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Sample records for lotus japonicus acquires

  1. Petal Development in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lin; Tian, Zhaoxia; Feng, Xianzhong; Li, Xin; Xu, Shilei; Hu, Xiaohe; Luo, Da; Yang, Jun

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that petal shape and size in legume flowers are determined by two separate mechanisms, dorsoventral (DV) and organ internal (IN) asymmetric mechanisms, respectively. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling petal development in legumes. To address this question, we investigated petal development along the floral DV axis in Lotus japonicus with respect to cell and developmental biology by comparing wild-type legumes to mutants. Based on morphological markers, the entire course of petal development, from initiation to maturity, was grouped to define 3 phases or 13 stages. In terms of epidermal micromorphology from adaxial surface, mature petals were divided into several distinct domains, and characteristic epidermal cells of each petal differentiated at stage 9, while epidermal cells of all domains were observed until stage 12. TCP and MIXTA-like genes were found to be differentially expressed in various domains of petals at stages 9 and 12. Our results suggest that DV and IN mechanisms interplay at different stages of petal development, and their interaction at the cellular and molecular level guides the elaboration of domains within petals to achieve their ideal shape, and further suggest that TCP genes determine petal identity along the DV axis by regulating MIXTA-like gene expression.

  2. Reassimilation of ammonium in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Betti, Marco; García-Calderón, Margarita; Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M; Credali, Alfredo; Pal'ove-Balang, Peter; Estivill, Guillermo; Repčák, Miroslav; Vega, José M; Galván, Francisco; Márquez, Antonio J

    2014-10-01

    This review summarizes the most recent results obtained in the analysis of two important metabolic pathways involved in the release of internal sources of ammonium in the model legume Lotus japonicus: photorespiratory metabolism and asparagine breakdown mediated by aparaginase (NSE). The use of photorespiratory mutants deficient in plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2) enabled us to investigate the transcriptomics and metabolomic changes associated with photorespiratory ammonium accumulation in this plant. The results obtained indicate the existence of a coordinate regulation of genes involved in photorespiratory metabolism. Other types of evidence illustrate the multiple interconnections existing among the photorespiratory pathway and other processes such as intermediate metabolism, nodule function, and secondary metabolism in this plant, all of which are substantially affected in GS2-deficient mutants because of the impairment of the photorespiratory cycle. Finally, the importance of asparagine metabolism in L. japonicus is highlighted because of the fact that asparagine constitutes the vast majority of the reduced nitrogen translocated between different organs of this plant. The different types of NSE enzymes and genes which are present in L. japonicus are described. There is a particular focus on the most abundant K(+)-dependent LjNSE1 isoform and how TILLING mutants were used to demonstrate by reverse genetics the importance of this particular isoform in plant growth and seed production. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Lotus Base: An integrated information portal for the model legume Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Terry; Bachmann, Asger; Gupta, Vikas; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig U.

    2016-01-01

    Lotus japonicus is a well-characterized model legume widely used in the study of plant-microbe interactions. However, datasets from various Lotus studies are poorly integrated and lack interoperability. We recognize the need for a comprehensive repository that allows comprehensive and dynamic exploration of Lotus genomic and transcriptomic data. Equally important are user-friendly in-browser tools designed for data visualization and interpretation. Here, we present Lotus Base, which opens to the research community a large, established LORE1 insertion mutant population containing an excess of 120,000 lines, and serves the end-user tightly integrated data from Lotus, such as the reference genome, annotated proteins, and expression profiling data. We report the integration of expression data from the L. japonicus gene expression atlas project, and the development of tools to cluster and export such data, allowing users to construct, visualize, and annotate co-expression gene networks. Lotus Base takes advantage of modern advances in browser technology to deliver powerful data interpretation for biologists. Its modular construction and publicly available application programming interface enable developers to tap into the wealth of integrated Lotus data. Lotus Base is freely accessible at: https://lotus.au.dk. PMID:28008948

  4. The WRKY Transcription Factor Genes in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Wang, Pengfei; Nan, Zhibiao; Wang, Xingjun

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factor genes play critical roles in plant growth and development, as well as stress responses. WRKY genes have been examined in various higher plants, but they have not been characterized in Lotus japonicus. The recent release of the L. japonicus whole genome sequence provides an opportunity for a genome wide analysis of WRKY genes in this species. In this study, we identified 61 WRKY genes in the L. japonicus genome. Based on the WRKY protein structure, L. japonicus WRKY (LjWRKY) genes can be classified into three groups (I-III). Investigations of gene copy number and gene clusters indicate that only one gene duplication event occurred on chromosome 4 and no clustered genes were detected on chromosomes 3 or 6. Researchers previously believed that group II and III WRKY domains were derived from the C-terminal WRKY domain of group I. Our results suggest that some WRKY genes in group II originated from the N-terminal domain of group I WRKY genes. Additional evidence to support this hypothesis was obtained by Medicago truncatula WRKY (MtWRKY) protein motif analysis. We found that LjWRKY and MtWRKY group III genes are under purifying selection, suggesting that WRKY genes will become increasingly structured and functionally conserved.

  5. The WRKY Transcription Factor Genes in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Xingjun

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factor genes play critical roles in plant growth and development, as well as stress responses. WRKY genes have been examined in various higher plants, but they have not been characterized in Lotus japonicus. The recent release of the L. japonicus whole genome sequence provides an opportunity for a genome wide analysis of WRKY genes in this species. In this study, we identified 61 WRKY genes in the L. japonicus genome. Based on the WRKY protein structure, L. japonicus WRKY (LjWRKY) genes can be classified into three groups (I–III). Investigations of gene copy number and gene clusters indicate that only one gene duplication event occurred on chromosome 4 and no clustered genes were detected on chromosomes 3 or 6. Researchers previously believed that group II and III WRKY domains were derived from the C-terminal WRKY domain of group I. Our results suggest that some WRKY genes in group II originated from the N-terminal domain of group I WRKY genes. Additional evidence to support this hypothesis was obtained by Medicago truncatula WRKY (MtWRKY) protein motif analysis. We found that LjWRKY and MtWRKY group III genes are under purifying selection, suggesting that WRKY genes will become increasingly structured and functionally conserved. PMID:24745006

  6. Transcriptome Response Mediated by Cold Stress in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Calzadilla, Pablo I.; Maiale, Santiago J.; Ruiz, Oscar A.; Escaray, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Lotus genus are important as agricultural forage sources under marginal environmental conditions given their high nutritional value and tolerance of various abiotic stresses. However, their dry matter production is drastically reduced in cooler seasons, while their response to such conditions is not well studied. This paper analyzes cold acclimation of the genus by studying Lotus japonicus over a stress period of 24 h. High-throughput RNA sequencing was used to identify and classify 1077 differentially expressed genes, of which 713 were up-regulated and 364 were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes were principally related to lipid, cell wall, phenylpropanoid, sugar, and proline regulation, while down-regulated genes affected the photosynthetic process and chloroplast development. Together, a total of 41 cold-inducible transcription factors were identified, including members of the AP2/ERF, NAC, MYB, and WRKY families; two of them were described as putative novel transcription factors. Finally, DREB1/CBFs were described with respect to their cold stress expression profiles. This is the first transcriptome profiling of the model legume L. japonicus under cold stress. Data obtained may be useful in identifying candidate genes for breeding modified species of forage legumes that more readily acclimate to low temperatures. PMID:27066029

  7. Lotus japonicus ARPC1 is required for rhizobial infection.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Shakhawat; Liao, Jinqiu; James, Euan K; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Jurkiewicz, Anna; Madsen, Lene H; Stougaard, Jens; Ross, Loretta; Szczyglowski, Krzysztof

    2012-10-01

    Remodeling of the plant cell cytoskeleton precedes symbiotic entry of nitrogen-fixing bacteria within the host plant roots. Here we identify a Lotus japonicus gene encoding a predicted ACTIN-RELATED PROTEIN COMPONENT1 (ARPC1) as essential for rhizobial infection but not for arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis. In other organisms ARPC1 constitutes a subunit of the ARP2/3 complex, the major nucleator of Y-branched actin filaments. The L. japonicus arpc1 mutant showed a distorted trichome phenotype and was defective in epidermal infection thread formation, producing mostly empty nodules. A few partially colonized nodules that did form in arpc1 contained abnormal infections. Together with previously described L. japonicus Nck-associated protein1 and 121F-specific p53 inducible RNA mutants, which are also impaired in the accommodation of rhizobia, our data indicate that ARPC1 and, by inference a suppressor of cAMP receptor/WASP-family verpolin homologous protein-ARP2/3 pathway, must have been coopted during evolution of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis to specifically mediate bacterial entry.

  8. Characterization of shade avoidance responses in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Ueoka-Nakanishi, Hanayo; Hori, Nanako; Ishida, Kai; Ono, Natsuko; Yamashino, Takafumi; Nakamichi, Norihito; Mizuno, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Sessile plants must continuously adjust their growth and development to optimize photosynthetic activity under ever-fluctuating light conditions. Among such light responses in plants, one of the best-characterized events is the so-called shade avoidance, for which a low ratio of the red (R):far-red (FR) light intensities is the most prominent stimulus. Such shade avoidance responses enable plants to overtop their neighbors, thereby enhancing fitness and competitiveness in their natural habitat. Considerable progress has been achieved during the last decade in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the shade avoidance responses in the model rosette plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We characterize here the fundamental aspects of the shade avoidance responses in the model legume, Lotus japonicus, based on the fact that its phyllotaxis (or morphological architecture) is quite different from that of A. thaliana. It was found that L. japonicus displays the characteristic shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) under defined laboratory conditions (a low R:FR ratio, low light intensity, and low blue light intensity) that mimic the natural canopy. In particular, the outgrowth of axillary buds (i.e., both aerial and cotyledonary shoot branching) was severely inhibited in L. japonicus grown in the shade. These results are discussed with special emphasis on the unique aspects of SAS observed with this legume.

  9. Reactions of Lotus japonicus ecotypes and mutants to root parasitic plants.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Mie; Ueda, Hiroaki; Park, Pyoyun; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2009-03-01

    Witchweeds (Striga spp.) and broomrapes (Orobanche spp.) are obligate root parasitic plants on economically important field and horticultural crops. The parasites' seeds are induced to germinate by root-derived chemical signals. The radicular end is transformed into a haustorium which attaches, penetrates the host root and establishes connection with the vascular system of the host. Reactions of Lotus japonicus, a model legume for functional genomics, were studied for furthering the understanding of host-parasite interactions. Lotus japonicus was compatible with Orobanche aegyptiaca, but not with Orobanche minor, Striga hermonthica and Striga gesnerioides. Orobanche minor successfully penetrated Lotus japonicus roots, but failed to establish connections with the vascular system. Haustoria in Striga hermonthica attached to the roots, but penetration and subsequent growth of the endophyte in the cortex were restricted. Striga gesnerioides did not parasitize Lotus japonicus. Among seven mutants of Lotus japonicus (castor-5, har1-5, alb1-1, ccamk-3, nup85-3, nfr1-3 and nsp2-1) with altered characteristics in relation to rhizobial nodulation and mycorrhizal colonization, castor-5 and har1-5 were parasitized by Orobanche aegyptiaca with higher frequency than the wild type. In contrast, Orobanche aegyptiaca tubercle development was delayed on the mutants nup85-3, nfr1-3 and nsp2-1. These results suggest that nodulation, mycorrhizal colonization and infection by root parasitic plants in Lotus japonicus may be modulated by similar mechanisms and that Lotus japonicus is a potential model legume for studying plant-plant parasitism.

  10. Two Lotus japonicus symbiosis mutants impaired at distinct steps of arbuscule development.

    PubMed

    Groth, Martin; Kosuta, Sonja; Gutjahr, Caroline; Haage, Kristina; Hardel, Simone Liesel; Schaub, Miriam; Brachmann, Andreas; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Findlay, Kim; Wang, Trevor L; Parniske, Martin

    2013-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi form nutrient-acquiring symbioses with the majority of higher plants. Nutrient exchange occurs via arbuscules, highly branched hyphal structures that are formed within root cortical cells. With a view to identifying host genes involved in AM development, we isolated Lotus japonicus AM-defective mutants via a microscopic screen of an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population. A standardized mapping procedure was developed that facilitated positioning of the defective loci on the genetic map of L. japonicus, and, in five cases, allowed identification of mutants of known symbiotic genes. Two additional mutants representing independent loci did not form mature arbuscules during symbiosis with two divergent AM fungal species, but exhibited signs of premature arbuscule arrest or senescence. Marker gene expression patterns indicated that the two mutants are affected in distinct steps of arbuscule development. Both mutants formed wild-type-like root nodules upon inoculation with Mesorhizobium loti, indicating that the mutated loci are essential during AM but not during root nodule symbiosis. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Apoplastic plant subtilases support arbuscular mycorrhiza development in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Naoya; Sato, Shusei; Asamizu, Erika; Tabata, Satoshi; Parniske, Martin

    2009-06-01

    In the arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis, plant roots accommodate Glomeromycota fungi within an intracellular compartment, the arbuscule. At this symbiotic interface, fungal hyphae are surrounded by a plant membrane, which creates an apoplastic compartment, the periarbuscular space (PAS) between fungal and plant cell. Despite the importance of the PAS for symbiotic signal and metabolite exchange, only few of its components have been identified. Here we show that two apoplastic plant proteases of the subtilase family are required for AM development. SbtM1 is the founder member of a family of arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced subtilase genes that occur in at least two clusters in the genome of the legume Lotus japonicus. A detailed expression analysis by RT-PCR revealed that SbtM1, SbtM3, SbtM4 and the more distantly related SbtS are all rapidly induced during development of arbuscular mycorrhiza, but only SbtS and SbtM4 are also up-regulated during root nodule symbiosis. Promoter-reporter fusions indicated specific activation in cells that are adjacent to intra-radical fungal hyphae or in cells that harbour them. Venus fluorescent protein was observed in the apoplast and the PAS when expressed from a fusion construct with the SbtM1 signal peptide or the full-length subtilase. Suppression of SbtM1 or SbtM3 by RNAi caused a decrease in intra-radical hyphae and arbuscule colonization, but had no effect on nodule formation. Our data indicate a role for these subtilases during the fungal infection process in particular arbuscule development.

  12. QTL analysis of ferric reductase activity in the model legume lotus japonicus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physiological and molecular studies have demonstrated that iron accumulation from the soil into Strategy I plants can be limited by ferric reductase activity. An initial study of Lotus japonicus ecotypes Miyakojima MG-20 and Gifu B-129 identified significant leaf chlorosis and ferric reductase activ...

  13. Lotus japonicus Cytokinin Receptors Work Partially Redundantly to Mediate Nodule Formation[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Held, Mark; Hou, Hongwei; Miri, Mandana; Huynh, Christian; Ross, Loretta; Hossain, Md Shakhawat; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Perry, Jillian; Wang, Trevor L.; Szczyglowski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Previous analysis of the Lotus histidine kinase1 (Lhk1) cytokinin receptor gene has shown that it is required and also sufficient for nodule formation in Lotus japonicus. The L. japonicus mutant carrying the loss-of-function lhk1-1 allele is hyperinfected by its symbiotic partner, Mesorhizobium loti, in the initial absence of nodule organogenesis. At a later time point following bacterial infection, lhk1-1 develops a limited number of nodules, suggesting the presence of an Lhk1-independent mechanism. We have tested a hypothesis that other cytokinin receptors function in at least a partially redundant manner with LHK1 to mediate nodule organogenesis in L. japonicus. We show here that L. japonicus contains a small family of four cytokinin receptor genes, which all respond to M. loti infection. We show that within the root cortex, LHK1 performs an essential role but also works partially redundantly with LHK1A and LHK3 to mediate cell divisions for nodule primordium formation. The LHK1 receptor is also presumed to partake in mediating a feedback mechanism that negatively regulates bacterial infections at the root epidermis. Interestingly, the Arabidopsis thaliana AHK4 receptor gene can functionally replace Lhk1 in mediating nodule organogenesis, indicating that the ability to perform this developmental process is not determined by unique, legume-specific properties of LHK1. PMID:24585837

  14. Flower color alteration in Lotus japonicus by modification of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Sakae; Nishihara, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Misawa, Norihiko; Ogiwara, Isao; Yamamura, Saburo

    2007-07-01

    To establish a model system for alteration of flower color by carotenoid pigments, we modified the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway of Lotus japonicus using overexpression of the crtW gene isolated from marine bacteria Agrobacterium aurantiacum and encoding beta-carotene ketolase (4,4'-beta-oxygenase) for the production of pink to red color ketocarotenoids. The crtW gene with the transit peptide sequence of the pea Rubisco small subunit under the regulation of the CaMV35S promoter was introduced to L. japonicus. In most of the resulting transgenic plants, the color of flower petals changed from original light yellow to deep yellow or orange while otherwise exhibiting normal phenotype. HPLC and TLC analyses revealed that leaves and flower petals of these plants accumulated novel carotenoids, believed to be ketocarotenoids consisting of including astaxanthin, adonixanthin, canthaxanthin and echinenone. Results indicated that modification of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway is a means of altering flower color in ornamental crops.

  15. Multiple components are integrated to determine leaf complexity in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenhua; Chen, Jianghua; Weng, Lin; Li, Xin; Cao, Xianglin; Hu, Xiaohe; Luo, Da; Yang, Jun

    2013-05-01

    Transcription factors and phytohormones have been reported to play crucial roles to regulate leaf complexity among plant species. Using the compound-leafed species Lotus japonicus, a model legume plant with five visible leaflets, we characterized four independent mutants with reduced leaf complexity, proliferating floral meristem (pfm), proliferating floral organ-2 (pfo-2), fused leaflets1 (ful1) and umbrella leaflets (uml), which were further identified as loss-of-function mutants of Arabidopsis orthologs LEAFY (LFY), UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 2 (CUC2) and PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1), respectively. Comparing the leaf development of wild-type and mutants by a scanning electron microscopy approach, leaflet initiation and/or dissection were found to be affected in these mutants. Expression and phenotype analysis indicated that PFM/LjLFY and PFO/LjUFO determined the basipetal leaflet initiation manner in L. japonicus. Genetic analysis of ful1 and uml mutants and their double mutants revealed that the CUC2-like gene and auxin pathway also participated in leaflet dissection in L. japonicus, and their functions might influence cytokinin biogenesis directly or indirectly. Our results here suggest that multiple genes were interplayed and played conserved functions in controlling leaf complexity during compound leaf development in L. japonicus.

  16. Generation of 7137 non-redundant expressed sequence tags from a legume, Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Asamizu, E; Nakamura, Y; Sato, S; Tabata, S

    2000-04-28

    For comprehensive analysis of genes expressed in a model legume, Lotus japonicus, a total of 22,983 5' end expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were accumulated from normalized and size-selected cDNA libraries constructed from young (2 weeks old) plants. The EST sequences were clustered into 7137 non-redundant groups. Similarity search against public non-redundant protein database indicated that 3302 groups showed similarity to genes of known function, 1143 groups to hypothetical genes, and 2692 were novel sequences. Homologues of 5 nodule-specific genes which have been reported in other legume species were contained in the collected ESTs, suggesting that the EST source generated in this study will become a useful tool for identification of genes related to legume-specific biological processes. The sequence data of individual ESTs are available at the web site: http://www.kazusa.or.jp/en/plant/lotus/EST/.

  17. The proteome of seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S; Ornfelt, Jane H; Jochimsen, Bjarne; Staerfeldt, Hans Henrik; Friis, Carsten; Nielsen, Kasper; Goffard, Nicolas; Besenbacher, Søren; Krusell, Lene; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J; Stougaard, Jens

    2009-03-01

    We have characterized the development of seeds in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Like soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum), Lotus develops straight seed pods and each pod contains approximately 20 seeds that reach maturity within 40 days. Histological sections show the characteristic three developmental phases of legume seeds and the presence of embryo, endosperm, and seed coat in desiccated seeds. Furthermore, protein, oil, starch, phytic acid, and ash contents were determined, and this indicates that the composition of mature Lotus seed is more similar to soybean than to pea. In a first attempt to determine the seed proteome, both a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis approach and a gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach were used. Globulins were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and five legumins, LLP1 to LLP5, and two convicilins, LCP1 and LCP2, were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. For two distinct developmental phases, seed filling and desiccation, a gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach was used, and 665 and 181 unique proteins corresponding to gene accession numbers were identified for the two phases, respectively. All of the proteome data, including the experimental data and mass spectrometry spectra peaks, were collected in a database that is available to the scientific community via a Web interface (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/cgi-bin/lotus/db.cgi). This database establishes the basis for relating physiology, biochemistry, and regulation of seed development in Lotus. Together with a new Web interface (http://bioinfoserver.rsbs.anu.edu.au/utils/PathExpress4legumes/) collecting all protein identifications for Lotus, Medicago, and soybean seed proteomes, this database is a valuable resource for comparative seed proteomics and pathway analysis within and beyond the legume family.

  18. Legume genome evolution viewed through the Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus genomes

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Steven B.; Sterck, Lieven; Rombauts, Stephane; Sato, Shusei; Cheung, Foo; Gouzy, Jérôme; Wang, Xiaohong; Mudge, Joann; Vasdewani, Jayprakash; Schiex, Thomas; Spannagl, Manuel; Monaghan, Erin; Nicholson, Christine; Humphray, Sean J.; Schoof, Heiko; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Rogers, Jane; Quétier, Francis; Oldroyd, Giles E.; Debellé, Frédéric; Cook, Douglas R.; Retzel, Ernest F.; Roe, Bruce A.; Town, Christopher D.; Tabata, Satoshi; Van de Peer, Yves; Young, Nevin D.

    2006-01-01

    Genome sequencing of the model legumes, Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, provides an opportunity for large-scale sequence-based comparison of two genomes in the same plant family. Here we report synteny comparisons between these species, including details about chromosome relationships, large-scale synteny blocks, microsynteny within blocks, and genome regions lacking clear correspondence. The Lotus and Medicago genomes share a minimum of 10 large-scale synteny blocks, each with substantial collinearity and frequently extending the length of whole chromosome arms. The proportion of genes syntenic and collinear within each synteny block is relatively homogeneous. Medicago–Lotus comparisons also indicate similar and largely homogeneous gene densities, although gene-containing regions in Mt occupy 20–30% more space than Lj counterparts, primarily because of larger numbers of Mt retrotransposons. Because the interpretation of genome comparisons is complicated by large-scale genome duplications, we describe synteny, synonymous substitutions and phylogenetic analyses to identify and date a probable whole-genome duplication event. There is no direct evidence for any recent large-scale genome duplication in either Medicago or Lotus but instead a duplication predating speciation. Phylogenetic comparisons place this duplication within the Rosid I clade, clearly after the split between legumes and Salicaceae (poplar). PMID:17003129

  19. Early Lotus japonicus root transcriptomic responses to symbiotic and pathogenic fungal exudates

    PubMed Central

    Giovannetti, Marco; Mari, Alfredo; Novero, Mara; Bonfante, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate Lotus japonicus transcriptomic responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) germinated spore exudates (GSEs), responsible for activating nuclear Ca2+ spiking in plant root epidermis. A microarray experiment was performed comparing gene expression in Lotus rootlets treated with GSE or water after 24 and 48 h. The transcriptional pattern of selected genes that resulted to be regulated in the array was further evaluated upon different treatments and timings. In particular, Lotus rootlets were treated with: GSE from the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum trifolii; short chitin oligomers (COs; acknowledged AM fungal signals) and long COs (as activators of pathogenic responses). This experimental set up has revealed that AM GSE generates a strong transcriptomic response in Lotus roots with an extensive defense-related response after 24 h and a subsequent down-regulation after 48 h. A similar subset of defense-related genes resulted to be up-regulated also upon treatment with C. trifolii GSE, although with an opposite trend. Surprisingly, long COs activated both defense-like and symbiosis-related genes. Among the genes regulated in the microarray, promoter-GUS assay showed that LjMATE1 activates in epidermal cells and root hairs. PMID:26175746

  20. Evolution of crop production under a pseudo-space environment using model plants, Lotus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Motohashi, Kyohei; Omi, Naomi; Sato, Seigo; Aoki, Toshio; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges. We have been studying space agriculture and/or spacecraft agriculture to provide food and oxygen for the habitation area in the space environment. However, careful investigation should be made concerning the results of exotic environmental effects on the endogenous production of biologically active substances in indi-vidual cultivated plants in a space environment. We have already reported that the production of functional substances in cultivated plants as crops are affected by gravity. The amounts of the main physiological substances in these plants grown under terrestrial control were different from that grown in a pseudo-microgravity. These results suggested that the nutrition would be changed in the plants/crops grown in the space environment when human beings eat in space. This estimation required us to investigate each of the useful components produced by each plant grown in the space environment. These estimations involved several study fields, includ-ing nutrition, plant physiology, etc. On the other hand, the analysis of model plant genomes has recently been remarkably advanced. Lotus japonicus, a leguminous plant, is also one of the model plant. The leguminosae is a large family in the plant vegetable kingdom and almost the entire genome sequence of Lotus japonicus has been determined. Nitrogen fixation would be possible even in a space environment. We are trying to determine the best conditions and evolution for crop production using the model plants.

  1. Phytosulfokine Is Involved in Positive Regulation of Lotus japonicus Nodulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Haixiang; Zhang, Zhongming; Yu, Liangliang; Xu, Xiaoshu; Hong, Zonglie; Luo, Li

    2015-08-01

    Phytosulfokine (PSK) is a tyrosine-sulfated peptide that is widely distributed in plants, participating in cell proliferation, differentiation, and innate immunity. The potential role of PSK in nodulation in legumes has not been reported. In this work, five PSK precursor genes were identified in Lotus japonicas, designated as LjPSK1 to LjPSK5. Three of them (LjPSK1, LjPSK4, and LjPSK5) were found to be expressed in nitrogen-fixing root nodules. LjPSK1 and LjPSK4 were not induced at the early stage of nodulation. Interestingly, while the expression of LjPSK4 was also found in spontaneous nodules without rhizobial colonization, LjPSK1 was not induced in these pseudo nodules. Promoter-β-glucuronidase analysis revealed that LjPSK1 was highly expressed in enlarged symbiotic cells of nodules. Exogenous addition of 1 1M synthetic PSK peptide resulted in increased nodule numbers per plant. Consistently, the number of mature nodules but not the events of rhizobial infection and nodule initiation was increased by overexpressing LjPSK1 in transgenic hairy roots, in which the expression of jasmonate-responsive genes was found to be repressed. These results suggest that PSK is a new peptide signal that regulates nodulation in legumes, probably through cross-talking with other phytohormones.

  2. Defense Responses in Two Ecotypes of Lotus japonicus against Non-Pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    Bordenave, Cesar D.; Escaray, Francisco J.; Menendez, Ana B.; Serna, Eva; Carrasco, Pedro; Ruiz, Oscar A.; Gárriz, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Lotus japonicus is a model legume broadly used to study many important processes as nitrogen fixing nodule formation and adaptation to salt stress. However, no studies on the defense responses occurring in this species against invading microorganisms have been carried out at the present. Understanding how this model plant protects itself against pathogens will certainly help to develop more tolerant cultivars in economically important Lotus species as well as in other legumes. In order to uncover the most important defense mechanisms activated upon bacterial attack, we explored in this work the main responses occurring in the phenotypically contrasting ecotypes MG-20 and Gifu B-129 of L. japonicus after inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 pv. tomato. Our analysis demonstrated that this bacterial strain is unable to cause disease in these accessions, even though the defense mechanisms triggered in these ecotypes might differ. Thus, disease tolerance in MG-20 was characterized by bacterial multiplication, chlorosis and desiccation at the infiltrated tissues. In turn, Gifu B-129 plants did not show any symptom at all and were completely successful in restricting bacterial growth. We performed a microarray based analysis of these responses and determined the regulation of several genes that could play important roles in plant defense. Interestingly, we were also able to identify a set of defense genes with a relative high expression in Gifu B-129 plants under non-stress conditions, what could explain its higher tolerance. The participation of these genes in plant defense is discussed. Our results position the L. japonicus-P. syringae interaction as a interesting model to study defense mechanisms in legume species. PMID:24349460

  3. Efficient Inactivation of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Related Genes in Lotus japonicus Using CRISPR-Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Longxiang; Wang, Longlong; Tan, Qian; Fan, Qiuling; Zhu, Hui; Hong, Zonglie; Zhang, Zhongming; Duanmu, Deqiang

    2016-01-01

    The targeted genome editing technique, CRISPR/Cas9 system, has been widely used to modify genes of interest in a predictable and precise manner. In this study, we describe the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated efficient editing of representative SNF (symbiotic nitrogen fixation) related genes in the model legume Lotus japonicus via Agrobacterium-mediated stable or hairy root transformation. We first predicted nine endogenous U6 genes in Lotus and then demonstrated the efficacy of the LjU6-1 gene promoter in driving expression of single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) by using a split yellow fluorescence protein (YFP) reporter system to restore the fluorescence in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Next, we chose a customized sgRNA targeting SYMRK (symbiosis receptor-like kinase) loci and achieved ~35% mutagenic efficiency in 20 T0 transgenic plants, two of them containing biallelic homozygous mutations with a 2-bp deletion near the PAM region. We further designed two sgRNAs targeting three homologous leghemoglobin loci (LjLb1, LjLb2, LjLb3) for testing the possibility of generating multi-gene knockouts. 20 out of 70 hairy root transgenic plants exhibited white nodules, with at least two LjLbs disrupted in each plant. Compared with the constitutively active CaMV 35S promoter, the nodule-specific LjLb2 promoter was also effective in gene editing in nodules by hairy root transformation. Triple mutant knockout of LjLbs was also obtained by stable transformation using two sgRNAs. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system should greatly facilitate functional analyses of SNF related genes in Lotus japonicus. PMID:27630657

  4. Efficient Inactivation of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Related Genes in Lotus japonicus Using CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Wang, Longxiang; Wang, Longlong; Tan, Qian; Fan, Qiuling; Zhu, Hui; Hong, Zonglie; Zhang, Zhongming; Duanmu, Deqiang

    2016-01-01

    The targeted genome editing technique, CRISPR/Cas9 system, has been widely used to modify genes of interest in a predictable and precise manner. In this study, we describe the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated efficient editing of representative SNF (symbiotic nitrogen fixation) related genes in the model legume Lotus japonicus via Agrobacterium-mediated stable or hairy root transformation. We first predicted nine endogenous U6 genes in Lotus and then demonstrated the efficacy of the LjU6-1 gene promoter in driving expression of single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) by using a split yellow fluorescence protein (YFP) reporter system to restore the fluorescence in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Next, we chose a customized sgRNA targeting SYMRK (symbiosis receptor-like kinase) loci and achieved ~35% mutagenic efficiency in 20 T0 transgenic plants, two of them containing biallelic homozygous mutations with a 2-bp deletion near the PAM region. We further designed two sgRNAs targeting three homologous leghemoglobin loci (LjLb1, LjLb2, LjLb3) for testing the possibility of generating multi-gene knockouts. 20 out of 70 hairy root transgenic plants exhibited white nodules, with at least two LjLbs disrupted in each plant. Compared with the constitutively active CaMV 35S promoter, the nodule-specific LjLb2 promoter was also effective in gene editing in nodules by hairy root transformation. Triple mutant knockout of LjLbs was also obtained by stable transformation using two sgRNAs. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system should greatly facilitate functional analyses of SNF related genes in Lotus japonicus.

  5. Modulation of phenolic metabolism under stress conditions in a Lotus japonicus mutant lacking plastidic glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed

    García-Calderón, Margarita; Pons-Ferrer, Teresa; Mrázova, Anna; Pal'ove-Balang, Peter; Vilková, Mária; Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M; Vega, José M; Eliášová, Adriana; Repčák, Miroslav; Márquez, Antonio J; Betti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper was aimed to investigate the possible implications of the lack of plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2) in phenolic metabolism during stress responses in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Important changes in the transcriptome were detected in a GS2 mutant called Ljgln2-2, compared to the wild type, in response to two separate stress conditions, such as drought or the result of the impairment of the photorespiratory cycle. Detailed transcriptomic analysis showed that the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds was affected in the mutant plants in these two different types of stress situations. For this reason, the genes and metabolites related to this metabolic route were further investigated using a combined approach of gene expression analysis and metabolite profiling. A high induction of the expression of several genes for the biosynthesis of different branches of the phenolic biosynthetic pathway was detected by qRT-PCR. The extent of induction was always higher in Ljgln2-2, probably reflecting the higher stress levels present in this genotype. This was paralleled by accumulation of several kaempferol and quercetine glycosides, some of them described for the first time in L. japonicus, and of high levels of the isoflavonoid vestitol. The results obtained indicate that the absence of GS2 affects different aspects of phenolic metabolism in L. japonicus plants in response to stress.

  6. New nodulation mutants responsible for infection thread development in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Yano, Koji; Tansengco, Myra L; Hio, Taihei; Higashi, Kuniko; Murooka, Yoshikatsu; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Hayashi, Makoto

    2006-07-01

    Legume plants develop specialized root organs, the nodules, through a symbiotic interaction with rhizobia. The developmental process of nodulation is triggered by the bacterial microsymbiont but regulated systemically by the host legume plants. Using ethylmethane sulfonate mutagenesis as a tool to identify plant genes involved in symbiotic nodule development, we have isolated and analyzed five nodulation mutants, Ljsym74-3, Ljsym79-2, Ljsym79-3, Ljsym80, and Ljsym82, from the model legume Lotus japonicus. These mutants are defective in developing functional nodules and exhibit nitrogen starvation symptoms after inoculation with Mesorhizobium loti. Detailed observation revealed that infection thread development was aborted in these mutants and the nodules formed were devoid of infected cells. Mapping and complementation tests showed that Ljsym74-3, and Ljsym79-2 and Ljsym79-3, were allelic with reported mutants of L. japonicus, alb1 and crinkle, respectively. The Ljsym82 mutant is unique among the mutants because the infection thread was aborted early in its development. Ljsym74-3 and Ljsym80 were characterized as mutants with thick infection threads in short root hairs. Map-based cloning and molecular characterization of these genes will help us understand the genetic mechanism of infection thread development in L. japonicus.

  7. Does Lowering Glutamine Synthetase Activity in Nodules Modify Nitrogen Metabolism and Growth of Lotus japonicus?1

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Judith; Pou de Crescenzo, Marie-Anne; Sené, Olivier; Hirel, Bertrand

    2003-01-01

    A cDNA encoding cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS) from Lotus japonicus was fused in the antisense orientation relative to the nodule-specific LBC3 promoter of soybean (Glycine max) and introduced into L. japonicus via transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Among the 12 independent transformed lines into which the construct was introduced, some of them showed diminished levels of GS1 mRNA and lower levels of GS activity. Three of these lines were selected and their T1 progeny was further analyzed both for plant biomass production and carbon and nitrogen (N) metabolites content under symbiotic N-fixing conditions. Analysis of these plants revealed an increase in fresh weight in nodules, roots and shoots. The reduction in GS activity was found to correlate with an increase in amino acid content of the nodules, which was primarily due to an increase in asparagine content. Thus, this study supports the hypothesis that when GS becomes limiting, other enzymes (e.g. asparagine synthetase) that have the capacity to assimilate ammonium may be important in controlling the flux of reduced N in temperate legumes such as L. japonicus. Whether these alternative metabolic pathways are important in the control of plant biomass production still remains to be fully elucidated. PMID:12970491

  8. Modulation of phenolic metabolism under stress conditions in a Lotus japonicus mutant lacking plastidic glutamine synthetase

    PubMed Central

    García-Calderón, Margarita; Pons-Ferrer, Teresa; Mrázova, Anna; Pal'ove-Balang, Peter; Vilková, Mária; Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M.; Vega, José M.; Eliášová, Adriana; Repčák, Miroslav; Márquez, Antonio J.; Betti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper was aimed to investigate the possible implications of the lack of plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2) in phenolic metabolism during stress responses in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Important changes in the transcriptome were detected in a GS2 mutant called Ljgln2-2, compared to the wild type, in response to two separate stress conditions, such as drought or the result of the impairment of the photorespiratory cycle. Detailed transcriptomic analysis showed that the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds was affected in the mutant plants in these two different types of stress situations. For this reason, the genes and metabolites related to this metabolic route were further investigated using a combined approach of gene expression analysis and metabolite profiling. A high induction of the expression of several genes for the biosynthesis of different branches of the phenolic biosynthetic pathway was detected by qRT-PCR. The extent of induction was always higher in Ljgln2-2, probably reflecting the higher stress levels present in this genotype. This was paralleled by accumulation of several kaempferol and quercetine glycosides, some of them described for the first time in L. japonicus, and of high levels of the isoflavonoid vestitol. The results obtained indicate that the absence of GS2 affects different aspects of phenolic metabolism in L. japonicus plants in response to stress. PMID:26442073

  9. Novel SINEs families in Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus: bioinformatic analysis.

    PubMed

    Gadzalski, Marek; Sakowicz, Tomasz

    2011-07-01

    Although short interspersed elements (SINEs) were discovered nearly 30 years ago, the studies of these genomic repeats were mostly limited to animal genomes. Very little is known about SINEs in legumes--one of the most important plant families. Here we report identification, genomic distribution and molecular features of six novel SINE elements in Lotus japonicus (named LJ_SINE-1, -2, -3) and Medicago truncatula (MT_SINE-1, -2, -3), model species of legume. They possess all the structural features commonly found in short interspersed elements including RNA polymerase III promoter, polyA tail and flanking repeats. SINEs described here are present in low to moderate copy numbers from 150 to 3000. Bioinformatic analyses were used to searched public databases, we have shown that three of new SINE elements from M. truncatula seem to be characteristic of Medicago and Trifolium genera. Two SINE families have been found in L. japonicus and one is present in both M. truncatula and L. japonicus. In addition, we are discussing potential activities of the described elements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Shoot HAR1 mediates nitrate inhibition of nodulation in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Satoru; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate is a major environmental factor in the inhibition of nodulation. In a model legume Lotus japonicus, a CLV1-like receptor kinase, HAR1, mediates nitrate inhibition and autoregulation of nodulation. Autoregulation of nodulation involves root-to-shoot-to-root long-distance communication, and HAR1 functions in shoots. However, it remains elusive where HAR1 functions in the nitrate inhibition of nodulation. We performed grafting experiments with the har1 mutant under various nitrate conditions, and found that shoot HAR1 is critical for the inhibition of nodulation at 10 mM nitrate. Combined with our recent finding that the nitrate-induced CLE-RS2 glycopeptide binds directly to the HAR1 receptor, this result suggests that CLE-RS2/HAR1 long-distance signaling plays an important role in the both nitrate inhibition and the autoregulation of nodulation.

  11. N-glycan maturation mutants in Lotus japonicus for basic and applied glycoprotein research.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Carina T; Loke, Ian; Lorentzen, Andrea; Wolf, Sara; Kamble, Manoj; Kristensen, Sebastian K; Munch, David; Radutoiu, Simona; Spillner, Edzard; Roepstorff, Peter; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Stougaard, Jens; Dam, Svend

    2017-08-01

    Studies of protein N-glycosylation are important for answering fundamental questions on the diverse functions of glycoproteins in plant growth and development. Here we generated and characterised a comprehensive collection of Lotus japonicusLORE1 insertion mutants, each lacking the activity of one of the 12 enzymes required for normal N-glycan maturation in the glycosylation machinery. The inactivation of the individual genes resulted in altered N-glycan patterns as documented using mass spectrometry and glycan-recognising antibodies, indicating successful identification of null mutations in the target glyco-genes. For example, both mass spectrometry and immunoblotting experiments suggest that proteins derived from the α1,3-fucosyltransferase (Lj3fuct) mutant completely lacked α1,3-core fucosylation. Mass spectrometry also suggested that the Lotus japonicus convicilin 2 was one of the main glycoproteins undergoing differential expression/N-glycosylation in the mutants. Demonstrating the functional importance of glycosylation, reduced growth and seed production phenotypes were observed for the mutant plants lacking functional mannosidase I, N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I, and α1,3-fucosyltransferase, even though the relative protein composition and abundance appeared unaffected. The strength of our N-glycosylation mutant platform is the broad spectrum of resulting glycoprotein profiles and altered physiological phenotypes that can be produced from single, double, triple and quadruple mutants. This platform will serve as a valuable tool for elucidating the functional role of protein N-glycosylation in plants. Furthermore, this technology can be used to generate stable plant mutant lines for biopharmaceutical production of glycoproteins displaying relative homogeneous and mammalian-like N-glycosylation features. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Identification of cDNAs encoding pterocarpan reductase involved in isoflavan phytoalexin biosynthesis in Lotus japonicus by EST mining.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Tomoyoshi; Koshimizu, Shoko; Aoki, Toshio; Ayabe, Shin-Ichi

    2006-10-16

    Isoflavans and pterocarpans are the major biosynthetically connected phytoalexins in legumes. A search of the expressed sequence tag library of a model legume Lotus japonicus, which produces an (-)-isoflavan, for homologs of phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase catalyzing the reductive cleavage of dihydrofurans, yielded seven full-length cDNAs, and the encoded proteins were analyzed in vitro. Four of them cleaved the dihydrofuran of a pterocarpan medicarpin to yield an isoflavan (-)-vestitol and were designated pterocarpan reductase (PTR). Two PTRs displayed enantiospecificity to (-)-medicarpin, representing genuine L. japonicus PTRs, while the other two lacked enantiospecificity and were presumed to be evolutionarily primitive types.

  13. Transcriptomic and metabolic changes associated with photorespiratory ammonium accumulation in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M; García-Calderón, Margarita; Sánchez, Diego H; Udvardi, Michael K; Kopka, Joachim; Márquez, Antonio J; Betti, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The transcriptomic and metabolic consequences of the lack of plastidic glutamine (Gln) synthetase in the model legume Lotus japonicus were investigated. Wild-type and mutant plants lacking the plastidic isoform of Gln synthetase were grown in conditions that suppress photorespiration and then transferred for different lengths of time to photorespiratory conditions. Transcript and metabolite levels were determined at the different time points considered. Under photorespiratory active conditions, the mutant accumulated high levels of ammonium, followed by its subsequent decline. A coordinate repression of the photorespiratory genes was observed in the mutant background. This was part of a greater modulation of the transcriptome, especially in the mutant, that was paralleled by changes in the levels of several key metabolites. The data obtained for the mutant represent the first direct experimental evidence for a coordinate regulation of photorespiratory genes over time. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that mutant plants under active photorespiratory conditions accumulated high levels of several amino acids and organic acids, including intermediates of the Krebs cycle. An increase in Gln levels was also detected in the mutant, which was paralleled by an increase in cytosolic Gln synthetase1 gene transcription and enzyme activity levels. The global panoramic of the transcripts and metabolites that changed in L. japonicus plants during the transfer from photorespiration-suppressed to photorespiration-active conditions highlighted the link between photorespiration and several other cellular processes, including central carbon metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and secondary metabolism.

  14. Novel, highly expressed late nodulin gene (LjNOD16) from Lotus japonicus

    SciTech Connect

    Kapranov, P.; Bruijn, F.J. de; Szczyglowski, K.

    1997-04-01

    We have isolated a Lotus japonicus cDNA corresponding to a highly abundant, late nodule-specific RNA species that encodes a polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 15.6 kD. The protein and its corresponding gene were designated NIj16 and LjNOD16, respectively. LjNOD16 was found to be expressed only in the infected cells of L. japonicus nodules. Related DNA sequences could be identified in the genomes of both Glycine max and Medicago sativa. In the latter, a homologous mRNA species was detected in the nodules. Unlike LiNOD16, its alfalfa homologs appear to represent low-abundance mRNA species. However, the proteins corresponding to the LjNOD16 and its alfalfa homolog could be detected at similar levels in nodules but not in roots of both legume species. The predicted amino acid sequence analysis of nodulin NIj16 revealed the presence of a long {alpha}-helical region and a positively charged C terminus. The former domain has a very high propensity to form a coiled-coil type structure, indicating that nodulin NIj16 may interact with an as-yet-unidentified protein target(s) in the nodule-infected cells. Homology searches revealed no significant similarities to any known sequences in the databases, with the exception of two related, anonymous Arabidopsis expressed sequence tags.

  15. Cessation of photosynthesis in Lotus japonicus leaves leads to reprogramming of nodule metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Flemetakis, Emmanouil

    2013-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) involves global changes in gene expression and metabolite accumulation in both rhizobia and the host plant. In order to study the metabolic changes mediated by leaf–root interaction, photosynthesis was limited in leaves by exposure of plants to darkness, and subsequently gene expression was profiled by real-time reverse transcription–PCR (RT–PCR) and metabolite levels by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in the nodules of the model legume Lotus japonicus. Photosynthetic carbon deficiency caused by prolonged darkness affected many metabolic processes in L. japonicus nodules. Most of the metabolic genes analysed were down-regulated during the extended dark period. In addition to that, the levels of most metabolites decreased or remained unaltered, although accumulation of amino acids was observed. Reduced glycolysis and carbon fixation resulted in lower organic acid levels, especially of malate, the primary source of carbon for bacteroid metabolism and SNF. The high amino acid concentrations together with a reduction in total protein concentration indicate possible protein degradation in nodules under these conditions. Interestingly, comparisons between amino acid and protein content in various organs indicated systemic changes in response to prolonged darkness between nodulated and non-nodulated plants, rendering the nodule a source organ for both C and N under these conditions. PMID:23404899

  16. Nodule-specific regulation of phosphatidylinositol transfer protein expression in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Kapranov, P; Routt, S M; Bankaitis, V A; de Bruijn, F J; Szczyglowski, K

    2001-06-01

    Phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITPs) modulate signal transduction pathways and membrane-trafficking functions in eukaryotes. Here, we describe the characterization of a gene family from Lotus japonicus that encodes a novel class of plant PITP-like proteins (LjPLPs) and that is regulated in an unusual nodule-specific manner. Members of this gene family were identified based on their nucleotide sequence homology with a previously described cDNA, LjNOD16, which encodes the L. japonicus late nodulin Nlj16. Nlj16 or highly related amino acid sequences are shown to constitute C-terminal domains of LjPLPs and are suggested to function as specific plasma membrane targeting modules. The expression patterns of one member of this gene family (LjPLP-IV) revealed that LjNOD16 mRNA synthesis in nodules is the result of the transcriptional activity of a nodule-specific promoter located in an intron of the LjPLP-IV gene. This intron-borne bidirectional promoter also generates nodule-specific antisense transcripts derived from the N-terminal PITP domain coding region of the LjPLP-IV gene. We propose that Nlj16 protein synthesis and LjPLP-IV antisense transcript generation are components of an elaborate mechanism designed to control LjPLP synthesis and/or functioning in nodules.

  17. Molecular Characterization of LjABCG1, an ATP-Binding Cassette Protein in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Fukuda, Shoju; Takanashi, Kojiro; Yoshioka, Miki; Yoshioka, Hirofumi; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Narusaka, Mari; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Shitan, Nobukazu; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2015-01-01

    LjABCG1, a full-size ABCG subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins of a model legume, Lotus japonicus, was reported as a gene highly expressed during the early stages of nodulation, but have not been characterized in detail. In this study we showed that the induction of LjABCG1 expression was remarkable by methyl jasmonate treatment, and reporter gene experiments indicated that LjABCG1 was strongly expressed in the nodule parenchyma and cell layers adjacent to the root vascular tissue toward the nodule. LjABCG1 was suggested to be localized at the plasma membrane based on the fractionation of microsomal membranes as well as separation via aqueous two-phase partitioning. The physiological functions of LjABCG1 in symbiosis and pathogenesis were analyzed in homologous and heterologous systems. LjABCG1 knock-down L. japonicus plants did not show clear phenotypic differences in nodule formation, and not in defense against Pseudomonas syringae, either. In contrast, when LjABCG1 was expressed in the Arabidopsis pdr8-1 mutant, the penetration frequency of Phytophthora infestans, a potato late blight pathogen, was significantly reduced in LjABCG1/pdr8-1 than in pdr8-1 plants. This finding indicated that LjABCG1, at least partially, complemented the phenotype of pdr8 in Arabidopsis, suggesting the multiple roles of this protein in plant-microbe interactions. PMID:26418593

  18. Overexpression of alfalfa cytosolic glutamine synthetase in nodules and flowers of transgenic Lotus japonicus plants.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Ramón; Márquez, Judith; Shishkova, Svetlana; Hernández, Georgina

    2003-03-01

    Legumes can obtain nitrogen from symbiotic nitrogen fixation in root nodules. The glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase cycle is responsible for the initial nitrogen assimilation. This work reports the analysis of transgenic Lotus japonicus plants with the chimeric gene containing the alfalfa cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1) (EC 6.3.1.2) gene controlled by the Sesbania rostrata leghemoglobin gene promoter (Srglb3p). Surprisingly, all of the transgenic primary transformants analysed were sterile. Two transformants designated GS39 and GS44 were further analysed. GS in nodules of GS39 and GS44 plants was upregulated, at the level of transcript and protein. The transgenic plants had 2-fold higher nodule GS activity and similar root GS activity compared to control plants. The GS39 and GS44 sterile plants showed morphological alterations in pollen grains and in ovules. An increase in GS transcript abundance and enzyme activity was measured during early and late stages of flower development of GS plants. Flowers of GS plants showed higher glutamine content, resulting in an increased glutamine/glutamate ratio. The GS transcript and protein were detected in ovules. These data indicate that overexpression of GS1 in reproductive organs critically affects their development and might be a reason for sterility of L. japonicus plants.

  19. Integrative functional genomics of salt acclimatization in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Diego H; Lippold, Felix; Redestig, Henning; Hannah, Matthew A; Erban, Alexander; Krämer, Ute; Kopka, Joachim; Udvardi, Michael K

    2008-03-01

    The model legume Lotus japonicus was subjected to non-lethal long-term salinity and profiled at the ionomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic levels. Two experimental designs with various stress doses were tested: a gradual step acclimatization and an initial acclimatization approach. Ionomic profiling by inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) revealed salt stress-induced reductions in potassium, phosphorus, sulphur, zinc and molybdenum. Microarray profiling using the Lotus Genechip allowed the identification of 912 probesets that were differentially expressed under the acclimatization regimes. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling identified 147 differentially accumulated soluble metabolites, indicating a change in metabolic phenotype upon salt acclimatization. Metabolic changes were characterized by a general increase in the steady-state levels of many amino acids, sugars and polyols, with a concurrent decrease in most organic acids. Transcript and metabolite changes exhibited a stress dose-dependent response within the range of NaCl concentrations used, although threshold and plateau behaviours were also observed. The combined observations suggest a successive and increasingly global requirement for the reprogramming of gene expression and metabolic pathways to maintain ionic and osmotic homeostasis. A simple qualitative model is proposed to explain the systems behaviour of plants during salt acclimatization.

  20. Evolution and regulation of the Lotus japonicus LysM receptor gene family.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Gitte Vestergaard; Shimoda, Yoshikazu; Nielsen, Mette Wibroe; Jørgensen, Frank Grønlund; Grossmann, Christina; Sandal, Niels; Sørensen, Kirsten; Thirup, Søren; Madsen, Lene Heegaard; Tabata, Satoshi; Sato, Shusei; Stougaard, Jens; Radutoiu, Simona

    2010-04-01

    LysM receptor kinases were identified as receptors of acylated chitin (Nod factors) or chitin produced by plant-interacting microbes. Here, we present the identification and characterization of the LysM receptor kinase gene (Lys) family (17 members) in Lotus japonicus. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis revealed a correlation between Lys gene structure and phylogeny. Further mapping coupled with sequence-based anchoring on the genome showed that the family has probably expanded by a combination of tandem and segmental duplication events. Using a sliding-window approach, we identified distinct regions in the LysM and kinase domains of recently diverged Lys genes where positive selection may have shaped ligand interaction. Interestingly, in the case of NFR5 and its closest paralog, LYS11, one of these regions coincides with the predicted Nod-factor binding groove and the suggested specificity determining area of the second LysM domain. One hypothesis for the evolutionary diversification of this receptor family in legumes is their unique capacity to decipher various structures of chitin-derived molecules produced by an extended spectrum of interacting organisms: symbiotic, associative, endophytic, and parasitic. In a detailed expression analysis, we found several Lotus Lys genes regulated not only during the symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium loti but also in response to chitin treatment.

  1. Expression of the CLE-RS3 gene suppresses root nodulation in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Hanna; Handa, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Sachiko; Suzaki, Takuya; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2016-09-01

    Cell-to-cell communication, principally mediated by short- or long-range mobile signals, is involved in many plant developmental processes. In root nodule symbiosis, a mutual relationship between leguminous plants and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, the mechanism for the autoregulation of nodulation (AON) plays a key role in preventing the production of an excess number of nodules. AON is based on long-distance cell-to-cell communication between roots and shoots. In Lotus japonicus, two CLAVATA3/ESR-related (CLE) peptides, encoded by CLE-ROOT SIGNAL 1 (CLE-RS1) and -RS2, act as putative root-derived signals that transmit signals inhibiting further nodule development through interaction with a shoot-acting receptor-like kinase HYPERNODULATION ABERRANT ROOT FORMATION 1 (HAR1). Here, an in silico search and subsequent expression analyses enabled us to identify two new L. japonicus CLE genes that are potentially involved in nodulation, designated as CLE-RS3 and LjCLE40. Time-course expression patterns showed that CLE-RS1/2/3 and LjCLE40 expression is induced during nodulation with different activation patterns. Furthermore, constitutive expression of CLE-RS3 significantly suppressed nodule formation in a HAR1-dependent manner. TOO MUCH LOVE, a root-acting regulator of AON, is also required for the CLE-RS3 action. These results suggest that CLE-RS3 is a new component of AON in L. japonicus that may act as a potential root-derived signal through interaction with HAR1. Because CLE-RS2, CLE-RS3 and LjCLE40 are located in tandem in the genome and their expression is induced not only by rhizobial infection but also by nitrate, these genes may have duplicated from a common gene.

  2. A putative molybdate transporter LjMOT1 is required for molybdenum transport in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Shan; Wu, Fei-Fei; Shen, Zhi-Lin; Meng, Yan; Cai, Yong-Ping; Lin, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential micronutrient that is required for plant growth and development, and it affects the formation of root nodules and nitrogen fixation in legumes. In this study, Lotus japonicus was grown on MS solid media containing 0 nmol l(-1) (-Mo), 103 nmol l(-1) (+Mo) and 1030 nmol l(-1) (10 × Mo) of Mo. The phenotypes of plants growing on the three different media showed no obvious differences after 15 days, but the plants growing on -Mo for 45 days presented typical symptoms of Mo depletion, such as a short taproot, few lateral roots and yellowing leaves. A Mo transporter gene, LjMOT1, was isolated from L. japonicus. It encoded 468 amino acids, including two conserved motifs, and was predicted to locate to chromosome 3 of the L. japonicus genome. A homology comparison indicated that LjMOT1 had high similarities to other MOT1 proteins and was closely related to GmMOT1. Subcellular localization indicated that LjMOT1 is localized to the plasma membrane. qRT-PCR analyses showed that increasing Mo concentrations regulated the relative expression level of LjMOT1. Moreover, the Mo concentration in shoots was positively correlated to the expression of LjMOT1, but there was no such evident correlation in the roots. In addition, changes in the nitrate reductase activity were coincident with changes in the Mo concentration. These results suggest that LjMOT1 may be involved in the transport of Mo and provide a theoretical basis for further understanding of the mechanism of Mo transport in higher plants.

  3. Two distinct EIN2 genes cooperatively regulate ethylene signaling in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Kana; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Nakagawa, Tomomi

    2013-09-01

    Leguminous plants establish a mutualistic symbiosis with bacteria, collectively referred to as rhizobia. Host plants positively and negatively regulate the symbiotic processes to keep the symbiosis at an appropriate level. Although the plant hormone ethylene is known as a negative regulator of symbiotic processes, the molecular mechanisms of ethylene signaling remain unresolved, especially in the model plant Lotus japonicus. Here, we identified two genes, LjEIN2-1 and LjEIN2-2, from L. japonicus. These genes share moderate similarity in their amino acid sequences, are located on different chromosomes and are composed of different numbers of exons. Suppression of either LjEIN2-1 or LjEIN2-2 expression significantly promoted the root growth of transformed plants on plates containing 1-amino-cyclopropane-carboxylic acid (ACC), the biosynthetic precursor of ethylene. Simultaneous suppression of both LjEIN2-1 and LjEIN2-2 markedly increased the ethylene insensitivity of transgenic roots and resulted in an increased nodulation phenotype. These results indicate that LjEIN2-1 and LjEIN2-2 concertedly regulate ethylene signaling in L. japonicus. We also observed that Nod factor (NF) induced the expression of the ethylene-responsive gene LjACO2, and simultaneous treatment with NF and ACC markedly increases its transcript level compared with either NF or ACC alone. Because LjACO2 encodes ACC oxidase, which is a key enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis, this result suggests the existence of an NF-triggered negative feedback mechanism through ethylene signaling.

  4. Isolation and phenotypic characterization of Lotus japonicus mutants specifically defective in arbuscular mycorrhizal formation.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Tomoko; Saito, Katsuharu; Oba, Hirosuke; Yoshida, Yuma; Terasawa, Junya; Umehara, Yosuke; Suganuma, Norio; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Ohtomo, Ryo

    2014-05-01

    Several symbiotic mutants of legume plants defective in nodulation have also been shown to be mutants related to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. The origin of the AM symbiosis can be traced back to the early land plants. It has therefore been postulated that the older system of AM symbiosis was partially incorporated into the newer system of legume-rhizobium symbiosis. To unravel the genetic basis of the establishment of AM symbiosis, we screened about 34,000 plants derived from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized Lotus japonicus seeds by microscopic observation. As a result, three lines (ME778, ME966 and ME2329) were isolated as AM-specific mutants that exhibit clear AM-defective phenotypes but form normal effective root nodules with rhizobial infection. In the ME2329 mutant, AM fungi spread their hyphae into the intercellular space of the cortex and formed trunk hyphae in the cortical cells, but the development of fine branches in the arbuscules was arrested. The ME2329 mutant carried a nonsense mutation in the STR-homolog gene, implying that the line may be an str mutant in L. japonicus. On the ME778 and ME966 mutant roots, the entry of AM fungal hyphae was blocked between two adjacent epidermal cells. Occasionally, hyphal colonization accompanied by arbuscules was observed in the two mutants. The genes responsible for the ME778 and ME966 mutants were independently located on chromosome 2. These results suggest that the ME778 and ME966 lines are symbiotic mutants involved in the early stage of AM formation in L. japonicus.

  5. Heterogeneity in the expression and subcellular localization of POLYOL/MONOSACCHARIDE TRANSPORTER genes in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lu; Liu, Leru; Yin, Yehu; Huang, Mingchao; Chen, Yanbo; Xu, Xinlan; Wu, Pingzhi; Li, Meiru; Wu, Guojiang; Jiang, Huawu; Chen, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Polyols can serve as a means for the translocation of carbon skeletons and energy between source and sink organs as well as being osmoprotective solutes and antioxidants which may be involved in the resistance of some plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. Polyol/Monosaccharide transporter (PLT) proteins previously identified in plants are involved in the loading of polyols into the phloem and are reported to be located in the plasma membrane. The functions of PLT proteins in leguminous plants are not yet clear. In this study, a total of 14 putative PLT genes (LjPLT1-14) were identified in the genome of Lotus japonicus and divided into 4 clades based on phylogenetic analysis. Different patterns of expression of LjPLT genes in various tissues were validated by qRT-PCR analysis. Four genes (LjPLT3, 4, 11, and 14) from clade II were expressed at much higher levels in nodule than in other tissues. Moreover, three of these genes (LjPLT3, 4, and 14) showed significantly increased expression in roots after inoculation with Mesorhizobium loti. Three genes (LjPLT1, 3, and 9) responded when salinity and/or osmotic stresses were applied to L. japonicus. Transient expression of GFP-LjPLT fusion constructs in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts indicated that the LjPLT1, LjPLT6 and LjPLT7 proteins are localized to the plasma membrane, but LjPLT2 (clade IV), LjPLT3, 4, 5 (clade II) and LjPLT8 (clade III) proteins possibly reside in the Golgi apparatus. The results suggest that members of the LjPLT gene family may be involved in different biological processes, several of which may potentially play roles in nodulation in this nitrogen-fixing legume.

  6. An Unusual Intrinsically Disordered Protein from the Model Legume Lotus japonicus Stabilizes Proteins in Vitro*

    PubMed Central

    Haaning, Svend; Radutoiu, Simona; Hoffmann, Søren V.; Dittmer, Jens; Giehm, Lise; Otzen, Daniel E.; Stougaard, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsic structural disorder is a prevalent feature of proteins with chaperone activity. Using a complementary set of techniques, we have structurally characterized LjIDP1 (intrinsically disordered protein 1) from the model legume Lotus japonicus, and our results provide the first structural characterization of a member of the Lea5 protein family (PF03242). Contrary to in silico predictions, we show that LjIDP1 is intrinsically disordered and probably exists as an ensemble of conformations with limited residual β-sheet, turn/loop, and polyproline II secondary structure. Furthermore, we show that LjIDP1 has an inherent propensity to undergo a large conformational shift, adopting a largely α-helical structure when it is dehydrated and in the presence of different detergents and alcohols. This is consistent with an overrepresentation of order-promoting residues in LjIDP1 compared with the average of intrinsically disordered proteins. In line with functioning as a chaperone, we show that LjIDP1 effectively prevents inactivation of two model enzymes under conditions that promote protein misfolding and aggregation. The LjIdp1 gene is expressed in all L. japonicus tissues tested. A higher expression level was found in the root tip proximal zone, in roots inoculated with compatible endosymbiotic M. loti, and in functional nitrogen-fixing root nodules. We suggest that the ability of LjIDP1 to prevent protein misfolding and aggregation may play a significant role in tissues, such as symbiotic root nodules, which are characterized by high metabolic activity. PMID:18779323

  7. Two putative-aquaporin genes are differentially expressed during arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) are widespread symbioses that provide great advantages to the plant, improving its nutritional status and allowing the fungus to complete its life cycle. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms that lead to the development of AM symbiosis are not yet fully deciphered. Here, we have focused on two putative aquaporin genes, LjNIP1 and LjXIP1, which resulted to be upregulated in a transcriptomic analysis performed on mycorrhizal roots of Lotus japonicus. Results A phylogenetic analysis has shown that the two putative aquaporins belong to different functional families: NIPs and XIPs. Transcriptomic experiments have shown the independence of their expression from their nutritional status but also a close correlation with mycorrhizal and rhizobial interaction. Further transcript quantification has revealed a good correlation between the expression of one of them, LjNIP1, and LjPT4, the phosphate transporter which is considered a marker gene for mycorrhizal functionality. By using laser microdissection, we have demonstrated that one of the two genes, LjNIP1, is expressed exclusively in arbuscule-containing cells. LjNIP1, in agreement with its putative role as an aquaporin, is capable of transferring water when expressed in yeast protoplasts. Confocal analysis have demonstrated that eGFP-LjNIP1, under its endogenous promoter, accumulates in the inner membrane system of arbusculated cells. Conclusions Overall, the results have shown different functionality and expression specificity of two mycorrhiza-inducible aquaporins in L. japonicus. One of them, LjNIP1 can be considered a novel molecular marker of mycorrhizal status at different developmental stages of the arbuscule. At the same time, LjXIP1 results to be the first XIP family aquaporin to be transcriptionally regulated during symbiosis. PMID:23046713

  8. ROP6 is involved in root hair deformation induced by Nod factors in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Ke, Danxia; Li, Xiangyong; Han, Yapeng; Cheng, Lin; Yuan, Hongyu; Wang, Lei

    2016-11-01

    Roots of leguminous plants perceive Nod factor signals, and then root hair deformation responses such as swelling and curling are activated. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms of such root hair deformation. We have previously shown that LjROP6, a member of the Rho family of small GTPases, was identified as an NFR5 (Nod Factor Receptor 5)-interacting protein and participated in symbiotic nodulation in Lotus japonicus. In this study, we identified ten LjROP GTPases including LjROP6, and they were distributed into groups II, III, IV but not group I by phylogenetic analysis. The expression profiles of ten LjROP genes during nodulation were examined. LjROP6 belonged to group IV and interacted with NFR5 in a GTP-dependent manner. Overexpression of either wild-type ROP6 or a constitutively active mutant (ROP6-CA) generated root hair tip growth depolarization, while overexpression of a dominant negative mutant (ROP6-DN) exhibited normal root hair growth. After inoculating with Mesorhizobium loti or adding Nod factors to hairy roots, overexpression of ROP6 and ROP6-CA exhibited extensive root hair deformation, while overexpression of ROP6-DN inhibited root hair deformation. The infection event and nodule number were increased in ROP6 and ROP6-CA overexpressing transgenic plants; but decreased in ROP6-DN overexpressing transgenic plants. These studies provide strong evidence that ROP6 GTPase, which binds NFR5 in a GTP-dependent manner, is involved in root hair development as well as root hair deformation responses induced by NFs in the early stage of symbiotic interaction in L. japonicus.

  9. Polymorphisms of E1 and GIGANTEA in wild populations of Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Tomomi; Oh, Hana; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Harada, Kyuya; Sato, Shusei; Ikeda, Hajime; Setoguchi, Hiroaki; Hiroaki, Setoguchi

    2014-11-01

    In plants, timing of flowering is an essential factor that controls the survival rates of descendants. The circadian clock genes E1 and GIGANTEA (GI) play a central role in transmitting signals to flowering locus T (FT) in leguminous plants. Lotus japonicus is a wild Japanese species that ranges from northern Hokkaido to the southern Ryukyus and exhibits a wide range in terms of the time between seeding and first flowering. In this study, we first identified LjGI and analyzed polymorphisms of LjE1 and LjGI among wild populations covering the entire distribution range of this species in Japan. LjGI had a coding sequence (CDS) length of 3495 bp and included 14 exons. The homologies of DNA and amino acid sequences between LjGI and GmGI were 89 and 88% (positive rate was 92%), respectively. LjE1 harbored five nucleic acid changes in a 552 bp CDS, all of which were nonsynonymous; four of the changes were located in the core function area. LjE1 alleles exhibited partial north-south differentiation and non-neutrality. In contrast, the LjGI harbored one synonymous and one nonsynonymous change. Thus, our study suggests that LjE1 may be involved in the control of flowering times, whereas LjGI may be under strong purifying selection.

  10. A novel ABA insensitive mutant of Lotus japonicus with a wilty phenotype displays unaltered nodulation regulation.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Bandana; Chan, Pick Kuen; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2009-05-01

    An ABA insensitive mutant, Beyma, was isolated in Lotus japonicus MG-20 from an EMS mutagenesis population using root growth inhibition to applied ABA as the screening criterion. (The name 'Beyma' was taken from the Australian Aboriginal language, Wagiman, beyma, meaning 'drying up'.) The stable mutant that segregates as a dominant Mendelian mutation is insensitive to ABA induced inhibition of germination, vegetative growth, stomatal opening, as well as nodulation. Tissue ABA levels were normal, suggesting a sensitivity rather than biosynthesis mutation. It is slow-growing (50-70% of wild-type MG-20) and has a near-constitutive wilty phenotype associated with its inability to regulate stomatal opening. Whilst showing a wide range of ABA insensitive phenotypes, Beyma did not show alteration of nodule number control, as, in the absence of added ABA, the number and patterning (but not size) of nodules formed in the mutant were similar to that of MG-20. Split root experiments on MG-20 showed that application of ABA on one side of the root inhibited nodulation locally but not systemically. We propose that ABA is not involved directly in systemic autoregulation of nodulation (AON).

  11. Proteome Analysis. Novel Proteins Identified at the Peribacteroid Membrane from Lotus japonicus Root Nodules1

    PubMed Central

    Wienkoop, Stefanie; Saalbach, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    The peribacteroid membrane (PBM) forms the structural and functional interface between the legume plant and the rhizobia. The model legume Lotus japonicus was chosen to study the proteins present at the PBM by proteome analysis. PBM was purified from root nodules by an aqueous polymer two-phase system. Extracted proteins were subjected to a global trypsin digest. The peptides were separated by nanoscale liquid chromatography and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Searching the nonredundant protein database and the green plant expressed sequence tag database using the tandem mass spectrometry data identified approximately 94 proteins, a number far exceeding the number of proteins reported for the PBM hitherto. In particular, a number of membrane proteins like transporters for sugars and sulfate; endomembrane-associated proteins such as GTP-binding proteins and vesicle receptors; and proteins involved in signaling, for example, receptor kinases, calmodulin, 14-3-3 proteins, and pathogen response-related proteins, including a so-called HIR protein, were detected. Several ATPases and aquaporins were present, indicating a more complex situation than previously thought. In addition, the unexpected presence of a number of proteins known to be located in other compartments was observed. Two characteristic protein complexes obtained from native gel electrophoresis of total PBM proteins were also analyzed. Together, the results identified specific proteins at the PBM involved in important physiological processes and localized proteins known from nodule-specific expressed sequence tag databases to the PBM. PMID:12644660

  12. Mutagenic effects of carbon ion beam irradiations on dry Lotus japonicus seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shanwei; Zhou, Libin; Li, Wenjian; Du, Yan; Yu, Lixia; Feng, Hui; Mu, Jinhu; Chen, Yuze

    2016-09-01

    Carbon ion beam irradiation is a powerful method for creating mutants and has been used in crop breeding more and more. To investigate the effects of carbon ion beams on Lotus japonicus, dry seeds were irradiated by 80 MeV/u carbon ion beam at dosages of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 Gy. The germination rate, survival rate and root length of M1 populations were explored and the dose of 400 Gy was selected as the median lethal dose (LD50) for a large-scale mutant screening. Among 2472 M2 plants, 127 morphological mutants including leaf, stem, flower and fruit phenotypic variation were found, and the mutation frequency was approximately 5.14%. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) assays were utilized to investigate the DNA polymorphism between seven mutants and eight plants without phenotypic variation from M2 populations. No remarkable differences were detected between these two groups, and the total polymorphic rate was 0.567%.

  13. Quantitative trait locus analysis of symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Akiyoshi; Gondo, Takahiro; Akashi, Ryo; Zheng, Shao-Hui; Arima, Susumu; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2012-05-01

    Many legumes form nitrogen-fixing root nodules. An elevation of nitrogen fixation in such legumes would have significant implications for plant growth and biomass production in agriculture. To identify the genetic basis for the regulation of nitrogen fixation, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted with recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross Miyakojima MG-20 × Gifu B-129 in the model legume Lotus japonicus. This population was inoculated with Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 and grown for 14 days in pods containing vermiculite. Phenotypic data were collected for acetylene reduction activity (ARA) per plant (ARA/P), ARA per nodule weight (ARA/NW), ARA per nodule number (ARA/NN), NN per plant, NW per plant, stem length (SL), SL without inoculation (SLbac-), shoot dry weight without inoculation (SWbac-), root length without inoculation (RLbac-), and root dry weight (RWbac-), and finally 34 QTLs were identified. ARA/P, ARA/NN, NW, and SL showed strong correlations and QTL co-localization, suggesting that several plant characteristics important for symbiotic nitrogen fixation are controlled by the same locus. QTLs for ARA/P, ARA/NN, NW, and SL, co-localized around marker TM0832 on chromosome 4, were also co-localized with previously reported QTLs for seed mass. This is the first report of QTL analysis for symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity traits.

  14. Identification of nutrient and physical seed trait QTL in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Klein, Melinda A; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-08-01

    Legume seeds have the potential to provide a significant portion of essential micronutrients to the human diet. To identify the genetic basis for seed nutrient density, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted with the Miyakojima MG-20 x Gifu B-129 recombinant inbred population from the model legume Lotus japonicus. This population was grown to seed under greenhouse conditions in 2006 and 2007. Phenotypic data were collected for seed calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn) concentrations and content. Data for physical seed traits (average seed mass and seed-pod allocation values) were also collected. Based on these phenotypic data, QTL analyses identified 103 QTL linked to 55 different molecular markers. Transgressive segregation, identified within this recombinant inbred population for both seed nutrient and physical traits, suggests new allelic combinations are available for agronomic trait improvement. QTL co-localization was also seen, suggesting that common transport processes might contribute to seed nutrient loading. Identification of loci involved in seed mineral density can be an important first step in identifying the genetic factors and, consequently, the physiological processes involved in mineral distribution to developing seeds. Longer term research efforts will focus on facilitating agronomic breeding efforts through ortholog identification in related crop legumes.

  15. Down-regulated Lotus japonicus GCR1 plants exhibit nodulation signalling pathways alteration.

    PubMed

    Rogato, Alessandra; Valkov, Vladimir Totev; Alves, Ludovico Martins; Apone, Fabio; Colucci, Gabriella; Chiurazzi, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    G Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCRs) are integral membrane proteins involved in various signalling pathways by perceiving many extracellular signals and transducing them to heterotrimeric G proteins, which further transduce these signals to intracellular downstream effectors. GCR1 is the only reliable plant candidate as a member of the GPCRs superfamily. In the legume/rhizobia symbiotic interaction, G proteins are involved in signalling pathways controlling different steps of the nodulation program. In order to investigate the putative hierarchic role played by GCR1 in these symbiotic pathways we identified and characterized the Lotus japonicus gene encoding the seven transmembrane GCR1 protein. The detailed molecular and topological analyses of LjGCR1 expression patterns that are presented suggest a possible involvement in the early steps of nodule organogenesis. Furthermore, phenotypic analyses of independent transgenic RNAi lines, showing a significant LjGCR1 expression down regulation, suggest an epistatic action in the control of molecular markers of nodulation pathways, although no macroscopic symbiotic phenotypes could be revealed.

  16. Lotus japonicus symRK-14 uncouples the cortical and epidermal symbiotic program.

    PubMed

    Kosuta, Sonja; Held, Mark; Hossain, Md Shakhawat; Morieri, Giulia; Macgillivary, Amanda; Johansen, Christopher; Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell; Parniske, Martin; Oldroyd, Giles E D; Downie, Allan J; Karas, Bogumil; Szczyglowski, Krzysztof

    2011-09-01

    SYMRK is a leucine-rich-repeat (LRR)-receptor kinase that mediates intracellular symbioses of legumes with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. It participates in signalling events that lead to epidermal calcium spiking, an early cellular response that is typically considered as central for intracellular accommodation and nodule organogenesis. Here, we describe the Lotus japonicus symRK-14 mutation that alters a conserved GDPC amino-acid sequence in the SYMRK extracellular domain. Normal infection of the epidermis by fungal or bacterial symbionts was aborted in symRK-14. Likewise, epidermal responses of symRK-14 to bacterial signalling, including calcium spiking, NIN gene expression and infection thread formation, were significantly reduced. In contrast, no major negative effects on the formation of nodule primordia and cortical infection were detected. Cumulatively, our data show that the symRK-14 mutation uncouples the epidermal and cortical symbiotic program, while indicating that the SYMRK extracellular domain participates in transduction of non-equivalent signalling events. The GDPC sequence was found to be highly conserved in LRR-receptor kinases in legumes and non-legumes, including the evolutionarily distant bryophytes. Conservation of the GDPC sequence in nearly one-fourth of LRR-receptor-like kinases in the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana suggests, however, that this sequence might also play an important non-symbiotic function in this plant.

  17. The integral membrane protein SEN1 is required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in Lotus japonicus nodules.

    PubMed

    Hakoyama, Tsuneo; Niimi, Kaori; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Isobe, Sawa; Sato, Shusei; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Kumagai, Hirotaka; Umehara, Yosuke; Brossuleit, Katja; Petersen, Thomas R; Sandal, Niels; Stougaard, Jens; Udvardi, Michael K; Tamaoki, Masanori; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Kouchi, Hiroshi; Suganuma, Norio

    2012-01-01

    Legume plants establish a symbiotic association with bacteria called rhizobia, resulting in the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. A Lotus japonicus symbiotic mutant, sen1, forms nodules that are infected by rhizobia but that do not fix nitrogen. Here, we report molecular identification of the causal gene, SEN1, by map-based cloning. The SEN1 gene encodes an integral membrane protein homologous to Glycine max nodulin-21, and also to CCC1, a vacuolar iron/manganese transporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and VIT1, a vacuolar iron transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of the SEN1 gene was detected exclusively in nodule-infected cells and increased during nodule development. Nif gene expression as well as the presence of nitrogenase proteins was detected in rhizobia from sen1 nodules, although the levels of expression were low compared with those from wild-type nodules. Microscopic observations revealed that symbiosome and/or bacteroid differentiation are impaired in the sen1 nodules even at a very early stage of nodule development. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that SEN1 belongs to a protein clade specific to legumes. These results indicate that SEN1 is essential for nitrogen fixation activity and symbiosome/bacteroid differentiation in legume nodules.

  18. Recent Progress in Development of Tnt1 Functional Genomics Platform for Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Revalska, Miglena; Vassileva, Valya; Goormachtig, Sofie; Van Hautegem, Tom; Ratet, Pascal; Iantcheva, Anelia

    2011-04-01

    Legumes, as protein-rich crops, are widely used for human food, animal feed and vegetable oil production. Over the past decade, two legume species, Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, have been adopted as model legumes for genomics and physiological studies. The tobacco transposable element, Tnt1, is a powerful tool for insertional mutagenesis and gene inactivation in plants. A large collection of Tnt1-tagged lines of M. truncatula cv. Jemalong was generated during the course of the project 'GLIP': Grain Legumes Integrated Project, funded by the European Union (www.eugrainlegumes.org). In the project 'IFCOSMO': Integrated Functional and COmparative genomics Studies on the MOdel Legumes Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, supported by a grant from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Science, Bulgaria, these lines are used for development of functional genomics platform of legumes in Bulgaria. This review presents recent advances in the evaluation of the M. truncatula Tnt1 mutant collection and outlines the steps that are taken in using the Tnt1-tagging for generation of a mutant collection of the second model legume L. japonicus. Both collections will provide a number of legume-specific mutants and serve as a resource for functional and comparative genomics research on legumes. Genomics technologies are expected to advance genetics and breeding of important legume crops (pea, faba bean, alfalfa and clover) in Bulgaria and worldwide.

  19. NODULE INCEPTION Directly Targets NF-Y Subunit Genes to Regulate Essential Processes of Root Nodule Development in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Soyano, Takashi; Kouchi, Hiroshi; Hirota, Atsuko; Hayashi, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The interactions of legumes with symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria cause the formation of specialized lateral root organs called root nodules. It has been postulated that this root nodule symbiosis system has recruited factors that act in early signaling pathways (common SYM genes) partly from the ancestral mycorrhizal symbiosis. However, the origins of factors needed for root nodule organogenesis are largely unknown. NODULE INCEPTION (NIN) is a nodulation-specific gene that encodes a putative transcription factor and acts downstream of the common SYM genes. Here, we identified two Nuclear Factor-Y (NF-Y) subunit genes, LjNF-YA1 and LjNF-YB1, as transcriptional targets of NIN in Lotus japonicus. These genes are expressed in root nodule primordia and their translational products interact in plant cells, indicating that they form an NF-Y complex in root nodule primordia. The knockdown of LjNF-YA1 inhibited root nodule organogenesis, as did the loss of function of NIN. Furthermore, we found that NIN overexpression induced root nodule primordium-like structures that originated from cortical cells in the absence of bacterial symbionts. Thus, NIN is a crucial factor responsible for initiating nodulation-specific symbiotic processes. In addition, ectopic expression of either NIN or the NF-Y subunit genes caused abnormal cell division during lateral root development. This indicated that the Lotus NF-Y subunits can function to stimulate cell division. Thus, transcriptional regulation by NIN, including the activation of the NF-Y subunit genes, induces cortical cell division, which is an initial step in root nodule organogenesis. Unlike the legume-specific NIN protein, NF-Y is a major CCAAT box binding protein complex that is widespread among eukaryotes. We propose that the evolution of root nodules in legume plants was associated with changes in the function of NIN. NIN has acquired functions that allow it to divert pathways involved in the regulation of cell division to

  20. Biosynthesis of the Nitrile Glucosides Rhodiocyanoside A and D and the Cyanogenic Glucosides Lotaustralin and Linamarin in Lotus japonicus1

    PubMed Central

    Forslund, Karin; Morant, Marc; Jørgensen, Bodil; Olsen, Carl Erik; Asamizu, Erika; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Bak, Søren

    2004-01-01

    Lotus japonicus was shown to contain the two nitrile glucosides rhodiocyanoside A and rhodiocyanoside D as well as the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin. The content of cyanogenic and nitrile glucosides in L. japonicus depends on plant developmental stage and tissue. The cyanide potential is highest in young seedlings and in apical leaves of mature plants. Roots and seeds are acyanogenic. Biosynthetic studies using radioisotopes demonstrated that lotaustralin, rhodiocyanoside A, and rhodiocyanoside D are derived from the amino acid l-Ile, whereas linamarin is derived from Val. In silico homology searches identified two cytochromes P450 designated CYP79D3 and CYP79D4 in L. japonicus. The two cytochromes P450 are 94% identical at the amino acid level and both catalyze the conversion of Val and Ile to the corresponding aldoximes in biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides and nitrile glucosides in L. japonicus. CYP79D3 and CYP79D4 are differentially expressed. CYP79D3 is exclusively expressed in aerial parts and CYP79D4 in roots. Recombinantly expressed CYP79D3 and CYP79D4 in yeast cells showed higher catalytic efficiency with l-Ile as substrate than with l-Val, in agreement with lotaustralin and rhodiocyanoside A and D being the major cyanogenic and nitrile glucosides in L. japonicus. Ectopic expression of CYP79D2 from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) in L. japonicus resulted in a 5- to 20-fold increase of linamarin content, whereas the relative amounts of lotaustralin and rhodiocyanoside A/D were unaltered. PMID:15122013

  1. Glutamine synthetase I-deficiency in Mesorhizobium loti differentially affects nodule development and activity in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Chungopast, Sirinapa; Thapanapongworakul, Pilunthana; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Van Dao, Tan; Asahi, Toshimasa; Tada, Kuninao; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Nomura, Mika

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we focused on the effect of glutamine synthetase (GSI) activity in Mesorhizobium loti on the symbiosis between the host plant, Lotus japonicus, and the bacteroids. We used a signature-tagged mutant of M. loti (STM30) with a transposon inserted into the GSI (mll0343) gene. The L. japonicus plants inoculated with STM30 had significantly more nodules, and the occurrence of senesced nodules was much higher than in plants inoculated with the wild-type. The acetylene reduction activity (ARA) per nodule inoculated with STM30 was lowered compared to the control. Also, the concentration of chlorophyll, glutamine, and asparagine in leaves of STM30-infected plants was found to be reduced. Taken together, these data demonstrate that a GSI deficiency in M. loti differentially affects legume-rhizobia symbiosis by modifying nodule development and metabolic processes.

  2. The K+-dependent asparaginase, NSE1, is crucial for plant growth and seed production in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Credali, Alfredo; García-Calderón, Margarita; Dam, Svend; Perry, Jillian; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio; Parniske, Martin; Wang, Trevor L; Stougaard, Jens; Vega, José M; Márquez, Antonio J

    2013-01-01

    The physiological role of K(+)-dependent and K(+)-independent asparaginases in plants remains unclear, and the contribution from individual isoforms during development is poorly understood. We have used reverse genetics to assess the phenotypes produced by the deficiency of K(+)-dependent NSE1 asparaginase in the model legume Lotus japonicus. For this purpose, four different mutants were identified by TILLING and characterized, two of which affected the structure and function of the asparaginase molecule and caused asparagine accumulation. Plant growth and total seed weight of mature mutant seeds as well as the level of both legumin and convicilin seed storage proteins were affected in the mutants. The mutants isolated in the present work are the first of their type in legumes and have enabled us to demonstrate the importance of asparagine and K(+)-dependent NSE1 asparaginase for nitrogen remobilization and seed production in L. japonicus plants.

  3. Lotus japonicus flowers are defended by a cyanogenic β-glucosidase with highly restricted expression to essential reproductive organs.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daniela; Pičmanová, Martina; Abou Hachem, Maher; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Rook, Fred; Takos, Adam M

    2015-09-01

    Flowers and leaves of Lotus japonicus contain α-, β-, and γ-hydroxynitrile glucoside (HNG) defense compounds, which are bioactivated by β-glucosidase enzymes (BGDs). The α-HNGs are referred to as cyanogenic glucosides because their hydrolysis upon tissue disruption leads to release of toxic hydrogen cyanide gas, which can deter herbivore feeding. BGD2 and BGD4 are HNG metabolizing BGD enzymes expressed in leaves. Only BGD2 is able to hydrolyse the α-HNGs. Loss of function mutants of BGD2 are acyanogenic in leaves but fully retain cyanogenesis in flowers pointing to the existence of an alternative cyanogenic BGD in flowers. This enzyme, named BGD3, is identified and characterized in this study. Whereas all floral tissues contain α-HNGs, only those tissues in which BGD3 is expressed, the keel and the enclosed reproductive organs, are cyanogenic. Biochemical analysis, active site architecture molecular modelling, and the observation that L. japonicus accessions lacking cyanogenic flowers contain a non-functional BGD3 gene, all support the key role of BGD3 in floral cyanogenesis. The nectar of L. japonicus flowers was also found to contain HNGs and additionally their diglycosides. The observed specialisation in HNG based defence in L. japonicus flowers is discussed in the context of balancing the attraction of pollinators with the protection of reproductive structures against herbivores.

  4. CERBERUS and NSP1 of Lotus japonicus are common symbiosis genes that modulate arbuscular mycorrhiza development.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Naoya; Tsuzuki, Syusaku; Suzaki, Takuya; Parniske, Martin; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2013-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis (AMS) and root nodule symbiosis (RNS) are mutualistic plant-microbe interactions that confer nutritional benefits to both partners. Leguminous plants possess a common genetic system for intracellular symbiosis with AM fungi and with rhizobia. Here we show that CERBERUS and NSP1, which respectively encode an E3 ubiquitin ligase and a GRAS transcriptional regulator and which have previously only been implicated in RNS, are involved in AM fungal infection in Lotus japonicus. Hyphal elongation along the longitudinal axis of the root was reduced in the cerberus mutant, giving rise to a lower colonization level. Knockout of NSP1 decreased the frequency of plants colonized by AM fungi or rhizobia. CERBERUS and NSP1 showed different patterns of expression in response to infection with symbiotic microbes. A low constitutive level of CERBERUS expression was observed in the root and an increased level of NSP1 expression was detected in arbuscule-containing cells. Induction of AM marker gene was triggered in both cerberus and nsp1 mutants by infection with symbiotic microbes; however, the mutants showed a weaker induction of marker gene expression than the wild type, mirroring their lower level of colonization. The common symbiosis genes are believed to act in an early signaling pathway for recognition of symbionts and for triggering early symbiotic responses. Our quantitative analysis of symbiotic phenotypes revealed developmental defects of the novel common symbiosis mutants in both symbioses, which demonstrates that common symbiosis mechanisms also contribute to a range of functions at later or different stages of symbiont infection.

  5. Reassimilation of Photorespiratory Ammonium in Lotus japonicus Plants Deficient in Plastidic Glutamine Synthetase.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M; García-Calderón, Margarita; Márquez, Antonio J; Betti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the plastidic isoform of glutamine synthetase (GS2) is the enzyme in charge of photorespiratory ammonium reassimilation in plants. The metabolic events associated to photorespiratory NH4(+) accumulation were analyzed in a Lotus japonicus photorespiratory mutant lacking GS2. The mutant plants accumulated high levels of NH4(+) when photorespiration was active, followed by a sudden drop in the levels of this compound. In this paper it was examined the possible existence of enzymatic pathways alternative to GS2 that could account for this decline in the photorespiratory ammonium. Induction of genes encoding for cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and asparagine synthetase (ASN) was observed in the mutant in correspondence with the diminishment of NH4(+). Measurements of gene expression, polypeptide levels, enzyme activity and metabolite levels were carried out in leaf samples from WT and mutant plants after different periods of time under active photorespiratory conditions. In the case of asparagine synthetase it was not possible to determine enzyme activity and polypeptide content; however, an increased asparagine content in parallel with the induction of ASN gene expression was detected in the mutant plants. This increase in asparagine levels took place concomitantly with an increase in glutamine due to the induction of cytosolic GS1 in the mutant, thus revealing a major role of cytosolic GS1 in the reassimilation and detoxification of photorespiratory NH4(+) when the plastidic GS2 isoform is lacking. Moreover, a diminishment in glutamate levels was observed, that may be explained by the induction of NAD(H)-dependent GDH activity.

  6. Knockdown of LjIPT3 influences nodule development in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaping; Chen, Wei; Li, Xueliu; Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Pingzhi; Xia, Kuaifei; Yang, Yali; Wu, Guojiang

    2014-01-01

    Cytokinins play important roles in legume-rhizobia symbiosis. Here we report isolation of six genes encoding isopentenyl transferase (IPT) from Lotus japonicus, which catalyze the rate-limiting step of cytokinin biosynthesis. The LjIPT3 gene was found to be up-regulated in infected roots and mature nodules. Histochemical analysis demonstrated expression of Pro(LjIPT3):GUS (β-glucuronidase) in vegetative and reproductive organs, and was especially high in the vascular bundles of roots. When inoculated with Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099, LjIPT3 was undetectable in the nodule primordia and developing nodules, and later it was expressed only in the vascular bundles of mature nodules. In addition, knockdown of LjIPT3 (LjIPT3i) by RNA interference reduced levels of endogenous cytokinins, affected plant development and accelerated Chl degradation during dark-induced leaf senescence. Compared with the wild type, LjIPT3i plants produced fewer infection threads and nodules. In addition, expression of downstream nodulation-related transcription factor genes LjNSP1, LjNSP2 and LjNIN decreased dramatically in LjIPT3i plants. These results suggest that LjIPT3 regulates the CRE1-dependent cytokinin pathway, affecting nodule initiation and thereby influencing the number of infection threads and nodules. Detection of nitrogenase activity and observation of nodule structure showed that endogenous cytokinins are required for full development of the infected cells in mature nodules by preventing early senescence. Therefore, our results indicate that the LjIPT3 gene product is required for nodule initiation and development, and does not appear to be involved in early infection events.

  7. Functional characterization of an unusual phytochelatin synthase, LjPCS3, of Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Javier; Naya, Loreto; Gay, Marina; Abián, Joaquín; Becana, Manuel

    2008-09-01

    In plants and many other organisms, phytochelatin synthase (PCS) catalyzes the synthesis of phytochelatins from glutathione in the presence of certain metals and metalloids. We have used budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a heterologous system to characterize two PCS proteins, LjPCS1 and LjPCS3, of the model legume Lotus japonicus. Initial experiments revealed that the metal tolerance of yeast cells in vivo depends on the concentrations of divalent cations in the growth medium. Detailed in vivo (intact cells) and in vitro (broken cells) assays of PCS activity were performed with yeast expressing the plant enzymes, and values of phytochelatin production for each metal tested were normalized with respect to those of cadmium to correct for the lower expression level of LjPCS3. Our results showed that lead was the best activator of LjPCS1 in the in vitro assay, whereas, for both assays, arsenic, iron, and aluminum were better activators of LjPCS3 and mercury was similarly active with the two enzymes. Most interestingly, zinc was a powerful activator, especially of LjPCS3, when assayed in vivo, whereas copper and silver were the strongest activators in the in vitro assay. We conclude that the in vivo and in vitro assays are useful and complementary to assess the response of LjPCS1 and LjPCS3 to a wide range of metals and that the differences in the C-terminal domains of the two proteins are responsible for their distinct expression levels or stabilities in heterologous systems and patterns of metal activation.

  8. Peroxiredoxins and NADPH-dependent thioredoxin systems in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Méndez, Alejandro; Matamoros, Manuel A; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Cejudo, Francisco Javier; Rouhier, Nicolas; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Becana, Manuel

    2011-07-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), thioredoxins (Trxs), and NADPH-thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) constitute central elements of the thiol-disulfide redox regulatory network of plant cells. This study provides a comprehensive survey of this network in the model legume Lotus japonicus. The aims were to identify and characterize these gene families and to assess whether the NTR-Trx systems are operative in nodules. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunological and proteomic approaches were used for expression profiling. We identified seven Prx, 14 Trx, and three NTR functional genes. The PrxQ1 gene was found to be transcribed in two alternative spliced variants and to be expressed at high levels in leaves, stems, petals, pods, and seeds and at low levels in roots and nodules. The 1CPrx gene showed very high expression in the seed embryos and low expression in vegetative tissues and was induced by nitric oxide and cytokinins. In sharp contrast, cytokinins down-regulated all other Prx genes, except PrxQ1, in roots and nodules, but only 2CPrxA and PrxQ1 in leaves. Gene-specific changes in Prx expression were also observed in response to ethylene, abscisic acid, and auxins. Nodules contain significant mRNA and protein amounts of cytosolic PrxIIB, Trxh1, and NTRA and of plastidic NTRC. Likewise, they express cytosolic Trxh3, Trxh4, Trxh8, and Trxh9, mitochondrial PrxIIF and Trxo, and plastidic Trxm2, Trxm4, and ferredoxin-Trx reductase. These findings reveal a complex regulation of Prxs that is dependent on the isoform, tissue, and signaling molecule and support that redox NTR-Trx systems are functional in the cytosol, mitochondria, and plastids of nodules.

  9. Endoreduplication-mediated initiation of symbiotic organ development in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Suzaki, Takuya; Ito, Momoyo; Yoro, Emiko; Sato, Shusei; Hirakawa, Hideki; Takeda, Naoya; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2014-06-01

    Many leguminous plants have a unique ability to reset and alter the fate of differentiated root cortical cells to form new organs of nitrogen-fixing root nodules during legume-Rhizobium symbiosis. Recent genetic studies on the role of cytokinin signaling reveal that activation of cytokinin signaling is crucial to the nodule organogenesis process. However, the genetic mechanism underlying the initiation of nodule organogenesis is poorly understood due to the low number of genes that have been identified. Here, we have identified a novel nodulation-deficient mutant named vagrant infection thread 1 (vag1) after suppressor mutant screening of spontaneous nodule formation 2, a cytokinin receptor gain-of-function mutant in Lotus japonicus. The VAG1 gene encodes a protein that is putatively orthologous to Arabidopsis ROOT HAIRLESS 1/HYPOCOTYL 7, a component of the plant DNA topoisomerase VI that is involved in the control of endoreduplication. Nodule phenotype of the vag1 mutant shows that VAG1 is required for the ploidy-dependent cell growth of rhizobial-infected cells. Furthermore, VAG1 mediates the onset of endoreduplication in cortical cells during early nodule development, which may be essential for the initiation of cortical cell proliferation that leads to nodule primordium formation. In addition, cortical infection is severely impaired in the vag1 mutants, whereas the epidermal infection threads formation is normal. This suggests that the VAG1-mediated endoreduplication of cortical cells may be required for the guidance of symbiotic bacteria to host meristematic cells. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Reassimilation of Photorespiratory Ammonium in Lotus japonicus Plants Deficient in Plastidic Glutamine Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M.; García-Calderón, Margarita; Márquez, Antonio J.; Betti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the plastidic isoform of glutamine synthetase (GS2) is the enzyme in charge of photorespiratory ammonium reassimilation in plants. The metabolic events associated to photorespiratory NH4+ accumulation were analyzed in a Lotus japonicus photorespiratory mutant lacking GS2. The mutant plants accumulated high levels of NH4+ when photorespiration was active, followed by a sudden drop in the levels of this compound. In this paper it was examined the possible existence of enzymatic pathways alternative to GS2 that could account for this decline in the photorespiratory ammonium. Induction of genes encoding for cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and asparagine synthetase (ASN) was observed in the mutant in correspondence with the diminishment of NH4+. Measurements of gene expression, polypeptide levels, enzyme activity and metabolite levels were carried out in leaf samples from WT and mutant plants after different periods of time under active photorespiratory conditions. In the case of asparagine synthetase it was not possible to determine enzyme activity and polypeptide content; however, an increased asparagine content in parallel with the induction of ASN gene expression was detected in the mutant plants. This increase in asparagine levels took place concomitantly with an increase in glutamine due to the induction of cytosolic GS1 in the mutant, thus revealing a major role of cytosolic GS1 in the reassimilation and detoxification of photorespiratory NH4+ when the plastidic GS2 isoform is lacking. Moreover, a diminishment in glutamate levels was observed, that may be explained by the induction of NAD(H)-dependent GDH activity. PMID:26091523

  11. Growth and nitrogen fixation in Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula under NaCl stress: nodule carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    López, Miguel; Herrera-Cervera, Jose A; Iribarne, Carmen; Tejera, Noel A; Lluch, Carmen

    2008-04-18

    Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula model legumes, which form determined and indeterminate nodules, respectively, provide a convenient system to study plant-Rhizobium interaction and to establish differences between the two types of nodules under salt stress conditions. We examined the effects of 25 and 50mM NaCl doses on growth and nitrogen fixation parameters, as well as carbohydrate content and carbon metabolism of M. truncatula and L. japonicus nodules. The leghemoglobin (Lb) content and nitrogen fixation rate (NFR) were approximately 10.0 and 2.0 times higher, respectively, in nodules of L. japonicus when compared with M. truncatula. Plant growth parameters and nitrogenase activity decreased with NaCl treatments in both legumes. Sucrose was the predominant sugar quantified in nodules of both legumes, showing a decrease in concentration in response to salt stress. The content of trehalose was low (less than 2.5% of total soluble sugars (TSS)) to act as an osmolyte in nodules, despite its concentration being increased under saline conditions. Nodule enzyme activities of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) and trehalase (TRE) decreased with salinity. L. japonicus nodule carbon metabolism proved to be less sensitive to salinity than in M. truncatula, as enzymatic activities responsible for the carbon supply to the bacteroids to fuel nitrogen fixation, such as sucrose synthase (SS), alkaline invertase (AI), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), were less affected by salt than the corresponding activities in barrel medics. However, nitrogenase activity was only inhibited by salinity in L. japonicus nodules.

  12. The glutathione peroxidase gene family of Lotus japonicus: characterization of genomic clones, expression analyses and immunolocalization in legumes.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Javier; Matamoros, Manuel A; Naya, Loreto; James, Euan K; Rouhier, Nicolas; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Becana, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Despite the multiple roles played by antioxidants in rhizobia-legume symbioses, little is known about glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) in legumes. Here the characterization of six GPX genes of Lotus japonicus is reported. Expression of GPX genes was analysed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in L. japonicus and Lotus corniculatus plants exposed to various treatments known to generate reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species. LjGPX1 and LjGPX3 were the most abundantly expressed genes in leaves, roots and nodules. Compared with roots, LjGPX1 and LjGPX6 were highly expressed in leaves and LjGPX3 and LjGPX6 in nodules. In roots, salinity decreased GPX4 expression, aluminium decreased expression of the six genes, and cadmium caused up-regulation of GPX3, GPX4 and GPX5 after 1 h and down-regulation of GPX1, GPX2, GPX4 and GPX6 after 3-24 h. Exposure of roots to sodium nitroprusside (a nitric oxide donor) for 1 h increased the mRNA levels of GPX4 and GPX6 by 3.3- and 30-fold, respectively. Thereafter, the GPX6 mRNA level remained consistently higher than that of the control. Immunogold labelling revealed the presence of GPX proteins in root and nodule amyloplasts and in leaf chloroplasts of L. japonicus and other legumes. Labelling was associated with starch grains. These results underscore the differential regulation of GPX expression in response to cadmium, aluminium and nitric oxide, and strongly support a role for GPX6 and possibly other GPX genes in stress and/or metabolic signalling.

  13. Analysis of the Lotus japonicus nuclear pore NUP107-160 subcomplex reveals pronounced structural plasticity and functional redundancy

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Andreas; Parniske, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the Lotus japonicus nucleoporin genes, NUP85, NUP133, and NENA (SEH1), lead to defects in plant-microbe symbiotic signaling. The homologous proteins in yeast and vertebrates are part of the conserved NUP84/NUP107-160 subcomplex, which is an essential component of the nuclear pore scaffold and has a pivotal role in nuclear pore complex (NPC) assembly. Loss and down-regulation of NUP84/NUP107-160 members has previously been correlated with a variety of growth and molecular defects, however, in L. japonicus only surprisingly specific phenotypes have been reported. We investigated whether Lotus nup85, nup133, and nena mutants exhibit general defects in NPC composition and distribution. Whole mount immunolocalization confirmed a typical nucleoporin-like localization for NUP133, which was unchanged in the nup85-1 mutant. Severe NPC clustering and aberrations in the nuclear envelope have been reported for Saccharomyces cerevisiae nup85 and nup133 mutants. However, upon transmission electron microscopy analysis of L. japonicus nup85, nup133 and nena, we detected only a slight reduction in the average distances between neighboring NPCs in nup133. Using quantitative immunodetection on protein-blots we observed that loss of individual nucleoporins affected the protein levels of other NUP107–160 complex members. Unlike the single mutants, nup85/nup133 double mutants exhibited severe temperature dependent growth and developmental defects, suggesting that the loss of more than one NUP107–160 member affects basal functions of the NPC. PMID:24478780

  14. Different strategies of Lotus japonicus, L. corniculatus and L. tenuis to deal with complete submergence at seedling stage.

    PubMed

    Striker, G G; Izaguirre, R F; Manzur, M E; Grimoldi, A A

    2012-01-01

    Two main strategies allow plants to deal with submergence: (i) escape from below water by means of shoot elongation, or (ii) remaining quiescent under the water until water subsides and then resume growth. We investigated these strategies in seedlings of Lotus japonicus, L. corniculatus and L. tenuis subjected to control and submergence for 12 days, with a subsequent 30-day recovery period. All three species survived submergence but used different strategies. Submerged seedlings of L. japonicus exhibited an escape strategy (emerging from water) as a result of preferential carbon allocation towards shoot mass and lengthening, in detriment to root growth. In contrast, seedlings of L. corniculatus and L. tenuis became quiescent, with no biomass accumulation, no new unfolding of leaves and no shoot elongation. Upon de-submergence, seedlings of L. japonicus had the lowest recovery growth (a biomass and shoot height 58% and 40% less than controls, respectively), L. corniculatus was intermediate and L. tenuis showed the greatest recovery growth. Previously submerged seedlings of L. tenuis did not differ from their controls, either in final shoot biomass or shoot height. Thus, for the studied species, quiescence appears to be an adequate strategy for tolerance of short-term (i.e., 12 days) complete submergence, being consistent with field observations of L. tenuis colonisation of flood-prone environments.

  15. A genetic linkage map of the model legume Lotus japonicus and strategies for fast mapping of new loci.

    PubMed Central

    Sandal, Niels; Krusell, Lene; Radutoiu, Simona; Olbryt, Magdalena; Pedrosa, Andrea; Stracke, Silke; Sato, Shusei; Kato, Tomohiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Parniske, Martin; Bachmair, Andreas; Ketelsen, Tina; Stougaard, Jens

    2002-01-01

    A genetic map for the model legume Lotus japonicus has been developed. The F(2) mapping population was established from an interspecific cross between L. japonicus and L. filicaulis. A high level of DNA polymorphism between these parents was the source of markers for linkage analysis and the map is based on a framework of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Additional markers were generated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence-specific PCR. A total of 524 AFLP markers, 3 RAPD markers, 39 gene-specific markers, 33 microsatellite markers, and six recessive symbiotic mutant loci were mapped. This genetic map consists of six linkage groups corresponding to the six chromosomes in L. japonicus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with selected markers aligned the linkage groups to chromosomes as described in the accompanying article by Pedrosa et al. 2002(this issue). The length of the linkage map is 367 cM and the average marker distance is 0.6 cM. Distorted segregation of markers was found in certain sections of the map and linkage group I could be assembled only by combining colormapping and cytogenetics (FISH). A fast method to position genetic loci employing three AFLP primer combinations yielding 89 markers was developed and evaluated by mapping three symbiotic loci, Ljsym1, Ljsym5, and Ljhar1-3. PMID:12196410

  16. Construction of a Lotus japonicus late nodulin expressed sequence tag library and identification of novel nodule-specific genes.

    PubMed Central

    Szczyglowski, K; Hamburger, D; Kapranov, P; de Bruijn, F J

    1997-01-01

    A range of novel expressed sequence tags (ESTs) associated with late developmental events during nodule organogenesis in the legume Lotus japonicus were identified using mRNA differential display; 110 differentially displayed polymerase chain reaction products were cloned and analyzed. Of 88 unique cDNAs obtained, 22 shared significant homology to DNA/protein sequences in the respective databases. This group comprises, among others, a nodule-specific homolog of protein phosphatase 2C, a peptide transporter protein, and a nodule-specific form of cytochrome P450. RNA gel-blot analysis of 16 differentially displayed ESTs confirmed their nodule-specific expression pattern. The kinetics of mRNA accumulation of the majority of the ESTs analyzed were found to resemble the expression pattern observed for the L. japonicus leghemoglobin gene. These results indicate that the newly isolated molecular markers correspond to genes induced during late developmental stages of L. japonicus nodule organogenesis and provide important, novel tools for the study of nodulation. PMID:9276951

  17. Effects of Endogenous Salicylic Acid on Nodulation in the Model Legumes Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula1[W

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Gary; McAlvin, Crystal Bickley; Kim, Sung-Yong; Olivares, José; Soto, María José

    2006-01-01

    The exogenous addition of salicylic acid (SA) was previously shown to inhibit indeterminate but not determinate-type nodulation. We sought to extend these results by modulating endogenous levels of SA through the transgenic expression of salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) in both stably transformed Lotus japonicus and composite Medicago truncatula plants. NahG expression in L. japonicus resulted in a marked reduction of SA levels. This reduction correlated with an increase in the number of infections and mean nodule number when compared to controls. However, a complicating factor was that NahG-expressing plants had greater root growth. Spot inoculations of NahG-expressing L. japonicus plants confirmed increased nodulation in these plants. Consistent with the reported inhibitory effects of exogenous SA on indeterminate-type nodulation, NahG expression in M. truncatula plants led to enhanced nodulation and infection. These data point to an important role for SA-mediated plant defense pathways in controlling nodule formation on both determinate and indeterminate nodule-forming hosts. PMID:16798946

  18. A Suite of Lotus japonicus Starch Mutants Reveals Both Conserved and Novel Features of Starch Metabolism1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Vriet, Cécile; Welham, Tracey; Brachmann, Andreas; Pike, Marilyn; Pike, Jodie; Perry, Jillian; Parniske, Martin; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Smith, Alison M.; Wang, Trevor L.

    2010-01-01

    The metabolism of starch is of central importance for many aspects of plant growth and development. Information on leaf starch metabolism other than in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is scarce. Furthermore, its importance in several agronomically important traits exemplified by legumes remains to be investigated. To address this issue, we have provided detailed information on the genes involved in starch metabolism in Lotus japonicus and have characterized a comprehensive collection of forward and TILLING (for Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) reverse genetics mutants affecting five enzymes of starch synthesis and two enzymes of starch degradation. The mutants provide new insights into the structure-function relationships of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and glucan, water dikinase1 in particular. Analyses of the mutant phenotypes indicate that the pathways of leaf starch metabolism in L. japonicus and Arabidopsis are largely conserved. However, the importance of these pathways for plant growth and development differs substantially between the two species. Whereas essentially starchless Arabidopsis plants lacking plastidial phosphoglucomutase grow slowly relative to wild-type plants, the equivalent mutant of L. japonicus grows normally even in a 12-h photoperiod. In contrast, the loss of GLUCAN, WATER DIKINASE1, required for starch degradation, has a far greater effect on plant growth and fertility in L. japonicus than in Arabidopsis. Moreover, we have also identified several mutants likely to be affected in new components or regulators of the pathways of starch metabolism. This suite of mutants provides a substantial new resource for further investigations of the partitioning of carbon and its importance for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, legume seed development, and perenniality and vegetative regrowth. PMID:20699404

  19. Genetic screening identifies cyanogenesis-deficient mutants of Lotus japonicus and reveals enzymatic specificity in hydroxynitrile glucoside metabolism.

    PubMed

    Takos, Adam; Lai, Daniela; Mikkelsen, Lisbeth; Abou Hachem, Maher; Shelton, Dale; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik; Wang, Trevor L; Martin, Cathie; Rook, Fred

    2010-05-01

    Cyanogenesis, the release of hydrogen cyanide from damaged plant tissues, involves the enzymatic degradation of amino acid-derived cyanogenic glucosides (alpha-hydroxynitrile glucosides) by specific beta-glucosidases. Release of cyanide functions as a defense mechanism against generalist herbivores. We developed a high-throughput screening method and used it to identify cyanogenesis deficient (cyd) mutants in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Mutants in both biosynthesis and catabolism of cyanogenic glucosides were isolated and classified following metabolic profiling of cyanogenic glucoside content. L. japonicus produces two cyanogenic glucosides: linamarin (derived from Val) and lotaustralin (derived from Ile). Their biosynthesis may involve the same set of enzymes for both amino acid precursors. However, in one class of mutants, accumulation of lotaustralin and linamarin was uncoupled. Catabolic mutants could be placed in two complementation groups, one of which, cyd2, encoded the beta-glucosidase BGD2. Despite the identification of nine independent cyd2 alleles, no mutants involving the gene encoding a closely related beta-glucosidase, BGD4, were identified. This indicated that BGD4 plays no role in cyanogenesis in L. japonicus in vivo. Biochemical analysis confirmed that BGD4 cannot hydrolyze linamarin or lotaustralin and in L. japonicus is specific for breakdown of related hydroxynitrile glucosides, such as rhodiocyanoside A. By contrast, BGD2 can hydrolyze both cyanogenic glucosides and rhodiocyanosides. Our genetic analysis demonstrated specificity in the catabolic pathways for hydroxynitrile glucosides and implied specificity in their biosynthetic pathways as well. In addition, it has provided important tools for elucidating and potentially modifying cyanogenesis pathways in plants.

  20. Grafting analysis indicates that malfunction of TRICOT in the root causes a nodulation-deficient phenotype in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Suzaki, Takuya; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2013-03-01

    Leguminous plants develop root nodules in symbiosis with soil rhizobia. Nodule formation occurs following rhizobial infection of the host root that induces dedifferentiation of some cortical cells and the initiation of a new developmental program to form nodule primordia. In a recent study, we identified a novel gene, TRICOT (TCO), that acts as a positive regulator of nodulation in Lotus japonicus. In addition to its role in nodulation, tco mutant plants display pleiotropic defects including abnormal shoot apical meristem formation. Here, we investigated the effect of the tco mutation on nodulation using a grafting approach. The results strongly indicate that the nodulation-deficient phenotype of the mutant results from malfunction of the TCO gene in the root.

  1. The multiple plant response to high ammonium conditions: the Lotus japonicus AMT1; 3 protein acts as a putative transceptor.

    PubMed

    Rogato, Alessandra; D'Apuzzo, Enrica; Chiurazzi, Maurizio

    2010-12-01

    Plant evolved a complex profile of responses to cope with changes of nutrient availability in the soil. These are based on a stringent control of expression and/or activity of proteins involved in nutrients transport and assimilation. Furthermore, a sensing and signaling system for scanning the concentration of substrates in the rooted area and for transmitting this information to the plant machinery controlling root development can be extremely useful for an efficient plant response. Ammonium represents for plants either a preferential nitrogen source or the trigger for toxicity symptoms depending by its concentration. We propose a role for the high affinity Lotus japonicus ammonium transporter LjAMT1;3 as an intracellular ammonium sensor to achieve a convenient modulation of the root development in conditions of potentially toxic external ammonium concentration.

  2. Glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle are linked by alanine aminotransferase during hypoxia induced by waterlogging of Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Marcio; Licausi, Francesco; Araújo, Wagner L; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Sodek, Ladaslav; Fernie, Alisdair R; van Dongen, Joost T

    2010-03-01

    The role of nitrogen metabolism in the survival of prolonged periods of waterlogging was investigated in highly flood-tolerant, nodulated Lotus japonicus plants. Alanine production revealed to be a critical hypoxic pathway. Alanine is the only amino acid whose biosynthesis is not inhibited by nitrogen deficiency resulting from RNA interference silencing of nodular leghemoglobin. The metabolic changes that were induced following waterlogging can be best explained by the activation of alanine metabolism in combination with the modular operation of a split tricarboxylic acid pathway. The sum result of this metabolic scenario is the accumulation of alanine and succinate and the production of extra ATP under hypoxia. The importance of alanine metabolism is discussed with respect to its ability to regulate the level of pyruvate, and this and all other changes are discussed in the context of current models concerning the regulation of plant metabolism.

  3. CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 7 modulates plant growth, reproduction, senescence, and determinate nodulation in the model legume Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junwei; Novero, Mara; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Ferrandino, Alessandra; Schubert, Andrea; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; Bonfante, Paola; Lovisolo, Claudio; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Cardinale, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are newly identified hormones that regulate multiple aspects of plant development, infection by parasitic weeds, and mutualistic symbiosis in the roots. In this study, the role of SLs was studied for the first time in the model plant Lotus japonicus using transgenic lines silenced for CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 7 (LjCCD7), the orthologue of Arabidopsis More Axillary Growth 3. Transgenic LjCCD7-silenced plants displayed reduced height due to shorter internodes, and more branched shoots and roots than the controls, and an increase in total plant biomass, while their root:shoot ratio remained unchanged. Moreover, these lines had longer primary roots, delayed senescence, and reduced flower/pod numbers from the third round of flower and pod setting onwards. Only a mild reduction in determinate nodule numbers and hardly any impact on the colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were observed. The results show that the impairment of CCD7 activity in L. japonicus leads to a phenotype linked to SL functions, but with specific features possibly due to the peculiar developmental pattern of this plant species. It is believed that the data also link determinate nodulation, plant reproduction, and senescence to CCD7 function for the first time. PMID:23567864

  4. Network of GRAS Transcription Factors Involved in the Control of Arbuscule Development in Lotus japonicus1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Li; Cui, Haitao; Buer, Benjamin; Vijayakumar, Vinod; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Junkermann, Stefanie; Bucher, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, in symbiosis with plants, facilitate acquisition of nutrients from the soil to their host. After penetration, intracellular hyphae form fine-branched structures in cortical cells termed arbuscules, representing the major site where bidirectional nutrient exchange takes place between the host plant and fungus. Transcriptional mechanisms underlying this cellular reprogramming are still poorly understood. GRAS proteins are an important family of transcriptional regulators in plants, named after the first three members: GIBBERELLIC ACID-INSENSITIVE, REPRESSOR of GAI, and SCARECROW. Here, we show that among 45 transcription factors up-regulated in mycorrhizal roots of the legume Lotus japonicus, expression of a unique GRAS protein particularly increases in arbuscule-containing cells under low phosphate conditions and displays a phylogenetic pattern characteristic of symbiotic genes. Allelic rad1 mutants display a strongly reduced number of arbuscules, which undergo accelerated degeneration. In further studies, two RAD1-interacting proteins were identified. One of them is the closest homolog of Medicago truncatula, REDUCED ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZATION1 (RAM1), which was reported to regulate a glycerol-3-phosphate acyl transferase that promotes cutin biosynthesis to enhance hyphopodia formation. As in M. truncatula, the L. japonicus ram1 mutant lines show compromised AM colonization and stunted arbuscules. Our findings provide, to our knowledge, new insight into the transcriptional program underlying the host’s response to AM colonization and propose a function of GRAS transcription factors including RAD1 and RAM1 during arbuscule development. PMID:25560877

  5. Identification and functional characterization of a sulfate transporter induced by both sulfur starvation and mycorrhiza formation in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Giovannetti, Marco; Tolosano, Matteo; Volpe, Veronica; Kopriva, Stanislav; Bonfante, Paola

    2014-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) are one of the most widespread symbioses in the world. They allow plants to receive mineral nutrients from the symbiotic fungus which in turn gets back up to 20% of plant carbon and completes its life cycle. Especially in low-nutrient conditions, AM fungi are capable of significantly improving plant phosphate and nitrogen acquisition, but fewer data are available about sulfur (S) nutrition. We focused on S metabolism in Lotus japonicus upon mycorrhizal colonization under sulfur starvation or repletion. We investigated both tissue sulfate concentrations and S-related gene expression, at cell-type or whole-organ level. Gene expression and sulfate tissue concentration showed that Rhizophagus irregularis colonization can improve plant S nutritional status under S starvation. A group 1 sulfate transporter, LjSultr1;2, induced by both S starvation and mycorrhiza formation, was identified. Its transcript was localized in arbuscule-containing cells, which was confirmed with a promoter-GUS assay, and its function was verified through phenotyping of TILLING mutants in nonmycorrhizal seedlings. LjSultr1;2 thus appears to encode a key protein involved in plant sulfate uptake. In contrast to phosphate transporters, a single gene, LjSultr1;2, seems to mediate both direct and symbiotic pathways of S uptake in L. japonicus.

  6. Robust in vitro assay system for quantitative analysis of parasitic root-knot nematode infestation using Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Amin, Arshana N N; Hayashi, Shuhei; Bartlem, Derek G

    2014-08-01

    Root-knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasites that induce permanent infestation sites inside the roots of a broad range of crop plants. The development of effective control strategies require understanding the root-knot nematode parasitic process, however, the key molecular determinants for host manipulation during infestation remain elusive. One limiting factor has been the lack of a standardized conventional method for quantitative measurement of host parasitism by root-knot nematodes, particularly one that enables efficient downstream analyses and is free from other biological sources of variability. We report here a robust, highly reproducible system for quantitative analysis of all stages of root-knot nematode infestation using the legume Lotus japonicus as the plant host. This system provides a high quality nematode inoculum that maintains consistency in juvenile age and viability even between independently prepared populations. An optimized root transformation protocol was also developed for L. japonicus to facilitate downstream molecular studies in conjunction with the quantitative assay. Hairy root transformation efficiencies up to 91% were achieved. Root-knot nematodes formed egg masses at the root surface of both intact plants and transgenic hairy root cultures within eight weeks, confirming the assay conditions support an efficient completion of the infestation cycle. The in vitro assay system described here is compatible with other plant hosts and will benefit agricultural biotechnology research as it now enables specific high-throughput screening of nematode resistance traits together with subsequent mechanistic elucidation of the causative factors.

  7. Effects of salt stress on the expression of antioxidant genes and proteins in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Maria C; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Clemente, Maria R; Becana, Manuel

    2009-03-01

    Salt stress negatively affects many physiological processes in plants. Some of these effects may involve the oxidative damage of cellular components, which can be promoted by reactive oxygen species and prevented by antioxidants. The protective role of antioxidants was investigated in Lotus japonicus exposed to two salinization protocols: S1 (150 mM NaCl for 7 d) and S2 (50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl, each concentration for 6 d). Several markers of salt stress were measured and the expression of antioxidant genes was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and, in some cases, immunoblots and enzyme activity assays. Leaves of S1 plants suffered from mild osmotic stress, accumulated proline but noNa+, and showed induction of many superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase genes. Leaves of S2 plants showed increases in Na+ and Ca2+, decreases in K+, and accumulation of proline and malondialdehyde. In leaves and roots of S1 and S2 plants, the mRNA, protein and activity levels of the ascorbate-glutathione enzymes remained constant, with a few exceptions. Notably, there was consistent up-regulation of the gene encoding cytosolic dehydroascorbate reductase, and this was possibly related to its role in ascorbate recycling in the apoplast. The overall results indicate that L. japonicus is more tolerant to salt stress than other legumes, which can be attributed to the capacity of the plant to prevent Na+reaching the shoot and to activate antioxidant defenses.

  8. Lotus japonicus CASTOR and POLLUX are ion channels essential for perinuclear calcium spiking in legume root endosymbiosis.

    PubMed

    Charpentier, Myriam; Bredemeier, Rolf; Wanner, Gerhard; Takeda, Naoya; Schleiff, Enrico; Parniske, Martin

    2008-12-01

    The mechanism underlying perinuclear calcium spiking induced during legume root endosymbioses is largely unknown. Lotus japonicus symbiosis-defective castor and pollux mutants are impaired in perinuclear calcium spiking. Homology modeling suggested that the related proteins CASTOR and POLLUX might be ion channels. Here, we show that CASTOR and POLLUX form two independent homocomplexes in planta. CASTOR reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers exhibited ion channel activity, and the channel characteristics were altered in a symbiosis-defective mutant carrying an amino acid replacement close to the selectivity filter. Permeability ratio determination and competition experiments reveled a weak preference of CASTOR for cations such as potassium over anions. POLLUX has an identical selectivity filter region and complemented a potassium transport-deficient yeast mutant, suggesting that POLLUX is also a potassium-permeable channel. Immunogold labeling localized the endogenous CASTOR protein to the nuclear envelope of Lotus root cells. Our data are consistent with a role of CASTOR and POLLUX in modulating the nuclear envelope membrane potential. They could either trigger the opening of calcium release channels or compensate the charge release during the calcium efflux as counter ion channels.

  9. Root nodule symbiosis in Lotus japonicus drives the establishment of distinctive rhizosphere, root, and nodule bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Jensen, Dorthe Bodker; Koprivova, Anna; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Radutoiu, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Lotus japonicus has been used for decades as a model legume to study the establishment of binary symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia that trigger root nodule organogenesis for bacterial accommodation. Using community profiling of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we reveal that in Lotus, distinctive nodule- and root-inhabiting communities are established by parallel, rather than consecutive, selection of bacteria from the rhizosphere and root compartments. Comparative analyses of wild-type (WT) and symbiotic mutants in Nod factor receptor5 (nfr5), Nodule inception (nin) and Lotus histidine kinase1 (lhk1) genes identified a previously unsuspected role of the nodulation pathway in the establishment of different bacterial assemblages in the root and rhizosphere. We found that the loss of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis dramatically alters community structure in the latter two compartments, affecting at least 14 bacterial orders. The differential plant growth phenotypes seen between WT and the symbiotic mutants in nonsupplemented soil were retained under nitrogen-supplemented conditions that blocked the formation of functional nodules in WT, whereas the symbiosis-impaired mutants maintain an altered community structure in the nitrogen-supplemented soil. This finding provides strong evidence that the root-associated community shift in the symbiotic mutants is a direct consequence of the disabled symbiosis pathway rather than an indirect effect resulting from abolished symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Our findings imply a role of the legume host in selecting a broad taxonomic range of root-associated bacteria that, in addition to rhizobia, likely contribute to plant growth and ecological performance. PMID:27864511

  10. Iron-induced nitric oxide leads to an increase in the expression of ferritin during the senescence of Lotus japonicus nodules.

    PubMed

    Chungopast, Sirinapa; Duangkhet, Mallika; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Ma, Jian Feng; Nomura, Mika

    2017-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for legume-rhizobium symbiosis and accumulates abundantly in the nodules. However, the concentration of free iron in the cells is strictly controlled to avoid toxicity. It is known that ferritin accumulates in the cells as an iron storage protein. During nodule senescence, the expression of the ferritin gene, Ljfer1, was induced in Lotus japonicus. We investigated a signal transduction pathway leading to the increase of Ljfer1 in the nodule. The Ljfer1 promoter of L. japonicus contains a conserved Iron-Dependent Regulatory Sequence (IDRS). The expression of Ljfer1 was induced by the application of iron or sodium nitroprusside, which is a nitric oxide (NO) donor. The application of iron to the nodule increased the level of NO. These data strongly suggest that iron-induced NO leads to increased expression of Ljfer1 during the senescence of L. japonicus nodules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome-wide analysis of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins in a model legume plant, Lotus japonicus: comparison with Arabidopsis ABC protein family.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Shitan, Nobukazu; Sato, Shusei; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2006-10-31

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins constitute a large family in plants with more than 120 members each in Arabidopsis and rice, and have various functions including the transport of auxin and alkaloid, as well as the regulation of stomata movement. In this report, we carried out genome-wide analysis of ABC protein genes in a model legume plant, Lotus japonicus. For analysis of the Lotus genome sequence, we devised a new method 'domain-based clustering analysis', where domain structures like the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) and transmembrane domain (TMD), instead of full-length amino acid sequences, are used to compare phylogenetically each other. This method enabled us to characterize fragments of ABC proteins, which frequently appear in a draft sequence of the Lotus genome. We identified 91 putative ABC proteins in L. japonicus, i.e. 43 'full-size', 40 'half-size' and 18 'soluble' putative ABC proteins. The characteristic feature of the composition is that Lotus has extraordinarily many paralogs similar to AtMRP14 and AtPDR12, which are at least six and five members, respectively. Expression analysis of the latter genes performed with real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR revealed their putative involvement in the nodulation process.

  12. Ectopic expression of miR156 represses nodulation and causes morphological and developmental changes in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhishuo; Amyot, Lisa; Tian, Lining; Xu, Ziqin; Gruber, Margaret Y; Hannoufa, Abdelali

    2015-04-01

    The effects of microRNA156 overexpression on general plant architecture, branching, flowering time and nodulation were investigated in the model legume, Lotus japonicus. We cloned an miR156 homolog, LjmiR156a, from L. japonicus, and investigated its SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE (SPL) genes and its biological function at enhancing vegetative biomass yield, extending flowering time, and its impact on nodulation. Thirteen potential targets for LjmiR156 were identified in vitro and their expression profiles were determined in aerial and underground parts of mature plants, including genes coding for eight SPLs, one WD-40, one RNA-directed DNA polymerase, two transport proteins, and one histidine-phosphotransfer protein. Two SPL and one WD-40 cleavage targets for LjmiR156-TC70253, AU089191, and TC57859-were identified. Transgenic plants with ectopic expression of LjmiR156a showed enhanced branching, dramatically delayed flowering, underdeveloped roots, and reduced nodulation. We also examined the transcript levels of key genes involved in nodule organogenesis and infection thread formation to determine the role of miR156 in regulating symbiosis. Overexpression of LjmiR156a led to repression of several nodulation genes during the early stages of root development such as three ENOD genes, SymPK, POLLUX, CYCLOPS, Cerberus, and Nsp1, and the stimulation of NFR1. Our results show that miR156 regulates vegetative biomass yield, flowering time and nodulation by silencing downstream target SPLs and other genes, suggesting that the miR156 regulatory network could be modified in forage legumes (such as alfalfa and trefoils) and in leafy vegetables (like lettuce and spinach) to positively impact economically valuable crop species.

  13. Dissection of Symbiosis and Organ Development by Integrated Transcriptome Analysis of Lotus japonicus Mutant and Wild-Type Plants

    PubMed Central

    Høgslund, Niels; Radutoiu, Simona; Krusell, Lene; Voroshilova, Vera; Hannah, Matthew A.; Goffard, Nicolas; Sanchez, Diego H.; Lippold, Felix; Ott, Thomas; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Liboriussen, Poul; Lohmann, Gitte V.; Schauser, Leif; Weiller, Georg F.; Udvardi, Michael K.; Stougaard, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Genetic analyses of plant symbiotic mutants has led to the identification of key genes involved in Rhizobium-legume communication as well as in development and function of nitrogen fixing root nodules. However, the impact of these genes in coordinating the transcriptional programs of nodule development has only been studied in limited and isolated studies. Here, we present an integrated genome-wide analysis of transcriptome landscapes in Lotus japonicus wild-type and symbiotic mutant plants. Encompassing five different organs, five stages of the sequentially developed determinate Lotus root nodules, and eight mutants impaired at different stages of the symbiotic interaction, our data set integrates an unprecedented combination of organ- or tissue-specific profiles with mutant transcript profiles. In total, 38 different conditions sampled under the same well-defined growth regimes were included. This comprehensive analysis unravelled new and unexpected patterns of transcriptional regulation during symbiosis and organ development. Contrary to expectations, none of the previously characterized nodulins were among the 37 genes specifically expressed in nodules. Another surprise was the extensive transcriptional response in whole root compared to the susceptible root zone where the cellular response is most pronounced. A large number of transcripts predicted to encode transcriptional regulators, receptors and proteins involved in signal transduction, as well as many genes with unknown function, were found to be regulated during nodule organogenesis and rhizobial infection. Combining wild type and mutant profiles of these transcripts demonstrates the activation of a complex genetic program that delineates symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The complete data set was organized into an indexed expression directory that is accessible from a resource database, and here we present selected examples of biological questions that can be addressed with this comprehensive and powerful

  14. Integrated multi-omics analysis supports role of lysophosphatidylcholine and related glycerophospholipids in the Lotus japonicus-Glomus intraradices mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Vinod; Liebisch, Gerhard; Buer, Benjamin; Xue, Li; Gerlach, Nina; Blau, Samira; Schmitz, Jessica; Bucher, Marcel

    2016-02-01

    Interaction of plant roots with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is a complex trait resulting in cooperative interactions among the two symbionts including bidirectional exchange of resources. To study arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis (AMS) trait variation in the model plant Lotus japonicus, we performed an integrated multi-omics analysis with a focus on plant and fungal phospholipid (PL) metabolism and biological significance of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). Our results support the role of LPC as a bioactive compound eliciting cellular and molecular response mechanisms in Lotus. Evidence is provided for large interspecific chemical diversity of LPC species among mycorrhizae with related AMF species. Lipid, gene expression and elemental profiling emphasize the Lotus-Glomus intraradices interaction as distinct from other arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) interactions. In G. intraradices, genes involved in fatty acid (FA) elongation and biosynthesis of unsaturated FAs were enhanced, while in Lotus, FA synthesis genes were up-regulated during AMS. Furthermore, FAS protein localization to mitochondria suggests FA biosynthesis and elongation may also occur in AMF. Our results suggest the existence of interspecific partitioning of PL resources for generation of LPC and novel candidate bioactive PLs in the Lotus-G. intraradices symbiosis. Moreover, the data advocate research with phylogenetically diverse Glomeromycota species for a broader understanding of the molecular underpinnings of AMS.

  15. Scanning the effects of ethyl methanesulfonate on the whole genome of Lotus japonicus using second-generation sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Yusoff, Nur Fatihah; Ruperao, Pradeep; Tomoyoshi, Nurain Emylia; Edwards, David; Gresshoff, Peter M; Biswas, Bandana; Batley, Jacqueline

    2015-02-06

    Genetic structure can be altered by chemical mutagenesis, which is a common method applied in molecular biology and genetics. Second-generation sequencing provides a platform to reveal base alterations occurring in the whole genome due to mutagenesis. A model legume, Lotus japonicus ecotype Miyakojima, was chemically mutated with alkylating ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) for the scanning of DNA lesions throughout the genome. Using second-generation sequencing, two individually mutated third-generation progeny (M3, named AM and AS) were sequenced and analyzed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms and reveal the effects of EMS on nucleotide sequences in these mutant genomes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were found in every 208 kb (AS) and 202 kb (AM) with a bias mutation of G/C-to-A/T changes at low percentage. Most mutations were intergenic. The mutation spectrum of the genomes was comparable in their individual chromosomes; however, each mutated genome has unique alterations, which are useful to identify causal mutations for their phenotypic changes. The data obtained demonstrate that whole genomic sequencing is applicable as a high-throughput tool to investigate genomic changes due to mutagenesis. The identification of these single-point mutations will facilitate the identification of phenotypically causative mutations in EMS-mutated germplasm.

  16. Genome-wide reprogramming of regulatory networks, transport, cell wall and membrane biogenesis during arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Guether, Mike; Balestrini, Raffaella; Hannah, Matthew; He, Ji; Udvardi, Michael K; Bonfante, Paola

    2009-01-01

    * Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) contribute significantly to soil nutrient uptake in plants. As a consequence of the fungal colonization and of the deep reorganization shown by arbusculated cells, important impacts on root transcriptome are expected. * An Affymetrix GeneChip with 50,000 probe-sets and real-time RT-PCR allowed us to detect transcriptional changes triggered in Lotus japonicus by the AM fungus Gigaspora margarita, when arbuscules are at their maximum (28 d postinoculation (dpi)). An early time (4 dpi) was selected to differentiate genes potentially involved in signaling and/or in colonization of outer tissues. * A large number (75 out of 558) of mycorrhiza-induced genes code for proteins involved in protein turnover, membrane dynamics and cell wall synthesis, while many others are involved in transport (47) or transcription (24). Induction of a subset (24 genes) of these was tested and confirmed by qRT-PCR, and transcript location in arbusculated cells was demonstrated for seven genes using laser-dissected cells. * When compared with previously published papers, the transcript profiles indicate the presence of a core set of responsive genes (25) that seem to be conserved irrespective of the symbiotic partner identity.

  17. CYTOKININ OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE3 Maintains Cytokinin Homeostasis during Root and Nodule Development in Lotus japonicus1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Heckmann, Anne B.; Kelly, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinins are required for symbiotic nodule development in legumes, and cytokinin signaling responses occur locally in nodule primordia and in developing nodules. Here, we show that the Lotus japonicus Ckx3 cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase gene is induced by Nod factor during the early phase of nodule initiation. At the cellular level, pCkx3::YFP reporter-gene studies revealed that the Ckx3 promoter is active during the first cortical cell divisions of the nodule primordium and in growing nodules. Cytokinin measurements in ckx3 mutants confirmed that CKX3 activity negatively regulates root cytokinin levels. Particularly, tZ and DHZ type cytokinins in both inoculated and uninoculated roots were elevated in ckx3 mutants, suggesting that these are targets for degradation by the CKX3 cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase. The effect of CKX3 on the positive and negative roles of cytokinin in nodule development, infection and regulation was further clarified using ckx3 insertion mutants. Phenotypic analysis indicated that ckx3 mutants have reduced nodulation, infection thread formation and root growth. We also identify a role for cytokinin in regulating nodulation and nitrogen fixation in response to nitrate as ckx3 phenotypes are exaggerated at increased nitrate levels. Together, these findings show that cytokinin accumulation is tightly regulated during nodulation in order to balance the requirement for cell divisions with negative regulatory effects of cytokinin on infection events and root development. PMID:26644503

  18. klavier (klv), a novel hypernodulation mutant of Lotus japonicus affected in vascular tissue organization and floral induction.

    PubMed

    Oka-Kira, Erika; Tateno, Kumiko; Miura, Kin-ichiro; Haga, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Masaki; Harada, Kyuya; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Shikazono, Naoya; Tanaka, Atsushi; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Fukuhara, Izumi; Nagata, Toshiyuki; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2005-11-01

    A novel hypernodulation mutant line was isolated from Lotus japonicus Miyakojima MG-20 by irradiation with a helium ion beam. This mutant, named klavier (klv), had roots that were densely covered with small nodules. The nodulation zone of klv was significantly wider than that of the wild type. Grafting experiments showed that klv is impaired in the long-distance shoot-to-root autoregulatory mechanism. Thus the shoot genotype was found to be responsible for the negative regulation of nodule development by KLV. Nodulation of klv showed a higher tolerance to nitrogen (KNO3) than the wild type, which is a common feature of hypernodulating mutants. In addition to an increased number of nodules, the klv mutant showed convex leaf veins on the adaxial leaf surface, markedly delayed flowering and dwarf phenotypes. Microscopic examination of the leaf veins revealed that they were discontinuous. Other phenotypes such as fasciated stems, increased number of flowers and bifurcated pistils were also frequently observed in the klv mutant. Among these phenotypes, hypernodulation, aberrant leaf vein formation and significantly delayed flowering were all linked in a monogenic and recessive manner, indicating that these phenotypes are caused by either a single mutation, or tightly linked mutations. KLV was mapped within 0.29 cM on the long arm of chromosome 1.

  19. A core set of metabolite sink/source ratios indicative for plant organ productivity in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Fester, Thomas; Fetzer, Ingo; Härtig, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth is an important process in physiological as well as ecological respect and a number of metabolic parameters (elemental ratios as well as steady-state levels of individual metabolites) have been demonstrated to reflect this process on the whole plant level. Since plant growth is highly localized and is the result of a complex interplay of metabolic activities in sink and source organs, we propose that ratios in metabolite levels of sink and source organs are particularly well suited to characterize this process. To demonstrate such a connection, we studied organ-specific metabolite ratios from Lotus japonicus treated with mineral nutrients, salt stress or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The plants were displaying a wide range of biomass and of flower/biomass ratios. In the analysis of our data we looked for correlations between shifts in sink/source metabolite ratios and plant productivity (biomass accumulated at the time of harvest). In addition we correlated shifts in metabolite ratios comparing competing generative and vegetative sink organs with shifts in productivity of the two organs (changes in flower/biomass ratios). In our analyses we observed clear shifts of carbohydrates and of compounds connected to nitrogen metabolism in favour of sink organs of particularly high productivity. These shifts were in agreement with general differences in metabolite steady-state levels when comparing sink and source organs. Our findings suggest that differentiation of sink and source organs during sampling for metabolomic experiments substantially increases the amount of information obtained from such experiments.

  20. Deficiency in plastidic glutamine synthetase alters proline metabolism and transcriptomic response in Lotus japonicus under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Pedro; Betti, Marco; Sánchez, Diego H; Udvardi, Michael K; Monza, Jorge; Márquez, Antonio J

    2010-12-01

    The role of plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2) in proline biosynthesis and drought stress responses in Lotus japonicus was investigated using the GS2 mutant, Ljgln2-2. Wild-type (WT) and mutant plants were submitted to different lengths of time of water and nutrient solution deprivation. Several biochemical markers were measured and the transcriptional response to drought was determined by both quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and transcriptomics. The Ljgln2-2 mutant exhibited normal sensitivity to mild water deprivation, but physiological, biochemical and massive transcriptional differences were detected in the mutant, which compromised recovery (rehydration) following re-watering after severe drought stress. Proline accumulation during drought was substantially lower in mutant than in WT plants, and significant differences in the pattern of expression of the genes involved in proline metabolism were observed. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that about three times as many genes were regulated in response to drought in Ljgln2-2 plants compared with WT. The transcriptomic and accompanying biochemical data indicate that the Ljgln2-2 mutant is subject to more intense cellular stress than WT during drought. The results presented here implicate plastidic GS2 in proline production during stress and provide interesting insights into the function of proline in response to drought.

  1. Two MicroRNAs Linked to Nodule Infection and Nitrogen-Fixing Ability in the Legume Lotus japonicus1[W

    PubMed Central

    De Luis, Ana; Markmann, Katharina; Cognat, Valérie; Holt, Dennis B.; Charpentier, Myriam; Parniske, Martin; Stougaard, Jens; Voinnet, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Legumes overcome nitrogen shortage by developing root nodules in which symbiotic bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen in exchange for host-derived carbohydrates and mineral nutrients. Nodule development involves the distinct processes of nodule organogenesis, bacterial infection, and the onset of nitrogen fixation. These entail profound, dynamic gene expression changes, notably contributed to by microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we used deep-sequencing, candidate-based expression studies and a selection of Lotus japonicus mutants uncoupling different symbiosis stages to identify miRNAs involved in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Induction of a noncanonical miR171 isoform, which targets the key nodulation transcription factor Nodulation Signaling Pathway2, correlates with bacterial infection in nodules. A second candidate, miR397, is systemically induced in the presence of active, nitrogen-fixing nodules but not in that of noninfected or inactive nodule organs. It is involved in nitrogen fixation-related copper homeostasis and targets a member of the laccase copper protein family. These findings thus identify two miRNAs specifically responding to symbiotic infection and nodule function in legumes. PMID:23071252

  2. A MAP Kinase Kinase Interacts with SymRK and Regulates Nodule Organogenesis in Lotus japonicus[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Zhu, Hui; Ke, Danxia; Cai, Kai; Wang, Chao; Gou, Honglan; Hong, Zonglie; Zhang, Zhongming

    2012-01-01

    The symbiosis receptor kinase, SymRK, is required for root nodule development. A SymRK-interacting protein (SIP2) was found to form protein complex with SymRK in vitro and in planta. The interaction between SymRK and SIP2 is conserved in legumes. The SIP2 gene was expressed in all Lotus japonicus tissues examined. SIP2 represents a typical plant mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) and exhibited autophosphorylation and transphosphorylation activities. Recombinant SIP2 protein could phosphorylate casein and the Arabidopsis thaliana MAP kinase MPK6. SymRK and SIP2 could not use one another as a substrate for phosphorylation. Instead, SymRK acted as an inhibitor of SIP2 kinase when MPK6 was used as a substrate, suggesting that SymRK may serve as a negative regulator of the SIP2 signaling pathway. Knockdown expression of SIP2 via RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in drastic reduction of nodules formed in transgenic hairy roots. A significant portion of SIP2 RNAi hairy roots failed to form a nodule. In these roots, the expression levels of SIP2 and three marker genes for infection thread and nodule primordium formation were downregulated drastically, while the expression of two other MAPKK genes were not altered. These observations demonstrate an essential role of SIP2 in the early symbiosis signaling and nodule organogenesis. PMID:22353370

  3. PII Overexpression in Lotus japonicus Affects Nodule Activity in Permissive Low-Nitrogen Conditions and Increases Nodule Numbers in High Nitrogen Treated Plants.

    PubMed

    D'Apuzzo, Enrica; Valkov, Vladimir Totev; Parlati, Aurora; Omrane, Selim; Barbulova, Ani; Sainz, Maria Martha; Lentini, Marco; Esposito, Sergio; Rogato, Alessandra; Chiurazzi, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    We report here the first characterization of a GLNB1 gene coding for the PII protein in leguminous plants. The main purpose of this work was the investigation of the possible roles played by this multifunctional protein in nodulation pathways. The Lotus japonicus LjGLB1 gene shows a significant transcriptional regulation during the light-dark cycle and different nitrogen availability, conditions that strongly affect nodule formation, development, and functioning. We also report analysis of the spatial profile of expression of LjGLB1 in root and nodule tissues and of the protein's subcellular localization. Transgenic L. japonicus lines overexpressing the PII protein were obtained and tested for the analysis of the symbiotic responses in different conditions. The uncoupling of PII from its native regulation affects nitrogenase activity and nodule polyamine content. Furthermore, our results suggest the involvement of PII in the signaling of the nitrogen nutritional status affecting the legumes' predisposition for nodule formation.

  4. Overexpression of the Starch Phosphorylase-Like Gene (PHO3) in Lotus japonicus has a Profound Effect on the Growth of Plants and Reduction of Transitory Starch Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shanshan; Tang, Yuehui; Chen, Yaping; Wu, Pingzhi; Li, Meiru; Wu, Guojiang; Jiang, Huawu

    2016-01-01

    Two isoforms of starch phosphorylase (PHO; EC 2.4.1.1), plastidic PHO1 and cytosolic PHO2, have been found in all plants studied to date. Another starch phosphorylase-like gene, PHO3, which is an ortholog of Chlamydomonas PHOB, has been detected in some plant lineages. In this study, we identified three PHO isoform (LjPHO) genes in the Lotus japonicus genome. Expression of the LjPHO3 gene was observed in all tissues tested in L. japonicus, and the LjPHO3 protein was located in the chloroplast. Overexpression of LjPHO3 in L. japonicus resulted in a drastic decline in starch granule sizes and starch content in leaves. The LjPHO3 overexpression transgenic seedlings were smaller, and showed decreased pollen fertility and seed set rate. Our results suggest that LjPHO3 may participate in transitory starch metabolism in L. japonicus leaves, but its catalytic properties remain to be studied. PMID:27630651

  5. Plant growth-promoting fungus, Trichoderma koningi suppresses isoflavonoid phytoalexin vestitol production for colonization on/in the roots of Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Masunaka, Akira; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro; Takenaka, Shigehito

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between the colonization of Lotus japonicus by plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF) and biosynthesis of the isoflavonoid phytoalexin vestitol, a major defensive response of leguminous plants, was analyzed. When PGPF including Trichoderma koningi, Fusarium equiseti, and Penicillium simplicissimum were inoculated onto L. japonicus roots, only T. koningi colonized the roots long-term and increased plant dry weight (126%). Microscopic observations of transverse sections of roots colonized by T. koningi demonstrated intercellular hyphal growth and the formation of yeast-like cells. The induction of plant defenses by fungal infections was examined by Northern analysis of genes involved in vestitol biosynthesis and HPLC of vestitol production in L. japonicus. Inoculation with symbiotic Mesorhizobium loti did not induce any accumulation of the transcripts. T. koningi immediately suppressed transcript levels to those induced by M. loti. The vestitol transuded from roots by T. koningi was detected at a level equivalent to that transuded by M. loti. Other PGPF and Calonectoria ilicola pathogenic to soybean but not to L. japonicus, stimulated continuous expression of genes and exudation of vestitol. These PGPF resembled mycorrhizal fungi in the establishment of symbiotic associations rather than fungal parasites.

  6. Response to long-term NaHCO3-derived alkalinity in model Lotus japonicus Ecotypes Gifu B-129 and Miyakojima MG-20: transcriptomic profiling and physiological characterization.

    PubMed

    Babuin, María Florencia; Campestre, María Paula; Rocco, Rubén; Bordenave, Cesar D; Escaray, Francisco J; Antonelli, Cristian; Calzadilla, Pablo; Gárriz, Andrés; Serna, Eva; Carrasco, Pedro; Ruiz, Oscar A; Menendez, Ana B

    2014-01-01

    The current knowledge regarding transcriptomic changes induced by alkalinity on plants is scarce and limited to studies where plants were subjected to the alkaline salt for periods not longer than 48 h, so there is no information available regarding the regulation of genes involved in the generation of a new homeostatic cellular condition after long-term alkaline stress. Lotus japonicus is a model legume broadly used to study many important physiological processes including biotic interactions and biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we characterized phenotipically the response to alkaline stress of the most widely used L. japonicus ecotypes, Gifu B-129 and MG-20, and analyzed global transcriptome of plants subjected to 10 mM NaHCO3 during 21 days, by using the Affymetrix Lotus japonicus GeneChip®. Plant growth assessment, gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (OJIP) analysis and metal accumulation supported the notion that MG-20 plants displayed a higher tolerance level to alkaline stress than Gifu B-129. Overall, 407 and 459 probe sets were regulated in MG-20 and Gifu B-129, respectively. The number of probe sets differentially expressed in roots was higher than that of shoots, regardless the ecotype. Gifu B-129 and MG-20 also differed in their regulation of genes that could play important roles in the generation of a new Fe/Zn homeostatic cellular condition, synthesis of plant compounds involved in stress response, protein-degradation, damage repair and root senescence, as well as in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and TCA. In addition, there were differences between both ecotypes in the expression patterns of putative transcription factors that could determine distinct arrangements of flavonoid and isoflavonoid compounds. Our results provided a set of selected, differentially expressed genes deserving further investigation and suggested that the L. japonicus ecotypes could constitute a useful model to search for common and

  7. Response to Long-Term NaHCO3-Derived Alkalinity in Model Lotus japonicus Ecotypes Gifu B-129 and Miyakojima MG-20: Transcriptomic Profiling and Physiological Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Rocco, Rubén; Bordenave, Cesar D.; Escaray, Francisco J.; Antonelli, Cristian; Calzadilla, Pablo; Gárriz, Andrés; Serna, Eva; Carrasco, Pedro; Menendez, Ana B.

    2014-01-01

    The current knowledge regarding transcriptomic changes induced by alkalinity on plants is scarce and limited to studies where plants were subjected to the alkaline salt for periods not longer than 48 h, so there is no information available regarding the regulation of genes involved in the generation of a new homeostatic cellular condition after long-term alkaline stress. Lotus japonicus is a model legume broadly used to study many important physiological processes including biotic interactions and biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we characterized phenotipically the response to alkaline stress of the most widely used L. japonicus ecotypes, Gifu B-129 and MG-20, and analyzed global transcriptome of plants subjected to 10 mM NaHCO3 during 21 days, by using the Affymetrix Lotus japonicus GeneChip®. Plant growth assessment, gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (OJIP) analysis and metal accumulation supported the notion that MG-20 plants displayed a higher tolerance level to alkaline stress than Gifu B-129. Overall, 407 and 459 probe sets were regulated in MG-20 and Gifu B-129, respectively. The number of probe sets differentially expressed in roots was higher than that of shoots, regardless the ecotype. Gifu B-129 and MG-20 also differed in their regulation of genes that could play important roles in the generation of a new Fe/Zn homeostatic cellular condition, synthesis of plant compounds involved in stress response, protein-degradation, damage repair and root senescence, as well as in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and TCA. In addition, there were differences between both ecotypes in the expression patterns of putative transcription factors that could determine distinct arrangements of flavonoid and isoflavonoid compounds. Our results provided a set of selected, differentially expressed genes deserving further investigation and suggested that the L. japonicus ecotypes could constitute a useful model to search for common and

  8. Gibberellins Interfere with Symbiosis Signaling and Gene Expression and Alter Colonization by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Lotus japonicus1

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Naoya; Handa, Yoshihiro; Tsuzuki, Syusaku; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza is a mutualistic plant-fungus interaction that confers great advantages for plant growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi enter the host root and form symbiotic structures that facilitate nutrient supplies between the symbionts. The gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones known to inhibit AM fungal infection. However, our transcriptome analysis and phytohormone quantification revealed GA accumulation in the roots of Lotus japonicus infected with AM fungi, suggesting that de novo GA synthesis plays a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza development. We found pleiotropic effects of GAs on the AM fungal infection. In particular, the morphology of AM fungal colonization was drastically altered by the status of GA signaling in the host root. Exogenous GA treatment inhibited AM hyphal entry into the host root and suppressed the expression of Reduced Arbuscular Mycorrhization1 (RAM1) and RAM2 homologs that function in hyphal entry and arbuscule formation. On the other hand, inhibition of GA biosynthesis or suppression of GA signaling also affected arbuscular mycorrhiza development in the host root. Low-GA conditions suppressed arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced subtilisin-like serine protease1 (SbtM1) expression that is required for AM fungal colonization and reduced hyphal branching in the host root. The reduced hyphal branching and SbtM1 expression caused by the inhibition of GA biosynthesis were recovered by GA treatment, supporting the theory that insufficient GA signaling causes the inhibitory effects on arbuscular mycorrhiza development. Most studies have focused on the negative role of GA signaling, whereas our study demonstrates that GA signaling also positively interacts with symbiotic responses and promotes AM colonization of the host root. PMID:25527715

  9. Peroxiredoxins and NADPH-Dependent Thioredoxin Systems in the Model Legume Lotus japonicus1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Méndez, Alejandro; Matamoros, Manuel A.; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Cejudo, Francisco Javier; Rouhier, Nicolas; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Becana, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), thioredoxins (Trxs), and NADPH-thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) constitute central elements of the thiol-disulfide redox regulatory network of plant cells. This study provides a comprehensive survey of this network in the model legume Lotus japonicus. The aims were to identify and characterize these gene families and to assess whether the NTR-Trx systems are operative in nodules. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunological and proteomic approaches were used for expression profiling. We identified seven Prx, 14 Trx, and three NTR functional genes. The PrxQ1 gene was found to be transcribed in two alternative spliced variants and to be expressed at high levels in leaves, stems, petals, pods, and seeds and at low levels in roots and nodules. The 1CPrx gene showed very high expression in the seed embryos and low expression in vegetative tissues and was induced by nitric oxide and cytokinins. In sharp contrast, cytokinins down-regulated all other Prx genes, except PrxQ1, in roots and nodules, but only 2CPrxA and PrxQ1 in leaves. Gene-specific changes in Prx expression were also observed in response to ethylene, abscisic acid, and auxins. Nodules contain significant mRNA and protein amounts of cytosolic PrxIIB, Trxh1, and NTRA and of plastidic NTRC. Likewise, they express cytosolic Trxh3, Trxh4, Trxh8, and Trxh9, mitochondrial PrxIIF and Trxo, and plastidic Trxm2, Trxm4, and ferredoxin-Trx reductase. These findings reveal a complex regulation of Prxs that is dependent on the isoform, tissue, and signaling molecule and support that redox NTR-Trx systems are functional in the cytosol, mitochondria, and plastids of nodules. PMID:21562331

  10. Functional Characterization of an Unusual Phytochelatin Synthase, LjPCS3, of Lotus japonicus1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Javier; Naya, Loreto; Gay, Marina; Abián, Joaquín; Becana, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    In plants and many other organisms, phytochelatin synthase (PCS) catalyzes the synthesis of phytochelatins from glutathione in the presence of certain metals and metalloids. We have used budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a heterologous system to characterize two PCS proteins, LjPCS1 and LjPCS3, of the model legume Lotus japonicus. Initial experiments revealed that the metal tolerance of yeast cells in vivo depends on the concentrations of divalent cations in the growth medium. Detailed in vivo (intact cells) and in vitro (broken cells) assays of PCS activity were performed with yeast expressing the plant enzymes, and values of phytochelatin production for each metal tested were normalized with respect to those of cadmium to correct for the lower expression level of LjPCS3. Our results showed that lead was the best activator of LjPCS1 in the in vitro assay, whereas, for both assays, arsenic, iron, and aluminum were better activators of LjPCS3 and mercury was similarly active with the two enzymes. Most interestingly, zinc was a powerful activator, especially of LjPCS3, when assayed in vivo, whereas copper and silver were the strongest activators in the in vitro assay. We conclude that the in vivo and in vitro assays are useful and complementary to assess the response of LjPCS1 and LjPCS3 to a wide range of metals and that the differences in the C-terminal domains of the two proteins are responsible for their distinct expression levels or stabilities in heterologous systems and patterns of metal activation. PMID:18614711

  11. Gibberellins interfere with symbiosis signaling and gene expression and alter colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Naoya; Handa, Yoshihiro; Tsuzuki, Syusaku; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza is a mutualistic plant-fungus interaction that confers great advantages for plant growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi enter the host root and form symbiotic structures that facilitate nutrient supplies between the symbionts. The gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones known to inhibit AM fungal infection. However, our transcriptome analysis and phytohormone quantification revealed GA accumulation in the roots of Lotus japonicus infected with AM fungi, suggesting that de novo GA synthesis plays a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza development. We found pleiotropic effects of GAs on the AM fungal infection. In particular, the morphology of AM fungal colonization was drastically altered by the status of GA signaling in the host root. Exogenous GA treatment inhibited AM hyphal entry into the host root and suppressed the expression of Reduced Arbuscular Mycorrhization1 (RAM1) and RAM2 homologs that function in hyphal entry and arbuscule formation. On the other hand, inhibition of GA biosynthesis or suppression of GA signaling also affected arbuscular mycorrhiza development in the host root. Low-GA conditions suppressed arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced subtilisin-like serine protease1 (SbtM1) expression that is required for AM fungal colonization and reduced hyphal branching in the host root. The reduced hyphal branching and SbtM1 expression caused by the inhibition of GA biosynthesis were recovered by GA treatment, supporting the theory that insufficient GA signaling causes the inhibitory effects on arbuscular mycorrhiza development. Most studies have focused on the negative role of GA signaling, whereas our study demonstrates that GA signaling also positively interacts with symbiotic responses and promotes AM colonization of the host root. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Characterization of Three Functional High-Affinity Ammonium Transporters in Lotus japonicus with Differential Transcriptional Regulation and Spatial Expression1

    PubMed Central

    D'Apuzzo, Enrica; Rogato, Alessandra; Simon-Rosin, Ulrike; El Alaoui, Hicham; Barbulova, Ani; Betti, Marco; Dimou, Maria; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Marquez, Antonio; Marini, Anne-Marie; Udvardi, Michael K.; Chiurazzi, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    Ammonium is a primary source of nitrogen for plants. In legume plants ammonium can also be obtained by symbiotic nitrogen fixation, and \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{NH}}_{4}^{+}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} is also a regulator of early and late symbiotic interaction steps. Ammonium transporters are likely to play important roles in the control of nodule formation as well as in nitrogen assimilation. Two new genes, LjAMT1;2 and LjAMT1;3, were cloned from Lotus japonicus. Both were able to complement the growth defect of a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) ammonium transport mutant. Measurement of [14C]methylammonium uptake rates and competition experiments revealed that each transporter had a high affinity for \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{NH}}_{4}^{+}\\end{equation*}\\end{document}. The Ki for ammonium was 1.7, 3, and 15 μm for LjAMT1;1, 1;2, and 1;3, respectively. Real-time PCR revealed higher expression of LjAMT1;1, 1;2, and 1;3 genes in leaves than in roots and nodule, with expression levels decreasing in the order LjAMT1;1 > 1;2 > 1;3 except in flowers, in which LjAMT1;3 was expressed at higher level than in leaves, and LjAMT1;1 showed the lowest level of expression. Expression of LjAMT1;1 and 1;2 in roots was induced by nitrogen deprivation. Expression of LjAMT1;1 was repressed in leaves exposed to elevated CO2 concentrations, which also suppress photorespiration. Tissue and cellular localization of LjAMT1 genes expression, using promoter-β-glucuronidase and in situ RNA hybridization approaches, revealed distinct cellular spatial

  13. Glycolysis and the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Are Linked by Alanine Aminotransferase during Hypoxia Induced by Waterlogging of Lotus japonicus1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Marcio; Licausi, Francesco; Araújo, Wagner L.; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Sodek, Ladaslav; Fernie, Alisdair R.; van Dongen, Joost T.

    2010-01-01

    The role of nitrogen metabolism in the survival of prolonged periods of waterlogging was investigated in highly flood-tolerant, nodulated Lotus japonicus plants. Alanine production revealed to be a critical hypoxic pathway. Alanine is the only amino acid whose biosynthesis is not inhibited by nitrogen deficiency resulting from RNA interference silencing of nodular leghemoglobin. The metabolic changes that were induced following waterlogging can be best explained by the activation of alanine metabolism in combination with the modular operation of a split tricarboxylic acid pathway. The sum result of this metabolic scenario is the accumulation of alanine and succinate and the production of extra ATP under hypoxia. The importance of alanine metabolism is discussed with respect to its ability to regulate the level of pyruvate, and this and all other changes are discussed in the context of current models concerning the regulation of plant metabolism. PMID:20089769

  14. RNA-seq Transcriptional Profiling of an Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Provides Insights into Regulated and Coordinated Gene Expression in Lotus japonicus and Rhizophagus irregularis.

    PubMed

    Handa, Yoshihiro; Nishide, Hiroyo; Takeda, Naoya; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Saito, Katsuharu

    2015-08-01

    Gene expression during arbuscular mycorrhizal development is highly orchestrated in both plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. To elucidate the gene expression profiles of the symbiotic association, we performed a digital gene expression analysis of Lotus japonicus and Rhizophagus irregularis using a HiSeq 2000 next-generation sequencer with a Cufflinks assembly and de novo transcriptome assembly. There were 3,641 genes differentially expressed during arbuscular mycorrhizal development in L. japonicus, approximately 80% of which were up-regulated. The up-regulated genes included secreted proteins, transporters, proteins involved in lipid and amino acid metabolism, ribosomes and histones. We also detected many genes that were differentially expressed in small-secreted peptides and transcription factors, which may be involved in signal transduction or transcription regulation during symbiosis. Co-regulated genes between arbuscular mycorrhizal and root nodule symbiosis were not particularly abundant, but transcripts encoding for membrane traffic-related proteins, transporters and iron transport-related proteins were found to be highly co-up-regulated. In transcripts of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, expansion of cytochrome P450 was observed, which may contribute to various metabolic pathways required to accommodate roots and soil. The comprehensive gene expression data of both plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provide a powerful platform for investigating the functional and molecular mechanisms underlying arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Analysis and Expression Profiles of LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN Gene Family in Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tianquan; Fang, Genwang yue; He, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD) gene family has been well-studied in Arabidopsis and play crucial roles in the diverse growth and development processes including establishment and maintenance of boundary of developmental lateral organs. In this study we identified and characterized 38 LBD genes in Lotus japonicus (LjLBD) and 57 LBD genes in Medicago truncatula (MtLBD), both of which are model legume plants that have some specific development features absent in Arabidopsis. The phylogenetic relationships, their locations in the genome, genes structure and conserved motifs were examined. The results revealed that all LjLBD and MtLBD genes could be distinctly divided into two classes: Class I and II. The evolutionary analysis showed that Type I functional divergence with some significantly site-specific shifts may be the main force for the divergence between Class I and Class II. In addition, the expression patterns of LjLBD genes uncovered the diverse functions in plant development. Interestingly, we found that two LjLBD proteins that were highly expressed during compound leaf and pulvinus development, can interact via yeast two-hybrid assays. Taken together, our findings provide an evolutionary and genetic foundation in further understanding the molecular basis of LBD gene family in general, specifically in L. japonicus and M. truncatula. PMID:27560982

  16. Genome-wide Analyses of the Structural Gene Families Involved in the Legume-specific 5-Deoxyisoflavonoid Biosynthesis of Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Norimoto; Sato, Shusei; Akashi, Tomoyoshi; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Ayabe, Shin-ichi; Aoki, Toshio

    2007-01-01

    Abstract A model legume Lotus japonicus (Regel) K. Larsen is one of the subjects of genome sequencing and functional genomics programs. In the course of targeted approaches to the legume genomics, we analyzed the genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the legume-specific 5-deoxyisoflavonoid of L. japonicus, which produces isoflavan phytoalexins on elicitor treatment. The paralogous biosynthetic genes were assigned as comprehensively as possible by biochemical experiments, similarity searches, comparison of the gene structures, and phylogenetic analyses. Among the 10 biosynthetic genes investigated, six comprise multigene families, and in many cases they form gene clusters in the chromosomes. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase–PCR analyses showed coordinate up-regulation of most of the genes during phytoalexin induction and complex accumulation patterns of the transcripts in different organs. Some paralogous genes exhibited similar expression specificities, suggesting their genetic redundancy. The molecular evolution of the biosynthetic genes is discussed. The results presented here provide reliable annotations of the genes and genetic markers for comparative and functional genomics of leguminous plants. PMID:17452423

  17. The alkaline tolerance in Lotus japonicus is associated with mechanisms of iron acquisition and modification of the architectural pattern of the root.

    PubMed

    Campestre, María Paula; Antonelli, Cristian; Calzadilla, Pablo Ignacio; Maiale, Santiago Javier; Rodríguez, Andrés Alberto; Ruiz, Oscar Adolfo

    2016-11-01

    The response of fifty-four Lotus japonicus ecotypes, and of six selected ecotypes was investigated under alkaline conditions. Sensitive, but not tolerant ecotypes, showed interveinal chlorosis under all alkalinity conditions and high mortality under extreme alkalinity. Interveinal chlorosis was associated with Fe deficiency, as a reduced Fe(2+) shoot content was observed in all sensitive ecotypes. In addition, some showed a decline in photosynthesis rate and PSII performance compared to the control. In contrast, some tolerant ecotypes did not change these parameters between treatments. Alkaline tolerance could be explained by a mechanism of Fe acquisition and a root structural modification. This conclusion was based on the fact that all tolerant, but not the sensitive ecotypes, presented high ferric reductase oxidase activity under alkaline stress compared to the control, and a Herringbone root pattern modification. On this basis, the analysis of these mechanisms of alkaline tolerance could be used in screening programs for the selection of new tolerant genotypes in the Lotus genus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Knockdown of LjALD1, AGD2-like defense response protein 1, influences plant growth and nodulation in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Li, Xueliu; Tian, Lu; Wu, Pingzhi; Li, Meiru; Jiang, Huawu; Chen, Yaping; Wu, Guojiang

    2014-11-01

    The discovery of the enzyme L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (LL-DAP-AT, EC 2.6.1.83) uncovered a unique step in the L-lysine biosynthesis pathway in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, LL-DAP-AT has been shown to play a key role in plant-pathogen interactions by regulation of the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway. Here, a full-length cDNA of LL-DAP-AT named as LjALD1 from Lotus japonicus (Regel) Larsen was isolated. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 67% identity with the Arabidopsis aminotransferase AGD2-LIKE DEFENSE RESPONSE PROTEIN1 (AtALD1) and is predicted to contain the same key elements: a conserved aminotransferase domain and a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor binding site. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that LjALD1 was expressed in all L. japonicus tissues tested, being strongest in nodules. Expression was induced in roots that had been infected with the symbiotic rhizobium Mesorhizobium loti or treated with SA agonist benzo-(1, 2, 3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid. LjALD1 Knockdown exhibited a lower SA content, an increased number of infection threads and nodules, and a slight reduction in nodule size. In addition, compared with wild-type, root growth was increased and shoot growth was suppressed in LjALD1 RNAi plant lines. These results indicate that LjALD1 may play important roles in plant development and nodulation via SA signaling in L. japonicus. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. micro RNA 172 (miR172) signals epidermal infection and is expressed in cells primed for bacterial invasion in Lotus japonicus roots and nodules.

    PubMed

    Holt, Dennis B; Gupta, Vikas; Meyer, Dörte; Abel, Nikolaj B; Andersen, Stig U; Stougaard, Jens; Markmann, Katharina

    2015-10-01

    Legumes interact with rhizobial bacteria to form nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Host signalling following mutual recognition ensures a specific response, but is only partially understood. Focusing on the stage of epidermal infection with Mesorhizobium loti, we analysed endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) of the model legume Lotus japonicus to investigate their involvement in host response regulation. We used Illumina sequencing to annotate the L. japonicus sRNA-ome and isolate infection-responsive sRNAs, followed by candidate-based functional characterization. Sequences from four libraries revealed 219 novel L. japonicus micro RNAs (miRNAs) from 114 newly assigned families, and 76 infection-responsive sRNAs. Unlike infection-associated coding genes such as NODULE INCEPTION (NIN), a micro RNA 172 (miR172) isoform showed strong accumulation in dependency of both Nodulation (Nod) factor and compatible rhizobia. The genetics of miR172 induction support the existence of distinct epidermal and cortical signalling events. MIR172a promoter activity followed a previously unseen pattern preceding infection thread progression in epidermal and cortical cells. Nodule-associated miR172a expression was infection-independent, representing the second of two genetically separable activity waves. The combined data provide a valuable resource for further study, and identify miR172 as an sRNA marking successful epidermal infection. We show that miR172 acts upstream of several APETALA2-type (AP2) transcription factors, and suggest that it has a role in fine-tuning AP2 levels during bacterial symbiosis.

  20. Structural analysis of a Lotus japonicus genome. V. Sequence features and mapping of sixty-four TAC clones which cover the 6.4 mb regions of the genome.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tomohiko; Sato, Shusei; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Kaneko, Takakazu; Asamizu, Erika; Tabata, Satoshi

    2003-12-31

    We determined the nucleotide sequences of 64 TAC (transformation-competent artificial chromosome) clones selected from genomic libraries of Lotus japonicus accession Miyakojima MG-20 based on the sequence information of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), cDNAs, genes and DNA markers from L. japonicus and other legumes. The length of the DNA regions sequenced in this study was 6,370,255 bp, and the total length of the L. japonicus genome sequenced so far is 32,537,698 bp together with the nucleotide sequences of 256 TAC clones previously reported. Five hundred forty-eight potential protein-encoding genes with known or predicted functions, 127 gene segments and 224 pseudogenes were assigned to the newly sequenced regions by computer prediction and similarity searches against the sequences in protein and EST databases. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the clones, simple sequence repeat length polymorphism (SSLP) or derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (dCAPS) markers were generated, and each clone was genetically localized onto the linkage map of two accessions of L. japonicus, MG-20 and Gifu B-129. The sequence data, gene information and mapping information are available through the World Wide Web at http://www.kazusa.or.jp/lotus/.

  1. Hemoglobin LjGlb1-1 is involved in nodulation and regulates the level of nitric oxide in the Lotus japonicus-Mesorhizobium loti symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Fukudome, Mitsutaka; Calvo-Begueria, Laura; Kado, Tomohiro; Osuki, Ken-Ichi; Rubio, Maria Carmen; Murakami, Ei-Ichi; Nagata, Maki; Kucho, Ken-Ichi; Sandal, Niels; Stougaard, Jens; Becana, Manuel; Uchiumi, Toshiki

    2016-09-01

    Leghemoglobins transport and deliver O2 to the symbiosomes inside legume nodules and are essential for nitrogen fixation. However, the roles of other hemoglobins (Hbs) in the rhizobia-legume symbiosis are unclear. Several Lotus japonicus mutants affecting LjGlb1-1, a non-symbiotic class 1 Hb, have been used to study the function of this protein in symbiosis. Two TILLING alleles with single amino acid substitutions (A102V and E127K) and a LORE1 null allele with a retrotransposon insertion in the 5'-untranslated region (96642) were selected for phenotyping nodulation. Plants of all three mutant lines showed a decrease in long infection threads and nodules, and an increase in incipient infection threads. About 4h after inoculation, the roots of mutant plants exhibited a greater transient accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) than did the wild-type roots; nevertheless, in vitro NO dioxygenase activities of the wild-type, A102V, and E127K proteins were similar, suggesting that the mutated proteins are not fully functional in vivo The expression of LjGlb1-1, but not of the other class 1 Hb of L. japonicus (LjGlb1-2), was affected during infection of wild-type roots, further supporting a specific role for LjGlb1-1. In conclusion, the LjGlb1-1 mutants reveal that this protein is required during rhizobial infection and regulates NO levels. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Lotus japonicus nodulation is photomorphogenetically controlled by sensing the red/far red (R/FR) ratio through jasmonic acid (JA) signaling

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Suriyagoda, Lalith; Shigeyama, Tamaki; Tominaga, Akiyoshi; Sasaki, Masayo; Hiratsuka, Yoshimi; Yoshinaga, Aya; Arima, Susumu; Agarie, Sakae; Sakai, Tatsuya; Inada, Sayaka; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Uchiumi, Toshiki; Abe, Mikiko; Hashiguchi, Masatsugu; Akashi, Ryo; Sato, Shusei; Kaneko, Takakazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirsch, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    Light is critical for supplying carbon to the energetically expensive, nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia. Here, we show that phytochrome B (phyB) is part of the monitoring system to detect suboptimal light conditions, which normally suppress Lotus japonicus nodule development after Mesorhizobium loti inoculation. We found that the number of nodules produced by L. japonicus phyB mutants is significantly reduced compared with the number produced of WT Miyakojima MG20. To explore causes other than photoassimilate production, the possibility that local control by the root genotype occurred was investigated by grafting experiments. The results showed that the shoot and not the root genotype is responsible for root nodule formation. To explore systemic control mechanisms exclusive of photoassimilation, we moved WT MG20 plants from white light to conditions that differed in their ratios of low or high red/far red (R/FR) light. In low R/FR light, the number of MG20 root nodules dramatically decreased compared with plants grown in high R/FR, although photoassimilate content was higher for plants grown under low R/FR. Also, the expression of jasmonic acid (JA) -responsive genes decreased in both low R/FR light-grown WT and white light-grown phyB mutant plants, and it correlated with decreased jasmonoyl-isoleucine content in the phyB mutant. Moreover, both infection thread formation and root nodule formation were positively influenced by JA treatment of WT plants grown in low R/FR light and white light-grown phyB mutants. Together, these results indicate that root nodule formation is photomorphogenetically controlled by sensing the R/FR ratio through JA signaling. PMID:21930895

  3. Heat stress results in loss of chloroplast Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and increased damage to Photosystem II in combined drought-heat stressed Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Sainz, Martha; Díaz, Pedro; Monza, Jorge; Borsani, Omar

    2010-09-01

    Drought and heat stress have been studied extensively in plants, but most reports involve analysis of response to only one of these stresses. Studies in which both stresses were studied in combination have less commonly been reported. We report the combined effect of drought and heat stress on Photosystem II (PSII) of Lotus japonicus cv. Gifu plants. Photochemistry of PSII was not affected by drought or heat stress alone, but the two stresses together decreased PSII activity as determined by fluorescence emission. Heat stress alone resulted in degradation of D1 and CP47 proteins, and D2 protein was also degraded by combined drought-heat stress. None of these proteins were degraded by drought stress alone. Drought alone induced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide but the drought-heat combination led to an increase in superoxide levels and a decrease in hydrogen peroxide levels. Furthermore, combined drought-heat stress was correlated with an increase in oxidative damage as determined by increased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Heat also induced degradation of chloroplast Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1) as shown by reduced protein levels and isozyme-specific SOD activity. Loss of Cu/Zn SOD and induction of catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6) activity would explain the altered balance between hydrogen peroxide and superoxide in response to drought vs combined drought-heat stress. Degradation of PSII could thus be caused by the loss of components of chloroplast antioxidant defence systems and subsequent decreased function of PSII. A possible explanation for energy dissipation by L. japonicus under stress conditions is discussed.

  4. LjMOT1, a high-affinity molybdate transporter from Lotus japonicus, is essential for molybdate uptake, but not for the delivery to nodules.

    PubMed

    Duan, Guilan; Hakoyama, Tsuneo; Kamiya, Takehiro; Miwa, Hiroki; Lombardo, Fabien; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Chen, Zheng; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Shinano, Takuro; Fujiwara, Toru

    2017-03-09

    Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential nutrient for plants, and is required for nitrogenase activity of legumes. However, the pathways of Mo uptake from soils and then delivery to the nodules have not been characterized in legumes. In this study, we characterized a high-affinity Mo transporter (LjMOT1) from Lotus japonicus. Mo concentrations in an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized line (ljmot1) decreased by 70-95% compared with wild type (WT). By comparing the DNA sequences of four AtMOT1 homologs between mutant and WT lines, one point mutation was found in LjMOT1, which altered Trp(292) to a stop codon; no mutation was found in the other homologous genes. The phenotype of Mo concentrations in F2 progeny from ljmot1 and WT crosses were associated with genotypes of LjMOT1. Introduction of endogenous LjMOT1 to ljmot1 restored Mo accumulation to approximately 60-70% of the WT. Yeast expressing LjMOT1 exhibited high Mo uptake activity, and the Km was 182 nM. LjMOT1 was expressed mainly in roots, and its expression was not affected by Mo supply or rhizobium inoculation. Although Mo accumulation in the nodules of ljmot1 was significantly lower than that of WT, it was still high enough for normal nodulation and nitrogenase activity, even for cotyledons removed ljmot1 plants grown under low Mo conditions, in this case the plant growth was significantly inhibited by Mo deficiency. Our results suggest that LjMOT1 is an essential Mo transporter in L. japonicus for Mo uptake from the soil and growth, but is not Mo delivery to the nodules. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Phytochelatin synthases of the model legume Lotus japonicus. A small multigene family with differential response to cadmium and alternatively spliced variants.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Javier; Clemente, Maria R; Naya, Loreto; Loscos, Jorge; Pérez-Rontomé, Carmen; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Becana, Manuel

    2007-03-01

    The biosynthesis of phytochelatins and homophytochelatins has been studied in nodulated plants of the model legume Lotus (Lotus japonicus). In the first 6 to 24 h of treatment with cadmium (Cd), roots started to synthesize elevated amounts of both polypeptides, with a concomitant increase of glutathione and a decrease of homoglutathione, indicating the presence of active phytochelatin synthase (PCS) genes. Screening of transformation-competent artificial chromosome libraries allowed identification of a cluster of three genes, LjPCS1, LjPCS2, and LjPCS3, which were mapped at 69.0 cM on chromosome 1. The genes differ in exon-intron composition and responsiveness to Cd. Gene structures and phylogenetic analysis of the three protein products, LjPCS1-8R, LjPCS2-7N, and LjPCS3-7N, are consistent with two sequential gene duplication events during evolution of vascular plants. Two sites for alternative splicing in the primary transcripts were identified. One of them, involving intron 2 of the LjPCS2 gene, was confirmed by the finding of the two predicted mRNAs, encoding LjPCS2-7R in roots and LjPCS2-7N in nodules. The amino acid sequences of LjPCS2-7R (or LjPCS2-7N) and LjPCS3-7N share 90% identity, but have only 43% to 59% identity with respect to the typical PCS1 enzymes of Lotus and other plants. The unusual LjPCS2-7N and LjPCS3-7N proteins conferred Cd tolerance when expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells, whereas the alternatively spliced form, LjPCS2-7R, differing only in a five-amino acid motif (GRKWK) did not. These results unveil complex regulatory mechanisms of PCS expression in legume tissues in response to heavy metals and probably to other developmental and environmental factors.

  6. Common symbiosis genes CERBERUS and NSP1 provide additional insight into the establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal and root nodule symbioses in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nagae, Miwa; Takeda, Naoya; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis (AMS) and root nodule symbiosis (RNS) share several common symbiotic components, and many of the common symbiosis mutants block the entry of symbionts into the roots. We recently reported that CERBERUS (an E3 ubiquitin ligase) and NSP1 (a GRAS family transcription factor), required for RNS, also modulate AMS development in Lotus japonicus. The novel common symbiosis mutants, cerberus and nsp1, have low colonization of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi, caused by a defect in internal hyphal elongation and by a decreased fungal entry into the roots, respectively. Here, we showed that CERBERUS was induced at the sites of symbiotic fungal or bacterial infection. NSP1 has been implicated in a strigolactone biosynthesis gene DWARF27 expression. Nevertheless, in nsp1, DWARF27 was induced by inoculation with AM fungi, implying the existence of a NSP1-independent regulatory mechanism of strigolactone biosynthesis during AMS establishment. These results support functional analysis of CERBERUS and NSP1, and also contribute to elucidation of common mechanisms in AMS and RNS.

  7. The REL3-mediated TAS3 ta-siRNA pathway integrates auxin and ethylene signaling to regulate nodulation in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolin; Lei, Mingjuan; Yan, Zhongyuan; Wang, Qi; Chen, Aimin; Sun, Jie; Luo, Da; Wang, Yanzhang

    2014-01-01

    The ta-siRNA pathway is required for lateral organ development, including leaf patterning, flower differentiation and lateral root growth. Legumes can develop novel lateral root organs--nodules--resulting from symbiotic interactions with rhizobia. However, ta-siRNA regulation in nodule formation remains unknown. To explore ta-siRNA regulation in nodule formation, we investigated the roles of REL3, a key component of TAS3 ta-siRNA biogenesis, during nodulation in Lotus japonicus. We characterized the symbiotic phenotypes of the TAS3 ta-siRNA defective rel3 mutant, and analyzed the responses of the rel3 mutant to auxin and ethylene in order to gain insight into TAS3 ta-siRNA regulation of nodulation. The rel3 mutant produced fewer pink nitrogen-fixing nodules, with substantially decreased infection frequency and nodule initiation. Moreover, the rel3 mutant was more resistant than wild-type to 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) in root growth, and exhibited insensitivity to auxins but greater sensitivity to auxin transport inhibitors during nodulation. Furthermore, the rel3 mutant has enhanced root-specific ethylene sensitivity and altered responses to ethylene during nodulation; the low-nodulating phenotype of the rel3 mutant can be restored by ethylene synthesis inhibitor L-α-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)-glycine (AVG) or action inhibitor Ag(+). The REL3-mediated TAS3 ta-siRNA pathway regulates nodulation by integrating ethylene and auxin signaling.

  8. Nitrogen-Fixing Nodules Are an Important Source of Reduced Sulfur, Which Triggers Global Changes in Sulfur Metabolism in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Kalloniati, Chrysanthi; Krompas, Panagiotis; Karalias, Georgios; Udvardi, Michael K; Rennenberg, Heinz; Herschbach, Cornelia; Flemetakis, Emmanouil

    2015-09-01

    We combined transcriptomic and biochemical approaches to study rhizobial and plant sulfur (S) metabolism in nitrogen (N) fixing nodules (Fix(+)) of Lotus japonicus, as well as the link of S-metabolism to symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the effect of nodules on whole-plant S-partitioning and metabolism. Our data reveal that N-fixing nodules are thiol-rich organs. Their high adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase activity and strong (35)S-flux into cysteine and its metabolites, in combination with the transcriptional upregulation of several rhizobial and plant genes involved in S-assimilation, highlight the function of nodules as an important site of S-assimilation. The higher thiol content observed in nonsymbiotic organs of N-fixing plants in comparison to uninoculated plants could not be attributed to local biosynthesis, indicating that nodules are an important source of reduced S for the plant, which triggers whole-plant reprogramming of S-metabolism. Enhanced thiol biosynthesis in nodules and their impact on the whole-plant S-economy are dampened in plants nodulated by Fix(-) mutant rhizobia, which in most respects metabolically resemble uninoculated plants, indicating a strong interdependency between N-fixation and S-assimilation. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  9. Common symbiosis genes CERBERUS and NSP1 provide additional insight into the establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal and root nodule symbioses in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Nagae, Miwa; Takeda, Naoya; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis (AMS) and root nodule symbiosis (RNS) share several common symbiotic components, and many of the common symbiosis mutants block the entry of symbionts into the roots. We recently reported that CERBERUS (an E3 ubiquitin ligase) and NSP1 (a GRAS family transcription factor), required for RNS, also modulate AMS development in Lotus japonicus. The novel common symbiosis mutants, cerberus and nsp1, have low colonization of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi, caused by a defect in internal hyphal elongation and by a decreased fungal entry into the roots, respectively. Here, we showed that CERBERUS was induced at the sites of symbiotic fungal or bacterial infection. NSP1 has been implicated in a strigolactone biosynthesis gene DWARF27 expression. Nevertheless, in nsp1, DWARF27 was induced by inoculation with AM fungi, implying the existence of a NSP1-independent regulatory mechanism of strigolactone biosynthesis during AMS establishment. These results support functional analysis of CERBERUS and NSP1, and also contribute to elucidation of common mechanisms in AMS and RNS. PMID:24705023

  10. Lotus japonicus SUNERGOS1 encodes a predicted subunit A of a DNA topoisomerase VI that is required for nodule differentiation and accommodation of rhizobial infection

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hwi Joong; Hossain, Md Shakhawat; Held, Mark; Hou, Hongwei; Kehl, Marilyn; Tromas, Alexandre; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Stougaard, Jens; Ross, Loretta; Szczyglowski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    A symbiotic mutant of Lotus japonicus, called sunergos1-1 (suner1-1), originated from a har1-1 suppressor screen. suner1-1 supports epidermal infection by Mesorhizobium loti and initiates cell divisions for organogenesis of nodule primordia. However, these processes appear to be temporarily stalled early during symbiotic interaction, leading to a low nodule number phenotype. This defect is ephemeral and near wild-type nodule numbers are reached by suner1-1 at a later point after infection. Using an approach that combined map-based cloning and next-generation sequencing we have identified the causative mutation and show that the suner1-1 phenotype is determined by a weak recessive allele, with the corresponding wild-type SUNER1 locus encoding a predicted subunit A of a DNA topoisomerase VI. Our data suggest that at least one function of SUNER1 during symbiosis is to participate in endoreduplication, which is an essential step during normal differentiation of functional, nitrogen-fixing nodules. PMID:24661810

  11. Lotus japonicus plants of the Gifu B-129 ecotype subjected to alkaline stress improve their Fe(2+) bio-availability through inoculation with Pantoea eucalypti M91.

    PubMed

    Campestre, María Paula; Castagno, Luis Nazareno; Estrella, María Julia; Ruiz, Oscar Adolfo

    2016-03-15

    Inoculation assays with Pantoea eucalypti M91 were performed on Lotus japonicus ecotype Gifu. Under alkaline conditions, this ecotype is characterized by the development of interveinal chlorosis of the apical leaves due to low mobilization of Fe(2+). Inoculation with P. eucalypti M91, a plant growth-promoting bacterial strain capable of producing pyoverdine-like and pyochelin-like siderophores under alkaline growth conditions, alters the root, resulting in a herringbone pattern of root branching. Additional features include improvement in Fe(2+) transport to the shoots, acidification of the hydroponic solution of the plant cultures, and an accompanying increase in the efficiency of the PSII parameters. In addition, there was an increase in the expression of the FRO1 and IRT1 genes, accompanied by a significant increase in FRO activity. Results showed that P. eucalypti M91 has a beneficial effect on the Fe acquisition machinery of Strategy I, as described for non-graminaceous monocots and dicots, suggesting its potential as an inoculant for legume crops cultivated in alkaline soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Genomic clustering of cyanogenic glucoside biosynthetic genes aids their identification in Lotus japonicus and suggests the repeated evolution of this chemical defence pathway.

    PubMed

    Takos, Adam M; Knudsen, Camilla; Lai, Daniela; Kannangara, Rubini; Mikkelsen, Lisbeth; Motawia, Mohammed S; Olsen, Carl E; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Møller, Birger L; Rook, Fred

    2011-10-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides are amino acid-derived defence compounds found in a large number of vascular plants. Their hydrolysis by specific β-glucosidases following tissue damage results in the release of hydrogen cyanide. The cyanogenesis deficient1 (cyd1) mutant of Lotus japonicus carries a partial deletion of the CYP79D3 gene, which encodes a cytochrome P450 enzyme that is responsible for the first step in cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis. The genomic region surrounding CYP79D3 contains genes encoding the CYP736A2 protein and the UDP-glycosyltransferase UGT85K3. In combination with CYP79D3, these genes encode the enzymes that constitute the entire pathway for cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis. The biosynthetic genes for cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis are also co-localized in cassava (Manihot esculenta) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), but the three gene clusters show no other similarities. Although the individual enzymes encoded by the biosynthetic genes in these three plant species are related, they are not necessarily orthologous. The independent evolution of cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in several higher plant lineages by the repeated recruitment of members from similar gene families, such as the CYP79s, is a likely scenario.

  13. The temperature-sensitive brush mutant of the legume Lotus japonicus reveals a link between root development and nodule infection by rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Maekawa-Yoshikawa, Makoto; Müller, Judith; Takeda, Naoya; Maekawa, Takaki; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Perry, Jillian; Wang, Trevor L; Groth, Martin; Brachmann, Andreas; Parniske, Martin

    2009-04-01

    The brush mutant of Lotus japonicus exhibits a temperature-dependent impairment in nodule, root, and shoot development. At 26 degrees C, brush formed fewer nodules, most of which were not colonized by rhizobia bacteria. Primary root growth was retarded and the anatomy of the brush root apical meristem revealed distorted cellular organization and reduced cell expansion. Reciprocal grafting of brush with wild-type plants indicated that this genotype only affected the root and that the shoot phenotype was a secondary effect. The root and nodulation phenotype cosegregated as a single Mendelian trait and the BRUSH gene could be mapped to the short arm of chromosome 2. At 18 degrees C, the brush root anatomy was rescued and similar to the wild type, and primary root length, number of infection threads, and nodule formation were partially rescued. Superficially, the brush root phenotype resembled the ethylene-related thick short root syndrome. However, treatment with ethylene inhibitor did not recover the observed phenotypes, although brush primary roots were slightly longer. The defects of brush in root architecture and infection thread development, together with intact nodule architecture and complete absence of symptoms from shoots, suggest that BRUSH affects cellular differentiation in a tissue-dependent way.

  14. NENA, a Lotus japonicus homolog of Sec13, is required for rhizodermal infection by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and rhizobia but dispensable for cortical endosymbiotic development.

    PubMed

    Groth, Martin; Takeda, Naoya; Perry, Jillian; Uchida, Hisaki; Dräxl, Stephan; Brachmann, Andreas; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Wang, Trevor L; Parniske, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Legumes form symbioses with arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi and nitrogen fixing root nodule bacteria. Intracellular root infection by either endosymbiont is controlled by the activation of the calcium and calmodulin-dependent kinase (CCaMK), a central regulatory component of the plant's common symbiosis signaling network. We performed a microscopy screen for Lotus japonicus mutants defective in AM development and isolated a mutant, nena, that aborted fungal infection in the rhizodermis. NENA encodes a WD40 repeat protein related to the nucleoporins Sec13 and Seh1. Localization of NENA to the nuclear rim and yeast two-hybrid experiments indicated a role for NENA in a conserved subcomplex of the nuclear pore scaffold. Although nena mutants were able to form pink nodules in symbiosis with Mesorhizobium loti, root hair infection was not observed. Moreover, Nod factor induction of the symbiotic genes NIN, SbtM4, and SbtS, as well as perinuclear calcium spiking, were impaired. Detailed phenotypic analyses of nena mutants revealed a rhizobial infection mode that overcame the lack of rhizodermal responsiveness and carried the hallmarks of crack entry, including a requirement for ethylene. CCaMK-dependent processes were only abolished in the rhizodermis but not in the cortex of nena mutants. These data support the concept of tissue-specific components for the activation of CCaMK.

  15. The Temperature-Sensitive brush Mutant of the Legume Lotus japonicus Reveals a Link between Root Development and Nodule Infection by Rhizobia[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa-Yoshikawa, Makoto; Müller, Judith; Takeda, Naoya; Maekawa, Takaki; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Perry, Jillian; Wang, Trevor L.; Groth, Martin; Brachmann, Andreas; Parniske, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The brush mutant of Lotus japonicus exhibits a temperature-dependent impairment in nodule, root, and shoot development. At 26°C, brush formed fewer nodules, most of which were not colonized by rhizobia bacteria. Primary root growth was retarded and the anatomy of the brush root apical meristem revealed distorted cellular organization and reduced cell expansion. Reciprocal grafting of brush with wild-type plants indicated that this genotype only affected the root and that the shoot phenotype was a secondary effect. The root and nodulation phenotype cosegregated as a single Mendelian trait and the BRUSH gene could be mapped to the short arm of chromosome 2. At 18°C, the brush root anatomy was rescued and similar to the wild type, and primary root length, number of infection threads, and nodule formation were partially rescued. Superficially, the brush root phenotype resembled the ethylene-related thick short root syndrome. However, treatment with ethylene inhibitor did not recover the observed phenotypes, although brush primary roots were slightly longer. The defects of brush in root architecture and infection thread development, together with intact nodule architecture and complete absence of symptoms from shoots, suggest that BRUSH affects cellular differentiation in a tissue-dependent way. PMID:19176723

  16. Nitrogen-Fixing Nodules Are an Important Source of Reduced Sulfur, Which Triggers Global Changes in Sulfur Metabolism in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Kalloniati, Chrysanthi; Krompas, Panagiotis; Udvardi, Michael K.; Flemetakis, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    We combined transcriptomic and biochemical approaches to study rhizobial and plant sulfur (S) metabolism in nitrogen (N) fixing nodules (Fix+) of Lotus japonicus, as well as the link of S-metabolism to symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the effect of nodules on whole-plant S-partitioning and metabolism. Our data reveal that N-fixing nodules are thiol-rich organs. Their high adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase activity and strong 35S-flux into cysteine and its metabolites, in combination with the transcriptional upregulation of several rhizobial and plant genes involved in S-assimilation, highlight the function of nodules as an important site of S-assimilation. The higher thiol content observed in nonsymbiotic organs of N-fixing plants in comparison to uninoculated plants could not be attributed to local biosynthesis, indicating that nodules are an important source of reduced S for the plant, which triggers whole-plant reprogramming of S-metabolism. Enhanced thiol biosynthesis in nodules and their impact on the whole-plant S-economy are dampened in plants nodulated by Fix− mutant rhizobia, which in most respects metabolically resemble uninoculated plants, indicating a strong interdependency between N-fixation and S-assimilation. PMID:26296963

  17. NENA, a Lotus japonicus Homolog of Sec13, Is Required for Rhizodermal Infection by Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi and Rhizobia but Dispensable for Cortical Endosymbiotic Development[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Groth, Martin; Takeda, Naoya; Perry, Jillian; Uchida, Hisaki; Dräxl, Stephan; Brachmann, Andreas; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Wang, Trevor L.; Parniske, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Legumes form symbioses with arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi and nitrogen fixing root nodule bacteria. Intracellular root infection by either endosymbiont is controlled by the activation of the calcium and calmodulin-dependent kinase (CCaMK), a central regulatory component of the plant’s common symbiosis signaling network. We performed a microscopy screen for Lotus japonicus mutants defective in AM development and isolated a mutant, nena, that aborted fungal infection in the rhizodermis. NENA encodes a WD40 repeat protein related to the nucleoporins Sec13 and Seh1. Localization of NENA to the nuclear rim and yeast two-hybrid experiments indicated a role for NENA in a conserved subcomplex of the nuclear pore scaffold. Although nena mutants were able to form pink nodules in symbiosis with Mesorhizobium loti, root hair infection was not observed. Moreover, Nod factor induction of the symbiotic genes NIN, SbtM4, and SbtS, as well as perinuclear calcium spiking, were impaired. Detailed phenotypic analyses of nena mutants revealed a rhizobial infection mode that overcame the lack of rhizodermal responsiveness and carried the hallmarks of crack entry, including a requirement for ethylene. CCaMK-dependent processes were only abolished in the rhizodermis but not in the cortex of nena mutants. These data support the concept of tissue-specific components for the activation of CCaMK. PMID:20675572

  18. Lotus japonicus Clathrin Heavy Chain1 Is Associated with Rho-Like GTPase ROP6 and Involved in Nodule Formation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Maosheng; Duan, Liujiang; Yu, Haixiang; Chang, Xiaojun; Li, Li; Kang, Heng; Feng, Yong; Zhu, Hui; Hong, Zonglie

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying nodulation factor signaling downstream of the nodulation factor receptors (NFRs) have not been fully characterized. In this study, clathrin heavy chain1 (CHC1) was shown to interact with the Rho-Like GTPase ROP6, an interaction partner of NFR5 in Lotus japonicus. The CHC1 gene was found to be expressed constitutively in all plant tissues and induced in Mesorhizobium loti-infected root hairs and nodule primordia. When expressed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, CHC1 and ROP6 were colocalized at the cell circumference and within cytoplasmic punctate structures. In M. loti-infected root hairs, the CHC protein was detected in cytoplasmic punctate structures near the infection pocket along the infection thread membrane and the plasma membrane of the host cells. Transgenic plants expressing the CHC1-Hub domain, a dominant negative effector of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, were found to suppress early nodulation gene expression and impair M. loti infection, resulting in reduced nodulation. Treatment with tyrphostin A23, an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis of plasma membrane cargoes, had a similar effect on down-regulation of early nodulation genes. These findings show an important role of clathrin in the leguminous symbiosis with rhizobia. PMID:25717037

  19. Different functions of the histone acetyltransferase HAC1 gene traced in the model species Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Boycheva, Irina; Vassileva, Valya; Revalska, Miglena; Zehirov, Grigor; Iantcheva, Anelia

    2017-03-01

    In eukaryotes, histone acetyltransferases regulate the acetylation of histones and transcription factors, affecting chromatin structural organization, transcriptional regulation, and gene activation. To assess the role of HAC1, a gene encoding for a histone acetyltransferase in Medicago truncatula, stable transgenic lines with modified HAC1 expression in the model plants M. truncatula, Lotus japonicus, and Arabidopsis thaliana were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and used for functional analyses. Histochemical, transcriptional, flow cytometric, and morphological analyses demonstrated the involvement of HAC1 in plant growth and development, responses to internal stimuli, and cell cycle progression. Expression patterns of a reporter gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fused to the HAC1 promoter sequence were associated with young tissues comprised of actively dividing cells in different plant organs. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) signal, driven by the HAC1 promoter, was detected in the nuclei and cytoplasm of root cells. Transgenic lines with HAC1 overexpression and knockdown showed a wide range of phenotypic deviations and developmental abnormalities, which provided lines of evidence for the role of HAC1 in plant development. Synchronization of A. thaliana root tips in a line with HAC1 knockdown showed the involvement of this gene in the acetylation of two core histones during S phase of the plant cell cycle.

  20. Structural analysis of a Lotus japonicus genome. IV. Sequence features and mapping of seventy-three TAC clones which cover the 7.5 mb regions of the genome.

    PubMed

    Asamizu, Erika; Kato, Tomohiko; Sato, Shutsei; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Kaneko, Takakazu; Tabata, Satoshi

    2003-06-30

    Using the sequence information of expressed sequences tags (ESTs), cDNAs and genes from Lotus japonicus and other legumes, 73 TAC (transformation-competent artificial chromosomes) clones were selected from a genomic library of L. japonicus accession MG-20, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. The length of the DNA sequenced in this study was 7,455,959 bp, and the total length of the DNA regions sequenced so far is 26,167,443 bp together with the nucleotide sequences of 183 TAC clones previously reported. By similarity searches against the sequences in protein and EST databases and prediction by computer programs, a total of 699 potential protein-encoding genes with known or predicted functions, 163 gene segments and 267 pseudogenes were assigned to the newly sequenced regions. Based oil the nucleotide sequences of the clones, simple sequence repeat length polymorphism (SSLP) or derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (dCAPS) markers were generated, and each clone was located onto the linkage map of two accessions of L. japonicus, Gifu B-129 and Miyakojima MG-20. The sequence data, gene information and mapping information are available through the World Wide Web at http://www.kazusa.or.jp/lotus/.

  1. Enhanced hyphal growth of arbuscular mycorrhizae by root exudates derived from high R/FR treated Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Maki; Yamamoto, Naoya; Miyamoto, Taro; Shimomura, Aya; Arima, Susumu; Hirsch, Ann M; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2016-06-02

    Red/Far Red (R/FR) sensing positively influences the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis of both legume and nonlegume plants through jasmonic acid (JA) and strigolactone signaling. We previously reported that root exudates obtained from high R/FR-grown plants contained more strigolactone than low R/FR-grown plants. To determine whether JA and JA derivatives were secreted from roots, we investigated the expression levels of JA-responsive genes in L. japonicus Miyakojima MG20 plants treated with root exudates prepared from either high or low R/FR light-treated plants. The root exudates from high R/FR light-treated plants were found to enhance the expression levels of JA-responsive genes significantly. Moreover, exogenous JA increased AM fungal hyphal elongation as did the root exudates derived from high R/FR-grown L. japonicus plants. We conclude that increased JA accumulation and secretion into root exudates from high R/FR light-grown plants is the best explanation for increased colonization and enhanced mycorrhization under these conditions.

  2. Functional analysis of chimeric lysin motif domain receptors mediating Nod factor-induced defense signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana and chitin-induced nodulation signaling in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Staehelin, Christian

    2014-04-01

    The expression of chimeric receptors in plants is a way to activate specific signaling pathways by corresponding signal molecules. Defense signaling induced by chitin from pathogens and nodulation signaling of legumes induced by rhizobial Nod factors (NFs) depend on receptors with extracellular lysin motif (LysM) domains. Here, we constructed chimeras by replacing the ectodomain of chitin elicitor receptor kinase 1 (AtCERK1) of Arabidopsis thaliana with ectodomains of NF receptors of Lotus japonicus (LjNFR1 and LjNFR5). The hybrid constructs, named LjNFR1-AtCERK1 and LjNFR5-AtCERK1, were expressed in cerk1-2, an A. thaliana CERK1 mutant lacking chitin-induced defense signaling. When treated with NFs from Rhizobium sp. NGR234, cerk1-2 expressing both chimeras accumulated reactive oxygen species, expressed chitin-responsive defense genes and showed increased resistance to Fusarium oxysporum. In contrast, expression of a single chimera showed no effects. Likewise, the ectodomains of LjNFR1 and LjNFR5 were replaced by those of OsCERK1 (Oryza sativa chitin elicitor receptor kinase 1) and OsCEBiP (O. sativa chitin elicitor-binding protein), respectively. The chimeras, named OsCERK1-LjNFR1 and OsCEBiP-LjNFR5, were expressed in L. japonicus NF receptor mutants (nfr1-1; nfr5-2) carrying a GUS (β-glucuronidase) gene under the control of the NIN (nodule inception) promoter. Upon chitin treatment, GUS activation reflecting nodulation signaling was observed in the roots of NF receptor mutants expressing both chimeras, whereas a single construct was not sufficient for activation. Hence, replacement of ectodomains in LysM domain receptors provides a way to specifically trigger NF-induced defense signaling in non-legumes and chitin-induced nodulation signaling in legumes. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Autophosphorylation is essential for the in vivo function of the Lotus japonicus Nod factor receptor 1 and receptor-mediated signalling in cooperation with Nod factor receptor 5.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Esben B; Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell; Grossmann, Christina; Ye, Juanying; Vieweg, Syndi; Broghammer, Angelique; Krusell, Lene; Radutoiu, Simona; Jensen, Ole N; Stougaard, Jens; Parniske, Martin

    2011-02-01

    Soil-living rhizobia secrete lipochitin oligosaccharides known as Nod factors, which in Lotus japonicus are perceived by at least two Nod-factor receptors, NFR1 and NFR5. Despite progress in identifying molecular components critical for initial legume host recognition of the microsymbiont and cloning of downstream components, little is known about the activation and signalling mechanisms of the Nod-factor receptors themselves. Here we show that both receptor proteins localize to the plasma membrane, and present evidence for heterocomplex formation initiating downstream signalling. Expression of NFR1 and NFR5 in Nicotiana benthamiana and Allium ampeloprasum (leek) cells caused a rapid cell-death response. The signalling leading to cell death was abrogated using a kinase-inactive variant of NFR1. In these surviving cells, a clear interaction between NFR1 and NFR5 was detected in vivo through bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC). To analyse the inter- and intramolecular phosphorylation events of the kinase complex, the cytoplasmic part of NFR1 was assayed for in vitro kinase activity, and autophosphorylation on 24 amino acid residues, including three tyrosine residues, was found by mass spectrometry. Substitution of the phosphorylated amino acids of NFR1 identified a single phosphorylation site to be essential for NFR1 Nod-factor signalling in vivo and kinase activity in vitro. In contrast to NFR1, no in vitro kinase activity of the cytoplasmic domain of NFR5 was detected. This is further supported by the fact that a mutagenized NFR5 construct, substituting an amino acid essential for ATP binding, restored nodulation of nfr5 mutant roots. © 2010 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Regulation of nonsymbiotic and truncated hemoglobin genes of Lotus japonicus in plant organs and in response to nitric oxide and hormones.

    PubMed

    Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Tovar-Méndez, Alejandro; Crespi, Martin; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Becana, Manuel

    2011-02-01

    • In legumes, symbiotic leghemoglobins facilitate oxygen diffusion to the bacteroids, but the roles of nonsymbiotic and truncated hemoglobins are largely unknown. Here the five hemoglobin genes of Lotus japonicus have been functionally characterized to gain insight into their regulatory mechanisms. • Plants were exposed to nitric oxide donors, stressful conditions, and hormones. Gene expression profiling was determined by quantitative PCR, and gene activities were localized using in situ hybridization and promoter-reporter gene fusions. • The LjGLB1-1, LjGLB2, and LjGLB3-1 mRNA expression levels were very high in nodules relative to other plant organs. The expression of these genes was localized in the vascular bundles, cortex, and infected tissue. LjGLB1-1 was the only gene induced by nitric oxide. Cytokinins caused nearly complete inactivation of LjGLB2 and LjGLB3-1 in nodules and induction of LjGLB1-1 in roots. Abscisic acid induced LjGLB1-1 in nodules and LjGLB1-2 and LjGLB2 in roots, whereas polyamines and jasmonic acid induced LjGLB1-1 only in roots. • The enhanced expression of the three types of hemoglobins in nodules, the colocalization of gene activities in nodule and root tissues with high metabolic rates, and their distinct regulatory mechanisms point out complementary roles of hemoglobins and strongly support the hypothesis that LjGLB1-1, LjGLB2, and LjGLB3-1 are required for symbiosis.

  5. A Novel Interaction between CCaMK and a Protein Containing the Scythe_N Ubiquitin-Like Domain in Lotus japonicus1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Heng; Zhu, Hui; Chu, Xiaojie; Yang, Zhenzhen; Yuan, Songli; Yu, Dunqiang; Wang, Chao; Hong, Zonglie; Zhang, Zhongming

    2011-01-01

    In the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) is a key regulator for both rhizobial infection and nodule organogenesis. Deregulation of CCaMK by either a point mutation in the autophosphorylation site or the deletion of the carboxyl-terminal regulatory domain results in spontaneous nodule formation without rhizobia. However, the underlying biochemical mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, using the kinase domain of CCaMK as a bait in yeast two-hybrid screening, we identify a novel protein, CIP73 (for CCaMK-interacting protein of approximately 73 kD), that interacts with CCaMK. CIP73 contains a Scythe_N ubiquitin-like domain and belongs to the large ubiquitin superfamily. Deletion and mutagenesis analysis demonstrate that CIP73 could only interact with CCaMK when the calmodulin-binding domain and three EF-hand motifs are removed from the kinase domain. The amino-terminal 80 amino acid residues (80–160) of CCaMK are required for interacting with CIP73 in yeast cells. On the other hand, protein pull-down assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in Nicotiana benthamiana show that the full-length CCaMK could interact with CIP73 in vitro and in planta. Importantly, CCaMK phosphorylates the amino terminus of CIP73 in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner in vitro. CIP73 transcripts are preferentially expressed in roots, and very low expression is detected in leaves, stems, and nodules. The expression in roots is significantly decreased after inoculation of Mesorhizobium loti. RNA interference knockdown of CIP73 expression by hairy root transformation in Lotus japonicus led to decreased nodule formation, suggesting that CIP73 performed an essential role in nodulation. PMID:21209278

  6. Structural analysis of a Lotus japonicus genome. III. Sequence features and mapping of sixty-two TAC clones which cover the 6.7 Mb regions of the genome.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takakazu; Asamizu, Erika; Kato, Tomohiko; Sato, Shusei; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi

    2003-02-28

    A total of sixty-two clones were selected from a TAC (transformation-competent artificial chromosome) genomic library of the Lotus japonicus accession MG-20 based on the sequence information of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), cDNA and gene information, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. The length of the sequenced regions in this study is 6,682,189 bp, and the total length of the regions sequenced so far is 18,711,484 bp together with the nucleotide sequences of 121 TAC clones previously reported. By comparison with the sequences in protein and EST databases and analysis with computer programs for gene modeling, a total of 573 potential protein-coding genes with known or predicted functions, 91 gene segments and 272 pseudogenes were identified in the newly sequenced regions. Each of the sequenced clones was localized onto the linkage map of two accessions of L. japonicus, Gifu B-129 and Miyakojima MG-20, using simple sequence repeat length polymorphism (SSLP) or derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (dCAPS) markers generated based on the nucleotide sequences of the clones. The sequence data, gene information and mapping information are available through the World Wide Web at http://www.kazusa.or.jp/lotus/.

  7. Study of nsLTPs in Lotus japonicus genome reveal a specific epidermal cell member (LjLTP10) regulated by drought stress in aerial organs with a putative role in cutin formation.

    PubMed

    Tapia, G; Morales-Quintana, L; Parra, C; Berbel, A; Alcorta, M

    2013-07-01

    The cuticle is the first defense against pathogens and the second way water is lost in plants. Hydrophobic layers covering aerial plant organs from primary stages of development form cuticle, including major classes of aliphatic wax components and cutin. Extensive research has been conducted to understand cuticle formation mechanisms in plants. However, many questions remain unresolved in the transport of lipid components to form cuticle. Database studies of the Lotus japonicus genome have revealed the presence of 24 sequences classified as putative non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs), which were classified in seven groups; four groups were selected because of their expression in aerial organs. LjLTP8 forms a cluster with DIR1 in Arabidopsis thaliana while LjLTP6, LjLTP9, and LjLTP10 were grouped as type I LTPs. In silico studies showed a high level of structural conservation, and substrate affinity studies revealed palmitoyl-CoA as the most likely ligand for these LTPs, although the Lyso-Myristoyl Phosphatidyl Choline, Lyso-myristoyl phosphatidyl glycerol, and Lyso-stearyl phosphatidyl choline ligands also showed a high affinity with the proteins. The LjLTP6 and LjLTP10 genes were expressed in both the stems and the leaves under normal conditions and were highly induced during drought stress. LjLTP10 was the most induced gene in shoots during drought. The gene was only expressed in the epidermal cells of stems, primordial leaves, and young leaflets. LjLTP10 was positively regulated by MeJA but repressed by abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, and H2O2, while LjLTP6 was weakly induced by MeJA, repressed by H2O2, and not affected by ABA and ethylene. We suggest that LjLTP10 is involved in plant development of stem and leaf cuticle, but also in acclimation to tolerate drought stress in L. japonicus.

  8. A Cluster of Genes Encodes the Two Types of Chalcone Isomerase Involved in the Biosynthesis of General Flavonoids and Legume-Specific 5-Deoxy(iso)flavonoids in Lotus japonicus1

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Norimoto; Aoki, Toshio; Sato, Shusei; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Ayabe, Shin-ichi

    2003-01-01

    Leguminous plants produce 5-deoxyflavonoids and 5-deoxyisoflavonoids that play essential roles in legume-microbe interactions. Together with chalcone polyketide reductase and cytochrome P450 2-hydroxyisoflavanone synthase, the chalcone isomerase (CHI) of leguminous plants is fundamental in the construction of these ecophysiologically active flavonoids. Although CHIs of nonleguminous plants isomerize only 6′-hydroxychalcone to 5-hydroxyflavanone (CHIs with this function are referred to as type I), leguminous CHIs convert both 6′-deoxychalcone and 6′-hydroxychalcone to 5-deoxyflavanone and 5-hydroxyflavanone, respectively (referred to as type II). In this study, we isolated multiple CHI cDNAs (cCHI1–cCHI3) from a model legume, Lotus japonicus. In contrast to previous observations, the amino acid sequence of CHI2 was highly homologous to nonleguminous CHIs, whereas CHI1 and CHI3 were the conventional leguminous type. Furthermore, genome sequence analysis revealed that four CHI genes (CHI1–3 and a putative gene, CHI4) form a tandem cluster within 15 kb. Biochemical analysis with recombinant CHIs expressed in Escherichia coli confirmed that CHI1 and CHI3 are type II CHIs and that CHI2 is a type I CHI. The occurrence of both types of CHIs is probably common in leguminous plants, and it was suggested that type II CHIs evolved from an ancestral CHI by gene duplication and began to produce 5-deoxy(iso)flavonoids along with the establishment of the Fabaceae. PMID:12644647

  9. The origin of Lotus corniculatus.

    PubMed

    Ross, M D; Jones, W T

    1985-12-01

    Earlier students of the origin of Lotus corniculatus suggested that this tetraploid species arose as an autotetraploid of the closely related diploid species L. tenuis or L. alpinus. More recent studies suggested that L. alpinus and L. japonicus could be ancestral forms. The present study of tannin content, phenolic content, cyanide production, morphology, cytogenetics, Rhizobium specificity and self-incompatibility in the corniculatus group virtually excludes the possibility that L. corniculatus could have arisen through autopolyploidy of L. tenuis or L. alpinus, and suggests that L. corniculatus arose through hybridization of L. alpinus and/or L. tenuis (probably as female parent) with L. uliginosus (probably as male parent), followed by chromosome doubling in the hybrid.

  10. Ensifer meliloti bv. lancerottense establishes nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Lotus endemic to the Canary Islands and shows distinctive symbiotic genotypes and host range.

    PubMed

    León-Barrios, Milagros; Lorite, María José; Donate-Correa, Javier; Sanjuán, Juan

    2009-09-01

    Eleven strains were isolated from root nodules of Lotus endemic to the Canary Islands and they belonged to the genus Ensifer, a genus never previously described as a symbiont of Lotus. According to their 16S rRNA and atpD gene sequences, two isolates represented minority genotypes that could belong to previously undescribed Ensifer species, but most of the isolates were classified within the species Ensifer meliloti. These isolates nodulated Lotus lancerottensis, Lotus corniculatus and Lotus japonicus, whereas Lotus tenuis and Lotus uliginosus were more restrictive hosts. However, effective nitrogen fixation only occurred with the endemic L. lancerottensis. The E. meliloti strains did not nodulate Medicago sativa, Medicago laciniata Glycine max or Glycine soja, but induced non-fixing nodules on Phaseolus vulgaris roots. nodC and nifH symbiotic gene phylogenies showed that the E. meliloti symbionts of Lotus markedly diverged from strains of Mesorhizobium loti, the usual symbionts of Lotus, as well as from the three biovars (bv. meliloti, bv. medicaginis, and bv. mediterranense) so far described within E. meliloti. Indeed, the nodC and nifH genes from the E. meliloti isolates from Lotus represented unique symbiotic genotypes. According to their symbiotic gene sequences and host range, the Lotus symbionts would represent a new biovar of E. meliloti for which bv. lancerottense is proposed.

  11. The Plant Growth Promoting Substance, Lumichrome, Mimics Starch, and Ethylene-Associated Symbiotic Responses in Lotus and Tomato Roots

    PubMed Central

    Gouws, Liezel M.; Botes, Eileen; Wiese, Anna J.; Trenkamp, Sandra; Torres-Jerez, Ivone; Tang, Yuhong; Hills, Paul N.; Usadel, Björn; Lloyd, James R.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Kossmann, Jens; van der Merwe, Margaretha J.

    2012-01-01

    Symbiosis involves responses that maintain the plant host and symbiotic partner’s genetic program; yet these cues are far from elucidated. Here we describe the effects of lumichrome, a flavin identified from Rhizobium spp., applied to lotus (Lotus japonicus) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Combined transcriptional and metabolite analyses suggest that both species shared common pathways that were altered in response to this application under replete, sterile conditions. These included genes involved in symbiosis, as well as transcriptional and metabolic responses related to enhanced starch accumulation and altered ethylene metabolism. Lumichrome priming also resulted in altered colonization with either Mesorhizobium loti (for lotus) or Glomus intraradices/G. mossea (for tomato). It enhanced nodule number but not nodule formation in lotus; while leading to enhanced hyphae initiation and delayed arbuscule maturation in tomato. PMID:22701462

  12. Boston Scientific Lotus valve.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Ian T; Hood, Kristin L; Haratani, Nicole; Allocco, Dominic J; Dawkins, Keith D

    2012-09-01

    As a result of recent randomised controlled trials and registry observations, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) enjoys growing appeal for the treatment of patients at high or extreme risk from surgical aortic valve replacement. However, the current technologies and techniques have important limitations, including risk of stroke, vascular complications and paravalvular aortic regurgitation, which may in turn influence survival. While careful patient selection and screening may improve outcomes, new valve designs and iterations are required. The Lotus aortic valve replacement system is a new fully repositionable device designed to facilitate more precise delivery and minimise paravalvular regurgitation. The safety and efficacy of the Lotus valve are being studied systematically in the REPRISE clinical trial programme.

  13. Polymorphic infection and organogenesis patterns induced by a Rhizobium leguminosarum isolate from Lotus root nodules are determined by the host genotype.

    PubMed

    Gossmann, Jasmin A; Markmann, Katharina; Brachmann, Andreas; Rose, Laura E; Parniske, Martin

    2012-10-01

    To sample the natural variation in genes controlling compatibility in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis, we isolated rhizobia from nodules of endemic Lotus species from 21 sites across Europe. The majority of isolates were identified as Mesorhizobium- or Bradyrhizobium-related and formed nitrogen-fixing root nodules on Lotus corniculatus and L. pendunculatus, respectively, thus confirming previously defined cross-inoculation groups. Rhizobium leguminosarum (Rl) strain Norway, isolated from L. corniculatus nodules, displayed an exceptional phenotypic variation on different Lotus genotypes. On L. burttii, Rl Norway formed infected nodules, whereas tumors and elongated infected swellings were induced on L. glaber and L. japonicus ecotype Nepal, respectively. A symbiosis- and Nod-factor-responsive promoter:uidA fusion was strongly and rapidly induced in L. japonicus Gifu, but infection threads or signs of nodule organogenesis were absent. This complex phenotypic pattern was not mimicked by either of three engineered R. leguminosarum bv viciae strains producing different Nod-factor variants. Intriguingly, Rl Norway formed infection threads on Pisum sativum cv Sparkle, but failed to induce organogenesis. Rl Norway thus uncovered variation in symbiotic capabilities among diploid Lotus species and ecotypes that are obscured by optimally adapted M. loti strains. These contrasting infection and organogenesis phenotypes reveal recent diversification of recognition determinants in Lotus.

  14. Conditional requirement for exopolysaccharide in the Mesorhizobium-Lotus symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Simon J; Muszyński, Artur; Kawaharada, Yasuyuki; Hubber, Andree M; Sullivan, John T; Sandal, Niels; Carlson, Russell W; Stougaard, Jens; Ronson, Clive W

    2013-03-01

    Rhizobial surface polysaccharides are required for nodule formation on the roots of at least some legumes but the mechanisms by which they act are yet to be determined. As a first step to investigate the function of exopolysaccharide (EPS) in the formation of determinate nodules, we isolated Mesorhizobium loti mutants affected in various steps of EPS biosynthesis and characterized their symbiotic phenotypes on two Lotus spp. The wild-type M. loti R7A produced both high molecular weight EPS and lower molecular weight (LMW) polysaccharide fractions whereas most mutant strains produced only LMW fractions. Mutants affected in predicted early biosynthetic steps (e.g., exoB) formed nitrogen-fixing nodules on Lotus corniculatus and L. japonicus 'Gifu', whereas mutants affected in mid or late biosynthetic steps (e.g., exoU) induced uninfected nodule primordia and, occasionally, a few infected nodules following a lengthy delay. These mutants were disrupted at the stage of infection thread (IT) development. Symbiotically defective EPS and Nod factor mutants functionally complemented each other in co-inoculation experiments. The majority of full-length IT observed harbored only the EPS mutant strain and did not show bacterial release, whereas the nitrogen-fixing nodules contained both mutants. Examination of the symbiotic proficiency of the exoU mutant on various L. japonicus ecotypes revealed that both host and environmental factors were linked to the requirement for EPS. These results reveal a complex function for M. loti EPS in determinate nodule formation and suggest that EPS plays a signaling role at the stages of both IT initiation and bacterial release.

  15. Evaluation of hypotheses concerning the origin of Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae) using isoenzyme data.

    PubMed

    Raelson, J V; Grant, W F

    1988-08-01

    An isoenzyme survey was conducted for several geographically dispersed accessions of four diploid Lotus species, L. alpinus Schleich., L. japonicus (Regel) Larsen, L. tenuis Waldst. et Kit and L. uliginosus Schkuhr, and for the tetraploid L. corniculatus L., in order to ascertain whether isoenzyme data could offer additional evidence concerning the origin of L. corniculatus. Seven enzyme systems were examined using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. These were PGI, TPI, MDH, IDH, PGM, 6-PGDH, and ME. Lotus uliginosus had monomorphic unique alleles, that were not found within L. corniculatus, at 7 loci. These loci and alleles are: Tpi1-112, Pgm1,2-110, Pgm3-82, Mdh3-68, 6-Pgdh1-110, 6-Pgdh2-98,95, and Me2-100. Other diploid taxa contained alleles found in L. corniculatus for these and other loci. The implications of the isoenzyme data to theories on the origin of L. corniculatus are discussed.

  16. The National BioResource Project (NBRP) Lotus and Glycine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Masatsugu; Abe, Jun; Aoki, Toshio; Anai, Toyoaki; Suzuki, Akihiro; Akashi, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the National BioResource Project (NBRP) in Japan is to collect, conserve and distribute biological materials for life sciences research. The project consists of twenty-eight bioresources, including animal, plant, microorganism and DNA resources. NBRP Lotus and Glycine aims to support the development of legume research through the collection, conservation, and distribution of these bioresources. Lotus japonicus is a perennial legume that grows naturally throughout Japan and is widely used as a model plant for legumes because of such advantages as its small genome size and short life cycle. Soybean (Glycine max) has been cultivated as an important crop since ancient times, and numerous research programs have generated a large amount of basic research information and valuable bioresources for this crop. We have also developed a "LegumeBase" a specialized database for the genera Lotus and Glycine, and are maintaining this database as a part of the NBRP. In this paper we will provide an overview of the resources available from the NBRP Lotus and Glycine database site, called "LegumeBase".

  17. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520

  18. The evolutionary appearance of non-cyanogenic hydroxynitrile glucosides in the Lotus genus is accompanied by the substrate specialization of paralogous β-glucosidases resulting from a crucial amino acid substitution.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daniela; Abou Hachem, Maher; Robson, Fran; Olsen, Carl Erik; Wang, Trevor L; Møller, Birger L; Takos, Adam M; Rook, Fred

    2014-07-01

    Lotus japonicus, like several other legumes, biosynthesizes the cyanogenic α-hydroxynitrile glucosides lotaustralin and linamarin. Upon tissue disruption these compounds are hydrolysed by a specific β-glucosidase, resulting in the release of hydrogen cyanide. Lotus japonicus also produces the non-cyanogenic γ- and β-hydroxynitrile glucosides rhodiocyanoside A and D using a biosynthetic pathway that branches off from lotaustralin biosynthesis. We previously established that BGD2 is the only β-glucosidase responsible for cyanogenesis in leaves. Here we show that the paralogous BGD4 has the dominant physiological role in rhodiocyanoside degradation. Structural modelling, site-directed mutagenesis and activity assays establish that a glycine residue (G211) in the aglycone binding site of BGD2 is essential for its ability to hydrolyse the endogenous cyanogenic glucosides. The corresponding valine (V211) in BGD4 narrows the active site pocket, resulting in the exclusion of non-flat substrates such as lotaustralin and linamarin, but not of the more planar rhodiocyanosides. Rhodiocyanosides and the BGD4 gene only occur in L. japonicus and a few closely related species associated with the Lotus corniculatus clade within the Lotus genus. This suggests the evolutionary scenario that substrate specialization for rhodiocyanosides evolved from a promiscuous activity of a progenitor cyanogenic β-glucosidase, resembling BGD2, and required no more than a single amino acid substitution.

  19. Invasive process and repeated cross-sectional surveys of the mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus establishment in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Damiens, David; Ayrinhac, Audrey; Van Bortel, Wim; Versteirt, Veerle; Dekoninck, Wouter; Hance, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    When accidentally introduced in a new location, a species does not necessarily readily become invasive, but it usually needs several years to adapt to its new environment. In 2009, a national mosquito survey (MODIRISK) reported the introduction and possible establishment of an invasive mosquito species, Aedes j. japonicus, in Belgium. First collected in 2002 in the village of Natoye from a second-hand tire company, then sampled in 2003 and 2004, the presence of adults and larvae was confirmed in 2007 and 2008. A repeated cross-sectional survey of Ae. j. japonicus was then conducted in 2009 in Natoye to study the phenology of the species on two different sites using three kinds of traps: Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus traps, BG sentinel traps and CDC Gravid traps. An analysis of the blood meals was done on females to assess the epidemiological risks. Five species of mosquitos were caught using the different kind of traps: Culex pipiens, Cx. torrentium, Anopheles claviger, Aedes geniculatus and Ae. j. japonicus, Cx. pipiens being the most abundant. The CDC gravid traps gave the best results. Surprisingly Ae. j. japonicus was only found on one site although both sites seem similar and are only distant of 2.5 km. Its population peak was reached in July. Most of the engorged mosquitoes tested acquired blood meals from humans (60%). No avian blood meals were unambiguously identified. Larvae were also collected, mostly from tires but also from buckets and from one tree hole. Only one larva was found in a puddle at 100 m of the tire storage. A first local treatment of Ae. j. japonicus larvae population was done in May 2012 using Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) and was followed by preventive actions and public information. A monitoring is also presently implemented.

  20. Invasive Process and Repeated Cross-Sectional Surveys of the Mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus Establishment in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Damiens, David; Ayrinhac, Audrey; Van Bortel, Wim; Versteirt, Veerle; Dekoninck, Wouter; Hance, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    When accidentally introduced in a new location, a species does not necessarily readily become invasive, but it usually needs several years to adapt to its new environment. In 2009, a national mosquito survey (MODIRISK) reported the introduction and possible establishment of an invasive mosquito species, Aedes j. japonicus, in Belgium. First collected in 2002 in the village of Natoye from a second-hand tire company, then sampled in 2003 and 2004, the presence of adults and larvae was confirmed in 2007 and 2008. A repeated cross-sectional survey of Ae. j. japonicus was then conducted in 2009 in Natoye to study the phenology of the species on two different sites using three kinds of traps: Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus traps, BG sentinel traps and CDC Gravid traps. An analysis of the blood meals was done on females to assess the epidemiological risks. Five species of mosquitos were caught using the different kind of traps: Culex pipiens, Cx torrentium, Anopheles claviger, Aedes geniculatus and Ae. j. japonicus, Cx pipiens being the most abundant. The CDC gravid traps gave the best results. Surprisingly Ae. j. japonicus was only found on one site although both sites seem similar and are only distant of 2.5 km. Its population peak was reached in July. Most of the engorged mosquitoes tested acquired blood meals from humans (60%). No avian blood meals were unambiguously identified. Larvae were also collected, mostly from tires but also from buckets and from one tree hole. Only one larva was found in a puddle at 100 m of the tire storage. A first local treatment of Ae. j. japonicus larvae population was done in May 2012 using Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) and was followed by preventive actions and public information. A monitoring is also presently implemented. PMID:24694576

  1. The trehalose utilization gene thuA ortholog in Mesorhizobium loti does not influence competitiveness for nodulation on Lotus spp.

    PubMed

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Jensen, John Beck

    2014-03-01

    Competitiveness for nodulation is a desirable trait in rhizobia strains used as inoculant. In Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 mutation in either of the trehalose utilization genes thuA or thuB influences its competitiveness for root colonization and nodule occupancy depending on the interacting host. We have therefore investigated whether mutation in the thuA ortholog in Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 also leads to a similar competitive phenotype on its hosts. The results show that M. loti thuA mutant Ml7023 was symbiotically effective and was as competitive as the wild type in colonization and nodule occupancy on Lotus corniculatus and Lotus japonicus. The thuA gene in M. loti was not induced during root colonization or in the infection threads unlike in S. meliloti, despite its induction by trehalose and high osmolarity in in vitro assays.

  2. Genome relationships among Lotus species based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD).

    PubMed

    Campos, L P; Raelson, J V; Grant, W F

    1994-06-01

    The ability of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to distinguish among different taxa of Lotus was evaluated for several geographically dispersed accessions of four diploid Lotus species, L. tennis Waldst. et Kit, L. alpinus Schleich., L. japonicus (Regel) Larsen, and L. uliginosus Schkuhr and for the tetraploid L. corniculatus L., in order to ascertain whether RAPD data could offer additional evidence concerning the origin of the tetraploid L. corniculatus. Clear bands and several polymorphisms were obtained for 20 primers used for each species/accession. The evolutionary pathways among the species/accessions presented in a cladogram were expressed in terms of treelengths giving the most parsimonious reconstructions. Accessions within the same species grouped closely together. It is considered that L. uliginosus which is most distantly related to L. corniculatus, may be excluded as a direct progenitor of L. corniculatus, confirming previous results from isoenzyme studies. Lotus alpinus is grouped with accessions of L. corniculatus, which differs from previous studies. With this exception, these findings are in agreement with previous experimental studies in the L. corniculatus group. The value of the RAPD data to theories on the origin of L. corniculatus is discussed.

  3. Standardized Laboratory Feeding of Larval Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bock, Friederike; Kuch, Ulrich; Pfenninger, Markus; Müller, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The Asian bush mosquito (Aedes japonicus japonicus, Theobald 1901) is an invasive culicid species which originates in Asia but is nowadays present in northern America and Europe. It is a competent vector for several human disease pathogens. In addition to the public health threat, this invasive species may also be an ecological threat for native container-breeding mosquitoes which share a similar larval habitat. Therefore, it is of importance to gain knowledge on ecological and eco-toxicological features of the Asian bush mosquito. However, optimal laboratory feeding conditions have not yet been established. Standardized feeding methods will be needed in assessing the impact of insecticides or competitional strength of this species. To fill this gap, we performed experiments on food quality and quantity for Ae. j. japonicus larvae. We found out that the commercial fish food TetraMin (Tetra, Melle, Germany) in a dose of 10 mg per larva is the most suitable food tested. We also suggest a protocol with a feeding sequence of seven portions for all larval stages of this species.

  4. Improved characterization of nod factors and genetically based variation in LysM Receptor domains identify amino acids expendable for nod factor recognition in Lotus spp.

    PubMed

    Bek, Anita S; Sauer, Jørgen; Thygesen, Mikkel B; Duus, Jens Ø; Petersen, Bent O; Thirup, Søren; James, Euan; Jensen, Knud J; Stougaard, Jens; Radutoiu, Simona

    2010-01-01

    Formation of functional nodules is a complex process depending on host-microsymbiont compatibility in all developmental stages. This report uses the contrasting symbiotic phenotypes of Lotus japonicus and L. pedunculatus, inoculated with Mesorhizobium loti or the Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lotus), to investigate the role of Nod factor structure and Nod factor receptors (NFR) for rhizobial recognition, infection thread progression, and bacterial persistence within nodule cells. A key contribution was the use of 800 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for Nod factor analysis. The Nod factor decorations at the nonreducing end differ between Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lotus) and M. loti, and the NFR1/NFR5 extracellular regions of L. pedunculatus and L. japonicus were found to vary in amino acid composition. Genetic transformation experiments using chimeric and wild-type receptors showed that both receptor variants recognize the structurally different Nod factors but the later symbiotic phenotype remained unchanged. These results highlight the importance of additional checkpoints during nitrogen-fixing symbiosis and define several amino acids in the LysM domains as expendable for perception of the two differentially carbamoylated Nod factors.

  5. Salt effects on functional traits in model and in economically important Lotus species.

    PubMed

    Uchiya, P; Escaray, F J; Bilenca, D; Pieckenstain, F; Ruiz, O A; Menéndez, A B

    2016-07-01

    A common stress on plants is NaCl-derived soil salinity. Genus Lotus comprises model and economically important species, which have been studied regarding physiological responses to salinity. Leaf area ratio (LAR), root length ratio (RLR) and their components, specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass fraction (LMF) and specific root length (SRL) and root mass fraction (RMF) might be affected by high soil salinity. We characterised L. tenuis, L. corniculatus, L. filicaulis, L. creticus, L. burtii and L. japonicus grown under different salt concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 mm NaCl) on the basis of SLA, LMF, SRL and RMF using PCA. We also assessed effects of different salt concentrations on LAR and RLR in each species, and explored whether changes in these traits provide fitness benefit. Salinity (150 mm NaCl) increased LAR in L. burtii and L. corniculatus, but not in the remaining species. The highest salt concentration caused a decrease of RLR in L. japonicus Gifu, but not in the remaining species. Changes in LAR and RLR would not be adaptive, according to adaptiveness analysis, with the exception of SLA changes in L. corniculatus. PCA revealed that under favourable conditions plants optimise surfaces for light and nutrient acquisition (SLA and SRL), whereas at higher salt concentrations they favour carbon allocation to leaves and roots (LMF and RMF) in detriment to their surfaces. PCA also showed that L. creticus subjected to saline treatment was distinguished from the remaining Lotus species. We suggest that augmented carbon partitioning to leaves and roots could constitute a salt-alleviating mechanism through toxic ion dilution.

  6. Evolutionary history of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) genes in Lotus, Medicago, and Phaseolus.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Achal; Nepal, Madhav P; Benson, Benjamin V; Macarthur, Kenton J; Piya, Sarbottam

    2013-11-01

    Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) genes encode proteins that mediate various signaling pathways associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses in eukaryotes. The MAPK genes form a 3-tier signal transduction cascade between cellular stimuli and physiological responses. Recent identification of soybean MAPKs and availability of genome sequences from other legume species allowed us to identify their MAPK genes. The main objectives of this study were to identify MAPKs in 3 legume species, Lotus japonicus, Medicago truncatula, and Phaseolus vulgaris, and to assess their phylogenetic relationships. We used approaches in comparative genomics for MAPK gene identification and named the newly identified genes following Arabidopsis MAPK nomenclature model. We identified 19, 18, and 15 MAPKs and 7, 4, and 9 MAPKKs in the genome of Lotus japonicus, Medicago truncatula, and Phaseolus vulgaris, respectively. Within clade placement of MAPKs and MAPKKs in the 3 legume species were consistent with those in soybean and Arabidopsis. Among 5 clades of MAPKs, 4 founder clades were consistent to MAPKs of other plant species and orthologs of MAPK genes in the fifth clade-"Clade E" were consistent with those in soybean. Our results also indicated that some gene duplication events might have occurred prior to eudicot-monocot divergence. Highly diversified MAPKs in soybean relative to those in 3 other legume species are attributable to the polyploidization events in soybean. The identification of the MAPK genes in the legume species is important for the legume crop improvement; and evolutionary relationships and functional divergence of these gene members provide insights into plant genome evolution.

  7. Deep sequencing of Lotus corniculatus L. reveals key enzymes and potential transcription factors related to the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Hua, Wenping; Wang, Jian; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Xu, Ziqin; Wang, Zhezhi

    2013-04-01

    Lotus corniculatus L. is used worldwide as a forage crop due to its abundance of secondary metabolites and its ability to grow in severe environments. Although the entire genome of L. corniculatus var. japonicus R. is being sequenced, the differences in morphology and production of secondary metabolites between these two related species have led us to investigate this variability at the genetic level, in particular the differences in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our goal is to use the resulting information to develop more valuable forage crops and medicinal materials. Here, we conducted Illumina/Solexa sequencing to profile the transcriptome of L. corniculatus. We produced 26,492,952 short reads that corresponded to 2.38 gigabytes of total nucleotides. These reads were then assembled into 45,698 unigenes, of which a large number associated with secondary metabolism were annotated. In addition, we identified 2,998 unigenes based on homology with L. japonicus transcription factors (TFs) and grouped them into 55 families. Meanwhile, a comparison of four tag-based digital gene expression libraries, built from the flowers, pods, leaves, and roots, revealed distinct patterns of spatial expression of candidate unigenes in flavonoid biosynthesis. Based on these results, we identified many key enzymes from L. corniculatus which were different from reference genes of L. japonicus, and five TFs that are potential enhancers in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our results provide initial genetics resources that will be valuable in efforts to manipulate the flavonoid metabolic pathway in plants.

  8. The first report of phototaxis of fish ectoparasite, Argulus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Keiko; Nogami, Sadao

    2008-08-01

    We discovered positive phototaxis in the fish ectoparasite, Argulus japonicus (Subclass Branchiura). Positive phototaxis of A. japonicus showed circadian rhythmicity. The phototaxis of A. japonicus has a unique circadian rhythm, which has been reported in no other crustacean. No phototaxis was observed at 4:00. After this time, however, A. japonicus gradually showed positive phototaxis until 16:00. There was no difference between male and female A. japonicus in this phototaxis. In addition, A. japonicus could distinguish between light of different colours, and showed positive phototaxis in the order blue light>yellow light>green light>red light.

  9. Why so strong for the lotus leaf?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin; Su, Bao-Lian

    2008-11-01

    The authors discussed the potential reasons why the lotus leaf is so strong by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the good mechanical properties of lotus leaf should be attributed to its architecture, such as paralleled microtubes structure, umbrellalike structure, and hierarchically layered hexagon structure. The important observation from this work is that the surface of the rear face of the lotus leaf seems to be constituted by the layers of hexagons whose hierarchical pilling up of size decreases as we go deeper from surface. This is a typical fractal-like phenomenon.

  10. Genome sequence of the Lotus spp. microsymbiont Mesorhizobium loti strain R7A

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mesorhizobium loti strain R7A was isolated in 1993 in Lammermoor, Otago, New Zealand from a Lotus corniculatus root nodule and is a reisolate of the inoculant strain ICMP3153 (NZP2238) used at the site. R7A is an aerobic, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod. The symbiotic genes in the strain are carried on a 502-kb integrative and conjugative element known as the symbiosis island or ICEMlSymR7A. M. loti is the microsymbiont of the model legume Lotus japonicus and strain R7A has been used extensively in studies of the plant-microbe interaction. This report reveals that the genome of M. loti strain R7A does not harbor any plasmids and contains a single scaffold of size 6,529,530 bp which encodes 6,323 protein-coding genes and 75 RNA-only encoding genes. This rhizobial genome is one of 100 sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25780499

  11. Genome sequence of the Lotus spp. microsymbiont Mesorhizobium loti strain R7A.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Simon; Sullivan, John; Ronson, Clive; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Munk, Christine; Goodwin, Lynne; Han, Cliff; Woyke, Tanja; Reddy, Tatiparthi; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Mesorhizobium loti strain R7A was isolated in 1993 in Lammermoor, Otago, New Zealand from a Lotus corniculatus root nodule and is a reisolate of the inoculant strain ICMP3153 (NZP2238) used at the site. R7A is an aerobic, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod. The symbiotic genes in the strain are carried on a 502-kb integrative and conjugative element known as the symbiosis island or ICEMlSym(R7A). M. loti is the microsymbiont of the model legume Lotus japonicus and strain R7A has been used extensively in studies of the plant-microbe interaction. This report reveals that the genome of M. loti strain R7A does not harbor any plasmids and contains a single scaffold of size 6,529,530 bp which encodes 6,323 protein-coding genes and 75 RNA-only encoding genes. This rhizobial genome is one of 100 sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  12. Does Autocthonous Primary Production Influence Oviposition by Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Container Habitats?

    PubMed Central

    LORENZ, AMANDA R.; WALKER, EDWARD D.; KAUFMAN, MICHAEL G.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) is recently invasive in North America and has expanded its range rapidly since 1998. Throughout its native and expanded range, Ae. j. japonicus larvae are commonly observed in many types of natural and artificial water-filled containers that vary in organic matter content and exposure to sunlight. Larvae are most often found in containers with decaying leaf material or algae, and we postulated that the added autocthonous primary production from algae could be both an important food source for larvae and an influential oviposition attractant to adult Ae. j. japonicus. We tested this hypothesis by placing plastic containers with varied levels of shading to manipulate algal density in the field, and then monitored oviposition by natural populations of Ae. j. japonicus. Over 99% of larvae hatching from eggs laid on the walls of our containers were Ae. j. japonicus, indicating that this species is a dominant colonizer of artificial containers in the study areas. Although full shading treatments effectively reduced algal biomass (significant reduction in chlorophyll a levels), at only one of three sites did this appear to affect Ae. j. japonicus oviposition. We conclude that algae in larval habitats are not a major factor in oviposition choices of adult Ae. j. japonicus females except when in situ primary production is high enough to substantially alter overall organic matter content cues. PMID:23427654

  13. Identification of nutrient and physical seed trait QTLs in the model legume, Lotus japonicus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Legume seeds have the potential to provide a significant portion of essential micronutrients to the human diet. To identify the genetic basis for seed nutrient density, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted with the Gifu B-129 x Miyakojima MG-20 recombinant inbred population from th...

  14. Establishment of Aedes japonicus japonicus and Its Colonization of Container Habitats in Michigan

    PubMed Central

    KAUFMAN, MICHAEL G.; STANUSZEK, WILLIAM W.; BROUHARD, ELIZABETH A.; KNEPPER, RANDALL G.; WALKER, EDWARD D.

    2014-01-01

    Oviposition dynamics and colonization of container habitats by the invasive species, Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) were examined through the use of ovistrips placed in buckets, and larval surveys of tree holes and tires at sites in central Michigan. In general, oviposition and colonization increased during the study periods, with several sites showing large increases from <10% Ae. j. japonicus initially to over 60% in the following years. Seasonally, higher proportions of Ae. j. japonicus were found in spring and fall collection periods. Ae. j. japonicus larvae co-occurred in the artificial containers with Ae. triseriatus, Ae. hendersoni, several Culex spp., and Anopheles spp. Recent surveys of tire and tree hole habitats at our study areas in mid-Michigan revealed that Ae. j. japonicus had colonized most of these habitats, but maintained relatively low populations in tree holes occupied by Ae. triseriatus. Trends seen in tires from 2008 to 2011, and from gravid trap and New Jersey light traps in 2005–2011, suggest that Ae. j. japonicus populations are stabilizing as they integrate into native Michigan mosquito communities. PMID:23270158

  15. Layered farming for Marsupenaeus japonicus Bate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuquan; Jiang, Lingxu; Wang, Renjie

    2014-05-01

    Marsupenaeus japonicus Bate is one of the most valuable cultured shrimp species in China and outdoor earthen pond farming is the most common method of culturing this organism. The need to increase soil usage efficiency in aquaculture has been recognized and a great deal of research effort has been directed toward development of super-intensive farming systems. However, current research and development in this field is largely devoted to Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, while to M. japonicus Bate it has been neglected. In this study, a layered farming system was designed and a 66-day study was conducted in M. japonicus Bate culture. The system comprised bracket and sand layers that divided a shrimp tank filled to a depth of 1.2 m into four water layers. Conventional tank culture (unlayered) was used as a control. The results show that survival rate, feed conversion efficiency and production of M. japonicus Bate in the layered farming system were 68%, 18%, and 0.59 kg/m2, respectively, all of which are significantly higher than in the unlayered farming system ( P <0.01). These findings confirmed the possibility of using a layered system to culture M. japonicus Bate.

  16. Lotus Notes Databases: The Foundation of a Virtual Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberman, Kristen; Rich, Jane L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the transformation of the Lotus Development Corporation's corporate library from a paper-based information service to a virtual library using Lotus Notes as the underlying development platform. Lotus Notes' tracking, broadcast, reference, and discussion applications are presented; and applications being developed by other corporations…

  17. Nodulation gene mutants of Mesorhizobium loti R7A-nodZ and nolL mutants have host-specific phenotypes on Lotus spp.

    PubMed

    Rodpothong, Patsarin; Sullivan, John T; Songsrirote, Kriangsak; Sumpton, David; Cheung, Kenneth W J-T; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Radutoiu, Simona; Stougaard, Jens; Ronson, Clive W

    2009-12-01

    Rhizobial Nod factors induce plant responses and facilitate bacterial infection, leading to the development of nitrogen-fixing root nodules on host legumes. Nodule initiation is highly dependent on Nod-factor structure and, hence, on at least some of the nodulation genes that encode Nod-factor production. Here, we report the effects of mutations in Mesorhizobium loti R7A nodulation genes on nodulation of four Lotus spp. and on Nod-factor structure. Most mutants, including a DeltanodSDeltanolO double mutant that produced Nod factors lacking the carbamoyl and possibly N-methyl groups on the nonreducing terminal residue, were unaffected for nodulation. R7ADeltanodZ and R7ADeltanolL mutants that produced Nod factors without the (acetyl)fucose on the reducing terminal residue had a host-specific phenotype, forming mainly uninfected nodule primordia on Lotus filicaulis and L. corniculatus and effective nodules with a delay on L. japonicus. The mutants also showed significantly reduced infection thread formation and Nin gene induction. In planta complementation experiments further suggested that the acetylfucose was important for balanced signaling in response to Nod factor by the L. japonicus NFR1/NFR5 receptors. Overall the results reveal differences in the sensitivity of plant perception with respect to signaling leading to root hair deformation and nodule primordium development versus infection thread formation and rhizobial entry.

  18. The Lotus effect: superhydrophobicity and metastability.

    PubMed

    Marmur, Abraham

    2004-04-27

    To learn how to mimic the Lotus effect, superhydrophobicity of a model system that resembles the Lotus leaf is theoretically discussed. Superhydrophobicity is defined by two criteria: a very high water contact angle and a very low roll-off angle. Since it is very difficult to calculate the latter for rough surfaces, it is proposed here to use the criterion of a very low wet (solid-liquid) contact area as a simple, approximate substitute for the roll-off angle criterion. It is concluded that nature employs metastable states in the heterogeneous wetting regime as the key to superhydrophobicity on Lotus leaves. This strategy results in two advantages: (a) it avoids the need for high steepness protrusions that may be sensitive to breakage and (b) it lowers the sensitivity of the superhydrophobic states to the protrusion distance.

  19. Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead) emerges in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead) is an Asian egg parasitoid of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål). It has been under study in U.S. quarantine facilities since 2007 to evaluate its efficacy as a candidate classical biological control agent and its host specificity with regard to t...

  20. Temporal, but not spatial, changes in expression patterns of petal identity genes are associated with loss of papillate conical cells and the shift to bird pollination in Macaronesian Lotus (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Ojeda, D I; Jaén-Molina, R; Santos-Guerra, A; Caujape-Castells, J; Cronk, Q

    2017-01-30

    In the generally bee-pollinated genus Lotus a group of four species have evolved bird-pollinated flowers. The floral changes in these species include altered petal orientation, shape and texture. In Lotus these characters are associated with dorsiventral petal identity, suggesting that shifts in the expression of dorsal identity genes may be involved in the evolution of bird pollination. Of particular interest is Lotus japonicus CYCLOIDEA 2 (LjCYC2), known to determine the presence of papillate conical cells on the dorsal petal in L. japonicus. Bird-pollinated species are unusual in not having papillate conical cells on the dorsal petal. Using RT-PCR at various stages of flower development, we determined the timing of expression in all petal types for the three putative petal identity genes (CYC-like genes) in different species with contrasting floral morphology and pollination syndromes. In bird-pollinated species the dorsal identity gene, LjCYC2, is not expressed at the floral stage when papillate conical cells are normally differentiating in bee-pollinated species. In contrast, in bee-pollinated species, LjCYC2 is expressed during conical cell development. Changes in the timing of expression of the above two genes are associated with modifications in petal growth and lateralisation of the dorsal and ventral petals in the bird-pollinated species. This study indicates that changes in the timing, rather than spatial distribution, of expression likely contribute to the modifications of petal micromorphology and petal size during the transition from bee to bird pollination in Macaronesian Lotus species.

  1. Biometamaterials: Black Ultrathin Gold Film Fabricated on Lotus Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Ebihara, Yuusuke; Ota, Ryoichi; Noriki, Takahiro; Shimojo, Masayuki; Kajikawa, Kotaro

    2015-01-01

    We report on a black metamaterial of gold fabricated on a lotus leaf that was used as a template. In spite of the extremely thin gold coating (10-nm thick) on the lotus leaf, the surface shows reflectivity below 0.01 over the entire visible spectral range. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations suggest that the low reflectivity stems from the secondary structures on the lotus leaf, where randomly oriented nanorods are distributed. PMID:26530514

  2. [Studies on chemical constituents of Ranunculus japonicus].

    PubMed

    Liang, Yong-Feng; Chen, Zuo-Tao; Liu, Li-Hong

    2008-10-01

    To isolate and determine the chemical constituents of Ranunculus japonicus in Liupan Mountain, Ningxia province, China. The herb was extracted with ethanol by ultrasonic bath. The extractives were divided to petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol parts. The first two parts were separated and purified with silica gel and Sephadex LH -20 column chromatography. The structures of the separated compounds were idnetefied by physical and chemical properties and spectral analysis. Nine compounds were isolated and identified as follows: scoparone (1), tricin (2), protocatechuic acid (3), luteolin (4), anemonin (5), scopoletin (6), 5-hydroxy-6, 7-dimethoxyflavone (7), ternatolide (8), 5-hydroxy-7, 8-dimethoxy-flavone (9). Compounds 1-9 were isolated from Ranunculus japonicus for the first time.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of AP2/ERF family genes from Lotus corniculatus shows LcERF054 enhances salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhan-Min; Zhou, Mei-Liang; Xiao, Xing-Guo; Tang, Yi-Xiong; Wu, Yan-Min

    2014-09-01

    Lotus corniculatus is used in agriculture as a main forage plant. Members of the Apetala2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) family play important roles in regulating gene expression in response to many forms of stress, including drought and salt. Here, starting from database of the L. corniculatus var. japonicus genome, we identified 127 AP2/ERF genes by insilico cloning method. The phylogeny, gene structures, and putative conserved motifs in L. corniculatus var. japonicus ERF proteins were analyzed. Based on the number of AP2/ERF domains and the function of the genes, 127 AP2/ERF genes from L. corniculatus var. japonicus were classified into five subfamilies named the AP2, dehydration-responsive element binding factor (DREB), ERF, RAV, and a soloist. Outside the AP2/ERF domain, many L. corniculatus var. japonicus-specific conserved motifs were detected. Expression profile analysis of AP2/ERF genes by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that 19 LcERF genes, including LcERF054 (KJ004728), were significantly induced by salt stress. The results showed that the LcERF054 gene encodes a nuclear transcription activator. Overexpression of LcERF054 in Arabidopsis enhanced the tolerances to salt stress, showed higher germination ratio of seeds, and had elevated levels of relative moisture contents, soluble sugars, proline, and lower levels of malondialdehyde under stress conditions compared to wild-type plants. The expression of hyperosmotic salinity response genes COR15A, LEA4-5, P5CS1, and RD29A was found to be elevated in the LcERF054-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants compared to wild type. These results revealed that the LcERF genes play important roles in L. corniculatus cv Leo under salt stress and that LcERFs are attractive engineering targets in applied efforts to improve abiotic stress tolerances in L. corniculatus cv Leo or other crops.

  4. Variation of proanthocyanidins in Lotus species.

    PubMed

    Sivakumaran, Subathira; Rumball, William; Lane, Geoff A; Fraser, Karl; Foo, Lai Y; Yu, Min; Meagher, Lucy P

    2006-08-01

    The proanthocyanidin (PA) chemistry of 12 Lotus species of previously unknown PA content was examined in comparison with agricultural cultivars of L. pedunculatus, L. corniculatus, and L. tenuis and a "creeping" selection of L. corniculatus. Herbage harvested in winter 2000 and again in spring had extractable PA concentrations, estimations of which varied between 0.2 and 10.9% of dry matter. The four novel Lotus spp. with the highest concentrations were selected for further evaluation together with the agricultural accessions. PA concentrations in herbage were estimated for individual plants harvested in spring 2001 and bulk samples harvested in summer 2002-2003. PA oligomer and polymer fractions were separated by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography from aqueous acetone PA extracts of herbage. The chemical characteristics of the fractions were examined by acid catalyzed degradation with benzyl mercaptan, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electrospray ionization (ESI), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). A wide variation was found in the chemical composition, mean degree of polymerization (mDP), and polydispersity of PAs from Lotus spp. Fractions from L. americanus, L. corniculatus "creeping selection," and L. pedunculatus consisted predominantly of prodelphinidin (PD) units, whereas PA from L. angustissimus and L. corniculatus consisted predominantly of procyanidin (PC) units. An approximately equal composition in terms of PC and PD units was found in L. parviflorus and L. suaveolens. In L. angustissimus, epicatechin is dominant in both extender and terminal units. In all Lotus PA fractions, the 2,3-cis isomers (epicatechin or epigallocatechin) predominated. Only trace amounts of PA were extracted from L. tenuis. The mDP of the PA fractions ranged from 8 to 97, with high mDP found only for L. pedunculatus and L. americanus. In the ESI-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS of the L. angustissimus PA fraction, ions

  5. Air bubble bursting effect of lotus leaf.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingming; Zheng, Yongmei; Nie, Fu-Qiang; Zhai, Jin; Jiang, Lei

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, a phenomenon of air bubbles quickly bursting within several milliseconds on a "self-cleaning" lotus leaf was described. This observation prompted the synthesis of artificial surfaces similar to that of the lotus leaf. The artificial leaf surfaces, prepared by photolithography and wet etching, showed a similar air bubble bursting effect. Smooth and rough silicon surfaces with an ordered nanostructure or patterned microstructure were utilized to study the contribution of the micro/nano hierarchical structures to this phenomenon of air bubble bursting. Air bubbles were found to burst on some superhydrophobic surfaces with microstructure (within 220 ms). However, air bubbles burst much more rapidly (within 13 ms) on similar surfaces with micro/nanostructure. The height, width, and spacing of hierarchical structures could also affect air bubble bursting, and the effect of the height was more obvious. When the height of hierarchical structures was around the height found in natural lotus papillae, the width and spacing were significant for air bubble bursting. An original model was proposed to further evaluate the reason why the micro/nano hierarchical rough structures had an excellent air bubble bursting effect, and the validity of the model was theoretically demonstrated.

  6. La Crosse Virus in Aedes japonicus japonicus Mosquitoes in the Appalachian Region, United States

    PubMed Central

    Dotseth, Eric J.; Jackson, Bryan T.; Zink, Steven D.; Marek, Paul E.; Kramer, Laura D.; Paulson, Sally L.; Hawley, Dana M.

    2015-01-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV), a leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in children in the United States, is emerging in Appalachia. For local arboviral surveillance, mosquitoes were tested. LACV RNA was detected and isolated from Aedes japonicus mosquitoes. These invasive mosquitoes may significantly affect LACV range expansion and dynamics. PMID:25811131

  7. La Crosse Virus in Aedes japonicus japonicus mosquitoes in the Appalachian Region, United States.

    PubMed

    Harris, M Camille; Dotseth, Eric J; Jackson, Bryan T; Zink, Steven D; Marek, Paul E; Kramer, Laura D; Paulson, Sally L; Hawley, Dana M

    2015-04-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV), a leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in children in the United States, is emerging in Appalachia. For local arboviral surveillance, mosquitoes were tested. LACV RNA was detected and isolated from Aedes japonicus mosquitoes. These invasive mosquitoes may significantly affect LACV range expansion and dynamics.

  8. Lotus alianus, a new species from Cabo Verde and nomeenclatural notes on Lotus section Pedrosia (Fabaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lotus alianus J.H. Kirkbr., sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a rare endemic species from the Republic of Cape Verde, and is found in dry habitats on just two islands, Ilhas de Santo Antao and Sao Vicente. In addition, two species names are synonymized with L. creticus L., and a lectotyp...

  9. Schizosaccharomyces japonicus: A Distinct Dimorphic Yeast Among the Fission Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Keita; Furuya, Kanji; Niki, Hironori

    2017-07-21

    Genomic sequencing data and morphological properties demonstrate evolutionary relationships among groups of the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces Phylogenetically, S. japonicus is the furthest removed from other species of fission yeast. The basic characteristics of cell proliferation are shared among all fission yeast, including the process of binary fission during vegetative growth, conjugation and karyogamy with horsetail movement, mating-type switching, and sporulation. However, S. japonicus also exhibits characteristics that are unique to filamentous fungi. S. japonicus is a nonpathogenic yeast that exhibits dimorphism. Depending on the environmental conditions, S. japonicus transforms from yeast cells into filamentous cells (hyphae), and blue light triggers synchronous septation of hyphal cells. A rough version of the whole-genome sequence is now available, facilitating genetic manipulation of S. japonicus. Furthermore, the extensive genetic knowledge available for S. pombe is aiding the development of genetic tools for analyzing S. japonicus. S. japonicus will help shed light on the evolutionary relationships among the fission yeast. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Cytotoxic Homoisoflavonoids from Ophiopogon japonicus Tubers.

    PubMed

    Dang, Nguyen Hai; Chung, Nguyen Dinh; Tuan, Ha Manh; Hiep, Nguyen Tuan; Dat, Nguyen Tien

    2017-02-01

    A phytochemical fractionation of a methanol extract of Ophiopogon japonicus tubers led to the isolation of a new homoisoflavanone, homoisopogon A (1), and three new homoisoflavanes, homoisopogon B-D (2-4). Their chemical structures were elucidated by mass, NMR, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic methods. Homoisopogon A (1) exhibited potent cytotoxicity against human lung adenocarcinoma LU-1, human epidermoid carcinoma KB, and human melanoma SK-Mel-2 cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.51 to 0.66 µM.

  11. 78 FR 39062 - Group Lotus plc; Modification of a Temporary Exemption From an Advanced Air Bag Requirement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Group Lotus plc; Modification of a Temporary Exemption From... Protection. SUMMARY: This notice modifies the temporary exemption granted to Group Lotus plc (Lotus) on March... in the Federal Register a notice granting Group Lotus Plc (Lotus) a temporary exemption from...

  12. Superhydrophobicity in perfection: the outstanding properties of the lotus leaf

    PubMed Central

    Ditsche-Kuru, Petra; Neinhuis, Christoph; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Summary Lotus leaves have become an icon for superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning surfaces, and have led to the concept of the ‘Lotus effect’. Although many other plants have superhydrophobic surfaces with almost similar contact angles, the lotus shows better stability and perfection of its water repellency. Here, we compare the relevant properties such as the micro- and nano-structure, the chemical composition of the waxes and the mechanical properties of lotus with its competitors. It soon becomes obvious that the upper epidermis of the lotus leaf has developed some unrivaled optimizations. The extraordinary shape and the density of the papillae are the basis for the extremely reduced contact area between surface and water drops. The exceptional dense layer of very small epicuticular wax tubules is a result of their unique chemical composition. The mechanical robustness of the papillae and the wax tubules reduce damage and are the basis for the perfection and durability of the water repellency. A reason for the optimization, particularly of the upper side of the lotus leaf, can be deduced from the fact that the stomata are located in the upper epidermis. Here, the impact of rain and contamination is higher than on the lower epidermis. The lotus plant has successfully developed an excellent protection for this delicate epistomatic surface of its leaves. PMID:21977427

  13. Superhydrophobicity in perfection: the outstanding properties of the lotus leaf.

    PubMed

    Ensikat, Hans J; Ditsche-Kuru, Petra; Neinhuis, Christoph; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Lotus leaves have become an icon for superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning surfaces, and have led to the concept of the 'Lotus effect'. Although many other plants have superhydrophobic surfaces with almost similar contact angles, the lotus shows better stability and perfection of its water repellency. Here, we compare the relevant properties such as the micro- and nano-structure, the chemical composition of the waxes and the mechanical properties of lotus with its competitors. It soon becomes obvious that the upper epidermis of the lotus leaf has developed some unrivaled optimizations. The extraordinary shape and the density of the papillae are the basis for the extremely reduced contact area between surface and water drops. The exceptional dense layer of very small epicuticular wax tubules is a result of their unique chemical composition. The mechanical robustness of the papillae and the wax tubules reduce damage and are the basis for the perfection and durability of the water repellency. A reason for the optimization, particularly of the upper side of the lotus leaf, can be deduced from the fact that the stomata are located in the upper epidermis. Here, the impact of rain and contamination is higher than on the lower epidermis. The lotus plant has successfully developed an excellent protection for this delicate epistomatic surface of its leaves.

  14. Comparative analyses in Lotus: the cytogenetic map of Lotus uliginosus Schkuhr.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, J; Mendes, S; Dall'agnol, M; Sandal, N; Sato, S; Pedrosa-Harand, A

    2012-01-01

    A comparative cytogenetic map was built for Lotusuliginosus (2n = 12), expanding previous analyses that revealed intra- and interspecific chromosomal rearrangements in the model legume L. japonicus, L. filicaulis, and L. burttii. This species is positioned in a sister clade of the previously-mapped species and is proposed as one of the progenitors of L. corniculatus, the main forage crop of the genus. The cytogenetic map allowed the location of 12 genomic regions to be compared between these species. A high macrosynteny was revealed, but it was interrupted by a translocation involving chromosomes 3 and 5, a new rearrangement for the genus. Also, a transposition on chromosome 2 was found in L. japonicus 'Miyakojima'. Furthermore, changes in the number, size, and position of rDNA sites were observed, as well as an intraspecific size heteromorphism of the 5S rDNA site on L. uliginosus chromosome 6. The karyotype differences observed are proportional to the phylogenetic distance among these species.

  15. [Studies on the chemical constituents in herb of Ranunculus japonicus].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Chang-xin; Zhang, Shui-li; Weng, Lin-jia; Zhao, Yu

    2006-06-01

    To isolate and determine the chemical constituents from Ranunculus japonicus. Compounds were isolated by column chromatography, and identified by MS, NMR data. Nine compounds were obtained andelucidated as scoparone (1), tricin (2), protocatechuic acid (3), luteolin (4), anemonin (5), scopoletin (6), 5-hydroxy-6, 7-dimethoxyflavone (7), 5-hydroxy-7, 8-dimethoxyflavone (8), ternatolide (9), respectively. Compounds 1-9 were isolated from R. japonicus for the first time while compounds 7, 8 were separated from Ranunculus genus first time.

  16. The cyanogenic glucoside composition of Zygaena filipendulae (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) as effected by feeding on wild-type and transgenic lotus populations with variable cyanogenic glucoside profiles.

    PubMed

    Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn; Olsen, Carl Erik; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2007-01-01

    Zygaena larvae sequester the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin from their food plants (Fabaceae) as well as carry out de novo biosynthesis of these compounds. In this study, Zygaena filipendulae were reared on wild-type Lotus corniculatus and wild-type and transgenic L. japonicus plants with differing content and ratios of the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin and of the cyanoalkenyl glucosides rhodiocyanoside A and D. LC-MS analyses, free choice feeding experiments and developmental studies were used to examine the effect of varying content and ratios of these secondary metabolites on the feeding preferences, growth and development of Z. filipendulae. Larvae reared on cyanogenic L. corniculatus developed faster compared to larvae reared on L. japonicus although free choice feeding trials demonstrated that the latter plant source was the preferred food plant. Larvae reared on acyanogenic L. corniculatus showed decelerated development. Analysis of different life stages and tissues demonstrate that Z. filipendulae strive to maintain certain threshold content and ratios of cyanogenic glucosides regardless of the composition of the food plants. Despite this, the ratios of cyanogenic glucosides in Z. filipendulae remain partly affected by the ratio of the food plant due to the high proportion of sequestering that takes place.

  17. Hemoglobin LjGlb1-1 is involved in nodulation and regulates the level of nitric oxide in the Lotus japonicus–Mesorhizobium loti symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Fukudome, Mitsutaka; Calvo-Begueria, Laura; Kado, Tomohiro; Osuki, Ken-ichi; Rubio, Maria Carmen; Murakami, Ei-ichi; Nagata, Maki; Kucho, Ken-ichi; Sandal, Niels; Stougaard, Jens; Becana, Manuel; Uchiumi, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    Leghemoglobins transport and deliver O2 to the symbiosomes inside legume nodules and are essential for nitrogen fixation. However, the roles of other hemoglobins (Hbs) in the rhizobia–legume symbiosis are unclear. Several Lotus japonicus mutants affecting LjGlb1-1, a non-symbiotic class 1 Hb, have been used to study the function of this protein in symbiosis. Two TILLING alleles with single amino acid substitutions (A102V and E127K) and a LORE1 null allele with a retrotransposon insertion in the 5′-untranslated region (96642) were selected for phenotyping nodulation. Plants of all three mutant lines showed a decrease in long infection threads and nodules, and an increase in incipient infection threads. About 4h after inoculation, the roots of mutant plants exhibited a greater transient accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) than did the wild-type roots; nevertheless, in vitro NO dioxygenase activities of the wild-type, A102V, and E127K proteins were similar, suggesting that the mutated proteins are not fully functional in vivo. The expression of LjGlb1-1, but not of the other class 1 Hb of L. japonicus (LjGlb1-2), was affected during infection of wild-type roots, further supporting a specific role for LjGlb1-1. In conclusion, the LjGlb1-1 mutants reveal that this protein is required during rhizobial infection and regulates NO levels. PMID:27443280

  18. Polysaccharide degradation systems of the saprophytic bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jeffrey G

    2016-07-01

    Study of recalcitrant polysaccharide degradation by bacterial systems is critical for understanding biological processes such as global carbon cycling, nutritional contributions of the human gut microbiome, and the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. One bacterium that has a robust ability to degrade polysaccharides is the Gram-negative saprophyte Cellvibrio japonicus. A bacterium with a circuitous history, C. japonicus underwent several taxonomy changes from an initially described Pseudomonas sp. Most of the enzymes described in the pre-genomics era have also been renamed. This review aims to consolidate the biochemical, structural, and genetic data published on C. japonicus and its remarkable ability to degrade cellulose, xylan, and pectin substrates. Initially, C. japonicus carbohydrate-active enzymes were studied biochemically and structurally for their novel polysaccharide binding and degradation characteristics, while more recent systems biology approaches have begun to unravel the complex regulation required for lignocellulose degradation in an environmental context. Also included is a discussion for the future of C. japonicus as a model system, with emphasis on current areas unexplored in terms of polysaccharide degradation and emerging directions for C. japonicus in both environmental and biotechnological applications.

  19. Polysaccharide degradation systems of the saprophytic bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus

    DOE PAGES

    Gardner, Jeffrey G.

    2016-06-04

    Study of recalcitrant polysaccharide degradation by bacterial systems is critical for understanding biological processes such as global carbon cycling, nutritional contributions of the human gut microbiome, and the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. One bacterium that has a robust ability to degrade polysaccharides is the Gram-negative saprophyte Cellvibrio japonicus. A bacterium with a circuitous history, C. japonicus underwent several taxonomy changes from an initially described Pseudomonas sp. Most of the enzymes described in the pre-genomics era have also been renamed. Furthermore, this review aims to consolidate the biochemical, structural, and genetic data published on C. japonicus and its remarkablemore » ability to degrade cellulose, xylan, and pectin substrates. Initially, C. japonicus carbohydrate-active enzymes were studied biochemically and structurally for their novel polysaccharide binding and degradation characteristics, while more recent systems biology approaches have begun to unravel the complex regulation required for lignocellulose degradation in an environmental context. Also included is a discussion for the future of C. japonicus as a model system, with emphasis on current areas unexplored in terms of polysaccharide degradation and emerging directions for C. japonicus in both environmental and biotechnological applications.« less

  20. Micro-CT observations of the 3D distribution of calcium oxalate crystals in cotyledons during maturation and germination in Lotus miyakojimae seeds.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Hayami, Masato; Takeuchi, Miyuki; Karahara, Ichirou; Sato, Mayuko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Terada, Yasuko; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takano, Hidekazu; Kagoshima, Yasushi; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu

    2013-06-01

    The cotyledon of legume seeds is a storage organ that provides nutrients for seed germination and seedling growth. The spatial and temporal control of the degradation processes within cotyledons has not been elucidated. Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals, a common calcium deposit in plants, have often been reported to be present in legume seeds. In this study, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was employed at the SPring-8 facility to examine the three-dimensional distribution of crystals inside cotyledons during seed maturation and germination of Lotus miyakojimae (previously Lotus japonicus accession Miyakojima MG-20). Using this technique, we could detect the outline of the embryo, void spaces in seeds and the cotyledon venation pattern. We found several sites that strongly inhibited X-ray transmission within the cotyledons. Light and polarizing microscopy confirmed that these areas corresponded to CaOx crystals. Three-dimensional observations of dry seeds indicated that the CaOx crystals in the L. miyakojimae cotyledons were distributed along lateral veins; however, their distribution was limited to the abaxial side of the procambium. The CaOx crystals appeared at stage II (seed-filling stage) of seed development, and their number increased in dry seeds. The number of crystals in cotyledons was high during germination, suggesting that CaOx crystals are not degraded for their calcium supply. Evidence for the conservation of CaOx crystals in cotyledons during the L. miyakojimae germination process was also supported by the biochemical measurement of oxalic acid levels.

  1. Introduction and establishment of Aedes (Finlaya) Japonicus japonicus (Theobald) on the island of Hawaii: implications for arbovirus transmission.

    PubMed

    Larish, Linda Burnham; Savage, Harry M

    2005-09-01

    On November 24, 2003, 1 female adult specimen of Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) was collected in a New Jersey (NJ) light trap on the island of Hawaii. From June through October, 2004, female and male adults were collected by NJ light traps and gravid traps placed at multiple sites on the island of Hawaii. Larvae were collected in artificial containers and reared to adults for identification. Aedes (Fin.) j. japonicus is the 8th mosquito species to be introduced and established in the State of Hawaii. Currently, this species is known only from the island of Hawaii. Aedes (Fin.) j. japonicus is a competent laboratory vector for a number of arboviruses. Increased quarantine inspections, inspection and treatment of imported used tires and plants, disinsection of airline cargo holds, enhanced vector surveillance, and the development of sanitary corridors around airports and port facilities are necessary to reduce the introduction of vectors and pathogens.

  2. Effects of Competition and Predation by Native Mosquitoes on the North American Invasion of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Freed, T Z; Kesavaraju, B; Leisnham, P T

    2014-11-01

    The success and effects of a biological invasion can be dependent on species interactions with resident competitors and predators. Indirect interactions between competition and predation, such as keystone predation, can influence both invasion success and the impact of an invasive species on resident competitors. The invasive mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) has been established within the North American range of the indigenous competitor Aedes triseriatus (Say) and indigenous mosquito predator Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett). The effects of Tx. rutilus predation on competition between Ae. j. japonicus and Ae. triseriatus were tested in laboratory microcosms. Consistent with a prior study, there was minimal evidence of competitive asymmetry between Ae. j. japonicus and Ae. triseriatus, with similar effects of intraspecific versus interspecific interactions on both species. Tx. rutilus predation caused high mortality of both Ae. j. japonicus and Ae. triseriatus, and minimized the effects of density-dependent competition. Ae. japonicus females that survived predation had larger adult body sizes than those in treatments without predators. Ae. triseriatus females that survived Tx. rutilus predation were larger and developed quicker than individuals in treatments without predators. Intraspecific competition and predation negatively affected the finite rate of population increase for Ae. j. japonicus, but only affected individual fitness correlates for Ae. triseriatus, indicating that the overall population performance of the invader is more sensitive to these interactions than the native species. Based on these results, we predict that predation is likely to be an important barrier to the establishment and spread of Ae. j. japonicus in tree holes in North America. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  3. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF A TYPICAL SECTION OF 'LOTUS LEAF' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF A TYPICAL SECTION OF 'LOTUS LEAF' MOTIF CORNICE; NW CORNER OF THE E WING; LOOKING NE. (Ryan) - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Building No. 1, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

  4. Two new sesquiterpenes from Chloranthus japonicus Sieb.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiang-Qiang; Shi, Xin-Wei; Zheng, Shao-Jun; Zhou, Jun-Hui; Cui, Xin-Ai; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2016-11-01

    Two new sesquiterpenes, namely, 1β,10β-dihydroxy-eremophil-7(11), 8-dien-12,8-olide (1) and 8,12-epoxy-1β-hydroxyeudesm-3,7,11-trien-9-one (2), together with three known sesquiterpenoids, shizukolidol (3), 4α-hydroxy-5α(H)-8β-methoxy-eudesm-7(11)-en-12,8-olide (4), and neolitacumone B (5), and two known monoterpenes, (3R,4S,6R)-p-menth-1-en-3,6-diol (6) and (R)-p-menth-1-en-4,7-diol (7), were isolated from the whole plant of Chloranthus japonicus Sieb. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis and comparison with those of related known compounds. Compounds 4-7 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  5. Current Advances in the Metabolomics Study on Lotus Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingzhi; Liu, Ting; Guo, Mingquan

    2016-01-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), which is distributed widely throughout Asia, Australia and North America, is an aquatic perennial that has been cultivated for over 2,000 years. It is very stimulating that almost all parts of lotus have been consumed as vegetable as well as food, especially the seeds. Except for the nutritive values of lotus, there has been increasing interest in its potential as functional food due to its rich secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids and alkaloids. Not only have these metabolites greatly contributed to the biological process of lotus seeds, but also have been reported to possess multiple health-promoting effects, including antioxidant, anti-amnesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities. Thus, comprehensive metabolomic profiling of these metabolites is of key importance to help understand their biological activities, and other chemical biology features. In this context, this review will provide an update on the current technological platforms, and workflow associated with metabolomic studies on lotus seeds, as well as insights into the application of metabolomics for the improvement of food safety and quality, assisting breeding, and promotion of the study of metabolism and pharmacokinetics of lotus seeds; meanwhile it will also help explore new perspectives and outline future challenges in this fast-growing research subject. PMID:27379154

  6. The Study of Runoff Loads from Lotus Paddy Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Hisao; Kato, Tasuku; Nakasone, Hideo

    To solve the problem of diffuse pollution brought about of eutrophication in lakes, an investigation was conducted in lotus paddy fields, at which little research had been conducted. The study area consisted of low-land lotus paddy fields around the Lake Kasumigaura watershed in Ibaraki Prefecture. The area is well known as the largest production center of lotus roots in Japan. The results of the study show that the mass balance loads of total nitrogen(T-N), total phosphorus(T-P), chemical oxygen demand(COD), and suspended solids from the lotus paddy fields were -3.22 , 1.87, 75.36 and 552 kg·km-2·d-1, respectively. Comparing these values to the unit reported in "The Fifth Plan for Water Quality Conservation in the Lakes and Ponds related to Lake Kasumigaura", it was found that T-N was purified, T-P was 2.1 times higher and COD was 4.8 times higher. It was found that the major cause of the effluent loads was the outflow of suspended matters during puddling and lotus planting. The dissolved matter was influenced by the increase of discharge. The suspended matter discharge from the lotus paddy fields temporarily accumulated at the end of the drainage canals and flowed out when there was a rainfall.

  7. Integrated Emergy and Economic Evaluation of Lotus-Root ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Lotus (Neumbo nucifera, Gaertn) is the most important aquatic vegetable in China, with a cultivation history of over 3000 years. The emergy, energy, material, and money flows of three lotus root cultivation modes in Wanqingsha, Nansha District, Guangzhou, China were examined using Energy Systems Language models and emergy evaluation to better understand their ecological and economic characteristics on multiple spatial and temporal scales. The natural resource foundations, economic characteristics and sustainability of these modes were evaluated and compared. The results showed that although all three modes were highly dependent on purchased emergy inputs, their potential impacts as measured by the local (ELRL) and global (ELRW) environmental loading ratios were less than 1.2 and 0.7, respectively. The lotus-fish mode was the most sustainable with its emergy index of sustainable development (EISD) 2.09 and 2.13 times that of the pure lotus and lotus-shrimp modes, respectively. All three lotus-root production modes had superior economic viability, since their Output/Input ratio ranged from 2.56 to 4.95. The results indicated that agricultural systems may have different environmental impacts and sustainability characteristics at different spatial and temporal scales, and that these impacts and characteristics can be simultaneously explored using integrated emergy and economic evaluations. This study provides some major new insights about agriculture and its potenti

  8. Ophiopogon japonicus--A phytochemical, ethnomedicinal and pharmacological review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Jia; Wang, Mei; Lin, Li-Gen; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2016-04-02

    Ophiopogonis Radix (Maidong in Chinese), the root of Ophiopogon japonicus, is widely used in local medicines of China, Japan and some south-eastern Asian countries. According to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) principle, Ophiopogonis Radix nourishes the yin, promotes body fluid production, moistens the lung, eases the mind and clears away heart fire. This review summarizes the achievements of the investigations in botany, phytochemistry, quality control, traditional uses, pharmacological activities and clinical studies on O. japonicus; this review also describes the shortcomings of studies on this herbal drug and thus serves as the basis of further scientific research and development of this traditional herbal drug. O. japonicus-related information was collected from various resources, including books on Chinese herbs and the Internet databases, such as Google Scholar, SciFinder, Web of Science, Elsevier, ACS, PubMed and China Knowledge Resource Integrated (CNKI). O. japonicus is widely distributed in East Asia, especially in China. Numerous compounds were identified from this plant. The main components of O. japonicus include steroidal saponins, homoisoflavonoids and polysaccharides, which exhibited various pharmacological activities, such as cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammation, anticancer, anti-oxidation, immunomodulation, cough relief, antimicrobial, and anti-diabetes. O. japonicus is a common traditional Chinese herbal drug used as the main ingredient in many prescriptions. Modern researches verified that O. japonicus can be used either as a healthy food or a therapeutic agent for disease prevention and treatment. The molecular mechanisms and chemical principles of this herbal medicine should be further explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with seed iron in the legumes Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading micronuntrient deficiencies in humans, and increasing the amount of bioavailable iron in commonly consumed plant foods has been proposed as a means to ameliorate this deficiency. This approach seems especially beneficial in developing countries where plant food...

  10. Presence and Potential Distribution of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Kalan, Katja; Ivovic, Vladimir; Glasnovic, Peter; Buzan, Elena

    2017-09-14

    In Slovenia, two invasive mosquito species are present, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera: Culicidae). In this study, we examined their actual distribution and suitable habitats for new colonizations. Data from survey of species presence in 2013 and 2015, bioclimatic variables and altitude were used for the construction of predictive maps. We produced various models in Maxent software and tested two bioclimatic variable sets, WorldClim and CHELSA. For the variable selection of A. albopictus modeling we used statistical and expert knowledge-based approach, whereas for A. j. japonicus we used only a statistically based approach. The best performing models for both species were chosen according to AIC score-based evaluation. In 2 yr of sampling, A. albopictus was largely confined to the western half of Slovenia, whereas A. j. japonicus spread significantly and can be considered as an established species in a large part of the country. Comparison of models with WorldClim and CHELSA variables for both species showed models with CHELSA variables as a better tool for prediction. Finally, we validated the models performance in predicting distribution of species according to collected field data. Our study confirms that both species are co-occurring and are sympatric in a large part of the country area. The tested models could be used for future prevention of invasive mosquitoes spreading in other countries with similar bioclimatic conditions. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Field evaluation of baited traps for surveillance of Aedes japonicus japonicus in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Balestrino, F; Schaffner, F; Forgia, D L; Paslaru, A I; Torgerson, P R; Mathis, A; Veronesi, E

    2016-03-01

    The efficacy of Centers for Disease Control (CDC) miniature light traps and ovitraps was tested in the outskirts of the city of Zurich in Switzerland for their use in the surveillance of Aedes (Hulecoeteomyia) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae), the invasive Asian bush mosquito. Sets of single CDC traps were run overnight (n = 18) in three different environments (forest, suburban and urban) in 3 × 3 Latin square experimental designs. Traps were baited with: (a) carbon dioxide (CO2 ); (b) CO2 plus light, or (c) CO2 plus lure blend [Combi FRC 3003 (iGu® )]. At the same locations, mosquito eggs were collected weekly using standard ovitraps baited with different infusions (oak, hay or tap water) and equipped with different oviposition substrates (a block of extruded polystyrene, a germination paper strip or a wooden stick). Data were analysed using Poisson and negative binomial general linear models. The use of light (P < 0.001) or lure (P < 0.001) significantly increased the attractiveness of CDC traps baited with CO2 . Oak and hay infusions did not increase the attractiveness of ovitraps compared with standing tap water (P > 0.05), and extruded polystyrene blocks were preferred as an oviposition substrate over wooden sticks (P < 0.05) and seed germination paper (P < 0.05). Carbon dioxide-baited CDC miniature light traps complemented with light or iGu® lure and ovitraps containing standing tap water and polystyrene oviposition blocks can be considered as efficient and simple tools for use in Ae. j. japonicus surveillance programmes. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  12. Lotus birth, a holistic approach on physiological cord clamping.

    PubMed

    Zinsser, Laura A

    2017-09-04

    The positive effects of delayed cord clamping (DCC) has been extensively researched. DCC means: waiting at least one minute after birth before clamping and cutting the cord or till the pulsation has stopped. With physiological clamping and cutting (PCC) the clamping and cutting can happen at the earliest after the pulsation has stopped. With a Lotus birth, no clamping and cutting of the cord is done. A woman called Clair Lotus Day imitated the holistic approach of PCC from an anthropoid ape in 1974. The chimpanzee did not separate the placenta from the newborn. The aim of this case report is to discuss and learn a different approach in the third stage of labour. Three cases of Lotus birth by human beings were observed. All three women gave birth in an out-of-hospital setting and had ambulant postnatal care. The placenta was washed, salted and herbs were put on 2-3h post partum. The placenta was wrapped in something that absorbs the moisture. The salting was repeated with a degreasing frequency depending on moistness of the placenta. On life day six all three Lotus babies experiences a natural separation of the cord. All three Lotus birth cases were unproblematic, no special incidence occurred. One should differentiate between early cord clamping (ECC), delayed cord clamping (DCC) and physiological cord clamping (PCC). Lotus birth might lead to an optimisation of the bonding and attachment. Research is needed in the areas of both PCC and Lotus birth. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The genome of the long-living Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera, Gaertn.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sacred lotus, a basal eudicot of agricultural, medicinal, cultural, and religious importance, is particularly noted for its 1,300-year seed longevity, and for its outstanding water repellency, the "lotus effect”. The genome sequence of the Sacred lotus variety 'China Antique' lacks the paleo-triplic...

  14. High degree of mitochondrial haplotype diversity in the Japanease common toad Bufo japonicus in urban Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Hase, Kazuko; Shimada, Masakazu; Nikoh, Naruo

    2012-10-01

    The Japanese common toad Bufo japonicus is widely distributed across mainland Japan and is classified into two subspecies, B. japonicus japonicus and B. japonicus formosus, in the western and eastern regions, respectively. To investigate the genetic diversity of B. japonicus at the breeding pond (local population) level, we sequenced 831 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (Cyt b) from 75 individuals collected from nine ponds in urban Tokyo and the surrounding area. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses revealed high mtDNA haplotype diversity (Hd, 0.716 (mean) ± 0.230 (SD)) within local populations (breeding ponds). Most local populations had multiple haplotypes of the mitochondrial Cyt b gene, and seven of the 18 haplotypes were identified in two or more local populations. These results indicate that mitochondrial gene flow had occurred across different breeding sites. We also identified five haplotypes that belonged to the western clade and correspond to B. japonicus japonicus. Our results provide genetic evidence that B. japonicus japonicus was introduced artificially from Western Japan to Tokyo, where it occupied the natural habitat of B. japonicus formosus. The urban Tokyo area was found to represent an admixed population consisting of both native and non-native B. japonicus subspecies.

  15. Lotus hosts delimit the mutualism-parasitism continuum of Bradyrhizobium.

    PubMed

    Regus, J U; Gano, K A; Hollowell, A C; Sofish, V; Sachs, J L

    2015-02-01

    Symbioses are modelled as evolutionarily and ecologically variable with fitness outcomes for hosts shifting on a continuum from mutualism to parasitism. In a classic example, rhizobia fix atmospheric nitrogen for legume hosts in exchange for photosynthetic carbon. Rhizobial infection often enhances legume growth, but hosts also incur interaction costs because of root tissues and or metabolites needed to support symbionts in planta. Rhizobia exhibit genetic variation in symbiotic effectiveness, and ecological changes in light or mineral nitrogen availability can also alter the benefits of rhizobial infection for hosts. The net effects of symbiosis thus can range from mutualistic to parasitic in a context-dependent manner. We tested the extent of the mutualism-parasitism continuum in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis and the degree to which host investment can shape its limits. We infected Lotus strigosus with sympatric Bradyrhizobium genotypes that vary in symbiotic effectiveness. Inoculations occurred under different mineral nitrogen and light regimes spanning ecologically relevant ranges. Net growth benefits of Bradyrhizobium infection varied for Lotus and were reduced or eliminated dependent on Bradyrhizobium genotype, mineral nitrogen and light availability. But we did not detect parasitism. Lotus proportionally reduced investment in Bradyrhizobium as net benefit from infection decreased. Lotus control occurred primarily after infection, via fine-scale modulation of nodule growth, as opposed to control over initial nodulation. Our results show how divestment of symbiosis by Lotus can prevent shifts to parasitism.

  16. The origin of bird pollination in Macaronesian Lotus (Loteae, Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Isidro; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Jaén-Molina, Ruth; Oliva-Tejera, Felicia; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Cronk, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    The four red-flowered, apparently bird-pollinated Lotus species from the Canary Islands have previously been classified in their own genus, Rhyncholotus. Currently, they are considered as a separate section within genus Lotus, distinct from other herbaceous Canarian congeners which are yellow-flowered and bee-pollinated. A combined analysis of four nuclear regions (including ITS and three homologues of CYCLOIDEA) and three plastid regions (CYB6, matK and trnH-psbA) nests the four bird-pollinated species within a single extant species of bee-pollinated Lotus (L. sessilifolius), in a very extreme example of species paraphyly. Therefore, our data compellingly support the hypothesis that the Macaronesian Lotus species with a bird pollination syndrome are recently derived from entomophilous ancestors. Calibration of the phylogenetic trees using geological age estimates of the most recent islands (La Palma and El Hierro) together with oldest ages of Fuerteventura indicates that bird pollination evolved ca. 1.7 Ma in the Canarian Lotus. These four bird-pollinated species share a most recent common ancestor (MRCA) with L. sessilifolius that dates to about 2.2 Ma. Our analyses further suggest that the evolution of the bird pollination syndrome was likely triggered by the availability of new niches in La Palma and Tenerife as a result of recent volcanic activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. First collection records of Aedes japonicus in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Neitzel, David F; Johnson, Kirk A; Brogren, Sandra; Kemperman, Melissa M

    2009-09-01

    Aedes japonicus was first identified in the eastern United States during 1998 and has since spread to locations west of the Mississippi River. This species was found in Minnesota for the first time during 2007 at a tire recycling facility in Scott County and was identified during 2008 at 43 locations in 4 additional Minnesota counties south and east of the initial finding. These records document the presence of Ae. japonicus in 5 counties of southeastern Minnesota and indicate that the species overwinters locally.

  18. Theoretical Explanation of the Lotus Effect: Superhydrophobic Property Changes by Removal of Nanostructures from the Surface of a Lotus Leaf.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Minehide; Nishikawa, Naoki; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Nonomura, Yoshimune; Yokojima, Satoshi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Uchida, Kingo

    2015-07-07

    Theoretical study is presented on the wetting behaviors of water droplets over a lotus leaf. Experimental results are interpreted to clarify the trade-offs among the potential energy change, the local pinning energy, and the adhesion energy. The theoretical parameters, calculated from the experimental results, are used to qualitatively explain the relations among surface fractal dimension, surface morphology, and dynamic wetting behaviors. The surface of a lotus leaf, which shows the superhydrophobic lotus effect, was dipped in ethanol to remove the plant waxes. As a result, the lotus effect is lost. The contact angle of a water drop decreased dramatically from 161° of the original surface to 122°. The water droplet was pinned on the surface. From the fractal analysis, the fractal region of the original surface was divided into two regions: a smaller-sized roughness region of 0.3-1.7 μm with D of 1.48 and a region of 1.7-19 μm with D of 1.36. By dipping the leaf in ethanol, the former fractal region, characterized by wax tubes, was lost, and only the latter large fractal region remained. The lotus effect is attributed to a surface structure that is covered with needle-shaped wax tubes, and the remaining surface allows invasion of the water droplet and enlarges the interaction with water.

  19. Differences in MITF gene expression and histology between albino and normal sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Heling; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Liu, Shilin; Wang, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Albino Apostichopus japonicus occur both in the wild and in captivity. The offspring of albino A. japonicus also suffer from albinism. The formation of melanin in the melanocytes is dependant on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). To investigate the role of MITF in controlling albinism, we cloned the full-length MITF cDNA from A. japonicus and compared MITF mRNA expression in albino and normal A. japonicus. In addition, we used light and electron microscopy to compare histological samples of normal and albino A. japonicus. The body wall of albino adults was characterized by significantly lower levels of MITF expression and lower numbers of epidermal melanocytes, which also contained less melanin. In albino juvenile offspring, MITF expression levels were significantly lower 32 d after fertilization and there were fewer, and less developed, epidermal melanocytes. Thus, we conclude that albino A. japonicus have fewer melanocytes and a reduced ability to synthesize melanin, likely because of lower expression of MITF.

  20. [Self-fertility problems in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.)].

    PubMed

    Nikolaĭchuk, V I

    2002-01-01

    The problems of Lotus corniculatus self-fertility are analyzed. The self-compatibility of hereditivity character, the efficacy of different methods of self-pollination (autogamy, geitonogamy within one plant and among plants of one clone), and usage of the mixture of self-compatible and self-incompatible pollen were studied.

  1. Flower thermoregulation facilitates fertilization in Asian sacred lotus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiao-Kun; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The thermoregulatory flower of the Asian sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) can maintain a relatively stable temperature despite great variations in ambient temperature during anthesis. The thermoregulation has been hypothesized to offer a direct energy reward for pollinators in lotus flowers. This study aims to examine whether the stable temperature maintained in the floral chamber influences the fertilization process and seed development. Methods An artificial refrigeration instrument was employed to cool flowers during the fertilization process and post-fertilization period in an experimental population. The effect of temperature on post-pollination events was also examined by removing petals in two field populations. Key Results Treatments with low floral temperature did not reduce stigma receptivity or pollen viability in undehisced anthers. Low temperature during the fertilization period significantly decreased seed set per flower but low temperature during the phase of seed development had no effect, suggesting that temperature regulation by lotus flowers facilitated fertilization success. Hand-pollination treatments in two field populations indicated that seed set of flowers with petals removed was lower than that of intact flowers in north China, where ambient temperatures are low, but not in south China, confirming that reducing the temperature of carpels did influence post-pollination events. Conclusions The experiments suggest that floral thermoregulation in lotus could enhance female reproductive success by facilitating fertilization. PMID:19282320

  2. Technique for rapid establishment of American lotus in remediation efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Ryon, M. G.; Jett, R. T.; McCracken, M. K.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Fortner, A. M.; Goins, K. N.; Riazi, A. S.

    2013-03-01

    A technique for increasing the establishment rate of American lotus (Nelumbo lutea) and simplifying planting was developed as part of a pond remediation project. Lotus propagation techniques typically require scarification of the seed, germination in heated water, and planting in nursery containers. Then mature (~ 1 yr) nursery-grown stock is transferred to planting site or scarified seed are broadcast applied. Mature plants should grow more quickly, but can be sensitive to handling, require more time to plant, and cost more. Scarified seeds are easier to plant and inexpensive, but have a lag time in growth, can fail to germinate, and can be difficult to site precisely. We developed an intermediate technique using small burlap bags that makes planting easier, provides greater germination success, and avoids lag time in growth. Data on survival and growth from experiments using mature stock, scarified seeds, and bag lotus demonstrate that bag lotus grow rapidly in a variety of conditions, have a high survival rate, can be processed and planted easily and quickly, and are very suitable for a variety of remediation projects

  3. Unexpected Patterns of Admixture in German Populations of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) Underscore the Importance of Human Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zielke, Dorothee E.; Werner, Doreen; Schaffner, Francis; Kampen, Helge; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgium, Switzerland, and Austria/Slovenia. To do so, we genotyped individual specimens at seven pre-existing polymorphic microsatellite loci and sequenced part of the nad4 mitochondrial locus. We found evidence of two different genotypic signatures associated with different nad4 mitochondrial haplotypes, indicating at least two genetically differentiated populations of Ae. j. japonicus in Europe (i.e. two distinct genotypes). Belgian, Swiss, and Austrian/Slovenian populations all share the same genotypic signature although they have become differentiated since isolation. Contrary to expectations, the German Ae. j. japonicus are not closely related to those in Belgium which are geographically nearest but are also highly inbred. German populations have a unique genotype but also evidence of mixing between the two genotypes. Also unexpectedly, the populations closest to the center of the German infestation had the highest levels of admixture indicating that separate introductions did not expand and merge but instead their expansion was driven by punctuated human-mediated transport. Critically, the resulting admixed populations have higher genetic diversity and appear invasive as indicated by their increased abundance and recent spread across western Germany. PMID:24992470

  4. Unexpected patterns of admixture in German populations of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) underscore the importance of human intervention.

    PubMed

    Zielke, Dorothee E; Werner, Doreen; Schaffner, Francis; Kampen, Helge; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgium, Switzerland, and Austria/Slovenia. To do so, we genotyped individual specimens at seven pre-existing polymorphic microsatellite loci and sequenced part of the nad4 mitochondrial locus. We found evidence of two different genotypic signatures associated with different nad4 mitochondrial haplotypes, indicating at least two genetically differentiated populations of Ae. j. japonicus in Europe (i.e. two distinct genotypes). Belgian, Swiss, and Austrian/Slovenian populations all share the same genotypic signature although they have become differentiated since isolation. Contrary to expectations, the German Ae. j. japonicus are not closely related to those in Belgium which are geographically nearest but are also highly inbred. German populations have a unique genotype but also evidence of mixing between the two genotypes. Also unexpectedly, the populations closest to the center of the German infestation had the highest levels of admixture indicating that separate introductions did not expand and merge but instead their expansion was driven by punctuated human-mediated transport. Critically, the resulting admixed populations have higher genetic diversity and appear invasive as indicated by their increased abundance and recent spread across western Germany.

  5. Establishment and fecundity of Ostertagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis in lambs fed lotus (Lotus pedunculatus) or perennial ryegrass.

    PubMed

    Niezen, J H; Waghorn, G C; Charleston, W A

    1998-07-17

    Forty four 12-14 week old Polled Dorset ram lambs, raised helminth free from birth, were used to investigate the effects of condensed tannins (CT) in lotus (Lotus pedunculatus) on lamb growth and gastrointestinal nematode establishment and fecundity. Condensed tannins bind to proteins in the rumen and increase the flow of protein to the intestines. Lambs were allocated to either a ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or lotus diet fed ad libitum, with or without twice daily drenching of polyethylene glycol (PEG) which binds with and deactivates the CT. One week after allocation to the diets, each lamb was infected per os with 10,000 Ostertagia circumcincta and 10,000 Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae and slaughtered 28 or 29 days later. Lambs fed lotus had lower faecal egg counts (P < 0.0001) and lower O. circumcincta burdens (P < 0.001), fewer female O. circumcincta (P < 0.0001) and higher faecal dry matter (P < 0.001) than lambs fed ryegrass, but numbers of T. colubriformis nematodes were not affected. This trial did not ascribe beneficial effects of L. pedunculatus to CT per se and the use of PEG does not seem appropriate to studies of parasitology.

  6. Acquired hyperpigmentations*

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

  7. Four unnamed species of nonsymbiotic rhizobia isolated from the rhizosphere of Lotus corniculatus.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J T; Eardly, B D; van Berkum, P; Ronson, C W

    1996-08-01

    Previously, we found that genetically diverse rhizobia nodulating Lotus corniculatus at a field site devoid of naturalized rhizobia had symbiotic DNA regions identical to those of ICMP3153, the inoculant strain used at the site (J. T. Sullivan, H. N. Patrick, W. L. Lowther, D. B. Scott, and C. W. Ronson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:8985-8989, 1995). In this study, we characterized seven nonsymbiotic rhizobial isolates from the rhizosphere of L. corniculatus. These included two from plants at the field site sampled by Sullivan et al. and five from plants at a new field plot adjacent to that site. The isolates did not nodulate Lotus species or hybridize to symbiotic gene probes but did hybridize to genomic DNA probes from Rhizobium loti. Their genetic relationships with symbiotic isolates obtained from the same sites, with inoculant strain ICMP3153, and with R. loti NZP2213T were determined by three methods. Genetic distance estimates based on genomic DNA-DNA hybridization and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis were correlated but were not consistently reflected by 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence divergence. The nonsymbiotic isolates represented four genomic species that were related to R. loti; the diverse symbiotic isolates from the site belonged to one of these species. The inoculant strain ICMP3153 belonged to a fifth genomic species that was more closely related to Rhizobium huakuii. These results support the proposal that nonsymbiotic rhizobia persist in soils in the absence of legumes and acquire symbiotic genes from inoculant strains upon introduction of host legumes.

  8. Four unnamed species of nonsymbiotic rhizobia isolated from the rhizosphere of Lotus corniculatus.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, J T; Eardly, B D; van Berkum, P; Ronson, C W

    1996-01-01

    Previously, we found that genetically diverse rhizobia nodulating Lotus corniculatus at a field site devoid of naturalized rhizobia had symbiotic DNA regions identical to those of ICMP3153, the inoculant strain used at the site (J. T. Sullivan, H. N. Patrick, W. L. Lowther, D. B. Scott, and C. W. Ronson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:8985-8989, 1995). In this study, we characterized seven nonsymbiotic rhizobial isolates from the rhizosphere of L. corniculatus. These included two from plants at the field site sampled by Sullivan et al. and five from plants at a new field plot adjacent to that site. The isolates did not nodulate Lotus species or hybridize to symbiotic gene probes but did hybridize to genomic DNA probes from Rhizobium loti. Their genetic relationships with symbiotic isolates obtained from the same sites, with inoculant strain ICMP3153, and with R. loti NZP2213T were determined by three methods. Genetic distance estimates based on genomic DNA-DNA hybridization and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis were correlated but were not consistently reflected by 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence divergence. The nonsymbiotic isolates represented four genomic species that were related to R. loti; the diverse symbiotic isolates from the site belonged to one of these species. The inoculant strain ICMP3153 belonged to a fifth genomic species that was more closely related to Rhizobium huakuii. These results support the proposal that nonsymbiotic rhizobia persist in soils in the absence of legumes and acquire symbiotic genes from inoculant strains upon introduction of host legumes. PMID:8702274

  9. Genetic diversity of root nodule bacteria nodulating Lotus corniculatus and Anthyllis vulneraria in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Huss-Danell, Kerstin

    2011-06-01

    Very little is known about the genetic diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia nodulating Lotus species in northern temperate regions. We have therefore studied the genetic diversity among a total of 61 root nodule bacteria isolated from Lotus corniculatus and Anthyllis vulneraria from different geographic sites and habitats in Sweden by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the internal transcribed spacer between their 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA (IGS) region. A high diversity consisting of 26 IGS types from 54 L. corniculatus isolates and five IGS types from seven A. vulneraria isolates was found. The 16S rRNA sequences and phylogeny of representatives of the different IGS types showed four interesting exceptions from the majority of the isolates belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium: Two isolates were both found to be closely related to Rhodococcus spp., and two other isolates showed close relationship with Geobacillus spp. and Paenibacillus spp., respectively. The nodA sequences and phylogeny showed that all the isolates, including those not belonging to the traditional rhizobia genera, harbored nodA sequences which were typical of Mesorhizobium loti. Generally, the 16S rRNA and nodA phylogenetic trees were not congruent in that isolates with similar 16S rRNA sequences were associated with isolates harboring different nodA sequences. All the isolates were confirmed to nodulate L. corniculatus in an inoculation test. This is the first report of members of these non-rhizobia genera being able to nodulate legumes, and we suggest that they may have acquired their nodulating properties through lateral gene transfer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) floats for surveillance of Ochlerotatus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jamesina J; Crans, Wayne J

    2003-12-01

    Blocks of expanded polystyrene (EPS) were placed in a variety of habitats to investigate their potential as an egg-collection device for container-dwelling Aedes and Ochlerotatus species. Eggs from Ochlerotatus japonicus, Oc. triseriatus, Oc. hendersoni, and Aedes albopictus were collected with EPS floats. The float provides an inexpensive, low-maintenance alternative to the Centers for Disease Control ovitrap for sampling container-dwelling mosquito species that are important vectors of disease. Eggs collected on the floats have many potential applications, including use in routine population surveillance; detection of Oc. japonicus, Ae. albopictus, and other container-dwelling species in new areas; species distribution studies; natural transovarial transmission studies; ovipositional studies; collection of local field populations for insecticide resistance assays; assessment of adulticiding efficacy; and establishment of new laboratory colonies.

  11. Petasites japonicus Stimulates the Proliferation of Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Hee; Lee, Dong Gu; Kim, Bang-Jin; Kim, Ki-Jung; Kim, Byung-Gak; Oh, Myeong-Geun; Han, Chan Kyu; Lee, Sanghyun; Ryu, Buom-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Oriental natural plants have been used as medical herbs for the treatment of various diseases for over 2,000 years. In this study, we evaluated the effect of several natural plants on the preservation of male fertility by assessing the ability of plant extracts to stimulate spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) proliferation by using a serum-free culture method. In vitro assays showed that Petasites japonicus extracts, especially the butanol fraction, have a significant effect on germ cells proliferation including SSCs. The activity of SSCs cultured in the presence of the Petasites japonicus butanol fraction was confirmed by normal colony formation and spermatogenesis following germ cell transplantation of the treated SSCs. Our findings could lead to the discovery of novel factors that activate SSCs and could be useful for the development of technologies for the prevention of male infertility. PMID:26207817

  12. Postembryonic development of the bone-eating worm Osedax japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Norio; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Yusa, Yoichi; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro

    2013-03-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax exclusively inhabit sunken vertebrate bones on the seafloor. The unique lifestyle and morphology of Osedax spp. have received much scientific attention, but the whole process of their development has not been observed. We herein report the postembryonic development and settlement of Osedax japonicus Fujikura et al. (Zool Sci 23:733-740, 2006). Fertilised eggs were spawned into the mucus of a female, and the larvae swam out from the mucus at the trochophore stage. Larvae survived for 10 days under laboratory conditions. The larvae settled on bones, elongated their bodies and crawled around on the bones. Then they secreted mucus to create a tube and the palps started to develop. The palps of O. japonicus arose from the prostomium, whereas the anterior appendages of other siboglinids arose from the peristomium. The recruitment of dwarf males was induced by rearing larvae with adult females. Females started to spawn eggs 6 weeks after settlement.

  13. Phyllosticta ophiopogonis sp. nov. from Ophiopogon japonicus (Liliaceae).

    PubMed

    Wikee, S; Wulandari, N F; McKenzie, E H C; Hyde, K D

    2012-01-01

    A leaf spotting disease of an ornamental variety of Ophiopogon japonicus was discovered at several locations in northern Thailand. In all cases a species of Phyllosticta was associated with the lesions. Phyllosticta ophiopogonis sp. nov. is distinguished from Phyllosticta species from Liliaceae in conidia size, mucilaginous sheath and appendage thus the species is introduced as new in this paper. The new species which causes unsightly lesions on this ornamental plant is described, illustrated and compared with other similar Phyllosticta species.

  14. Phyllosticta ophiopogonis sp. nov. from Ophiopogon japonicus (Liliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wikee, S.; Wulandari, N.F.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Hyde, K.D.

    2011-01-01

    A leaf spotting disease of an ornamental variety of Ophiopogon japonicus was discovered at several locations in northern Thailand. In all cases a species of Phyllosticta was associated with the lesions. Phyllosticta ophiopogonis sp. nov. is distinguished from Phyllosticta species from Liliaceae in conidia size, mucilaginous sheath and appendage thus the species is introduced as new in this paper. The new species which causes unsightly lesions on this ornamental plant is described, illustrated and compared with other similar Phyllosticta species. PMID:23961156

  15. LOTUS overexpression accelerates neuronal plasticity after focal brain ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Takase, Hajime; Kurihara, Yuji; Yokoyama, Taka-Akira; Kawahara, Nobutaka; Takei, Kohtaro

    2017-01-01

    Nogo receptor-1 (NgR1) and its ligands inhibit neuronal plasticity and limit functional recovery after brain damage such as ischemic stroke. We have previously shown that lateral olfactory tract usher substance (LOTUS) antagonizes NgR1-mediated signaling. Here, we investigated whether LOTUS enhances neuronal plasticity and functional recovery after brain focal ischemia in adult mice. Focal ischemic infarcts were induced in wild-type and LOTUS-overexpressing transgenic mice via middle cerebral artery occlusion. Endogenous LOTUS expression was increased in brain and cervical spinal cord of the contralateral side of ischemia in the chronic phase after brain ischemia. LOTUS overexpression accelerated midline-crossing axonal sprouting from the contralateral side to the ipsilateral side of ischemia in the medullar reticular formation and gray matter of denervated cervical spinal cord. Importantly, LOTUS overexpression improved neurological score highly correlated with laterality ratio of corticoreticular fibers of the medulla oblongata, indicating that LOTUS overexpression may overcome the inhibitory environment induced by NgR1 signaling for damaged motor pathway reconstruction after ischemic stroke. Thus, our data suggest that LOTUS overexpression accelerates neuronal plasticity in the brainstem and cervical spinal cord after stroke and LOTUS administration is useful for future therapeutic strategies.

  16. Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating and Molecular Adsorber Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Connor, Kenneth M.; Abraham, Nithin S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed two unique coating formulations that will keep surfaces clean and sanitary and contain contaminants.The Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating, modeled after the self-cleaning, water-repellant lotus leaf, disallows buildup of dust, dirt, water, and more on surfaces. This coating, has been successfully tested on painted, aluminum, glass, silica, and some composite surfaces, could aid in keeping medical assets clean.The Molecular Adsorber Coating is a zeolite-based, sprayable molecular adsorber coating, designed to prevent outgassing in materials in vacuums. The coating works well to adsorb volatiles and contaminates in manufacturing and processing, such as in pharmaceutical production. The addition of a biocide would also aid in controlling bacteria levels.

  17. Superhydrophobic surfaces: From the lotus leaf to the submarine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaha, Mohamed A.; Tafreshi, Hooman Vahedi; Gad-el-Hak, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    In this review we discuss the current state of the art in evaluating the fabrication and performance of biomimetic superhydrophobic materials and their applications in engineering sciences. Superhydrophobicity, often referred to as the lotus effect, could be utilized to design surfaces with minimal skin-friction drag for applications such as self-cleaning and energy conservation. We start by discussing the concept of the lotus effect and continue to present a review of the recent advances in manufacturing superhydrophobic surfaces with ordered and disordered microstructures. We then present a discussion on the resistance of the air-water interface to elevated pressures—the phenomenon that enables a water strider to walk on water. We conclude the article by presenting a brief overview of the latest advancements in studying the longevity of submerged superhydrophobic surfaces for underwater applications.

  18. Lupine leghemoglobin I: expression in transgenic Lotus and tobacco tissues.

    PubMed

    Strózycki, P M; Karłowski, W M; Dessaux, Y; Petit, A; Legocki, A B

    2000-03-01

    The proximal parts of the promoters of the genes for symbiotic-type hemoglobins are generally conserved, but the promoter of the lbI gene of lupine (LulbI) shows some unusual structural features. It lacks typical organ-specific elements characteristic of all the leghemoglobin gene promoters described thus far. We have analysed its functional activity in transgenic Lotus corniculatus. A fusion construct between the lbI promoter and the GUS reporter gene was expressed mainly in the central zone of the root nodule, but the product was also detected in the non-nodule root zone and in roots in tissue culture. In roots of transgenic tobacco, the activity of the promoter was only 24% lower than in Lotus nodules. LulbI promoter activity was also detected in tobacco leaves. Lupine hemoglobin I has a higher sequence identity to symbiotic-type hemoglobins and thus it groups within the "Class II" hemoglobins.

  19. Phytochemical profile and antimicrobial properties of Lotus spp. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Girardi, Felipe A; Tonial, Fabiana; Chini, Silvia O; Sobottka, Andréa M; Scheffer-Basso, Simone M; Bertol, Charise D

    2014-09-01

    The phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of cultivar (cv.) extracts of Lotus uliginosus (cvs. Trojan and Serrano), L. tenuis (cv. Larrañaga) and L. corniculatus (cv. São Gabriel) were investigated. The phytochemical analysis revealed tannins, coumarins and flavonoids in all extracts, with variations among cultivars, showing genotypic variability. By High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method, the cvs. Larrañaga and São Gabriel showed the highest percentage of catechin and epicatechin, respectively, and presented rutin, which was not detected in the other ones. These genotypes showed antifungal activity but not antibacterial one. The cv. Larrañaga inhibited the mycelia growth of Alternaria sp. and Fusarium graminearum while the cv. São Gabriel was active only against Alternaria sp. The cultivars showed the greatest amounts of secondary metabolites and demonstrated significant activity against filamentous fungi. The results provide a direction for further research about pharmacological use of Lotus spp.

  20. Preparation, physicochemical characterization and application of acetylated lotus rhizome starches.

    PubMed

    Sun, Suling; Zhang, Ganwei; Ma, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Acetylated lotus rhizome starches were prepared, physicochemically characterized and used as food additives in puddings. The percentage content of the acetyl groups and degree of substitution increased linearly with the amount of acetic anhydride used. The introduction of acetyl groups was confirmed via Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The values of the pasting parameters were lower for acetylated starch than for native starch. Acetylation was found to increase the light transmittance (%), the freeze-thaw stability, the swelling power and the solubility of the starch. Sensorial scores for puddings prepared using native and acetylated lotus rhizome starches as food additives indicated that puddings produced from the modified starches with superior properties over those prepared from native starch. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Severe isolated sciatic neuropathy due to a modified lotus position

    PubMed Central

    Bosma, Jacob Wycher; Wijntjes, Juerd; Hilgevoord, Ton Antonius; Veenstra, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A 51-year-old man presented to our hospital with progressive pain and weakness in his right leg. Neurological examination revealed atrophy of all muscles of the right leg, unilateral foot drop and paralysis of the anterior tibial and gastrocnemicus muscles. Electromyography confirmed a severe isolated sciatic neuropathy in the thigh. For unclear reasons, our patient habitually used to sit in a modified lotus position. We concluded that this position, in literature known as “lotus neuropathy” had resulted in the sciatic neuropathy. After more than a year our patient was referred again to our outpatient clinic. At that time there was only minimal improvement, now with an achilles tendon contracture and pes equinus due to immobility. PMID:24579070

  2. Evaluation of body weight of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    A postichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) is an ecological and economic species in East Asia. Conventional biometric monitoring method includes diving for samples and weighing above water, with highly variable in weight measurement due to variation in the quantity of water in the respiratory tree and intestinal content of this species. Recently, video survey method has been applied widely in biometric detection on underwater benthos. However, because of the high flexibility of A. japonicus body, video survey method of monitoring is less used in sea cucumber. In this study, we designed a model to evaluate the wet weight of A. japonicus, using machine vision technology combined with a support vector machine (SVM) that can be used in field surveys on the A. japonicus population. Continuous dorsal images of free-moving A. japonicus individuals in seawater were captured, which also allows for the development of images of the core body edge as well as thorn segmentation. Parameters that include body length, body breadth, perimeter and area, were extracted from the core body edge images and used in SVM regression, to predict the weight of A. japonicus and for comparison with a power model. Results indicate that the use of SVM for predicting the weight of 33 A. japonicus individuals is accurate ( R 2=0.99) and compatible with the power model ( R 2 =0.96). The image-based analysis and size-weight regression models in this study may be useful in body weight evaluation of A. japonicus in lab and field study.

  3. Seasonal parasitism and host specificity of Trissolcus japonicus in northern China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian egg parasitoid Trissolcus japonicus is considered the most promising species for classical biological control of Halyomorpha halys. We investigated the fundamental and ecological host range of T. japonicus in northern China to define its host specificity, and we determined that T. japonicu...

  4. Area Equivalent Method on LOTUS 1-2-3TM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    727200 23 KTETP 56 727100 24 DCH6 57 727D15 25 4EP so 72709 26 T&P 59 72707 27 CONTEP 60 727015 26 CONSEP 61 727D17 29 KD135 62 A300 30 C10 63 767 31 F4...LOTUS 1-2-3 4-5 Instruction Comment STEP 7. Wait for the cursor to appear [FG] invokes the GOTO command in coordinate H15 . If you are and H5 indicates

  5. A rare cause of gastrointestinal phytobezoars: diospyros lotus.

    PubMed

    Ertuğrul, Gökhan; Coşkun, Murat; Sevinç, Mahsuni; Yelimlieş, Behzat; Ertuğrul, Fisun; Toydemir, Toygar

    2012-06-21

    Diospyros Lotus ("Wild Date Palm of Trabzon or Persimmon"), which has been proven to cause phytobezoars, is a widely consumed fruit in the Black Sea and Northeast Anatolia regions of Turkey. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Diospyros Lotus together with other predisposing factors, on the development of gastrointestinal phytobezoars and to discuss the treatment results in comparison to the literature. The records of 13 patients, who had been admitted to the General Surgery Clinic of Düzce Atatürk State Hospital between August 2008 and August 2011, were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic characteristics, predisposing factors, clinical and radiological findings, diagnostic and therapeutic methods, and the outcomes of the patients were recorded from the patient files. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient for publication of this research article and accompanying images. All the patients had a history of consuming Diospyros Lotus. Of the patients, 30,7% had a history of previous gastric surgery, 30,7% had diabetes mellitus and 23% had dental implants. None of the patients had hypothyroidism, which is another predisposing factor for phytobezoars.The phytobezoars were located in the stomach alone in 23% of the patients, whereas 15,3% was detected in the jejunum and stomach, 15,3% was detected in the jejunum alone, and 46,1% was detected in the ileum alone. All patients were treated with surgery, and there were no deaths. Gastric phytobezoars are rare. Preventive measures have particular importance in the management of this condition, which is difficult to treat. For this purpose, excessive consumption of herbal nutrients containing a high amount of indigestible fibers such as Diospyros Lotus should be avoided in patients with a history of gastrointestinal surgery or poor oral and dental health.

  6. A rare cause of gastrointestinal phytobezoars: diospyros lotus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim Diospyros Lotus (“Wild Date Palm of Trabzon or Persimmon”), which has been proven to cause phytobezoars, is a widely consumed fruit in the Black Sea and Northeast Anatolia regions of Turkey. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Diospyros Lotus together with other predisposing factors, on the development of gastrointestinal phytobezoars and to discuss the treatment results in comparison to the literature. Material and method The records of 13 patients, who had been admitted to the General Surgery Clinic of Düzce Atatürk State Hospital between August 2008 and August 2011, were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic characteristics, predisposing factors, clinical and radiological findings, diagnostic and therapeutic methods, and the outcomes of the patients were recorded from the patient files. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient for publication of this research article and accompanying images. Results All the patients had a history of consuming Diospyros Lotus. Of the patients, 30,7% had a history of previous gastric surgery, 30,7% had diabetes mellitus and 23% had dental implants. None of the patients had hypothyroidism, which is another predisposing factor for phytobezoars. The phytobezoars were located in the stomach alone in 23% of the patients, whereas 15,3% was detected in the jejunum and stomach, 15,3% was detected in the jejunum alone, and 46,1% was detected in the ileum alone. All patients were treated with surgery, and there were no deaths. Conclusion Gastric phytobezoars are rare. Preventive measures have particular importance in the management of this condition, which is difficult to treat. For this purpose, excessive consumption of herbal nutrients containing a high amount of indigestible fibers such as Diospyros Lotus should be avoided in patients with a history of gastrointestinal surgery or poor oral and dental health. PMID:22721161

  7. Chemical changes associated with lotus and water lily natto production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari, S. D.; Fatimah, N.; Nopianti, R.

    2017-04-01

    Natto is a traditional Japanese food made by fermenting whole soybean seeds with pure culture of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto. The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) and water lily (Nymphaea stellata) seeds as the raw materials for natto production. Chemical (proximate, amino acids and minerals) changes were observed on raw, steamed and fermented seeds. Proximate compositions of all samples were calculated in both wet basis and dry basis. In wet basis calculation, steaming and fermentation tended to lower the carbohydrates, ashes, fats and protein content which were attributed to the increase of moisture. The total amino acid, iron and magnesium contents of raw lotus seeds were 24.29%, 5.08 mg 100g-1 and 174.23 mg 100g-1 dry matter, respectively. After a 24h-fermentation at 40°C, the total amino acids decreased while iron and magnesium contents increased significantly reaching, in respective order, 9.9 mg 100g-1 and 411.36 mg 100g-1 dry matter. Changes in chemical composition after fermentation were more pronounced in lotus seeds than water lily seeds indicating that their nutrient composition were more suitable to support Bacillus subtilis growth.

  8. Status of Aedes japonicus in the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District, Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kirk A; Brogren, Sandra J; Crane, Diann M; Lamere, Carey A

    2010-09-01

    ABSTRACT. The Asian exotic mosquito Aedes japonicus was 1st collected in Minnesota in 2007 and was well established in parts of the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District (MMCD) by 2008. Surveillance strategies were devised for 2009 to track the expansion of its range through MMCD and to direct control efforts. Sampling of larvae from container and tire habitats was the primary method used to document Ae. japonicus presence, but larvae were found in other habitats as well. Adult Ae. japonicus were collected by vacuum aspirator, gravid trap, and New Jersey trap but not by CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap. Aedes japonicus were collected from each of the 7 counties surveyed; in 5 of the counties for the 1st time in 2009. Preliminary findings suggest that a control strategy involving intensive source reduction can reduce Ae. japonicus populations.

  9. Genome sequence of the Lotus corniculatus microsymbiont Mesorhizobium loti strain R88B.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Wayne; Sullivan, John; Ronson, Clive; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Davenport, Karen; Goodwin, Lynne; Chain, Patrick; Woyke, Tanja; Lobos, Elizabeth; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Mesorhizobium loti strain R88B was isolated in 1993 in the Rocklands range in Otago, New Zealand from a Lotus corniculatus root nodule. R88B is an aerobic, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod. This report reveals the genome of M. loti strain R88B contains a single scaffold of size 7,195,110 bp which encodes 6,950 protein-coding genes and 66 RNA-only encoding genes. This genome does not harbor any plasmids but contains the integrative and conjugative element ICEMlSym(R7A), also known as the R7A symbiosis island, acquired by horizontal gene transfer in the field environment from M. loti strain R7A. It also contains a mobilizable genetic element ICEMladh(R88B), that encodes a likely adhesin gene which has integrated downstream of ICEMlSym(R7A), and three acquired loci that together allow the utilization of the siderophore ferrichrome. This rhizobial genome is one of 100 sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  10. Genome sequence of the Lotus corniculatus microsymbiont Mesorhizobium loti strain R88B

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mesorhizobium loti strain R88B was isolated in 1993 in the Rocklands range in Otago, New Zealand from a Lotus corniculatus root nodule. R88B is an aerobic, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod. This report reveals the genome of M. loti strain R88B contains a single scaffold of size 7,195,110 bp which encodes 6,950 protein-coding genes and 66 RNA-only encoding genes. This genome does not harbor any plasmids but contains the integrative and conjugative element ICEMlSymR7A, also known as the R7A symbiosis island, acquired by horizontal gene transfer in the field environment from M. loti strain R7A. It also contains a mobilizable genetic element ICEMladhR88B, that encodes a likely adhesin gene which has integrated downstream of ICEMlSymR7A, and three acquired loci that together allow the utilization of the siderophore ferrichrome. This rhizobial genome is one of 100 sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25780496

  11. Aedes japonicus japonicus and associated woodland species attracted to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light traps baited with carbon dioxide and the Traptech mosquito lure.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John F; McKnight, Susan; Ferrandino, Francis J

    2012-09-01

    Twelve reported mosquito attractants, alone or in combination, and 3 different types of traps were evaluated under field conditions for their attractiveness to host-seeking and oviposition-seeking female Aedes japonicus japonicus and associated woodland species in Windsor, CT, in 2010 and 2011. This study highlights the effectiveness of combining CO2 with the TrapTech Mosquito Lure in a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) miniature light trap for collection of Ae. j. japonicus and associated woodland mammalian-feeding mosquitoes. The TrapTech Mosquito Lure is a proprietary blend of Bedoukian Research, Inc. It contained 250 mg of R-1-octen-3-ol and 1900 mg of ammonium bicarbonate, which were slowly released from a plastic disperser. On average, 567 Ae. j. japonicus individuals were collected per trap per night in the CDC miniature light traps baited with CO2 plus TrapTech Mosquito Lure. The numbers collected in this trap were 28 times and 100 times greater than the numbers of Ae. j. japonicus collected in the CDC miniature light trap baited only with CO2 and the gravid trap baited with hay infusion, 2 commonly used traps to assess abundance of Ae. j. japonicus. The average catches of other mammalian-biting species, Ae. cinereus, Ae. triseriatus, Ae. trivittatus, Ae. vexans, Anopheles punctipennis, An. quadrimaculatus, Coquillettidia perturbans, and Culex salinarius, were all significantly greater in the CDC miniature light trap baited with CO2 plus TrapTech Mosquito Lure than in traps with CO2 alone, but their average numbers were not as large as were those of Ae. j. japonicus. These data demonstrate that the TrapTech Mosquito Lure used in combination with CO2 in a CDC miniature light trap has potential to be a versatile and simple surveillance method for Ae. j. japonicus and other species.

  12. Identification of Lotus rhizobia by direct DNA hybridization of crushed root nodules

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.E.; Bjourson, A.J.; Thompson, J.K.

    1987-07-01

    Hybridization of crushed Lotus pedunculatus root nodules with /sup 32/P-labeled total genomic DNA probes was used to identify Rhizobium loti and Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lotus rhizobia). Probes always hybridized with homologous target DNA and frequency with DNAs of other strains from the same genus. Intergeneric hybridization did not occur. Results were comparable to those from colony hybridization.

  13. Utah lotus: North American legume for rangeland revegetation in southern Great Basin and Colorado Plateau

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Utah lotus (Lotus utahensis Ottley) is a North American leguminous forb that may hold promise for rangeland revegetation in the western USA for diversifying planting mixtures, attracting pollinators, providing high quality forage, and expanding habitats for insects needed by sage grouse chicks. We ...

  14. Existence and role of large micropillars on the leaf surfaces of The President lotus.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Mingming; Wilhelm, Anderson; Luo, Cheng

    2013-06-25

    It is reported that a lotus surface has hybrid micro/nanostructures (i.e., small micropillars are covered with nanopillars), which make a water drop easily roll off from the lotus surface. However, we have recently found that, in addition to nanopillars and small micropillars, there also exist sparsely distributed large micropillars on the leaf surface of The President lotus. Accordingly, in this work, we examined the effects of these large micropillars on the wetting properties of The President through four types of wetting experiments: pressing tests, measurement of tilt and contact angles, condensation, and evaporation. For the purpose of comparison, we also did the same experiments on the leaf surfaces of another two lotuses, Carolina Queen and Chawan Basu, which only have hybrid micro/nanostructures. The President, Carolina Queen, and Chawan Basu are three different lotus varieties.

  15. LOTUS-DB: an integrative and interactive database for Nelumbo nucifera study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun; Deng, Jiao; Damaris, Rebecca Njeri; Yang, Mei; Xu, Liming; Yang, Pingfang

    2015-01-01

    Besides its important significance in plant taxonomy and phylogeny, sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) might also hold the key to the secrets of aging, which attracts crescent attentions from researchers all over the world. The genetic or molecular studies on this species depend on its genome information. In 2013, two publications reported the sequencing of its full genome, based on which we constructed a database named as LOTUS-DB. It will provide comprehensive information on the annotation, gene function and expression for the sacred lotus. The information will facilitate users to efficiently query and browse genes, graphically visualize genome and download a variety of complex data information on genome DNA, coding sequence (CDS), transcripts or peptide sequences, promoters and markers. It will accelerate researches on gene cloning, functional identification of sacred lotus, and hence promote the studies on this species and plant genomics as well. Database URL: http://lotus-db.wbgcas.cn. PMID:25819075

  16. [Principal component analysis and cluster analysis of inorganic elements in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Fang; Xue, Chang-Hu; Wang, Yu-Ming; Li, Zhao-Jie; Xue, Yong; Xu, Jie

    2011-11-01

    The present study is to investigate the feasibility of multi-elements analysis in determination of the geographical origin of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, and to make choice of the effective tracers in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus geographical origin assessment. The content of the elements such as Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Hg and Pb in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples from seven places of geographical origin were determined by means of ICP-MS. The results were used for the development of elements database. Cluster analysis(CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to differentiate the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus geographical origin. Three principal components which accounted for over 89% of the total variance were extracted from the standardized data. The results of Q-type cluster analysis showed that the 26 samples could be clustered reasonably into five groups, the classification results were significantly associated with the marine distribution of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples. The CA and PCA were the effective methods for elements analysis of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples. The content of the mineral elements in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples was good chemical descriptors for differentiating their geographical origins.

  17. Steroidal saponins from the tuber of Ophiopogon japonicus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Kang, Li-Ping; Yu, He-Shui; Liu, Yi-Xun; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Zhang, Jie; Zou, Peng; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2012-10-01

    Eight novel steroidal saponins, ophiopogonins H-O (1-8), along with seven known steroidal saponins (9-15) were isolated from the tubers of Ophiopogon japonicus. The structures of these new compounds were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis, including extensive 1D and 2D NMR data, and the analysis of hydrolytic reaction products. For the first time, rare furostanol saponins with disaccharide moiety linked at position C-26 of the aglycone were reported to be isolated from a natural source. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Parental Effect of Long Acclimatization on Thermal Tolerance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Lin; Yu, Shan-Shan; Dong, Yun-Wei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the thermal resistance of marine invertebrates to elevated temperatures under scenarios of future climate change, it is crucial to understand parental effect of long acclimatization on thermal tolerance of offspring. To test whether there is parental effect of long acclimatization, adult sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus) from the same broodstock were transplanted southward and acclimatized at high temperature in field mesocosms. Four groups of juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced different durations of high temperature acclimatization were established. Upper thermal limits, oxygen consumption and levels of heat shock protein mRNA of juveniles was determined to compare thermal tolerance of individuals from different groups. Juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced high temperature could acquire high thermal resistance. With the increase of parental exposure duration to high temperature, offspring became less sensitive to high temperature, as indicated by higher upper thermal limits (LT50), less seasonal variations of oxygen consumption, and stable oxygen consumption rates between chronic and acute thermal stress. The relatively high levels of constitutive expression of heat-shock proteins should contribute to the high thermal tolerance. Together, these results indicated that the existence of a parental effect of long acclimatization would increase thermal tolerance of juveniles and change the thermal sensitivity of sea cucumber to future climate change.

  19. Parental Effect of Long Acclimatization on Thermal Tolerance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yun-wei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the thermal resistance of marine invertebrates to elevated temperatures under scenarios of future climate change, it is crucial to understand parental effect of long acclimatization on thermal tolerance of offspring. To test whether there is parental effect of long acclimatization, adult sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus) from the same broodstock were transplanted southward and acclimatized at high temperature in field mesocosms. Four groups of juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced different durations of high temperature acclimatization were established. Upper thermal limits, oxygen consumption and levels of heat shock protein mRNA of juveniles was determined to compare thermal tolerance of individuals from different groups. Juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced high temperature could acquire high thermal resistance. With the increase of parental exposure duration to high temperature, offspring became less sensitive to high temperature, as indicated by higher upper thermal limits (LT50), less seasonal variations of oxygen consumption, and stable oxygen consumption rates between chronic and acute thermal stress. The relatively high levels of constitutive expression of heat-shock proteins should contribute to the high thermal tolerance. Together, these results indicated that the existence of a parental effect of long acclimatization would increase thermal tolerance of juveniles and change the thermal sensitivity of sea cucumber to future climate change. PMID:26580550

  20. Out of the bush: the Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera, Culicidae) becomes invasive

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Asian bush or rock pool mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus is one of the most expansive culicid species of the world. Being native to East Asia, this species was detected out of its original distribution range for the first time in the early 1990s in New Zealand where it could not establish, though. In 1998, established populations were reported from the eastern US, most likely as a result of introductions several years earlier. After a massive spread the mosquito is now widely distributed in eastern North America including Canada and two US states on the western coast. In the year 2000, it was demonstrated for the first time in Europe, continental France, but could be eliminated. A population that had appeared in Belgium in 2002 was not controlled until 2012 as it did not propagate. In 2008, immature developmental stages were discovered in a large area in northern Switzerland and bordering parts of Germany. Subsequent studies in Germany showed a wide distribution and several populations of the mosquito in various federal states. Also in 2011, the species was found in southeastern Austria (Styria) and neighbouring Slovenia. In 2013, a population was detected in the Central Netherlands, specimens were collected in southern Alsace, France, and the complete northeastern part of Slovenia was found colonized, with specimens also present across borders in adjacent Croatia. Apparently, at the end of 2013 a total of six populations occurred in Europe although it is not clear whether all of them are completely isolated. Similarly, it is not known whether these populations go back to the same number of introductions. While entry ports and long-distance continental migration routes are also obscure, it is likely that the international used tyre trade is the most important mode of intercontinental transportation of the mosquito. Aedes j. japonicus does not only display an aggressive biting behaviour but is suspected to be a vector of various disease agents and to displace

  1. Out of the bush: the Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera, Culicidae) becomes invasive.

    PubMed

    Kampen, Helge; Werner, Doreen

    2014-02-04

    The Asian bush or rock pool mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus is one of the most expansive culicid species of the world. Being native to East Asia, this species was detected out of its original distribution range for the first time in the early 1990s in New Zealand where it could not establish, though. In 1998, established populations were reported from the eastern US, most likely as a result of introductions several years earlier. After a massive spread the mosquito is now widely distributed in eastern North America including Canada and two US states on the western coast. In the year 2000, it was demonstrated for the first time in Europe, continental France, but could be eliminated. A population that had appeared in Belgium in 2002 was not controlled until 2012 as it did not propagate. In 2008, immature developmental stages were discovered in a large area in northern Switzerland and bordering parts of Germany. Subsequent studies in Germany showed a wide distribution and several populations of the mosquito in various federal states. Also in 2011, the species was found in southeastern Austria (Styria) and neighbouring Slovenia. In 2013, a population was detected in the Central Netherlands, specimens were collected in southern Alsace, France, and the complete northeastern part of Slovenia was found colonized, with specimens also present across borders in adjacent Croatia. Apparently, at the end of 2013 a total of six populations occurred in Europe although it is not clear whether all of them are completely isolated. Similarly, it is not known whether these populations go back to the same number of introductions. While entry ports and long-distance continental migration routes are also obscure, it is likely that the international used tyre trade is the most important mode of intercontinental transportation of the mosquito. Aedes j. japonicus does not only display an aggressive biting behaviour but is suspected to be a vector of various disease agents and to displace

  2. [Study on Quality Standard for Panax japonicus Rhizome].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ju-yan; Zou, Kun; Chen, Qiang; Yuan, Ding; Wang, Jun-zhi; Liu, Zhao-xia

    2014-12-01

    To establish a quality standard for Panax japonicus rhizome. Ginsenoside Ro and Chikusetsusaponin IVa were used as reference substances in the TLC identification and HPLC method. Additionally, acid insoluble ash and moisture were determined according to the procedures recorded in the Appendix of Chinese Pharmacopeia (2010 edition). The TLC identification with GF, showed a good resolution with clear spots and its optimum developer was the underlayer of chloroform-methanol-formic acid-water = 4.5:1.5: 0.1:0.3. The content of Ginsenoside Ro and Chikusetsusaponin N a were determined by HPLC. The mixture of acetonitrile and water (0.15% phosphate) with gradient elution as the mobile phase was used at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, the detection wavelength at 203 nm and the column temperature at 40 °C. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 31.25-2,000 g/mL for Ginsenoside Ro and Chikusetsusaponin IVa (r = 0.9999, respectively). The average recovery was 101.19% and 102.50%, and RSD was 1.59% and 1.80% respectively. The content of Ginsenoside Ro and Chikusetsusaponin IVa was no less than 1.5% respectively. An average content of moisture was 7.36% and acid insoluble ash was 0.84%. These methods are producible, sensitive and simple, which can be used to control the quality of Panax japonicus rhizome.

  3. Feeding behavior and digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiamin; Zhang, Libin; Pan, Yang; Lin, Chenggang; Wang, Fang; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-02-01

    The feeding behavior and digestive physiology of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are not well understood. A better understanding may provide useful information for the development of the aquaculture of this species. In this article the tentacle locomotion, feeding rhythms, ingestion rate (IR), feces production rate (FPR) and digestive enzyme activities were studied in three size groups (small, medium and large) of sea cucumber under a 12h light/12h dark cycle. Frame-by-frame video analysis revealed that all size groups had similar feeding strategies using a grasping motion to pick up sediment particles. The tentacle insertion rates of the large size group were significantly faster than those of the small and medium-sized groups (P<0.05). Feeding activities investigated by charge coupled device cameras with infrared systems indicated that all size groups of sea cucumber were nocturnal and their feeding peaks occurred at 02:00-04:00. The medium and large-sized groups also had a second feeding peak during the day. Both IR and FPR in all groups were significantly higher at night than those during the daytime (P<0.05). Additionally, the peak activities of digestive enzymes were 2-4h earlier than the peak of feeding. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the light/dark cycle was a powerful environment factor that influenced biological rhythms of A. japonicus, which had the ability to optimize the digestive processes for a forthcoming ingestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical communication during mating of the harpacticoid Tigriopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, L. S.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of contact and diffusible pheromones in the reproductive biology of the harpacticoid Tigriopus japonicus was studied. When given a choice, males preferred developmentally advanced conspecific female partners over less mature or congeneric females. Males judged female attractiveness on a relative scale, based on the locally available females. The attractiveness of a female copepodid was reduced with non-fatal proteolytic treatment, but only if normal females were also present. To sample the available females, males repeatedly grabbed the caudal rami and terminal urosome segment of potential partners before committing themselves to guarding one female. Males occasionally dropped their copepodid partners. Releases increased in frequency in water conditioned from virgin adult females and adult males, decreased in mated-female conditioned water and were unaffected by copepodids or their treated water. The waning attractiveness of a recently mated female was tracked over 16 h. Relationships between Tigriopus japonicus adults appeared to involve both contact and diffusible pheromones. No evidence of a diffusible copepodid pheromone was uncovered.

  5. Rapid identification of ophiopogonins and ophiopogonones in Ophiopogon japonicus extract with a practical technique of mass defect filtering based on high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tong; Liang, Yan; Hao, Haiping; A, Jiye; Xie, Lin; Gong, Ping; Dai, Chen; Liu, Linsheng; Kang, An; Zheng, Xiao; Wang, Guangji

    2012-03-02

    This study was to develop and evaluate a practical approach of mass defect filtering (MDF), a post-acquisition data processing technique, for the rapid classification of complicated peaks into well-known chemical families based on the exact mass acquired by high resolution mass spectrometry. The full-scan LC-MS/MS data of the Ophiopogon japonicus extract was acquired using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid quadrupole-time of flight (LCMS-Q-TOF) system which features high resolution, mass accuracy, and sensitivity. To remove the interferences of the complex matrix, MDF approach was developed and employed to rapidly pick out the peaks of ophiopogonins and ophiopogonones from full-scan mass chromatograms. The accuracy of MDF was evaluated in reference to the result of structural identification. After the MDF based classification, both target and non-target components in Ophiopogon japonicus extract were characterized based on the detailed fragment ions analysis in the hybrid ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LCMS-IT-TOF). By this approach, more than 50 ophiopogonins and 27 ophiopogonones were structurally characterized. The present results of rapid detection and identification of ophiopogonins and ophiopogonones suggest that the proposed MDF approach based on the high-resolution mass spectrometry data would be expected adaptable to the analysis of other herbal components.

  6. Applications and Engineering Analysis of Lotus Roots under External Water Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chang Jiang; Mynors, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Engineers can learn from nature for inspirations to create new designs. The internal structure of lotus roots with several oval holes was studied in this paper for engineering inspirations. The structural performance of lotus roots under outside water pressure was simulated and compared with various cross-sectional areas. The distribution of stresses in the cross-sectional area of lotus roots was analysed and presented. It was found that the maximum compressive stresses in the cross-sectional area of lotus roots were occurring at the long axis ends of the holes. This was very different from that of circular holes. Further analysis on the triaxiality factors revealed that the cross-sectional area of the lotus root resulted in large areas of high triaxiality factors. The resulting hydrostatic stress in the cross-sectional area of lotus root ranges from zero to 2.7 times the applied outside pressure. In contrast, the hydrostatic stress in a cylindrical cross-sectional area is a fixed value. The study showed that the lotus root and the orientation of the oval holes could be mimicked in the design of new structures, for example, underwater pipes and vessels. PMID:28127228

  7. Efficiency of partner choice and sanctions in Lotus is not altered by nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Regus, John U; Gano, Kelsey A; Hollowell, Amanda C; Sachs, Joel L

    2014-04-22

    Eukaryotic hosts must exhibit control mechanisms to select against ineffective bacterial symbionts. Hosts can minimize infection by less-effective symbionts (partner choice) and can divest of uncooperative bacteria after infection (sanctions). Yet, such host-control traits are predicted to be context dependent, especially if they are costly for hosts to express or maintain. Legumes form symbiosis with rhizobia that vary in symbiotic effectiveness (nitrogen fixation) and can enforce partner choice as well as sanctions. In nature, legumes acquire fixed nitrogen from both rhizobia and soils, and nitrogen deposition is rapidly enriching soils globally. If soil nitrogen is abundant, we predict host control to be downregulated, potentially allowing invasion of ineffective symbionts. We experimentally manipulated soil nitrogen to examine context dependence in host control. We co-inoculated Lotus strigosus from nitrogen depauperate soils with pairs of Bradyrhizobium strains that vary in symbiotic effectiveness and fertilized plants with either zero nitrogen or growth maximizing nitrogen. We found efficient partner choice and sanctions regardless of nitrogen fertilization, symbiotic partner combination or growth season. Strikingly, host control was efficient even when L. strigosus gained no significant benefit from rhizobial infection, suggesting that these traits are resilient to short-term changes in extrinsic nitrogen, whether natural or anthropogenic.

  8. Efficiency of partner choice and sanctions in Lotus is not altered by nitrogen fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Regus, John U.; Gano, Kelsey A.; Hollowell, Amanda C.; Sachs, Joel L.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic hosts must exhibit control mechanisms to select against ineffective bacterial symbionts. Hosts can minimize infection by less-effective symbionts (partner choice) and can divest of uncooperative bacteria after infection (sanctions). Yet, such host-control traits are predicted to be context dependent, especially if they are costly for hosts to express or maintain. Legumes form symbiosis with rhizobia that vary in symbiotic effectiveness (nitrogen fixation) and can enforce partner choice as well as sanctions. In nature, legumes acquire fixed nitrogen from both rhizobia and soils, and nitrogen deposition is rapidly enriching soils globally. If soil nitrogen is abundant, we predict host control to be downregulated, potentially allowing invasion of ineffective symbionts. We experimentally manipulated soil nitrogen to examine context dependence in host control. We co-inoculated Lotus strigosus from nitrogen depauperate soils with pairs of Bradyrhizobium strains that vary in symbiotic effectiveness and fertilized plants with either zero nitrogen or growth maximizing nitrogen. We found efficient partner choice and sanctions regardless of nitrogen fertilization, symbiotic partner combination or growth season. Strikingly, host control was efficient even when L. strigosus gained no significant benefit from rhizobial infection, suggesting that these traits are resilient to short-term changes in extrinsic nitrogen, whether natural or anthropogenic. PMID:24573843

  9. Newly discovered population of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Upper Bavaria, Germany, and Salzburg, Austria, is closely related to the Austrian/Slovenian bush mosquito population.

    PubMed

    Zielke, Dorothee E; Walther, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

    2016-03-21

    The German mosquito surveillance instrument 'Mueckenatlas' requests the general public to collect and submit mosquito specimens. Among these, increasing numbers of individuals of invasive species have been registered. Specimens of the Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus submitted from German Upper Bavaria, where this species had not previously been recorded, triggered regional monitoring in mid-2015. The search for Ae. j. japonicus breeding sites and developmental stages concentrated on cemeteries in the municipality of origin of the submitted specimens and, subsequently, in the whole region. A virtual grid consisting of 10 × 10 km(2) cells in which up to three cemeteries were checked, was laid over the region. A cell was considered positive as soon as Ae. j. japonicus larvae were detected, and regarded negative when no larvae could be found in any of the cemeteries inspected. All cells surrounding a positive cell were screened accordingly. A subset of collected Aedes j. japonicus specimens was subjected to microsatellite and nad4 sequence analyses, and obtained data were compared to individuals from previously discovered European populations. Based on the grid cells, an area of approximately 900 km(2) was populated by Ae. j. japonicus in Upper Bavaria and neighbouring Austria. Genetic analyses of microsatellites and nad4 gene sequences generated one genotype out of two previously described for Europe and three haplotypes, one of which had previously been found in Europe only in Ae. j. japonicus samples from a population in East Austria and Slovenia. The genetic analysis suggests the new population is closely related to the Austrian/Slovenian population. As Ae. j. japonicus is well adapted to temperate climates, it has a strong tendency to expand and to colonise new territories in Central Europe, which is facilitated by human-mediated, passive transportation. The new population in Upper Bavaria/Austria is the seventh separate population described in

  10. Weak larval competition between the invasive mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) and three resident container-inhabiting mosquitoes in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Hardstone, Melissa C; Andreadis, Theodore G

    2012-03-01

    The spread of exotic mosquito species into new environments can introduce shifts in mosquito populations and potentially alter public health risks to mosquito-borne diseases. The successful establishment of exotic species may occur due to their competitive advantage over other cohabitating species. We hypothesized that the recently introduced exotic mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) would be a more effective competitor than Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett) and Aedes triseriatus (Say), and an equal competitor to Culex pipiens (L.) based on larval abundance data within tire habitats. Impacts of competition were measured using the larval developmental rate and survival of larvae, adult mortality, wing length, and sex ratio. We found that intraspecific competition acted strongest against Ae. japonicus versus the other three resident mosquito species by delaying larval development and increasing adult mortality. Interspecific competition was generally weak and significant main effects were only detected for species and density. Overall, our results show that larval competition between Ae. japonicus and the three resident species was weak when present, indicating that other ecological or behavioral factors may be influencing the invasion success for Ae. japonicus in North America.

  11. Phyllobacterium loti sp. nov. isolated from nodules of Lotus corniculatus

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Maximo; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Peix, Alvaro; Lorite, María J.; Sanjuán, Juan; Monza, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Strain S658T was isolated from a Lotus corniculatus nodule in a soil sample obtained in Uruguay. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and atpD gene showed that this strain clustered within the genus Phyllobacterium. The closest related species was, in both cases, Phyllobacterium trifolii PETP02T with 99.8 % sequence similarity in the 16S rRNA gene and 96.1 % in the atpD gene. The 16S rRNA gene contains an insert at the beginning of the sequence that has no similarities with other inserts present in the same gene in described rhizobial species. Ubiquinone Q-10 was the only quinone detected. Strain S658T differed from its closest relatives through its growth in diverse culture conditions and in the assimilation of several carbon sources. It was not able to reproduce nodules in Lotus corniculatus. The results of DNA–DNA hybridization, phenotypic tests and fatty acid analyses confirmed that this strain should be classified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Phyllobacterium, for which the name Phyllobacterium loti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S658T( = LMG 27289T = CECT 8230T). PMID:24271211

  12. Phyllobacterium loti sp. nov. isolated from nodules of Lotus corniculatus.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Maximo; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Peix, Alvaro; Lorite, María J; Sanjuán, Juan; Velázquez, Encarna; Monza, Jorge

    2014-03-01

    Strain S658(T) was isolated from a Lotus corniculatus nodule in a soil sample obtained in Uruguay. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and atpD gene showed that this strain clustered within the genus Phyllobacterium. The closest related species was, in both cases, Phyllobacterium trifolii PETP02(T) with 99.8 % sequence similarity in the 16S rRNA gene and 96.1 % in the atpD gene. The 16S rRNA gene contains an insert at the beginning of the sequence that has no similarities with other inserts present in the same gene in described rhizobial species. Ubiquinone Q-10 was the only quinone detected. Strain S658(T) differed from its closest relatives through its growth in diverse culture conditions and in the assimilation of several carbon sources. It was not able to reproduce nodules in Lotus corniculatus. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, phenotypic tests and fatty acid analyses confirmed that this strain should be classified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Phyllobacterium, for which the name Phyllobacterium loti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S658(T)( = LMG 27289(T) = CECT 8230(T)).

  13. Denitrification ability of rhizobial strains isolated from Lotus sp.

    PubMed

    Monza, Jorge; Irisarri, Pilar; Díaz, Pedro; Delgado, Ma Jesús; Mesa, Socorro; Bedmar, Eulogio J

    2006-01-01

    Ten rhizobial strains isolated from Lotus sp. have been characterized by their ability to denitrify. Out of the 10 strains, the five slow-growing isolates grew well under oxygen-limiting conditions with nitrate as a sole nitrogen source, and accumulated nitrous oxide in the growth medium when acetylene was used to inhibit nitrous oxide reductase activity. All five strains contained DNA homologous to the Bradyrhizobium japonicum nirK, norBDQ and nosZ genes. In contrast, fast-growing lotus rhizobia were incapable of growing under nitrate-respiring conditions, and did not accumulate nitrous oxide in the growth medium. DNA from each of the five fast-growing strains showed a hybridization band with the B. japonicum nirK gene but not with norBDQ and nosZ genes. Partial 16S rDNA gene sequencing revealed that fast-growing strains could be identified as Mesorhizobium loti species and the slow-growers as Bradyrhizobium sp.

  14. Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Rhizome as an Antioxidant Dietary Fiber in Cooked Sausage: Effects on Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ham, Youn-Kyung; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Shin, Dong-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Il; Lee, Hye-Jin; Kim, Na-Rae; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of cooked emulsion sausages containing different levels of lotus rhizome powder (0, 1, 2, and 3%, based on total weight). Lotus rhizome powder had no significant (p>0.05) impact on pH, moisture, protein, or ash content of sausage. However, fat content was slightly but significantly (p<0.05) decreased when the level of lotus rhizome powder was increased in the sausages. The addition of lotus rhizome powder to sausages at over 1% resulted in significantly (p<0.05) darker and less red color of cooked sausage compared to control. Increase in lotus rhizome level slightly improved the emulsion stability and apparent viscosity. Significant (p<0.05) reduction in cooking loss was observed when more than 1% of lotus rhizome powder was added to sausages. The textural properties of sausages were unaffected by the inclusion of lotus rhizome except for springiness and chewiness. On the manufacture day, control sausage had significantly (p<0.05) higher TBARS value than treatments. Regarding sensory characteristics, increased levels of lotus rhizome powder decreased (p<0.05) color and juiciness scores. However, cooked sausages exhibited similar overall acceptability regardless of the level of lotus rhizome powder added to sausages. Therefore, lotus rhizome powder, an antioxidant dietary fiber, could be used as an effective natural ingredient in meat products for the development of healthier and functional food.

  15. Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Rhizome as an Antioxidant Dietary Fiber in Cooked Sausage: Effects on Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of cooked emulsion sausages containing different levels of lotus rhizome powder (0, 1, 2, and 3%, based on total weight). Lotus rhizome powder had no significant (p>0.05) impact on pH, moisture, protein, or ash content of sausage. However, fat content was slightly but significantly (p<0.05) decreased when the level of lotus rhizome powder was increased in the sausages. The addition of lotus rhizome powder to sausages at over 1% resulted in significantly (p<0.05) darker and less red color of cooked sausage compared to control. Increase in lotus rhizome level slightly improved the emulsion stability and apparent viscosity. Significant (p<0.05) reduction in cooking loss was observed when more than 1% of lotus rhizome powder was added to sausages. The textural properties of sausages were unaffected by the inclusion of lotus rhizome except for springiness and chewiness. On the manufacture day, control sausage had significantly (p<0.05) higher TBARS value than treatments. Regarding sensory characteristics, increased levels of lotus rhizome powder decreased (p<0.05) color and juiciness scores. However, cooked sausages exhibited similar overall acceptability regardless of the level of lotus rhizome powder added to sausages. Therefore, lotus rhizome powder, an antioxidant dietary fiber, could be used as an effective natural ingredient in meat products for the development of healthier and functional food. PMID:28515646

  16. Genome-wide identification of nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Lee, Bo-Young; Kim, Hui-Su; Lee, Min Chul; Kyung, Do-Hyun; Om, Ae-Son; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-11-18

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a large superfamily of proteins defined by a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a ligand-binding domain (LBD). They function as transcriptional regulators to control expression of genes involved in development, homeostasis, and metabolism. The number of NRs differs from species to species, because of gene duplications and/or lineage-specific gene losses during metazoan evolution. Many NRs in arthropods interact with the ecdysteroid hormone and are involved in ecdysone-mediated signaling in arthropods. The nuclear receptor superfamily complement has been reported in several arthropods, including crustaceans, but not in copepods. We identified the entire NR repertoire of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus, which is an important marine model species for ecotoxicology and environmental genomics. Using whole genome and transcriptome sequences, we identified a total of 31 nuclear receptors in the genome of T. japonicus. Nomenclature of the nuclear receptors was determined based on the sequence similarities of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and ligand-binding domain (LBD). The 7 subfamilies of NRs separate into five major clades (subfamilies NR1, NR2, NR3, NR4, and NR5/6). Although the repertoire of NR members in, T. japonicus was similar to that reported for other arthropods, there was an expansion of the NR1 subfamily in Tigriopus japonicus. The twelve unique nuclear receptors identified in T. japonicus are members of NR1L. This expansion may be a unique lineage-specific feature of crustaceans. Interestingly, E78 and HR83, which are present in other arthropods, were absent from the genomes of T. japonicus and two congeneric copepod species (T. japonicus and Tigriopus californicus), suggesting copepod lineage-specific gene loss. We identified all NR receptors present in the copepod, T. japonicus. Knowledge of the copepod nuclear receptor repertoire will contribute to a better understanding of copepod- and crustacean-specific NR evolution.

  17. Redescription of Ateleopus japonicus Bleeker 1853, a senior synonym of Ateleopus schlegelii van der Hoeven 1855, Ateleopus purpureus Tanaka 1915, and Ateleopus tanabensis Tanaka 1918 with designation of a lectotype for A. japonicus and A. schlegelii (Ateleopodiformes: Ateleopodidae).

    PubMed

    Kaga, Tatsuya; Van Oijen, Martien J P; Kubo, Yoshikazu; Kitagawa, Emi

    2015-10-05

    Three nominal species of Ateleopodidae; Ateleopus japonicus Bleeker 1853, A. purpureus Tanaka 1915, and A. tanabensis Tanaka 1918, were taxonomically reviewed. Examination of many specimens, including the holotype of A. tanabensis and the newly designated lectotype of A. japonicus and A. schlegelii, revealed that their morphological differences can be explained by intraspecific variation and ontogenetic change within one species. Mitochondrial DNA analyses supported the results of the morphological study. Thus, A. purpureus and A. tanabensis are considered junior synonyms of A. japonicus. We have concluded after an examination of the relevant publications that Ateleopus schlegelii van der Hoeven 1855 is also a junior synonym of A. japonicus.

  18. Identification and molecular characterization of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kang, Hye-Min; Seo, Jung Soo; Park, Heum Gi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-02-10

    In copepods, no information has been reported on the structure or molecular characterization of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene. In the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus, we identified a NOS gene that is involved in immune responses of vertebrates and invertebrates. In silico analyses revealed that nitric oxide (NO) synthase domains, such as the oxygenase and reductase domains, are highly conserved in the T. japonicus NOS gene. The T. japonicus NOS gene was highly transcribed in the nauplii stages, implying that it plays a role in protecting the host during the early developmental stages. To examine the involvement of the T. japonicus NOS gene in the innate immune response, the copepods were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and two Vibrio sp. After exposure to different concentrations of LPS and Vibrio sp., T. japonicus NOS transcription was significantly increased over time in a dose-dependent manner, and the NO/nitrite concentration increased as well. Taken together, our findings suggest that T. japonicus NOS transcription is induced in response to an immune challenge as part of the conserved innate immunity.

  19. Germination rate of Phyllospadix japonicus seeds relative to storage methods and periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung-Im; Lee, Kun-Seop; Son, Min Ho

    2014-03-01

    To determine the optimal storage method and longest possible storage period of Phyllospadix japonicus seeds, we examined post-storage germination rates using different storage methods and periods for P. japonicus seeds harvested in Korean coastal waters. P. japonicus seeds are classified as recalcitrant seeds with an average moisture content of 45.4%. Germination rates of P. japonicus seeds stored in seawater at 4 °C, seawater at room temperature with air supply, and an aquarium with continuous seawater circulation ranged from 35.0% to 43.5%, whereas seeds stored in seawater at 30°C, a refrigerator at -20°C, and a desiccator at room temperature did not germinate. Seeds stored at 4°C maintained germination rates of 72.5˜73.0% until 30 days of storage, but showed rapidly decreasing germination rates after 60 days and no germination after 180 days. Since few studies have investigated seed storage of P. japonicus, these results will serve as useful data for seed-based P. japonicus habitat restoration.

  20. Ontogenetic dietary shift in the larvae of Cybister japonicus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in Japanese rice fields.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Shin-Ya

    2009-06-01

    A number of fragmentary reports suggest that the endangered diving beetle Cybister japonicus larvae feed on tadpoles, fish, and aquatic insects. However, no quantitative study on the feeding habits of C. japonicus larvae has been reported. In this study, field observations and rearing experiments were carried out to show the feeding ecology of C. japonicus larvae. Unlike previous commentaries, the first- and second-instar larvae of C. japonicus preyed on insects, mainly Odonata nymphs and Notonecta triguttata, irrespective of prey availability, but did not eat vertebrates such as tadpoles and fish in the field. On the contrary, the third-instar larvae fed on both insects and vertebrates. Rearing experiments showed that the number of Odonata nymphs consumed was significantly more than the number of tadpoles consumed by the first and second instars but third-instar larvae ate both the Odonata nymphs and tadpoles in the tadpole-Odonata nymph mixture experiment. The total body lengths of C. japonicus new adults in the Odonata nymph and tadpole-Odonata nymph mixture treatments were statistically equal. These results suggested that the first- and second-instar larvae of C. japonicus prey mainly on insects and do not eat vertebrate animals (insectivore), whereas the third-instar larvae fed on both insects and vertebrates (generalist).

  1. Polysaccharide degradation systems of the saprophytic bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Jeffrey G.

    2016-06-04

    Study of recalcitrant polysaccharide degradation by bacterial systems is critical for understanding biological processes such as global carbon cycling, nutritional contributions of the human gut microbiome, and the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. One bacterium that has a robust ability to degrade polysaccharides is the Gram-negative saprophyte Cellvibrio japonicus. A bacterium with a circuitous history, C. japonicus underwent several taxonomy changes from an initially described Pseudomonas sp. Most of the enzymes described in the pre-genomics era have also been renamed. Furthermore, this review aims to consolidate the biochemical, structural, and genetic data published on C. japonicus and its remarkable ability to degrade cellulose, xylan, and pectin substrates. Initially, C. japonicus carbohydrate-active enzymes were studied biochemically and structurally for their novel polysaccharide binding and degradation characteristics, while more recent systems biology approaches have begun to unravel the complex regulation required for lignocellulose degradation in an environmental context. Also included is a discussion for the future of C. japonicus as a model system, with emphasis on current areas unexplored in terms of polysaccharide degradation and emerging directions for C. japonicus in both environmental and biotechnological applications.

  2. Occurrence and Spread of the Invasive Asian Bush Mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in West and North Germany since Detection in 2012 and 2013, Respectively

    PubMed Central

    Kampen, Helge; Kuhlisch, Cornelius; Fröhlich, Andreas; Scheuch, Dorothee E.; Walther, Doreen

    2016-01-01

    The invasive Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus was first recognised as established in Germany in 2008. In addition to the first known and quickly expanding population in the southwestern part of the country, three separate populations were discovered in West, North and southeastern Germany in 2012, 2013 and 2015, respectively, by means of the ‘Mueckenatlas’, a German instrument of passive mosquito surveillance. Since the first findings of mosquito specimens in West and North Germany, these regions were checked annually for continuing colonisation and spread of the species. Both affected areas were covered by a virtual 10x10km2 grid pattern in the cells of which cemeteries were screened for immature stages of the mosquito. The cells were considered populated as soon as larvae or pupae were detected, whereas they were classified as negative when no mosquito stages were found in the cemeteries of at least three different towns or villages. Presence was also recorded when Ae. j. japonicus adults were submitted to the ‘Mueckenatlas’ from the respective cell or when there was evidence of local occurrence in localities other than cemeteries. Based on this approach, a significant expansion of the populated area was documented in West Germany since the first detection of Ae. j. japonicus in 2012 (increase in positive grid cells by more than 400%), while the North German population appears not to be expanding so far (reduction of positive grid cells by ca. 30% since 2013). As Ae. j. japonicus finds suitable climatic and ecological conditions in Germany, the differential expansion of the two populations might be attributed to the West German population being older and thus more firmly established than the closely related but younger North German population that might still be in its founder phase. However, geographic spread of all German populations in the future is anticipated. Continuous surveillance is recommended, as Ae. j. japonicus is a competent

  3. Occurrence and Spread of the Invasive Asian Bush Mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in West and North Germany since Detection in 2012 and 2013, Respectively.

    PubMed

    Kampen, Helge; Kuhlisch, Cornelius; Fröhlich, Andreas; Scheuch, Dorothee E; Walther, Doreen

    2016-01-01

    The invasive Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus was first recognised as established in Germany in 2008. In addition to the first known and quickly expanding population in the southwestern part of the country, three separate populations were discovered in West, North and southeastern Germany in 2012, 2013 and 2015, respectively, by means of the 'Mueckenatlas', a German instrument of passive mosquito surveillance. Since the first findings of mosquito specimens in West and North Germany, these regions were checked annually for continuing colonisation and spread of the species. Both affected areas were covered by a virtual 10x10km2 grid pattern in the cells of which cemeteries were screened for immature stages of the mosquito. The cells were considered populated as soon as larvae or pupae were detected, whereas they were classified as negative when no mosquito stages were found in the cemeteries of at least three different towns or villages. Presence was also recorded when Ae. j. japonicus adults were submitted to the 'Mueckenatlas' from the respective cell or when there was evidence of local occurrence in localities other than cemeteries. Based on this approach, a significant expansion of the populated area was documented in West Germany since the first detection of Ae. j. japonicus in 2012 (increase in positive grid cells by more than 400%), while the North German population appears not to be expanding so far (reduction of positive grid cells by ca. 30% since 2013). As Ae. j. japonicus finds suitable climatic and ecological conditions in Germany, the differential expansion of the two populations might be attributed to the West German population being older and thus more firmly established than the closely related but younger North German population that might still be in its founder phase. However, geographic spread of all German populations in the future is anticipated. Continuous surveillance is recommended, as Ae. j. japonicus is a competent vector of

  4. Effect of Microwave Irradiation on the Physicochemical and Digestive Properties of Lotus Seed Starch.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shaoxiao; Chen, Bingyan; Zeng, Hongliang; Guo, Zebin; Lu, Xu; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-03-30

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of microwave irradiation on the physicochemical and digestive properties of lotus seed starch. The physicochemical properties of lotus seed starch were characterized by light microscopy, (1)H NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, and HPSEC-MALLS-RI. The starch-water interaction and crystalline region increased due to the changed water distribution of starch granules and the increase of the double-helix structure. The swelling power, amylose leaching, molecular properties, and radius of gyration reduced with the increasing microwave power, which further affected the sensitivity of lotus seed starch to enzymatic degradation. Furthermore, the resistant starch and slowly digestible starch increased with the increasing microwave irradiation, which further resulted in their decreasing hydrolysis index and glycemic index. The digestive properties of lotus seed starch were mainly influenced by the reduced branching degree of amylopectin and the strong amylose-amylose interaction.

  5. Potential Benefits of Jujube (Zizyphus Lotus L.) Bioactive Compounds for Nutrition and Health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Zizyphus lotus, belonging to the Rhamnaceae family, is a deciduous shrub which generally grows in arid and semiarid regions of the globe. In traditional medicine, Z. lotus is used as antidiabetes, sedative, bronchitis, and antidiarrhea by local populations. Recently, several scientific reports for health benefit and nutritional potential of bioactive compounds from this jujube have been reported. This plant is rich in polyphenols, cyclopeptide alkaloids, dammarane saponins, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. These identified compounds were supposed to be responsible for most of Z. lotus biologically relevant activities including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. The aim of the present review was to give particular emphasis on the most recent findings on biological effects of the major groups of Zizyphus lotus components and their medical interest, notably for human nutrition, health benefit, and therapeutic impacts. PMID:28053781

  6. The Use of Lotus 1-2-3 Macros in Engineering Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    Described are the use of spreadsheet programs in chemical engineering calculations using Lotus 1-2-3 macros. Discusses the macro commands, subroutine operations, and solution of partial differential equation. Provides examples of the subroutine programs and spreadsheet solution. (YP)

  7. The sacred lotus genome provides insights into the evolution of flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Fan, Guangyi; Liu, Yiman; Sun, Fengming; Shi, Chengcheng; Liu, Xin; Peng, Jing; Chen, Wenbin; Huang, Xinfang; Cheng, Shifeng; Liu, Yuping; Liang, Xinming; Zhu, Honglian; Bian, Chao; Zhong, Lan; Lv, Tian; Dong, Hongxia; Liu, Weiqing; Zhong, Xiao; Chen, Jing; Quan, Zhiwu; Wang, Zhihong; Tan, Benzhong; Lin, Chufa; Mu, Feng; Xu, Xun; Ding, Yi; Guo, An-Yuan; Wang, Jun; Ke, Weidong

    2013-11-01

    Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is an ornamental plant that is also used for food and medicine. This basal eudicot species is especially important from an evolutionary perspective, as it occupies a critical phylogenetic position in flowering plants. Here we report the draft genome of a wild strain of sacred lotus. The assembled genome is 792 Mb, which is approximately 85-90% of genome size estimates. We annotated 392 Mb of repeat sequences and 36,385 protein-coding genes within the genome. Using these sequence data, we constructed a phylogenetic tree and confirmed the basal location of sacred lotus within eudicots. Importantly, we found evidence for a relatively recent whole-genome duplication event; any indication of the ancient paleo-hexaploid event was, however, absent. Genomic analysis revealed evidence of positive selection within 28 embryo-defective genes and one annexin gene that may be related to the long-term viability of sacred lotus seed. We also identified a significant expansion of starch synthase genes, which probably elevated starch levels within the rhizome of sacred lotus. Sequencing this strain of sacred lotus thus provided important insights into the evolution of flowering plant and revealed genetic mechanisms that influence seed dormancy and starch synthesis.

  8. Superhydrophobic surfaces developed by mimicking hierarchical surface morphology of lotus leaf.

    PubMed

    Latthe, Sanjay S; Terashima, Chiaki; Nakata, Kazuya; Fujishima, Akira

    2014-04-04

    The lotus plant is recognized as a 'King plant' among all the natural water repellent plants due to its excellent non-wettability. The superhydrophobic surfaces exhibiting the famous 'Lotus Effect', along with extremely high water contact angle (>150°) and low sliding angle (<10°), have been broadly investigated and extensively applied on variety of substrates for potential self-cleaning and anti-corrosive applications. Since 1997, especially after the exploration of the surface micro/nanostructure and chemical composition of the lotus leaves by the two German botanists Barthlott and Neinhuis, many kinds of superhydrophobic surfaces mimicking the lotus leaf-like structure have been widely reported in the literature. This review article briefly describes the different wetting properties of the natural superhydrophobic lotus leaves and also provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art discussion on the extensive research carried out in the field of artificial superhydrophobic surfaces which are developed by mimicking the lotus leaf-like dual scale micro/nanostructure. This review article could be beneficial for both novice researchers in this area as well as the scientists who are currently working on non-wettable, superhydrophobic surfaces.

  9. Characterization of strains unlike Mesorhizobium loti that nodulate lotus spp. in saline soils of Granada, Spain.

    PubMed

    Lorite, María J; Muñoz, Socorro; Olivares, José; Soto, María J; Sanjuán, Juan

    2010-06-01

    Lotus species are forage legumes with potential as pastures in low-fertility and environmentally constrained soils, owing to their high persistence and yield under those conditions. The aim of this work was the characterization of phenetic and genetic diversity of salt-tolerant bacteria able to establish efficient symbiosis with Lotus spp. A total of 180 isolates able to nodulate Lotus corniculatus and Lotus tenuis from two locations in Granada, Spain, were characterized. Molecular identification of the isolates was performed by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) and 16S rRNA, atpD, and recA gene sequence analyses, showing the presence of bacteria related to different species of the genus Mesorhizobium: Mesorhizobium tarimense/Mesorhizobium tianshanense, Mesorhizobium chacoense/Mesorhizobium albiziae, and the recently described species, Mesorhizobium alhagi. No Mesorhizobium loti-like bacteria were found, although most isolates carried nodC and nifH symbiotic genes closely related to those of M. loti, considered the type species of bacteria nodulating Lotus, and other Lotus rhizobia. A significant portion of the isolates showed both high salt tolerance and good symbiotic performance with L. corniculatus, and many behaved like salt-dependent bacteria, showing faster growth and better symbiotic performance when media were supplemented with Na or Ca salts.

  10. Lotus seed epicarp extract as potential antioxidant and anti-obesity additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage.

    PubMed

    Qi, Suijian; Zhou, Delong

    2013-02-01

    The antioxidative activities of a lotus seed epicarp extract in different concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 μg.mL(-1)) in pork homogenates representative of Chinese Cantonese Sausage were evaluated using three methods: thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, peroxide values (POVs) and acid values (AVs). Also the cytotoxic and anti-obesity effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were evaluated using an in vitro 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell model. Results showed that the lotus seed epicarp extracts were non-toxic and effective in inhibiting preadipocyte differentiation. Supplementation of pork homogenate with lotus seed epicarp extracts was effective in retarding lipid oxidation. Moreover, the antioxidative and preadipocyte differentiation inhibition effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were dose-dependent. Thus, the lotus seed epicarp extract might be a good candidate as an antioxidant and anti-obesity natural additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Photoprotective Effect of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) Seed Tea against UVB Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-Yeon; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seed is widely used as a traditional medicine in countries of Asia. Among many functions of the lotus seed, one interesting activity is its skin protection from the sunlight and scar. In this study, we focused on the skin protective property of lotus seed tea against ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. Two groups of a hairless mouse model, water as control (water group) and lotus seed tea (LST group), were administrated a fluid drink water for six months. After 6 month of administration, UVB exposure was carried out to both groups for another 3 months. During and after the administration, the skin moisture content and the morphological and histopathological analyses through biopsy were carried out. Prior to UVB irradiation, no significant difference was discovered in the skin moisture content for the water group and LST group (P<0.05). However, drastic changes were observed after the UVB treatment. The LST group showed a clear evidence of skin protection compared to the control group (P<0.05). The moisture content, epidermal and horny layer thickness, and protein carbonyl values all revealed that the intake of the lotus seed tea enhanced protection against UVB exposure. As a result, the long-term intake of the lotus seed tea showed the effect of preventing loss of skin moisture, mitigating the formation of abnormal keratinocytes, and contributing to protein oxidation inhibition. PMID:26451352

  12. Genome-wide identification and characterization of GRAS transcription factors in sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Zhou, Yu; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The GRAS gene family is one of the most important plant-specific gene families, which encodes transcriptional regulators and plays an essential role in plant development and physiological processes. The GRAS gene family has been well characterized in many higher plants such as Arabidopsis, rice, Chinese cabbage, tomato and tobacco. In this study, we identified 38 GRAS genes in sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), analyzed their physical and chemical characteristics and performed phylogenetic analysis using the GRAS genes from eight representative plant species to show the evolution of GRAS genes in Planta. In addition, the gene structures and motifs of the sacred lotus GRAS proteins were characterized in detail. Comparative analysis identified 42 orthologous and 9 co-orthologous gene pairs between sacred lotus and Arabidopsis, and 35 orthologous and 22 co-orthologous gene pairs between sacred lotus and rice. Based on publically available RNA-seq data generated from leaf, petiole, rhizome and root, we found that most of the sacred lotus GRAS genes exhibited a tissue-specific expression pattern. Eight of the ten PAT1-clade GRAS genes, particularly NnuGRAS-05, NnuGRAS-10 and NnuGRAS-25, were preferentially expressed in rhizome and root. In summary, this is the first in silico analysis of the GRAS gene family in sacred lotus, which will provide valuable information for further molecular and biological analyses of this important gene family. PMID:27635351

  13. Lotus hairy roots expressing inducible arginine decarboxylase activity.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, María A; Ruiz, Oscar A; Sánchez, Diego H

    2004-05-01

    Biotechnological uses of plant cell-tissue culture usually rely on constitutive transgene expression. However, such expression of transgenes may not always be desirable. In those cases, the use of an inducible promoter could be an alternative approach. To test this hypothesis, we developed two binary vectors harboring a stress-inducible promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana, driving the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene and the oat arginine decarboxylase. Transgenic hairy roots of Lotus corniculatus were obtained with osmotic- and cold-inducible beta-glucuronidase and arginine decarboxylase activities. The increase in the activity of the latter was accompanied by a significant rise in total free polyamines level. Through an organogenesis process, we obtained L. corniculatus transgenic plants avoiding deleterious phenotypes frequently associated with the constitutive over-expression of arginine decarboxylation and putrescine accumulation.

  14. Antipyretic and antinociceptive activity of Diospyros lotus L. in animals

    PubMed Central

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Siddiqui, Bina S.; Muhammad, Naveed; Khan, Haroon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate pharmacologically the traditional use of Diospyros lotus as antipyretic and antinociceptive in various animal models. Methods In vivo experimental models were used in this study. Antipyretic activity of extract/fractions was evaluated in brewer's yeast induced hyperthermic mice while antinociceptive activity was studied in acetic acid induced writhing test at 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p. Results The crude extract strongly ameliorated the induced pyrexia during various assessment times. Upon fractionation, the antipyretic effects were strongly augmented by the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of the plant. However, hexane and butanol fractions were insignificant in their effect as antipyretic. The extract showed marked inhibition on the noxious simulation induced by post acetic acid injection. The effect was strongly supported by other fraction expect hexane. Conclusions In short, our study scientifically validated the traditional use of the plant as antipyretic. PMID:25183115

  15. Multi-responsive hydrogel based on lotus root starch.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Baodong; Ma, Dongzhuo; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Jianwei; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-08-01

    The lotus root starch-based hydrogel was synthesized by free radical copolymerization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) demonstrated that the formation of target product. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed the change of the starch's crystallization. The morphology and pore structure of the hydrogel were evaluated by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Biomicroscope. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed the better thermal stability of hydrogel. Furthermore, the swelling in CaCl2 and AlCl3 solutions/temperature (25°C-65°C) displayed the "overshooting effect" swelling-deswelling phenomenon with prolonging the swelling time. The hydrogel can rapidly response to various pH value as well.

  16. The dream of staying clean: Lotus and biomimetic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Solga, Andreas; Cerman, Zdenek; Striffler, Boris F; Spaeth, Manuel; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2007-12-01

    The Lotus has been the symbol of purity for thousands of years; contaminations and pathogens are washed off the surfaces of Lotus and some other plants with rain or even dew. After the introduction of scanning electron microscopy, we were able to resolve the mechanism behind this phenomenon. It took some further decades before in-depth studies on self-cleaning with plants were conducted and the effect could be understood in detail. We identified extreme water-repellency ('superhydrophobicity'), characterized by very high contact angles and low sliding angles, as the prerequisite for self-cleaning properties. We could show that the combination of two factors is necessary for obtaining a high degree of water-repellency: (1) low energy surfaces being hydrophobic and (2) surface structures that significantly increase hydrophobicity. It is suggested that this mechanism plays an important role in the protection of plants against pathogens. Our technological application of this effect has resulted in the development of successful, eco-friendly and sustainable industrial products. Another interesting property was found with superhydrophobic surfaces of certain aquatic and semi-aquatic plants and animals: here a layer of air under water is retained. We present a new approach of using this feature for creating structured, air-retaining surfaces for technical underwater applications. It is proposed that such surfaces can reduce significantly the drag of large ships. We conclude that basic biological research is of particular importance for true innovation. Our research on superhydrophobic self-cleaning biological surfaces and the development of similar engineered materials suggests that biomimicry is a matter of multi-stage processes rather than a simple copying of biological developments.

  17. Pollination success of Lotus corniculatus (L.) in an urban context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellissier, Vincent; Muratet, Audrey; Verfaillie, Fabien; Machon, Nathalie

    2012-02-01

    Most anthropogenic activities are known to have deleterious effects on pollinator communities. However, little is known about the influence of urbanization on pollination ecosystem services. Here, we assessed the pollination service on Lotus corniculatus (L.), a self-sterile, strictly entogamous Fabaceae commonly observed in urban and suburban areas. We assessed the pollination success of artificial Lotus corniculatus populations at three levels: at large scale, along an urbanization gradient; at intermediate scale, based on landscape fragmentation within a 250 m radius and at local scale based on floral resource abundance and local habitat type. The main findings were that the pollination success, when assessed with the number of fruit produced per inflorescence, was lower in urban areas than in suburban ones, and was negatively affected by the number of impervious spaces in the neighborhood. The relationship between the number of fruits and the distance to the nearest impervious space was either positive or negative, depending on the gray/green ratio (low vs. high). Finally, on a local scale, floral resource abundance had a negative effect on pollination success when L. corniculatus populations were located in paved courtyards, and a positive one when they were located in parks. Pollination success seems to be explained by two intertwined gradients: landscape fragmentation estimated by the number of impervious spaces in a 250 m radius around L. corniculatus populations, and the behavior of bumblebees toward birdsfoot trefoil and floral displays, which appears to differ depending on whether a neighborhood is densely or sparsely urbanized. An abundance of attracting floral resources seems to enhance pollination success for L. corniculatus if it is not too isolated from other green spaces. These results have important implications for the sustainability of pollination success in towns by identifying local and landscape factors that influence reproductive success of

  18. Short photoperiod induces dormancy in Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera).

    PubMed

    Masuda, Jun-Ichiro; Urakawa, Toshihiro; Ozaki, Yukio; Okubo, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) has been cultivated as an ornamental and food plant in Japan for more than 1000 years. As large areas are required for its cultivation (approximately 2 m2 per plant), physiological research, such as into the effect of environmental factors on dormancy, has not been well studied until recently. In this paper, seedlings were used to examine environmental factors affecting dormancy induction. In a first experiment, seeds were sown from 6 April to 6 October at 2-month intervals, and cultivated for 2 months in an unheated greenhouse. In a second experiment, seeds were prepared for germination on 16 November and 16 May and the seedlings were grown at 25 or 30 degrees C under natural daylength in phytotron growth rooms. After 1 month, the seedlings were cultivated at 20, 25 or 30 degrees C for a further month. The number of leaves and rhizome branches on the main stem were counted, and growth of rhizomes on the main stem was calculated using a rhizome enlargement index (= maximum internode diameter/internode length) after 2 months of culture in both experiments. Rhizomes elongated without enlargement when the seeds were sown in April and June. Sowing the seeds in August and October resulted in rhizome enlargement from the tenth and fifth internodes, respectively. Rhizomes enlarged in the November-sowing but elongated in the May-sowing irrespective of temperature treatments under natural daylength in the phytotron rooms. The seedlings cultivated from May at 25-30 degrees C for 2 months had more leaves, and more rhizome branches and nodes than those cultivated from November. Short days led to induced dormancy in lotus.

  19. Characterization of a metalloprotease involved in Vibrio splendidus infection in the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Liang, Weikang; Zhang, Weiwei; Li, Chenghua

    2016-12-01

    Vibrio splendidus is an important aquatic pathogen that infects a broad range of hosts, leading to typical symptoms of "skin ulceration syndrome" in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. However, there are few reports on the virulence factors and pathogenic mechanism of V. splendidus. In the present study, V. splendidus could survive in the coelomic fluid of A. japonicus but poorly internalized into the coelomocyte under the tested conditions. It was thus postulated that V. splendidus was pathogenic to A. japonicus, mainly due to its extracellular products. The main extracellular proteins of V. splendidus were detected using MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS, and a metalloprotease was identified. The gene encoding a metalloprotease belonging to the thermolysin family, named vsm, was cloned and characterized. Furthermore, the expression of vsm was growth dependent and the supernatant of V. splendidus also showed high protease activity. The vsm gene was conditionally expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Enzyme activity analysis showed that the optimal temperature and pH for purified recombinant Vsm were approximately 40 °C and 7.0, respectively. Furthermore, Vsm was determined to be associated with the pathogenesis of V. splendidus due to the following aspects: (1) real-time reverse transcriptase PCR showed that expression of vsm was significantly up-regulated when V. splendidus was co-incubated with the coelomic fluid of A. japonicus; and (2) purified recombinant Vsm showed obvious cytotoxicity to the coelomocyte of A. japonicus. Our results indicated that Vsm is involved in the interaction between V. splendidus and A. japonicus and also contributed to the cytotoxic effects on the coelomocyte of A. japonicus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  1. Phylogenetic differentiation between Atlantic Scomber colias and Pacific Scomber japonicus based on nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Infante, Carlos; Blanco, Enrique; Zuasti, Eugenia; Crespo, Aniela; Manchado, Manuel

    2007-05-01

    In the classical taxonomy, three Scomber species are distinguished: S. scombrus, S. australasicus, and S. japonicus. Yet, some fish taxonomists have recently recognized Scomber colias, inhabiting the Atlantic Ocean, as a separate species from S. japonicus, distributed in the Pacific Ocean. Such proposal was based on significant mitochondrial DNA divergence as well as great phenotypic variation among individuals from these two ocean basins. However, in the absence of nuclear DNA data this issue remains still controversial. In this study, a phylogenetic analysis of nuclear 5S rDNA sequences was performed. A total of 30 individuals of S. colias collected in the Atlantic and 34 specimens of S. japonicus from the Pacific were characterized. Moreover, nine individuals of Pacific S. australasicus and eight of Atlantic S. scombrus were included. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and neighbor-joining analyses revealed the presence of two well-supported distinct clades corresponding to S. colias and S. japonicus, respectively. Altogether, morphologic and genetic data are in agreement with the recognition of two different species, S. colias in the Atlantic, and S. japonicus in the Pacific.

  2. Interspecific Larval Competition Between Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Northern Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Armistead, J. S.; Arias, J. R.; Nishimura, N.; Lounibos, L. P.

    2008-01-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald) are two of the most recent and widespread invasive mosquito species to have become established in the United States. The two species co-occur in water-filled artificial containers, where crowding and limiting resources are likely to promote inter- or intraspecific larval competition. The performance of northern Virginia populations of Ae. japonicus and Ae. albopictus competing as larvae under field conditions was evaluated. Per capita rates of population increase for each species were estimated, and the effects of species composition and larval density were determined. In water-containing cups provided with oak leaves, Ae. albopictus larvae exhibited a competitive advantage over Ae. japonicus as a consequence of higher survivorship, shorter developmental time, and a significantly higher estimated population growth rate under conditions of interspecific competition. Intraspecific competition constrained population performance of Ae. albopictus significantly more than competition with Ae. japonicus. In the context of the Lotka-Volterra model of competition, these findings suggest competitive exclusion of Ae. japonicus in those habitats where this species co-occurs with Ae. albopictus. PMID:18714861

  3. Interspecific larval competition between Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in northern Virginia.

    PubMed

    Armistead, J S; Arias, J R; Nishimura, N; Lounibos, L P

    2008-07-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald) are two of the most recent and widespread invasive mosquito species to have become established in the United States. The two species co-occur in water-filled artificial containers, where crowding and limiting resources are likely to promote inter- or intraspecific larval competition. The performance of northern Virginia populations of Ae. japonicus and Ae. albopictus competing as larvae under field conditions was evaluated. Per capita rates of population increase for each species were estimated, and the effects of species composition and larval density were determined. In water-containing cups provided with oak leaves, Ae. albopictus larvae exhibited a competitive advantage over Ae. japonicus as a consequence of higher survivorship, shorter developmental time, and a significantly higher estimated population growth rate under conditions of interspecific competition. Intraspecific competition constrained population performance of Ae. albopictus significantly more than competition with Ae. japonicus. In the context of the Lotka-Volterra model of competition, these findings suggest competitive exclusion of Ae. japonicus in those habitats where this species co-occurs with Ae. albopictus.

  4. Sustainability evaluation of different systems for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) farming based on emergy theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Emergy analysis is effective for analyzing ecological economic systems. However, the accuracy of the approach is affected by the diversity of economic level, meteorological and hydrological parameters in different regions. The present study evaluated the economic benefits, environmental impact, and sustainability of indoor, semi-intensive and extensive farming systems of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) in the same region. The results showed that A. japonicus indoor farming system was high in input and output (yield) whereas pond extensive farming system was low in input and output. The output/input ratio of indoor farming system was lower than that of pond extensive farming system, and the output/input ratio of semi-intensive farming system fell in between them. The environmental loading ratio of A. japonicus extensive farming system was lower than that of indoor farming system. In addition, the emergy yield and emergy exchange ratios, and emergy sustainability and emergy indexes for sustainable development were higher in extensive farming system than those in indoor farming system. These results indicated that the current extensive farming system exerted fewer negative influences on the environment, made more efficient use of available resources, and met more sustainable development requirements than the indoor farming system. A. japonicus farming systems showed more emergy benefits than fish farming systems. The pond farming systems of A. japonicus exploited more free local environmental resources for production, caused less potential pressure on the local environment, and achieved higher sustainability than indoor farming system.

  5. In-Frame Deletions Allow Functional Characterization of Complex Cellulose Degradation Phenotypes in Cellvibrio japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Cassandra E; Gardner, Jeffrey G

    2015-09-01

    The depolymerization of the recalcitrant polysaccharides found in lignocellulose has become an area of intense interest due to the role of this process in global carbon cycling, human gut microbiome nutritional contributions, and bioenergy production. However, underdeveloped genetic tools have hampered study of bacterial lignocellulose degradation, especially outside model organisms. In this report, we describe an in-frame deletion strategy for the Gram-negative lignocellulose-degrading bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus. This method leverages optimized growth conditions for conjugation and sacB counterselection for the generation of markerless in-frame deletions. This method produces mutants in as few as 8 days and allows for the ability to make multiple gene deletions per strain. It is also possible to remove large sections of the genome, as shown in this report with the deletion of the nine-gene (9.4-kb) gsp operon in C. japonicus. We applied this system to study the complex phenotypes of cellulose degradation in C. japonicus. Our data indicated that a Δcel5B Δcel6A double mutant is crippled for cellulose utilization, more so than by either single mutation alone. Additionally, we deleted individual genes in the two-gene cbp2ED operon and showed that both genes contribute to cellulose degradation in C. japonicus. Overall, these described techniques substantially enhance the utility of C. japonicus as a model system to study lignocellulose degradation.

  6. An effective seeding method for restoring the surfgrass Phyllospadix japonicus using an aartificial reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung-Im; Son, Min Ho; Kim, Jeong Bae; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2014-12-01

    Phyllospadix japonicus is an abundant surfgrass that thrives mainly along the exposed rocky shores of Northeastern Asia. On the eastern coast of Korea, surfgrass populations have been adversely affected by increasing human pressures. We developed a seeding method using an artificial reef for the restoration of P. japonicus. In January 2005, we planted P. japonicus seeds on the lower part of coarse hemp-plant brush that was embedded densely on the concave surface on the top of artificial reefs. The reefs were then installed on an exposed rocky shore. To evaluate the feasibility of this seed-based surfgrass restoration technique, we monitored the seedling/shoot density and morphological characteristics of the shoots over a 2-year period. Seedlings began to emerge within the first month after seeding, reaching densities of up to 275.0 shoots m-2 by April 2005. After an initial decline, shoot density increased through the production of lateral shoots, and densities of up to 997.1 shoots m-2 were observed by the end of the experiment. Shoot height, the number of leaves, and leaf width rapidly increased during the first year after seeding, whereas the number of rhizome internodes and rhizome length rapidly increased during the second year. The P. japonicus shoots exhibited approximately 63.4 mm of rhizome elongation during the study period. Because seeded P. japonicus on the artificial reefs were successfully established at the study site, this seeding method using an artificial reef may offer an effective approach to restoring surfgrass habitat.

  7. Community Ecology of Container Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Virginia Following Invasion by Aedes japonicus

    PubMed Central

    ARMISTEAD, JENNIFER S.; NISHIMURA, NAOYA; ARIAS, JORGE R.; LOUNIBOS, L. PHILIP

    2012-01-01

    The success of an invasive species in a new region depends on its interactions with ecologically similar resident species. Invasions by disease vector mosquitoes are important as they may have ecological and epidemiological consequences. Potential interactions of a recent invasive mosquito, Aedes japonicus Theobald, with resident species in Virginia were evaluated by sampling larvae from containers and trapping adults. Distinct species compositions were observed for artificial containers and rock pools, with Ae. albopictus most abundant in the former and Ae. japonicus in the latter. However, these two species were found to co-occur in 21.2% of containers sampled. Among the six mosquito species most common in containers from May through September, 2006, only interspecific associations of Ae.japonicus with Aedesalbopictus(Skuse) and Aedestriseriatus(Say) were significant, and both were negative. In addition to differences in habitat preference, mean crowding estimates suggest that interspecific repulsion may contribute to the significant negative associations observed between these species. High relative abundances of late instars and pupae of Ae. japonicus seem to provide this species with a mechanism of evading competition with Ae. albopictus, facilitating their coexistence in artificial containers. Although annual fluctuations were observed, trends in adult populations over a 6-yr period provide no evidence of declines. In summary, this survey of diverse container types and all life stages provided only limited evidence for competitive displacements or reductions of resident container species by Ae. japonicus, as observed elsewhere in its invasive range. PMID:23270159

  8. Rapid Identification Method of Omphalotus japonicus by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).

    PubMed

    Sugano, Yohei; Sakata, Kozue; Nakamura, Kosuke; Noguchi, Akio; Fukuda, Nozomi; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kondo, Kazunari

    2017-01-01

    Omphalotus japonicus is a poisonous mushroom that grows in Japan. It can be mistaken for edible mushrooms (Shiitake, Hiratake and Mukitake), and if ingested, it causes food poisoning within 30 min to 1 hr. We established a rapid detection method using PCR-RFLP to identify O. japonicus by restriction digestion of the amplified ITS region. By using Sau96I, Bpu10I, SfcI or DrdI/HincII as a restriction enzyme, it was possible to rapidly identify and discriminate O. japonicus based on the fragment length. This study also provided a short PCR-RFLP system comprising amplification and digestion of a short 200-bp DNA fragment within the ITS region. The system could identify and discriminate O. japonicus after in vitro gastric digestion of native and heated mushroom samples as a model of food poisoning. In addition, a confirmatory assay using real-time PCR was developed to achieve more sensitive detection of O. japonicus.

  9. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  10. The research progress of antitumorous effectiveness of Stichopus japonicus acid mucopolysaccharide in north of China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yun; Wang, Bao-Lei

    2009-03-01

    The sea cucumbers growing in the estuary of the Pohai of northern China are called Stichopus japonicus and are the orthodox holothurians in traditional Chinese medicine. There are multiple biological active ingredients in S. japonicus, and S. japonicus acid mucopolysaccharide (SJAMP) is one of the important ingredients. SJAMP has multiple pharmacologic actions, such as antitumor, immunologic regulation, anticoagulated blood, and antivirus. The research on antitumor has been carried out by way of animal experiments aiming at studying internal tumor-inhibiting effect of SJAMP, and the route of administration is usually peritoneal or intragastric. Additionally, sea cucumbers have been widely recognized and applied as medicated food or therapeutic prescriptions during and after the treatment of some tumors.

  11. 77 FR 39564 - Group Lotus Plc, Receipt of Petition for Temporary Exemption From an Advanced Air Bag Requirement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Group Lotus Plc, Receipt of Petition for Temporary Exemption... Crash Protection. SUMMARY: In accordance with the procedures in 49 CFR part 555, Group Lotus Plc has... for its Evora model. The basis for the application is that the petitioner avers compliance would...

  12. Phenylpropanoid defence responses in transgenic Lotus corniculatus 1. Glutathione elicitation of isoflavan phytoalexins in transformed root cultures.

    PubMed

    Robbins, M P; Hartnoll, J; Morris, P

    1991-06-01

    When Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformed root cultures of Lotus corniculatus were treated with glutathione, isoflavan phytoalexins accumulated in both tissue and culture medium. This accumulation of phytoalexins was preceded by a transient increase in the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). Elicitation of PAL occurred throughout the growth curve of Lotus 'hairy roots' and in different sectors of transformed root material.

  13. Integrated Emergy and Economic Evaluation of Lotus-Root Production Systems on Reclaimed Wetlands Surrounding the Pearl River Estuary, China

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lotus (Neumbo nucifera, Gaertn) is the most important aquatic vegetable in China, with a cultivation history of over 3000 years. The emergy, energy, material, and money flows of three lotus root cultivation modes in Wanqingsha, Nansha District, Guangzhou, China were examined usin...

  14. Phylogenetic relationship of Lotus uliginosus symbionts with bradyrhizobia nodulating genistoid legumes.

    PubMed

    Lorite, María J; Videira e Castro, Isabel; Muñoz, Socorro; Sanjuán, Juan

    2012-02-01

    Lotus species are legumes with potential for pastures in soils with low-fertility and environmental constraints. The aim of this work was to characterize bacteria that establish efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the forage species Lotus uliginosus. A total of 39 isolates were obtained from nodules of L. uliginosus naturally growing in two different locations of Portugal. Molecular identification of the isolates plus the commercial inoculant strain NZP2039 was performed by REP-PCR, 16S rRNA RFLP, and 16S rRNA, glnII and recA sequence analyses. Limited genetic diversity was found among the L. uliginosus symbionts, which showed a close phylogenetic relationship with the species Bradyrhizobium japonicum. The symbiotic nifH, nodA and nodC gene sequences were closely related with the corresponding genes of various Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from Lupinus and other genistoid legumes and therefore were phylogenetically separated from other Lotus spp. rhizobia. The L. uliginosus bradyrhizobia were able to nodulate and fix nitrogen in association with L. uliginosus, could nodulate Lotus corniculatus with generally poor nitrogen-fixing efficiency, formed nonfixing nodules in Lotus tenuis and Lupinus luteus roots and were unable to nodulate Glycine soja or Glycine max. Thus, L. uliginosus rhizobia seem closely related to B. japonicum biovar genistearum strains.

  15. Proteomic and Epigenetic Analyses of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Petals Between Red and White cultivars.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jiao; Fu, Ziyang; Chen, Sha; Damaris, Rebecca Njeri; Wang, Kun; Li, Tingting; Yang, Pingfang

    2015-08-01

    Lotus is a vital aquatic ornamental plant with different flower colors. To explore the flower coloration mechanism in lotus, the constituents and contents of pigments in two lotus cultivars with red and white flowers were analyzed. Although flavones and flavonols were detected in both cultivars, anthocyanins could only be detected in the red cultivar. A comparative proteomics analysis on the flower petals between these two cultivars was conducted. A total of 88 differentially expressed proteins were identified with 36 more abundant and 52 less abundant in the red than in the white cultivar. Among them, four enzymes involved in the anthocyanin pathway were identified, i.e. flavanone 3-hydroxylase, anthocyanidin synthase, anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase and glutathione S-transferase. Analysis of the expression patterns of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes indicated that the anthocyanindin synthase (ANS) gene might be the critical gene determining anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation in lotus flower. Further analysis showed that different methylation intensities on the promoter sequence of the ANS gene might result in the different flower coloration in the red and white cultivar. This study provides new insights into the mechanism of flower coloration in lotus, and may be helpful in its breeding and germplasm enhancement.

  16. Accumulation and developmental toxicity of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) on the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dalin; Lv, Dongmei; Liu, Wanxin; Shen, Rong; Li, Dongmei; Hong, Haizheng

    2017-01-01

    The brominated flame retardants hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants, widely distributed in aquatic systems including the marine environment and marine organisms. HBCDs are toxic to the development of both freshwater and marine fish. However, the impacts of HBCDs on marine invertebrates are not well known. In this study, the marine copepod, Tigriopus japonicus, was used to assess the bioaccumulation and developmental toxicity of technical HBCD (tHBCD) through water-borne exposure. The uptake rate constant of tHBCD by T. japonicus was high, which resulted in high bioaccumulation potential. The bioconcentration factors of tHBCD were 8.73 × 10(4) and 6.34 × 10(4) L kg(-1) in T. japonicus, calculated using the kinetic and steady-state methods, respectively. Exposure of T. japonicus nauplii to tHBCD caused significant growth delay. The lowest-observable-effect-concentrations of tHBCD induced developmental delay were 30 and 8 μg L(-1) for the F0 and F1 generations, respectively, which suggested that the F1 generation was more sensitive to tHBCD than the F0 generation and warranted multiple-generation toxicity tests for future studies. Furthermore, exposure of the adult copepods to tHBCD induced the transcription of oxidative stress response genes and apoptotic genes, e.g., SOD,CAT, GST, OGG1, P53 and Caspase-3. It was therefore speculated that tHBCD exposure induced the generation of reactive oxygen species in T. japonicus, which activated the oxidative stress defense genes and meanwhile resulted in oxidative DNA damage. The damaged DNA activated the transcription of p53 and triggered the caspase-mediated apoptosis pathway, which may be the reason for the tHBCD induced developmental delay in T. japonicus nauplii.

  17. Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus - two invasive mosquito species with different temperature niches in Europe.

    PubMed

    Cunze, Sarah; Koch, Lisa K; Kochmann, Judith; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-11-04

    Aedes albopictus and Ae. japonicus are two of the most widespread invasive mosquito species that have recently become established in western Europe. Both species are associated with the transmission of a number of serious diseases and are projected to continue their spread in Europe. In the present study, we modelled the habitat suitability for both species under current and future climatic conditions by means of an Ensemble forecasting approach. We additionally compared the modelled MAXENT niches of Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus regarding temperature and precipitation requirements. Both species were modelled to find suitable habitat conditions in distinct areas within Europe: Ae. albopictus within the Mediterranean regions in southern Europe, Ae. japonicus within the more temperate regions of central Europe. Only in few regions, suitable habitat conditions were projected to overlap for both species. Whereas Ae. albopictus is projected to be generally promoted by climate change in Europe, the area modelled to be climatically suitable for Ae. japonicus is projected to decrease under climate change. This projection of range reduction under climate change relies on the assumption that Ae. japonicus is not able to adapt to warmer climatic conditions. The modelled MAXENT temperature niches of Ae. japonicus were found to be narrower with an optimum at lower temperatures compared to the niches of Ae. albopictus. Species distribution models identifying areas with high habitat suitability can help improving monitoring programmes for invasive species currently in place. However, as mosquito species are known to be able to adapt to new environmental conditions within the invasion range quickly, niche evolution of invasive mosquito species should be closely followed upon in future studies.

  18. Experimental transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus by Ochlerotatus j. japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Sardelis, Michael R; Dohm, David J; Pagac, Benedict; Andre, Richard G; Turell, Michael J

    2002-05-01

    We evaluated the potential for Ochlerotatus j. japonicus (Theobald), a newly recognized invasive mosquito species in the United States, to transmit eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus. Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex pipiens (L.) were similarly tested for comparison. Ochlerotatus j. japonicus and Ae. albopictus became infected and transmitted EEE virus by bite after feeding on young chickens 1 d after they had been inoculated with EEE virus (viremias ranging from 10(7.0-8.7) plaque-forming units [PFU]/ml of blood). No Cx. pipiens (n = 20) had detectable levels of virus 14 d after feeding on an EEE-virus infected chicken with a viremia of 10(8.1) PFU per ml of blood. Depending on the viral titer in the donor chicken, infection rates ranged from 55-100% for Oc. j. japonicus and 93-100% for Ae. albopictus. In these two species, dissemination rates were identical to or nearly identical to infection rates. Depending on the viral titer in the blood meal, estimated transmission rates ranged from 15 to 25% for Oc. j. japonicus and 59-63% for Ae. albopictus. Studies of replication of EEE virus in Oc. j. japonicus showed that there was an "eclipse phase" in the first 4 d after an infectious blood meal, that viral titers peak by day 7 at around 10(5.7) per mosquito, and that virus escaped the mid-gut as soon as 3 d after the infectious blood meal. These data, combined with the opportunistic feeding behavior of Oc. j. japonicus in Asia and the reported expansion of its range in the eastern United States, indicate that it could function as a bridge vector for EEE virus between the enzootic Culiseta melanura (Coquillett)-avian cycle and susceptible mammalian hosts.

  19. Hemotropic mycoplasma infection in wild black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Iso, Takehiro; Suzuki, Jin; Sasaoka, Fumina; Sashida, Hinako; Watanabe, Yusaku; Fujihara, Masatoshi; Nagai, Kazuya; Harasawa, Ryô

    2013-04-12

    This is the first report on Mycoplasma infection in wild bears. We report a novel hemotropic Mycoplasma (also called hemoplasma) detected in a free-ranging black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) in Japan. We then used real-time PCR to look for hemoplasma DNA in blood samples collected from 15 bears and found that eight (53%) were positive. Among these eight PCR samples, seven showed a melting temperature of around 85.5°C, while the remaining one showed a single peak at 82.26°C. Almost the entire region of the 16S rRNA gene as well as the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region from the sample that showed a melting temperature of 82.26°C was successfully amplified by means of end-point PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and the ITS region were then determined and compared with those of authentic Mycoplasma species. Our examinations revealed the presence of a novel hemoplasma in Japanese black bears. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Two novel furostanol saponins from the tubers of Ophiopogon japonicus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Liu, Yi-Xun; Kang, Li-Ping; Zhang, Tao; Yu, He-Shui; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the fresh tubers of Ophiopogon japonicus led to the isolation of two new furostanol saponins (1 and 2) together with two known steroidal saponins (3 and 4). Comprehensive spectroscopic analysis allowed the chemical structures of two new compounds to be elucidated as (25R)-26-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-5-ene-furost-1β,3β,22α,26-tetraol-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (1, ophiopogonin P) and (25R)-26-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-5-ene-furost-1β,3β,22α,26-tetraol-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (2, ophiopogonin Q). Furostanol saponins with the disaccharide chain linked at C-26 hydroxy group of the aglycone have been rarely reported from natural sources.

  1. Calnexin functions in antibacterial immunity of Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Wang, Xiu-Qing; Jiang, Hai-Shan; Jia, Wen-Ming; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2014-10-01

    Calnexin (Cnx) is an endoplasmic reticulum membrane-bound lectin chaperone that comprises a dedicated maturation system with another lectin chaperone calreticulin (Crt). This maturation system is known as the Cnx/Crt cycle. The main functions of Cnx are Ca(2+) storage, glycoprotein folding, and quality control of synthesis. Recent studies have shown that Cnx is important in phagocytosis and in optimizing dendritic cell immunity. However, the functions of Cnx in invertebrate innate immunity remain unclear. In this research, we characterized Cnx in the kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus (designated as MjCnx) and detected its function in shrimp immunity. The expression of MjCnx was upregulated in several tissues challenged with Vibrio anguillarum. Recombinant MjCnx could bind to bacteria by binding polysaccharides. MjCnx protein existed in the cytoplasm and on the membrane of hemocytes and was upregulated by bacterial challenge. The recombinant MjCnx enhanced the clearance of V. anguillarum in vivo, and the clearance effects were impaired after silencing MjCnx with RNA interference assay. Recombinant MjCnx promoted phagocytosis efficiency of hemocytes. These results suggest that MjCnx functions as one of the pattern recognition receptors and has crucial functions in shrimp antibacterial immunity.

  2. Physiological temperature regulation by flowers of the sacred lotus

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, R. S.

    1998-01-01

    Flowers of the sacred lotus, Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nelumbonaceae) are thermogenic and physiologically thermoregulatory. The 42 g flowers remain between 30-36°C during a 2 to 4-day period despite fluctuations in environmental temperatures between about 10-45°C. As the ambient temperature drops, the flowers increase heat production in proportion. Temperature regulation apparently occurs at a cellular level, by a steep, reversible thermal inhibition of respiration at flower temperatures above 30°C. There was a marked time lag between change in flower temperature and compensatory response, suggesting regulation through a biochemical feedback mechanism rather than structural changes in enzymes or membranes. By oxidizing carbohydrate, the flowers produce up to 1 W, with about half of the heat coming from the 8.5 g carpellary receptacle. The period of temperature regulation begins before petal opening and continues through the period of stigma receptivity. Temperature regulation may reward insect pollinators with a warm, equable environment, or it possibly enhances and coordinates flower development.

  3. Mesorhizobium olivaresii sp. nov. isolated from Lotus corniculatus nodules.

    PubMed

    Lorite, María J; Flores-Félix, José David; Peix, Álvaro; Sanjuán, Juan; Velázquez, Encarna

    2016-12-01

    In this study four Mesorhizobium strains isolated from Lotus corniculatus nodules in Granada (Spain) were characterized. Their 16S rRNA gene sequences were closely related to those of M. albiziae LMG 23507(T) and M. chacoense Pr5(T) showing 99.4 and 99.2% similarity values, respectively. The analysis of concatenated rpoB, recA, atpD and glnII genes showed they formed a cluster with internal similarities higher than 97%. The closest species also were M. albiziae LMG 23507(T) and M. chacoense Pr5(T) showing similarity values lower than 92% in rpoB, recA and glnII genes and lower than 96.5% in the atpD gene. These results indicated that the L. corniculatus strains belong to a new species of genus Mesorhizobium which was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic characterization. Therefore a new species with the name Mesorhizobium olivaresii sp. nov. is proposed, and the type strain is CPS13(T) (LMG 29295(T)=CECT 9099(T)). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Suspected photosensitisation in lambs grazing birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus).

    PubMed

    Stafford, K J; West, D M; Alley, M R; Waghorn, G C

    1995-06-01

    Suspected photosensitisation occurred in three groups of lambs grazing birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus c.v. Grasslands Goldie). In one group, sucking lambs aged about 10 weeks, grazing birdsfoot trefoil, developed skin lesions while lambs of a similar age and from the same flock grazing lucerne (Medicago sativa) or a mixed sward of both species showed no signs of photosensitisation. Affected lambs had lesions on their backs and ears. In a few animals the tips of the ears were shortened by 2-3 cm. In the affected lambs, serum liver enzymes (gamma-glutamyltransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase), bilirubin and serum Vitamin B12 levels were within the normal range. At necropsy, no significant pathological changes were detected in the liver and histological changes in the skin were consistent with primary photosensitisation. In the second group, three of 80 weaned lambs grazing the same birdsfoot trefoil at a restricted intake were affected in the same manner as the first group. In the third group, 15 animals from 28 sets of sucking twin lambs were also affected. In only two sets of twins were both lambs affected. None of the ewes grazing with the lambs in the first or third groups showed any clinical signs of photosensitisation.

  5. Adsorption characteristics of methylene blue onto agricultural wastes lotus leaf in bath and column modes.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiuli; Wang, Wei; Ma, Xiaojian

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption potential of lotus leaf to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution was investigated in batch and fixed-bed column experiments. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were employed to discuss the adsorption behavior. The results of analysis indicated that the equilibrium data were perfectly represented by Temkin isotherm and the Langmuir saturation adsorption capacity of lotus leaf was found to be 239.6 mg g(-1) at 303 K. In fixed-bed column experiments, the effects of flow rate, influent concentration and bed height on the breakthrough characteristics of adsorption were discussed. The Thomas and the bed-depth/service time (BDST) models were applied to the column experimental data to determine the characteristic parameters of the column adsorption. The two models were found to be suitable to describe the dynamic behavior of MB adsorbed onto the lotus leaf powder column.

  6. Native plants (Phellodendron amurense and Humulus japonicus) extracts act as antioxidants to support developmental competence of bovine blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Do, Geon-Yeop; Kim, Jin-Woo; Park, Hyo-Jin; Yoon, Seung-Bin; Park, Jae-Young; Yang, Seul-Gi; Jung, Bae Dong; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Kang, Man-Jong; Song, Bong-Seok; Kim, Sun-Uk; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Koo, Deog-Bon

    2017-09-01

    Phellodendron amurense (P. amurense) and Humulus japonicus (H. japonicus) are closely involved in anti-oxidative response and increasing antioxidant enzymes activities. However, the effects of their extracts on development of preimplantation bovine embryos have not been investigated. Therefore, we investigated the effects of P. amurense and H. japonicus extracts on developmental competence and quality of preimplantation bovine embryos. After in vitro fertilization, bovine embryos were cultured for 7 days in Charles Rosenkrans amino acid medium supplemented with P. amurense (0.01 μg/mL) and H. japonicus (0.01 μg/mL). The effect of this supplementation during in vitro culture on development competence and antioxidant was investigated. We observed that the blastocysts rate was significantly increased (p<0.05) in P. amurense (28.9%±2.9%), H. japonicus (30.9%±1.5%), and a mixture of P. amurense and H. japonicus (34.8%± 2.1%) treated groups compared with the control group (25.4%±1.6%). We next confirmed that the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly decreased (p<0.01) in P. amurense and/or H. japonicus extract treated groups when compared with the control group. Our results also showed that expression of cleaved caspase-3 and apoptotic cells of blastocysts were significantly decreased (p<0.05) in bovine blastocysts derived from both P. amurense and H. japonicus extract treated embryos. These results suggest that proper treatment with P. amurense and H. japonicus extracts in the development of preimplantation bovine embryos improves the quality of blastocysts, which may be related to the reduction of ROS level and apoptosis.

  7. Expression of a complete soybean leghemoglobin gene in root nodules of transgenic Lotus corniculatus.

    PubMed

    Stougaard, J; Petersen, T E; Marcker, K A

    1987-08-01

    The complete soybean leghemoglobin lbc(3) gene was transferred into the legume Lotus corniculatus using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes vector system. Organ-specific expression of the soybean gene was observed in root nodules formed on regenerated transgenic plants after infection with Rhizobium loti. The primary transcript was processed in the same way as in soybean nodules and the resulting mRNA was translated into Lbc(3) protein. Quantitative determination of the Lbc(3) protein in nodules of transgenic plants indicated that the steady-state level of the soybean protein is comparable to that of endogenous Lotus leghemoglobin.

  8. Geospatial analysis of invasion of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus: competition with Aedes japonicus japonicus in its northern limit area in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nihei, Naoko; Komagata, Osamu; Mochizuki, Kan-ichiro; Kobayashi, Mutsuo

    2014-05-01

    The mosquito Aedes albopictus, indigenous to Southeast Asia and nearby islands, has spread almost worldwide during recent decades. We confirm the invasion of this mosquito, first reported in Yamagata city in northeast Honshu, Japan in 2000. Previously, only Ae. japonicus japonicus had been collected in this place, but 2 years later, the population of Ae. albopictus had increased, so more than 80% of the total number of larval colonies there consisted of this species. In contrast to Yamagata's new residential area, now infested by Ae. albopictus, the original mosquito remains in the city but its habitats are generally closer to the surrounding mountains, where the normalized difference vegetation index is higher. The factors affecting the distribution of both species in Yamagata city were studied using geographical information systems (GIS) based on data derived from field surveys, aerial photographs, satellite images and digital maps. The range of Aedes mosquito habitats was estimated and visualised on polygon maps and no significant differences were noted when the polygon area was calculated by GIS software in comparison with the satellite images. Although Ae. j. japonicus was expected to be rapidly overrun by Ae. albopictus, this did not happen. Currently, both species coexist; not only in separate sites, but also simultaneously in various water bodies, where larvae from both species have frequently been seen. However, the competitive relationship between these two Aedes species within a warming environment is an issue that should be closely monitored.

  9. Characterization and application of monoclonal antibodies against Shewanella marisflavi, a novel pathogen of Apostichopus japonicus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shewanella marisflavi strain AP629 was certified as a novel pathogen of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. In this study, four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (3C1, 3D9, 2F2, 2A8) against strain AP629 were developed by immunizing Balb/C mice. 3C1 and 3D9 recognized S. marisflavi only, showing no ...

  10. Detection of VM55599 and preparaherquamide from Aspergillus japonicus and Penicillium fellutanum: biosynthetic implications.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yousong; Gruschow, Sabine; Greshock, Thomas J; Finefield, Jennifer M; Sherman, David H; Williams, Robert M

    2008-09-01

    The secondary metabolites VM55599 (4) and preparaherquamide (5) have been identified by LC-MS(n) analysis as natural metabolites in cultures of Penicillium fellutanum, whereas preparaherquamide has been identified only in cultures of Aspergillus japonicus. In accord with a previous proposal, the identification of both metabolites, which have a diastereomeric relationship, provides indirect support for a unified biosynthetic scheme.

  11. Production, characterization and application of monoclonal antibody to spherulocytes: A subpopulation of coelomocytes of Apostichopus japonicus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One monoclonal antibody (mAb 3F6) against coelomocytes of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was developed by immunization of Balb/C mice. Analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay test (IIFAT), immunocytochemical assay (ICA),Western blotting and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS), mAb 3...

  12. The introduced Asian parasitic copepod Neoergasilus japonicus (Harada) (Cyclopoida: Ergasilidae) from endangered cichlid teleosts in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Paredes-Trujillo, Amelia; González-Solís, David

    2010-11-01

    The cyclopoid copepod Neoergasilus japonicus ( Harada, 1930 ) is recorded from three endangered or threatened fish species from southeast Mexico: the tailbar cichlid Vieja hartwegi (Taylor and Miller, 1980); the Angostura cichlid V. breidohri (Werner and Stawikowski, 1987); and the sieve cichlid C. grammodes (Taylor and Miller, 1980). This ectoparasitic copepod is considered, together with most other members of Neoergasilus, an Eastern Asian form. N. japonicus is one of the most widespread parasitic Asian copepods, as it has rapidly invaded Europe and North America, including Mexico. We estimated the prevalence, mean abundance, and intensity of infection of N. japonicus in these cichlid teleosts; our data agree with previous works stating the high prevalence of this ectoparasite. This copepod has a wide range of hosts among freshwater fish taxa, but this is only the second published report from cichlids in the Neotropical region. The three cichlids surveyed, V. hartwegi, V. breidohri, and C. grammodes, are new hosts of this copepod. Its occurrence in Mexico is attributed to different events of introduction by human agency. This is the southernmost record of N. japonicus in continental America. It is a matter of concern that this copepod is parasitizing endangered or threatened endemic cichlids in the Neotropical region. Because its high infective efficiency and ability to shift hosts, this Asian parasite is expected to spread farther southwards into Central and South America.

  13. Antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Du, Huan; You, Jeong-Soon; Zhao, Xu; Park, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chang, Kyung-Ja

    2010-08-24

    Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaf has been used to treat obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation in high fat diet-induced obese rats. Four week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups with 8 rats in each group for a period of 6 weeks (normal diet, N group; high fat diet, HF group; high fat diet + lotus leaf hot water extract, HFL group; high fat diet + lotus leaf hot water extract + taurine, HFLT group). Lotus leaf hot water extract was orally administrated to HFL and HFLT groups and the same amount of distilled water was orally administered (400 mg/kg/day) to N and HF groups. Taurine was supplemented by dissolving in feed water (3% w/v). The body weight gain and relative weights of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues were significantly lower in N, HFL and HFLT groups compared to HF group. HFL and HFLT groups showed lower concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum. HFLT group showed higher the ratio of high density lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol compared to HFL group. HFLT group showed better blood lipid profiles compared to HFL group. Lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation showed antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects in high fat diet-induced obese rats, which was more effective than lotus leaf hot water extract alone.

  14. Antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation in rats fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaf has been used to treat obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation in high fat diet-induced obese rats. Methods Four week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups with 8 rats in each group for a period of 6 weeks (normal diet, N group; high fat diet, HF group; high fat diet + lotus leaf hot water extract, HFL group; high fat diet + lotus leaf hot water extract + taurine, HFLT group). Lotus leaf hot water extract was orally administrated to HFL and HFLT groups and the same amount of distilled water was orally administered (400 mg/kg/day) to N and HF groups. Taurine was supplemented by dissolving in feed water (3% w/v). Results The body weight gain and relative weights of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues were significantly lower in N, HFL and HFLT groups compared to HF group. HFL and HFLT groups showed lower concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum. HFLT group showed higher the ratio of high density lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol compared to HFL group. HFLT group showed better blood lipid profiles compared to HFL group. Conclusions Lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation showed antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects in high fat diet-induced obese rats, which was more effective than lotus leaf hot water extract alone. PMID:20804619

  15. Metabolomic and Proteomic Profiles Reveal the Dynamics of Primary Metabolism during Seed Development of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Fu, Jinlei; Li, Ming; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Yang, Pingfang

    2016-01-01

    Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) belongs to the Nelumbonaceae family. Its seeds are widely consumed in Asian countries as snacks or even medicine. Besides the market value, lotus seed also plays a crucial role in the lotus life cycle. Consequently, it is essential to gain a comprehensive understanding of the development of lotus seed. During its development, lotus seed undergoes cell division, expansion, reserve accumulation, desiccation, and maturation phases. We observed morphological and biochemical changes from 10 to 25 days after pollination (DAP) which corresponded to the reserve synthesis and accumulation phase. The volume of the seed expanded until 20 DAP with the color of the seed coat changing from yellow-green to dark green and gradually fading again. Starch and protein rapidly accumulated from 15 to 20 DAP. To further reveal metabolic adaptation, primary metabolites and proteins profiles were obtained using mass spectrometry based platforms. Metabolites and enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, glycolysis, TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism showed sequential dynamics enabling the clear separation of the different metabolic states during lotus seed development. The integration of the data revealed a highly significant metabolic switch at 15 DAP going through a transition of metabolically highly active tissue to the preparation of storage tissue. The results provide a reference data set for the evaluation of primary metabolism during lotus seed development. PMID:27375629

  16. Metabolomic and Proteomic Profiles Reveal the Dynamics of Primary Metabolism during Seed Development of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera).

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Fu, Jinlei; Li, Ming; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Yang, Pingfang

    2016-01-01

    Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) belongs to the Nelumbonaceae family. Its seeds are widely consumed in Asian countries as snacks or even medicine. Besides the market value, lotus seed also plays a crucial role in the lotus life cycle. Consequently, it is essential to gain a comprehensive understanding of the development of lotus seed. During its development, lotus seed undergoes cell division, expansion, reserve accumulation, desiccation, and maturation phases. We observed morphological and biochemical changes from 10 to 25 days after pollination (DAP) which corresponded to the reserve synthesis and accumulation phase. The volume of the seed expanded until 20 DAP with the color of the seed coat changing from yellow-green to dark green and gradually fading again. Starch and protein rapidly accumulated from 15 to 20 DAP. To further reveal metabolic adaptation, primary metabolites and proteins profiles were obtained using mass spectrometry based platforms. Metabolites and enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, glycolysis, TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism showed sequential dynamics enabling the clear separation of the different metabolic states during lotus seed development. The integration of the data revealed a highly significant metabolic switch at 15 DAP going through a transition of metabolically highly active tissue to the preparation of storage tissue. The results provide a reference data set for the evaluation of primary metabolism during lotus seed development.

  17. Mesorhizobium helmanticense sp. nov., isolated from Lotus corniculatus nodules.

    PubMed

    Marcos-García, Marta; Menéndez, Esther; Ramírez-Bahena, Marta Helena; Mateos, Pedro F; Peix, Álvaro; Velazquez, Encarna; Rivas, Raúl

    2017-07-01

    In this study, three strains belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium, CSLC115NT, CSLC19N and CSLC37N, isolated from Lotus corniculatus nodules in Spain, were characterized. Their 16S rRNA gene sequences were closely related to those of Mesorhizobium metallidurans STM 2683T, Mesorhizobium tianshanense A-1BST, Mesorhizobium tarimense CCBAU 83306T, Mesorhizobium gobiense CCBAU 83330T and Mesorhizobium caraganae CCBAU 11299T with similarity values higher than 99.7 %. The analysis of concatenated recA and glnII genes showed that the most closely related type strains were M. metallidurans STM 2683T, M. tianshanense A-1BST and M. tarimense CCBAU 83306T with 96, 95 and 94 % similarity values in the recA gene and 95, 94 and 94 % in the glnII gene, respectively. M. metallidurans LMG 24485T, M. tianshanense USDA 3592T and M. tarimense LMG 24338T showed means of 44, 41 and 42 % DNA-DNA relatedness, respectively, with respect to strain CSLC115NT. The major fatty acids were those from summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c), C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω7c 11-methyl. The results of phenotypic characterization support that the L. corniculatus nodulating strains analysed in this work belong to a novel species of the genus Mesorhizobium for which the name Mesorhizobium helmanticense sp. nov. is proposed, and the type strain is CSLC115NT (= LMG 29734T=CECT 9168T).

  18. Pedobacter lotistagni sp. nov. isolated from lotus pond water.

    PubMed

    Singh, Hina; Du, Juan; Ngo, Hien T T; Kim, Ki-Young; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2015-04-01

    A light-yellow coloured, Gram-stain negative, rod-shaped, aerobic, non-motile bacterium, designated THG-DN6.8(T), was isolated from a lotus pond near Donghaksa temple in Daejeon, South Korea. The strain was found to grow well on nutrient agar, optimally at pH 6.0-7.5, at temperature 25-28 °C and in the presence of 0.5 % NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain THG-DN6.8(T) was found to share the highest sequence similarity with Pedobacter koreensis KCTC 12536(T), followed by Pedobacter glacialis CCTCC AB 2012941(T), Pedobacter kyungheensis KACC 16221(T), Pedobacter caeni LMG 22862(T), Pedobacter insulae KCTC 12820(T) and Pedobacter boryungensis KCTC 23344 (T). The DNA G+C content was determined to be 36.8 mol%. In DNA-DNA hybridization tests, the DNA relatedness between strain THG-DN6.8(T) and its closest phylogenetic neighbour P. koreensis was found to be below 10 %. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was identified as menaquinone MK-7 and the major polar lipid as phosphatidylethanolamine. The major fatty acids of strain THG-DN6.8(T) were identified as iso-C15:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C16:1 ω6c and/or C16:1 ω7c (summed feature 3). On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics, genotypic analysis and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain THG-DN6.8(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Pedobacter, for which the name Pedobacter lotistagni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-DN6.8(T) (= KCTC 42229(T) = JCM 30354(T)).

  19. Novosphingobium lotistagni sp. nov., isolated from a lotus pond.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Hien T T; Trinh, Huan; Kim, Jung-Hee; Yang, Jung-Eun; Won, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Ju-Han; Kook, MooChang; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2016-11-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped and yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain THG-DN6.20T, was isolated from a lotus pond near Donghaksa temple in Daejeon, Republic of Korea. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strain THG-DN6.20T was found to be most closely related to Novosphingobium rosa IFO 15208T (97.6 % sequence similarity), Novosphingobium sediminicola HU1-AH51T (97.5 %) and Novosphingobium barchaimii LL02T (96.9 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain THG-DN6.20T and its phylogenetically closest neighbours was below 60.0 %. The respiratory quinone and polyamine detected in strain THG-DN6.20T were ubiquinone Q-10 and spermidine, respectively. The DNA G+C content was 63.1 mol%. The major polar lipids were found to be phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, sphingoglycolipid and phosphatidylcholine. The major fatty acids were identified as C16 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c) and C14 : 0 2-OH. These data supported the affiliation of strain THG-DN6.20T to the genus Novosphingobium. Strain THG-DN6.20T could be distinguished from related species of the genus Novosphingobium by physiological and biochemical characteristics. Therefore, the novel isolate represents a novel species, for which the name Novosphingobium lotistagni sp. nov. is proposed, with THG-DN6.20T as the type strain (=KACC 18541T=CCTCC AB 2015354T).

  20. Enzymatic elucidation of haemocyanin from Kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus and its molecular recognition mechanism towards pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sivakamavalli, Jeyachandran; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2015-01-01

    Haemocyanin is an important non-specific immune protein present in the hemolymph of invertebrates, which have the ability to recognize the microbial pathogens and trigger the innate immune system. In this study, we isolated and purified the haemocyanin using gel filtration chromatography and investigated its microbial recognition mechanism against the invading pathogens. Kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus haemocyanin showed the single band with a molecular weight of 76 kDa on SDS-PAGE and its molecular mass was analysed through the MALDI. Pathogen recognition mechanism of M. japonicus haemocyanin was detected through bacterial agglutination, agglutination inhibition and prophenoloxidase activity. M. japonicus haemocyanin agglutinate all human blood RBC types and showed the bacterial agglutination against all tested Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis and Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at the concentrations ranging from 30 to 50 μg/ml. Agglutination was inhibited by 50-200 mM of N-acetylneuraminic acid, a-D-glucose, D-galactose and D-xylose. Our results suggest that, 76 kDa subunit of M. japonicus haemocyanin recognize the pathogenic surface proteins which are present on the outer membrane of the bacteria and mediates the bacterial agglutination through haemocytes. This bacterial agglutination was visualized through Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). This present study would be helpful to explore the importance of haemocyanin in innate immune response of M. japonicus and its eliciting pathogen recognition mechanism leads to the development of innate immunity in crustaceans.

  1. Draft genome of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and genetic polymorphism among color variants.

    PubMed

    Jo, Jihoon; Oh, Jooseong; Lee, Hyun-Gwan; Hong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Sung-Gwon; Cheon, Seongmin; Kern, Elizabeth M A; Jin, Soyeong; Cho, Sung-Jin; Park, Joong-Ki; Park, Chungoo

    2017-01-01

    The Japanese sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka 1867) is an economically important species as a source of seafood and ingredient in traditional medicine. It is mainly found off the coasts of northeast Asia. Recently, substantial exploitation and widespread biotic diseases in A. japonicus have generated increasing conservation concern. However, the genomic knowledge base and resources available for researchers to use in managing this natural resource and to establish genetically based breeding systems for sea cucumber aquaculture are still in a nascent stage. A total of 312 Gb of raw sequences were generated using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and assembled to a final size of 0.66 Gb, which is about 80.5% of the estimated genome size (0.82 Gb). We observed nucleotide-level heterozygosity within the assembled genome to be 0.986%. The resulting draft genome assembly comprising 132 607 scaffolds with an N50 value of 10.5 kb contains a total of 21 771 predicted protein-coding genes. We identified 6.6-14.5 million heterozygous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the assembled genome of the three natural color variants (green, red, and black), resulting in an estimated nucleotide diversity of 0.00146. We report the first draft genome of A. japonicus and provide a general overview of the genetic variation in the three major color variants of A. japonicus. These data will help provide a comprehensive view of the genetic, physiological, and evolutionary relationships among color variants in A. japonicus, and will be invaluable resources for sea cucumber genomic research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Comparative transcriptome analysis of three color variants of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Jo, Jihoon; Park, Jongsun; Lee, Hyun-Gwan; Kern, Elizabeth M A; Cheon, Seongmin; Jin, Soyeong; Park, Joong-Ki; Cho, Sung-Jin; Park, Chungoo

    2016-08-01

    The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka 1867 represents an important resource in biomedical research, traditional medicine, and the seafood industry. Much of the commercial value of A. japonicus is determined by dorsal/ventral color variation (red, green, and black), yet the taxonomic relationships between these color variants are not clearly understood. We performed the first comparative analysis of de novo assembled transcriptome data from three color variants of A. japonicus. Using the Illumina platform, we sequenced nearly 177,596,774 clean reads representing a total of 18.2Gbp of sea cucumber transcriptome. A comparison of over 0.3 million transcript scaffolds against the Uniprot/Swiss-Prot database yielded 8513, 8602, and 8588 positive matches for green, red, and black body color transcriptomes, respectively. Using the Panther gene classification system, we assessed an extensive and diverse set of expressed genes in three color variants and found that (1) among the three color variants of A. japonicus, genes associated with RNA binding protein, oxidoreductase, nucleic acid binding, transferase, and KRAB box transcription factor were most commonly expressed; and (2) the main protein functional classes are differently regulated in all three color variants (extracellular matrix protein and phosphatase for green color, transporter and potassium channel for red color, and G-protein modulator and enzyme modulator for black color). This work will assist in the discovery and annotation of novel genes that play significant morphological and physiological roles in color variants of A. japonicus, and these sequence data will provide a useful set of resources for the rapidly growing sea cucumber aquaculture industry.

  3. Influence of salinity on the early development and biochemical dynamics of a marine fish, Inimicus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xu; Huang, Xuxiong; Wen, Wen

    2017-05-01

    Fertilised eggs of the devil stringer (Inimicus japonicus) were incubated at different salinity levels (21, 25, 29, 33, and 37), and then the hatching performances, morphological parameters, and biochemical composition (protein, lipid and carbohydrate) of the larvae were assayed to determine the influence of salinity on the early development of I. japonicus. The tested salinity levels did not affect the times of hatching or mouth opening for yolk-sac larvae. However, the salinity significantly influenced the hatching and survival rates of open-mouthed larvae, as well as the morphology of yolk-sac larvae. The data indicated that 30.5 to 37.3 and 24.4 to 29.8 were suitable salinity ranges for the survival of embryos and larvae of I. japonicus, respectively. Larvae incubated at a salinity level of 29 had the greatest full lengths, and decreasing yolk volume was positively correlated with the environmental salinity. With increasing salinity, the individual dry weights of newly hatched larvae or open-mouthed larvae decreased significantly. Newly hatched larvae incubated at a salinity level of 29 had the greatest metabolic substrate contents and gross energy levels, while the openmouthed larvae's greatest values occurred at a salinity level of 25. Larvae incubated in the salinity range of 33 to 37 had the lowest nutritional reserves and energy values. Thus, the I. japonicus yolk-sac larvae acclimated more readily to the lower salinity level than the embryos, and higher salinity levels negatively influenced larval growth and development. In conclusion, the environmental salinity level should be maintained at 29-33 during embryogenesis and at 25-29 during early larval development for this species. Our results can be used to provide optimum aquaculture conditions for the early larval development of I. japonicus.

  4. Association of cerebrospinal fluid levels of lateral olfactory tract usher substance (LOTUS) with disease activity in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Keita; Kurihara, Yuji; Suzuki, Yume; Goshima, Yoshio; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Takei, Kohtaro

    2015-02-01

    Although multiple sclerosis (MS) is generally considered an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, axonal degeneration through Nogo receptor-1 signaling was recently recognized as an important pathological feature. Our previous identification of lateral olfactory tract usher substance (LOTUS), an endogenous Nogo receptor-1 antagonist, prompted us to analyze the relationship between LOTUS levels of cerebrospinal fluid and the clinical course of MS to evaluate whether LOTUS could be a useful biomarker for MS. To examine variations in LOTUS concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with MS in accordance with their clinical course. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were obtained retrospectively from normal controls (NCs; n = 27) and patients with MS (n = 40), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (n = 22), and multiple system atrophy (n = 10) between January 1, 2008, and January 1, 2014. Patients with MS were divided into relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS; n = 30) and secondary progressive MS (n = 10). Patients with RRMS were further divided into relapse and remission groups. The LOTUS concentration in cerebropsinal fluid was quantitatively detected by immunoblotting using a specific LOTUS antibody and the concentrations compared in accordance with the patients' clinical course, such as remission and relapse groups in RRMS and secondary progressive MS. The mean (SD) cerebrospinal fluid LOTUS concentration in the relapse group of RRMS (9.3 [3.6] µg/dL) was lower than that of NCs (19.2 [4.7] µg/dL; P < .001) whereas the level in the remission group of RRMS (19.6 [5.8] µg/dL) was similar to that of NCs. The LOTUS concentration in SPMS (6.7 [1.4] µg/dL; P < .001) was lower than that of NCs and the remission group of RRMS. The LOTUS levels in other neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple system atrophy, were normal. Variations in LOTUS concentrations were correlated with disease

  5. Changes in collagenous tissue microstructures and distributions of cathepsin L in body wall of autolytic sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Da-Yong; Ma, Dong-Dong; Liu, Yan-Fei; Li, Dong-Mei; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Tan, Ming-Qian; Du, Ming; Zhu, Bei-Wei

    2016-12-01

    The autolysis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) was induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and the changes of microstructures of collagenous tissues and distributions of cathepsin L were investigated using histological and histochemical techniques. Intact collagen fibers in fresh S. japonicus dermis were disaggregated into collagen fibrils after UV stimuli. Cathepsin L was identified inside the surface of vacuoles in the fresh S. japonicus dermis cells. After the UV stimuli, the membranes of vacuoles and cells were fused together, and cathepsin L was released from cells and diffused into tissues. The density of cathepsin L was positively correlated with the speed and degree of autolysis in different layers of body wall. Our results revealed that lysosomal cathepsin L was released from cells in response to UV stimuli, which contacts and degrades the extracellular substrates such as collagen fibers, and thus participates in the autolysis of S. japonicus.

  6. Effects of elevated pCO2 on reproductive properties of the benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus and gastropod Babylonia japonica.

    PubMed

    Kita, Jun; Kikkawa, Takashi; Asai, Takamasa; Ishimatsu, Atsushi

    2013-08-30

    We investigated the effects of elevated pCO2 in seawater both on the acute mortality and the reproductive properties of the benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus and gastropod Babylonia japonica with the purpose of accumulating basic data for assessing potential environmental impacts of sub-sea geological storage of anthropogenic CO2 in Japan. Acute tests showed that nauplii of T. japonicus have a high tolerance to elevated pCO2 environments. Full life cycle tests on T. japonicus indicated NOEC=5800μatm and LOEC=37,000μatm. Adult B. japonica showed remarkable resistance to elevated pCO2 in the acute tests. Embryonic development of B. japonica showed a NOEC=1500μatm and LOEC=5400μatm. T. japonicus showed high resistance to elevated pCO2 throughout the life cycle and B. japonica are rather sensitive during the veliger stage when they started to form their shells.

  7. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family in the sacred lotus, Nelumbo nucifera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nelumbo nucifera (Sacred Lotus) is a basal eudicot with exceptional physiological and metabolic properties including seed longevity, adaptations for an aquatic habit, and floral thermiogenesis. It also occupies a unique position in the phylogeny of land plants and can be a useful species for studies...

  8. Students' Alternative Conceptions about the Lotus Effect: To Confront or to Ignore?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubisch, Franziska; Heyne, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    At the botanical garden of the University of Würzburg, we conducted practical lessons on bionics, focused on the lotus effect, with 260 students. Those approx. 14 years old, 8th-grade mid-level students were divided into two groups. During an instructional discussion about the topic, one group was confronted with their alternative conceptions…

  9. Students' Alternative Conceptions about the Lotus Effect: To Confront or to Ignore?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubisch, Franziska; Heyne, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    At the botanical garden of the University of Würzburg, we conducted practical lessons on bionics, focused on the lotus effect, with 260 students. Those approx. 14 years old, 8th-grade mid-level students were divided into two groups. During an instructional discussion about the topic, one group was confronted with their alternative conceptions…

  10. Prolific plant regeneration from protoplast-derived tissues of Lotus corniculatus L. (birdsfoot trefoil).

    PubMed

    Ahuja, P S; Hadiuzzaman, S; Davey, M R; Cocking, E C

    1983-04-01

    Protoplasts isolated enzymatically from seedling roots, hypocotyls and cotyledons of Lotus corniculatus L. produced callus which underwent prolific shoot regeneration. The rapidity and ease of recovering plants from protoplast-derived tissues makes this forage legume an attractive experimental system for genetic manipulation.

  11. Lotus-leaf-like structured chitosan-polyvinyl pyrrolidone films as an anti-adhesion barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jin Ik; Kang, Min Ji; Lee, Woo-Kul

    2014-11-01

    For postsurgical anti-adhesion barrier applications, lotus-leaf-like structured chitosan-PVP films were prepared using a solution casting method with dodecyltrichloro-immobilized SiO2 nanoparticles. We evaluated whether the lotus-leaf-like structured chitosan-PVP films (L-chitosan-PVP) could be applied as postsurgical anti-adhesion barriers. A recovery test using a tensile strength testing machine and measurement of crystallinity using X-ray diffraction indicated that films with 75% PVP were the optimal composition of the chitosan-PVP films. Also, dodecyltrichloro-immobilized SiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized and sprayed on the film after pretreatment with the instant bio-glue. Analysis of cell adhesion, proliferation, and anti-thrombus efficiency were performed via a WST assay, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and hemacytometry. The contact angle with the lotus-leaf-like surface was of approximately 150°. Furthermore, the L-chitosan-PVP film yielded a lower cell and platelet adhesion rate (around less than 4%) than that yielded by the untreated film. These results indicate that the lotus-leaf-like structure has a unique property and that this novel L-chitosan-PVP film can be applied as a blood/tissue-compatible, biodegradable material for implantable medical devices that need an anti-adhesion barrier.

  12. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits enzymatic browning of fresh-cut lotus root slices by regulating phenolic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Tao; Nie, Qixing; Zhang, Fengying; Zhu, Liqin

    2015-06-15

    The effect of fumigation with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas on inhibiting enzymatic browning of fresh-cut lotus root slices was investigated. Browning degree, changes in color, total phenol content, superoxide anion production rate (O2(-)), H2O2 content, antioxidant capacities (DPPH radical scavenging ability, ABTS radical scavenging activity and the reducing power) and activities of the phenol metabolism-associated enzymes including phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated. The results showed that treatment with 15 μl L(-1) H2S significantly inhibited the browning of fresh-cut lotus root slices (P<0.05), reduced significantly O2(-) production rate and H2O2 content, and enhanced antioxidant capacities (P<0.05). PPO and POD activities in the fresh-cut lotus root slices were also significantly inhibited by treatment with H2S (P<0.05). This study suggested that treatment with exogenous H2S could inhibit the browning of fresh-cut lotus root slices by enhancing antioxidant capacities to alleviate the oxidative damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In Vivo Antioxidant Properties of Lotus Root and Cucumber: A Pilot Comparative Study in Aged Subjects.

    PubMed

    Ji, L; Gao, W; Wei, J; Pu, L; Yang, J; Guo, C

    2015-08-01

    To compare the effects of lotus root and cucumber on antioxidant function in aged subjects. Pilot comparative study. Research setting with vegetable intervention. Healthy aged subjects over the age of sixty. 30-day supplementation of lotus root or cucumber powder. Plasma value of ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, activity of antioxidant enzymes, contents of some antioxidants, oxidation products, hemolysis, blood mononuclear cell DNA damage and urinary excretion of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine were measured before and after the intervention. Plasma glutathione peroxidase activity, contents of vitamin C, total phenolics were significantly increased, while plasma uric acid content significantly decreased in both groups at the end of the intervention. Meanwhile, hemolysis was significantly reduced in both groups and DNA injury rate of blood mononuclear cells in lotus root group and the ratio of comet tail length to total length in cucumber group were also declined significantly post-intervention. However, plasma value of ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, contents of reduced glutathione, vitamin E, malondialdehyde, oxidized low density lipoprotein, carbonyls and activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase were not changed significantly in both group after the intervention. These results suggest that lotus root and cucumber are not remarkably different in improving antioxidant function in aged subjects, though they are significantly different in antioxidant capacity in vitro. The benefits observed in this study may come from the additive or synergistic combinations of antioxidants contained in vegetables.

  14. LABORATORY-ACQUIRED MYCOSES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    laboratory- acquired mycoses . Insofar as possible, the etiological fungus, type of laboratory, classification of personnel, type of work conducted, and other...pertinent data have been listed in this study. More than 288 laboratory- acquired mycoses are described here, including 108 cases of

  15. Acquired Idiopathic Generalized Anhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Gangadharan, Geethu; Criton, Sebastian; Surendran, Divya

    2015-01-01

    Acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis is a rare condition, where the exact pathomechanism is unknown. We report a case of acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis in a patient who later developed lichen planus. Here an autoimmune-mediated destruction of sweat glands may be the probable pathomechanism.

  16. Genome of the long-living sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sacred lotus is a basal eudicot with agricultural, medicinal, cultural and religious importance. It was domesticated in Asia about 7,000 years ago, and cultivated for its rhizomes and seeds as a food crop. It is particularly noted for its 1,300-year seed longevity and exceptional water repellency, known as the lotus effect. The latter property is due to the nanoscopic closely packed protuberances of its self-cleaning leaf surface, which have been adapted for the manufacture of a self-cleaning industrial paint, Lotusan. Results The genome of the China Antique variety of the sacred lotus was sequenced with Illumina and 454 technologies, at respective depths of 101× and 5.2×. The final assembly has a contig N50 of 38.8 kbp and a scaffold N50 of 3.4 Mbp, and covers 86.5% of the estimated 929 Mbp total genome size. The genome notably lacks the paleo-triplication observed in other eudicots, but reveals a lineage-specific duplication. The genome has evidence of slow evolution, with a 30% slower nucleotide mutation rate than observed in grape. Comparisons of the available sequenced genomes suggest a minimum gene set for vascular plants of 4,223 genes. Strikingly, the sacred lotus has 16 COG2132 multi-copper oxidase family proteins with root-specific expression; these are involved in root meristem phosphate starvation, reflecting adaptation to limited nutrient availability in an aquatic environment. Conclusions The slow nucleotide substitution rate makes the sacred lotus a better resource than the current standard, grape, for reconstructing the pan-eudicot genome, and should therefore accelerate comparative analysis between eudicots and monocots. PMID:23663246

  17. Molecular cloning, phylogenetic analysis and developmental expression of a vitellogenin (Vg) gene from the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyun-Woo; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Ki, Jang-Seu; Park, Heum Gi; Ryu, Jae-Chun; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2008-08-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is the precursor of egg yolk protein vitellins, which serve as energy resource for embryonic development. Vg measurement has been used as a biomarker of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Therefore, Vg gene structure has been identified from several species used in environmental monitoring of EDCs. Among the copepods, except from the salmon louse, there is no report on Vg genes or their products. By using molecular cloning, we determined the full Vg gene sequence from the intertidal copepod, Tigriopus japonicus. The full cDNA sequence was of 5692 bp containing 5529 bp of open reading frame (ORF) encoding for 1842 amino acids. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that T. japonicus Vg is distinct from the other arthropods as it formed a clade with salmon louse only. The expression of Vg transcripts was negligible in nauplii; detectable only at the copepodid stage 3. Females expressed over 270 times more Vg transcripts than males. The promoter sequence of T. japonicus Vg gene revealed an estrogen receptor (ER) half site and a metal response element (MRE). When copepods were exposed to trace metals, cadmium after 96 h exposure caused significantly higher induction of Vg transcripts. Taken together, molecular analysis of T. japonicus Vg would be helpful in understanding its role in development. Previous studies have established T. japonicus as a potential model for testing of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The study of T. japonicus Vg will fuel momentum in using this species in comparative molecular endocrinology and biomonitoring of EDCs.

  18. Acquired inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Ensrud, E R; Krivickas, L S

    2001-05-01

    The acquired demyelinating neuropathies can be divided into those with an acute onset and course and those with a more chronic course. The acute neuropathies present as Guillain-Barré syndrome and include acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP), Miller Fisher syndrome, acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN), and acute pandysautonomia. The chronic neuropathies are collectively known as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and include MADSAM (multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy, also know as Lewis-Sumner syndrome) and DADS (distal acquired demyelinating symmetric neuropathy) as variants. The clinical features, pathology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and prognosis of these neuropathies are discussed.

  19. Separation of Oligosaccharides from Lotus Seeds via Medium-pressure Liquid Chromatography Coupled with ELSD and DAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xu; Zheng, Zhichang; Miao, Song; Li, Huang; Guo, Zebin; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Yafeng; Zheng, Baodong; Xiao, Jianbo

    2017-03-01

    Lotus seeds were identified by the Ministry of Public Health of China as both food and medicine. One general function of lotus seeds is to improve intestinal health. However, to date, studies evaluating the relationship between bioactive compounds in lotus seeds and the physiological activity of the intestine are limited. In the present study, by using medium pressure liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light-scattering detector and diode-array detector, five oligosaccharides were isolated and their structures were further characterized by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In vitro testing determined that LOS3-1 and LOS4 elicited relatively good proliferative effects on Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. These results indicated a structure-function relationship between the physiological activity of oligosaccharides in lotus seeds and the number of probiotics applied, thus providing room for improvement of this particular feature. Intestinal probiotics may potentially become a new effective drug target for the regulation of immunity.

  20. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels in the blood Sputum culture or sputum gram stain , to check what germs are causing the pneumonia ... Aspiration Immunodeficiency disorders Pneumonia - adults (community acquired) Patient Instructions Pneumonia in adults - discharge Review Date 2/2/ ...

  1. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acquired Cerebral Trauma: Epilogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    The article summarizes a series of articles concerning acquired cerebral trauma. Reviewed are technological advances, treatment, assessment, potential innovative therapies, long-term outcome, family impact of chronic brain injury, and prevention. (DB)

  3. Pneumonia - children - community acquired

    MedlinePlus

    ... CL, Bradley JS. Pediatric community-acquired pneumonia. In: Cherry JD, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinback WJ, and Hotez PJ, eds. Feigin and Cherry's Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  4. A comparison of the effects of topical green tea and lotus on facial sebum control in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, T; Akhtar, N; Moldovan, C

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim: Green tea and lotus hold several synergistic antioxidant compounds. This investigation aimed to assess the efficacy of green tea and green tea plus lotus vs. placebo multiple emulsions in healthy adults for controlling casual sebum secretions. Participants and Methods: After signing informed consents, twenty-two participants were registered in a single-blinded, placebo-controlled, split-face comparative study. Group 1 participants applied a multiple emulsion formulation with green tea extract while group 2 applied a multiple emulsion with green tea plus lotus extract in a 60 days treatment course. A non-invasive photometric device (Sebumeter™) has been used for the measurement of casual sebum secretions on both sides of the face. Results: Steady and statistically significant reductions in sebum secretions were noted for mono (green tea) and combined treatments (green tea plus lotus) compared to placebo treatment. However, irrespective of the concentration of extracts in active formulations, green tea plus lotus combined treatment produced statistically more sound results (two-tailed p value = 0.0002) than green tea alone (two-tailed p value = 0.0060) in a 60-days treatment course. Conclusions: Results suggest that synergistic compounds in green tea and lotus could be a promising choice for cutaneous disorders where elevated sebum levels are involved in the pathophysiology of these disorders. PMID:23935347

  5. Characterization of Strains unlike Mesorhizobium loti That Nodulate Lotus spp. in Saline Soils of Granada, Spain ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lorite, María J.; Muñoz, Socorro; Olivares, José; Soto, María J.; Sanjuán, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Lotus species are forage legumes with potential as pastures in low-fertility and environmentally constrained soils, owing to their high persistence and yield under those conditions. The aim of this work was the characterization of phenetic and genetic diversity of salt-tolerant bacteria able to establish efficient symbiosis with Lotus spp. A total of 180 isolates able to nodulate Lotus corniculatus and Lotus tenuis from two locations in Granada, Spain, were characterized. Molecular identification of the isolates was performed by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) and 16S rRNA, atpD, and recA gene sequence analyses, showing the presence of bacteria related to different species of the genus Mesorhizobium: Mesorhizobium tarimense/Mesorhizobium tianshanense, Mesorhizobium chacoense/Mesorhizobium albiziae, and the recently described species, Mesorhizobium alhagi. No Mesorhizobium loti-like bacteria were found, although most isolates carried nodC and nifH symbiotic genes closely related to those of M. loti, considered the type species of bacteria nodulating Lotus, and other Lotus rhizobia. A significant portion of the isolates showed both high salt tolerance and good symbiotic performance with L. corniculatus, and many behaved like salt-dependent bacteria, showing faster growth and better symbiotic performance when media were supplemented with Na or Ca salts. PMID:20435777

  6. Preparative isolation of three anthraquinones from Rumex japonicus by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuying; Feng, Bo; Zhu, Ruonan; Ma, Jiankang; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-27

    Three anthraquinones--emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion--were successfully purified from the dichloromethane extract of the Chinese medicinal herb Rumex japonicus by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The extract was separated with n-hexane-ethanol-water (18:22:3, v/v/v) as the two-phase solvent system and yielded 3.4 mg of emodin, 24.1 mg of chrysophanol, and 2.0 mg of physcion from 500 mg of sample with purities of 99.2 %, 98.8% and 98.2%, respectively. The HSCCC fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the chemical structures of the three anthraquinones were confirmed by ¹H-NMR and ¹³C-NMR analysis. This is the first time these anthraquinones have been obtained from R. japonicus by HSCCC.

  7. Leojaponic acids A and B, two new homologous terpenoids, isolated from Leonurus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Han-Kui; Mao, Yan-Jun; Sun, Shan-Shan; Xu, Zhi-Yong; Ma, Ya; Cao, Jin-Xia; Qi, He; Wu, Zhi-Fu; Li, Gang; Yang, Wei-Hua

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed at isolation and purification of the bioactive terpenoids from the herb of Leonurus japonicus by chromatographic separations such as silica gel, sephadex LH-20 and C18 reversed phase silica gel, as well as preparative HPLC. As a result, leojaponic acids A (1, C17H24O4) and B (2, C18H26O4), two homologous terpenoids, together with (-)-loliolide (3), 1-(3-ethylphenyl) ethane-1, 2-diol (4) and dibutyl phthalate (5), were isolated from the EtOH extract of L. japonicus. All the chemical structures of the isolates were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR analyses. Compounds 1 and 2 were new terpenoids, and Compounds 3 and 4 were isolated and identified for the first time from this plant. In addition, the α-glucosidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the new compounds were evaluated.

  8. Fungal biodegradation and biotransformation of soluble lignocarbohydrate complexes from straw. [Aspergillus japonicus, Polyporus versicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Milstein, O.A.; Vared, Y.; Sharma, A.; Gressel, J.; Flowers, H.M.

    1983-08-01

    Aspergillus japonicus is an efficient degrader of phenolics and carbohydrates present in a mixture of soluble lignocarbohydrate complexes extracted from wheat straw. Trichoderma species attacked part of the carbohydrate but hardly affected the aromatic portion of this solution. Polyporus versicolor had a complex effect; polymerization of low-molecular-size phenolics accompanied the degradation of aromatic and carbohydrate polymers. The addition of xylose to the medium facilitated depolymerization of lignin by the fungi tested and prevented the polymerization of low-molecular-size fractions of lignocarbohydrate complexes by P. versicolor. P. versicolor, in contrast to A. japonicus and Trichoderma species, also excreted into the medium considerable amounts of laccase, but only in the absence of endogenous or exogenous carbohydrates. Apparently, laccase is involved in polymerization rather than degradation of lignin in this organism. A number of extracellular glycanases were also secreted by these fungi. 19 references

  9. Schizosaccharomyces japonicus: the fission yeast is a fusion of yeast and hyphae.

    PubMed

    Niki, Hironori

    2014-03-01

    The clade of Schizosaccharomyces includes 4 species: S. pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus. Although all 4 species exhibit unicellular growth with a binary fission mode of cell division, S. japonicus alone is dimorphic yeast, which can transit from unicellular yeast to long filamentous hyphae. Recently it was found that the hyphal cells response to light and then synchronously activate cytokinesis of hyphae. In addition to hyphal growth, S. japonicas has many properties that aren't shared with other fission yeast. Mitosis of S. japonicas is referred to as semi-open mitosis because dynamics of nuclear membrane is an intermediate mode between open mitosis and closed mitosis. Novel genetic tools and the whole genomic sequencing of S. japonicas now provide us with an opportunity for revealing unique characters of the dimorphic yeast. © 2013 The Author. Yeast Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Microsatellite DNA polymorphisms and the relation with body weight in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuli; Shan, Xue; Qiu, Xuemei; Meng, Xiangying; Chang, Yaqing

    2009-05-01

    The relationship between microsatellite polymorphism and body weight of captive bred Chinese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in two local populations in Dalian. Among ten loci discovered, nine show changes except for AJ07 loci. Seven loci were found highly polymorphic in both populations. For each locus in two populations, the average number of alleles is 6.428 6 and 6.285 7, the average observed heterozygosity at 0.225 7 and 0.245 9, the expected heterozygosity at 0.776 8 and 0.748 8, the polymorphism information content (PIC) at 0.709 2 and 0.674 6, respectively. Further analysis show significant correlation between A. japonicus body weight and occurrence markers AJ02 and AJ04. The findings of the relation may be helpful for molecular breeding, as well as the marker-assisted selection of sea cucumbers.

  11. [Residuals of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in Radix Ophiopogonis and Ophiopogon japonicus growing soil].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lianting; Guo, Qiaosheng; Ye, Zhengliang

    2010-05-01

    To determine the residues of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in Radix Ophiopogonis and Ophiopogon japonicus. The residues of 4 isomers of benzene hexa chloride (BHC) and 4 isomers of dichloro dipheny trichloroethane (DDT) were determined by gas chromatography. The contents of Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg and As were determined by ICP. The residues of organochlorine pesticides in Radix Ophiopogonis were lower than the permissible maximum limits of the Chinese national standard except hexachloride (BHC) in Radix Ophiopogonis from Cixi as well as Cu in soil of Luojiang. The enrichment capacity of Radix Ophiopogonis for (BHC) and Hg is higher. It is suggested that we should try to select herbs-growing soil for O. japonicus with a particular emphasis on the pesticides residues in soil.

  12. Ontogenesis of coelomocytes in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) studied with probes of monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Qi, Rui-rong; Wang, Yi-nan; Qiao, Guo; Ye, Shi-gen; Li, Hua

    2014-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specifically against coelomocytes of Apostichopus japonicus were employed to study the ontogenesis of coelomocytes by indirect immunofluorescence assay technique (IIFAT). Different developmental stages were identified by histochemical staining method. Stages including blastula, gastrula, auricularia (small-auricular larvae, mid-auricular larvae and big-auricular larvae), doliolaria, pentactula and juvenile were examined. The positive reactions with both MAb1C2 against all the types of coelomocytes and MAb3F6 specific to spherulocytes, were observed firstly at the blastula stage of the embryos. The positive reaction with MAb1E2 against lymphoid cells was observed from the big-auricular larvae, which indicated that lymphoid cells may not be progenitor cells or stem cells for A. japonicus. An increase of fluorescence intensity for each cell may imply a possible enhancement of the innate defensive mechanism as the embryogenesis progress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gekko japonicus genome reveals evolution of adhesive toe pads and tail regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Yongjun; Luo, Longhai; Yang, Jian; Yang, Linfeng; Liu, Mei; Li, Yingrui; Qian, Tianmei; Zheng, Yuan; Li, Meiyuan; Li, Jiang; Gu, Yun; Han, Zujing; Xu, Man; Wang, Yingjie; Zhu, Changlai; Yu, Bin; Yang, Yumin; Ding, Fei; Jiang, Jianping; Yang, Huanming; Gu, Xiaosong

    2015-01-01

    Reptiles are the most morphologically and physiologically diverse tetrapods, and have undergone 300 million years of adaptive evolution. Within the reptilian tetrapods, geckos possess several interesting features, including the ability to regenerate autotomized tails and to climb on smooth surfaces. Here we sequence the genome of Gekko japonicus (Schlegel's Japanese Gecko) and investigate genetic elements related to its physiology. We obtain a draft G. japonicus genome sequence of 2.55 Gb and annotated 22,487 genes. Comparative genomic analysis reveals specific gene family expansions or reductions that are associated with the formation of adhesive setae, nocturnal vision and tail regeneration, as well as the diversification of olfactory sensation. The obtained genomic data provide robust genetic evidence of adaptive evolution in reptiles. PMID:26598231

  14. Isolated history of the coastal plant Lathyrus japonicus (Leguminosae) in Lake Biwa, an ancient freshwater lake

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuki, Tatsuo; Kaneko, Yuko; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Lake Biwa is one of the world's few ancient lakes. Formed ∼4 million years ago, the lake harbours many coastal species that commonly inhabit seashores. The beach pea Lathyrus japonicus is a typical coastal species of this freshwater lake, but its inland populations are faced with the threat of extinction. Here, we investigated the phylogeographical and population structures of both inland and coastal populations of L. japonicus. We also elucidated the historical isolation of the Lake Biwa population. Methodology In total, 520 individuals from 50 L. japonicus populations were sampled throughout the species distribution in Japan. Chloroplast haplotyping using intergenic spacers psbA–trnH and atpI–atpH was performed to investigate the phylogeographical structure as well as the genetic diversity of L. japonicus. Six nuclear microsatellite markers were also used to analyse the population structure. Principal results Population structure analyses of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) identified inland and coastal groups. Based on the genetic differentiation, inland populations exhibited a single cpDNA haplotype and significantly lower values of HS, AR and FIS than coastal populations. In addition to the presence of a bottleneck, the lack of gene flow among inland populations was supported by estimates of recent migration rates between subpopulations. Conclusions Our data revealed that inland populations have been isolated in Lake Biwa as ‘landlocked’ populations since the predecessor lake was isolated from sea. This was also seen in a previous study of Calystegia soldanella. However, the high genetic differentiation, accompanied by a lack of gene flow among the Lake Biwa populations (according to the BAYESASS+ analysis), contradicts the results with C. soldanella. We conclude that because of the presence of a bottleneck and low genetic diversity of the inland populations, self-sustaining population persistence may be difficult in

  15. Influence of flow velocity on motor behavior of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Libin; Lin, Chenggang; Sun, Jiamin; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-05-15

    The influence of flow velocity on the motor behavior of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in the laboratory. Cameras were used to record sea cucumber movements and behavior analysis software was used to measure the distance traveled, time spent, upstream or downstream of the start position and the speed of movements. In general, the mean velocity of A. japonicus was below 0.7mms(-1). The maximum velocity recorded for all the sea cucumbers tested was for a large individual (89.25±17.11g), at a flow rate of 4.6±0.5cms(-1). Medium sized (19.68±5.53g) and large individuals moved significantly faster than small individuals (2.65±1.24g) at the same flow rate. A. japonicus moved significantly faster when there was a moderate current (4.6±0.5cms(-1) and 14.7±0.3cms(-1)), compared with the fast flow rate (29.3±3.7cms(-1)) and when there was no flow (0cms(-1)). Sea cucumbers did not show positive rheotaxis in general, but did move in a downstream direction at faster current speeds. Large, medium and small sized individuals moved downstream at the fastest current speed tested, 29.3±3.7cms(-1). When there was no water flow, sea cucumbers tended to move in an irregular pattern. The movement patterns show that the sea cucumber, A. japonicus can move across the direction of flow, and can move both upstream and downstream along the direction of flow.

  16. Metabolic rates and biochemical compositions of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) tissue during periods of inactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jie; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Wang, Fang; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Yunwei

    2010-03-01

    Estivation, hibernation, and starvation are indispensable inactive states of sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus in nature and in culture ponds. Generally, temperature is the principal factor that induces estivation or hibernation in the sea cucumber. The present study provided insight into the physiological adaptations of A. japonicus during the three types of inactivity (hibernation, estivation, and starvation) by measuring the oxygen consumption rates ( Vo2) and biochemical compositions under laboratory conditions of low (3°C), normal (17°C) and high (24°C) temperature. The results show that the characteristics of A. japonicus in dormancy (hibernation and estivation) states were quite different from higher animals, such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, but more closely resembled a semi-dormant state. It was observed that the shift in the A. japonicus physiological state from normal to dormancy was a chronic rather than acute process, indicated by the gradual depression of metabolic rate. While metabolic rates declined 44.9% for the estivation group and 71.7% for the hibernation group, relative to initial rates, during the 36 d culture period, metabolic rates were not maintained at constant levels during these states. The metabolic depression processes for sea cucumbers in hibernation and estivation appeared to be a passive and an active metabolic suppression, respectively. In contrast, the metabolic rates (128.90±11.70 μg/g h) of estivating sea cucumbers were notably higher (107.85±6.31 μg/g h) than in starving sea cucumbers at 17°C, which indicated that the dormancy mechanism here, as a physiological inhibition, was not as efficient as in higher animals. Finally, the principle metabolic substrate or energy source of sea cucumbers in hibernation was lipid, whereas in estivation they mainly consumed protein in the early times and both protein and lipid thereafter.

  17. Comparative analysis of immunocompetence between females and males in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingwei; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Gao, Shan; Sun, Hongjuan; Chen, Zhong; Yang, Aifu; Su, Hesheng

    2017-04-01

    In order to preliminarily understand the immune difference between females and males in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, the activities assay of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), phenoloxidase (PO), acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) with biochemical methods, the detection of PO isozymes with native-PAGE and catechol staining, and the test of antibacterial activities with bacterial growth curve determination method were performed in this study using cell-free coelomic fluid (CCF) and coelomocyte lysate supernatant (CLS) from females and males as the samples. The PO activities were not detected in the CLS and showed no significant difference between the CCF from females and males. However, totally five PO isozyme bands were detected in the CLS of females while only four were detected in the CLS of males after zymogram analysis. These results implied that the PO isozymes in the coelomocytes of viripotent A. japonicus were inactive under natural condition and may be activated by some certain treatments during native-PAGE, and PO might play different immune and physiological roles between females and males. In addition, the activities of SOD, CAT, POD and ALP in the CCF and the activities of CAT, POD, ACP and ALP in the CLS from males were all significantly higher than those from females. The results collectively suggested that in viripotent A. japonicus, the gender had a remarkable effect on the immunity, and the immunocompetence of males might have an advantage over that of females. Furthermore, the activities of all determined enzymes except PO and the number of detected PO isozymes showed higher values in CLS than in CCF, implying that in viripotent A. japonicus, the coelomocytes might take more immune responsibility in comparison with CCF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene and expression in response to environmental stressors in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Lee, Min Chul; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-12-01

    There have been no reports thus far on the structure or molecular characterization of the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene of aquatic animals. Herein we describe the identification of the Rb gene of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. In silico analyses revealed the conserved Rb domains of T. japonicus with those of protostomes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that orthologs of Rb gene were evolved by an ancient split event in deuterostomes, while only a single Rb gene was conserved in protostomes except for Drosophila. The transcription of the T. japonicus Rb gene continuously increased across the molting transition from nauplius to the copepodid and adult stages, suggesting that it may play a developmental role in the molting process of T. japonicus. Information on Rb's response to environmental stressors, including toxin exposure, is lacking in copepods. To examine the transcriptional response to stressful conditions in laboratory culture conditions, copepods were exposed to UV-B radiation and different concentrations of metals, environmental toxins, and biocides. Transcription of the T. japonicus Rb gene was upregulated in response to about half of the 96 h-LD50 of UV-B radiation (12 kJ/m(2)) for 48 h, while the approximate 96 h-LD50 value (24 kJ/m(2)) of UV-B and relatively high concentrations of several toxins and biocides induced the downregulation of T. japonicus Rb mRNA expression. Taken together, our findings suggest that the T. japonicus Rb gene is sensitive to environmentally unfavorable conditions that can induce cell cycle alteration.

  19. Acquired Immunity to Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Doolan, Denise L.; Dobaño, Carlota; Baird, J. Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Naturally acquired immunity to falciparum malaria protects millions of people routinely exposed to Plasmodium falciparum infection from severe disease and death. There is no clear concept about how this protection works. There is no general agreement about the rate of onset of acquired immunity or what constitutes the key determinants of protection; much less is there a consensus regarding the mechanism(s) of protection. This review summarizes what is understood about naturally acquired and experimentally induced immunity against malaria with the help of evolving insights provided by biotechnology and places these insights in the context of historical, clinical, and epidemiological observations. We advocate that naturally acquired immunity should be appreciated as being virtually 100% effective against severe disease and death among heavily exposed adults. Even the immunity that occurs in exposed infants may exceed 90% effectiveness. The induction of an adult-like immune status among high-risk infants in sub-Saharan Africa would greatly diminish disease and death caused by P. falciparum. The mechanism of naturally acquired immunity that occurs among adults living in areas of hyper- to holoendemicity should be understood with a view toward duplicating such protection in infants and young children in areas of endemicity. PMID:19136431

  20. Growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka during periods of inactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Rongbin; Zang, Yuanqi; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2013-03-01

    The growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, were investigated during periods of inactivity. The body weight, oxygen consumption rate (OCR), activities of acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and content of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the body wall and coelomic fluid of A. japonicus were measured during starvation, experimental aestivation and aestivation. The results showed that the body weight of sea cucumber in the three treatments decreased significantly during the experimental period ( P < 0.05). The OCR of sea cucumber reduced in starvation and experimental aestivation treatments, but increased gradually in natural aestivation treatment. The activities of ACP and AKP of sea cucumber decreased gradually in all treatments, whereas those of SOD and CAT as well as Hsp70 content decreased in the starvation and experimental aestivation treatments and increased in natural aestivation treatment. The sea cucumber entered a state of aestivation at 24°C. To some extent, the animals in experimental aestivation were different from those in natural aestivation in metabolism and physiological response. These findings suggested that the aestivation mechanism of A. japonicus is complex and may not be attributed to the elevated temperature only.

  1. First record of Neoergasilus japonicus (Poecilostomatoida: Ergasilidae), a parasitic copepod new to the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Bowen, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    The parasitic copepod Neoergasilus japonicus, native to eastern Asia, was first collected from 4 species of fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus; and yellow perch, Perca flavescens) in July 1994 in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan. Further sampling in the bay in 2001 revealed infections on 7 additional species (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; carp, Cyprinus carpio; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; goldfish, Carassius auratus; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris; and smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu). An additional 21 species examined in 2001 were devoid of the parasite. A limited collection of fish from Lake Superior (n = 8) and Lake Michigan (n = 46) in 1994 showed no infection. Neoergasilus japonicus is most frequently found attached to the dorsal fin and, in decreasing frequency, on the anal, tail, pelvic, and pectoral fins. Prevalence generally ranged from 15 to 70 and intensity from 1 to 10. The greatest number of copepods on a single host was 44. The copepod Neoergasilus japonicus appears to disperse over long distances rather quickly, spreading across Europe in 20 yr and then moving on to North America over a span of 10 yr. Its main vehicle of transport and introduction into the Great Lakes is probably exotic fish hosts associated with the fish-culture industry.

  2. Postembryonic development of the mushroom bodies in the ant, Camponotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yuri; Kubota, Kanae; Hara, Kenji

    2005-07-01

    Mushroom bodies (MB) are insect brain centers involved in learning and other complex behaviors and they are particularly large in ants. We describe the larval and pupal development of the MB in the carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus. Based on morphological cues, we characterized the stages of preimaginal development of worker ants. We then describe morphological changes and neurogenesis underlying the MB development. Kenyon cells are produced in a proliferation cluster formed by symmetrical division of MB neuroblasts. While the duration of larval instars shows great individual variation, MB neuroblasts increase in number in each successive larval instar. The number of neuroblasts increases further during prepupal stages and peaks during early pupal stages. It decreases rapidly, and then neurogenesis generally ceases during the mid pupal stage (P4). In contrast to the larval period, the MB development of individuals is highly synchronized with physical time throughout metamorphosis. We show that carpenter ants (C. japonicus) have approximately half as many MB neuroblasts than are found in the honey bee Apis mellifera. Mature MBs of carpenter ants and honey bees reportedly comprise almost the same number of neurons. We therefore suggest that the MB neuroblasts in C. japonicus divide more often in order to produce a final number of MB neurons similar to that of honey bees.

  3. Apoptosis induction is involved in UVA-induced autolysis in sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hang; Fu, Hui; Dong, Xiufang; Feng, Dingding; Li, Nan; Wen, Chengrong; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Zhu, Beiwei

    2016-05-01

    Autolysis easily happens to sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus, S. japonicus) for external stimulus like UV exposure causing heavy economic losses. Therefore, it is meaningful to reveal the mechanism of S. japonicas autolysis. In the present study, to examine the involvement of apoptosis induction in UVA-induced autolysis of S. japonicas, we investigated the biochemical events including the DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation and free radical formation. Substantial morphological changes such as intestine vomiting and dermatolysis were observed in S. japonicus during the incubation after 1-h UVA irradiation (10W/m(2)). The degradation of the structural proteins and enhancement of cathepsin L activity were also detected, suggesting the profound impact of proteolysis caused by the UVA irradiation even for 1h. Furthermore, the DNA fragmentation and specific activity of caspase-3 was increased up to 12h after UVA irradiation. The levels of phosphorylated p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated c-Jun.-N-terminal kinase (JNK) were significantly increased by the UVA irradiation for 1h. An electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis revealed that UVA enhanced the free radical formation in S. japonicas, even through we could not identify the attributed species. These results suggest that UVA-induced autolysis in S. japonicas at least partially involves the oxidative stress-sensitive apoptosis induction pathway. These data present a novel insight into the mechanisms of sea cucumber autolysis induced by external stress.

  4. Reduced genetic variation in the Japanese giant salamander, Andrias japonicus (Amphibia: Caudata).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Tominaga, Atsushi; Liu, Wan-zhao; Tanaka-Ueno, Tomoko

    2008-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among 46 samples from 27 populations of the Japanese giant salamander, Andriasjaponicus and its congener, A. davidianus from China was investigated, using 3664 bp sequences of the mitochondrial genes NADH1, NADH3, cyt b and CR, partial NADH6 and intervening genes. In phylogenetic trees constructed by MP, ML, and Bayesian methods, the family Cryptobranchidae and the genus Andrias both form monophyletic groups. Japanese A. japonicus and Chinese A. davidianus are sister taxa and can be regarded as separate species despite a small degree of genetic differentiation. Andriasjaponicus is divided into central and western clades, but the phylogenetic relationships within the latter clade are unresolved. As previously reported from allozyme analyses, A. japonicus exhibits little genetic differentiation, in strong contrast to salamanders of the genus Hynobius with which their distributions overlap. This reduced genetic variability in A. japonicus is attributable to a unique mating system of polygyny, delayed sexual maturity, notable longevity, life in a stable aquatic environment, and gigantism, as well as bottleneck effects following habitat fragmentation and extinction of local populations during Quaternary glaciations. The species is thus susceptible to extinction by potential environmental fluctuations, and requires extensive conservation measures.

  5. Size-dependent effects of micro polystyrene particles in the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyun-Woo; Shim, Won Joon; Kwon, Oh Youn; Kang, Jung-Hoon

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the effects of three sizes of polystyrene (PS) microbeads (0.05, 0.5, and 6-μm diameter) on the survival, development, and fecundity of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus using acute and chronic toxicity tests. T. japonicus ingested and egested all three sizes of PS beads used and exhibited no selective feeding when phytoplankton were added. The copepods (nauplius and adult females) survived all sizes of PS beads and the various concentrations tested in the acute toxicity test for 96 h. In the two-generation chronic toxicity test, 0.05-μm PS beads at a concentration greater than 12.5 μg/mL caused the mortality of nauplii and copepodites in the F0 generation and even triggered mortality at a concentration of 1.25 μg/mL in the next generation. In the 0.5-μm PS bead treatment, despite there being no significant effect on the F0 generation, the highest concentration (25 μg/mL) induced a significant decrease in survival compared with the control population in the F1 generation. The 6-μm PS beads did not affect the survival of T. japonicus over two generations. The 0.5- and 6-μm PS beads caused a significant decrease in fecundity at all concentrations. These results suggest that microplastics such as micro- or nanosized PS beads may have negative impacts on marine copepods.

  6. The Hair Growth-Promoting Effect of Rumex japonicus Houtt. Extract

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunkyoung; Kim, Na-Hyun; Yang, Hyeryeon; Bae, Seong Kyeong; Heo, Yunwi; Choudhary, Indu; Kwon, Young Chul; Byun, Jae Kuk; Yim, Hyeong Jun; Noh, Byung Seung; Heo, Jeong-Doo; Kim, Euikyung

    2016-01-01

    Rumex japonicus Houtt. is traditionally used as a medicinal plant to treat patients suffering from skin disease in Korea. However, the beneficial effect of Rumex japonicus Houtt. on hair growth has not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the hair growth-promoting effect of Rumex japonicus (RJ) Houtt. root extract using human dermal papilla cells (DPCs), HaCaT cells, and C57BL/6 mice model. RJ induced antiapoptotic and proliferative effects on DPCs and HaCaT cells by increasing Bcl-2/Bax ratio and activating cellular proliferation-related proteins, ERK and Akt. RJ also increased β-catenin via the inhibition of GSK-3β. In C57BL/6 mice model, RJ promoted the anagen induction and maintained its period. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that RJ upregulated Ki-67 and β-catenin expressions, suggesting that the hair growth effect of RJ may be mediated through the reinforcement of hair cell proliferation. These results provided important insights for the possible mechanism of action of RJ and its potential as therapeutic agent to promote hair growth. PMID:27974900

  7. Variations in otolith patterns, sizes and body morphometrics of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles.

    PubMed

    Kanaji, Y; Kishida, M; Watanabe, Y; Kawamura, T; Xie, S; Yamashita, Y; Sassa, C; Tsukamoto, Y

    2010-10-01

    Variations in otolith patterns, sizes and body morphometrics of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles were investigated. Under transmitted light, translucent (W(t)) and opaque otoliths (W(o)) were detected in juveniles collected from Wakasa Bay between July 2005 and April 2006, whereas only opaque otoliths (G(o)) were detected in Goto-nada Sea individuals between May and June 2006. Three groups of juveniles were distinguished based on differences in hatch season, otolith size and growth history, and body morphometrics. As T. japonicus has different spawning seasons according to spawning grounds, each group was estimated to hatch in different waters. Juveniles with W(t) otoliths were considered to have stayed in coastal habitat longer, as the hatch area was estimated to be near Wakasa Bay. Juveniles with W(o) and G(o) otoliths appear to recruit to coastal waters at larger size, since their hatch areas were estimated to be far from each collection area. Larger otoliths of W(t) were attributed to otolith accretion after the second growth flexion, which was observed only for W(t) . Standard length of W(t) fish at the second otolith growth flexion was estimated to correspond to recruitment size to coastal rocky reefs in Wakasa Bay. Body morphometrics were correlated with otolith size after removing body size effect, suggesting that morphological variations of T. japonicus juveniles were also associated with the timing of recruitment to coastal habitat.

  8. Differential gene expression in the respiratory tree of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus during aestivation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ye; Yang, Hongsheng; Storey, Kenneth B; Chen, Muyan

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumbers, Apostichopus japonicus, experience seasonally high water temperatures during the summer months and enter aestivation to survive. Aestivation is characterized by strong metabolic rate depression which is supported by a series of strategies including reorganizing metabolic processes, suppressing cell functions, enhancing cytoprotective mechanisms, and altered gene expression. The respiratory tree tissue of the sea cucumber is an excellent material for studying aestivation, undergoing obvious atrophy during aestivation. The present study analyzed the global gene expression profile of respiratory tree tissue of A. japonicus during aestivation by constructing and screening three libraries representing key stages of aestivation: non-aestivation (NA), deep-aestivation (DA), and arousal from aestivation (AA) using RNA-seq. A total of 1240, 1184 and 303 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified following the criteria of |log2 ratio|≥1 and FDR≤0.001 in comparisons of DA vs. NA, AA vs. NA and DA vs. AA. A set of respiratory tree specific DEGs was identified the first time and, in addition, common DEGs that were responsive to aestivation in both respiratory tree and intestine were identified. Functional analysis of DEGs was further performed by GO enrichment analysis and respiratory tree specific GO terms were screened out and provide interesting hints for further studies of the molecular regulation of aestivation in A. japonicus.

  9. Difference in thermotolerance between green and red color variants of the Japanese sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka: Hsp70 and heat-hardening effect.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yun-Wei; Ji, Ting-Ting; Meng, Xian-Liang; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Sun, Wei-Ming

    2010-02-01

    We studied thermal tolerance limits, heat-hardening, and Hsp70 to elucidate the difference in thermotolerance between two color variants of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Green and Red variants occupy different habitats and have different aestivation responses to high temperature in summer. In the absence of heat-hardening, the variants showed no difference in the temperature at which 50% of the individuals died: Green, 31.49 degrees C; Red, 31.39 degrees C. However, Green specimens acquired higher thermotolerance than Red after a prior sublethal heat exposure. After 72 h of recovery from a heat-hardening treatment (30 degrees C for 2 h), the survival of Green variants was more than 50% and that of Red was less than 5% when they were treated at 33 degrees C for 2 h. Levels of mRNA and protein for Hsp70 were significantly higher in Green than Red after the heat shock of 30 degrees C, and the stability of hsp70 mRNA of Green was significantly higher than that of Red. Our findings suggest that within the same species, different variants that have similar thermal limits in the absence of heat-hardening can acquire different thermotolerances after a prior sublethal heat shock. The difference in induced thermotolerance between Green and Red is closely related to the expression pattern of Hsp70, which was partly governed by the stability of hsp70 mRNA.

  10. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach.

  11. Acquired hypofibrinogenemia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Martin W; MacDonald, Stephen G

    2016-01-01

    Acquired hypofibrinogenemia is most frequently caused by hemodilution and consumption of clotting factors. The aggressive replacement of fibrinogen has become one of the core principles of modern management of massive hemorrhage. The best method for determining the patient’s fibrinogen level remains controversial, and particularly in acquired dysfibrinogenemia, could have major therapeutic implications depending on which quantification method is chosen. This review introduces the available laboratory and point-of-care methods and discusses the relative advantages and limitations. It also discusses current strategies for the correction of hypofibrinogenemia. PMID:27713652

  12. Biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces by combining mussel-inspired adhesion with lotus-inspired coating.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chao-Hua; Ji, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Jing; Ma, Jian-Zhong; Jia, Shun-Tian

    2015-08-21

    Superhydrophobic surfaces on PET textiles were fabricated by combined bioinspiration from the strong adhesion of marine mussels and the two-scale structure of lotus leaves under mild conditions. Dopamine can spontaneously polymerize in alkaline aqueous solution to form a thin adhesive layer of polydopamine (PDA) wrapping on the micro-scale fibers. The as-formed thin PDA layer worked as a reactive template to generate PDA nanoparticles decorated on the fiber surfaces, imparting the textiles with excellent UV-shielding properties as well as a hierarchical structure similar to the morphology of the lotus leaf. After further modification with perfluorodecyl trichlorosilane, the textiles turned superhydrophobic with a water contact angle higher than 150°. Due to the strong adhesion of PDA to a wide range of materials, the present strategy may be extendable to fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces on a variety of other substrates.

  13. Fusion of nacre, mussel, and lotus leaf: bio-inspired graphene composite paper with multifunctional integration.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Da; Yang, Qinglin; Guo, Lin; Dou, Shixue; Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2013-07-07

    Multifunctional integration is an inherent characteristic for biological materials with multiscale structures. Learning from nature is an effective approach for scientists and engineers to construct multifunctional materials. In nature, mollusks (abalone), mussels, and the lotus have evolved different and optimized solutions to survive. Here, bio-inspired multifunctional graphene composite paper was fabricated in situ through the fusion of the different biological solutions from nacre (brick-and-mortar structure), mussel adhesive protein (adhesive property and reducing character), and the lotus leaf (self-cleaning effect). Owing to the special properties (self-polymerization, reduction, and adhesion), dopamine could be simultaneously used as a reducing agent for graphene oxide and as an adhesive, similar to the mortar in nacre, to crosslink the adjacent graphene. The resultant nacre-like graphene paper exhibited stable superhydrophobicity, self-cleaning, anti-corrosion, and remarkable mechanical properties underwater.

  14. Biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces by combining mussel-inspired adhesion with lotus-inspired coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Chao-Hua; Ji, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Jing; Ma, Jian-Zhong; Jia, Shun-Tian

    2015-08-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces on PET textiles were fabricated by combined bioinspiration from the strong adhesion of marine mussels and the two-scale structure of lotus leaves under mild conditions. Dopamine can spontaneously polymerize in alkaline aqueous solution to form a thin adhesive layer of polydopamine (PDA) wrapping on the micro-scale fibers. The as-formed thin PDA layer worked as a reactive template to generate PDA nanoparticles decorated on the fiber surfaces, imparting the textiles with excellent UV-shielding properties as well as a hierarchical structure similar to the morphology of the lotus leaf. After further modification with perfluorodecyl trichlorosilane, the textiles turned superhydrophobic with a water contact angle higher than 150°. Due to the strong adhesion of PDA to a wide range of materials, the present strategy may be extendable to fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces on a variety of other substrates.

  15. Development and characterization of microsatellite primers in the endangered Mediterranean shrub Ziziphus lotus (Rhamnaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    González-Robles, Ana; Manzaneda, Antonio J.; Bastida, Jesús M.; Harvey, Nick; Jaime, Rafael; Salido, Teresa; Martínez, Luisa M.; Fernández-Ocaña, Ana; Alcántara, Julio M.; Rey, Pedro J.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed to characterize and evaluate patterns of genetic diversity and structure in the endangered Mediterranean shrub Ziziphus lotus (Rhamnaceae). Methods and Results: Twenty microsatellite primers were developed for Z. lotus, of which 14 were polymorphic. We evaluated microsatellite polymorphism in 97 specimens from 18 Spanish and seven Moroccan populations. Between two and eight alleles were found per locus, and the average number of alleles was 5.54. Observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.08 to 0.90 and from 0.08 to 0.82, respectively. Nine of these primers also amplified microsatellite loci in Z. jujuba. Conclusions: The microsatellite markers described here will be useful in studies on genetic variation, population genetic structure, and gene flow in the fragmented habitat of this species. These markers are a valuable resource for designing appropriate conservation measures for the species in the Mediterranean range. PMID:28101436

  16. Systems analysis in Cellvibrio japonicus resolves predicted redundancy of β-glucosidases and determines essential physiological functions: Functional analysis of C. japonicus β-glucosidases

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Cassandra E.; Rogowski, Artur; Morland, Carl; ...

    2017-02-28

    Degradation of polysaccharides forms an essential arc in the carbon cycle, provides a percentage of our daily caloric intake, and is a major driver in the renewable chemical industry. Microorganisms proficient at degrading insoluble polysaccharides possess large numbers of carbohydrate active enzymes, many of which have been categorized as functionally redundant. Here we present data that suggests that carbohydrate active enzymes that have overlapping enzymatic activities can have unique, non-overlapping biological functions in the cell. Our comprehensive study to understand cellodextrin utilization in the soil saprophyte Cellvibrio japonicus found that only one of four predicted β-glucosidases is required in amore » physiological context. Gene deletion analysis indicated that only the cel3B gene product is essential for efficient cellodextrin utilization in C. japonicus and is constitutively expressed at high levels. Interestingly, expression of individual β-glucosidases in Escherichia coli K-12 enabled this non-cellulolytic bacterium to be fully capable of using cellobiose as a sole carbon source. Furthermore, enzyme kinetic studies indicated that the Cel3A enzyme is significantly more active than the Cel3B enzyme on the oligosaccharides but not disaccharides. Finally, our approach for parsing related carbohydrate active enzymes to determine actual physiological roles in the cell can be applied to other polysaccharide-degradation systems.« less

  17. Fabrication of biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces inspired by lotus leaf and silver ragwort leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jinyou; Cai, Yu; Wang, Xianfeng; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong; Wang, Moran

    2011-03-01

    Inspired by the self-cleaning lotus leaf and silver ragwort leaf, here we demonstrate the fabrication of biomimetic superhydrophobic fibrous mats via electrospinning polystyrene (PS) solution in the presence of silica nanoparticles. The resultant electrospun fiber surfaces exhibited a fascinating structure with the combination of nano-protrusions and numerous grooves due to the rapid phase separation in electrospinning. The content of silica nanoparticles incorporated into the fibers proved to be the key factor affecting the fiber surface morphology and hydrophobicity. The PS fibrous mats containing 14.3 wt% silica nanoparticles showed a stable superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle as high as 157.2°, exceeding that (147°) of the silver ragwort leaf and approaching that (160°) of the lotus leaf. The superhydrophobicity was explained by the hierarchical surfaces increasing the surface roughness which trapped more air under the water droplets that fell on the fibers.Inspired by the self-cleaning lotus leaf and silver ragwort leaf, here we demonstrate the fabrication of biomimetic superhydrophobic fibrous mats via electrospinning polystyrene (PS) solution in the presence of silica nanoparticles. The resultant electrospun fiber surfaces exhibited a fascinating structure with the combination of nano-protrusions and numerous grooves due to the rapid phase separation in electrospinning. The content of silica nanoparticles incorporated into the fibers proved to be the key factor affecting the fiber surface morphology and hydrophobicity. The PS fibrous mats containing 14.3 wt% silica nanoparticles showed a stable superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle as high as 157.2°, exceeding that (147°) of the silver ragwort leaf and approaching that (160°) of the lotus leaf. The superhydrophobicity was explained by the hierarchical surfaces increasing the surface roughness which trapped more air under the water droplets that fell on the fibers. Electronic

  18. Effect of Lotus Posture on Acupuncture Meridian Energies: A Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Kuntal; Hankey, Alex; Srinivasan, TM

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many studies have assessed Yoga practices using instruments such as AcuGraph, which measures conductances at Jing-Well points of acupuncture meridians. Such studies find that participation in Yoga programs ranging from a weekend to many months systematically increases subtle energy. Here, we report comparison of Jing-Well point conductances before and after sitting in Lotus Posture with those before and after sitting in a chair. Methods: This was a controlled study conducted on 52 male Yoga practitioners (mean age in years 23.03 ± 3.23), all with >1 year experience of Yoga practices. Participants were alternately assigned into two groups, sitting in Lotus Posture and sitting in a chair. Each was measured on 3 successive days, before and after sitting as instructed for 10 min on the 1st day, 20 min on the 2nd day, and 30 min on the 3rd day. Results: The two groups yielded completely different results: those sitting in Lotus Posture for 30 min showed increases in subtle energy levels (E_Ls) in all acupuncture meridians; those sitting in chair produced universal decreases. Results for 10 and 20 min showed how these changes in energy values took time to build up with increasing time. Conclusions: Sitting in Lotus Posture is held to strongly stimulate subtle E_Ls, so results agreed with the experimental hypothesis. Nevertheless, decreases in E_Ls of those sitting in a chair were surprising since the rest might be expected to have no effect. PMID:28546679

  19. Repellency of the lotus leaf: contact angles, drop retention, and sliding angles.

    PubMed

    Extrand, C W; Moon, Sung In

    2014-07-29

    Much of the modeling done on repellency and super hydrophobicity has focused on surfaces with rectilinear geometries, but their wetting behavior is simpler and can be quite different from that of repellent surfaces with curved features. In this study, we model the contact angles and sliding angles exhibited by the lotus leaf, accounting for the influence of curvature and pinning. Our estimates agree reasonably well with experimental observations.

  20. Isolation and antiproliferative activity of Lotus corniculatus lectin towards human tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Shaista; Majeed, Rabiya; Qazi, Asif Khurshid; Ganai, Bashir Ahmad; Wani, Ishfak; Rakhshanda, Syed; Qurishi, Yasrib; Sharma, P R; Hamid, Abid; Masood, Akbar; Hamid, Rabia

    2013-12-15

    The objective of the study was to investigate the anti cancer activity of a lectin isolated from Lotus corniculatus seeds. A tetrameric 70kDa galactose specific lectin was purified using two step simple purification protocol which involved affinity chromatography on AF-BlueHC650M and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The lectin was adsorbed on AF-BlueHC650M and desorbed using 1M NaCl in the starting buffer. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 yielded a major peak absorbance that gave two bands of 15kDa and 20kDa in SDS PAGE. Hemagglutination activity was completely preserved, when the temperature was in the range of 20-60°C. However, drastic reduction in activity occurred at temperatures above 60°C. Full hemagglutination activity was retained at ambient pH 4-12. Thereafter no activity was observed above pH 13. Hemaglutination of the lectin was inhibited by d-galactose. The lectin showed a strong antiproliferative activity towards human leukemic (THP-1) cancer cells followed by lung cancer (HOP62) cells and HCT116 with an IC50 of 39μg/ml and 50μg/ml and 60μg/ml respectively. Flow cytometry analysis showed an increase in the percentage of cells in sub G0G1 phase confirming that Lotus corniculatus lectin induced apoptosis. Morphological observations showed that Lotus corniculatus lectin (LCL) treated THP-1 cells displayed apparent apoptosis characteristics such as nuclear fragmentation, appearance of membrane enclosed apoptotic bodies and DNA fragmentation. Lotus corniculatus lectin (LCL) effectively inhibits the cell migration in a dose dependent manner as indicated by the wound healing assay.

  1. Desert Research and Technology Studies Exposure of Lotus Coated Electrodynamic Shield Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Marcello; Peters, Wanda C.; Straka, Sharon A.; Jones, Craig B.

    2011-01-01

    The Lotus dust mitigation coating and the electrodynamic shield (EDS) are two new technologies currently being developed by NASA as countermeasures for addressing dust accumulation for long-duration human space exploration. These combined technologies were chosen by the Habitation Demonstration Unit (HDU) program for desert dust exposure at the Desert Research and Technologies Studies (D-RaTS) test site in Arizona. Characterization of these samples was performed prior to, during and post D-RaTS exposure.

  2. Effects of potato and lotus leaf extract intake on body composition and blood lipid concentration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Keuneil; Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Namju; Park, Sok; Cho, Hyunchul; Chun, Yoonseok

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of potato and lotus leaf extract intake on body composition, abdominal fat, and blood lipid concentration in female university students. [Methods] A total of 19 female university students participated in this 8-week study, and they were randomly assigned into 2 groups; potato and lotus leaf extract (skinny-line) administered group (SKG, n =9) and placebo group (PG, n = 10). The main results of the present study are presented below. [Results] 1) Body mass index, and percent body fat and abdominal fat in students of the SKG showed a decreasing tendency without significant interaction, 2) total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) in students of the SKG showed an averagely decreasing tendency and there was a significant interaction of TC only, 3) high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) in students of the SKG showed an increasing tendency without significant interaction, and 4) Z-score of fatness testing interaction in group × repetition did not show a significant interaction; however, there was a significant interaction of TC in group × repetition. Based on these results, 8-week intake of potato and lotus leaf extract had a positive effect of lowering TC. On the other hand, it had no significant effect on other types of lipids and percent body fat changes. [Conclusion] There was a positive tendency of blood lipids in students of the SKG and it seems that potato and lotus leaf extract intake might prevent obesity and improve obesity related syndromes. PMID:25960952

  3. Fusion of nacre, mussel, and lotus leaf: bio-inspired graphene composite paper with multifunctional integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Da; Yang, Qinglin; Guo, Lin; Dou, Shixue; Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2013-06-01

    Multifunctional integration is an inherent characteristic for biological materials with multiscale structures. Learning from nature is an effective approach for scientists and engineers to construct multifunctional materials. In nature, mollusks (abalone), mussels, and the lotus have evolved different and optimized solutions to survive. Here, bio-inspired multifunctional graphene composite paper was fabricated in situ through the fusion of the different biological solutions from nacre (brick-and-mortar structure), mussel adhesive protein (adhesive property and reducing character), and the lotus leaf (self-cleaning effect). Owing to the special properties (self-polymerization, reduction, and adhesion), dopamine could be simultaneously used as a reducing agent for graphene oxide and as an adhesive, similar to the mortar in nacre, to crosslink the adjacent graphene. The resultant nacre-like graphene paper exhibited stable superhydrophobicity, self-cleaning, anti-corrosion, and remarkable mechanical properties underwater.Multifunctional integration is an inherent characteristic for biological materials with multiscale structures. Learning from nature is an effective approach for scientists and engineers to construct multifunctional materials. In nature, mollusks (abalone), mussels, and the lotus have evolved different and optimized solutions to survive. Here, bio-inspired multifunctional graphene composite paper was fabricated in situ through the fusion of the different biological solutions from nacre (brick-and-mortar structure), mussel adhesive protein (adhesive property and reducing character), and the lotus leaf (self-cleaning effect). Owing to the special properties (self-polymerization, reduction, and adhesion), dopamine could be simultaneously used as a reducing agent for graphene oxide and as an adhesive, similar to the mortar in nacre, to crosslink the adjacent graphene. The resultant nacre-like graphene paper exhibited stable superhydrophobicity, self

  4. Acquired Brain Injury Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stacey Hunter

    This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

  5. Laboratory-acquired Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Richard; Kelly, Molly; Limberger, Ronald J.; DeAngelis, Karen; Cain, Louise; Wallace, Barbara; Dumas, Nellie

    2004-01-01

    We report two laboratory-acquired Brucella melitensis infections that were shown to be epidemiologically related. Blood culture isolates were initially misidentified because of variable Gram stain results, which led to misdiagnoses and subsequent laboratory exposures. Notifying laboratory personnel who unknowingly processed cultures from brucellosis patients is an important preventive measure. PMID:15504276

  6. Effect of Bacillus baekryungensis YD13 supplemented in diets on growth performance and immune response of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fajun; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2014-10-01

    The effect of a potential probiotic on the growth performance and immune response of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) was investigated. Bacillus baekryungensis YD13 isolated from sea cucumber culturing ponds was added to sea cucumber basal feed as a probiotic in different doses (0, the control; 1×104 (YD134), 1×106 (YD136) and 1×108 (YD138) CFU g-1 of diet), and administered orally to A. japonicus (initial mean wet weight 5.44 g ± 0.17 g). The sea cucumbers were fed in 20 aquaria, 5 each treatment, for 60 d. At the end of growth trial, 20 sea cucumbers from each treatment were challenged with Vibrio splendidus. A. japonicus in YD134 and YD136 exhibited significantly better growth performance than control ( P < 0.05). Five non-specific immune parameters including lysozyme, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in coelomic fluid were measured to evaluate the immune response of A. japonicus to the probiotics. Results showed that all parameters were significantly improved when YD11 was supplemented in the dose of 1×106 CFU g-1 ( P < 0.05). The cumulative incidence and mortality after the Vibrio splendidus challenge decreased significantly in sea cucumbers of YD136. Accordingly, 1×106 CFU g-1 of YD13 in diet was recommended for the growth promotion and immune enhancement of A. japonicus.

  7. [Evaluation of germplasm resource of Ophiopogon japonicus in Sichuan basin based on principal component and cluster analysis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Chen, Xingfu; Liu, Sha; Yang, Wenyu; Du, Gang; Liu, Weiguo

    2010-03-01

    To compare and appraise the quality of germplasm resource of Ophiopogon japonicus in Sichuan basin. According to the main contents and yield traits, 24 wild germplasm resources of O. japonicus from different areas of Sichuan basin were comprehensively compared by the SPSS 17.0 software with principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The six samples of Ziyang, Jianyang, Leshan, Yibin, Chongqing, Mianyang, their comprehensive evaluation value of quality were higher than the others, and the sample of Ziyang had the best quality, the sample of Dazhou had the least quality, the results of the cluster analysis to raw data were also shown a similar results as principal component analysis. The wild resources of O. japonicus in Sichuan basin is rich, there are much differences among their quality; the method, through principal component analysis to study the comprehensive evaluation of the O. japonicus quality, is reliability and the results of cluster analysis is also support the conclusions, it could be able to provide a reference to select high O. japonicus quality resources.

  8. Comparative Susceptibility of Ochlerotatus japonicus, Ochlerotatus triseriatus, Aedes albopictus, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to La Crosse Virus.

    PubMed

    Bara, Jeffrey J; Parker, Allison T; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2016-11-01

    Invasive mosquito species can increase the transmission risk of native mosquito-borne diseases by acting as novel vectors. In this study, we examined the susceptibility of three exotic invasive mosquito species Aedes aegypti (L.), Ae. albopictus (Skuse), and Ochlerotatus japonicus (Theobald) to La Crosse virus (LACV) relative to the native primary vector Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say). Adult females of the four mosquito species were orally challenged with LACV; incubated for 3, 5, 7, 9, or 11 d; and their midgut infection rates, dissemination rates, and effective vector competence were determined. Overall, Oc. japonicus (2.92) had the highest effective vector competence values, followed by Ae. albopictus (1.55), Ae. aegypti (0.88), and Oc. triseriatus (0.64). In addition, we assessed the relationship between mosquito size and LACV susceptibility for field-collected Oc. triseriatus and Oc. japonicus We hypothesized that smaller adults would be more susceptible to LACV; however, our results did not support this hypothesis. Infected Oc. triseriatus tended to be larger than exposed but uninfected females, while infected and uninfected Oc. japonicus were similarly sized. These findings suggest that Oc. japonicus, Ae. albopictus, and Ae. aegypti have significant potential to transmit LACV and more research is needed to uncover their potential role in LACV epidemiology. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Genome-wide identification of whole ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Bo-Mi; Lee, Jae-Seong; Rhee, Jae-Sung

    2014-08-05

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily is one of the largest transporter gene families and is observed in all animal taxa. Although a large set of transcriptomic data was recently assembled for several species of crustaceans, identification and annotation of the large ABC transporter gene family have been very challenging. In the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus, 46 putative ABC transporters were identified using in silico analysis, and their full-length cDNA sequences were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 46 T. japonicus ABC transporters are classified into eight subfamilies (A-H) that include all the members of all ABC subfamilies, consisting of five ABCA, five ABCB, 17 ABCC, three ABCD, one ABCE, three ABCF, seven ABCG, and five ABCH subfamilies. Of them, unique isotypic expansion of two clades of ABCC1 proteins was observed. Real-time RT-PCR-based heatmap analysis revealed that most T. japonicus ABC genes showed temporal transcriptional expression during copepod development. The overall transcriptional profile demonstrated that half of all T. japonicus ABC genes were strongly associated with at least one developmental stage. Of them, transcripts TJ-ABCH_88708 and TJ-ABCE1 were highly expressed during all developmental stages. The whole set of T. japonicus ABC genes and their phylogenetic relationships will provide a better understanding of the comparative evolution of essential gene family resources in arthropods, including the crustacean copepods.

  10. Antioxidative-related genes expression following perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure in the intertidal mud crab, Macrophthalmus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kiyun; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Kwak, Tae-Soo; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2015-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent environmental contaminant that is used as a surfactant in various industries and consumer products. The intertidal mud crab, Macrophthalmus japonicus, is one of the most abundant macrobenthic creatures. In this study, we have investigated the effect of PFOS on the molecular transcription of antioxidant and detoxification signaling in M. japonicus crab. The selected stress response genes were superoxide dismutases (CuZnSOD and MnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx), peroxiredoxin (Prx), and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Significant up-regulation of SODs and CAT was observed after 24 and 96 h exposure to PFOS at different concentrations. The gene expression levels of GPx, PHGPx, and TrXR were significantly up-regulated after exposure to PFOS for 96 h. The transcript levels of CAT and PHGPx were induced in dose- and time-dependent manners after PFOS treatments. However, Prx gene expression was significantly up-regulated in M. japonicus crabs exposed to 10 and 30 μg L-1 PFOS for 96 h. Additionally, PFOS toxicity in M. japonicus induced reduced survival rates at relatively high concentrations of PFOS exposure. Our findings support the contention that exposures to PFOS induced the response of genes related to oxidative stress and detoxification in M. japonicus crabs.

  11. A biomimetic nano hybrid coating based on the lotus effect and its anti-biofouling behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiang; Wang, Guoqing; Meng, Qinghua; Ding, Chunhua; Jiang, Hong; Fang, Yongzeng

    2014-10-01

    To develop an environmentally friendly anti-biofouling coating in virtue of bionics, a block copolymer containing fluorine (Coplm_F) of low surface energy was prepared by copolymerization. The Ag-loaded mesoporous silica (Ag@SBA) acting as a controlled-release antifoulant was prepared from the mesoporous silica (SBA-15). The nano hybrid coating (Ag@SBA/Coplm_F) composing of the Coplm_F and Ag@SBA was to biomimetically simulate the lotus microstructure. The concentration of fluorine element on surface was analyzed by the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and found rising to 1.45% after hybridation, which could be explained by the driving effect of SBA-15 via the hydrogen bond. This nanoscale morphology of the hybrid coating was measured and found highly semblable to the microstructure of the lotus surface. The contact angle was determined as 151° which confirmed the superhydrophobicity and lotus effect. The adhesion behaviors of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Diatoms, and Chlorella on the surface of the nano hybrid coating (Ag@SBA/Coplm_F) were studied and good effects of anti-biofouling were observed.

  12. Lotus corniculatus regulates the inflammation induced by bradykinin in a murine model of pleurisy.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Diana Ana; Dalmarco, Juliana Bastos; Wisniewski, Alberto; Simionatto, Edésio Luiz; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2011-03-23

    This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory efficacy of the crude extract (CE), the fractions derived from hexane (HEX), ethyl acetate (AcOEt), n-butanol (BuOH), and aqueous (Aq) and isolated compounds (oleanolic acid or kaempferitrin) obtained from the aerial parts of Lotus corniculatus var. São Gabriel in mice with bradykinin-induced pleurisy. Swiss mice were used for the In Vivo experiments. Inflammatory parameters [leukocytes; exudate concentrations; myeloperoxidase and adenosine-deaminase activities, and nitric oxide and interleukin-17 levels] were evaluated 4 h after pleurisy induction. The crude extract of Lotus corniculatus, its derived fractions, and isolated compounds inhibited leukocytes and the exudate. This inhibitory effect was associated with decreased of myeloperoxidase and adenosine-deaminase activities, nitric oxide products, and IL-17A levels. Lotus corniculatus presented important anti-inflammatory action by inhibiting leukocyte influx and exudate concentrations. This effect was directly related to the inhibition of nitric oxide and interleukinin17 levels. Oleanolic acid and kaempferitrin can account for these anti-inflammatory effects.

  13. Biogenesis of C-Glycosyl Flavones and Profiling of Flavonoid Glycosides in Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shan-Shan; Wu, Jie; Chen, Li-Guang; Du, Hui; Xu, Yan-Jun; Wang, Li-Jing; Zhang, Hui-Jin; Zheng, Xu-Chen; Wang, Liang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids in nine tissues of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MSn). Thirty-eight flavonoids were identified; eleven C-glycosides and five O-glycosides were discovered for the first time in N. nucifera. Most importantly, the C-glycosyl apigenin or luteolin detected in lotus plumules proved valuable for deep elucidation of flavonoid composition in lotus tissues and for further utilization as functional tea and medicine materials. Lotus leaves possessed the significantly highest amount of flavonoids (2.06E3±0.08 mg 100 g−1 FW) and separating and purifying the bioactive compound, quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, from leaves showed great potential. In contrast, flavonoids in flower stalks, seed coats and kernels were extremely low. Simultaneously, the optimal picking time was confirmed by comparing the compound contents in five developmental phases. Finally, we proposed the putative flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in N. nucifera. PMID:25279809

  14. Gene Expression Profile in the Long-Living Lotus: Insights into the Heat Stress Response Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Naiwei; Chang, Yajun; Yao, Dongrui

    2016-01-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo Adans) is an aquatic perennial plant that flourished during the middle Albian stage. In this study, we characterized the digital gene expression signatures for China Antique lotus under conditions of heat shock stress. Using RNA-seq technology, we sequenced four libraries, specifically, two biological replicates for control plant samples and two for heat stress samples. As a result, 6,528,866 to 8,771,183 clean reads were mapped to the reference genome, accounting for 92–96% total clean reads. A total of 396 significantly altered genes were detected across the genome, among which 315 were upregulated and 81 were downregulated by heat shock stress. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment of differentially expressed genes revealed protein folding, cell morphogenesis and cellular component morphogenesis as the top three functional terms under heat shock stress. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis led to the identification of protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, plant-pathogen interactions, spliceosome, endocytosis, and protein export as significantly enriched pathways. Among the upregulated genes, small heat shock proteins (sHsps) and genes related to cell morphogenesis were particularly abundant under heat stress. Data from the current study provide valuable clues that may help elucidate the molecular events underlying heat stress response in China Antique lotus. PMID:27018792

  15. Fabrication of High-Porosity Lotus-Type Porous Aluminum in Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaobang; Li, Yanxiang; He, Yun

    2017-03-01

    Lotus-type porous aluminums with porosities from 10 to 26 pct were fabricated with the Bridgman-type directional solidification method (Gasar). A vacuum atmosphere is critical to obtain high-porosity lotus-type porous aluminum by the Gasar process. The lotus-type porous aluminum was directionally solidified under a pure hydrogen pressure of 0.2 to 16 kPa. The influence of hydrogen pressure on the porosity and pore size in vacuum was investigated. The porosity and pore size increase with decreasing hydrogen pressure, but there exists a maximum porosity at some critical hydrogen pressure. Since a low hydrogen pressure is adopted, the effect of capillary pressure and hydrostatic pressure on the porosity becomes important. With the decreasing of hydrogen pressure, the influence of hydrostatic pressure and capillary pressure on porosity becomes stronger and stronger. The influence of melt height, which is proportional hydrostatic pressure, on porosity and pore size was investigated. The calculated porosities considering capillary pressure and hydrostatic pressure are in good agreement with experimental results.

  16. Self-propulsion of dew drops on lotus leaves: a potential mechanism for self cleaning.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gregory S; Gellender, Marty; Watson, Jolanta A

    2014-01-01

    This study shows that condensation on the hierarchically structured lotus leaf can facilitate self-propulsion of water droplets off the surface. Droplets on leaves inclined at high angles can be completely removed from the surface by self-propulsion with the assistance of gravity. Due to the small size of mobile droplets, light breezes may also fully remove the propelled droplets, which are typically projected beyond the boundary layer of the leaf cuticle. Moreover the self-propelled droplets/condensate were able to remove contaminants (eg silica particles) from the leaf surface. The biological significance of this process may be associated with maintaining a healthy cuticle surface when the action of rain to clean the surface via the lotus effect is not possible (due to no precipitation). Indeed, the native lotus plants in this study were located in a region with extended time periods (several months) without rain. Thus, dew formation on the leaf may provide an alternative self-cleaning mechanism during times of drought and optimise the functional efficiency of the leaf surface as well as protecting the surface from long term exposure to pathogens such as bacteria and fungi.

  17. Effect of ionizing radiation on some quality attributes of nutraceutically valued lotus seeds.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; Karim, A A

    2009-01-01

    Radiation processing has been employed successfully for value addition of food and agricultural products. Preliminary studies were undertaken to evaluate the changes induced by ionizing radiation (up to 30 kGy), in the form of gamma irradiation and electron beam irradiation, on some quality attributes and nutritive values of nutraceutically valued lotus seeds. Significant loss in seed firmness was recorded between control and irradiated seeds, irrespective of radiation source. Similarly, the specific viscosity of irradiated lotus seeds decreased significantly up to a dose of 7.5 kGy. Starch increased after exposure to gamma or electron beam irradiation, whereas the total phenolic contents were decreased. Gamma irradiation revealed an enhancement in protein, while the electron beam showed a decrease. Partial oxidation of the seeds during radiation treatments might have occurred as evidenced from the decomposition profiles (thermogravimetry) during heating. It is evident that ionizing radiation brought about significant and variable changes in the quality and nutritive values of lotus seed. Further exploration of this technology for safety and quality is warranted.

  18. Molecular disassembly of rice and lotus starches during thermal processing and its effect on starch digestibility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Sun, Yue; Wang, Jinrong; Wang, Shuo; Copeland, Les

    2016-02-01

    The molecular disassembly of starch during thermal processing is a major determinant for the susceptibility of starch to enzymatic digestion. In the present study, the effects of thermal processing on the disassembly of the granular structure and the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of rice and lotus starches were investigated. After heating at 50 °C, rice and lotus starches did not show significant changes in granular morphology, long-range crystallinity and short-range molecular order. As the temperature increased to 60 °C, rice starch underwent a partial gelatinization followed by an incomplete disruption of granular morphology, crystallites and molecular order. In contrast, lotus starch was almost completely gelatinized at 60 °C. At 70 °C or higher, both starches were fully gelatinized with complete disruption of the micro and macro structures. Our results show that gelatinization greatly increased the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of both starches, but that the degree of disassembly of the starch structure during thermal processing was not a major determinant of the digestibility of gelatinized starch.

  19. Fabrication of High-Porosity Lotus-Type Porous Aluminum in Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaobang; Li, Yanxiang; He, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Lotus-type porous aluminums with porosities from 10 to 26 pct were fabricated with the Bridgman-type directional solidification method (Gasar). A vacuum atmosphere is critical to obtain high-porosity lotus-type porous aluminum by the Gasar process. The lotus-type porous aluminum was directionally solidified under a pure hydrogen pressure of 0.2 to 16 kPa. The influence of hydrogen pressure on the porosity and pore size in vacuum was investigated. The porosity and pore size increase with decreasing hydrogen pressure, but there exists a maximum porosity at some critical hydrogen pressure. Since a low hydrogen pressure is adopted, the effect of capillary pressure and hydrostatic pressure on the porosity becomes important. With the decreasing of hydrogen pressure, the influence of hydrostatic pressure and capillary pressure on porosity becomes stronger and stronger. The influence of melt height, which is proportional hydrostatic pressure, on porosity and pore size was investigated. The calculated porosities considering capillary pressure and hydrostatic pressure are in good agreement with experimental results.

  20. Extract of lotus leaf ( Nelumbo nucifera ) and its active constituent catechin with insulin secretagogue activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun Fa; Chen, Ya Wen; Yang, Ching Yao; Lin, Hui Yi; Way, Tzong Der; Chiang, Wenchang; Liu, Shing Hwa

    2011-02-23

    The effect of lotus leaf ( Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) on diabetes is unclear. We hypothesized that lotus leaf can regulate insulin secretion and blood glucose levels. The in vitro and in vivo effects of lotus leaf methanolic extract (NNE) on insulin secretion and hyperglycemia were investigated. NNE increased insulin secretion from β cells (HIT-T15) and human islets. NNE enhanced the intracellular calcium levels in β cells. NNE could also enhance phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK)1/2 and protein kinase C (PKC), which could be reversed by a PKC inhibitor. The in vivo studies showed that NNE possesses the ability to regulate blood glucose levels in fasted normal mice and high-fat-diet-induced diabetic mice. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo effects of the active constituents of NNE, quercetin, and catechin, on glucose-induced insulin secretion and blood glucose regulation were evaluated. Quercetin did not affect insulin secretion, but catechin significantly and dose-dependently enhanced insulin secretion. Orally administered catechin significantly reversed the glucose intolerance in high-fat-diet-induced diabetic mice. These findings suggest that NNE and its active constituent catechin are useful in the control of hyperglycemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus through their action as insulin secretagogues.

  1. Not all the infected develop the disease - A "Lotus and Cactus" model.

    PubMed

    Pitchappan, Ramasamy M

    2016-06-01

    The immunogenetic dictum "not all the infected develop the disease" can best be explained by a "Lotus and Cactus" model. Lotuses grow in ponds and cacti in deserts: analogously, we can say that tubercle patient's lung (genetic makeup) functions as an ideal 'broth' for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) germs to grow, but not the lungs of an endemic control. HLA association studies from Europe to Asia since 1983 till date, have shown a persistent HLA DR2 (15) association. Further, HLA DR2 and non-DR2 endemic controls showed disparate patterns of immune responses and gene expressions. The host and pathogen MHC diversities, Th1-Th2 paradigm and cytokine circuits all may play a crucial role in TB susceptibility. It is possible to decipher the protective immunity by controlling the known confounders - epidemiological, demographic, socio-biological and also host and pathogen diversities. This has become significant with our understanding on the 'out of Africa' migration and neolithic co-dispersal of M.tb with modern human. Divergence and expansion of various MHCs (eg HLA-DRB1*15, HLA-B*57) and non-MHC alleles in various continents might be responsible for the skewed transmission and distribution of the infectious diseases around the globe. The 'Lotus and Cactus' model proposed here exemplifies this. A holistic genetic epidemiology approach employing modern tools is the need of the hour to better understand infectious disease susceptibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization of microwave vacuum drying of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seeds by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuting; Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Zheng, Yafeng; Chen, Feng; Guo, Zhebin; Lin, Yufei; Zheng, Baodong

    2012-10-01

    Drying is the main process used to treat lotus seeds for storage. In this study, response surface methodology was used to optimize processing methods for microwave vacuum (MWV) drying of lotus seeds and to create a desirable product. A central composite design with three important factors: microwave output power (2.0-4.0 kW), vacuum degree (-0.070 to -0.090 MPa) and on/off ratio (68/52 s to 99/21 s) was used to study the response variables of drying time, shrinkage ratio, rehydration ratio and whiteness index. The optimum conditions for MWV drying of lotus seeds were determined to obtain a minimal drying time, minimal shrinkage ratio, maximum rehydration ratio and maximum whiteness index. The optimum drying conditions were found to be: microwave output power 3.2 kW, vacuum degree -0.083 MPa and on/off ratio 94/26 s. Under these optimal conditions, drying time, shrinkage ratio, rehydration ratio and whiteness index were found to be 10 min, 37.66%, 157.1% and 68.83, respectively.

  3. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Regulation of Rhizome Formation in Temperate and Tropical Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mei; Zhu, Lingping; Pan, Cheng; Xu, Liming; Liu, Yanling; Ke, Weidong; Yang, Pingfang

    2015-01-01

    Rhizome is the storage organ of lotus derived from modified stems. The development of rhizome is a complex process and depends on the balanced expression of the genes that is controlled by environmental and endogenous factors. However, little is known about the mechanism that regulates rhizome girth enlargement. In this study, using RNA-seq, transcriptomic analyses were performed at three rhizome developmental stages—the stolon, middle swelling and later swelling stage —in the cultivars ‘ZO’ (temperate lotus with enlarged rhizome) and ‘RL’ (tropical lotus with stolon). About 348 million high-quality reads were generated, and 88.5% of the data were mapped to the reference genome. Of 26783 genes identified, 24069 genes were previously predicted in the reference, and 2714 genes were novel transcripts. Moreover, 8821 genes were differentially expressed between the cultivars at the three stages. Functional analysis identified that these genes were significantly enriched in pathways carbohydrate metabolism and plant hormone signal transduction. Twenty-two genes involved in photoperiod pathway, starch metabolism and hormone signal transduction were candidate genes inducing rhizome girth enlargement. Comparative transcriptomic analysis detected several differentially expressed genes and potential candidate genes required for rhizome girth enlargement, which lay a foundation for future studies on molecular mechanisms underlying rhizome formation. PMID:26279185

  4. Stomata actively regulate internal aeration of the sacred lotus Nelumbo nucifera.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Philip G D; Seymour, Roger S

    2014-02-01

    The sacred lotus Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn.) possesses a complex system of gas canals that channel pressurized air from its leaves, down through its petioles and rhizomes, before venting this air back to the atmosphere through large stomata found in the centre of every lotus leaf. These central plate stomata (CPS) lie over a gas canal junction that connects with two-thirds of the gas canals within the leaf blade and with the larger of two discrete pairs of gas canals within the petiole that join with those in the rhizome. It is hypothesized that the lotus actively regulates the pressure, direction and rate of airflow within its gas canals by opening and closing these stomata. Impression casting the CPS reveal that they are open in the morning, close at midday and reopen in the afternoon. The periodic closure of the CPS during the day coincides with a temporary reversal in airflow direction within the petiolar gas canals. Experiments show that the conductance of the CPS decreases in response to increasing light level. This behaviour ventilates the rhizome and possibly directs benthic CO2 towards photosynthesis in the leaves. These results demonstrate a novel function for stomata: the active regulation of convective airflow.

  5. Identification of the geographical origins of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in northern China by using stable isotope ratios and fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xufeng; Liu, Yu; Li, Ying; Zhao, Xinda

    2017-03-01

    Geographic traceability is an important issue for food quality and safety control of seafood. In this study,δ(13)C and δ(15)N values, as well as fatty acid (FA) content of 133 samples of A. japonicus from seven sampling points in northern China Sea were determined to evaluate their applicability in the origin traceability of A. japonicus. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied to different data sets in order to evaluate their performance in terms of classification or predictive ability. δ(13)C and δ(15)N values could effectively discriminate between different origins of A. japonicus. Significant differences in the FA compositions showed the effectiveness of FA composition as a tool for distinguishing between different origins of A. japonicus. The two technologies, combined with multivariate statistical analysis, can be promising methods to discriminate A. japonicus from different geographical areas.

  6. The effect of methanol rhizome extract of Nymphaea lotus Linn. (Nymphaeaceae) in animal models of diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Bello, Fatima Hauwa; Maiha, Bilkisu B; Anuka, Joseph A

    2016-08-22

    Nymphaea lotus, which is widely distributed throughout tropical Africa, enjoys a number of ethnomedical uses in Nigeria. Traditionally, the rhizomes of N. lotus are used to cure diarrhoea. This study aims to evaluate the antidiarrhoeal activity of the methanol rhizome extract of N. lotus plant in laboratory animals. The extract was screened for activity against castor oil-induced diarrhoea and magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea as well as effect on gastric transit time in mice. The effect of methanol rhizome extract of Nymphaea lotus on the perfused isolated tissue preparation was also determined. For castor oil-induced diarrhoea, the extract at doses of 200, 400 and 800mg/kg produced significant reduction in the frequency of diarrhoea (at p<0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.01 respectively). The extract at 800mg/kg produced a significant delay in onset of diarrhoea (p<0.05) comparable to loperamide (3mg/kg). The frequency of magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea was also significantly reduced in the groups treated with 200, 400 and 800mg/kg of the extract at p<0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.01 respectively. At doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg, the protection produced was comparable to loperamide, 3mg/kg. All treated groups produced significant reduction in the transit of charcoal meal along the intestinal tract at p<0.001. The extract at low concentration (4×10(-4)-6.4×10(-2)mg/ml) had contractile effect on the tone of contraction of the rabbit jejunum while at higher concentrations (8×10(-2)-512×10(-2)mg/ml) produced significant reduction in the tone and rate of spontaneous contraction of rabbit jejunum. The extract at lower concentrations (4×10(-4)-2×10(-2)mg/ml) has no effect on contraction of the guinea pig ileum while higher concentrations (4×10(-2)-512×10(-2)mg/ml) produced significant relaxant activity on guinea pig ileum. This study has shown that the methanol rhizome extract of N. lotus has antidiarrhoeal properties thus justifying its use by the local population for

  7. Lotus corniculatus condensed tannins decrease in vivo populations of proteolytic bacteria and affect nitrogen metabolism in the rumen of sheep.

    PubMed

    Min, B R; Attwood, G T; Reilly, K; Sun, W; Peters, J S; Barry, T N; McNabb, W C

    2002-10-01

    Condensed tannins in forage legumes improve the nutrition of sheep by reducing ruminal degradation of plant protein and increasing crude protein flow to the intestine. However, the effects of condensed tannins in forage legumes on rumen bacterial populations in vivo are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific effects of condensed tannins from Lotus corniculatus on four proteolytic rumen bacteria in sheep during and after transition from a ryegrass (Lolium perenne)-white clover (Trifolium repens) diet (i.e., low condensed tannins) to a Lotus corniculatus diet (i.e., higher condensed tannins). The bacterial populations were quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction. Lotus corniculatus was fed with or without ruminal infusions of polyethylene glycol (PEG), which binds to and inactivates condensed tannins, enabling the effect of condensed tannins on bacterial populations to be examined. When sheep fed on ryegrass-white clover, populations of Clostridium proteoclasticum B316T, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens C211a, Eubacterium sp. C12b, and Streptococcus bovis B315 were 1.5 x 10(8), 1.1 x 10(6), 4.6 x 10(8), and 7.1 x 10(6) mL(-1), respectively. When the diet was changed to Lotus corniculatus, the average populations (after 8-120 h) of C. proteoclasticum, B. fibrisolvens, Eubacterium sp., and S. bovis decreased (P < 0.001) to 2.4 x 10(7), 1.1 x 10(5), 1.1 x 10(8), and 2.5 x 10(5) mL(-1), respectively. When PEG was infused into the rumen of sheep fed Lotus corniculatus, the populations of C. proteoclasticum, B. fibrisolvens, Eubacterium sp., and S. bovis were higher (P < 0.01-0.001) than in sheep fed Lotus corniculatus without the PEG infusion, with average populations (after 8-120 h) of 4.9 x 10(7), 3.8 x 10(5), 1.9 x 10(8), and 1.0 x 10(6), respectively. Sheep fed the Lotus corniculatus diet had lower rumen proteinase activity, ammonia, and soluble nitrogen (P < 0.05-0.001) than sheep that were fed Lotus corniculatus plus PEG

  8. Desmosomes in acquired disease.

    PubMed

    Stahley, Sara N; Kowalczyk, Andrew P

    2015-06-01

    Desmosomes are cell-cell junctions that mediate adhesion and couple the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to sites of cell-cell contact. This architectural arrangement integrates adhesion and cytoskeletal elements of adjacent cells. The importance of this robust adhesion system is evident in numerous human diseases, both inherited and acquired, which occur when desmosome function is compromised. This review focuses on autoimmune and infectious diseases that impair desmosome function. In addition, we discuss emerging evidence that desmosomal genes are often misregulated in cancer. The emphasis of our discussion is placed on the way in which human diseases can inform our understanding of basic desmosome biology and in turn, the means by which fundamental advances in the cell biology of desmosomes might lead to new treatments for acquired diseases of the desmosome.

  9. Desmosomes in acquired disease

    PubMed Central

    Stahley, Sara N.; Kowalczyk, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Desmosomes are cell-cell junctions that mediate adhesion and couple the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to sites of cell-cell contact. This architectural arrangement functions to integrate adhesion and cytoskeletal elements of adjacent cells. The importance of this robust adhesion system is evident in numerous human diseases, both inherited and acquired, that occur when desmosome function is compromised. This review focuses on autoimmune and infectious diseases that impair desmosome function. In addition, we discuss emerging evidence that desmosomal genes are often misregulated in cancer. The emphasis of our discussion is placed on how human diseases inform our understanding of basic desmosome biology, and in turn, how fundamental advances in the cell biology of desmosomes may lead to new treatments for acquired diseases of the desmosome. PMID:25795143

  10. Hospital-acquired thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Christine M; Cuker, Adam

    2014-10-01

    The development of thrombocytopenia is common in hospitalized patients and is associated with increased mortality. Frequent and important causes of thrombocytopenia in hospitalized patients include etiologies related to the underlying illness for which the patient is admitted, such as infection and disseminated intravascular coagulation, and iatrogenic etiologies such as drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, posttransfusion purpura, hemodilution, major surgery, and extracorporeal circuitry. This review presents a brief discussion of the pathophysiology, distinguishing clinical features, and management of these etiologies, and provides a diagnostic approach to hospital-acquired thrombocytopenia that considers the timing and severity of the platelet count fall, the presence of hemorrhage or thrombosis, the clinical context, and the peripheral blood smear. This approach may offer guidance to clinicians in distinguishing among the various causes of hospital-acquired thrombocytopenia and providing management appropriate to the etiology.

  11. Understanding the Heat Shock Response in the Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, Using iTRAQ-Based Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dongxue; Sun, Lina; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is exploited as a commercial species owing to their high nutritive and medicinal value. Recent high summer temperatures have caused high mortality rates in A. japonicus. In this study, we applied the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technique to investigate the global protein expression profile under an acute short-term (48 h) heat stress. In total, 3432 proteins were identified, and 127 proteins showed significant heat stress responses, with 61 upregulated proteins and 66 downregulated proteins. Our results suggest that heat stress influenced the expression of proteins involved in various biological processes, such as tissue protection and detoxification, lipid and amino acid metabolism, energy production and usage, transcription and translation, cell apoptosis, and cell proliferation. These findings provide a better understanding about the response and thermo-tolerance mechanisms of A. japonicus under heat stress. PMID:26861288

  12. Understanding the Heat Shock Response in the Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, Using iTRAQ-Based Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongxue; Sun, Lina; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2016-02-04

    The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is exploited as a commercial species owing to their high nutritive and medicinal value. Recent high summer temperatures have caused high mortality rates in A. japonicus. In this study, we applied the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technique to investigate the global protein expression profile under an acute short-term (48 h) heat stress. In total, 3432 proteins were identified, and 127 proteins showed significant heat stress responses, with 61 upregulated proteins and 66 downregulated proteins. Our results suggest that heat stress influenced the expression of proteins involved in various biological processes, such as tissue protection and detoxification, lipid and amino acid metabolism, energy production and usage, transcription and translation, cell apoptosis, and cell proliferation. These findings provide a better understanding about the response and thermo-tolerance mechanisms of A. japonicus under heat stress.

  13. Morphological and molecular characterization of a microsporidian parasite, Takaokaspora nipponicus n. gen., n. sp. from the invasive rock pool mosquito, Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Andreadis, Theodore G; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Otsuka, Yasushi; Vossbrinck, Charles R

    2013-10-01

    A new genus and species of Microsporidia, Takaokaspora nipponicus n. gen., n. sp. is described from Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Theobald) and Ochlerotatus hatorii (Yamada) based on light microscope and ultrastructural morphology, developmental features, transmission cycles and comparative sequence analyses of the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA). The microsporidium is both vertically and horizontally transmitted, exhibits dimorphic development alternating between diplokaryotic and monokaryotic stages and produces two morphologically distinct spores, one in larvae and another in adult females. Horizontal transmission of infection to larval mosquitoes occurs via direct oral ingestion of uninucleate spores that are produced in vertically-infected larval hosts. Development in horizontally-infected hosts is diplokaryotic following karyokinesis of uninucleate schizonts and binary fission to produce small (4.3μm × 2.0μm) membrane free, ovoid, binucleate spores that are confined to adult female reproductive tissues (ovariole sheath and oviducts). Vertical transmission of the microsporidium from adult females to larval progeny takes place via surface contamination of the egg (transovum). Microsporidian development in vertically-infected larvae is haplophasic with unpaired nuclei throughout, producing rosette-shaped sporogonial plasmodia contained within a thin non-persistent sporophorous vesicle and culminating in the formation of membrane free, uninucleate, conical spores (7.0μm×2.8μm). Development is confined to host fat body tissue which appears as swollen white masses in the thorax and selected segments of the abdomen causing larvae to appear abnormally distorted and results in death during the third and fourth instar stages. The SSU rDNA sequences obtained from the two morphologically identical microsporidia isolated from Oc. j. japonicus and Oc. hatorii were nearly identical and unique when compared with GenBank entries of all other mosquito

  14. Parasitism of Argulus japonicus in cultured and wild fish of Guangdong, China with new record of three hosts.

    PubMed

    Alsarakibi, Muhamd; Wadeh, Hicham; Li, Guoqing

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate the ability of Argulus japonicus to infect a wide range of freshwater fishes, as well as to understand the effects of fish origin and host body size on the incidence of A. japonicus. Samples of cultured and wild fish were collected randomly from July 2010 to March 2013, using angling, long-lining, gill-netting, and trapping from rivers and fish farms in Guangdong province, South China. Eight fish species were found to be heavily infected including the common carp, the goldfish, the black carp, the silver carp, the brown trout, the rainbow trout, the mandarin fish, and the perch. Furthermore, the black carp, the brown trout, and the mandarin fish were recorded as new hosts for the first time. During the present study, a total of 2,271 fishes were examined, out of which 712 fishes were found to be infected by a total of 1,443 A. japonicus. Abundance and intensity of A. japonicus infection were significantly influenced by origin of fishes (cultured and wild) and total length (class I, <250 mm; class II, 250-350 mm; and class III, >350 mm) of fish species, whereas varied impacts on prevalence of infection were observed. The correlation between total length of fishes and prevalence of A. japonicus infection was variable, where no significant correlation was observed in the black carp, the silver carp, the mandarin fish, and the perch. In spite of the weak negative correlation between body size of the silver carp and prevalence of infection, A. japonicus was the most abundant and intensive in the silver carp. Thus, aquaculturists should pay particular attention to the control of these fish lice due to its host biodiversity.

  15. Analysis of Flavonoids in Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Leaves and Their Antioxidant Activity Using Macroporous Resin Chromatography Coupled with LC-MS/MS and Antioxidant Biochemical Assays.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ming-Zhi; Wu, Wei; Jiao, Li-Li; Yang, Ping-Fang; Guo, Ming-Quan

    2015-06-08

    Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaves, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, are rich in flavonoids. In an effort to thoroughly analyze their flavonoid components, macroporous resin chromatography coupled with HPLC-MS/MS was employed to simultaneously enrich and identify flavonoids from lotus leaves. Flavonoids extracted from lotus leaves were selectively enriched in the macroporous resin column, eluted subsequently as fraction II, and successively subjected to analysis with the HPLC-MS/MS and bioactivity assays. Altogether, fourteen flavonoids were identified, four of which were identified from lotus leaves for the first time, including quercetin 3-O-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-arabinoside, diosmetin 7-O-hexose, and isorhamnetin 3-O-arabino- pyranosyl-(1→2)-glucopyranoside. Further bioactivity assays revealed that these flavonoids from lotus leaves possess strong antioxidant activity, and demonstrate very good potential to be explored as food supplements or even pharmaceutical products to improve human health.

  16. The LOTUS domain is a conserved DEAD-box RNA helicase regulator essential for the recruitment of Vasa to the germ plasm and nuage

    PubMed Central

    Jeske, Mandy; Müller, Christoph W.; Ephrussi, Anne

    2017-01-01

    DEAD-box RNA helicases play important roles in a wide range of metabolic processes. Regulatory proteins can stimulate or block the activity of DEAD-box helicases. Here, we show that LOTUS (Limkain, Oskar, and Tudor containing proteins 5 and 7) domains present in the germline proteins Oskar, TDRD5 (Tudor domain-containing 5), and TDRD7 bind and stimulate the germline-specific DEAD-box RNA helicase Vasa. Our crystal structure of the LOTUS domain of Oskar in complex with the C-terminal RecA-like domain of Vasa reveals that the LOTUS domain occupies a surface on a DEAD-box helicase not implicated previously in the regulation of the enzyme's activity. We show that, in vivo, the localization of Drosophila Vasa to the nuage and germ plasm depends on its interaction with LOTUS domain proteins. The binding and stimulation of Vasa DEAD-box helicases by LOTUS domains are widely conserved. PMID:28536148

  17. Identification and functional characterisation of 5-HT4 receptor in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianming; Yang, Zhen; Zhou, Naiming; Sun, Lina; Lv, Zhenming; Wu, Changwen

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that controls a variety of sensory and motor functions through 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs). The 5-HT4R subfamily is linked to Gs proteins, which activate adenylyl cyclases (ACs), and is involved in many responses in peripheral organs. In this study, the 5-HT4R from Apostichopus japonicus (Aj5-HT4R) was identified and characterised. The cloned full-length Aj5-HT4R cDNA is 1,544 bp long and contains an open reading frame 1,011 bp in length encoding 336 amino acid proteins. Bioinformatics analysis of the Aj5-HT4R protein indicated this receptor was a member of class A G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Further experiments using Aj5-HT4R-transfected HEK293 cells demonstrated that treatment with 5-HT triggered a significant increase in intracellular cAMP level in a dose-dependent manner and induced a rapid internalisation of Aj5-HT4R fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (Aj5-HT4R-EGFP) from the cell surface into the cytoplasm. In addition, the transcriptional profiles of Aj5-HT4R in aestivating A. japonicas and phosphofructokinase (AjPFK) in 5-HT administrated A. japonicus have been analysed by real-time PCR assays. Results have led to a basic understanding of Aj5-HT4R in A. japonicus, and provide a foundation for further exploration of the cell signaling and regulatory functions of this receptor. PMID:28059140

  18. Transcriptome sequencing of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) and the identification of gene-associated markers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z C; Dong, Y; Sun, H J; Yang, A F; Chen, Z; Gao, S; Jiang, J W; Guan, X Y; Jiang, B; Wang, B

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) is an ecologically and economically important species in East and South-East Asia. This project aimed to identify large numbers of gene-associated markers and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) after lipopolysaccharides (LPS) challenge in A. japonicus using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. A total of 162 million high-quality reads of 174 million raw reads were obtained by deep sequencing using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. Assembly of these reads generated 94 704 unigenes, with read length ranging from 200 to 16 153 bp (average length of 810 bp). A total of 36 005 were identified as coding sequences (CDSs), 32 479 of which were successfully annotated. Based on the assembly transcriptome, we identified 142 511 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Among them, 33 775, 63 120 and 45 616 were located in sequences without predicted CDS (non-CDSs), CDSs and untranslated regions (UTRs), respectively. These putative SNPs included 82 664 transitions and 59 847 transversions. Totally, 89 375 (59.1%) were distributed in 15 473 known genes. A total of 6417 microsatellites were detected in 5970 unigenes, 3216 of which were annotated and 2481 were successfully subjected for primer design. The numbers of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) identified in non-CDSs, CDSs and UTRs were 2367, 2316 and 1734. These potential SNPs and SSRs are expected to provide abundant resources for genetic, evolutionary and ecological studies in sea cucumber. Transcriptome comparison revealed 1330, 1347 and 1291 DEGs in the coelomocytes of A. japonicus at 4 h, 24 h and 72 h after LPS challenge, respectively. Approximately 58.4% (1802) of total DEGs have been successfully annotated.

  19. Effects of acute temperature or salinity stress on the immune response in sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangyu; Yang, Hongsheng; Gao, Fei; Liu, Guangbin

    2008-12-01

    Invertebrates are increasingly raised in mariculture, where it is important to monitor immune function and to minimize stresses that could suppress immunity. The activities of phagocytosis, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and lysozyme (LSZ) were measured to evaluate the immune capacities of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, to acute temperature changes (from 12 degrees C to 0 degrees C, 8 degrees C, 16 degrees C, 24 degrees C, and 32 degrees C for 72 h) and salinity changes (from 30 per thousand to 20 per thousand, 25 per thousand, and 35 per thousand for 72 h) in the laboratory. Phagocytosis was significantly affected by temperature increases in 3 h, and by salinity (25 per thousand and 35 per thousand) changes in 1 h. SOD activities decreased significantly in 0.5 h to 6 h samples at 24 degrees C. At 32 degrees C, SOD activities decreased significantly in 0.5 h and 1 h exposures, and obviously increased for 12 h exposure. CAT activities decreased significantly at 24 degrees C for 0.5 h exposure, and increased significantly at 32 degrees C in 3 h to 12 h exposures. Activities of MPO increased significantly at 0 degrees C in 0.5 h to 6 h exposures and at 8 degrees C for 1 h. By contrast, activities of MPO decreased significantly in 24 degrees C and 32 degrees C treatments. In elevated-temperature treatments, activities of LSZ increased significantly except at 32 degrees C for 6 h to 12 h exposures. SOD activity was significantly affected by salinity change. CAT activity decreased significantly after only 1 h exposure to salinity of 20 per thousand. Activities of MPO and LSZ showed that A. japonicus tolerates limited salinity stress. High-temperature stress had a much greater effect on the immune capacities of A. japonicus than did low-temperature and salinity stresses.

  20. Plate-like permanent dental laminae of upper jaw dentition in adult gobiid fish, Sicyopterus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Keita; Watanabe, Shun; Iida, Midori; Sahara, Noriyuki

    2010-04-01

    Sicyopterus japonicus (Teleostei, Gobiidae) possesses a unique upper jaw dentition different from that known for any other teleosts. In the adults, many (up to 30) replacement teeth, from initiation to attachment, are arranged orderly in a semicircular-like strand within a capsule of connective tissue on the labial side of each premaxillary bone. We have applied histological, ultrastructural, and three-dimensional imaging from serial sections to obtain insights into the distribution and morphological features of the dental lamina in the upper jaw dentition of adult S. japonicus. The adult fish has numerous permanent dental laminae, each of which is an infolding of the oral epithelium at the labial side of the functional tooth and forms a thin plate-like structure with a wavy contour. All replacement teeth of a semicircular-like strand are connected to the plate-like dental lamina by the outer dental epithelium and form a tooth family; neighboring tooth families are completely separated from each other. The new tooth germ directly buds off from the ventro-labial margin of the dental lamina, whereas no distinct free end of the dental lamina is present, even adjacent to this region. Cell proliferation concentrated at the ventro-labial margin of the dental lamina suggests that this region is the site for repeated tooth initiation. During tooth development, the replacement tooth migrates along a semicircular-like strand and eventually erupts through the dental lamina into the oral epithelium at the labial side of the functional tooth. This unique thin plate-like permanent dental lamina and the semicircular-like strand of replacement teeth in the upper jaw dentition of adult S. japonicus probably evolved as a dental adaptation related to the rapid replacement of teeth dictated by the specialized feeding habit of this algae-scraping fish.

  1. Increase of the phytase production by Aspergillus japonicus and its biocatalyst potential on chicken feed treatment.

    PubMed

    Maller, Alexandre; Vici, Ana Claudia; Facchini, Fernanda Del Antonio; da Silva, Tony Marcio; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Rodrigues, Maria Isabel; Jorge, João Atílio; Terenzi, Hector Francisco; de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Polizeli, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Phytase hydrolyzes phytic acid from the plant components of animal feed, releasing inorganic phosphorus. The phytase production by Aspergillus japonicus was optimized using Plackett-Burman designs (PBD), composite central rotational designs (CCRD), and response surface methodology from standard Czapek medium. The enzyme was applied in broiler chicken and laying hen foods. Analysis from PBD showed that KH2 PO2, MgSO4  · 7H2O, and yeast extract had significant influences on phytase secretion (p < 0.05). The best results from the CCRD experiments were obtained using (A) 0.040% KH2 PO4, (B) 0.050% MgSO4  · 7H2O, and (C) 0.040% yeast extract, enhancing in 49-53 U mg(-1) protein. The determination coefficient (R(2)) was 0.92 and Fcalc was 7.48 times greater than Flisted . Thus, the reduced coded model: Y (U mg-1) = 50.29 + 4.30A - 3.35(A)2 - 4.80(B)2 + 5.62C - 4.26(C)2 was considered predictive and statistically significant (p < 0.05). The optimized culture medium increased the phytase yield in 250%. A. japonicus phytase released high levels of Pi from broiler chicken and laying hen food. A. japonicus is an excellent phytase producer in a culture medium using inexpensive components and agricultural wastes. Therefore, these results provide sound arguments for the formulation of a low cost culture medium for phytase production. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Synchronous activation of cell division by light or temperature stimuli in the dimorphic yeast Schizosaccharomyces japonicus.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Sho; Furuya, Kanji; Nozaki, Shingo; Aoki, Keita; Niki, Hironori

    2013-09-01

    Many fungi respond to light and regulate fungal development and behavior. A blue light-activated complex has been identified in Neurospora crassa as the product of the wc-1 and wc-2 genes. Orthologs of WC-1 and WC-2 have hitherto been found only in filamentous fungi and not in yeast, with the exception of the basidiomycete pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus. Here, we report that the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces japonicus responds to blue light depending on Wcs1 and Wcs2, orthologs of components of the WC complex. Surprisingly, those of ascomycete S. japonicus are more closely related to those of the basidiomycete. S. japonicus reversibly changes from yeast to hyphae in response to environmental stresses. After incubation at 30°C, a colony of yeast was formed, and then hyphal cells extended from the periphery of the colony. When light cycles were applied, distinct dark- and bright-colored hyphal cell stripes were formed because the growing hyphal cells had synchronously activated cytokinesis. In addition, temperature cycles of 30°C for 12 h and 35°C for 12 h or of 25°C for 12 h and 30°C for 12 h during incubation in the dark induced a response in the hyphal cells similar to that of light. The stripe formation of the temperature cycles was independent of the wcs genes. Both light and temperature, which are daily external cues, have the same effect on growing hyphal cells. A dual sensing mechanism of external cues allows organisms to adapt to daily changes of environmental alteration.

  3. Effect of intestinal autochthonous probiotics isolated from the gut of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) on immune response and growth of A. japonicus.

    PubMed

    Chi, Cheng; Liu, Jia-Yan; Fei, Shi-Zhou; Zhang, Chao; Chang, Ya-Qing; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-06-01

    The study isolated 224 bacteria from the intestine of Apostichopus japonicus, then selected and identified three of the bacteria (HS1, HS7, and HS10) which demonstrated amylase, lipase, and protease production capacity as candidate probiotics for sea cucumbers. The three potential probiotics showed no pathogenicity both in hemolytic assays on sheep blood agar plates and after immersing sea cucumbers in a suspension of the bacteria. To reveal the effects of these three potential probiotics on the innate immunity of sea cucumbers, total coelomocyte counts, respiratory burst activity, superoxide dismutase activity, lysozyme activity, acid phosphatase activity, and phagocytic activity by coelomocytes were examined after feeding with four different diets for up to 28 days. Also the specific growth rate and survival rate were investigated after a 60-day feeding trial. Sea cucumbers were fed with 4 diets: one control, three diets supplemented with 1 × 10(9) cell g(-1) of HS1, HS7, and HS10 for 28-60 days. Results showed that sea cucumbers fed diets containing HS1, HS7, and HS10 had led to an enhanced cellular and humoral immune response, notably higher total coelomocytes counts, respiratory burst activity, lysozyme activity, acid phosphatase activity, and phagocytic activity, as recorded during the four weeks of probiotics administration. On the other hand, the survival rate among dietary treatments ranged from 90.71 to 97.97% with significant improvement (P < 0.05) compared to that of the control; and the growth rate observed in the sea cucumbers fed HS1 and HS7 showed sharp increases after 60 days feeding. The present study confirmed the potential beneficial effects of Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii HS1, Shewanella japonica HS7, and Vibrio tasmaniensis HS10 as dietary probiotics in A. japonicus.

  4. Acquired Factor V Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Daisuke; Yamashita, Yugo; Masunaga, Nobutoyo; Katsura, Toshiaki; Akao, Masaharu; Okuno, Yoshiaki; Koyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors directed against factor V rarely occur, and the clinical symptoms vary. We herein report the case of a patient who presented with a decreased factor V activity that had decreased to <3 %. We administered vitamin K and 6 units of fresh frozen plasma, but she thereafter developed an intracerebral hemorrhage. It is unclear whether surgery >10 years earlier might have caused the development of a factor V inhibitor. The treatment of acquired factor V inhibitors is mainly the transfusion of platelet concentrates and corticosteroids. Both early detection and the early initiation of the treatment of factor V inhibitor are thus considered to be important. PMID:27746446

  5. Effects of 24-epibrassinolide on enzymatic browning and antioxidant activity of fresh-cut lotus root slices.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Chai, HongKang; Cheng, Ni; Cao, Wei

    2017-02-15

    Fresh-cut lotus root slices were treated with 80nM 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) and then stored at 4°C for 8days to investigate the effects on cut surface browning. The results showed that EBR treatment reduced cut surface browning in lotus root slices and alleviated membrane lipid peroxidation as reflected by low malondialdehyde content and lipoxygenase activity. EBR treatment inhibited the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and polyphenol oxidase, and subsequently decreased phenolics accumulation and soluble quniones formation. The treatment also stimulated the activity of peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase and delayed the loss of ascorbic acid, which would help prevent membrane lipid peroxidation, as a consequence, reducing decompartmentation of enzymes and substrates causing enzymatic browning. These results indicate that EBR treatment is a promising attempt to control browning at cut surface of fresh-cut lotus root slices.

  6. Systematic qualitative and quantitative assessment of anthocyanins, flavones and flavonols in the petals of 108 lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jiao; Chen, Sha; Yin, Xiaojian; Wang, Kun; Liu, Yanling; Li, Shaohua; Yang, Pingfang

    2013-08-15

    Petal colour is one of the major characteristics that determine the ornamental value of lotus. To assess the contribution of different flavonoids to this character, composition and content of anthocyanins, flavones and flavonols were analysed through high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection tandem electrospray ionisation triple quad mass spectrometry in 108 lotus cultivars with red, pink, yellow, white and red/white pied petal colours. Totally, five anthocyanins and fourteen flavones and flavonols were detected and quantified. In general, the yellow, white and pied species hardly contained any anthocyanins; red cultivars contain more than pink cultivars. Among the five anthocyanins, malvidin 3-O-glucoside was the most abundant one in all the cultivars that contain anthocyanin. The fourteen flavones and flavonols belonged to four groups based on their aglycones. Except for the yellow cultivars, kaempferol-derivatives were the most abundant one. These data might be helpful in lotus breeding for different colours.

  7. Seasonal changes in food uptake by the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in a farm pond: Evidence from C and N stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhenlong; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Shin, Paul K. S.; Wang, Fang

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the seasonal changes in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope values of several typical food sources of Apostichopus japonicus in a farm pond, including particulate organic matter (POM), macroalgae, benthic microalgae and animals such as nematode and copepod. The stable isotope technique was used to quantify relative contributions of various sources to the food uptake by A. japonicus. The results showed that significant changes occurred in the C and N stable isotope values of sea cucumber food sources due to the seasonality of micro- or macroalgae prosperity and the fluctuation of environmental conditions. The sea cucumber A. japonicus exhibited corresponding alterations in feeding strategy in response to the changes in food conditions. Calculation with a stable isotope mixing model showed that macroalgae was the principal food source for A. japonicus throughout the 1-yr investigation, with the relative contribution averaging 28.1%-63.2%. The relative contributions of other food sources such as copepod and nematode, POM, benthic microalgae to the total food uptake by sea cucumber averaged 22.6%-39.1%, 6.3% -22.2%, 2.8%-6.5%, and 2.8%-4.2%, respectively. Together these results indicated that the seasonal changes in food sources led to the obvious temporal differences in the relative contribution of various food sources utilized by A. japonicus. Such findings provide the basic scientific information for improving the aquaculture techniques of A. japonicus, particularly for optimizing the food environment of A. japonicus culture in farm ponds.

  8. Effects of methoprene on oviposition by Aedes japonicus and Culex spp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, M.; Suom, C.; LeBrun, R.A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gettman, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    The mosquito larvicide methoprene is a juvenile growth hormone mimic that is widely used to control mosquitoes. This chemical disrupts normal mosquito development, drastically inhibiting emergence from the pupal to the adult stage. If the presence of methoprene attracts or deters mosquitoes from ovipositing it could have implications for mosquito control. This study evaluates whether methoprene attracts or deters mosquitoes likely to oviposit in catch basins. In a field experiment, methoprene formulated as liquid larvicide did not affect oviposition of either Culex spp. or Aedes japonicus in 19 liter plastic buckets.

  9. Annual changes in serum leptin concentration in the adult female Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Tsubota, Toshio; Sato, Miho; Okano, Tsukasa; Nakamura, Sachiko; Asano, Makoto; Komatsu, Takeshi; Shibata, Haruki; Saito, Masayuki

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, assay of the serum leptin concentration of the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) was attempted using a canine-leptin-specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The dose-response curve of the bear serum was linear and parallel to the canine leptin standard curve. In mated and unmated bears, the serum leptin concentration was stable at low levels from May to August or September, gradually increased from September or October, and then remarkably increased in late November. We conclude that this method may be useful for measuring bear serum leptin concentration and that the serum leptin concentration changes annually with a peak in late November.

  10. [Acquired coagulant factor inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Nogami, Keiji

    2015-02-01

    Acquired coagulation factor inhibitors are an autoimmune disease causing bleeding symptoms due to decreases in the corresponding factor (s) which result from the appearance of autoantibodies against coagulation factors (inhibitor). This disease is quite different from congenital coagulation factor deficiencies based on genetic abnormalities. In recent years, cases with this disease have been increasing, and most have anti-factor VIII autoantibodies. The breakdown of the immune control mechanism is speculated to cause this disease since it is common in the elderly, but the pathology and pathogenesis are presently unclear. We herein describe the pathology and pathogenesis of factor VIII and factor V inhibitors. Characterization of these inhibitors leads to further analysis of the coagulation process and the activation mechanisms of clotting factors. In the future, with the development of new clotting examination method (s), we anticipate that further novel findings will be obtained in this field through inhibitor analysis. In addition, detailed elucidation of the coagulation inhibitory mechanism possibly leading to hemostatic treatment strategies for acquired coagulation factor disorders will be developed.

  11. Fabrication of a lotus-like micro-nanoscale binary structured surface and wettability modulation from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xufeng; Shi, Gaoquan

    2005-10-01

    We report a simple method for fabricating a lotus-like micro-nanoscale binary structured surface of copper phosphate dihydrate. The copper phosphate dihydrate nanosheets were generated by galvanic cell corrosion of a copper foil with aqueous phosphorus acid solution drops and dried in an oxygen gas atmosphere, and they self-organized into a film with a lotus-like micro-nanoscale binary structured surface. The wettability of this surface can be changed from superhydrophilic to highly hydrophobic or superhydrophobic by heating or modifying it with an n-dodecanethiol monolayer.

  12. Comet 67P observations with LOTUS: a new near-UV spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchant, Jon; Jermak, Helen; Steele, Iain; Snodgrass, Colin; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Jones, Geraint

    2015-11-01

    The European Space Agency’s Rosetta spacecraft has been orbiting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (hereinafter “67P”) since August 2014, providing in-situ measurements of the dust, gas and plasma content of the coma within ~100km of the nucleus. Supporting the mission is a world-wide coordinated campaign of simultaneous ground-based observations of 67P (www.rosetta-campaign.net), providing wider context of the outer coma and tail invisible to Rosetta. We can now compare these observations, augmented by "ground truth" from Rosetta, with those of other comets past and future that are only observed from Earth.The robotic Liverpool Telescope (LT) is part of this campaign due to its unique ability to flexibly and autonomously schedule regular observations over entire semesters. Its optical imagery has recently been supplemented by near-UV spectroscopy to observe the UV molecular bands below 4000Å that are of considerable interest to cometary science. The LT's existing spectrographs FRODOSpec and SPRAT cut off at 4000Å, so the Liverpool Telescope Optical-to-UV Spectrograph - LOTUS - was fast-track designed, built and deployed on-sky in just five months. LOTUS contains no moving parts; acquisition is made with the LT's IO:O imaging camera, and different width slits for calibration and science are selected by fine-tuning the telescope's pointing on an innovative "step" design in its single slit.We present here details of the LOTUS spectrograph, and some preliminary results of our ongoing observations of comet 67P.

  13. Safety and efficacy of valve repositioning during transcatheter aortic valve replacement with the Lotus Valve System.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Hashrul N Z; Gooley, Robert; McCormick, Liam; Zaman, Sarah; Ramkumar, Satish; Jackson, Damon; Amiruddin, Ameera; Nasis, Arthur; Cameron, James; Meredith, Ian T

    2017-07-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of valve repositioning following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with the Lotus Valve System (Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA, USA). TAVR is a well-established treatment for severe aortic stenosis. The Lotus Valve System is fully repositionable and retrievable. Valve repositioning has the potential to minimize TAVR-related complications caused by valve malposition; however, the effect on adverse event rates such as stroke is unknown. Consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis treated with the Lotus Valve System (n=125) were prospectively recruited. Patients who did not require valve repositioning (Group A) were compared to patients who required one or more valve repositions (Group B). The primary end-point was 30-day occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). Secondary end-points included each component of the primary end-point, new pacemaker insertion, and procedural or 30-day major adverse events, defined according to VARC-2 definitions. Valve repositioning was utilized in 60.8% (76/125) of patients including 17.1% (13/76) who required full valve resheathing. The most frequent indications for valve repositioning were altering the depth and angulation of initial implantation (69.7%), reducing paravalvular regurgitation (13.2%), and attempt to correct new or worsened heart block (7.9%). Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. The primary end-point occurred in 12.2% and 6.6% of Group A and B, respectively (p=0.10). Thirty-day new pacemaker implantation was 34.1% and 18.8% in Group A and B, respectively (p=0.06). The secondary end-point measures were not significantly different between the groups. Repositioning facilitated correct anatomical positioning of all devices leading to optimal prosthesis hemodynamics and a trend to lower pacemaker rate without increased risk of MACCE. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  14. Biomimetic Multi-Functional Superamphiphobic FOTS-TiO2 Particles beyond Lotus Leaf.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liwei; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin

    2016-10-12

    It is widely known that natural examples like lotus leaves can only repel room-temperature water but cannot repel hot water and oils. Even though superamphiphobic surfaces composed of re-entrant "mushroom-like" or "T-shaped" structures are promising, they are generally regarded as substrate-dependent and difficult to fabricate, and hence, their practical use on various materials has been limited. Here, we synthesize a flower-like superamphiphobic FOTS-TiO2 powder by solvothermal process and self-assembly functionalization. These structured and functionalized submicron particles can repel the liquids with surface tension as low as 23.8 mN·m(-1) (n-decane), which is the lowest among powder samples. With respect to the biomimetic aspect, the surface morphology of FOTS-TiO2 particle is similar to the hierarchical micro/nano-structures of the lotus leaf surface, but it is beyond the lotus leaf for superoleophobic capacity. The difference in the oleophobicity is suggested to be the interplay of quasi-spherical re-entrant structure and perfluorined modification. Because of superior superamphiphobicity of the powder, a facile yet versatile strategy is developed, adhesive-assisted sieve deposition fabrication (AASDF), for preparing superamphiphobic coatings on various substrates. The investigation results pertaining to the water/oil proofing, mechanical durability, self-cleaning, and antifouling performances prove that the FOTS-TiO2 coating is robust and multifunctional, which will enable more opportunities for practical applications. Apart from these general applications, we find that the superamphiphobic FOTS-TiO2 powders when coated on sponge as anti-icing surface have good ice delay and icephobic performances. Furthermore, they can be used to prepare magnetic Fe3O4&FOTS-TiO2 composite particles through liquid marbles, implying significant scientific value.

  15. [Evaluation of antifungal and mollusuicidial activities of Moroccan Zizyphus lotus (L.) Desf].

    PubMed

    Lahlou, M; El Mahi, M; Hamamouchi, J

    2002-11-01

    Zizyphus lotus (L.) Desf. is one of the traditional drugs commonly used in folk medicine in Morocco. Extracts obtained from the successive exhaustion in petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol were in vitro found active either against nine pathogenic fungi and Bulinus truncatus, the intermediate host and vector of transmission of unitary schistosomiasis in Morocco. Particularly, the chloroform extract appears the most interesting in antifungal tests at lowest concentrations because of its countenance on terpenic compounds. Whereas, methanolic extract was found to possess the strong mollusuicidial activity and exhibited potent "knock-down" effect on molluscans related to its countenance on saponins.

  16. Spectroscopic Studies on Binding of Lotus Seedpod Oligomeric Procyanidins to Bovine Serum Albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Li, Sh.; Fu, X.; Yang, T.; Chen, H.; Guan, Y.; Xie, B.; Sun, Zh.

    2014-01-01

    The binding of lotus seedpod oligomeric procyanidins (LSOPC) and catechin (a major constituent unit of LSOPC) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by a fluorescence quenching technique. The results revealed that LSOPC could strongly quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA through a static quenching procedure, but catechin could not. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant, K SV, and corresponding thermodynamic parameters, Δ G 0, Δ H 0 and Δ S 0, were calculated. The results of synchronous fluorescence and circular dichroism studies showed that LSOPC could cause a conformational change in BSA. In addition, glucose and metal ions could affect the interaction between LSOPC and BSA.

  17. Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf.) modulates antioxidant activity and human T-cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf.) also known as Jujube, is a deciduous shrub which belongs to Rhamnaceae family. This plant is used in Algerian traditional medicine for its anti-diabetic, sedative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic activities. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of different vitamins (vitamin A, C and E) and fatty acids in root, stem, leaves, fruit pulp and seed of Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf.) and assessed the effects of their aqueous extracts on antioxidant status and human T-cell proliferation. Methods Aqueous filtrates from different parts, i.e, root, leaf, stem, fruit pulp and seed, of Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf.) were prepared. Vitamin C levels were determined by precipitating with 10% trichloroacetic acid and vitamin A and E were assessed by HPLC. Lipid composition of these extracts was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated by using anti-radical resistance kit [Kit Radicaux Libres (KRL@; Kirial International SA, Couternon, France)]. T-cell blastogenesis was assessed by the incorporation of 3H-thymidine. IL-2 gene expression was evaluated by RT-qPCR. Results Our results show that fruit pulp contained higher vitamin A and C contents than other parts of the plant. Furthermore, the fruit pulp was the richest source of linoleic acid (18:2n-6), a precursor of n-6 fatty acids. Fruit seeds possessed higher vitamin C levels than leaves, roots and stem. The leaves were the richest source of vitamin E and linolenic acid (18:3n-3), a precursor of n-3 fatty acids. The antioxidant capacity of the different extracts, measured by KRL@ test, was as follows: pulp < seedlotus L. (Desf.) exerted immunosuppressive effects. Conclusion Seed extracts exerted the most potent immunosuppressive effects on T cell proliferation and IL-2 mRNA expression. The results of the present study are

  18. Acquired Porphyria Cutanea Tarda

    PubMed Central

    Koval, Andrew; Danby, C. W. E.; Petermann, H.

    1965-01-01

    Currently, the porphyrias are classified in four main groups: congenital porphyria, acute intermittent porphyria, porphyria cutanea tarda hereditaria, and porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica. The acquired form of porphyria (porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica) occurs in older males and is nearly always associated with chronic alcoholism and hepatic cirrhosis. The main clinical changes are dermatological, with excessive skin fragility and photosensitivity resulting in erosions and bullae. Biochemically, high levels of uroporphyrin are found in the urine and stools. Treatment to date has been symptomatic and usually unsuccessful. A case of porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica is presented showing dramatic improvement of both the skin lesions and porphyrin levels in urine and blood following repeated phlebotomy. Possible mechanisms of action of phlebotomy on porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:14341652

  19. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1983-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of utmost importance. PMID:6342737

  20. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  1. Acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Heather D; Macgregor, Jennifer L; Nord, Kristin M; Tyring, Stephen; Rady, Peter; Engler, Danielle E; Grossman, Marc E

    2009-02-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis with an increased susceptibility to specific human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes. Classically, this viral infection leads to the development of tinea versicolor-like macules on the trunk, neck, arms, and face during childhood, and over time, these lesions can progress to squamous cell carcinoma. More recently, an EV-like syndrome has been described in patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. We describe two cases of EV-like syndrome in HIV-positive patients, review all previously reported cases of EV in patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity, introduce the term "acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis" to describe EV developing in the immunocompromised host and examine the limited treatment options for these patients.

  2. Effects of stomatal development on stomatal conductance and on stomatal limitation of photosynthesis in Syringa oblata and Euonymus japonicus Thunb.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing-Jie; Chow, Wah Soon; Liu, Yu-Jun; Shi, Lei; Jiang, Chuang-Dao

    2014-12-01

    During leaf development, the increase in stomatal conductance cannot meet photosynthetic demand for CO2, thus leading to stomatal limitation of photosynthesis (Ls). Considering the crucial influences of stomatal development on stomatal conductance, we speculated whether stomatal development limits photosynthesis to some extent. To test this hypothesis, stomatal development, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis were carefully studied in both Syringa oblata (normal greening species) and Euonymus japonicus Thunb (delayed greening species). Our results show that the size of stomata increased gradually with leaf expansion, resulting in increased stomatal conductance up to the time of full leaf expansion. During this process, photosynthesis also increased steadily. Compared to that in S. oblata, the development of chloroplasts in E. japonicus Thunb was obviously delayed, leading to a delay in the improvement of photosynthetic capacity. Further analysis revealed that before full leaf expansion, stomatal limitation increased rapidly in both S. oblata and E. japonicus Thunb; after full leaf expansion, stomatal limitation continually increased in E. japonicus Thunb. Accordingly, we suggested that the enhancement of photosynthetic capacity is the main factor leading to stomatal limitation during leaf development but that stomatal development can alleviate stomatal limitation with the increase of photosynthesis by controlling gas exchange.

  3. Phoretic mites and their hyperphoretic fungi associated with flying Ips typographus japonicus Niijima (Col., Scolytidae) in Japan

    Treesearch

    J.C. Moser; T.J. Perry; K. Furuta

    1997-01-01

    Flying Ips typographus japonicus from Hokkaido (Japan) carried 12 species of phoretic mites, three of which were not previously recorded in Europe. The mite biologies were diverse, including specialists feeding on microorganisms, beetle eggs, and nematodes which were common under beetle elytra. Hyperphoretic on these mites were seven distinct species of fungal spores...

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of a Fish Nervous Necrosis Virus Isolated from Sea Perch (Lateolabrax japonicus) in China

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Peng

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of a fish nervous necrosis virus isolated from diseased sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicus) in Guangdong Province, China. The virus genome contains RNA1 (3,103 bp) and RNA2 (1,433 bp). Phylogenetic analysis shows that the virus belongs to the redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus genotype of betanodavirus. PMID:26044411

  5. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of bacteria isolated from diseased cultured sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in Northeastern China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the winter–spring from 2004 to 2006 in northeastern China cultured Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus suffered from a serious disease. Clinical signs included swollen mouth, skin ulceration and massive mortality. Clinical samples taken during this period were studied. Thirty-one bac...

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Gluconobacter cerinus CECT 9110 and Gluconobacter japonicus CECT 8443, Acetic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Grape Must

    PubMed Central

    Sainz, Florencia

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequences of Gluconobacter cerinus strain CECT9110 and Gluconobacter japonicus CECT8443, acetic acid bacteria isolated from grape must. Gluconobacter species are well known for their ability to oxidize sugar alcohols into the corresponding acids. Our objective was to select strains to oxidize effectively d-glucose. PMID:27365351

  7. Habitat suitability index model of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka): A case study of Shandong Peninsula, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhipeng; Zhou, Jian; Song, Jingjing; Wang, Qixiang; Liu, Hongjun; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-09-15

    A habitat suitability index (HSI) model for the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) was established in the present study. Based on geographic information systems, the HSI model was used to identify potential sites around the Shandong Peninsula suitable for restoration of immature (<25g) and mature (>25g) A. japonicus. Six habitat factors were used as input variables for the HSI model: sediment classification, water temperature, salinity, water depth, pH and dissolved oxygen. The weighting of each habitat factor was defined through the Delphi method. Sediment classification was the most important condition affecting the HSI of A. japonicus in the different study areas, while water temperature was the most important condition in different seasons. The HSI of Western Laizhou Bay was relatively low, meaning the site was not suitable for aquaculture-based restoration of A. japonicus. In contrast, Xiaoheishan Island, Rongcheng Bay and Qingdao were preferable sites, suitable as habitats for restoration efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neuropeptides and polypeptide hormones in echinoderms: new insights from analysis of the transcriptome of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Matthew L; Achhala, Sufyan; Elphick, Maurice R

    2014-02-01

    Echinoderms are of special interest for studies in comparative endocrinology because of their phylogenetic position in the animal kingdom as deuterostomian invertebrates. Furthermore, their pentaradial symmetry as adult animals provides a unique context for analysis of the physiological and behavioral roles of peptide signaling systems. Here we report the first extensive survey of neuropeptide and peptide hormone precursors in a species belonging to the class Holothuroidea. Transcriptome sequence data obtained from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus were analyzed to identify homologs of precursor proteins that have recently been identified in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (class Echinoidea). A total of 17 precursor proteins have been identified in A. japonicus, including precursors of peptides related to thyrotropin-releasing hormone, pedal peptide/orcokinin-type peptides, AN peptides/tachykinins, luqins, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), GPA2-type glycoprotein hormone subunits and bursicon. In addition, an unusual finding was an A. japonicus calcitonin-type precursor protein (AjCTLPP), the first to be discovered that comprises two calcitonin-like peptides; this contrasts with the products of the alternatively-spliced calcitonin/CGRP gene in vertebrates, which comprise either calcitonin or CGRP. Collectively, the data obtained provide new insights on the evolution and diversity of neuropeptides and polypeptide hormones. Furthermore, because A. japonicus is one of several sea cucumber species that are used for human consumption, our findings may have practical and economic impact by providing a basis for neuroendocrine-based strategies to improve methods of aquaculture.

  9. Effect of food on specific dynamic action (SDA) of green and red types of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jie; Jiang, Hongbo; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli

    2017-10-01

    Specific dynamic action (SDA), the energy expended on all physiological processes that is associated with meal digestion and absorption, is strongly affected by food type. Effects of formulated diet (FMD), macroalgae (ALG) and sea mud (SMD) diets on the postprandial metabolic response of the green type and the red type of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were studied in order to understand their feeding physiology. Food offered to A. japonicus was different in protein, lipid content and energy but not in meal mass. SDA of A. japonicus resulted in a 1.3-2.7 folds of increase in oxygen consumption that can persist for up to 4.8-31.7 h after digesting three different diets. In a given type of sea cucumber, the magnitude of SDA was the highest when fed with FMD, medium with ALG, and the lowest with SMD, which is probably due to the differences in diet components and protein contents. The red type sea cucumber showed greater SDA magnitude than the green type with each diet treatment, which might result from the difference in factorial scope between the two types of sea cucumber. However, the smallest magnitude or even no difference was observed between the two types of A. japonicus in SMD group, perhaps owing to the poor nutrition and digestion of sea mud.

  10. Seasonal biochemical changes in composition of body wall tissues of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2011-03-01

    Seasonal Variation in proximate, amino acid and fatty acid composition of the body wall of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was evaluated. The proximate composition, except for ash content, changed significantly among seasons ( P<0.05). Alanine, glycine, glutamic acid and asparagic acid were the most abundant amino acids. Total amino acid and essential amino acid Contents both varied clearly with seasons ( P<0.05). 16:0 and 16:ln7 were the primary saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) respectively for all months. EPA (20:5n-3), AA (20:4n-6) and DHA (22:6n-3) were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The proportions of SFA and PUFA yielded significant seasonal variations ( P<0.001), but MUFA did not changed significantly. The results indicated that the biochemical compositions of the body wall in A. japonicus were significantly influenced by seasons and that the body wall tissue is an excellent source of protein, MUFA and n-3 PUFA for humans.

  11. Characterisation of inorganic elements and volatile organic compounds in the dried sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Won; Lim, Na-Lae; Cho, Kichul; Yang, Hye Young; Yim, Kyung June; Kim, Mi-Ju; Lee, Myunglip; Kim, Dong Hyeun; Koh, Hyoung Bum; Jung, Won-Kyo; Roh, Seong Woon; Kim, Daekyung

    2014-03-15

    The sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus lives in a variety of marine habitats and is an important cultivated edible aquatic species in East Asia. In this study, S. japonicus, collected from the sea near Jeju Island of Korea, was lyophilised or vacuum-dried and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The GC-MS profiles of vacuum-dried and lyophilised samples differed. Based on direct injection and static headspace analysis, 37 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified in vacuum-dried samples and 33 VOCs were identified in lyophilised samples. Therefore, the odour of vacuum-dried sea cucumber is thought to be due to the presence of various VOCs that are absent in lyophilised sea cucumber. According to ICP-MS analysis, the levels of 15 inorganic elements were slightly higher in lyophilised samples than in vacuum-dried samples. The results of the inorganic and organic chemical analyses provide information about the composition of dried sea cucumber. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanical stress induces neuroendocrine and immune responses of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jie; Li, Fenghui; Sun, Huiling; Gao, Fei; Yan, Jingping; Gai, Chunlei; Chen, Aihua; Wang, Qingyin

    2015-04-01

    Grading procedure in routine sea cucumber hatchery production is thought to affect juvenile sea cucumber immunological response. The present study investigated the impact of a 3-min mechanical perturbation mimicking the grading procedure on neuroendocrine and immune parameters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. During the application of stress, concentrations of noradrenaline and dopamine in coelomic fluid increased significantly, indicating that the mechanical perturbation resulted in a transient state of stress in sea cucumbers. Coelomocytes concentration in coelomic fluid increased transiently after the beginning of stressing, and reached the maximum in 1 h. Whereas, coelomocytes phagocytosis at 3 min, superoxide anion production from 3 min to 0.5 h, acid phosphatase activity at 0.5 h, and phenoloxidase activity from 3 min to 0.5 h were all significantly down-regulated. All of the immune parameters recovered to baseline levels after the experiment was conducted for 8 h, and an immunostimulation occurred after the stress considering the phagocytosis and acid phosphatase activity. The results suggested that, as in other marine invertebrates, neuroendocrine/immune connections exist in sea cucumber A. japonicus. Mechanical stress can elicit a profound influence on sea cucumber neuroendocrine system. Neuroendocrine messengers act in turn to modulate the immunity functions. Therefore, these effects should be considered for developing better husbandry procedures.

  13. Screen and effect analysis of immunostimulants for sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiye; Sun, Xiuqin; Zheng, Fengrong; Hao, Linhua

    2009-02-01

    Immunostimulants may improve disease resistance of aquaculture animals by promoting the nonspecific immunity response of the organisms. Five types of saccharides, including chitosan, yeast polysaccharide, burdock oligosaccharide, seaweed polysaccharide and lentinus edodes polysaccharide, were screened for potential use as immunostimulants by using spectrophotometry. The saccharides were injected into Apostichopus japonicus, a sea cucumber, and the lysozyme and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of the coelomic fluid and epidermal slime were monitored in six consecutive days. The results show that the lysozyme activity of the animal’s coelomic fluid was significantly stimulated on day 2, day 4 and day 6 after the injection of the saccharides ( P<0.05). The effects of chitosan and yeast polysaccharide were the most notable. The lysozyme activity of the epidermal slime was significantly increased by chitosana, yeast polysaccharide, seaweed polysaccharide, and burdock oligosaccharide on day 1 and day 2 after the injection ( P<0.05). The SOD activity of the coelomic fluid was significantly promoted by the saccharides on day 2 and day 4 post-injection ( P<0.05), while the SOD activity of the epidermal slime increased on day 2. These findings indicate that chitosan and yeast polysaccharide are the most effective immunostimulants and potential healthy anti-disease feedstuff for A. japonicus.

  14. Gliogenesis in the mushroom body of the carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nasu, Natsume; Hara, Kenji

    2012-12-01

    Mushroom bodies (MBs) are insect brain centers involved in multimodal sensory integration and memory formation. Advanced Hymenoptera, such as ants and bees, have particularly large and elaborately organized MBs, which are repeatedly implicated in complex behaviors. In this study, to address the developmental aspects of their MBs, gliogenesis of mushroom body neuroblasts (MB Nbs) was examined in the carpenter ant Camponotus japonicus. Reversed Polarity (REPO) is a paired-like homeodomain protein located exclusively in the nucleus of differentiating glial cells in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. First, the molecular aspects of C. japonicus REPO (CjREPO) were identified. Then, the antibody (CjREPO-antibody) was raised against a peptide of CjREPO. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the strong labeling was located in the nucleus of glial cells in the developing brains, whereas no immunoreactivity was detectable in progeny derived from MB Nbs. These findings suggest that MB Nb in the ant is a neuronal precursor that does not produce glial cells.

  15. Mechanism of resistance to fenoxaprop in Japanese foxtail (Alopecurus japonicus) from China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongle; Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Hongchun; Li, Jun; Dong, Liyao

    2013-09-01

    Japanese foxtail is one of the most common and troublesome weeds infesting cereal and oilseed rape fields in China. Repeated use during the last three decades of the ACCase-inhibiting herbicide fenoxaprop-P-ethyl to control this weed has resulted in the occurrence of resistance. Dose-response tests established that a population (AHFD-1) from eastern China had evolved high-level resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl. Based on the resistance index, this resistant population of A. japonicus is 60.31-fold resistant to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl. Subsequently, only a tryptophan to cysteine substitution was identified to confer resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl in this resistant population. ACCase activity tests further confirmed this substitution was linked to resistance. This is the first report of the occurrence of Trp-2027-Cys substitution of ACCase in A. japonicus. From whole-plant pot dose-response tests, we confirmed that this population conferred resistance to other APP herbicides, including clodinafop-propargyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, quizalofop-P-ethyl, haloxyfop-R-methyl, cyhalofop-butyl, metamifop, DEN herbicide pinoxaden, but not to CHD herbicides clethodim, sethoxydim. There was also no resistance observed to ALS-inhibiting herbicides sulfosulfuron, mesosulfuron-methyl, flucarbazone-sodium, pyroxsulam, Triazine herbicide prometryne and glyphosate. However, this resistant population was likely to confer slightly (or no) resistant to Urea herbicides chlortoluron and isoproturon.

  16. Genetic and functional genomic approaches for the study of plant cell wall degradation in Cellvibrio japonicus.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jeffrey G; Keating, David H

    2012-01-01

    Microbial degradation of plant cell walls is a critical contributor to the global carbon cycle, and enzymes derived from microbes play a key role in the sustainable biofuels industry. Despite its biological and biotechnological importance, relatively little is known about how microbes degrade plant cell walls. Much of this gap in knowledge has resulted from difficulties in extending modern molecular tools to the study of plant cell wall-degrading microbes. The bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus has recently emerged as a powerful model system for the study of microbial plant cell wall degradation. C. japonicus is unique among microbial model systems in that it possesses the ability to carry out the complete degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides. Furthermore, an extensive array of genetic and molecular tools exists for functional genomic analysis. In this review, we describe progress in the development of methodology for the functional genomic study of plant cell wall degradation by this microbe, and discuss future directions for research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Overwintering of Anopheles lindesayi japonicus larvae in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung-Chul; Sames, William J; Chong, Sung-Tae; Lee, In-Yong; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Doo; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Klein, Terry A

    2009-03-01

    Mosquito larval surveillance for environmental monitoring and pest-control purposes was conducted monthly at dredged soil-dumping areas during the construction of a new harbor in Yongcheon Bay, approximately 5 km SE of Jinhae, on the SW side of Namsan (Mt. Nam) and across the bay from Su-do (Su Island) in Gyeongsangnam Province, Republic of Korea (ROK) from November 2007 through April 2008. During this study, mosquitoes collected as overwintering larvae were Aedes togoi in brackish rock pools along the seashore and Anopheles lindesayi japonicus along the vegetated margins of a slow-flowing drainage ditch and associated freshwater ground pools containing green algae. Overwintering An. lindesayi larvae also were collected along stream margins and stream pools of moderate- to fast-flowing mountain streams near Chungju (Chungcheongbuk Province) (October 2007 and March 2008) and Munsan (Gyeonggi Province) (September 2007 and April 2008). First and second instars were collected and identified in late September 2007 through February 2008. During March and April, collections were primarily 3rd and 4th instars, and by the end of April, pupae were collected. This is the first report of An. lindesayi japonicus overwintering as larvae in the ROK.

  18. Histochemical localization and characterization of AKP, ACP, NSE, and POD from cultured Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiye; Sun, Xiuqin; Zheng, Fengrong; Sun, Hushan

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the distribution of four enzymes involved in the immune response of Apostichopus japonicus. We collected samples of the tentacles, papillate podium, integument, respiratory tree, and digestive tract and stained them for acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), non-specific esterase (NSE) and peroxidase (POD) activity. The distribution and content of ACP, AKP, NSE, and POD differed among the tissues. The coelomic epithelium of the tentacle, papillate podium, and integument and the mucous layer of respiratory tree were positive for ACP activity. The coelomic epithelium and cuticular layer of the tentacle, papillate podium, and integument and the mucous layer and tunica externa of the respiratory tree and digestive tract stained positive or weakly positive for AKP activity. Almost all the epithelial tissues stained positive, strongly positive, or very strongly positive for NSE activity. The cuticular layer of the tentacle and integument and the mucous layer, tunica submucosa, and tunica externa of the respiratory tree and digestive tract stained positive for POD activity. We hypothesize that these enzymes play a role in the immune response in A. japonicus.

  19. Individual variation in growth in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenck) housed individually

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Miao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli

    2010-09-01

    The exceptionally large individual growth variation has been previously recognized in several sea cucumber cohorts. However, there is a lack of information regarding the mechanism of such individual differences. In this study, the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) was reared individually in order to eliminate possible effects of social interaction, stocking density, etc. The results showed that there were substantial differences in growth among the sea cucumber individuals during the 100-day experiment. The special growth rate of the sea cucumber individuals differed by up to three folds (from 0.40% to 1.01%), and the coefficient of variation in body weight increased from 12.04% to 40.51%. The final wet body weight, food intake and food conversion efficiency for each sea cucumber were generally positively correlated with their initial wet body weight ( P<0.05). Energy budget of the animals showed that the food energy spent on respiration was much greater (about four folds) but energy deposited for growth was much less for (initially) smaller than for larger A. japonicus. The present result implies that there are obvious genetic differences among the sea cucumber individuals, largely accounting for the individual growth variation of the cohort sea cucumber. These results will provide some basic data for promoting selective breeding and farming of the sea cucumber.

  20. The effects of dietary lead on growth, bioaccumulation and antioxidant capacity in sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ren, Tongjun; Han, Yuzhe; Zhao, Yang; Liao, Mingling; Wang, Fuqiang; Jiang, Zhiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Three different diets amended with lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] (100, 500 and 1000mg Pb/kg dry weight) and a Pb-free control diet (1.03mg Pb/kg dry weight) were fed to sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) for 30 days. The patterns of Pb accumulation over time were determined in various tissues (body wall, intestine and respiratory tree), as well as growth performance and antioxidant enzymes activities. Pb accumulation in body wall and intestine increased with time in all dietary Pb treatments. When fed the highest Pb diet, the body wall exhibited the greatest Pb burden (16.37mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight), while Pb content in the intestine (2.68mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight) and the respiratory tree (1.78mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight) were lower than Pb content in the body wall by day 30. The body weight gain (BWG), specific growth rate (SGR) and survival rate (SR) had not been affected by 30 days oral administration of Pb supplemented diet. However, the antioxidant enzymes activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)] of test groups were lower than control group in body wall and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the body wall was opposite after 30 days in sea cucumbers. In summary, this work reports toxic effects in sea cucumber, A. japonicus, after dietary exposure to Pb.

  1. Studies on immunoglobulin and immunoglobulin-forming cells in Heterodontus japonicus, a cartilaginous fish.

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, S; Kobayashi, K; Hagiwara, K; Sasaki, K; Sezaki, K

    1985-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig), lymphoid tissues and Ig-forming cells of the Japanese bullhead shark, Heterodontus japonicus were analyzed biochemically, histologically and immunocytochemically. The serum of Heterodontus contains two Igs with different molecular weights one with 900 K and the other with 180 K daltons. Heavy chains of the two Igs showed an identical molecular weight of 68 K and the same antigenicity, indicating that the two Igs belong to the same class with different molecular structure. Light chains of Heterodontus Igs showed two distinct bands using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, one with the molecular weight of 25 K and the other with 22 K daltons. The latter finding indicates the possible existence of two light chain types in the Heterodontus Igs. White pulp of the spleen appeared as a well-developed lymphoid tissue accompanied large number of Ig-forming cells especially around blood vessels. Massive lymphocytic aggregations were found in the central area of the intestinal valves and certain lymphoid cells were demonstrated to be Ig-forming cells. Ig-forming cells were also observed in the epigonal organ, although the frequency was much less than in the former two tissues. Although the spleen is the major Ig-forming organ in Heterodontus japonicus, the valvular intestine and the epigonal organ also appear to share the function of Ig production.

  2. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activities of waste liquid extract from Apostichopus japonicus Selenka processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaofeng; Li, Xiancui; Li, Hong; Guo, Shuju; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2013-07-01

    Apos tichopus japonicus Selenka is an ideal tonic food that is used traditionally in many Asian countries, and it contains many bioactive substances, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer materials. To convert waste liquid generated during production into a useful resource, extract from waste liquid was isolated by column chromatography and studied by the pyrogallol autoxidation and 1,10-phenanthroline-Fe2+ oxidation methods. Results show that the extract scavenged about 91% of the superoxide anion radical at a concentr