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Sample records for louse columbicola columbae

  1. Bacterial endosymbiont of the slender pigeon louse, Columbicola columbae, allied to endosymbionts of grain weevils and tsetse flies.

    PubMed

    Fukatsu, Takema; Koga, Ryuichi; Smith, Wendy A; Tanaka, Kohjiiro; Nikoh, Naruo; Sasaki-Fukatsu, Kayoko; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Dale, Colin; Clayton, Dale H

    2007-10-01

    The current study focuses on a symbiotic bacterium found in the slender pigeon louse, Columbicola columbae (Insecta: Phthiraptera). Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated that the symbiont belongs to the gamma subdivision of the class Proteobacteria and is allied to Sodalis glossinidius, the secondary symbiont of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) and also to the primary symbiont of grain weevils (Sitophilus spp.). Relative-rate tests revealed that the symbiont of C. columbae exhibits accelerated molecular evolution in comparison with the tsetse fly symbiont and the weevil symbiont. Whole-mount in situ hybridization was used to localize the symbiont and determine infection dynamics during host development. In first- and second-instar nymphs, the symbionts were localized in the cytoplasm of oval bacteriocytes that formed small aggregates on both sides of the body cavity. In third-instar nymphs, the bacteriocytes migrated to the central body and were finally located in the anterior region of the lateral oviducts, forming conspicuous tissue formations called ovarial ampullae. In adult females, the symbionts were transmitted from the ovarial ampullae to developing oocytes in the ovarioles. In adult males, the bacteriocytes often disappeared without migration. A diagnostic PCR survey of insects collected from Japan, the United States, Australia, and Argentina detected 96.5% (109/113) infection, with a few uninfected male insects. This study provides the first microbial characterization of a bacteriocyte-associated symbiont from a chewing louse. Possible biological roles of the symbiont are discussed in relation to the host nutritional physiology associated with the feather-feeding lifestyle.

  2. Columba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Dove; abbrev. Col, gen. Columbae; area 270 sq. deg.) A southern constellation which lies between Lepus and Pictor, and culminates at midnight in mid-December. It represents Noah's dove and was introduced by the Dutch theologian and geographer Petrus Plancius, who formed it from stars to the south of Canis Major and included it on a celestial chart in 1592....

  3. Descriptions of eight new species of feather lice in the genus Columbicola (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae), with a comprehensive world checklist.

    PubMed

    Bush, Sarah E; Price, Roger D; Clayton, Dale H

    2009-04-01

    Eight new species of lice in the genus Columbicola Ewing are described: C. harbisoni (type host: Phaps histrionica (Gould)), C. koopae (type host: Geophaps scripta (Temminck)), C. eowilsoni (type host: Geophaps smithii (Jardine and Selby), C. wombeyi (type host: Geophaps plumnifera Gould), C. masoni (type host: Petrophassa rufipennis Collett), C. waiteae (type host: Columba leucomela Temminck), C. rodmani (type host: Geopelia humeralis (Temminck)), and C. smithae (type host: Turtur brehmeri (Hartlaub)). Also, we provide a comprehensive checklist for the 88 known species of Columbicola (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) and their pigeon and dove hosts (Aves: Columbiformes).

  4. [Effects of the environment on health of feral pigeons (Columba livia)].

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Tim; Kamphausen, Ludger; Haag-Wackernagel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We examined 80 feral pigeons and their fecal samples from two feral pigeon lofts of the "Pigeon Action of Basel" (Switzerland) for different pathogens. The tested material harbored four pathogenic agents transmissible to humans (Chlamydia spp., Salmonella spec., Campylobacter jejuni, Cryptococcus neoformans) In addition several pathogens were found which are no zoonotic agents but potentially pathogenic for the pigeons themselves, such as Trichomonas gallinae, coccidia, helminths, ectoparasites and fungi. The number of pathogens and parasites detected in the fecal samples varied significantly between the two localities. The pigeons of the two investigated breeding flocks differed in nutritional status and the incidence of two species of feather lice, Columbicola columbae and Campanulotes bidentatus compar. The prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae between juveniles and adults was not significantly different but juveniles exhibited significantly heavier infestation if infected. Individuals with a good nutritional status tend to show heavier infestation with Trichomonas gallinae compared to birds with moderate or poor nutritional status. Birds with a poor nutritional status tend to suffer from a heavier infestation with the feather louse C. columbae, and birds with a good nutritional status show significant heavier infestation with C. bidentatus compar. It was remarkable that one of the two investigated breeding populations almost gave up its breeding activity for two years because of the loss of its familiar food source. Nevertheless, this population showed a better nutritional status than the population without restrictions in the acquisition of food. This fact could be interpreted by the existence of a biological control mechanism for suppression of the reproduction in degraded environmental conditions to ensure the survival of the adults. If this assumption is correct, the feeding of feral pigeons by animal lovers possibly causes impairment of pigeon's health in

  5. Cophylogenetic analysis of New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae) and their parasitic wing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Columbicola).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Andrew D; Johnson, Kevin P

    2016-10-01

    Hosts-parasite interactions are plentiful and diverse, and understanding the patterns of these interactions can provide great insight into the evolutionary history of the organisms involved. Estimating the phylogenetic relationships of a group of parasites and comparing them to that of their hosts can indicate how factors such as host or parasite life history, biogeography, or climate affect evolutionary patterns. In this study we compare the phylogeny generated for a clade of parasitic chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) within the genus Columbicola to that of their hosts, the small New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae). We sampled lice from the majority of host species, including samples from multiple geographic locations. From these samples we sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear loci for the lice, and used these data to estimate phylogenetic trees and population networks. After estimating the appropriate number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for the lice, we used cophylogenetic analyses to compare the louse phylogeny to an existing host phylogeny. Our phylogenetic analysis recovered significant structure within the louse clade, including evidence for potentially cryptic species. All cophylogenetic analyses indicated an overall congruence between the host and parasite trees. However, we only recovered a single cospeciation event. This finding suggests that certain branches in the trees are driving the signal of congruence. In particular, lice with the highest levels of congruence are associated with high Andean species of ground-doves that are well separated altitudinally from other related taxa. Other host-parasite associations are not as congruent, and these often involved widespread louse taxa. These widespread lice did, however, have significant phylogeographic structure, and their phylogenetic relationships are perhaps best explained by biogeographic patterns. Overall these results indicate that both host phylogeny and biogeography can be

  6. Phylogenomics using Target-restricted Assembly Resolves Intra-generic Relationships of Parasitic Lice (Phthiraptera: Columbicola).

    PubMed

    Boyd, Bret M; Allen, Julie M; Nguyen, Nam; Sweet, Andrew D; Warnow, Tandy; Shapiro, Michael D; Villa, Scott M; Bush, Sarah E; Clayton, Dale H; Johnson, Kevin P

    2017-01-19

    Parasitic "wing lice" (Phthiraptera: Columbicola) and their dove and pigeon hosts are a well-recognized model system for coevolutionary studies at the intersection of micro- and macroevolution. Selection on lice in microevolutionary time occurs as pigeons and doves defend themselves against lice by preening. In turn, behavioral and morphological adaptations of the lice improve their ability to evade host defense. Over macroevolutionary time wing lice tend to cospeciate with their hosts; yet, some species of Columbicola have switched to new host species. Understanding the ecological and evolutionary factors that influence coadaptation and codiversification in this system will substantially improve our understanding of coevolution in general. However, further work is hampered by the lack of a robust phylogenetic framework for Columbicola spp. and their hosts. Previous attempts to resolve the phylogeny of Columbicola based on sequences from a few genes provided limited support. Here we apply a new approach, target restricted assembly, to assemble 977 orthologous gene sequences from whole-genome sequence data generated from very small, ethanol-preserved specimens, representing up to 61 species of wing lice. Both concatenation and coalescent methods were used to estimate the species tree. These two approaches yielded consistent and well-supported trees with 90% of all relationships receiving 100% support, which is a substantial improvement over previous studies. We used this new phylogeny to show that biogeographic ranges are generally conserved within clades of Columbicola wing lice. Limited inconsistencies are probably attributable to intercontinental dispersal of hosts, and host switching by some of the lice.

  7. Biodiversity and prevalence of parasites of domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in a selected semiarid zone of South Khorasan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Radfar, Mohammad Hossein; Asl, Ehsan Norouzi; Seghinsara, Hadi Rezaei; Dehaghi, Mohammad Mirzaei; Fathi, Saeid

    2012-02-01

    Five species of nematodes and cestodes were collected from alimentary canals of pigeons: the nematodes were two species: Ascaridia colombae (16.66%) and Hadjelia truncata (1.96%), while the cestodes were Cotugnia digonopora (13.79%), Raillietina magninumida (18.62%) and Raillietina achinobothridia (32.35%); fecal examination revealed: Eimeria spp. (40.19%) and Cryptosporidium oocysts (2.94%); and blood smears showed: Haemoproteus cloumbae (47/05%); in mouth, throat and larynx: Trichomonans gallinae (57.84%); four species of ectoparasites were collected from feathers and subcutaneous nodules as follows: feathers: Pseudolynchia canariensis (63.72%), Columbicola columbae (79.41%), Menopen gallinea (44.11%); subcutaneous nodules: Laminosioptes cysticola (1.96%). From the parasitic fauna identified in this study, it is imperative to institute an integrated parasitic control through constant changing of litter, regular use of antihelminthics, anticoccidials and dusting of birds with pesticides.

  8. Louse flies on birds of Baja California.

    PubMed

    Tella, J L; Rodríguez-Estrella, R; Blanco, G

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (Mexico). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of symbionts in feather-feeding lice of the genus Columbicola: evidence for repeated symbiont replacements

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many groups of insects have obligate bacterial symbionts that are vertically transmitted. Such associations are typically characterized by the presence of a monophyletic group of bacteria living in a well-defined host clade. In addition the phylogeny of the symbiotic bacteria is typically congruent with that of the host, signifying co-speciation. Here we show that bacteria living in a single genus of feather lice, Columbicola (Insecta: Phthiraptera), present an exception to this typical pattern. Results The phylogeny of Columbicola spp. symbionts revealed the presence of three candidate clades, with the most species-rich clade having a comb-like topology with very short internodes and long terminal branches. Evolutionary simulations indicate that this topology is characteristic of a process of repeated symbiont replacement over a brief time period. The two remaining candidate clades in our study exhibit high levels of nucleotide substitution, suggesting accelerated molecular evolution due to relaxed purifying selection or smaller effective population size, which is typical of many vertically transmitted insect symbionts. Representatives of the fast-evolving and slow-evolving symbiont lineages exhibit the same localization, migration, and transmission patterns in their hosts, implying direct replacement. Conclusions Our findings suggest that repeated, independent symbiont replacements have taken place over the course of the relatively recent radiation of Columbicola spp. These results are compatible with the notion that lice and other insects have the capability to acquire novel symbionts through the domestication of progenitor strains residing in their local environment. PMID:23725492

  10. The Chewing Lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Amblycera) of Japanese Pigeons and Doves (Columbiformes), with Descriptions of Three New Species.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Daniel R; Tsurumi, Miyako; Bush, Sarah E

    2015-06-01

    The chewing louse fauna of pigeons and doves in Japan is reviewed based on published records and new collections. An updated checklist of the chewing lice of Japanese pigeons and doves is provided, and 3 new species are described: Columbicola asukae n. sp. and Coloceras nakamurai n. sp., both from Columba janthina Temminck, 1830 (Japanese wood pigeon), and Columbicola lemoinei n. sp. from Treron formosae permagnus Stejneger, 1887, and Treron formosae medioximus (Bangs, 1901) (whistling green-pigeons). This checklist includes data on the first records of Coloceras chinense (Kellogg and Chapman, 1902), Coloceras piriformis ( Tendeiro, 1969 ), and Columbicola guimaraesi Tendeiro, 1965, in Japan. New host records of Hohorstiella sp. from Columba janthina and Treron formosae permagnus, and Coloceras sp. from Treron sieboldii sieboldii (Temminck, 1835) (white-bellied green-pigeon) are provided.

  11. What's eating you? Pediculus humanus (head louse and body louse).

    PubMed

    Elston, D M

    1999-05-01

    Head lice remain a common problem worldwide. As resistance to available therapeutic agents can emerge rapidly, there is a need for continued research to find new and better agents. Until better agents are available, clinicians may find that rotational therapy, using different agents, may help to slow the emergence of resistance. Physical modalities, such as mechanical nit and louse removal and occlusive agents to asphyxiate the lice, should not be ignored, especially in light of our limited therapeutic armamentarium. All therapeutic agents are doomed to failure if infestation is allowed to recur. Classmates, playmates, and family members of infested children should be inspected for head lice. Efforts should be directed at fomite control and nit removal. Louse infestation must be addressed as a community-wide problem. Body lice remain important vectors of disease. War, natural disaster, and poverty favor the spread of body lice. As we work to solve these seemingly eternal problems, we must develop better agents to treat infestation and prevent the spread of body lice.

  12. Lessons from sea louse and salmon epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Luke A.; Bateman, Andrew W.; Connors, Brendan M.; Frazer, L. Neil; Godwin, Sean C.; Krkošek, Martin; Lewis, Mark A.; Peacock, Stephanie J.; Rees, Erin E.; Revie, Crawford W.; Schlägel, Ulrike E.

    2016-01-01

    Effective disease management can benefit from mathematical models that identify drivers of epidemiological change and guide decision-making. This is well illustrated in the host–parasite system of sea lice and salmon, which has been modelled extensively due to the economic costs associated with sea louse infections on salmon farms and the conservation concerns associated with sea louse infections on wild salmon. Consequently, a rich modelling literature devoted to sea louse and salmon epidemiology has been developed. We provide a synthesis of the mathematical and statistical models that have been used to study the epidemiology of sea lice and salmon. These studies span both conceptual and tactical models to quantify the effects of infections on host populations and communities, describe and predict patterns of transmission and dispersal, and guide evidence-based management of wild and farmed salmon. As aquaculture production continues to increase, advances made in modelling sea louse and salmon epidemiology should inform the sustainable management of marine resources. PMID:26880836

  13. The life of a head louse.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ian

    When children return to school after the summer holiday, cases of head lice appear to increase. Ian Burgess describes the life cycle of the head louse and dispels some of the myths about transmission of this insect. A second article discusses the detection and treatment of head lice.

  14. Prevalence of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys of Kermanshah province, west of Iran.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Farid; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Chalechale, Abdolali; Seidi, Shahin; Gholizadeh, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys from May 2012 to April 2013 to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites in Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Of the total of 600 free-range backyard chickens (185 ♂ and 415 ♀), 700 domestic pigeons (278 ♂ and 422 ♀) and 150 turkeys (53 ♂ and 97 ♀), 389 (64.83 %), 608 (86.85 %) and 54 (36 %) were infected with one or more parasites respectively. Eleven ectoparasites species including five of lice (50.16 % Menacanthus stramineus, 13.66 % Menopon gallinae, 4.83 % Cuclotogaster heterographus, 5.16 % Goniocotes gallinae, 2.33 % Goniodes gigas), three of mites (26.33 % Dermanyssus gallinae, 8.5 % Ornithonyssus bursa, 7 % Cnemidocoptes mutans), one of tick (78.66 % Argas persicus) and two of flea (12.33 % Echidnophaga gallinacea, 2 % Pulex irritans) were found in the backyard chickens. The domestic pigeons were infected with six species of parasites including: Columbicola columbae (61.7 %), M. gallinae (10.43 %), M. stramineus (9 %), D. gallinae (8.28 %), Argas reflexus (74.14 %) and Pseudolynchia canariensis (27.7 %). The ectoparasites species recorded in turkeys were M. gallinae (14 %), M. stramineus (8 %), D. gallinae (12.66 %), C. mutans (6 %), A. persicus (24.66 %) and E. gallinacean (6 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites among free-range backyard chicken, domestic pigeons and turkeys in Kermanshah province. The high prevalence rate of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons indicates that parasitic infection is a common problem in this area.

  15. Prevalence of parasites and associated risk factors in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and free-range backyard chickens of Sistan region, east of Iran.

    PubMed

    Radfar, Mohammad Hossein; Khedri, Javad; Adinehbeigi, Keivan; Nabavi, Reza; Rahmani, Khatereh

    2012-10-01

    This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) from December 2010 to November 2011 to determine the prevalence, intensity and species of internal and external parasites in Sistan region, east of Iran. Of the total of 59 (27 males and 32 females) free-range backyard chickens and 46 (26 males and 20 females) domestic pigeons inspected, 55 (93.22 %) and 39 (84.78 %) were infected respectively. Ten species of free-range backyard chickens parasites were collected from alimentary canals, body, head and neck, comprising of 3 species of nematodes, 4 species of cestodes and 3 species of ectoparasites as follows: Ascaridia galli (16.94 %), Heterakis gallinarum (23.72 %), Subulura brumpti (67.79 %), Raillietina tetragona (35.59 %), Raillietina echinobothrida (27.11 %), Raillietina cesticillus (15.25 %), Choanotaenia infundibulum (40.67 %), Argas persicus (16.94 %), Menopen gallinae (55.93 %) and Menacanthus stramineus (33.89 %). The domestic pigeons were infected with seven species of parasites including 2 species of nematodes, 2 species of cestodes and 3 species of ectoparasites as follows: Ascaridia colombae (15.21 %), Hadjelia truncata (17.39 %), Raillietina tetragona (26.08 %), Raillietina echinobothrida (28.26 %), Argas reflexus (13.04 %), Menopen gallinae (32.60 %), Columbicola Columba (41.30 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and intensity of parasites among free-range backyard chicken and domestic pigeon species in Sistan region.

  16. Effective treatment of head louse with pediculicides.

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y

    2006-05-01

    Of the pediculicides on the market, most are not 100% ovicidal and don't have a residual activity of more than 2 days. Therefore, at least 2 treatments are necessary to control the entire louse population. In order for a pediculicide to be effective it should kill all active stages of the louse after a single treatment. Otherwise remaining lice will continue laying eggs and the following treatments will not be fully effective, at least against the eggs. However, there is no general consensus as to when the second treatment should be conducted. Taking into consideration that head louse eggs hatch between 5 to 11 days, it is suggested that a second treatment should be administered 10 days after the beginning of the treatment. This might also explain why most of the clinical trials that were conducted by treating the patients twice with an interval of 6, 7, or 8 days showed a poor efficacy, and clinical trials where the pediculicide was applied with an interval of 10 days showed an efficacy level of more than 90%.

  17. Human louse-transmitted infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Badiaga, S; Brouqui, P

    2012-04-01

    Several of the infectious diseases associated with human lice are life-threatening, including epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever, which are caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, Borrelia recurrentis, and Bartonella quintana, respectively. Although these diseases have been known for several centuries, they remain a major public health concern in populations living in poor-hygiene conditions because of war, social disruption, severe poverty, or gaps in public health management. Poor-hygiene conditions favour a higher prevalence of body lice, which are the main vectors for these diseases. Trench fever has been reported in both developing and developed countries in populations living in poor conditions, such as homeless individuals. In contrast, outbreaks of epidemic typhus and epidemic relapsing fever have occurred in jails and refugee camps in developing countries. However, reports of a significantly high seroprevalence for epidemic typhus and epidemic relapsing fever in the homeless populations of developed countries suggest that these populations remain at high risk for outbreaks of these diseases. Additionally, experimental laboratory studies have demonstrated that the body louse can transmit other emerging or re-emerging pathogens, such as Acinetobacter baumannii and Yersinia pestis. Therefore, a strict survey of louse-borne diseases and the implementation of efficient delousing strategies in these populations should be public health priorities.

  18. Prevalence of Haemoproteus columbae and Trichomonas gallinae in pigeons (Columba domestica) in Isfahan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nematollahi, Ahmad; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ahmadi, Amin; Himan, Mohammadpour

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Haemoproteus columbae and Trichomonas gallinae in pigeons (Columba domestica) in Isfahan, Iran. Study was done on 100 pigeons from January to June 2010 in Isfahan located in south of Iran. Oropharyngeal swabs were taken from all birds. Also blood samples were obtained from wing vein and thin smears were prepared from them. All smears were stained by Giemsa and were examined by immersion. Out of 100 Oropharyngeal swab smears 57 (57%) were positive for T. gallinae and Haemoproteus gallinae were detected in 62 pigeons (62%) from which blood smear were taken. The present study is in close agreement with other studies in Iran. But infestation rate to theses parasite in world are very different. These differences were probably linked to geographical variations and differences in the feeding habitat and abundance of vehicles of Haemoproteus.

  19. Prevalence and clustering of louse infestation in Queensland sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Ward, M P; Armstrong, R T

    1999-04-12

    Information provided by wool growers in Queensland, Australia between 1995 and 1997 was used to assess the prevalence and spatial distribution of louse (Bovicola ovis) infestation in sheep flocks. The estimated prevalence of louse-infested flocks was 40% (95% confidence interval, 35-46%). Although the prevalence of infestation was higher in western regions (41-50%) compared to the south region of Queensland (31%), the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Significant (P = 0.02) clustering of infested flocks was detected in the south region where two foci were apparent. We conclude that Queensland sheep flocks have a moderate prevalence of louse infestation, and that clustering of infestation is not strong. The control of lice is an industry-wide issue that needs to be addressed by most wool growers in Queensland.

  20. Scratching an ancient itch: an Eocene bird louse fossil.

    PubMed Central

    Wappler, Torsten; Smith, Vincent S; Dalgleish, Robert C

    2004-01-01

    Out of the 30 extant orders of insects, all but one, the parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera), have a confirmed fossil record. Here, we report the discovery of what appears to be the first bird louse fossil: an exceptionally well-preserved specimen collected from the crater of the Eckfeld maar near Manderscheid, Germany. The 44-million-year-old specimen shows close phylogenetic affinities with modern feather louse ectoparasites of aquatic birds. Preservation of feather remnants in the specimen's foregut confirms its association as a bird ectoparasite. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the specimen and palaeoecological data, we suggest that this louse was the parasite of a large ancestor to modern Anseriformes (swans, geese and ducks) or Charadriiformes (shorebirds). The crown group position of this fossil in the phylogeny of lice confirms the group's long coevolutionary history with birds and points to an early origin for lice, perhaps inherited from early-feathered theropod dinosaurs. PMID:15503987

  1. Utilization of the human louse genome to study insecticide resistance and innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Clark, J. Marshall; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Si Hyeock; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2015-01-01

    Since sequencing the human body louse genome, substantial advances have occurred in the utilization of the information gathered from louse genomes and transcriptomes. Comparatively, the body louse genome contains far fewer genes involved in environmental response, such as xenobiotic detoxification and innate immune response. Additionally, the body louse maintains a primary bacterial endosymbiont, Candidatus Riesia pediculicola, and a number of bacterial pathogens that it vectors, which have genomes that are also reduced in size. Thus, human louse genomes offer unique information and tools for use in advancing our understanding of coevolution among vectors, endosymbionts and pathogens. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the extent of pediculicide resistance, the availability of new pediculicides and information establishing this organism as an efficient model to study how xenobiotic metabolism, which is involved in insecticide resistance, is induced and how insects modify their innate immune response upon bacterial challenge resulting in enhanced vector competence. PMID:25987230

  2. Necrotizing hepatitis in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Himmel, L; O'Connor, M; Premanandan, C

    2014-11-01

    An adult male domestic pigeon (Columba livia) was presented for necropsy following natural death after a period of chronic weight loss and severe intestinal ascariasis. Histopathologic examination of the liver found moderate to marked, multifocal necrotizing hepatitis with large, basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Transmission electron microscopy of affected hepatocytes demonstrated numerous intra- and perinuclear icosahedral virions arranged in a lattice structure, consistent with adenoviral infection.

  3. Essential oils in the management of the donkey louse, Bovicola ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Ellse, L; Sands, B; Burden, F A; Wall, R

    2016-05-01

    Chewing lice are widespread and clinically compromising parasites of livestock and equids. Their management is complicated by growing levels of resistance to commonly applied insecticides. Hence, the development of novel approaches to their control is of major clinical interest. To assess the effects of incorporating the essential oils of tea tree and lavender into a grooming programme for populations of donkeys with natural infestations of Bovicola ocellatus in the UK and Ireland when louse populations were at their winter seasonal peak. In vivo field trial. Suspensions of 5% (v/v) tea tree or lavender oil or an excipient only control were groomed into the coats of winter-housed donkeys (n = 198) on 2 occasions, 2 weeks apart. Louse counts were conducted before each application and 2 weeks later. After 2 applications, the groups groomed with lavender or tea tree oil suspensions had a significant reduction in louse intensity, with a mean decline in louse abundance of 78% (95% confidence interval 76-80%). Louse numbers in the groups groomed with excipient only either did not change or increased significantly. Donkey hair length had no effect on the decline in louse numbers. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of essential oil suspensions during grooming can be used to manage louse populations successfully. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  4. Pyrethroid tolerance in the chewing louse Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Ellse, L; Burden, F; Wall, R

    2012-08-13

    Equine pediculosis is a significant health and welfare issue, particularly in elderly and chronically debilitated animals. Currently infestation is controlled predominantly using topically applied pyrethroid insecticides, allowing limited scope for the rotation of drugs and increasing the risk of selection for resistance. Here the insecticidal efficacies of two pyrethroid-based products against the louse Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus collected from donkeys were examined in vitro. The products were cypermethrin (Deosect™, Pfizer Ltd., 5% (w/v) cypermethrin, cutaneous spray) and permethrin (Switch™, VetPlus Ltd., 4% (w/v) permethrin, pour-on). The pyrethroid efficacy was contrasted with that of the organophosphate diazinon, since the louse populations examined were unlikely to have had prior exposure to this compound. The efficacy of diluted pure permethrin, the excipient, butyl dioxitol and the synergist piperonyl butoxide in the presence of the pyrethroids, were also considered. At the concentrations recommended for animal application, neither 4% (w/v) permethrin, nor 0.1% (w/v) cypermethrin had any significant effect on the mortality of B. ocellatus and neither induced significantly more mortality than an acetone-only control. In contrast, 0.04% diazinon caused 70% mortality within 4h and 100% mortality after 24h exposure. The addition of a potential pyrethroid synergist, piperonyl butoxide, in combination with cypermethrin and permethrin, resulted in no significant increase in mortality. It is concluded that the population of lice tested display a high level of pyrethroid tolerance which is likely to reflect the development of resistance. Twenty-four hours after routine treatment of 10 donkeys with a pour-on permethrin product (Switch™, VetPlus Ltd., 4% (w/v) permethrin, pour-on) hair tufts taken from their flanks were not significantly insecticidal compared with hair from the midline application site, implying a low level of insecticide distribution

  5. Lousy mums: patterns of vertical transmission of an amphibious louse.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, M S; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we document patterns of vertical transmission of the amphibious louse Antarctophthirus microchir (Echinophthiriidae) in pups of South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, from Patagonia. Vertical transmission is fundamental for the long-term stability of A. microchir populations because only pups stay long enough (1 month) on land for the louse to reproduce. A total of 72 pups ≤7 days old from a single rookery were captured and examined for lice. Infection parameters and population structure of A. microchir did not differ among pups collected at the beginning, middle, and end of the reproductive season, suggesting that patterns of early vertical transmission are not affected by the increase of rookery size during this period. Over 60% of 1-day-old pups were infected with A. microchir, and recruitment increased in pups up to 3 days old and then leveled off. In 1-day-old pups, significantly more adults than nymphs were found, but the pattern was reversed in older pups. The number of first-stage nymphs was significantly smaller than that of second- and third-stage nymphs, as it was the number of males vs. females, particularly in 1-day-old pups. Three non-exclusive hypotheses could account for these patterns, i.e., recruitment merely reflects the population structure of A. microchir is cows; the relative ability of lice to pass from cows onto pups increases in advanced instars; and/or natural selection favors transmission of adults, especially females, because they accrue greater fitness. The importance of latter hypothesis should not be underestimated in a species with a tight reproductive schedule.

  6. [The mathematical modelling of the processes in the natural multiplication of human lice (exemplified by the head louse population].

    PubMed

    Boev, B V; Barabash, V K; Tarasevich, I V

    1991-01-01

    Methods of mathematical modelling and prediction of louse propagation processes in the natural habitation medium are presented. Theoretical and experimental data on head louse ecology served the basis for the elaboration of a mathematical model predicting the population dynamics. The model structure corresponds to 3 stages of louse development cycle (eggs, larva, lice) and parameters corresponding to natural characteristics of louse propagation process: mean lifespan of each individual during each phase of the cycle, age, fertility and so forth. The model helped to study some properties of the population, assess maximum rate of head louse population growth, detect threshold effects, establish the effects of coefficients, limiting the number of louse per unit of the body surface. The model made it possible to formulate necessary data (distribution functions) for the creation of the mathematical model of Pediculosis.

  7. New Record of Lipoptena cervi and Updated Checklist of the Louse Flies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) of the Republic of Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    SHORT COMMUNICATIONS New Record of Lipoptena cervi and Updated Checklist of the Louse Flies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) of the Republic of Korea HEUNG...Republic of Korea. A total of Þve females and 10 males was collected from eight of 29 Korean water deer ,Hydropotes inermis argyropus Swinhoe, from...collection records, and repositories are also noted. KEY WORDS louse ßy, Lipoptena cervi, Hippoboscidae, water deer , Korea Both sexes of louse ßies or

  8. Evaluation of environmental genotoxicity by comet assay in Columba livia.

    PubMed

    González-Acevedo, Anahi; García-Salas, Juan A; Gosálvez, Jaime; Fernández, José Luis; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Méndez-López, Luis F; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of recognized or suspected genotoxic and carcinogenic agents found in the air of large cities and, in particular, developing countries, have raised concerns about the potential for chronic health effects in the populations exposed to them. The biomonitoring of environmental genotoxicity requires the selection of representative organisms as "sentinels," as well as the development of suitable and sensitive assays, such as those aimed at assessing DNA damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage levels in erythrocytes from Columba livia living in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico, compared with control animals via comet assay, and to confirm the results via Micronuclei test (MN) and DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH). Our results showed a significant increase in DNA migration in animals from the area assayed compared with that observed in control animals sampled in non-contaminated areas. These results were confirmed by MN test and DBD-FISH. In conclusion, these observations confirm that the examination of erythrocytes from Columba livia via alkaline comet assay provides a sensitive and reliable end point for the detection of environmental genotoxicants.

  9. Genotyping of human lice suggests multiple emergencies of body lice from local head louse populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjun; Ortiz, Gabriel; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Gimenez, Gregory; Reed, David L; Pittendrigh, Barry; Raoult, Didier

    2010-03-23

    Genetic analyses of human lice have shown that the current taxonomic classification of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) and body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus) does not reflect their phylogenetic organization. Three phylotypes of head lice A, B and C exist but body lice have been observed only in phylotype A. Head and body lice have different behaviours and only the latter have been involved in outbreaks of infectious diseases including epidemic typhus, trench fever and louse borne recurrent fever. Recent studies suggest that body lice arose several times from head louse populations. By introducing a new genotyping technique, sequencing variable intergenic spacers which were selected from louse genomic sequence, we were able to evaluate the genotypic distribution of 207 human lice. Sequence variation of two intergenic spacers, S2 and S5, discriminated the 207 lice into 148 genotypes and sequence variation of another two intergenic spacers, PM1 and PM2, discriminated 174 lice into 77 genotypes. Concatenation of the four intergenic spacers discriminated a panel of 97 lice into 96 genotypes. These intergenic spacer sequence types were relatively specific geographically, and enabled us to identify two clusters in France, one cluster in Central Africa (where a large body louse outbreak has been observed) and one cluster in Russia. Interestingly, head and body lice were not genetically differentiated. We propose a hypothesis for the emergence of body lice, and suggest that humans with both low hygiene and head louse infestations provide an opportunity for head louse variants, able to ingest a larger blood meal (a required characteristic of body lice), to colonize clothing. If this hypothesis is ultimately supported, it would help to explain why poor human hygiene often coincides with outbreaks of body lice. Additionally, if head lice act as a reservoir for body lice, and that any social degradation in human populations may allow the formation of new populations of

  10. Louse- and flea-borne rickettsioses: biological and genomic analyses

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Ammerman, Nicole C.; Beier-Sexton, Magda; Sobral, Bruno S.; Azad, Abdu F.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to 15 or more validated and/or proposed tick-borne spotted fever group species, only three named medically important rickettsial species are associated with insects. These insect-borne rickettsiae are comprised of two highly pathogenic species, Rickettsia prowazekii (the agent of epidemic typhus) and R. typhi (the agent of murine typhus), as well as R. felis, a species with unconfirmed pathogenicity. Rickettsial association with obligate hematophagous insects such as the human body louse (R. prowazekii transmitted by Pediculus h. humanus) and several flea species (R. typhi and R. felis, as well as R. prowazekii in sylvatic form) provides rickettsiae the potential for further multiplications, longer transmission cycles and rapid spread among susceptible human populations. Both human body lice and fleas are intermittent feeders capable of multiple blood meals per generation, facilitating the efficient transmission of rickettsiae to several disparate hosts within urban/rural ecosystems. While taking into consideration the existing knowledge of rickettsial biology and genomic attributes, we have analyzed and summarized the interacting features that are unique to both the rickettsiae and their vector fleas and lice. Furthermore, factors that underlie rickettsial changing ecology, where native mammalian populations are involved in the maintenance of rickettsial cycle and transmission, are discussed. PMID:19036234

  11. Control of the chewing louse Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus in donkeys, using essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ellse, L; Burden, F A; Wall, R

    2013-12-01

    Infestations by lice can be a significant clinical and welfare issue in the management of large animals. The limited range of commercial pediculicides available and the development of resistance have led to the need to explore alternative louse management approaches. The results of in vitro and in vivo trials undertaken to control populations of the donkey chewing louse, Bovicola ocellatus (Piaget) (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) using the essential oils of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) are reported here. Results of contact and vapour bioassays showed that 5% (v/v) tea tree and lavender oils resulted in > 80% louse mortality after 2 h of exposure. On farms, separate groups of 10 donkeys sprayed with 5% (v/v) tea tree and lavender oil as part of their usual grooming regime showed significant reductions in louse numbers compared with a control group (0.2% polysorbate 80 in water). These findings indicate that tea tree and lavender essential oils can provide clinically useful levels of control of B. ocellatus when used as part of a grooming routine and suggest that with further development could form the basis of an easy to apply and valuable component of a louse management programme for donkeys.

  12. The Salmon Louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) Life Cycle Has Only Two Chalimus Stages

    PubMed Central

    Dalvin, Sussie T.; Bron, James E.; Nilsen, Frank; Boxshall, Geoff; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    Each year the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirussalmonis Krøyer, 1838) causes multi-million dollar commercial losses to the salmon farming industry world-wide, and strict lice control regimes have been put in place to reduce the release of salmon louse larvae from aquaculture facilities into the environment. For half a century, the Lepeophtheirus life cycle has been regarded as the only copepod life cycle including 8 post-nauplius instars as confirmed in four different species, including L. salmonis. Here we prove that the accepted life cycle of the salmon louse is wrong. By observations of chalimus larvae molting in incubators and by morphometric cluster analysis, we show that there are only two chalimus instars: chalimus 1 (comprising the former chalimus I and II stages which are not separated by a molt) and chalimus 2 (the former chalimus III and IV stages which are not separated by a molt). Consequently the salmon louse life cycle has only six post-nauplius instars, as in other genera of caligid sea lice and copepods in general. These findings are of fundamental importance in experimental studies as well as for interpretation of salmon louse biology and for control and management of this economically important parasite. PMID:24069203

  13. Mortality associated with fenbendazole administration in pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Schwiebert, Rebecca S; Lawson, Gregory W

    2006-11-01

    A group of 12 domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) was treated for capillariasis by use of fenbendazole at 30 mg/kg orally once daily for 5 d. After treatment, 8 of the 12 pigeons exhibited signs of anorexia, lethargy, and dehydration; these birds died within 2 d after the onset of clinical signs. A total of 6 birds were necropsied, and all had unremarkable gross findings. Microscopic examination of tissues revealed acute hemorrhagic enteritis, diffuse lymphoplasmacytic enteritis, small intestinal crypt necrosis, periportal lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis, bile duct hyperplasia, and renal tubular necrosis. Erythrocytes in blood samples collected from surviving birds demonstrated polychromasia compatible with a regenerative anemia. The clinical and histopathologic findings in these pigeons were consistent with recent reports of fenbendazole toxicity in domestic pigeons and other columbiform birds.

  14. Field efficacy of eprinomectin against the sucking louse Haematopinus asini on naturally infested donkeys.

    PubMed

    Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galietti, Alfredo; Mariani, Ugo; Di Loria, Antonio; Piantedosi, Diego; Neola, Benedetto; Guccione, Jacopo; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2013-08-01

    A trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of eprinomectin (EPR) against the sucking louse Haematopinus asini on naturally infested donkeys. Parasitological investigations were performed on fifteen animals. On day 0, donkeys received EPR pour-on at the manufacturer's recommended cattle dose. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 at seven predilection sites on the skin of each donkey. EPR was completely effective (100%) from day 7, until the end of the study. Clinically no adverse reactions were observed in any of donkeys treated. EPR was considered to be 100% effective against H. asini. This is the first trial to evaluate the efficacy of EPR against a natural louse infestation in donkeys.

  15. Treatment of Phthiriasis Palpebrarum and Crab Louse: Petrolatum Jelly and 1% Permethrin Shampoo.

    PubMed

    Karabela, Yunus; Yardimci, Gurkan; Yildirim, Isik; Atalay, Eray; Karabela, Semsi Nur

    2015-01-01

    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is an uncommon cause of blepharoconjunctivitis in which Pthirus pubis infest the eyelashes. We report a case of unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum with crab louse. A 45-year-old man presented with conjunctival hyperaemia and moderate itching associated with irritation, and crusty excretions of the eyelashes in the left eye. Careful slit-lamp examination revealed many lice and nits in left eye and mild conjunctival hyperaemia. No abnormality was found in the right eye. On dermatologic examination, only one louse was found at the pubic area. The patient was treated effectively with petrolatum jelly (Vaseline) and 1% permethrin shampoo (Kwellada 1% shampoo). At the end of the first week no louse or nit was present on eyelashes and pubic area.

  16. Treatment of Phthiriasis Palpebrarum and Crab Louse: Petrolatum Jelly and 1% Permethrin Shampoo

    PubMed Central

    Karabela, Yunus; Yardimci, Gurkan; Yildirim, Isik; Atalay, Eray; Karabela, Semsi Nur

    2015-01-01

    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is an uncommon cause of blepharoconjunctivitis in which Pthirus pubis infest the eyelashes. We report a case of unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum with crab louse. A 45-year-old man presented with conjunctival hyperaemia and moderate itching associated with irritation, and crusty excretions of the eyelashes in the left eye. Careful slit-lamp examination revealed many lice and nits in left eye and mild conjunctival hyperaemia. No abnormality was found in the right eye. On dermatologic examination, only one louse was found at the pubic area. The patient was treated effectively with petrolatum jelly (Vaseline) and 1% permethrin shampoo (Kwellada 1% shampoo). At the end of the first week no louse or nit was present on eyelashes and pubic area. PMID:26451147

  17. Genome sequences of the human body louse and its primary endosymbiont provide insights into the permanent parasitic lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Kirkness, Ewen F.; Haas, Brian J.; Sun, Weilin; Braig, Henk R.; Perotti, M. Alejandra; Clark, John M.; Lee, Si Hyeock; Robertson, Hugh M.; Kennedy, Ryan C.; Elhaik, Eran; Gerlach, Daniel; Kriventseva, Evgenia V.; Elsik, Christine G.; Graur, Dan; Hill, Catherine A.; Veenstra, Jan A.; Walenz, Brian; Tubío, José Manuel C.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Rozas, Julio; Johnston, J. Spencer; Reese, Justin T.; Popadic, Aleksandar; Tojo, Marta; Raoult, Didier; Reed, David L.; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Kraus, Emily; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Margam, Venu M.; Li, Hong-Mei; Meyer, Jason M.; Johnson, Reed M.; Romero-Severson, Jeanne; VanZee, Janice Pagel; Alvarez-Ponce, David; Vieira, Filipe G.; Aguadé, Montserrat; Guirao-Rico, Sara; Anzola, Juan M.; Yoon, Kyong S.; Strycharz, Joseph P.; Unger, Maria F.; Christley, Scott; Lobo, Neil F.; Seufferheld, Manfredo J.; Wang, NaiKuan; Dasch, Gregory A.; Struchiner, Claudio J.; Madey, Greg; Hannick, Linda I.; Bidwell, Shelby; Joardar, Vinita; Caler, Elisabet; Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C.; Cameron, Stephen; Bruggner, Robert V.; Regier, Allison; Johnson, Justin; Viswanathan, Lakshmi; Utterback, Terry R.; Sutton, Granger G.; Lawson, Daniel; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Venter, J. Craig; Strausberg, Robert L.; Collins, Frank H.; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2010-01-01

    As an obligatory parasite of humans, the body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) is an important vector for human diseases, including epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Here, we present genome sequences of the body louse and its primary bacterial endosymbiont Candidatus Riesia pediculicola. The body louse has the smallest known insect genome, spanning 108 Mb. Despite its status as an obligate parasite, it retains a remarkably complete basal insect repertoire of 10,773 protein-coding genes and 57 microRNAs. Representing hemimetabolous insects, the genome of the body louse thus provides a reference for studies of holometabolous insects. Compared with other insect genomes, the body louse genome contains significantly fewer genes associated with environmental sensing and response, including odorant and gustatory receptors and detoxifying enzymes. The unique architecture of the 18 minicircular mitochondrial chromosomes of the body louse may be linked to the loss of the gene encoding the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein. The genome of the obligatory louse endosymbiont Candidatus Riesia pediculicola encodes less than 600 genes on a short, linear chromosome and a circular plasmid. The plasmid harbors a unique arrangement of genes required for the synthesis of pantothenate, an essential vitamin deficient in the louse diet. The human body louse, its primary endosymbiont, and the bacterial pathogens that it vectors all possess genomes reduced in size compared with their free-living close relatives. Thus, the body louse genome project offers unique information and tools to use in advancing understanding of coevolution among vectors, symbionts, and pathogens. PMID:20566863

  18. Genome sequences of the human body louse and its primary endosymbiont provide insights into the permanent parasitic lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Kirkness, Ewen F; Haas, Brian J; Sun, Weilin; Braig, Henk R; Perotti, M Alejandra; Clark, John M; Lee, Si Hyeock; Robertson, Hugh M; Kennedy, Ryan C; Elhaik, Eran; Gerlach, Daniel; Kriventseva, Evgenia V; Elsik, Christine G; Graur, Dan; Hill, Catherine A; Veenstra, Jan A; Walenz, Brian; Tubío, José Manuel C; Ribeiro, José M C; Rozas, Julio; Johnston, J Spencer; Reese, Justin T; Popadic, Aleksandar; Tojo, Marta; Raoult, Didier; Reed, David L; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Kraus, Emily; Krause, Emily; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Margam, Venu M; Li, Hong-Mei; Meyer, Jason M; Johnson, Reed M; Romero-Severson, Jeanne; Vanzee, Janice Pagel; Alvarez-Ponce, David; Vieira, Filipe G; Aguadé, Montserrat; Guirao-Rico, Sara; Anzola, Juan M; Yoon, Kyong S; Strycharz, Joseph P; Unger, Maria F; Christley, Scott; Lobo, Neil F; Seufferheld, Manfredo J; Wang, Naikuan; Dasch, Gregory A; Struchiner, Claudio J; Madey, Greg; Hannick, Linda I; Bidwell, Shelby; Joardar, Vinita; Caler, Elisabet; Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C; Cameron, Stephen; Bruggner, Robert V; Regier, Allison; Johnson, Justin; Viswanathan, Lakshmi; Utterback, Terry R; Sutton, Granger G; Lawson, Daniel; Waterhouse, Robert M; Venter, J Craig; Strausberg, Robert L; Berenbaum, May R; Collins, Frank H; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2010-07-06

    As an obligatory parasite of humans, the body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) is an important vector for human diseases, including epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Here, we present genome sequences of the body louse and its primary bacterial endosymbiont Candidatus Riesia pediculicola. The body louse has the smallest known insect genome, spanning 108 Mb. Despite its status as an obligate parasite, it retains a remarkably complete basal insect repertoire of 10,773 protein-coding genes and 57 microRNAs. Representing hemimetabolous insects, the genome of the body louse thus provides a reference for studies of holometabolous insects. Compared with other insect genomes, the body louse genome contains significantly fewer genes associated with environmental sensing and response, including odorant and gustatory receptors and detoxifying enzymes. The unique architecture of the 18 minicircular mitochondrial chromosomes of the body louse may be linked to the loss of the gene encoding the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein. The genome of the obligatory louse endosymbiont Candidatus Riesia pediculicola encodes less than 600 genes on a short, linear chromosome and a circular plasmid. The plasmid harbors a unique arrangement of genes required for the synthesis of pantothenate, an essential vitamin deficient in the louse diet. The human body louse, its primary endosymbiont, and the bacterial pathogens that it vectors all possess genomes reduced in size compared with their free-living close relatives. Thus, the body louse genome project offers unique information and tools to use in advancing understanding of coevolution among vectors, symbionts, and pathogens.

  19. Uncovering deep mysteries: the underwater life of an amphibious louse.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Maria Soledad; Aznar, F Javier; Crespo, Enrique A; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2014-12-01

    Despite the incredible success of insects in colonizing almost every habitat, they remain virtually absent in one major environment--the open sea. A variety of hypotheses have been raised to explain why just a few insect species are present in the ocean, but none of them appears to be fully explanatory. Lice belonging to the family Echinophthiriidae are ectoparasites on different species of pinnipeds and river otters, i.e. they have amphibious hosts, who regularly perform long excursions into the open sea reaching depths of hundreds of meters (thousands of feets). Consequently, lice must be able to support not only changes in their surrounding media, but also extreme variations in hydrostatic pressure as well as breathing in a low oxygen atmosphere. In order to shed some light on the way lice can survive during the diving excursions of their hosts, we have performed a series of experiments to test the survival capability of different instars of Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) from South American sea lions Otaria flavescens, when submerged into seawater. These experiments were aimed at analyzing: (a) immersion tolerance along the louse life; (b) lice's ability to obtain oxygen from seawater; (c) physiological responses and mechanisms involved in survival underwater. Our experiments showed that the forms present in non-diving pups--i.e. eggs and first-instar nymphs--were unable to tolerate immersion in water, while following instars and adults, all usually found in diving hosts, supported it very well. Furthermore, as long as the level of oxygen dissolved in water was higher, the lice survival capability underwater increased, and the recovery period after returning to air declined. These results are discussed in relation to host ecology, host exploitation and lice functional morphology.

  20. Pigeon louse fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), collected by dry-ice trap.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Takeo; Tsuda, Yoshio; Sato, Yukita; Murata, Koichi

    2011-12-01

    During a mosquito collection, a female of the pigeon louse fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), was collected by a mosquito trap baited with dry ice in Ishigaki-jima, Yaeyama Islands, Japan. This is the 1st record of P. canariensis from Yaeyama Islands.

  1. [Cosmus Conrad Cuno (1652-1745) on a human ectoparasite: the head louse].

    PubMed

    Müller, G H

    1979-07-01

    Cosmus Conrad Cuno, a less well known optician and inventor of microscopes from the second half of the 17th century, published in 1734 at Augsburg his Observationes durch dessen verfertigte Microscopia where along with various observations he communicated salient details pertaining to the biology of the head louse.

  2. Louse-borne relapsing fever in a refugee from Somalia arriving in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Darcis, Gilles; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; Bontems, Sebastien; Sauvage, Anne-Sophie; Meuris, Christelle; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Leonard, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) in a refugee from Somalia who had arrived in Belgium a few days earlier. He complained of myalgia and secondarily presented fever. Blood smears revealed spirochetes later identified as Borrelia recurrentis. LBRF should be considered in countries hosting refugees, particularly those who transit through endemic regions.

  3. Genotyping of Human Lice Suggests Multiple Emergences of Body Lice from Local Head Louse Populations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjun; Ortiz, Gabriel; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Gimenez, Gregory; Reed, David L.; Pittendrigh, Barry; Raoult, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic analyses of human lice have shown that the current taxonomic classification of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) and body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus) does not reflect their phylogenetic organization. Three phylotypes of head lice A, B and C exist but body lice have been observed only in phylotype A. Head and body lice have different behaviours and only the latter have been involved in outbreaks of infectious diseases including epidemic typhus, trench fever and louse borne recurrent fever. Recent studies suggest that body lice arose several times from head louse populations. Methods and Findings By introducing a new genotyping technique, sequencing variable intergenic spacers which were selected from louse genomic sequence, we were able to evaluate the genotypic distribution of 207 human lice. Sequence variation of two intergenic spacers, S2 and S5, discriminated the 207 lice into 148 genotypes and sequence variation of another two intergenic spacers, PM1 and PM2, discriminated 174 lice into 77 genotypes. Concatenation of the four intergenic spacers discriminated a panel of 97 lice into 96 genotypes. These intergenic spacer sequence types were relatively specific geographically, and enabled us to identify two clusters in France, one cluster in Central Africa (where a large body louse outbreak has been observed) and one cluster in Russia. Interestingly, head and body lice were not genetically differentiated. Conclusions We propose a hypothesis for the emergence of body lice, and suggest that humans with both low hygiene and head louse infestations provide an opportunity for head louse variants, able to ingest a larger blood meal (a required characteristic of body lice), to colonize clothing. If this hypothesis is ultimately supported, it would help to explain why poor human hygiene often coincides with outbreaks of body lice. Additionally, if head lice act as a reservoir for body lice, and that any social degradation in human populations

  4. DETECTION OF BARTONELLA SP. IN DEER LOUSE FLIES (LIPOPTENA MAZAMAE) ON GRAY BROCKET DEER (MAZAMA GOUAZOUBIRA) IN THE NEOTROPICS.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ugo; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Michel, Thais; Webster, Anelise; Klafke, Guilherme; Martins, João Ricardo; Kasper, Carlos Benhur; Trigo, Tatiane Campos; Ott, Ricardo; Maria de Assis Jardim, Márcia; Reck, José

    2017-06-01

    Louse flies or deer keds, Lipoptena spp., are widespread in Neotropical cervids, but the vector-borne pathogens of louse flies had only been previously reported in the Northern hemisphere. This is the first report of Bartonella spp. in deer louse flies (Lipoptena mazamae) in the neotropics collected from gray brocket deer ( Mazama gouazoubira ) in Southern Brazil. DNA from Bartonella sp. was detected in all 429 L. mazamae collected from 11 road-killed gray brocket deer. The same sequences of DNA of Bartonella spp. were identified in samples. Gray brocket deer are abundant in Brazil, so Bartonella-infected Lipoptena spp. may be widely distributed in the neotropics.

  5. Pigeons (Columba livia) plan future moves on computerized maze tasks.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Hiromitsu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2008-07-01

    Planning, the internal process of formulating an organized method about one's future behavior, should be advantageous for non-human animals as well as for humans. However, little is known about this process in avian species. We examined planning processes in pigeons (Columba livia) using a computerized maze task. In Experiment 1, we found that the pigeons plan their next one step, and in some cases even correctly adjust their actions after change of goal locations, while performing on a plus-shaped maze. We also showed that the pigeons might even plan two steps on familiar, well-practiced mazes. In Experiment 2, we discovered that the subjects plan the direction they would go first before starting to solve a four-arm shuriken (a Japanese traditional throwing knife)-shaped maze. The birds also corrected their previously planned actions after change of goal locations. Our results from these experiments suggest that planning ahead is within the cognitive capacity of a "bird brain", and that it may be more widespread in the animal kingdom than has been presumed.

  6. [Changes in the number of deer louse-flies Lipoptena cervi (Hippoboscidae) in the forests of northwestern Russia].

    PubMed

    Balashov, Iu S

    1996-01-01

    Long term observations of the abundance fluctuations of the deer louse-fly Lipoptena cervi were carried out in forest areas of the Leningrad, Novgorod and Pskov provinces in 1988-1995. The registration of the winged individuals was held in the period of the mass flight in August by the number of deer louse-flies attacking a collector man during 1 km of the pathway. The abundance of deer louse-flies was being high everywhere up to 1993, while it decreased by 8-29 times in 1994-1995. The reason of the abundance decrease of deer louse-flies is the abrupt abundance decrease of the main host, the elk Alces alces.

  7. Scanning electron microscopy of Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788), Freeborn, 1923 and A. columbae (Linstow, 1903).

    PubMed

    Ashour, A A

    1994-08-01

    The morphology of the two ascaridoid nematodes Ascaridia galli and A. columbae was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The two nematodes were compared together and their specific characteristics were established, including lips, cephalic papillae, body cuticle, spicules and caudal papillae of the male.

  8. Host behaviour drives parasite genetics at multiple geographic scales: population genetics of the chewing louse, Thomomydoecus minor.

    PubMed

    Harper, Sheree E; Spradling, Theresa A; Demastes, James W; Calhoun, Courtney S

    2015-08-01

    Pocket gophers and their symbiotic chewing lice form a host-parasite assemblage known for a high degree of cophylogeny, thought to be driven by life history parameters of both host and parasite that make host switching difficult. However, little work to date has focused on determining whether these life histories actually impact louse populations at the very fine scale of louse infrapopulations (individuals on a single host) at the same or at nearby host localities. We used microsatellite and mtDNA sequence data to make comparisons of chewing-louse (Thomomydoecus minor) population subdivision over time and over geographic space where there are different potential amounts of host interaction surrounding a zone of contact between two hybridizing pocket-gopher subspecies. We found that chewing lice had high levels of population isolation consistent with a paucity of horizontal transmission even at the very fine geographic scale of a single alfalfa field. We also found marked genetic discontinuity in louse populations corresponding with host subspecies and little, if any, admixture in the louse genetic groups even though the lice are closely related. The correlation of louse infrapopulation differentiation with host interaction at multiple scales, including across a discontinuity in pocket-gopher habitat, suggests that host behaviour is the primary driver of parasite genetics. This observation makes sense in light of the life histories of both chewing lice and pocket gophers and provides a powerful explanation for the well-documented pattern of parallel cladogenesis in pocket gophers and chewing lice.

  9. Bio-ecology of the louse, Upupicola upupae, infesting the Common Hoopoe, Upupa epops.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, G P; Ahmad, Aftab; Rashmi, Archna; Arya, Gaurav; Bansal, Nayanci; Saxena, A K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The population characteristics of the louse, Upupicola upupae (Shrank) (Mallophaga: Philopteridae: Ishnocera), infesting the Common Hoopae, Upupa epops L. (Aves: Upupiformes), were recorded during 2007-08 in District Rampur, Uttar Pradesh India. The pattern of frequency distribution of the louse conformed to the negative binomial model. The lice and its nits were reared in vitro at 35 ± 1° C, 75-82 % RH, on a feather diet. The data obtained was used to construct the life table and to determine the intrinsic rate of natural increase (0.035 female/day), the net reproductive rate was 3.67 female eggs/female, the generation time was 37 days, and the doubling time of the population was 19 days. The chaetotaxy of the three nymphal instars has also been noted to record their diagnostic characteristics. Information on egg morphology and antennal sensilla is also presented.

  10. Bio-Ecology of the Louse, Upupicola upupae, Infesting the Common Hoopoe, Upupa epops

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, G. P; Ahmad, Aftab; Rashmi, Archna; Arya, Gaurav; Bansal, Nayanci; Saxena, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    The population characteristics of the louse, Upupicola upupae (Shrank) (Mallophaga: Philopteridae: Ishnocera), infesting the Common Hoopae, Upupa epops L. (Aves: Upupiformes), were recorded during 2007–08 in District Rampur, Uttar Pradesh India. The pattern of frequency distribution of the louse conformed to the negative binomial model. The lice and its nits were reared in vitro at 35 ± 1° C, 75–82 % RH, on a feather diet. The data obtained was used to construct the life table and to determine the intrinsic rate of natural increase (0.035 female/day), the net reproductive rate was 3.67 female eggs/female, the generation time was 37 days, and the doubling time of the population was 19 days. The chaetotaxy of the three nymphal instars has also been noted to record their diagnostic characteristics. Information on egg morphology and antennal sensilla is also presented. PMID:21861650

  11. Do nit removal formulations and other treatments loosen head louse eggs and nits from hair?

    PubMed

    Burgess, I F

    2010-03-01

    Eggs of the head louse, Pediculus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), are difficult to remove because the female louse fixes them to hairs using a proteinaceous secretion that hardens within seconds. The persistent eggshells are harmless but unsightly and are often mistaken for an active infestation. Combing with a fine comb (nit comb) does not readily remove the eggs or empty eggshells because of the resilience of the fixative and both folk remedies and medical products have claimed to facilitate their removal. Measurement of the force required to initiate sliding of the egg fixative using a slip-peel tester was unable to detect evidence that any of three products which claimed to have egg-loosening properties (Step 2 Nit Removal System, Clear Lice Egg Remover, RID Lice Egg Loosener Gel) had any activity or exerted any effect on the egg fixative beyond the lubricating effects conveyed by water or conventional hair conditioner.

  12. A new species and an annotated world list of the sucking louse genus Neohaematopinus (Anoplura: Polyplacidae).

    PubMed

    Durden, L A

    1991-09-01

    A new species of sucking louse, Neohaematopinus sundasciuri, collected from the tree squirrel, Sundasciurus juvencus, is described from Palawan Island, Philippines. An updated world list of the genus Neohaematopinus is presented; this documents descriptive citations, known hosts, and geographical distributions with interpretive annotations for each of the 32 species now included in the genus. The geographical distributions of Neohaematopinus sciuri and N. sciurinus are discussed.

  13. Treatment of head louse infestation with 4% dimeticone lotion: randomised controlled equivalence trial

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ian F; Brown, Christine M; Lee, Peter N

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 4% dimeticone lotion for treatment of head louse infestation. Design Randomised controlled equivalence trial. Setting Community, with home visits. Participants 214 young people aged 4 to 18 years and 39 adults with active head louse infestation. Interventions Two applications seven days apart of either 4.0% dimeticone lotion, applied for eight hours or overnight, or 0.5% phenothrin liquid, applied for 12 hours or overnight. Outcome measures Cure of infestation (no evidence of head lice after second treatment) or reinfestation after cure. Results Cure or reinfestation after cure occurred in 89 of 127 (70%) participants treated with dimeticone and 94 of 125 (75%) treated with phenothrin (difference -5%, 95% confidence interval -16% to 6%). Per protocol analysis showed that 84 of 121 (69%) participants were cured with dimeticone and 90 of 116 (78%) were cured with phenothrin. Irritant reactions occurred significantly less with dimeticone (3/127, 2%) than with phenothrin (11/125, 9%; difference -6%, -12% to -1%). Per protocol this was 3 of 121 (3%) participants treated with dimeticone and 10 of 116 (9%) treated with phenothrin (difference -6%, -12% to -0.3%). Conclusion Dimeticone lotion cures head louse infestation. Dimeticone seems less irritant than existing treatments and has a physical action on lice that should not be affected by resistance to neurotoxic insecticides. PMID:15951310

  14. First report of family infestation with pubic louse (Pthirus pubis; Insecta: Anoplura: Pthiridae) in Iran--a case report.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, R; Limoee, M; Ahaki, A R

    2013-03-01

    The sucking lice including the head, body and pubic louse infest humans and so they are of high hygienic importance. Pubic lice are transmitted during sexual contact in adults. Thus, infestation of children with pubis louse is very rare. A case of infestation with pubic louse (Pthirus pubis) in a family in Kashan was seen. On examination of family members, the parasites were collected and observed under the light microscope. Infestation of eyelashes with P. pubis lice was confirmed. Since this parasite can be observed on the skin, infestation with this louse has always been one of the concerns of human communities. Pthiriasis has frequently been reported in many parts of the world; however, there are few reports on this infestation in Iran, especially familial infestation with this louse. Hence, this article could be the first report on the familial infestation with P. pubis in Iran and it can be suggested that infestation with pubic lice occurs in sporadic form in all over the country.

  15. Therapeutic effects of some antihaematozoal drugs against Haemoproteus columbae in domestic pigeons.

    PubMed

    el-Metenawy, T M

    1999-02-01

    Three antihaematozoal drugs were tested for the treatment of pigeons naturally infected with Haemoproteus columbae. Butalex (Buparvaquone) was found effective against the parasite either by using the recommended dose (R. D.) or the double (D. D.) dosis. The R. D. of Berenil (Diminazene aceturate) was not effective while the D. D. reduced the number of gametocytes circulating in the infected blood. Triquine was found very toxic to the pigeons both the R. D. and the D. D.

  16. Host specificity and genealogy of the louse Polyplax serrata on field mice, Apodemus species: a case of parasite duplication or colonisation?

    PubMed

    Stefka, Jan; Hypsa, Václav

    2008-05-01

    The genealogy, population structure and population dynamics of the sucking louse Polyplax serrata were analysed across four host species of the genus Apodemus. An analysis of 126 sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I using phylogenetic approaches and haplotype networking revealed a clear structure of European samples, forming three distinct and genetically distant clades with different host specificities. Although a clear connection was detected between the host and parasite genealogies/phylogenies, a uniform pattern of co-speciation was not found. For example, a dramatic shift in the degree of host specificity was demonstrated for two related louse lineages living in sympatry and sharing one of their host species. While one of the louse lineages frequently parasitised two different host taxa (Apodemus sylvaticus and Apodemus flavicollis), the other louse lineage was strictly specific to A. flavicollis. The estimate of divergence time between the two louse lineages indicates that they may have arisen due to parasite duplication on A. flavicollis.

  17. Identification of a sex-linked SNP marker in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) using RAD sequencing.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Stephen N; Bekaert, Michaël; Taggart, John B; Christie, Hayden R L; Bassett, David I; Bron, James E; Skuce, Philip J; Gharbi, Karim; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus; Sturm, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837)) is a parasitic copepod that can, if untreated, cause considerable damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758) and incurs significant costs to the Atlantic salmon mariculture industry. Salmon lice are gonochoristic and normally show sex ratios close to 1:1. While this observation suggests that sex determination in salmon lice is genetic, with only minor environmental influences, the mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse is unknown. This paper describes the identification of a sex-linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker, providing the first evidence for a genetic mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) was used to isolate SNP markers in a laboratory-maintained salmon louse strain. A total of 85 million raw Illumina 100 base paired-end reads produced 281,838 unique RAD-tags across 24 unrelated individuals. RAD marker Lsa101901 showed complete association with phenotypic sex for all individuals analysed, being heterozygous in females and homozygous in males. Using an allele-specific PCR assay for genotyping, this SNP association pattern was further confirmed for three unrelated salmon louse strains, displaying complete association with phenotypic sex in a total of 96 genotyped individuals. The marker Lsa101901 was located in the coding region of the prohibitin-2 gene, which showed a sex-dependent differential expression, with mRNA levels determined by RT-qPCR about 1.8-fold higher in adult female than adult male salmon lice. This study's observations of a novel sex-linked SNP marker are consistent with sex determination in the salmon louse being genetic and following a female heterozygous system. Marker Lsa101901 provides a tool to determine the genetic sex of salmon lice, and could be useful in the development of control strategies.

  18. Identification of a Sex-Linked SNP Marker in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) Using RAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Taggart, John B.; Christie, Hayden R. L.; Bassett, David I.; Bron, James E.; Skuce, Philip J.; Gharbi, Karim; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus; Sturm, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837)) is a parasitic copepod that can, if untreated, cause considerable damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758) and incurs significant costs to the Atlantic salmon mariculture industry. Salmon lice are gonochoristic and normally show sex ratios close to 1:1. While this observation suggests that sex determination in salmon lice is genetic, with only minor environmental influences, the mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse is unknown. This paper describes the identification of a sex-linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker, providing the first evidence for a genetic mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) was used to isolate SNP markers in a laboratory-maintained salmon louse strain. A total of 85 million raw Illumina 100 base paired-end reads produced 281,838 unique RAD-tags across 24 unrelated individuals. RAD marker Lsa101901 showed complete association with phenotypic sex for all individuals analysed, being heterozygous in females and homozygous in males. Using an allele-specific PCR assay for genotyping, this SNP association pattern was further confirmed for three unrelated salmon louse strains, displaying complete association with phenotypic sex in a total of 96 genotyped individuals. The marker Lsa101901 was located in the coding region of the prohibitin-2 gene, which showed a sex-dependent differential expression, with mRNA levels determined by RT-qPCR about 1.8-fold higher in adult female than adult male salmon lice. This study’s observations of a novel sex-linked SNP marker are consistent with sex determination in the salmon louse being genetic and following a female heterozygous system. Marker Lsa101901 provides a tool to determine the genetic sex of salmon lice, and could be useful in the development of control strategies. PMID:24147087

  19. Can head louse repellents really work? Field studies of piperonal 2% spray

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christine M.; Burgess, Nazma A.; Kaufman, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Background. Many families find regular checking of children’s heads for head louse infestation too onerous and would prefer to be able to prevent infestation by use of a topical application that deters lice from infesting the head. Identification in the laboratory of a repellent activity for piperonal provided the basis for developing a spray product to repel lice. Methods. A proof of principle field study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, compared the effect of using 2% piperonal spray with that of a placebo in 105 children and adults from three communities with infestation levels close to 100%. All participants were treated for infestation and subsequent incidence of reinfestation monitored daily by investigators. A second randomised, controlled, double blind, study in North London, UK, evaluated the effect of the product in normal use. One hundred and sixty-three children from schools with a high level (20–25%) of infestation were treated and confirmed louse free and randomly divided between 2% piperonal, a placebo spray, and a control group for up to 22 weeks. Parents applied the spray and monitored for infestation. Regular investigator visits confirmed the parental monitoring and replenished supplies of spray. Results. In Dhaka, over 18 days there were only 4 infestations in the piperonal group and 8 in the placebo group. This difference was not significant (p = 0.312). In North London, there were 41 cases of infestation over the course of the study. Although there were fewer infestations in the piperonal group, analysis of time to first infestation showed a no significant (p = 0.4368) difference between groups. Conclusion. Routine use of 2% piperonal spray in communities with a high prevalence of head louse infestation may provide some protection from infestation. However, the difference between use of the product and no active intervention was sufficiently small that regular checking for presence of lice is likely to be a more practical and cost effective approach

  20. Two Bacterial Genera, Sodalis and Rickettsia, Associated with the Seal Louse Proechinophthirus fluctus (Phthiraptera: Anoplura)

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Julie M.; Koga, Ryuichi; Fukatsu, Takema; Sweet, Andrew D.; Johnson, Kevin P.; Reed, David L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Roughly 10% to 15% of insect species host heritable symbiotic bacteria known as endosymbionts. The lice parasitizing mammals rely on endosymbionts to provide essential vitamins absent in their blood meals. Here, we describe two bacterial associates from a louse, Proechinophthirus fluctus, which is an obligate ectoparasite of a marine mammal. One of these is a heritable endosymbiont that is not closely related to endosymbionts of other mammalian lice. Rather, it is more closely related to endosymbionts of the genus Sodalis associated with spittlebugs and feather-chewing bird lice. Localization and vertical transmission of this endosymbiont are also more similar to those of bird lice than to those of other mammalian lice. The endosymbiont genome appears to be degrading in symbiosis; however, it is considerably larger than the genomes of other mammalian louse endosymbionts. These patterns suggest the possibility that this Sodalis endosymbiont might be recently acquired, replacing a now-extinct, ancient endosymbiont. From the same lice, we also identified an abundant bacterium belonging to the genus Rickettsia that is closely related to Rickettsia ricketsii, a human pathogen vectored by ticks. No obvious masses of the Rickettsia bacterium were observed in louse tissues, nor did we find any evidence of vertical transmission, so the nature of its association remains unclear. IMPORTANCE Many insects are host to heritable symbiotic bacteria. These heritable bacteria have been identified from numerous species of parasitic lice. It appears that novel symbioses have formed between lice and bacteria many times, with new bacterial symbionts potentially replacing existing ones. However, little was known about the symbionts of lice parasitizing marine mammals. Here, we identified a heritable bacterial symbiont in lice parasitizing northern fur seals. This bacterial symbiont appears to have been recently acquired by the lice. The findings reported here provide insights

  1. Louse-borne bacterial pathogens in lice (Phthiraptera) of rodents and cattle from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Will K; Szumlas, Daniel E; Moriarity, John R; Loftis, Amanda D; Abbassy, Magda M; Helmy, Ibrahim M; Dasch, Gregory A

    2006-04-01

    We collected 1,023 lice, representing 5 species, from rats and domestic cattle throughout 13 governorates in Egypt and tested these lice for Anaplasma marginale, Bartonella spp., Brucella spp., Borrelia recurrentis, Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, and Rickettsia spp. by PCR amplification and sequencing. Five different louse-borne bacterial agents were detected in lice from rodents or cattle, including "Bartonella rattimassiliensis", "B. phoceensis", and Bartonella sp. near Bartonella tribocorum, Coxiella burnetii, and Rickettsia typhi. More lice from governorates bordering the Mediterranean and Red Seas contained pathogens. Our data indicate that lice of urban and domestic animals harbor pathogenic or potentially pathogenic bacterial agents throughout Egypt.

  2. Louse-borne relapsing fever in Finland in two asylum seekers from Somalia.

    PubMed

    Hytönen, Jukka; Khawaja, Tamim; Grönroos, Juha O; Jalava, Anna; Meri, Seppo; Oksi, Jarmo

    2017-01-01

    We report two cases of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) in young Somali asylum seekers having recently arrived to Finland. They had sought medical attention for a febrile illness. Blood smears were examined for suspected malaria, but instead, spirochete shaped bacteria were observed. The bacteria were confirmed as Borrelia recurrentis by PCR and sequencing. The patients survived, but their treatment was complicated by Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. We conclude that LBRF must be considered as a diagnostic option in febrile refugees also in the northernmost parts of Europe.

  3. Role of Endotoxin in the Pathogenesis of Louse-borne Relapsing Fever and in the Mechanism of the Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction Following Treatment of Louse-borne Relapsing Fever

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    Louse-borne relapsing fever is an acute febrile illness caused by the spirochete Borrelia recurrentis and transmitted to man by infected body lice...shown to contain lipopolysaccharide (46), but extracted spirochetal lipopolysaccharides contained no pyrogenic activity for rabbits (47). Borreliae have...investigators. Mergenhagen et al extracted lipopolysaccharides from Borrelia vincentii, B. buccalis, and small oral treponemes and found them to be

  4. Can reduced predation offset negative effects of sea louse parasites on chum salmon?

    PubMed

    Peacock, Stephanie J; Connors, Brendan M; Krkosek, Martin; Irvine, James R; Lewis, Mark A

    2014-02-07

    The impact of parasites on hosts is invariably negative when considered in isolation, but may be complex and unexpected in nature. For example, if parasites make hosts less desirable to predators then gains from reduced predation may offset direct costs of being parasitized. We explore these ideas in the context of sea louse infestations on salmon. In Pacific Canada, sea lice can spread from farmed salmon to migrating juvenile wild salmon. Low numbers of sea lice can cause mortality of juvenile pink and chum salmon. For pink salmon, this has resulted in reduced productivity of river populations exposed to salmon farming. However, for chum salmon, we did not find an effect of sea louse infestations on productivity, despite high statistical power. Motivated by this unexpected result, we used a mathematical model to show how a parasite-induced shift in predation pressure from chum salmon to pink salmon could offset negative direct impacts of sea lice on chum salmon. This shift in predation is proposed to occur because predators show an innate preference for pink salmon prey. This preference may be more easily expressed when sea lice compromise juvenile salmon hosts, making them easier to catch. Our results indicate how the ecological context of host-parasite interactions may dampen, or even reverse, the expected impact of parasites on host populations.

  5. Identification of Different Bartonella Species in the Cattle Tail Louse (Haematopinus quadripertusus) and in Cattle Blood

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Cohen, Liron; Morick, Danny; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are worldwide-distributed facultative intracellular bacteria that exhibit an immense genomic diversity across mammal and arthropod hosts. The occurrence of cattle-associated Bartonella species was investigated in the cattle tail louse Haematopinus quadripertusus and in dairy cattle blood from Israel. Lice were collected from cattle from two dairy farms during summer 2011, and both lice and cow blood samples were collected from additional seven farms during the successive winter. The lice were identified morphologically and molecularly using 18S rRNA sequencing. Thereafter, they were screened for Bartonella DNA by conventional and real-time PCR assays using four partial genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ssrA, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]). A potentially novel Bartonella variant, closely related to other ruminant bartonellae, was identified in 11 of 13 louse pools collected in summer. In the cattle blood, the prevalence of Bartonella infection was 38%, identified as B. bovis and B. henselae (24 and 12%, respectively). A third genotype, closely related to Bartonella melophagi and Bartonella chomelii (based on the ssrA gene) and to B. bovis (based on the ITS sequence) was identified in a single cow. The relatively high prevalence of these Bartonella species in cattle and the occurrence of phylogenetically diverse Bartonella variants in both cattle and their lice suggest the potential role of this animal system in the generation of Bartonella species diversity. PMID:24973066

  6. Ionotropic receptors signal host recognition in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis, Copepoda)

    PubMed Central

    Grotmol, Sindre; Nilsen, Frank

    2017-01-01

    A remarkable feature of many parasites is a high degree of host specificity but the mechanisms behind are poorly understood. A major challenge for parasites is to identify and infect a suitable host. Many species show a high degree of host specificity, being able to survive only on one or a few related host species. To facilitate transmission, parasite’s behavior and reproduction has been fine tuned to maximize the likelihood of infection of a suitable host. For some species chemical cues that trigger or attract the parasite in question have been identified but how metazoan parasites themselves receive these signals remains unknown. In the present study we show that ionotropic receptors (IRs) in the salmon louse are likely responsible for identification of a specific host. By using RNAi to knock down the expression level of different co-receptors, a significant change of infectivity and settlement of lice larvae was achieved on Atlantic salmon. More remarkably, knock down of the IRs changed the host specificity of the salmon louse and lice larvae settled at a significant rate on host that the wild type lice rejected within minutes. To our knowledge, this has never before been demonstrated for any metazoan parasite. Our results show that the parasites are able to identify the host quickly upon settlement, settle and initiate the parasitic life style if they are on the right host. This novel discovery opens up for utilizing the host recognition system for future parasite control. PMID:28582411

  7. Can reduced predation offset negative effects of sea louse parasites on chum salmon?

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Stephanie J.; Connors, Brendan M.; Krkošek, Martin; Irvine, James R.; Lewis, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of parasites on hosts is invariably negative when considered in isolation, but may be complex and unexpected in nature. For example, if parasites make hosts less desirable to predators then gains from reduced predation may offset direct costs of being parasitized. We explore these ideas in the context of sea louse infestations on salmon. In Pacific Canada, sea lice can spread from farmed salmon to migrating juvenile wild salmon. Low numbers of sea lice can cause mortality of juvenile pink and chum salmon. For pink salmon, this has resulted in reduced productivity of river populations exposed to salmon farming. However, for chum salmon, we did not find an effect of sea louse infestations on productivity, despite high statistical power. Motivated by this unexpected result, we used a mathematical model to show how a parasite-induced shift in predation pressure from chum salmon to pink salmon could offset negative direct impacts of sea lice on chum salmon. This shift in predation is proposed to occur because predators show an innate preference for pink salmon prey. This preference may be more easily expressed when sea lice compromise juvenile salmon hosts, making them easier to catch. Our results indicate how the ecological context of host–parasite interactions may dampen, or even reverse, the expected impact of parasites on host populations. PMID:24352951

  8. Spot-on Treatments of Diflubenzuron and Permethrin to Control a Guinea Pig Louse, Gliricola Porcelli (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (L.)) (Rodentia: Caviidae) are pets and laboratory animals. They can be infested by a chewing louse, Gliricola porcelli (Schrank) (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), which is fairly common in some animal rearing facilities, pet stores, and on wild guinea pigs. Infestation with G....

  9. Treatment of natural infestations of the biting louse (Werneckiella equi) on horses using triflumuron, a benzoylurea derivative insect growth regulator.

    PubMed

    Lowden, Stewart; Gray, Stephen; Dawson, Kim

    2007-09-30

    The horse biting louse (Werneckiella equi) is a common global equine ectoparasite. To our knowledge, benzoyl(phenyl)urea insecticides (triflumuron, diflubenzuron) commonly used as sheep lousicides, have not been evaluated for efficacy against W. equi. The aim of this study was to determine louse control efficacy, general wellness and dermal safety following triflumuron application as a backline pour-on to horses. Two efficacy trials using 25 adult naturally infested lousy horses, and a dermal safety trial using 10 adult louse-free horses were conducted over a 14-month period. Lousy animals were selected by assessment of their lice status prior to treatment. For the efficacy trial, the triflumuron product was applied at a dose of 2.5mg triflumuron per kg bodyweight (1 mL product per 10 kg bodyweight). For the safety study, triflumuron was applied at a 3x clinical dose of 7.5 mg triflumuron per kg bodyweight (3 mL product per 10 kg bodyweight). In our first efficacy trial, 100% lousicidal efficacy was achieved by day 44 post-treatment. In our second trial, no lice were identified on horses by day 71 post-treatment. In the safety trial, no adverse effects were seen. Results of this study demonstrate that the off-label, experimental pour-on application of triflumuron at 2.5 mg/kg bodyweight is convenient, highly effective and safe (at 3x the clinical dose) for the treatment of the horse biting louse, W. equi.

  10. Presence and effects of the dog louse Trichodectes canis (Mallophaga, Trichodectidae) on wolves and coyotes from Minnesota and Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Thiel, R.P.; Fritts, S.H.; Berg, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    The dog louse was found on 19 wolves (Canis lupus) and six coyotes (C. latrans) from Minnesota and Wisconsin during the July-February, 1973 through 1983, period. No evidence was found that lice had any serious effect on wolf survival.

  11. Chlorpyrifos for control of the short-nosed cattle louse, Haematopinus eurysternus (Nitzsch) (Anoplura, Haematopinidae) during winter.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M A; Schaalje, G B

    1985-01-01

    Two groups (A and C) of range cows were treated in February with chlorpyrifos (16 mL Dursban 44/cow) for the control of heavy infestations of the short-nosed cattle louse. Group A was treated in 1977 and group C in 1979 and each treated group was compared with a separate untreated group. Some of the treated cows were identified as carriers of louse infestation (subgroups A1 and C1), while others were noncarriers (subgroups A2 and C2). The maximum level of reduction in louse populations was 99% at week 4 posttreatment in subgroup A1, 99% from weeks 2-16 posttreatment in subgroup A2, 92% at week 3 posttreatment in subgroup C1 and 100% at weeks 15-17 in subgroup C2. Clinically, the treated cows, which were anemic at the time of treatment, recovered from anemia during the posttreatment period of 25 weeks for group A and 17 weeks for group C. Remission of anemia also occurred in the two untreated groups, possibly because of natural summer decline in louse population. The treatment had no effect on the whole blood cholinesterase of the cows and the treated cows showed no signs of organophosphorous toxicity. PMID:2416414

  12. Manipulation of primary sex ratio in birds: lessons from the homing pigeon (Columba livia domestica).

    PubMed

    Goerlich-Jansson, Vivian C; Müller, Martina S; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2013-12-01

    Across various animal taxa not only the secondary sex ratio but also the primary sex ratio (at conception) shows significant deviations from the expected equal proportions of sons and daughters. Birds are especially intriguing to study this phenomenon as avian females are the heterogametic sex (ZW); therefore sex determination might be under direct control of the mother. Avian sex ratios vary in relation to environmental or maternal condition, which can also affect the production of maternal steroids that in turn are involved in reproduction and accumulate in the developing follicle before meiosis. As the proximate mechanisms underlying biased primary sex ratio are largely elusive, we explored how, and to what extent, maternal steroid hormones may be involved in affecting primary or secondary sex ratio in clutches of various species of pigeons. First we demonstrated a clear case of seasonal change in sex ratio in first eggs both in the Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) and in a related species, the Wood Pigeon (Columba palumbus), both producing clutches of two eggs. In the Homing Pigeon (Columba livia domestica), domesticated from the Rock Pigeon, testosterone treatment of breeding females induced a clear male bias, while corticosterone induced a female bias in first eggs and we argue that this is in line with sex allocation theory. We next analyzed treatment effects on follicle formation, yolk mass, and yolk hormones, the latter both pre- and post-ovulatory, in order to test a diversity of potential mechanisms related to both primary and secondary sex ratio manipulation. We conclude that maternal plasma hormone levels may affect several pre-ovulatory mechanisms affecting primary sex ratio, whereas egg hormones are probably involved in secondary sex ratio manipulation only.

  13. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in pigeons (Columba livia) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Lei, Hsien Hsien; Wu, Ying-Iing

    2006-08-01

    Starting from January 2004 to December 2004, 665 blood serum samples from pigeons (Columba livia) were collected from 44 pigeonaries in 11 counties and 20 regions in Taiwan. These samples were examined by latex agglutination test (LAT) for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by using the LAT. Antibodies were found in 4.7% (31/ 665) of pigeons at a LAT titer of 1:32 or higher. The prevalence in Taiwan was highest in the northern areas (6.0%; 13/216) and lowest in the eastern areas (1.8%; 2/111).

  14. A remarkable new genus and a new species of chewing louse (Phthiraptera, Ischnocera, Philopteridae) from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Valim, Michel P.; Cicchino, Armando C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new genus of chewing louse as Bobdalgleishia, and its type species Bobdalgleishia stephanophallus sp. n. (Phthiraptera) belonging to the Brueelia-complex (Ischnocera: Philopteridae) are described. Adults of the new species are fully described, illustrated and compared morphologically with the type species of Motmotnirmus Mey & Barker, 2014, which is its closest relative. The type host of Bobdalgleishia stephanophallus is a subspecies of the great jacamar Jacamerops aureus ridgwayi Todd, 1943, an endemic Amazonian bird distributed in northern Brazil, and the type locality is the State of Pará. Bobdalgleishia is a remarkable genus with unique morphological and chaetotaxic characters which readily separate it from other members of the Brueelia-complex, in particular by having the first two marginal temporal and ocular setae very long. PMID:26798280

  15. The Common Swift Louse Fly, Crataerina pallida: An Ideal Species for Studying Host-Parasite Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Mark D.; Rotherham, Ian D.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known of the life-history of many parasitic species. This hinders a full understanding of host-parasitic interactions. The common swift louse fly, Crataerina pallida Latreille (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), an obligate haematophagous parasite of the Common Swift, Apus apus Linnaeus 1758, is one such species. No detrimental effect of its parasitism upon the host has been found. This may be because too little is known about C. pallida ecology, and therefore detrimental effects are also unknown. This is a review of what is known about the life-history of this parasite, with the aim of promoting understanding of its ecology. New, previously unreported observations about C. pallida made from personal observations at a nesting swift colony are described. Unanswered questions are highlighted, which may aid understanding of this host-parasite system. C. pallida may prove a suitable model species for the study of other host-parasite relationships. PMID:21268705

  16. A remarkable new genus and a new species of chewing louse (Phthiraptera, Ischnocera, Philopteridae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valim, Michel P; Cicchino, Armando C

    2015-01-01

    A new genus of chewing louse as Bobdalgleishia, and its type species Bobdalgleishia stephanophallus sp. n. (Phthiraptera) belonging to the Brueelia-complex (Ischnocera: Philopteridae) are described. Adults of the new species are fully described, illustrated and compared morphologically with the type species of Motmotnirmus Mey & Barker, 2014, which is its closest relative. The type host of Bobdalgleishia stephanophallus is a subspecies of the great jacamar Jacamerops aureus ridgwayi Todd, 1943, an endemic Amazonian bird distributed in northern Brazil, and the type locality is the State of Pará. Bobdalgleishia is a remarkable genus with unique morphological and chaetotaxic characters which readily separate it from other members of the Brueelia-complex, in particular by having the first two marginal temporal and ocular setae very long.

  17. Arbovirus of Marine Mammals: a New Alphavirus Isolated from the Elephant Seal Louse, Lepidophthirus macrorhini

    PubMed Central

    La Linn, May; Gardner, Joy; Warrilow, David; Darnell, Grant A.; McMahon, Clive R.; Field, Ian; Hyatt, Alex D.; Slade, Robert W.; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    A novel alphavirus was isolated from the louse Lepidophthirus macrorhini, collected from southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina, on Macquarie Island, Australia. The virus displayed classic alphavirus ultrastructure and appeared to be serologically different from known Australasian alphaviruses. Nearly all Macquarie Island elephant seals tested had neutralizing antibodies against the virus, but no virus-associated pathology has been identified. Antarctic Division personnel who have worked extensively with elephant seals showed no serological evidence of exposure to the virus. Sequence analysis illustrated that the southern elephant seal (SES) virus segregates with the Semliki Forest group of Australasian alphaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of known alphaviruses suggests that alphaviruses might be grouped according to their enzootic vertebrate host class. The SES virus represents the first arbovirus of marine mammals and illustrates that alphaviruses can inhabit Antarctica and that alphaviruses can be transmitted by lice. PMID:11287559

  18. Transmission ratio distortion in the human body louse, Pediculus humanus (Insecta: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    McMeniman, C J; Barker, S C

    2006-01-01

    We studied inheritance at three microsatellite loci in eight F, and two F2 families of the body (clothes) louse of humans, Pediculus humanus. The alleles of heterozygous female-parents were always inherited in a Mendelian fashion in these families. Alleles from heterozygous male-parents, however, were inherited in two different ways: (i) in a Mendelian fashion and (ii) in a non-Mendelian fashion, where males passed to their offspring only one of their two alleles, that is, 100% nonrandom transmission. In male body lice, where there was non-Mendelian inheritance, the paternally inherited set of alleles was eliminated. We interpret this pattern of inheritance as evidence for extreme transmission ratio distortion of paternal alleles in this species.

  19. Bovicola tibialis (Phthiraptera:Trichodectidae): occurrence of an exotic chewing louse on cervids in North America.

    PubMed

    Mertins, James W; Mortenson, Jack A; Bernatowicz, Jeffrey A; Hall, P Briggs

    2011-01-01

    Through a recent (2003-2007) survey of ectoparasites on hoofed mammals in western North America, a literature review, and examination of archived museum specimens, we found that the exotic deer-chewing louse, Bovicola tibialis (Piaget), is a long-term, widespread resident in the region. The earliest known collection was from Salt Spring Island, Canada, in 1941. We found these lice on the typical host, that is, introduced European fallow deer (Dama dama L.), and on Asian chital (Axis axis [Erxleben] ), native Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus [Richardson] ), and Rocky Mountain mule deer (O. h. hemionus [Rafinesque]) x black-tailed deer hybrids. Chital and the hybrid deer are new host records. All identified hosts were known to be or probably were exposed to fallow deer. Geographic records include southwestern British Columbia, Canada; Marin and Mendocino Counties, California; Deschutes, Lincoln, and Linn Counties, Oregon; Yakima and Kittitas Counties, Washington; Curry County, New Mexico; and circumstantially, at least, Kerr County, Texas. All but the Canadian and Mendocino County records are new. Bovicola tibialis displays a number of noteworthy similarities to another exotic deer-chewing louse already established in the region, that is, Damalinia (Cervicola) sp., which is associated with a severe hair-loss syndrome in black-tailed deer. We discuss longstanding problems with proper identification of B. tibialis, the probability that it occurs even more widely in the United States, and the prospects for it to cause health problems for North American deer. Additional information gathered since our active survey establishes further new distribution and host records for B. tibialis.

  20. The sex ratio distortion in the human head louse is conserved over time

    PubMed Central

    Perotti, M Alejandra; Catalá, Silvia S; Ormeño, Analía del V; Żelazowska, Monika; Biliński, Szczepan M; Braig, Henk R

    2004-01-01

    Background At the turn of the 19th century the first observations of a female-biased sex ratio in broods and populations of the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, had been reported. A study by Buxton in 1940 on the sex ratio of lice on prisoners in Ceylon is still today the subject of reanalyses. This sex ratio distortion had been detected in ten different countries. In the last sixty years no new data have been collected, especially on scalp infestations under economically and socially more developed conditions. Results Here we report a female bias of head lice in a survey of 480 school children in Argentina. This bias is independent of the intensity of the pediculosis, which makes local mate competition highly unlikely as the source of the aberrant sex ratio; however, other possible adaptive mechanisms cannot be discounted. These lice as well as lice from pupils in Britain were carrying several strains of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis, one of the most wide spread intracellular sex ratio distorters. Similar Wolbachia strains are also present in the pig louse, Haematopinus suis, suggesting that this endosymbiont might have a marked influence on the biology of the whole order. The presence of a related obligate nutritional bacterium in lice prevents the investigation of a causal link between sex ratio and endosymbionts. Conclusions Regardless of its origin, this sex ratio distortion in head lice that has been reported world wide, is stable over time and is a remarkable deviation from the stability of frequency-dependent selection of Fisher's sex ratio. A female bias first reported in 1898 is still present over a hundred years and a thousand generations later. PMID:15140268

  1. Comparisons of host specificity in feather louse genera (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) parasitizing gulls (Aves: Laridae: Larus).

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Ayaka; Yao, Izumi; Johnson, Kevin P; Yoshizawa, Kazunori

    2014-06-01

    Data from gene sequences and morphological structures were collected for the gull feather lice, Saemundssonia lari, Quadraceps punctatus, and Q. ornatus, parasitizing Larus crassirostris and L. schistisagus. Saemundssonia lari was collected from both gull species, and no detectable morphological and genetic differences were found between lice collected from the two different hosts. In contrast, Q. punctatus was only collected from L. crassirostris, whereas Q. ornatus was only collected from L. schistisagus. The two Quadraceps species were genetically highly divergent, and body-size differences corresponding to the gull's body size (Harrison's rule) were also detected between them. Both Quadraceps species were collected from the interbarb of the remex or rectrix, and a match in body size between the louse and the interbarb space may be important in escape from host preening defenses. In contrast, Saemundssonia is a head louse, inhabiting the finer feathers of the head and neck, which the bird cannot preen. A close match to host body size may be less important for lice in the head microhabitat. The differences in the pattern of host-specificity between Saemundssonia and Quadraceps on the two focal host species of this study were probably due to their different microhabitat preferences. More broadly, comparisons of the gene sequences of S. lari and Q. punctatus to those from other gull hosts showed that genetically almost undifferentiated populations of both species were distributed on wide range of gull species. Frequent interspecific hybridization of gulls is one possible factor that may allow these lice to maintain gene flow across multiple host species.

  2. Arrestant Effect of Human Scalp Components on Head Louse (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Insaurralde, Isabel; Ceferino Toloza, Ariel; Gonzalez-Audino, Paola; Inés Picollo, María

    2017-03-01

    Relevant evidence has shown that parasites process host-related information using chemical, visual, tactile, or auditory cues. However, the cues that are involved in the host-parasite interaction between Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer 1767) and humans have not been identified yet. In this work, we studied the effect of human scalp components on the behavior of adult head lice. Filter paper segments were rubbed on volunteers' scalps and then placed in the experimental arena, where adult head lice were individually tested. The movement of the insects was recorded for each arena using the software EthoVision. Average movement parameters were calculated for the treatments in the bioassays such as total distance, velocity, number of times a head louse crossed between zones of the arena, and time in each zone of the arena. We found that scalp components induced head lice to decrease average locomotor activity and to remain arrested on the treated paper. The effect of the ageing of human scalp samples in the response of head lice was not statistically significant (i.e., human scalp samples of 4, 18, 40, and 60 h of ageing did not elicit a significant change in head louse behavior). When we analyzed the effect of the sex in the response of head lice to human scalp samples, males demonstrated significant differences. Our results showed for the first time the effect of host components conditioning head lice behavior. We discuss the role of these components in the dynamic of head lice infestation. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Three new species of the sucking louse genus Hoplopleura (Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Hoplopleuridae) from rodents (Mammalia: Rodentia: Muridae) in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Haylee J

    2017-03-23

    Three new species of the rodent louse genus Hoplopleura (Anoplura: Hoplopleuridae) are described and illustrated from Australia: H. melomydis new species from Melomys burtoni (Muridae: Hydromyini, grassland melomys) and M. capensis (Muridae: Hydromyini, Cape York melomys) from Queensland; H. notomydis new species and H. setosa new species from Notomys alexis (Muridae: Hydromyini, spinifex hopping mouse) from the Northern Territory. These new louse species are the first lice recorded from each of the three host rodent species.

  4. THE TUCANA/HOROLOGIUM, COLUMBA, AB DORADUS, AND ARGUS ASSOCIATIONS: NEW MEMBERS AND DUSTY DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, B.; Rhee, Joseph H.; Song, Inseok; Bessell, M. S. E-mail: rhee@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: bessell@mso.anu.edu.au

    2011-05-10

    We propose 35 star systems within {approx}70 pc of Earth as newly identified members of nearby young stellar kinematic groups; these identifications include the first A- and late-B-type members of the AB Doradus moving group and field Argus Association. All but one of the 35 systems contain a bright solar- or earlier-type star that should make an excellent target for the next generation of adaptive optics (AO) imaging systems on large telescopes. AO imaging has revealed four massive planets in orbit around the {lambda} Boo star HR 8799. Initially, the planets were of uncertain mass due in large part to the uncertain age of the star. We find that HR 8799 is a likely member of the {approx}30 Myr old Columba Association, implying planet masses {approx}6 times that of Jupiter. We consider Spitzer Space Telescope MIPS photometry of stars in the {approx}30 Myr old Tucana/Horologium and Columba Associations, the {approx}40 Myr old field Argus Association, and the {approx}70 Myr old AB Doradus moving group. The percentage of stars in these young stellar groups that display excess emission above the stellar photosphere at 24 and 70 {mu}m wavelengths-indicative of the presence of a dusty debris disk-is compared with corresponding percentages for members of 11 open clusters and stellar associations with ages between 8 and 750 Myr, thus elucidating the decay of debris disks with time.

  5. A model of salmon louse production in Norway: effects of increasing salmon production and public management measures.

    PubMed

    Heuch, P A; Mo, T A

    2001-06-20

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer have caused disease problems in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. since the mid-1970s in Norway. High infection intensities and premature return of wild sea trout Salmo trutta L. were first reported in 1992. Later emaciated wild Atlantic salmon smolts carrying large amounts of lice have been observed both in fjords and offshore. The Norwegian Animal Health Authority regulations to control the problem, which came into operation in 1998, included compulsory louse level monitoring in farms and maximum legal numbers of lice per fish. Here, we present a model of salmon louse egg production in Norway and show that the effect of the current public management strategy is critically dependent on the yearly increase in salmon production. This is because the infection pressure is the product of the number of fish in the system, and the number of lice per fish. Due to the much larger number of farmed than wild salmonids, it is highly likely that lice originating from farmed salmon infect wild stock. Estimated tolerance limits for wild salmonids vary widely, and the level of louse egg production in farms which would be needed to decimate wild populations is not known. Two possible thresholds for total lice egg production are investigated: (1) 1986 to 1987 level (i.e. before adverse effects on sea trout were recorded), and (2) a level corresponding to a doubling of the estimated natural infection pressure. The farm lice per fish limits that would have to be observed to keep louse production within the 2 thresholds are calculated for the period 1986 to 2005. A steady decrease in the permitted number of lice per fish may keep the total louse production stable, but the number of salmon required for verification of lice numbers will increase as the prevalence to be verified is decreased. At threshold (2), the model estimated that lice limits should have been 0.05 louse per fish in 1999. This would require 60 fish from each pen to be

  6. First record of chewing louse Heterodoxus spiniger (Insecta, Phthiraptera, Boopidae) on stray dogs from northern region of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sultan, K; Khalafalla, R E

    2014-06-01

    Heterodoxus spiniger is a rare chewing louse; infest dogs and occasionally cats with expanding geographical distribution. This preliminary report is aimed to record infestation of stray dogs in Kafr El-Sheikh city, Egypt by H. spiniger. Two dogs out of 10 were naturally infected with H. spiniger. This report is the first to demonstrate H. spiniger infestation on dogs in northern regions of Nile-delta of Egypt.

  7. Genomic Characterization and Phylogenetic Position of Two New Species in Rhabdoviridae Infecting the Parasitic Copepod, Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)

    PubMed Central

    Økland, Arnfinn Lodden; Nylund, Are; Øvergård, Aina-Cathrine; Blindheim, Steffen; Watanabe, Kuninori; Grotmol, Sindre; Arnesen, Carl-Erik; Plarre, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Several new viruses have emerged during farming of salmonids in the North Atlantic causing large losses to the industry. Still the blood feeding copepod parasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, remains the major challenge for the industry. Histological examinations of this parasite have revealed the presence of several virus-like particles including some with morphologies similar to rhabdoviruses. This study is the first description of the genome and target tissues of two new species of rhabdoviruses associated with pathology in the salmon louse. Salmon lice were collected at different Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming sites on the west coast of Norway and prepared for histology, transmission electron microscopy and Illumina sequencing of the complete RNA extracted from these lice. The nearly complete genomes, around 11 600 nucleotides encoding the five typical rhabdovirus genes N, P, M, G and L, of two new species were obtained. The genome sequences, the putative protein sequences, and predicted transcription strategies for the two viruses are presented. Phylogenetic analyses of the putative N and L proteins indicated closest similarity to the Sigmavirus/Dimarhabdoviruses cluster, however, the genomes of both new viruses are significantly diverged with no close affinity to any of the existing rhabdovirus genera. In situ hybridization, targeting the N protein genes, showed that the viruses were present in the same glandular tissues as the observed rhabdovirus-like particles. Both viruses were present in all developmental stages of the salmon louse, and associated with necrosis of glandular tissues in adult lice. As the two viruses were present in eggs and free-living planktonic stages of the salmon louse vertical, transmission of the viruses are suggested. The tissues of the lice host, Atlantic salmon, with the exception of skin at the attachment site for the salmon louse chalimi stages, were negative for these two viruses. PMID:25402203

  8. Genomic characterization and phylogenetic position of two new species in Rhabdoviridae infecting the parasitic copepod, salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis).

    PubMed

    Økland, Arnfinn Lodden; Nylund, Are; Øvergård, Aina-Cathrine; Blindheim, Steffen; Watanabe, Kuninori; Grotmol, Sindre; Arnesen, Carl-Erik; Plarre, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Several new viruses have emerged during farming of salmonids in the North Atlantic causing large losses to the industry. Still the blood feeding copepod parasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, remains the major challenge for the industry. Histological examinations of this parasite have revealed the presence of several virus-like particles including some with morphologies similar to rhabdoviruses. This study is the first description of the genome and target tissues of two new species of rhabdoviruses associated with pathology in the salmon louse. Salmon lice were collected at different Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming sites on the west coast of Norway and prepared for histology, transmission electron microscopy and Illumina sequencing of the complete RNA extracted from these lice. The nearly complete genomes, around 11,600 nucleotides encoding the five typical rhabdovirus genes N, P, M, G and L, of two new species were obtained. The genome sequences, the putative protein sequences, and predicted transcription strategies for the two viruses are presented. Phylogenetic analyses of the putative N and L proteins indicated closest similarity to the Sigmavirus/Dimarhabdoviruses cluster, however, the genomes of both new viruses are significantly diverged with no close affinity to any of the existing rhabdovirus genera. In situ hybridization, targeting the N protein genes, showed that the viruses were present in the same glandular tissues as the observed rhabdovirus-like particles. Both viruses were present in all developmental stages of the salmon louse, and associated with necrosis of glandular tissues in adult lice. As the two viruses were present in eggs and free-living planktonic stages of the salmon louse vertical, transmission of the viruses are suggested. The tissues of the lice host, Atlantic salmon, with the exception of skin at the attachment site for the salmon louse chalimi stages, were negative for these two viruses.

  9. Efficacy of the LouseBuster, a new medical device for treating head lice (Anoplura:Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Bush, Sarah E; Rock, Alex N; Jones, Sherri L; Malenke, Jael R; Clayton, Dale H

    2011-01-01

    Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) occur worldwide and infest millions of children and adults every year. Head lice infestations, which are known as pediculosis capitis, are psychologically stressful, physically irritating, and are one of the leading causes of K-6 school absence. The prevalence of head lice in many countries is increasing rapidly because of resistance to chemicals used in many head lice treatments. We tested the efficacy of an alternative method for controlling head lice, the LouseBuster, a custom-built medical device designed to kill head lice and their eggs using controlled, heated air. A total of 56 infested subjects was treated with the LouseBuster, and the efficacy of the treatment was evaluated by comparing the viability of lice and eggs on randomly assigned pre- and posttreatment sides of each subject's scalp. We evaluate treatment efficacy in the hands of novice versus experienced operators. We also evaluate treatment efficacy on different hair types and at different ambient humidities. Overall mortality of lice and eggs was 94.8% after treatment by experienced operators. Novice operators also achieved good results after a short training session; their results did not differ significantly from those of experienced operators. No adverse events were associated with the LouseBuster treatment. The LouseBuster is efficacious for killing head lice and their eggs. The use of heated air is appealing because it is a fast, safe, nonchemical treatment. Head lice are also unlikely to evolve resistance to desiccation, which is the apparent mode of action.

  10. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Guanaco Louse, Microthoracius praelongiceps: Insights into the Ancestral Mitochondrial Karyotype of Sucking Lice (Anoplura, Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hu; Barker, Stephen C.

    2017-01-01

    Fragmented mitochondrial (mt) genomes have been reported in 11 species of sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) that infest humans, chimpanzees, pigs, horses, and rodents. There is substantial variation among these lice in mt karyotype: the number of minichromosomes of a species ranges from 9 to 20; the number of genes in a minichromosome ranges from 1 to 8; gene arrangement in a minichromosome differs between species, even in the same genus. We sequenced the mt genome of the guanaco louse, Microthoracius praelongiceps, to help establish the ancestral mt karyotype for sucking lice and understand how fragmented mt genomes evolved. The guanaco louse has 12 mt minichromosomes; each minichromosome has 2–5 genes and a non-coding region. The guanaco louse shares many features with rodent lice in mt karyotype, more than with other sucking lice. The guanaco louse, however, is more closely related phylogenetically to human lice, chimpanzee lice, pig lice, and horse lice than to rodent lice. By parsimony analysis of shared features in mt karyotype, we infer that the most recent common ancestor of sucking lice, which lived ∼75 Ma, had 11 minichromosomes; each minichromosome had 1–6 genes and a non-coding region. As sucking lice diverged, split of mt minichromosomes occurred many times in the lineages leading to the lice of humans, chimpanzees, and rodents whereas merger of minichromosomes occurred in the lineage leading to the lice of pigs and horses. Together, splits and mergers of minichromosomes created a very complex and dynamic mt genome organization in the sucking lice. PMID:28164215

  11. Fourth case of louse-borne relapsing fever in Young Migrant, Sicily, Italy, December 2015. Mini Review Article.

    PubMed

    Colomba, C; Scarlata, F; Di Carlo, P; Giammanco, A; Fasciana, T; Trizzino, M; Cascio, A

    2016-10-01

    Currently louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) is primarily found in limited endemic foci in Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan; no case of imported LBRF has been reported in Europe in the 9 years prior to 2015. The aim of our paper is to describe a new case of imported LBRF detected in Sicily, Italy, and to review all cases reported in migrants arrived in Europe in the last 10 years. Mini review of all published cases of louse-borne relapsing fever in Europe in the last 10 years. A computerized search without language restriction was conducted using PubMed combining the terms '(louse-borne relapsing fever or LBRF or recurrentis) and (refugee or Europe or migrant)' without limits. Furthermore, the 'Ahead-of-Print Articles' of the top 10 journals (ranked by Impact factor - Web of Science) of Infectious diseases and of Epidemiology were checked. Our search identified 26 cases of LBRF between July and October 2015 in migrants recently arrived in Europe: 8 had been described in Italy; 1 in Switzerland; 2 in the Netherlands; 15 in Germany. We describe data regarding the clinical characteristics, diagnostic methods, therapy and outcome of these patients and of the new case. LBRF by Borrelia recurrentis should be considered among the clinical hypotheses in migrants presenting with fever, headache, chills, sweating, arthralgia, myalgia, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of manual and semi-automatic DNA extraction protocols for the barcoding characterization of hematophagous louse flies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-López, Rafael; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Gangoso, Laura; Soriguer, Ramón C; Figuerola, Jordi

    2015-06-01

    The barcoding of life initiative provides a universal molecular tool to distinguish animal species based on the amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the subunit 1 of the cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene. Obtaining good quality DNA for barcoding purposes is a limiting factor, especially in studies conducted on small-sized samples or those requiring the maintenance of the organism as a voucher. In this study, we compared the number of positive amplifications and the quality of the sequences obtained using DNA extraction methods that also differ in their economic costs and time requirements and we applied them for the genetic characterization of louse flies. Four DNA extraction methods were studied: chloroform/isoamyl alcohol, HotShot procedure, Qiagen DNeasy(®) Tissue and Blood Kit and DNA Kit Maxwell(®) 16LEV. All the louse flies were morphologically identified as Ornithophila gestroi and a single COI-based haplotype was identified. The number of positive amplifications did not differ significantly among DNA extraction procedures. However, the quality of the sequences was significantly lower for the case of the chloroform/isoamyl alcohol procedure with respect to the rest of methods tested here. These results may be useful for the genetic characterization of louse flies, leaving most of the remaining insect as a voucher. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  13. The single mitochondrial chromosome typical of animals has evolved into 18 minichromosomes in the human body louse, Pediculus humanus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Renfu; Kirkness, Ewen F; Barker, Stephen C

    2009-05-01

    The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of animals typically consist of a single circular chromosome that is approximately 16-kb long and has 37 genes. Our analyses of the sequence reads from the Human Body Louse Genome Project and the patterns of gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization revealed a novel type of mt genome in the sucking louse, Pediculus humanus. Instead of having all mt genes on a single chromosome, the 37 mt genes of this louse are on 18 minicircular chromosomes. Each minicircular chromosome is 3-4 kb long and has one to three genes. Minicircular mt chromosomes are also present in the four other species of sucking lice that we investigated, but not in chewing lice nor in the Psocoptera, to which sucking lice are most closely related. We also report unequivocal evidence for recombination between minicircular mt chromosomes in P. humanus and for sequence variation in mt genes generated by recombination. The advantages of a fragmented mt genome, if any, are currently unknown. Fragmentation of mt genome, however, has coevolved with blood feeding in the sucking lice. It will be of interest to explore whether or not life history features are associated with the evolution of fragmented chromosomes.

  14. The single mitochondrial chromosome typical of animals has evolved into 18 minichromosomes in the human body louse, Pediculus humanus

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Renfu; Kirkness, Ewen F.; Barker, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of animals typically consist of a single circular chromosome that is ∼16-kb long and has 37 genes. Our analyses of the sequence reads from the Human Body Louse Genome Project and the patterns of gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization revealed a novel type of mt genome in the sucking louse, Pediculus humanus. Instead of having all mt genes on a single chromosome, the 37 mt genes of this louse are on 18 minicircular chromosomes. Each minicircular chromosome is 3–4 kb long and has one to three genes. Minicircular mt chromosomes are also present in the four other species of sucking lice that we investigated, but not in chewing lice nor in the Psocoptera, to which sucking lice are most closely related. We also report unequivocal evidence for recombination between minicircular mt chromosomes in P. humanus and for sequence variation in mt genes generated by recombination. The advantages of a fragmented mt genome, if any, are currently unknown. Fragmentation of mt genome, however, has coevolved with blood feeding in the sucking lice. It will be of interest to explore whether or not life history features are associated with the evolution of fragmented chromosomes. PMID:19336451

  15. Avian poxvirus in a free-range juvenile speckled (rock) pigeon (Columba guinea).

    PubMed

    Bwala, Dauda G; Fasina, Folorunso O; Duncan, Neil M

    2015-04-30

    A flightless wild juvenile rock pigeon (Columba guinea) with pox-like lesions was picked up on the premises of the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort. The pigeon was housed overnight for possible treatment the following day but died before any other intervention could be instituted. At necropsy, coalescing masses of yellowish nodular cutaneous tumour-like lesions principally on the featherless areas were noticed on the dead pigeon's head as well as the beak. Histological examination of the sampled skin lesions revealed multifocal areas of hypertrophic and hyperplastic epidermal epithelial cells with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies). Extract from the lesion was processed and inoculated on the chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) of 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs and this produced pocks on one of the CAM at day 7 post-inoculation. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of poxvirus in the CAM with the pock lesions.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese wood pigeon, Columba janthina janthina (Columbiformes, Columbidae).

    PubMed

    Jang, Kuem Hee; Ryu, Shi Hyun; Kang, Seung-Gu; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Columba janthina janthina was sequenced and its total length was 17,469 bp, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop). The A+T content of the overall base composition of H-strand were 54.46% (30.38% A, 24.08% T, 32.00% C and 13.54% G). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. Within the control region, conserved sequences were identified in three domains. These results provide basic information for phylogenetic analyses of pigeon, especially Columbiformes species.

  17. Use of temperature and water immersion to control the human body louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, K Y; Friger, M; Cohen, R

    2006-07-01

    Physical methods such as high and low temperatures were used in the past for the control of human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus L. (Anoplura: Pediculidae). In the current study, the minimum time necessary to kill all lice after exposing them to temperatures other than those described in the literature, the mortality of lice after immersing them in water, and the survival of lice whose legs were amputated were studied. All lice died after 6 d at 6 degrees C, after 11 d at 24 degrees C, and after 9 d at 31 degrees C. At -17 degrees C, all lice were dead after 35 min, whereas at -70 degrees C, all lice were dead after 1 min. All lice died after immersion in water within 19 h. The differences in mortality were significant but borderline between controls and lice whose two legs were amputated immediately or 24 h after feeding (3.3 versus 13.3% and 8.3 versus 21.7%). For lice whose leg was amputated 48 h after feeding, significant differences were found between controls and lice with one amputated leg (13.3 versus 48.3%), between controls and lice with two amputated legs (13.3 versus 68.3%), and between lice with one and two amputated legs (48.3 versus 68.3%).

  18. Phylogenetics and population genetics of the louse fly, Lipoptena mazamae, from Arkansas, USA.

    PubMed

    Trout, R T; Steelman, C D; Szalanski, A L

    2010-09-01

    Louse flies, also known as deer keds (Lipoptena mazamae Rondani), infest cervids such as white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus and vector pathogens such as Anaplasma and Bartonella schoenbuchensis to cattle and humans, respectively. The population genetic structure of 30 L. mazamae collected from white-tailed deer in four regions of Arkansas, U.S.A., designated by county boundaries, was examined using DNA sequences of a 259-bp region of the mitochondrial DNA rRNA 16S gene. Of the 259 nucleotide characters, 33 were variable and 6 haplotypes were identified. Two haplotypes occurred only once (haplotype 3 and 4), whereas two other haplotypes occurred in 43% (haplotype 1 in two regions) and 40% (haplotype 6 in three regions) of the samples. Phylogenetic relationships of the six L. mazamae haplotypes were constructed with other Hippoboscid and Glossinid samples and two clades resulted. Clade 1 was located in the north and western Ozarks whereas clade 2 was found in the northern and eastern Ozarks. Results from the present study indicate that Lipoptena may be a polyphyletic genus; consequently, more research into genetic variation within this genus is necessary.

  19. An Extraordinary Host-Specific Sex Ratio in an Avian Louse (Phthiraptera: Insecta)--Chemical Distortion?

    PubMed

    Douglas, H D; Malenke, J R

    2015-08-01

    Distortions of sex ratios and sexual traits from synthetic chemicals have been well documented; however, there is little evidence for such phenomena associated with naturally occurring chemical exposures. We reasoned that chemical secretions of vertebrates could contribute to skewed sex ratios in ectoparasitic insects due to differences in susceptibility among the sexes. For example, among ectoparasitic lice the female is generally the larger sex. Smaller males may be more susceptible to chemical effects. We studied sex ratios of lice on two sympatric species of colonial seabirds. Crested auklets (Aethia cristatella) secrete a strong smelling citrus-like odorant composed of aldehydes while a closely related congener the least auklet (Aethia pusilla) lacks these compounds. Each auklet hosts three species of lice, two of which are shared in common. We found that the sex ratio of one louse species, Quadraceps aethereus (Giebel), was highly skewed on crested auklets 1:69 (males: females), yet close to unity on least auklets (1:0.97). We suggest that a host-specific effect contributes to this difference, such as the crested auklet's chemical odorant.

  20. Management of Head Louse Infestations in the United States-A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Koch, Ellen; Clark, John Marshall; Cohen, Bernard; Meinking, Terri L; Ryan, William G; Stevenson, Audrey; Yetman, Robert; Yoon, Kyong Sup

    2016-09-01

    Head lice are a source of scalp irritation, social disruption, and loss of school time. Health care providers need authoritative information to help avoid the costs and risks of ineffective treatment. A review was completed to provide relevant information on infestation treatments available in the United States. Three major biomedical databases were searched from 1985, when current products were first available, to 2014, focusing on U.S. A total of 579 references remained after duplicates were removed. A search of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration website and labels of approved products were reviewed. A marked decline in the effectiveness of permethrin and synergized pyrethrins was found, probably because of resistance arising from widespread and indiscriminate use, and the emergence of knockdown resistance mutations. The potential toxicity of lindane in the setting of readily available, safer, and more effective alternatives, should limit its use. Prescription products shown to be safe and effective with a single application, without nit combing, are topical ivermectin, malathion, and spinosad, whereas benzyl alcohol requires two applications. Home remedies such as mayonnaise, and essential oils, have not been demonstrated to be safe or effective, and may carry potential for severe adverse events. The high risk of failure of over-the-counter treatments in eliminating head louse infestations drives a need for health care provider recognition of the limitations of current treatments and for judicious use of treatments that remain effective. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Transcriptome mining: Multigene panel to test delousing drug response in the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, V; Gallardo-Escárate, C

    2016-02-01

    Controlling infestations of copepodid ectoparasites in the salmon industry is increasingly problematic given higher instances of drug resistance or loss of sensitivity. Despite the importance of this issue, the molecular mechanisms and genes implicated in resistance/susceptibility are only scarcely understood. The objective of the present study was to identify and evaluate the expression levels of candidate genes associated with delousing drug response in the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. From RNA-seq data obtained for adult male and female sea lice, 62.48 M reads were assembled in 70,349 high-quality contigs. BLASTX analysis against UniprotKB/Swiss-Prot and the ESTs available for crustaceans in the NCBI database identified 870 transcripts previously related to genes associated with delousing drug response. Furthermore, 14 candidate genes were validated through RT-qPCR and were evaluated with deltamethrin and azamethiphos bioassays. The results evidenced an overregulation of genes involved in ion transport in salmon lice treated with deltamethrin, while those treated with azamethiphos evidenced an overregulation of genes such as cytochrome P450, Carboxylesterase, and acetylcholine receptors. The present study provides a multigene panel to test delousing drug response to pyrethroids and organophosphates in a highly prevalent pathogen of the Chilean salmon industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Brauner, C J; Sackville, M; Gallagher, Z; Tang, S; Nendick, L; Farrell, A P

    2012-06-19

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how 'no effect' thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations.

  3. Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Brauner, C. J.; Sackville, M.; Gallagher, Z.; Tang, S.; Nendick, L.; Farrell, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how ‘no effect’ thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations. PMID:22566682

  4. In vitro development of Haemoproteus columbae (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae), with perspectives for genomic studies of avian haemosporidian parasites.

    PubMed

    Coral, Arelis A; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; González, Angie D; Matta, Nubia E

    2015-10-01

    The evolutionary origin of wildlife and human malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) has been discussed for several decades. The lack of genomic data about species of wildlife haemosporidian parasites related to Plasmodium limits the number of taxa available for phylogenetic analysis. Genomic data about avian parasites of the genus Haemoproteus parasites, the sister genus to Plasmodium are still not available, mainly due to difficulties in obtaining pure DNA of parasites inhabiting nucleated avian host cells. Recent studies show that microgametes of Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) spp. develop in vitro and can be isolated by simple centrifugation, allowing the isolation of pure parasite DNA for genomic studies. However, in vitro development of Haemoproteus (Haemoproteus) spp. has not been investigated, and it is unclear if microgametes of these parasites also can be obtained under in vitro conditions. Here, we provide the first data about the in vitro development of Haemoproteus (Haemoproteus) columbae, a widespread avian haemosporidian parasite, which is specific to pigeons and doves (Columbiformes) and is transmitted by hippoboscid flies (Diptera, Hippoboscidae). In vitro gametogenesis and ookinete development of H. columbae were studied using a strain isolated from a feral Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) in Bogotá-Colombia. The morphological events leading to exflagellation, fertilization and ookinete formation, as well as the rate of development of these stages were followed in vitro at 40 °C, 19 °C and 15 °C for 48 h. Macrogametes, microgametes, zygotes and initial stages of ookinete development were observed in all temperatures, but mature ookinetes were seen only at 40 °C. The largest diversity of sporogonic stages of H. columbae were present at 40 °C however, exflagellation, fertilization of macrogametes and development of immature ookinetes were also observed at 15 °C and 19 °C. Morphological and morphometric features of these stages in vitro were

  5. Molecular survey of the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis in Thailand and its potential role for transmitting Acinetobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Sunantaraporn, Sakone; Sanprasert, Vivornpun; Pengsakul, Theerakamol; Phumee, Atchara; Boonserm, Rungfar; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Thavara, Usavadee; Siriyasatien, Padet

    2015-02-26

    Head louse infestation, which is caused by Pediculus humanus capitis, occurs throughout the world. With the advent of molecular techniques, head lice have been classified into three clades. Recent reports have demonstrated that pathogenic organisms could be found in head lice. Head lice and their pathogenic bacteria in Thailand have never been investigated. In this study, we determined the genetic diversity of head lice collected from various areas of Thailand and demonstrated the presence of Acinetobacter spp. in head lice. Total DNA was extracted from 275 head louse samples that were collected from several geographic regions of Thailand. PCR was used to amplify the head louse COI gene and for detection of Bartonella spp. and Acinetobacter spp. The amplified PCR amplicons were cloned and sequenced. The DNA sequences were analyzed via the neighbor-joining method using Kimura's 2-parameter model. The phylogenetic tree based on the COI gene revealed that head lice in Thailand are clearly classified into two clades (A and C). Bartonella spp. was not detected in all the samples, whereas Acinetobacter spp. was detected in 10 samples (3.62%), which consisted of A. baumannii (1.45%), A. radioresistens (1.45%), and A. schindleri (0.72%). The relationship of Acinetobacter spp. and the head lice clades showed that Acinetobacter spp. was found in clade A and C. Head lice in Thailand are classified into clade A and B based on the COI gene sequences. Pathogenic Acinetobacter spp. was detected in both clades. The data obtained from the study might assist in the development of effective strategies for head lice control in the future. Detection of pathogenic bacteria in head lice could raise awareness of head lice as a source of nosocomial bacterial infections.

  6. Heartworm (Acanthocheilonema spirocauda) and seal louse (Echinophthirius horridus) infections in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) from the North and Baltic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Kristina; Schwanke, Eva; Hahn, Kerstin; Wohlsein, Peter; Siebert, Ursula

    2016-07-01

    The seal louse (Echinophthirius [E.] horridus) and the heartworm (Acanthocheilonema [A.] spirocauda) are parasites of harbour seal (Phoca vitulina). Little is known about the role of the seal louse as a potential vector and its role for the development and transmission of heartworm larvae to their final host, the harbour seal. The life-cycle of the heartworm is still not fully understood. For the presented study, findings of 1191 stranded harbour seals collected along the North- and Baltic Sea coast between 1996 and 2013 were examined. 4.4% (n = 53) of these harbour seals were infected with adult heartworms and 3.4% (n = 40) harbour seals carried seal lice. The highest prevalence and level of infection with adult heartworms (A. spirocauda) (9.3%) and seal lice (E. horridus) (8.9%) were found on yearling harbour seals (7-18 months) compared to neonate and adult seals. Investigating seal lice (n = 35) for larval heartworm stages one larvae was encountered in an ethanol-fixated seal louse. During a health monitoring survey of live harbour seals, 109 animals were captured and examined during spring and autumn between 2008 and 2014. Blood samples were taken and microfilariae were discovered in blood smears in 41% (n = 45) of the examined harbour seals. Yearling seals (n = 21) showed higher prevalence (86%) and level of infection with microfilariae than adults. Microfilariae were identified as A. spirocauda by sequencing the species-specific COI gene in 24 blood samples. The high prevalence of microfilariae of A. spirocauda in blood samples (41%) is in contrast to the low prevalence of mature infections/adult specimens in stranded seals (4.4%) investigated. Although rare parasites of seals, the recent increase in prevalence of heartworm and seal lice in stranded seals and the relatively high occurrence of microfilaria in the free-ranging population underscore the importance of further studies investigating the immunology of infections and their transmission pathways, as

  7. Impact of the botanical insecticide Neem Azal on survival and reproduction of the biting louse Damalinia limbata on angora goats.

    PubMed

    Habluetzel, Annette; Carnevali, Fiorella; Lucantoni, Leonardo; Grana, Lucia; Attili, Anna Rita; Archilei, Francesca; Antonini, Marco; Valbonesi, Alessandro; Abbadessa, Valerio; Esposito, Fulvio; van der Esch, Stephen Andrew

    2007-03-31

    Secondary metabolites present in the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Meliaceae), exhibit a wide range of biological activities in insects. However, few studies have been undertaken to assess the potential of neem products as insecticides for the control of ectoparasites of domestic animals. This study was undertaken to estimate the efficacy of Neem Azal, an azadirachtin-rich extract of neem seeds, in controlling Damalinia limbata (Phthiraptera) louse infestation of angora goats. The study was conducted on a fibre animal farm situated in Central Italy. Groups of 11-12 goats were treated with Neem Azal at an azadirachtin concentration of 650ppm or 125ppm, with Neguvon or were left untreated. Their louse burden was assessed fortnightly to monthly for 22 weeks. A reduction in louse densities of 76-96% was observed from week 2 to week 18 after treatment with the neem solution containing azadirachtin at a concentration of 650ppm. At the lower test concentration (125ppm) a reduction of 60-92% could be recorded from week 2 to week 14. Neem Azal was found to reduce the survival of both adult and nymph stages of D. limbata and to interfere with oviposition and oogenesis of female lice. A decrease in oviposition was observed in neem exposed female lice and the examination of their ovaries revealed morphological alterations in both vitellogenic and previtellogenic ovarioles at the follicular and germinal level. Since neem compounds target different life stages and physiological processes of D. limbata, the development of insecticide resistance by biting lice exposed to neem-based insecticides appears unlikely. For this reason and for its prolonged activity, which in principle allows angora goats to be protected for a large part of the mohair production cycle, neem-based insecticides may have a potential interest for mohair producing breeders.

  8. Knockdown Resistance Allele Frequencies in North American Head Louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyong Sup; Previte, Domenic J.; Hodgdon, Hilliary E.; Poole, Bryan C.; Kwon, Deok Ho; El-Ghar, Gamal E. Abo; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J. Marshall

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the extent and frequency of a knockdown-type resistance allele (kdr type) in North American populations of human head lice. Lice were collected from 32 locations in Canada and the United States. DNA was extracted from individual lice and used to determine their zygosity using the serial invasive signal amplification technique to detect the kdr-type T917I (TI) mutation, which is most responsible for nerve insensitivity that results in the kdr phenotype and permethrin resistance. Previously sampled sites were resampled to determine if the frequency of the TI mutation was changing. The TI frequency was also reevaluated using a quantitative sequencing method on pooled DNA samples from selected sites to validate this population genotyping method. Genotyping substantiated that TI occurs at high levels in North American lice (88.4%). Overall, the TI frequency in U.S. lice was 84.4% from 1999 to 2009, increased to 99.6% from 2007 to 2009, and was 97.1% in Canadian lice in 2008. Genotyping results using the serial invasive signal amplification reaction (99.54%) and quantitative sequencing (99.45%) techniques were highly correlated. Thus, the frequencies of TI in North American head louse populations were found to be uniformly high, which may be due to the high selection pressure from the intensive and widespread use of the pyrethrins- or pyrethroid-based pediculicides over many years, and is likely a main cause of increased pediculosis and failure of pyrethrins- or permethrin-based products in Canada and the United States. Alternative approaches to treatment of head lice infestations are critically needed. PMID:24724296

  9. A Novel Animal Model of Borrelia recurrentis Louse-Borne Relapsing Fever Borreliosis Using Immunodeficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Christer; Lundqvist, Jenny; van Rooijen, Nico; Bergström, Sven

    2009-01-01

    Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) borreliosis is caused by Borrelia recurrentis, and it is a deadly although treatable disease that is endemic in the Horn of Africa but has epidemic potential. Research on LBRF has been severely hampered because successful infection with B. recurrentis has been achieved only in primates (i.e., not in other laboratory or domestic animals). Here, we present the first non-primate animal model of LBRF, using SCID (-B, -T cells) and SCID BEIGE (-B, -T, -NK cells) immunocompromised mice. These animals were infected with B. recurrentis A11 or A17, or with B. duttonii 1120K3 as controls. B. recurrentis caused a relatively mild but persistent infection in SCID and SCID BEIGE mice, but did not proliferate in NUDE (-T) and BALB/c (wild-type) mice. B. duttonii was infectious but not lethal in all animals. These findings demonstrate that the immune response can limit relapsing fever even in the absence of humoral defense mechanisms. To study the significance of phagocytic cells in this context, we induced systemic depletion of such cells in the experimental mice by injecting them with clodronate liposomes, which resulted in uncontrolled B. duttonii growth and a one-hundred-fold increase in B. recurrentis titers in blood. This observation highlights the role of macrophages and other phagocytes in controlling relapsing fever infection. B. recurrentis evolved from B. duttonii to become a primate-specific pathogen that has lost the ability to infect immunocompetent rodents, probably through genetic degeneration. Here, we describe a novel animal model of B. recurrentis based on B- and T-cell-deficient mice, which we believe will be very valuable in future research on LBRF. Our study also reveals the importance of B-cells and phagocytes in controlling relapsing fever infection. PMID:19787030

  10. Correlation between body size and fecundity in fish louse Argulus bengalensis Ramakrishna, 1951 (Crustacea: Branchiura).

    PubMed

    Guha, Arun; Aditya, Gautam; Saha, Samar Kumar

    2013-04-01

    The life history traits like fecundity and body size are useful predictors of life history strategies of organisms. The information on these aspects provided necessary input for control measures for ectoparasites. In view of this, the variations in the life history traits of the fish louse Argulus bengalensis Ramakrishna (1951) were assessed using age as an explanatory factor. The analyses revealed that the body weight (BW) is related to age in males as: y (BW) = 0.03 × (Age)-2.58: and in females as: y (BW) = 0.89 + 0.13x (Age). The body length and age relationship in males is observed as: y (BL) = 2.94 + 0.01x (Age) and in females as: y (BL) = 2.89 + 0.06x (Age). The degree of sexual dimorphism (DD) for BL is positively correlated (r = -0.358; df = 43; P < 0.001) with age while DD for BW is negatively correlated (r = -0.525; df = 43; P < 0.001) with age. The eggs/clutch remained between 02 and 43 for the 21st and 38th day old females. The fecundity as a function of age could be represented as: y (Eggs) = 1.62x (Age)-27.92. The increase in BW with age in female A. bengalensis favoured greater resource allocation for egg production, while in males it likely favours dispersal ability. Since body size and fecundity varied with age, the relative abundance and extent of infestation in fish host would vary with age composition of the population and recruitment of juveniles. The impacts of host specific variations on these features need to be tested further.

  11. Pharmacokinetics and safety of 0.5% ivermectin lotion for head louse infestations.

    PubMed

    Hazan, Lydie; Berg, Jeffrey E; Bowman, James P; Murray, John V; Ryan, William G

    2013-01-01

    The safety of a novel 0.5% ivermectin lotion (IVL) and potential for ivermectin absorption after application was investigated in an open-label study in young children, and a human repeat insult patch test (HRIPT) and cumulative irritation test (CIT) assessed any potential for cumulative dermal irritation and contact sensitization. In the pharmacokinetic and safety study, 30 head louse-infested children ages 6 months to 3 years received a 10-minute application of IVL on day 1. Blood was collected before application; 0.5, 1, and 6 hours after rinsing; and on days 2 and 8. Samples from 20 subjects were assayed for ivermectin (test sensitivity 0.05 ng/mL). Liver panel and complete blood counts were completed for all subjects. For the HRIPT/CIT, occlusive patches containing IVL or vehicle control lotion (CL) were repeatedly applied to 220 healthy adult subjects to assess contact sensitization; for cumulative dermal irritation testing, additional patches with normal saline and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were applied to 36 subjects. In the open-label study, all detected ivermectin plasma concentrations were <1 ng/mL. No safety signals emerged, and treatment was well tolerated. In the HRIPT/CIT, IVL was significantly less irritating than normal saline and SDS, with no evidence of dermal irritation or sensitization in human skin. IVL was safe when applied topically, absorption was de minimus, there was no evidence of irritation or sensitization from repeated exposures, and results support the safety of topical IVL use in children as young as 6 months. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Chimeric mitochondrial minichromosomes of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus: evidence for homologous and non-homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C

    2011-02-15

    The mitochondrial (mt) genome of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, consists of 18 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3 to 4 kb long and has 1 to 3 genes. There is unequivocal evidence for recombination between different mt minichromosomes in P. humanus. It is not known, however, how these minichromosomes recombine. Here, we report the discovery of eight chimeric mt minichromosomes in P. humanus. We classify these chimeric mt minichromosomes into two groups: Group I and Group II. Group I chimeric minichromosomes contain parts of two different protein-coding genes that are from different minichromosomes. The two parts of protein-coding genes in each Group I chimeric minichromosome are joined at a microhomologous nucleotide sequence; microhomologous nucleotide sequences are hallmarks of non-homologous recombination. Group II chimeric minichromosomes contain all of the genes and the non-coding regions of two different minichromosomes. The conserved sequence blocks in the non-coding regions of Group II chimeric minichromosomes resemble the "recombination repeats" in the non-coding regions of the mt genomes of higher plants. These repeats are essential to homologous recombination in higher plants. Our analyses of the nucleotide sequences of chimeric mt minichromosomes indicate both homologous and non-homologous recombination between minichromosomes in the mitochondria of the human body louse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Residual and ovicidal efficacy of essential oil-based formulations in vitro against the donkey chewing louse Bovicola ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Sands, B; Ellse, L; Wall, R

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils have shown good experimental potential as novel veterinary ectoparasiticides. However, if they are to be used as veterinary products, they must be available in formulations that are suitable for practical application against specific ectoparasites. Here, the efficacies of formulations containing 5% (v/v) lavender or tea tree oil, in combination with two emulsifiers [a surfactant, 5% (w/v) N-lauroylsarcosine sodium salt (SLS), and a soluble polymer, 5% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)], with or without 10% coconut oil, were tested in contact bioassays against the donkey chewing louse Bovicola ocellatus (Piaget) (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae). Residual activity was quantified in open and closed containers; ovicidal efficacy was also examined. Exposure to either of 5% (v/v) lavender or tea tree oils with SLS or PVP resulted in louse mortality of 100%, but when coconut oil was included as an excipient, significantly lower efficacy was recorded. However, the formulations became significantly less effective after 2 h in open containers and 40 h in closed containers. The results confirm that the residual activity of essential oils is relatively transitory and the addition of 10% coconut oil does not prolong the period of insecticidal activity by slowing essential oil evaporation. Too short a period of residual activity is likely to be a significant impediment to the effective practical use of essential oils. However, unlike many synthetic pediculicides, the essential oils tested here were highly ovicidal, which suggests that prolonged residual activity may not be essential to kill newly hatched nymphs after treatment.

  14. [An outbreak of epidemic louse-borne typhus in Tokyo 1914: a study on the prevention of epidemics].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Mikio

    2002-12-01

    In 1914, the third year of the Taisho era, a period of democracy and prosperity of Japan, Tokyo was attached by an outbreak of epidemic louse-borne typhus. The number of patients was 4,119 and number of deaths was 778 (mortality rate of 18.9%) in Tokyo and 7,309 patients had been suffering from typhus fever that year in Japan. Many possible causes of the outbreak were suspected by the Health Authority of the Home Office, but these were not confirmed. One of the most likely reasons is the poor and congested living conditions of seasonal construction workers. Laborers had moved from the northwest region of Japan where typhus fever had developed occasionally in those days. Some of the laborers probably brought pathogenic germs with lice. The main preventive method for epidemic louse-borne typhus was isolation of patients and disinfecting of the areas. Kitasato Shibasaburou proposed the improvement of residential conditions of workers to prevent the prevalence of disease, but the proposal was not accepted because of financial reasons of the government. Recurrence of the outbreak did not occur in the following years. However, a huge outbreak of typhus fever with 32,366 patients and 3,351 deaths, was documented in 1946, amidst the disordered conditions of Japan after World War II.

  15. Morphology and pathology of the ectoparasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci ('lobster louse') in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus.

    PubMed

    Wootton, Emma C; Pope, Edward C; Vogan, Claire L; Roberts, Emily C; Davies, Charlotte E; Rowley, Andrew F

    2011-09-01

    Ectoparasitic copepods have been reported in a wide range of aquatic animals, including crustacean shellfish. However, with the exception of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, our knowledge of such parasites in commercial species is rudimentary. The current study examines the morphology and pathology of the parasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci (the 'lobster louse') in its host, the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. Lobsters were sampled from waters surrounding Lundy Island (Bristol Channel, UK) and all individuals collected were found to harbour female adult N. astaci in their gills, with a mean of 47·3 parasites/lobster. The majority of N. astaci were found in the basal region of pleurobranch gills. The parasite was found to attach to gill filaments via its oral sucker, maxillae and maxillipeds, and to feed on host haemolymph (blood) through a funnel-like feeding channel. It caused varying degrees of damage to the host gill, including occlusion of gill filaments and disruption to the vascular system in the central axis. Although there was evidence of extensive host response (haemocytic infiltration) to the parasite, it was displaced from the parasite attachment site and thus was observed in the central gill axis below. The region of gill filament immediately underlying the parasite feeding channel was devoid of such activity suggesting that the parasite interferes with the cellular defence and haemostatic mechanisms of the lobster in order to maintain invasion of the host.

  16. Signatures of resistance to Lepeophtheirus salmonis include a TH2-type response at the louse-salmon interface.

    PubMed

    Braden, Laura M; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-01-01

    Disease outbreaks with the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis cause significant economic losses in mariculture operations worldwide. Variable innate immune responses at the louse-attachment site contribute to differences in susceptibility among species such that members of Salmo spp. are more susceptible to infection than those of some Oncorhynchus spp. Relatively little is known about the mechanisms that contribute to disease resistance or susceptibility to L. salmonis in salmon. Here, we utilize histochemistry and transcriptomics in a comparative infection model with susceptible (Atlantic, sockeye) and resistant (coho) salmon. At least three cell populations (MHIIβ+, IL1β+, TNFα+) were activated in coho salmon skin during L. salmonis infection. Locally elevated expression of several pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g. IL1β, IL8, TNFα, COX2, C/EBPβ), and tissue repair enzymes (MMP9, MMP13) were detected in susceptible and resistant species. However, responses specific to coho salmon (e.g. IL4, IL6, TGFβ) or responses shared among susceptible salmon (e.g. SAP, TRF, Cath in Atlantic and sockeye salmon) provide evidence for species-specific pathways contributing to resistance or susceptibility, respectively. Our results confirm the importance of an early pro-inflammatory TH1-type pathway as an initial host response during infection with Pacific sea lice, and demonstrate subsequent regulatory TH2-type processes as candidate defense mechanisms in the skin of resistant coho salmon. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Abrocomaphthirus hoplai, a new genus and species of sucking louse from Chile and its relevance to zoogeography.

    PubMed

    Durden, L A; Webb, J P

    1999-10-01

    Both sexes of Abrocomaphthirus hoplai, new genus and new species (Anoplura: Polyplacidae), are described and illustrated. The endemic Chilean chinchilla rat Abrocoma bennetti Waterhouse (Rodentia: Abrocomidae) is the type host. The definition of the family Polyplacidae is amended to accommodate the new genus. Polyplax longa (Werneck), also referred to in the literature as Neohaematopinus longus Werneck, is reassigned to Abrocomaphthirus. The host of A. longus comb.n., is Abrocoma cinerea Thomas, another chinchilla rat, which inhabits parts of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Peru. The erection of Abrocomaphthirus as a distinct genus has important zoogeographical and evolutionary implications. The tenuous anomaly of P. longa being the sole native representative of the genus Polyplax in South America, possibly with African affinities, is now refuted. Instead, partial colonization of the neotropics by native species of both Polyplax and Neohaematopinus appears to have been relatively recent and from North America. The phylogenetic affinities of Abrocomaphthirus are unknown, but it appears to be closely related to other, more ancient, native South American polyplacid louse genera, such as Cuyana, Eulinognathus, Galeophthirus, and Lagidiophthirus. Arguments are presented in support of an ancestral zoogeographical link to Africa for these louse genera.

  18. Pigeons' (Columba livia) hierarchical organization of local and global cues in touch screen tasks.

    PubMed

    Legge, Eric L G; Spetch, Marcia L; Batty, Emily R

    2009-02-01

    Redundant encoding of local and global spatial cues is a common occurrence in many species. However, preferential use of the each type of cue seems to vary across species and tasks. In the current study, pigeons (Columba livia) were trained in three experiments on a touch screen task which included redundant local positional cues and global spatial cues. Specifically, pigeons were required to choose the middle out of three choice squares, such that the position within the array provided local information and the location on the screen provided global information. In Experiment 1, pigeons were trained and tested on vertically aligned arrays. In Experiment 2, pigeons were trained and tested on horizontally aligned arrays, and in Experiment 3, pigeons were trained and tested with vertical, horizontal and diagonally aligned arrays. The results indicate that preference for cue type depends upon the type of spatial information being encoded. Specifically, on vertical and diagonally aligned arrays, pigeons preferred global cues, whereas on horizontally aligned arrays, pigeons preferred local cues.

  19. Visual artificial grammar learning: comparative research on humans, kea (Nestor notabilis) and pigeons (Columba livia)

    PubMed Central

    Stobbe, Nina; Westphal-Fitch, Gesche; Aust, Ulrike; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) provides a useful tool for exploring rule learning strategies linked to general purpose pattern perception. To be able to directly compare performance of humans with other species with different memory capacities, we developed an AGL task in the visual domain. Presenting entire visual patterns simultaneously instead of sequentially minimizes the amount of required working memory. This approach allowed us to evaluate performance levels of two bird species, kea (Nestor notabilis) and pigeons (Columba livia), in direct comparison to human participants. After being trained to discriminate between two types of visual patterns generated by rules at different levels of computational complexity and presented on a computer screen, birds and humans received further training with a series of novel stimuli that followed the same rules, but differed in various visual features from the training stimuli. Most avian and all human subjects continued to perform well above chance during this initial generalization phase, suggesting that they were able to generalize learned rules to novel stimuli. However, detailed testing with stimuli that violated the intended rules regarding the exact number of stimulus elements indicates that neither bird species was able to successfully acquire the intended pattern rule. Our data suggest that, in contrast to humans, these birds were unable to master a simple rule above the finite-state level, even with simultaneous item presentation and despite intensive training. PMID:22688635

  20. Inhibition of the reproductive system by deslorelin in male and female pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Cowan, Melinda Lee; Martin, Graeme Bruce; Monks, Deborah Jane; Johnston, Stephen Douglas; Doneley, Robert James Tyson; Blackberry, Margaret Anne

    2014-06-01

    Veterinary practitioners frequently encounter disorders of the reproductive system in avian patients. Management of these disorders relies on manipulating reproduction by modifying the environment, diet, and social interactions, and by the use of pharmacologic agents and surgery, with varying levels of success and side effects. An alternative is to use the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist deslorelin to suppress the pituitary-gonadal axis. To determine the efficacy of deslorelin in domestic pigeons (Columba livia), male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) birds each were implanted intramuscularly with a single long-acting implant containing 4.7 mg deslorelin. Untreated males (n = 11) and females (n = 10) were used as controls. The baseline serum concentration of luteinizing hormone (LH) was assayed at 7, 28, 56, and 84 days after treatment, and egg production was recorded weekly. In females, deslorelin administration significantly reduced serum LH concentrations compared to pretreatment levels at 7, 28, 56, and 84 days (P < .05). In males, deslorelin significantly reduced LH concentrations at 7, 28, and 56 days (P < .05). Female birds treated with deslorelin laid significantly fewer eggs over the course of the study (mean = 1.46, SEM = 0.84) compared with controls (mean = 5.54, SEM = 0.88). Deslorelin treatment had no discernible effect on body weight. Deslorelin is effective for controlling egg laying in female pigeons for at least 49 days, but further research is required to determine the effects on male fertility and the duration of action in both sexes.

  1. Visual artificial grammar learning: comparative research on humans, kea (Nestor notabilis) and pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Stobbe, Nina; Westphal-Fitch, Gesche; Aust, Ulrike; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-07-19

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) provides a useful tool for exploring rule learning strategies linked to general purpose pattern perception. To be able to directly compare performance of humans with other species with different memory capacities, we developed an AGL task in the visual domain. Presenting entire visual patterns simultaneously instead of sequentially minimizes the amount of required working memory. This approach allowed us to evaluate performance levels of two bird species, kea (Nestor notabilis) and pigeons (Columba livia), in direct comparison to human participants. After being trained to discriminate between two types of visual patterns generated by rules at different levels of computational complexity and presented on a computer screen, birds and humans received further training with a series of novel stimuli that followed the same rules, but differed in various visual features from the training stimuli. Most avian and all human subjects continued to perform well above chance during this initial generalization phase, suggesting that they were able to generalize learned rules to novel stimuli. However, detailed testing with stimuli that violated the intended rules regarding the exact number of stimulus elements indicates that neither bird species was able to successfully acquire the intended pattern rule. Our data suggest that, in contrast to humans, these birds were unable to master a simple rule above the finite-state level, even with simultaneous item presentation and despite intensive training.

  2. Analysis of Pigeon (Columba) Ovary Transcriptomes to Identify Genes Involved in Blue Light Regulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Ding, Jia-Tong; Yang, Hai-Ming; Yan, Zheng-Jie; Cao, Wei; Li, Yang-Bai

    2015-01-01

    Monochromatic light is widely applied to promote poultry reproductive performance, yet little is currently known regarding the mechanism by which light wavelengths affect pigeon reproduction. Recently, high-throughput sequencing technologies have been used to provide genomic information for solving this problem. In this study, we employed Illumina Hiseq 2000 to identify differentially expressed genes in ovary tissue from pigeons under blue and white light conditions and de novo transcriptome assembly to construct a comprehensive sequence database containing information on the mechanisms of follicle development. A total of 157,774 unigenes (mean length: 790 bp) were obtained by the Trinity program, and 35.83% of these unigenes were matched to genes in a non-redundant protein database. Gene description, gene ontology, and the clustering of orthologous group terms were performed to annotate the transcriptome assembly. Differentially expressed genes between blue and white light conditions included those related to oocyte maturation, hormone biosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Furthermore, 17,574 SSRs and 533,887 potential SNPs were identified in this transcriptome assembly. This work is the first transcriptome analysis of the Columba ovary using Illumina technology, and the resulting transcriptome and differentially expressed gene data can facilitate further investigations into the molecular mechanism of the effect of blue light on follicle development and reproduction in pigeons and other bird species.

  3. Monitoring temporal and spatial variability in sandeel (Ammodytes hexapterus) abundance with pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba) diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litzow, Michael A.; Piatt, J.F.; Abookire, Alisa A.; Prichard, A.K.; Robards, Martin D.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) as monitors of nearshore fish abundance and community composition during 1995-1999 at Kachemak Bay, Alaska. We studied the composition of chick diets at 10 colonies and simultaneously measured fish abundance around colonies with beach seines and bottom trawls. Sandeels (Ammodytes hexapterus) formed the majority of the diet at one group of colonies. Temporal variability in sandeel abundance explained 74% of inter-annual variability in diet composition at these colonies and 93% of seasonal variability. Diets at other colonies were dominated by demersal fish. Among these colonies, 81% of the variability in the proportion of sandeels in diets was explained by spatial differences in sanded abundance. Pigeon guillemots exhibited a non-linear functional response to sandeel abundance in the area where these fish were most abundant. Temporal and spatial variability in demersal fish abundance was not consistently reflected in diets. Spatial differences in the proportion of different demersal fishes in the diet may have been driven by differences in guillemot prey preference. Prey specialization by individual pigeon guillemots was common, and may operate at the colony level. Inter-annual variability in sandeel abundance may have been tracked more accurately because the magnitude of change (11-fold) was greater than that of demersal fish (three-fold). (C) 2000 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  4. Cryptococcus spp. isolation from excreta of pigeons (Columba livia) in and around Monterrey, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Canónico-González, Yolanda; Adame-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Mercado-Hernández, Roberto; Aréchiga-Carvajal, Elva Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The presence of Cryptococcus spp. has been reported in Mexico's capital city; however, to our knowledge there are no reports of its presence in the state of Nuevo León located in northeast Mexico. This is presumed to be because the hot and dry climate in this region does not favor cryptococcal proliferation. This study confirmed the presence of C. neoformans and C. albidus in 20% (10/50) of randomly selected fecal samples of pigeons (Columba livia) in the Monterrey metropolitan area. The presence of this yeast in the state of Nuevo León is proof of its adaptation to the typically hot climate of the area and is consistent with recent reviews of cryptococcosis cases in several local hospitals. The two species were identified and characterized through microbiological tests and molecular identification by DNA extraction and PCR amplification of highly conserved 18S ribosomal DNA using ITS1 and ITS2 as target regions. The PCR products were sequenced and compared with those reported in GenBank.

  5. Pathologic findings in racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica) with "young bird sickness".

    PubMed

    Scullion, Francis T; Scullion, Mary Geraldine

    2007-03-01

    "Young bird sickness" is a term used by racing pigeon fanciers to describe a condition that has occurred regularly in recent years and affects pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in their first year of life. It is characterized by slow crop emptying, regurgitation, diarrhea, weight loss, poor performance, and occasionally death. Little scientific information is known about this syndrome to differentiate it from other diseases that occur in young pigeons. In this study, 1 bird from each of 9 lofts where "young bird sickness" was reported was euthanatized for cytologic and postmortem examination. Lesions of the lymphoreticular system, alimentary tract, and respiratory system were the most common findings. Lesions of the lymphoreticular system were present in all birds examined, and 3 birds had histopathologic findings consistent with circovirus infection. Combinations of protozoal, fungal, and mixed bacterial infections were associated with ingluvitis in 7 birds and enteritis in 6 birds. Pneumonitis was found in 5 birds that tested positive for Chlamydophila by polymerase chain reaction. Although "young bird sickness" appears to be a multifactorial condition, a pattern of lesions that involved the lymphoreticular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems was evident, whereas diseases of other organ systems were uncommon. These findings suggest that "young bird sickness" may have a common etiology, and circovirus infection is proposed as a possible initiating cause of this syndrome in young racing pigeons in Northern Ireland.

  6. Serial learning with a wild card by pigeons (Columba livia): effect of list length.

    PubMed

    Terrace, H S; Chen, S; Newman, A B

    1995-06-01

    Pigeons (Columba livia) learned 3-, 4- or 5-item lists prior to subset and wild card tests. On the latter, a novel item replaced 1 of the list items. Pigeons who learned 3-item lists responded accurately on all subset pairs (AB, BC, and AC) and on all types of 3-item wild card trials (WBC, AWC, & ABW). Pigeons who learned 4- and 5-item lists responded at chance levels of accuracy on all subsets that did not contain a start or an end item (BC, BD, & CD, respectively, on 4- and 5-item subset tests). On wild card trials, they exceeded chance levels of performance only when the wild card replaced the last item (ABCW & ABCDW trials). Monkeys (Cebus apella) trained to produce a 5-item list perform accurately on all subsets and wild cards. (M. R. D'Amato & M. Colombo, 1988, 1989). These differences provide strong evidence that pigeons and monkeys form qualitatively different representations of lists containing four or more items.

  7. Homing pigeons ( Columba livia f. domestica) can use magnetic cues for locating food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalau, Peter; Holtkamp-Rötzler, Elke; Fleissner, Gerta; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    An experimental group of homing pigeons ( Columba livia f. domestica) learned to associate food with a magnetic anomaly produced by bar magnets that were fixed to the bowl in which they received their daily food ration in their home loft; the control group lacked this experience. Both groups were trained to search for two hidden food depots in a rectangular sand-filled arena without obvious visual cues; for the experimental birds, these depots were also marked with three 1.15 × 106 μT bar magnets. During the tests, there were two food depots, one marked with the magnets, the other unmarked; their position within the arena was changed from test to test. The experimental birds searched within 10 cm of the magnetically marked depot in 49% of the test sessions, whereas the control birds searched there in only 11% of the sessions. Both groups searched near the control depot in 11 and 13% of the sessions, respectively. The significant preference of the magnetically marked food depot by the experimental birds shows that homing pigeons cannot only detect a magnetic anomaly but can also use it as a cue for locating hidden food in an open arena.

  8. Home remedies to control head lice: assessment of home remedies to control the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Takano-Lee, Miwa; Edman, John D; Mullens, Bradley A; Clark, John M

    2004-12-01

    As the frequency and level of pediculicide resistance increases throughout the world, the need for novel solutions to control pediculosis has intensified. The development and registration of new pesticides has become so costly that many chemical companies are unwilling to pursue it and health-care providers now face a serious lack of new commercial pediculicides. Many infested people resort to using "home-remedy" approaches that have not been scientifically tested. In this article, we examined the potential value of six purportedly effective "home remedies" (vinegar, isopropyl alcohol, olive oil, mayonnaise, melted butter, and petroleum jelly) to treat head louse infestations and the likelihood of drowning lice by water submersion. Results indicated that only the application of petroleum jelly caused significant louse mortality but no treatment prevented lice from laying eggs. Most home remedy products did little to kill eggs, despite prolonged exposure. Petroleum jelly caused the greatest egg mortality, allowing only 6% to hatch. It was extremely difficult to drown lice, despite extended periods (i.e., 8 hr) of water submersion, suggesting that killing lice by depriving them of oxygen is inefficient. None of the home remedy products we surveyed was an effective means of louse control. This suggests that when treatment failure occurs, an increased amount of time and effort should be focused on alternative chemical pediculicides and/or manual louse removal (i.e., combing) rather than using any of these products.

  9. Mitochondria-rich cells in the astigmatic mites, Diplaegidia columbae (Buchholz) (Analgidae) and Falculifer rostratus (Buchholz) (Falculiferidae) (Acari: Astigmata).

    PubMed

    Witaliński, Wojciech; Liana, Marcin

    2010-09-01

    Mitochondria are well-characterized intracellular organelles usually concentrated in locations of high energy consumption. Light microscopic and transmission electron microscopic observations of the internal anatomy of the feather mites Diplaegidia columbae and Falculifer rostratus were conducted. In the anterior half of the bodies of the mites, we found several dozen of distinctive mitochondria-rich (MR) cells filled with abundant, large mitochondria. Mitochondria are placed individually or enclosed in small groups within an elaborated lamellar system forming a mitochondria-lamellae complex (MLC). The role of the MLC as well as the MR cells is not clear at present, but their involvement in heat generation is hypothesized and briefly discussed.

  10. Pigeons (Columba livia) as Trainable Observers of Pathology and Radiology Breast Cancer Images

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Richard M.; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Navarro, Victor M.; Wasserman, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Pathologists and radiologists spend years acquiring and refining their medically essential visual skills, so it is of considerable interest to understand how this process actually unfolds and what image features and properties are critical for accurate diagnostic performance. Key insights into human behavioral tasks can often be obtained by using appropriate animal models. We report here that pigeons (Columba livia)—which share many visual system properties with humans—can serve as promising surrogate observers of medical images, a capability not previously documented. The birds proved to have a remarkable ability to distinguish benign from malignant human breast histopathology after training with differential food reinforcement; even more importantly, the pigeons were able to generalize what they had learned when confronted with novel image sets. The birds’ histological accuracy, like that of humans, was modestly affected by the presence or absence of color as well as by degrees of image compression, but these impacts could be ameliorated with further training. Turning to radiology, the birds proved to be similarly capable of detecting cancer-relevant microcalcifications on mammogram images. However, when given a different (and for humans quite difficult) task—namely, classification of suspicious mammographic densities (masses)—the pigeons proved to be capable only of image memorization and were unable to successfully generalize when shown novel examples. The birds’ successes and difficulties suggest that pigeons are well-suited to help us better understand human medical image perception, and may also prove useful in performance assessment and development of medical imaging hardware, image processing, and image analysis tools. PMID:26581091

  11. Pigeons (Columba livia) as Trainable Observers of Pathology and Radiology Breast Cancer Images.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Richard M; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Navarro, Victor M; Wasserman, Edward A

    2015-01-01

    Pathologists and radiologists spend years acquiring and refining their medically essential visual skills, so it is of considerable interest to understand how this process actually unfolds and what image features and properties are critical for accurate diagnostic performance. Key insights into human behavioral tasks can often be obtained by using appropriate animal models. We report here that pigeons (Columba livia)-which share many visual system properties with humans-can serve as promising surrogate observers of medical images, a capability not previously documented. The birds proved to have a remarkable ability to distinguish benign from malignant human breast histopathology after training with differential food reinforcement; even more importantly, the pigeons were able to generalize what they had learned when confronted with novel image sets. The birds' histological accuracy, like that of humans, was modestly affected by the presence or absence of color as well as by degrees of image compression, but these impacts could be ameliorated with further training. Turning to radiology, the birds proved to be similarly capable of detecting cancer-relevant microcalcifications on mammogram images. However, when given a different (and for humans quite difficult) task-namely, classification of suspicious mammographic densities (masses)-the pigeons proved to be capable only of image memorization and were unable to successfully generalize when shown novel examples. The birds' successes and difficulties suggest that pigeons are well-suited to help us better understand human medical image perception, and may also prove useful in performance assessment and development of medical imaging hardware, image processing, and image analysis tools.

  12. Variance in prey abundance influences time budgets of breeding seabirds: Evidence from pigeon guillemots Cepphus columba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litzow, Michael A.; Piatt, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    We use data on pigeon guillemots Cepphus columba to test the hypothesis that discretionary time in breeding seabirds is correlated with variance in prey abundance. We measured the amount of time that guillemots spent at the colony before delivering fish to chicks ("resting time") in relation to fish abundance as measured by beach seines and bottom trawls. Radio telemetry showed that resting time was inversely correlated with time spent diving for fish during foraging trips (r = -0.95). Pigeon guillemots fed their chicks either Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, a schooling midwater fish, which exhibited high interannual variance in abundance (CV = 181%), or a variety of non-schooling demersal fishes, which were less variable in abundance (average CV = 111%). Average resting times were 46% higher at colonies where schooling prey dominated the diet. Individuals at these colonies reduced resting times 32% during years of low food abundance, but did not reduce meal delivery rates. In contrast, individuals feeding on non-schooling fishes did not reduce resting times during low food years, but did reduce meal delivery rates by 27%. Interannual variance in resting times was greater for the schooling group than for the non-schooling group. We conclude from these differences that time allocation in pigeon guillemots is more flexible when variable schooling prey dominate diets. Resting times were also 27% lower for individuals feeding two-chick rather than one-chick broods. The combined effects of diet and brood size on adult time budgets may help to explain higher rates of brood reduction for pigeon guillemot chicks fed non-schooling fishes.

  13. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Rock pigeon, Columba livia (Columbiformes: Columbidae).

    PubMed

    Kan, X Z; Li, X F; Zhang, L Q; Chen, L; Qian, C J; Zhang, X W; Wang, L

    2010-06-29

    The rock pigeon (Columba livia), or Rock dove, is a member of the bird family Columbidae. We mapped the complete mitochondrial genome of the Rock pigeon. The mitochondrial genome of this species is a circular molecule of 17,229 bp in length, encoding a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes, plus a putative control region, demonstrating a structure very similar to that of other birds. As found in other vertebrates, most of these genes are coded on the H-strand, except for NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (nad6) and eight tRNA genes (Gln, Ala, Asn, Cys, Tyr, Ser(UCN), Pro, Glu). The AT skew and GC skew of the whole genome, protein-coding genes, tRNA, rRNA, and the control region were calculated for the complete mitochondrial genomes of 30 avian species, representing 29 orders. All protein-coding genes initiated with ATG, except for cox1 and nad5, which began with GTG. One extra nucleotide 'C' was present in NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (nad3). All tRNA gene sequences have the potential to fold into typical cloverleaf secondary structures. Within the control region, conserved sequences were identified in three domains. Although the conserved blocks, such as ETAS1, ETAS2, CSB1, CSB1-like, and boxes C, D, E, and F, are readily identifiable in the C. livia control region, the typical origin of H-strand replication (O(H)), CSB2 and CSB3 could not be detected. These results provide basic information for phylogenetic analyses of birds, especially Columbiformes species.

  14. The chemical composition of the uropygial gland secretion of rock dove Columba livia.

    PubMed

    Montalti, Diego; Gutiérrez, Ana María; Reboredo, Guillermo; Salibián, Alfredo

    2005-03-01

    The uropygial gland is a holocrine secretory gland of birds. The lipid and the waxy sebum that the gland secretes is coated on the beak and transferred to the plumage in preening. The composition of the gland secretions from birds of different species has been determined, but little is known about the lipids of the secretion of the gland of the rock dove Columba livia. The amount of secretion, the total lipid content and the fatty acids composition of the secretion of C. livia captured in the nonbreeding season was reported. The mean amount of the secretion within the gland was 30 mg; the mean lipid content of the secretion was 0.385 mg/mg of secretion, which was equivalent to approximately 38% of the secretion. The weight of the secretion relative to gland weight was 32%. If we assume that the amount of the gland secretion constitutes a valid parameter to determine the degree of the gland development, our results indicate that the physiological role of the gland does not depend upon gland mass (GW); the rock dove in particular has a small gland, but its secretion represented 32% of the gland's mass. The composition of the lipids extracted from the gland secretion consisted of C14 to C20 fatty acids, most of them were unsaturated. The secretion of the gland contained approximately 59% of unsaturated fatty acids with a prevalence of oleic acid (37%) and a low content of linoleic (6%) and arachidonic acids (7%). The saturated long chain fatty acids were mainly 14:0, 16:0 and 18:0 in a percentage of approximately 34%. No sexual differences were found in any of the evaluated parameters.

  15. Pharmacokinetic disposition of the oral iron chelator deferiprone in the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Douglas P; Barker, Ian K; Conlon, Peter D; Tesoro, Angelo; Thiessen, Jake J; Mehren, Kay G; Jacobs, Robert M; Spino, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Deferiprone is a bidentate oral iron chelator used for the treatment of iron overload in people. The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic disposition of deferiprone in the domestic pigeon (Columba livia) and to compare the results with a previous study in the white leghorn chicken. Deferiprone (DFP) was administered orally as a suspension at a single dose of 50 mg/kg to 10 iron-loaded (IL-DFP) pigeons and 10 non--iron-loaded controls (NIL-DFP). Six NIL-DFP birds were also administered deferiprone intravenously to determine the bioavailability of the drug after a 30-day washout period. To evaluate if deferiprone induces its own metabolism, the pharmacokinetic disposition of the drug was also studied in the IL-DFP group after oral therapy with deferiprone at a dosage of 50 mg/kg q12h for 30 days. For each phase, collected blood was analyzed for deferiprone by high-performance liquid chromatography to develop a plasma concentration versus time curve. Deferiprone was rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, with plasma concentrations effective for iron chelation maintained for at least 8 hours after administration in iron-loaded birds. The half-life (mean +/- SD) for deferiprone given orally to the IL-DFP and NIL-DFP groups was 2.98 +/- 0.85 hours and 3.26 +/- 1.25 hours, respectively, and when intravenously administered was 3.79 +/- 1.23 hours. The half-life after 30 days of treatment was 3.42 +/- 1.18 hours. Oral bioavailability was 44%. This study demonstrated that oral absorption of deferiprone is acceptable, it does not induce its own metabolism, and the drug was widely distributed in the pigeon, as it was in the chicken, with a longer half-life than that reported in mammals. Minor interspecies variations in the pharmacokinetics of deferiprone exist between chickens and pigeons.

  16. Clinical and serological tests for arboviruses in free-living domestic pigeons (Columba livia)

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Bruna Alves; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Martins, Lívia Carício; Chagas, Liliane Leal das; Silva, Franko de Arruda e; Ferreira, Milene Silveira; Freitas, Maria Nazaré Oliveira; de Alcantara, Bianca Nascimento; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Miranda, Stefânia Araújo; Sepulvreda, Barbara Alves; Corrêa, Layna Thayssa Guimarães; Negrão, Andréa Maria Góes; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa; Casseb, Alexandre do Rosário

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND In this study, we evaluated the role of free-living domestic pigeons (Columba livia) as a reservoir of arboviruses in the city of Belém, state of Pará, Brazil. We investigated the presence of antibodies against the most prevalent arboviruses. OBJECTIVES This study was aimed at evaluating some clinical and physical parameters of domestic pigeons, including the presence of antibodies to Amazon-endemic arboviruses. METHODS Eighty-five healthy pigeons were captured in Mangal das Garças Park, in Belém, and were bled. Upon capture, the birds were subjected to a clinical examination in search of alterations that could indicate the presence of arboviruses. Blood samples were converted to serum and tested using the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) technique with a panel of 19 antigens of arboviruses circulating in the Amazon. The confirmation assay for the positive reactions to the viral species tested by HI was a neutralisation test in new-born Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) [mouse neutralisation test (MNT)]. FINDINGS A total of 10 (11.8%) serum samples tested positive for antiflavivirus antibodies by HI. All the samples positive for the HI test were subjected to MNT for detection of viruses and yielded negative results (logarithmic neutralisation index < 1.7). MAIN CONCLUSION The results represent the first serological detection of antiarbovirus antibodies in domestic pigeons as potential hosts of arboviruses in Brazil. The detection of haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against genus Flavivirus indicated that there was recent contact between the analysed domestic pigeons and these arboviruses. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of free-living pigeons in the maintenance cycle and spread of arboviruses in the Amazon. PMID:28767977

  17. Homing pigeons (Columba livia) modulate wingbeat characteristics as a function of route familiarity.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lucy A; Portugal, Steven J; Biro, Dora

    2017-08-15

    Mechanisms of avian navigation have received considerable attention, but whether different navigational strategies are accompanied by different flight characteristics is unknown. Managing energy expenditure is critical for survival; therefore, understanding how flight characteristics, and hence energy allocation, potentially change with birds' familiarity with a navigational task could provide key insights into the costs of orientation. We addressed this question by examining changes in the wingbeat characteristics and airspeed of homing pigeons (Columba livia) as they learned a homing task. Twenty-one pigeons were released 20 times individually either 3.85 or 7.06 km from home. Birds were equipped with 5 Hz GPS trackers and 200 Hz tri-axial accelerometers. We found that, as the birds' route efficiency increased during the first six releases, their median peak-to-peak dorsal body (DB) acceleration and median DB amplitude also increased. This, in turn, led to higher airspeeds, suggesting that birds fly slower when traversing unfamiliar terrain. By contrast, after route efficiency stabilised, birds exhibited increasing wingbeat frequencies, which did not result in further increases in speed. Overall, higher wind support was also associated with lower wingbeat frequencies and increased DB amplitude. Our study suggests that the cost of early flights from an unfamiliar location may be higher than subsequent flights because of both inefficient routes (increased distance) and lower airspeeds (increased time). Furthermore, the results indicate, for the first time, that birds modulate their wingbeat characteristics as a function of navigational knowledge, and suggest that flight characteristics may be used as 'signatures' of birds' route familiarity. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. How do seasonality and host traits influence the distribution patterns of parasites on juveniles and adults of Columba livia?

    PubMed

    Amaral, Hugo Leonardo da Cunha; Bergmann, Fabiane Borba; Dos Santos, Paulo Roberto Silveira; Silveira, Tony; Krüger, Rodrigo Ferreira

    2017-08-30

    Parasites may influence host fitness and consequently exert a selective pressure on distinct phenotypes of the host population. This pressure can result in an evolutionary response, maintaining only individuals with certain traits in the population. The present study was aimed at identifying the morphological characteristics of juveniles and adults of Columba livia that may influence the distribution patterns of lice, Pseudolynchia canariensis and Haemoproteus columbae and how the populations of these parasites vary throughout the seasons of the year. Between July 2012 and July 2014, 377 specimens of C. livia were captured. We observed a significant increase in the mean intensities of infestation by pigeon flies and lice, as well as in species richness of ectoparasites during the warmest seasons, suggesting a reproductive synchrony between ectoparasites and host species. Bill length, body mass, and body length did not affect the infestation levels of ectoparasites on adults and juveniles of C. livia with three distinct plumage colors. In juveniles, plumage color affected only the mean intensity of infestation by lice, with Spread individuals as the most infested. This indicates that melanin in feathers was not an effective barrier against ectoparasites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Heritability of resistance to infestation with the body louse, Bovicola ovis, in Romney sheep bred for differences in resistance or resilience to gastro-intestinal nematode parasites.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, A; Morris, C A; Green, R S; Wheeler, M; Shu, D; Bisset, S A; Vlassoff, A

    2007-12-01

    The inheritance of resistance to louse infestation and the related allergic skin disease, cockle, was examined in Romney lambs. The lambs used in the study were the 2001- and 2004-born progeny of four experimental breeding lines ("Resistant", "Susceptible", "Resilient" and "Control") developed as part of a long-term study of the genetics of host resistance (maintenance of low faecal egg count (FEC) under nematode challenge) or resilience (maintenance of health and productivity under nematode challenge irrespective of FEC) to nematode parasites in sheep. Between 13 and 22 progeny (equally distributed between males and females, where possible) from each of five sires in each line were selected each year for this trial. All lambs (n=701) were examined for lice (Bovicola ovis) before artificial infestation; in 2001 the lambs were free of natural infestation, whilst in 2004 naturally acquired infestation was evident. In November 2001 and May 2002, approximately 60 B. ovis were transferred to each lamb, followed by monitoring at approximately 2-monthly intervals until August 2002. Similar procedures, but with fewer monitoring times, were repeated on the 2004 lambs. Overall, lambs in the Control line were significantly more susceptible to louse infestation and cockle compared with those in the other three lines (P<0.001). Least squares-means (SEM) of log-transformed louse score for the control, resistant, susceptible and resilient lines, respectively, were 2.178 (0.045), 1.499 (0.050), 1.618 (0.050) and 1.587 (0.044), and for cockle score were 1.36 (0.05), 0.76 (0.05), 0.95 (0.05) and 0.78 (0.05). From all progeny together, the heritability of log-transformed louse score was 0.22 (Standard Error (SE) 0.06) in autumn and 0.34 (SE 0.08) in winter, with a value of 0.44 (SE 0.09) when these data were combined. These estimates were similar to those obtained for resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes in these breeding lines, using log-transformed FECs. Heritability estimates

  20. Enhanced transcriptomic responses in the Pacific salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis oncorhynchi to the non-native Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar suggests increased parasite fitness.

    PubMed

    Braden, Laura M; Sutherland, Ben J G; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2017-01-30

    Outcomes of infections with the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis vary considerably among its natural hosts (Salmo, Oncorhynchus spp.). Host-parasite interactions range from weak to strong host responses accompanied by high to low parasite abundances, respectively. Parasite behavioral studies indicate that the louse prefers the host Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar), which is characterized by a weak immune response, and that this results in enhanced parasite reproduction and growth rates. Furthermore, parasite-derived immunosuppressive molecules (e.g., proteases) have been detected at higher amounts in response to the mucus of Atlantic Salmon relative to Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). However, the host-specific responses of the salmon louse have not been well characterized in either of the genetically distinct sub-species that occur in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. We assessed and compared the transcriptomic feeding response of the Pacific salmon louse (L. salmonis oncorhynchi,) while parasitizing the highly susceptible Atlantic Salmon and Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) or the more resistant Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) using a 38 K oligonucleotide microarray. The response of the louse was enhanced both in the number of overexpressed genes and in the magnitude of expression while feeding on the non-native Atlantic Salmon, compared to either Coho or Sockeye Salmon. For example, putative virulence factors (e.g., cathepsin L, trypsin, carboxypeptidase B), metabolic enzymes (e.g., cytochrome B, cytochrome C), protein synthesis enzymes (e.g., ribosomal protein P2, 60S ribosomal protein L7), and reproduction-related genes (e.g., estrogen sulfotransferase) were overexpressed in Atlantic-fed lice, indicating heightened parasite fitness with this host species. In contrast, responses in Coho- or Sockeye-fed lice were more similar to those of parasites deprived of a host. To test for host acclimation by the parasite, we performed a reciprocal host transfer

  1. Isolation, pure culture, and characterization of "Candidatus Arsenophonus arthropodicus," an intracellular secondary endosymbiont from the hippoboscid louse fly Pseudolynchia canariensis.

    PubMed

    Dale, Colin; Beeton, Michael; Harbison, Christopher; Jones, Tait; Pontes, Mauricio

    2006-04-01

    Members of the genus Arsenophonus comprise a large group of bacterial endosymbionts that are widely distributed in arthropods of medical, veterinary, and agricultural importance. At present, little is known about the role of these bacteria in arthropods, because few representatives have been isolated and cultured in the laboratory. In the current study, we describe the isolation and pure culture of an Arsenophonus endosymbiont from the hippoboscid louse fly Pseudolynchia canariensis. We propose provisional nomenclature for this bacterium in the genus Arsenophonus as "Candidatus Arsenophonus arthropodicus." Phylogenetic analyses indicate that "Candidatus Arsenophonus arthropodicus" is closely related to the Arsenophonus endosymbionts found in psyllids, whiteflies, aphids, and mealybugs. The pure culture of this endosymbiont offers new opportunities to examine the role of Arsenophonus in insects. To this end, we describe methods for the culture of "Candidatus Arsenophonus arthropodicus" in an insect cell line and the transformation of this bacterium with a broad-host-range plasmid.

  2. Tocopheryl acetate 20% spray for elimination of head louse infestation: a randomised controlled trial comparing with 1% permethrin creme rinse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tocopheryl acetate is viscous oily fluid used in a range of preparations for skin and scalp care in Italy. Observational and in vitro data have suggested a high level of efficacy against head louse infestation. The purpose of this investigation was to confirm the activity of tocopheryl acetate in a clinical setting in comparison with a standard widely used preparation. Methods A spray formulation containing tocopheryl acetate 20% in cyclomethicone was compared with permethrin 1% creme rinse for treatment of head louse infestation in a randomised, assessor blind, trial. Forty-five people were treated on two occasions 7 days apart. The spray was applied to dry hair for 20 minutes then washed. Participants treated with permethrin washed their hair and towel dried it before treatment for 10 minutes. Assessments were made by dry detection combing 1, 6, 9, and 14 days after first treatment. Results The tocopheryl acetate 20% spray was significantly (p = 0.033) more effective than permethrin 1%, using intention to treat worst case analysis, in which there were 13/23 (56.5%) successful treatments for tocopheryl acetate compared with 5/22 (22.7%) for permethrin. After unprecedented issues of re-infestation within households had been taken into account the underlying cure rate was 17/23 (73.9%) for tocopheryl acetate compared with 5/22 (22.7%), Odds Ratio 9.63 (95% CI, 2.46 to 37.68) (p < 0.001). Conclusions The tocopheryl acetate spray was significantly more effective than the permethrin product, was cosmetically acceptable, and not affected by current problems with resistance. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN45553737. PMID:24004959

  3. [Louse-borne-relapsing-fever in refugees from the Horn of Africa; a case series of 25 patients].

    PubMed

    Seilmaier, M; Guggemos, W; Wieser, A; Fingerle, V; Balzer, L; Fenzl, T; Hoch, M; von Both, U; Schmidt, H U; Wendtner, C M; Strobel, E

    2016-07-01

    Background | Relapsing fever is divided into tick borne relapsing fever (TBRF) and louse borne relapsing fever (LBRF). This report describes 25 refugees from East Africa who were diagnosed to suffer from LBRF within a period of 6 month only at a single hospital in Munich / Germany. Material & Methods | The aim was to point out common clinical features as well as laboratory findings and clinical symptoms before and after initiation of treatment in 25 patients with louse borne relapsing fever (LBRF) who were diagnosed and treated at Klinikum München Schwabing from August 2015 to January 2016. To the best of our knowledge this is the largest case series of LBRF in the western world for decades. Main focus of the investigation was put on clinical aspects. Results | All 25 patients suffered from acute onset of high fever with chills, headache and severe prostration. Laboratory analysis showed high CRP and a marked thrombocytopenia. A Giemsa blood stain was procured immediately in order to look for malaria. In the blood smear spirochetes with typical shape and aspect of borrelia species could be detected.The further PCR analysis confirmed infection with Borrelia recurrentis. Treatment with Doxycycline was started forthwith. The condition improved already on the second day after treatment was started and all were restored to health in less than a week. Apart from a mild to moderate Jarisch-Herxheimer-reaction we didn`t see any side effects of the therapy. Conclusion | LBRF has to be taken into account in feverish patients who come as refugees from East-Africa. It seems that our patients belong to a cluster which probably has its origin in Libya and more patients are to be expected in the near future. As LBRF might cause outbreaks in refugee camps it is pivotal to be aware of this emerging infectious disease in refugees from East-Africa.

  4. Louse-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis) diagnosed in 15 refugees from northeast Africa: epidemiology and preventive control measures, Bavaria, Germany, July to October 2015.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Martin; Wieser, Andreas; Löscher, Thomas; Margos, Gabriele; Pürner, Friedrich; Zühl, Jürgen; Seilmaier, Michael; Balzer, Lukas; Guggemos, Wolfgang; Rack-Hoch, Anita; von Both, Ulrich; Hauptvogel, Katja; Schönberger, Katharina; Hautmann, Wolfgang; Sing, Andreas; Fingerle, Volker

    2015-01-01

    We report 15 imported louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) cases in refugees in Bavaria, Germany. One patient died. Epidemiological findings confirmed that all were young males from the Horn of Africa (12 from Somalia), who had similar migration routes converging in Sudan continuing through Libya and Italy. The majority likely acquired their infection during migration. Healthcare workers should be aware of LBRF in refugees passing through north Africa to ensure correct treatment and preventive measures.

  5. Insect juvenile hormone mimics against the short-nosed cattle louse, Haematopinus eurysternus Denny (Anoplura), and their effect on warbles of Hypoderma sp. Latr. (Diptera:Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Meleney, W P; Roberts, I H

    1975-10-01

    Insect juvenile hormone mimics (IJH) at 0.1 and 0.01% were used as sprays for control of the short-nosed cattle louse, Haematopinus eurysternus Denny, on 11 heavily infested Hereford cows. A significant reduction of lice occurred although eradication was achieved in only one case. Severe reactions, apparently associated with the death or failure of complete development of cattle grub larvae, Hypoderma sp. Latr., were seen in the IJH-treated cows.

  6. Modification of antityphus antibodies on passage through the gut of the human body louse with discussion of some epidemiologic and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Wisseman, C L; Boese, J L; Waddell, A D; Silverman, D J

    1975-01-01

    Evidence is presented to indicate that proteolytic and perhaps other enzymes of the louse midgut, essential to the nutrition of the louse, perform molecular dissection on the antirickettsial antibodies present in the blood of a typhus-immune host that selectively destroys, along with other functions, the portion of the antibody that determines the only known function by which antirickettsial antibodies may operate in host defense mechanisms, namely, opsonization of rickettsiae for enhanced ingestion by professional phagocytes and subsequent destruction. The epidemiologic significance of these findings is discussed in relation to the progressive destruction of cells that produce digestive enzymes of the louse midgut that occurs with progressive rickettsial infection, and the possibility of a negative feedback mechanism in transmission is introduced. Speculations that involve evolutionary concepts of both convergent and divergent varieties with respect to rickettsiae, potentially operational in a system that consists of an obligate blood-sucking arthropod vector and a vertebrate host capable of adaptive responses to both vector and rickettsial agent, are presented.

  7. Differential modulation of resistance biomarkers in skin of juvenile and mature pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha by the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    PubMed

    Braden, Laura M; Barker, Duane E; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-11-01

    Juvenile pink salmon larger than 0.7 g reject the sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, and are considered resistant to the infection. Robust innate defense responses in the skin contribute to the observed resistance. In contrast adult pink salmon captured at sea or shortly before spawning carry large numbers of the parasite, suggesting inability to control the infection. The purpose of this research is to better understand these apparently contradictory conclusions by comparing a suite of genetic and cellular markers of resistance to L. salmonis in the skin of juvenile and mature pink salmon. The expression of major histocompatibility factor II, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1β, interleukin-8 and cyclooxygenase-2 was down-regulated in mature but not juvenile pink salmon. Similarly, skin at the site of parasite attachment in juvenile salmon was highly populated with MHIIβ(+) and IL-1β(+) cells that were either absent, or at reduced levels at similar sites in mature salmon. In addition, mucocyte density was relatively low in the skin of mature salmon, irrespective of louse infection. In juveniles, the higher mucocyte density decreased following louse attachment. We show that in mature pink salmon, genetic and histological responses in skin are depressed and speculate that salmonid defense against L. salmonis is modulated by maturation.

  8. Relevance and treatment of coccidiosis in domestic pigeons (Columba livia forma domestica) with particular emphasis on toltrazuril.

    PubMed

    Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Zebisch, Ralph; Schmidt, Volker

    2009-03-01

    Coccidia are common pathogenic parasites in pigeons (Columba livia). Coccidiosis is most commonly seen in young pigeons and only rarely in adult birds. Infections in domestic pigeons are typically mixed and commonly include Eimeria columbarum and Eimeria labbeana. The reported prevalence of infection is 5.1%-71.9%, and worldwide mortality in juvenile pigeons varies from 5% to 70%, with most deaths occurring in the third and fourth month of life. This article summarizes the life cycle of E. columbarum and E. labbeana, the route of transmission, and the common clinical and pathologic signs of coccidiosis. Chemotherapeutic options discussed include amprolium, sulfonamides, clazuril, and toltrazuril. Reasons to use toltrazuril include the growing resistance against other drugs, such as sulfonamides and amprolium, the extended effectiveness compared with other substances, for example, clazuril, and the ability of pigeons to develop immunity during treatment.

  9. Ultrastructural characterization of the pulmonary cellular defences in the lung of a bird, the rock dove, Columba livia

    PubMed Central

    Maina, J. N.; Cowley, H. M.

    1998-01-01

    Free (surface) avian respiratory macrophages (FARMs) were harvested by lavage of the lung/air-sac system of the rock dove, Columba livia. The presence of FARMs in the atria and infundibula was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The respiratory system has developed several cellular defence lines that include surface macrophages, epithelial, subepithelial and interstitial phagocytes, and pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs). Hence, C. livia appears to have a multiple pulmonary cellular protective armoury. Ultrastructurally, the FARMs and the PIMs were similar to the corresponding cells of mammals. The purported high susceptibility of birds to respiratory diseases, a state that has largely been deduced from morbidities and mortalities of commercial birds, and which has chiefly been attributed to paucity of the FARMs, is not supported by the present observations.

  10. Salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) transcriptomes during post molting maturation and egg production, revealed using EST-sequencing and microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eichner, Christiane; Frost, Petter; Dysvik, Bjarte; Jonassen, Inge; Kristiansen, Bjørn; Nilsen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Background Lepeophtheirus salmonis is an ectoparasitic copepod feeding on skin, mucus and blood from salmonid hosts. Initial analysis of EST sequences from pre adult and adult stages of L. salmonis revealed a large proportion of novel transcripts. In order to link unknown transcripts to biological functions we have combined EST sequencing and microarray analysis to characterize female salmon louse transcriptomes during post molting maturation and egg production. Results EST sequence analysis shows that 43% of the ESTs have no significant hits in GenBank. Sequenced ESTs assembled into 556 contigs and 1614 singletons and whenever homologous genes were identified no clear correlation with homologous genes from any specific animal group was evident. Sequence comparison of 27 L. salmonis proteins with homologous proteins in humans, zebrafish, insects and crustaceans revealed an almost identical sequence identity with all species. Microarray analysis of maturing female adult salmon lice revealed two major transcription patterns; up-regulation during the final molting followed by down regulation and female specific up regulation during post molting growth and egg production. For a third minor group of ESTs transcription decreased during molting from pre-adult II to immature adults. Genes regulated during molting typically gave hits with cuticula proteins whilst transcripts up regulated during post molting growth were female specific, including two vitellogenins. Conclusion The copepod L.salmonis contains high a level of novel genes. Among analyzed L.salmonis proteins, sequence identities with homologous proteins in crustaceans are no higher than to homologous proteins in humans. Three distinct processes, molting, post molting growth and egg production correlate with transcriptional regulation of three groups of transcripts; two including genes related to growth, one including genes related to egg production. The function of the regulated transcripts is discussed in

  11. Population genetics of bisexual and unisexual populations of the scaly-winged bark louse Echmepteryx hageni (Insecta: Psocoptera).

    PubMed

    Shreve, Scott M; Johnson, Kevin P

    2014-10-01

    The scaly-winged bark louse, Echmepteryx hageni, exhibits a unique pattern of co-existence of apparently differnt reproductive modes. Unisexuality is widespread in eastern North America, while sexual populations are restricted to isolated rock out-croppings in southern Illinois and eastern Kentucky. Three of the four nuclear loci examined show greater genetic diversity in the unisexual form compared to the sexual form of E. hageni, in accordance with the pattern previously shown in mitochondrial genetic data. Neutrality tests of the nuclear loci indicate a consistent signal of demographic expansion in asexual populations, but not in sexual populations. There was evidence of inbreeding in the isolated sexual populations at three of the nuclear loci, and one locus had signs of gene specific balancing selection. However, there is no significant genetic differentiation between bisexual and unisexual populations, possibly due to the greater effective population size of nuclear loci relative to mitochondrial loci. The mitochondrial differentiation of E. hageni populations in the northwestern part of their range (Minnesota and Wisconsin) was also not reflected in the nuclear data. We present three hypotheses that may explain the disparity in observed nuclear and mitochondrial genetic diversity between the reproductive forms of E. hageni.

  12. Decreased detoxification genes and genome size make the human body louse an efficient model to study xenobiotic metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Si Hyeock; Kang, Jae Soon; Min, Jee Sun; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Strycharz, Joseph P.; Johnson, Reed; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Margam, Venu M.; Sun, Weilin; Li, Hong-Mei; Xie, Jun; Wu, Jing; Kirkness, Ewen F.; Berenbaum, May R.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Clark, J. Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus, has one of the smallest insect genomes, containing ~10,775 annotated genes (Kirkness et al. 2010). Annotation of detoxification [cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), esterase (Est), and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC transporter)] genes revealed that they are dramatically reduced in P. h. humanus compared to other insects except for Apis mellifera. There are 37 P450, 13 GST and 17 Est genes present in P. h. humanus, approximately half of that found in Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae. The number of putatively functional ABC transporter genes in P. h. humanus and A. mellifera are the same (36) but both have fewer than An. gambiae (44) or D. melanogaster (65). The reduction of detoxification genes in P. h. humanus may be due to their simple life history, where they do not encounter a wide variety of xenobiotics. Neuronal component genes are highly conserved across different insect species as expected due to their critical function. Although reduced in number, P. h. humanus still retains at least a minimum repertoire of genes known to confer metabolic or toxicokinetic resistance to xenobiotics (e.g., Cyp3 clade P450s, Delta GSTs, B clade Ests and B/C subfamily ABC transporters), suggestive of its high potential for resistance development. PMID:20561088

  13. Neem seed extract shampoo, Wash Away Louse, an effective plant agent against Sarcoptes scabiei mites infesting dogs in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Sobhy, Hassan; Semmler, Margit

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of water-free neem seed extract shampoo Wash Away Louse, provided by Alpha-Biocare GmbH, Düsseldorf (Germany), was investigated against Sarcoptes scabiei infesting dogs in Egypt. Ten naturally infested dogs were collected from different areas in the Nile delta. The occurrence of lesions, hair loss, and skin inflammation were regarded as signs of infestation and proved by detection of adult parasites and their developmental stages in scrapings of infested lesions. Adequate amount of the provided shampoo was applied topically and spread on the infested areas daily for 14 successive days. Scraping examinations were used to follow up the healing process. At day 7 of application, four dogs were completely free of mites as was proven by the disappearance of adults and/or any developmental stages of mites. The remaining six dogs showed a clear decrease in mite counts. By the end of the treatment (after 14 days), only a small number of mites were found in two dogs, while eight dogs were completely cured as was proven by mite counts and disappearance of clinical signs. No remarkable signs of side effects or adverse reactions were observed throughout the study.

  14. Determination of knockdown resistance allele frequencies in global human head louse populations using the serial invasive signal amplification reaction

    PubMed Central

    Hodgdon, Hilliary E.; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Previte, Domenic J.; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Aboelghar, Gamal E.; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J. Marshall

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pediculosis is the most prevalent parasitic infestation of humans. Resistance to pyrethrin- and pyrethroid-based pediculicides is due to knockdown (kdr)-type point mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel α-subunit gene. Early detection of resistance is crucial for the selection of effective management strategies. RESULTS Kdr allele frequencies of lice from 14 countries were determined using serial invasive signal amplification reaction. Lice collected from Uruguay, UK and Australia had kdr allele frequencies of 100% while lice from Ecuador, Papua New Guinea, South Korea and Thailand had kdr allele frequencies of 0%. The remaining 7 countries investigated, including seven US populations, two Argentina, Brazil, Denmark, Czech Republic, Egypt and Israel, displayed variable kdr allele frequencies, ranging from 11% to 97%. CONCLUSION The newly developed and validated SISAR method is suitable for accurate monitoring of kdr allele frequencies in head lice. Proactive management is needed where kdr-type resistance is not yet saturated. Based on sodium channel insensitivity and its occurrence in louse populations resistant to pyrethrin- and pyrethroid-based pediculicides, the T917I mutation appears a key marker for resistance. Results from the Egyptian population, however, indicate that phenotypic resistance of lice with single or double mutations (M815I and/or L920F) should also be determined. PMID:20564731

  15. Ovicidal response of NYDA formulations on the human head louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) using a hair tuft bioassay.

    PubMed

    Strycharz, Joseph P; Lao, Alice R; Alves, Anna-Maria; Clark, J Marshall

    2012-03-01

    Using the in vitro rearing system in conjunction with the hair tuft bioassay, NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations (92% wt:wt dimeticones) were 100% ovicidal (0% of treated eggs hatched) after an 8-h exposure of the eggs of the human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) following the manufacturer's instructions. Comparatively, 78 and 66% of eggs similarly exposed hatched after distilled deionized water or Nix (1% permethrin) treatments, respectively. NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations were also statistically and substantially more ovicidal than either distilled deionized water or Nix treatments after 10, 30 min, and 1 h exposures. Only the 10 min exposure of eggs to NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations resulted in hatched lice that survived to adulthood (5-8% survival). Of the lice that hatched from eggs exposed to NYDA formulations for 10 min, there were no significant differences in the time it took them to become adults, female fecundity or the viability of eggs laid by surviving females. The longevity of adults, however, was reduced after the 10 min treatments of eggs with NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations compared with either the distilled deionized water or Nix treatments.

  16. Inactivation of SAM-methyltransferase is the mechanism of attenuation of a historic louse borne typhus vaccine strain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Wu, Bin; Weinstock, George; Walker, David H; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Louse borne typhus (also called epidemic typhus) was one of man's major scourges, and epidemics of the disease can be reignited when social, economic, or political systems are disrupted. The fear of a bioterrorist attack using the etiologic agent of typhus, Rickettsia prowazekii, was a reality. An attenuated typhus vaccine, R. prowazekii Madrid E strain, was observed to revert to virulence as demonstrated by isolation of the virulent revertant Evir strain from animals which were inoculated with Madrid E strain. The mechanism of the mutation in R. prowazekii that affects the virulence of the vaccine was not known. We sequenced the genome of the virulent revertant Evir strain and compared its genome sequence with the genome sequences of its parental strain, Madrid E. We found that only a single nucleotide in the entire genome was different between the vaccine strain Madrid E and its virulent revertant strain Evir. The mutation is a single nucleotide insertion in the methyltransferase gene (also known as PR028) in the vaccine strain that inactivated the gene. We also confirmed that the vaccine strain E did not cause fever in guinea pigs and the virulent revertant strain Evir caused fever in guinea pigs. We concluded that a single nucleotide insertion in the methyltransferase gene of R. prowazekii attenuated the R. prowazekii vaccine strain E. This suggested that an irreversible insertion or deletion mutation in the methyl transferase gene of R. prowazekii is required for Madrid E to be considered a safe vaccine.

  17. Evidence of a Louse-Borne Outbreak Involving Typhus in Douai, 1710-1712 during the War of Spanish Succession

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Hieu, Tung; Aboudharam, Gérard; Signoli, Michel; Rigeade, Catherine; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Background The new field of paleomicrobiology allows past outbreaks to be identified by testing dental pulp of human remains with PCR. Methods We identified a mass grave in Douai, France dating from the early XVIIIth century. This city was besieged during the European war of Spanish succession. We tested dental pulp from 1192 teeth (including 40 from Douai) by quantitative PCR (qPCR) for R. prowazekii and B. quintana. We also used ultra-sensitive suicide PCR to detect R. prowazekii and genotyped positive samples. Results and Discussion In the Douai remains, we identified one case of B. quintana infection (by qPCR) and R. prowazekii (by suicide PCR) in 6/21 individuals (29%). The R. prowazekii was genotype B, a genotype previously found in a Spanish isolate obtained in the first part of the XXth century. Conclusion Louse-borne outbreaks were raging during the XVIIIth century; our results support the hypothesis that typhus was imported into Europe by Spanish soldiers from America. PMID:21060879

  18. Unlocking the black box of feather louse diversity: A molecular phylogeny of the hyper-diverse genus Brueelia.

    PubMed

    Bush, Sarah E; Weckstein, Jason D; Gustafsson, Daniel R; Allen, Julie; DiBlasi, Emily; Shreve, Scott M; Boldt, Rachel; Skeen, Heather R; Johnson, Kevin P

    2016-01-01

    Songbirds host one of the largest, and most poorly understood, groups of lice: the Brueelia-complex. The Brueelia-complex contains nearly one-tenth of all known louse species (Phthiraptera), and the genus Brueelia has over 300 species. To date, revisions have been confounded by extreme morphological variation, convergent evolution, and periodic movement of lice between unrelated hosts. Here we use Bayesian inference based on mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (EF-1α) gene fragments to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among 333 individuals within the Brueelia-complex. We show that the genus Brueelia, as it is currently recognized, is paraphyletic. Many well-supported and morphologically unified clades within our phylogenetic reconstruction of Brueelia were previously described as genera. These genera should be recognized, and the erection of several new genera should be explored. We show that four distinct ecomorphs have evolved repeatedly within the Brueelia-complex, mirroring the evolutionary history of feather-lice across the entire order. We show that lice in the Brueelia-complex, with some notable exceptions, are extremely host specific and that the host family associations and geographic distributions of these lice are significantly correlated with our understanding of their phylogenetic history. Several ecological phenomena, including phoresis, may be responsible for the macroevolutionary patterns in this diverse group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of a Knockdown Resistance Mutation Associated with Permethrin Resistance in the Body Louse Pediculus humanus corporis by Use of Melting Curve Analysis Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Drali, Rezak; Benkouiten, Samir; Badiaga, Sékéné; Bitam, Idir

    2012-01-01

    Louse-borne diseases are prevalent in the homeless, and body louse eradication has thus far been unsuccessful in this population. We aim to develop a rapid and robust genotyping method usable in large field-based clinical studies to monitor permethrin resistance in the human body louse Pediculus humanus corporis. We assessed a melting curve analysis genotyping method based on real-time PCR using hybridization probes to detect the M815I-T917I-L920F knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation in the paraorthologous voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) α subunit gene, which is associated with permethrin resistance. The 908-bp DNA fragment of the VSSC gene, encoding the α subunit of the sodium channel and encompassing the three mutation sites, was PCR sequenced from 65 lice collected from a homeless population. We noted a high prevalence of the 3 indicated mutations in the body lice collected from homeless people (100% for the M815I and L920F mutations and 56.73% for the T917I mutation). These results were confirmed by melting curve analysis genotyping, which had a calculated sensitivity of 100% for the M815I and T917I mutations and of 98% for the L920F mutation. The specificity was 100% for M815I and L920F and 96% for T917I. Melting curve analysis genotyping is a fast, sensitive, and specific tool that is fully compatible with the analysis of a large number of samples in epidemiological surveys, allowing the simultaneous genotyping of 96 samples in just over an hour (75 min). Thus, it is perfectly suited for the epidemiological monitoring of permethrin resistance in human body lice in large-scale clinical studies. PMID:22573588

  20. Aquaporin family genes exhibit developmentally-regulated and host-dependent transcription patterns in the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Farlora, Rodolfo; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Chávez-Mardones, Jacqueline; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-07-01

    Aquaporins are small integral membrane proteins that function as pore channels for the transport of water and other small solutes across the cell membrane. Considering the important roles of these proteins in several biological processes, including host-parasite interactions, there has been increased research on aquaporin proteins recently. The present study expands on the knowledge of aquaporin family genes in parasitic copepods, examining diversity and expression during the ontogeny of the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. Furthermore, aquaporin expression was evaluated during the early infestation of Atlantic (Salmo salar) and Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed eight full length and two partial open reading frames belonging to the aquaporin protein family. Clustering analyses with identified Caligidae sequences revealed three major clades of aquaglyceroporins (Cr-Glp), classical aquaporin channels (Cr-Bib and Cr-PripL), and unorthodox aquaporins (Cr-Aqp12-like). In silico analysis revealed differential expression of aquaporin genes between developmental stages and between sexes. Male-biased expression of Cr-Glp1_v1 and female-biased expression of Cr-Bib were further confirmed in adults by RT-qPCR. Additionally, gene expressions were measured for seven aquaporins during the early infestation stage. The majority of aquaporin genes showed significant differential transcription expressions between sea lice parasitizing different hosts, with Atlantic salmon sea lice exhibiting overall reduced expression as compared to Coho salmon. The observed differences in the regulation of aquaporin genes may reveal osmoregulatory adaptations associated with nutrient ingestion and metabolite waste export, exposing complex host-parasite relationships in C. rogercresseyi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of louse-borne relapsing fever in high risk populations in Bahir Dar city Northwest, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yimer, Mulat; Abera, Bayeh; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Bezabih, Belay; Mohammed, Jemal

    2014-09-08

    Louse- borne relapsing fever (LBRF) is a vector borne acute febrile illness caused by Borrelia recurrentis and the disease is more prevalent in the high risk groups like prisoners, yekoloremaries and street children. However, prevalence and risk factors of LBRF in these populations about the disease are not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of LBRF in high risk populations. A cross- sectional survey on prevalence and risk factors of LBRF in high risk populations in Bahir Dar city was conducted in December, 2012. For the study, blood was taken from the tip of the left ring finger of the participants by laboratory technicians and thick blood film was prepared from each participant and stained with 3% Giemsa for 30 min. The slides were examined and the result was reported as positive or negative using light microscopy and finally, data was also collected using a pre- tested questionnaire by face to face interviews. Of the 407 study participants, 383 (94.1%) were males with the mean age of 31 years and 243 (59.7%) had no formal education. The prevalence of LBRF was 2.5% and the positivity rate of LBRF was highest in yekolotemaries (6.1%) followed by street children (4.9%). However, prisoners had nil and statistically significance association was observed between high risk populations and LBRF prevalence (p < 0.001). Those study participants who lived in mud houses had the highest positivity rate (2.2%), followed by those in wood houses (0.3%). However, those who lived in brick houses had nil. Study participants who had low levels of knowledge had the highest prevalence rate of LBRF. The overall prevalence of LBRF was 2.5% and the rate of positivity was highest in yekolotemaries, followed by street children. Therefore, health education should be given for these high risk populations.

  2. Vector potential of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis in the transmission of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV).

    PubMed

    Jakob, E; Barker, D E; Garver, K A

    2011-12-06

    To better understand the role of vector transmission of aquatic viruses, we established an in vivo virus-parasite challenge specifically to address (1) whether Lepeophtheirus salmonis can acquire infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) after water bath exposure or via parasitizing infected Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and if so, define the duration of this association and (2) whether L. salmonis can transmit IHNV to naive Atlantic salmon and whether this transmission requires attachment to the host. Salmon lice which were water bath-exposed to 1 x 10(5) plaque-forming units (pfu) ml(-1) of IHNV for 1 h acquired the virus (2.1 x 10(4) pfu g(-1)) and remained IHNV-positive for 24 h post exposure. After parasitizing IHNV-infected hosts (viral titer in fish mucus 3.3 x 10(4) pfu ml(-1)) salmon lice acquired IHNV (3.4 x 10(3) pfu g(-1)) and remained virus-positive for 12 h. IHNV-positive salmon lice generated through water bath exposure or after parasitizing infected Atlantic salmon successfully transmitted IHNV, resulting in 76.5 and 86.6% of the exposed Atlantic salmon testing positive for IHNV, respectively. In a second experiment, only salmon lice that became IHNV-positive through water bath exposure transmitted IHNV to 20% of the naive fish, and no virus was transmitted when IHNV-infected salmon lice were cohabitated but restrained from attaching to naive fish. Under laboratory conditions, adult L. salmonis can acquire IHNV and transmit it to naive Atlantic salmon through parasitism. However, the ephemeral association of IHNV with L. salmonis indicates that the salmon louse act as a mechanical rather than a biological vector or reservoir.

  3. Louse-borne relapsing fever profile at Felegehiwot referral hospital, Bahir Dar city, Ethiopia: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Louse- borne relapsing fever is an acute febrile illness caused by Borrelia recurrentis and is transmitted by body lice, Pediculus humanus corporis. The disease has occurred as epidemic in different parts of the country.Therefore, the aim of this retrospective study was conducted to assess the LBRF profile for the last four years. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on patients with LBRF admitted from 2009–2012 at Felegehiwot referral hospital. The diagnosis was based on both clinical and laboratory methods. Patients with strong clinical suspicion of LBRF and positive for Borrelia species in their blood was diagnosed as LBRF cases. Data was collected from all patients with LBRF- like symptoms in their registration book. Data was checked for completeness, coded and analysed using SPSS version 16. P < 0.05 was considered significant for comparison. Results Of the 4559 patients admitted with LBRF- like symptoms, 4178 (91.6%) were males and 381 (8.4%) were females. Most of the patients (74.2%) were within age groups 11–20 years. The majority of patients (94.4%) were from urban residence. The overall prevalence of LBRF was 225 (4.9%) and the highest prevalence 171 (5.1%) was observed in age groups of 11–20 years. The association between seasonal variation and prevalence of LBRF showed that more patients with positive for Borrelia species were recorded in dry 27 (9.7%) than wet 198 (4.6%) seasons (P < 0.001). Finally, a trend in prevalence of LBRF for the last four years showed that the highest numbers of cases were documented in 2010. Conclusion The overall prevalence of LBRF was high and the highest prevalence was observed in young age groups. Moreover, most of the patients with LBRF were from urban dwellers. Therefore, health education should be delivered towards LBRF prevention in the city. PMID:24742342

  4. Louse-Borne Relapsing Fever with Meningeal Involvement in an Immigrant from Somalia to Italy, October 2015.

    PubMed

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Antonelli, Alberto; Bartolini, Laura; Pecile, Patrizia; Trotta, Michele; Rogasi, Pier Giorgio; Santini, Maria Grazia; Dilaghi, Beatrice; Grifoni, Stefano; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Borrelia recurrentis, transmitted by Pediculus humanus humanus, is the etiological agent of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF). Currently the main focus of endemicity of LBRF is localized in East African countries. From July 2015 to October 2015, 36 cases of LBRF have been diagnosed in Europe in immigrants from the Horn of Africa. Here we report a case of LBRF with meningitis diagnosed in Florence, Italy, in an immigrant arrived from Somalia. In October 2015, a 19-year-old Somali male presented to the emergency department of the Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy, with a 3-day history of high fever. The patient had disembarked in Sicily 10 days before admission after a long migration trip from his country of origin. On clinical examination, neck stiffness was found. Main laboratory findings were thrombocytopenia, increased procalcitonin, and increased polymorphonucleates in the cerebrospinal fluid. Suspecting a possible meningitis, the patient was treated with ceftriaxone, pending results of laboratory testing for malaria, and developed severe hypotension that was treated with fluid resuscitation and hydrocortisone. Hemoscopic testing revealed the presence of spirochetes and no malaria parasites. The patient rapidly improved with doxycycline for 7 days and ceftriaxone for 11 days, then was lost to follow-up. Total DNA from blood was extracted, and amplification and sequencing with universal 16S rDNA primers D88 and E94 revealed a 100% identity with B. recurrentis A1. LBRF is a rare but emerging infectious disease among vulnerable displaced immigrants from the Horn of Africa. Since immigrants from endemic areas can carry the vector with them, the infection should be suspected even in subjects with compatible clinical features living in the same place where new arrival immigrants are hosted. Healthcare providers should be aware of this condition to implement adequate diagnostic, therapeutic, and public health measures.

  5. Chlamydia psittaci genotype B in a pigeon (Columba livia) inhabiting a public place in San José, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Dolz, G.; Solórzano-Morales, Á.; Angelova, L.; Tien, C.; Fonseca, L.; Bonilla, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes), the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia) cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales) in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons. PMID:26623327

  6. Maternal thyroid hormones enhance hatching success but decrease nestling body mass in the rock pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Bin-Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Darras, Veerle M; de Vries, Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) - triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) - are essential for embryonic development in vertebrates. All vertebrate embryos are exposed to THs from maternal origin. As maternal TH levels are known to be essential to embryonic development, the natural variation of maternal THs probably represents a pathway of maternal effects that can modify offspring phenotype. However, potential fitness consequences of variation of maternal TH exposure within the normal physiological range and without confounding effects of the mother have never been experimentally investigated. We experimentally manipulated the levels of yolk T3 and T4 within the physiological range in a species in which the embryo develops outside the mother's body, the Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) eggs. Making use of the natural difference of yolk testosterone between the two eggs of pigeon clutches, we were also able to investigate the potential interaction between THs and testosterone. Elevated yolk TH levels enhanced embryonic development and hatching success, and reduced body mass but not tarsus length between day 14 and fledging. The yolk hormones increased plasma T4 concentrations in females but reduced it in males, in line with the effect on metabolic rate at hatching. Plasma concentrations of T3 and testosterone were not significantly affected. The effects of treatment did not differ between eggs with high or low testosterone levels. Our data indicate that natural variation in maternal yolk TH levels affects offspring phenotype and embryonic survival, potentially influencing maternal and chick fitness.

  7. The first description of a congenital right ventricular cardiac aneurysm in a pigeon (Columba livia domestica, Cluj blue tumbler pigeon).

    PubMed

    Gal, A F; Tăbăran, F; Taulescu, M; Cătoi, C

    2012-12-01

    Congenital cardiac aneurysms and diverticula are rare cardiac outpouchings first described in humans. Our paper describes a congenital cardiac aneurysm in the wall of the right ventricle in a pigeon. A number of pigeons (n = 23), Cluj blue tumblers (Aves: Columbiformes: Columbidae: Columba livia domestica), were found dead (accidental poisoning) in October 5, 2011 in Cluj-Napoca, Central Romania. One individual (a 7-mo-old male) presented with a thin-walled pouch in the wall of the right cardiac ventricle. A complete necropsy examination was performed, and samples of the heart (ca. 0.5 cm) with evident macroscopic lesions were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. During the necropsy examination, a well-demarcated outpouching was noted in the wall of the right cardiac ventricle. The aneurysm had a broad communication with the corresponding ventricular chamber. Histologically, the wall of the right ventricular pouch consisted of mature fibrous connective tissue with collagen fibers and fibroblasts. No viable cardiomyocytes were found in the wall of the aneurysm. No infarction, inflammation, or granulation tissue was identified in the aneurysm. This is the first reliable record of a congenital cardiac aneurysm in a pigeon and also the first record of this cardiac anomaly in birds. Herein we describe gross and histopathologic changes of a congenital cardiac aneurysm in a pigeon.

  8. Removal of the uropygial gland does not affect serum lipids, cholesterol and calcium levels in the rock pigeon Columba livia.

    PubMed

    Montalti, D; Gutiérrez, Ana María; Reboredo, G R; Salibián, A

    2006-09-01

    The uropygial gland is an organ typical of birds, over which no agreement regarding its function has been attained yet. Authors attribute to the gland an hydrophobic action. The function of the gland is herein explored in rock pigeon, Columba livia, was used as experimental model for trials. The study was focused on the physiological role of the gland in relation to biochemical parameters. Pigeons were separated in groups of six birds each: a) intact control, b) surgical control, c) ablationed. Comparing control specimens with gland-removed specimens, recorded serum levels after 32 days were the following (mean+/-SD): cholesterol (g/l), 3.7+/-0.6 vs. 4.1+/-0.6; total lipids (g/l), 15.7+/-2.0 vs. 13.7+/-2.7; calcium (mg/l), 100.5 +/- 24.3 vs. 99.1 +/- 9.2. None of the differences were statistically significant. Thus, no alterations of basic biochemical parameters associated with metabolism of lipids were registered. In one group of birds the calcium and cholesterol levels were determined 122 days after surgery; in this case values remained unchanged related to the beginning of the trials. Results suggest that the uropygial gland is not physiologically related to either the homeostasis of total lipids, cholesterol or the regulation of calcium metabolism.

  9. Who are the real bird brains? Qualitative differences in behavioral flexibility between dogs (Canis familiaris) and pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Laude, Jennifer R; Pattison, Kristina F; Rayburn-Reeves, Rebecca M; Michler, Daniel M; Zentall, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Pigeons given a simultaneous spatial discrimination reversal, in which a single reversal occurs at the midpoint of each session, consistently show anticipation prior to the reversal as well as perseveration after the reversal, suggesting that they use a less effective cue (time or trial number into the session) than what would be optimal to maximize reinforcement (local feedback from the most recent trials). In contrast, rats (Rattus norvegicus) and humans show near-optimal reversal learning on this task. To determine whether this is a general characteristic of mammals, in the present research, pigeons (Columba livia) and dogs (Canis familiaris) were tested with a simultaneous spatial discrimination mid-session reversal. Overall, dogs performed the task more poorly than pigeons. Interestingly, both pigeons and dogs employed what resembled a timing strategy. However, dogs showed greater perseverative errors, suggesting that they may have relatively poorer working memory and inhibitory control with this task. The greater efficiency shown by pigeons with this task suggests they are better able to time and use the feedback from their preceding choice as the basis of their future choice, highlighting what may be a qualitative difference between the species.

  10. Generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning: learning strategies and related issues in Macaca mulatta, Cebus apella, and Columba livia.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anthony A; Katz, Jeffrey S

    2007-11-01

    The generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning was tested with a meta-analysis of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and pigeons (Columba livia) learning a same/different (S/D) task with expanding training sets. The generalization hypothesis states that as the number of training items increases, generalization from the training pairs will increase and could explain the subjects' accurate novel-stimulus transfer. By contrast, concept learning is learning the relationship between each pair of items; with more training items subjects learn more exemplars of the rule and transfer better. Having to learn the stimulus pairs (the generalization hypothesis) would require more training as the set size increases, whereas learning the concept might require less training because subjects would be learning an abstract rule. The results strongly support concept or rule learning despite severely relaxing the generalization-hypothesis parameters. Thus, generalization was not a factor in the transfer from these experiments, adding to the evidence that these subjects were learning the S/D abstract concept. Copyright 2007 APA.

  11. Heterotopic implantation of autologous bone marrow in rock pigeons (Columba livia): possible applications in avian bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Sanaei, M Reza; Abu, Jalila; Nazari, Mojgan; Faiz, Nik Mohd; Bakar, Mohd Zuki Abu; Allaudin, Zeenathul N

    2011-12-01

    Autologous bone marrow, alone or as a composite marrow graft, has received much attention in various species. To assess the potential osteogenicity of autologous, extramedullary bone marrow implants in an avian model, 24 adult pigeons (Columba livia) were given intramuscular implantations of autologous marrow aspirated from the medial tibiotarsus. Birds were euthanatized at 1, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks after surgery to evaluate whether ectopic bone had formed at the implant sites. Primary evaluations by in situ radiography and postmortem histologic examinations showed no evidence of bone formation. Further evaluation with histologic scores and histomorphometry revealed a significantly increased rate of angiogenesis at the implant sites by the sixth and tenth week postimplantation (P < .05). No significant differences between the treatment and control sites were present at any other endpoints. Results of this study show that, although autologous bone marrow lacks heterotopic osteogenic potentials in this avian model, it could still function as a useful adjunct to routine bone grafting techniques because of its unique capabilities to promote early angiogenesis.

  12. Are Birds Smarter Than Mathematicians? Pigeons (Columba livia) Perform Optimally on a Version of the Monty Hall Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Herbranson, Walter T.; Schroeder, Julia

    2011-01-01

    The “Monty Hall Dilemma” (MHD) is a well known probability puzzle in which a player tries to guess which of three doors conceals a desirable prize. After an initial choice is made, one of the remaining doors is opened, revealing no prize. The player is then given the option of staying with their initial guess or switching to the other unopened door. Most people opt to stay with their initial guess, despite the fact that switching doubles the probability of winning. A series of experiments investigated whether pigeons (Columba livia), like most humans, would fail to maximize their expected winnings in a version of the MHD. Birds completed multiple trials of a standard MHD, with the three response keys in an operant chamber serving as the three doors and access to mixed grain as the prize. Across experiments, the probability of gaining reinforcement for switching and staying was manipulated, and birds adjusted their probability of switching and staying to approximate the optimal strategy. Replication of the procedure with human participants showed that humans failed to adopt optimal strategies, even with extensive training. PMID:20175592

  13. Experimental infection of Newcastle disease virus in pigeons (Columba livia): humoral antibody response, contact transmission and viral genome shedding.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Torres Carrasco, Adriano; Seki, Meire Christina; de Freitas Raso, Tânia; Paulillo, Antônio Carlos; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2008-05-25

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the humoral antibody response, the genome viral excretion and the contact transmission of pathogenic chicken origin Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from experimentally infected pigeons (Columba livia) to in-contact pigeon. The antibody response to infection was assessed by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and the genome viral excretion was detected by RT-PCR. Viral strain induced high antibody levels, both in inoculated and in sentinel birds. The pathogenic viral strain for chickens was unable to produce clinical signs of the disease in experimentally infected pigeons, although it induced the humoral antibody response and produced NDV genome shedding. NDV genome was detected intermittently throughout the experimental period, from 5 days post-infection (dpi) to 24 dpi. Therefore, viral genome shedding occurred for 20 days. The viral genome was detected in all birds, between 11 and 13 dpi. Furthermore, the high infectivity of the virus was confirmed, as all non-inoculated sentinel pigeons showed antibody levels as high as those of inoculated birds.

  14. Chlamydia psittaci genotype B in a pigeon (Columba livia) inhabiting a public place in San José, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Dolz, G; Solórzano-Morales, Á; Angelova, L; Tien, C; Fonseca, L; Bonilla, M C

    2013-01-01

    Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes), the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia) cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales) in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons.

  15. The Genome of Borrelia recurrentis, the Agent of Deadly Louse-Borne Relapsing Fever, Is a Degraded Subset of Tick-Borne Borrelia duttonii

    PubMed Central

    Lescot, Magali; Audic, Stéphane; Robert, Catherine; Nguyen, Thi Tien; Blanc, Guillaume; Cutler, Sally J.; Wincker, Patrick; Couloux, Arnaud; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to understand how a tick-borne pathogen adapts to the body louse, we sequenced and compared the genomes of the recurrent fever agents Borrelia recurrentis and B. duttonii. The 1,242,163–1,574,910-bp fragmented genomes of B. recurrentis and B. duttonii contain a unique 23-kb linear plasmid. This linear plasmid exhibits a large polyT track within the promoter region of an intact variable large protein gene and a telomere resolvase that is unique to Borrelia. The genome content is characterized by several repeat families, including antigenic lipoproteins. B. recurrentis exhibited a 20.4% genome size reduction and appeared to be a strain of B. duttonii, with a decaying genome, possibly due to the accumulation of genomic errors induced by the loss of recA and mutS. Accompanying this were increases in the number of impaired genes and a reduction in coding capacity, including surface-exposed lipoproteins and putative virulence factors. Analysis of the reconstructed ancestral sequence compared to B. duttonii and B. recurrentis was consistent with the accelerated evolution observed in B. recurrentis. Vector specialization of louse-borne pathogens responsible for major epidemics was associated with rapid genome reduction. The correlation between gene loss and increased virulence of B. recurrentis parallels that of Rickettsia prowazekii, with both species being genomic subsets of less-virulent strains. PMID:18787695

  16. Some Practical Considerations in the Control of Louse-borne Typhus Fever in Great Britain in the Light of Experience in Russia, Poland, Rumania and China

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Melville D.

    1941-01-01

    This paper deals with some aspects of the control of louse-borne typhus fever. The epidemic form is associated with famine and overcrowding. In producing an epidemic in a hitherto endemic area malnutrition is of greater importance than over-crowding; another factor which brings this about is widespread movement of civil or military population thus bringing non-immunes into a district where typhus is endemic. Endemic typhus usually occurs in the early months of the year, whilst the epidemic form may appear at any time. Conditions under which epidemic typhus occurs favour the outbreak of other diseases so that an uncomplicated case is rarely seen. Louse-borne typhus fever lasts from twelve to sixteen days. The incubation period is usually twelve to fourteen days, though it may be from five to twenty-one days. The onset is sudden, but is often preceded by malaise and a rise of temperature. Two common initial symptoms are acute frontal or occipital headache and bronchitis. The first sign may be mental confusion or delirium. Acute delirium is usually present after the first week. PMID:19992447

  17. 1,2-Octanediol, a Novel Surfactant, for Treating Head Louse Infestation: Identification of Activity, Formulation, and Randomised, Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ian F.; Lee, Peter N.; Kay, Katrina; Jones, Ruth; Brunton, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Interest in developing physically active pediculicides has identified new active substances. The objective was to evaluate a new treatment for clinical efficacy. Methods and Findings We describe the selection of 1,2-octanediol as a potential pediculicide. Clinical studies were community based. The main outcome measure was no live lice, after two treatments, with follow up visits over 14 days. Study 1 was a proof of concept with 18/20 (90%) participants cured. Study 2 was a multicentre, parallel, randomised, observer-blind study (520 participants) that compared 0.5% malathion liquid with 1,2-octanediol lotion (20% alcohol) applied 2–2.5 hours or 8 hours/overnight. 1,2-octanediol lotion was significantly (p<0.0005) more effective with success for 124/175 (70.9%) RR = 1.50 (97.5% CI, 1.22 to 1.85) for 2–2.5 hours, and 153/174 (87.9%) RR = 1.86 (97.5% CI, 1.54 to 2.26) for 8 hours/overnight compared with 81/171 (47.4%) for malathion. Study 3, a two centre, parallel, randomised, observer-blind study (121 participants), compared 1,2-octanediol lotion, 2–2.5 hours with 1,2-octanediol alcohol free mousse applied for 2–2.5 hours or 8 hours/overnight. The mousse applied for 8 hours/overnight cured 31/40 (77.5%), compared with 24/40 (60.0%) for lotion (RR = 1.29, 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.75; NNT = 5.7) but mousse applied for 2–2.5 hours 17/41 (41.5%) was less effective than lotion (RR = 0.69, 95% CI, 0.44 to 1.08). Adverse events were more common using 1,2-octanediol lotion at both 2–2.5 hours (12.0%, p = 0.001) and 8 hours/overnight (14.9%, p<0.0005), compared with 0.5% malathion (2.3%). Similar reactions were more frequent (p<0.045) using lotion compared with mousse. Conclusions 1,2-octanediol was found to eliminate head louse infestation. It is believed to disrupt the insect's cuticular lipid, resulting in dehydration. The alcohol free mousse is more acceptable exhibiting significantly fewer adverse reactions. Trial registrations

  18. Local and systemic gene expression responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) to infection with the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)

    PubMed Central

    Skugor, Stanko; Glover, Kevin Alan; Nilsen, Frank; Krasnov, Aleksei

    2008-01-01

    Background The salmon louse (SL) is an ectoparasitic caligid crustacean infecting salmonid fishes in the marine environment. SL represents one of the major challenges for farming of salmonids, and veterinary intervention is necessary to combat infection. This study addressed gene expression responses of Atlantic salmon infected with SL, which may account for its high susceptibility. Results The effects of SL infection on gene expression in Atlantic salmon were studied throughout the infection period from copepodids at 3 days post infection (dpi) to adult lice (33 dpi). Gene expression was analyzed at three developmental stages in damaged and intact skin, spleen, head kidney and liver, using real-time qPCR and a salmonid cDNA microarray (SFA2). Rapid detection of parasites was indicated by the up-regulation of immunoglobulins in the spleen and head kidney and IL-1 receptor type 1, CD4, beta-2-microglobulin, IL-12β, CD8α and arginase 1 in the intact skin of infected fish. Most immune responses decreased at 22 dpi, however, a second activation was observed at 33 dpi. The observed pattern of gene expression in damaged skin suggested the development of inflammation with signs of Th2-like responses. Involvement of T cells in responses to SL was witnessed with up-regulation of CD4, CD8α and programmed death ligand 1. Signs of hyporesponsive immune cells were seen. Cellular stress was prevalent in damaged skin as seen by highly significant up-regulation of heat shock proteins, other chaperones and mitochondrial proteins. Induction of the major components of extracellular matrix, TGF-β and IL-10 was observed only at the adult stage of SL. Taken together with up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), this classifies the wounds afflicted by SL as chronic. Overall, the gene expression changes suggest a combination of chronic stress, impaired healing and immunomodulation. Steady increase of MMP expression in all tissues except liver was a remarkable feature of SL

  19. Distribution and characterization of doublecortin-expressing cells and fibers in the brain of the adult pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Melleu, F F; Santos, T S; Lino-de-Oliveira, C; Marino-Neto, J

    2013-01-01

    Doublecortin (DCX) is a microtubule-associated protein essential for the migration of immature neurons in the developing and adult vertebrate brain. Herein, the distribution of DCX-immunoreactive (DCX-ir) cells in the prosencephalon of the adult pigeon (Columba livia) is described, in order to collect the evidence of their immature neural phenotype and to investigate their putative place of origin. Bipolar and multipolar DCX-ir cells were observed to be widespread throughout the parenchyma of the adult pigeon forebrain. Small, bipolar and fusiform DCX-ir cells were especially concentrated at the tips of the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles (VZ) and sparsely distributed in the remaining ependyma. Multipolar DCX-ir cells populated the pallial regions. None of these DCX-ir cells seemed to co-express NeuN or GFAP, suggesting that they were immature neurons. Two different migratory-like routes of DCX-ir cells from the VZ toward different targets in the parenchyma were putatively identified: (i) rostral migratory-like bundle; and (ii) lateral migratory-like bundle. In addition, pial surface bundles and intra-ependymal fascicles were also observed. Pigeons treated with 5-bromo-desoxyuridine (BrdU, 3 intraperitoneal injections of 100mg/kg 2h apart, sacrificed 2h after last injection) displayed BrdU-immunoreactive cells (BrdU-ir) in VZ and ependyma whereas the parenchyma was free of such cells. Despite the regional overlapping, there was no evidence of double-labeling between BrdU and DCX. Therefore, the VZ in the brain of adult pigeons seems to have rapidly dividing cells as putative progenitors of newborn neurons populating the forebrain. The distribution of the newborn neurons in the avian prosencephalon and their migration pathways appear to be larger than in mammals, suggesting that the morphological turnover of forebrain circuits is an important mechanism for brain plasticity in avian species during adulthood.

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of pigeon (Columba liva) ubiquitin and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme genes from pituitary gland library.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng-fei; Cao, Guo-qing; Zhao, Hui-ting; Zhang, Gui-xian; Jiang, Yu-suo; Wang, Qin-de

    2009-01-01

    In the study of the regulation of incubation, broodiness and laying performance in pigeons (Columba liva), a cDNA library, which was enriched with full-length brooding-related genes, was constructed by SMART LD-PCR techniques using the pituitary glands of incubating White King pigeons. The titers of optimal primary libraries were 1.54x10(6) pfu/mL and 1.80x10(6) pfu/mL and the titers of amplified libraries were 1.89x10(8) pfu/mL and 2.32x10(9 )pfu/mL. The percentages of recombinant clones of primary libraries and amplified libraries were all over 90%. A positive clone was sequenced and named ubiquitin based on the highly similar from other species. The fragment has the four initial codons of ATG, a termination codon of TAA and a signal sequence of AATAAA for adding the poly-A tail. The open reading frame of 918bp encodes 305 amino acids (NCBI accession number is EU981283). Recombinant pigeon ubiquitin protein was efficiently expressed with the form of insoluble inclusion bodies in E. coli BL21 transformed with a pET28a(+) expression vector containing the DNA sequence encoding mature pigeon ubiquitin. The molecular weight of expressed protein is the same as predicted size of approximately 35kD. To improve the efficiency of cloning full-length cDNA, strategies of RACE combined with cDNA library were used. The length of pigeons ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene obtained was 1263 bp containing a complete open reading frame of 435 bp that encodes 144 aa (NCBI accession number is EU914824). The results of this study not only provide a starting point for further study of ubiquitin function in pigeon species, but also provide a starting point for investigating the brooding mechanisms of pigeons.

  1. Effects of human disturbance on nest placement of the woodpigeon (Columba palumbus): a case study from the Middle Atlas, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Hanane, Saâd

    2014-06-01

    The woodpigeon (Columba palumbus) is a common and widespread bird in Morocco (North Africa). I examined, over 2 years (2010 and 2011), the breeding density and nest placement of this game species in relation to nest site habitat and degree of human disturbance. The study area was in the Middle Atlas Tighboula mountain forest, Morocco, in a disturbed and an undisturbed site. Using data collected in the 2 study sites, I aimed to identify the factors influencing the placement of nests within holm oak trees (Quercus rotundifolia) and their densities. I found that habitat structures, influenced by grazing disturbance, have affected nesting density and the location of nests of this species. Woodpigeons place their nests in a higher position (3.42 ± 0.19 m) when disturbance intensity is high and lower (1.68 ± 0.1 m) when disturbance intensity is low, and show higher nesting density in less disturbed zone (3.1 ± 0.4 nests/ha) than in highly disturbed zones (1.4 ± 0.2 nests/ha). Grazing disturbance could pose a threat to population persistence at a broader scale and could potentially reduce the abundance of this species by altering the composition and the structure of the forest nesting habitat. Further multi-scale studies are needed to assess the effects of different levels of grazing disturbance on woodpigeon nest density and placement, and to enhance our knowledge of the breeding behavior of this game species under variable environments. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Histologic Evaluation of Critical Size Defect Healing With Natural and Synthetic Bone Grafts in the Pigeon ( Columba livia ) Ulna.

    PubMed

    Tunio, Ahmed; Jalila, Abu; Goh, Yong Meng; Shameha-Intan; Shanthi, Ganabadi

    2015-06-01

    Fracture and bone segment loss are major clinical problems in birds. Achieving bone formation and clinical union in a fracture case is important for the survival of the bird. To evaluate the efficacy of bone grafts for defect healing in birds, 2 different bone grafts were investigated in the healing of a bone defect in 24 healthy pigeons ( Columba livia ). In each bird, a 1-cm critical size defect (CSD) was created in the left ulna, and the fracture was stabilized with external skeletal fixation (ESF). A graft of hydroxyapatite (HA) alone (n = 12 birds) or demineralized bone matrix (DBM) combined with HA (n = 12 birds) was implanted in the CSD. The CSD healing was evaluated at 3 endpoints: 3, 6, and 12 weeks after surgery. Four birds were euthanatized at each endpoint from each treatment group, and bone graft healing in the ulna CSD was evaluated by histologic examination. The CSD and graft implants were evaluated for quality of union, cortex development, and bone graft incorporation. Results showed no graft rejection in any bird, and all birds had connective tissue formation in the defect because of the bone graft application. These results suggest that bone defect healing can be achieved by a combination of osteoinductive and osteoconductive bone graft materials for clinical union and new bone regeneration in birds. The combination of DBM and HA resulted in a better quality bone graft (P < .05) than did HA alone, but there was no significant differences in cortex development or bone graft incorporation at 3, 6, or 12 weeks. From the results of this study, we conclude that HA bone grafts, alone or in combination with DBM, with external skeletal fixation is suitable and safe for bone defect and fracture treatment in pigeons.

  3. Methods to determine metabolizable energy and digestibility of feed ingredients in the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica).

    PubMed

    Sales, J; Janssens, G P J

    2003-09-01

    The influence of length of excreta collection period (1, 3, 6, 10, 14 d) and prefeeding protocol (7 d either individual feeding in collection cages or group feeding in housing cages) on AMEn, nitrogen retention (NR), and apparent DM, organic matter and ether extract digestibility of corn and peas were evaluated in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica). In addition, the use of internal markers [acid-insoluble ash (AIA) and acid detergent lignin (ADL)] to determine AMEn, NR, and apparent digestibility was compared with the method of measuring total feed input and excreta output. A quadratic (y = a + bx + cx2) trend in the CV for AMEn, NR, and apparent digestibility coefficients found over collection periods with corn presented evidence that excreta collection for a period of 3 d will produce a CV of 5% less than the minimum CV. Although no trend could be detected in CV for peas, a 3-d excreta collection period resulted in relatively low variation. Both AIA and ADL, when used as internal markers, resulted in AMEn, NR, and digestibility values below (P < 0.05) those obtained with total collection with corn. However, values between markers were comparable (P > 0.05) for all components evaluated. The ADL was unsuccessful as marker with peas. Group prefeeding of pigeons in housing cages resulted in lower feed intake, excreta output, NR, and apparent digestibility than when birds were adapted individually to collection cages. This study presents evidence that the method of measuring total feed intake and excreta output for a period of 3 d, with individual adaptation of birds to collection cages, resulted in the most reliable values for AMEn, NR, and apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter and ether extract of feed ingredients in pigeons.

  4. Trace metals, melanin-based pigmentation and their interaction influence immune parameters in feral pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Chatelain, M; Gasparini, J; Frantz, A

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the effects of trace metals emitted by anthropogenic activities on wildlife is of great concern in urban ecology; yet, information on how they affect individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems remains scarce. In particular, trace metals may impact survival by altering the immune system response to parasites. Plumage melanin is assumed to influence the effects of trace metals on immunity owing to its ability to bind metal ions in feathers and its synthesis being coded by a pleiotropic gene. We thus hypothesized that trace metal exposure would interact with plumage colouration in shaping immune response. We experimentally investigated the interactive effect between exposure to an environmentally relevant range of zinc and/or lead and melanin-based plumage colouration on components of the immune system in feral pigeons (Columba livia). We found that zinc increased anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) IgY primary response maintenance, buffered the negative effect of lead on anti-KLH IgY secondary response maintenance and tended to increase T-cell mediated phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin response. Lead decreased the peak of the anti-KLH IgY secondary response. In addition, pheomelanic pigeons exhibited a higher secondary anti-KLH IgY response than did eumelanic ones. Finally, T-cell mediated PHA skin response decreased with increasing plumage eumelanin level of birds exposed to lead. Neither treatments nor plumage colouration correlated with endoparasite intensity. Overall, our study points out the effects of trace metals on some parameters of birds' immunity, independently from other confounding urbanization factors, and underlines the need to investigate their impacts on other life history traits and their consequences in the ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions.

  5. A screening of medicinal compounds for their effect on egg strings and nauplii of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer).

    PubMed

    Aaen, S M; Hamre, L A; Horsberg, T E

    2016-10-01

    Egg strings and nauplii of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis were exposed to a variety of medicinal compounds at 50 mg L(-1) for 30 min in two experiment series. This medicine concentration was selected as a starting point for a screening series. Hatching of egg strings and development to copepodid larvae were monitored in one experiment, and the survival and development of nauplii were monitored in the other. Two compounds, emamectin benzoate and cypermethrin, inhibited hatching effectively. Several compounds affected nauplii, either directly or through inhibiting development to the infective stage. A total of 50 mg L(-1) of azamethiphos, cypermethrin, emamectin benzoate and propoxur was lethal to >70% of the larvae. Diflubenzuron, fenoxycarb, pymetrozine, pyriprole and tebufenozide diminished the ability of nauplii developing to copepodids. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Clinical trial showing superiority of a coconut and anise spray over permethrin 0.43% lotion for head louse infestation, ISRCTN96469780.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ian F; Brunton, Elizabeth R; Burgess, Nazma A

    2010-01-01

    Permethrin is the most widely used pediculicide, but evidence of resistance from several countries and anecdotal reports from Germany suggest that permethrin lotion is now less effective. We designed a randomized, controlled, parallel group trial involving 100 participants with active head louse infestation to investigate the activity of a coconut and anise spray and to see whether permethrin lotion is still effective, using two applications of product 9 days apart. The spray was significantly more successful (41/50, 82.0%) cures compared with permethrin (21/50, 42.0%; p < 0.0001, difference 40.0%, 95% confidence interval of 22.5% to 57.5%). Per-protocol success was 83.3% and 44.7%, respectively. Thirty-three people reported irritant reactions following alcohol contact with excoriated skin. We concluded that, although permethrin lotion is still effective for some people, the coconut and anise spray can be a significantly more effective alternative treatment.

  7. New host/parasite record for very rare chewing louse Cuculotogaster arabicus (Clay, 1938) (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) on endemic mountain partridges of Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Mohamed Gamal El-Den; Alahmed, Azzam; Shobrak, Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    The endemic avifauna of Arabia is unique and characteristic through the whole region. Little is known about these birds and their ectoparasites. The Arabian partridge Alectoris melanocephala (Rüppell, 1835) and Philby's partridge Alectoris philbyi Lowe, 1934 are two endemic species which are distributed through the Sarawat Mountains in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Captive breeding population of these birds were examined for chewing lice at the National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) near Ta'if. Only one rare species of louse, Cuculotogaster arabicus (Clay 1938), was found to infest these birds. The occurrence of such species is considered a first record of the genus Cuculotogaster from Saudi Arabia, and the association of C. arabicus with Philby's partridge is considered a new host/parasite association. The clear diagnostic characters, high definition photos, and drawing of male genitalia are available through this paper.

  8. Chemotherapy of head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) infestation gamma benzene hexachloride (gamma-BHC) among school children in Szu-Hu District, Yunlin County, Central West Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C; Chao, D; Lee, K M; Chan, C H; Liu, H Y

    1991-07-01

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of 1% gamma-BHC emulsion against head louse infestation, 1,527 school children were examined using observation by ocular and combing methods were used and infested children were treated with three regimes of 1% gamma-BHC emulsion. An overall infestation rate of 40% was found. The infestation rate was highest in Tung-Kuang Primary School (59%) and lowest in Chien-Hua Primary Schools (7%). The rate was highest among school children grade 2 (45%) and lowest in grade 3 (35%). The rate of girls (65%) was much higher than that of boys (9%). A total of 443 lice were collected from 78 infested school girls: 56 males, 59 females, and 328 nymph. The average number of head lice in each infested girl was 5.7. Follow-up examination was conducted one week after treatment. The cure rates for dosages of 10.0 ml, 5.0 ml, and 2.5 ml 1% gamma-BHC emulsion were 96%, 88%, 68% for girls and 100%, 92%, and 33% for boys, respectively. Only mild and transient itching and burn sensation of scalp were reported by a few children. The overall infestation rate 5 months (April-September 1981) after treatment was 23% (286/1,245). The rate of girls decreased from 65% to 40% and that of boys from 9% to 3%. Results of the present study indicates that 1% gamma-BHC emulsion is an effective pediculicide at a dosage of 5 ml or 10 ml. However, the overall infestation rate remained high (23%) 5 months after treatment. These findings suggest that treatment of head louse infestation must be conducted continuously.

  9. Anesthesia and liver biopsy techniques for pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) suspected of exposure to crude oil in marine environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degernes, Laurel A.; Harms, Craig A.; Golet, Gregory H.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the anesthesia and liver biopsy techniques used in adult and nestling pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) to test for continued exposure to residual crude oil in the marine environment. Populations of pigeon guillemots have declined significantly in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, possibly because of residual effects of crude oil in the environment after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in March 1989. Measurement of hepatic cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) is currently the best way to assess crude oil exposure from food sources; however, lethal sampling to obtain adequate liver tissue was not desirable in this declining population of birds. As part of a larger study to identify factors limiting the recovery of pigeon guillemots and other seabird populations, we surgically collected liver samples from adult and nestling guillemots to provide samples for measurement of hepatic CYP1A concentrations. Results from the larger study were reported elsewhere. Liver samples were taken from 26 nestling (1998) and 24 adult (1999) guillemots from a previously oiled site (Naked Island; 12 chicks, 13 adults) and from a nonoiled site (Jackpot Island/Icy Bay; 14 chicks, 11 adults). The birds were anesthetized with isoflurane. No surgical complications occurred with any of the birds and all adult and nestling birds survived after surgery to the point of release or return to the nest. Thirteen out of 14 chicks from the Jackpot Island/Icy Bay and 8 out of 12 chicks from Naked Island fledged. Four chicks at Naked Island were depredated before fledging. All adults abandoned their nests after surgery, so the study sites were revisited the following summer (2000) in an attempt to assess overwinter survival of the adults. All but 1 adult biopsied bird at the nonoiled site (Icy Bay) was found renesting, whereas only 2 birds at the previously oiled site (Naked Island) were similarly observed. The percent of 1999 breeders at Naked Island that returned to their nest sites to breed

  10. Growth of embryo and gene expression of nutrient transporters in the small intestine of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia)*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming-xia; Li, Xiang-guang; Yang, Jun-xian; Gao, Chun-qi; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xiu-qi; Yan, Hui-chao

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between gene expression of nutrient (amino acid, peptide, sodium and proton) transporters in the small intestine and embryonic growth in domestic pigeons (Columba livia). One hundred and twenty-five fertilized eggs were randomly assigned into five groups and were incubated under optimal conditions (temperature of 38.1 °C and relative humidity of 55%). Twenty embryos/birds from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on embryonic day (E) 9, 11, 13, 15 and day of hatch (DOH). The eggs, embryos (without yolk sac), and organs (head, brain, heart, liver, lungs, kidney, gizzard, small intestine, legs, and thorax) were dissected, cleaned, and weighed. Small intestine samples were collected for RNA isolation. The mRNA abundance of intestinal nutrient transporters was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We classified these ten organs into four types according to the changes in relative weight during embryonic development. In addition, the gene expression of nutrient transporters was differentially regulated by embryonic day. The mRNA abundances of b0,+AT, EAAT3, y+LAT2, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, and NHE3 increased linearly with age, whereas mRNA abundances of CAT1, CAT2, LAT1, EAAT2, SNAT1, and SNAT2 were increased to higher levels on E9 or E11 and then decreased to lower levels until DOH. The results of correlation analysis showed that the gene expressions of b0,+AT, EAAT3, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, NHE3, and y+LAT2 had positive correlations with body weight (0.71

  11. Growth of embryo and gene expression of nutrient transporters in the small intestine of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-xia; Li, Xiang-guang; Yang, Jun-xian; Gao, Chun-qi; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xiu-qi; Yan, Hui-chao

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between gene expression of nutrient (amino acid, peptide, sodium and proton) transporters in the small intestine and embryonic growth in domestic pigeons (Columba livia). One hundred and twenty-five fertilized eggs were randomly assigned into five groups and were incubated under optimal conditions (temperature of 38.1 °C and relative humidity of 55%). Twenty embryos/birds from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on embryonic day (E) 9, 11, 13, 15 and day of hatch (DOH). The eggs, embryos (without yolk sac), and organs (head, brain, heart, liver, lungs, kidney, gizzard, small intestine, legs, and thorax) were dissected, cleaned, and weighed. Small intestine samples were collected for RNA isolation. The mRNA abundance of intestinal nutrient transporters was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We classified these ten organs into four types according to the changes in relative weight during embryonic development. In addition, the gene expression of nutrient transporters was differentially regulated by embryonic day. The mRNA abundances of b(0,+)AT, EAAT3, y(+)LAT2, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, and NHE3 increased linearly with age, whereas mRNA abundances of CAT1, CAT2, LAT1, EAAT2, SNAT1, and SNAT2 were increased to higher levels on E9 or E11 and then decreased to lower levels until DOH. The results of correlation analysis showed that the gene expressions of b(0,+)AT, EAAT3, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, NHE3, and y(+)LAT2 had positive correlations with body weight (0.71

  12. New records of chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from some bird species in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dık, Bilal

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to detect chewing-lice found on some birds in Turkey. For this aim, a Eurasian collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto), a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and a marbled duck (Marmaronetta angustirostris) were examined for the louse. Columbicola bacillus (Giebel, 1866) was found on a Eurasian collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto), Afrimenopon waar (Eichler, 1947) on a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Anatoecus icterodes (Nitzsch, 1818) on a marbled duck (Marmaronetta angustirostris). All three louse species were recorded for the first time in Turkey. Anatoecus icterodes was reported for the first time from marbled duck in the worldwide. Therefore, marbled duck is a new host for Anatoecus icterodes.

  13. Identification and functional expression of a glutamate- and avermectin-gated chloride channel from Caligus rogercresseyi, a southern Hemisphere sea louse affecting farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Isabel; Andrini, Olga; Niemeyer, María Isabel; Marabolí, Vanessa; González-Nilo, F Danilo; Teulon, Jacques; Sepúlveda, Francisco V; Cid, L Pablo

    2014-09-01

    Parasitic sea lice represent a major sanitary threat to marine salmonid aquaculture, an industry accounting for 7% of world fish production. Caligus rogercresseyi is the principal sea louse species infesting farmed salmon and trout in the southern hemisphere. Most effective control of Caligus has been obtained with macrocyclic lactones (MLs) ivermectin and emamectin. These drugs target glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl) and act as irreversible non-competitive agonists causing neuronal inhibition, paralysis and death of the parasite. Here we report the cloning of a full-length CrGluClα receptor from Caligus rogercresseyi. Expression in Xenopus oocytes and electrophysiological assays show that CrGluClα is activated by glutamate and mediates chloride currents blocked by the ligand-gated anion channel inhibitor picrotoxin. Both ivermectin and emamectin activate CrGluClα in the absence of glutamate. The effects are irreversible and occur with an EC(50) value of around 200 nM, being cooperative (n(H) = 2) for ivermectin but not for emamectin. Using the three-dimensional structure of a GluClα from Caenorabditis elegans, the only available for any eukaryotic ligand-gated anion channel, we have constructed a homology model for CrGluClα. Docking and molecular dynamics calculations reveal the way in which ivermectin and emamectin interact with CrGluClα. Both drugs intercalate between transmembrane domains M1 and M3 of neighbouring subunits of a pentameric structure. The structure displays three H-bonds involved in this interaction, but despite similarity in structure only of two these are conserved from the C. elegans crystal binding site. Our data strongly suggest that CrGluClα is an important target for avermectins used in the treatment of sea louse infestation in farmed salmonids and open the way for ascertaining a possible mechanism of increasing resistance to MLs in aquaculture industry. Molecular modeling could help in the design of new, more efficient

  14. Identification and Functional Expression of a Glutamate- and Avermectin-Gated Chloride Channel from Caligus rogercresseyi, a Southern Hemisphere Sea Louse Affecting Farmed Fish

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, María Isabel; Marabolí, Vanessa; González-Nilo, F. Danilo; Teulon, Jacques; Sepúlveda, Francisco V.; Cid, L. Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic sea lice represent a major sanitary threat to marine salmonid aquaculture, an industry accounting for 7% of world fish production. Caligus rogercresseyi is the principal sea louse species infesting farmed salmon and trout in the southern hemisphere. Most effective control of Caligus has been obtained with macrocyclic lactones (MLs) ivermectin and emamectin. These drugs target glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl) and act as irreversible non-competitive agonists causing neuronal inhibition, paralysis and death of the parasite. Here we report the cloning of a full-length CrGluClα receptor from Caligus rogercresseyi. Expression in Xenopus oocytes and electrophysiological assays show that CrGluClα is activated by glutamate and mediates chloride currents blocked by the ligand-gated anion channel inhibitor picrotoxin. Both ivermectin and emamectin activate CrGluClα in the absence of glutamate. The effects are irreversible and occur with an EC50 value of around 200 nM, being cooperative (nH = 2) for ivermectin but not for emamectin. Using the three-dimensional structure of a GluClα from Caenorabditis elegans, the only available for any eukaryotic ligand-gated anion channel, we have constructed a homology model for CrGluClα. Docking and molecular dynamics calculations reveal the way in which ivermectin and emamectin interact with CrGluClα. Both drugs intercalate between transmembrane domains M1 and M3 of neighbouring subunits of a pentameric structure. The structure displays three H-bonds involved in this interaction, but despite similarity in structure only of two these are conserved from the C. elegans crystal binding site. Our data strongly suggest that CrGluClα is an important target for avermectins used in the treatment of sea louse infestation in farmed salmonids and open the way for ascertaining a possible mechanism of increasing resistance to MLs in aquaculture industry. Molecular modeling could help in the design of new, more efficient

  15. Deltamethrin resistance in the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxhall and Bravo) in Chile: bioassay results and usage data for antiparasitic agents with references to Norwegian conditions.

    PubMed

    Helgesen, K O; Bravo, S; Sevatdal, S; Mendoza, J; Horsberg, T E

    2014-10-01

    The sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi is a major threat to Chilean salmonid farming. Pyrethroids have been used for anticaligus treatments since 2007, but have shown reduced effect, most likely due to resistance development. Pyrethroid resistance is also a known problem in Lepeophtheirus salmonis in the Northern Hemisphere. This study describes the development of deltamethrin resistance in C. rogercresseyi based on bioassays and usage data for pyrethroids in Chilean aquaculture. These results were compared to bioassays from L. salmonis from Norway and to Norwegian usage data. Available deltamethrin bioassay results from 2007 and 2008, as well as bioassays from Norway, were collected and remodelled. Bioassays were performed on field-collected sea lice in region X in Chile in 2012 and 2013. Bioassays from 2007 were performed prior to the introduction of pyrethroids to the Chilean market. Both the results from 2008 and 2012 showed an increased resistance. Increased pyrethroid resistance was also indicated by the increased use of pyrethroids in Chilean aquaculture compared with the production of salmonids. A similar trend was seen in the Norwegian usage data. The bioassay results from Chile from 2012 and 2013 also indicated a difference in the susceptibility to deltamethrin between male and female caligus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evidence for the Induction of Key Components of the NOTCH Signaling Pathway via Deltamethrin and Azamethiphos Treatment in the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi

    PubMed Central

    Boltaña, Sebastian; Chávez-Mardones, Jaqueline; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    The extensive use of organophosphates and pyrethroids in the aquaculture industry has negatively impacted parasite sensitivity to the delousing effects of these antiparasitics, especially among sea lice species. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a positive regulator of ABC transporter subfamily C expression and plays a key role in the generation and modulation of pesticide resistance. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind pesticide resistance, partly due to the lack of genomic and molecular information on the processes involved in the resistance mechanism of sea lice. Next-generation sequencing technologies provide an opportunity for rapid and cost-effective generation of genome-scale data. The present study, through RNA-seq analysis, determined that the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (C. rogercresseyi) specifically responds to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin at the transcriptomic level by differentially activating mRNA of the NOTCH signaling pathway and of ABC genes. These results suggest that frequent antiparasitic application may increase the activity of inhibitory mRNA components, thereby promoting inhibitory NOTCH output and conditions for increased resistance to delousing drugs. Moreover, data analysis underscored that key functions of NOTCH/ABC components were regulated during distinct phases of the drug response, thus indicating resistance modifications in C. rogercresseyi resulting from the frequent use of organophosphates and pyrethroids. PMID:27187362

  17. Survey of three bacterial louse-associated diseases among rural Andean communities in Peru: prevalence of epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever.

    PubMed

    Raoult, D; Birtles, R J; Montoya, M; Perez, E; Tissot-Dupont, H; Roux, V; Guerra, H

    1999-08-01

    Typhus and other louse-transmitted bacterial infections in Peruvian sierra communities are known to occur but have not recently been assessed. In this study, 194 of 1,280 inhabitants of four villages in Calca Province in the Urubamba Valley were included. Thirty-nine (20%) of the 194 volunteers had antibodies to Rickettsia prowazekii, whereas 24 (12%) had antibodies to Bartonella quintana and 2 against Borrelia recurrentis. There was a significant correlation between the presence of infesting ectoparasites and antibodies to R. prowazekii, as well as between antibodies to R. prowazekii and ectoparasite infestation and fever in the previous 6 months. The proportion of inhabitants infested with ectoparasites was significantly higher in the highest-altitude village than in the other three villages. Two volunteers' antibody levels suggested a recent typhus infection, but only B. quintana DNA was amplified from lice. Epidemic typhus remains extant in the area, and B. quintana infections were encountered and documented for the first time in South America.

  18. The sympatric occurrence of two genetically divergent lineages of sucking louse, Polyplax arvicanthis (Phthiraptera: Anoplura), on the four-striped mouse genus, Rhabdomys (Rodentia: Muridae).

    PubMed

    du Toit, Nina; Matthee, Sonja; Matthee, Conrad A

    2013-04-01

    Within southern Africa, the widely distributed four-striped mouse genus (Rhabdomys) is parasitized by, amongst others, the specific ectoparasitic sucking louse, Polyplax arvicanthis. Given the presence of significant geographically structured genetic divergence in Rhabdomys, and the propensity of parasites to harbour cryptic diversity, the molecular systematics of P. arvicanthis was investigated. Representatives of P. arvicanthis were sampled from Rhabdomys at 16 localities throughout southern Africa. Parsimony and Bayesian gene trees were constructed for the mitochondrial COI, 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA and nuclear CAD genes. Our findings support the existence of 2 genetic groups within P. arvicanthis separated by at least 25% COI sequence divergence, which is comparable to that observed among recognized Polyplax species. We therefore propose that these 2 genetic lineages probably represent distinct species and that the apparent absence of clear morphological differences may point to cryptic speciation. The 2 taxa have sympatric distributions throughout most of the sampled host range and also occasionally occur sympatrically on the same host individual. The co-occurrence of these genetically distinct lineages probably resulted from parasite duplication via host-associated allopatric divergence and subsequent reciprocal range expansions of the 2 parasite taxa throughout southern Africa.

  19. Functional characterisation of the maternal yolk-associated protein (LsYAP) utilising systemic RNA interference in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Dalvin, Sussie; Frost, Petter; Biering, Eirik; Hamre, Lars A; Eichner, Christiane; Krossøy, Bjørn; Nilsen, Frank

    2009-11-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is an important pathogen in salmon aquaculture and a serious threat to wild populations of salmon. Knowledge of its basic biological processes such as reproduction is crucial for the control of this parasite and can facilitate development of a vaccine. Here, a novel yolk-associated protein, LsYAP, was characterised. Quantitative PCR and in situ analysis demonstrated that transcription of LsYAP takes place in the subcuticular tissue of adult females in the reproductive phase. LsYAP protein is transported and deposited in the developing eggs in the genital segment, where further processing takes place. The sequence characteristics, histological localisation and transcript regulation suggest that LsYAP is a yolk-associated protein. In addition, the use of RNA interference is, to our knowledge, demonstrated for the first time in a copepod. Treatment of adult females with double-stranded RNA led to lethality and deformations of offspring only. This result confirms that the LsYAP protein is produced in adult females but is utilised by the offspring.

  20. Detailed surface morphology of the 'lobster louse' copepod, Nicothoë astaci, a haematophagous gill parasite of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus.

    PubMed

    Davies, Charlotte E; Thomas, Gethin R; Maffeis, Thierry G G; Wootton, Emma C; Penny, Mark W; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-10-01

    The ectoparasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci (the 'lobster louse'), infests the gills of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. There have been limited studies on this haematophagous species; therefore knowledge of this parasite is rudimentary. The current study examines the surface morphology of this parasitic copepod, detached from the host, concentrating on adaptations of the suctorial mouthpart, the oral disc. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy revealed structural adaptations that facilitate attachment of these parasites to the gill filaments of their lobster host. The aperture of the feeding channel, through which host haemolymph is drawn, is only ca. 5μm in diameter. The edge of the oral disc is lined with numerous setae, whilst the surface of the disc is covered with large numbers of small (<1μm in diameter) teeth-like structures, which presumably pierce through, and grip, the cuticle lining of the host's gill. Overall, these structures are thought to provide a 'vacuum seal' to assist in pumping of blood, via peristalsis, into the alimentary canal of the copepod host.

  1. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of a salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis, Krøyer 1838) heme peroxidase with a potential role in extracellular matrixes.

    PubMed

    Øvergård, Aina-Cathrine; Eichner, Christiane; Nilsen, Frank; Dalvin, Sussie

    2017-04-01

    Heme peroxidases are the most abundant type of peroxidase catalyzing a H2O2-dependent oxidation of a wide variety of substrates. They are involved in numerous processes like the innate immune response, hormone and prostaglandin synthesis and crosslinking of proteins within extracellular matrixes (ECM) as well as molecules within the cuticle and chorion of arthropods and nematodes. In the present study, a Lepeophtheirus salmonis heme peroxidase (LsHPX) 1 was characterized. Amino acids in the active site of heme peroxidases were conserved, and the predicted protein sequence showed the highest similarity to genes annotated as chorion peroxidases and genes suggested to be involved in cuticle hardening or adhesion. LsHPX1 exhibited a dynamic expression during ontogenesis and during the nauplius molting cycle. Transcripts were localized to muscle cells near the muscle-tendon junction, in nerve tissue especially at neuromuscular junctions, subcuticular epithelium, subepithelial cells facing the hemolymph, exocrine glands within the subepithelial tissue and in isolated cells within the testis. Knock-down of LsHPX1 in nauplius larvae decreased the swimming activity of emerging copepodids. Histological analysis of knock-down animals revealed increased spacing between myofibers and changes in subepithelial and exocrine gland tissue. Considering these results, the potential role of LsHPX1 in crosslinking molecules of salmon louse ECMs is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcriptome analysis of the couch potato (CPO) protein reveals an expression pattern associated with early development in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Nuñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Chávez-Mardones, Jacqueline; Maldonado-Aguayo, Waleska

    2014-02-15

    The couch potato (CPO) protein is a key biomolecule involved in regulating diapause through the RNA-binding process of the peripheral and central nervous systems in insects and also recently discovered in a few crustacean species. As such, ectoparasitic copepods are interesting model species that have no evidence of developmental arrest. The present study is the first to report on the cloning of a putative CPO gene from the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi (CrCPO), as identified by high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. In addition, the transcription expression in larvae and adults was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR. The CrCPO cDNA sequence showed 3261 base pairs (bp), consisting of 713bp of 5' UTR, 1741bp of 3' UTR, and an open reading frame of 807bp encoding for 268 amino acids. The highly conserved RNA binding regions RNP2 (LFVSGL) and RNP1 (SPVGFVTF), as well the dimerization site (LEF), were also found. Furthermore, eight single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the untranslated regions and one located in the coding region were detected. Gene transcription analysis revealed that CrCPO has ubiquitous expression across larval stages and in adult individuals, with the highest expression from nauplius to copepodid stages. The present study suggests a putative biological function of CrCPO associated with the development of the nervous system in salmon lice and contributes molecular evidence for candidate genes related to host-parasite interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence for the Induction of Key Components of the NOTCH Signaling Pathway via Deltamethrin and Azamethiphos Treatment in the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Boltaña, Sebastian; Chávez-Mardones, Jaqueline; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-05-12

    The extensive use of organophosphates and pyrethroids in the aquaculture industry has negatively impacted parasite sensitivity to the delousing effects of these antiparasitics, especially among sea lice species. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a positive regulator of ABC transporter subfamily C expression and plays a key role in the generation and modulation of pesticide resistance. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind pesticide resistance, partly due to the lack of genomic and molecular information on the processes involved in the resistance mechanism of sea lice. Next-generation sequencing technologies provide an opportunity for rapid and cost-effective generation of genome-scale data. The present study, through RNA-seq analysis, determined that the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (C. rogercresseyi) specifically responds to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin at the transcriptomic level by differentially activating mRNA of the NOTCH signaling pathway and of ABC genes. These results suggest that frequent antiparasitic application may increase the activity of inhibitory mRNA components, thereby promoting inhibitory NOTCH output and conditions for increased resistance to delousing drugs. Moreover, data analysis underscored that key functions of NOTCH/ABC components were regulated during distinct phases of the drug response, thus indicating resistance modifications in C. rogercresseyi resulting from the frequent use of organophosphates and pyrethroids.

  4. Morphological and molecular characterization of Eimeria labbeana-like (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica, Gmelin, 1789) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elloit, Aileen; Ryan, Una

    2016-07-01

    An Eimeria species is described from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). Sporulated oocysts (n = 35) were subspherical, with a smooth bi-layered oocyst wall (1.0 μm thick). Oocysts measured 20.2 × 16.1 (22.0-18.9 × 15.7-18.9) μm, oocyst length/width (L/W) ratio, 1.38. Oocyst residuum and a polar granule were present. The micropyle was absent. Sporocysts are elongate-ovoid, 13.0 × 6.1 (14.5-12.5 × 5.5-7.0) μm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 2.13 (2.0-2.2), sporocyst residuum was present, composed of numerous granules in a spherical or ovoid mass. Each sporocyst contained 2 banana-shaped sporozoites, 12.3 × 3.5 (11.8-13.0 × 3.3-3.6) μm. A spherical-ellipsoid posterior refractile body was found in the sporozoites. A nucleus was located immediately anterior to the posterior refractile body. Molecular analysis was conducted at three loci; the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (COI). At the 18S locus, the new isolate shared 98.0% genetic similarity with three Isospora isolates from Japan from the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). At the 28S locus, it grouped separately and shared 92.4% and 92.5% genetic similarity with Isospora anthochaerae (KF766053) from a red wattlebird (Anthochaera carunculata) from Australia and an Isospora sp. (MS-2003 - AY283845) from a Himalayan grey-headed bullfinch (Pyrrhula erythaca) respectively. At COI locus, this new isolate was in a separate clade and shared 95.6% and 90.0% similarity respectively with Eimeria tiliquae n. sp. from a shingleback skink in Australia and an Eimeria sp. from a common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) from America. Based on the morphological data, this isolate is most similar to Eimeria labbeana. As no molecular data for E. labbeana is available and previous morphological data is incomplete, we refer to the current isolate as E. labbeana-like.

  5. Of lemurs and louse flies: The biogeochemical and biotic effects of forest disturbance on Propithecus edwardsi and its obligate ectoparasite Allobosca crassipes in Ranomafana National Park, southeastern Madagascar.

    PubMed

    McGee, Elizabeth; Vaughn, Stanley

    2017-08-01

    From alleles to ecosystems and landscapes, anthropogenic activity continues to affect the environment, with particularly adverse effects on biodiversity hotspots such as Madagascar. Selective logging has been proposed as a "win-win" conservation strategy, yet its effects on different components of biodiversity are still not fully understood. Here we examine biotic factors (i.e., dietary differences) that may be driving differences in biogeochemical stocks between disturbed and undisturbed forests. We present the stable nitrogen (δ(15) N) and carbon (δ(13) C) isotope composition of hair from the lemur Propithecus edwardsi and of whole bodies of its obligate ectoparasite, the louse-fly Allobosca crassipes, from sites in Ranomafana National Park (RNP) that are comparable except for the history of logging and subsequent forest regeneration. P. edwardsi and A. crassipes from the disturbed (i.e., heavily selectively logged) site are lower in (15) N and (13) C relative to P. edwardsi and A. crassipes from sites that were minimally selectively logged or not commercially logged at all. There is a ∼3‰ decrease in (15) N between disturbed and undisturbed sites that corresponds to a difference of nearly a full trophic level. Flowers from Bakerella clavata, a staple food source for P. edwardsi in disturbed habitats and a fallback food for P. edwardsi in primary forests, were also analyzed isotopically. B. clavata is δ(15) N-depleted in both disturbed and undisturbed sites. Data from longitudinal behavioral surveys of P. edwardsi in RNP and other forests in eastern Madagascar point to significant differences in consumption patterns of B. clavata, with P. edwardsi in disturbed forests consuming almost twice as much of this plant. Depletion of (15) N in animal tissues is a complex issue, but likely the result of the interaction of physiological and ecological factors. Anthropogenic disturbance in RNP from selective logging has had both biotic and biogeochemical effects that

  6. Comparison of phenothrin mousse, phenothrin lotion, and wet-combing for treatment of head louse infestation in the UK: a pragmatic randomised, controlled, assessor blind trial

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ian F.; Brown, Christine M.; Nair, Pat

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation of effectiveness of an alternative pediculicide dosage form, we recruited 228 children and 50 adult participants from Bedfordshire, UK, to a randomised, controlled, assessor blind trial comparing two insecticide products with mechanical removal of lice as a control group.  Participants using insecticide were treated with either the investigative 0.5% phenothrin mousse, for 30 minutes, or 0.2% phenothrin lotion, for 2 hours as the reference product.  Both treatments were applied only once, followed by shampoo washing.  Those treated by wet-combing with conditioner were combed 4 times over 12 days.  Parents/carers carried out the treatments to mimic normal consumer use.  The outcome measure was the absence of lice, 14 days after treatment for the insecticides, and up to 14 days after completion of combing.  Intention to treat analysis of the outcomes for 275 participants showed success for phenothrin mousse in 21/105 (20.0%), in 23/107 (21.5%) for phenothrin lotion, and in 12/63 (19.1%) for wet-combing.  People receiving mousse were 1.07 (95% CI, 0.63 to 1.81) times more likely to still have lice after treatment compared with those treated with lotion. The group of participants who received the wet combing treatment were 1.13 (95% CI, 0.61 to 2.11) times more likely to still have lice after the treatment.  None of the treatments was significantly (p < 0.05) more effective than any other. This study was carried out in an area where moderate resistance to phenothrin was demonstrated after the study by using a bioassay.  Analysis of post treatment assessments found that failure of insecticides to kill louse eggs had influenced the outcome. PMID:25254106

  7. Next-Generation Transcriptome Profiling of the Salmon Louse Caligus rogercresseyi Exposed to Deltamethrin (AlphaMax™): Discovery of Relevant Genes and Sex-Related Differences.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Mardones, Jacqueline; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-12-01

    Sea lice are one of the main parasites affecting the salmon aquaculture industry, causing significant economic losses worldwide. Increased resistance to traditional chemical treatments has created the need to find alternative control methods. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the transcriptome response of the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi to the delousing drug deltamethrin (AlphaMax™). Through bioassays with different concentrations of deltamethrin, adult salmon lice transcriptomes were sequenced from cDNA libraries in the MiSeq Illumina platform. A total of 78 million reads for females and males were assembled in 30,212 and 38,536 contigs, respectively. De novo assembly yielded 86,878 high-quality contigs and, based on published data, it was possible to annotate and identify relevant genes involved in several biological processes. RNA-seq analysis in conjunction with heatmap hierarchical clustering evidenced that pyrethroids modify the ectoparasitic transcriptome in adults, affecting molecular processes associated with the nervous system, cuticle formation, oxidative stress, reproduction, and metabolism, among others. Furthermore, sex-related transcriptome differences were evidenced. Specifically, 534 and 1033 exclusive transcripts were identified for males and females, respectively, and 154 were shared between sexes. For males, estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase, sphingolipid delta4-desaturase DES1, ketosamine-3-kinase, and arylsulfatase A, among others, were discovered, while for females, vitellogenin 1, glycoprotein G, transaldolase, and nitric oxide synthase were among those identified. The shared transcripts included annotations for tropomyosin, γ-crystallin A, glutamate receptor-metabotropic, glutathione S-transferase, and carboxipeptidase B. The present study reveals that deltamethrin generates a complex transcriptome response in C. rogercresseyi, thus providing valuable genomic information for developing new delousing drugs.

  8. Comparison of pigeon guillemot, Cepphus columba, blood parameters from oiled and unoiled areas of Alaska eight years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiser, P.E.; Duffy, L.K.; McGuire, David A.; Roby, D.D.; Golet, Gregory H.; Litzow, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, we compared the haematological and plasma biochemical profiles among populations of pigeon guillemots, Cepphus columba, in areas oiled and not oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) that occurred in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. Pigeon guillemot populations in PWS were injured by EVOS and have not returned to pre-spill levels. If oil contamination is limiting recovery of pigeon guillemots in PWS, then we expected that blood parameters of pigeon guillemots would differ between oiled and unoiled areas and that these differences would be consistent with either toxic responses or lower fitness. We collected blood samples from chicks at approximately 20 and 30 days after hatching. Physiological changes associated with chick growth were noted in several blood parameters. We found that only calcium and mean cell volume were significantly different between the chicks in oiled and unoiled areas. Despite these differences, blood biomarkers provided little evidence of continuing oil injury to pigeon guillemot chicks, eight years after the EVOS. Preliminary data from adults indicated elevated aspartate aminotransferase activity in the adults from the oiled area, which is consistent with hepatocellular injury. Because adults have greater opportunities for exposure to residual oil than nestlings, we recommend studies that fully evaluate the health of adults residing in oiled areas. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  9. Sarcocystis calchasi sp. nov. of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica) and the Northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis): light and electron microscopical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Olias, Philipp; Gruber, Achim D; Hafez, Hafez M; Heydorn, Alfred O; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Lierz, Michael

    2010-02-01

    A novel highly pathogenic Sarcocystis species has been shown to cycle between the Northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) as definitive host and the domestic pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica) as intermediate host. However, genetically based characteristics are only available from very few bird-infecting Sarcocystis species. We therefore further characterised morphological properties of this protozoan in both hosts. Using light and electron microscopy, oocysts and sporocysts as well as schizonts and sarcocysts were characterised and compared with available morphological features of previously reported Sarcocystis species of Northern goshawks, Columbidae and genetically closely related species of other avian hosts. Sporocysts shed from day 6 on after experimental infection by the Northern goshawk were of ovoid appearance (11.9 x 7.9 microm). Ultrastructurally, schizonts of all developmental stages were found in the liver, spleen and next to or in endothelial cells of various organs of domestic pigeons 7 to 12 days after experimental infection. The cyst wall surface of slender sarcocysts (1 to 2 mm in length and 20 to 50 microm in width) was smooth and lacked protrusions. Cystozoites were lancet-shaped and measured 7.5 x 1.5 microm in Giemsa stain smears. The morphological findings, when combined with data of experimental infection and genetic studies, convergently indicate that the recently discovered Sarcocystis species represents a new species. We therefore propose to name this parasite Sarcocystis calchasi species nova.

  10. Natural infections with pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1: Pathologic changes in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isidoro Ayza, Marcos; Afonso, C.L.; Stanton, J.B.; Knowles, Susan N.; Ip, Hon S.; White, C. LeAnn; Fenton, Heather; Ruder, M.G.; Dolinski, A. C.; Lankton, Julia S.

    2017-01-01

    Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality events in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) (ECDOs) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) (ROPIs). The investigators reviewed pathological findings of 70 naturally infected, free-ranging columbiforms from 25 different mortality events in the United States. Immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1 nucleoprotein was used to determine the tissue distribution of the virus in a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks. ECDOs (61 birds) and ROPIs (9 birds) were the only species in which PPMV-1-associated disease was confirmed by viral isolation and presence of histologic lesions. Acute to subacute tubulointerstitial nephritis and necrotizing pancreatitis were the most frequent histologic lesions, with immunolabeling of viral antigen in renal tubular epithelial cells and pancreatic acinar epithelium. Lymphoid depletion of bursa of Fabricius and spleen was common, but the presence of viral antigen in these organs was inconsistent among infected birds. Hepatocellular necrosis was occasionally present with immunolabeling of hypertrophic Kupffer cells, and immunopositive eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in hepatocytes of 1 ECDO. Immunopositive lymphocytic choroiditis was present in 1 ECDO, while lymphocytic meningoencephalitis was frequent in ROPIs in absence of immunolabeling. This study demonstrates widespread presence of PPMV-1 antigen in association with histologic lesions, confirming the lethal potential of this virus in these particular bird species.

  11. Color differences among feral pigeons (Columba livia) are not attributable to sequence variation in the coding region of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (MC1R).

    PubMed

    Derelle, Romain; Kondrashov, Fyodor A; Arkhipov, Vladimir Y; Corbel, Hélène; Frantz, Adrien; Gasparini, Julien; Jacquin, Lisa; Jacob, Gwenaël; Thibault, Sophie; Baudry, Emmanuelle

    2013-08-05

    Genetic variation at the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene is correlated with melanin color variation in many birds. Feral pigeons (Columba livia) show two major melanin-based colorations: a red coloration due to pheomelanic pigment and a black coloration due to eumelanic pigment. Furthermore, within each color type, feral pigeons display continuous variation in the amount of melanin pigment present in the feathers, with individuals varying from pure white to a full dark melanic color. Coloration is highly heritable and it has been suggested that it is under natural or sexual selection, or both. Our objective was to investigate whether MC1R allelic variants are associated with plumage color in feral pigeons. We sequenced 888 bp of the coding sequence of MC1R among pigeons varying both in the type, eumelanin or pheomelanin, and the amount of melanin in their feathers. We detected 10 non-synonymous substitutions and 2 synonymous substitution but none of them were associated with a plumage type. It remains possible that non-synonymous substitutions that influence coloration are present in the short MC1R fragment that we did not sequence but this seems unlikely because we analyzed the entire functionally important region of the gene. Our results show that color differences among feral pigeons are probably not attributable to amino acid variation at the MC1R locus. Therefore, variation in regulatory regions of MC1R or variation in other genes may be responsible for the color polymorphism of feral pigeons.

  12. Ex vivo biomechanical evaluation of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri and ostectomized humeri stabilized with caudally applied titanium locking plate or stainless steel nonlocking plate constructs.

    PubMed

    Darrow, Brett G; Biskup, Jeffrey J; Weigel, Joseph P; Jones, Michael P; Xie, Xie; Liaw, Peter K; Tharpe, Josh L; Sharma, Aashish; Penumadu, Dayakar

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate mechanical properties of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri versus ostectomized humeri stabilized with a locking or nonlocking plate. SAMPLE 30 humeri from pigeon cadavers. PROCEDURES Specimens were allocated into 3 groups and tested in bending and torsion. Results for intact pigeon humeri were compared with results for ostectomized humeri repaired with a titanium 1.6-mm screw locking plate or a stainless steel 1.5-mm dynamic compression plate; the ostectomized humeri mimicked a fracture in a thin cortical bone. Locking plates were secured with locking screws (2 bicortical and 4 monocortical), and nonlocking plates were secured with bicortical nonlocking screws. Constructs were cyclically tested nondestructively in 4-point bending and then tested to failure in bending. A second set of constructs were cyclically tested non-destructively and then to failure in torsion. Stiffness, strength, and strain energy of each construct were compared. RESULTS Intact specimens were stiffer and stronger than the repair groups for all testing methods, except for nonlocking constructs, which were significantly stiffer than intact specimens under cyclic bending. Intact bones had significantly higher strain energies than locking plates in both bending and torsion. Locking and nonlocking plates were of equal strength and strain energy, but not stiffness, in bending and were of equal strength, stiffness, and strain energy in torsion. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results for this study suggested that increased torsional strength may be needed before bone plate repair can be considered as the sole fixation method for avian species.

  13. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium lead, and selenium in feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from Prince William Sound and the Aleutian Islands of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Sullivan, Kelsey; Irons, David

    2007-11-15

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators.

  14. Morphological properties of the last primaries, the tail feathers, and the alulae of Accipiter nisus, Columba livia, Falco peregrinus, and Falco tinnunculus.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Anke; Ponitz, Benjamin; Brücker, Christoph; Schmitz, Helmut; Herweg, Jan; Bleckmann, Horst

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the mechanical properties (Young's modulus, bending stiffness, barb separation forces) of the tenth primary of the wings, of the alulae and of the middle tail feathers of Falco peregrinus. For comparison, we also investigated the corresponding feathers in pigeons (Columba livia), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus). In all four species, the Young's moduli of the feathers ranged from 5.9 to 8.4 GPa. The feather shafts of F. peregrinus had the largest cross-sections and the highest specific bending stiffness. When normalized with respect to body mass, the specific bending stiffness of primary number 10 was highest in F. tinnunculus, while that of the alula was highest in A. nisus. In comparison, the specific bending stiffness, measured at the base of the tail feathers and in dorso-ventral bending direction, was much higher in F. peregrinus than in the other three species. This seems to correlate with the flight styles of the birds: F. tinnunculus hovers and its primaries might therefore withstand large mechanical forces. A. nisus has often to change its flight directions during hunting and perhaps needs its alulae for this maneuvers, and in F. peregrinus, the base of the tail feathers might need a high stiffness during breaking after diving.

  15. Maternal inheritance of deltamethrin resistance in the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer) is associated with unique mtDNA haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Antoñanzas, Greta; Bekaert, Michaël; Humble, Joseph L; Boyd, Sally; Roy, William; Bassett, David I; Houston, Ross D; Gharbi, Karim; Bron, James E; Sturm, Armin

    2017-01-01

    Parasitic infections by the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer), cause huge economic damage in salmon farming in the northern hemisphere, with combined treatment costs and production losses in 2014 having been estimated at US$ 350 million for Norway (annual production 1.25 million tonnes). The control of L. salmonis relies significantly on medicinal treatments, supplemented by non-pharmacological approaches. However, efficacy losses have been reported for several delousing agents, including the pyrethroid deltamethrin. The aim of the present study was to analyse the genetic basis of deltamethrin resistance in L. salmonis. Deltamethrin median effective concentrations (EC50) were 0.28 μg L-1 in the drug susceptible L. salmonis strain IoA-00 and 40.1 μg L-1 in the pyrethroid resistant strain IoA-02. IoA-00 and IoA-02 were crossed to produce families spanning one parental and three filial generations (P0, F1-F3). In three families derived from P0 crosses between an IoA-00 sire and an IoA-02 dam, 98.8% of F2 parasites (n = 173) were resistant, i.e. remained unaffected after exposure to 2.0 μg L-1 deltamethrin. F3 parasites from these crosses showed a deltamethrin EC50 of 9.66 μg L-1. In two families of the inverse orientation at P0 (IoA-02 sire x IoA-00 dam), 16.7% of F2 parasites were resistant (n = 84), while the deltamethrin EC50 in F3 animals was 0.26 μg L-1. The results revealed a predominantly maternal inheritance of deltamethrin resistance. The 15,947-nt mitochondrial genome was sequenced and compared among six unrelated L. salmonis strains and parasites sampled from wild salmon in 2010. IoA-02 and three further deltamethrin resistant strains, established from isolates originating from different regions of Scotland, showed almost identical mitochondrial haplotypes. In contrast, the mitochondrial genome was variable among susceptible strains and L. salmonis from wild hosts. Deltamethrin caused toxicity and depletion of whole body ATP levels in Io

  16. Sexual maturation and administration of 17β-estradiol and testosterone induce complex gene expression changes in skin and increase resistance of Atlantic salmon to ectoparasite salmon louse.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Aleksei; Wesmajervi Breiland, Mette S; Hatlen, Bjarne; Afanasyev, Sergey; Skugor, Stanko

    2015-02-01

    The crustacean ectoparasitic salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is a major problem of Atlantic salmon aquaculture in the Northern hemisphere. Host-pathogen interactions in this system are highly complex. Resistance to the parasite involves variations in genetic background, nutrition, properties of skin, and status of the endocrine and immune systems. This study addressed the relationship between sex hormones and lice infection. Field observation revealed a sharp reduction of lice prevalence during sexual maturation with no difference between male and female fish. To determine if higher resistance against lice was related to sex hormones, post-smolt salmon were administered control feed and feeds containing 17β-estradiol (20 mg/kg) and testosterone (25 mg/kg) during a 3-week pre-challenge period. After challenge with lice, counts were reduced 2-fold and 1.5-fold in fish that received 17β-estradiol and testosterone, respectively. Gene expression analyses were performed from skin of salmon collected in the field trial and from the controlled lab experiment at three time points (end of feeding-before challenge, 3 days post challenge (dpc) and 16 dpc) using oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR. Differential expression was observed in genes associated with diverse biological processes. Both studies revealed similar changes of several antibacterial acute phase proteins; of note was induction of cathelicidin and down-regulation of a defensin gene. Treatment with hormones revealed their ability to modulate T helper cell (Th)-mediated immunity in skin. Enhanced protection achieved by 17β-estradiol administration might in part be due to the skewing of Th responses away from the prototypic anti-parasitic Th2 immunity and towards the more effective Th1 responses. Multiple genes involved in wound healing, differentiation and remodelling of skin tissue were stimulated during maturation but suppressed with sex hormones. Such opposite regulation suggested that these processes

  17. Maternal inheritance of deltamethrin resistance in the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer) is associated with unique mtDNA haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Antoñanzas, Greta; Bekaert, Michaël; Humble, Joseph L.; Boyd, Sally; Roy, William; Bassett, David I.; Houston, Ross D.; Gharbi, Karim

    2017-01-01

    Parasitic infections by the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer), cause huge economic damage in salmon farming in the northern hemisphere, with combined treatment costs and production losses in 2014 having been estimated at US$ 350 million for Norway (annual production 1.25 million tonnes). The control of L. salmonis relies significantly on medicinal treatments, supplemented by non-pharmacological approaches. However, efficacy losses have been reported for several delousing agents, including the pyrethroid deltamethrin. The aim of the present study was to analyse the genetic basis of deltamethrin resistance in L. salmonis. Deltamethrin median effective concentrations (EC50) were 0.28 μg L-1 in the drug susceptible L. salmonis strain IoA-00 and 40.1 μg L-1 in the pyrethroid resistant strain IoA-02. IoA-00 and IoA-02 were crossed to produce families spanning one parental and three filial generations (P0, F1-F3). In three families derived from P0 crosses between an IoA-00 sire and an IoA-02 dam, 98.8% of F2 parasites (n = 173) were resistant, i.e. remained unaffected after exposure to 2.0 μg L-1 deltamethrin. F3 parasites from these crosses showed a deltamethrin EC50 of 9.66 μg L-1. In two families of the inverse orientation at P0 (IoA-02 sire x IoA-00 dam), 16.7% of F2 parasites were resistant (n = 84), while the deltamethrin EC50 in F3 animals was 0.26 μg L-1. The results revealed a predominantly maternal inheritance of deltamethrin resistance. The 15,947-nt mitochondrial genome was sequenced and compared among six unrelated L. salmonis strains and parasites sampled from wild salmon in 2010. IoA-02 and three further deltamethrin resistant strains, established from isolates originating from different regions of Scotland, showed almost identical mitochondrial haplotypes. In contrast, the mitochondrial genome was variable among susceptible strains and L. salmonis from wild hosts. Deltamethrin caused toxicity and depletion of whole body ATP levels in Io

  18. Color differences among feral pigeons (Columba livia) are not attributable to sequence variation in the coding region of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (MC1R)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic variation at the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene is correlated with melanin color variation in many birds. Feral pigeons (Columba livia) show two major melanin-based colorations: a red coloration due to pheomelanic pigment and a black coloration due to eumelanic pigment. Furthermore, within each color type, feral pigeons display continuous variation in the amount of melanin pigment present in the feathers, with individuals varying from pure white to a full dark melanic color. Coloration is highly heritable and it has been suggested that it is under natural or sexual selection, or both. Our objective was to investigate whether MC1R allelic variants are associated with plumage color in feral pigeons. Findings We sequenced 888 bp of the coding sequence of MC1R among pigeons varying both in the type, eumelanin or pheomelanin, and the amount of melanin in their feathers. We detected 10 non-synonymous substitutions and 2 synonymous substitution but none of them were associated with a plumage type. It remains possible that non-synonymous substitutions that influence coloration are present in the short MC1R fragment that we did not sequence but this seems unlikely because we analyzed the entire functionally important region of the gene. Conclusions Our results show that color differences among feral pigeons are probably not attributable to amino acid variation at the MC1R locus. Therefore, variation in regulatory regions of MC1R or variation in other genes may be responsible for the color polymorphism of feral pigeons. PMID:23915680

  19. On the Weak-wind Problem in Massive Stars: X-Ray Spectra Reveal a Massive Hot Wind in μ Columbae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huenemoerder, David P.; Oskinova, Lidia M.; Ignace, Richard; Waldron, Wayne L.; Todt, Helge; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Kitamoto, Shunji

    2012-09-01

    μ Columbae is a prototypical weak-wind O star for which we have obtained a high-resolution X-ray spectrum with the Chandra LETG/ACIS instrument and a low-resolution spectrum with Suzaku. This allows us, for the first time, to investigate the role of X-rays on the wind structure in a bona fide weak-wind system and to determine whether there actually is a massive hot wind. The X-ray emission measure indicates that the outflow is an order of magnitude greater than that derived from UV lines and is commensurate with the nominal wind-luminosity relationship for O stars. Therefore, the "weak-wind problem"—identified from cool wind UV/optical spectra—is largely resolved by accounting for the hot wind seen in X-rays. From X-ray line profiles, Doppler shifts, and relative strengths, we find that this weak-wind star is typical of other late O dwarfs. The X-ray spectra do not suggest a magnetically confined plasma—the spectrum is soft and lines are broadened; Suzaku spectra confirm the lack of emission above 2 keV. Nor do the relative line shifts and widths suggest any wind decoupling by ions. The He-like triplets indicate that the bulk of the X-ray emission is formed rather close to the star, within five stellar radii. Our results challenge the idea that some OB stars are "weak-wind" stars that deviate from the standard wind-luminosity relationship. The wind is not weak, but it is hot and its bulk is only detectable in X-rays.

  20. Evaluation of gastrointestinal tract transit times using barium-impregnated polyethylene spheres and barium sulfate suspension in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia) model.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Rebecca A; Cronin, Kimberly; Hoover, John P; Pechman, Robert D; Payton, Mark E

    2010-03-01

    Barium impregnated polyethylene spheres (BIPS) are used in small animal medicine as an alternative to barium sulfate for radiographic studies of the gastrointestinal tract. To determine the usefulness of BIPS as an alternative to barium suspension in measuring gastrointestinal (GI) transit time for avian species, ventrodorsal radiographs were used to follow the passage of BIPS and 30% barium sulfate suspension through the GI tracts of domestic pigeons (Columba livia). Gastrointestinal transit times of thirty 1.5-mm BIPS administered in moistened gelatin capsules and 30% barium sulfate suspension gavaged into the crop were compared in 6 pigeons. Although the barium suspension passed out of the GI tract of all pigeons within 24 hours, the 1.5-mm BIPS remained in the ventriculus for 368.0 +/- 176.8 hours and did not clear the GI tract for 424.0 +/- 204.6 hours. Although the times for passage of BIPS and 30% barium sulfate suspension from the crop into the ventriculus were not significantly different (P = .14), the times for passage of BIPS from the ventriculus into the large intestine-cloaca and for clearance from the GI tract of the pigeons were significantly longer (P < .001) than for the 30% barium sulfate suspension. From the results of this study, we conclude that BIPS are not useful for radiographically evaluating GI transit times in pigeons and are unlikely to be useful in other avian species that have a muscular ventriculus. BIPS may or may not be useful for evaluating GI transit times in species that lack a muscular ventriculus.

  1. Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies Candidate Genes Related to Intramuscular Fat Deposition and Fatty Acid Composition in the Breast Muscle of Squabs (Columba).

    PubMed

    Ye, Manhong; Zhou, Bin; Wei, Shanshan; Ding, MengMeng; Lu, Xinghui; Shi, Xuehao; Ding, Jiatong; Yang, Shengmei; Wei, Wanhong

    2016-07-07

    Despite the fact that squab is consumed throughout the world because of its high nutritional value and appreciated sensory attributes, aspects related to its characterization, and in particular genetic issues, have rarely been studied. In this study, meat traits in terms of pH, water-holding capacity, intramuscular fat content, and fatty acid profile of the breast muscle of squabs from two meat pigeon breeds were determined. Breed-specific differences were detected in fat-related traits of intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition. RNA-Sequencing was applied to compare the transcriptomes of muscle and liver tissues between squabs of two breeds to identify candidate genes associated with the differences in the capacity of fat deposition. A total of 27 differentially expressed genes assigned to pathways of lipid metabolism were identified, of which, six genes belonged to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway along with four other genes. Our results confirmed in part previous reports in livestock and provided also a number of genes which had not been related to fat deposition so far. These genes can serve as a basis for further investigations to screen markers closely associated with intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in squabs. The data from this study were deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)'s Sequence Read Archive under the accession numbers SRX1680021 and SRX1680022. This is the first transcriptome analysis of the muscle and liver tissue in Columba using next generation sequencing technology. Data provided here are of potential value to dissect functional genes influencing fat deposition in squabs. Copyright © 2016 Ye et al.

  2. Crop milk protein is synthesised following activation of the IRS1/Akt/TOR signalling pathway in the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Hu, X-C; Gao, C-Q; Wang, X-H; Yan, H-C; Chen, Z-S; Wang, X-Q

    2016-12-01

    The experiment was conducted to study whether insulin receptor substance 1 (IRS1) / Protein kinase B (Akt)/target of the rapamycin (TOR) signalling pathway activation stimulates crop milk protein synthesis in the domestic pigeon (Columba livia). Crop milk was collected from ten 1-d-old squabs and analysed for nutrient content. During the non-breeding period and the first day of lactation, blood samples were collected from 5 pairs of breeding pigeons and the levels of prolactin and insulin were determined. Crop samples were collected from 5 pairs of breeders at d 14 and 16 of the incubation period and d 1, 3 and 7 of the lactation period. Crop samples were evaluated for changes in crop weight and thickness and changes in the expression patterns of IRS1/Akt/TOR signalling pathway-related proteins. The results demonstrated that prolactin induces a gradual increase in the relative weight and thickness of the crop, with crops reaching a maximum size at the third day of lactation. Pigeon crop milk contains 64.1% crude protein and 29.7% crude fat based on dry weight. Serum prolactin and insulin levels in the lactation period were significantly higher than those in the non-breeding period. Compared with non-breeding pigeons, the expression of the phosphorylated IRS1 phosphorylated Akt, phosphorylated TOR, phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinase, phosphorylated S6, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E were significantly up-regulated in the crop of pigeons in the lactation period. In conclusion, prolactin might induce changes in crop tissue and form the physiological structure for crop milk synthesis. Furthermore, the synthesis of crop milk protein is regulated by activation of the IRS1/Akt/TOR signalling pathway.

  3. The change in heat shock protein expression in avermectin induced neurotoxicity of the pigeon (Columba livia) both in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Wang, Xian-Song; Xu, Feng-Ping; Liu, Shuang; Xu, Shi-Wen; Li, Shu

    2014-12-01

    The expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) commonly increases to provide neuroprotection when brain tissues are under stress conditions. Residues of avermectins (AVMs) have neurotoxic effects on a number of non-target organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AVM exposure on the expression levels of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 for pigeon (Columba livia) neurons both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that in general, the mRNA and protein levels of Hsps were increased in treated groups relative to control groups after AVM exposure for 30d, 60d and 90d in the cerebrum, cerebellum and optic lobe in vivo. However, AVM exposure had no significant effects on the transcription expression of Hsps for 90d in the optic lobe and decreased the translation expression of Hsps significantly for 90d in the optic lobe. In vitro, the LC50 of avermectin for King pigeon neurons is between 15μgL(-1) and 20μgL(-1). Following AVM (2.5-20μgL(-1)) exposure, the mRNA expression of the 3 Hsps was up-regulated to different degrees. Compared with the control groups, a significant decrease, a remarkable increase and a non-significant change was found in the protein expression of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 separately following AVM (2.5-20μgL(-1)) exposure. Based on these results, we conclude that AVM exposure can induce a protective stress response in pigeons by means of promoting the mRNA and protein expression of Hsps under in vivo and in vitro conditions, thus easing the neurotoxic effects of AVM to some extent.

  4. Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies Candidate Genes Related to Intramuscular Fat Deposition and Fatty Acid Composition in the Breast Muscle of Squabs (Columba)

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Manhong; Zhou, Bin; Wei, Shanshan; Ding, MengMeng; Lu, Xinghui; Shi, Xuehao; Ding, Jiatong; Yang, Shengmei; Wei, Wanhong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that squab is consumed throughout the world because of its high nutritional value and appreciated sensory attributes, aspects related to its characterization, and in particular genetic issues, have rarely been studied. In this study, meat traits in terms of pH, water-holding capacity, intramuscular fat content, and fatty acid profile of the breast muscle of squabs from two meat pigeon breeds were determined. Breed-specific differences were detected in fat-related traits of intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition. RNA-Sequencing was applied to compare the transcriptomes of muscle and liver tissues between squabs of two breeds to identify candidate genes associated with the differences in the capacity of fat deposition. A total of 27 differentially expressed genes assigned to pathways of lipid metabolism were identified, of which, six genes belonged to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway along with four other genes. Our results confirmed in part previous reports in livestock and provided also a number of genes which had not been related to fat deposition so far. These genes can serve as a basis for further investigations to screen markers closely associated with intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in squabs. The data from this study were deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)’s Sequence Read Archive under the accession numbers SRX1680021 and SRX1680022. This is the first transcriptome analysis of the muscle and liver tissue in Columba using next generation sequencing technology. Data provided here are of potential value to dissect functional genes influencing fat deposition in squabs. PMID:27175015

  5. Increased EEG spectral power density during sleep following short-term sleep deprivation in pigeons (Columba livia): evidence for avian sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Gonzalez, Dolores; Lesku, John A; Rattenborg, Niels C

    2008-06-01

    Birds provide a unique opportunity to evaluate current theories for the function of sleep. Like mammalian sleep, avian sleep is composed of two states, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep that apparently evolved independently in mammals and birds. Despite this resemblance, however, it has been unclear whether avian SWS shows a compensatory response to sleep loss (i.e., homeostatic regulation), a fundamental aspect of mammalian sleep potentially linked to the function of SWS. Here, we prevented pigeons (Columba livia) from taking their normal naps during the last 8 h of the day. Although time spent in SWS did not change significantly following short-term sleep deprivation, electroencephalogram (EEG) slow-wave activity (SWA; i.e., 0.78-2.34 Hz power density) during SWS increased significantly during the first 3 h of the recovery night when compared with the undisturbed night, and progressively declined thereafter in a manner comparable to that observed in similarly sleep-deprived mammals. SWA was also elevated during REM sleep on the recovery night, a response that might reflect increased SWS pressure and the concomitant 'spill-over' of SWS-related EEG activity into short episodes of REM sleep. As in rodents, power density during SWS also increased in higher frequencies (9-25 Hz) in response to short-term sleep deprivation. Finally, time spent in REM sleep increased following sleep deprivation. The mammalian-like increase in EEG spectral power density across both low and high frequencies, and the increase in time spent in REM sleep following sleep deprivation suggest that some aspects of avian and mammalian sleep are regulated in a similar manner.

  6. On the Weak-Wind Problem in Massive Stars: X-Ray Spectra Reveal a Massive Hot Wind in mu Columbae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huenemoerder, David P.; Oskinova, Lidia M.; Ignace, Richard; Waldron, Wayne L.; Todt, Helge; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Kitamoto, Shunji

    2012-01-01

    Mu Columbae is a prototypical weak-wind O star for which we have obtained a high-resolution X-ray spectrum with the Chandra LETG/ACIS instrument and a low-resolution spectrum with Suzaku. This allows us, for the first time, to investigate the role of X-rays on the wind structure in a bona fide weak-wind system and to determine whether there actually is a massive hot wind. The X-ray emission measure indicates that the outflow is an order of magnitude greater than that derived from UV lines and is commensurate with the nominal wind-luminosity relationship for O stars. Therefore, the "weak-wind problem"--identified from cool wind UV/optical spectra--is largely resolved by accounting for the hot wind seen in X-rays. From X-ray line profiles, Doppler shifts, and relative strengths, we find that this weak-wind star is typical of other late O dwarfs. The X-ray spectra do not suggest a magnetically confined plasma-the spectrum is soft and lines are broadened; Suzaku spectra confirm the lack of emission above 2 keV. Nor do the relative line shifts and widths suggest any wind decoupling by ions. The He-like triplets indicate that the bulk of the X-ray emission is formed rather close to the star, within five stellar radii. Our results challenge the idea that some OB stars are "weak-wind" stars that deviate from the standard wind-luminosity relationship. The wind is not weak, but it is hot and its bulk is only detectable in X-rays.

  7. Hey! A Louse Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a sesame seed, and are tan to gray in color. Lice need to suck a tiny bit of blood to survive, and they sometimes live on people's heads and lay eggs in the hair , on the back of the neck, or behind ...

  8. Hey! A Louse Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hey! A Chigger Bit Me! Rashes: The Itchy Truth Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  9. Neuromuscular organization of avian flight muscle: architecture of single muscle fibres in muscle units of the pectoralis (pars thoracicus) of pigeon (Columba livia)

    PubMed Central

    Sokoloff, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    The M. pectoralis (pars thoracicus) of pigeons (Columba livia) is comprised of short muscle fibres that do not extend from muscle origin to insertion but overlap 'in-series'. Individual pectoralis motor units are limited in territory to a portion of muscle length and are comprised of either fast twitch, oxidative and glycolytic fibres (FOG) or fast twitch and glycolytic fibres (FG). FOG fibres make up 88 to 90% of the total muscle population and have a mean diameter one-half of that of the relatively large FG fibres. Here we report on the organization of individual fibres identified in six muscle units depleted of glycogen, three comprised of FOG fibres and three comprised of FG fibres. For each motor unit, fibre counts revealed unequal numbers of depleted fibres in different unit cross-sections. We traced individual fibres in one unit comprised of FOG fibres and a second comprised of FG fibres. Six fibres from a FOG unit (total length 15.45 mm) ranged from 10.11 to 11.82 mm in length and averaged (± s.d.) 10.74 ± 0.79 mm. All originated bluntly (en mass) from a fascicle near the proximal end of the muscle unit and all terminated intramuscularly. Five of these ended in a taper and one ended bluntly. Fibres coursed on average for 70% of the muscle unit length. Six fibres from a FG unit (total length 34.76 mm) ranged from 8.97 to 18.38 mm in length and averaged 15.32 ± 3.75 mm. All originated bluntly and terminated intramuscularly; one of these ended in a taper and five ended bluntly. Fibres coursed on average for 44% of the muscle unit length. Because fibres of individual muscle units do not extend the whole muscle unit territory, the effective cross-sectional area changes along the motor unit length. These non-uniformities in the distribution of fibres within a muscle unit emphasize that the functional interactions within and between motor units are complex.

  10. Growth curves and age-related changes in carcass characteristics, organs, serum parameters, and intestinal transporter gene expression in domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Gao, C Q; Yang, J X; Chen, M X; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to fit growth curves, and determine age-related changes in carcass characteristics, organs, serum biochemical parameters, and gene expression of intestinal nutrient transporters in domestic pigeon (Columba livia). In experiment 1, body weight (BW) of 30 pigeons was respectively determined at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days old to fit growth curves and to describe the growth of pigeons. In experiment 2, eighty-four 1-day-old squabs were grouped by weight into 7 groups. On d 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35, twelve birds from each group were randomly selected for slaughter and post-slaughter analysis. The results showed that BW of pigeons increased rapidly from d 1 to d 28 (a 25.7-fold increase), and then had little change until d 35. The Logistic, Gompertz, and Von Bertalanffy functions can all be well fitted with the growth curve of domestic pigeons (R2>0.90) and the Gompertz model showed the highest R2value among the models (R2=0.9997). The equation of Gompertz model was Y=507.72×e-(3.76exp(-0.17t))(Y=BW of pigeon (g); t=time (day)). In addition, breast meat yield (%) increased with age throughout the experiment, whereas the leg meat yield (%) reached to the peak on d 14. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, and glucose concentration were increased with age, whereas serum uric acid concentration was decreased (P<0.05). Furthermore, the gene expressions of nutrient transporters (y+LAT2, LAT1, B0AT1, PepT1, and NHE2) in jejunum of pigeon were increased with age. The results of correlation analysis showed the gene expressions of B0AT1, PepT1, and NHE2 had positive correlations with BW (0.73

  11. Differences in straggling rates between two genera of dove lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) reinforce population genetic and cophylogenetic patterns.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Noah Kerness; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Johnson, Kevin P; Parker, Patricia G

    2004-09-01

    Differences in dispersal abilities have been implicated for causing disparate evolutionary patterns between Columbicola and Physconelloides lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera). However, no study has documented straggling (when lice are found on atypical hosts) rates within these lineages. We used the fact that the Galapagos Hawk, Buteo galapagoensis (Gould) (Falconiformes) feeds on the Galapagos Dove Zenaida galapagoensis Gould (Columbiformes) within an ecologically simplified setting. The Galapagos Dove is the only typical host of Columbicola macrourae (Wilson) and Physconelloides galapagensis (Kellogg and Huwana) in Galapagos. We quantitatively sampled and found these lice on both bird species. A DNA barcoding approach confirmed that stragglers were derived from Galapagos doves. We also collected a Bovicola sp. louse, likely originating from a goat (Capra hircus). On hawks, C. macrourae was significantly more prevalent than P. galapagensis. On doves, the two lice were equally prevalent and abundant. Differences in prevalence on hawks was a function of differences in straggling rate between lice, and not a reflection of their relative representation within the dove population. This provides further evidence that differences in dispersal abilities may drive differences in the degree of cospeciation in Columbicola and Phyconelloides lice, which have become model systems in evolutionary biology.

  12. A comparative analysis of the categorization of multidimensional stimuli: I. Unidimensional classification does not necessarily imply analytic processing; evidence from pigeons (Columba livia), squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and humans (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Wills, A J; Lea, Stephen E G; Leaver, Lisa A; Osthaus, Britta; Ryan, Catriona M E; Suret, Mark B; Bryant, Catherine M L; Chapman, Sue J A; Millar, Louise

    2009-11-01

    Pigeons (Columba livia), gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and undergraduates (Homo sapiens) learned discrimination tasks involving multiple mutually redundant dimensions. First, pigeons and undergraduates learned conditional discriminations between stimuli composed of three spatially separated dimensions, after first learning to discriminate the individual elements of the stimuli. When subsequently tested with stimuli in which one of the dimensions took an anomalous value, the majority of both species categorized test stimuli by their overall similarity to training stimuli. However some individuals of both species categorized them according to a single dimension. In a second set of experiments, squirrels, pigeons, and undergraduates learned go/no-go discriminations using multiple simultaneous presentations of stimuli composed of three spatially integrated, highly salient dimensions. The tendency to categorize test stimuli including anomalous dimension values unidimensionally was higher than in the first set of experiments and did not differ significantly between species. The authors conclude that unidimensional categorization of multidimensional stimuli is not diagnostic for analytic cognitive processing, and that any differences between human's and pigeons' behavior in such tasks are not due to special features of avian visual cognition.

  13. Acinetobacter baumannii in human body louse.

    PubMed

    La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2004-09-01

    While we were isolating Bartonella quintana from body lice, 40 Acinetobacter baumannii strains were also isolated and genotyped. One clone was unique and the other was ampicillin susceptible. A. baumannii DNA was later detected in 21% of 622 lice collected worldwide. These findings show an A. baumannii epidemic in human body lice.

  14. Orthographic processing in pigeons (Columba livia)

    PubMed Central

    Scarf, Damian; Boy, Karoline; Uber Reinert, Anelisie; Devine, Jack; Güntürkün, Onur; Colombo, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Learning to read involves the acquisition of letter–sound relationships (i.e., decoding skills) and the ability to visually recognize words (i.e., orthographic knowledge). Although decoding skills are clearly human-unique, given they are seated in language, recent research and theory suggest that orthographic processing may derive from the exaptation or recycling of visual circuits that evolved to recognize everyday objects and shapes in our natural environment. An open question is whether orthographic processing is limited to visual circuits that are similar to our own or a product of plasticity common to many vertebrate visual systems. Here we show that pigeons, organisms that separated from humans more than 300 million y ago, process words orthographically. Specifically, we demonstrate that pigeons trained to discriminate words from nonwords picked up on the orthographic properties that define words and used this knowledge to identify words they had never seen before. In addition, the pigeons were sensitive to the bigram frequencies of words (i.e., the common co-occurrence of certain letter pairs), the edit distance between nonwords and words, and the internal structure of words. Our findings demonstrate that visual systems organizationally distinct from the primate visual system can also be exapted or recycled to process the visual word form. PMID:27638211

  15. Comparison of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and comparison with common eider (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba), and tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2009-05-01

    There is an abundance of field data for levels of metals from a range of places, but relatively few from the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers from common eiders (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba), tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska. Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that there are no trophic levels relationships for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium among these five species of birds breeding in the marine environment of the Aleutians. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels. As predicted bald eagles had the highest levels of arsenic, chromium, lead, and manganese, but puffins had the highest levels of selenium, and pigeon guillemot had higher levels of mercury than eagles (although the differences were not significant). Common eiders, at the lowest trophic level had the lowest levels of some metals (chromium, mercury and selenium). However, eiders had higher levels than all other species (except eagles) for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and manganese. Levels of lead were higher in breast than in wing feathers of bald eagles. Except for lead, there were no significant differences in metal levels in feathers of bald eagles nesting on Adak and Amchitka Island; lead was higher on Adak than Amchitka. Eagle chicks tended to have lower levels of manganese than older eagles.

  16. Comparison of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and comparison with common eider (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba), and tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There is an abundance of field data for levels of metals from a range of places, but relatively few from the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers from common eiders (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba), tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska. Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that there are no trophic levels relationships for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium among these five species of birds breeding in the marine environment of the Aleutians. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels. As predicted bald eagles had the highest levels of arsenic, chromium, lead, and manganese, but puffins had the highest levels of selenium, and pigeon guillemot had higher levels of mercury than eagles (although the differences were not significant). Common eiders, at the lowest trophic level had the lowest levels of some metals (chromium, mercury and selenium). However, eiders had higher levels than all other species (except eagles) for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and manganese. Levels of lead were higher in breast than in wing feathers of bald eagles. Except for lead, there were no significant differences in metal levels in feathers of bald eagles nesting on Adak and Amchitka Island; lead was higher on Adak than Amchitka. Eagle chicks tended to have lower levels of manganese than older eagles. PMID:18521716

  17. Correlated evolution of host and parasite body size: tests of Harrison's rule using birds and lice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kevin P; Bush, Sarah E; Clayton, Dale H

    2005-08-01

    Large-bodied species of hosts often harbor large-bodied parasites, a pattern known as Harrison's rule. Harrison's rule has been documented for a variety of animal parasites and herbivorous insects, yet the adaptive basis of the body-size correlation is poorly understood. We used phylogenetically independent methods to test for Harrison's rule across a large assemblage of bird lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera). The analysis revealed a significant relationship between louse and host size, despite considerable variation among taxa. We explored factors underlying this variation by testing Harrison's rule within two groups of feather-specialist lice that share hosts (pigeons and doves). The two groups, wing lice (Columbicola spp.) and body lice (Physconelloidinae spp.), have similar life histories, despite spending much of their time on different feather tracts. Wing lice showed strong support for Harrison's rule, whereas body lice showed no significant correlation with host size. Wing louse size was correlated with wing feather size, which was in turn correlated with overall host size. In contrast, body louse size showed no correlation with body feather size, which also was not correlated with overall host size. The reason why body lice did not fit Harrison's rule may be related to the fact that different species of body lice use different microhabitats within body feathers. More detailed measurements of body feathers may be needed to explore the precise relationship of body louse size to relevant components of feather size. Whatever the reason, Harrison's rule does not hold in body lice, possibly because selection on body size is mediated by community-level interactions between body lice.

  18. Semiochemical strategies for sea louse control: host location cues.

    PubMed

    Ingvarsdóttir, Anna; Birkett, Michael A; Duce, Ian; Genna, Richard L; Mordue, William; Pickett, John A; Wadhams, Lester J; Mordue, A Jennifer

    2002-06-01

    The development of behavioural bioassays and electrophysiological recording techniques has enabled the role of semiochemicals to be investigated for the first time in Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer). Adult male sea lice L salmonis were activated by, and attracted to, salmon-conditioned water (SCW) and SCW extract. Non-host fish odours, turbot-conditioned water (TCW) and turbot-conditioned water extract (TCW extract), elicited activation but no attraction in the lice. Solid-phase extraction techniques were developed to extract low molecular weight components of fish odours, and biological activity was shown to be confined to these. Electrophysiological activity from aesthetascs in the first antennae was found and neural responses to odours were recorded from the antennal nerves. Preliminary experiments on individual chemicals (isophorone, 1-octen-3-ol) linked to salmon revealed behavioural activation and electrophysiological responses in adult male L salmonis. Isophorone was shown to be significantly attractive to sea lice when placed in a slow-release system in a perfused tank of seawater in a choice situation. Proof of concept has been established for successfully extracting odour cues from seawater, analysing their biological activity and applying these to slow-release technologies for field trapping of lice. Future work involving linked GC-MS techniques using behaviour, electrophysiological responses, and organolepsis will establish further host location cues specific to Atlantic salmon.

  19. Mitochondrial diversity in human head louse populations across the Americas.

    PubMed

    Ascunce, Marina S; Fane, Jackie; Kassu, Gebreyes; Toloza, Ariel C; Picollo, Maria I; González-Oliver, Angélica; Reed, David L

    2013-09-01

    Anthropological studies suggest that the genetic makeup of human populations in the Americas is the result of diverse processes including the initial colonization of the continent by the first people plus post-1492 European migrations. Because of the recent nature of some of these events, understanding the geographical origin of American human diversity is challenging. However, human parasites have faster evolutionary rates and larger population sizes allowing them to maintain greater levels of genetic diversity than their hosts. Thus, we can use human parasites to provide insights into some aspects of human evolution that may be unclear from direct evidence. In this study, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from 450 head lice in the Americas. Haplotypes clustered into two well-supported haplogroups, known as A and B. Haplogroup frequencies differ significantly among North, Central and South America. Within each haplogroup, we found evidence of demographic expansions around 16,000 and 20,000 years ago, which correspond broadly with those estimated for Native Americans. The parallel timing of demographic expansions of human lice and Native Americans plus the contrasting pattern between the distribution of haplogroups A and B through the Americas suggests that human lice can provide additional evidence about the human colonization of the New World. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sea louse control in Scotland, past and present.

    PubMed

    Rae, Gordon H

    2002-06-01

    Methods for farming the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) in Scotland were developed at the Unilever Research Laboratory facility at Lochailort on the west coast of Scotland in the late 1960s. By the spring of 1972 a fledgling commercial company had been set up and Marine Harvest, as it was known, received its first year class of smolts at Lochailort. Sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer) from passing wild fish infected the smolts but did not cause any significant damage until the summer of 1976 when intervention was required. The Scottish industry has since grown to become a vital source of employment for fragile rural economies and produced about 130,000 tonnes of salmon in 2000. This paper gives an overview of how fish welfare has been maintained by the development of treatments and management strategies aimed at minimising the impact of sea lice.

  1. Arena tests with piperonal, a new louse repellent.

    PubMed

    Peock, S; Maunder, J W

    1993-12-01

    Piperonal, once used to kill lice in Australian hospitals, was acclaimed as an effective pediculicide (Corlette, 1925) by the standards of the day. It is unusual in also exhibiting a repellent action against lice, a property only recently realised. A new, easy to use, low-fragrance, pump action spray, which incorporates 2% piperonal, was tested in the laboratory using clothing lice in an arena test and was found to exhibit consistently high repellency after half an hour, dropping only slightly after 24 hours. A well known multi-purpose insect repellent, diethyltoluamide (DEET), was then tested against piperonal. A 2% solution of piperonal was found to be almost twice as effective as a 50% solution of DEET. In arena tests using lice with the tip segments of both antennae removed, no behavioural differences or statistically significant differences from a random distribution could be found between untreated and Rappell-treated areas. This strongly suggests that sense organ(s) on the tip of the antenna are necessary for detection of the repellent. Although there can be no strict correlation between results in the laboratory and potential efficacy in the field, materials such as insecticides found to be effective in the laboratory have been found to be equally effective in the field. Furthermore, what with the threat of resistance to head lice insecticides, ineffectual treatment and the lack of contact tracing, a repellent would be of obvious use in the control of head lice.

  2. Efferent projections of the ectostriatum in the pigeon (Columba livia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husband, S. A.; Shimizu, T.

    1999-01-01

    The ectostriatum is a major visual component of the avian telencephalon. The core region of the ectostriatum (Ec) receives visual input from the optic tectum through thalamic nuclei. In the present study, the efferent projections of the ectostriatum were investigated by using the anterograde tracers Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin and biotinylated dextran amine. Projection patterns resulting from these tracers were confirmed by the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B. When anterograde tracers were injected in Ec, primary projections were seen traveling dorsolaterally to the belt region of the ectostriatum (Ep) and the neostriatal area immediately surrounding Ep (Ep2). Neurons in Ep sent projections primarily to the overlying Ep2. The efferents of Ep2 traveled dorsolaterally to terminate in three telencephalic regions, from anterior to posterior: (1) neostriatum frontale, pars lateralis (NFL), (2) area temporo-parieto-occipitalis (TPO), and (3) neostriatum intermedium, pars lateralis (NIL). A part of the archistriatum intermedium and the lateral part of the neostriatum caudale also received somewhat minor projections. In addition, some neurons in Ec were also the source of direct, but minor, projections to the NFL, TPO, NIL, and archistriatum intermedium. The topographical relationship among the primary (Ec), secondary (Ep and Ep2), and tertiary (NFL, TPO, NIL) areas indicate that the neural populations for visual processing are organized along the rostral-caudal axis. Thus, the anterior Ec sent efferents to the anterior Ep, which in turn sent projections to anterior Ep2. Neurons in the anterior Ep2 sent projections to NFL and the anterior TPO. Similarly, the intermediate and posterior Ec sent projections to corresponding parts of Ep, whose efferents projected to intermediate and posterior Ep2, respectively. The intermediate Ep2 gave rise to major projections to TPO, whereas posterior Ep2 neurons sent efferents primarily to NIL. The organization of this neural circuit is compared with those of other sensory circuits in the avian telencephalon, as well as the laminar arrangement of the mammalian isocortex.

  3. Genetic analyses of visual pigments of the pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, S; Blow, N S; Yokoyama, S

    1999-01-01

    We isolated five classes of retinal opsin genes rh1(Cl), rh2(Cl), sws1(Cl), sws2(Cl), and lws(Cl) from the pigeon; these encode RH1(Cl), RH2(Cl), SWS1(Cl), SWS2(Cl), and LWS(Cl) opsins, respectively. Upon binding to 11-cis-retinal, these opsins regenerate the corresponding photosensitive molecules, visual pigments. The absorbance spectra of visual pigments have a broad bell shape with the peak, being called lambdamax. Previously, the SWS1(Cl) opsin cDNA was isolated from the pigeon retinal RNA, expressed in cultured COS1 cells, reconstituted with 11-cis-retinal, and the lambdamax of the resulting SWS1(Cl) pigment was shown to be 393 nm. In this article, using the same methods, the lambdamax values of RH1(Cl), RH2(Cl), SWS2(Cl), and LWS(Cl) pigments were determined to be 502, 503, 448, and 559 nm, respectively. The pigeon is also known for its UV vision, detecting light at 320-380 nm. Being the only pigments that absorb light below 400 nm, the SWS1(Cl) pigments must mediate its UV vision. We also determined that a nonretinal P(Cl) pigment in the pineal gland of the pigeon has a lambdamax value at 481 nm. PMID:10581289

  4. Visually guided pecking in the pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Goodale, M A

    1983-01-01

    High-speed cinematography was used (1) to analyze the sequence of head movements made by pigeons pecking at small visual targets and (2) to determine where on the retina the target fell at different points in the sequence. In both key-pecking for food reward and normal feeding, the decision to peck the target was made during a head fixation that occurred over 80 mm from the surface on which the target was located (as measured from the center of the eyes). Once the decision to peck had been made, a second fixation (F2) occurred at an average distance of 55 mm allowing the bird to calculate the size, depth, and location of the target. Moreover, during both fixations, the target was located in the pigeon's binocular field within a region corresponding to the red area of the upper temporal quadrant of the retina.

  5. Extratelencephalic pathways and feeding behavior in the pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Levine, R R; Zeigler, H P

    1981-01-01

    Electrolytic lesions were placed in the tractus septomesencephalicus (TSM) and tractus occipitomesencephalicus (TOM), efferent pathways originating in visual and somatosensorimotor areas of the avian telencephalon and distributing widely to brain stem and spinal nuclear regions. Lesion effects upon several aspects of ingestive behavior were examined using high speed cinematography, operant conditioning procedures and monitoring of intake and feeding responses. While there was no evidence for direct effects upon drinking, both TSM adn TOM lesions were followed by periods of reduced food intake. Disruptions of feeding in TSM birds were mild and relatively transient but birds were hypophagic for prolonged periods. While there were no deficits in the efficiency or accuracy of their feeding responses or their performance in an operant situation, TSM birds displayed an inappropriate seed "sorting" behavior suggestive of lesion effects upon visually controlled food preferences. TOM lesions produced a significant reduction in responsiveness to food (aphagia, hypophagia), impairments in the control of grasping and peck accuracy and a disruption in operant key pecking reinforced by food. These "sensorimotor" and "motivational" deficits were similar to those seen after damage to central trigeminal structures in the pigeon and suggest that TOM is also a component of a putative "feeding system" in the pigeon.

  6. Efferent projections of the ectostriatum in the pigeon (Columba livia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husband, S. A.; Shimizu, T.

    1999-01-01

    The ectostriatum is a major visual component of the avian telencephalon. The core region of the ectostriatum (Ec) receives visual input from the optic tectum through thalamic nuclei. In the present study, the efferent projections of the ectostriatum were investigated by using the anterograde tracers Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin and biotinylated dextran amine. Projection patterns resulting from these tracers were confirmed by the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B. When anterograde tracers were injected in Ec, primary projections were seen traveling dorsolaterally to the belt region of the ectostriatum (Ep) and the neostriatal area immediately surrounding Ep (Ep2). Neurons in Ep sent projections primarily to the overlying Ep2. The efferents of Ep2 traveled dorsolaterally to terminate in three telencephalic regions, from anterior to posterior: (1) neostriatum frontale, pars lateralis (NFL), (2) area temporo-parieto-occipitalis (TPO), and (3) neostriatum intermedium, pars lateralis (NIL). A part of the archistriatum intermedium and the lateral part of the neostriatum caudale also received somewhat minor projections. In addition, some neurons in Ec were also the source of direct, but minor, projections to the NFL, TPO, NIL, and archistriatum intermedium. The topographical relationship among the primary (Ec), secondary (Ep and Ep2), and tertiary (NFL, TPO, NIL) areas indicate that the neural populations for visual processing are organized along the rostral-caudal axis. Thus, the anterior Ec sent efferents to the anterior Ep, which in turn sent projections to anterior Ep2. Neurons in the anterior Ep2 sent projections to NFL and the anterior TPO. Similarly, the intermediate and posterior Ec sent projections to corresponding parts of Ep, whose efferents projected to intermediate and posterior Ep2, respectively. The intermediate Ep2 gave rise to major projections to TPO, whereas posterior Ep2 neurons sent efferents primarily to NIL. The organization of this neural circuit is compared with those of other sensory circuits in the avian telencephalon, as well as the laminar arrangement of the mammalian isocortex.

  7. Immunological responsiveness of the pigeon (Columba livia) following neonatal bursectomy.

    PubMed

    Thaxton, J P; Grissom, R E

    1984-01-01

    Pigeon squabs in two separate experiments were surgically bursectomized ( BSX ), surgically sham bursectomized ( SBSX ), or maintained as non-surgical controls (CON). Surgical procedures were performed within 2 hr of hatching. Primary and secondary hemagglutinin (HA) responses, as well as mercaptoethanol sensitive (ME-S) and resistant (ME-R) levels, to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were quantitated. BSX did not reduce HA responses, nor ME-S and ME-R levels.

  8. The pigeon (Columba livia) model of spontaneous atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J L; Smith, S C; Taylor, R L

    2014-11-01

    Multiple animal models have been employed to study human atherosclerosis, the principal cause of mortality in the United States. Each model has individual advantages related to specific pathologies. Initiation, the earliest disease phase, is best modeled by the White Carneau (WC-As) pigeon. Atherosclerosis develops spontaneously in the WC-As without either external manipulation or known risk factors. Furthermore, susceptibility is caused by a single gene defect inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. The Show Racer (SR-Ar) pigeon is resistant to atherosclerosis. Breed differences in the biochemistry and metabolism of celiac foci cells have been described. For example, WC-As have lower oxidative metabolism but higher amounts of chondroitin-6-sulfate and nonesterified fatty acids compared with SR-Ar. Gene expression in aortic smooth muscle cells was compared between breeds using representational difference analysis and microarray analysis. Energy metabolism and cellular phenotype were the chief gene expression differences. Glycolysis and synthetic cell types were related to the WC-As but oxidative metabolism and contractile cell types were related to the SR-Ar. Rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, blocked RNA binding motif (RBMS1) expression in WC-As cells. The drug may act through the c-myc oncogene as RBMS1 is a c-myc target. Proteomic tests of aortic smooth muscle cells supported greater glycosylation in the WC-As and a transforming growth factor β effect in SR-Ar. Unoxidized fatty acids build up in WC-As cells because of their metabolic deficiency, ultimately preventing the contractile phenotype in these cells. The single gene responsible for the disease is likely regulatory in nature.

  9. An unprecedented UV/optical flare in TV Columbae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szkody, P.; Mateo, M.

    1984-01-01

    A surprising, 2 mag, short time scale (hr) outburst of TV Col (2A 0526-328) was observed simultaneously at IUE and optical wavelengths in 1982 November. During this 'flare', the IUE emission lines of N v 1240, C IV 1550, and He II 1640, intensified by more than an order of magnitude and developed P Cygni profiles, indicating mass loss. Continuum fits with a power-law plus a blackbody from the UV through the optical showed a steepening of the UV power-law component and an increase in the temperature and size of the blackbody component during the flare activity. This unusual behavior is discussed in terms of an accretion disk instability.

  10. Grasping in the pigeon (Columba livia): final common path mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Klein, B G; Deich, J D; Zeigler, H P

    1985-12-01

    A combination of cinematographic and denervation procedures were used to analyse the mechanisms involved in the adjustment of gape size during grasping in the pigeon. Gape size was found to vary directly with seed size and to reflect the operation of two variables, jaw opening velocity and jaw opening duration. Effects upon duration are mediated, indirectly, by the effect of seed size upon head height, which, in turn, controls the velocity of head descent. The data suggest that the control of gape during grasping may involve two different effector systems (jaw muscles, neck muscles). Analysis of the displacement of individual jaws (maxilla, mandible) during grasping indicates that both opener muscles take part in the control of gape. Denervation experiments (motor nerve section) identified these opener motoneurons as contributors to the final common path for the opening phase of grasping. A comparison of the kinematics of pecking/grasping in pigeons and reaching/grasping in humans reveals a number of similarities in the topography and spatiotemporal organization of these behaviors.

  11. Detection and discrimination of complex sounds by pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Cook, Robert G; Qadri, Muhammad A J; Oliveira, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    Auditory scene analysis is the process by which sounds are separated and identified from each other and from the background to make functional auditory objects. One challenge in making these psychological units is that complex sounds often continuously differ in composition over their duration. Here we examined the acoustic basis of complex sound processing in four pigeons by evaluating their performance in an ongoing same/different (S/D) task. This provided an opportunity to investigate avian auditory processing in a non-vocal learning, non-songbird. These pigeons were already successfully discriminating 18.5 s sequences of all different 1.5 s sounds (ABCD…) from sequences of one sound repeating (AAAA…, BBBB…, etc.) in a go/no-go procedure. The stimuli for these same/different sequences consisted of 504 tonal sounds (36 chromatic notes×14 different instruments), 36 pure tones, and 72 complex sounds. Not all of these sounds were equally effective in supporting S/D discrimination. As identified by a stepwise regression modeling of ten acoustic properties, tonal and complex sounds with intermediate levels of acoustic content tended to support better discrimination. The results suggest that pigeons have the auditory and cognitive capabilities to recognize and group continuously changing sound elements into larger functional units that can serve to differentiate long sequences of same and different sounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection and Discrimination of Complex Sounds by Pigeons (Columba livia)

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Robert G.; Qadri, Muhammad A. J.; Oliveira, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Auditory scene analysis is the process by which sounds are separated and identified from each other and from the background to make functional auditory objects. One challenge in making these psychological units is that complex sounds often continuously differ in composition over their duration. Here we examined the acoustic basis of complex sound processing in four pigeons by evaluating their performance in an ongoing same/different (S/D) task. This provided an opportunity to investigate avian auditory processing in a non-vocal learning, non-songbird. These pigeons were already successfully discriminating 18.5 s sequences of all different 1.5 s sounds (ABCD . . .) from sequences of one sound repeating (AAAA . . ., BBBB . . ., etc.) in a go/no-go procedure. The stimuli for these same/different sequences consisted of 504 tonal sounds (36 chromatic notes × 14 different instruments), 36 pure tones, and 72 complex sounds. Not all of these sounds were equally effective in supporting S/D discrimination. As identified by a stepwise regression modeling of ten acoustic properties, tonal and complex sounds with intermediate levels of acoustic content tended to support better discrimination. The results suggest that pigeons have the auditory and cognitive capabilities to recognize and group continuously changing sound elements into larger functional units that can serve to differentiate long sequences of same and different sounds. PMID:26616672

  13. [Chewing-lice species (Phthiraptera) found on domestic and wild birds in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out 48 domestic and wild bird samples belonging to 15 different species. Birds that were killed by traffic on the roads as well as birds that were ill or injured were brought for investigation to the Veterinary Faculty or Animal Keeping House of Konya Municipal. Firstly, all of them were inspected macroscopically for ectoparasites. Then, they were treated with an insecticidal drug, propoxur in a cartoon box. One long-eared owl, one Eurasian buzzard, four long-legged buzzards and five rock pigeons were found to be infested with lice, the others were not. The lice were mounted on slides into Canada balsam after being cleared in KOH 10 % and were identified to species under the light microscope. The lice were identified as Strigiphilus barbatus collected from the long-eared owl, as Kurodaia fulvofasciata collected from the Eurasian buzzard, as Crasspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Colpocephalum nanum collected from long-legged buzzards and as Columbicola columbae collected from rock pigeons. This is the first time that Kurodaia fulvofasciata from the Eurasian buzzard and Strigiphilus barbatus from the long-eared owl has been recorded in Turkey.

  14. Host defense reinforces host–parasite cospeciation

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Dale H.; Bush, Sarah E.; Goates, Brad M.; Johnson, Kevin P.

    2003-01-01

    Cospeciation occurs when interacting groups, such as hosts and parasites, speciate in tandem, generating congruent phylogenies. Cospeciation can be a neutral process in which parasites speciate merely because they are isolated on diverging host islands. Adaptive evolution may also play a role, but this has seldom been tested. We explored the adaptive basis of cospeciation by using a model system consisting of feather lice (Columbicola) and their pigeon and dove hosts (Columbiformes). We reconstructed phylogenies for both groups by using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Both phylogenies were well resolved and well supported. Comparing these phylogenies revealed significant cospeciation and correlated evolution of host and parasite body size. The match in body size suggested that adaptive constraints limit the range of hosts lice can use. We tested this hypothesis by transferring lice among hosts of different sizes to simulate host switches. The results of these experiments showed that lice cannot establish viable populations on novel hosts that differ in size from the native host. To determine why size matters, we measured three components of louse fitness: attachment, feeding, and escape from host defense (preening). Lice could remain attached to, and feed on, hosts varying in size by an order of magnitude. However, they could not escape from preening on novel hosts that differed in size from the native host. Overall, our results suggest that host defense reinforces cospeciation in birds and feather lice by preventing lice from switching between hosts of different sizes. PMID:14673114

  15. High diversity and rapid diversification in the head louse, Pediculus humanus (Pediculidae: Phthiraptera)

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Prosser, Sean; Nasir, Saima; Masood, Mariyam; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2015-01-01

    The study analyzes sequence variation of two mitochondrial genes (COI, cytb) in Pediculus humanus from three countries (Egypt, Pakistan, South Africa) that have received little prior attention, and integrates these results with prior data. Analysis indicates a maximum K2P distance of 10.3% among 960 COI sequences and 13.8% among 479 cytb sequences. Three analytical methods (BIN, PTP, ABGD) reveal five concordant OTUs for COI and cytb. Neighbor-Joining analysis of the COI sequences confirm five clusters; three corresponding to previously recognized mitochondrial clades A, B, C and two new clades, “D” and “E”, showing 2.3% and 2.8% divergence from their nearest neighbors (NN). Cytb data corroborate five clusters showing that clades “D” and “E” are both 4.6% divergent from their respective NN clades. Phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of all clusters recovered by NJ analysis. Divergence time estimates suggest that the earliest split of P. humanus clades occured slightly more than one million years ago (MYa) and the latest about 0.3 MYa. Sequence divergences in COI and cytb among the five clades of P. humanus are 10X those in their human host, a difference that likely reflects both rate acceleration and the acquisition of lice clades from several archaic hominid lineages. PMID:26373806

  16. Identification of repellent odorants to the body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis, in clove essential oil.

    PubMed

    Iwamatsu, Takuma; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Yoshioka, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2016-04-01

    The control of body lice is an important issue for human health and welfare because lice act as vectors of disease such as typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Body lice exhibit avoidance behavior to some essential oils, including clove essential oil. Therefore, odorants containing clove essential oil components may potentially be useful in the development of repellents to body lice. However, such odorants that induce avoidance behavior in body lice have not yet been identified from clove essential oil. Here, we established an analysis method to evaluate the avoidance behavior of body lice to specific odorants. The behavioral analysis of the body lice in response to clove essential oil and its constituents revealed that eugenol, a major component of clove essential oil, has strong repellent effect on body lice, whereas the other components failed to induce obvious avoidance behavior. A comparison of the repellent effects of eugenol with those of other structurally related odorants revealed possible moieties that are important for the avoidance effects to body lice. The repellent effect of eugenol to body lice was enhanced by combining it with the other major component of clove essential oil, β-caryophyllene. We conclude that a synthetic blend of eugenol and β-caryophyllene is the most effective repellent to body lice. This finding will be valuable as the potential use of eugenol as body lice repellent.

  17. Why Everything Is All Loused Up, Really (And What to Do About It)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Dugan

    1971-01-01

    The ideal training system recognizes that most performance problems are execution problems: lack of feedback, task interference, or punishment--and rarely motivation. As an initial place for study, the ideal training system works backward from company profits to choose areas contributing most to profit. (EB)

  18. Identification and Molecular Characterization of Two Acetylcholinesterases from the Salmon Louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bakke, Marit Jørgensen; Nilsen, Frank; Horsberg, Tor Einar

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important enzyme in cholinergic synapses. Most arthropods have two genes (ace1 and ace2), but only one encodes the predominant synaptic AChE, the main target for organophosphates. Resistance towards organophosphates is widespread in the marine arthropod Lepeophtheirus salmonis. To understand this trait, it is essential to characterize the gene(s) coding for AChE(s). The full length cDNA sequences encoding two AChEs in L. salmonis were molecularly characterized in this study. The two ace genes were highly similar (83.5% similarity at protein level). Alignment to the L. salmonis genome revealed that both genes were located close to each other (separated by just 26.4 kbp on the L. salmonis genome), resulting from a recent gene duplication. Both proteins had all the typical features of functional AChE and clustered together with AChE-type 1 proteins in other species, an observation that has not been described in other arthropods. We therefore concluded the presence of two versions of ace1 gene in L. salmonis, named ace1a and ace1b. Ace1a was predominantly expressed in different developmental stages compared to ace1b and was possibly active in the cephalothorax, indicating that ace1a is more likely to play the major role in cholinergic synaptic transmission. The study is essential to understand the role of AChEs in resistance against organophosphates in L. salmonis. PMID:25938836

  19. In silico characterization of the peptidome of the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (Crustacea, Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2014-08-01

    Copepods of the order Siphonostomatoida are a major concern for commercial aquaculture as many farmed fish serve as hosts for these parasitic crustaceans. Caligus rogercresseyi, a member of the Siphonostomatoida, is a significant problem for salmonid aquaculture in the Southern Hemisphere, and as such, a search for methods for controlling infestations of it is ongoing. One possibility for biological control of this and other copepod ectoparasites is endocrine manipulation. However, little is known about the native endocrine signaling systems in these animals. As part of an ongoing effort to characterize crustacean ectoparasite peptidergic systems, the publicly accessible C. rogercresseyi transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) was mined for peptide-encoding transcripts. Using the identified TSA sequences, precursor proteins were deduced and their mature peptides predicted. Thirty-three peptide-encoding transcripts were identified within the Caligus TSA dataset, with the structures of 131 distinct peptides characterized from the deduced pre/preprohormones. The predicted peptides included isoforms of allatostatin A, allatostatin B, bursicon α, bursicon β, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, diuretic hormone 31, DXXRLamide, FLRFamide, FXGGXamide, GSEFLamide, insulin-like peptide (ILP), intocin, leucokinin, molt-inhibiting hormone, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F (NPF), orcokinin and tachykinin-related peptide. The predicted ILPs are of particular note as they are the first members of this peptide family identified from a copepod. Similarly, the predicted complement of four distinct NPFs is larger than that known from other crustaceans. Taken collectively, these data greatly expand the known C. rogercresseyi peptidome and provide a foundation for initiating studies of peptidergic control in this species.

  20. Rate of population increase of poultry shaft louse, Menopon gallinae in vivo condition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Surendra; Singh, Padam; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-09-01

    Attempts were made to determine the rate of expansion of Menopon gallinae by releasing 10 healthier looking adult lice on each of the twelve similar aged fowls and delousing two fowls fortnightly (up to 90 days). The experiments were performed in the months of summer as well as in the months of winter. It was found that an initial inoculum of 10 M. gallinae could produce 636 lice in summers (doubling time 15 days). During winter months 323 M. gallinae were recovered from an inoculum of 10 lice (doubling time 18 days). Thus, summer months appear to be more favorable for the population build up of lice.

  1. Prohibitin-2 gene reveals sex-related differences in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Farlora, Rodolfo; Nuñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-06-10

    Prohibitins are evolutionarily conserved proteins present in multiple cellular compartments, and are involved in diverse cellular processes, including steroid hormone transcription and gametogenesis. In the present study, we report for the first time the characterization of the prohibitin-2 (Phb2) gene in the sea lice Caligus rogercresseyi. The CrPhb2 cDNA showed a total length of 1406 bp, which contained a predicted open reading frame (ORF) of 894 base pairs (bp) encoding for 298 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignments of prohibitin proteins from other arthropods revealed a high degree of amino acid sequence conservation. In silico Illumina read counts and RT-qPCR analyses showed a sex-dependent differential expression, with mRNA levels exhibiting a 1.7-fold (RT-qPCR) increase in adult females compared with adult males. A total of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, three were located in the 5' UTR of the Phb2 messenger and six in the ORF, but no mutations associated with sex were found. These results contribute to expand the present knowledge of the reproduction-related genes in C. rogercresseyi, and may be useful in future experiments aimed at controlling the impacts of sea lice in fish farming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel Primers From Informative Nuclear Loci for Louse Molecular Phylogenetics (Insecta: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Andrew D; Allen, Julie M; Johnson, Kevin P

    2014-11-01

    While parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) have historically been an important model taxon for understanding host-parasite coevolution, very few molecular markers have been developed for phylogenetic analysis. The current markers are insufficient to resolve many of the deeper nodes in this group; therefore, sequences from additional genetic loci are necessary. Here, we design primers targeting several nuclear protein coding genes based on a complete genome and transcriptome of Pediculus humanus L. plus transcriptomes and modest coverage genomic data from five genera of avian feather lice. These primers were tested on 32 genera of avian feather lice (Ischnocera), including multiple species within some genera. All of the new primer combinations produced sequences for the majority of the genera and had similar or higher divergences than the most widely used nuclear protein-coding gene in lice, EF-1α. These results indicate that these new loci will be useful in resolving phylogenetic relationships among parasitic lice.

  3. [Louse infestation of the red marmot, Marmota caudata, during its active period].

    PubMed

    Sosnina, E F; Davydov, G S

    1975-01-01

    2213 lice of Neohaematopinus palaearctcus Ols. were collected from 152 of 865 examined specimens of Marmota caudata Geoffr. from different vertical zones of Tadjikistan. The long-tailed marmot is characterized by a moderate or poor infestation with lice. In the subalpine zone, where the number and density of these animals in rather high, the infestation rate is greater than that in the brushwood zone. In spring after hibernation the infestation of M. caudata is very low. Within the reporoduction period the infestation with lice increases, the latter begin to reproduce intensively. During the preparation for hibernation the infestation rate falls due to a less intensive reproduction of lice. There are no distinct differences in the infestation rate of long-tailed marmots belonging to different age groups since there are constant contacts between the individuals of the colony. Only reproducing females live together with brood by themselves, differ in moulting periods and in a greater intensity of invasion during reproduction.

  4. High diversity and rapid diversification in the head louse, Pediculus humanus (Pediculidae: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Prosser, Sean; Nasir, Saima; Masood, Mariyam; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Hebert, Paul D N

    2015-09-16

    The study analyzes sequence variation of two mitochondrial genes (COI, cytb) in Pediculus humanus from three countries (Egypt, Pakistan, South Africa) that have received little prior attention, and integrates these results with prior data. Analysis indicates a maximum K2P distance of 10.3% among 960 COI sequences and 13.8% among 479 cytb sequences. Three analytical methods (BIN, PTP, ABGD) reveal five concordant OTUs for COI and cytb. Neighbor-Joining analysis of the COI sequences confirm five clusters; three corresponding to previously recognized mitochondrial clades A, B, C and two new clades, "D" and "E", showing 2.3% and 2.8% divergence from their nearest neighbors (NN). Cytb data corroborate five clusters showing that clades "D" and "E" are both 4.6% divergent from their respective NN clades. Phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of all clusters recovered by NJ analysis. Divergence time estimates suggest that the earliest split of P. humanus clades occurred slightly more than one million years ago (MYa) and the latest about 0.3 MYa. Sequence divergences in COI and cytb among the five clades of P. humanus are 10X those in their human host, a difference that likely reflects both rate acceleration and the acquisition of lice clades from several archaic hominid lineages.

  5. Detection of West Nile virus RNA from the louse fly Icosta americana (Diptera: Hippoboscidae).

    PubMed

    Farajollahi, Ary; Crans, Wayne J; Nickerson, Diane; Bryant, Patricia; Wolf, Bruce; Glaser, Amy; Andreadis, Theodore G

    2005-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was detected by Taqman reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in 4 of 85 (4.7%) blood-engorged (n = 2) and unengorged (n = 2) Icosta americana (Leach) hippoboscid flies that were collected from wild raptors submitted to a wildlife rehabilitation center in Mercer County, NJ, in 2003. This report represents an additional detection of WNV in a nonculicine arthropod in North America and the first documented detection of the virus in unengorged hippoboscid flies, further suggesting a possible role that this species may play in the transmission of WNV in North America.

  6. Transcriptomic insights on the ABC transporter gene family in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Sturm, Armin; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-04-09

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein family encode for membrane proteins involved in the transport of various biomolecules through the cellular membrane. These proteins have been identified in all taxa and present important physiological functions, including the process of insecticide detoxification in arthropods. For that reason the ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi represents a model species for understanding the molecular underpinnings involved in insecticide drug resistance. llumina sequencing was performed using sea lice exposed to 2 and 3 ppb of deltamethrin and azamethiphos. Contigs obtained from de novo assembly were annotated by Blastx. RNA-Seq analysis was performed and validated by qPCR analysis. From the transcriptome database of C. rogercresseyi, 57 putative members of ABC protein sequences were identified and phylogenetically classified into the eight subfamilies described for ABC transporters in arthropods. Transcriptomic profiles for ABC proteins subfamilies were evaluated throughout C. rogercresseyi development. Moreover, RNA-Seq analysis was performed for adult male and female salmon lice exposed to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin. High transcript levels of the ABCB and ABCC subfamilies were evidenced. Furthermore, SNPs mining was carried out for the ABC proteins sequences, revealing pivotal genomic information. The present study gives a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of ABC proteins from C. rogercresseyi, providing relevant information about transporter roles during ontogeny and in relation to delousing drug responses in salmon lice. This genomic information represents a valuable tool for pest management in the Chilean salmon aquaculture industry.

  7. Desmozoon lepeophtherii n. gen., n. sp., (Microsporidia: Enterocytozoonidae) infecting the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A microsporidian was previously reported to infect the crustacean parasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) (Copepoda, Caligidae), on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Scotland. The microsporidian was shown to be a novel species with a molecular phylogenetic relationship to Nucleospora (Enterocytozoonidae), but the original report did not assign it to a genus or species. Further studies examined the development of the microsporidian in L. salmonis using electron microscopy and re-evaluated the molecular findings using new sequence data available for the group. Here we report a full description for the microsporidian and assign it to a new genus and species. Results The microsporidian infects subcuticular cells that lie on the innermost region of the epidermal tissue layer beneath the cuticle and along the internal haemocoelic divisions. The mature spores are sub-spherical with a single nucleus and an isofilar polar filament with 5-8 turns in a double coil. The entire development is in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm and is polysporous. During early merogony, a diplokaryotic nuclear arrangement exists which is absent throughout the rest of the developmental cycle. Large merogonial plasmodia form which divide to form single uninucleate sporonts. Sporogonial plasmodia were not observed; instead, binucleate sporonts divide to form two sporoblasts. Prior to final division, there is a precocious development of the polar filament extrusion apparatus which is associated with large electron lucent inclusions (ELIs). Analyses of DNA sequences reveal that the microsporidian is robustly supported in a clade with other members of the Enterocytozoonidae and confirms a close phylogenetic relationship with Nucleospora. Conclusion The ultrastructural findings of the precocious development of the polar filament and the presence of ELIs are consistent with those of the Enterocytozoonidae. However, the confirmed presence of an early diplokaryotic stage and a merogonial plasmodium that divides to yield uninucleate sporonts instead of transforming into a sporogonial syncitium, are features not currently associated with the family. Yet, analyses of DNA sequence data clearly place the microsporidian within the Enterocytozoonidae. Therefore, due to the novelty of the copepod host, the ultrastructural findings and the robust nature of the phylogenetic analyses, a new genus should be created within the Enterocytozoonide; Desmozoon lepeophtherii n. gen. n. sp. is proposed. PMID:19943930

  8. Pigeons (Columba livia) show change blindness in a color-change detection task.

    PubMed

    Herbranson, Walter T; Jeffers, Jacob S

    2017-07-01

    Change blindness is a phenomenon whereby changes to a stimulus are more likely go unnoticed under certain circumstances. Pigeons learned a change detection task, in which they observed sequential stimulus displays consisting of individual colors back-projected onto three response keys. The color of one response key changed during each sequence and pecks to the key that displayed the change were reinforced. Pigeons showed a change blindness effect, in that change detection accuracy was worse when there was an inter-stimulus interval interrupting the transition between consecutive stimulus displays. Birds successfully transferred to stimulus displays involving novel colors, indicating that pigeons learned a general change detection rule. Furthermore, analysis of responses to specific color combinations showed that pigeons could detect changes involving both spectral and non-spectral colors and that accuracy was better for changes involving greater differences in wavelength. These results build upon previous investigations of change blindness in both humans and pigeons and suggest that change blindness may be a general consequence of selective visual attention relevant to multiple species and stimulus dimensions.

  9. Connectivity and neurochemistry of the commissura anterior of the pigeon (Columba livia)

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Annika; Güntürkün, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The anterior commissure (AC) and the much smaller hippocampal commissure constitute the only interhemispheric pathways at the telencephalic level in birds. Since the degeneration study from Zeier and Karten (1973), no detailed description of the topographic organization of the AC has been performed. This information is not only necessary for a better understanding of interhemispheric transfer in birds, but also for a comparative analysis of the evolution of commissural systems in the vertebrate classes. We therefore examined the fiber connections of the AC by using choleratoxin subunit B (CTB) and biotinylated dextran amine (BDA). Injections into subareas of the arcopallium and posterior amygdala (PoA) demonstrated contralateral projection fields within the anterior arcopallium (AA), intermediate arcopallium (AI), PoA, lateral, caudolateral and central nidopallium, dorsal and ventral mesopallium, and medial striatum (MSt). Interestingly, only arcopallial and amygdaloid projections were reciprocally organized, and all AC projections originated within a rather small area of the arcopallium and the PoA. The commissural neurons were not GABA‐positive, and thus possibly not of an inhibitory nature. In sum, our neuroanatomical study demonstrates that a small group of arcopallial and amygdaloid neurons constitute a wide range of contralateral projections to sensorimotor and limbic structures. Different from mammals, in birds the neurons that project via the AC constitute mostly heterotopically organized and unidirectional connections. In addition, the great majority of pallial areas do not participate by themselves in interhemispheric exchange in birds. Instead, commissural exchange rests on a rather small arcopallial and amygdaloid cluster of neurons. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:343–361, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26179777

  10. Discrimination of Complex Human Behavior by Pigeons (Columba livia) and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Muhammad A. J.; Sayde, Justin M.; Cook, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive and neural mechanisms for recognizing and categorizing behavior are not well understood in non-human animals. In the current experiments, pigeons and humans learned to categorize two non-repeating, complex human behaviors (“martial arts” vs. “Indian dance”). Using multiple video exemplars of a digital human model, pigeons discriminated these behaviors in a go/no-go task and humans in a choice task. Experiment 1 found that pigeons already experienced with discriminating the locomotive actions of digital animals acquired the discrimination more rapidly when action information was available than when only pose information was available. Experiments 2 and 3 found this same dynamic superiority effect with naïve pigeons and human participants. Both species used the same combination of immediately available static pose information and more slowly perceived dynamic action cues to discriminate the behavioral categories. Theories based on generalized visual mechanisms, as opposed to embodied, species-specific action networks, offer a parsimonious account of how these different animals recognize behavior across and within species. PMID:25379777

  11. Context controls access to working and reference memory in the pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Roberts, William A; Macpherson, Krista; Strang, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between working and reference memory systems was examined under conditions in which salient contextual cues were presented during memory retrieval. Ambient colored lights (red or green) bathed the operant chamber during the presentation of comparison stimuli in delayed matching-to-sample training (working memory) and during the presentation of the comparison stimuli as S+ and S- cues in discrimination training (reference memory). Strong competition between memory systems appeared when the same contextual cue appeared during working and reference memory training. When different contextual cues were used, however, working memory was completely protected from reference memory interference.

  12. Measurements of Wide Tycho Double Stars in Orion - Follow Up Canis Minor and Columba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Ross; Knapp, Wilfried

    2016-10-01

    As follow up to our report "Visual Observation and Measurements of some Tycho Double Stars" we decided to have a look at some more wider TDS objects in other constellations but to replace the hapless visual observation task by counterchecking with existing Sky Survey images

  13. Further tests of pigeons' (Columba livia) planning behavior using a computerized plus-shaped maze task.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Hiromitsu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2012-08-01

    Miyata and Fujita in 2008 reported that pigeons, trained to move a target square to a goal square by pecking, plan one step ahead while performing on a plus-shaped maze, that is, the birds frequently made errors to move the target toward the previous goal direction after the goal jumped to another arm. In the present study, pigeons' planning using this maze was further examined. In Experiment 1, when goals appeared at all three of the arms during solution, the birds did not choose the old goal at above chance. Reaction time data suggested that the birds decided which goal to choose after crossing the center point. In Experiment 2, after the goal jumped to another arm following a preview phase, some birds frequently moved in the direction of the old goal. These results suggest that pigeons may plan one step ahead but might have updated plans for each movement.

  14. Feral Pigeons (Columba livia) Prefer Genetically Similar Mates despite Inbreeding Depression

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Gwenaël; Prévot, Anne-Caroline; Baudry, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Avoidance of mating between related individuals is usually considered adaptive because it decreases the probability of inbreeding depression in offspring. However, mating between related partners can be adaptive if outbreeding depression is stronger than inbreeding depression or if females gain inclusive fitness benefits by mating with close kin. In the present study, we used microsatellite data to infer the parentage of juveniles born in a French colony of feral pigeons, which allowed us to deduce parent pairs. Despite detectable inbreeding depression, we found that pairwise relatedness between mates was significantly higher than between nonmates, with a mean coefficient of relatedness between mates of 0.065, approximately half the theoretical value for first cousins. This higher relatedness between mates cannot be explained by spatial genetic structure in this colonial bird; it therefore probably results from an active choice. As inbreeding but not outbreeding depression is observed in the study population, this finding accords with the idea that mating with genetically similar mates can confer a benefit in terms of inclusive fitness. Our results and published evidence suggest that preference for related individuals as mates might be relatively frequent in birds. PMID:27588754

  15. Visual discrimination in the pigeon (Columba livia): effects of selective lesions of the nucleus rotundus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laverghetta, A. V.; Shimizu, T.

    1999-01-01

    The nucleus rotundus is a large thalamic nucleus in birds and plays a critical role in many visual discrimination tasks. In order to test the hypothesis that there are functionally distinct subdivisions in the nucleus rotundus, effects of selective lesions of the nucleus were studied in pigeons. The birds were trained to discriminate between different types of stationary objects and between different directions of moving objects. Multiple regression analyses revealed that lesions in the anterior, but not posterior, division caused deficits in discrimination of small stationary stimuli. Lesions in neither the anterior nor posterior divisions predicted effects in discrimination of moving stimuli. These results are consistent with a prediction led from the hypothesis that the nucleus is composed of functional subdivisions.

  16. The effect of display timing on change blindness in pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Herbranson, Walter T; Davis, Eva T

    2016-01-01

    Change blindness is a phenomenon in which even obvious changes in a visual scene may go unnoticed. Recent research has indicated that this phenomenon may not be exclusive to humans. Two experiments investigated change blindness in pigeons, using a variant of the widely-used flicker task to investigate the influence of display timing on change blindness. Results indicate that the duration of time during which a stimulus display is visible influences change detection accuracy, with the effect due to additional search time. The results are discussed in relation to the value of comparative cognition and cross-species investigations of behavior.

  17. Visual discrimination in the pigeon (Columba livia): effects of selective lesions of the nucleus rotundus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laverghetta, A. V.; Shimizu, T.

    1999-01-01

    The nucleus rotundus is a large thalamic nucleus in birds and plays a critical role in many visual discrimination tasks. In order to test the hypothesis that there are functionally distinct subdivisions in the nucleus rotundus, effects of selective lesions of the nucleus were studied in pigeons. The birds were trained to discriminate between different types of stationary objects and between different directions of moving objects. Multiple regression analyses revealed that lesions in the anterior, but not posterior, division caused deficits in discrimination of small stationary stimuli. Lesions in neither the anterior nor posterior divisions predicted effects in discrimination of moving stimuli. These results are consistent with a prediction led from the hypothesis that the nucleus is composed of functional subdivisions.

  18. Effect of Hygromycin-B on pigeons (Columba livia) with and without Trichomonas gallinae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.

    1972-01-01

    Hygromycin-B was administered in varied quantities to pigeons harboring nonvirulent Trichomonas gallinae and to pigeons free of T. gallinae. Both groups responded identically with large yellow caseous lesions in the upper digestive tract which superficially resembled canker (trichomoniasis). No mycotic association with the lesions could be established in either .group from sections stained with periodic acid-Schiff. The lesions observed in Hygromycin-B-treated pigeons were concluded to be the direct result of the drug on the mucosa of the pigeon's upper digestive tract.

  19. Age-related spatial working memory deficits in homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Coppola, Vincent J; Hough, Gerald; Bingman, Verner P

    2014-12-01

    The hippocampus is particularly susceptible to age-related degeneration that, like hippocampal lesions, is thought to lead to age-related decline in spatial memory and navigation. Lesions to the avian hippocampal formation (HF) also result in impaired spatial memory and navigation, but the relationship between aging and HF-dependent spatial cognition is unknown. To investigate possible age-related decline in avian spatial cognition, the current study investigated spatial working memory performance in older homing pigeons (10+ years of age). Pigeons completed a behavioral procedure nearly identical to the delayed spatial, win-shift procedure in a modified radial arm maze that has been previously used to study spatial working memory in rats and pigeons. The results revealed that the older pigeons required a greater number of choices to task completion and were less accurate with their first 4 choices as compared to younger pigeons (1-2 years of age). In addition, older pigeons were more likely to adopt a stereotyped sampling strategy, which explained in part their impaired performance. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate an age-related impairment of HF-dependent, spatial memory in birds. Implications and future directions of the findings are discussed.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Feral Rock Pigeon (Columba livia breed feral).

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Hong; Liu, Fang; Wang, Li

    2014-10-01

    Abstract In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of feral rock pigeon for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,239 bp with the base composition of 30.3% for A, 24.0% for T, 31.9% for C, and 13.8% for G and an A-T (54.3 %)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of feral rock pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.

  1. Distribution of prosaposin mRNA in the central nervous system of the pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Islam, M R; Abdullah, J M; Atoji, Y

    2013-08-01

    Bioassay and immunohistochemical studies have detected the presence of prosaposin in the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals. Here, first time, we have determined the partial cDNA sequence of pigeon prosaposin and mapped the distribution of its mRNA in the pigeon CNS. The predicted amino acid sequence of pigeon prosaposin showed 93 and 60% identity to chicken and human prosaposin, respectively. In situ hybridization, autoradiograms showed that the prosaposin mRNA expression was found in the olfactory bulb, prepiriform cortex, Wulst, mesopallium, nidopallium, hippocampal formation, thalamus, tuberis nucleus, pre-tectal nucleus, nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis, nucleus isthmi, pars parvocellularis and magnocellularis, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, optic tectum, cerebellar cortex and nuclei, vestibular nuclei and gray matter of the spinal cord. These results suggest that the cDNA sequence of pigeon prosaposin is comparable to other vertebrates, and the general distribution pattern of prosaposin mRNA resembles those are found in mammals.

  2. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the king pigeon (Columba livia breed king).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Hua; He, Wen-Xiao; Xu, Tong

    2015-06-01

    The king pigeon is a breed of pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding primarily as a utility breed. In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of king pigeon for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,221 bp with the base composition of 30.14% for A, 24.05% for T, 31.82% for C, and 13.99% for G and an A-T (54.22 %)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and one non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of king pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.

  3. Pigeons ("Columba Livia") Approach Nash Equilibrium in Experimental Matching Pennies Competitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanabria, Federico; Thrailkill, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The game of Matching Pennies (MP), a simplified version of the more popular Rock, Papers, Scissors, schematically represents competitions between organisms with incentives to predict each other's behavior. Optimal performance in iterated MP competitions involves the production of random choice patterns and the detection of nonrandomness in the…

  4. Mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon (Columba livia breed Egyptian swift).

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Hong; Shi, Wei; Shi, Wan-Yu

    2015-06-01

    The Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. In this work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,239 bp and its overall base composition was estimated to be 30.2% for A, 24.0% for T, 31.9% for C and 13.9% for G, indicating an A-T (54.2%)-rich feature in the mitogenome. It contained the typical structure of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the ice pigeon (Columba livia breed ice).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Hua; He, Wen-Xiao

    2015-02-01

    The ice pigeon is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of ice pigeon for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,236 bp with the base composition of 30.2% for A, 24.0% for T, 31.9% for C, and 13.9% for G and an A-T (54.2 %)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of ice pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.

  6. The primary vestibular projection to the cerebellar cortex in the pigeon (Columba livia)

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, I.E.; Schwarz, D.W.

    1983-06-01

    The cerebellar cortex of the pigeon receiving direct vestibular afferents was delineated by anterograde transport of (/sup 3/H)-amino acids injected into the vestibular nerve. Labelled mossy fiber rosettes in the granular layer were concentrated in lobule X (nodulus) and to a lesser extent, in the ventral portion of lobule IXd (uvula and paraflocculus). A few solitary labelled rosettes were also found in more dorsal portions of lobule IX, as well as in the anterior lobe between lobule II and IV. The lingula remained unlabelled. Discrete injections of (/sup 3/H)-leucine into the cristae of each of the three semicircular canals or the utricular macula yielded a similar distribution of fewer labelled rosettes. A few primary mossy fiber terminals labelled after cochlear injections are attributed to afferents from the lagenar macula. Since effective diffusion of label from the injection site was excluded by controls, it is concluded that projection of individual canal and macula nerves to the vestibulocerebellar cortex is not topographically separated. It is proposed that this extensive convergence of various afferents is required by the cerebellum to compute precise and directionally specific control signals during head rotation in all conceivable planes.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Jacobin pigeon (Columba livia breed Jacobin).

    PubMed

    He, Wen-Xiao; Jia, Jin-Feng

    2015-06-01

    The Jacobin is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding that originated in Asia. In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Jacobin pigeon for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,245 bp with the base composition of 30.18% for A, 23.98% for T, 31.88% for C, and 13.96% for G and an A-T (54.17 %)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region. The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Jacobin pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Fancy Pigeon, Columba livia (Columbiformes: Columbidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Hua; Xu, Ming-Ju; Wang, Cun-Lian; Xu, Tong; Wei, Dong; Liu, Bao-Jian; Wang, Guo-Hua

    2015-02-01

    The fancy pigeons are domesticated varieties of the rock pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of fancy pigeon for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,233 bp with the base composition of 30.1% for A, 24.0% for T, 31.9% for C, and 14.0% for G and an A-T (54.2 %)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of fancy pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.

  9. Ultraviolet, optical, and infrared observations of the intermediate polar TV Columbae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mateo, M.; Szkody, P.; Hutchings, J.

    1985-01-01

    Forty-three IUE spectra of the X-ray discovered, triply periodic cataclysmic variable, TV Col are examined. The results show that the UV flux varies with the four-day period discovered by Motch in 1981. By fitting continuum models to the UV and optical fluxes, it is inferred that this modulation corresponds to the periodic heating of a normally 9000 K source within the binary system due to reprocessing of beamed X-ray and (possibly) EUV radiation from the vicinity of the degenerate star. The observed flux from this heated source is consistent with its origin at either the disk hot spot or the secondary star. Phasing arguments, however, favor the identification of the latter as the primary reprocessing site in the system. The infrared observations are not consistent with the model proposed by Watts et al. in 1982 and imply that the four-day period does not correspond to the orbital period of the binary.

  10. Specialized primary feathers produce tonal sounds during flight in rock pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Niese, Robert L; Tobalske, Bret W

    2016-07-15

    For centuries, naturalists have suggested that the tonal elements of pigeon wing sounds may be sonations (non-vocal acoustic signals) of alarm. However, spurious tonal sounds may be produced passively as a result of aeroelastic flutter in the flight feathers of almost all birds. Using mechanistic criteria emerging from recent work on sonations, we sought to: (1) identify characteristics of rock pigeon flight feathers that might be adapted for sound production rather than flight, and (2) provide evidence that this morphology is necessary for in vivo sound production and is sufficient to replicate in vivo sounds. Pigeons produce tonal sounds (700±50 Hz) during the latter two-thirds of each downstroke during take-off. These tones are produced when a small region of long, curved barbs on the inner vane of the outermost primary feather (P10) aeroelastically flutters. Tones were silenced in live birds when we experimentally increased the stiffness of this region to prevent flutter. Isolated P10 feathers were sufficient to reproduce in vivo sounds when spun at the peak angular velocity of downstroke (53.9-60.3 rad s(-1)), but did not produce tones at average downstroke velocity (31.8 rad s(-1)), whereas P9 and P1 feathers never produced tones. P10 feathers had significantly lower coefficients of resultant aerodynamic force (CR) when spun at peak angular velocity than at average angular velocity, revealing that production of tonal sounds incurs an aerodynamic cost. P9 and P1 feathers did not show this difference in CR These mechanistic results suggest that the tonal sounds produced by P10 feathers are not incidental and may function in communication. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Discrimination of holograms and real objects by pigeons (Columba livia) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Stephan, Claudia; Steurer, Michael M; Aust, Ulrike

    2014-08-01

    The type of stimulus material employed in visual tasks is crucial to all comparative cognition research that involves object recognition. There is considerable controversy about the use of 2-dimensional stimuli and the impact that the lack of the 3rd dimension (i.e., depth) may have on animals' performance in tests for their visual and cognitive abilities. We report evidence of discrimination learning using a completely novel type of stimuli, namely, holograms. Like real objects, holograms provide full 3-dimensional shape information but they also offer many possibilities for systematically modifying the appearance of a stimulus. Hence, they provide a promising means for investigating visual perception and cognition of different species in a comparative way. We trained pigeons and humans to discriminate either between 2 real objects or between holograms of the same 2 objects, and we subsequently tested both species for the transfer of discrimination to the other presentation mode. The lack of any decrements in accuracy suggests that real objects and holograms were perceived as equivalent in both species and shows the general appropriateness of holograms as stimuli in visual tasks. A follow-up experiment involving the presentation of novel views of the training objects and holograms revealed some interspecies differences in rotational invariance, thereby confirming and extending the results of previous studies. Taken together, these results suggest that holograms may not only provide a promising tool for investigating yet unexplored issues, but their use may also lead to novel insights into some crucial aspects of comparative visual perception and categorization.

  12. Influence of the behavioural context on the optocollic reflex (OCR) in pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Maurice, Monique; Gioanni, Henri; Abourachid, Anick

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of several behavioural conditions on the properties of the horizontal optocollic reflex (OCR) in pigeons. The head reflex was triggered by rotating the visual surroundings at different velocities (stimuli steps of 30-300 deg. s(-1)) and the characteristics of the slow and fast phases of the OCR were analysed during, (i) the 'resting condition', in which animals were hung in a harness, (ii) the 'standing condition', in which animals were freely standing, (iii) the 'walking condition', in which animals were walking on a treadmill at different velocities, and (iv) the 'flying condition', in which animals were hung in a harness and subjected to a frontal air-stream, provoking a flying posture. In the 'resting' condition, irregularities were observed in the amplitude of nystagmic beats, in the beating field and in the slow phase velocity (SPV) of the OCR. These irregularities diminished progressively when the behavioural condition changed from 'standing' to 'walking', and disappeared in the 'flying' condition. Correlatively, the working range of the OCR (evaluated by its gain at the plateau of SPV) was progressively extended toward higher stimulation velocities. The velocity of the fast phases of the OCR (measured for all the conditions except the 'walking condition') also increased in correlation with the SPV. The walking speed did not influence the OCR in the treadmill velocity range of 0.20-0.40 m s(-1). The presence of a frontal airstream in the 'standing condition' did not change the OCR properties. This fact (and other observations discussed in the paper) suggests that the adaptation of the OCR to the behavioural context is mediated by internal signals generated by each behavioural condition.

  13. Use of slope and feature cues in pigeon (Columba livia) goal-searching behavior.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Daniele; Mauch, Roseanne J; Klimas, Diana B; Bingman, Verner P

    2012-08-01

    Terrain slope provides a directional frame of reference for reorientation and navigation, similar to cardinal directions. Previous studies have shown that, in a goal location task, slope is a very salient cue and that pigeons tend to rely on it even if it is not the most informative cue. Such a strong dependence on one type of information, when there are more effective predictors of reward, is a key premise for a modular view of information processing. Here we tested the provocative hypothesis of a "slope module" for reorientation in slanted environments. Pigeons had to solve a goal location task using slope or another, theoretically salient cue: a beacon feature. Overall, searching behavior was controlled almost equally by the two cues. The fact that, for the first time, slope failed to capture most of the associative strength allows us to reject a strong modularity view and suggests instead that there is competition between cues based on salience. As an interesting additional finding, the reliance on slope and the feature was affected by training location (uphill vs. downhill), suggesting the possibility of a modulatory role of effort on the cue-weighting mechanism of reorientation. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Telencephalic organization of the olfactory system in homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Patzke, N; Manns, M; Güntürkün, O

    2011-10-27

    Pigeons use olfactory cues to navigate over unfamiliar areas, and any impairment of the olfactory system generates remarkable reduction of homing performance. Lesion and deprivation studies suggest a critical involvement of the right nostril and thus, the right olfactory bulb (OB) and the left piriform cortex (CPi) for initial orientation. This functional pattern suggests that OB and CPi are asymmetrically connected with a stronger projection from the right OB to the left CPi. However, the structural organization of the olfactory system is not unequivocally clarified yet. Thus, we re-analyzed the system by antero- and retrograde tract tracing with biotinylated dextran amine and choleratoxin subunit B, and we especially evaluated quantitative differences in the number of cells in the OB innervating the left and right CPi. Our anterograde tracing data verified a strong bilateral input to the CPi, and the prepiriform cortex (CPP), as well as small projections to the ipsilateral medial septum and the dorsolateral corticoid area and the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala in both hemispheres. Apart from the bilateral bulbar afferents, CPi in turn receives unequivocal input from the ipsilateral CPP, hyperpallium densocellulare, dorsal arcopallium, and from a cluster of cells located within the frontolateral nidopallium. Thus, an indirect connection between OB and CPi is only mediated by the CPP. For quantitative analysis of bulbar input to the CPi, we counted the number of ipsi- and contralaterally projecting neurons located in the OB after injections into the left or right CPi. Retrogradely labeled cells were found bilaterally in the OB with a higher number of ipsilaterally located cells. The bilaterality index did not differ after left- or right-sided CPi injections indicating that the functional lateralization of the olfactory system is not simply based on differences in the number of projecting axons of the major processing stream. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Definition and novel connections of the entopallium in the pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Krützfeldt, Nils O E; Wild, J Martin

    2005-09-12

    The avian entopallium (E) is the major thalamorecipient zone, within the telencephalon, of the tectofugal visual system. Because of discrepancies concerning the structure of this nuclear mass in pigeons, and in light of recent evidence concerning entopallial projections in other avian species, we here redefine and chart some novel entopallial projections in the pigeon by using a combination of cytochrome oxidase (CO) activity, calcium binding protein immunohistochemistry (CBPi), normal histology, and tract tracing. We show that 1) E is defined by the accurate overlap of CO activity and the dense terminations of thalamic (rotundal) efferents; 2) the perientopallium (Ep), E's overlying belt region, receives a relatively sparse rotundal input and is a major source of projections to wider regions of the hemisphere; and 3) E can be subdivided into internal (Ei) and external (Ex) portions on the basis of normal histology, CBPi, and differential projections. Thus, Ei, but not Ex, makes a reciprocal connection with a distinct nucleus in the ventrolateral mesopallium and is a major source of projections to the lateral striatum. These findings suggest the necessity for a revision of the original proposal of a strictly serial flow of visual information through the entopallial complex and further regions of the hemisphere and also require a modification of the long-standing view that E is comparable to only one specific lamina (IV) of extrastriate visual cortex of mammals. Rather, E appears to be composed of a variety of neuronal types possibly equivalent to those in several neocortical laminae. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Differential projections of the densocellular and intermediate parts of the hyperpallium in the pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Atoji, Yasuro; Sarkar, Sonjoy; Wild, J Martin

    2017-09-10

    The visual Wulst in birds shows a four-layered structure: apical part of the hyperpallium (HA), interstitial part of HA (IHA), intercalated part of hyperpallium (HI), and densocellular part of hyperpallium (HD). HD also connects with the hippocampus and olfactory system. Because HD is subjacent to HI, the two have been treated as one structure in many studies, and the fiber connections of HD have been examined by afferents and efferents originating outside HD. However, to clarify the difference between these two layers, they need to be treated separately. In the present study, the fiber connections of HD and HI were analyzed with tract-tracing techniques using a combination of injections of cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) for retrograde tracing and biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) for anterograde tracing. When the two tracers were bilaterally injected in HD, a major reciprocal connection was seen with the dorsolateral subdivision (DL) of the hippocampal formation. When CTB and BDA were bilaterally injected in HI, strong reciprocal connections were found between HI and HA. Next, projection neurons in HD and HI were examined by double staining for CTB combined with vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2) mRNA in situ hybridization. After CTB was injected in DL or HA, many neurons revealed CTB+/vGluT2+ in HD or HI, respectively. Furthermore, in situ hybridization showed that DL and HA contained neurons expressing various subunits of ionotropic glutamate receptors: AMPA, kainate, and NMDA types. These results suggest that glutamatergic neurons in HD and HI project primarily to DL and HA, respectively. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Pigeon's (Columba livia) paradoxical preference for the suboptimal alternative in a complex foraging task.

    PubMed

    Zentall, Thomas R; Case, Jacob P; Luong, Jasmine

    2016-05-01

    Recent research has examined a task in which choice of 1 alternative A provides reinforcement and in addition, allows access to alternative B that also provides reinforcement. However, although initial choice of B also provides reinforcement, it does not also allow access to A. Thus, optimal performance would be to always choose A. Curiously, Salwiczek et al. (2012) reported that adult wrasse (cleaner) fish mastered this task within 50 trials, whereas monkeys and apes had great difficulty with it. The authors attributed the species differences to ecological differences in the species foraging experiences. However, Pepperberg and Hartsfield (2014) found that parrots too learned this task. In Experiment 1, using the manual presentation of stimuli, we found that pigeons actually showed a reliable preference for B, the suboptimal alternative. In Experiment 2, we replicated the suboptimal preference using an automated version of the task. We hypothesized that the pigeons may have been basing their preference on the frequency of reinforcement associated with each alternative (initially, all trials ended with choice of B, whereas only half of the trials involved choice of A). In Experiment 3, we tested the hypothesis that the pigeons' preference was influenced by the frequency of reinforcements associated with A and B. Thus, when the pigeon chose A, we replaced B with C, so reinforcement occurred to B only when they chose it first. With this procedure we found that B was no longer preferred over A. Thus, the data supported our hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Waiting time before release increases the motivation to home in homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Dell'Ariccia, Gaia; Costantini, David; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Lipp, Hans-Peter

    2009-10-01

    When performing homing experiments with individual releases, pigeons have to wait in a transport box for a certain amount of time before being released and hence perceive the departure of companions. Quite often, the last pigeons disappear straightforward from the release site. The question is whether this reflects improved orientation because of prolonged exposure to the release place or whether it reflects increased homing motivation. By releasing pigeons from a familiar site, we investigated the effects of the time spent at the release site on homing performance, recording pigeons' flights with GPS loggers. Our results show that, despite individual peculiarities of flight patterns, the waiting time at release site had a positive effect on homing speed and time, and reduced the time spent circling around the release point. However, the overall path efficiency as derived from GPS tracking was not influenced. These results suggest that a longer waiting time before release improves homing performance and this is related not only to increased navigational abilities but also to increased homing motivation.

  19. Change Detection by Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Pigeons (Columba livia)

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, L. Caitlin; Magnotti, John F.; Katz, Jeffrey S.; Wright, Anthony A.

    2012-01-01

    Two monkeys learned a color change-detection task where two colored circles (selected from a 4-color set) were presented on a 4×4 invisible matrix. Following a delay, the correct response was to touch the changed colored circle. The monkeys' learning, color transfer, and delay transfer were compared to a similar experiment with pigeons. Monkeys, like pigeons, showed full transfer to four novel colors, and to delays as long as 6.4 s, suggesting they remembered the colors as opposed to perceptual based attentional capture process that may work at very short delays. The monkeys and pigeons were further tested to compare transfer to other dimensions. Monkeys transferred to shape and location changes, unlike the pigeons, but neither species transferred to size changes. Thus, monkeys were less restricted in their domain to detect change than pigeons, but both species learned the basic task and appear suitable for comparative studies of visual short-term memory. PMID:22428982

  20. Magnetic field-driven induction of ZENK in the trigeminal system of pigeons (Columba livia)

    PubMed Central

    Lefeldt, Nele; Heyers, Dominik; Schneider, Nils-Lasse; Engels, Svenja; Elbers, Dana; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Magnetoreception remains one of the few unsolved mysteries in sensory biology. The upper beak, which is innervated by the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1), has been suggested to contain magnetic sensors based on ferromagnetic structures. Recently, its existence in pigeons has been seriously challenged by studies suggesting that the previously described iron-accumulations are macrophages, not magnetosensitive nerve endings. This raised the fundamental question of whether V1 is involved in magnetoreception in pigeons at all. We exposed pigeons to either a constantly changing magnetic field (CMF), to a zero magnetic field providing no magnetic information, or to CMF conditions after V1 was cut bilaterally. Using immediate early genes as a marker of neuronal responsiveness, we report that the trigeminal brainstem nuclei of pigeons, which receive V1 input, are activated under CMF conditions and that this neuronal activation disappears if the magnetic stimuli are removed or if V1 is cut. Our data suggest that the trigeminal system in pigeons is involved in processing magnetic field information and that V1 transmits this information from currently unknown, V1-associated magnetosensors to the brain. PMID:25232052

  1. Magnetic field-driven induction of ZENK in the trigeminal system of pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Lefeldt, Nele; Heyers, Dominik; Schneider, Nils-Lasse; Engels, Svenja; Elbers, Dana; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2014-11-06

    Magnetoreception remains one of the few unsolved mysteries in sensory biology. The upper beak, which is innervated by the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1), has been suggested to contain magnetic sensors based on ferromagnetic structures. Recently, its existence in pigeons has been seriously challenged by studies suggesting that the previously described iron-accumulations are macrophages, not magnetosensitive nerve endings. This raised the fundamental question of whether V1 is involved in magnetoreception in pigeons at all. We exposed pigeons to either a constantly changing magnetic field (CMF), to a zero magnetic field providing no magnetic information, or to CMF conditions after V1 was cut bilaterally. Using immediate early genes as a marker of neuronal responsiveness, we report that the trigeminal brainstem nuclei of pigeons, which receive V1 input, are activated under CMF conditions and that this neuronal activation disappears if the magnetic stimuli are removed or if V1 is cut. Our data suggest that the trigeminal system in pigeons is involved in processing magnetic field information and that V1 transmits this information from currently unknown, V1-associated magnetosensors to the brain.

  2. High-resolution ultra-violet observations of the interstellar diffuse clouds toward Mu Columbae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofia, Ulysses J.; Savage, Blair D.; Cardelli, Jason A.

    1993-01-01

    Data obtained from the Goddard High Resolution spectrograph (GHRS) are used to study differences in gas-phase abundances of ions occurring in the diffuse neutral clouds toward mu Col. The sight-line characteristics determined in previous studies are reviewed and results for the cloud velocities, absorption equivalent widths, ion column densities, and depletions are presented. It is found that interstellar features from four distinct absorption regions with low-ionization gas are apparent in the GHRS data at heliocentric velocities of 23, 41, 53, and 62 km/s. Absorption by Mg II, Si II, and possibly Al II also occurs over the heliocentric velocity range from -17 to 0 km/s. The presence of stronger Si III absorption over this velocity region indicates that the absorption arises from an ionized gas region.

  3. Cooling by cutaneous water evaporation in the heat-acclimated rock pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Arieli, Yehuda; Peltonen, Liisa; Ophir, Eshel

    2002-03-01

    The present study provides an up-to-date overview of the cutaneous water-evaporation cooling mechanism in the rock pigeon. Cutaneous water evaporation fully replaces the classic respiratory cooling mechanism in the resting, heat-acclimated bird, and is more economical in terms of water conservation. It enables the pigeon to maintain homeostasis, and to breed successfully in harsh environments. Adrenergic signaling is involved in the initiation of this novel mechanism, either by deactivation of the beta-adrenergic receptors (ARs), or activation of the alpha-AR. The adrenergic signaling results in a marked increase in cutaneous blood flow and in the arterial-to-venous blood-flow ratio. This is associated with alterations in the cutaneous capillary wall ultrastructure, which increase its permeability to plasma proteins and water. The end result of this process might be an increase in water efflux from the capillary lumen. The properties of beta-ARs were measured in the cardiac muscle of thermal-acclimated pigeons. Significant down-regulation in the density of beta-ARs, associated with increased affinity of these receptors, was measured in the heat-acclimated pigeon. Concomitantly, changes in the skin ultrastructure and lipid composition were found in very well defined patches in the epidermis of heat-acclimated pigeons. These suppress the skin resistance to water transfer. We suggest that this cooling mechanism involves finely orchestrated adjustments in the ultrastructure of the skin and the cutaneous capillaries, and in skin blood flow. Adrenergic signals are among those factors that regulate this cooling mechanism during exposure to a hot environment.

  4. EFFECTS OF TELENCEPHALIC RADIOLESIONS ON LEARNING AND RETENTION IN THE PIGEON (COLUMBA LIVIA). APPENDIX II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PIGEONS, BEHAVIOR), (*BEHAVIOR, RADIATION EFFECTS), (*RADIATION EFFECTS, CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM), (*LEARNING, RADIATION EFFECTS), RETENTION(PSYCHOLOGY), RADIATION INJURIES, BRAIN , NERVOUS SYSTEM, PHYSIOLOGY, RESPONSE, SWEDEN

  5. Plasma and brain cholinesterase in methomyl-intoxicated free-ranging pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica).

    PubMed

    Villar, David; Balvin, Dubel; Giraldo, Carlos; Motas, Miguel; Olivera, Marta

    2010-03-01

    A mortality event caused by exposure to the carbamate insecticide methomyl was diagnosed in several hundred pigeons fed treated corn kernels in a city park. A cholinesterase inhibitor insecticide was initially suspected based on clinical signs and a significant inhibition (P < 0.05) of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity compared with normal values for the species. However, brain ChE activity was within the normal range in birds subsequently submitted in an advanced stage of autolysis. Two groups of 10 healthy pigeons were allocated into a control group and an experimental group, which was offered corn samples retrieved from the incident site. Within minutes of ingesting the contaminated corn, the birds became immobile, had transient wing fluttering, and developed profuse salivation immediately followed by death. Plasma ChE activity at death had declined by more than 95% of preexposure levels (0.04 +/- 0.02 vs. 1.56 +/- 0.23 micromol/min per milliliter). Brain activity in the sagittal brain sections that were immediately frozen after death was inhibited by > or =50% of control birds (13.5 +/- 2.2 vs. 27.5 +/- 1.8 micromol/min per gram). However, the sagittal sections left for 1.5 days at ambient temperature of 25 degrees C had normal or higher activity, an effect that was attributed to a combination of spontaneous reactivation and dehydration. After incubation of both plasma and brain homogenates for 1 hr at 37 degrees C, ChE activity recovered by 2- and 1.46-fold, respectively. An organophosphorus and carbamate screen conducted by 2 independent laboratories identified and quantified methomyl in treated kernels at 400 ppm. These results indicate that spontaneous reactivation and dehydration can mask previous reductions in ChE activity.

  6. Behavioral and metabolic effects of central injections of orexins/hypocretins in pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Eduardo Simão; dos Santos, Thiago Viçoso; Hoeller, Alexandre Ademar; dos Santos, Tiago Souza; Pereira, Gustavo Vieira; Meneghelli, Cristiane; Penzlin, Ana Isabel; Pezlin, Ana Isabel; dos Santos, Murilo Marcos; Faria, Moacir Serralvo; Paschoalini, Marta Aparecida; Marino-Neto, José

    2008-04-10

    In the present study, the acute behavioral and ingestive effects of ICV injections of mammalian orexin-A (ORXA; vehicle, 0.2, 0.6 or 2 nmol) and of orexin-B (ORXB; vehicle, 0.2, 0.6 or 2 nmol), as well as possible long-term effects (through 24 h of continuous intake monitoring after 0.6 nmol of ORXA or ORXB) of these treatments in food/water intake and in blood levels of metabolic fuels (free fatty acids and glucose, after 0.2 or 0.6 nmol of ORXA) were examined in adult male pigeons. Both ORXA and ORXB treatments failed to produce acute (1-3 h) or long-term effects on feeding and drinking behaviors, and did not change blood free fatty acids and glucose 15 and 30 min after treatments, as compared to vehicle-treated animals. However, ORXA (but not ORXB) treatments evoked a dose-related, intense increase in exploratory behaviors, associated to reduced time spent in alert immobility and sleep-typical postures. These data substantiate the lack of orexigenic effects of ORXs in avian species, and suggest that an important role in vigilance control may represent a conserved functional attribute of orexinergic circuits in vertebrates.

  7. High-resolution ultra-violet observations of the interstellar diffuse clouds toward Mu Columbae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofia, Ulysses J.; Savage, Blair D.; Cardelli, Jason A.

    1993-01-01

    Data obtained from the Goddard High Resolution spectrograph (GHRS) are used to study differences in gas-phase abundances of ions occurring in the diffuse neutral clouds toward mu Col. The sight-line characteristics determined in previous studies are reviewed and results for the cloud velocities, absorption equivalent widths, ion column densities, and depletions are presented. It is found that interstellar features from four distinct absorption regions with low-ionization gas are apparent in the GHRS data at heliocentric velocities of 23, 41, 53, and 62 km/s. Absorption by Mg II, Si II, and possibly Al II also occurs over the heliocentric velocity range from -17 to 0 km/s. The presence of stronger Si III absorption over this velocity region indicates that the absorption arises from an ionized gas region.

  8. Social learning and innovation are positively correlated in pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Julie; Goodyer, William; Lefebvre, Louis

    2007-04-01

    When animals show both frequent innovation and fast social learning, new behaviours can spread more rapidly through populations and potentially increase rates of natural selection and speciation, as proposed by A.C. Wilson in his behavioural drive hypothesis. Comparative work on primates suggests that more innovative species also show more social learning. In this study, we look at intra-specific variation in innovation and social learning in captive wild-caught pigeons. Performances on an innovative problem-solving task and a social learning task are positively correlated in 42 individuals. The correlation remains significant when the effects of neophobia on the two abilities are removed. Neither sex nor dominance rank are associated with performance on the two tasks. Free-flying flocks of urban pigeons are able to solve the innovative food-finding problem used on captive birds, demonstrating it is within the range of their natural capacities. Taken together with the comparative literature, the positive correlation between innovation and social learning suggests that the two abilities are not traded-off.

  9. Antitrichomonal activity of Peganum harmala alkaloid extract against trichomoniasis in pigeon (Columba livia domestica).

    PubMed

    Tabari, M A; Youssefi, M R; Moghadamnia, A A

    2017-04-12

    1. This study was designed to evaluate the antitrichomonal effects of P. harmala alkaloid extract against T. gallinae, both in vitro and in vivo, as well as comparing it to that of metronidazole, conventional antitrichomonal medication and harmine and harmaline, the two alkaloids present in P. harmala. 2. T. gallinae were collected by the wet mount method from infected free-living pigeons. The in vitro assay was performed using multi-well plates containing test compounds in final concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50 or 100 μg/ml. The in vivo assay was done on 60 experimentally infected pigeons dosed with metronidazole at 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) or alkaloids at 25 mg/kg BW. 3. The 24 h minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of alkaloid extract was 15 µg/ml while that of metronidazole was 50 µg/ml. Harmine and harmaline revealed 24 h MIC of 30 and 100 µg/ml, respectively. Treatment of infected pigeons with alkaloids led to a full recovery after 3 d but with metronidazole total eradication of trophozoites was not achieved. 4. In conclusion, data of the present study suggested P. harmala is a potent natural anti-trichomonal agent, effective against T. gallinae.

  10. In vitro pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on Thai local plants against head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer).

    PubMed

    Rassami, Watcharawit; Soonwera, Mayura

    2013-04-01

    Head lice infestation, a worldwide head infestation caused Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, is an important public health problem in Thailand. Several chemical pediculicides have lost in efficacy due to increasing resistance of lice against insecticide. Therefore, non-toxic alternative products, such as natural products from plants, e.g. plant extract pediculicides, are needed for head lice control. The aims of this study were to evaluate the potential of pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on three species of Thai local plants (Accacia concinna (Willd.) DC, Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. and Tamarindus indica Linn.) against head lice and to compare them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo®; 0.6% w/v carbaryl) and non-treatment control in order to assess their in vitro. Doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm2 of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, and ten head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice on the filter paper were recorded at 1, 5, 10, 30 and 60 min by sterio-microscope. All herbal shampoos at 0.25 ml/cm2 were more effective pediculicide than carbaryl shampoo with 100% mortality at 5 min. The median lethal time (LT50) of all herbal shampoos at 0.25 ml/cm2 showed no significant differences over at 0.12 ml/cm2 (P<0.01). The most effective pediculicide was T. indica extract shampoo, followed by Av. bilimbi extract shampoo and Ac. concinna extract shampoo, with LT50 values<1.0 min. Our data showed that all herbal shampoos have high potential of pediculicide to head lice treatments for schoolchildren.

  11. New record of Lipoptena cervi and updated checklist of the louse flies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) of the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Chul; Chong, Sung Tae; Chae, Joon-Seok; Lee, Hang; Klein, Terry A; Suh, Sang Jae; Rueda, Leopoldo M

    2010-11-01

    ABSTRACT This is the first confirmed record of the genus Lipoptena Nitzsch and its species, Lipoptena cervi (Linnaeus), from the Republic of Korea. A total of five females and 10 males was collected from eight of 29 Korean water deer, Hydropotes inermis argyropus Swinhoe, from Gangwon and Gyeongsangbuk Provinces and Ulsan Metropolitan Area from May through October 2008. An updated checklist of Korean hippoboscids contains nine species in six genera (Hippobosca Linnaeus, Icosta Speiser, Lipoptena, Ornithoctona Speiser, Ornithomya Lattreille, and Ornithophila Rondani). Hosts, collection records, and repositories are also noted.

  12. A review of the louse genus Tinamotaecola (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Philopteridae sensu lato), with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Cicchino, Armando C; Valim, Michel P; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-07-11

    We studied a collection of lice from Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Chile containing all four known species and one new species (described herein) in the genus Tinamotaecola, parasites of birds of the families Cariamidae and Tinamidae. We also (1) describe previously unknown second and third nymphal instars of two Tinamotaecola species, (2) discuss hosts and geographical ranges for all Tinamotaecola species, and (3) speculate on possible macroevolutionary events that may explain the current distribution of these lice on their respective avian hosts. 

  13. The use of the head louse as a remedy for jaundice in Spanish folk medicine: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Spain, head lice are considered a therapeutic resource for the treatment of jaundice. All folk remedies based on the ingestion of these insects meet in the present document, previously dispersed among a large number of references. Methods An overview of the Spanish literature has been carried out. The most important databases have been consulted. All related works have been examined. Results Although the method of preparation is diverse and the dose varies, the primary recommendation is a transference ritual consisting of taking nine live lice for nine days on an empty stomach without the patient’s knowledge. This traditional knowledge survives in Spanish society, and constitutes an example of the interrelation between Spanish and Latin American folk medicines. Conclusions The survival of this therapy in the worldview of certain rural communities suggests the need to take into account the beliefs, ideas and behaviour patterns of popular culture in relation to health and disease. PMID:23876126

  14. Parasite fecundity decreases with increasing parasite load in the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis infecting Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Ugelvik, M S; Skorping, A; Mennerat, A

    2017-05-01

    Aggregation is common amongst parasites, where a small number of hosts carry a large proportion of parasites. This could result in density-dependent effects on parasite fitness. In a laboratory study, we explored whether parasite load affected parasite fecundity and survival, using ectoparasitic salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer, 1837) infecting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) hosts. We found a significant reduction in fecundity with higher parasite load, but no significant effect on survival. Together with previous findings, this suggests that stronger competition amongst female lice under high parasite load is a more likely explanation than increased host immune response. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Life begins when the sea lion is ashore: microhabitat use by a louse living on a diving mammal host.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, M S; Crespo, E A; Vales, D G; Feijoo, M; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2012-08-01

    Among Anoplura, the family Echinophthiriidae includes species that infest pinnipeds and otters. Previous evidence obtained from pinnipeds infested by echinophthiriids, specifically from seals, indicates that flippers are the preferred infestation sites, while lice from fur seals select areas in the pelage. We studied habitat selection of Antarctophthirus microchir on South American sea lion pups (Otaria flavescens Shaw, 1800) from Patagonia, Argentina, during the austral summer of 2009. We found a clear pattern of habitat selection: eggs are laid on the dorsal surface; nymphs 1 hatch there and then migrate to the belly, where they develop into adults and copulate; and then ovigerous females return to the dorsal surface. On the one hand, nymphs 1 are characterised by their low locomotory ability; therefore, the fact that they migrate as soon as they hatch suggests a clear pressure leading to microhabitat restriction. On the other hand, the described pattern of microhabitat selection seems to respond to the physiological requirements of each stage, which vary according to the physiological process considered, e.g. oviposition, morphogenesis, hatching and development. Accordingly, it appears that A. microchir would prefer the host's ventral area for development and copulation and the dorsal area for oviposition. However, the causes of this pattern are not clear, and many factors could be involved. Considering that sea lion pups periodically soak at high tides, and that prolonged immersion and very high humidity are known to be lethal for lice eggs, selecting the dorsal area would be advantageous for oviposition because it dries much faster. Furthermore, because humidity should be retained for longer periods on the ventral surface of the pup, wetter conditions on the sea lion would prevent desiccation of the nymphs in the very arid environment where O. flavescens breeds.

  16. Transcriptional analysis of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) immune response to the fish louse Argulus japonicus Thiele (Crustacea: Branchiura).

    PubMed

    Forlenza, Maria; Walker, Peter D; de Vries, Beitske J; Wendelaar Bonga, Sjoerd E; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2008-07-01

    In the present study we investigated changes in transcription levels of a panel of selected immune relevant genes in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and skin samples collected from carp exposed to larval Argulus japonicus. We show that in skin up-regulation of gene transcription of the chemokine CXCa, and to a lesser extent the chemokine receptor CXCR1 and the cytokine TNFalpha, are good indicators of parasite-induced skin damage at 2 days post-parasite exposure. Up-regulation of gene transcription corresponded well with an increase in leucocytes, probably neutrophilic granulocyte numbers in skin samples collected at the sites of infection. We show that time-point controls are essential when studying gene expression, especially in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL). In addition, we demonstrate that non-infected control samples isolated from the skin of infected fish are suitable autologous controls, at least until after larval A. japonicus have undergone their first moult and begun to demonstrate increased mobility over their host's integument. The observed results are indicative of A. japonicus affecting the skin as a whole organ, particularly after the parasites' first moult, a phenomenon which has a great impact on correct skin sampling for RNA isolation.

  17. Isolation, amplification, and sequencing of human mitochondrial DNA obtained from human crab louse, Pthirus pubis (L.), blood meals.

    PubMed

    Lord, W D; DiZinno, J A; Wilson, M R; Budowle, B; Taplin, D; Meinking, T L

    1998-09-01

    The ability to identify individual human hosts based on analyses of blood recovered from the digestive tract of hematophagous arthropods has been a long-term pursuit in both medical and forensic entomology. Blood meal individualization techniques can bring important advancements to studies of vector-borne disease epidemiology. Forensically, these analyses may aid in assailant identification in violent crime cases where blood-feeding insects or their excreta are recovered from victims or at crime scenes. Successful isolation, amplification, and sequencing of human mitochondrial DNA obtained from adult human crab lice fed on human volunteers are reported. Adult lice were removed from recruited volunteers frequenting inner city health clinics. Live lice were killed by freezing and subsequently air dried at ambient temperature. A saliva sample was obtained from each volunteer and served as a DNA reference sample. Volunteers were afforded free, approved pediculosis treatment. Individual lice were subsequently processed using procedures developed for the extraction of mitochondrial DNA from human hair, teeth, and bone. The resulting DNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Our results point to valuable avenues for future entomological research.

  18. The Myocardial Ischemia Reduction with Acute Cholesterol Lowering trial: MIRACuLous or not, it's time to change current practice

    PubMed Central

    Aronow, Herbert D

    2002-01-01

    The Myocardial Ischemia Reduction with Aggressive Cholesterol Lowering (MIRACL) study was the first trial to assess whether statins might be of clinical benefit in those with recently unstable coronary disease. MIRACL found that high-dose atorvastatin was safe and reduced the incidence of the composite endpoint, death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, resuscitated sudden cardiac death or emergent rehospitalization for recurrent ischemia at 16 weeks when compared with placebo. Despite a number of important study limitations, MIRACL's findings and the prior observation that inpatient initiation of lipid-lowering therapy is associated with higher rates of subsequent utilization, suggest that it is prudent to begin statin therapy when patients present with an acute coronary syndrome. PMID:11985777

  19. A Survey of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Gene Superfamily in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis).

    PubMed

    Carmona-Antoñanzas, Greta; Carmichael, Stephen N; Heumann, Jan; Taggart, John B; Gharbi, Karim; Bron, James E; Bekaert, Michaël; Sturm, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), are fish ectoparasites causing significant economic damage in the mariculture of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758. The control of L. salmonis at fish farms relies to a large extent on treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. A problem related to chemical control is the potential for development of resistance, which in L. salmonis is documented for a number of drug classes including organophosphates, pyrethroids and avermectins. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene superfamily is found in all biota and includes a range of drug efflux transporters that can confer drug resistance to cancers and pathogens. Furthermore, some ABC transporters are recognised to be involved in conferral of insecticide resistance. While a number of studies have investigated ABC transporters in L. salmonis, no systematic analysis of the ABC gene family exists for this species. This study presents a genome-wide survey of ABC genes in L. salmonis for which, ABC superfamily members were identified through homology searching of the L. salmonis genome. In addition, ABC proteins were identified in a reference transcriptome of the parasite generated by high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of a multi-stage RNA library. Searches of both genome and transcriptome allowed the identification of a total of 33 genes / transcripts coding for ABC proteins, of which 3 were represented only in the genome and 4 only in the transcriptome. Eighteen sequences were assigned to ABC subfamilies known to contain drug transporters, i.e. subfamilies B (4 sequences), C (11) and G (2). The results suggest that the ABC gene family of L. salmonis possesses fewer members than recorded for other arthropods. The present survey of the L. salmonis ABC gene superfamily will provide the basis for further research into potential roles of ABC transporters in the toxicity of salmon delousing agents and as potential mechanisms of drug resistance.

  20. Arsenophonus and Sodalis Symbionts in Louse Flies: an Analogy to the Wigglesworthia and Sodalis System in Tsetse Flies

    PubMed Central

    Husník, Filip; Šochová, Eva; Hypša, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Symbiosis between insects and bacteria result in a variety of arrangements, genomic modifications, and metabolic interconnections. Here, we present genomic, phylogenetic, and morphological characteristics of a symbiotic system associated with Melophagus ovinus, a member of the blood-feeding family Hippoboscidae. The system comprises four unrelated bacteria representing different stages in symbiosis evolution, from typical obligate mutualists inhabiting bacteriomes to freely associated commensals and parasites. Interestingly, the whole system provides a remarkable analogy to the association between Glossina and its symbiotic bacteria. In both, the symbiotic systems are composed of an obligate symbiont and two facultative intracellular associates, Sodalis and Wolbachia. In addition, extracellular Bartonella resides in the gut of Melophagus. However, the phylogenetic origins of the two obligate mutualist symbionts differ. In Glossina, the mutualistic Wigglesworthia appears to be a relatively isolated symbiotic lineage, whereas in Melophagus, the obligate symbiont originated within the widely distributed Arsenophonus cluster. Although phylogenetically distant, the two obligate symbionts display several remarkably similar traits (e.g., transmission via the host's “milk glands” or similar pattern of genome reduction). To obtain better insight into the biology and possible role of the M. ovinus obligate symbiont, “Candidatus Arsenophonus melophagi,” we performed several comparisons of its gene content based on assignments of the Cluster of Orthologous Genes (COG). Using this criterion, we show that within a set of 44 primary and secondary symbionts, “Ca. Arsenophonus melophagi” is most similar to Wigglesworthia. On the other hand, these two bacteria also display interesting differences, such as absence of flagellar genes in Arsenophonus and their presence in Wigglesworthia. This finding implies that a flagellum is not essential for bacterial transmission via milk glands. PMID:26150448

  1. Nutrigenomic effects of glucosinolates on liver, muscle and distal kidney in parasite-free and salmon louse infected Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Skugor, Stanko; Jodaa Holm, Helle; Bjelland, Anne Kari; Pino, Jorge; Evensen, Øystein; Krasnov, Aleksei; Wadsworth, Simon

    2016-12-12

    Reduction of Lepeophtheirus salmonis infection in Atlantic salmon achieved by glucosinolates (GLs) from Brassica plants was recently reported. However, wider application of functional feeds based on GLs requires better knowledge of their positive and adverse effects. Liver, distal kidney and muscle transcriptomes of salmon exposed to the extreme dose of GLs were profiled by microarray, while qPCR analysis followed up selected hepatic and renal responses under the extreme and moderate GLs dose during the L. salmonis challenge. Transcriptional analysis were complemented with measurements of organ indices, liver steatosis and plasma profiling, including indicators of cytolysis and bilirubin. Finally, the third trial was performed to quantify the effect of lower GLs doses on growth. The extreme GLs dose caused a decrease in hepatic fat deposition and growth, in line with microarray findings, which suggested tissue remodeling and reduction of cellular proliferation in the skeletal muscle and liver. Lower GLs inclusion levels in a follow-up trial did not show negative effects on growth. Microarray analysis of the distal kidney pointed to activation of anti-fibrotic responses under the overexposure. However, analyses of ALT, CK and AST enzymes in plasma provided no evidence of increased cytolysis and organ damage. Prevalent activation of phase-2 detoxification genes that occurred in all three tissues could be considered part of beneficial effects caused by the extreme dose of GLs. In addition, transcriptomic evidence suggested GLs-mediated iron and heme withdrawal response, including increased heme degradation in muscle (upregulation of heme oxygenase-1), decrease of its synthesis in liver (downregulation of porphobilinogen deaminase) and increased iron sequestration from blood (hepatic induction of hepcidin-1 and renal induction of intracellular storage protein ferritin). This response could be advantageous for salmon upon encountering lice, which depend on the host for the provision of iron carrying heme. Most of the hepatic genes studied by qPCR showed similar expression levels in fish exposed to GLs, lice and their combination, while renal induction of leptin suggested heightened stress by the combination of extreme dose of GLs and lice. High expression of interferon γ (cytokine considered organ-protective in mammalian kidney) was detected at the moderate GLs level. This fish also showed highest plasma bilirubin levels (degradation product of heme), and had lowest number of attached lice, further supporting hypothesis that making heme unavailable to lice could be part of an effective anti-parasitic strategy. Modulation of detoxification and iron metabolism in Atlantic salmon tissues could be beneficial prior and during lice infestations. Investigation of anti-lice functional feeds based on low and moderate GLs inclusion levels thus deserves further attention.

  2. ULTRASTRUCURAL STUDY OF BEE LOUSE VARROA DESTRUCTOR ANDERSON & TRUEMAN 2000 (ACARI: VARROIDAE) WITH RESISTANCE MODELS FROM APIS MELLIFERA L.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Khalaf Nour Abd El-Wahed

    2015-08-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is the most dangerous pest of honeybee Egyptian race Apis mellifera L., as it causes many losses in apiculture worldwide. Adult female mites are flattened with a dome-shaped dorsal shield. The present SEM study revealed that the flat ventral surface is composed of series of plates. There are 5 rows of small, chemoreceptor papillae posterior to the genito-ventro anal shield, and a unique respiratory structure (peritreme) is located laterally above Coxa III. Peritreme is a chitinized elongated area surrounding stigma opening, provided by a lid that looks like a rose with a curly thick inner membrane which has numerous teeth-like projections. Mite' legs appeared to be modified for parasitism and each is tipped by one distal empodium. The pretarsus of the first pair of legs becomes a concave sucker and the pretarsus of the 3 pairs of the posterior legs consists of membranous amblacral pad (the caruncle). The mouthparts appeared well modified for its diet on bee hernolymph with its' powerful pedipalp for host attachment. High magnification revealed different types of setae distributed on the body, the mechano-receptor pedipalp short. and long anal setae and dorsal shield sensory simple setae.

  3. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 11. (Kalidescope Shipping, Inc.-Lous Electronics)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    H Z ON H2 N moo -4-4-4 NC) ccHIO H Zoe 0 0 0 CK ’I 00o 04e4 0002u~ U I, E 1 ON o i 01 w w 00 1-1 - - U- U- 2U-U-U-0 ZUL -U-0 4 Hf ’u I ON II C) Cl .1...I 0 ZZ 00 0 00 wi ZuL 0 .LU. U. .L. U ILi so ’c) itI.’ C 04 NN 0) (0 to 0 r- W 4) r- -.1m 4If I fN -I -4 44l 000(m 0)(0 a) (D( (D m O r- -4Ni C 4 A...0000 0000 010 n x 40 r-- )00 3-4 3-4* 00 4 -4 C a) : I (-14c 11 .CLn** 0 C C.) ) c ) M )* 04 c Q- * wulAC"** 43N ASN* 1L" M𔃺 M-I 040 Haz 02 ->-)I

  4. A Survey of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Gene Superfamily in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)

    PubMed Central

    Heumann, Jan; Taggart, John B.; Gharbi, Karim; Bron, James E.; Bekaert, Michaël; Sturm, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), are fish ectoparasites causing significant economic damage in the mariculture of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758. The control of L. salmonis at fish farms relies to a large extent on treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. A problem related to chemical control is the potential for development of resistance, which in L. salmonis is documented for a number of drug classes including organophosphates, pyrethroids and avermectins. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene superfamily is found in all biota and includes a range of drug efflux transporters that can confer drug resistance to cancers and pathogens. Furthermore, some ABC transporters are recognised to be involved in conferral of insecticide resistance. While a number of studies have investigated ABC transporters in L. salmonis, no systematic analysis of the ABC gene family exists for this species. This study presents a genome-wide survey of ABC genes in L. salmonis for which, ABC superfamily members were identified through homology searching of the L. salmonis genome. In addition, ABC proteins were identified in a reference transcriptome of the parasite generated by high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of a multi-stage RNA library. Searches of both genome and transcriptome allowed the identification of a total of 33 genes / transcripts coding for ABC proteins, of which 3 were represented only in the genome and 4 only in the transcriptome. Eighteen sequences were assigned to ABC subfamilies known to contain drug transporters, i.e. subfamilies B (4 sequences), C (11) and G (2). The results suggest that the ABC gene family of L. salmonis possesses fewer members than recorded for other arthropods. The present survey of the L. salmonis ABC gene superfamily will provide the basis for further research into potential roles of ABC transporters in the toxicity of salmon delousing agents and as potential mechanisms of drug resistance. PMID:26418738

  5. Body lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Body lice are tiny insects (scientific name is Pediculus humanus corporis ) that are spread through close contact ... disease Images Body louse Lice, body with stool (Pediculus humanus) Body louse, female and larvae Head louse ...

  6. Walk or ride? Phoretic behaviour of amblyceran and ischnoceran lice.

    PubMed

    Bartlow, Andrew W; Villa, Scott M; Thompson, Michael W; Bush, Sarah E

    2016-04-01

    Phoresy is a behaviour where one organism hitches a ride on another more mobile organism. This is a common dispersal mechanism amongst relatively immobile species that specialise on patchy resources. Parasites specialise on patchily distributed resources: their hosts. Although host individuals are isolated in space and time, parasites must transmit between hosts or they will die with their hosts. Lice are permanent obligate ectoparasites that complete their entire life cycle on their host. They typically transmit when hosts come into direct contact; however, lice are also capable of transmitting phoretically. Yet, phoresy is rare amongst some groups of lice. Fundamental morphological differences have traditionally been used to explain the phoretic differences amongst different suborders of lice; however, these hypotheses do not fully explain observed patterns. We propose that a more fundamental natural history trait may better explain variation in phoresy. Species able to disperse under their own power should be less likely to engage in phoresy than more immobile species. Here we experimentally tested the relationship between independent louse mobility and phoresy using a system with four species of lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera and Amblycera) that all parasitize a single host species, the Rock Pigeon (Columba livia). We quantified the relative ability of all four species of lice to move independently off the host, and we quantified their ability to attach to, and remain attached to, hippoboscid flies (Pseudolynchia canariensis). Our results show that the most mobile louse species is the least phoretic, and the most phoretic species is quite immobile off the host. Our findings were consistent with the hypothesis that phoretic dispersal should be rare amongst species of lice that are capable of independent dispersal; however other factors such as interspecific competition may also play a role.

  7. Morphometric characterisation of wing feathers of the barn owl Tyto alba pratincola and the pigeon Columba livia

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Thomas; Klän, Stephan; Baumgartner, Werner; Klaas, Michael; Schröder, Wolfgang; Wagner, Hermann

    2007-01-01

    Background Owls are known for their silent flight. Even though there is some information available on the mechanisms that lead to a reduction of noise emission, neither the morphological basis, nor the biological mechanisms of the owl's silent flight are known. Therefore, we have initiated a systematic analysis of wing morphology in both a specialist, the barn owl, and a generalist, the pigeon. This report presents a comparison between the feathers of the barn owl and the pigeon and emphasise the specific characteristics of the owl's feathers on macroscopic and microscopic level. An understanding of the features and mechanisms underlying this silent flight might eventually be employed for aerodynamic purposes and lead to a new wing design in modern aircrafts. Results A variety of different feathers (six remiges and six coverts), taken from several specimen in either species, were investigated. Quantitative analysis of digital images and scanning electron microscopy were used for a morphometric characterisation. Although both species have comparable body weights, barn owl feathers were in general larger than pigeon feathers. For both species, the depth and the area of the outer vanes of the remiges were typically smaller than those of the inner vanes. This difference was more pronounced in the barn owl than in the pigeon. Owl feathers also had lesser radiates, longer pennula, and were more translucent than pigeon feathers. The two species achieved smooth edges and regular surfaces of the vanes by different construction principles: while the angles of attachment to the rachis and the length of the barbs was nearly constant for the barn owl, these parameters varied in the pigeon. We also present a quantitative description of several characteristic features of barn owl feathers, e.g., the serrations at the leading edge of the wing, the fringes at the edges of each feather, and the velvet-like dorsal surface. Conclusion The quantitative description of the feathers and the specific structures of owl feathers can be used as a model for the construction of a biomimetic airplane wing or, in general, as a source for noise-reducing applications on any surfaces subjected to flow fields. PMID:18031576

  8. Effects of in ovo feeding of carbohydrates on hatchability, body weight, and energy status in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Dong, X Y; Jiang, Y J; Wang, M Q; Wang, Y M; Zou, X T

    2013-08-01

    The effects of in ovo feeding of carbohydrates on hatchability, BW, yolk sac weights (YSW), pectoral muscle weights (PMW), liver and pectoral muscle glycogen concentration, serum glucose level, and hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity of domestic pigeons, hatched from eggs laid by a 40-wk-old breeder flock, were investigated. At 14.5 of incubation, fertile eggs were injected with 200 μL of 1.5% maltose (M) + 1.5% sucrose (S), 2.5% M + 2.5% S, 3.5% M + 3.5% S, or 4.5% M + 4.5% S in 0.75% saline, with controls not injected. Results showed that in ovo injection with 1.5% M + 1.5% S or 2.5% M + 2.5% S increased the hatchability compared with the control, whereas injection of 4.5% M + 4.5% S decreased the hatchability. The BW at hatch was quadratic, and BW was maximized by injecting 2.5% M + 2.5% S. The YSW at hatch decreased linearly by the injection with 3.5% M + 3.5% S compared with the control group. In ovo injection of 2.5% M + 2.5% S increased the PMW at hatch. There were no significant differences between any of the treatment groups for liver glycogen reserves. Serum glucose level at hatch was quadratic, and the glucose level was maximized between supplemental 2.5% M + 2.5% S and supplemental 3.5% M + 3.5% S. The pectoral muscle glycogen reserves increased quadratically as supplemental carbohydrates increased, and the response was maximized by injecting 2.5% M + 2.5% S. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that the injected carbohydrates are available for use and storage. In ovo feeding of carbohydrates, especially at the level of 2.5% M + 2.5% S, on 14.5 d of incubation can improve the hatchability, BW, and PMW by elevating the pectoral muscle glycogen reserves in domestic pigeons at hatch. Results also suggested that in ovo injection of carbohydrates could increase the yolk sac nutrient utilization and hence might enhance the pigeon enteric development.

  9. The mesencephalic GCt-ICo complex and tonic immobility in pigeons (Columba livia): a c-Fos study.

    PubMed

    Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Lino-de-Oliveira, C; Marino-Neto, J

    2017-04-01

    Tonic immobility (TI) is a response to a predator attack, or other inescapable danger, characterized by immobility, analgesia and unresponsiveness to external stimuli. In mammals, the periaqueductal gray (PAG) and deep tectal regions control the expression of TI as well as other defensive behaviors. In birds, little is known about the mesencephalic circuitry involved in the control of TI. Here, adult pigeons (both sex, n = 4/group), randomly assigned to non-handled, handled or TI groups, were killed 90 min after manipulations and the brains processed for detection of c-Fos immunoreactive cells (c-Fos-ir, marker for neural activity) in the mesencephalic central gray (GCt) and the adjacent nucleus intercollicularis (ICo). The NADPH-diaphorase staining delineated the boundaries of the sub nuclei in the ICo-GCt complex. Compared to non-handled, TI (but not handling) induced c-Fos-ir in NADPH-diaphorase-rich and -poor regions. After TI, the number of c-Fos-ir increased in the caudal and intermediate areas of the ICo (but not in the GCt), throughout the rostrocaudal axis of the dorsal stratum griseum periventriculare (SGPd) of the optic tectum and in the n. mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd), which is part of the ascending auditory pathway. These data suggest that inescapable threatening stimuli such as TI may recruit neurons in discrete areas of ICo-GCt complex, deep tectal layer and in ascending auditory circuits that may control the expression of defensive behaviors in pigeons. Additionally, data indicate that the contiguous deep tectal SCPd (but not GCt) in birds may be functionally comparable to the mammalian dorsal PAG.

  10. Pigeons (Columba livia) associate time intervals with symbols in a touch screen task: evidence for ordinality but not summation.

    PubMed

    Olthof, Anneke; Santi, Angelo

    2007-02-01

    The present experiments examined whether pigeons can sum symbols that are associated with various temporal consequences in a touch screen apparatus. Pigeons were trained to discriminate between two visual symbols that were associated with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 s either of delay to 4 s of hopper access (delay group) or duration of hopper access (reward group). In Experiment 1, the pigeons in both groups learned to select the symbol associated with the more favorable outcome, and they successfully transferred this discrimination to novel symbol pairs. However, when tested with 2 pairs of symbols associated with different summed durations, they responded on the basis of a simple response rule rather than the sum of the symbol pair. In Experiment 2, the reward group was presented with four symbols at once and was allowed to successively choose one symbol at a time. All pigeons chose the symbols in order from largest to smallest. This indicates that pigeons formed an ordered representation of symbols associated with different time intervals, even though they did not sum the symbols.

  11. A scanning and transmission electron microscopy study of the parabronchial unit in quail (Coturnix coturnix) and town pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Klika, E; Scheuermann, D W; De Groodt-Lasseel, M H; Bazantova, I; Switka, A

    1999-01-01

    A combined scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation was undertaken to gain insight into the complex structural pattern of the atrial compartment and the gas exchange tissue of parabronchial units in quail and town pigeons. The aim was also to depict the changes taking place in the parabronchial unit in the late prehatching and early posthatching periods in quail. The standard SEM and TEM investigation was carried out in 13 mature quail and 8 town pigeons. The developmental study involved embryonic quail (Days 15, 16, 17), newly hatched quail, quail 24 h after hatching, and quail aged 2, 10, 19, and 25 days (3 individuals per group). The luminal relief of the parabronchus is formed by anastomosing interatrial septa delineating the atrial pits, which are thinner and shallower in pigeons. The atrial bottom opens in mature individuals into 3-6 infundibula. The extracellular material represented by trilaminar substance, which does not appear until hatching, veils the surface relief of the parabronchial epithelium, which is consequently hardly accessible to three-dimensional visualization. Only in town pigeons with fewer discontinuous layers of extracellular material was it possible to visualize the surface of the atrial epithelium, that is, of the granular and squamous atrial cells. The SEM analysis has convincingly shown the intricate spatial organization of atria, infundibula, and air and blood capillaries of the gas exchange tissue. The retinacula, that is, parallelly arranged processes of squamous respiratory cells bridging the air-capillary lumina, were evidenced by SEM and TEM. The complex structure of the avian parabronchus has been successfully demonstrated in the present SEM and TEM study.

  12. {delta}-ALAD activity variations in red blood cells in response to lead accumulation in rock doves (Columba livia)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.; Tejedor, M.C.

    1992-10-01

    The enzyme {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase ({delta}-ALAD, E.C. 4.2.1.24), catalyses the second step of the haeme biosynthetic pathway and is required to maintain the haemoglobin and cytochrome content in red cells. {delta}-ALAD is not only found in bone marrow cells, the major site of haeme synthesis, but also in circulating erythrocytes and other tissues. An inverse correlation was found between {delta}-ALAD activity in red blood cells and lead concentration in the blood. The degree of {delta}-ALAD inhibition in erythrocytes has been widely accepted as a standard bioassay to detect acute and chronic lead exposure in humans and in avians. The value of this parameter as an indicator for environmental lead has been often reported in doves and Scanlon. In lead-treated rats, an increase in {delta}-ALAD activity in bone marrow cells and in blood samples was shown by radioimmunoassay at 5 and 9 days after the treatment. Similarly, the amount of {delta}-ALAD seems to be more sensitive to lead in avian species than in mammals, the usefulness of blood {delta}-ALAD activity as an index of lead exposure has already been questioned by Hutton in the pigeon and by Jaffe et al. in humans. The present investigation studied the toxic effects of lead on rock dove red blood cell {delta}-ALAD activity in two situations: in doves treated with lead acetate in the laboratory and in doves exposed to the environment of Alcala de Henares. The final lead blood concentrations were lower in the environmental than in the laboratory doves. {delta}-ALAD activity in bone marrow cells and the relationships between lead accumulation and enzyme activity in red cells, are examined. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Effect of naloxone on food competition aggression in food-restricted high and low aggression pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Fachinelli, C; Torrecillas, M; Rodríguez Echandía, E L

    2004-03-01

    We determined the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone on aggression, emotion, feeder control, and eating behavior in high and low aggression female pigeons maintained at 80% of their normal weight and exposed to food competition interactions. Pigeons were divided into pairs by previously ranked high aggression (total time spent in offensive aggression exceeding 60 s/5 min; N=6 pairs) and low aggression females (time spent in offensive aggression less than 10 s/5 min; N=6 pairs). A pigeon in each pair received an s.c. dose of naloxone (1 mg kg(-1) ml saline(-1)) and the other animal received the vehicle. Trials (10 min) were performed 30 min after the naloxone/vehicle administration. The naloxone group of high aggression pigeons showed lower scores of total time spent in offensive aggression (control: 98.6 +/- 12.0; naloxone: 46.8 +/- 6.6 s; P<0.05) and higher scores of time spent in emotional responses (control: 3.5 +/- 0.6; naloxone: 10.8 +/- 2.4 s; P<0.05) than controls. The other behaviors scored, feeder control and eating behavior, were not affected in this group. The naloxone group of low aggression pigeons, however, showed higher scores of offensive aggression than their controls (5.3 +/- 1.3; naloxone: 28.7 +/- 8.0 s; P<0.05). The present results suggest that opiate receptor mechanisms are implicated in offensive aggression responses in high and low aggression pigeons. However, as reported for brain 5-hydroxytryptamine manipulation and GABA-A-benzodiazepine receptor manipulation, the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist on food competition aggression in pigeons was related to their pretreatment level of aggression.

  14. Epidemiological survey of zoonotic pathogens in feral pigeons (Columba livia var. domestica) and sympatric zoo species in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Cano-Terriza, David; Guerra, Rafael; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Cabezón, Oscar; Almería, Sonia; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of pathogenic zoonotic agents (flaviviruses, avian influenza viruses (AIVs), Salmonella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii) in feral pigeons and sympatric zoo animals from Córdoba (Southern Spain) between 2013 and 2014. Antibodies against flaviviruses were detected in 7.8% out of 142 (CI95%: 3.7-11.8) pigeons, and 8.2% of 49 (CI95%: 0.9-15.4) of zoo animals tested. Antibodies with specificity against West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) were confirmed both in pigeons and in zoo birds. Even though seropositivity to AIVs was not detected in any of the analyzed pigeons, 17.9% of 28 (CI95%: 3.7-32.0) zoo birds tested showed positive results. Salmonella spp. was not isolated in any of 152 fecal samples collected from pigeons, while 6.8% of 44 zoo animals were positive. Antibodies against T. gondii were found in 9.2% of 142 (CI95%: 4.8-13.6) feral pigeons and 26.9% of 108 (CI95%: 19.6-34.1) zoo animals. This is the first study on flaviviruses and T. gondii in feral pigeons and captive zoo species in Spain. Antibodies against WNV and USUV detected in non-migratory pigeons and captive zoo animals indicate local circulation of these emerging pathogens in the study area. T. gondii was widespread in species analyzed. This finding could be of importance for Public Health and Conservation of endangered species present in zoo parks. Pigeons and zoo animals may be included as sentinel species for monitoring zoonotic pathogens in urban areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Morphometric characterisation of wing feathers of the barn owl Tyto alba pratincola and the pigeon Columba livia.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Thomas; Klän, Stephan; Baumgartner, Werner; Klaas, Michael; Schröder, Wolfgang; Wagner, Hermann

    2007-11-21

    Owls are known for their silent flight. Even though there is some information available on the mechanisms that lead to a reduction of noise emission, neither the morphological basis, nor the biological mechanisms of the owl's silent flight are known. Therefore, we have initiated a systematic analysis of wing morphology in both a specialist, the barn owl, and a generalist, the pigeon. This report presents a comparison between the feathers of the barn owl and the pigeon and emphasise the specific characteristics of the owl's feathers on macroscopic and microscopic level. An understanding of the features and mechanisms underlying this silent flight might eventually be employed for aerodynamic purposes and lead to a new wing design in modern aircrafts. A variety of different feathers (six remiges and six coverts), taken from several specimen in either species, were investigated. Quantitative analysis of digital images and scanning electron microscopy were used for a morphometric characterisation. Although both species have comparable body weights, barn owl feathers were in general larger than pigeon feathers. For both species, the depth and the area of the outer vanes of the remiges were typically smaller than those of the inner vanes. This difference was more pronounced in the barn owl than in the pigeon. Owl feathers also had lesser radiates, longer pennula, and were more translucent than pigeon feathers. The two species achieved smooth edges and regular surfaces of the vanes by different construction principles: while the angles of attachment to the rachis and the length of the barbs was nearly constant for the barn owl, these parameters varied in the pigeon. We also present a quantitative description of several characteristic features of barn owl feathers, e.g., the serrations at the leading edge of the wing, the fringes at the edges of each feather, and the velvet-like dorsal surface. The quantitative description of the feathers and the specific structures of owl feathers can be used as a model for the construction of a biomimetic airplane wing or, in general, as a source for noise-reducing applications on any surfaces subjected to flow fields.

  16. A slowing effect on visual search by advance information in pigeons (Columba livia): a comparison with humans (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Katsuo; Ushitani, Tomokazu; Jitsumori, Masako

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted to investigate whether the search for a target letter was facilitated when the target and prime (preceding stimulus) letters were identical. Pigeons (Section 2) and human participants (Section 3) were first trained to search for "A" among "Y"s and "E" among "D"s in a condition in which a square shape appeared as the prime (Neutral condition). In subsequent testing, a prime was identical either to the corresponding target (Target-priming condition) or to the distractor (Distractor-priming condition). Humans and pigeons responded differently to the two priming conditions. On early trials, the Target prime facilitated search in humans, reducing reaction times (RTs) to targets. In pigeons, however, RTs were longer with Target primes, suggesting that pre-exposure to target letters may directly inhibit the search for targets in subsequent search displays. Furthermore, pre-exposure to the distractor letters may inhibit the processing of the distractor. On later trials, RTs of humans were faster in both priming conditions than in the Neutral condition, suggesting that expectation of a target facilitated search ("Y" predicted "A" and "D" predicted "E"). In contrast, the pigeons showed no evidence of expectation-based facilitation, with constant slowing effects of the Target prime extending across sessions. Possible mechanisms underlying such a slowing priming effect in pigeons were discussed.

  17. Conditioned suppression/avoidance as a procedure for testing hearing in birds: the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Heffner, Henry E; Koay, Gimseong; Hill, Evan M; Heffner, Rickye S

    2013-06-01

    Although the domestic pigeon is commonly used in learning experiments, it is a notoriously difficult subject in auditory psychophysical experiments, even those in which it need only respond when it detects a sound. This is because pigeons tend to respond in the absence of sound-that is, they have a high false-positive rate-which makes it difficult to determine a pigeon's audiogram. However, false positives are easily controlled in the method of conditioned suppression/avoidance, in which a pigeon is trained to peck a key to obtain food and to stop pecking whenever it detects a sound that signals impending electric shock. Here, we describe how to determine psychophysical thresholds in pigeons using a method of conditioned suppression in which avoidable shock is delivered through a bead chain wrapped around the base of a pigeon's wings. The resulting audiogram spans the range from 2 to 8000 Hz; it falls approximately in the middle of the distribution of previous pigeon audiograms and supports the finding of Kreithen and Quine (Journal of Comparative Physiology 129:1-4, 1979) that pigeons hear infrasound.

  18. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) in the pigeon (Columba livia domestica).

    PubMed

    Xie, P; Zhang, A T; Wang, C; Azzam, M M M; Zou, X T

    2012-07-01

    Fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays an important role in transporting long-chain fatty acids. In the current study, a full-length cDNA of FAT/CD36 was first cloned from the intestine of White King pigeon by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The full-length cDNA of pigeon FAT/CD36 was 2,282 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region of 224 bp, a 3'-untranslated region of 642 bp, and an open reading frame of 1,416 bp encoding a protein of 471 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 52.7 kDa. Sequence comparison indicated that FAT/CD36 of pigeon had high identity with other avian FAT/CD36. Using quantitative real-time PCR, expression of FAT/CD36 was the greatest in the duodenum at 28 d posthatch, and in the jejunum, the expression of FAT/CD36 at 14 d posthatch was greater than at 8 d but the same as 28 d posthatch. However, in the ileum, expression of FAT/CD36 peaked at embryonic d 15 and 8 d posthatch. The effects of long-chain fatty acids on pigeon FAT/CD36 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) mRNA expression were also investigated in vitro. It showed that a low concentration (5 μM) of oleic acid, palmitic acid, and linoleic acid can significantly increase FAT/CD36 and PPARγ mRNA level in pigeon jejunum. However, for linolenic acid or arachidonic acid, the induction of both gene expressions needed a higher concentration (50 μM or 250 μM). Two hundred and 50 μM palmitic acid was shown to suppress FAT/CD36 gene expression. The results suggest that FAT/CD36 may be a representative of intestine development in pigeon, and it could be regulated by long-chain fatty acids via PPARγ pathway.

  19. Functions of innate and acquired immune system are reduced in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) given a low protein diet

    PubMed Central

    Mabuchi, Yuko; Frankel, Theresa L.

    2016-01-01

    Racing pigeons are exposed to and act as carriers of diseases. Dietary protein requirement for their maintenance has not been determined experimentally despite their being domesticated for over 7000 years. A maintenance nitrogen (protein) requirement (MNR) for pigeons was determined in a balance study using diets containing 6, 10 and 14% crude protein (CP). Then, the effects of feeding the diets were investigated to determine whether they were adequate to sustain innate and acquired immune functions. Nitrogen intake from the 6% CP diet was sufficient to maintain nitrogen balance and body weight in pigeons. However, the immune functions of phagocytosis, oxidative burst and lymphocyte proliferation in pigeons fed this diet were reduced compared with those fed 10 and 14% CP diets. Pigeons given the 6 and 10% CP diets had lower antibody titres following inoculation against Newcastle disease (ND) than those on the 14% CP diet. A confounding factor found on autopsy was the presence of intestinal parasites in some of the pigeons given the 6 and 10% CP diets; however, none of the pigeons used to measure MNR or acquired immunity to ND were infested with parasites. In conclusion, neither the 6 nor 10% CP diets adequately sustained acquired immune function of pigeons. PMID:27069640

  20. Roles of adrenal and gonadal steroids and season in uropygial gland function in male pigeons, Columba livia.

    PubMed

    Asnani, M V; Ramachandran, A V

    1993-11-01

    To gauge the relative regulative roles of adrenal, gonadal, and thyroid hormones on uropygial gland of male adult pigeons, morphometric, histological, and histochemical observations have been made on a seasonal basis in normal as well as experimentally manipulated birds. Normal birds showed a parallel adrenal-gonadal-uropygial relationship and inverse adrenal-thyroid, thyroid-gonadal, and thyroid-uropygial relationships. Induced hypocorticalism by dexamethasone in the breeding season and hypercorticalism by ACTH or corticosterone treatment in the nonbreeding season were marked by inhibitory and stimulatory changes respectively in the uropygial gland and testis and by inverse thyroid activity. Further, cyproterone acetate treatment in the breeding season completely suppressed testicular functions and increased thyroid activity without affecting either adrenal or uropygial weight, structure, and functions. Based on the observations it is concluded that adrenal steroids are principally involved in regulating the uropygial gland while the gonadal steroids are involved in qualitative aspects of secretion during the breeding phase and thyroid hormones in maintaining the general metabolic profile.

  1. A second ascending visual pathway from the optic tectum to the telencephalon in the pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Gamlin, P D; Cohen, D H

    1986-08-15

    Previous studies in the pigeon (Karten and Revzin: Brain Res. 2:368-377, '66; Karten and Hodos: J. Comp. Neurol. 140:35-52, '70) have described an ascending tectofugal visual pathway from the optic tectum to the ectostriatum by way of the nucleus rotundus of the thalamus. This present study used anterograde autoradiographic and retrograde horseradish peroxidase pathway-tracing techniques to investigate another ascending tectofugal pathway in the pigeon. Injections of 3H-proline/leucine confirmed a previous report that the optic tectum projects to the nucleus dorsolateralis posterior of the thalamus (DLP). This projection is predominantly ipsilateral and is confined to a large-celled caudal region of the nucleus (DLPc); the rostral region of the nucleus (DLPr) is not tectorecipient. Injections of horseradish peroxidase in DLPc labeled cells predominantly ipsilaterally in layers 8-15 of the optic tectum. Injections of 3H-proline/leucine placed in the DLPc labeled a discrete region of the ipsilateral telencephalon. Similar injections of DLPr labeled a contiguous, but more rostral, region of the neostriatum intermedium. Nissl- and silver-stained material indicated that the region in which DLP terminates is cytoarchitecturally distinct from ventromedial ectostriatal core and belt. Injections of horseradish peroxidase at various locations in the neostriatal DLP terminal field demonstrated a rostrocaudal ordering of the DLP projection upon the neostriatum intermedium. Single-unit recording demonstrated that cells in DLPc respond to whole-field illumination at the same latency as cells in the nucleus rotundus, indicating that the tecto-DLPc-neostriatal pathway transmits visual information to the telencephalon. We suggest that comparable pathways may exist in both reptiles and mammals.

  2. Detection of magnetic field intensity gradient by homing pigeons (Columba livia) in a novel "virtual magnetic map" conditioning paradigm.

    PubMed

    Mora, Cordula V; Bingman, Verner P

    2013-01-01

    It has long been thought that birds may use the Earth's magnetic field not only as a compass for direction finding, but that it could also provide spatial information for position determination analogous to a map during navigation. Since magnetic field intensity varies systematically with latitude and theoretically could also provide longitudinal information during position determination, birds using a magnetic map should be able to discriminate magnetic field intensity cues in the laboratory. Here we demonstrate a novel behavioural paradigm requiring homing pigeons to identify the direction of a magnetic field intensity gradient in a "virtual magnetic map" during a spatial conditioning task. Not only were the pigeons able to detect the direction of the intensity gradient, but they were even able to discriminate upward versus downward movement on the gradient by differentiating between increasing and decreasing intensity values. Furthermore, the pigeons typically spent more than half of the 15 second sampling period in front of the feeder associated with the rewarded gradient direction indicating that they required only several seconds to make the correct choice. Our results therefore demonstrate for the first time that pigeons not only can detect the presence and absence of magnetic anomalies, as previous studies had shown, but are even able to detect and respond to changes in magnetic field intensity alone, including the directionality of such changes, in the context of spatial orientation within an experimental arena. This opens up the possibility for systematic and detailed studies of how pigeons could use magnetic intensity cues during position determination as well as how intensity is perceived and where it is processed in the brain.

  3. Impact of urban environment and host phenotype on the epidemiology of Chlamydiaceae in feral pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Gasparini, J; Erin, N; Bertin, C; Jacquin, L; Vorimore, F; Frantz, A; Lenouvel, P; Laroucau, K

    2011-12-01

    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria found all over the world and known to cause various forms of disease in animals and humans. Urban pigeons are known to be an important reservoir of Chlamydia psittaci, the agent of human psittacosis. In this study, we examined the influence of pigeon houses used to regulate pigeon populations and of melanin-based coloration on several epidemiological parameters of Chlamydiaceae in 708 urban pigeons in Paris. We also identified species and genotypes of Chlamydiaceae present in Parisian populations. First, our results revealed that pigeons roosting and breeding in pigeon houses were equally infected by Chlamydiaceae as those that did not. Second, we found that dark melanic pigeons excreted more Chlamydiaceae than pale melanic ones. Finally, species and strain diversities were very low: all samples were of C. psittaci genotype B. Nevertheless, two atypical Chlamydiaceae were identified based on 16S rRNA and ompA sequences. Our study thus highlights the importance of considering environmental and host phenotype when investigating the epidemiology of infectious diseases. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Not just passengers: pigeons, Columba livia, can learn homing routes while flying with a more experienced conspecific

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Benjamin; Flack, Andrea; Freeman, Robin; Guilford, Tim; Biro, Dora

    2013-01-01

    For animals that travel in groups, the directional choices of conspecifics are potentially a rich source of information for spatial learning. In this study, we investigate how the opportunity to follow a locally experienced demonstrator affects route learning by pigeons over repeated homing flights. This test of social influences on navigation takes advantage of the individually distinctive routes that pigeons establish when trained alone. We found that pigeons learn routes just as effectively while flying with a partner as control pigeons do while flying alone. However, rather than learning the exact route of the demonstrator, the paired routes shifted over repeated flights, which suggests that the birds with less local experience also took an active role in the navigational task. The efficiency of the original routes was a key factor in how far they shifted, with less efficient routes undergoing the greatest changes. In this context, inefficient routes are unlikely to be maintained through repeated rounds of social transmission, and instead more efficient routes are achieved because of the interaction between social learning and information pooling. PMID:23135677

  5. Captive and free-living urban pigeons (Columba livia) from Brazil as carriers of multidrug-resistant pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Borges, Clarissa A; Maluta, Renato P; Beraldo, Lívia G; Cardozo, Marita V; Guastalli, Elisabete A L; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; DebRoy, Chitrita; Ávila, Fernando A

    2017-01-01

    Thirty Escherichia coli isolates from captive and free-living pigeons in Brazil were characterised. Virulence-associated genes identified in pigeons included those which occur relatively frequently in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) from commercial poultry worldwide. Eleven of 30 E. coli isolates from pigeons, belonging mainly to B1 and B2 phylogenetic groups, had high or intermediate pathogenicity for 1-day-old chicks. The frequency of multi-drug resistant (MDR) E. coli in captive pigeons was relatively high and included one isolate positive for the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) gene blaCTX-M-8. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed high heterogeneity among isolates. There is potential for pigeons to transmit antibiotic resistant pathogenic E. coli to other species through environmental contamination or direct contact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of noise on pure-tone thresholds in blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus and Molothrus ater) and pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Hienz, R D; Sachs, M B

    1987-03-01

    Blackbirds and pigeons were trained to detect tones in quiet and in broadband noise by using positive-reinforcement techniques. In Experiment 1, thresholds in noise were obtained in blackbirds as a function of both tone frequency and noise intensity for a pulsed noise masker (noise gated on and off with tone). For blackbirds, critical ratios (the ratio of the power of the just-detectable tone in noise to the power of the noise masker) obtained in pulsed noise showed no consistent relation to tone frequency. For pigeons, on the other hand, critical ratios obtained in continuous noise increased by about 3 dB/octave across their range of hearing, being similar to known critical ratio functions for cats and humans. In Experiment 2, critical ratios in blackbirds obtained with both continuous noise and pulsed noise were compared. Blackbird critical ratios were more stable in continuous noise and averaged 4 dB lower than critical ratios in pulsed noise. The blackbird critical ratio function obtained with continuous noise was similar to the known critical ratio function of another avian species, the parakeet. Thus, small birds appear to have atypical critical ratio functions, compared with pigeons and other vertebrates.

  7. Flight feather attachment in rock pigeons (Columba livia): covert feathers and smooth muscle coordinate a morphing wing.

    PubMed

    Hieronymus, Tobin L

    2016-11-01

    Mechanisms for passively coordinating forelimb movements and flight feather abduction and adduction have been described separately from both in vivo and ex vivo studies. Skeletal coordination has been identified as a way for birds to simplify the neuromotor task of controlling flight stroke, but an understanding of the relationship between skeletal coordination and the coordination of the aerodynamic control surface (the flight feathers) has been slow to materialize. This break between the biomechanical and aerodynamic approaches - between skeletal kinematics and airfoil shape - has hindered the study of dynamic flight behaviors. Here I use dissection and histology to identify previously overlooked interconnections between musculoskeletal elements and flight feathers. Many of these structures are well-placed to directly link elements of the passive musculoskeletal coordination system with flight feather movements. Small bundles of smooth muscle form prominent connections between upper forearm coverts (deck feathers) and the ulna, as well as the majority of interconnections between major flight feathers of the hand. Abundant smooth muscle may play a role in efficient maintenance of folded wing posture, and may also provide an autonomically regulated means of tuning wing shape and aeroelastic behavior in flight. The pattern of muscular and ligamentous linkages of flight feathers to underlying muscle and bone may provide predictable passive guidance for the shape of the airfoil during flight stroke. The structures described here provide an anatomical touchstone for in vivo experimental tests of wing surface coordination in an extensively researched avian model species.

  8. Vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites and fibers in the brain of the pigeon Columba livia: An autoradiographic and immunohistochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Hof, P.R.; Dietl, M.M.; Charnay, Y.; Martin, J.L.; Bouras, C.; Palacios, J.M.; Magistretti, P.J. )

    1991-03-15

    The distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding sites in the pigeon brain was examined by in vitro autoradiography on slide-mounted sections. A fully characterized monoiodinated form of VIP, which maintains the biological activity of the native peptide, was used throughout this study. The highest densities of binding sites were observed in the hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, auditory field L of neostriatum, area corticoidea dorsolateralis and temporo-parieto-occipitalis, area parahippocampalis, tectum opticum, nucleus dorsomedialis anterior thalami, and in the periventricular area of the hypothalamus. Lower densities of specific binding occurred in the neostriatum, hyperstriatum ventrale and nucleus septi lateralis, dorsolateral area of the thalamus, and lateral and posteromedial hypothalamus. Very low to background levels of VIP binding were detected in the ectostriatum, paleostriatum primitivum, paleostriatum augmentatum, lobus parolfactorius, nucleus accumbens, most of the brainstem, and the cerebellum. The distribution of VIP-containing fibers and terminals was examined by indirect immunofluorescence using a polyclonal antibody against porcine VIP. Fibers and terminals were observed in the area corticoidea dorsolateralis, area parahippocampalis, hippocampus, hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, tuberculum olfactorium, nuclei dorsolateralis and dorsomedialis of the thalamus, and throughout the hypothalamus and the median eminence. Long projecting fibers were visualized in the tractus septohippocampalis. In the brainstem VIP immunoreactive fibers and terminals were observed mainly in the substantia grisea centralis, fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, lemniscus lateralis, and in the area surrounding the nuclei of the 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves.

  9. Effects of blood type and blood handling on feeding success, longevity and egg production in the body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus.

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, K Y; Danilevich, M; Zelig, O; Grinbaum, H; Friger, M; Meinking, T L

    2011-03-01

    The effects of feeding different types of human blood to human body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus L. (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), on feeding success, longevity and numbers of eggs laid were investigated using an artificial blood-feeding system in the laboratory. No significant differences were found between lice fed on different human blood types for any of the parameters tested. However, when lice were fed on human blood of one blood type followed immediately by a different blood type, they took significantly smaller bloodmeals, their longevity was reduced and they laid fewer eggs per female than control lice that had been fed twice on the same human blood type. When lice were fed human blood that had been stored for 1-26 weeks, the quantity of blood taken, the proportion of lice that became fully engorged and lice longevity diminished gradually as the storage time of the blood increased, but there was no effect of storage time on the mean number of eggs laid per female. However, lice would not feed on 26-week-old blood. The type of anticoagulant used had a significant effect on the proportion fed, longevity and number of eggs laid per female. Generally, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid)-treated blood reduced longevity and the number of eggs laid per female to a greater degree than heparinized or citrated blood. Lice fed on rabbit blood took significantly larger amounts of blood, lived longer and laid a higher mean number of eggs per female than lice fed on human blood.

  10. Efficacy of chlorfenapyr (AC 303630) experimental pour-on and CyLence formulations against naturally acquired louse infestations on cattle in New York.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, P E; Rutz, D A; Doscher, M E; Albright, R

    2001-05-22

    The four chlorfenapyr formulations examined provided 100% control of both the nymphal and adult stages of naturally acquired Bovicola bovis (L.) on cattle up to 35 days after application. Treatment with 6mg chlorfenapyr per kg BW in a 0.12ml per kg BW formulation was as effective as treatment with CyLence (cyfluthrin) in controlling naturally acquired Solenopotes capillatus (Enderlein) on cattle for 35 days. Percent reduction was never greater than 90% with any chlorfenapyr application against Linognathus vituli (L.). However, percent reduction was greater than 90% with CyLence from day 21 through 35. No adverse effects were noted on cattle from any of the chlorfenapyr dosages used.

  11. Dynamics of a Lactate Dehydrogenase Polymorphism in the Wood Louse PORCELLIO SCABER Latr.: Evidence for Partial Assortative Mating and Heterosis in Natural Populations

    PubMed Central

    Sassaman, Clay

    1978-01-01

    Electrophoretic separation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Porcellio scaber from 14 natural populations in California, and one each in Oregon, Delaware and Massachusetts, indicates a biallelic polymorphism. Phenotypes are recovered from laboratory matings of virgin females in frequencies agreeing with simple Mendelian inheritance, and the frequency distributions of phenotypes in natural populations are typically in agreement with the appropriate Hardy-Weinberg distributions for these same populations. The same allele predominates in all natural populations examined. Temporal stability within populations suggests that the polymorphism is at, or near, equilibrium. The spatial distribution of allele frequencies, however, is apparently mosaic. Abrupt discontinuities in gene frequency over short distances (50 m to 1 km) suggest that interpopulation migration is insufficient to swamp local differences in gene frequency. Analysis of the transmission dynamics of the polymorphism in natural populations using mother-offspring genotype comparisons suggests that the allelic frequencies of transmitted male gametes are not independent of female genotype. Specifically, the observed mating scheme in natural populations appears to be partially assortative. Comparisons of progeny genotype distributions with yearling (or adult) genotype distributions from the same populations indicate a superior post-partum viability of heterozygous individuals relative to homozygotes. The distortion of progeny genotypic distributions created by assortment is thus apparently counteracted by subsequent heterosis. PMID:640378

  12. Impact of early salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestation and differences in survival and marine growth of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts 1997–2009

    PubMed Central

    Skilbrei, O T; Finstad, B; Urdal, K; Bakke, G; Kroglund, F; Strand, R

    2013-01-01

    The impact of salmon lice on the survival of migrating Atlantic salmon smolts was studied by comparing the adult returns of sea-ranched smolts treated for sea lice using emamectin benzoate or substance EX with untreated control groups in the River Dale in western Norway. A total of 143 500 smolts were released in 35 release groups in freshwater from 1997 to 2009 and in the fjord system from 2007 to 2009. The adult recaptures declined gradually with release year and reached minimum levels in 2007. This development corresponded with poor marine growth and increased age at maturity of ranched salmon and in three monitored salmon populations and indicated unfavourable conditions in the Norwegian Sea. The recapture rate of treated smolts was significantly higher than the controls in three of the releases performed: the only release in 1997, one of three in 2002 and the only group released in sea water in 2007. The effect of treating the smolts against salmon lice was smaller than the variability in return rates between release groups, and much smaller that variability between release years, but its overall contribution was still significant (P < 0.05) and equivalent to an odds ratio of the probability of being recaptured of 1.17 in favour of the treated smolts. Control fish also tended to be smaller as grilse (P = 0.057), possibly due to a sublethal effect of salmon lice. PMID:23311746

  13. Impact of early salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestation and differences in survival and marine growth of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts 1997-2009.

    PubMed

    Skilbrei, O T; Finstad, B; Urdal, K; Bakke, G; Kroglund, F; Strand, R

    2013-03-01

    The impact of salmon lice on the survival of migrating Atlantic salmon smolts was studied by comparing the adult returns of sea-ranched smolts treated for sea lice using emamectin benzoate or substance EX with untreated control groups in the River Dale in western Norway. A total of 143 500 smolts were released in 35 release groups in freshwater from 1997 to 2009 and in the fjord system from 2007 to 2009. The adult recaptures declined gradually with release year and reached minimum levels in 2007. This development corresponded with poor marine growth and increased age at maturity of ranched salmon and in three monitored salmon populations and indicated unfavourable conditions in the Norwegian Sea. The recapture rate of treated smolts was significantly higher than the controls in three of the releases performed: the only release in 1997, one of three in 2002 and the only group released in sea water in 2007. The effect of treating the smolts against salmon lice was smaller than the variability in return rates between release groups, and much smaller that variability between release years, but its overall contribution was still significant (P < 0.05) and equivalent to an odds ratio of the probability of being recaptured of 1.17 in favour of the treated smolts. Control fish also tended to be smaller as grilse (P = 0.057), possibly due to a sublethal effect of salmon lice.

  14. Transcriptome survey of the lipid metabolic pathways involved in energy production and ecdysteroid synthesis in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Ana Teresa; Farlora, Rodolfo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this study was to identify and analyze the lipid metabolic pathways involved in energy production and ecdysteroid synthesis in the ectoparasite copepod Caligus rogercresseyi. Massive transcriptome sequencing analysis was performed during the infectious copepodid larval stage, during the attached chalimus larval stage, and also in female and male adults. Thirty genes were selected for describing the pathways, and these were annotated for proteins or enzymes involved in lipid digestion, absorption, and transport; fatty acid degradation; the synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies; and steroid and ecdysteroid syntheses. Differential expression of these genes was analyzed by ontogenic stage and discussed considering each stage's feeding habits and energetic needs. Copepodids showed a low expression of fatty acid digestion genes, reflected by a non-feeding behavior, and the upregulation of genes involved in steroid biosynthesis, which was consistent with a pathway for cholesterol synthesis during ecdysis. The chalimus stage showed an upregulation of genes related to fatty acid digestion, absorption, and transport, as well as to fatty acid degradation and the synthesis of ketone bodies, therefore suggesting that lipids ingested from the mucus and skin of the host fish are metabolized as important sources of energy. Adult females also showed a pattern of high lipid metabolism for energy supply and mobilization in relation to reproduction and vitellogenesis. Adult females and males revealed different lipid metabolism patterns that reflected different energetic needs. This study reports for the first time the probable lipid metabolic pathways involved in the energy production and ecdysteroid synthesis of C. rogercresseyi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Disease resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): coinfection of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis and the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Lhorente, Jean Paul; Gallardo, José A; Villanueva, Beatriz; Carabaño, María J; Neira, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring coinfections of pathogens have been reported in salmonids, but their consequences on disease resistance are unclear. We hypothesized that 1) coinfection of Caligus rogercresseyi reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to Piscirickettsia salmonis; and 2) coinfection resistance is a heritable trait that does not correlate with resistance to a single infection. In total, 1,634 pedigreed Atlantic salmon were exposed to a single infection (SI) of P. salmonis (primary pathogen) or coinfection with C. rogercresseyi (secondary pathogen). Low and high level of coinfection were evaluated (LC = 44 copepodites per fish; HC = 88 copepodites per fish). Survival and quantitative genetic analyses were performed to determine the resistance to the single infection and coinfections. C. rogercresseyi significantly increased the mortality in fish infected with P. salmonis (SI mortality = 251/545; LC mortality = 544/544 and HC mortality = 545/545). Heritability estimates for resistance to P. salmonis were similar and of medium magnitude in all treatments (h2SI = 0.23 ± 0.07; h2LC = 0.17 ± 0.08; h2HC = 0.24 ± 0.07). A large and significant genetic correlation with regard to resistance was observed between coinfection treatments (rg LC-HC = 0.99 ± 0.01) but not between the single and coinfection treatments (rg SI-LC = -0.14 ± 0.33; rg SI-HC = 0.32 ± 0.34). C. rogercresseyi, as a secondary pathogen, reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to the pathogen P. salmonis. Resistance to coinfection of Piscirickettsia salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi in Atlantic salmon is a heritable trait. The absence of a genetic correlation between resistance to a single infection and resistance to coinfection indicates that different genes control these processes. Coinfection of different pathogens and resistance to coinfection needs to be considered in future research on salmon farming, selective breeding and conservation.

  16. A common-garden experiment to quantify evolutionary processes in copepods: the case of emamectin benzoate resistance in the parasitic sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of pesticide resistance represents a global challenge to food production. Specifically for the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry, parasitic sea lice and their developing resistance to delousing chemicals is challenging production. In this study, seventeen full sibling families, established from three strains of Lepeophtheirus salmonis displaying differing backgrounds in emamectin benzoate (EB) tolerance were produced and quantitatively compared under a common-garden experimental design. Lice surviving to the preadult stage were then exposed to EB and finally identified through the application of DNA parentage testing. Results With the exception of two families (19 and 29%), survival from the infectious copepod to preadult stage was very similar among families (40-50%). In contrast, very large differences in survival following EB exposure were observed among the families (7.9-74%). Family survival post EB exposure was consistent with the EB tolerance characteristics of the strains from which they were established and no negative effect on infection success were detected in association with increased EB tolerance. Two of the lice families that displayed reduced sensitivity to EB were established from a commercial farm that had previously used this chemical. This demonstrates that resistant alleles were present on this farm even though the farm had not reported treatment failure. Conclusions To our knowledge, this represents the first study where families of any multi-cellular parasite have been established and compared in performance under communal rearing conditions in a common-garden experiment. The system performed in a predictable manner and permitted, for the first time, elucidation of quantitative traits among sea lice families. While this experiment concentrated on, and provided a unique insight into EB sensitivity among lice families, the experimental design represents a novel methodology to experimentally address both resistance development and other evolutionary questions in parasitic copepods. PMID:24885085

  17. A common-garden experiment to quantify evolutionary processes in copepods: the case of emamectin benzoate resistance in the parasitic sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    PubMed

    Ljungfeldt, Lina Eva Robin; Espedal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Glover, Kevin Alan

    2014-05-19

    The development of pesticide resistance represents a global challenge to food production. Specifically for the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry, parasitic sea lice and their developing resistance to delousing chemicals is challenging production. In this study, seventeen full sibling families, established from three strains of Lepeophtheirus salmonis displaying differing backgrounds in emamectin benzoate (EB) tolerance were produced and quantitatively compared under a common-garden experimental design. Lice surviving to the preadult stage were then exposed to EB and finally identified through the application of DNA parentage testing. With the exception of two families (19 and 29%), survival from the infectious copepod to preadult stage was very similar among families (40-50%). In contrast, very large differences in survival following EB exposure were observed among the families (7.9-74%). Family survival post EB exposure was consistent with the EB tolerance characteristics of the strains from which they were established and no negative effect on infection success were detected in association with increased EB tolerance. Two of the lice families that displayed reduced sensitivity to EB were established from a commercial farm that had previously used this chemical. This demonstrates that resistant alleles were present on this farm even though the farm had not reported treatment failure. To our knowledge, this represents the first study where families of any multi-cellular parasite have been established and compared in performance under communal rearing conditions in a common-garden experiment. The system performed in a predictable manner and permitted, for the first time, elucidation of quantitative traits among sea lice families. While this experiment concentrated on, and provided a unique insight into EB sensitivity among lice families, the experimental design represents a novel methodology to experimentally address both resistance development and other evolutionary questions in parasitic copepods.

  18. Detoxification of ivermectin by ATP binding cassette transporter C4 and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 6CJ1 in the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Gellatly, K J; Lueke, B; Kohler, M; Nauen, R; Murenzi, E; Yoon, K S; Clark, J M

    2017-09-27

    We previously observed that ivermectin-induced detoxification genes, including ATP binding cassette transporter C4 (PhABCC4) and cytochrome P450 6CJ1 (CYP6CJ1) were identified from body lice following a brief exposure to a sublethal dose of ivermectin using a non-invasive induction assay. In this current study, the functional properties of PhABCC4 and CYP6CJ1 were investigated after expression in either X. laevis oocytes or using a baculovirus expression system, respectively. Efflux of [(3) H]-9-(2-phosphonomethoxyethyl) adenine ([(3) H]-PMEA), a known ABCC4 substrate in humans, was detected from PhABCC4 cRNA-injected oocytes by liquid scintillation spectrophotometric analysis and PhABCC4 expression in oocytes was confirmed using ABC transporter inhibitors. Efflux was also determined to be ATP-dependent. Using a variety of insecticides in a competition assay, only co-injection of ivermectin and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane led to decreased efflux of [(3) H]-PMEA. PhABCC4-expressing oocytes also directly effluxed [(3) H]-ivermectin, which increased over time. In addition, ivermectin appeared to be oxidatively metabolized and/or sequestered, although at low levels, following functional expression of CYP6CJ1 along with cytochrome P450 reductase in Sf9 cells. Our study suggests that PhABCC4 and perhaps CYP6CJ1 are involved in the Phase III and Phase I xenobiotic metabolism of ivermectin, respectively, and may play an important role in the evolution of ivermectin resistance in lice and other insects as field selection occurs. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  19. Effects of the sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis on temporal changes in cortisol, sex steroids, growth and reproductive investment in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus.

    PubMed

    Tveiten, H; Bjørn, P A; Johnsen, H K; Finstad, B; McKinley, R S

    2010-06-01

    Groups of mature (5+ year old) Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus held in sea water were exposed for 34 days to either a high (mean +/-s.e. 0.15 +/- 0.01 sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis g(-1) fish mass) (HI), medium (0.07 +/- 0.00 sea lice g(-1) fish mass) (MI) or no [control (C)] sea-lice infection during early stages of gonad development (June to July). Infection with sea lice resulted in increased plasma cortisol concentrations and this was related to intensity of infection; females tended to have higher cortisol concentrations than males at high infection intensities (HI group: female c. 130 ng ml(-1); male c. 80 ng ml(-1)). Plasma osmolality (C c. 330, MI c. 350 and HI c. 415 mOsm) and chloride concentrations (C c. 135, MI c. 155 and HI c. 190 mM) increased significantly with infection intensity, indicating osmoregulatory problems in infected fish. A strong positive relationship between plasma osmolality and cortisol concentration was recorded. Plasma sex-steroid concentrations were influenced negatively by sea-lice infection, particularly in the HI group, and were inversely related to plasma cortisol concentrations. The most heavily infected fish postponed the initiation of reproductive development until exposed to fresh water and timing of ovulation tended to be delayed in these fish. Growth rate and condition were negatively influenced by sea-lice infection and growth rate was inversely related to plasma cortisol concentrations. Sea-lice infection resulted in mortality among females in the HI group, and the proportion of maturing females was lower in the MI group (46%) than in the controls (85%). Egg production in the MI and HI groups was c. 50 and 30% of the C group. Egg size, embryonic survival and fry mass did not differ across groups. Sea lice influence reproductive development and egg production in S. alpinus, and consequently these parasites may influence populations via sublethal effects on broodfish, affecting growth and condition, and their reproductive output.

  20. Disease Resistance in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar): Coinfection of the Intracellular Bacterial Pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis and the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi

    PubMed Central

    Lhorente, Jean Paul; Gallardo, José A.; Villanueva, Beatriz; Carabaño, María J.; Neira, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Naturally occurring coinfections of pathogens have been reported in salmonids, but their consequences on disease resistance are unclear. We hypothesized that 1) coinfection of Caligus rogercresseyi reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to Piscirickettsia salmonis; and 2) coinfection resistance is a heritable trait that does not correlate with resistance to a single infection. Methodology In total, 1,634 pedigreed Atlantic salmon were exposed to a single infection (SI) of P. salmonis (primary pathogen) or coinfection with C. rogercresseyi (secondary pathogen). Low and high level of coinfection were evaluated (LC = 44 copepodites per fish; HC = 88 copepodites per fish). Survival and quantitative genetic analyses were performed to determine the resistance to the single infection and coinfections. Main Findings C. rogercresseyi significantly increased the mortality in fish infected with P. salmonis (SI mortality = 251/545; LC mortality = 544/544 and HC mortality = 545/545). Heritability estimates for resistance to P. salmonis were similar and of medium magnitude in all treatments (h2SI = 0.23±0.07; h2LC = 0.17±0.08; h2HC = 0.24±0.07). A large and significant genetic correlation with regard to resistance was observed between coinfection treatments (rg LC-HC = 0.99±0.01) but not between the single and coinfection treatments (rg SI-LC = −0.14±0.33; rg SI-HC = 0.32±0.34). Conclusions/Significance C. rogercresseyi, as a secondary pathogen, reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to the pathogen P. salmonis. Resistance to coinfection of Piscirickettsia salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi in Atlantic salmon is a heritable trait. The absence of a genetic correlation between resistance to a single infection and resistance to coinfection indicates that different genes control these processes. Coinfection of different pathogens and resistance to coinfection needs to be considered in future research on salmon farming, selective breeding and conservation. PMID:24736323

  1. The role of body size in host specificity: reciprocal transfer experiments with feather lice.

    PubMed

    Bush, Sarah E; Clayton, Dale H

    2006-10-01

    Although most parasites show at least some degree of host specificity, factors governing the evolution of specificity remain poorly understood. Many different groups of host-specific parasites show a striking correlation between parasite and host body size, suggesting that size reinforces specificity. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the relative fitness of host-specific feather lice transferred to pigeons and doves that differ in size by an order of magnitude. To test the general influence of size, we transferred unrelated groups of wing and body lice, which are specialized for different regions of the host. Lice were transferred in both directions, from a large native host species, the rock pigeon (Columba livia), to several progressively smaller hosts, and from a small native host species, the common ground dove (Columbina passerina), to several larger hosts. We measured the relative fitness (population size) of lice transferred to these novel host species after two louse generations. Neither wing lice nor body lice could survive on novel host species that were smaller in size than the native host. However, when host defense (preening behavior) was blocked, both groups survived and reproduced on all novel hosts tested. Thus, host defense interacted with host size to govern the ability of lice to establish on small hosts. Neither wing lice nor body lice could survive on larger hosts, even when preening was blocked. In summary, host size influenced the fitness of both types of feather lice, but through different mechanisms, depending on the direction of the transfer. Our results indicate that host switching is most likely between hosts of similar body size. This finding has important implications for studies of host-parasite coevolution at both the micro- and macroevolutionary scales.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Newcastle disease virus in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in public areas of Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Tremblay, Donald; Harel, Josée; Côté, Nathalie; Arsenault, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) can harbor a range of zoonotic pathogens. A transversal study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of feral pigeons infected by various pathogens in public areas in Montreal, Quebec. Cloacal swabs from captured birds were cultured for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Coxiella burnetii. An oropharyngeal swab was also submitted to real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) for the detection of Newcastle disease virus. Among the 187 pigeons tested from 10 public areas, 9.1% (95% CI: 3.0 to 15.2) were positive for Campylobacter spp. with all strains identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The Campylobacter status of birds was not associated with individual characteristics of birds, with the exception of body score. None of the pigeons tested positive for the other pathogens. Direct or indirect contacts with feral pigeons may constitute a potential risk for Campylobacter infection in humans. PMID:26733736

  3. Detection of Magnetic Field Intensity Gradient by Homing Pigeons (Columba livia) in a Novel “Virtual Magnetic Map” Conditioning Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Cordula V.; Bingman, Verner P.

    2013-01-01

    It has long been thought that birds may use the Earth's magnetic field not only as a compass for direction finding, but that it could also provide spatial information for position determination analogous to a map during navigation. Since magnetic field intensity varies systematically with latitude and theoretically could also provide longitudinal information during position determination, birds using a magnetic map should be able to discriminate magnetic field intensity cues in the laboratory. Here we demonstrate a novel behavioural paradigm requiring homing pigeons to identify the direction of a magnetic field intensity gradient in a “virtual magnetic map” during a spatial conditioning task. Not only were the pigeons able to detect the direction of the intensity gradient, but they were even able to discriminate upward versus downward movement on the gradient by differentiating between increasing and decreasing intensity values. Furthermore, the pigeons typically spent more than half of the 15 second sampling period in front of the feeder associated with the rewarded gradient direction indicating that they required only several seconds to make the correct choice. Our results therefore demonstrate for the first time that pigeons not only can detect the presence and absence of magnetic anomalies, as previous studies had shown, but are even able to detect and respond to changes in magnetic field intensity alone, including the directionality of such changes, in the context of spatial orientation within an experimental arena. This opens up the possibility for systematic and detailed studies of how pigeons could use magnetic intensity cues during position determination as well as how intensity is perceived and where it is processed in the brain. PMID:24039812

  4. Distribution of Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 2 and Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors in the Auditory Ganglion and Cochlear Nuclei of Pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Karim, M R; Atoji, Y

    2016-02-01

    Glutamate is a principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the auditory system. Our previous studies revealed localization of glutamate receptor mRNAs in the pigeon cochlear nuclei, suggesting the existence of glutamatergic input from the auditory nerve to the brainstem. This study demonstrated localization of mRNAs for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2) and ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA, kainate and NMDA) in the auditory ganglion (AG) and cochlear nuclei (magnocellular, angular and laminar nuclei). VGluT2 mRNA was intensely expressed in AG and intensely or moderately in the cochlear nuclei. The AG and cochlear nuclei showed intense-to-moderate mRNA signals for GluA2, GluA3, GluA4, GluK4 and GluN1. These results suggest that the pigeon AG neurons receives glutamatergic input from hair cells and in turn projects to the magnocellular and angular nuclei. Glutamate may play a pivotal role in the excitatory synapse transmission in the peripheral auditory pathway of birds.

  5. Distribution of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 and glutamate receptor 1 mRNA in the central nervous system of the pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Rafiqul; Atoji, Yasuro

    2008-12-10

    Glutamate acts as the excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) and is mediated largely by the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) types of glutamate receptors (GluR1-4) in mammals. In the present study, we determined the cDNA sequences of pigeon VGLUT2 and GluR1 and mapped the distribution of their mRNA in the pigeon CNS. The predicted amino acids of pigeon VGLUT2 and GluR1 showed a 93% identity to human VGLUT2 and GluR1 both. In situ hybridization autoradiograms showed VGLUT2 mRNA expression exclusively in the pallium of the telencephalon, and no expression in the subpallium. Within the diencephalon, VGLUT2 mRNA was more abundant in the thalamus than in the hypothalamus. Rich VGLUT2 mRNA expression was found in the optic tectum, nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis, nucleus isthmi, pars parvocellularis, isthmo-optic nucleus, pontine nuclei, and granular layer of the cerebellum. Moderate expression was noted in the cerebellar nuclei, vestibular nuclei, cochlear nuclei, inferior olivary nucleus, and gray matter of the spinal cord. GluR1 mRNA was expressed abundantly in the pallium and subpallium of the telencephalon, but it was poor in the diencephalon, midbrain, medulla, cerebellar cortex, and gray matter of the spinal cord. These results suggest that the cDNA sequences of VGLUT2 and GluR1 in the pigeon are comparable to those of VGLUT2 and GluR1 in mammals, respectively. The distribution of pigeon GluR1 mRNA resembles that of mammals, but the distribution of VGLUT2 mRNA resembles that of both VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in mammals.

  6. Immunohistochemical localization of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2) in the central nervous system of the pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Atoji, Yasuro

    2011-10-01

    Glutamatergic neurons are distributed widely in the telencephalic pallium of birds, but their targets are unknown. In the present study, a polyclonal antibody was produced against pigeon vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2) and was used for Western blot and immunohistochemistry to detect projection targets of glutamatergic neurons in the pigeon central nervous system. The molecular weight of vGluT2 was measured at 65 kDa. vGluT2 immunoreactivity was observed in neuropil, but not in neuronal cell bodies or glia. Immunoreactive neuropil generally appeared homogeneous, but fine granules or puncta were found in many areas or nuclei. The telencephalon showed strong immunoreactivity, except for the globus pallidus. In particular, the mesopallium and hippocampal formation revealed the most intense immunostaining. In the diencephalon, vGluT2 immunoreactivity was intense in the dorsal thalamus and hypothalamus. In the midbrain, strong immunostaining was seen in the periaqueductal gray, the dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus, and the isthmo-optic nucleus. The optic tectum showed moderate immunoreactivity. In the cerebellar cortex, glomeruli in the granular layer were intensely immunoreactive, and the molecular layer showed intensely homogeneous immunostaining. In the caudal brainstem, the cochlear magnocellular and angular nuclei showed strongly immunoreactive puncta around neuronal cell bodies. In the spinal cord, the dorsal horn revealed moderate immunoreactivity and the marginal nucleus was strongly immunoreactive. Ultrastructural observations revealed that vGluT2 immunoreactivity is localized in asymmetric, presynaptic terminals. The present results indicate an extensive distribution of glutamatergic projections and circuits in the avian central nervous system.

  7. Effect of the i.c.v. injection of 5,7-di-hydroxytryptamine on the aggressive behavior of dominant and submissive pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Ison, M; Fachinelli, C; Rodríguez Echandía, E L

    1996-04-01

    The acute and chronic treatment with 5-HTP was reported to block the aggressive reaction induced by food competition in undernourished dominant pigeons. Such treatment was not effective, however, in submissive pigeons. In this report we describe the effect of the neurotoxine 5, 7-DHT on aggression, defense, emotion, feeder control, and other behaviors in dominant and submissive male pigeons maintained at 80% of their normal weight. These were ranked through daily food competition trials. To obtain the prelesion scores dominant (n = 15) and submissive pigeons (n = 16) were submitted to a daily trial against a different intermediate subject (six trials). Then, the dominant and submissive groups were subcutaneously injected with Desipramine (25 micrograms/kg), anesthetized at a 60 min interval and injected with 5, 7-DHT into the left lateral ventricle (25 micrograms/25 microliters 0.9% NaCl). After a 30-day interval, both lesioned dominants and submissives were confronted to a different untreated intermediate subject over six daily sessions (postlesion scores). Differences between pre- and postlesion scores for all behavior studied were not found in dominant subjects. In submissive subjects, however, the postlesion scores of total aggression, defensive behavior, and emotional behavior were significantly higher than pre lesion scores. When brain 5-HT was assayed 60 days after injection about 34% depletion was found for both groups of pigeons. These findings suggest that the behavioral response to brain 5-HT denervation in pigeons is related to the behavioral characteristics of the subject previous to the lesion.

  8. Projections of the nucleus of the basal optic root in pigeons (Columba livia): a comparison of the morphology and distribution of neurons with different efferent projections.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Douglas R W; Pakan, Janelle M P; Elliott, Cameron A; Graham, David J; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2007-01-01

    The avian nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) is a visual structure involved in the optokinetic response. nBOR consists of several morphologically distinct cell types, and in the present study, we sought to determine if these different cell types had differential projections. Using retrograde tracers, we examined the morphology and distribution of nBOR neurons projecting to the vestibulocerebellum (VbC), inferior olive (IO), dorsal thalamus, the pretectal nucleus lentiformis mesencephali (LM), the contralateral nBOR, the oculomotor complex (OMC) and a group of structures along the midline of the mesencephalon. The retrogradely labeled neurons fell into two broad categories: large neurons, most of which were multipolar rather than fusiform and small neurons, which were either fusiform or multipolar. From injections into the IO, LM, contralateral nBOR, and structures along the midline-mesencephalon small nBOR neurons were labeled. Although there were no differences with respect to the size of the labeled neurons from these injections, there were some differences with the respect to the distribution of labeled neurons and the proportion of multipolar vs. fusiform neurons. From injections into the VbC, the large multipolar cells were labeled throughout nBOR. The only other cases in which these large neurons were labeled were contralateral OMC injections. To investigate if single neurons project to multiple targets we used paired injections of red and green fluorescent retrograde tracers into different targets. Double-labeled neurons were never observed indicating that nBOR neurons do not project to multiple targets. We conclude that individual nBOR neurons have unique projections, which may have differential roles in processing optic flow and controlling the optokinetic response.

  9. Projections of the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali in pigeons (Columba livia): a comparison of the morphology and distribution of neurons with different efferent projections.

    PubMed

    Pakan, Janelle M P; Krueger, Kimberly; Kelcher, Erin; Cooper, Sarah; Todd, Kathryn G; Wylie, Douglas R W

    2006-03-01

    The avian nucleus lentiformis mesencephali (LM) is a visual structure involved in the optokinetic response. The LM consists of several morphologically distinct cell types. In the present study we sought to determine if different cell types had differential projections. Using retrograde tracers, we examined the morphology and distribution of LM neurons projecting to the vestibulocerebellum (VbC), inferior olive (IO), dorsal thalamus, nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR), and midline mesencephalon. From injections into the latter two structures, small LM cells were labeled. More were localized to the lateral LM as opposed to medial LM. From injections into the dorsal thalamus, small neurons were found throughout LM. From injections into the VbC, large multipolar cells were found throughout LM. From injections into IO, a strip of medium-sized fusiform neurons along the border of the medial and lateral subnuclei was labeled. To investigate if neurons project to multiple targets we used fluorescent retrograde tracers. After injections into IO and VbC, double-labeled neurons were not observed in LM. Likewise, after injections into nBOR and IO, double-labeled neurons were not observed. Finally, we processed sections through LM for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Small neurons, mostly in the lateral LM, were labeled, suggesting that projections from LM to nBOR and midline mesencephalon are GABAergic. We conclude that two efferents of LM, VbC and IO, receive input from morphologically distinct neurons: large multipolar and medium-sized fusiform neurons, respectively. The dorsal thalamus, nBOR, and midline mesencephalon receive input from small neurons, some of which are likely GABAergic.

  10. A Val85Met Mutation in Melanocortin-1 Receptor Is Associated with Reductions in Eumelanic Pigmentation and Cell Surface Expression in Domestic Rock Pigeons (Columba livia)

    PubMed Central

    Guernsey, Michael W.; Ritscher, Lars; Miller, Matthew A.; Smith, Daniel A.; Schöneberg, Torsten; Shapiro, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Variation in the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r) is associated with pigmentation diversity in wild and domesticated populations of vertebrates, including several species of birds. Among domestic bird species, pigmentation variation in the rock pigeon (Columbalivia) is particularly diverse. To determine the potential contribution of Mc1r variants to pigment diversity in pigeons, we sequenced Mc1r in a wide range of pigeon breeds and identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms, including a variant that codes for an amino acid substitution (Val85Met). In contrast to the association between Val85Met and eumelanism in other avian species, this change was associated with pheomelanism in pigeons. In vitro cAMP accumulation and protein expression assays revealed that Val85Met leads to decreased receptor function and reduced cell surface expression of the mutant protein. The reduced in vitro function is consistent with the observed association with reduced eumelanic pigmentation. Comparative genetic and cellular studies provide important insights about the range of mechanisms underlying diversity among vertebrates, including different phenotypic associations with similar mutations in different species. PMID:23977400

  11. Transfer between local and global processing levels by pigeons (Columba livia) and humans (Homo sapiens) in exemplar- and rule-based categorization tasks.

    PubMed

    Aust, Ulrike; Braunöder, Elisabeth

    2015-02-01

    The present experiment investigated pigeons' and humans' processing styles-local or global-in an exemplar-based visual categorization task in which category membership of every stimulus had to be learned individually, and in a rule-based task in which category membership was defined by a perceptual rule. Group Intact was trained with the original pictures (providing both intact local and global information), Group Scrambled was trained with scrambled versions of the same pictures (impairing global information), and Group Blurred was trained with blurred versions (impairing local information). Subsequently, all subjects were tested for transfer to the 2 untrained presentation modes. Humans outperformed pigeons regarding learning speed and accuracy as well as transfer performance and showed good learning irrespective of group assignment, whereas the pigeons of Group Blurred needed longer to learn the training tasks than the pigeons of Groups Intact and Scrambled. Also, whereas humans generalized equally well to any novel presentation mode, pigeons' transfer from and to blurred stimuli was impaired. Both species showed faster learning and, for the most part, better transfer in the rule-based than in the exemplar-based task, but there was no evidence of the used processing mode depending on the type of task (exemplar- or rule-based). Whereas pigeons relied on local information throughout, humans did not show a preference for either processing level. Additional tests with grayscale versions of the training stimuli, with versions that were both blurred and scrambled, and with novel instances of the rule-based task confirmed and further extended these findings.

  12. Effect of 5-HTP and ketanserine on the aggressive reaction induced by food competition in dominant and submissive pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Fachinelli, C; Sargo, S; Bataller, R; Rodríguez Echandía, E L

    1989-12-01

    There is abundant literature about the effects of manipulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) systems on some killer behaviors as well as on social isolation and shock-induced aggression in rodents. In this work we have analyzed the effect of 5-HT manipulation on the aggressive behavior induced by food competition in undernourished pigeons. Adult males (n = 12) were caged individually and their body weight kept at 80-85% by a restricted diet. These were divided in pairs which were exposed daily to an aggressive interaction test (20 min) in a 1.5 x 1.5 x 2.0 m chamber bearing a central feeding device. Once consolidation of dominance was obtained in each pair, the dominant and the submissive members were injected subcutaneously, on alternating days, with 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) (7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg), ketanserine (20 and 30 mg/kg) and a combination of ketanserine (20 mg/kg) and 5-HTP (7.5 mg/kg). Aggression was evaluated by scoring the frequency and time spent biting, wing beating, aggressive following and vocalizations, threatening and pushing the opponent in 20-min tests. The time spent running away was also scored. Intratest feeding was ascertained by weighing the subjects immediately before and after testing. The scores were compared with those obtained after saline injection on the preceding day (C-scores). 5-HTP (7.5 mg/kg) attenuated aggression without affecting feeding in dominant members, and decreased the time spent running away by submissives. Higher doses of 5-HTP decreased feeding but did not potentiate the anti-aggressive effects. The 5-HT2 antagonist, ketanserine did not affect aggression but decreased feeding at the dose of 30 mg/kg. Ketanserine injection clearly prevented the anti-aggressive effects of 5-HTP but caused a decrease of feeding. Results show that 5-HT stimulation in pigeons can preferentially block aggression in this particular experimental situation. It is suggested, in addition, that 5-HT2 receptors might be involved in such an effect.

  13. Effect of subchronic and chronic exposure to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) on the aggressive behavior induced by food competition in undernourished dominant and submissive pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Fachinelli, C; Ison, M; Rodríguez Echandía, E L

    1996-02-01

    The acute administration of 5-HTP was reported to block in undernourished dominant pigeons the aggressive attacks induced in a submissive partner by food competition. In the present study, undernourished pigeons with previously consolidated dominance were submitted to subchronic and chronic 5-HTP treatment. Adult males (n = 28) were kept at 80% of their body weight by a restricted diet. These were divided in pairs made of a previously ranked dominant subject (total time spent in aggression higher than 200 s/20 min) and a submissive one of similar body weight (time spent in aggression between 90 and 150 s/20 min). The same pairs were exposed to a daily 20 min interaction during each experiment in an observation chamber bearing a central feeder. The time spent in aggressive behavior, feeder control behavior and eating behavior was recorded. Intratest body weight gain was also recorded. In Experiment 1, 8 pairs of pigeons were exposed to a daily trial for 4 successive days (pretreatment-scores). The dominant subjects were then injected subcutaneously, 30 min. before trials, with 7.5 mg/kg 5-HTP from day 5 to day 8 (Treatment scores). The Recovery scores were obtained through a 4-trial post-treatment schedule. In Experiment 2 different pigeons were used. The pretreatment and recovery scores were obtained according to a 16-trial schedule (16 days). Both 4-day (subchronic) and 16-day (chronic) 5-HTP treatments attenuated aggression by the dominant subjects and reduced their intra-test body weight gain but did not decrease dominance for feeder control. The recovery scores of total aggression in subchronic experiments returned to pretreatment scores. In chronic experiments, instead, the recovery scores of aggression remained lower than pretreatment scores, whereas body-weight-gain scores came back to pretreatment values. This suggests that dominant subjects submitted to chronic 5-HTP might have learned to maintain dominance and feeder control in a virtual absence of aggressive behavior.

  14. Differential toxic effects of Carbofuran and Diazinon on time of flight in pigeons (Columba livia): Potential for pesticide effects on migration

    SciTech Connect

    Brasel, Jeffrey M.; Collier, Abby C.; Pritsos, Chris A. . E-mail: pritsos@cabnr.unr.edu

    2007-03-15

    Cholinesterase inhibiting compounds such as carbamates and organophosphate insecticides have been widely used in agriculture since the ban on organochlorines in the 1970s. Carbofuran, a carbamate, and diazinon, an organophosphate, are among the most commonly implicated cholinesterase inhibitors in episodes of accidental avian toxicity and mortality. Despite the apparent effects of these compounds, little work has been done to study effects of low-level, environmentally relevant doses at the population level in migratory bird species. In this study, homing pigeons were used as surrogate species to assess the differences in the effect of incrementally low doses (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg) of carbofuran and diazinon on time of flight and determine whether there was a threshold dose of either or both xenobiotics when orally administered at these levels. The results indicate that there is a significant dose-dependent increase in flight time in pigeons dosed with carbofuran while diazinon exposed pigeons showed little effect. More profound effects were noted with carbofuran with pigeons falling off the pace of the flock and a dose for highly significant increase in flight time elucidated between 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg. The results of the studies validate the homing pigeon as a good subject for comparative studies of cholinesterase inhibitors in birds and the need for further research on repeated low-level exposures on populations of avian species.

  15. Molecular cloning and tissue distribution of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) and gamma (PPARγ) in the pigeon (Columba livia domestica).

    PubMed

    Xie, P; Yuan, C; Wang, C; Zou, X-T; Po, Z; Tong, H-B; Zou, J-M

    2014-01-01

    1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are involved in lipid metabolism through transcriptional regulation of target gene expression. The objective of the current study was to clone and characterise the PPARα and PPARγ genes in pigeon. 2. The full-length of 1941-bp PPARα and 1653-bp PPARγ were cloned from pigeons. The two genes were predicted to encode 468 and 475 amino acids, respectively. Both proteins contained two C4-type zinc fingers, a nuclear hormone receptor DNA-binding region signature and a HOLI domain (ligand binding domain of hormone receptors), and had high identities with other corresponding avian genes. 3. Using quantitative real-time PCR, pigeon PPARα gene expression was shown to be high in kidney, liver, gizzard and duodenum whereas PPARγ was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue.

  16. Characteristics of slow and fast phases of the optocollic reflex (OCR) in head free pigeons (Columba livia): influence of flight behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gioanni, H; Sansonetti, A

    1999-01-01

    The effect of behavioural context on the properties of slow and fast phases of the horizontal optocollic reflex (OCR) were investigated in head free pigeons for two situations, i.e.: (i) animals were hung in a harness ('resting condition'); (ii) animals were additionally submitted to a frontal airflow that provoked a flight posture ('flying condition') [Bilo and Bilo (1983) J. Comp. Physiol., 153, 111]. A 'transient flight' was also provoked in the 'resting condition' by tapping the breastbone region. Stimuli consisted either of velocity steps (30-300 degrees/s) or of an increasing velocity stimulus (0-300 degrees/s). The amplitude of nystagmic beats and the OCR gain increased in the 'flying condition' and during 'transient flight' as compared to the 'resting condition'. The OCR working range was considerably extended toward high velocities by the flying behaviour. In the 'resting condition', spontaneous head oscillations generally triggered a high-gain OCR, close to that obtained in the 'flying condition'. One-third of the animals showed a higher gain in response to an increasing velocity stimulus than with step stimuli, in the high velocity range. The linear relation between amplitude and peak velocity of OCR fast phases was independent of the stimulation velocity in the 'resting condition', whereas the amplitude and peak velocity increased with the stimulation velocity in the 'flying condition'. In this condition, the fast phase velocity was correlated with the slow phase velocity, but not with the retinal slip velocity. Thus, both the slow and fast phases of the OCR are dependent on the behavioural context.

  17. Role of basal ganglia and ectostriatum in the context-dependent properties of the optocollic reflex (OCR) in the pigeon (Columba livia): a lesion study.

    PubMed

    Gioanni, H; Sansonetti, A

    2000-03-01

    The possible participation of basal ganglia and associated structures [dorsal striato-pallidum, nucleus spiriformis lateralis (SpL), ectostriatum] in the elaboration of the optocollic reflex (OCR) was investigated by making bilateral chemical lesions (ibotenic acid). Previous data have shown that both the slow and fast phases of the OCR are dependent on the behavioural context. The slow phase velocity (SPV) and the peak velocity of fast phases obtained in non-flying pigeons ('resting condition') were enhanced in pigeons in which a flying posture was experimentally provoked ('flying condition'). Therefore, the effect of lesions was analysed in pigeons standing in the 'resting' or 'flying' condition. In the 'resting' as in the 'flying' condition, all the lesions provoked a decrease in SPV, which augmented with the stimulation velocity. Velocity step stimuli revealed greater OCR deficits than velocity ramp stimuli. Extensive lesions (including the striato-pallidum, ectostriatum and a part of the neostriatum), as well as SpL lesions, provoked a greater SPV decrease over a longer time than lesions restricted to the striato-pallidum or the ectostriatum. The peak velocity of fast phases was only reduced by the 'extensive lesion' in the 'flying condition'. The present data show that the basal ganglia system is involved in the elaboration of optokinetic responses and suggest that, to work in an optimal range, the optokinetic centres need to receive integrated information from basal ganglia in addition to direct visual input.

  18. Natural infections with Pigeon Paramyxovirus-1: Pathologic changes in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) in the USA: Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isidoro-Ayza, Marcos; Lankton, Julia S.; Knowles, Susan N.; Ip, Hon S.; White, C. LeAnn

    2017-01-01

    We reviewed pathological findings and to a lesser extent epidemiological data from 70 free-ranging columbiforms naturally infected with Pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (PPMV-1) from 25 different PPMV-1 mortality events in columbiforms in the USA. In a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks, we carried out immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1 nucleoprotein to determine the tissue distribution of the virus.

  19. Natural infections with pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1: Pathologic changes in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality eve...

  20. Novel avian oropharyngeal trichomonads isolated from European turtle doves (Streptopelia turtur) and racing pigeons (Columba livia): genetic and morphometric characterisation of clonal cultures.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Herrero, M C; Garijo-Toledo, M M; Liebhart, D; Ganas, P; Martínez-Díaz, R A; Ponce-Gordo, F; Carrero-Ruiz, A; Hess, M; Gómez-Muñoz, M T

    2017-08-31

    Extensive diversity has been described within the avian oropharyngeal trichomonad complex in recent years. In this study we developed clonal cultures from four isolates selected by their different ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 (ITS) genotype and their association with gross lesions of avian trichomonosis. Isolates were obtained from an adult racing pigeon and a nestling of Eurasian eagle owl with macroscopic lesions, and from a juvenile wood pigeon and an European turtle dove without clinical signs. Multi-locus sequence typing analysis of the ITS, small subunit of ribosomal rRNA (SSUrRNA) and Fe-hydrogenase (Fe-hyd) genes together with a morphological study by optical and scanning electron microscopy was performed. No significant differences in the structures were observed with scanning electron microscopy. However, the genetic characterisation revealed novel sequence types for the SSUrRNA region and Fe-hyd gene. Two clones were identified as Trichomonas gallinae in the MLST analysis, but the clones from the racing pigeon and European turtle dove showed higher similarity with Trichomonas tenax and Trichomonas canistomae than with T. gallinae at their ITS region, respectively. SSUrRNA sequences grouped all the clones in a clade that includes T. gallinae, T. tenax and T. canistomae. Further diversity was detected within the Fe-hyd locus, with a clear separation from T. gallinae of the clones obtained from the racing pigeon and the European turtle dove. In addition, morphometric comparison by optical microscopy with clonal cultures of T. gallinae revealed significant statistical differences on axostyle projection length in the clone from the European turtle dove. Morphometric and genetic data indicate that possible new species within the Trichomonas genus were detected. Taking in consideration the diversity in Trichomonas species present in the oral cavity of birds, a proper genetic analysis is highly recommended when outbreaks occur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary incorporation of feedstuffs naturally high in organic selenium for racing pigeons (Columba livia): effects on plasma antioxidant markers after a standardised simulation of a flying effort.

    PubMed

    Schoonheere, N; Dotreppe, O; Pincemail, J; Istasse, L; Hornick, J L

    2009-06-01

    Selenium is a trace element of importance for animal health. It is essential for adequate functioning of many enzymes such as, the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase, which protects the cell against free radicals. A muscular effort induces a rise in reactive oxygen species production which, in turn, can generate an oxidative stress. Two groups of eight racing pigeons were fed respectively with a diet containing 30.3 (control group) and 195.3 (selenium group) microg selenium/kg diet. The pigeons were submitted to a standardised simulation of a flying effort during 2 h. Blood was taken before and after the effort to measure antioxidant markers and blood parameters related to muscle metabolism. Plasma selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly higher in the selenium group. There were no significant differences for the other measured parameters. As a consequence of the effort, the pigeons of the selenium group showed a higher increase of glutathione peroxidase activity and a smaller increase of plasma lactate concentration. Variations because of the effort in the other markers were not significantly different between the two groups. It is concluded that the selenium status was improved with the feeding of feedstuffs high in Selenium.

  2. A Val85Met mutation in melanocortin-1 receptor is associated with reductions in eumelanic pigmentation and cell surface expression in domestic rock pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Guernsey, Michael W; Ritscher, Lars; Miller, Matthew A; Smith, Daniel A; Schöneberg, Torsten; Shapiro, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    Variation in the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r) is associated with pigmentation diversity in wild and domesticated populations of vertebrates, including several species of birds. Among domestic bird species, pigmentation variation in the rock pigeon (Columbalivia) is particularly diverse. To determine the potential contribution of Mc1r variants to pigment diversity in pigeons, we sequenced Mc1r in a wide range of pigeon breeds and identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms, including a variant that codes for an amino acid substitution (Val85Met). In contrast to the association between Val85Met and eumelanism in other avian species, this change was associated with pheomelanism in pigeons. In vitro cAMP accumulation and protein expression assays revealed that Val85Met leads to decreased receptor function and reduced cell surface expression of the mutant protein. The reduced in vitro function is consistent with the observed association with reduced eumelanic pigmentation. Comparative genetic and cellular studies provide important insights about the range of mechanisms underlying diversity among vertebrates, including different phenotypic associations with similar mutations in different species.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Newcastle disease virus in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in public areas of Montreal, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Tremblay, Donald; Harel, Josée; Côté, Nathalie; Arsenault, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) can harbor a range of zoonotic pathogens. A transversal study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of feral pigeons infected by various pathogens in public areas in Montreal, Quebec. Cloacal swabs from captured birds were cultured for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Coxiella burnetii. An oropharyngeal swab was also submitted to real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) for the detection of Newcastle disease virus. Among the 187 pigeons tested from 10 public areas, 9.1% (95% CI: 3.0 to 15.2) were positive for Campylobacter spp. with all strains identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The Campylobacter status of birds was not associated with individual characteristics of birds, with the exception of body score. None of the pigeons tested positive for the other pathogens. Direct or indirect contacts with feral pigeons may constitute a potential risk for Campylobacter infection in humans.

  4. Evolution of Extensively Fragmented Mitochondrial Genomes in the Lice of Humans

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Renfu; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Barker, Stephen C.; Herd, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral animals are featured by an extremely compact mitochondrial (mt) genome with 37 genes on a single circular chromosome. The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, however, has its mt genes on 20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genomes of two other human lice: the head louse, P. capitis, and the pubic louse, Pthirus pubis. Comparison among the three human lice revealed the presence of fragmented mt genomes in their most recent common ancestor, which lived ∼7 Ma. The head louse has exactly the same set of mt minichromosomes as the body louse, indicating that the number of minichromosomes, and the gene content and gene arrangement in each minichromosome have remained unchanged since the body louse evolved from the head louse ∼107,000 years ago. The pubic louse has the same pattern of one protein-coding or rRNA gene per minichromosome (except one minichromosome with two protein-coding genes, atp6 and atp8) as the head louse and the body louse. This pattern is apparently ancestral to all human lice and has been stable for at least 7 Myr. Most tRNA genes of the pubic louse, however, are on different minichromosomes when compared with their counterparts in the head louse and the body louse. It is evident that rearrangement of four tRNA genes (for leucine, arginine and glycine) was due to gene-identity switch by point mutation at the third anticodon position or by homologous recombination, whereas rearrangement of other tRNA genes was by gene translocation between minichromosomes, likely caused by minichromosome split via gene degeneration and deletion. PMID:23042553

  5. Redescriptions and new host records of chewing lice of the genus Ricinus (Phthiraptera: Ricinidae) from the Neotropical Region.

    PubMed

    Valan, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldrich; Literak, Ivan

    2016-08-19

    Two species of the chewing louse genus Ricinus are redescribed and illustrated: Ricinus dalgleishi Nelson, 1972 from Helmitheros vermivorum (Gmelin, 1789), a new host-louse association, and Ricinus tanagraephilus Eichler, 1956 from Euphonia laniirostris d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837. Also, new host-louse associations are recorded for Ricinus vireoensis Nelson, 1972 from Vireo pallens Salvin, 1863, and for females of an unidentified species of Ricinus sp. from Corythopis delalandi (Lesson, 1831), which are described and illustrated.

  6. Sequencing of a new target genome: the Pediculus humanus humanus (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) genome project.

    PubMed

    Pittendrigh, B R; Clark, J M; Johnston, J S; Lee, S H; Romero-Severson, J; Dasch, G A

    2006-11-01

    The human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus (L.), and the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, belong to the hemimetabolous order Phthiraptera. The body louse is the primary vector that transmits the bacterial agents of louse-borne relapsing fever, trench fever, and epidemic typhus. The genomes of the bacterial causative agents of several of these aforementioned diseases have been sequenced. Thus, determining the body louse genome will enhance studies of host-vector-pathogen interactions. Although not important as a major disease vector, head lice are of major social concern. Resistance to traditional pesticides used to control head and body lice have developed. It is imperative that new molecular targets be discovered for the development of novel compounds to control these insects. No complete genome sequence exists for a hemimetabolous insect species primarily because hemimetabolous insects often have large (2000 Mb) to very large (up to 16,300 Mb) genomes. Fortuitously, we determined that the human body louse has one of the smallest genome sizes known in insects, suggesting it may be a suitable choice as a minimal hemimetabolous genome in which many genes have been eliminated during its adaptation to human parasitism. Because many louse species infest birds and mammals, the body louse genome-sequencing project will facilitate studies of their comparative genomics. A 6-8X coverage of the body louse genome, plus sequenced expressed sequence tags, should provide the entomological, evolutionary biology, medical, and public health communities with useful genetic information.

  7. Diet analysis by next-generation sequencing indicates the frequent consumption of introduced plants by the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon (Columba janthina nitens) in oceanic island habitats

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Haruko; Setsuko, Suzuki; Horikoshi, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hajime; Umehara, Shoko; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Isagi, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Oceanic island ecosystems are vulnerable to the introduction of alien species, and they provide a habitat for many endangered species. Knowing the diet of an endangered animal is important for appropriate nature restoration efforts on oceanic islands because introduced species may be a major component of the diets of some endangered species. DNA barcoding techniques together with next-generation sequencing may provide more detailed information on animal diets than other traditional methods. We performed a diet analysis using 48 fecal samples from the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon that is endemic to the Ogasawara Islands based on chloroplast trnL P6 loop sequences. The frequency of each detected plant taxa was compared with a microhistological analysis of the same sample set. The DNA barcoding approach detected a much larger number of plants than the microhistological analysis. Plants that were difficult to identify by microhistological analysis after being digested in the pigeon stomachs were frequently identified only by DNA barcoding. The results of the barcoding analysis indicated the frequent consumption of introduced species, in addition to several native species, by the red-headed wood pigeon. The rapid eradication of specific introduced species may reduce the food resources available to this endangered bird; thus, balancing eradication efforts with the restoration of native food plants should be considered. Although some technical problems still exist, the trnL approach to next-generation sequencing may contribute to a better understanding of oceanic island ecosystems and their conservation. PMID:24324859

  8. Morphology, Projection Pattern and Neurochemical Identity of Cajal’s “Centrifugal Neurons”: The Cells of Origin of the Tectoventrogeniculate Pathway in Pigeon (Columba livia) and Chicken (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Zuniga, Tomas; Mpodozis, Jorge; Karten, Harvey J.; Marín, Gonzalo; Hain, Sarah; Luksch, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars ventralis (GLv) is a prominent retinal target in all amniotes. In birds, it is in receipt of a dense and topographically organized retinal projection. The GLv is also the target of substantial and topographically organized projections from the optic tectum and the visual wulst (Hyperpallium). Tectal and retinal afferents terminate homotopically within the external GLv-neuropil. Efferents from the GLv follow a descending course through the tegmentum, and can be traced into the medial pontine nucleus. At present, the cells of origin of the Tecto-GLv projection are only partially described. Here we have characterized the laminar location, morphology, projection pattern and neurochemical identity of these cells, by means of neural tracer injections and intracellular fillings in slice preparations and extracellular tracer injections in-vivo. The Tecto-GLv projection arises from a distinct subset of layer 10 bipolar neurons, whose apical dendrites show a complex transverse arborization at the level of layer 7. Axons of these bipolar cells arise from the apical dendrites and follow a course through the optic tract to finally form very fine and restricted terminal endings inside the GLv-neuropil. Double label experiments showed that these bipolar cells were ChAT immunoreactive. Our results strongly suggest that Tecto-GLv neurons form a pathway by which integrated tectal activity rapidly feeds back to the GLv and exerts a focal cholinergic modulation of incoming retinal inputs. PMID:24435811

  9. Differential expression of fatty acid transporters and fatty acid synthesis-related genes in crop tissues of male and female pigeons (Columba livia domestica) during incubation and chick rearing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Peng; Wang, Xue-Ping; Bu, Zhu; Zou, Xiao-Ting

    2017-10-01

    1. The growth performance of squabs reared solely by male or female parent pigeons was measured, and the changes of lipid content of crop milk and the expression profiles of genes potentially involved in lipid accumulation by crop tissues of parent pigeons were evaluated during incubation and chick rearing. 2. Squabs increased in body weight during 25 d of rearing, whereas both male and female pigeons lost weight after finishing rearing chicks, and the weight loss of male pigeons was significantly greater than that of female parent pigeons. Lipid content of crop milk from both parent pigeons gradually decreased to the crude fat level in the formulated diet after 10 d (R10) of chick rearing. 3. The gene expression of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), fatty acid-binding protein 5 (EFABP) and acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) in male pigeon crop tissue were the greatest at 17 d (I17) of incubation. In female pigeons, FAT/CD36 expression was the highest at I14, and both EFABP and ACBP expression peaked at I14 and R7. The expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase in male pigeons reached the maximum level at R1, while they peaked at I14 and I17, respectively in female pigeons. The gene expression of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) was the greatest at I17 in the male, while it was at I14 in the female. However, no regular changing pattern was found in PPARα gene expression in male pigeons. 4. These results indicated that male and female pigeons may make different contributions in rearing squabs. The gene expression study suggested that fatty acids used in lipid biosynthesis of crop milk probably originated from both exogenous supply and de novo synthesis. The sex of the parent pigeon affected the lipid content of crop milk and the expression profiles of genes involved in fatty acid transportation and lipogenesis.

  10. Distribution of serotonin 5-HT1A-binding sites in the brainstem and the hypothalamus, and their roles in 5-HT-induced sleep and ingestive behaviors in rock pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Tiago Souza; Krüger, Jéssica; Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Herold, Christina; Zilles, Karl; Poli, Anicleto; Güntürkün, Onur; Marino-Neto, José

    2015-12-15

    Serotonin 1A receptors (5-HT1ARs), which are widely distributed in the mammalian brain, participate in cognitive and emotional functions. In birds, 5-HT1ARs are expressed in prosencephalic areas involved in visual and cognitive functions. Diverse evidence supports 5-HT1AR-mediated 5-HT-induced ingestive and sleep behaviors in birds. Here, we describe the distribution of 5-HT1ARs in the hypothalamus and brainstem of birds, analyze their potential roles in sleep and ingestive behaviors, and attempt to determine the involvement of auto-/hetero-5-HT1ARs in these behaviors. In 6 pigeons, the anatomical distribution of [(3)H]8-OH-DPAT binding in the rostral brainstem and hypothalamus was examined. Ingestive/sleep behaviors were recorded (1h) in 16 pigeons pretreated with MM77 (a heterosynaptic 5-HT1AR antagonist; 23 or 69 nmol) for 20 min, followed by intracerebroventricular ICV injection of 5-HT (N:8; 150 nmol), 8-OH-DPAT (DPAT, a 5-HT1A,7R agonist, 30 nmol N:8) or vehicle. 5-HT- and DPAT-induced sleep and ingestive behaviors, brainstem 5-HT neuronal density and brain 5-HT content were examined in 12 pigeons, pretreated by ICV with the 5-HT neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) or vehicle (N:6/group). The distribution of brainstem and diencephalic c-Fos immunoreactivity after ICV injection of 5-HT, DPAT or vehicle (N:5/group) into birds provided with or denied access to water is also described. 5-HT1ARs are concentrated in the brainstem 5-HTergic areas and throughout the periventricular hypothalamus, preoptic nuclei and circumventricular organs. 5-HT and DPAT produced a complex c-Fos expression pattern in the 5-HT1AR-enriched preoptic hypothalamus and the circumventricular organs, which are related to drinking and sleep regulation, but modestly affected c-Fos expression in 5-HTergic neurons. The 5-HT-induced ingestivebehaviors and the 5-HT- and DPAT-induced sleep behaviors were reduced by MM77 pretreatment. 5,7-DHT increased sleep per se, decreased tryptophan hydroxylase expression in the raphe nuclei and decreased prosencephalic 5-HT release but failed to affect 5-HT- or DPAT-induced drinking or sleep behavior. 5-HT- and DPAT-induced ingestive and sleep behaviors in pigeons appear to be mediated by heterosynaptic and/or non-somatodendritic presynaptic 5-HT1ARs localized to periventricular diencephalic circuits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Diet analysis by next-generation sequencing indicates the frequent consumption of introduced plants by the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon (Columba janthina nitens) in oceanic island habitats.

    PubMed

    Ando, Haruko; Setsuko, Suzuki; Horikoshi, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hajime; Umehara, Shoko; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Isagi, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    Oceanic island ecosystems are vulnerable to the introduction of alien species, and they provide a habitat for many endangered species. Knowing the diet of an endangered animal is important for appropriate nature restoration efforts on oceanic islands because introduced species may be a major component of the diets of some endangered species. DNA barcoding techniques together with next-generation sequencing may provide more detailed information on animal diets than other traditional methods. We performed a diet analysis using 48 fecal samples from the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon that is endemic to the Ogasawara Islands based on chloroplast trnL P6 loop sequences. The frequency of each detected plant taxa was compared with a microhistological analysis of the same sample set. The DNA barcoding approach detected a much larger number of plants than the microhistological analysis. Plants that were difficult to identify by microhistological analysis after being digested in the pigeon stomachs were frequently identified only by DNA barcoding. The results of the barcoding analysis indicated the frequent consumption of introduced species, in addition to several native species, by the red-headed wood pigeon. The rapid eradication of specific introduced species may reduce the food resources available to this endangered bird; thus, balancing eradication efforts with the restoration of native food plants should be considered. Although some technical problems still exist, the trnL approach to next-generation sequencing may contribute to a better understanding of oceanic island ecosystems and their conservation.

  12. Two contagious ectoparasites in an orphanage children in Nasr City, Cairo.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; el-Ela, R G; Morsy, A T; Nassar, M M; Khalaf, S A

    2000-12-01

    Lice and scabies are the main ectoparasites transmitted by contagious, particularly among children living in crowded areas. Examination of an orphanage children (both sex, 2-6 years old), showed infestation with head louse (64.1%), body louse (53.8%) and scabies (26.9%). The results were discussed on the light of the work done before.

  13. Borrelia recurrentis in Head Lice, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Boutellis, Amina; Mediannikov, Oleg; Bilcha, Kassahun Desalegn; Ali, Jemal; Campelo, Dayana; Barker, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1800s, the only known vector of Borrelia recurrentis has been the body louse. In 2011, we found B. recurrentis DNA in 23% of head lice from patients with louse-borne relapsing fever in Ethiopia. Whether head lice can transmit these bacteria from one person to another remains to be determined. PMID:23648147

  14. Borrelia recurrentis in head lice, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Boutellis, Amina; Mediannikov, Oleg; Bilcha, Kassahun Desalegn; Ali, Jemal; Campelo, Dayana; Barker, Stephen C; Raoult, Didier

    2013-05-01

    Since the 1800s, the only known vector of Borrelia recurrentis has been the body louse. In 2011, we found B. recurrentis DNA in 23% of head lice from patients with louse-borne relapsing fever in Ethiopia. Whether head lice can transmit these bacteria from one person to another remains to be determined.

  15. Acute, fatal Sarcocystis calchasi-associated hepatitis in Roller pigeons (Columbia livia f. dom.) at Philadelphia Zoo

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at the Philadelphia Zoo died suddenly. Necropsy examination revealed macroscopic hepatitis. Microscopically, the predominant lesions were in liver, characterized with necrosis and mixed cell inflammatory response. Sarcocystis calchasi-like schizonts and fr...

  16. Seasonal infestation of donkeys by lice: phenology, risk factors and management.

    PubMed

    Ellse, L; Burden, F A; Wall, R

    2014-07-14

    A longitudinal study was undertaken over a 21 months period to examine the seasonal abundance of lice infesting donkeys, the risk factors which predispose donkeys to infestation and the effectiveness of louse management. All the lice seen were Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus. A strong seasonal pattern, which was correlated with mean monthly temperature, was observed with higher prevalence and intensity in the cooler, winter months (October-March). Overall infestation in these animals was over-dispersed, suggesting that some individuals are strongly predisposed to infestation. Donkey age and mean hair length were characteristics which affected louse prevalence: older and younger donkeys and donkeys with longer hair harboured the highest numbers of lice. However, the practice of coat-clipping, to reduce the infestation, resulted in a lower louse prevalence only in the summer, suggesting that clipping is not an effective form of louse control in cooler months. Higher louse burdens were associated with larger areas of visible excoriation and hair damage, suggesting that B. ocellatus does adversely impact animal welfare. However, the ability of animal carers to estimate louse presence or absence accurately on an individual donkey was not sufficiently high to allow targeted selective treatment of heavily infested animals to be employed effectively. As animals are housed in closed herds these findings suggest that clipping in the summer and treating all animals with insecticide in late autumn, prior to turn-in may be an effective louse management strategy.

  17. Prevalence of sucking and chewing lice on cattle entering feedlots in southern Alberta.

    PubMed

    Colwell, D D; Clymer, B; Booker, C W; Guichon, P T; Jim, G K; Schunicht, O C; Wildman, B K

    2001-04-01

    Beef calves from 2 sources entering southern Alberta feedlots in the winters of 1997-98 and 1998-99, were surveyed for the presence of lice. A random sample of multiple source (MS), that is, auction market-derived, calves entering commercial feedlots and single source (SS) calves entering a backgrounding feedlot were examined for the presence of lice at entry to the feedlot. A standardized examination, which involved hair-part examination of 8 louse predilection sites, was conducted on each selected calf to determine prevalence and intensity of infestation. The long-nosed sucking louse, Linognathus vituli, was the most commonly encountered species. This species infested from 57.8% to 95.6% of the calves selected from both MS and SS calves during both winters. Louse index values, indicating intensity of infestation, for L. vituli ranged from 1 to 243 lice per animal. The chewing louse, Bovicola bovis, was present on MS and SS calves only in the winter of 1998-99. The louse index values for B. bovis ranged from 1 to 230 lice per animal. Mixed infestations of the L. vituli and B. bovis were common. The little blue cattle louse, Solenopotes capillatus, was present only on the SS calves in the winter of 1997-98. The short-nosed sucking louse, Haematopinus eurysternus, was present at very low intensities, 1-2 lice per animal, on 2.6% to 4.4% of the MS calves during both winters. Comparison of results from the current study with published literature suggests that efforts to determine the economic impact of louse infestations are confounded by the lack of a uniform method to assess louse population levels.

  18. Role of Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors in Dietary Soy Isoflavone-Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Dietary Soy Isoflavone-Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Columba de la Parra Simental CONTRACTING...00935 Role of Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors in Dietary Soy Isoflavone-Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression Columba de la Parra Simental...Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors in Dietary Soy Isoflavone- Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression. 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  19. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    Head lice are parasitic wingless insects. They live on people's heads and feed on their blood. An adult louse ... Children ages 3-11 and their families get head lice most often. Personal hygiene has nothing to ...

  20. [Lice and lice-borne diseases in humans].

    PubMed

    Houhamdi, L; Parola, P; Raoult, D

    2005-01-01

    Among the three lice which parasite the human being, the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus, is a vector of infectious diseases. It lives and multiplies in clothes and human infestation is associated with cold weather and a lack of hygiene. Three pathogenic bacteria are transmitted by the body louse: 1) Rickettsia prowazekii, the agent of epidemic typhus of which the most recent outbreak (and the largest since World War II) was observed during the civil war in Burundi; 2) Borrelia recurrentis, the agent of relapsing fever, historically responsible of massive outbreaks in Eurasia and Africa, which prevails currently in Ethiopia and neighboring countries; 3) Bartonella quintana, the agent of trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, chronic bacteremia, endocarditis, and lymphadenopathy. Body louse infestation, associated with a decline in social and hygienic conditions provoked by civil unrest and economic instability, is reemergent worldwide. Recently, a forth human pathogen, Acinetobacter baumannii, has been associated to the body louse.

  1. Simplify, simplify

    PubMed Central

    Berenbaum, May R; Seufferheld, Manfredo J; Margam, Venu M; Strycharz, Joseph P; Yoon, Kyong S; Sun, Weilin; Reenan, Robert; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, John M

    2011-01-01

    The body louse, with its recently sequenced genome, is now primed to serve as a powerful model organism for addressing fundamental questions relating to how insects interact with their environment. One characteristic of the body louse that facilitates this research is the size of its genome—the smallest insect genome sequenced to date. This diminutive genome must nonetheless control an organism that senses and responds to its environment, reacting to threats of corporal and genomic integrity. Additionally, the body louse transmits several important human diseases compared to its very close relative, the head louse, which does not. Therefore, these two organisms comprise an excellent model system for studying molecular mechanisms associated with vector competence. To understand more fully the development of vector/pathogen interactions, we have developed an in vitro bioassay system and determined that the body louse genome appears to contain the genes necessary for RNAi. The body louse will therefore be useful for determining the set of conditions permissive to the evolution of vector competence. PMID:21655436

  2. Increased monooxygenase activity associated with resistance to permethrin in Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    González Audino, P; Barrios, S; Vassena, C; Mougabure Cueto, G; Zerba, E; Picollo, M I

    2005-05-01

    We studied the profile of permethrin resistance in populations of head lice infesting children 6-12 yr old in schools and their homes in and around Buenos Aires, Argentina. Five permethrin-resistant populations with different levels of resistance were collected: Hogar Loyola (HL), Republica de Turquia (RT), Hogar Mitre (HM), Guardia de Honor (GH), and Ricardo Guiraldes (RG). One susceptible population, Bandera Argentina (BA), also was collected. Their level of resistance was evaluated, and results showed resistance ratios of 13 for HL, 16 for RT, 22 for HM, 61 for GH, and 69 for RG. To elucidate the possible involvement of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system in conferring permethrin resistance, ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD) activity was measured in abdomens of individual third instars and adults by using a fluorometric assay. The ECOD activity was lower in the susceptible BA population (4.7 ng per louse) than in the resistant ones (13.7 ng per louse for RG, 12.3 ng per louse for GH, 8.6 ng per louse for RT, and 8.2 ng per louse for HL). ECOD activity was significantly correlated with the level of resistance in the field populations (r = 0.97, P = 0.0009), suggesting a role for cytochrome monooxygenase P450 system in permethrin resistance by head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer.

  3. Behavioral-Physiological Effects of Red Phosphorus Smoke Inhalation on Two Wildlife Species. Task 3. (RP/BR Aerosol Effects upon the Spontaneous Activity, Startle Response, Pulmonary Function and Blood Chemistry/Hematology of Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and Rock Doves (Columba livia)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Revised * 1985). __For the protection of human subjects, the investigator(s) has adhered to policies of applicable Federal Law 45CF1•46. PI Signature Date...rock doves during conduct of the studies. Special appreciation is due Dr. Rick Engeman for extensive statistical consultations and analyses. Ms. Paige...balanced, complete data were analyzed using the PROC ANOVA Program of the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) package of programs _ (SAS Institute, Inc

  4. Prevalence of head lice in two socio-economically different schools in the center of Izmir City, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karakuş, Mehmet; Arıcı, Aylin; Töz, Seray Özensoy; Özbel, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    The well-known and common infestation caused by Pediculus humanus capitis is an important public health and a social issue in many communities in the world. The aim of this study was to compare the head louse infestation rate in two schools having pupils from different socio-economic levels in the city center of Izmir. The pupils aged between 6 and 11 years, were screened for the presence of eggs and nymph/adult lice using a fine-tooth head louse comb. A total of 88 and 126 pupils from the schools with low and medium socio-economic level were screened and 24 (27.2%) and 5 (3.96%) of them were found to be positive for head lice, respectively. Overall, the infestation rate among girls was 3.14 times higher than in boys. Head louse infestation is a significant public health problem among primary schools. Increasing the knowledge about pediculosis and self-hygiene would be helpful in successfully reducing head louse infestation in the school setting. School authorities must encourage the parents to look for head lice routinely and a "school nurse" system is needed for effective head louse control in the schools.

  5. Molecular evolution of Pediculus humanus and the origin of clothing.

    PubMed

    Kittler, Ralf; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark

    2003-08-19

    The human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) and body louse (P. humanus corporis or P. h. humanus) are strict, obligate human ectoparasites that differ mainly in their habitat on the host : the head louse lives and feeds exclusively on the scalp, whereas the body louse feeds on the body but lives in clothing. This ecological differentiation probably arose when humans adopted frequent use of clothing, an important event in human evolution for which there is no direct archaeological evidence. We therefore used a molecular clock approach to date the origin of body lice, assuming that this should correspond with the frequent use of clothing. Sequences were obtained from two mtDNA and two nuclear DNA segments from a global sample of 40 head and body lice, and from a chimpanzee louse to use as an outgroup. The results indicate greater diversity in African than non-African lice, suggesting an African origin of human lice. A molecular clock analysis indicates that body lice originated not more than about 72,000 +/- 42,000 years ago; the mtDNA sequences also indicate a demographic expansion of body lice that correlates with the spread of modern humans out of Africa. These results suggest that clothing was a surprisingly recent innovation in human evolution.

  6. Genetic diversity of the human head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, among primary school girls in Saudi Arabia, with reference to their prevalence.

    PubMed

    Al-Shahrani, Sarah A; Alajmi, Reem A; Ayaad, Tahany H; Al-Shahrani, Mohammed A; Shaurub, El-Sayed H

    2017-08-13

    The present work aimed at investigating the genetic diversity of the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis (P. humanus capitis) among infested primary school girls at Bisha governorate, Saudi Arabia, based on the sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt cyt b) gene of 121 P. humanus capitis adults. Additionally, the prevalence of pediculosis capitis was surveyed. The results of sequencing were compared with the sequence of human head lice that are genotyped previously. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed the presence of 100% identity (n = 26) of louse specimens with clade A (prevalent worldwide) of the GenBank data base. Louse individuals (n = 50) showed 99.8% similarity with the same clade A reference having a single base pair difference. Also, a number of 22 louse individuals revealed 99.8% identity with clade B reference (prevalent in North and Central Americas, Europe, and Australia) with individual diversity in two base pairs. Moreover, 14 louse individual sequences revealed 99.4% identity with three base pair differences. It was concluded that moderate pediculosis (~13%) prevailed among the female students of the primary schools. It was age-and hair texture (straight or curly)-dependent. P. humanus capitis prevalence diversity is of clades A and B genotyping.

  7. Epidemic typhus.

    PubMed

    Bechah, Yassina; Capo, Christian; Mege, Jean-Louis; Raoult, Didier

    2008-07-01

    Epidemic typhus is transmitted to human beings by the body louse Pediculus humanus corporis. The disease is still considered a major threat by public-health authorities, despite the efficacy of antibiotics, because poor sanitary conditions are conducive to louse proliferation. Until recently, Rickettsia prowazekii, the causal agent, was thought to be confined to human beings and their body lice. Since 1975, R prowazekii infection in human beings has been related to contact with the flying squirrel Glaucomys volans in the USA. Moreover, Brill-Zinsser disease, a relapsed form of epidemic typhus that appears as sporadic cases many years after the initial infection, is unrelated to louse infestation. Stress or a waning immune system are likely to reactivate this earlier persistent infection, which could be the source of new epidemics when conditions facilitate louse infestation. Finally, R prowazekii is a potential category B bioterrorism agent, because it is stable in dried louse faeces and can be transmitted through aerosols. An increased understanding of the pathogenesis of epidemic typhus may be useful for protection against this bacterial threat.

  8. Substantial variation in the extent of mitochondrial genome fragmentation among blood-sucking lice of mammals.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haowei; Barker, Stephen C; Shao, Renfu

    2013-01-01

    Blood-sucking lice of humans have extensively fragmented mitochondrial (mt) genomes. Human head louse and body louse have their 37 mt genes on 20 minichromosomes. In human pubic louse, the 34 mt genes known are on 14 minichromosomes. To understand the process of mt genome fragmentation in the blood-sucking lice of mammals, we sequenced the mt genomes of the domestic pig louse, Haematopinus suis, and the wild pig louse, H. apri, which diverged from human lice approximately 65 Ma. The 37 mt genes of the pig lice are on nine circular minichromosomes; each minichromosome is 3-4 kb in size. The pig lice have four genes per minichromosome on average, in contrast to two genes per minichromosome in the human lice. One minichromosome of the pig lice has eight genes and is the most gene-rich minichromosome found in the sucking lice. Our results indicate substantial variation in the rate and extent of mt genome fragmentation among different lineages of the sucking lice.

  9. Potential role of head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, as vectors of Rickettsia prowazekii.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D; Leo, N; Prociv, P; Barker, S C

    2003-06-01

    Since the pioneering work of Charles Nicolle in 1909 [see Gross (1996) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:10539-10540] most medical officers and scientists have assumed that body lice are the sole vectors of Rickettsia prowazekii, the aetiological agent of louse-borne epidemic typhus (LBET). Here we review the evidence for the axiom that head lice are not involved in epidemics of LBET. Laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of head lice to transmit R. prowazekii, but evidence for this in the field has not been reported. However, the assumption that head lice do not transmit R. prowazekii has meant that head lice have not been examined for R. prowazekii during epidemics of LBET. The strong association between obvious (high) infestations of body lice and LBET has contributed to this perception, but this association does not preclude head lice as vectors of R. prowazekii. Indeed, where the prevalence and intensity of body louse infections may be high (e.g. during epidemics of LBET), the prevalence and intensity of head louse infestations is generally high as well. This review of the epidemiology of head louse and body louse infestations, and of LBET, indicates that head lice are potential vectors of R. prowazekii in the field. Simple observations in the field would reveal whether or not head lice are natural vectors of this major human pathogen.

  10. Evidence of pyrethroid resistance in eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Gastón Mougabure; Zerba, Eduardo Nicolás; Picollo, María Inés

    2008-07-01

    Insecticide resistance in Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer 1778 (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from different countries has been well documented in the last years. Otherwise, little research has been reported about insecticide resistance in insect embryos and none in human louse embryos. In this work, we studied insecticide resistance in eggs of three head lice populations whose pyrethroid resistance was shown in adults and nymphs compared with a susceptible laboratory body louse strain. All head louse populations showed high permethrin resistance in eggs. Levels of permethrin resistance (LCRs) assessed in eggs by immersion technique were higher than those previously reported for the corresponding populations of adults by topical application. Comparison of LCR values for different populations showed that there was a direct relationship between the resistance levels assessed in eggs and those in adults. All permethrin-resistant eggs showed high resistance to d-phenothrin and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and low resistance to carbaryl, which is in common with the resistance profile established for adults and nymphs. The results concerning the high resistance to pyrethroid (permethrin and d-phenothrin) and the cross-resistance to DDT and carbaryl detected in head louse eggs and adults suggested similar resistance mechanisms in eggs and adults of head louse populations from adults.

  11. Substantial Variation in the Extent of Mitochondrial Genome Fragmentation among Blood-Sucking Lice of Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Haowei; Barker, Stephen C.; Shao, Renfu

    2013-01-01

    Blood-sucking lice of humans have extensively fragmented mitochondrial (mt) genomes. Human head louse and body louse have their 37 mt genes on 20 minichromosomes. In human pubic louse, the 34 mt genes known are on 14 minichromosomes. To understand the process of mt genome fragmentation in the blood-sucking lice of mammals, we sequenced the mt genomes of the domestic pig louse, Haematopinus suis, and the wild pig louse, H. apri, which diverged from human lice approximately 65 Ma. The 37 mt genes of the pig lice are on nine circular minichromosomes; each minichromosome is 3–4 kb in size. The pig lice have four genes per minichromosome on average, in contrast to two genes per minichromosome in the human lice. One minichromosome of the pig lice has eight genes and is the most gene-rich minichromosome found in the sucking lice. Our results indicate substantial variation in the rate and extent of mt genome fragmentation among different lineages of the sucking lice. PMID:23781098

  12. Pediculosis capitis: an update.

    PubMed

    Madke, Bhushan; Khopkar, Uday

    2012-01-01

    Head louse infestation, or pediculosis capitis, caused by Pediculus humanus var. capitis, is a common health concern in pediatric age group. An itching of the scalp is the chief symptom, whereas presence of viable nits confirms the diagnosis of head louse infestation. Secondary bacterial infection with impetignization with cervical and occipital lymphadenopathy can complicate the clinical scenario with physician misdiagnosing pediculosis to a primary bacterial infection. Screening and treatment of all close contacts is necessary for an adequate management of pediculosis. Medical management of head louse infestation requires proper application of topical pediculicidal agents', chiefly permethrin lotion and wet combing with a fine toothcomb. Severe cases with high parasitic load justify the use of either oral cotrimoxazole or Ivermectin. Other described technique involves a single application of hot air for 30 minutes. Radical but culturally unacceptable method would be shaving of scalp in resistant cases. Environmental fogging with insecticides is neither necessary nor recommended.

  13. Arthropod-borne diseases associated with political and social disorder.

    PubMed

    Brouqui, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The living conditions and the crowded situations of the homeless, war refugees, or victims of a natural disaster provide ideal conditions for the spread of lice, fleas, ticks, flies and mites. The consequence of arthropod infestation in these situations is underestimated. Along with louse-borne infections such as typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever, the relationship between Acinetobacter spp.-infected lice and bacteremia in the homeless is not clear. Murine typhus, tungiasis, and myiasis are likely underestimated, and there has been a reemergence of bed bugs. Attempted eradication of the body louse, despite specific measures, has been disappointing, and infections with Bartonella quintana continue to be reported. The efficacy of ivermectin in eradicating the human body louse, although the effect is not sustained, might provide new therapeutic approaches. Arthropod-borne diseases continue to emerge within the deprived population. Public health programs should be engaged rapidly to control these pests and reduce the incidence of these transmissible diseases.

  14. Evolutionary co-variation of host and parasite diversity-the first test of Eichler's rule using parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    Vas, Zoltán; Csorba, Gábor; Rózsa, Lajos

    2012-07-01

    The taxonomic richness of lice (Phthiraptera) varies considerably among their avian and mammalian hosts. Previous studies explored some factors shaping louse diversity; however, the so-called Eichler's rule-according to which taxonomic richness of parasites co-varies with that of their hosts-has never been tested. Our study incorporates all families of birds and mammals and the whole order of lice to test this co-variation, thus we present the widest taxonomic range to test any correlates of louse richness. Louse richness data were controlled for uneven sampling effort. We used the method of independent contrasts to control for phylogenetic effects. We found a strong correlation between the species richness of avian and mammalian families and generic richness of their lice. We discuss some alternative macroevolutionary and macroecological hypotheses that may explain this phenomenon that may well be a general feature of parasitism and it seems possible that this effect contribute considerably to global biodiversity.

  15. Why is it crucial to test anti-lice repellents?

    PubMed

    Semmler, Margit; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to stop lice propagation just by treating infested heads, since reinfections are possible just a few hours after a successful elimination of all lice from a child's head by application of an active anti-louse product. Therefore, several products have been developed that claim to have a louse repellent activity; however, definite proofs are scarce. The present study involving two louse repellents (Linicin® Preventive Spray, Picksan® NoLice) and three substances (at 10% dilution) known for their general repellency activity shows that there are much more difficulties to repel lice when compared to other insects or even ticks. Thus, it must be feared that several repellents on the market might have used a problematical test system and thus might not be as effective as they claim.

  16. Parasitism underground: lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) along its coastal distribution in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martino, Natalia S; Romero, Mariano D; Malizia, Ana I

    2014-03-01

    Species of South American subterranean rodents belonging to the genus Ctenomys (commonly called tuco-tucos) are widely distributed across the southern Neotropical region. Despite their relatively well-studied biology and reproductive physiology, current knowledge of their ectoparasite fauna is limited to a few ambiguous studies, based on scattered samples from a small number of host individuals. Ctenomys talarum is the most widely distributed species in the genus. Lice (Phthiraptera) were collected from these tuco-tucos throughout their entire coastal range. Two species, one chewing louse (Gyropus parvus), and one sucking louse (Eulinognathus americanus) were collected. The distribution ranges for both louse species were extended with new locality records. No lice were found in two host populations. Furthermore, co-occurrence of both ectoparasites was not detected.

  17. Nuclear Genetic Diversity in Human Lice (Pediculus humanus) Reveals Continental Differences and High Inbreeding among Worldwide Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ascunce, Marina S.; Toups, Melissa A.; Kassu, Gebreyes; Fane, Jackie; Scholl, Katlyn; Reed, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of parasites is important to both basic and applied evolutionary biology. Knowledge of the genetic structure of parasite populations is critical for our ability to predict how an infection can spread through a host population and for the design of effective control methods. However, very little is known about the genetic structure of most human parasites, including the human louse (Pediculus humanus). This species is composed of two ecotypes: the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer), and the clothing (body) louse (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus). Hundreds of millions of head louse infestations affect children every year, and this number is on the rise, in part because of increased resistance to insecticides. Clothing lice affect mostly homeless and refugee-camp populations and although they are less prevalent than head lice, the medical consequences are more severe because they vector deadly bacterial pathogens. In this study we present the first assessment of the genetic structure of human louse populations by analyzing the nuclear genetic variation at 15 newly developed microsatellite loci in 93 human lice from 11 sites in four world regions. Both ecotypes showed heterozygote deficits relative to Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and high inbreeding values, an expected pattern given their parasitic life history. Bayesian clustering analyses assigned lice to four distinct genetic clusters that were geographically structured. The low levels of gene flow among louse populations suggested that the evolution of insecticide resistance in lice would most likely be affected by local selection pressures, underscoring the importance of tailoring control strategies to population-specific genetic makeup and evolutionary history. Our panel of microsatellite markers provides powerful data to investigate not only ecological and evolutionary processes in lice, but also those in their human hosts because of the long-term coevolutionary

  18. Nuclear genetic diversity in human lice (Pediculus humanus) reveals continental differences and high inbreeding among worldwide populations.

    PubMed

    Ascunce, Marina S; Toups, Melissa A; Kassu, Gebreyes; Fane, Jackie; Scholl, Katlyn; Reed, David L

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of parasites is important to both basic and applied evolutionary biology. Knowledge of the genetic structure of parasite populations is critical for our ability to predict how an infection can spread through a host population and for the design of effective control methods. However, very little is known about the genetic structure of most human parasites, including the human louse (Pediculus humanus). This species is composed of two ecotypes: the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer), and the clothing (body) louse (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus). Hundreds of millions of head louse infestations affect children every year, and this number is on the rise, in part because of increased resistance to insecticides. Clothing lice affect mostly homeless and refugee-camp populations and although they are less prevalent than head lice, the medical consequences are more severe because they vector deadly bacterial pathogens. In this study we present the first assessment of the genetic structure of human louse populations by analyzing the nuclear genetic variation at 15 newly developed microsatellite loci in 93 human lice from 11 sites in four world regions. Both ecotypes showed heterozygote deficits relative to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and high inbreeding values, an expected pattern given their parasitic life history. Bayesian clustering analyses assigned lice to four distinct genetic clusters that were geographically structured. The low levels of gene flow among louse populations suggested that the evolution of insecticide resistance in lice would most likely be affected by local selection pressures, underscoring the importance of tailoring control strategies to population-specific genetic makeup and evolutionary history. Our panel of microsatellite markers provides powerful data to investigate not only ecological and evolutionary processes in lice, but also those in their human hosts because of the long-term coevolutionary

  19. Head lice: scientific assessment of the nit sheath with clinical ramifications and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Craig N; Burkhart, Craig G

    2005-07-01

    Head lice, like many insects, produce a protective coating for their newly laid eggs that is essential to the survival of the species. Knowledge of the composition of the sheath, which is the glue by which the egg is attached to human hair, and the nit laying process could lead to production of agents that could be used to attack louse infestations by interfering with the normally protected environment of nymph development within the egg. The physical removal of nits has become an important part of treatment of head louse infestations given the "no-nit" policy in schools. Biochemical analysis has revealed that the nit sheath of the head louse is composed of 4 bands of protein, possibly cross-linked to aliphatic components with a tertiary structure of beta sheeting. Nature has protected the louse by making the nit sheath similar in composition to the hair; thereby, agents designed to unravel the nit sheath may also damage human hair. Possible targets to destroy the nit sheath include proteases, denaturants, beta sheet breaker proteins, and small protein inhibitors of sheath formation. Better understanding of insect glues may allow us to develop compounds so that the liquid secretions of the collateral glands of the female louse, which becomes the nit sheath, do not solidify by oxidation when placed with the louse egg onto human hair. Knowledge of insect behavior, such as oviposition, may also suggest methods for repelling female lice from laying eggs onto hair. Alternatively, agents that coat the nits and restrict the oxygen transfer to the developing larvae may prove beneficial.

  20. Review of the systematics, biology and ecology of lice from pinnipeds and river otters (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Echinophthiriidae).

    PubMed

    Soledad Leonardi, Maria; Palma, Ricardo Luis

    2013-01-01

    We present a literature review of the sucking louse family Echinophthiriidae, its five genera and twelve species parasitic on pinnipeds (fur seals, sea lions, walruses, true seals) and the North American river otter. We give detailed synonymies and published records for all taxonomic hierarchies, as well as hosts, type localities and repositories of type material; we highlight significant references and include comments on the current taxonomic status of the species. We provide a summary of present knowledge of the biology and ecology for eight species. Also, we give a host-louse list, and a bibliography to the family as complete as possible.

  1. [Recommendations to researchers who will study lice (Phthiraptera) of wild birds (Aves) in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal

    2014-12-01

    Lice (Antennata: Phthiraptera) fauna in Turkey is not a well-known field. A large number of lice species described up to date parasitize birds. Most bird species of nearly 500 species in Turkey have not been examined from the perspective of louse specimen. No louse was seen on some examined species, and that is why lice fauna on poultry have not been searched out well. This paper emphasizes on what researchers need to pay attention in the course of research, which features and knowledge they need to have, and which morphological criteria they need to examine during diagnosis of lice.

  2. Use of lice to identify cowbird hosts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, D.C.; Price, R.D.; Osenton, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    The host specificity of avian lice (Phthiraptera) may be utilized by biologists to investigate the brood parasitism patterns of Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater). As nestlings, brood parasites have a unique opportunity to encounter lice that are typically host specific. Lice are permanent hemimetabolic ectoparasites, a group found strictly on the body of the host, and they are transferred almost exclusively by bodily contact between hosts during care of young and at copulation. We investigated whether cowbird nestlings become infested with avian lice from their host parents and carry these lice away when they fledge, in effect bearing ectoparasite indicators of the species that raised them. The technique of examining the lice on cowbird fledglings to identify their foster parents would be much less costly than hiring a team of experts to determine parasitism patterns in the conventional way by finding hundreds of songbird nests. We examined 244 cowbird fledglings and found that they carried a rich fauna of lice representing 11 species and six genera, almost the entire spectrum of louse genera known to occur on passerines. We also examined 320 songbirds from 30 species, all known hosts of the Brown-headed Cowbird. As a group the host birds bore a diversity of louse species comparable to that on the fledgling cowbirds: 13 species of lice from seven genera. In contrast, most individual passerine host species yielded only 1 or 2 louse species, significantly fewer than the cowbird fledglings (p < 0.0001). Of 44 fledgling cowbirds carrying lice, 11 were linked to their probable avian foster parents via louse indicators, and these are the Wood Thrush and Red-winged Blackbird. Eighteen additional fledglings were linked to one of two possible foster parents. We concluded that cowbird fledglings do carry away host lice and this survey technique provides a partial assessment of local community parasitism patterns. The incomplete state of passerine louse taxonomy requires

  3. The prevalence of helminth and arthropod parasites of warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus, in South West Africa/Namibia.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Biggs, H C; Hanssen, T S; Hanssen, R E

    1983-06-01

    A total of 38 warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus, shot on a farm in northern South West Africa/Namibia were examined for internal and external parasites at monthly intervals over a period of 13 months. They harboured cestodes, 9 nematode species, 6 ixodid tick species and 1 species each of an argasid tick, a flea, a louse and larvae of a dipteran fly. Clear patterns of seasonal abundance could be determined only for the spirurid stomach worm, Physocephalus sexalatus, and the sucking louse, Haematopinus phachoeri.

  4. Variation in mitochondrial minichromosome composition between blood-sucking lice of the genus Haematopinus that infest horses and pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Haematopinus contains 21 species of blood-sucking lice, parasitizing both even-toed ungulates (pigs, cattle, buffalo, antelopes, camels and deer) and odd-toed ungulates (horses, donkeys and zebras). The mitochondrial genomes of the domestic pig louse, Haematopinus suis, and the wild pig louse, Haematopinus apri, have been sequenced recently; both lice have fragmented mitochondrial genomes with 37 genes on nine minichromosomes. To understand whether the composition of mitochondrial minichromosomes and the gene content and gene arrangement of each minichromosome are stable within the genus, we sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the horse louse, Haematopinus asini. Methods We used a PCR-based strategy to amplify four mitochondrial minichromosomes in near full-length, and then amplify the entire coding regions of all of the nine mitochondrial minichromosomes of the horse louse. These amplicons were sequenced with an Illumina Hiseq platform. Results We identified all of the 37 mitochondrial genes typical of bilateral animals in the horse louse, Haematopinus asini; these genes are on nine circular minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5–5.0 kb in size and consists of a coding region and a non-coding region except R-nad4L-rrnS-C minichromosome, which contains two coding regions and two non-coding regions. Six of the nine minichromosomes of the horse louse have their counterparts in the pig lice with the same gene content and gene arrangement. However, the gene content and arrangement of the other three minichromosomes of the horse louse, including R-nad4L-rrnS-C, are different from that of the other three minichromosomes of the pig lice. Conclusions Comparison between the horse louse and the pig lice revealed variation in the composition of mitochondrial minichromosomes within the genus Haematopinus, which can be accounted for by gene translocation events between minichromosomes. The current study indicates that inter

  5. Autochthonous epidemic typhus associated with Bartonella quintana bacteremia in a homeless person.

    PubMed

    Badiaga, Sékéné; Brouqui, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

    2005-05-01

    Trench fever, a louse-borne disease caused by Bartonella quintana, is reemerging in homeless persons. Epidemic typhus is another life-threatening louse-borne disease caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and known to occur in conditions of war, famine, refugee camps, cold weather, poverty, or lapses in public health. We report the first case of seroconversion to R. prowazekii in a homeless person of Marseilles, France. This was associated with B. quintana bacteremia. Although no outbreaks of typhus have been notified yet in the homeless population, this disease is likely to reemerge in such situation.

  6. Use of lice to identify cowbird hosts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, D.C.; Price, R.D.; Osenton, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    The host specificity of avian lice (Phthiraptera) may be utilized by biologists to investigate the brood parasitism patterns of Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater). As nestlings, brood parasites have a unique opportunity to encounter lice that are typically host specific. Lice are permanent hemimetabolic ectoparasites, a group found strictly on the body of the host, and they are transferred almost exclusively by bodily contact between hosts during care of young and at copulation. We investigated whether cowbird nestlings become infested with avian lice from their host parents and carry these lice away when they fledge, in effect bearing ectoparasite indicators of the species that raised them. The technique of examining the lice on cowbird fledglings to identify their foster parents would be much less costly than hiring a team of experts to determine parasitism patterns in the conventional way by finding hundreds of songbird nests. We examined 244 cowbird fledglings and found that they carried a rich fauna of lice representing 11 species and six genera, almost the entire spectrum of louse genera known to occur on passerines. We also examined 320 songbirds from 30 species, all known hosts of the Brown-headed Cowbird. As a group the host birds bore a diversity of louse species comparable to that on the fledgling cowbirds: 13 species of lice from seven genera. In contrast, most individual passerine host species yielded only 1 or 2 louse species, significantly fewer than the cowbird fledglings (p < 0.0001). Of 44 fledgling cowbirds carrying lice, 11 were linked to their probable avian foster parents via louse indicators, and these are the Wood Thrush and Red-winged Blackbird. Eighteen additional fledglings were linked to one of two possible foster parents. We concluded that cowbird fledglings do carry away host lice and this survey technique provides a partial assessment of local community parasitism patterns. The incomplete state of passerine louse taxonomy requires

  7. Variation in mitochondrial minichromosome composition between blood-sucking lice of the genus Haematopinus that infest horses and pigs.

    PubMed

    Song, Simon D; Barker, Stephen C; Shao, Renfu

    2014-03-31

    The genus Haematopinus contains 21 species of blood-sucking lice, parasitizing both even-toed ungulates (pigs, cattle, buffalo, antelopes, camels and deer) and odd-toed ungulates (horses, donkeys and zebras). The mitochondrial genomes of the domestic pig louse, Haematopinus suis, and the wild pig louse, Haematopinus apri, have been sequenced recently; both lice have fragmented mitochondrial genomes with 37 genes on nine minichromosomes. To understand whether the composition of mitochondrial minichromosomes and the gene content and gene arrangement of each minichromosome are stable within the genus, we sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the horse louse, Haematopinus asini. We used a PCR-based strategy to amplify four mitochondrial minichromosomes in near full-length, and then amplify the entire coding regions of all of the nine mitochondrial minichromosomes of the horse louse. These amplicons were sequenced with an Illumina Hiseq platform. We identified all of the 37 mitochondrial genes typical of bilateral animals in the horse louse, Haematopinus asini; these genes are on nine circular minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5-5.0 kb in size and consists of a coding region and a non-coding region except R-nad4L-rrnS-C minichromosome, which contains two coding regions and two non-coding regions. Six of the nine minichromosomes of the horse louse have their counterparts in the pig lice with the same gene content and gene arrangement. However, the gene content and arrangement of the other three minichromosomes of the horse louse, including R-nad4L-rrnS-C, are different from that of the other three minichromosomes of the pig lice. Comparison between the horse louse and the pig lice revealed variation in the composition of mitochondrial minichromosomes within the genus Haematopinus, which can be accounted for by gene translocation events between minichromosomes. The current study indicates that inter-minichromosome recombination plays a major role in generating the

  8. Prevention and treatment of head lice in children.

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, K Y

    1999-01-01

    Head louse infestations (pediculosis) are prevalent worldwide. In developed countries, the infestation rate of 4- to 13-year-old children remains high despite preventive efforts. This is due to the existence of numerous ineffective pediculicides, the incorrect use of the effective agents, toxicological concerns and the development of louse strains resistant to insecticides. One of the most effective tools for the prevention and control of lice is the louse comb, which should be used regularly for the detection of living lice at an early stage of infestation, and as an accessory to any treatment method to remove living and dead lice. The louse comb can also be used systematically for the treatment of infestations, for confirmation that treatment with pediculicides has been successful, and for the removal of nits (dead eggs or egg shells). Most pediculicides are only partially ovicidal. Therefore, 10 days after beginning treatment with any antilouse product, the scalp of the child should be examined. If no living lice are found, the treatment should be discontinued. If living lice are still present, treatment should be continued with a product containing a different active ingredient. Suffocating agents such as olive, soya, sunflower and corn oils, hair gels and mayonnaise are able to kill a significant number of lice only if they are applied in liberal quantities for more than 12 hours. However, they lubricate the hair and therefore may facilitate combing and removing lice and eggs from the scalp. Nits may remain glued on the hair for at least 6 months, even after a successful treatment, and lead to a false positive diagnosis of louse infestation. If nits are seen on the hair, the child should be examined, but treatment should be initiated only if living lice are found. Formulations containing 5% acetic acid or 8% formic acid, as well as acid shampoos (pH 4.5 to 5.5) and conditioners, in combination with a louse comb, can be helpful for removing nits. There is no

  9. Molecular phylogeny of some avian species using Cytochrome b gene sequence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Awad, A; Khalil, S. R; Abd-Elhakim, Y. M

    2015-01-01

    Veritable identification and differentiation of avian species is a vital step in conservative, taxonomic, forensic, legal and other ornithological interventions. Therefore, this study involved the application of molecular approach to identify some avian species i.e. Chicken (Gallus gallus), Muskovy duck (Cairina moschata), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), Laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis), and Rock pigeon (Columba livia). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples and partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (358 bp) was amplified and sequenced using universal primers. Sequences alignment and phylogenetic analyses were performed by CLC main workbench program. The obtained five sequences were deposited in GenBank and compared with those previously registered in GenBank. The similarity percentage was 88.60% between Gallus gallus and Coturnix japonica and 80.46% between Gallus gallus and Columba livia. The percentage of identity between the studied species and GenBank species ranged from 77.20% (Columba oenas and Anas platyrhynchos) to 100% (Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii, Coturnix coturnix and Coturnix japonica, Meleagris gallopavo and Columba livia). Amplification of the partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene proved to be practical for identification of an avian species unambiguously. PMID:27175180

  10. DYNAST: Simulating wildlife responses to forest management strategies

    Treesearch

    Gary L. Benson; William F.  Laudenslayer

    1986-01-01

    A computer simulation approach (DYNAST) was used to evaluate effects of three timber-management alternatives on wildlife in a 2700-ha (6700-acre) study area located in the Sierra Nevada, California. Wildlife species selected to evaluate the effects of these alternatives were band-tailed pigeon (Columba fusciutu), pileated woodpecker (

  11. Newcastle disease B1 vaccine strain in wild rock pigeons in Atlanta, Georgia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    From June to October of 2012, samples were collected from wild Rock Pigeons (Columba livia) in urban neighborhoods of Atlanta, Georgia to ascertain the prevalence of pigeon paramyxovirus serotype-1 (PPMV-1). PPMV-1 strains are a subset of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1) commonly isolated fro...

  12. New records and a new species of chewing lice (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera) found on Columbidae (Columbiformes) in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Naz, Saima; Sychra, Oldrich; Rizvi, Syed Anser

    2012-01-01

    The chewing lice (Phthiraptera) of Columbidae (Columbiformes) from Pakistan are studied. Six species of chewing lice with new host records are recorded and one new species of the genus Colpocephalum is described from Columba livia in the Karachi region. All the columbid chewing lice from Pakistan are keyed out and the new species is illustrated and compared with the closest allied species.

  13. Lepus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Hare; abbrev. Lep, gen. Leporis; area 290 sq. deg.) A southern constellation which lies between Orion and Columba, and culminates at midnight in mid-December. It is sometimes said to be the quarry of Canis Major, one of the two dogs of Orion (the Hunter). The brightest stars of Lepus were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) in the Almagest....

  14. Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, Italy, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Lipani, Filippo; Costa, Cecilia; Scarvaglieri, Mariaelisabetta; Balbiano, Rosanna; Carosella, Sinibaldo; Calcagno, Andrea; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Dal Conte, Ivano; Caramello, Pietro; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    During June 9–September 30, 2015, five cases of louseborne relapsing fever were identified in Turin, Italy. All 5 cases were in young refugees from Somalia, 2 of whom had lived in Italy since 2011. Our report seems to confirm the possibility of local transmission of louse-borne relapsing fever. PMID:26812354

  15. Control of Bovicola Equi (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) with Dimilin and Permethrin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lice are wingless ectoparasitic insects that can irritate and injure their hosts and transmit pathogens. Horses and ponies can be infested with a chewing louse, Bovicola equi (Denny) (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) that irritates the animals, creates skin lesions, causes hair loss, and generally redu...

  16. [Ectoparasites in goat and sheep folks from Alto Mearim and Grajaú Microregion, State of Maranhão].

    PubMed

    Brito, Danilo R B; Santos, Ana Clara G; Guerra, Rita M S N C

    2005-01-01

    Goat and sheep folks from Alto Mearim and Grajaú microregion, State of Maranhão, were examined by inspection and by feeling to collected ectoparasites. The specimens were kept in individual bottles for each host sampled with alcohol 70 degrees GL as preserver liquid. The identification was carried out at Universidade Estadual do Maranhão at the laboratory of parasitology. The ticks were examined in stereomicroscope and identified through Aragão and Fonseca (1961) dicotomic key; the lice were mounted in slides according to Pinto (1938) technique, examined in optic microscope and identified through Tuff (1977) and Furmam and Catts (1977) keys; the fly larvae were examined in stereomicroscope and identified by the morphology of the peritreme, and spiracular slits. In 380 animals sampled, 143 (37,64%) were infested with ectoparasites. The following parasites were identified: Bovicola caprae, Boophilus microplus, larvae of Cochliomya hominivorax (screw-worm) and larvae of Dermatobia hominis (bot fly). Parasitary association was observed only in goats in Grajaú and Sítio Novo (louse+tick; louse+bot fly; screw-worm+louse and ticks+louse+screw-worm). The statistic analyses demonstrated that the prevalence of ectoparasites was high in the rainy season (P<0.02).

  17. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-06-05

    Prof. Kerneth Kelton of Washington University in St. Lous, MO, (L) and Dr. Michael Robinson of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) examine a titanium-iron silicate (TiFeSiO)sample processed in MSFC's Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Facility (background). Kelton is investigating undercooling of polytetrahedral phase-forming liquids.

  18. The efficacy and safety of alphacypermethrin as a pour-on treatment for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) infested with Haematopinus tuberculatus (Phthiraptera: Haematopinidae).

    PubMed

    Veneziano, Vincenzo; Neglia, Gianluca; Cimmino, Roberta; Balestrieri, Anna; Rufrano, Domenico; Bastianetto, Eduardo; Santoro, Mario; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2013-08-01

    The sucking louse Haematopinus tuberculatus (Burmeister 1839) is an ectoparasite of buffaloes, cattle, camels, and American bison. Alphacypermethrin (ACYP) is a pyrethroid insecticide commonly used to control arthropods of veterinary and public health interest. Therapeutics, such as antiparasitic compounds, is often administered to buffaloes based on dosage and intervals recommended for cattle because very few drugs have buffalo-specific label indications. A trial was conducted on 20 louse-infested buffaloes at a farm to assess the efficacy and safety of ACYP pour-on, at the manufacturer's recommended dose for cattle, on buffaloes naturally infested by H. tuberculatus. Ten animals were assigned to ACYP-treated group (ACYP-group) and ten to untreated control group (C-group). On day 0, all ACYP-group buffaloes received alphacypermethrin pour-on. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 at eight predilection sites on the skin of each buffalo. ACYP was completely effective (100%) at day 7, highly effective (99.8%) at day 14, and completely effective (100%) from day 21 until the end of the study (day 56 post-treatment). During the trial, ACYP was well tolerated by all animals as there were no observed clinically adverse reactions. The results of this trial suggest that ACYP is an effective, safe, and user-friendly compound suitable for treatment of buffaloes with natural louse infestations.

  19. 21 CFR 522.850 - Estradiol valerate and norgestomet in combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-lactating dairy heifers. (3) Limitations. Insert implant subcutaneously in the ear only; then immediately... artificial insemination, avoid other treatments such as vaccinations, dipping, pour-on grub and louse... after implant removal. Do not use in cows producing milk for human consumption....

  20. 21 CFR 522.850 - Estradiol valerate and norgestomet in combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-lactating dairy heifers. (3) Limitations. Insert implant subcutaneously in the ear only; then immediately... artificial insemination, avoid other treatments such as vaccinations, dipping, pour-on grub and louse... after implant removal. Do not use in cows producing milk for human consumption....

  1. 21 CFR 522.850 - Estradiol valerate and norgestomet in combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-lactating dairy heifers. (3) Limitations. Insert implant subcutaneously in the ear only; then immediately... artificial insemination, avoid other treatments such as vaccinations, dipping, pour-on grub and louse... after implant removal. Do not use in cows producing milk for human consumption....

  2. 21 CFR 522.850 - Estradiol valerate and norgestomet in combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-lactating dairy heifers. (3) Limitations. Insert implant subcutaneously in the ear only; then immediately... artificial insemination, avoid other treatments such as vaccinations, dipping, pour-on grub and louse... after implant removal. Do not use in cows producing milk for human consumption....

  3. Managing aquatic parasites for reduced drug resistance: lessons from the land.

    PubMed

    McEwan, Gregor F; Groner, Maya L; Burnett, Danielle L; Fast, Mark D; Revie, Crawford W

    2016-12-01

    Atlantic salmon farming is one of the largest aquaculture industries in the world. A major problem in salmon farms is the sea louse ectoparasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis, which can cause stress, secondary infection and sometimes mortality in the salmon host. Sea lice have substantial impacts on farm economics and potentially nearby wild salmonid populations. The most common method of controlling sea louse infestations is application of chemicals. However, most farming regions worldwide have observed resistance to the small set of treatment chemicals that are available. Despite this, there has been little investigation of treatment strategies for managing resistance in aquaculture. In this article, we compare four archetypical treatment strategies inspired by agriculture, where the topic has a rich history of study, and add a fifth strategy common in aquaculture. We use an agent-based model (ABM) to simulate these strategies and their varying applications of chemicals over time and space. We analyse the ABM output to compare how the strategies perform in controlling louse abundance, number of treatments required and levels of resistance in the sea louse population. Our results indicated that among the approaches considered applying chemicals in combination was the most effective over the long term. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Transactions of the Eleventh Army Conference on Applied Mathematics and Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    problems. Matemdtica Aplicada e Computacional , 4:19-34, 1985. [6] Chen Z., Douglas J. Jr. Prismatic mixed finite elements for second order elliptic...Glimm J., Lindquist B., Pereira F., Peierls R. The fractal hypothesis and anoma- lous diffusion. Matemdtica Aplicada e Computacional , 11:189-207

  5. Fragmented mitochondrial genomes in two suborders of parasitic lice of eutherian mammals (Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina, Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C; Li, Hu; Song, Simon; Poudel, Shreekanta; Su, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera) infest birds and mammals. The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera. The sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) known, however, have fragmented mt genomes with 9–20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genome of the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis – the first species of chewing lice investigated from the suborder Rhynchophthirina. We identified 33 mt genes in the elephant louse, which were on 10 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5–4.2 kb in size and has 2–6 genes. Phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences confirm that the elephant louse is more closely related to sucking lice than to the chewing lice in the Amblycera and Ischnocera. Our results indicate that mt genome fragmentation is shared by the suborders Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina. Nine of the 10 mt minichromosomes of the elephant louse differ from those of the sucking lice (Anoplura) known in gene content and gene arrangement, indicating that distinct mt karyotypes have evolved in Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina since they diverged ~92 million years ago. PMID:26617060

  6. [Diagnosis of major sexually transmitted infections in the doctor's office: ectoparasites and yeasts].

    PubMed

    Möhrenschlager, M; Ring, J; Köhn, F M

    2004-12-16

    Ectoparasites, such as lice and itch mites (scabies) as well as yeasts, may be transmitted not only by sexual contact, but also by less intimate skin contact. The nits of the louse are visible to the naked eye, while Candida albicans is detected under the microscope or by culture.

  7. Distinguishing Body Lice from Head Lice by Multiplex Real-Time PCR Analysis of the Phum_PHUM540560 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Drali, Rezak; Boutellis, Amina; Raoult, Didier; Rolain, Jean Marc; Brouqui, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Background Body louse or head louse? Once removed from their environment, body and head lice are indistinguishable. Neither the morphological criteria used since the mid-18th century nor the various genetic studies conducted since the advent of molecular biology tools have allowed body lice and head lice to be differentiated. In this work, using a portion of the Phum_PHUM540560 gene from the body louse, we aimed to develop a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to differentiate between body and head lice in a single reaction. Materials and Methods A total of 142 human lice were collected from mono-infested hosts from 13 countries on five continents. We first identified the louse clade using a cytochrome b (CYTB) PCR sequence alignment. We then aligned a fragment of the Phum_PHUM540560 gene amplified from head and body lice to design-specific TaqMan© FAM- and VIC-labeled probes. Results All the analyzed lice were Clade A lice. A total of 22 polymorphisms between the body and head lice were characterized. The multiplex real-time PCR analysis enabled the body and head lice to be distinguished in two hours. This method is simple, with 100% specificity and sensitivity. Conclusions We confirmed that the Phum_PHUM540560 gene is a useful genetic marker for the study of lice. PMID:23469145

  8. Dependability Modeling with the Architecture Analysis & Design Language (AADL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    louse, France, August 27, 2004. http://www.laas.fr/ FERIA /SVF/WADL04/slides/CONCORDE2- 27-1100-VESTAL/BinnsVestalADLWorkshop.ppt [Feiler 2004] Feiler...Design Languages at the 18th IFIP World Computer Congress. Toulouse, France, August 27, 2004. http://www.laas.fr/ FERIA /SVF/WADL04/slides/CONCORDE2-27

  9. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from wild birds in southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Tomás, André; Palma, Ricardo L; Rebelo, Maria Teresa; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out to determine chewing louse species of wild birds in the Ria Formosa Natural Park, located in southern Portugal. In addition, the hypothesis that bird age, avian migration and social behaviour have an impact on the louse prevalence was tested. Between September and December of 2013, 122 birds (belonging to 10 orders, 19 families, 31 genera and 35 species) captured in scientific ringing sessions and admitted to the Wildlife Rehabilitation and Investigation Centre of Ria Formosa were examined for lice. Twenty-six (21.3%) birds were found to be infested with at least one chewing louse species. The chewing lice identified include 18 species. Colonial birds (34.9%) and migratory birds (29.5%) had statistically significant higher prevalence than territorial birds (6.8%) and resident birds (13.1%), respectively. This paper records 17 louse species for the first time in southern Portugal: Laemobothrion maximum, Laemobothrion vulturis, Actornithophilus piceus lari, Actornithophilus umbrinus, Austromenopon lutescens, Colpocephalum heterosoma, Colpocephalum turbinatum, Eidmanniella pustulosa, Nosopon casteli, Pectinopygus bassani, Pseudomenopon pilosum, Trinoton femoratum, Trinoton querquedulae, Craspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Falcolipeurus quadripustulatus, Lunaceps schismatus. Also a nymph of the genus Strigiphilus was collected from a Eurasian eagle-owl. These findings contribute to the knowledge of avian chewing lice from important birds areas in Portugal.

  10. Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, Italy, 2015.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, Anna; Lipani, Filippo; Costa, Cecilia; Scarvaglieri, Mariaelisabetta; Balbiano, Rosanna; Carosella, Sinibaldo; Calcagno, Andrea; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Dal Conte, Ivano; Caramello, Pietro; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    During June 9-September 30, 2015, five cases of louseborne relapsing fever were identified in Turin, Italy. All 5 cases were in young refugees from Somalia, 2 of whom had lived in Italy since 2011. Our report seems to confirm the possibility of local transmission of louse-borne relapsing fever.

  11. Network centrality and seasonality interact to predict lice load in a social primate.

    PubMed

    Duboscq, Julie; Romano, Valeria; Sueur, Cédric; MacIntosh, Andrew J J

    2016-02-26

    Lice are socially-transmitted ectoparasites. Transmission depends upon their host's degree of contact with conspecifics. While grooming facilitates ectoparasite transmission via body contact, it also constrains their spread through parasite removal. We investigated relations between parasite burden and sociality in female Japanese macaques following two opposing predictions: i) central females in contact/grooming networks harbour more lice, related to their numerous contacts; ii) central females harbour fewer lice, related to receiving more grooming. We estimated lice load non-invasively using the conspicuous louse egg-picking behaviour performed by macaques during grooming. We tested for covariation in several centrality measures and lice load, controlling for season, female reproductive state and dominance rank. Results show that the interaction between degree centrality (number of partners) and seasonality predicted lice load: females interacting with more partners had fewer lice than those interacting with fewer partners in winter and summer, whereas there was no relationship between lice load and centrality in spring and fall. This is counter to the prediction that increased contact leads to greater louse burden but fits the prediction that social grooming limits louse burden. Interactions between environmental seasonality and both parasite and host biology appeared to mediate the role of social processes in louse burden.

  12. Fragmented mitochondrial genomes in two suborders of parasitic lice of eutherian mammals (Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C; Li, Hu; Song, Simon; Poudel, Shreekanta; Su, Yuan

    2015-11-30

    Parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera) infest birds and mammals. The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera. The sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) known, however, have fragmented mt genomes with 9-20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genome of the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis - the first species of chewing lice investigated from the suborder Rhynchophthirina. We identified 33 mt genes in the elephant louse, which were on 10 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5-4.2 kb in size and has 2-6 genes. Phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences confirm that the elephant louse is more closely related to sucking lice than to the chewing lice in the Amblycera and Ischnocera. Our results indicate that mt genome fragmentation is shared by the suborders Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina. Nine of the 10 mt minichromosomes of the elephant louse differ from those of the sucking lice (Anoplura) known in gene content and gene arrangement, indicating that distinct mt karyotypes have evolved in Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina since they diverged ~92 million years ago.

  13. From Eradication to Resistance: Five Continuing Concerns About Pediculosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, Elaine

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the five major concerns that govern a school nurse's thinking in managing head louse infestations, including dispelling misconceptions about head lice; ensuring that infestations are not missed; ensuring that parents understand instructions for effective treatment; educating the community about the correct use of pediculicides; and…

  14. Network centrality and seasonality interact to predict lice load in a social primate

    PubMed Central

    Duboscq, Julie; Romano, Valeria; Sueur, Cédric; MacIntosh, Andrew J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Lice are socially-transmitted ectoparasites. Transmission depends upon their host’s degree of contact with conspecifics. While grooming facilitates ectoparasite transmission via body contact, it also constrains their spread through parasite removal. We investigated relations between parasite burden and sociality in female Japanese macaques following two opposing predictions: i) central females in contact/grooming networks harbour more lice, related to their numerous contacts; ii) central females harbour fewer lice, related to receiving more grooming. We estimated lice load non-invasively using the conspicuous louse egg-picking behaviour performed by macaques during grooming. We tested for covariation in several centrality measures and lice load, controlling for season, female reproductive state and dominance rank. Results show that the interaction between degree centrality (number of partners) and seasonality predicted lice load: females interacting with more partners had fewer lice than those interacting with fewer partners in winter and summer, whereas there was no relationship between lice load and centrality in spring and fall. This is counter to the prediction that increased contact leads to greater louse burden but fits the prediction that social grooming limits louse burden. Interactions between environmental seasonality and both parasite and host biology appeared to mediate the role of social processes in louse burden. PMID:26915589

  15. Impact of ivermectin drug combinations on Pediculus humanus capitis infestation in primary schoolchildren of south Indian rural villages.

    PubMed

    Munirathinam, Arumugam; Sunish, Ittoop Pulikkottil; Rajendran, Rathinasamy; Tyagi, Brij Kishore

    2009-11-01

    Antifilarial drug combinations including ivermectin provide antifilarial activity with ancillary benefits on intestinal helminths and ectoparasites, such as chiggers and lice. The impact of single oral dose of antifilarial drugs, viz; (1) diethylcarbamazine (DEC) alone, (ii) DEC + albendazole (ALB), (iii) ivermectin (IVR) + DEC and (iv) IVR + ALB, was determined, on the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) in primary school children in a rural community in south India. Primary school children (n = 534) of age 6-10 years from four villages of South India were examined for the presence of head lice before and after single dose of DEC + ivermectin drug combination. The effectiveness and the duration of cure sustained by these drugs were quantified. The head louse was examined by "combing method" during post-treatment periods at 15, 45, 60 and 75 days interval. The antifilarial drug consumption rate was similar (96-98%) in all treatment arms. In pre-treatment survey the prevalence of head lice in children administered with DEC, DEC + ALB, IVR + DEC and IVR + ALB arm was 86%, 80%, 87% and 80%, respectively, with the latter two arms demonstrating significant reduction in louse infestation (P < 0.05) for 60 days. Single dose with IVR combination demonstrates a greater impact in reducing head louse infestation in the endemic rural communities for nearly 60 days. Therefore, in regions such as Africa where ivermectin is part of the antifilariasis campaign, this drug will have an additional benefit in reducing head lice infestation.

  16. Increased frequency and changed methods in the treatment of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) in Scottish salmon farms 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Murray, Alexander G

    2016-02-01

    The sea louse is the most economically and environmentally serious ectoparasite of marine salmonids. Sea lice have been largely controlled by treatment with a variety of medicines. In order to understand the sustainability of medicine usage, an analysis of sea louse treatment data has been carried out for all Scottish salmon farms from 2005 to 2011. Overall, there was an increase from 0.156 to 0.282 treatments month(-1) ; treatments could involve one or multiple agents. This increase was mostly in bath treatments (cypermethrin in 2007, largely replaced by deltamethrin and azamethiphos in 2008). Treatments using in-feed treatments (emamectin benzoate and teflubenzuron) increased only slowly. Treatments involving more than one medicine in a single month also increased, as did the probability of follow-up treatments. Treatments were seasonal, with peaks of in-feed treatments in March and August and bath treatments more frequent between August and December. Frequency of sea louse treatment increased substantially, with an increase in multiagent and follow-up treatments. This increase in treatment activity is expensive to the industry and increases exposure of the neighbouring environment. This indicates that earlier louse control practices were not sustainable and so adapted. © 2015 Crown copyright. Pest Management Science © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. [Understanding mitochondrial genome fragmentation in parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)].

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen-Ge; Guo, Xian-Guo; Jin, Dao-Chao; Xue, Shi-Peng; Qin, Feng; Simon, Song; Stephen, C Barker; Renfu, Shao

    2013-07-01

    Lice are obligate ectoparasites of mammals and birds. Extensive fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes has been found in some louse species in the families Pediculidae, Pthiridae, Philopteridae and Trichodectidae. For example, the mt genomes of human body louse (Pediculus humanus), head louse (Pediculus capitis), and public louse (Pthirus pubis) have 20, 20 and 14 mini-chromosomes, respectively. These mini-chromosomes might be the results of deletion and recombination of mt genes. The factors and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome fragmentation are currently unknown. The fragmentation might be the results of evolutionary selection or random genetic drift or it is probably related to the lack of mtSSB (mitochondrial single-strand DNA binding protein). Understanding the fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes is of significance for understanding the origin and evolution of mitochondria. This paper reviews the recent advances in the studies of mito-chondrial genome fragmentation in lice, including the phenomena of mitochondrial genome fragmentation, characteristics of fragmented mitochondrial genomes, and some factors and mechanisms possibly leading to the mitochondrial genome fragmentation of lice. Perspectives for future studies on fragmented mt genomes are also discussed.

  18. The eggshell morphology of Rallicola unguiculatus Piaget, 1880 (Ischnocera: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Aftab

    2017-06-01

    The egg chorion of the greater coucal louse, Rallicola unguiculatus bears hexagonal ridges. The hat shaped opercular disc also shows hexagonal marks. Twenty to twenty-three button shaped micropyles occur along the opercular rim. The stigma remained obscured under the cementing material.

  19. Notes on some ectoparasites received by the Medical Entomology Unit, Institute for Medical Research.

    PubMed

    Lee, H L; Krishnasamy, M; Jeffery, J; Paramasvaran, S

    2006-06-01

    There were a spate of recent complaints of insect bites and the entomological specimens received from various sources were identified to be those of cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) and rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis), the tropical bed-bug (Cimex hemipterus) and the dog louse (Heterodoxus spiniger). Only the fleas and the bed-bug are known to attack humans.

  20. Increased susceptibility to infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) in Lepeophtheirus salmonis – infected Atlantic salmon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The salmon louse and infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) are the two most significant pathogens of concern to the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry. However, the interactions between sea lice and ISAv, as well as the impact of a prior sea lice infection on the susceptibility of th...

  1. Experimentally infected human body lice (pediculus humanus humanus) as vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia conorii in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Houhamdi, Linda; Raoult, Didier

    2006-04-01

    The human body louse, the natural vector of Rickettsia prowazekii, is able to experimentally transmit the normally flea-borne rickettsia R. typhi, suggesting that the relationships between the body louse and rickettsiae are not specific. We used our experimental infection model to test the ability of body lice to transmit two prevalent tick-borne rickettsiae. Each of two rabbits was made bacteremic by injecting intravenously 2 x 10(6) plaque-forming units of either R. rickettsii or R. conorii. Four hundred body lice were infected by feeding on the bacteremic rabbit and were compared with 400 uninfected lice. Each louse group was fed once a day on a separate seronegative rabbit. The survival of infected lice was not different from that of uninfected controls. Lice remained infected for their lifespan, excreted R. rickettsii and R. conorii in their feces, but did not transmit the infection to their progeny. The nurse rabbit of uninfected lice remained asymptomatic and seronegative. Those rabbits used to feed infected lice developed bacteremia and seroconverted. Although the body louse is not a known vector of spotted fevers, it was able in our study to acquire, maintain, and transmit both R. rickettsii and R. conorii.

  2. The mode of action of dimeticone 4% lotion against head lice, Pediculus capitis

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ian F

    2009-01-01

    Background Treatment of head lice using physically acting preparations based on silicones is currently replacing insecticide use due to widespread resistance to neurotoxic agents. It has been postulated that some products act by asphyxiation, although the limited experimental evidence and the anatomy of the louse respiratory system suggest this is unlikely. Results Observation over several hours of lice treated using 4% high molecular weight dimeticone in a volatile silicone base showed that, although rapidly immobilised initially, the insects still exhibited small movements of extremities and death was delayed. One common effect of treatment is inhibition of the louse's ability to excrete water by transpiration through the spiracles. Inability to excrete water that is ingested as part of the louse blood meal appears to subject the louse gut to osmotic stress resulting in rupture. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with X-ray microanalysis to detect silicon showed dimeticone lotion is deposited in the spiracles and distal region of the tracheae of lice and in some cases blocks the lumen or opening entirely. Conclusion This work raises doubts that lice treated using dimeticone preparations die from anoxia despite blockage of the outer respiratory tract because movements can be observed for hours after exposure. However, the blockage inhibits water excretion, which causes physiological stress that leads to death either through prolonged immobilisation or, in some cases, disruption of internal organs such as the gut. PMID:19232080

  3. 75 FR 81204 - Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... Initiatives (CFBCI) supports the commitment from the White F-louse and USAID to expand our partnership..., electronic survey to contacts for whom we have no organizational affiliation who have previously interacted... and organizational information on NGOs working in international development and humanitarian relief...

  4. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) found on songbirds (Passeriformes) in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal; Kirpik, Mehmet Ali; Sekercioğlu, Cağan; Saşmaz, Yakup

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to detect chewing lice species found on the songbirds at Lake Kuyucuk bird ringing station in the Kars province located in eastern Turkey. Chewing lice were collected from songbirds captured between September and October 2009. Fifty-one birds belonging to 22 species and 16 genera from 10 families were examined for the louse. Eleven of 51 birds (21.57%) belonging to 7 species; were infested with at least one chewing louse species. The collected lice were identified as Menacanthus chrysophaeus (Kellogg, 1896) on Reed Bunting, Menacanthus pusillus (Nitzsch,1866) on Water Pipits, Calandra Lark and Yellow Wagtail, Myrsidea rustica (Giebel,1874) on Swallow, Brueelia cruciata (Burmeister,1838) on Red-backed Shrike, and Penenirmus rarus (Zlotorzycka,1976) on Chiffchaff. All four Reed Bunting specimens were infested with Menacanthus chrysophaeus. The rate of infestation was 100% in Reed Bunting, Red-backed Shrike and Swallow; 66.7% in Yellow Wagtail; 50% in Calandra Lark and Chiffchaff and 11.1% in Water Pipits. No louse infestation was found in the birds belonging to Paridae, Passeridae, Sylviidae, and Muscipapidae families. Menacanthus chrysophaeus on Reed Bunting and Menacanthus pusillus on Calandra Lark are new hosts for these lice species. All the louse species determined in the present study are first records for Turkey.

  5. From Eradication to Resistance: Five Continuing Concerns About Pediculosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, Elaine

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the five major concerns that govern a school nurse's thinking in managing head louse infestations, including dispelling misconceptions about head lice; ensuring that infestations are not missed; ensuring that parents understand instructions for effective treatment; educating the community about the correct use of pediculicides; and…

  6. Exotic pediculosis and hair-loss syndrome in deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations in California.

    PubMed

    Roug, Annette; Swift, Pamela; Puschner, Birgit; Gerstenberg, Greg; Mertins, James W; Johnson, Christine Kreuder; Torres, Steve; Mortensen, Jack; Woods, Leslie

    2016-07-01

    Infestation with nonnative, "exotic" lice was first noted in Washington black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in 1994 and has since then spread throughout the western United States. In California, infestation with the exotic louse Damalinia (Cervicola) sp. was first detected in black-tailed deer from northern California in 2004, and, in 2009, the exotic louse species Bovicola tibialis and Linognathus africanus were identified on mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus californicus) in central Sierra Nevada in association with a mortality event. Exotic lice have since been detected in various locations throughout the state. We describe the geographic distribution of these exotic lice within California, using data from 520 live-captured and 9 postmortem-sampled, free-ranging mule deer examined between 2009 and 2014. Data from live-captured deer were used to assess possible associations between louse infestation and host age, host sex, migratory behavior, season, and blood selenium and serum copper concentrations. Damalinia (Cervicola) sp. and B. tibialis lice were distinctively distributed geographically, with D. (Cervicola) sp. infesting herds in northern and central coastal California, B. tibialis occurring in the central coastal mountains and the Sierra Nevada, and L. africanus occurring only sporadically. Younger age classes and low selenium concentrations were significantly associated with exotic louse infestation, whereas no significant relationship was detected with serum copper levels. Our results show that exotic lice are widespread in California, and younger age classes with low blood selenium concentrations are more likely to be infested with lice than older deer.

  7. The origin and distribution of human lice in the world.

    PubMed

    Boutellis, Amina; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Raoult, Didier

    2014-04-01

    Two genera of lice parasitize humans: Pthirus and Pediculus. The latter is of significant public health importance and comprises two ecotypes: the body louse and the head louse. These ecotypes are morphologically and genetically notably similar; the body louse is responsible for three infectious diseases: Louse-borne epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Mitochondrial DNA studies have shown that there are three obviously divergent clades of head lice (A, B and C), and only one clade of body lice is shared with head lice (clade A). Each clade has a unique geographic distribution. Lice have been parasitizing humans for millions of years and likely dispersed throughout the World with the human migrations out of Africa, so they can be good markers for studying human evolution. Here, we present an overview of the origin of human lice and their role in vector pathogenic bacteria that caused epidemics, and we review the association between lice clades and human migrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Vertical transmission of feather lice between adult blackbirds Turdus merula and their nestlings: a lousy perspective.

    PubMed

    Brooke, M de L

    2010-12-01

    There is limited information about the natural history of the transmission of feather lice (Phthiraptera) from parent birds to their young. This article therefore examines the transmission of 4 species of feather lice from parent blackbirds to their nestlings in an English population, and addresses questions formulated from the perspective of the lice. The lice that disperse onto the several young in the nest were mostly found on the larger chicks, those with higher survival prospects. The lice dispersing to chicks were overwhelmingly nymphs, which cannot be sexed morphologically, and so the prediction that the adult lice dispersing would be disproportionately female, potential founders of a new population, was only supported for the most numerous species, Brueelia merulensis. There was no evidence that louse dispersal to chicks was density dependent and more likely when the parents were more heavily infested. Finally, I predicted that lice might aggregate on female blackbirds, which undertake more brooding, to increase their chance of transmission to nestlings. For 1 louse species, B. merulensis, prevalence, but not louse intensity, was higher on female than male blackbirds. For 2 other louse species, Philopterus turdi and Menacanthus eurysternus, no differences between male and female blackbirds were detected.

  9. Mapping the social network: tracking lice in a wild primate (Microcebus rufus) population to infer social contacts and vector potential

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of host-parasite interactions have the potential to provide insights into the ecology of both organisms involved. We monitored the movement of sucking lice (Lemurpediculus verruculosus), parasites that require direct host-host contact to be transferred, in their host population of wild mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus). These lemurs live in the rainforests of Madagascar, are small (40 g), arboreal, nocturnal, solitary foraging primates for which data on population-wide interactions are difficult to obtain. We developed a simple, cost effective method exploiting the intimate relationship between louse and lemur, whereby individual lice were marked, without removal from their host, with an individualized code, and tracked throughout the lemur population. We then tested the hypotheses that 1) the frequency of louse transfers, and thus interactions, would decrease with increasing distance between paired individual lemurs; 2) due to host polygynandry, social interactions and hence louse transfers would increase during the onset of the breeding season; and 3) individual mouse lemurs would vary in their contributions to the spread of lice. Results We show that louse transfers involved 43.75% of the studied lemur population, exclusively males. Louse transfers peaked during the breeding season, perhaps due to increased social interactions between lemurs. Although trap-based individual lemur ranging patterns are restricted, louse transfer rate does not correlate with the distance between lemur trapping locales, indicating wider host ranging behavior and a greater risk of rapid population-wide pathogen transmission than predicted by standard trapping data alone. Furthermore, relatively few lemur individuals contributed disproportionately to the rapid spread of lice throughout the population. Conclusions Using a simple method, we were able to visualize exchanges of lice in a population of cryptic wild primates. This method not only provided insight into the

  10. Geographical distribution of pyrethroid resistance allele frequency in head lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Ascunce, Marina S; Reed, David; Picollo, María Inés

    2014-01-01

    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), is an obligate ectoparasite that causes pediculosis capitis and has parasitized humans since the beginning of humankind. Head louse infestations are widespread throughout the world and have been increasing since the early 1990s partially because of ineffective pediculicides. In Argentina, the overuse of products containing pyrethroids has led to the development of resistant louse populations. Pyrethroid insecticides act on the nervous system affecting voltage-sensitive sodium channels. Three point mutations at the corresponding amino acid sequence positions M815I, T917I, and L920F in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene are responsible for contributing to knockdown resistance (kdr). The management of pyrethroid resistance requires either early detection or the characterization of the mechanisms involved in head louse populations. In the current study, we estimated the distribution of kdr alleles in 154 head lice from six geographical regions of Argentina. Pyrethroid resistance kdr alleles were found in high frequencies ranging from 67 to 100%. Of these, 131 (85.1%) were homozygous resistant, 13 (8.4%) were homozygous susceptible, and 10 (6.5%) were heterozygous. Exact tests for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for each location showed that genotype frequencies differed significantly from expectation in four of the six sites studied. These results show that pyrethroid resistance is well established reaching an overall frequency of 88%, thus close to fixation. With 30 yr of pyrethroid-based pediculicides use in Argentina, kdr resistance has evolved rapidly among these head louse populations.

  11. Accipiter hawks (Accipitridae) confirmed as definitive hosts of Sarcocystis turdusi, Sarcocystis cornixi and Sarcocystis sp. ex Phalacrocorax carbo.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Sylvia L; Maier, Kristina; Müller, Jana; Enderlein, Dirk; Gruber, Achim D; Lierz, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Sarcocystis is a large genus of protozoan parasites with complex heteroxenous life cycles. For many species, either the intermediate or the definitive host is still unknown. In this study, 116 Accipiter hawks (Eurasian sparrowhawks and northern goshawks) were investigated for the presence of Sarcocystis spp. in their intestinal tract or their faeces. To gain a wide distribution, samples were collected throughout Germany within 2 years. It was possible to detect Sarcocystis-like oocysts in 65 samples. Sequencing of the ITS region or species-specific PCR identified 33 samples as Sarcocystis turdusi/Sarcocystis sp. ex A. nisus (18), Sarcocystis calchasi (6), Sarcocystis columbae (3), Sarcocystis cornixi (3) and Sarcocystis sp. ex Phalacrocorax carbo (3). Besides the known infestation with S. columbae, S. sp. ex A. nisus and S. calchasi the Accipiter hawks were thereby confirmed as definitive host of S. turdusi, S. cornixi and S. sp. ex Phalacrocorax carbo for the first time.

  12. High prevalence of Sarcocystis calchasi sporocysts in European Accipiter hawks.

    PubMed

    Olias, Philipp; Olias, Lena; Krücken, Jürgen; Lierz, Michael; Gruber, Achim D

    2011-02-10

    The emerging Sarcocystis calchasi induces a severe and lethal central nervous disease in its intermediate host, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica). Experimental studies have identified the Northern goshawk (Accipiter g. gentilis) as final host. Phylogenetically closely related European sparrowhawks (Accipiter n. nisus) and wood pigeons (Columba palumbus) have been found to harbor genetically closely related Sarcocystis spp. However, data on the prevalence and potential interspecies occurrence of these parasites are lacking. Here, we report that European Accipiter hawks (Accipitrinae) are highly infected with S. calchasi, S. columbae and Sarcocystis sp. ex A. nisus in their small intestine. Thirty-one of 50 (62%) Northern goshawks necropsied during 1997-2008 were positive for S. calchasi in a newly established species-specific semi-nested PCR assay based on the first internal transcribed spacer region. Unexpectedly, 14 of 20 (71.4%) European sparrowhawks tested also positive. In addition, birds of both species were found to be infested with S. columbae and an, as yet, unnamed Sarcocystis sp. recently isolated from European sparrowhawks. These findings raise new questions about the host specificity of S. calchasi and its high virulence in domestic pigeons, since sparrowhawks only rarely prey on pigeons. Notably, isolated sporocysts from both infected Accipiter spp. measured 8 μm × 11.9 μm, precluding a preliminary identification of S. calchasi in feces of Accipiter hawks based on morphology alone. Importantly, three of four Northern goshawks used in falconry tested positive for S. calchasi. In conclusion, the results indicate that both European Accipter spp. in Germany serve as natural final hosts of S. calchasi and suggest that falconry and pigeon sport may serve as risk factors for the spread of this pathogen in domestic pigeons. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sarcocystis calchasi encephalitis in a rock pigeon.

    PubMed

    Ushio, Nanako; Watanabe, Ken-ichi; Chambers, James K; Shibato, Tokuhiro; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Kazuyuki

    2015-11-01

    A rock pigeon (Columba livia) caught in Akihabara, Tokyo, showed neurological symptoms, such as head tilt and circling. Pathological examinations revealed abundant Sarcocystic cysts in the skeletal muscle and myocardium with mild myositis, and numerous schizonts and sarcocysts with severe multifocal granulomatous T-lymphocytic infiltration in the central nervous system. A Sarcocystis calchasi-specific gene was detected in the muscle and brain. This case indicates S. calchasi was distributed in Japan and caused severe encephalitis to rock pigeons.

  14. New records and a new species of chewing lice (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera) found on Columbidae (Columbiformes) in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Naz, Saima; Sychra, Oldrich; Rizvi, Syed Anser

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The chewing lice (Phthiraptera) of Columbidae (Columbiformes) from Pakistan are studied. Six species of chewing lice with new host records are recorded and one new species of the genus Colpocephalum is described from Columba livia in the Karachi region. All the columbid chewing lice from Pakistan are keyed out and the new species is illustrated and compared with the closest allied species. PMID:22451786

  15. The Distribution and Diversity of Bartonella Species in Rodents and Their Ectoparasites across Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Klangthong, Kewalin; Promsthaporn, Sommai; Leepitakrat, Surachai; Schuster, Anthony L.; McCardle, Patrick W.; Kosoy, Michael; Takhampunya, Ratree

    2015-01-01

    Our study highlights the surveillance of Bartonella species among rodents and their associated ectoparasites (ticks, fleas, lice, and mites) in several regions across Thailand. A total of 619 rodents and 554 pooled ectoparasites (287 mite pools, 62 flea pools, 35 louse pools, and 170 tick pools) were collected from 8 provinces within 4 regions of Thailand. Bandicota indica (279), Rattus rattus (163), and R. exulans (96) were the most prevalent species of rats collected in this study. Real-time PCR assay targeting Bartonella-specific ssrA gene was used for screening and each positive sample was confirmed by PCR using nuoG gene. The prevalence of Bartonella DNA in rodent (around 17%) was recorded in all regions. The highest prevalence of Bartonella species was found in B. savilei and R. rattus with the rate of 35.7% (5/14) and 32.5% (53/163), respectively. High prevalence of Bartonella-positive rodent was also found in B. indica (15.1%, 42/279), and R. norvegicus (12.5%, 5/40). In contrast, the prevalence of Bartonella species in ectoparasites collected from the rats varied significantly according to types of ectoparasites. A high prevalence of Bartonella DNA was found in louse pools (Polyplax spp. and Hoplopleura spp., 57.1%) and flea pools (Xenopsylla cheopis, 25.8%), while a low prevalence was found in pools of mites (Leptotrombidium spp. and Ascoschoengastia spp., 1.7%) and ticks (Haemaphysalis spp., 3.5%). Prevalence of Bartonella DNA in ectoparasites collected from Bartonella-positive rodents (19.4%) was significantly higher comparing to ectoparasites from Bartonella-negative rodents (8.7%). The phylogenetic analysis of 41 gltA sequences of 16 Bartonella isolates from rodent blood and 25 Bartonella-positive ectoparasites revealed a wide range of diversity among Bartonella species with a majority of sequences (61.0%) belonging to Bartonella elizabethae complex (11 rodents, 1 mite pool, and 5 louse pools), while the remaining sequences were identical to B

  16. Phylogenomic and functional analyses of salmon lice aquaporins uncover the molecular diversity of the superfamily in Arthropoda.

    PubMed

    Stavang, Jon Anders; Chauvigné, Francois; Kongshaug, Heidi; Cerdà, Joan; Nilsen, Frank; Finn, Roderick Nigel

    2015-08-19

    An emerging field in biomedical research is focusing on the roles of aquaporin water channels in parasites that cause debilitating or lethal diseases to their vertebrate hosts. The primary vectorial agents are hematophagous arthropods, including mosquitoes, flies, ticks and lice, however very little is known concerning the functional diversity of aquaporins in non-insect members of the Arthropoda. Here we conducted phylogenomic and functional analyses of aquaporins in the salmon louse, a marine ectoparasitic copepod that feeds on the skin and body fluids of salmonids, and used the primary structures of the isolated channels to uncover the genomic repertoires in Arthropoda. Genomic screening identified 7 aquaporin paralogs in the louse in contrast to 42 in its host the Atlantic salmon. Phylogenetic inference of the louse nucleotides and proteins in relation to orthologs identified in Chelicerata, Myriapoda, Crustacea and Hexapoda revealed that the arthropod aquaporin superfamily can be classified into three major grades (1) classical aquaporins including Big brain (Bib) and Prip-like (PripL) channels (2) aquaglyceroporins (Glp) and (3) unorthodox aquaporins (Aqp12-like). In Hexapoda, two additional subfamilies exist as Drip and a recently classified entomoglyceroporin (Eglp) group. Cloning and remapping the louse cDNAs to the genomic DNA revealed that they are encoded by 1-7 exons, with two of the Glps being expressed as N-terminal splice variants (Glp1_v1, -1_v2, -3_v1, -3_v2). Heterologous expression of the cRNAs in amphibian oocytes demonstrated that PripL transports water and urea, while Bib does not. Glp1_v1, -2, -3_v1 and -3_v2 each transport water, glycerol and urea, while Glp1_v2 and the Aqp12-like channels were retained intracellularly. Transcript abundance analyses revealed expression of each louse paralog at all developmental stages, except for glp1_v1, which is specific to preadult and adult males. Our data suggest that the aquaporin repertoires of

  17. The Distribution and Diversity of Bartonella Species in Rodents and Their Ectoparasites across Thailand.

    PubMed

    Klangthong, Kewalin; Promsthaporn, Sommai; Leepitakrat, Surachai; Schuster, Anthony L; McCardle, Patrick W; Kosoy, Michael; Takhampunya, Ratree

    2015-01-01

    Our study highlights the surveillance of Bartonella species among rodents and their associated ectoparasites (ticks, fleas, lice, and mites) in several regions across Thailand. A total of 619 rodents and 554 pooled ectoparasites (287 mite pools, 62 flea pools, 35 louse pools, and 170 tick pools) were collected from 8 provinces within 4 regions of Thailand. Bandicota indica (279), Rattus rattus (163), and R. exulans (96) were the most prevalent species of rats collected in this study. Real-time PCR assay targeting Bartonella-specific ssrA gene was used for screening and each positive sample was confirmed by PCR using nuoG gene. The prevalence of Bartonella DNA in rodent (around 17%) was recorded in all regions. The highest prevalence of Bartonella species was found in B. savilei and R. rattus with the rate of 35.7% (5/14) and 32.5% (53/163), respectively. High prevalence of Bartonella-positive rodent was also found in B. indica (15.1%, 42/279), and R. norvegicus (12.5%, 5/40). In contrast, the prevalence of Bartonella species in ectoparasites collected from the rats varied significantly according to types of ectoparasites. A high prevalence of Bartonella DNA was found in louse pools (Polyplax spp. and Hoplopleura spp., 57.1%) and flea pools (Xenopsylla cheopis, 25.8%), while a low prevalence was found in pools of mites (Leptotrombidium spp. and Ascoschoengastia spp., 1.7%) and ticks (Haemaphysalis spp., 3.5%). Prevalence of Bartonella DNA in ectoparasites collected from Bartonella-positive rodents (19.4%) was significantly higher comparing to ectoparasites from Bartonella-negative rodents (8.7%). The phylogenetic analysis of 41 gltA sequences of 16 Bartonella isolates from rodent blood and 25 Bartonella-positive ectoparasites revealed a wide range of diversity among Bartonella species with a majority of sequences (61.0%) belonging to Bartonella elizabethae complex (11 rodents, 1 mite pool, and 5 louse pools), while the remaining sequences were identical to B

  18. Occurrence of gastrointestinal and renal helminths in Zenaida auriculata (Des Murs, 1847) trap-captured from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Taroda, Alessandra; de Barros, Luiz Daniel; Zulpo, Dauton Luiz; da Cunha, Ivo Alexandre Leme; Paiva, Milaine Cristiane Dantas Custódio; Sammi, Ana Sue; dos Santos, Joeleni Rosa; Yamamura, Milton Hissashi; Vidotto, Odilon; Garcia, João Luis

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal and renal helminths from naturally infected Zenaida auriculata captured in Londrina, Paraná State. Two hundred and one Eared doves were trapped and the gastrointestinal and renal helminths were collected and identified according to morphological structures. One hundred and sixteen (57.71%) doves were parasitized by helminths with specific prevalences for Ornithostrongylus quadriradiatus in 50 doves (24.88%), Ascaridia columbae in 47 (23.38%), Paratanaisia bragai and P. confusa in 34 (16.92%), Tetrameres fissispina in 17 (8.46%), Synhimantus nasuta in 14 (6.47%), Brachylaima mazzantii in 4 (1.99%) and Raillietina allomyodes in 2 doves (1.00%). Seventy four/201 (37.00%) birds were infected with only one species, and 96/201 (48.00%) pigeons were infected with nematodes. The association between different classes of helminths occurred in 40/201 (20.00%) animals. The results showed statistically differences between the presence of nematode (p = 0.00001) and trematode species (p ≤ 0.05) in the doves, and there was an association between the local of capture and the presence of trematodes and A. columbae (p ≤ 0.05). This study is the first to report the infection of Z. auriculata from Brazil with O. quadriradiatus, A. columbae, T. fissispina, S. nasuta, R. allomyodes, P. bragai and P. confusa.

  19. Unveiling new members in five nearby young moving groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moór, A.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Kiss, L. L.; Kiss, Cs.; Ábrahám, P.; Szulágyi, J.; Kóspál, Á.; Szalai, T.

    2013-10-01

    In the past decade many kinematic groups of young stars (<100 Myr) were discovered in the solar neighbourhood. Since the most interesting period of planet formation overlaps with the age of these groups, their well dated members are attractive targets for exoplanet searches by direct imaging. We combined astrometric, photometric and X-ray data, and applied strict selection criteria to explore the stellar content of five nearby moving groups. We identified more than 100 potential new candidate members in the β Pic moving group, and in the Tucana-Horologium, Columba, Carina and Argus associations. In order to further assess and confirm their membership status, we analysed radial velocity data and lithium equivalent widths extracted from high-resolution spectra of 54 candidate stars. We identified 35 new probable/possible young moving group members: four in the β Pic moving group, 11 in the Columba association, 16 in the Carina association and four in the Argus association. We found serendipitously a new AB Dor moving group member as well. For four Columba systems Hipparcos-based parallaxes have already been available and as they are consistent with the predicted kinematic parallaxes, they can be considered as secure new members.

  20. Synanthropic birds and parasites.

    PubMed

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Borrelli, Luca; Pepe, Paola; Fioretti, Alessandro; Caputo, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the parasitologic findings for 60 synanthropic bird carcasses recovered in the Campania region of southern Italy. Birds consisted of 20 yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis), 15 rock pigeons (Columba livia), 15 common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and 10 carrion crows (Corvus corone). Each carcass was examined to detect the presence of ectoparasites and then necropsied to detect helminths. Ectoparasites occurred in 100% of the birds examined. In particular, chewing lice were recovered with a prevalence of 100%, whereas Pseudolynchia canariensis (Hippoboscidae) were found only in pigeons with a prevalence of 80%. Regarding endoparasites, a total of seven helminth species were identified: three nematodes (Ascaridia columbae, Capillaria columbae, Physaloptera alata), one cestoda (Raillietina tetragona), one trematoda (Cardiocephalus longicollis), and two acanthocephalans (Centrorhynchus globocaudatus and Centrorhynchus buteonis). The findings of the present study add data to the parasitologic scenario of synanthropic birds. This is important because parasitic infection can lead to serious health problems when combined with other factors and may affect flying performance and predatory effectiveness.

  1. Oral ivermectin in the treatment of body lice.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Cedric; Ranque, Stephane; Badiaga, Sekene; Rovery, Clarisse; Raoult, Didier; Brouqui, Philippe

    2006-02-01

    The mainstays of treatment of body-louse infestation in humans in a community setting are insecticides and the removal of infested clothing. We report here the dramatic effect that 3 doses of oral ivermectin (12 mg each), administered at 7-day intervals, have in reducing the total number of body lice in a cohort of homeless men from a shelter in Marseilles, France. We identified a baseline total of 1898 lice in the cohort. Over a 14-day period, this number fell to 6 lice; the prevalence of infested individuals fell from 84.9% to 18.5%. Although this effect was not sustained at day 45, it establishes that ivermectin plays a novel role in the control of body-louse infestation in humans.

  2. Why infest the loved ones--inherent human behaviour indicates former mutualism with head lice.

    PubMed

    Rózsa, Lajos; Apari, Péter

    2012-05-01

    Head lice transmit to new hosts when people lean their heads together. Humans frequently touch their heads to express friendship or love, while this behaviour is absent in apes. We hypothesize that this behaviour was adaptive because it enabled people to acquire head lice infestations as early as possible to provoke an immune response effective against both head lice and body lice throughout the subsequent periods of their life. This cross-immunity could provide some defence against the body-louse-borne lethal diseases like epidemic typhus, trench fever, relapsing fever and the classical plague. Thus the human 'touching heads' behaviour probably acts as an inherent and unconscious 'vaccination' against body lice to reduce the threat exposed by the pathogens they may transmit. Recently, the eradication of body-louse-borne diseases rendered the transmission of head lice a maladaptive, though still widespread, behaviour in developed societies.

  3. Reinterpreting the origins of flamingo lice: cospeciation or host-switching?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kevin P; Kennedy, Martyn; McCracken, Kevin G

    2006-06-22

    The similarity of the louse faunas of flamingos and ducks has been used as evidence that these two groups of birds are closely related. However, the realization that ducks actually are more closely related to Galliformes caused many workers to reinterpret this similarity in parasite faunas as host switching from ducks to flamingos. Recent unexpected phylogenetic results on the relationships of waterbirds and their lice call for a reinterpretation of the origins of the lice of the enigmatic flamingos. Here, we bring together new evidence on the phylogenetic relationships of flamingos and their lice and show that the lice of flamingos and grebes are closely related because their hosts share a common ancestor (cospeciation). We also demonstrate that the similarity of the louse faunas of flamingos and ducks is a result of host switching from flamingos to ducks, rather than from ducks to flamingos.

  4. Efficacy of alphacypermetrin pour-on against natural Werneckiella equi infestation on donkeys (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Veneziano, Vincenzo; Neglia, Gianluca; Galietti, Alfredo; Rufrano, Domenico; Bassini, Andrea; Mariani, Ugo; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2012-09-01

    The chewing louse Werneckiella equi is an ectoparasite of donkeys and other equids. Alphacypermethrin (ACYP) is a pyrethroid insecticide commonly used for the control of insects of veterinary and public health concerns. A trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of ACYP against W. equi on naturally infested donkeys. Parasitological investigations were performed on 13 animals. On day 0, the donkeys received ACYP pour-on at the manufacturer's recommended dose rate for cattle. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 at seven predilection sites on the skin of each donkey. ACYP was completely effective (100 %) from day 7, until the end of the study. ACYP was well tolerated by all animals as there were no observed clinical adverse reactions. ACYP was highly effective, safe, user-friendly, and considered to be suitable for the treatment of donkeys for W. equi infestation.

  5. Evidence of Rickettsia prowazekii infections in the United States.

    PubMed

    McDade, J E; Shepard, C C; Redus, M A; Newhouse, V F; Smith, J D

    1980-03-01

    From January 1976 through January 1979 serum specimens from 1,575 individuals were received at the Center for Disease Control and tested for antibodies to rickettsiae. Of these, sera from eight persons gave serological results indicative of recent infections with epidemic typhus rickettsiae (Rickettsia prowazekii). Five of the persons were from Georgia, and one each was from Tennessee, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts. The illnesses occurred during the winter, chiefly in persons living in a rural environment. The clinical picture was compatible with louse-borne epidemic typhus. There was no apparent contact with human body or head lice, and no cases occurred in patient contacts, indicating that infection was not associated with the classic man-louse-man cycle of epidemic typhus. Two of the eight patients had contact with flying squirrels suggesting that they became infected from this known extrahuman reservoir of R. prowazekii.

  6. Prevalence of pediculosis capitis and determination of risk factors in primary-school children in Kerman.

    PubMed

    Kamiabi, F; Nakhaei, F Hosain

    2005-01-01

    This descriptive, analytical study was carried out in 2003 to determine the prevalence of pediculosis capitis and some risk factors among primary-school pupils in Kerman. We selected 1200 pupils (53% girls) from 50 primary schools by multistage, systematic random sampling. Their hair was examined for head louse infestation: 45 (3.8%) were infected with lice, 43 (95.5%) girls and 2 (4.5%) boys. The highest rate of infestation was in 9-year-olds. There was a significant relationship between head louse infestation and sex (P < 0.0001), age (P < 0.05), parents' education (P < 0.0001), father's job (P < 0.01), family size (P < 0.01), length of hair (P < 0.0001) and having separate bathing facilities in the house (P < 0.0001).

  7. Efficacy of products to remove eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from the human hair.

    PubMed

    Lapeere, Hilde; Brochez, Lieve; Verhaeghe, Evelien; Stichele, Robert H Vander; Remon, Jean-Paul; Lambert, Jo; Leybaert, Luc

    2014-03-01

    Head lice infestations are very common in children aged between 3 and 12 yr old. The eggs of the head louse are difficult to remove and remain firmly attached to the hair even after any head louse treatment. Solid in vitro and in vivo evidence to support the use of any of the proposed products to facilitate nit removal is scarce. The objective of the current study was to determine the efficacy of several products to remove eggshells from human hair using an objective measurement procedure. Water and ordinary hair conditioner significantly facilitated the removal of nits in vitro. We found no difference between ordinary conditioner and products specifically marketed for the purpose of nit removal. Other products such as formic acid solution and almond oil did not have a beneficial effect.

  8. Socioeconomical Factors Associated With Pediculosis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) in Athens, Greece.

    PubMed

    Tagka, Anna; Lambrou, George I; Braoudaki, Maria; Panagiotopoulos, Takis; Papanikolaou, Eleni; Laggas, Dimitris

    2016-07-01

    Pediculosis in humans and especially in children is a very common dermatological disorder caused by the ectoparasite Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer. We investigated the socioeconomic factors affecting the prevalence of pediculosis in the Greek urban area of Athens during 2004-2006. The target population consisted of children from kindergartens. In total, 434 children from single- or two-parent families were investigated with respect to socioeconomic factors such as education, income and family composition, and the prevalence of pediculosis. The overall pediculosis rate was 5.30%. Head louse infestations were significantly higher in female children and in two-parent families. Lice infestations peaked in low- and medium-income families. Head louse infestation rates were influenced by income, parents' education, and nationality. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Ectoparasites (Acari, Mallophaga, Anoplura, Diptera) of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, from southern Florida.

    PubMed

    Forrester, D J; McLaughlin, G S; Telford, S R; Foster, G W; McCown, J W

    1996-01-01

    During a 7-yr period (1984-1990), 300 white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), from 7 localities in Collier, Dade, and Monroe counties in southern Florida were examined for ectoparasites. Eight species were identified: 4 ticks [Ixodes scapularis Say, I. affinis Neumann, Amblyomma maculatum (Koch), and Dermacentor variabilis (Say)], 1 chigger mite [Eutrombicula splendens (Ewing)], 1 ked (Lipoptena mazamae Rondani), 1 chewing louse [Tricholipeurus lipeuroides (Megnin)], and 1 sucking louse [Solenopotes binipilosus (Fahrenholz)]. The most widely distributed and prevalent species were the deer ked L. mazamae and the blacklegged tick I. scapularis, both of which occurred in all 7 localities, in all years, and in all age classes of deer. Their overall prevalences were 82 and 22%, respectively. The prevalence of L. mazamae varied significantly by month. L. mazamae should be considered a core ectoparasite species of white-tailed deer in southern Florida because of its specificity, distribution, and high prevalence.

  10. [Spotted fever and the invention of its serodiagnosis and vaccination in the Austro-Hungarian army in World War I].

    PubMed

    Flamm, Heinz

    2015-04-01

    After description of the medical institutions and epidemiological situations of the Austro-Hungarian army in World War I the provisions against spotted fever focused on louse control are discussed. The letter specified for the army had to be adjusted for the local populations. 1915 in the k.u.k. military service in Galicia Edmund Weil and Arthur Felix cultivated Proteus strains from urine of soldiers with spotted fever. As sera of such patients agglutinated these bacteria in considerable titers the investigators developed the reliable diagnostic "Weil-Felix-Test" used still today. In the same military area and time Rudolf Weigl invented the anal infection of lice. This enabled him to harvest a great amount of louse intestines containing the spotted fever Rickettsiae in their epithelial cells. Lots with defined numbers of intestines were homogenized, sterilized and used with success as vaccine for medical staff. This sort of vaccine still was used in World War II.

  11. The prevalence of ectoparasites in Ethiopian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, K Y; Miller, J; Manor, O; Ben-Yshai, F; Klaus, S

    1993-01-01

    Newly arrived Ethiopian immigrants in Israel were screened for ectoparasitic insects and mites. Of 304 individuals examined 65.1% were infested with the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis). The infestation rate among children varied between 65 and 100%. Children aged 6-11 years were the most infested group and no differences between girls and boys were found. The infestation rate in children was significantly higher than that found in adults. Approximately 39% of those examined were infested with the body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus). The rate of infestation with this parasite was higher in adults than in children and higher in females than males. Ten percent of the immigrants examined were infested with the scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) and 4.3% with the human flea (Pulex irritans).

  12. Origin of Clothing Lice Indicates Early Clothing Use by Anatomically Modern Humans in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Toups, Melissa A.; Kitchen, Andrew; Light, Jessica E.; Reed, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Clothing use is an important modern behavior that contributed to the successful expansion of humans into higher latitudes and cold climates. Previous research suggests that clothing use originated anywhere between 40,000 and 3 Ma, though there is little direct archaeological, fossil, or genetic evidence to support more specific estimates. Since clothing lice evolved from head louse ancestors once humans adopted clothing, dating the emergence of clothing lice may provide more specific estimates of the origin of clothing use. Here, we use a Bayesian coalescent modeling approach to estimate that clothing lice diverged from head louse ancestors at least by 83,000 and possibly as early as 170,000 years ago. Our analysis suggests that the use of clothing likely originated with anatomically modern humans in Africa and reinforces a broad trend of modern human developments in Africa during the Middle to Late Pleistocene. PMID:20823373

  13. Studies of Ancient Lice Reveal Unsuspected Past Migrations of Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Drali, Rezak; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Yesilyurt, Gonca; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Lice are among the oldest parasites of humans representing an excellent marker of the evolution and migration of our species over time. Here, we analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) developed in this study the mitochondrial DNA of seven ancient head louse eggs found on hair remains recovered from two sites in Israel: 1) five nits dating from Chalcolithic period (4,000 bc) were found in the Cave of the Treasure located at Nahal Mishmar, in the Judean Desert and 2) two nits dating from Early Islamic Period (ad 650–810) were found in Nahal Omer in the Arava Valley (between Dead Sea and Red Sea). Our results suggest that these eggs belonged to people originating from west Africa based on identification of the louse mitochondrial sub-clade specific to that region. PMID:26078