarian and vegan diets also improve plasma lipid concentrations and have been shown to reverse atherosclerosis progression. In clinical studies, the reported acceptability of vegetarian and vegan diets is comparable to other therapeutic regimens. The presently available literature indicates that vegetarian and vegan diets present potential advantages for the management of type 2 diabetes.
Stich, Christine; Knäuper, Bärbel; Tint, Ami
The article discusses a scenario-based dieting self-efficacy scale, the DIET-SE, developed from dieter's inventory of eating temptations (DIET). The DIET-SE consists of items that describe scenarios of eating temptations for a range of dieting situations, including high-caloric food temptations. Four studies assessed the psychometric properties of the 11-item DIET-SE. Exploratory factor analysis (N = 392) and confirmatory factors analysis (N = 124) revealed three internally consistent and reliable factors representing challenges to adhere to a diet (high-caloric food temptations [HCF], social and internal factors [SIF], negative emotional events [NEE]). Convergent validity is established with other measures of dieting self-efficacy, as well as measures of eating disinhibition, susceptibility to hunger, and weight loss competency. Criterion-related validity is provided through the assessment of goal adherence, and predictive validity is established for dieters' actual food intake (N = 68). The DIET-SE represents a short, reliable, and valid scenario-based measure of dieting self-efficacy.
... thyroid disease , can interfere with hair production and cause hair loss. People with lupus can also lose hair. The hormone imbalance that happens in polycystic ovary syndrome can cause hair loss in teen girls as well as ...
Klepper, Joerg; Leiendecker, Baerbel
The classical ketogenic diet has been used for refractory childhood epilepsy for decades. It is also the treatment of choice for disorders of brain energy metabolism, such as Glut1 deficiency syndrome. Novel ketogenic diets such as the modified Atkins diet and the low glycemic index treatment have significantly improved the therapeutic options for dietary treatment. Benefits of these novel diets are increased palatability, practicability, and thus compliance-at the expense of lower ketosis. As high ketones appear essential to meet the brain energy deficit caused by Glut1 deficiency syndrome, the use of novel ketogenic diets in this entity may be limited. This article discusses the current data on novel ketogenic diets and the implications on the use of these diets in regard to Glut1 deficiency syndrome.
Sriram, Krishnan; Ramasubramanian, Vidhya; Meguid, Michael M
There are no indications to prescribed special diets for postoperative patients. Low-sodium and low-fat or low-cholesterol diets are examples of restricted diets, especially in patients with heart disease and atherosclerosis. These restricted diets are unpalatable. Postoperative nausea, paralytic ileus, and vomiting caused by residual anesthetic effects and opioids used for pain control further contribute to the problem. Long-term adherence to these diets is necessary to derive benefits. Prescribing regular and palatable diets in the immediate postoperative period to meet protein and energy goals is important for wound healing and is commensurate with best clinical practices. In the following, we review the pertinent literature and offer clinical evidence that routine special diet orders for postoperative patients are not necessary.
Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko
Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.
Shikany, James M.; Barash, Jennifer; Redden, David T.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Heimburger, Douglas C.; Henson, C. Suzanne; Allison, David B.
Context Given the seemingly disparate nature of popular weight-loss diets (WLDs), consumers may have a difficult time choosing one. We hypothesized that because most of these diets differ greatly from the way most Americans spontaneously eat, the choice of a WLD may be less critical than the decision to adopt any WLD. Objective To assess the degree of similarity among several popular WLDs and that between average diets of Americans and the WLDs as a whole. Design One-day menus were randomly selected or constructed from 16 popular diet books (resulting in 17 distinct diets). Usual dietary intakes of individuals were derived from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) 1994–96, 1998. Main Outcome Measures Euclidean distances, based on 12 dietary variables, were calculated among the popular WLDs, as well as between the WLDs and intakes from the CSFII. Results Euclidean distances among the WLDs ranged from 1.99 to 15.24, with a mean of 6.12 ± 2.83. Mean distance between individuals' intakes from the CSFII and the closest WLD was 3.63 ± 1.24, while the mean distance between individuals' intakes and the farthest WLD was 10.58 ± 1.10. Mean distance between individuals' intakes and the WLDs considered together was 6.04 ± 1.10. Conclusions While the mean Euclidean distances between individuals' intakes and popular WLDs demonstrated meaningful differences, the differences among the WLDs were slightly greater and, in multivariate space, surrounded the diets consumed by Americans. This may have implications for the selection of a WLD in persons seeking to lose weight. PMID:18092015
Tucker, Katherine L
Osteoporosis is a common chronic condition associated with progressive loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and compromised bone strength, with increasing risk of fracture over time. Vegetarian diets have been shown to contain lower amounts of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, protein, and n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids, all of which have important roles in maintaining bone health. Although zinc intakes are not necessarily lower quantitatively, they are considerably less bioavailable in vegetarian diets, which suggests the need for even higher intakes to maintain adequate status. At the same time, healthy vegetarian diets tend to contain more of several protective nutrients, including magnesium, potassium, vitamin K, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytonutrients. On balance, there is evidence that vegetarians, and particularly vegans, may be at greater risk of lower BMD and fracture. Attention to potential shortfall nutrients through the careful selection of foods or fortified foods or the use of supplements can help ensure healthy bone status to reduce fracture risk in individuals who adhere to vegetarian diets.
Nakamura, Mieko; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Nakade, Miyo; Ohtsuka, Rika; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Suzuki, Kayo; Kondo, Katsunori
Background Involuntary weight loss and underweight increase the risks of mortality and disability in older people. However, the association and interaction of poor oral health and dietary intake with body mass index (BMI) have not been elucidated. Methods Data were analyzed for 96 794 respondents aged >65 years who were randomly selected from 31 Japanese municipalities in the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study. Weight loss was defined as ≥2–3 kg of loss over the preceding 6 months. BMI was evaluated in respondents without weight loss. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with weight loss, underweight, and obesity as dependent variables and having fewer teeth (<20) and infrequent food intake as independent variables, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Weight loss was associated with having fewer teeth (men: odds ratio [OR] 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–1.3; women: OR 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1–1.3) and infrequent fruit/vegetable intake (men: OR 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1–1.2; women: OR 1.4; 95% CI, 1.3–1.5) and fish/meat intake (OR 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1–1.3 for both sexes). No interaction was observed between having fewer teeth and food intake. Obesity was associated with the same factors: having fewer teeth (ORs 1.2 and 1.3 for men and women, respectively) and infrequent intake of fruit/vegetables (ORs 1.1 and 1.2 for men and women, respectively) and fish/meat (OR 1.1 for both sexes). Infrequent fruit/vegetable intake showed a higher OR for underweight in women with fewer teeth than for others. Conclusions Having fewer teeth and infrequent food intake were associated with both weight loss and obesity. A significant interaction was observed in the associations of having fewer teeth and infrequent food intake with underweight in women. PMID:26830348
The relationship between diet and the formation of renal stones is demonstrated, but restrictive diets do not take into account the complexity of metabolism and the complex mechanisms that regulate the saturation and crystallization processes in the urine. The restriction of dietary calcium can reduce the urinary excretion of calcium but severe dietary restriction of calcium causes hyperoxaluria and a progressive loss of bone mineral component. Furthermore urinary calcium excretion is influenced by other nutrients than calcium as sodium, potassium, protein and refined carbohydrates. Up to 40% of the daily excretion of oxalate in the urine is from dietary source, but oxalate absorption in the intestine depends linearly on the concomitant dietary intake of calcium and is influenced by the bacterial degradation by several bacterial species of intestinal flora. A more rational approach should be based on the cumulative effects of foods and different dietary patterns on urinary saturation rather than on the effect of single nutrients. A diet based on a adequate intake of calcium (1000-1200 mg per day) and containment of animal protein and salt can decrease significantly urinary supersaturation for calcium oxalate and reduce the relative risk of stone recurrence in hypercalciuric renal stone formers. The DASH-style diet that is high in fruits and vegetables, moderate in low-fat dairy products and low in animal proteins and salt is associated with a lower relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and a marked decrease in risk of incident stone formation. All the diets above mentioned have as a common characteristic the reduction of the potential acid load of the diet that can be correlated with a higher risk of recurrent nephrolithiasis, because the acid load of diet is inversely related to urinary citrate excretion. The restriction of protein and salt with an adequate calcium intake seem to be advisable but should be implemented with the advice to increase the intake
Paoli, A; Canato, M; Toniolo, L; Bargossi, A M; Neri, M; Mediati, M; Alesso, D; Sanna, G; Grimaldi, K A; Fazzari, A L; Bianco, A
Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in Western countries and is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite the constant recommendations of health care organizations regarding the importance of weight control, this goal often fails. Although there is a common agreement about the concept that exercise and diet are two key factors for the control of body weight, the ideal amount and type of exercise and also the ideal diet for weight control are still under debate. A widely accepted nutritional regime is the Mediterranean diet that has evident health benefits although less attention has been paid to see if the effects are due to other lifestyle factors which may contribute to the health benefits perhaps as much as specific food choices. There are several other options available to the physician that may produce good weight loss results in the short/medium term and also for maintenance of the goal achieved. One of these strategies is the ketogenic diet or VLCKD (very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet) that has been widely studied in recent years. Most studies show that this diet has a solid physiological and biochemical basis which is able to induce effective weight loss and improvement of several parameters of cardiovascular risk. This review discusses the physiological basis of VLCKD and the main applications together with its strengths and weaknesses compared to common dietary recommendations.
Diet - caffeine ... Caffeine is absorbed and passes quickly into the brain. It does not collect in the bloodstream or ... been consumed. There is no nutritional need for caffeine. It can be avoided in the diet. Caffeine ...
Bae, Sun Hwan
Chronic constipation is a very common disease in children. Successful treatment of constipation can be achieved not only with medication but also with lifestyle changes, including a proper diet. Diets including fruits, fluids, and probiotics are good for constipation. Some dietary components are helpful for constipation, and some are harmful. In this study, we present diets related to constipation from the literature, and propose some perspectives regarding diets related to constipation.
Chronic constipation is a very common disease in children. Successful treatment of constipation can be achieved not only with medication but also with lifestyle changes, including a proper diet. Diets including fruits, fluids, and probiotics are good for constipation. Some dietary components are helpful for constipation, and some are harmful. In this study, we present diets related to constipation from the literature, and propose some perspectives regarding diets related to constipation. PMID:25587519
Gavrilova, Natalia S; Gavrilov, Leonid A
Longevity in Okinawa is considered to be a result of traditional low calorie diet. Le Bourg suggests that Okinawa is an example of severe malnutrition, which is harmful for later generations. We believe that current loss of longevity advantage in Okinawa is a result of diet westernization and that the dietary restriction is a valid way of life extension in humans.
... loss in teens: Illnesses or medical conditions. Endocrine (hormonal) conditions, such as uncontrolled diabetes or thyroid disease , can interfere with hair production and cause hair loss. People with lupus can also lose hair. The hormone imbalance that happens in polycystic ovary syndrome can cause ...
... and painful this loss can be. You might wonder if you'll ever have a baby to hold and call your own. But surviving the emotional impact of pregnancy loss is possible. And many women go on to have successful pregnancies. Expand all | ...
Nestler, R.B.; Llewellyn, L.; Benner, M.
Two experiments, using 784 bobwhite quail chicks, were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, to find a growing diet that would meet wartime restrictions. In 1941 a diet containing 14 per cent sardine fish meal was formulated and gave satisfactory results from the standpoints of survival and growth. Since fish meal now is scarce, search was made for a diet without war-restricted commodities yet equal to the above-mentioned diet in feeding value. Ten diets were compared.....In the present experiments, quail fed this same diet modified by the substitution of 0.12 per cent of D-activated sterol for vitamin A and D feeding oil fortified showed the highest survival and the best live weights at the end of both the sixth and tenth weeks. They also were among the top three groups in requiring the least quantity of feed per unit of gain in weight; however, they consumed the greatest quantity of feed.....Of the other nine diets, that which seemed most promising, considering survival, live weight, and efficiency of feed utilization, was as follows (parts by weight) : Yellow corn, ground 26.08...Millet, ground 10.00...Alfalfa leaf meal, dehydrated 7.50...Soybean oil meal, solvent-processed 50.00...Dried whey 3.00...Special steamed bonemeal 1.50...Limestone, ground 0.80...Salt mixture 1.OO...D-activated animal sterol 0.12....100.00.....At the end of ten weeks the results on this diet (Diet l l ) , as compared with that containing sardine meal (Diet 23), were as follows: Diet No. 11 Percentage survival 71, Average live weight per bird, grams 144,....Growing mash consumed, per bird-day, grams 6.8 Feed consumed per gram of gain in weight (grams) 3.8......Diet 23....Percentage survival, 80,...Avg live weight per bird, grams....145,....Growing mash consumed , per bird-day, grams...7.4...Feed consumed per gram of gain in weight (grams)....3.9. Results were unsatisfactory when expeller-processed soybean oil meal was used in this diet to replace solvent
... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Is Dieting OK for Kids? KidsHealth > For Kids > Is Dieting ... not — diet this way. Why? Let's find out. Dieting to Lose Weight All foods and many drinks ...
... increase the potassium in your diet or use salt substitutes (which often contain potassium). People who have kidney ... consume. Alternative Names Hypertension - diet Images DASH diet Low sodium diet References American Heart Association Nutrition Committee; Lichtenstein ...
Tou, Janet; Grindeland, Richard; Barrett, Joyce; Dalton, Bonnie; Mandel, Adrian; Wade, Charles
A standard rodent diet for space flight must meet the unique conditions imposed by the space environment and must be nutritionally adequate since diet can influence the outcome of experiments. This paper evaluates the use of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed Foodbars as a standard space flight diet for rats. The Foodbar's semi-purified formulation permits criteria such as nutrient consistency, high nutrient bioavailability and flexibility of formulation to be met. Extrusion of the semi-purified diet produces Foodbars with the proper texture and a non-crumbing solid form for use in space. Treatment of Foodbar with 0.1% potassium sorbate prevents mold growth. Irradiation (15-25 kGy) prevents bacterial growth and in combination with sorbate-treatment provides added protection against mold for shelf-stability. However, during the development process, nutrient analyses indicated that extrusion and irradiation produced nutrient losses. Nutrients were adjusted accordingly to compensate for processing losses. Nutrient analysis of Foodbars continues to be performed routinely to monitor nutrient levels. It is important that the standard rodent diet provide nutrients that will prevent deficiency but also avoid excess that may mask physiological changes produced by space flight. All vitamins levels in the Foodbars, except for vitamin K conformed to or exceeded the current NRC (1995) recommendations. All indispensable amino acids in Foodbar conformed to or exceeded the NRC nutrient recommendation for mice growth and rat maintenance. However, some indispensable amino acids were slightly below recommendations for rat reproduction/growth. Short-term (18-20 d) animal feeding studies indicated that Foodbars were palatable, supported growth and maintained health in rats. Results indicated that NASA rodent Foodbars meet both the physical and nutritional criteria required to support rodents in the space environment and thus, may be used successfully as a
Gardner, C D
Although the 'Low-Fat' diet was the predominant public health recommendation for weight loss and weight control for the past several decades, the obesity epidemic continued to grow during this time period. An alternative 'low-carbohydrate' (Low-Carb) approach, although originally dismissed and even vilified, was comparatively tested in a series of studies over the past decade, and has been found in general to be as effective, if not more, as the Low-Fat approach for weight loss and for several related metabolic health measures. From a glass half full perspective, this suggests that there is more than one choice for a dietary approach to lose weight, and that Low-Fat and Low-Carb diets may be equally effective. From a glass half empty perspective, the average amount of weight lost on either of these two dietary approaches under the conditions studied, particularly when followed beyond 1 year, has been modest at best and negligible at worst, suggesting that the two approaches may be equally ineffective. One could resign themselves at this point to focusing on calories and energy intake restriction, regardless of macronutrient distributions. However, before throwing out the half-glass of water, it is worthwhile to consider that focusing on average results may mask important subgroup successes and failures. In all weight-loss studies, without exception, the range of individual differences in weight change within any particular diet groups is orders of magnitude greater than the average group differences between diet groups. Several studies have now reported that adults with greater insulin resistance are more successful with weight loss on a lower-carbohydrate diet compared with a lower-fat diet, whereas adults with greater insulin sensitivity are equally or more successful with weight loss on a lower-fat diet compared with a lower-carbohydrate diet. Other preliminary findings suggest that there may be some promise with matching individuals with certain genotypes to
Eckerson, Joan M.
Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003257.htm Memory loss To use the sharing features on this ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...
... topic was provided by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Topic last reviewed: December ... a total loss of hearing. It can be hereditary or it can result from disease, trauma, certain ...
Ma, Yongjie; Gao, Mingming; Liu, Dexi
This study presents the alternating diet as a new strategy in combating obesity and metabolic diseases. Lean or obese mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for five days and switched to a regular diet for one (5 + 1), two (5 + 2), or five (5 + 5) days before switching back to HFD to start the second cycle, for a total of eight weeks (for prevention) or five weeks (for treatment) without limiting animals’ access to food. Our results showed that animals with 5 + 2 and 5 + 5 diet alternations significantly inhibited body weight and fat mass gain compared to animals fed an HFD continuously. The dietary switch changed the pattern of daily caloric intake and suppressed HFD-induced adipose macrophage infiltration and chronic inflammation, resulting in improved insulin sensitivity and alleviated fatty liver. Alternating diet inhibited HFD-induced hepatic Pparγ-mediated lipid accumulation and activated the expression of Pparα and its target genes. Alternating diet in the 5 + 5 schedule induced weight loss in obese mice and reversed the progression of metabolic disorders, including hepatic steatosis, glucose intolerance, and inflammation. The results provide direct evidence to support that alternating diet represents a new intervention in dealing with the prevalence of diet-induced obesity. PMID:27189661
Barnard, Dennis E; Lewis, Sherry M; Teter, Beverly B; Thigpen, Julius E
Almost 40 y ago the scientific community was taking actions to control environmental factors that contribute to variation in the responses of laboratory animals to scientific manipulation. Laboratory animal diet was recognized as an important variable. During the 1970s, the American Institute of Nutrition, National Academy of Science, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, and Laboratory Animals Centre Diets Advisory Committee supported the use of 'standard reference diets' in biomedical research as a means to improve the ability to replicate research. As a result the AIN76 purified diet was formulated. During this same time, the laboratory animal nutritionist at the NIH was formulating open-formula, natural-ingredient diets to meet the need for standardized laboratory animal diets. Since the development of open-formula diets, fixed-formula and constant-nutrient-concentration closed-formula laboratory animal natural ingredient diets have been introduced to help reduce the potential variation diet can cause in research.
Kulak, D; Polotsky, A J
The ketogenic diet was first developed in the 1920s as a treatment for epilepsy in an attempt to create a prolonged physiologic starvation state. Since that time, the diet has been found to have other therapeutic effects, most of which are neurologic. Other diets, mostly based on the principals of caloric restriction, have been shown to improve fertility in certain populations. We explore the data, both clinical and laboratory, for potential fertility enhancing benefits of the ketogenic diet, beyond just caloric restriction or weight loss.
Jackson, Elizabeth G.
Chronic dieting distorts eating behaviors and causes weight escalation. Desperation about losing weight results in pursuit of extreme weight loss measures. Instead of offering yet another diet, nutrition educators can teach chronic dieters (dieting casualties) to develop eating competence. Eating Order, a 13-week class for chronic dieters based on…
Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.
Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)
Liesegang, A; Bürgi, E; Sassi, M L; Risteli, J; Wanner, M
This study was conducted to examine if substantial bone loss occurs in growing pigs fed a vegetarian diet in comparison with a diet containing fishmeal. Twelve 6-week-old weaned pigs were assigned to two groups: group V [vegetarian diet; 0.61% phosphorus (P) in dry matter until 25 kg and 0.46% P until the end of the experiment] and group F (fishmeal diet; 0.61% P in dry matter until 25 kg and 0.46% P until the end of the experiment). Phytase was added to both diets. These two diets were fed to the two groups for a period of 6 weeks. Blood samples were collected weekly, faeces were collected three times a week. Concentrations of osteocalcin (OC) and carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) were measured in serum, using a radioimmunoassay, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP) was measured using an enzyme immunoassay. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) were determined by peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) in the tibia and phalanx. In addition, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (VitD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured in serum. The digestibility of P was significantly decreased in group V. Significant changes in bAP activities and OC concentrations occurred with time during the 6 weeks. ICTP concentrations were significantly higher in group V. Total BMC and BMD in the tibia and BMD in the phalanx significantly decreased in group V. The results show that a vegetarian diet induces a significant loss of bone and a higher bone formation in group V compared with group F, although phytase was added to both diets. The dietary requirements for P in pigs, especially in the context of feeding vegetarian diets and adding an appropriate amount of phytase, should be investigated further.
the protective effects of soy -based diets against Wnt-induced mammary tumors. The prediction is that soy protein isolate (SPI), relative to control...foods (and soy milk formula) is m) factors that can mosphere assay, mammary epithelial cell EPORTABLE OUTCOME One scientific abstract on work...Simmen RC et al. 2009. Early Effects of Dietary Soy and Genistein in Rodent Models of Mammary Tumorigenesis, EB Meeting, New Orleans). One scientific
Hinderliter, Alan L; Babyak, Michael A; Sherwood, Andrew; Blumenthal, James A
Lifestyle modifications, including adoption of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern, weight loss in individuals who are overweight or obese, and physical activity, are effective in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. A healthy lifestyle may also have beneficial effects on metabolic abnormalities, such as insulin resistance, that are associated with high blood pressure. This review examines the independent and combined effects of the DASH diet and weight loss plus exercise on blood pressure and insulin sensitivity, with a focus on recently published results from the ENCORE study. Our data suggest that the DASH eating plan alone lowers blood pressure in overweight individuals with higher than optimal blood pressure, but significant improvements in insulin sensitivity are observed only when the DASH diet is implemented as part of a more comprehensive lifestyle modification program that includes exercise and weight loss.
Young, William George
Diet analysis and advice for patients with tooth wear is potentially the most logical intervention to arrest attrition, erosion and abrasion. It is saliva that protects the teeth against corrosion by the acids which soften enamel and make it susceptible to wear. Thus the lifestyles and diet of patients at risk need to be analysed for sources of acid and reasons for lost salivary protection. Medical conditions which put patients at risk of tooth wear are principally: asthma, bulimia nervosa, caffeine addiction, diabetes mellitus, exercise dehydration, functional depression, gastroesophageal reflux in alcoholism, hypertension and syndromes with salivary hypofunction. The sources of acid are various, but loss of salivary protection is the common theme. In healthy young Australians, soft drinks are the main source of acid, and exercise dehydration the main reason for loss of salivary protection. In the medically compromised, diet acids and gastroesophageal reflux are the sources, but medications are the main reasons for lost salivary protection. Diet advice for patients with tooth wear must: promote a healthy lifestyle and diet strategy that conserves the teeth by natural means of salivary stimulation; and address the specific needs of the patients' oral and medical conditions. Individualised, patient-empowering erosion WATCH strategies; on Water, Acid, Taste, Calcium and Health, are urgently required to combat the emerging epidemic of tooth wear currently being experienced in westernised societies.
... adults with limb loss. Meeting a world-class swimmer, for instance, shows children that they can do ... they won’t ever be the world’s fastest swimmers, children can learn that there is greatness inside ...
Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions and is a strong risk factor for a number of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and also certain types of cancers. Despite the constant recommendations of health care organizations regarding the importance of weight control, this goal often fails. Genetic predisposition in combination with inactive lifestyles and high caloric intake leads to excessive weight gain. Even though there may be agreement about the concept that lifestyle changes affecting dietary habits and physical activity are essential to promote weight loss and weight control, the ideal amount and type of exercise and also the ideal diet are still under debate. For many years, nutritional intervention studies have been focused on reducing dietary fat with little positive results over the long-term. One of the most studied strategies in the recent years for weight loss is the ketogenic diet. Many studies have shown that this kind of nutritional approach has a solid physiological and biochemical basis and is able to induce effective weight loss along with improvement in several cardiovascular risk parameters. This review discusses the physiological basis of ketogenic diets and the rationale for their use in obesity, discussing the strengths and the weaknesses of these diets together with cautions that should be used in obese patients.
Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions and is a strong risk factor for a number of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and also certain types of cancers. Despite the constant recommendations of health care organizations regarding the importance of weight control, this goal often fails. Genetic predisposition in combination with inactive lifestyles and high caloric intake leads to excessive weight gain. Even though there may be agreement about the concept that lifestyle changes affecting dietary habits and physical activity are essential to promote weight loss and weight control, the ideal amount and type of exercise and also the ideal diet are still under debate. For many years, nutritional intervention studies have been focused on reducing dietary fat with little positive results over the long-term. One of the most studied strategies in the recent years for weight loss is the ketogenic diet. Many studies have shown that this kind of nutritional approach has a solid physiological and biochemical basis and is able to induce effective weight loss along with improvement in several cardiovascular risk parameters. This review discusses the physiological basis of ketogenic diets and the rationale for their use in obesity, discussing the strengths and the weaknesses of these diets together with cautions that should be used in obese patients. PMID:24557522
Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C; Marchie, Augustine; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Augustin, Livia S A; Ludwig, David S; Barnard, Neal D; Anderson, James W
Based on what is known of the components of plant-based diets and their effects from cohort studies, there is reason to believe that vegetarian diets would have advantages in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. At present there are few data on vegetarian diets in diabetes that do not in addition have weight loss or exercise components. Nevertheless, the use of whole-grain or traditionally processed cereals and legumes has been associated with improved glycemic control in both diabetic and insulin-resistant individuals. Long-term cohort studies have indicated that whole-grain consumption reduces the risk of both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition, nuts (eg, almonds), viscous fibers (eg, fibers from oats and barley), soy proteins, and plant sterols, which may be part of the vegetarian diet, reduce serum lipids. In combination, these plant food components may have a very significant impact on cardiovascular disease, one of the major complications of diabetes. Furthermore, substituting soy or other vegetable proteins for animal protein may also decrease renal hyperfiltration, proteinuria, and renal acid load and in the long term reduce the risk of developing renal disease in type 2 diabetes. The vegetarian diet, therefore, contains a portfolio of natural products and food forms of benefit for both the carbohydrate and lipid abnormalities in diabetes. It is anticipated that their combined use in vegetarian diets will produce very significant metabolic advantages for the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its complications.
... limb. Learning how to use it takes time. Physical therapy can help you adapt. Recovery from the loss of a limb can be hard. Sadness, anger, and frustration are common. If you are having a tough time, talk to your doctor. Treatment with medicine or counseling can help.
... unilateral and bilateral cochlear implant technology for hearing loss. This meeting is open to the public in... technology for hearing loss. Background information about this topic, including panel materials, is available... technology for hearing loss. II. Meeting Format This meeting is open to the public. The Committee will...
Tinsley, Grant M; Willoughby, Darryn S
Low-carbohydrate and very-low-carbohydrate diets are often used as weight-loss strategies by exercising individuals and athletes. Very-low-carbohydrate diets can lead to a state of ketosis, in which the concentration of blood ketones (acetoacetate, 3-β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone) increases as a result of increased fatty acid breakdown and activity of ketogenic enzymes. A potential concern of these ketogenic diets, as with other weight-loss diets, is the potential loss of fat-free mass (e.g., skeletal muscle). On examination of the literature, the majority of studies report decreases in fat-free mass in individuals following a ketogenic diet. However, some confounding factors exist, such as the use of aggressive weight-loss diets and potential concerns with fat-free mass measurement. A limited number of studies have examined combining resistance training with ketogenic diets, and further research is needed to determine whether resistance training can effectively slow or stop the loss of fat-free mass typically seen in individuals following a ketogenic diet. Mechanisms underlying the effects of a ketogenic diet on fat-free mass and the results of implementing exercise interventions in combination with this diet should also be examined.
I would like to invite all members of the CERN Personnel to a meeting on Wednesday 16 January 2008 at 3:00 p.m. Main Auditorium (bldg 500) to convey my best wishes for the new year, to review CERNâs activities during 2007 and to present the perspectives for 2008, the year of the LHC start-up. Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the Council Chamber and in the AB Auditorium (Meyrin), the AB Auditorium (PrÃ©vessin), the IT Auditorium (Bldg. 31) and the AT Auditorium (Bldg. 30). Simultaneous translation into English will be available in the main Auditorium. Best wishes for the festive season! Robert AYMAR
Manure application to cropland can contribute to runoff losses of phosphorus and eutrophication of surface waters. We conducted a series of three rainfall simulation experiments to assess the effects of dairy heifer diet P, manure incorporation, application rate, and soil test P on runoff P losses f...
Paoli, Antonio; Bianco, Antonino; Grimaldi, Keith A
The ketogenic diet (KD) is used widely as a weight loss strategy and, more rarely, as therapy for some diseases. In many sports, weight control is often necessary (boxing, weightlifting, wrestling, etc.), but the KD usually is not considered. Our hypothesis is that KD might be used to achieve fat loss without affecting strength/power performance negatively.
Agras, W. Stewart; And Others
Studied maintenance procedures in 201 overweight female participants who completed a very-low-calorie diet. Posed two questions: (1) Would stimulus narrowing during the reintroduction of solid food improve weight losses and the maintenance of those losses? and (2) Would reintroduction of foods dependent on progress in losing or maintaining weight…
The 1986 Ocean Sciences Meeting of the American Geophysical Union and the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) will be held January 13-17, 1986, in New Orleans, La., at the Fairmont Hotel. Co-sponsoring societies are the Acoustical Society of America (ASA), the American Meteorological Society (AMS), the Marine Technology Society (MTS), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Oceanic Engineering Society (OES).
Larsen, Dawn; Murray-Davis, Margaret
During the last two decades, obesity rates in the United States have escalated dramatically, and intense media coverage of obesity issues has fueled consumer interest in low-carbohydrate diets designed to promote rapid weight loss. The food industry has fostered the assumption that a drop in carbohydrate consumption will translate into a drop in…
Air Force Training Command, Sheppard AFB, TX.
This four-volume student text is intended for use in training Air Force diet therapy specialists. The first volume, a study guide and workbook for self-directed instruction, covers nutrition, food processing and preparation, therapeutic diets, security precautions in medical food service, procedures for ordering equipment and supplies, food…
The prevalence of cholesterol gallstones is increased in obese persons. The risk is especially high in those with the highest body mass index (relative risk 5-6). Weight loss further increases the risk of gallstones: the prevalence of new gallstones reaches 10-12% after 8-16 weeks of low-calorie diet and more than 30% within 12-18 months after gastric by-pass surgery. About one-third of the stones are symptomatic. The increased prevalence of stones is mostly due to supersaturation of bile with cholesterol, because of an increased synthesis by the liver and secretion into bile. Saturation is further increased during weight loss. It returns toward normal after weight stabilization at a lower level, allowing spontaneous stone dissolution in some cases. Identified risk factors for gallstones during weight loss are a relative loss of weight greater than 24% of initial body weight, a rate of weight loss greater than 1.5 kg per week, a very low calorie diet with no fat, a long overnight fast period and a high serum triglyceride level. Ursodeoxycholic acid decreases cholesterol saturation of bile and gallstone incidence during weight loss. Other preventive measures include a control of weight loss rate, a reduction of the length of overnight fast, and maintenance of a small amount of fat in the diet.
Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca; Abreu, Maria T
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets-such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet-have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data.
diet . On the other hand, first-termers in AFSC tend to have experience with more types of thera- peutic diets , such as gluten restricted, high...DENTAL SOFT DIET 96 95 95 DIABETIC DIET 96 95 96 k FAT CONTROLLED, CHOLESTEROL RESTRICTED DIET 91 92 92 FAT FREE TEST DIET 60 71 70 FAT RESTRICTED DIET ...ELIMINATION DIET 36 45 46 CARBOHYDRATE TEST DIET , 150GM AND 300GM 40 62 69 - GLUTEN RESTRICTED DIET 30 40 55 . HIGH POTASSIUM DIET
... calorie diet makes it hard to meet our nutritional needs. We need more than 40 different nutrients ... based on the most advanced clinical and scientific knowledge from The Endocrine Society (www.endo-society.org). ...
Reitz, Andrew L.
Three formerly institutionalized adults increased their rate of appropriate food serving when cash reinforcement was made contingent on their meeting specified daily criteria. Instructions and self-monitoring and praise had little or no effect on the men's diets. (CL)
Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A
Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation.
Casazza, Krista; Cardel, Michelle; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Hanks, Lynae J.; Gower, Barbara A.; Newton, Anna L.; Wallace, Stephenie
Objectives Obesity prevalence among African American (AA) girls is higher than that of other groups. As typical calorie-restriction obesity treatment strategies have had limited success, alterations in macronutrient composition might effectively improve metabolic outcomes in this population and impact future body composition trajectories. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a moderately restricted carbohydrate (CHO) versus a standard CHO diet on weight/fat loss and metabolic parameters in overweight/obese AA girls aged 9–14 years. Methods A total of 26 AA girls (ranging from 92nd BMI percentile and above) were assigned to either a reduced- (SPEC: 42% calories from CHO, n=12) or a standard- (STAN: 55% of calories from CHO, n=14) CHO diet (protein held constant) for 16-weeks. All meals were provided and clinically tailored to meet the estimated energy requirements (REE × 1.2 in eucaloric phase and REE × 1.2 – 1000kcal in energy deficit phase). The first five-weeks encompassed a eucaloric phase evaluating metabolic changes in the absence of weight change. The subsequent 11-weeks were hypocaloric (1000kcal/d deficit) in effort to promote weight/fat loss. Meal tests were performed during the eucaloric phase for metabolic analyses. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to evaluate body composition. Results Both groups had reductions in weight/adiposity but the difference did not reach significance. The solid meal test indicated improved glucose/insulin homeostasis on the SPEC diet up to three hours post-ingestion. In addition, significantly lower triglycerides (p<0.001) were observed on the SPEC diet. Conclusions Dietary CHO reduction favorably influences metabolic parameters but did not result in greater weight/fat loss relative to a standard diet in obese AA girls. Future research is needed to determine long-term effectiveness of a reduced CHO diet on glucose and insulin homeostasis and how it may apply to weight maintenance/fat loss during
Goss, Amy M.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Ovalle, Fernando; Goree, Laura Lee; Azziz, Ricardo; Desmond, Renee A.; Bates, G. Wright; Gower, Barbara A.
Objective To determine if consumption of a reduced-carbohydrate (CHO) diet would result in preferential loss of adipose tissue under eucaloric conditions, and whether changes in adiposity were associated with changes in postprandial insulin concentration. Methods In a crossover-diet intervention, 30 women with PCOS consumed a reduced-CHO diet (41:19:40%energy from CHO:protein:fat) for 8 weeks and a standard diet (55:18:27) for 8 weeks. Body composition by DXA and fat distribution by CT were assessed at baseline and following each diet phase. Insulin AUC was obtained from a solid meal test (SMT) during each diet phase. Results Participants lost 3.7% and 2.2% total fat following the reduced-CHO diet and STD diet, resp. (p<0.05 for difference between diets). The reduced-CHO diet induced a decrease in subcutaneous-abdominal, intra-abdominal, and thigh-intermuscular adipose tissue (−7.1%, −4.6%, and −11.5%, resp.), and the STD diet induced a decrease in total lean mass. Loss of fat mass following the reduced CHO diet arm was associated with lower insulin AUC (p<0.05) during the SMT. Conclusions In women with PCOS, consumption of a diet lower in CHO resulted in preferential loss of fat mass from metabolically harmful adipose depots, whereas a diet high in CHO appeared to promote repartitioning of lean mass to fat mass. PMID:25125349
Presnell, Katherine; Stice, Eric; Tristan, Jennifer
Prospective studies suggest that dieting increases risk for bulimic symptoms, but experimental trials indicate dieting reduces bulimic symptoms. However, these experiments may be unrepresentative of real-world weight loss dieting. In addition, the fact that most dieters do not develop eating disorders suggests moderating factors may be important. Accordingly, we randomly assigned 157 female intermittent dieters to either diet as they usually do for weight loss or eat as they normally do when not dieting for 4 weeks. Naturalistic dieting halted the weight gain shown by controls, but did not result in significant weight loss. Although there was no main effect of the dieting manipulation on bulimic symptoms, moderation analyses indicated that naturalistic dieting decreased bulimic symptoms among participants with initially low depressive symptoms. Results suggest that self-initiated weight loss dieting is not particularly effective, which appears to explain several discrepancies in the literature. Additionally, depressive symptoms may be an important determinant of bulimic symptoms that eclipses the effects of naturalistic dieting on this outcome.
Messina, V; Mangels, A R
This article reviews research on the growth and nutrient intake of vegan children and provides guidelines for counselling parents of vegan children. Although diets of vegan children meet or exceed recommendations for most nutrients, and vegan children have higher intakes of fiber and lower intakes of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol than omnivore children, some studies indicate that they may be low in calcium. In addition, bioavailability of zinc and iron from plant foods can be low. Protein needs are slightly higher for vegan children but are easily met with a varied diet that provides adequate energy. Special attention should be given to dietary practices that enhance absorption of zinc and iron from plant foods. Further, good sources of the omega-3 fatty acid linolenic acid should be emphasized to enhance synthesis of the long-chain fatty acid docosahexanoic acid. Dietetics professionals who counsel vegan families should help parents identify good sources of vitamin B-12, riboflavin, zinc, calcium and, if sun exposure is not adequate, vitamin D. This should not be problematic, due to the growing number and availability of fortified vegan foods that can help children meet all nutrient needs. Therefore, with appropriate food choices, vegan diets can be adequate for children at all ages.
Improving diet and lifestyle is a critical component of the American Heart Association’s strategy for cardiovascular disease risk reduction in the general population. This document presents recommendations designed to meet this objective. Specific goals are to consume an overall healthy diet; aim fo...
The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Most of the reviewed and unreviewed abstracts are presented as posters so that interested AMCP meeting attendees can review findings and query authors. The Student/Resident/ Fellow poster presentation (unreviewed) is Wednesday, April 20, 2016, and the Professional poster presentation (reviewed) is Thursday, April 21. The Professional posters will also be displayed on Friday, April 22. The reviewed abstracts are published in the JMCP Meeting Abstracts supplement. The AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2016 in San Francisco, California, is expected to attract more than 3,500 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs. Abstracts were submitted in the following categories: Research Report: describe completed original research on managed care pharmacy services or health care interventions. Examples include (but are not limited to) observational studies using administrative claims, reports of the impact of unique benefit design strategies, and analyses of the effects of innovative administrative or clinical programs. Economic Model: describe models that predict the effect of various benefit design or clinical decisions on a population. For example, an economic model could be used to predict the budget impact of a new pharmaceutical product on a health care system. Solving Problems in Managed Care: describe the specific steps taken to introduce a needed change, develop and implement a new system or program, plan and organize an administrative function, or solve other types of problems in managed care settings. These
Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...
... Group. Clear liquid diet. In: Morrison. Manual of Clinical Nutrition Management. Updated 2013. bscn2k15.weebly.com/uploads/1/2/9/2/12924787/manual_of_clinical_nutrition2013.pdf . Accessed August 20, 2016. Schattner MA, ...
... basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. You need protein in your diet to help ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a number ...
... Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection Diet And Exercise Transplant recipients need to be aware of the ... help arrange for counseling and other support services. Exercise After a Transplant Most people are weak after ...
... non-vegetarians. A vegetarian diet can help fight heart disease and high blood pressure. Sample Dinner Menus Vegetarian Spaghetti with Mushroom-Tomato-Asiago Cheese Sauce Steamed Green Beans with Pine Nuts Fruit Salad Vegan Roasted Vegetables with Whole ...
... Your body needs carbohydrates as a source of fuel (energy). If you don’t eat enough carbs, your body will use stored energy from muscle or fat cells to fuel itself. In low-carb diets, only 15% to ...
... avoided if you are pregnant or have an eating disorder . Detox diets can be addicting. That's because there's ... addiction that leads to health problems, including serious eating disorders, heart problems, and even death. Detox supplements can ...
Ross, P J; Etkin, N L; Muazzamu, I
We report results of a longitudinal study of shifting patterns of food consumption in a rural Hausa-Fulani village in northern Nigeria. While the broad outlines of diet did not change over the 12 years between two dietary surveys, important shifts occurred: a decline in the consumption of local cultigens, with a corresponding decrease in total caloric intake, as well as an embellishment of diet through the introduction of new foods. We suggest that this is best understood through the growing participation of this village in the wider economy. We juxtapose these dietary shifts to a model of disease risk that suggests, for the early period, that the coincidence of dietary elaboration and the periodicity of disease risk offered some degree of protection against malaria infection. For the more recent period, diet was no longer marked by conspicuous seasonal changes. To what extent these differences in diet patterns have affected the disease experience of this population is not yet clear.
... toxins hang around in our digestive, lymph, and gastrointestinal systems as well as in our skin and hair ... cause dehydration, mineral imbalances, and problems with the digestive system. Detox diets don't help people lose fat. ...
... changes you can make to your diet. References Bariatric surgery for severe obesity. National Institute on Diabetes and ... com/home. Accessed Jan. 19, 2015. Hamad G. Bariatric surgery: Postoperative and long-term management of the uncomplicated ...
Sterken, Christiaan; Aspaas, Per Pippin
On 2-3 June 2012, the University of Tromsoe hosted a conference about the cultural and scientific history of the transits of Venus. The conference took place in Tromsoe for two very specific reasons. First and foremost, the last transit of Venus of this century lent itself to be observed on the disc of the Midnight Sun in this part of Europe during the night of 5 to 6 June 2012. Second, several Venus transit expeditions in this region were central in the global enterprise of measuring the scale of the solar system in the eighteenth century. The site of the conference was the Nordnorsk Vitensenter (Science Centre of Northern Norway), which is located at the campus of the University of Tromsoe. After the conference, participants were invited to either stay in Tromsoe until the midnight of 5-6 June, or take part in a Venus transit voyage in Finnmark, during which the historical sites Vardoe, Hammerfest, and the North Cape were to be visited. The post-conference program culminated with the participants observing the transit of Venus in or near Tromsoe, Vardoe and even from a plane near Alta. These Proceedings contain a selection of the lectures delivered on 2-3 June 2012, and also a narrative description of the transit viewing from Tromsoe, Vardoe and Alta. The title of the book, Meeting Venus, refers the title of a play by the Hungarian film director, screenwriter and opera director Istvan Szabo (1938-). The autobiographical movie Meeting Venus (1991) directed by him is based on his experience directing Tannhauser at the Paris Opera in 1984. The movie brings the story of an imaginary international opera company that encounters a never ending series of difficulties and pitfalls that symbolise the challenges of any multicultural and international endeavour. As is evident from the many papers presented in this book, Meeting Venus not only contains the epic tales of the transits of the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it also covers the conference
Gotto, Antonio M.; Scott, Lynne W.; Foreyt, John P.
The role of diet in personal health maintenance is important whether a person is trying to stay healthy or to treat diet-related diseases such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus or obesity. Dietary recommendations include limiting fat to 30% and protein to 20% of total calories, with the remaining 50% coming from carbohydrate. Maintaining dietary changes for long periods is very difficult for many persons. Specific self-management skills may ease the task. PMID:6523862
Gephart, Jessica A; Davis, Kyle F; Emery, Kyle A; Leach, Allison M; Galloway, James N; Pace, Michael L
The question of how to minimize monetary cost while meeting basic nutrient requirements (a subsistence diet) was posed by George Stigler in 1945. The problem, known as Stigler's diet problem, was famously solved using the simplex algorithm. Today, we are not only concerned with the monetary cost of food, but also the environmental cost. Efforts to quantify environmental impacts led to the development of footprint (FP) indicators. The environmental footprints of food production span multiple dimensions, including greenhouse gas emissions (carbon footprint), nitrogen release (nitrogen footprint), water use (blue and green water footprint) and land use (land footprint), and a diet minimizing one of these impacts could result in higher impacts in another dimension. In this study based on nutritional and population data for the United States, we identify diets that minimize each of these four footprints subject to nutrient constraints. We then calculate tradeoffs by taking the composition of each footprint's minimum diet and calculating the other three footprints. We find that diets for the minimized footprints tend to be similar for the four footprints, suggesting there are generally synergies, rather than tradeoffs, among low footprint diets. Plant-based food and seafood (fish and other aquatic foods) commonly appear in minimized diets and tend to most efficiently supply macronutrients and micronutrients, respectively. Livestock products rarely appear in minimized diets, suggesting these foods tend to be less efficient from an environmental perspective, even when nutrient content is considered. The results' emphasis on seafood is complicated by the environmental impacts of aquaculture versus capture fisheries, increasing in aquaculture, and shifting compositions of aquaculture feeds. While this analysis does not make specific diet recommendations, our approach demonstrates potential environmental synergies of plant- and seafood-based diets. As a result, this study
... Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Go Back The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Email Print + Share There is no ... diet that has received attention is the Specific Carbohydrate Diet. This diet limits poorly digestible carbohydrates to ...
Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary
Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.
Jain, Nelia; Wallhagen, Margaret L.
Abstract Background: Age-related hearing loss is remarkably common, affecting more than 60% of adults over the age of 75. Moreover, hearing loss has detrimental effects on quality of life and communication, outcomes that are central to palliative care. Despite its high prevalence, there is remarkably little written on the impact of hearing loss in the palliative care literature. Objective: The objective was to emphasize its importance and the need for further study. We use a case as a springboard for discussing what is known and unknown about the epidemiology, presentation, screening methodologies, and treatment strategies for age-related hearing loss in palliative care. Discussion: The case describes a 65-year-old man with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) that has progressed despite treatment. No concerns are raised about communication challenges during conversations between the palliative care team and the patient in his quiet room. However, in the midst of a family meeting, shortly after discussing prognosis, the patient reports that he cannot hear what anyone is saying. Conclusion: We describe simple methods of screening patients for hearing loss, and suggest that practical approaches should be used universally in patient encounters. These include facing the patient, pitching one's voice low, using a pocket talker, and creating a hearing-friendly environment when planning a family or group meeting. PMID:25867966
Davis, Kyle F.; D'Odorico, Paolo; Rulli, Maria Cristina
Population growth, dietary changes, and increasing biofuel use are placing unprecedented pressure on the global food system. While this demand likely cannot be met by expanding agricultural lands, much of the world's cropland can attain higher crop yields. Therefore, it is important to examine whether increasing crop productivity to the maximum attainable yield (i.e., yield gap closure) alone can substantially improve food security at global and national scales. Here we show that closing yield gaps through conventional technological development (i.e., fertilizers and irrigation) can potentially meet future global demand if diets are moderated and crop-based biofuel production is limited. In particular, we find that increases in dietary demand will be largely to blame should crop production fall short of demand. In converting projected diets to a globally adequate diet (3000 kcal/cap/d; 20% animal kcal) under current agrofuel use, we find that 1.8-2.6 billion additional people can be fed in 2030 and 2.1-3.1 billion additional people in 2050, depending on the extent to which yields can improve in those periods. Therefore, the simple combination of yield gap closure and moderating diets offers promise for feeding the world's population but only if long-term sustainability is the focus.
física que describe un cambio en el peso con el tiempo . Las predicciones son razonables de acuerdo con los resultados televisados de los planes de dieta...response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing
Foreyt, J P; Goodrick, G K
Nonnutritive sweeteners and fat substitutes have achieved rapid consumer acceptance. This is largely due to the perception held by the public that these products are helpful in weight control and diet improvement. The cognitive component in human eating behavior makes it difficult to generalize from animal research. The effectiveness of these products in weight control has yet to be demonstrated conclusively in human research. Currently these products appear to add palatibility to reduced-calorie diets and may be helpful to weight-loss efforts as part of an overall balanced, nutritious diet and healthy life-style that includes exercise.
High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the eff...
Soeliman, Fatemeh Azizi; Azadbakht, Leila
Background: Weight regain after weight loss is a common problem for all those obese or overweight who have had a recent weight loss. Different cures such as diet therapy, behavioral therapy, exercise or a mixture of them have been advised as solutions. The purpose of this review is to find the best diet or eating pattern to maintain a recent weight loss. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed and SCOPUS by using the following key words: Overweight, obesity, weight maintenance, weight regain, and diet therapy. Finally, we assessed 26 articles in the present article. Results: Meal replacement, low carbohydrate-low glycemic index (GI) diet, high protein intake, and moderate fat consumption have shown some positive effects on weight maintenance. However, the results are controversial. A Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-type diet seems helpful for weight maintenance although the need for more study has remained. Some special behaviors were associated with less weight regain, such as, not being awake late at night, drinking lower amount of sugar-sweetened beverages, and following a healthy pattern. Some special foods have been suggested for weight maintenance. However, the roles of specific foods are not confirmed. Conclusion: Healthy diets recommend low carbohydrate, low GI, and moderate fat foods, but it is not clear whether they are useful in preventing weight gain. It seems that consuming fewer calories helps people to keep weight loss. Further research to find strategies in obesity management focusing on successful maintenance of weight loss is needed. PMID:24949037
A colleague walked by my office one time as I was conducting a meeting. There were about five or six members of my team present. The colleague, a man who had been with our institution (The Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab, a.k.a. APL) for many years, could not help eavesdropping. He said later it sounded like we we re having a raucous argument, and he wondered whether he should stand by the door in case things got out of hand and someone threw a punch. Our Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) team was a hot group, to invoke the language that is fashionable today, although we never thought of ourselves in those terms. It was just our modus operandi. The tenor of the discussion got loud and volatile at times, but I prefer to think of it as animated, robust, or just plain collaborative. Mary Chiu and her "hot" team from the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory built the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft for NASA. Instruments on the spacecraft continue to collect data that inform us about what's happening on our most important star, the Sun.
... I in a Healthy Relationship? Who Can Get Weight Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness The Deal ... at a Healthy Weight Therapy and Weight Management Weight Loss Surgery Compulsive Exercise Becoming a Vegetarian Body Image and ...
Blackburn, G L
The goal of the dietary treatment of obesity is to reduce the patient's weight with minimum risk. This is accomplished by a dietary regimen which allows a preferential loss of body fat with a preservation of lean body mass. Total fasting leads to a loss of 150 grams of nitrogen in the first month alone. In a study by Hoffer et al. reported below, two levels of dietary protein were compared for their effects on nitrogen balance in 17 obese women on a low calorie (500 cal) weight reduction diet. After three weeks of adaptation to the diets, the group given 0.8 grams protein/kg were in -2 grams nitrogen balance while the group given 1.5 grams protein/kg were at zero nitrogen balance. It was concluded that protein intakes at the level of the recommended dietary allowance (0.8 g/kg) are not compatible with nitrogen equilibrium when the energy intake is severely restricted. While weight loss is the obvious goal for obese persons, a careful examination of the composition of the weight loss (protein, fat, water) is essential in defining the optimal dietary regimen.
Mount, B M
The repeated losses experienced by a clinical oncologist may constitute a significant source of personal stress. Studies documenting high stress levels on oncology services and the prevalence among physicians of alcoholism, cirrhosis, suicide, and marital discord lend urgency to the need to examine etiologic factors, clinical manifestations, and strategies for the management of job-related stress. Significant etiologic factors include death as an existential fact emphasizing our finite nature, the cumulative grief associated with repeated unresolved losses, the pressure of a health care system fueled by the medical information explosion, the inability to achieve the idealistic goals embraced by holistic medical care, stresses inherent in working as a "team," and an undermined context of meaning as an outcome of treatment failures. Clinical manifestations of stress are reviewed as an aid to early diagnosis. Strategies useful in the prevention and management of stress include the encouragement of increased awareness of stress in self and colleagues, the clarification of appropriate goals and priorities, encouragement of appropriate limit setting, the mobilization of collaborative input, the clarification of team roles and organizational patterns, the establishment of team support meetings and favorable working conditions, exercise, and the clarification and working through of previously unresolved personal psychodynamic issues. Differences between the work-related stress involved in clinical oncology as compared with hospice care are examined.
Meule, Adrian; Westenhöfer, Joachim; Kübler, Andrea
Both food cravings and rigid dietary control strategies have been implicated in low dieting success while flexible control often is associated with successful weight loss. An online survey was conducted (N=616) to test the mediational role of food cravings between dietary control strategies and self-perceived dieting success. Food cravings fully mediated the inverse relationship between rigid control and dieting success. Contrarily, flexible control predicted dieting success independently of food cravings, which were negatively associated with dieting success. Differential mechanisms underlie the relationship between rigid and flexible control of eating behavior and dieting success.
Desai, Samir P.
For decades, it was thought that many common dermatological conditions had no relationship to diet. Studies from recent years, however, have made it clear that diet may influence outcome. In this review, the authors focus on conditions for which the role of diet has traditionally been an underappreciated aspect of therapy. In some cases, dietary interventions may influence the course of the skin disease, as in acne. In others, dietary change may serve as one aspect of prevention, such as in skin cancer and aging of the skin. In others, dermatological disease may be linked to systemic disease, and dietary changes may affect health outcomes, as in psoriasis. Lastly, systemic medications prescribed for dermatological disease, such as steroids, are known to raise the risk of other diseases, and dietary change may reduce this risk. PMID:25053983
Carapetis, Melissa; Phillips, Patrick J
Higher protein diets are currently 'hot'. The CSIRO total wellbeing diet book has been on the bestseller list in Australia and internationally. Various other high protein diets have also had, or are getting, media attention. However, high protein diets, particularly for people with diabetes, are controversial. There are questions about effectiveness and safety, especially in the long term. As a general practitioner people will look to you for advice about what to eat. This article summarises the pros and cons of two of the popular higher protein diets--the Atkins diet and the CSIRO total wellbeing.
Cohen, Pieter A.; Goday, Alberto; Swann, John P.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently warned consumers about the risks of weight loss supplements adulterated with multiple pharmaceutical agents. Some of these supplements combine potent anorectics, such as amphetamines derivatives, with benzodiazepines, beta-blockers, and other medications to suppress the anorectics’ adverse effects. These weight loss supplements represent the most recent generation of rainbow diet pills, named for their bright and varied colors, which date back more than 70 years. Beginning in the 1940s, several US pharmaceutical firms aggressively promoted rainbow pills to physicians and patients. By the 1960s the pills had caused dozens of deaths before the FDA began removing them from the US market. We used a variety of original resources to trace these deadly pills from their origins in the United States to their popularity in Spain and Brazil to their reintroduction to the United States as weight loss dietary supplements. PMID:22813089
Cohen, Pieter A; Goday, Alberto; Swann, John P
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently warned consumers about the risks of weight loss supplements adulterated with multiple pharmaceutical agents. Some of these supplements combine potent anorectics, such as amphetamines derivatives, with benzodiazepines, beta-blockers, and other medications to suppress the anorectics' adverse effects. These weight loss supplements represent the most recent generation of rainbow diet pills, named for their bright and varied colors, which date back more than 70 years. Beginning in the 1940s, several US pharmaceutical firms aggressively promoted rainbow pills to physicians and patients. By the 1960s the pills had caused dozens of deaths before the FDA began removing them from the US market. We used a variety of original resources to trace these deadly pills from their origins in the United States to their popularity in Spain and Brazil to their reintroduction to the United States as weight loss dietary supplements.
Lluch, Anne; Maillot, Matthieu; Gazan, Rozenn; Vieux, Florent; Delaere, Fabien; Vaudaine, Sarah; Darmon, Nicole
Dietary changes needed to achieve nutritional adequacy for 33 nutrients were determined for 1719 adults from a representative French national dietary survey. For each individual, an iso-energy nutritionally adequate diet was generated using diet modeling, staying as close as possible to the observed diet. The French food composition table was completed with free sugar (FS) content. Results were analyzed separately for individuals with FS intakes in their observed diets ≤10% or >10% of their energy intake (named below FS-ACCEPTABLE and FS-EXCESS, respectively). The FS-EXCESS group represented 41% of the total population (average energy intake of 14.2% from FS). Compared with FS-ACCEPTABLE individuals, FS-EXCESS individuals had diets of lower nutritional quality and consumed more energy (2192 vs. 2123 kcal/day), particularly during snacking occasions (258 vs. 131 kcal/day) (all p-values < 0.01). In order to meet nutritional targets, for both FS-ACCEPTABLE and FS-EXCESS individuals, the main dietary changes in optimized diets were significant increases in fresh fruits, starchy foods, water, hot beverages and plain yogurts; and significant decreases in mixed dishes/sandwiches, meat/eggs/fish and cheese. For FS-EXCESS individuals only, the optimization process significantly increased vegetables and significantly decreased sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet products and fruit juices. The diets of French adults with excessive intakes of FS are of lower nutritional quality, but can be optimized via specific dietary changes. PMID:28230722
Siitonen, P.H.; Thompson, H.C. Jr. )
Cereal-based diet and/or diet ingredient cadmium levels were determined by graphite furnace AAS. Cadmium contamination was 88.3 and 447 ppb in two cereal-based diets, 44.6 and 48.9 ppb in two purified diets, and ranged from less than 1.1 to 22,900 ppb in the ingredients of one cereal-based diet. The major source of cadmium contamination was attributed to the calcium supplement used for diet formulation. Comparative analyses of two purified diet samples and one cereal-based diet by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) gave virtually identical results for Cd. A comparative study of Cd levels determined by flame and furnace AAS was also made by the NCTR and the NIST.
Wadden, Thomas A.; And Others
Explored the effectiveness of a very low calorie diet to induce rapid weight loss, combined with behavioral techniques to maintain this loss in 17 obese women. Results showed a substantial and sustained weight loss. Subjects did not experience increased anxiety or depression. (JAC)
...; ] ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Meetings AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) plans to hold its regular committee and Board meetings...
Katz, Idit; Madjar, Nir; Harari, Adi
This article focuses on parents' role in overweight adolescents' motivation to diet and successful weight loss. The study employed Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as the theoretical framework (Deci & Ryan, 2000, 2011). Ninety-nine participants (ages 20-30) who had been overweight during adolescence according to their Body Mass Index (BMI mean = 25, SD = 1.6), completed retrospective questionnaires about their motivation to diet and their parents' behavior in the context of dieting. Findings from a structural equation modeling analysis suggested that participants who viewed their parents' as more need-supportive demonstrated more autonomous motivation to diet, which, in turn, contributed to their successful weight loss. The findings highlight the importance of parental support of adolescents' psychological needs in the quality of their motivation to diet. This is an important insight for parents and professionals who aim to encourage more constructive parent involvement in adolescents' dieting and well-being.
Lowe, Michael R; Doshi, Sapna D; Katterman, Shawn N; Feig, Emily H
Research in normal weight individuals paradoxically suggests that measures of attempted eating restriction might represent robust predictors of weight gain. This review examined the extent to which measures of dieting (e.g., self-reported weight loss dieting in the past year) and dietary restraint (e.g., the Cognitive Restraint scale from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) have prospectively predicted weight change. We located and reviewed 25 prospective studies containing 40 relevant comparisons. Studies were limited to those in which participants were non-obese (with a mean BMI between 18.5 and 30) and averaged at least 12 years old. Neither measure predicted future weight loss. Fifteen of the 20 comparisons (75%) that examined measures of dieting significantly predicted future weight gain whereas only 1 of 20 (5%) that examined restrained eating measures did so. Two plausible explanations for these findings are that: (1) dieters and restrained eaters do not differ in terms of an underlying proneness toward weight gain, but restrained eating represents a more effective means of preventing it; and (2) normal weight individuals who diet do so because they are resisting a powerful predisposition toward weight gain which dieting ultimately fails to prevent. Recent dieting in non-obese individuals may be a valuable proxy of susceptibility to weight gain. This easily assessed characteristic could identify individuals for whom obesity prevention interventions would be particularly appropriate.
... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Taking Care of Your Ears Taking ... Getting an X-ray Is Dieting OK for Kids? KidsHealth > For Kids > Is Dieting OK for Kids? ...
Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.
Zuo, Li; He, Feng; Tinsley, Grant M.; Pannell, Benjamin K.; Ward, Emery; Arciero, Paul J.
Aim: It has been debated whether different diets are more or less effective in long-term weight loss success and cardiovascular disease prevention among men and women. To further explore these questions, the present study evaluated the combined effects of a high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie diet plan compared with a heart healthy diet plan during weight loss, and weight loss maintenance on blood lipids and vascular compliance of obese individuals. Methods: The experiment involved 40 obese adults (men, n = 21; women, n = 19) and was divided into two phases: (a) 12-week high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie weight loss diet comparing men and women (Phase 1) and (b) a 1-year weight maintenance phase comparing high-protein, intermittent fasting with a heart healthy diet (Phase 2). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood lipids, and arterial compliance outcomes were assessed at weeks 1 (baseline control), 12 (weight loss), and 64 (12 + 52 week; weight loss maintenance). Results: At the end of weight loss intervention, concomitant reductions in body weight, BMI and blood lipids were observed, as well as enhanced arterial compliance. No sex-specific differences in responses were observed. During phase 2, the high-protein, intermittent fasting group demonstrated a trend for less regain in BMI, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and aortic pulse wave velocity than the heart healthy group. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a high-protein, intermittent fasting and low-calorie diet is associated with similar reductions in BMI and blood lipids in obese men and women. This diet also demonstrated an advantage in minimizing weight regain as well as enhancing arterial compliance as compared to a heart healthy diet after 1 year. PMID:27621707
Thorlton, Janet; Park, Chang; Hughes, Tonda
About 35% of healthy weight adolescent females describe themselves as overweight, and 66% report planning to lose weight. Body weight dissatisfaction is associated with unhealthy weight loss practices including diet pill/powder/liquid (PPL) use. Few studies have examined diet PPL use in healthy weight adolescent females; therefore, Youth Risk…
Donahoe, Clyde P.; And Others
Investigated the effects of dieting and exercise on resting metabolic rate (RMR) in overweight women (N=10). Results showed that dieting lowered RMR by nearly double that expected on the basis of resulting weight loss; and that exercise caused RMR to rise to a level appropriate to prevailing body weight. (LLL)
Sabaté, Joan; Wien, Michelle
The increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is not unique to industrialized societies; dramatic increases are occurring in urbanized areas of developing countries. In light of the consensus that obesity is a significant public health concern and that many weight-loss interventions have been unsuccessful in the long term, an exploration of food patterns that are beneficial in the primary prevention of obesity is warranted. The focus of this article is to review the relation between vegetarian diets and obesity, particularly as they relate to childhood obesity. Epidemiologic studies indicate that vegetarian diets are associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) and a lower prevalence of obesity in adults and children. A meta-analysis of adult vegetarian diet studies estimated a reduced weight difference of 7.6 kg for men and 3.3 kg for women, which resulted in a 2-point lower BMI (in kg/m(2)). Similarly, compared with nonvegetarians, vegetarian children are leaner, and their BMI difference becomes greater during adolescence. Studies exploring the risk of overweight and food groups and dietary patterns indicate that a plant-based diet seems to be a sensible approach for the prevention of obesity in children. Plant-based diets are low in energy density and high in complex carbohydrate, fiber, and water, which may increase satiety and resting energy expenditure. Plant-based dietary patterns should be encouraged for optimal health and environmental benefits. Food policies are warranted to support social marketing messages and to reduce the cultural and economic forces that make it difficult to promote plant-based dietary patterns.
... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for Constipation How can your diet help prevent ... Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de la ...
Gonsalves, Bronte B.
Outlines appropriate content for meetings between parents and teachers of young children. Argues that effective meetings foster parent education, communication and ongoing parent support. Identifies objectives for the initial meeting during the application and registration process, for parent education meetings, and for parent conferences.…
Niedert, Kathleen C
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that the quality of life and nutritional status of older residents in long-term care facilities may be enhanced by liberalization of the diet prescription. The Association advocates the use of qualified dietetics professionals to assess and evaluate the need for medical nutrition therapy according to each person's individual medical condition, needs, desires, and rights. In 2003, ADA designated aging as its second "emerging" area. Nutrition care in long-term settings must meet two goals: maintenance of health and promotion of quality of life. The Nutrition Care Process includes assessment of nutritional status through development of an individualized nutrition intervention plan. Medical nutrition therapy must balance medical needs and individual desires and maintain quality of life. The recent paradigm shift from restrictive institutions to vibrant communities for older adults requires dietetics professionals to be open-minded when assessing risks vs benefits of therapeutic diets, especially for frail older adults. Food is an essential component of quality of life; an unacceptable or unpalatable diet can lead to poor food and fluid intake, resulting in weight loss and undernutrition and a spiral of negative health effects. Facilities are adopting new attitudes toward providing care. "Person-centered" or "resident-centered care" involves residents in decisions about schedules, menus, and dining locations. Allowing residents to participate in diet-related decisions can provide nutrient needs, allow alterations contingent on medical conditions, and simultaneously increase the desire to eat and enjoyment of food, thus decreasing the risks of weight loss, undernutrition, and other potential negative effects of poor nutrition and hydration.
Scott, Fraser W; Pound, Lynley D; Patrick, Christopher; Eberhard, Chandra E; Crookshank, Jennifer A
The rise in new cases of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in genetically susceptible individuals over the past half century has been attributed to numerous environmental "triggers" or promoters such as enteroviruses, diet, and most recently, gut bacteria. No single cause has been identified in humans, likely because there are several pathways by which one can develop T1D. There is renewed attention to the role of the gut and its immune system in T1D pathogenesis based largely on recent animal studies demonstrating that altering the gut microbiota affects diabetes incidence. Although T1D patients display dysbiosis in the gut microbiome, it is unclear whether this is cause or effect. The heart of this question involves several moving parts including numerous risk genes, diet, viruses, gut microbiota, timing, and loss of immune tolerance to β-cells. Most clinical trials have addressed only one aspect of this puzzle using some form of immune suppression, without much success. The key location where our genes meet and deal with the environment is the gastrointestinal tract. The influence of all of its major contents, including microbes, diet, and immune system, must be understood as part of the integrative biology of T1D before we can develop durable means of preventing, treating, or curing this disease. In the present review, we expand our previous gut-centric model based on recent developments in the field.
Varady, Krista A; Hoddy, Kristin K; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Trepanowski, John F; Klempel, Monica C; Barnosky, Adrienne; Bhutani, Surabhi
This study examined what characteristics predict weight loss success with alternate day fasting (ADF). Four 8-week trials of ADF (n=121) were included in the analysis. Subjects aged 50-59 y achieved greater (P=0.01) weight loss than other age groups. Males and females achieved similar weight loss. Caucasian subjects achieved greater (P=0.03) weight loss than other races. Baseline body weight and baseline BMI did not predict degree of weight loss achieved with the diet. These findings may help clinicians to decide which population groups may benefit most from an ADF approach.
Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna
Critical theories regarding proteins of anima origin are still and still popularized, though they are ungrounded from scientific point of view. Predominance of soya proteins over the animal ones in relation to their influence on calcium metabolism, bone break risk or risk of osteoporosis morbidity has not been confirmed in any honest, reliable research experiment. Statement, that sulphur amino acids influence disadvantageously on calcium metabolism of human organism and bone status, is completely groundless, the more so as presence of sulphur amino acids in diet (animal proteins are their best source) is the condition of endogenic synthesis of glutathione, the key antioxidant of the organism, and taurine stimulating brain functioning. Deficiency of proteins in the diet produce weakness of intellectual effectiveness and immune response. There is no doubt that limitation of consumption of animal proteins of standard value is not good for health.
The majority of US adult diets do not meet recommendations for consumption of whole grains, putting these individuals at increased risk for chronic diseases. Poor diet quality, inadequate consumption of whole grains, and chronic diseases are particularly prevalent in the impoverished rural South. ...
Sayer, K M; Buckner, C D; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Macken, C N; Loy, T W
One metabolism trial and 2 finishing trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of adding corn bran and steep liquor (steep) in replacement of dry-rolled corn (DRC) on diet digestibility, cattle performance, and nutrient mass balance in open feedlot pens. The metabolism trial (Exp. 1) used 8 ruminally cannulated heifers in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and the 2 finishing trials used 128 steer calves fed for 167 d (Exp. 2) and 256 yearling steers fed for 126 d (Exp. 3). Dietary treatments for all trials included a DRC-based control (CON), 30% corn bran (30/0), 30% corn bran plus 15% steep (30/15), and 45% corn bran plus 15% steep (45/15), in which by-products replaced DRC and molasses in the diet (DM basis). Diets were not isonitrogenous or isoenergetic. In the metabolism trial, feeding the by-product diets produced greater rumen pH (5.95) than CON (5.76; P < 0.01). Total tract DM and OM digestibility were greater for heifers fed CON than the by-product diets (P < 0.01). Dry matter and NDF ruminal disappearance (%/h) of corn bran were numerically less for cattle fed the CON diet than the by-product diets (2.36 vs. 2.84 and 0.72 vs. 1.66, respectively). In the performance trials, steers fed the by-product diets consumed more DM (P = 0.06) and G:F was either similar for all diets in Exp. 2 (P = 0.56) or less for cattle fed 30/0 than the other diets in Exp. 3 (P = 0.05). Percent N loss was reduced in Exp. 2 by including corn bran in diets compared with CON (P < 0.01). However, in Exp. 3, no differences in percent N loss were detected among treatments (P = 0.16), but more N was removed in the manure from pens where steers were fed by-products (P = 0.01). Although steep did not improve diet digestibility, it was beneficial in maintaining cattle performance in the feedlot studies. Feeding corn bran in combination with steep increased manure N removed and N in compost, but decreased percent N lost during the winter months only.
Sáez Rodríguez, Loreto; Meizoso Ameneiro, Ana; Pérez Paz, Ma Jesús; Valiño Pazos, Cristina
After confirming the high prevalence rates in our hemodialysis unit of the following nursing diagnoses: nutritional imbalances--both excesses and shortages, willingness to improve nutrition and fear related to the consequences of excessive intake of potassium and manifested by the inhibition in some people towards the enjoyment of food, we decided to plan an educational strategy which later resulted in a nursing intervention for these diagnoses, with the objective of providing adequate resources for the monitoring of balanced diets with a restriction of potassium. Inspired by dietary rations, as well as recognized dietary programs of learning by points, we decided to incorporate these ideas to design an educational tool to facilitate advice to our patients on how to follow diet plans as well as the choice of appropriate foods. The result was a set of cards incorporating nutritional information of various kinds, aimed at our patients covering different aspects of the diet appropriate food rations using household measurements, promoting good food preparation, appropriate dietary advice for different chronic diseases and a scoring system of foods according to their potassium content. Together they form a board game available during the hemodialysis sessions that also takes into consideration other issues of importance related to conditions such as cognitive stimulation, coping with the disease, improving the therapeutic performance or resources to increase patient motivation. Although initially it was only an educational exercise, the result has turned out to be both enjoyable and entertaining.
Martin, Cathie; Zhang, Yang; Tonelli, Chiara; Petroni, Katia
Chronic disease is a major social challenge of the twenty-first century. In this review, we examine the evidence for discordance between modern diets and those on which humankind evolved as the cause of the increasing incidence of chronic diseases, and the evidence supporting consumption of plant foods as a way to reduce the risk of chronic disease. We also examine the evidence for avoiding certain components of plant-based foods that are enriched in Western diets, and review the mechanisms by which different phytonutrients are thought to reduce the risk of chronic disease. This body of evidence strongly suggests that consuming more fruits and vegetables could contribute both to medical nutrition therapies, as part of a package of treatments for conditions like type 2 diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and obesity, and to the prevention of these diseases. Plant science should be directed toward improving the quality of plant-based foods by building on our improved understanding of the complex relationships between plants, our diet, and our health.
Geliebter, Allan; Ochner, Christopher N; Dambkowski, Carl L; Hashim, Sami A
There is debate about the additive effects of exercise in conjunction with diet to treat obesity, and not much is known about the differential effects of strength versus aerobic training. This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of diet plus strength training, diet plus aerobic training, or diet only on metabolic risk factors associated with obesity. Eighty-one overweight and obese participants completed the 8-week intervention. All participants received an energy-restrictive formula diet with an energy content based on 70% of measured resting metabolic rate (RMR). Participants assigned to an exercise group trained 3 days/week under supervision. Anthropometrics and fasting hormones were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Mean weight loss (8.5 ± 4.3kg SD) did not differ between groups nor did reductions in BMI or body fat, although the diet plus strength training group showed marginally greater lean mass retention. There were significant improvements in the values and number of metabolic syndrome risk factors, and decreases in insulin concentrations and insulin resistance, which did not vary between groups. For men, testosterone increased significantly more in the diet plus aerobic training as compared to the other groups. As compared to diet alone, the addition of strength or aerobic training did not improve changes in BMI, body fat or metabolic risk factors although the diet plus strength training group showed a trend toward preservation of lean mass, and the diet plus aerobic group in men resulted in increased testosterone concentrations. PMID:25599089
Diez, M; Michaux, C; Jeusette, I; Baldwin, P; Istasse, L; Biourge, V
The effects of weight loss on hormonal and biochemical blood parameters were measured monthly [carnitine, creatinine, urea, free T4 (fT4), total T4 (TT4), plasma alkaline phosphatases (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), potassium and total proteins] or bimonthly [cholesterol, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), glucose, insulin] in eight obese Beagles dogs fed either a high protein dry diet, DP (crude protein 47.5%, on dry matter basis) or a commercial high fibre diet, HF (crude protein 23.8%, crude fibre 23.3%). The dogs were allotted to two groups according to sex and body weight (BW) and they were respectively fed with the DP or the control HF diet during 12-26 weeks, until they reach their optimal BW. The plasma basal triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations were decreased by the two diets but the difference was only significant for the DP diet. The plasma mean NEFA concentration increased regularly over the period with the HF diet, without significant difference between the two diets. No effect of diet or weight loss was observed on plasma carnitine, urea, creatinine, ALP, AST, ALT, potassium, TT4, FT4, IGF-I, glucose and insulin. Weight loss induced a decrease in fT4 plasma concentration (p < 0.001). The high protein diet allowed a safe weight loss.
House, John W.
This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)
Khosravi, Sanaz; Jang, Ji-Woong; Rahimnejad, Samad; Song, Jin-Woo; Lee, Kyeong-Jun
A 12-wk feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the essentiality of choline supplementation in diets for parrot fish. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were supplemented with 0 (as control), 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg choline per kg diet, and a positive control diet without choline contained 0.3% of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol as choline biosynthesis inhibitor (designated as Con, C500, C1000, C2000 and Con+, respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (body weight, 8.8±0.01 g) were fed one of the experimental diets at a rate of 4% body weight twice daily. The fish fed Con+ diet revealed significantly lower growth performance and feed utilization efficiency than other fish groups. Supplementation of choline to the basal diet did not significantly influence fish growth. The highest liver lipid content was observed in fish fed the Con+ diet and inversely correlated with liver choline concentration although the differences were not significant. Also, significantly higher liver linoleic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid contents were found in fish fed the Con+ diet. Innate immune parameters including respiratory burst and myeloperoxidase activities were not significantly affected by dietary choline levels. The findings in this study conclude that choline concentration of approximately 230 mg kg−1 diet meets the requirement of parrot fish. PMID:25924958
Dosamantes-Carrasco, Darina; Lamure, Michel; López-Loyo, Perla; Hernández-Palafox, Corín; Pineda-Pérez, Dayana; Flores, Yvonne; Salmerón, Jorge
Objective To evaluate the prevalence of weight-loss practices among university students from Tlaxcala, Mexico. Methods A cross-sectional study of 2,651 university students was conducted. Logistic regression tests were used to estimate the probability of students trying to lose weight and successfully achieving weight loss. Results Nearly 40% of students attempted to lose weight, though only about 7% lost more than 10% of their body weight and maintained this weight loss during the time of the study. The methods used most were exercise and dieting, and those who dieted were more successful at losing weight. Conclusions The high prevalence of weight-loss attempts and the poor outcomes with these weight-loss methods among this sample of university students is a public health concern. Universities should provide students with healthy weight-control approaches, which include offering information about healthier lifestyles, access to healthy food and opportunities to be physically active. PMID:20013143
Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin
Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects.
Verheggen, R J H M; Maessen, M F H; Green, D J; Hermus, A R M M; Hopman, M T E; Thijssen, D H T
Exercise training ('exercise') and hypocaloric diet ('diet') are frequently prescribed for weight loss in obesity. Whilst body weight changes are commonly used to evaluate lifestyle interventions, visceral adiposity (VAT) is a more relevant and stronger predictor for morbidity and mortality. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the effects of exercise or diet on VAT (quantified by radiographic imaging). Relevant databases were searched through May 2014. One hundred seventeen studies (n = 4,815) were included. We found that both exercise and diet cause VAT loss (P < 0.0001). When comparing diet versus training, diet caused a larger weight loss (P = 0.04). In contrast, a trend was observed towards a larger VAT decrease in exercise (P = 0.08). Changes in weight and VAT showed a strong correlation after diet (R(2) = 0.737, P < 0.001), and a modest correlation after exercise (R(2) = 0.451, P < 0.001). In the absence of weight loss, exercise is related to 6.1% decrease in VAT, whilst diet showed virtually no change (1.1%). In conclusion, both exercise and diet reduce VAT. Despite a larger effect of diet on total body weight loss, exercise tends to have superior effects in reducing VAT. Finally, total body weight loss does not necessarily reflect changes in VAT and may represent a poor marker when evaluating benefits of lifestyle-interventions.
... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Weight Loss Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Weight Loss Surgery A A ... Risks and Side Effects? What Is Weight Loss Surgery? For some people, being overweight is about more ...
... is called early pregnancy loss , miscarriage , or spontaneous abortion . How common is early pregnancy loss? Early pregnancy ... testes that can fertilize a female egg. Spontaneous Abortion: The medical term for early pregnancy loss. Trimester: ...
Moy, Jordan; Petrie, Trent A; Dockendorff, Sally; Greenleaf, Christy; Martin, Scott
Dieting to lose weight, with its focus on restriction of caloric intake, may disrupt intuitive eating processes, though other forms of weight loss, such as exercising, which do not emphasize food may not. In a sample of 669 middle school boys and 708 girls, regardless of sex or exercising, dieting was related to feeling less free to eat what was wanted and to eating more to soothe emotions than to satisfy actual physical hunger. Exercising, independent of dieting, was associated with feeling less permission to eat what was wanted, but also eating to satisfy physical hunger as opposed to coping with emotional distress. Overall, girls were more aware and trusting of their bodily hunger and satiety cues than boys, but when boys were exercising, they scored similarly to girls on this dimension. These findings suggest that different weight loss approaches - dieting vs. exercising - have unique relationships to young adolescents' intuitive eating and these associations tend to be stable across sex. Longitudinal studies now are needed to examine how dieting that begins in childhood or early adolescence might have long-term effects on the progression of intuitive eating.
Thom, George; Lean, Mike
Individuals can lose body weight and improve health status on a wide range of energy (calorie) restricted dietary interventions. In this paper, we have reviewed the effectiveness of the most commonly utilized diets, including low-fat, low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean approaches in addition to commercial slimming programmes, meal replacements and newly-popularized intermittent fasting diets. We also consider the role of artificial sweeteners in weight management. Low-fat diets tend to improve LDL-cholesterol most, whilst lower-carbohydrate diets may preferentially improve triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol, however differences between diets are marginal. Weight loss improves almost all obesity related co-morbidities and metabolic markers, regardless of the macronutrient composition of the diet, but individuals do vary in preferences and ability to adhere to different diets. Optimizing adherence is the most important factor for weight loss success, and this is enhanced by regular professional contact and supportive behavioral change programs. Maintaining weight losses in the long-term remains the biggest challenge, and is undermined by an 'obesogenic' environment and biological adaptations that accompany weight loss.
Knudsen, P K
Personal experience shows that subjective and objective improvements can be achieved in chronic renal failure treated with dialysis. These aims were achieved by limiting energy intake to 8 MJ a day and by substituting cassava for bread and potatoes, thereby reducing the intake of protein, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus. Water soluble vitamins were added to the diet. With this regimen blood urea concentrations vary between 2.5 and 12 mmol/l for most of the week and the packed cell volume between 0.30 and 0.37. PMID:3119029
Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets—such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet—have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data. PMID:27118948
Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Amdam, Gro V; Almli, Valerie L; Oostindjer, Marije
Background Diet and physical activity apps are two types of health apps that aim to promote healthy eating and energy expenditure through monitoring of dietary intake and physical activity. No clear evidence showing the effectiveness of using these apps to promote healthy eating and physical activity has been previously reported. Objective This study aimed to identify how diet and physical activity (PA) apps affected their users. It also investigated if using apps was associated with changes in diet and PA. Methods First, 3 semi-structured focus group discussions concerning app usability were conducted (15 app users and 8 nonusers; mean age 24.2 years, SD 6.4), including outcome measures such as motivations, experiences, opinions, and adherence. Results from the discussions were used to develop a questionnaire. The questionnaire, which contained questions about behavior changes, app usage, perceived effectiveness, and opinions of app usability, was answered by 500 Norwegians, with a mean age of 25.8 years (SD 5.1). Results App users found diet and PA apps effective in promoting healthy eating and exercising. These apps affected their actions, health consciousness, and self-education about nutrition and PA; and were also a part of their social lives. Over half of the users perceived that apps were effective in assisting them to eat healthily and to exercise more. Diet apps were more effective when they were frequently used and over a long period of time, compared to infrequent or short-term use (P=.01 and P=.02, respectively). Users who used diet and PA apps, perceived apps as more effective than users who only used one type of app (all P<.05). App users were better at maintaining diet and PA behaviors than nonusers (all P<.05). Young adults found apps fun to use, but sometimes time consuming. They wanted apps to be designed to meet their personal expectations. Conclusions App usage influenced action, consciousness, self-education about nutrition and PA, and social
McCarty, M F
Three recent case-control studies conclude that diets high in animal fat or cholesterol are associated with a substantial increase in risk for Parkinson's disease (PD); in contrast, fat of plant origin does not appear to increase risk. Whereas reported age-adjusted prevalence rates of PD tend to be relatively uniform throughout Europe and the Americas, sub-Saharan black Africans, rural Chinese, and Japanese, groups whose diets tend to be vegan or quasi-vegan, appear to enjoy substantially lower rates. Since current PD prevalence in African-Americans is little different from that in whites, environmental factors are likely to be responsible for the low PD risk in black Africans. In aggregate, these findings suggest that vegan diets may be notably protective with respect to PD. However, they offer no insight into whether saturated fat, compounds associated with animal fat, animal protein, or the integrated impact of the components of animal products mediates the risk associated with animal fat consumption. Caloric restriction has recently been shown to protect the central dopaminergic neurons of mice from neurotoxins, at least in part by induction of heat-shock proteins; conceivably, the protection afforded by vegan diets reflects a similar mechanism. The possibility that vegan diets could be therapeutically beneficial in PD, by slowing the loss of surviving dopaminergic neurons, thus retarding progression of the syndrome, may merit examination. Vegan diets could also be helpful to PD patients by promoting vascular health and aiding blood-brain barrier transport of L-dopa.
Mak, S C; Chi, C S; Wan, C J
Thirteen children with refractory epilepsy received a ketogenic diet (medium chain triglyceride oil diet) as an alternative therapy since September 1997. Their seizure patterns included (1) generalized tonic-clonic seizures, (2) myoclonic seizures, (3) generalized tonic + atonic seizures, (4) complex partial seizures, (5) generalized clonic + atonic + myoclonic seizures, (6) head nodding + myoclonic + gelastic seizures, and (7) generalized tonic-clonic + myoclonic + atonic seizures. Major concerns emphasized on the efficacy and side effects of the diet. Clinical observation one month after the diet revealed that 53.8% of the patients had a > 75% reduction in seizure frequency and 76.9% of the patients had a > 50% reduction in seizure frequency. Six patients had some degrees of improvement in cognitive function and/ or school performances. The most common side effects were body weight loss (n = 6) and diarrhea (n = 5). Others included bad temper (n = 1), abdominal cramps (n = 2), nausea (n = 2), bad body smell (n = 1), and renal stones (n = 1). Even after discontinuation of the diet, 61.5% of patients still had a > 50% reduction in seizure frequency. We concluded that the ketogenic diet deserves a trial in children with refractory epilepsy.
Silva, Flávia M; de Almeida, Jussara C; Feoli, Ana M
Dietary management has been considered an alternative means of modulating adiponectin levels. The purpose of this review is to examine the scientific evidence regarding the effect of diet on adiponectin levels in blood. Clinical trials were selected from Medline until April 2010 using the following MeSH terms: adipokines OR adiponectin AND diet OR lifestyle. A total of 220 articles were identified in the initial search, and 52 studies utilizing three different methods of dietary management were included in the present review: low-calorie diets (n = 9 studies), modification of diet composition (n = 33), and diet plus exercise (n = 10). Daily intake of fish or omega-3 supplementation increased adiponectin levels by 14-60%. Weight loss achieved with a low-calorie diet plus exercise increased adiponectin levels in the range of 18-48%. A 60-115% increase in adiponectin levels was obtained with fiber supplementation. In conclusion, dietary management can be an effective therapeutic means of increasing adiponectin levels. Studies investigating different forms of adiponectin and changes in the types of adipose tissue are necessary in order to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the modulation of adiponectin levels.
Thorlton, Janet; Park, Chang; Hughes, Tonda
About 35% of healthy weight adolescent females describe themselves as overweight, and 66% report planning to lose weight.Body weight dissatisfaction is associated with unhealthy weight loss practices including diet pill/powder/liquid (PPL) use. Few studies have examined diet PPL use in healthy weight adolescent females; therefore, Youth Risk Behavior Survey data (n =247) were analyzed to identify predictors of use. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Complex Samples software. Social cognitive theory served as the framework guiding the analysis. Approximately 8% of healthy weight females reported using diet PPL for weight loss. Describing self as overweight, planning to lose weight, being offered drugs at school, fasting to lose weight, cigarette/alcohol use, vomiting, and laxative use were significantly associated (p < .05) with diet PPL use. Health professionals, including school nurses, must assess for unhealthy weight loss practices in healthy weight females, in order to adequately address related issues.
Here are summarized talks from the February and March RAS Ordinary Meetings. The February meeting also enjoyed the Eddington Lecture from Prof. Lisa Kewley (Australian National University) on galaxy evolution in 3D.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Meetings AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Meetings AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Meetings AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers...
...] [FR Doc No: 2011-28540] ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Meetings AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) plans to hold its regular...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Meetings AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of meetings. ] SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Meetings AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Meetings AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of meetings. ] SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers...
Yendler, Boris S.; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Waleh, Ahmad
An account is given of the mathematical basis of a diet-controlling expert system, designated 'Ceres' for the human crews of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The Ceres methodology can furnish both steady-state and dynamic diet solutions; the differences between Ceres and a conventional nutritional-modeling method is illustrated by the case of a three-component, potato-wheat-soybean food system. Attention is given to the role of food processing in furnishing flexibility in diet-planning management. Crew diet solutions based on simple optimizations are not necessarily the most suitable for optimum CELSS operation.
Lepe, M; Bacardí Gascón, M; Jiménez Cruz, A
The rationale for the use of high-protein diets is that they offer a higher level of satiety for a longer period of time when compared with carbohydrates or fats; this diminishes calorie consumption in the long-run. The purpose of this review was to assess the efficacy of long-term randomized clinical trials. We used Pubmed, EBSCO and SCIELO to conduct our searches. Inclusion criteria were: randomized clinical trials conducted in adults, with an intervention/follow-up of at least 24 weeks, stating the specific amount of energy protein (in percentages) in the diet; with a control group with either a conventional energy restricted diet or a high-fat/high-carbohydrate diet, also the studies should provide at least body weight or body mass index (BMI) at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. A total of 481 studies were found. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Weight loss difference in those with the highest weight loss with the high-protein diet ranged from 3.7 kg in a six month trial to 1.2 kg in a 17 month trial. The average weight loss of the eight studies in the high-protein diet was 6.3 kg and in the standard diet was 5.0 kg. Although half of the studies showed a higher weight loss with a high-protein diet, three out of four studies with the longest intervention show no statistical difference in weight loss. In this systematic review it was observed that the long-term effect of high-protein diets is neither consistent nor conclusive.
Lee, Hansongyi; Lee, In Seok
Obesity is a state in which there is an over-accumulation of subcutaneous and/or abdominal adipose tissue. This adipose tissue is no longer considered inert and mainly devoted to storing energy; it is emerging as an active tissue in the regulation of physiological and pathological processes, including immunity and inflammation. Adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin), as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-4, IL-6, and others). Adipose tissue is also implicated in the development of chronic metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Obesity is thus an underlying condition for inflammatory and metabolic diseases. Diet or dietary patterns play critical roles in obesity and other pathophysiological conditions. A healthy diet and some nutrients are generally considered beneficial; however, some dietary nutrients are still considered controversial. In this article, dietary factors that influence inflammation associated with obesity are discussed. PMID:24224147
Global dietary patterns changed dramatically in the past 50 years, presenting both a boom and a threat to the health and well-being of populations everywhere. We need sustainable diets, with low-input, local and seasonal agro-ecological food productions as well as short distance production-consumption nets for fair trade. The development of a global food system able to guarantee everyone a balanced food intake requires health professionals an awareness and a commitment to increasingly complex education. Dietary changes such as the adherence of to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern can reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. Increased focus on improving the utilization of freshwater fishes and the correct use of the waters of rivers and lakes should also be encouraged. Cultural heritage, food quality and culinary skills are other key aspects determining sustainable dietary patterns and food security. The Mediterranean street food (Mediterraneità), for intrinsic characteristics, can represent valid model to address the main issues concerning the sustainable food system. The issues of sustainability offer a great opportunity to nutritional science and scientists to play a more central role in the political analysis of future food systems. We are confident that preserve the past helps us understand the present and build for the future, the Mediterranean lifestyle is much more than the Mediterranean diet and, finally, the rivers and the lakes may be our future.
... RESEARCH COMMISSION Meeting Notice is hereby given that the U.S. Arctic Research Commission will hold its... presentations concerning Arctic research activities. The focus of the meeting will be reports and updates on programs and research projects affecting the Arctic. If you plan to attend this meeting, please notify...
Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Whelton, Paul K.; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; He, Jiang; Bazzano, Lydia A.
Increasing evidence supports a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss and improvement in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers. Effects on novel CVD markers remain unclear. We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (<40 g/day; n = 75) versus a low-fat diet (<30% kcal/day from total fat, <7% saturated fat; n = 73) on biomarkers representing inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction in a 12 month clinical trial among 148 obese adults free of diabetes and CVD. Participants met with a study dietitian on a periodic basis and each diet group received the same behavioral curriculum which included dietary instruction and supportive counseling. Eighty percent of participants completed the intervention. At 12 months, participants on the low-carbohydrate diet had significantly greater increases in adiponectin (mean difference in change, 1336 ng/mL (95% CI, 342 to 2330 ng/mL); p = 0.009) and greater decreases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentrations (−16.8 ng/mL (−32.0 to −1.6 ng/mL); p = 0.031) than those on the low-fat diet. Changes in other novel CVD markers were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, despite the differences in weight changes on diets, a low-carbohydrate diet resulted in similar or greater improvement in inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction than a standard low-fat diet among obese persons. PMID:26393645
Welch, Ailsa A
Age-related muscle loss impacts on whole-body metabolism and leads to frailty and sarcopenia, which are risk factors for fractures and mortality. Although nutrients are integral to muscle metabolism the relationship between nutrition and muscle loss has only been extensively investigated for protein and amino acids. The objective of the present paper is to describe other aspects of nutrition and their association with skeletal muscle mass. Mechanisms for muscle loss relate to imbalance in protein turnover with a number of anabolic pathways of which the mechanistic TOR pathway and the IGF-1-Akt-FoxO pathways are the most characterised. In terms of catabolism the ubiquitin proteasome system, apoptosis, autophagy, inflammation, oxidation and insulin resistance are among the major mechanisms proposed. The limited research associating vitamin D, alcohol, dietary acid-base load, dietary fat and anti-oxidant nutrients with age-related muscle loss is described. Vitamin D may be protective for muscle loss; a more alkalinogenic diet and diets higher in the anti-oxidant nutrients vitamin C and vitamin E may also prevent muscle loss. Although present recommendations for prevention of sarcopenia focus on protein, and to some extent on vitamin D, other aspects of the diet including fruits and vegetables should be considered. Clearly, more research into other aspects of nutrition and their role in prevention of muscle loss is required.
Saper, Robert B; Eisenberg, David M; Phillips, Russell S
Over-the-counter dietary supplements to treat obesity appeal to many patients who desire a "magic bullet" for weight loss. Asking overweight patients about their use of weight-loss supplements and understanding the evidence for the efficacy, safety, and quality of these supplements are critical when counseling patients regarding weight loss. A schema for whether physicians should recommend, caution, or discourage use of a particular weight-loss supplement is presented in this article. More than 50 individual dietary supplements and more than 125 commercial combination products are available for weight loss. Currently, no weight-loss supplements meet criteria for recommended use. Although evidence of modest weight loss secondary to ephedra-caffeine ingestion exists, potentially serious adverse effects have led the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to ban the sale of these products. Chromium is a popular weight-loss supplement, but its efficacy and long-term safety are uncertain. Guar gum and chitosan appear to be ineffective; therefore, use of these products should be discouraged. Because of insufficient or conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid, ginseng, glucomannan, green tea, hydroxycitric acid, L-carnitine, psyllium, pyruvate, and St. John's wort in weight loss, physicians should caution patients about the use of these supplements and closely monitor those who choose to use these products.
... eye on how drinking affects your eating habits. Calories and Portions Count So, how much can you ... dieting. Keep in mind that alcohol has empty calories. This means it has a lot of calories ( ...
Choi, Shin Sik
Diets based on carbohydrates increase rapidly the blood glucose level due to the fast conversion of carbohydrates to glucose. High glucose diets have been known to induce many lifestyle diseases. Here, we demonstrated that high glucose diet shortened the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through apoptosis induction. Control adult groups without glucose diet lived for 30 days, whereas animals fed 10 mg/L of D-glucose lived only for 20 days. The reduction of lifespan by glucose diet showed a dose-dependent profile in the concentration range of glucose from 1 to 20 mg/L. Aging effect of high glucose diet was examined by measurement of response time for locomotion after stimulating movement of the animals by touching. Glucose diet decreased the locomotion capacity of the animals during mid-adulthood. High glucose diets also induced ectopic apoptosis in the body of C. elegans, which is a potent mechanism that can explain the shortened lifespan and aging. Apoptotic cell corpses stained with SYTO 12 were found in the worms fed 10 mg/L of glucose. Mutation of core apoptotic regulatory genes, CED-3 and CED-4, inhibited the reduction of viability induced by high glucose diet, which indicates that these regulators were required for glucose-induced apoptosis or lifespan shortening. Thus, we conclude that high glucose diets have potential for inducing ectopic apoptosis in the body, resulting in a shortened lifespan accompanied with loss of locomotion capacity.
Oonincx, D G A B; van der Poel, A F B
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diet on the chemical composition of migratory locusts (Locusta migratoria L.). Fresh and dry weight and the contents of dry matter, ash, lipid, protein, Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Cu, Fe, Zn, retinol, lutein, zeaxanthine, cryptoxanthin, carotenes, lycopene and gross energy were determined in penultimate instar and adult locusts, that had been fed three different diets. The locusts received a diet of grass or grass+wheat bran or grass+wheat bran+carrots. Adding wheat bran decreased the protein content and increased fat content (633 vs. 583 and 182 vs. 231 g/kg DM, respectively). Addition of carrots to the diet increased fat content further from 231 to 271 g/kg DM. Mineral concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, and Na, were significantly affected by diet. P, K, Cu, and Fe concentrations were significantly different in penultimate migratory locusts compared with adults. Wheat bran decreased the α-carotene content, which did not change by incorporating carrots in the diet. However, carrots did result in higher β-carotene concentrations. Retinol concentrations were increased by incorporating both wheat bran and carrots in the diet compared with the diet containing only grass. This study shows that the chemical composition of migratory locusts can be manipulated through the diet. As such, it enables nutritionists to adapt the chemical composition of live feeder insects to better meet the nutritional demands of predators.
Ferrer, Robert L.; Burge, Sandra K.; Palmer, Raymond F.; Cruz, Inez
PURPOSE Current strategies for improving diet and activity patterns focus on encouraging patients to make better choices, but they meet with limited success. Because the choices people make depend on the choices they have, we examined how practical opportunities for diet and physical activity shape behavioral intentions and achieved behaviors. METHODS Participants included 746 adults who visited 8 large primary care practices in the Residency Research Network of Texas in 2012. We used structural equation models to confirm factor structures for a previously validated measure of practical opportunities, and then modeled achieved diet (Starting the Conversation – Diet questionnaire), physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire), and BMI as a function of opportunities (classified as either resources or conversion factors that influence use of resources), behavioral intentions, and demographic covariates. RESULTS In path models, resources (P <.001) and conversion factors (P = .005) predicted behavioral intentions for activity. Conversion factors (P <.001), but not resources, predicted diet intentions. Both activity resources (P = .01) and conversion factors (P <.001) were positively associated with weekly activity minutes. Diet conversion factors (P <.001), but not diet resources (P = .08), were positively associated with diet quality. The same patterns were observed for body mass index (BMI). Socioeconomic gradients in resources and conversion factors were evident. CONCLUSIONS Individuals’ feasible opportunities for healthy diet and activity have clinically meaningful associations with intentions, achieved behaviors, and BMI. Assessing opportunities as part of health behavior management could lead to more effective, efficient, and compassionate interventions. PMID:26951585
Behrens, Michael D; Lafferty, Kevin D
We studied diet variation in an omnivorous fish across its range, which allowed us to test predictions about the effect of ocean temperature and habitat on herbivory. Throughout most of its geographic range, from Southern California to central Baja California, the opaleye (Girella nigricans) fed primarily on red and green algae, but there was significant variation in the amount of algal material in the diet among sites. The proportion of algal material in the diet was related to habitat, with algae making up a larger proportion of a fish's diet in algal-dominated habitats than in urchin barrens. Independent of habitat, the proportion of algal material in the diet increased with environmental temperature. Analyses of stable isotopes revealed similar changes in trophic position and confirmed that these associations with diet persisted over relatively long time scales. The shift to a more herbivorous diet at warmer temperatures is in agreement with past laboratory studies on this species that show a diet-dependent change in performance with temperature and can indicate a diet shift across the species' geographic range to meet its physiological demands. A possible plastic response to herbivory was a longer gut relative to body size. The results of this study are consistent with past findings that associate temperature with increases in the relative diversity of herbivorous fishes in tropical parts of the ocean.
Waleh, Ahmad; Kanevsky, Valery; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Upadhye, Ravi; Wydeven, Theodore
The preliminary results of a design analysis for a waste processor which employs existing technologies and takes into account the constraints of human diet are presented. The impact of diet is determined by using a model and an algorithm developed for the control and management of diet in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). A material and energy balance model for thermal oxidation of waste is developed which is consistent with both physical/chemical methods of incineration and supercritical water oxidation. The two models yield quantitative analysis of the diet and waste streams and the specific design parameters for waste processors, respectively. The results demonstrate that existing technologies can meet the demands of waste processing, but the choice and design of the processors or processing methods will be sensitive to the constraints of diet. The numerical examples are chosen to display the nature and extent of the gap in the available experiment information about CELSS requirements.
Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey
Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…
... in the Operating Room? Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition KidsHealth > For Kids > Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition A A A What's in this article? CF ... is someone who knows all about food and nutrition. Each kid is different, but most kids with ...
Florence, Michelle D.; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J.
Background: Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. This study examines the association between overall diet quality and academic performance. Methods: In 2003, 5200 grade 5 students in Nova Scotia,…
... Getting an X-ray Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition KidsHealth > For Kids > Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition Print A A A What's in this article? ... is someone who knows all about food and nutrition. Each kid is different, but most kids with ...
Thomson, Cynthia; Howerter, Amy
Objective: To develop and test the feasibility of a whole-systems lifestyle intervention for obesity treatment based on the practices of Ayurvedic medicine/ Yoga therapy. Design: A pre-post weight loss intervention pilot study using conventional and Ayurvedic diagnosis inclusion criteria, tailored treatment within a standardized treatment algorithm, and standardized data collection instruments for collecting Ayurvedic outcomes. Participants: A convenience sample of overweight/obese adult community members from Tucson, Arizona interested in a “holistic weight loss program” and meeting predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Intervention: A comprehensive diet, activity, and lifestyle modification program based on principles of Ayurvedic medicine/yoga therapy with significant self-monitoring of lifestyle behaviors. The 3-month program was designed to change eating and activity patterns and to improve self-efficacy, quality of life, well-being, vitality, and self-awareness around food choices, stress management, and barriers to weight loss. Primary Outcome Measures: Changes in body weight, body mass index; body fat percentage, fat/lean mass, waist/hip circumference and ratio, and blood pressure. Secondary Outcome Measures: Diet and exercise self-efficacy scales; perceived stress scale; visual analog scales (VAS) of energy, appetite, stress, quality of life, well-being, and program satisfaction at all time points. Results: Twenty-two adults attended an in-person Ayurvedic screening; 17 initiated the intervention, and 12 completed the 3-month intervention. Twelve completed follow-up at 6 months and 11 completed follow-up at 9 months. Mean weight loss at 3 months was 3.54 kg (SD 4.76); 6 months: 4.63 kg, (SD 6.23) and 9 months: 5.9 kg (SD 8.52). Self-report of program satisfaction was more than 90% at all time points. Conclusions: An Ayurveda-/yoga-based lifestyle modification program is an acceptable and feasible approach to weight management. Data collection
Gonzales, Kristina K.; Hansen, Immo A.
Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT), release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), population replacement strategies (PR), and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood. PMID:28009851
Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.
Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org ].
Liebhaber, Gisela Maria; Riemann, Edith; Baumeister, Friedrich Albert Matthias
Treatment of Rett syndrome with the ketogenic diet has been reported only once and showed positive effects on seizure frequency and behavior. We report a patient with Rett syndrome who was treated with the ketogenic diet for 4 years. The diet was initiated at the age of 8 years owing to the patient's refractory epilepsy and led to a 70% reduction in seizures. Treatment with the ketogenic diet was also associated with improvements in contact and behavior. Diagnosis of Rett syndrome was confirmed by molecular detection of the Ser134Cys mutation in the MECP2 gene, which has previously been described only in classic Rett syndrome. This observation demonstrates that the ketogenic diet has a positive effect on Rett syndrome.
Craig, Winston J
Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals.
Levashov, M I; Ianko, R V; Chaka, E G; Safonov, S L
The effect of dosed diet restriction on the physiological remodeling and bioelectric properties of bone tissue was studied in 48 male Wistar rats 3- and 18-months of age. The rate of bone tissue apposition was studied by the dynamic histomorphometry method (intravital tetracycline labeling). Electric potentials on the periosteal surface of the freshly isolated femurs were recorded. The magnitude of dielectric loss factor was determined to assess the quality of bone tissue. The control rats received a standard diet. The experimental rats received a limited diet (60 % of the standard mass) for 28 days. The magnitude and rate of the bone tissue apposition on the endosteal and periosteal surface of the tibia were less by 38.4% and 122.7% respectively in experimental rats after dosed diet restriction. Electric potential in the metaphyseal-epiphyseal growth zones of the femur was 29.7% lower, and the dielectric loss factor increased by 15.8%. The bone tissue apposition rate and the electric potential magnitude were increased 10 days after completion of the dosed diet restriction. The magnitude of the dielectric loss factor decreased after returning to the standard diet. Key words: dosed diet restriction, bone, remodelling, bioelectric properties.
Pesta, Dominik H; Samuel, Varman T
High protein diets are increasingly popularized in lay media as a promising strategy for weight loss by providing the twin benefits of improving satiety and decreasing fat mass. Some of the potential mechanisms that account for weight loss associated with high-protein diets involve increased secretion of satiety hormones (GIP, GLP-1), reduced orexigenic hormone secretion (ghrelin), the increased thermic effect of food and protein-induced alterations in gluconeogenesis to improve glucose homeostasis. There are, however, also possible caveats that have to be considered when choosing to consume a high-protein diet. A high intake of branched-chain amino acids in combination with a western diet might exacerbate the development of metabolic disease. A diet high in protein can also pose a significant acid load to the kidneys. Finally, when energy demand is low, excess protein can be converted to glucose (via gluconeogenesis) or ketone bodies and contribute to a positive energy balance, which is undesirable if weight loss is the goal. In this review, we will therefore explore the mechanisms whereby a high-protein diet may exert beneficial effects on whole body metabolism while we also want to present possible caveats associated with the consumption of a high-protein diet.
Appelhans, Bradley M; Whited, Matthew C; Schneider, Kristin L; Ma, Yunsheng; Oleski, Jessica L; Merriam, Philip A; Waring, Molly E; Olendzki, Barbara C; Mann, Devin M; Ockene, Ira S; Pagoto, Sherry L
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is prevalent in clinical weight-loss settings and predicts poor weight-loss outcomes. It is unknown whether the severity of depressive symptoms among those with MDD is associated with diet quality or physical activity levels. This knowledge is important for improving weight-loss treatment for these patients. It was hypothesized that more severe depression is associated with poorer diet quality and lower physical activity levels among individuals with obesity and MDD. Participants were 161 women with current MDD and obesity enrolled in the baseline phase of a weight-loss trial between 2007 and 2010. Depression severity was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory II. The Alternate Healthy Eating Index was applied to data from three 24-hour diet recalls to capture overall diet quality. Daily metabolic equivalents expended per day were calculated from three 24-hour physical activity recalls. Greater depression severity was associated with poorer overall diet quality (estimate=-0.26, standard error 0.11; P=0.02), but not with physical activity (estimate=0.07, standard error 0.05; P=0.18), in linear regression models controlling for income, education, depression-related appetite change, binge eating disorder, and other potential confounds. Associations with diet quality were primarily driven by greater intake of sugar (r=0.20; P<0.01), saturated fat (r=0.21; P<0.01), and sodium (r=0.22; P<0.01). More severe depression was associated with poorer overall diet quality, but not physical activity, among treatment-seeking women with MDD and obesity. Future studies should identify mechanisms linking depression to diet quality and determine whether diet quality improves with depression treatment.
Li, Q-F; Trottier, N; Powers, W
The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that reducing dietary CP by 1.5% and supplementing crystalline AA (CAA) to meet the standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA requirements for growing and finishing pigs decreases air emissions of ammonia (NH), nitrous oxide (NO), and carbon dioxide (CO) compared with an industry standard diet, without reducing growth performance. Seventy-two pigs were allocated to 12 rooms (6 pigs per room) and 2 diets (6 rooms per diet) formulated according to a 5-phase feeding program across the grow-finish period (107 d total). The diets consisted of a standard diet containing 18.5 to 12.2% CP or a reduced CP diet containing 17.5 to 11.0% CP + CAA over the course of the 5-phase feeding program. Gases (NH, NO, hydrogen sulfide, methane, nonmethane total hydrocarbon, and CO) and ventilation rates were measured continuously from the rooms. Compared with standard diet, ADG and feed conversion of pigs fed reduced CP + CAA diets did not differ (2.7 kg gain/d and 0.37 kg gain/kg feed, respectively). Compared with standard diet, feeding reduced CP + CAA diets decreased ( < 0.01) NH emissions by 46% over the 107-d period (5.4 and 2.9 g · pig · d, respectively). Change in NH emissions for each percentage unit reduction in dietary CP concentration corresponded with 47.9, 53.2, 26.8, 26.5, and 51.6% during Phases 1 through 5, respectively. Emissions of other gases did not differ between diets. Feeding reduced CP diets formulated based on SID AA requirements for grow-finisher swine is effective in reducing NH emissions from housing compared with recent industry formulations and does not impact growth performances.
Dulloo, A G; Montani, J-P
Every year, scores of millions of people - as diverse as obese and lean, teenagers and older adults, sedentary and elite athletes, commoners and celebrities - attempt to lose weight on some form of diet. They are often encouraged by their parents, friends, health professionals, training coaches, a media that promotes a slim image and a diet-industry that in Europe and United States alone has an annual turnover in excess of $150 billion. Weight regain is generally the rule, with one-third to two-thirds of the weight lost being regained within 1 year and almost all is regained within 5 years. With studies of the long-term outcomes showing that at least one-third of dieters regain more weight than they lost, together with prospective studies indicating that dieting during childhood and adolescence predicts future weight gain and obesity, there is concern as to whether dieting may paradoxically be promoting exactly the opposite of what it is intended to achieve. Does dieting really make people fatter? How? Does dieting increase the risks for cardiometabolic diseases as many go through repeated cycles of intentional weight loss and unintentional weight regain, i.e. through yo-yo dieting or weight cycling? What's new in adipose tissue biology pertaining to the mechanisms that drive weight regain? Why does exercise not necessarily work in concert with dieting to achieve weight loss and prevent weight regain? What 'lessons' are we learning from bariatric surgery about the mechanisms by which long-term weight loss seems achievable? It is these questions, against a background of preoccupation with dieting, that recent advances and controversies relevant to the theme of 'Pathways from dieting to weight regain, to obesity and to the metabolic syndrome' are addressed in this overview and the eight review articles in this supplement reporting the proceedings of the 7th Fribourg Obesity Research Conference.
Zhang, Zhiying; Lanza, Elaine; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Colburn, Nancy H.; Bagshaw, Deborah; Rovine, Michael J.; Ulbrecht, Jan S.; Bobe, Gerd; Chapkin, Robert S.; Hartman, Terryl J.
Clinical studies have shown that fiber consumption facilitates weight loss and improves lipid profiles; however, the beneficial effects of high fermentable fiber low glycemic index (GI) diets under conditions of weight maintenance are unclear. In the Legume Inflammation Feeding Experiment, a randomized controlled cross-over feeding study, 64 middle-aged men who had undergone colonoscopies within the previous 2 years received both a healthy American (HA) diet (no legume consumption, fiber consumption = 9 g/1,000 kcal, and GI = 69) and a legume enriched (1.5 servings/1,000 kcal), high fiber (21 g/1,000 kcal), low GI (GI = 38) diet (LG) in random order. Diets were isocaloric and controlled for macronutrients including saturated fat; they were consumed each for 4 weeks with a 2–4 week break separating dietary treatments. Compared to the HA diet, the LG diet led to greater declines in both fasting serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P <0.001 and P <0.01, respectively). Insulin-resistant (IR) subjects had greater reductions in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; P <0.01), and triglycerides (TAG)/HDL-C (P = 0.02) after the LG diet, compared to the HA diet. Insulin-sensitive (IS) subjects had greater reductions in TC (P <0.001), LDL-C (P <0.01), TC/HDL-C (P <0.01), and LDL-C/HDL-C (P = 0.02) after the LG diet, compared to the HA diet. In conclusion, a high legume, high fiber, low GI diet improves serum lipid profiles in men, compared to a healthy American diet. However, IR individuals do not achieve the full benefits of the same diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) lipid risk factors. PMID:20734238
Offers guidelines on how to correct things that go wrong in meetings. Discusses functions of a meeting, distinctions in size and type of meetings, the chairman's role, defining meeting objectives, making preparations, and conducting a meeting that will meet its objectives. (Author/JG)
Baek, Kyunghwa; Hwang, Hyo Rin; Park, Hyun-Jung; Kwon, Arang; Qadir, Abdul S; Baek, Jeong-Hwa
We investigated the effects of high calorie and low calorie diets on skeletal integrity, and whether β-adrenergic blockade (BB) attenuates bone loss induced by dietary calorie alteration. Male 6-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to either an ad-lib fed control diet (CON), a high calorie diet (HIGH), or a low calorie diet (LOW) group. In each diet group, mice were treated with either vehicle (VEH) or propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist. Over 12-weeks, β-blockade mitigated body weight and fat mass increases induced by the high calorie diet. Femoral trabecular bone mineral density and the expression levels of osteogenic marker genes in bone marrow cells were reduced in HIGHVEH and LOWVEH mice, and BB significantly attenuated this decline only in HIGH mice. In summary, the magnitude of bone loss induced by low calorie diet was greater than that caused by high calorie diet in growing mice, and β-blockade mitigated high calorie diet-induced bone loss.
Wadden, Thomas A; Stunkard, Albert J.
Assessed the effectiveness of a combined program of very low calorie diet and behavior therapy in treating obesity. Combined treatment and behavior therapy alone subjects maintained weight losses; none of the diet alone subjects met the criterion used to define maintenance. Only those receiving behavior therapy alone and combined treatment showed…
We studied whether cannabinoid receptor (CB1) blockade with rimonabant has an anti-inflammatory effect in obese mice, and whether this effect depends on weight loss and/or diet consumption. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice were treated orally with rimonabant (HFD-R) or vehicle (HFD-V) for 4 we...
Astrup, A; Raben, A; Geiker, N
The importance of the relative dietary content of protein, carbohydrate and the type of carbohydrate (that is, glycemic index (GI)) for weight control under ad libitum conditions has been controversial owing to the lack of large scale studies with high diet adherence. The Diet, Obesity and Genes (DioGenes) European multicentre trial examined the importance of a slight increase in dietary protein content, reduction in carbohydrate and the importance of choosing low (LGI) vs high GI (HGI) carbohydrates for weight control in 932 obese families. Only the adults underwent a diet of 800 kcal per day for 8 weeks, and after losing ~11kg they were randomized to one of five energy ad libitum diets for 6 months. The diets differed in protein content and GI. The high-protein (HP) diet groups consumed 5.4% points more energy from protein than the normal protein (NP) groups, and the LGI diet groups achieved 5.1% lower GI than the HGI groups. The effect of HP and LGI was additive on weight loss and maintenance, and the combination was successful in preventing weight regain and reducing drop-out rate among the adults after the 11kg weight loss. This diet also reduced body fatness and prevalence of overweight and obesity among their children and had consistent beneficial effects on blood pressure, blood lipids and inflammation in both parents and children. After 1 year, mainly the HP effects were maintained. Putative genes have been identified that suggest this diet to be particularly effective in 67% of the population. In conclusion, the DioGenes diet has shown to be effective for prevention of weight regain and for weight reduction in overweight children under ad libitum conditions. The less-restrictive dietary approach fits into a normal food culture, and has been translated into popular diet and cook books in several languages. PMID:25540980
Astrup, A; Raben, A; Geiker, N
The importance of the relative dietary content of protein, carbohydrate and the type of carbohydrate (that is, glycemic index (GI)) for weight control under ad libitum conditions has been controversial owing to the lack of large scale studies with high diet adherence. The Diet, Obesity and Genes (DioGenes) European multicentre trial examined the importance of a slight increase in dietary protein content, reduction in carbohydrate and the importance of choosing low (LGI) vs high GI (HGI) carbohydrates for weight control in 932 obese families. Only the adults underwent a diet of 800 kcal per day for 8 weeks, and after losing ~11kg they were randomized to one of five energy ad libitum diets for 6 months. The diets differed in protein content and GI. The high-protein (HP) diet groups consumed 5.4% points more energy from protein than the normal protein (NP) groups, and the LGI diet groups achieved 5.1% lower GI than the HGI groups. The effect of HP and LGI was additive on weight loss and maintenance, and the combination was successful in preventing weight regain and reducing drop-out rate among the adults after the 11kg weight loss. This diet also reduced body fatness and prevalence of overweight and obesity among their children and had consistent beneficial effects on blood pressure, blood lipids and inflammation in both parents and children. After 1 year, mainly the HP effects were maintained. Putative genes have been identified that suggest this diet to be particularly effective in 67% of the population. In conclusion, the DioGenes diet has shown to be effective for prevention of weight regain and for weight reduction in overweight children under ad libitum conditions. The less-restrictive dietary approach fits into a normal food culture, and has been translated into popular diet and cook books in several languages.
Bastian, Meredith L; Zweifel, Nicole; Vogel, Erin R; Wich, Serge A; van Schaik, Carel P
This study explores diet differences between two populations of wild Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) to assess whether a signal of social learning can be detected in the observed patterns. The populations live in close proximity and in similar habitats but are separated by a river barrier that is impassable to orangutans in the study region. We found a 60% between-site difference in diet at the level of plant food items (plant species-organ combinations). We also found that individuals at the same site were more likely to eat the same food items than expected by chance. These results suggest the presence of diet (food selection) traditions. Detailed tests of three predictions of three models of diet acquisition allowed us to reject a model based on exclusive social learning but could not clearly distinguish between the remaining two models: one positing individual exploration and learning of food item selection and the other one positing preferential social learning followed by individual fine tuning. We know that maturing orangutans acquire their initial diet through social learning and then supplement it by years of low-level, individual sampling. We, therefore, conclude that the preferential social learning model produces the best fit to the geographic patterns observed in this study. However, the very same taxa that socially acquire their diets as infants and show evidence for innovation-based traditions in the wild paradoxically may have diets that are not easily distinguished from those acquired exclusively through individual learning.
Bakhach, Marwan; Shah, Vaishal; Harwood, Tara; Lappe, Sara; Bhesania, Natalie; Mansoor, Sana; Alkhouri, Naim
Objectives: The protein-sparing modified fast (PSMF) is a rigorous way of rapidly losing a large amount of weight. Although adult studies have shown the PSMF to be effective, data in adolescents are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of the PSMF in severely obese adolescents. Methods: 12 subjects who were evaluated in the Obesity Management Program at the Cleveland Clinic from 2011 to 2014 were included. The subjects were initiated on the PSMF after failing other conventional methods of weight loss. Once the goal weight was achieved, subjects were transitioned to the refeeding phase for weight maintenance. Results: Follow-up was scheduled at 3-month (11 patients) and 6-month (6 patients) intervals. At the 6-month follow-up visit, the average weight loss was 11.19 kg (95% confidence interval = -5.4, -27.8, P = .028), with average of 9.8% from baseline. Fifty percent of subjects had >5% weight loss and 20% had >10% weight loss. Four patients were lost to the follow-up (40%). An improvement was noted in total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein. Due to a small sample size these results were not statistically significant. Side effects reported by subjects were mild dehydration due to nausea (2 patients), decreased energy (1 patient), and transient labile mood (1 patient). No life-threatening side effects were reported. Conclusion: Our results show that the PSMF diet can be used as an effective and safe method in the outpatient setting for rapid weight loss in adolescents with severe obesity. PMID:27335996
Worksites are increasingly being used as locations for implementing healthy diet and weight loss interventions. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify programs that are both successful and sustainable. We conducted a 6-month pilot randomized controlled trial in overweight and obese employees a...
Vilchez López, Francisco Javier; Campos Martín, Cristina; Amaya García, María José; Sánchez Vera, Pilar; Pereira Cunill, José Luis
Morbid obesity and its complications are an increasingly prevalent problem. Very low calorie diets (VLCD), providing between 450 and 800 kcal per day, are an option increasingly used. After proper patient selection, VLCD can result in significant weight loss in 8-16 weeks, contributing to improve control of chronic complications such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia (except for initial elevation of HDL cholesterol) and apnea-hypopnea syndrome. VLDC are increasingly used prior to bariatric surgery, showing a decrease in hepatic steatosis and visceral abdominal fat. Although the results of the different studies are controversial, preoperative use of VLDC may decrease the rate of perioperative complications, operative time and hospital length of stay. a drastic decrease in intake occurs after bariatric surgery, with risk of protein deficiency, which should be frequently corrected with supplementation by protein modules. Side effects such as cholelithiasis, hyperuricemia and bone loss among others should be monitored in patients undergoing this type of diet.
Eyres, Stacey L; Turner, Anne I; Nowson, Caryl A; Torres, Susan J
Anxiety is the most prevalent type of mental disorder and a significant health concern. Cross-sectional studies have detected a positive association between obesity and anxiety. What is less clear is whether weight loss can reduce anxiety. We sought to answer three questions: 1. Can weight loss improve symptoms of anxiety in the overweight and obese population? 2. Does the macronutrient content of energy-restricted diets that induce weight loss affect anxiety? 3. Is the change in anxiety related to the amount of weight lost? We investigated the findings from seven interventional studies, which induced weight loss by dietary intervention, in overweight and obese individuals, using established anxiety assessment tools. Mean weight loss ranged from 0.7 to 18.6 kg (SD 4.5) and in three of the studies, anxiety fell by 9.2% to 11.4% and did not change in four studies. When macronutrient content was considered, only one of four interventional studies and one pilot study reported a beneficial effect of a moderate-fat diet on anxiety. There appears to be no strong evidence to indicate that diet-induced weight loss has a beneficial effect on anxiety, however, none of the diet-induced weight loss studies assessed had a detrimental effect on anxiety.
Loss mechanisms which come into play when solar cell modules are mounted in arrays are identified. Losses can occur either from a reduction in the array electrical performance or with nonoptimal extraction of power from the array. Electrical performance degradation is caused by electrical mismatch, transmission losses from cell surface soiling and steep angle of reflectance, and electrical losses from field wiring resistance and the voltage drop across blocking diodes. The second type of loss, concerned with the operating points of the array, can involve nonoptimal load impedance and limiting the operating envelope of the array to specific ranges of voltage and current. Each of the loss mechanisms are discussed and average energy losses expected from soiling, steep reflectance angles and circuit losses are calculated.
... in Latin America Information For... Media Policy Makers Genetics of Hearing Loss Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... of hearing loss in babies is due to genetic causes. There are also a number of things ...
... a total loss of hearing. It can be hereditary or it can result from disease, trauma, certain ... build-up, fluid, or a punctured eardrum. Medical treatment or surgery can usually restore conductive hearing loss. ...
... serious medical problems. Weight loss surgery (also called bariatric surgery) can help very obese people lose weight. But ... Gastric banding is the simplest of the three weight loss surgeries. People who get it might not lose as ...
... of healthy eating — plus a splash of flavorful olive oil and perhaps a glass of red wine — ... eat a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil and mixed nuts may have a reduced ...
Sun, H Q; Zhou, Y F; Tan, C Q; Zheng, L F; Peng, J; Jiang, S W
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in gestation diets of sows on nutrients digestibility, lactation feed intake, reproductive performance of sows and preweaning performance of piglets. Two isoenergetic and isonitrogenous gestation diets were formulated: a control diet and a 2.1% KF-supplemented diet (KF diet). Both diets had the same NDF and insoluble fiber (ISF) levels, but the KF diet had higher soluble fiber (SF) level. The day after breeding, 96 multiparous sows were assigned to the two dietary treatments. Restrict-fed during gestation, in contrast, all sows were offered the same lactation diet ad libitum. Response criteria included sow BW, backfat depth, lactation feed intake, weaning-to-estrus interval, litter size and piglet's weight at parturition and day 21 of lactation. On day 60 of gestation, 20 sows were used to measure nutrient digestibility. Results showed that the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, crude fiber and ADF were not affected by the dietary treatments. The inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased NDF digestibility (P<0.05) and tended to increase the digestibility of CP (P=0.05) compared with the control diet group. In addition, dietary treatment during gestation did not affect litter size, BW and backfat gain during gestation, lactation weight, backfat loss or weaning-to-estrus interval of sows. However, sows fed the KF diet consumed more (P<0.05) lactation diet per day than sows in the control group. Accordingly, sows fed the KF diet showed greater average piglet weights on day 21 of lactation (P=0.09), and the litter weight of sows fed the KF diet on day 21 of lactation increased by 3.95 kg compared with sows fed the control diet (not significant). In conclusion, the inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased lactation feed intake of sows and tended to improve litter performance.
Dyck, D. J.
Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been
Dyck, D J
Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been
Morán Fagúndez, Luis Juan; Rivera Torres, Alejandra; González Sánchez, María Eugenia; de Torres Aured, Mari Lourdes; Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Irles Rocamora, José Antonio
The diet history is a traditional method of analysis of food intake. In its traditional structure consists of three components that provide an overall information of the usual food consumption pattern of the individual and also detailed information on certain foods. The information is collected in an interview and requires highly experienced qualified interviewers. The quality of information depends largely on the skills of the interviewer. It is mostly used in clinical practice. It has also been used in studies of diet and health relationship to investigate the usual diet in the past. The high cost and long duration of the interview limit their usefulness in large epidemiological studies.
Scheifele, Lesa; Clark, John Greer; Scheifele, Peter M
Dog owners and handlers are naturally concerned when suspicion of hearing loss arises for their dogs. Questions frequently asked of the veterinarian center on warning signs of canine hearing loss and what can be done for the dog if hearing loss is confirmed. This article addresses warning signs of canine hearing loss, communication training and safety awareness issues, and the feasibility of hearing aid amplification for dogs.
Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Liang, Wen-Bin; Nie, Shuai-Guo; Li, Ming
Expectations of increases in human population growth and accelerated habitat loss, along with the realization that efforts to provide protection for ecosystems that sustain primates have met with limited success, make it critical that conservation plans are grounded firmly in scientific observation. Studies of the diet breadth and feeding behavior of endangered species, therefore, are critical for understanding ecological adaptations and developing a conservation strategy. The diet and feeding ecology of gray snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) were studied in the Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China. The monkeys were found to consume 107 different species of trees, shrubs, and ground plants from 58 genera and 28 families. Food items included young leaves, mature leaves, flowers, fruits/seeds, buds, and insects. Among these food items, there were at least 13 evergreen species of tree and liana, 3 species of grasses, and at least 2 kinds of invertebrates collected from decayed wood. Diet varied markedly throughout different seasons. Overall, diet composition (based on feeding records) was 15.3% buds, 25.5% young leaves, 21.8% mature leaves, 9.4% flowers, 21.6% fruits/seeds, and 6.3% other items. The monkeys feed mainly on young leaves and flowers in spring, unripe fruits/seeds and young leaves in summer, ripe fruits/seeds in autumn, and mature leaves and buds in winter. We propose that when inhabiting forests of lower elevation and greater vegetation complexity, R. brelichi is characterized by expanded diet breadth and includes a greater diversity of food types and plant species in its diet. One food type that appears critical to the diet of this species, especially during the winter, are the buds of Magnolia sprengeri. To protect this resource we advocate working with local communities to limit the collection of M. sprengeri, which is used in traditional Chinese medicine and has high economic value for people in the reserve.
Lee, Dale; Albenberg, Lindsey; Compher, Charlene; Baldassano, Robert; Piccoli, David; Lewis, James D.; Wu, Gary D.
Some of the most common symptoms of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, which include ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease) are abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss. It is therefore not surprising that clinicians and patients have wondered whether dietary patterns influence the onset or course of IBD. The question of what to eat is among the most commonly asked by patients and among the most difficult to answer by clinicians. There are therefore substantial variations in dietary behaviors of patients and recommendations for them, although clinicians do not routinely endorse specific diets for patients with IBD. Dietary clinical trials have been limited by their inability to include a placebo control, contamination of study groups, and inclusion of patients receiving medical therapies. Further challenges include accuracy of information on dietary intake, complex interactions between foods consumed, and differences in food metabolism among individuals. We review the roles of diet in the etiology and management of IBD, based on plausible mechanisms and clinical evidence. Researchers have learned much about the effects of diet on the mucosal immune system, epithelial function, and the intestinal microbiome; these findings could have significant practical implications. Controlled studies of patients receiving enteral nutrition and observations made from patients on exclusion diets have shown that components of whole foods can have deleterious effects for patients with IBD. Additionally, studies in animal models suggested that certain nutrients can reduce intestinal inflammation. In the future, engineered diets that restrict deleterious components but supplement beneficial nutrients could be used to modify the luminal intestinal environment of patients with IBD—these might be used alone or in combination with immunosuppressive agents, or as salvage therapy for patients who do not respond or lose responsiveness to medical therapies. Stricter diets might be
Valdimarsson, T; Löfman, O; Toss, G; Ström, M
To evaluate the effects of a gluten free diet on bone mineral density in untreated adult patients with coeliac disease, 63 patients (17-79 years, 35 women) were examined at diagnosis and after one year taking a gluten free diet. Bone mineral density was measured in the forearm using single photo absorptiometry and in the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and trochanter using dual energy x ray absorptiometry. The values for each patient were compared with those of 25 healthy controls, matched for sex, age, and menopausal state. Before being given a gluten free diet bone mineral density in the total group was reduced at all sites (p < 0.001). Age adjusted bone mineral density was inversely correlated with age. During the first year taking a gluten free diet bone mineral density increased at all sites (p < 0.01). This was seen in patients of all ages and in patients who were without symptoms of malabsorption (weight loss or diarrhoea) before treatment. Low bone mineral density in patients with untreated coeliac disease increases rapidly when treatment with a gluten free diet is followed. These findings emphasise the importance of early diagnosis and treatment in all patients with coeliac disease. PMID:8675082
Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org
Buckey, J. C. Jr; Musiek, F. E.; Kline-Schoder, R.; Clark, J. C.; Hart, S.; Havelka, J.
BACKGROUND: Temporary and, in some cases, permanent hearing loss has been documented after long-duration spaceflights. METHODS: We examined all existing published data on hearing loss after space missions to characterize the losses. RESULTS: Data from Russian missions suggest that the hearing loss, when it occurs, affects mainly mid to high frequencies and that using hearing protection often might prevent the loss. Several significant questions remain about hearing loss in space. While the hearing loss has been presumed to be noise-induced, no clear link has been established between noise exposure and hearing loss during spaceflight. In one documented case of temporary hearing loss from the Shuttle-Mir program, the pattern of loss was atypical for a noise-induced loss. Continuous noise levels that have been measured on the Mir and previous space stations, while above engineering standards, are not at levels usually associated with hearing loss in ground-based studies (which have usually been limited to 8-10 h exposure periods). Attempts to measure hearing in space using threshold-based audiograms have been unsuccessful in both the American and Russian programs due to noise interference with the measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The existing data highlight the need for reliable monitoring of both hearing and noise in long-duration spaceflight.
Tosti, A; Piraccini, B M; Sisti, A; Duque-Estrada, B
Hair loss in women is a very common clinical complaint, and is usually associated with severe emotional distress. In this article, the authors review the most common clinical causes of hair loss in women, and emphasize the role of hormonal changes in the regulation of hair loss and hair growth.
... loss. Two common tests are used to screen newborn infants for hearing loss: Auditory brain stem response (ABR) ... Over 30 states in the United States require newborn hearing screenings. Treating hearing loss early can allow many infants to develop normal language skills without delay. In ...
Salonen, Anne; Lahti, Leo; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Holtrop, Grietje; Korpela, Katri; Duncan, Sylvia H; Date, Priya; Farquharson, Freda; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Lobley, Gerald E; Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J; de Vos, Willem M
There is growing interest in understanding how diet affects the intestinal microbiota, including its possible associations with systemic diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Here we report a comprehensive and deep microbiota analysis of 14 obese males consuming fully controlled diets supplemented with resistant starch (RS) or non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) and a weight-loss (WL) diet. We analyzed the composition, diversity and dynamics of the fecal microbiota on each dietary regime by phylogenetic microarray and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. In addition, we analyzed fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as a proxy of colonic fermentation, and indices of insulin sensitivity from blood samples. The diet explained around 10% of the total variance in microbiota composition, which was substantially less than the inter-individual variance. Yet, each of the study diets induced clear and distinct changes in the microbiota. Multiple Ruminococcaceae phylotypes increased on the RS diet, whereas mostly Lachnospiraceae phylotypes increased on the NSP diet. Bifidobacteria decreased significantly on the WL diet. The RS diet decreased the diversity of the microbiota significantly. The total 16S ribosomal RNA gene signal estimated by qPCR correlated positively with the three major SCFAs, while the amount of propionate specifically correlated with the Bacteroidetes. The dietary responsiveness of the individual's microbiota varied substantially and associated inversely with its diversity, suggesting that individuals can be stratified into responders and non-responders based on the features of their intestinal microbiota. PMID:24763370
Moller, Arlen C.; McFadden, H. Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie
Financial incentives are widely used in health behavior interventions. However, self-determination theory posits that emphasizing financial incentives can have negative consequences if experienced as controlling. Feeling controlled into performing a behavior tends to reduce enjoyment and undermine maintenance after financial contingencies are removed (the undermining effect). We assessed participants' context-specific financial motivation to participate in the Make Better Choices trial—a trial testing four different strategies for improving four health risk behaviors: low fruit and vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary screen time. The primary outcome was overall healthy lifestyle change; weight loss was a secondary outcome. Financial incentives were contingent upon meeting behavior goals for 3 weeks and became contingent upon merely providing data during the 4.5-month maintenance period. Financial motivation for participation was assessed at baseline using a 7-item scale (α = .97). Across conditions, a main effect of financial motivation predicted a steeper rate of weight regained during the maintenance period, t(165) = 2.15, P = .04. Furthermore, financial motivation and gender interacted significantly in predicting maintenance of healthy diet and activity changes, t(160) = 2.42, P = .016, such that financial motivation had a more deleterious influence among men. Implications for practice and future research on incentivized lifestyle and weight interventions are discussed. PMID:22548152
Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Pawlak, Roman
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that vegetarian diets can provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain health conditions, including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Well-designed vegetarian diets that may include fortified foods or supplements meet current nutrient recommendations and are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Vegetarians must use special care to ensure adequate intake of vitamin B-12. Vegetarian diets are primarily plant-based, comprised of grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, vegetables, and fruit; do not include flesh foods (beef, pork, poultry and fowl, wild game, and fish); and may or may not include some animal products, such as dairy (milk and milk products), eggs, and processed foods that contain casein or whey. Although vegetarians may have a higher deficiency risk for some nutrients (eg, vitamin B-12) compared to nonvegetarians, nutritional deficiencies are not the main causes of mortality or morbidity in Western societies. Vegetarian diets are associated with a lower risk of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and some types of cancer; low-fat vegetarian diets, in combination with other healthy lifestyle factors, have been shown to be effective in the treatment of these diseases. Vegetarians have lower low-density lipoprotein, better serum glucose control, and lower oxidative stress. Low intake of foods containing saturated fat and cholesterol, and high intake of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds, and soy products that are rich in fiber and phytochemicals are components of a vegetarian diet that contribute to reduction of chronic disease.
Johnson, Mary Ann
It is estimated that by 2050 there will be 2 billion people aged 60 years and older in the world. The evidence base for the health benefits of good nutrition and physical activity, as well as weight loss among overweight and obese adults, is growing and a number of policies and guidelines are available to guide health professionals in serving older people at various stages of the lifecycle. There are many potential influences on dietary habits including individual factors, families and friends, community characteristics, the food and supplement industry, and public policy. This review focuses on the evidence base for factors influencing diet in older adults, food insecurity, Na, vitamin D, vitamin B12, protein, obesity and the benefits of energy restriction in overweight and obese older adults. Research is needed to continue to increase the evidence base for appropriate ways to improve diet and health in older people. Also, much of the available information is from the US, so there is a need to conduct research in other areas of the world.
Green, Kari L.; Swiderski, Donald L.; Prieskorn, Diane M.; DeRemer, Susan J.; Beyer, Lisa A.; Miller, Josef M.; Green, Glenn E.; Raphael, Yehoash
Dietary supplements consisting of beta-carotene (precursor to vitamin A), vitamins C and E and the mineral magnesium (ACEMg) can be beneficial for reducing hearing loss due to aminoglycosides and overstimulation. This regimen also slowed progression of deafness for a boy with GJB2 (CONNEXIN 26) mutations. To assess the potential for treating GJB2 and other forms of hereditary hearing loss with ACEMg, we tested the influence of ACEMg on the cochlea and hearing of mouse models for two human mutations: GJB2, the leading cause of childhood deafness, and DIAPH3, a cause of auditory neuropathy. One group of mice modeling GJB2 (Gjb2-CKO) received ACEMg diet starting shortly after they were weaned (4 weeks) until 16 weeks of age. Another group of Gjb2-CKO mice received ACEMg in utero and after weaning. The ACEMg diet was given to mice modeling DIAPH3 (Diap3-Tg) after weaning (4 weeks) until 12 weeks of age. Control groups received food pellets without the ACEMg supplement. Hearing thresholds measured by auditory brainstem response were significantly better for Gjb2-CKO mice fed ACEMg than for the control diet group. In contrast, Diap3-Tg mice displayed worse thresholds than controls. These results indicate that ACEMg supplementation can influence the progression of genetic hearing loss. PMID:26965868
Green, Kari L; Swiderski, Donald L; Prieskorn, Diane M; DeRemer, Susan J; Beyer, Lisa A; Miller, Josef M; Green, Glenn E; Raphael, Yehoash
Dietary supplements consisting of beta-carotene (precursor to vitamin A), vitamins C and E and the mineral magnesium (ACEMg) can be beneficial for reducing hearing loss due to aminoglycosides and overstimulation. This regimen also slowed progression of deafness for a boy with GJB2 (CONNEXIN 26) mutations. To assess the potential for treating GJB2 and other forms of hereditary hearing loss with ACEMg, we tested the influence of ACEMg on the cochlea and hearing of mouse models for two human mutations: GJB2, the leading cause of childhood deafness, and DIAPH3, a cause of auditory neuropathy. One group of mice modeling GJB2 (Gjb2-CKO) received ACEMg diet starting shortly after they were weaned (4 weeks) until 16 weeks of age. Another group of Gjb2-CKO mice received ACEMg in utero and after weaning. The ACEMg diet was given to mice modeling DIAPH3 (Diap3-Tg) after weaning (4 weeks) until 12 weeks of age. Control groups received food pellets without the ACEMg supplement. Hearing thresholds measured by auditory brainstem response were significantly better for Gjb2-CKO mice fed ACEMg than for the control diet group. In contrast, Diap3-Tg mice displayed worse thresholds than controls. These results indicate that ACEMg supplementation can influence the progression of genetic hearing loss.
... and increase inflammation. If you plan to add herbs, dietary supplements, or vitamins to your diet, you ... lupus doctor first. This is especially important as herbs or supplements may interact with medicines used to ...
Stronck, David R.
Summarizes the results of a nutrition questionnaire administered to students in grades eight, nine, and 10 (N=490). Results suggest a need for nutrition education, particularly concerning the relationships between diet and health. (DS)