Sample records for low-cost space access

  1. The Space Shuttle: An Attempt at Low-Cost, Routine Access to Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    thinking on new heavy-lift launch systems. The thesis objective is to show the Space Shuttle was an attempt at developing a routine, low-cost access to... development costs were those used to create a launch facility at Vandenburg Air Force Base. DOD agreed in 1971 not to develop any new launch vehicles...booster. • To reduce the design weight of the Shuttle so as not to decrease the 65,000 pound payload capability. * To develop a new thermal protection

  2. REUSABLE PROPULSION ARCHITECTURE FOR SUSTAINABLE LOW-COST ACCESS TO SPACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonometti, J. A.; Dankanich, J. W.; Frame, K. L.

    2005-01-01

    The primary obstacle to any space-based mission is, and has always been, the cost of access to space. Even with impressive efforts toward reusability, no system has come close to lowering the cost a significant amount. It is postulated here, that architectural innovation is necessary to make reusability feasible, not incremental subsystem changes. This paper shows two architectural approaches of reusability that merit further study investments. Both #inherently# have performance increases and cost advantages to make affordable access to space a near term reality. A rocket launched from a subsonic aircraft (specifically the Crossbow methodology) and a momentum exchange tether, reboosted by electrodynamics, offer possibilities of substantial reductions in the total transportation architecture mass - making access-to-space cost-effective. They also offer intangible benefits that reduce risk or offer large growth potential. The cost analysis indicates that approximately a 50% savings is obtained using today#s aerospace materials and practices.

  3. Maglev Launch: Ultra-low Cost, Ultra-high Volume Access to Space for Cargo and Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Rather, John

    2010-01-01

    Despite decades of efforts to reduce rocket launch costs, improvements are marginal. Launch cost to LEO for cargo is ~$10,000 per kg of payload, and to higher orbit and beyond much greater. Human access to the ISS costs $20 million for a single passenger. Unless launch costs are greatly reduced, large scale commercial use and human exploration of the solar system will not occur. A new approach for ultra low cost access to space-Maglev Launch-magnetically accelerates levitated spacecraft to orbital speeds, 8 km/sec or more, in evacuated tunnels on the surface, using Maglev technology like that operating in Japan for high speed passenger transport. The cost of electric energy to reach orbital speed is less than $1 per kilogram of payload. Two Maglev launch systems are described, the Gen-1System for unmanned cargo craft to orbit and Gen-2, for large-scale access of human to space. Magnetically levitated and propelled Gen-1 cargo craft accelerate in a 100 kilometer long evacuated tunnel, entering the atmosphere at the tunnel exit, which is located in high altitude terrain (~5000 meters) through an electrically powered ``MHD Window'' that prevents outside air from flowing into the tunnel. The Gen-1 cargo craft then coasts upwards to space where a small rocket burn, ~0.5 km/sec establishes, the final orbit. The Gen-1 reference design launches a 40 ton, 2 meter diameter spacecraft with 35 tons of payload. At 12 launches per day, a single Gen-1 facility could launch 150,000 tons annually. Using present costs for tunneling, superconductors, cryogenic equipment, materials, etc., the projected construction cost for the Gen-1 facility is 20 billion dollars. Amortization cost, plus Spacecraft and O&M costs, total $43 per kg of payload. For polar orbit launches, sites exist in Alaska, Russia, and China. For equatorial orbit launches, sites exist in the Andes and Africa. With funding, the Gen-1 system could operate by 2020 AD. The Gen-2 system requires more advanced technology

  4. URSA MAIOR: a One Liter Nanosatellite Bus for Low Cost Access to Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoni, F.

    One of the main limitations in the access to space for developing countries is the economical effort typically required by space missions. Secondly, space activity is a field of very high technology, requiring technical skills, education and practice, at a level which is seldom reached by developing countries. Interventions aimed to facilitate access to space for developing countries should be focussed primarily on the missions allowing access to space at reasonable cost. Moreover, perhaps more importantly, they should emphasize conducting the mission design, construction, ground testing and operation in orbit as an open activity, accessible to developing countries personnel, in order to set up an education process, which is not just selling a product ready satellite. Universities could have a very important role in this activity. Many Universities around the world have designed, built and launched small satellites. Università di Roma "La Sapienza" set up a program for the construction of small satellites in an academic environment, involving directly the students in the design, construction, ground testing and operation in orbit. The first satellite built in the framework of this program, UNISAT, was successfully launched in September 2000. The second, UNISAT-2, initially scheduled for launch in 2001, has been delayed by the launch provider to late 2002. These two satellites, based on a modular design, emphasizing ease of construction and assembly, weight roughly 10 kg. The realization of these satellites was made possible within the regular financing given to university research programs, keeping down cost by the use of commercial off the shelf components instead of space rated ones. The microsatellite experience at Università di Roma "La Sapienza", is going further with the development of a new nanosatellite bus, URSA MAIOR (Università di Roma "la SApienza" Micro Autonomous Imager in ORbit), aiming at cutting down cost and possibly improving performance. The

  5. Innovative approach for low-cost quick-access small payload missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friis, Jan W., Jr.

    2000-11-01

    A significant part of the burgeoning commercial space industry is placing an unprecedented number of satellites into low earth orbit for a variety of new applications and services. By some estimates the commercial space industry now exceeds that of government space activities. Yet the two markets remain largely separate, with each deploying dedicated satellites and infrastructure for their respective missions. One commercial space firm, Final Analysis, has created a new program wherein either government, scientific or new technology payloads can be integrated on a commercial spacecraft on commercial satellites for a variety of mission scenarios at a fraction of the cost of a dedicated mission. NASA has recognized the advantage of this approach, and has awarded the Quick Ride program to provide frequent, low cost flight opportunities for small independent payloads aboard the Final Analysis constellation, and investigators are rapidly developing science programs that conform to the proposed payload accommodations envelope. Missions that were not feasible using dedicated launches are now receiving approval under the lower cost Quick Ride approach. Final Analysis has dedicated ten out of its thirty-eight satellites in support of the Quick Ride efforts. The benefit of this type of space access extend beyond NASA science programs. Commercial space firms can now gain valuable flight heritage for new technology and satellite product offerings. Further, emerging international space programs can now place a payload in orbit enabling the country to allocate its resources against the payload and mission requirements rather htan increased launch costs of a dedicated spacecraft. Finally, the low cost nature provides University-based research educational opportunities previously out of the reach of most space-related budgets. This paper will describe the motivation, benefits, technical features, and program costs of the Final Analysis secondary payload program. Payloads can be

  6. The Implications of Lowering the Cost to Access Space on Airpower

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    1 The Implications of Lowering the Cost to Access Space on Airpower Major Gabe Arrington School of Advanced Air and Space Studies...2017 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release: distribution unlimited 2 Disclaimer Opinions, conclusions, and recommendations...implications that lowering the cost to access space will have on Airpower. The research conducted used predominantly qualitative research techniques to

  7. Orion: Design of a system for assured low-cost human access to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvander, Josh; Heifetz, Andy; Hunt, Teresa; Zhu, Martin

    1994-01-01

    In recent years, Congress and the American people have begun to seriously question the role and importance of future manned spaceflight. This is mainly due to two factors: a decline in technical competition caused by the collapse of communism, and the high costs associated with the Space Shuttle transportation system. With these factors in mind, the ORION system was designed to enable manned spaceflight at a low cost, while maintaining the ability to carry out diverse missions, each with a high degree of flexibility. It is capable of performing satellite servicing missions, supporting a space station via crew rotation and resupply, and delivering satellites into geosynchronous orbit. The components of the system are a primary launch module, an upper stage, and a manned spacecraft capable of dynamic reentry. For satellite servicing and space station resupply missions, the ORION system utilizes three primary modules, an upper stage, and the spacecraft, which is delivered to low earth orbit and used to rendezvous, transfer materials, and make repairs. For launching a geosynchronous satellite, one primary module and an upper stage are used to deliver the satellite, along with an apogee kick motor, into orbit. The system is designed with reusability and modularity in mind in an attempt to lower cost.

  8. Design guide for space shuttle low-cost payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A handbook is presented which delineates the principles of the new low-cost design methodology for designers of unmanned payloads to be carried by the space shuttle. The basic relationships between payload designs and program cost effects are discussed, and some concepts for designing low-cost payloads and implementing low-cost programs are given. The data are summarized from a payloads effects study of three unmanned earth satellites (OAO, a syneq orbiter, and a small research satellite), and the earth satellite design is emphasized. Brief summaries of space shuttle and space tug performance, environmental, and interface data pertinent to low-cost payload concepts are included.

  9. Low-cost space flight for attached payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Frederick W.

    1991-07-01

    An important addition to the emerging commercial space sector is Standard Space Platforms Corporation's comprehensive low-cost flight service delivery system for small and developmental payloads. Standard provides a privately funded, proprietary, value-added transportation service which dramatically reduces cost and program duration for compliant payloads. It also provides a business-to-business service which is compatible with business investment decision timing and technology development cycles.

  10. Rocketdyne Development of RBCC Engine for Low Cost Access to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortwerth, P.; Ratekin, G.; Goldman, A.; Emanuel, M.; Ketchum, A.; Horn, M.

    1997-01-01

    Rocketdyne is pursuing the conceptual design and development of a Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine for booster and SSTO, advanced reusable space transportation ARTT systems under contract with NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The Rocketdyne concept is fixed geometry integrated Rocket, Ram Scramjet which is Hydrogen fueled and uses Hydrogen regenerative cooling. Vision vehicle integration studies have determined that scramjet operation to Mach 12 has high payoff for low cost reusable space transportation. Rocketdyne is internally developing versions of the concept for other applications in high speed aircraft and missiles with Hydrocarbon fuel systems. Subscale engine ground testing is underway for all modes of operation from takeoff to Mach 8. High altitude Rocket only mode tests will be completed as part of the ground test program to validate high expansion ratio performance. A unique feature of the ground test series is the inclusion of dynamic trajectory simulation with real time Mach number, altitude, engine throttling, and RBCC mode changes in a specially modified freejet test facility at GASL. Preliminary cold flow Air Augmented Rocket mode test results and Short Combustor tests have met program goals and have been used to integrate all modes of operation in a single combustor design with a fixed geometry inlet for design confirmation tests. A water cooled subscale engine is being fabricated and installed for test beginning the last quarter of 1997.

  11. REUSABLE PROPULSION ARCHITECTURE FOR SUSTAINABLE LOW-COST ACCESS TO SPACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonometti, Joseph; Frame, Kyle L.; Dankanich, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Two transportation architecture changes are presented at either end of a conventional two-stage rocket flight: 1) Air launch using a large, conventional, pod hauler design (i.e., Crossbow)ans 2) Momentum exchange tether (i.e., an in-space asset like MXER). Air launch has ana analytically justified cost reduction of approx. 10%, but its intangible benefits suggest real-world operations cost reductions much higher: 1) Inherent launch safety; 2) Mission Risk Reduction; 3) Favorable payload/rocket limitations; and 4) Leveraging the aircraft for other uses (military transport, commercial cargo, public outreach activities, etc.)

  12. Low Cost Space Demonstration for a Single-Person Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Dischinger, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a concept for a single-person spacecraft and presents plans for flying a low-cost, robotic demonstration mission. Called FlexCraft, the vehicle integrates propulsion and robotics into a small spacecraft that enables rapid, shirt-sleeve access to space. It can be flown by astronauts or tele-operated and is equipped with interchangeable manipulators used for maintaining the International Space Station (ISS), exploring asteroids, and servicing telescopes or satellites. Most FlexCraft systems are verified using ground facilities; however, a test in the weightless environment is needed to assess propulsion and manipulator performance. For this, a simplified, unmanned, version of FlexCraft is flown on a low-cost launch vehicle to a 350 km circular orbit. After separation from the upper stage, the vehicle returns to a target box mounted on the stage testing the propulsion and control capability. The box is equipped with manipulator test items that are representative of tasks performed on ISS, asteroid missions, or for satellites servicing. Nominal and off-nominal operations are conducted over 3 days then the vehicle re-enters the atmosphere without becoming a debris hazard. From concept to management to operations, the FlexCraft demonstration is designed to be low cost project that is launched within three years. This is possible using a simplified test configuration that eliminates nine systems unique to the operational version and by designing-to-availability. For example, the propulsion system is the same as the Manned Maneuvering Unit because it capable, simple, human-rated and all components or equivalent parts are available. A description of the launch vehicle options, mission operations, configuration, and demonstrator subsystems is presented.

  13. Analysis of Potential Alternatives to Reduce NASA's Cost of Human Access to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to analyze NASA's potential options for significantly reducing the cost of human access to space. The opinions expressed in this report are based on Hawthorne, Krauss & Associates' ("HKA") interaction with NASA and several of its key contractors over the past nine months. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive quantitative analysis of the various options available to NASA. Instead, its purpose is to outline key decision-related issues that the agency should consider prior to making a decision as to which option to pursue. This report attempts to bring a private-sector perspective to bear on the issue of reducing the cost of human access to space. HKA believes that the key to the NASA's success in reducing those costs over the long-term is the involvement of the private-sector incentives and disciplines--which is achieved only through the assumption of risk by the private sector, not through a traditional contractor relationship--is essential to achieve significant long-term cost reductions.

  14. Programmable Ultra Lightweight System Adaptable Radio (PULSAR) Low Cost Telemetry - Access from Space Advanced Technologies or Down the Middle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims. Herb; Varnavas, Kosta; Eberly, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology has been proven in the commercial sector since the early 1990's. Today's rapid advancement in mobile telephone reliability and power management capabilities exemplifies the effectiveness of the SDR technology for the modern communications market. In contrast, presently qualified satellite transponder applications were developed during the early 1960's space program. Programmable Ultra Lightweight System Adaptable Radio (PULSAR, NASA-MSFC SDR) technology revolutionizes satellite transponder technology by increasing data through-put capability by, at least, an order of magnitude. PULSAR leverages existing Marshall Space Flight Center SDR designs and commercially enhanced capabilities to provide a path to a radiation tolerant SDR transponder. These innovations will (1) reduce the cost of NASA Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Deep Space transponders, (2) decrease power requirements, and (3) a commensurate volume reduction. Also, PULSAR increases flexibility to implement multiple transponder types by utilizing the same hardware with altered logic - no analog hardware change is required - all of which can be accomplished in orbit. This provides high capability, low cost, transponders to programs of all sizes. The final project outcome would be the introduction of a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7 low-cost CubeSat to SmallSat telemetry system into the NASA Portfolio.

  15. Low Cost Space Experiments. Study Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-06

    Air Force Phillips Laboratory with Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory . The goals of ALTAIR...Cs<- &l. LOW COST SPACE EXPERIMENTS STUDY REPORT 6 December 1991 19980302 059 Phillips Laboratory /SXL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-6008 TVPTT" OTT...Report Corporate Author or Publisher: Phillips Laboratory /SXL, Kirtland AFB,NM 87117-6008 Publication Date: Dec 06, 1991 Pages: 176 Comments

  16. A low cost Doppler system for vascular dialysis access surveillance.

    PubMed

    Molina, P S C; Moraes, R; Baggio, J F R; Tognon, E A

    2004-01-01

    The National Kidney Foundation guidelines for vascular access recommend access surveillance to avoid morbidity among patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods to detect access failure based on CW Doppler system are being proposed to implement surveillance programs at lower cost. This work describes a low cost Doppler system implemented in a PC notebook designed to carry out this task. A Doppler board samples the blood flow velocity and delivers demodulated quadrature Doppler signals. These signals are sampled by a notebook sound card. Software for Windows OS (running at the notebook) applies CFFT to consecutive 11.6 ms intervals of Doppler signals. The sonogram is presented on the screen in real time. The software also calculates the maximum and the intensity weighted mean frequency envelopes. Since similar systems employ DSP boards to process the Doppler signals, cost reduction was achieved. The Doppler board electronic circuits and routines to process the Doppler signals are presented.

  17. Organizing for low cost space operations - Status and plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C.

    1976-01-01

    Design features of the Space Transportation System (vehicle reuse, low cost expendable components, simple payload interfaces, standard support systems) must be matched by economical operational methods to achieve low operating and payload costs. Users will be responsible for their own payloads and will be charged according to the services they require. Efficient use of manpower, simple documentation, simplified test, checkout, and flight planning are firm goals, together with flexibility for quick response to varying user needs. Status of the Shuttle hardware, plans for establishing low cost procedures, and the policy for user charges are discussed.

  18. Life support system definition for a low cost shuttle launched space station.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, W. G.; Cody, J.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the tradeoffs and EC/LS definition for a low cost shuttle launched space station to be launched in the late 1970s for use as a long-term manned scientific laboratory. The space station consists of 14-ft-diam modules, clustered together to support a six-man crew at the initial space station (ISS) level and a 12-man crew at the growth space station (GSS) level. Key design guidelines specify low initial cost and low total program cost and require two separate pressurized habitable compartments with independent lift support capability. The methodology used to select the EC/LS design consisted of systematically reducing quantitative parameters to a common denominator of cost. This approach eliminates many of the inconsistencies that can occur in such decision making. The EC/LS system selected is a partially closed system which recovers urine, condensate, and wash water and concentrates crew expired CO2 for use in a low thrust resistojet propulsion system.

  19. Validation of an effective, low cost, Free/open access 3D-printed stethoscope

    PubMed Central

    Pavlosky, Alexander; Glauche, Jennifer; Chambers, Spencer; Al-Alawi, Mahmoud; Yanev, Kliment

    2018-01-01

    The modern acoustic stethoscope is a useful clinical tool used to detect subtle, pathological changes in cardiac, pulmonary and vascular sounds. Currently, brand-name stethoscopes are expensive despite limited innovations in design or fabrication in recent decades. Consequently, the high cost of high quality, brand name models serves as a barrier to clinicians practicing in various settings, especially in low- and middle-income countries. In this publication, we describe the design and validation of a low-cost open-access (Free/Libre) 3D-printed stethoscope which is comparable to the Littmann Cardiology III for use in low-access clinics. PMID:29538426

  20. Low-Cost Space Hardware and Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shea, Bradley Franklin

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate and support the overall vision of NASA's Rocket University (RocketU) through the design of an electrical power system (EPS) monitor for implementation on RUBICS (Rocket University Broad Initiatives CubeSat), through the support for the CHREC (Center for High-Performance Reconfigurable Computing) Space Processor, and through FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) design. RocketU will continue to provide low-cost innovations even with continuous cuts to the budget.

  1. Low-cost space-varying FIR filter architecture for computational imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Guotong; Shoaib, Mohammed; Schwartz, Edward L.; Dirk Robinson, M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates the advantage of designing electro-optical imaging systems by jointly optimizing the optical and digital subsystems. The optical systems designed using this joint approach intentionally introduce large and often space-varying optical aberrations that produce blurry optical images. Digital sharpening restores reduced contrast due to these intentional optical aberrations. Computational imaging systems designed in this fashion have several advantages including extended depth-of-field, lower system costs, and improved low-light performance. Currently, most consumer imaging systems lack the necessary computational resources to compensate for these optical systems with large aberrations in the digital processor. Hence, the exploitation of the advantages of the jointly designed computational imaging system requires low-complexity algorithms enabling space-varying sharpening. In this paper, we describe a low-cost algorithmic framework and associated hardware enabling the space-varying finite impulse response (FIR) sharpening required to restore largely aberrated optical images. Our framework leverages the space-varying properties of optical images formed using rotationally-symmetric optical lens elements. First, we describe an approach to leverage the rotational symmetry of the point spread function (PSF) about the optical axis allowing computational savings. Second, we employ a specially designed bank of sharpening filters tuned to the specific radial variation common to optical aberrations. We evaluate the computational efficiency and image quality achieved by using this low-cost space-varying FIR filter architecture.

  2. Cost of standard indoor ultra-low-volume space spraying as a method to control adult dengue vectors.

    PubMed

    Ditsuwan, Thanittha; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Ditsuwan, Vallop; Thammapalo, Suwich

    2012-06-01

    To access the costs of standard indoor ultra-low-volume (SID-ULV) space spraying for controlling dengue vectors in Thailand. Resources related to SID-ULV space spraying as a method to control dengue vectors between July and December 2009 were identified, measured and valued taking a societal perspective into consideration. Information on costs was collected from direct observations, interviews and bookkeeping records. Uncertainty of unit costs was investigated using a bootstrap technique. Costs of SID-ULV were calculated from 18 new dengue cases that covered 1492 surrounding houses. The average coverage of the SID-ULV was 64.4%. In the first round of spraying, 53% of target houses were sprayed and 44.6% in the second round, of which 69.2% and 54.7% received entire indoor space spraying. Unit costs per case, per 10 houses and per 100 m(2) were USD 705 (95% Confidence Interval CI, 539-888), 180 (95% CI, 150-212) and USD 23 (95% CI, 17-30). The majority of SID-ULV unit cost per case was attributed to productivity loss (83.9%) and recurrent costs (15.2%). The unit cost of the SID-ULV per case and per house in rural was 2.8 and 1.6 times lower than municipal area. The estimated annual cost of SID-ULV space spraying from 2005 to 2009 using healthcare perspective ranged from USD 5.3 to 10.3 million. The majority of the cost of SID-ULV space spraying was attributed to productivity loss. Potential productivity loss influences the achievement of high coverage, so well-planned SID-ULV space spraying strategies are needed to reduce costs. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Innovative Airbreathing Propulsion Concepts for Access to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Jr., Woodrow; Blech, Richard A.; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will present technologies and concepts for novel aeropropulsion systems. These technologies will enhance the safety of operations, reduce life cycle costs, and contribute to reduced costs of air travel and access to space. One of the goals of the NASA program is to reduce the carbon-dioxide emissions of aircraft engines. Engine concepts that use highly efficient fuel cell/electric drive technologies in hydrogen-fueled engines will be presented in the proposed paper. Carbon-dioxide emissions will be eliminated by replacing hydrocarbon fuel with hydrogen, and reduce NOx emissions through better combustion process control. A revolutionary exoskeletal engine concept, in which the engine drum is rotated, will be shown. This concept has the potential to allow a propulsion system that can be used for subsonic through hypersonic flight. Dual fan concepts that have ultra-high bypass ratios, low noise, and low drag will be presented. Flow-controlled turbofans and control-configured turbofans also will be discussed. To increase efficiency, a system of microengines distributed along lifting surfaces and on the fuselage is being investigated. This concept will be presented in the paper. Small propulsion systems for affordable, safe personal transportation vehicles will be discussed. These low-oil/oilless systems use technologies that enable significant cost and weight reductions. Pulse detonation engine-based hybrid-cycle and combined-cycle propulsion systems for aviation and space access will be presented.

  4. Conestoga 2: A low cost commercial space transport system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, R. O.

    1984-01-01

    Conestoga 2 is currently under development. It is capable of inserting 500 Kg satellites into 800 Km circular polar orbits. Conestoga 2 makes maximum use of existing (developed) technology and hardware. Its commercial objective is to fill a need for low cost low Earth orbital transport not efficiently served by Shuttle or larger space transport systems. Low Earth orbit markets, foreign participation, and launch site considerations are discussed along with technical and economic trade-offs.

  5. Evolutionary multidimensional access architecture featuring cost-reduced components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farjady, Farsheed; Parker, Michael C.; Walker, Stuart D.

    1998-12-01

    We describe a three-stage wavelength-routed optical access network, utilizing coarse passband-flattened arrayed- waveguide grating routers. An N-dimensional addressing strategy enables 6912 customers to be bi-directionally addressed with multi-Gb/s data using only 24 wavelengths spaced by 1.6 nm. Coarse wavelength separation allows use of increased tolerance WDM components at the exchange and customer premises. The architecture is designed to map onto standard access network topologies, allowing elegant upgradability from legacy PON infrastructures at low cost. Passband-flattening of the routers is achieved through phase apodization.

  6. High Speed, Low Cost Telemetry Access from Space Development Update on Programmable Ultra Lightweight System Adaptable Radio (PULSAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simms, William Herbert, III; Varnavas, Kosta; Eberly, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology has been proven in the commercial sector since the early 1990's. Today's rapid advancement in mobile telephone reliability and power management capabilities exemplifies the effectiveness of the SDR technology for the modern communications market. In contrast, the foundations of transponder technology presently qualified for satellite applications were developed during the early space program of the 1960's. Conventional transponders are built to a specific platform and must be redesigned for every new bus while the SDR is adaptive in nature and can fit numerous applications with no hardware modifications. A SDR uses a minimum amount of analog / Radio Frequency (RF) components to up/down-convert the RF signal to/from a digital format. Once the signal is digitized, all processing is performed using hardware or software logic. Typical SDR digital processes include; filtering, modulation, up/down converting and demodulation. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Programmable Ultra Lightweight System Adaptable Radio (PULSAR) leverages existing MSFC SDR designs and commercial sector enhanced capabilities to provide a path to a radiation tolerant SDR transponder. These innovations (1) reduce the cost of NASA Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Deep Space standard transponders, (2) decrease power requirements, and (3) commensurately reduce volume. A second pay-off is the increased SDR flexibility by allowing the same hardware to implement multiple transponder types simply by altering hardware logic - no change of hardware is required - all of which will ultimately be accomplished in orbit. Development of SDR technology for space applications will provide a highly capable, low cost transponder to programs of all sizes. The MSFC PULSAR Project results in a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7 low-cost telemetry system available to Smallsat and CubeSat missions, as well as other platforms. This paper documents the continued development and

  7. Low cost environmental sensors for Spaceflight : NMP Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Buelher, Martin G.; Brinza, D.; Patel, J. U.

    2005-01-01

    An outstanding problem in spaceflight is the lack of adequate sensors for monitoring the space environment and its effects on engineering systems. By adequate, we mean low cost in terms of mission impact (e.g., low price, low mass/size, low power, low data rate, and low design impact). The New Millennium Program (NMP) is investigating the development of such a low-cost Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) package for inclusion on its technology validation flights. This effort follows from the need by NMP to characterize the space environment during testing so that potential users can extrapolate the test results to end-use conditions. The immediate objective of this effort is to develop a small diagnostic sensor package that could be obtained from commercial sources. Environments being considered are: contamination, atomic oxygen, ionizing radiation, cosmic radiation, EMI, and temperature. This talk describes the requirements and rational for selecting these environments and reviews a preliminary design that includes a micro-controller data logger with data storage and interfaces to the sensors and spacecraft. If successful, such a sensor package could be the basis of a unique, long term program for monitoring the effects of the space environment on spacecraft systems.

  8. Low Cost Environmental Sensors for Spaceflight: NMP Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Buehler, Martin G.; Brinza, D.; Patel, J. U.

    2005-01-01

    An outstanding problem in spaceflight is the lack of adequate sensors for monitoring the space environment and its effects on engineering systems. By adequate, we mean low cost in terms of mission impact (e.g., low price, low mass/size, low power, low data rate, and low design impact). The New Millennium Program (NMP) is investigating the development of such a low-cost Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) package for inclusion on its technology validation flights. This effort follows from the need by NMP to characterize the space environment during testing so that potential users can extrapolate the test results to end-use conditions. The immediate objective of this effort is to develop a small diagnostic sensor package that could be obtained from commercial sources. Environments being considered are: contamination, atomic oxygen, ionizing radiation, cosmic radiation, EMI, and temperature. This talk describes the requirements and rational for selecting these environments and reviews a preliminary design that includes a micro-controller data logger with data storage and interfaces to the sensors and spacecraft. If successful, such a sensor package could be the basis of a unique, long term program for monitoring the effects of the space environment on spacecraft systems.

  9. Low-Cost Planetary Missions Enabled by the Deep Space Gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berinstain, A.; Richards, R. D.

    2018-02-01

    The authors will present options for discussion among participants of how low-cost lunar and planetary missions using the Moon Express family of spacecraft can be enabled by the presence of the Deep Space Gateway.

  10. Low Cost Propulsion Technology Testing at the Stennis Space Center: Propulsion Test Article and the Horizontal Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Mark F.; King, Richard F.; Chenevert, Donald J.

    1998-01-01

    The need for low cost access to space has initiated the development of low cost liquid rocket engine and propulsion system hardware at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This hardware will be tested at the Stennis Space Center's B-2 test stand. This stand has been reactivated for the testing of the Marshall designed Fastrac engine and the Propulsion Test Article. The RP-1 and LOX engine is a turbopump fed gas generator rocket with an ablative nozzle which has a thrust of 60,000 lbf. The Propulsion Test Article (PTA) is a test bed for low cost propulsion system hardware including a composite RP-I tank, flight feedlines and pressurization system, stacked in a booster configuration. The PTA is located near the center line of the B-2 test stand, firing vertically into the water cooled flame deflector. A new second position on the B-2 test stand has been designed and built for the horizontal testing of the Fastrac engine in direct support of the X-34 launch vehicle. The design and integration of these test facilities as well as the coordination which was required between the two Centers is described and lessons learned are provided. The construction of the horizontal test position is discussed in detail. The activation of these facilities is examined and the major test milestones are described.

  11. Access control violation prevention by low-cost infrared detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmer, Andrew N.

    2004-09-01

    A low cost 16x16 un-cooled pyroelectric detector array, allied with advanced tracking and detection algorithms, has enabled the development of a universal detector with a wide range of applications in people monitoring and homeland security. Violation of access control systems, whether controlled by proximity card, biometrics, swipe card or similar, may occur by 'tailgating' or 'piggybacking' where an 'approved' entrant with a valid entry card is accompanied by a closely spaced 'non-approved' entrant. The violation may be under duress, where the accompanying person is attempting to enter a secure facility by force or threat. Alternatively, the violation may be benign where staff members collude either through habit or lassitude, either with each other or with third parties, without considering the security consequences. Examples of the latter could include schools, hospitals or maternity homes. The 16x16 pyroelectric array is integrated into a detector or imaging system which incorporates data processing, target extraction and decision making algorithms. The algorithms apply interpolation to the array output, allowing a higher level of resolution than might otherwise be expected from such a low resolution array. The pyroelectric detection principle means that the detection will work in variable light conditions and even in complete darkness, if required. The algorithms can monitor the shape, form, temperature and number of persons in the scene and utilise this information to determine whether a violation has occurred or not. As people are seen as 'hot blobs' and are not individually recognisable, civil liberties are not infringed in the detection process. The output from the detector is a simple alarm signal which may act as input to the access control system as an alert or to trigger CCTV image display and storage. The applications for a tailgate detector can be demonstrated across many medium security applications where there are no physical means to prevent this

  12. Small, Low Cost, Launch Capability Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A recent explosion in nano-sat, small-sat, and university class payloads has been driven by low cost electronics and sensors, wide component availability, as well as low cost, miniature computational capability and open source code. Increasing numbers of these very small spacecraft are being launched as secondary payloads, dramatically decreasing costs, and allowing greater access to operations and experimentation using actual space flight systems. While manifesting as a secondary payload provides inexpensive rides to orbit, these arrangements also have certain limitations. Small, secondary payloads are typically included with very limited payload accommodations, supported on a non interference basis (to the prime payload), and are delivered to orbital conditions driven by the primary launch customer. Integration of propulsion systems or other hazardous capabilities will further complicate secondary launch arrangements, and accommodation requirements. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center has begun work on the development of small, low cost launch system concepts that could provide dedicated, affordable launch alternatives to small, high risk university type payloads and spacecraft. These efforts include development of small propulsion systems and highly optimized structural efficiency, utilizing modern advanced manufacturing techniques. This paper outlines the plans and accomplishments of these efforts and investigates opportunities for truly revolutionary reductions in launch and operations costs. Both evolution of existing sounding rocket systems to orbital delivery, and the development of clean sheet, optimized small launch systems are addressed.

  13. Investigation of low-cost ablative heat shield fabrication for space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, H. H.

    1972-01-01

    Improvements in the processes and design to reduce the manufacturing costs for low density ablative panels for the space shuttle are discussed. The areas that were studied included methods of loading honeycomb core, alternative reinforcement concepts, and the use of reusable subpanels. A review of previous studies on the fabrication of low-cost ablative panels and on permissible defects that do not affect thermal performance was conducted. Considerable differences in the quoted prices for ablative panels, even though the various contractors had reported similar fabrication times were discovered. How these cost differences arise from different estimating criteria and which estimating assumptions and other costs must be included in order to arrive at a realistic price are discussed.

  14. Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan; Kibbey, Tim; Lampton, Pat; Brown, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A recent explosion in nano-sat, small-sat, and university class payloads has been driven by low cost electronics and sensors, wide component availability, as well as low cost, miniature computational capability and open source code. Increasing numbers of these very small spacecraft are being launched as secondary payloads, dramatically decreasing costs, and allowing greater access to operations and experimentation using actual space flight systems. While manifesting as a secondary payload provides inexpensive rides to orbit, these arrangements also have certain limitations. Small, secondary payloads are typically included with very limited payload accommodations, supported on a non interference basis (to the prime payload), and are delivered to orbital conditions driven by the primary launch customer. Integration of propulsion systems or other hazardous capabilities will further complicate secondary launch arrangements, and accommodation requirements. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center has begun work on the development of small, low cost launch system concepts that could provide dedicated, affordable launch alternatives to small, risk tolerant university type payloads and spacecraft. These efforts include development of small propulsion systems and highly optimized structural efficiency, utilizing modern advanced manufacturing techniques. This paper outlines the plans and accomplishments of these efforts and investigates opportunities for truly revolutionary reductions in launch and operations costs. Both evolution of existing sounding rocket systems to orbital delivery, and the development of clean sheet, optimized small launch systems are addressed. A launch vehicle at the scale and price point which allows developers to take reasonable risks with new propulsion and avionics hardware solutions does not exist today. Establishing this service provides a ride through the proverbial "valley of death" that lies between

  15. Products from NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program Applicable to Low-Cost Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.; Pencil, Eric; Vento, Daniel; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Hahne, David; Munk, Michelle M.

    2011-01-01

    Since September 2001 NASA s In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing technologies for lowering the cost of planetary science missions. Recently completed is the high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance for lower cost. Two other cost saving technologies nearing completion are the NEXT ion thruster and the Aerocapture technology project. Also under development are several technologies for low cost sample return missions. These include a low cost Hall effect thruster (HIVHAC) which will be completed in 2011, light weight propellant tanks, and a Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV). This paper will discuss the status of the technology development, the cost savings or performance benefits, and applicability of these in-space propulsion technologies to NASA s future Discovery, and New Frontiers missions, as well as their relevance for sample return missions.

  16. Low-cost coherent receiver for long-reach optical access network using single-ended detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuebing; Li, Zhaohui; Li, Jianping; Yu, Changyuan; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Lu, Chao

    2014-09-15

    A low-cost coherent receiver using two 2×3 optical hybrids and single-ended detection is proposed for long-reach optical access network. This structure can detect the two polarization components of polarization division multiplexing (PDM) signals. Polarization de-multiplexing and signal-to-signal beat interference (SSBI) cancellation are realized by using only three photodiodes. Simulation results for 40 Gb/s PDM-OFDM transmissions indicate that the low-cost coherent receiver has 3.2 dB optical signal-to-noise ratio difference compared with the theoretical value.

  17. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Garrabrant, Michael; Keinath, Christopher

    2016-10-11

    Gas-fired residential space heating in the U.S is predominantly supplied by furnaces and boilers. These technologies have been approaching their thermodynamic limit over the past 30 years and improvements for high efficiency units have approached a point of diminishing return. Electric heat pumps are growing in popularity but their heating performance at low ambient temperatures is poor. The development of a low-cost gas absorption heat pump would offer a significant improvement to current furnaces and boilers, and in heating dominated climate zones when compared to electric heat pumps. Gas absorption heat pumps (GAHP) exceed the traditional limit of thermal efficiencymore » encountered by typical furnaces and boilers, and maintain high levels of performance at low ambient temperatures. The project team designed and demonstrated two low-cost packaged prototype GAHP space heating systems during the course of this investigation. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, 8× scaling of a compact solution pump, combustion system development, breadboard evaluation, fabrication of two packaged prototype units, third party testing of the first prototype, and the evaluation of cost and energy savings compared to high and minimum efficiency gas options. Over the course of the project and with the fabrication of two Alpha prototypes it was shown that this technology met or exceeded most of the stated project targets. At ambient temperatures of 47, 35, 17 and -13°F the prototypes achieved gas based coefficients of performance of 1.50, 1.44, 1.37, and 1.17, respectively. Both units operated with parasitic loads well below the 750 watt target with the second Alpha prototype operating 75-100 watts below the first Alpha prototype. Modulation of the units at 4:1 was achieved with the project goal of 2

  18. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  19. Pharmacy Accessibility and Cost-Related Underuse of Prescription Medications in Low-Income Black and Hispanic Urban Communities

    PubMed Central

    Qato, Dima Mazen; Wilder, Jocelyn; Zenk, Shannon; Davis, Andrew; Makelarski, Jennifer; Lindau, Stacy Tessler

    2016-01-01

    Background Policy efforts to reduce the cost of prescription medications in the U.S. have failed to reduce disparities in cost-related underuse. Little is known about the relationships between pharmacy accessibility, utilization and cost-related underuse of prescription medications among residents of low-income minority communities. Objectives To examine the association between pharmacy accessibility, utilization and cost-related underuse of prescription medications among residents of predominantly low-income, Black and Hispanic urban communities. Methods Data from a population-based probability sample of adults 35 years and older residing on the South Side of Chicago in 2012–13 were linked with geocoded information on the type and location of primary and nearest pharmacy. Multivariable regression models were used to examine associations between pharmacy accessibility, utilization of, and travel distance to, primary pharmacy and cost-related underuse overall and by pharmacy type. Results One-third of South Side residents primarily filled their prescriptions at the pharmacy nearest to their home. Among those who did not use mail order, median distance traveled from home to the primary pharmacy was 1.2 miles. Residents whose primary pharmacy was at a community health center or clinic where they usually received care traveled the furthest but were least likely to report cost-related underuse of their prescription medications. Conclusions Most residents of minority communities on Chicago’s South Side were not using pharmacies closest to their home to obtain their prescription medications. Efforts to improve access to prescription medications in these communities should focus on improving the accessibility of affordable pharmacies at site of care. PMID:28153704

  20. Spacecraft Demand Access: Autonomy for Low-Cost Planetary Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweetnam, Donald

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new concept and prototype for dramtically reducing the cost of contact with planetary spacecraft. Known as spacecraft Demand Access, a suite of spacecraft and ground automation technologies, it enables future intelligent spacecraft to act as initiators of cost effective contact with the ground - doing it only when necessary.

  1. Access to Space Interactive Design Web Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, John; Cutlip, William; Hametz, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The Access To Space (ATS) Group at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) supports the science and technology community at GSFC by facilitating frequent and affordable opportunities for access to space. Through partnerships established with access mode suppliers, the ATS Group has developed an interactive Mission Design web site. The ATS web site provides both the information and the tools necessary to assist mission planners in selecting and planning their ride to space. This includes the evaluation of single payloads vs. ride-sharing opportunities to reduce the cost of access to space. Features of this site include the following: (1) Mission Database. Our mission database contains a listing of missions ranging from proposed missions to manifested. Missions can be entered by our user community through data input tools. Data is then accessed by users through various search engines: orbit parameters, ride-share opportunities, spacecraft parameters, other mission notes, launch vehicle, and contact information. (2) Launch Vehicle Toolboxes. The launch vehicle toolboxes provide the user a full range of information on vehicle classes and individual configurations. Topics include: general information, environments, performance, payload interface, available volume, and launch sites.

  2. Cost-effective and robust mitigation of space debris in low earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R.; Martin, C.

    It is predicted that the space debris population in low Earth orbit (LEO) will continue to grow and in an exponential manner in the long-term due to an increasing rate of collisions between large objects, unless internationally-accepted space debris mitigation measures are adopted soon. Such measures are aimed at avoiding the future generation of space debris objects and primarily need to be effective in preventing significant long-term growth in the debris population, even in the potential scenario of an increase in future space activity. It is also important that mitigation measures can limit future debris population levels, and therefore the underlying collision risk to space missions, to the lowest extent possible. However, for their wide acceptance, the cost of implementation associated with mitigation measures needs to be minimised as far as possible. Generally, a lower collision risk will cost more to achieve and vice versa, so it is necessary to strike a balance between cost and risk in order to find a cost-effective set of mitigation measures. In this paper, clear criteria are established in order to assess the cost-effectiveness of space debris mitigation measures. A full cost-risk-benefit trade-off analysis of numerous mitigation scenarios is presented. These scenarios consider explosion prevention and post-mission disposal of space systems, including de-orbiting to limited lifetime orbits and re-orbiting above the LEO region. The ESA DELTA model is used to provide long-term debris environment projections for these scenarios as input to the benefit and risk parts of the trade-off analysis. Manoeuvre requirements for the different post-mission disposal scenarios were also calculated in order to define the cost-related element. A 25-year post-mission lifetime de-orbit policy, combined with explosion prevention and mission-related object limitation, was found to be the most cost-effective solution to the space debris problem in LEO. This package would also

  3. Advanced Cosmic-Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS): ACCESS Accommodation Study Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L. (Editor); Wefel, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 NASA Administrator selected the first high-energy particle physics experiment for the Space Station, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), to place a magnetic spectrometer in Earth orbit and search for cosmic antimatter. A natural consequence of this decision was that NASA would begin to explore cost-effective ways through which the design and implementation of AMS might benefit other promising payload experiments. The first such experiment to come forward was Advanced Cosmic-Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS) in 1996. It was proposed as a new mission concept in space physics to attach a cosmic-ray experiment of weight, volume, and geometry similar to the AMS on the International Space Station (ISS), and replace the latter as its successor when the AMS is returned to Earth. This was to be an extension of NASA's suborbital balloon program, with balloon payloads serving as the precursor flights and heritage for ACCESS. The balloon programs have always been a cost-effective NASA resource since the particle physics instrumentation for balloon and space applications are directly related. The next step was to expand the process, pooling together expertise from various NASA centers and universities while opening up definition of the ACCESS science goals to the international community through the standard practice of peer review. This process is still ongoing, and the accommodation study presented here will discuss the baseline definition of ACCESS as we understand it today.

  4. Pharmacy accessibility and cost-related underuse of prescription medications in low-income Black and Hispanic urban communities.

    PubMed

    Qato, Dima Mazen; Wilder, Jocelyn; Zenk, Shannon; Davis, Andrew; Makelarski, Jennifer; Lindau, Stacy Tessler

    Policy efforts to reduce the cost of prescription medications in the US have failed to reduce disparities in cost-related underuse. Little is known about the relationships between pharmacy accessibility, utilization, and cost-related underuse of prescription medications among residents of low-income minority communities. The aim of this work was to examine the association between pharmacy accessibility, utilization, and cost-related underuse of prescription medications among residents of predominantly low-income Black and Hispanic urban communities. Data from a population-based probability sample of adults 35 years of age and older residing on the South Side of Chicago in 2012-2013 were linked with the use of geocoded information on the type and location of the primary and the nearest pharmacy. Multivariable regression models were used to examine associations between pharmacy accessibility, utilization of and travel distance to the primary pharmacy, and cost-related underuse overall and by pharmacy type. One-third of South Side residents primarily filled their prescriptions at the pharmacy nearest to their home. Among those who did not use mail order, median distance traveled from home to the primary pharmacy was 1.2 miles. Residents whose primary pharmacy was at a community health center or clinic where they usually received care traveled the farthest but were least likely to report cost-related underuse of their prescription medications. Most residents of minority communities on Chicago's South Side were not using the pharmacies closest to their home to obtain their prescription medications. Efforts to improve access to prescription medications in these communities should focus on improving the accessibility of affordable pharmacies at site of care. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Second Space Race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawkes, S.

    This paper compares and contrasts the characteristics of the first space race, which ran from the late 1950s to the late 1990s, and the second space race that began with the successful space flight of SpaceShipOne in 2004. The first space race was between superpowers seeking to establish geo-political dominance in the Cold War. The second space race will be between competing companies seeking to establish low cost access to space for ordinary people. The first space race achieved its geo- political objectives but did not open up low cost access to space but rather restricted access to a select few, highly trained astronauts and cosmonauts. The second space race, driven by the size and growth of the travel and tourism industry, promises to open up access to space to millions of space tourists.

  6. Organizing for low cost space transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes the management concepts and organizational structure NASA is establishing to operate the Space Transportation System. Policies which would encourage public and commercial organizations and private individuals to use the new STS are discussed, and design criteria for experiments, spacecraft, and other systems elements are considered. The design criteria are intented to facilitate cost reductions for space operations. NASA plans for the transition from currently used expendable launch vehicles to Shuttle use and Shuttle pricing policies are explained in detail. Hardware development is basically complete, management functions have been defined, pricing policies have been published, and procedures for user contact and services have been places into operation.

  7. Extending the coverage of the internet of things with low-cost nanosatellite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almonacid, Vicente; Franck, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    Recent technology advances have made CubeSats not only an affordable means of access to space, but also promising platforms to develop a new variety of space applications. In this paper, we explore the idea of using nanosatellites as access points to provide extended coverage to the Internet of Things (IoT) and Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications. This study is mainly motivated by two facts: on the one hand, it is already obvious that the number of machine-type devices deployed globally will experiment an exponential growth over the forthcoming years. This trend is pushed by the available terrestrial cellular infrastructure, which allows adding support for M2M connectivity at marginal costs. On the other hand, the same growth is not observed in remote areas that must rely on space-based connectivity. In such environments, the demand for M2M communications is potentially large, yet it is challenged by the lack of cost-effective service providers. The traffic characteristics of typical M2M applications translate into the requirement for an extremely low cost per transmitted message. Under these strong economical constraints, we expect that nanosatellites in the low Earth orbit will play a fundamental role in overcoming what we may call the IoT digital divide. The objective of this paper is therefore to provide a general analysis of a nanosatellite-based, global IoT/M2M network. We put emphasis in the engineering challenges faced in designing the Earth-to-Space communication link, where the adoption of an efficient multiple-access scheme is paramount for ensuring connectivity to a large number of terminal nodes. In particular, the trade-offs energy efficiency-access delay and energy efficiency-throughput are discussed, and a novel access approach suitable for delay-tolerant applications is proposed. Thus, by keeping a system-level standpoint, we identify key issues and discuss perspectives towards energy efficient and cost-effective solutions.

  8. Developing hybrid near-space technologies for affordable access to suborbital space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badders, Brian David

    High power rockets and high altitude balloons are two near-space technologies that could be combined in order to provide access to the mesosphere and, eventually, suborbital space. This "rockoon" technology has been used by several large budget space programs before being abandoned in favor of even more expensive, albeit more accurate, ground launch systems. With the increased development of nano-satellites and atmospheric sensors, combined with rising interest in global atmospheric data, there is an increase in desire for affordable access to extreme altitudes that does not necessarily require the precision of ground launches. Development of hybrid near-space technologies for access to over 200k ft. on a small budget brings many challenges within engineering, systems integration, cost analysis, market analysis, and business planning. This research includes the design and simulation testing of all the systems needed for a safe and reusable launch system, the cost analysis for initial production, the development of a business plan, and the development of a marketing plan. This project has both engineering and scientific significance in that it can prove the space readiness of new technologies, raise their technology readiness levels (TRLs), expedite the development process, and also provide new data to the scientific community. It also has the ability to stimulate university involvement in the aerospace industry and help to inspire the next generation of workers in the space sector. Previous development of high altitude balloon/high power rocket hybrid systems have been undertaken by government funded military programs or large aerospace corporations with varying degrees of success. However, there has yet to be a successful flight with this type of system which provides access to the upper mesosphere in a university setting. This project will aim to design and analyze a viable system while testing the engineering process under challenging budgetary constraints. The

  9. Evolution of area access safety training required for gaining access to Space Shuttle launch and landing facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willams, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    Assuring personnel and equipment are fully protected during the Space Shuttle launch and landing operations has been a primary concern of NASA and its associated contractors since the inception of the program. A key factor in support of this policy has been the area access safety training requirements for badging of employees assigned to work on Space Shuttle Launch and Facilities. This requirement was targeted for possible cost savings and the transition of physical on-site walkdowns to the use of television tapes has realized program cost savings while continuing to fully satisfy the area access safety training requirements.

  10. Designing a low cost bedside workstation for intensive care units.

    PubMed Central

    Michel, A.; Zörb, L.; Dudeck, J.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes the design and implementation of a software architecture for a low cost bedside workstation for intensive care units. The development is fully integrated into the information infrastructure of the existing hospital information system (HIS) at the University Hospital of Giessen. It provides cost efficient and reliable access for data entry and review from the HIS database from within patient rooms, even in very space limited environments. The architecture further supports automatical data input from medical devices. First results from three different intensive care units are reported. PMID:8947771

  11. Making Astronomy and Space Science Accessible to the Blind and Visually Impaired

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck-Winchatz, B.; Hoette, V.; Grice, N.

    2003-12-01

    One of the biggest obstacles blind and visually impaired people face in science is the ubiquity of important graphical information, which is generally not made available in alternate formats accessible to them. Funded by NASA's Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science (IDEAS), we have recently formed a team of scientists and educators from universities, the SOFIA NASA mission, a science museum, an observatory, and schools for the blind. Our goal is to develop and test Braille/tactile space science activities that actively engage students from elementary grades through introductory college-level in space science. We will discuss effective strategies and low-cost technologies that can be used to make graphical information accessible. We will also demonstrate examples, such a thermal expansion graphics created from telescope images of the Moon and other celestial objects, a tactile planisphere, three-dimensional models of near-Earth asteroids and tactile diagrams of their orbits, and an infrared detector activity.

  12. Impact of low cost refurbishable and standard spacecraft upon future NASA space programs. Payload effects follow-on study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The study has concluded that there are very large space program cost savings to be obtained by use of low cost, refurbishable, and standard spacecraft in conjunction with the shuttle transportation system. The range of space program cost savings for three different groups of programs are shown in quantitative terms. The total savings for the 91 programs will range from $13.4 billion to $18.0 billion depending on the degree of hardware standardization. These savings, principally resulting from payload cost reductions, tangibly support the development costs of the shuttle system.

  13. Low Cost Missions Operations on NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. J.; Kusnierkiewicz, D. J.; Bowman, A.; Harvey, R.; Ossing, D.; Eichstedt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to lower mission operations costs on any long duration mission depends on a number of factors; the opportunities for science, the flight trajectory, and the cruise phase environment, among others. Many deep space missions employ long cruises to their final destination with minimal science activities along the way; others may perform science observations on a near-continuous basis. This paper discusses approaches employed by two NASA missions implemented by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to minimize mission operations costs without compromising mission success: the New Horizons mission to Pluto, and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories (STEREO). The New Horizons spacecraft launched in January 2006 for an encounter with the Pluto system.The spacecraft trajectory required no deterministic on-board delta-V, and so the mission ops team then settled in for the rest of its 9.5-year cruise. The spacecraft has spent much of its cruise phase in a "hibernation" mode, which has enabled the spacecraft to be maintained with a small operations team, and minimized the contact time required from the NASA Deep Space Network. The STEREO mission is comprised of two three-axis stabilized sun-staring spacecraft in heliocentric orbit at a distance of 1 AU from the sun. The spacecraft were launched in October 2006. The STEREO instruments operate in a "decoupled" mode from the spacecraft, and from each other. Since STEREO operations are largely routine, unattended ground station contact operations were implemented early in the mission. Commands flow from the MOC to be uplinked, and the data recorded on-board is downlinked and relayed back to the MOC. Tools run in the MOC to assess the health and performance of ground system components. Alerts are generated and personnel are notified of any problems. Spacecraft telemetry is similarly monitored and alarmed, thus ensuring safe, reliable, low cost operations.

  14. Validation of a unique concept for a low-cost, lightweight space-deployable antenna structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeland, R. E.; Bilyeu, G. D.; Veal, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    An experiment conducted in the framework of a NASA In-Space Technology Experiments Program based on a concept of inflatable deployable structures is described. The concept utilizes very low inflation pressure to maintain the required geometry on orbit and gravity-induced deflection of the structure precludes any meaningful ground-based demonstrations of functions performance. The experiment is aimed at validating and characterizing the mechanical functional performance of a 14-m-diameter inflatable deployable reflector antenna structure in the orbital operational environment. Results of the experiment are expected to significantly reduce the user risk associated with using large space-deployable antennas by demonstrating the functional performance of a concept that meets the criteria for low-cost, lightweight, and highly reliable space-deployable structures.

  15. Flexible and Low-Cost Measurements for Space Software Development- The Measurements Exploration Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marculescu, Bogdan; Feldt, Robert; Torkar, Richard; Green, Lars-Goran; Liljegren, Thomas; Hult, Erika

    2011-08-01

    Verification and validation is an important part of software development and accounts for significant amounts of the costs associated with such a project. For developers of life or mission critical systems, such as software being developed for space applications, a balance must be reached between ensuring the quality of the system by extensive and rigorous testing and reducing costs and allowing the company to compete.Ensuring the quality of any system starts with a quality development process. To evaluate both the software development process and the product itself, measurements are needed. A balance must be then struck between ensuring the best possible quality of both process and product on the one hand, and reducing the cost of performing requirements on the other.A number of measurements have already been defined and are being used. For some of these, data collection can be automated as well, further lowering costs associated with implementing them. In practice, however, there may be situations where existing measurements are unsuitable for a variety of reasons.This paper describes a framework for creating low cost, flexible measurements in areas where initial information is scarce. The framework, called The Measurements Exploration Framework, is aimed in particular at the Space Software development industry and was developed is such an environment.

  16. Stratospheric Balloon Platforms for Near Space Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, R. G.

    2012-12-01

    For over five decades, high altitude aerospace balloon platforms have provided a unique vantage point for space and geophysical research by exposing scientific instrument packages and experiments to space-like conditions above 99% of Earth's atmosphere. Reaching altitudes in excess of 30 km for durations ranging from hours to weeks, high altitude balloons offer longer flight durations than both traditional sounding rockets and emerging suborbital reusable launch vehicles. For instruments and experiments requiring access to high altitudes, engineered balloon systems provide a timely, responsive, flexible, and cost-effective vehicle for reaching near space conditions. Moreover, high altitude balloon platforms serve as an early means of testing and validating hardware bound for suborbital or orbital space without imposing space vehicle qualifications and certification requirements on hardware in development. From float altitudes above 30 km visible obscuration of the sky is greatly reduced and telescopes and other sensors function in an orbit-like environment, but in 1g. Down-facing sensors can take long-exposure atmospheric measurements and images of Earth's surface from oblique and nadir perspectives. Payload support subsystems such as telemetry equipment and command, control, and communication (C3) interfaces can also be tested and operationally verified in this space-analog environment. For scientific payloads requiring over-flight of specific areas of interests, such as an active volcano or forest region, advanced mission planning software allows flight trajectories to be accurately modeled. Using both line-of-sight and satellite-based communication systems, payloads can be tracked and controlled throughout the entire mission duration. Under NASA's Flight Opportunities Program, NSC can provide a range of high altitude flight options to support space and geophysical research: High Altitude Shuttle System (HASS) - A balloon-borne semi-autonomous glider carries

  17. Access to space study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a comprehensive NASA in-house study to identify and assess alternate approaches to access to space through the year 2030, and to select and recommend a preferred cause of action. The goals of the study were to identify the best vehicles and transportation architectures to make major reductions in the cost of space transportation (at least 50%), while at the same time increasing safety for flight crews by at least an order of magnitude. In addition, vehicle reliability was to exceed 0.98 percent, and, as important, the robustness, pad time, turnaround time, and other aspects of operability were to be vastly improved. This study examined three major optional architectures: (1) retain and upgrade the Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicles; (2) develop new expendable vehicles using conventional technologies and transition from current vehicles beginning in 2005; and (3) develop new reusable vehicles using advanced technology, and transition from current vehicles beginning in 2008. The launch-needs, mission model utilized for for the study was based upon today's projection of civil, defense, and commercial mission payload requirements.

  18. Steerable Space Fed Lens Array for Low-Cost Adaptive Ground Station Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Popovic, Zoya; Rondineau, Sebastien; Miranda, Felix A.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Fed Lens Array (SFLA) is an alternative to a phased array antenna that replaces large numbers of expensive solid-state phase shifters with a single spatial feed network. SFLA can be used for multi-beam application where multiple independent beams can be generated simultaneously with a single antenna aperture. Unlike phased array antennas where feed loss increases with array size, feed loss in a lens array with more than 50 elements is nearly independent of the number of elements, a desirable feature for large apertures. In addition, SFLA has lower cost as compared to a phased array at the expense of total volume and complete beam continuity. For ground station applications, both of these tradeoff parameters are not important and can thus be exploited in order to lower the cost of the ground station. In this paper, we report the development and demonstration of a 952-element beam-steerable SFLA intended for use as a low cost ground station for communicating and tracking of a low Earth orbiting satellite. The dynamic beam steering is achieved through switching to different feed-positions of the SFLA via a beam controller.

  19. Future X Pathfinder: Quick, Low Cost Flight Testing for Tomorrow's Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, John, III; Sumrall, Phil

    1999-01-01

    The DC-X and DC-XA Single Stage Technology flight program demonstrated the value of low cost rapid prototyping and flight testing of launch vehicle technology testbeds. NASA is continuing this important legacy through a program referred to as Future-X Pathfinder. This program is designed to field flight vehicle projects that cost around $100M each, with a new vehicle flying about every two years. Each vehicle project will develop and extensively flight test a launch vehicle technology testbed that will advance the state of the art in technologies directly relevant to future space transportation systems. There are currently two experimental, or "X" vehicle projects in the Pathfinder program, with additional projects expected to follow in the near future. The first Pathfinder project is X-34. X-34 is a suborbital rocket plane capable of flights to Mach 8 and 75 kilometers altitude. There are a number of reusable launch vehicle technologies embedded in the X-34 vehicle design, such as composite structures and propellant tanks, and advanced reusable thermal protection systems. In addition, X-34 is designed to carry experiments applicable to both the launch vehicle and hypersonic aeronautics community. X-34 is scheduled to fly later this year. The second Pathfinder project is the X-37. X-37 is an orbital space plane that is carried into orbit either by the Space Shuttle or by an expendable launch vehicle. X-37 provides NASA access to the orbital and orbital reentry flight regimes with an experimental testbed vehicle. The vehicle will expose embedded and carry-on advanced space transportation technologies to the extreme environments of orbit and reentry. Early atmospheric approach and landing tests of an unpowered version of the X-37 will begin next year, with orbital flights beginning in late 2001. Future-X Pathfinder is charting a course for the future with its growing fleet of low-cost X- vehicles. X-34 and X-37 are leading the assault on high launch costs and

  20. Red Dragon: Low-cost Access to the Surface of Mars using Commercial Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karcz, John; Davis, S. M.; Aftosmis, M. J.; Allen, G. A.; Bakhtian, N. M.; Dyakonov, A. A.; Edquist, K. T.; Glass, B. J.; Gonzales, A. A.; Heldmann, J. L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We will discuss the feasibility of using a minimally-modified variant of a SpaceX Dragon capsule as a low-cost, large-capacity, near-term, Mars lander for scientific and human-precursor missions. We have been evaluating such a Red Dragon platform as an option for a Discovery Program mission concept. A Red Dragon lander has the potential to be low cost primarily because it would be derived from a routinely-flying spacecraft. Dragon is being developed to ferry cargo and crew to and from the International Space Station (ISS). The cargo variant is currently undergoing test flights, which will be followed by standard ISS cargo missions and, eventually, crewed flights. The human variant, unlike other Earth-return vehicles, appears to also have most of the capabilities necessary to land on Mars. In particular, it has a set of high-thrust, throttleable, storable bi-propellant Super- Draco engines integrated directly into the capsule which are intended for launch abort and powered landings on Earth. These thrusters suggest the possibility of a parachute-free, fully-propulsive deceleration at Mars from supersonic speeds to the surface. Concepts for large, human-relevant landers (see, e.g., [1]) also often employ supersonic retro-propulsion; Red Dragon's entry, descent, and landing approach would scale to those landers. Further, SpaceX's Falcon Heavy launch vehicle, currently under development and expected to have its first flight in 2013, will be capable of sending Dragon on a trajectory to Mars. We will discuss our motivation for exploring a Red Dragon lander, the primary technical questions which determine its feasibility, and the current results of our analysis. In particular, we will examine entry, descent, and landing (EDL) in detail. We will describe the modifications to Dragon necessary for interplanetary cruise, EDL, and operations on the Martian surface.

  1. Advanced Cosmic Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.; Wefel, John P.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 the first high-energy particle physics experiment for the Space Station, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), was selected by NASA's Administrator as a joint collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The AMS program was chartered to place a magnetic spectrometer in Earth orbit and search for cosmic antimatter. A natural consequence of this decision was that NASA would begin to explore cost-effective ways through which the design and implementation of AMS might benefit other promising payload experiments which were evolving from the Office of Space Science. The first such experiment to come forward was ACCESS in 1996. It was proposed as a new mission concept in space physics to place a cosmic-ray experiment of weight, volume, and geometry similar to the AMS on the ISS, and replace the latter as its successor when the AMS is returned to Earth. This was to be an extension of NASA's sub-orbital balloon program, with balloon payloads serving as the precursor flights and heritage for ACCESS. The balloon programs have always been a cost-effective NASA resource since the particle physics instrumentation for balloon and space applications are directly related. The next step was to expand the process, pooling together expertise from various NASA centers and universities while opening up definition of the ACCESS science goals to the international community through the standard practice of peer-review. This process is still on-going and the Accommodation Study presented here will discuss the baseline definition of ACCESS as we understand it today. Further detail on the history, scope, and background of the study is provided in Appendix A.

  2. Ultra Low-Cost Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P.; da Silva Curiel, A.; Eves, S.; Sweeting, M.; Thompson, A.; Hall, D.

    From early 2003, Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL), together with its partners from Algeria, Nigeria and Turkey, has operated the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). During this period we have demonstrated the utility of a low-cost satellite system that uses optical sensors and is capable of providing daily imaging globally. For example, DMC data has been used operationally in the relief work in Darfur and following the Asian Tsunami. In addition to the use of the DMC to support disasters, the DMC has also been extensively used by the consortium members in support of national imaging needs and some residual system capacity has been provided to commercial customers. In the same timeframe, EADS Astrium Ltd has developed the technologies needed to implement the low-cost radar satellites of the MicroSAR range of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellites. EADS Astrium Ltd and SSTL are now looking to combine their expertises in low cost space technology and extend the capability of the DMC constellation by including a complementary small satellite radar sensor. The product of this activity is a satellite design that strikes an appropriate balance between revisit frequency and resolution. Hence, by comparison with other small satellite SAR concepts, the satellite described in this paper will provide broader area coverage at spatial resolutions in the region of 10 - 15m. Most significantly, perhaps, as a result of the specific cost targets imposed at the beginning of the design process, the satellite can provide this level of performance at a lower cost than other comparable space-based radar systems and significantly lower than larger, more performant, space-based radar systems.

  3. The Solar Umbrella: A Low-cost Demonstration of Scalable Space Based Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Contreras, Michael T.; Trease, Brian P.; Sherwood, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Within the past decade, the Space Solar Power (SSP) community has seen an influx of stakeholders willing to entertain the SSP prospect of potentially boundless, base-load solar energy. Interested parties affiliated with the Department of Defense (DoD), the private sector, and various international entities have all agreed that while the benefits of SSP are tremendous and potentially profitable, the risk associated with developing an efficient end to end SSP harvesting system is still very high. In an effort to reduce the implementation risk for future SSP architectures, this study proposes a system level design that is both low-cost and seeks to demonstrate the furthest transmission of wireless power to date. The overall concept is presented and each subsystem is explained in detail with best estimates of current implementable technologies. Basic cost models were constructed based on input from JPL subject matter experts and assume that the technology demonstration would be carried out by a federally funded entity. The main thrust of the architecture is to demonstrate that a usable amount of solar power can be safely and reliably transmitted from space to the Earth's surface; however, maximum power scalability limits and their cost implications are discussed.

  4. Space Technology Demonstrations Using Low Cost, Short-Schedule Airborne and Range Facilities at the Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, John; Kelly, John; Jones, Dan; Lee, James

    2013-01-01

    There is a national effort to expedite advanced space technologies on new space systems for both government and commercial applications. In order to lower risk, these technologies should be demonstrated in a relevant environment before being installed in new space systems. This presentation introduces several low cost, short schedule space technology demonstrations using airborne and range facilities available at the Dryden Flight Research Center.

  5. Quantifying Neighborhood-Scale Spatial Variations of Ozone at Open Space and Urban Sites in Boulder, Colorado Using Low-Cost Sensor Technology.

    PubMed

    Cheadle, Lucy; Deanes, Lauren; Sadighi, Kira; Gordon Casey, Joanna; Collier-Oxandale, Ashley; Hannigan, Michael

    2017-09-10

    Recent advances in air pollution sensors have led to a new wave of low-cost measurement systems that can be deployed in dense networks to capture small-scale spatio-temporal variations in ozone, a pollutant known to cause negative human health impacts. This study deployed a network of seven low-cost ozone metal oxide sensor systems (UPods) in both an open space and an urban location in Boulder, Colorado during June and July of 2015, to quantify ozone variations on spatial scales ranging from 12 m between UPods to 6.7 km between open space and urban measurement sites with a measurement uncertainty of ~5 ppb. The results showed spatial variability of ozone at both deployment sites, with the largest differences between UPod measurements occurring during the afternoons. The peak median hourly difference between UPods was 6 ppb at 1:00 p.m. at the open space site, and 11 ppb at 4:00 p.m. at the urban site. Overall, the urban ozone measurements were higher than in the open space measurements. This study evaluates the effectiveness of using low-cost sensors to capture microscale spatial and temporal variation of ozone; additionally, it highlights the importance of field calibrations and measurement uncertainty quantification when deploying low-cost sensors.

  6. Multinational Experiment 7: Protecting Access to Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-08

    access to space cost to the design, engineering , production and operation of the spacecraft. They also have an impact on spacecraft mass, thermal...station and provide engineering support to receive data in the agreed format. Step 5 – Implementing interoperability. Once a framework has been...procedures or using alternative means (for example, high-altitude airships ). A7. The results support the view that better mitigation approaches need to

  7. Investigation of a low-cost magneto-inductive magnetometer for space science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regoli, Leonardo H.; Moldwin, Mark B.; Pellioni, Matthew; Bronner, Bret; Hite, Kelsey; Sheinker, Arie; Ponder, Brandon M.

    2018-03-01

    A new sensor for measuring low-amplitude magnetic fields that is ideal for small spacecraft is presented. The novel measurement principle enables the fabrication of a low-cost sensor with low power consumption and with measuring capabilities that are comparable to recent developments for CubeSat applications. The current magnetometer, a software-modified version of a commercial sensor, is capable of detecting fields with amplitudes as low as 8.7 nT at 40 Hz and 2.7 nT at 1 Hz, with a noise floor of 4 pT/Hz at 1 Hz. The sensor has a linear response to less than 3 % over a range of ±100 000 nT. All of these features make the magneto-inductive principle a promising technology for the development of magnetic sensors for both space-borne and ground-based applications to study geomagnetic activity.

  8. Challenges for future space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Forecasts of space power needs are presented. The needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self-sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations and from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Mars are determined. Future launch cost reductions are predicted. From these projections the performances necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options are identified. The availability of plentiful cost effective electric power and of low cost access to space are identified as crucial factors in the future extension of human presence in space.

  9. Accessibility of low-income family flats in North Jakarta city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feminin, T. A.; Wiranegara, H. W.; Supriatna, Y.

    2018-01-01

    The majority of relocated, low-income families in North Jakarta city who residing the flats, complained at decreasing their accessibility to the workplaces and to the social facilities. The aim of this research was to identify the changing of their accessibility before and after relocated, viewed from three dimensions: distance, travel time, and travel cost to the workplaces, educational facilities, and shopping areas. The research design was questionnaire survey containing the degree of accessibility before and after resided the flats. Five flats were chosen as cases. Their inhabitants were chosen as respondents which used simple random sampling. The result showed that their flats accessibility to the workplaces in all three dimensions was lower than when they resided in the slum area. Also, in distance and travel time accessibility to shopping areas was lower. Only accessibility to educational facilities measured in those three dimensions was higher after they moved. Supply for affordable public transport from their flats to reach their workplaces is needed to raise their accessibility. Also, they need subsidizeto rent of their flats so the burden to their income lesser.Using the ground space of their flats for retail activities was to make more accessible for their shopping activities.

  10. Getting back on tap: the policy context and cost of ensuring access to low-cost drinking water in Massachusetts schools.

    PubMed

    Cradock, Angie L; Wilking, Cara L; Olliges, Sarah A; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2012-09-01

    Adequate water intake may have important health benefits for schoolchildren. Layers of federal, state, and local policy are relevant to provision of water within schools. Recently passed state and federal laws require free drinking-water access for students during mealtimes. To review Massachusetts local district wellness policies related to water access, provide estimates of costs for three water-provision strategies, and discuss implications for policy relevant to adequate drinking-water access. Legal research was conducted using the LexisNexis legal database and government websites. Local wellness policies were double-coded using existing research tools. Costs of three water-delivery options were estimated using a 10-year school-district perspective. Prior to 2010, most Massachusetts public school district wellness policies (92%-94%) did not address access to free drinking water. Ten-year costs per school for providing water during mealtimes to students, including dispenser unit, installation, water testing, water, cups, and labor, range between $12,544 and $27,922 (depending on water-delivery option) assuming the average Massachusetts school enrollment. Water-provision strategies relying on tap water are more economical than bottled water in the long term. Policy recommendations and cost considerations deserve attention at the local, state, and federal levels. Recommendations are discussed to ensure access to safe, free drinking water for all students. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Low Gravity Issues of Deep Space Refueling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the technologies required to develop deep space refueling of cryogenic propellants and low cost flight experiments to develop them. Key technologies include long term storage, pressure control, mass gauging, liquid acquisition, and fluid transfer. Prior flight experiments used to mature technologies are discussed. A plan is presented to systematically study the deep space refueling problem and devise low-cost experiments to further mature technologies and prepare for full scale flight demonstrations.

  12. Potential low cost, safe, high efficiency propellant for future space program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.

    2005-03-01

    Mixtures of nanometer or micrometer sized carbon powder suspended in hydrogen and methane/hydrogen mixtures are proposed as candidates for low cost, high efficiency propellants for future space programs. While liquid hydrogen has low weight and high heat of combustion per unit mass, because of the low mass density the heat of combustion per unit volume is low, and the liquid hydrogen storage container must be large. The proposed propellants can produce higher gross heat combustion with small volume with trade off of some weight increase. Liquid hydrogen can serve as the fluid component of the propellant in the mixtures and thus used by current rocket engine designs. For example, for the same volume a mixture of 5% methane and 95% hydrogen, can lead to an increase in the gross heat of combustion by about 10% and an increase in the Isp (specific impulse) by 21% compared to a pure liquid hydrogen propellant. At liquid hydrogen temperatures of 20.3 K, methane will be in solid state, and must be formed as fine granules (or slush) to satisfy the requirement of liquid propellant engines.

  13. First aircraft test results of a compact, low cost hyperspectral imager for earth observation from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Goeij, B. T. G.; Otter, G. C. J.; van Wakeren, J. M. O.; Veefkind, J. P.; Vlemmix, T.; Ge, X.; Levelt, P. F.; Dirks, B. P. F.; Toet, P. M.; van der Wal, L. F.; Jansen, R.

    2017-09-01

    In recent years TNO has investigated and developed different innovative opto-mechanical designs to realize advanced spectrometers for space applications in a more compact and cost-effective manner. This offers multiple advantages: a compact instrument can be flown on a much smaller platform or as add-on on a larger platform; a low-cost instrument opens up the possibility to fly multiple instruments in a satellite constellation, improving both global coverage and temporal sampling (e.g. multiple overpasses per day to study diurnal processes); in this way a constellation of low-cost instruments may provide added value to the larger scientific and operational satellite missions (e.g. the Copernicus Sentinel missions); a small, lightweight spectrometer can easily be mounted on a small aircraft or high-altitude UAV (offering high spatial resolution).

  14. Low Cost Electric Propulsion Thruster for Deep Space Robotic Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David

    2008-01-01

    Electric Propulsion (EP) has found widespread acceptance by commercial satellite providers for on-orbit station keeping due to the total life cycle cost advantages these systems offer. NASA has also sought to benefit from the use of EP for primary propulsion onboard the Deep Space-1 and DAWN spacecraft. These applications utilized EP systems based on gridded ion thrusters, which offer performance unequaled by other electric propulsion thrusters. Through the In-Space Propulsion Project, a lower cost thruster technology is currently under development designed to make electric propulsion intended for primary propulsion applications cost competitive with chemical propulsion systems. The basis for this new technology is a very reliable electric propulsion thruster called the Hall thruster. Hall thrusters, which have been flown by the Russians dating back to the 1970s, have been used by the Europeans on the SMART-1 lunar orbiter and currently employed by 15 other geostationary spacecraft. Since the inception of the Hall thruster, over 100 of these devices have been used with no known failures. This paper describes the latest accomplishments of a development task that seeks to improve Hall thruster technology by increasing its specific impulse, throttle-ability, and lifetime to make this type of electric propulsion thruster applicable to NASA deep space science missions. In addition to discussing recent progress on this task, this paper describes the performance and cost benefits projected to result from the use of advanced Hall thrusters for deep space science missions.

  15. Insurance + Access ≠ Health Care: Typology of Barriers to Health Care Access for Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    DeVoe, Jennifer E.; Baez, Alia; Angier, Heather; Krois, Lisa; Edlund, Christine; Carney, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE Public health insurance programs have expanded coverage for the poor, and family physicians provide essential services to these vulnerable populations. Despite these efforts, many Americans do not have access to basic medical care. This study was designed to identify barriers faced by low-income parents when accessing health care for their children and how insurance status affects their reporting of these barriers. METHODS A mixed methods analysis was undertaken using 722 responses to an open-ended question on a health care access survey instrument that asked low-income Oregon families, “Is there anything else you would like to tell us?” Themes were identified using immersion/crystallization techniques. Pertinent demographic attributes were used to conduct matrix coded queries. RESULTS Families reported 3 major barriers: lack of insurance coverage, poor access to services, and unaffordable costs. Disproportionate reporting of these themes was most notable based on insurance status. A higher percentage of uninsured parents (87%) reported experiencing difficulties obtaining insurance coverage compared with 40% of those with insurance. Few of the uninsured expressed concerns about access to services or health care costs (19%). Access concerns were the most common among publicly insured families, and costs were more often mentioned by families with private insurance. Families made a clear distinction between insurance and access, and having one or both elements did not assure care. Our analyses uncovered a 3-part typology of barriers to health care for low-income families. CONCLUSIONS Barriers to health care can be insurmountable for low-income families, even those with insurance coverage. Patients who do not seek care in a family medicine clinic are not necessarily getting their care elsewhere. PMID:18025488

  16. Impact of low cost refurbishable and standard spacecraft upon future NASA space programs. Payload effects follow-on study, appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Mission analysis is discussed, including the consolidation and expansion of mission equipment and experiment characteristics, and determination of simplified shuttle flight schedule. Parametric analysis of standard space hardware and preliminary shuttle/payload constraints analysis are evaluated, along with the cost impact of low cost standard hardware.

  17. Estimating the Life Cycle Cost of Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    A space system's Life Cycle Cost (LCC) includes design and development, launch and emplacement, and operations and maintenance. Each of these cost factors is usually estimated separately. NASA uses three different parametric models for the design and development cost of crewed space systems; the commercial PRICE-H space hardware cost model, the NASA-Air Force Cost Model (NAFCOM), and the Advanced Missions Cost Model (AMCM). System mass is an important parameter in all three models. System mass also determines the launch and emplacement cost, which directly depends on the cost per kilogram to launch mass to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The launch and emplacement cost is the cost to launch to LEO the system itself and also the rockets, propellant, and lander needed to emplace it. The ratio of the total launch mass to payload mass depends on the mission scenario and destination. The operations and maintenance costs include any material and spares provided, the ground control crew, and sustaining engineering. The Mission Operations Cost Model (MOCM) estimates these costs as a percentage of the system development cost per year.

  18. The cost of accessing infant HIV medications and health services in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Julie N; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Stockman, Jamila K

    2017-11-01

    Patient costs are a critical barrier to the elimination of mother to child HIV transmission. Despite the Ugandan government providing free public HIV services, infant antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis coverage remains low (25%). To understand costs mothers incur in accessing ARV prophylaxis for their infants, we conducted a mixed methods study to quantify and identify their direct costs. We used cross-sectional survey data and focus group discussions from 49 HIV-positive mothers in Uganda. Means and standard deviations were calculated for the direct costs (e.g., transportation, caretaker, services/medications) involved in accessing infant HIV services. The direct cost of attending HIV clinic visits averaged $3.71 (SD = $3.52). Focus group discussions identified two costs hindering access to infant HIV services: transportation costs and informal service charges. All participants reported significant costs associated with accessing infant HIV services - the equivalent of 2-3 days' income. To address transportation costs, community and home care models should be explored. Additionally, stricter policies and oversight should be implemented to prevent informal HIV service charges.

  19. SCORPIUS, A New Generation of Responsive, Low Cost Expendable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conger, R. E.; Chakroborty, S. P.; Wertz, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    The Scorpius vehicle family extends from one and two stage sub-orbital vehicles for target and science applications to small, medium and heavy lift orbital vehicles. These new liquid fueled vehicles have LEO and GTO capabilities. Microcosm and the Scorpius Space Launch Company (SSLC) are well into the development of this all-new generation of expendable launch vehicles to support commercial and government missions. This paper presents the projected performance of the family of vehicles, status of the development program and projected launch service prices. The paper will discuss the new low cost ablative engines and low cost pressure-fed LOX/Jet-A propulsion systems. Schedules, payload volumes, dispensers, attach fittings, and planned dual manifest capabilities will be presented. The unique configuration of the wide base first stage allows fairings that may extend beyond the current 4-meters. The Scorpius family is designed to facilitate encapsulated payloads and launch-on-demand. The implications of these new operational procedures will be addressed, including the techniques that will be used to drive down the cost of access to space while improving reliability. The Scorpius family of low cost vehicles addresses the full range of payloads from 700 lbs. in the Sprite Mini-Lift to over 50,000 lbs. to LEO in the Heavy-Lift, and over 18,000 lbs. to GTO. Two sub-orbital vehicles have been developed and successfully launched, with the latest vehicle (SR-XM) launched in March of 2001 from White Sands Missile Range. Development of the family of vehicles commenced in 1993 under contracts with the Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicle Directorate after a number of years of independent studies and system engineering. The Sprite Mini-Lift Small Expendable Launch Vehicle (SELV) that utilizes the SR-XM technologies is planned for an initial launch in mid 2005 with larger, scaled-up vehicles to follow.

  20. Space station: Cost and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Costs for developing, producing, operating, and supporting the initial space station, a 4 to 8 man space station, and a 4 to 24 man space station are estimated and compared. These costs include contractor hardware; space station assembly and logistics flight costs; and payload support elements. Transportation system options examined include orbiter modules; standard and extended duration STS fights; reusable spacebased perigee kick motor OTV; and upper stages. Space station service charges assessed include crew hours; energy requirements; payload support module storage; pressurized port usage; and OTV service facility. Graphs show costs for science missions, space processing research, small communication satellites; large GEO transportation; OVT launch costs; DOD payload costs, and user costs.

  1. Low Cost Large Core Vehicle Structures Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Steven E.

    1998-01-01

    Boeing Information, Space, and Defense Systems executed a Low Cost Large Core Vehicle Structures Assessment (LCLCVSA) under contract to NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) between November 1997 and March 1998. NASA is interested in a low-cost launch vehicle, code named Magnum, to place heavy payloads into low earth orbit for missions such as a manned mission to Mars, a Next Generation Space Telescope, a lunar-based telescope, the Air Force's proposed space based laser, and large commercial satellites. In this study, structural concepts with the potential to reduce fabrication costs were evaluated in application to the Magnum Launch Vehicle (MLV) and the Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB) shuttle upgrade program. Seventeen concepts were qualitatively evaluated to select four concepts for more in-depth study. The four structural concepts selected were: an aluminum-lithium monocoque structure, an aluminum-lithium machined isogrid structure, a unitized composite sandwich structure, and a unitized composite grid structure. These were compared against a baseline concept based on the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) construction. It was found that unitized composite structures offer significant cost and weight benefits to MLV structures. The limited study of application to LFBB structures indicated lower, but still significant benefits. Technology and facilities development roadmaps to prepare the approaches studied for application to MLV and LFBB were constructed. It was found that the cost and schedule to develop these approaches were in line with both MLV and LFBB development schedules. Current Government and Boeing programs which address elements of the development of the technologies identified are underway. It is recommended that NASA devote resources in a timely fashion to address the specific elements related to MLV and LFBB structures.

  2. Boosting a Low-Cost Smart Home Environment with Usage and Access Control Rules.

    PubMed

    Barsocchi, Paolo; Calabrò, Antonello; Ferro, Erina; Gennaro, Claudio; Marchetti, Eda; Vairo, Claudio

    2018-06-08

    Smart Home has gained widespread attention due to its flexible integration into everyday life. Pervasive sensing technologies are used to recognize and track the activities that people perform during the day, and to allow communication and cooperation of physical objects. Usually, the available infrastructures and applications leveraging these smart environments have a critical impact on the overall cost of the Smart Home construction, require to be preferably installed during the home construction and are still not user-centric. In this paper, we propose a low cost, easy to install, user-friendly, dynamic and flexible infrastructure able to perform runtime resources management by decoupling the different levels of control rules. The basic idea relies on the usage of off-the-shelf sensors and technologies to guarantee the regular exchange of critical information, without the necessity from the user to develop accurate models for managing resources or regulating their access/usage. This allows us to simplify the continuous updating and improvement, to reduce the maintenance effort and to improve residents’ living and security. A first validation of the proposed infrastructure on a case study is also presented.

  3. Space and Atmospheric Environments: From Low Earth Orbits to Deep Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.

    2003-01-01

    Natural space and atmospheric environments pose a difficult challenge for designers of technological systems in space. The deleterious effects of environment interactions with the systems include degradation of materials, thermal changes, contamination, excitation, spacecraft glow, charging, radiation damage, and induced background interference. Design accommodations must be realistic with minimum impact on performance while maintaining a balance between cost and risk. The goal of applied research in space environments and effects is to limit environmental impacts at low cost relative to spacecraft cost and to infuse enabling and commercial off-the-shelf technologies into space programs. The need to perform applied research to understand the space environment in a practical sense and to develop methods to mitigate these environment effects is frequently underestimated by space agencies and industry. Applied science research in this area is critical because the complexity of spacecraft systems is increasing, and they are exposed simultaneously to a multitude of space environments.

  4. Low cost space operations - Empty promise or future reality. [cost effectiveness problems of NASA programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bader, M.

    1976-01-01

    Organizational obstacles to the achievement of a cost-effective Space Shuttle service are examined. Among the factors considered are the difficulties of fostering concern for cost-effectiveness among the NASA research and development team and elimination of unnecessary systems and personnel. The effect of foreign or commercial competition and the extent to which governmental funding and control should be implemented are considered.

  5. Costs and benefits of future heavy Space Freighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arend, H.

    1987-10-01

    A class of two-stage reusable ballistic Space Freighters with nominal launch masses of 7000 metric tons for transport of heavy payloads into low earth orbits is investigated in this paper with spcial regard to vehicle cost efficiency. A life-cycle cost analysis shows that Space Freighters with a conventional aluminum structure offer significantly lower specific transportation costs than today's systems for large payload markets and high launch rates. Advanced structural materials and thermal protection systems offer further important reductions not only with regard to vehicle mass but also with respect to specific transportation cost. A phased introduction of these technologies is cost efficient for larger programs with more than 100 vehicles.

  6. Low cost realization of space-borne synthectic aperture radar - MicroSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, D.; Hall, C.

    associated with implementing spaceborne SAR systems is an aspect of work that has been addressed over the past decade by the main S RA system expert companies. As the experimental systems have been realized and understood, so there has been a move to transfer these systems from the research and scientific domains into operational and commercial implementations. The end of the cold war, combined with the ever increasingly competitive telecommunications market, have assisted in driving down the launch costs, a significant cost element in any space system budget. To take maximum benefit from this it is still necessary to be able to make light weight satellites, in the region of 450 Kgs or less. Typically SAR satellites have been in the neighbourhood of 1.5 to 2.5 Tonnes. In order to achieve the low cost systems, not only the satellite mass needs to be tackled but also several other factors:- Design complexity- Production costs- Performance- Calibration and verification A novel approach has been established to address all of these factors. Developments are already in progress to prove the approach and that the low costs are achievable. This is called MicroSAR. This paper starts with an overview of the market status. A description of the MicroSAR system, its developments, calibration philosophy, trade-offs carried out, its performance envelope and an outline of the steps taken to achieve a low cost Synthetic Aperture Radar system are then presented.

  7. Valuing urban open space using the travel-cost method and the implications of measurement error.

    PubMed

    Hanauer, Merlin M; Reid, John

    2017-08-01

    Urbanization has placed pressure on open space within and adjacent to cities. In recent decades, a greater awareness has developed to the fact that individuals derive multiple benefits from urban open space. Given the location, there is often a high opportunity cost to preserving urban open space, thus it is important for both public and private stakeholders to justify such investments. The goals of this study are twofold. First, we use detailed surveys and precise, accessible, mapping methods to demonstrate how travel-cost methods can be applied to the valuation of urban open space. Second, we assess the degree to which typical methods of estimating travel times, and thus travel costs, introduce bias to the estimates of welfare. The site we study is Taylor Mountain Regional Park, a 1100-acre space located immediately adjacent to Santa Rosa, California, which is the largest city (∼170,000 population) in Sonoma County and lies 50 miles north of San Francisco. We estimate that the average per trip access value (consumer surplus) is $13.70. We also demonstrate that typical methods of measuring travel costs significantly understate these welfare measures. Our study provides policy-relevant results and highlights the sensitivity of urban open space travel-cost studies to bias stemming from travel-cost measurement error. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The hidden cost of low prices: limited access to new drugs in India.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Ernst R; Cockburn, Iain M

    2014-09-01

    The pricing and accessibility of patent-protected drugs in low- and middle-income countries is a contentious issue in the global context. But questions about price have little meaning if a drug is not available for purchase, and the extent to which patent policy affects when (and if) new drugs become available in these countries has largely been overlooked. We examined data on the sales of 184 drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration between 2000 and 2009. We found that 50 percent of those 184 drugs went on sale in India only after lags of more than five years from their first worldwide introduction. More than half of the drugs that became newly available in India during the study period were produced and sold by multiple manufacturers in the country within one year of their introduction. The presence of multiple manufacturers indicates sharp competition and weak patent protection--factors that are disincentives to manufacturers to incur the costs of gaining access to the market. We conclude that modest patent and regulatory reform could bring the faster availability of a wider range of new drugs in India with limited impact on prices--a trade-off that merits greater policy attention. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  9. Insurance + access not equal to health care: typology of barriers to health care access for low-income families.

    PubMed

    Devoe, Jennifer E; Baez, Alia; Angier, Heather; Krois, Lisa; Edlund, Christine; Carney, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    Public health insurance programs have expanded coverage for the poor, and family physicians provide essential services to these vulnerable populations. Despite these efforts, many Americans do not have access to basic medical care. This study was designed to identify barriers faced by low-income parents when accessing health care for their children and how insurance status affects their reporting of these barriers. A mixed methods analysis was undertaken using 722 responses to an open-ended question on a health care access survey instrument that asked low-income Oregon families, "Is there anything else you would like to tell us?" Themes were identified using immersion/crystallization techniques. Pertinent demographic attributes were used to conduct matrix coded queries. Families reported 3 major barriers: lack of insurance coverage, poor access to services, and unaffordable costs. Disproportionate reporting of these themes was most notable based on insurance status. A higher percentage of uninsured parents (87%) reported experiencing difficulties obtaining insurance coverage compared with 40% of those with insurance. Few of the uninsured expressed concerns about access to services or health care costs (19%). Access concerns were the most common among publicly insured families, and costs were more often mentioned by families with private insurance. Families made a clear distinction between insurance and access, and having one or both elements did not assure care. Our analyses uncovered a 3-part typology of barriers to health care for low-income families. Barriers to health care can be insurmountable for low-income families, even those with insurance coverage. Patients who do not seek care in a family medicine clinic are not necessarily getting their care elsewhere.

  10. 29 CFR 1915.76 - Access to cargo spaces and confined spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Access to cargo spaces and confined spaces. 1915.76 Section..., Ladders and Other Working Surfaces § 1915.76 Access to cargo spaces and confined spaces. The provisions of... this section applies to ship repairing only. (a) Cargo spaces. (1) There shall be at least one safe and...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.76 - Access to cargo spaces and confined spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Access to cargo spaces and confined spaces. 1915.76 Section..., Ladders and Other Working Surfaces § 1915.76 Access to cargo spaces and confined spaces. The provisions of... this section applies to ship repairing only. (a) Cargo spaces. (1) There shall be at least one safe and...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.76 - Access to cargo spaces and confined spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to cargo spaces and confined spaces. 1915.76 Section..., Ladders and Other Working Surfaces § 1915.76 Access to cargo spaces and confined spaces. The provisions of... this section applies to ship repairing only. (a) Cargo spaces. (1) There shall be at least one safe and...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.76 - Access to cargo spaces and confined spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Access to cargo spaces and confined spaces. 1915.76 Section..., Ladders and Other Working Surfaces § 1915.76 Access to cargo spaces and confined spaces. The provisions of... this section applies to ship repairing only. (a) Cargo spaces. (1) There shall be at least one safe and...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.76 - Access to cargo spaces and confined spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Access to cargo spaces and confined spaces. 1915.76 Section..., Ladders and Other Working Surfaces § 1915.76 Access to cargo spaces and confined spaces. The provisions of... this section applies to ship repairing only. (a) Cargo spaces. (1) There shall be at least one safe and...

  15. RAL Low-cost Ionosonde System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamper, R.; Davis, C. J.; Bradford, W. J.; Hapgood, M. A.; McCrea, I. W.

    2009-04-01

    Ionosondes continue to be important for the study of the ionosphere; they are relatively cheap and simple to install and operate, so can be distributed widely across the globe; they can give information on plasma density, structure and motion; their direct measurements of electron densities are also important for calibrating other more complicated observation methods such as incoherent scatter radar, satellite beacon tomography and radio occultation. The low cost of sounders, however, is relative to facilities such as space-based instrumentation and incoherent scatter radars; one type of ionosonde widely used for monitoring costs in excess of €150,000, representing a significant investment for many organisations. A new instrument design is under development at RAL for a low-power sounder using pulse-coding techniques to get good signal-to-noise. The design uses COTS components wherever possible, and has a projected cost in the region of €6,000 for the simplest version, making such a system accessible to all. The design is tiered so that the simplest version would give information about layer heights and electron densities, but adding multiple receivers would enable plasma velocities and echo direction to be determined, increasing the science output. The intention is that sounders of this new design be installed widely, in particular in developing nations. This would be especially beneficial for study of the equatorial and low-latitude ionosphere, which is relatively poorly understood because of a relative lack of instrumentation in this region. A wide range of studies would be enabled or enhanced by a much denser network of ionosondes across Africa, South America and Asia including: study of planetary-scale oscillations and gravity waves in the ionosphere; investigation of longitudinal variation in the equatorial electrojet and equatorial anomaly; examination of mechanisms for vertical coupling in the atmosphere with, for example, global thunderstorm activity

  16. RAL Low-Cost Ionosonde System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamper, R.; Davis, C.; Bradford, J.

    2005-12-01

    Ionosondes continue to be important for the study of the ionosphere; they are relatively cheap and simple to install and operate, so can be distributed widely across the globe; they can give information on plasma density, structure and motion; their direct measurements of electron densities are also important for calibrating other more complicated observation methods such as incoherent scatter radar, satellite beacon tomography and radio occultation. The low cost of sounders, however, is relative to facilities such as space-based instrumentation and incoherent scatter radars; one type of ionosonde widely used for monitoring costs in excess of 200,000, representing a significant investment for many organisations. A new instrument design is under development at RAL for a low-power sounder using pulse-coding techniques to get good signal-to-noise. The design uses COTS components wherever possible, and has a projected cost in the region of 7,500 for the simplest version, making such a system accessible to all. The design is tiered so that the simplest version would give information about layer heights and electron densities, but adding multiple receivers would enable plasma velocities and echo direction to be determined, increasing the science output. The intention is that sounders of this new design be installed widely, in particular in developing nations. This would be especially beneficial for study of the equatorial and low-latitude ionosphere, which is relatively poorly understood because of a relative lack of instrumentation in this region. A wide range of studies would be enabled or enhanced by a much denser network of ionosondes across Africa, South America and Asia including: study of planetary-scale oscillations and gravity waves in the ionosphere; investigation of longitudinal variation in the equatorial electrojet and equatorial anomaly; examination of mechanisms for vertical coupling in the atmosphere with, for example, global thunderstorm activity being

  17. Knowledge-based assistance in costing the space station DMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henson, Troy; Rone, Kyle

    1988-01-01

    The Software Cost Engineering (SCE) methodology developed over the last two decades at IBM Systems Integration Division (SID) in Houston is utilized to cost the NASA Space Station Data Management System (DMS). An ongoing project to capture this methodology, which is built on a foundation of experiences and lessons learned, has resulted in the development of an internal-use-only, PC-based prototype that integrates algorithmic tools with knowledge-based decision support assistants. This prototype Software Cost Engineering Automation Tool (SCEAT) is being employed to assist in the DMS costing exercises. At the same time, DMS costing serves as a forcing function and provides a platform for the continuing, iterative development, calibration, and validation and verification of SCEAT. The data that forms the cost engineering database is derived from more than 15 years of development of NASA Space Shuttle software, ranging from low criticality, low complexity support tools to highly complex and highly critical onboard software.

  18. Low-Cost Approaches to Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squibb, G. F.; Edwards, C. D.; Schober, W. R.; Hooke, A. J.; Tai, W. S.; Pollmeier, V. M.

    2000-01-01

    The past decade has brought about a radical transformation in NASA's planetary exploration program. At the beginning of this decade, NASA was focused on the Cassini mission to Saturn. Following on the heels of the successful Voyager and Galileo missions, Cassini represents the culmination of an evolution towards successively larger, more complex, and more expensive spacecraft. The Cassini spacecraft weighs in at over 5 metric tons, and carries an entry probe and a sophisticated suite of sensors supporting 27 different science investigations enabling a comprehensive scientific investigation of Saturn with a single spacecraft. The cost of this spacecraft exceeded $2B, including the cost of the large Titan IV launch vehicle. During Cassini development, NASA realized that it could no longer afford these "flagship" missions, and the agency moved aggressively towards a "faster, better, cheaper" design philosophy of focused science goals and simpler, rapidly-developed spacecraft, allowing much more frequent launches of smaller, lower-cost missions. The Mars Global Surveyor, launched in November 1996, is an example of this new paradigm. Developed in less than 3-years, MGS is only one-fifth the mass of Cassini, and only cost on the order of $220M. The reduced spacecraft mass allows use of the smaller, lower cost Delta launch vehicle. Currently in orbit about Mars, MGS carries a focused suite of six science instruments that are currently returning high-resolution remote sensing of the Martian surface. The future calls for continued even more aggressive mass and cost targets. Examples of these next-generation goals are embodied in the Mars Micromission spacecraft concept, targeted for launch in 2003. With a mass of only 200kg, this lightweight bus can be tailored to carry a variety of payloads to Mars or other inner-planet destinations. The design of the Micromission spacecraft enable them to be launched at extremely low cost as a secondary "piggyback" payload.

  19. The Road from the NASA Access to Space Study to a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Richard W.; Cook, Stephen A.; Lockwood, Mary Kae

    1998-01-01

    NASA is cooperating with the aerospace industry to develop a space transportation system that provides reliable access-to-space at a much lower cost than is possible with today's launch vehicles. While this quest has been on-going for many years it received a major impetus when the U.S. Congress mandated as part of the 1993 NASA appropriations bill that: "In view of budget difficulties, present and future..., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall ... recommend improvements in space transportation." NASA, working with other organizations, including the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Defense identified three major transportation architecture options that were to be evaluated in the areas of reliability, operability and cost. These architectural options were: (1) retain and upgrade the Space Shuttle and the current expendable launch vehicles; (2) develop new expendable launch vehicles using conventional technologies and transition to these new vehicles beginning in 2005; and (3) develop new reusable vehicles using advanced technology, and transition to these vehicles beginning in 2008. The launch needs mission model was based on 1993 projections of civil, defense, and commercial payload requirements. This "Access to Space" study concluded that the option that provided the greatest potential for meeting the cost, operability, and reliability goals was a rocket-powered single-stage-to-orbit fully reusable launch vehicle (RLV) fleet designed with advanced technologies.

  20. Low cost solar cell arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iles, P. A.; Mclennan, H.

    1975-01-01

    Limitations in both space and terrestial markets for solar cells are described. Based on knowledge of the state-of-the-art, six cell options are discussed; as a result of this discussion, the three most promising options (involving high, medium and low efficiency cells respectively) were selected and analyzed for their probable costs. The results showed that all three cell options gave promise of costs below $10 per watt in the near future. Before further cost reductions can be achieved, more R and D work is required; suggestions for suitable programs are given.

  1. Artificial intelligent decision support for low-cost launch vehicle integrated mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szatkowski, Gerard P.; Schultz, Roger

    1988-11-01

    The feasibility, benefits, and risks associated with Artificial Intelligence (AI) Expert Systems applied to low cost space expendable launch vehicle systems are reviewed. This study is in support of the joint USAF/NASA effort to define the next generation of a heavy-lift Advanced Launch System (ALS) which will provide economical and routine access to space. The significant technical goals of the ALS program include: a 10 fold reduction in cost per pound to orbit, launch processing in under 3 weeks, and higher reliability and safety standards than current expendables. Knowledge-based system techniques are being explored for the purpose of automating decision support processes in onboard and ground systems for pre-launch checkout and in-flight operations. Issues such as: satisfying real-time requirements, providing safety validation, hardware and Data Base Management System (DBMS) interfacing, system synergistic effects, human interfaces, and ease of maintainability, have an effect on the viability of expert systems as a useful tool.

  2. Artificial intelligent decision support for low-cost launch vehicle integrated mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatkowski, Gerard P.; Schultz, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility, benefits, and risks associated with Artificial Intelligence (AI) Expert Systems applied to low cost space expendable launch vehicle systems are reviewed. This study is in support of the joint USAF/NASA effort to define the next generation of a heavy-lift Advanced Launch System (ALS) which will provide economical and routine access to space. The significant technical goals of the ALS program include: a 10 fold reduction in cost per pound to orbit, launch processing in under 3 weeks, and higher reliability and safety standards than current expendables. Knowledge-based system techniques are being explored for the purpose of automating decision support processes in onboard and ground systems for pre-launch checkout and in-flight operations. Issues such as: satisfying real-time requirements, providing safety validation, hardware and Data Base Management System (DBMS) interfacing, system synergistic effects, human interfaces, and ease of maintainability, have an effect on the viability of expert systems as a useful tool.

  3. A Low Cost TDRSS Compatible Transmitter Option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, Don

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Space-based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS) program has developed and tested a low cost Ku-Band transmitter alternative for TDRSS applications based on an existing IRIG shaped offset quaternary phase shift keying (SOQPSK) transmitter. This paper presents information related to the implementation of this low cost system, as well as performance measurements of the alternative TDRSS transmitter system compared with an existing QPSK TDRSS transmitter.

  4. Space Transportation Systems Life Cycle Cost Assessment and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, John W.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Donahue, Benjaamin B.; Knuth, William

    2008-01-01

    Civil and military applications of space transportation have been pursued for just over 50 years and there has been, and still is, a need for safe, dependable, affordable, and sustainable space transportation systems. Fully expendable and partially reusable space transportation systems have been developed and put in operation that have not adequately achieved this need. Access to space is technically achievable, but presently very expensive and will remain so until there is a breakthrough in the way we do business. Since 1991 the national Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) has reviewed and assessed the lessons learned from the major U.S. space programs of the past decades focusing on what has been learned from the assessment and control of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) from these systems. This paper presents the results of a selected number of studies and analyses that have been conducted by the SPST addressing the need, as well as the solutions, for improvement in LCC. The major emphasis of the SPST processes is on developing the space transportation system requirements first (up front). These requirements must include both the usual system flight performance requirements and also the system functional requirements, including the infrastructure on Earth's surface, in-space and on the Moon and Mars surfaces to determine LCC. This paper describes the development of specific innovative engineering and management approaches and processes. This includes a focus on flight hardware maturity for reliability, ground operations approaches, and business processes between contractor and government organizations. A major change in program/project cost control is being proposed by the SPST to achieve a sustainable space transportation system LCC - controlling cost as a program metric in addition to the existing practice of controlling performance and weight. Without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that an affordable and sustainable space

  5. Avionics and Power Management for Low-Cost High-Altitude Balloon Science Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Jeffrey; Roberts, Anthony; McNatt, Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    High-altitude balloons (HABs) have become popular as educational and scientific platforms for planetary research. This document outlines key components for missions where low cost and rapid development are desired. As an alternative to ground-based vacuum and thermal testing, these systems can be flight tested at comparable costs. Communication, solar, space, and atmospheric sensing experiments often require environments where ground level testing can be challenging or impossible in certain cases. When performing HAB research the ability to monitor the status of the platform and gather data is key for both scientific and recoverability aspects of the mission. A few turnkey platform solutions are outlined that leverage rapidly evolving open-source engineering ecosystems. Rather than building custom components from scratch, these recommendations attempt to maximize simplicity and cost of HAB platforms to make launches more accessible to everyone.

  6. Low-weight, low-cost, low-cycle time, replicated glass mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egerman, Robert; De Smitt, Steven; Strafford, David

    2010-07-01

    ITT has patented and continues to develop processes to fabricate low-cost borosilicate mirrors that can be used for both ground and space-based optical telescopes. Borosilicate glass is a commodity and is the material of choice for today's flat-panel televisions and monitors. Supply and demand has kept its cost low compared to mirror substrate materials typically found in telescopes. The current technology development is on the path to having the ability to deliver imaging quality optics of up to 1m (scalable to 2m) in diameter in three weeks. For those applications that can accommodate the material properties of borosilicate glasses, this technology has the potential to revolutionize ground and space-based astronomy. ITT Corporation has demonstrated finishing a planar, 0.6m borosilicate, optic to <100 nm-rms. This paper will provide an historical overview of the development in this area with an emphasis on recent technology developments to fabricate a 0.6m parabolic mirror under NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) grant #NNX09AD61G.

  7. WHITE BOX: LOW COST BOX FOR LAPAROSCOPIC TRAINING

    PubMed Central

    MARTINS, João Maximiliano Pedron; RIBEIRO, Roberto Vanin Pinto; CAVAZZOLA, Leandro Totti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic surgery is a reality in almost all surgical centers. Although with initial greater technical difficulty for surgeons, the rapid return to activities, less postoperative pain and higher quality aesthetic stimulates surgeons to evolve technically in this area. However, unlike open surgery where learning opportunities are more accessible, the laparoscopic training represents a challenge in surgeon formation. Aim: To present a low cost model for laparoscopic training box. Methods: This model is based in easily accessible materials; the equipment can be easily found based on chrome mini jet and passes rubber thread and a webcam attached to an aluminum handle. Results: It can be finalized in two days costing R$ 280,00 (US$ 90). Conclusion: It is possible to stimulate a larger number of surgeons to have self training in laparoscopy at low cost seeking to improve their surgical skills outside the operating room. PMID:26537148

  8. Parametric Cost Models for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.

  9. Global Trends in Space Access and Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Shamim A.; Keim, Nicholas S.; Zeender, Peter E.

    2010-01-01

    In the not-so-distant past, space access and air/space technology superiority were within the purview of the U.S. and former Soviet Union's respective space agencies, both vying for global leadership in space exploitation. In more recent years, with the emergence of the European Space Agency (ESA) member countries and Asian countries joining the family of space-faring nations, it is truer now more than ever that space access and utilization has become a truly global enterprise. In fact, according to the Space Report 2007, this enterprise is a $251-billion economy. It is possible to gauge the vitality of worldwide efforts from open sources in today's transparent, media-based society. In particular, print and web broadcasters regularly report and catalog global space activities for defense and civil purposes. For the purposes of this paper, a representative catalog of missions is used to illustrate the nature of the emerging "globalization." This paper highlights global trends in terms of not only the providers of space access, but also the end-users for the various recently accomplished missions. With well over 50 launches per year, in recent years, the launch-log reveals a surprising percentage of "cooperative or co-dependent missions" where different agencies, countries, and/or commercial entities are so engaged presumably to the benefit of all who participate. Statistics are cited and used to show that recently over d0% of the 50-plus missions involved multiple nations working collectively to deliver payloads to orbit. Observers, space policy professionals, and space agency leaders have eloquently proposed that it might require the combined resources and talents of multiple nations to advance human exploration goals beyond low earth orbit. This paper does not intend to offer new information with respect to whether international collaboration is necessary but to observe that, in continuing to monitor global trends, the results seem to support the thesis that a

  10. Low-Cost Large Aperture Telescopes for Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Low-cost, 0.5-1 meter ground apertures are required for near-Earth laser communications. Low-cost ground apertures with equivalent diameters greater than 10 meters are desired for deep-space communications. This presentation focuses on identifying schemes to lower the cost of constructing networks of large apertures while continuing to meet the requirements for laser communications. The primary emphasis here is on the primary mirror. A slumped glass spherical mirror, along with passive secondary mirror corrector and active adaptive optic corrector show promise as a low-cost alternative to large diameter monolithic apertures. To verify the technical performance and cost estimate, development of a 1.5-meter telescope equipped with gimbal and dome is underway.

  11. Reducing Mission Costs by Leveraging Previous Investments in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Ron; Adams, W. James

    1999-01-01

    The Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been charged with the responsibility to reduce mission cost by allowing access to previous developments on government and commercial space missions. RSDO accomplishes this responsibility by implementing two revolutionary contract vehicles, the Rapid Spacecraft Acquisition (RSA) and Quick Ride. This paper will describe the concept behind these contracts, the current capabilities available to missions, analysis of pricing trends to date using the RSDO processes, and future plans to increase flexibility and capabilities available to mission planners.

  12. A Low-Cost Data Acquisition System for Automobile Dynamics Applications

    PubMed Central

    González, Alejandro; Vinolas, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    This project addresses the need for the implementation of low-cost acquisition technology in the field of vehicle engineering: the design, development, manufacture, and verification of a low-cost Arduino-based data acquisition platform to be used in <80 Hz data acquisition in vehicle dynamics, using low-cost accelerometers. In addition to this, a comparative study is carried out of professional vibration acquisition technologies and low-cost systems, obtaining optimum results for low- and medium-frequency operations with an error of 2.19% on road tests. It is therefore concluded that these technologies are applicable to the automobile industry, thereby allowing the project costs to be reduced and thus facilitating access to this kind of research that requires limited resources. PMID:29382039

  13. A Low-Cost Data Acquisition System for Automobile Dynamics Applications.

    PubMed

    González, Alejandro; Olazagoitia, José Luis; Vinolas, Jordi

    2018-01-27

    This project addresses the need for the implementation of low-cost acquisition technology in the field of vehicle engineering: the design, development, manufacture, and verification of a low-cost Arduino-based data acquisition platform to be used in <80 Hz data acquisition in vehicle dynamics, using low-cost accelerometers. In addition to this, a comparative study is carried out of professional vibration acquisition technologies and low-cost systems, obtaining optimum results for low- and medium-frequency operations with an error of 2.19% on road tests. It is therefore concluded that these technologies are applicable to the automobile industry, thereby allowing the project costs to be reduced and thus facilitating access to this kind of research that requires limited resources.

  14. Challenges for future space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. The key to success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience was made. These needs fall into three broad categories-survival, self sufficiency and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from low earth orbit (LEO) to Mars was determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options were made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs.

  15. A Low-Cost, In Situ Resistivity and Temperature Monitoring System

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a low-cost, reliable method for long-term in situ autonomous monitoring of subsurface resistivity and temperature in a shallow, moderately heterogeneous subsurface. Probes, to be left in situ, were constructed at relatively low cost with close electrode spacing. Once i...

  16. Space Experiment Module: A new low-cost capability for education payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, Theodore C.; Lewis, Ruthan

    1995-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) concept is one of a number of education initiatives being pursued by the NASA Shuttle Small Payloads Project (SSPP) in an effort to increase educational access to space by means of Space Shuttle Small Payloads and associated activities. In the SEM concept, NASA will provide small containers ('modules') which can accommodate small zero-gravity experiments designed and constructed by students. A number, (nominally ten), of the modules will then be flown in an existing Get Away Special (GAS) carrier on the Shuttle for a flight of 5 to 10 days. In addition to the module container, the NASA carrier system will provide small amounts of electrical power and a computer system for controlling the operation of the experiments and recording experiment data. This paper describes the proposed SEM carrier system and program approach.

  17. Life Science Research in Outer Space: New Platform Technologies for Low-Cost, Autonomous Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Parra, Macarena P.; Niesel, David; McGinnis, Michael; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Nicholson, Wayne; Mancinelli, Rocco; Piccini, Matthew E.; Beasley, Christopher C.; Timucin, Linda R.; hide

    2009-01-01

    We develop integrated instruments and platforms suitable for economical, frequent space access for autonomous life science experiments and processes in outer space. The technologies represented by three of our recent free-flyer small-satellite missions are the basis of a rapidly growing toolbox of miniaturized biologically/biochemically-oriented instrumentation now enabling a new generation of in-situ space experiments. Autonomous small satellites ( 1 50 kg) are less expensive to develop and build than fullsize spacecraft and not subject to the comparatively high costs and scheduling challenges of human-tended experimentation on the International Space Station, Space Shuttle, and comparable platforms. A growing number of commercial, government, military, and civilian space launches now carry small secondary science payloads at far lower cost than dedicated missions; the number of opportunities is particularly large for so-called cube-sat and multicube satellites in the 1 10 kg range. The recent explosion in nano-, micro-, and miniature technologies, spanning fields from telecommunications to materials to bio/chemical analysis, enables development of remarkably capable autonomous miniaturized instruments to accomplish remote biological experimentation. High-throughput drug discovery, point-of-care medical diagnostics, and genetic analysis are applications driving rapid progress in autonomous bioanalytical technology. Three of our recent missions exemplify the development of miniaturized analytical payload instrumentation: GeneSat-1 (launched: December 2006), PharmaSat (launched: May 2009), and O/OREOS (organism/organics exposure to orbital stresses; scheduled launch: May 2010). We will highlight the overall architecture and integration of fluidic, optical, sensor, thermal, and electronic technologies and subsystems to support and monitor the growth of microorganisms in culture in these small autonomous space satellites, including real-time tracking of their culture

  18. Large area low-cost space solar cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, C. R.; Cioni, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    A development program to produce large-area (5.9 x 5.9 cm) space quality silicon solar cells with a cost goal of 30 $/watt is descibed. Five cell types under investigation include wraparound dielectric, mechanical wraparound and conventional contact configurations with combinations of 2 or 10 ohm-cm resistivity, back surface reflectors and/or fields, and diffused or ion implanted junctions. A single step process to cut cell and cover-glass simultaneously is being developed. A description of cell developments by Applied Solar Energy Corp., Spectrolab and Spire is included. Results are given for cell and array tests, performed by Lockheed, TRW and NASA. Future large solar arrays that might use cells of this type are discussed.

  19. Construction of a low-cost luximeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedroso, L. S.; de Macedo, J. A.; de Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes the construction of an electronic instrument called digital luximeter, combining simplicity and low cost, making it simpler and cheaper than those on the market. Its construction tends to facilitate dissemination and access to this type of measuring instrument between high school teachers and educational institutions, making it ideal to be a science lab.

  20. Estimating the Deep Space Network modification costs to prepare for future space missions by using major cost drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Donald S.; Sherif, Josef; Buchanan, Harry R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper develops a cost model to do long range planning cost estimates for Deep Space Network (DSN) support of future space missions. The paper focuses on the costs required to modify and/or enhance the DSN to prepare for future space missions. The model is a function of eight major mission cost drivers and estimates both the total cost and the annual costs of a similar future space mission. The model is derived from actual cost data from three space missions: Voyager (Uranus), Voyager (Neptune), and Magellan. Estimates derived from the model are tested against actual cost data for two independent missions, Viking and Mariner Jupiter/Saturn (MJS).

  1. Feasibility of a low-cost sounding rockoon platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okninski, Adam; Raurell, Daniel Sors; Mitre, Alberto Rodriguez

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the results of analyses and simulations for the design of a small sounding platform, dedicated to conducting scientific atmospheric research and capable of reaching the von Kármán line by means of a rocket launched from it. While recent private initiatives have opted for the air launch concept to send small payloads to Low Earth Orbit, several historical projects considered the use of balloons as the first stage of orbital and suborbital platforms, known as rockoons. Both of these approaches enable the minimization of drag losses. This paper addresses the issue of utilizing stratospheric balloons as launch platforms to conduct sub-orbital rocket flights. Research and simulations have been conducted to demonstrate these capabilities and feasibility. A small sounding solid propulsion rocket using commercially-off-the-shelf hardware is proposed. Its configuration and design are analyzed with special attention given to the propulsion system and its possible mission-orientated optimization. The cost effectiveness of this approach is discussed. Performance calculation outcomes are shown. Additionally, sensitivity study results for different design parameters are given. Minimum mass rocket configurations for various payload requirements are presented. The ultimate aim is to enhance low-cost experimentation maintaining high mobility of the system and simplicity of operations. An easier and more affordable access to a space-like environment can be achieved with this system, thus allowing for widespread outreach of space science and technology knowledge. This project is based on earlier experience of the authors in LEEM Association of the Technical University of Madrid and the Polish Small Sounding Rocket Program developed at the Institute of Aviation and Warsaw University of Technology in Poland.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of Access to Critical Cerebral Emergency Support Services (ACCESS): a neuro-emergent telemedicine consultation program.

    PubMed

    Whetten, Justin; van der Goes, David N; Tran, Huy; Moffett, Maurice; Semper, Colin; Yonas, Howard

    2018-04-01

    Access to Critical Cerebral Emergency Support Services (ACCESS) was developed as a low-cost solution to providing neuro-emergent consultations to rural hospitals in New Mexico that do not offer comprehensive stroke care. ACCESS is a two-way audio-visual program linking remote emergency department physicians and their patients to stroke specialists. ACCESS also has an education component in which hospitals receive training from stroke specialists on the triage and treatment of patients. This study assessed the clinical and economic outcomes of the ACCESS program in providing services to rural New Mexico from a healthcare payer perspective. A decision tree model was constructed using findings from the ACCESS program and existing literature, the likelihood that a patient will receive a tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), cost of care, and resulting quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Data from the ACCESS program includes emergency room patients in rural New Mexico from May 2015 to August 2016. Outcomes and costs have been estimated for patients who were taken to a hospital providing neurological telecare and patients who were not. The use of ACCESS decreased neuro-emergent stroke patient transfers from rural hospitals to urban settings from 85% to 5% (no tPA) and 90% to 23% (tPA), while stroke specialist reading of patient CT/MRI imaging within 3 h of onset of stroke symptoms increased from 2% to 22%. Results indicate that use of ACCESS has the potential to save $4,241 ($3,952-$4,438) per patient and increase QALYs by 0.20 (0.14-0.22). This increase in QALYs equates to ∼73 more days of life at full health. The cost savings and QALYs are expected to increase when moving from a 90-day model to a lifetime model. The analysis demonstrates potential savings and improved quality-of-life associated with the use of ACCESS for patients presenting to rural hospitals with acute ischemic stroke (AIS).

  3. Safety Benefits of Access Spacing

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    The spacing of driveways and streets is an important element in roadway planning, design, and operation. Access points are the main source of accidents and congestion. Their location and spacing affects the safety and functional integrity of streets ...

  4. A Low Cost Automatic Detection and Ranging System for Space Surveillance in the Medium Earth Orbit Region and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Danescu, Radu; Ciurte, Anca; Turcu, Vlad

    2014-01-01

    The space around the Earth is filled with man-made objects, which orbit the planet at altitudes ranging from hundreds to tens of thousands of kilometers. Keeping an eye on all objects in Earth's orbit, useful and not useful, operational or not, is known as Space Surveillance. Due to cost considerations, the space surveillance solutions beyond the Low Earth Orbit region are mainly based on optical instruments. This paper presents a solution for real-time automatic detection and ranging of space objects of altitudes ranging from below the Medium Earth Orbit up to 40,000 km, based on two low cost observation systems built using commercial cameras and marginally professional telescopes, placed 37 km apart, operating as a large baseline stereovision system. The telescopes are pointed towards any visible region of the sky, and the system is able to automatically calibrate the orientation parameters using automatic matching of reference stars from an online catalog, with a very high tolerance for the initial guess of the sky region and camera orientation. The difference between the left and right image of a synchronized stereo pair is used for automatic detection of the satellite pixels, using an original difference computation algorithm that is capable of high sensitivity and a low false positive rate. The use of stereovision provides a strong means of removing false positives, and avoids the need for prior knowledge of the orbits observed, the system being able to detect at the same time all types of objects that fall within the measurement range and are visible on the image. PMID:24521941

  5. A low cost automatic detection and ranging system for space surveillance in the medium Earth orbit region and beyond.

    PubMed

    Danescu, Radu; Ciurte, Anca; Turcu, Vlad

    2014-02-11

    The space around the Earth is filled with man-made objects, which orbit the planet at altitudes ranging from hundreds to tens of thousands of kilometers. Keeping an eye on all objects in Earth's orbit, useful and not useful, operational or not, is known as Space Surveillance. Due to cost considerations, the space surveillance solutions beyond the Low Earth Orbit region are mainly based on optical instruments. This paper presents a solution for real-time automatic detection and ranging of space objects of altitudes ranging from below the Medium Earth Orbit up to 40,000 km, based on two low cost observation systems built using commercial cameras and marginally professional telescopes, placed 37 km apart, operating as a large baseline stereovision system. The telescopes are pointed towards any visible region of the sky, and the system is able to automatically calibrate the orientation parameters using automatic matching of reference stars from an online catalog, with a very high tolerance for the initial guess of the sky region and camera orientation. The difference between the left and right image of a synchronized stereo pair is used for automatic detection of the satellite pixels, using an original difference computation algorithm that is capable of high sensitivity and a low false positive rate. The use of stereovision provides a strong means of removing false positives, and avoids the need for prior knowledge of the orbits observed, the system being able to detect at the same time all types of objects that fall within the measurement range and are visible on the image.

  6. Considerations on private human access to space from an institutional point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufenbach, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    Private human access to space as discussed in this article addresses two market segments: suborbital flight and crew flights to Low Earth Orbit. The role of entrepreneurs, the technical complexity, the customers, the market conditions as well as the time to market in these two segments differ significantly. Space agencies take currently a very different approach towards private human access to space in both segments. Analysing the outcome of broader inter-agency deliberations on the future of human spaceflight and exploration, performed e.g. in the framework of the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, enables to derive some common general views on this topic. Various documents developed by inter-agency working groups recognise the general strategic importance for enabling private human access to space for ensuring a sustainable future of human spaceflight, although the specific definition of private human access and approaches vary. ESA has performed some reflections on this subject throughout the last 5 years. While it gained through these reflections a good understanding on the opportunities and implications resulting from the development of capabilities and markets for Private Human Access, limited concrete activities have been initiated in relation to this topic as of today.

  7. ESF-X: a low-cost modular experiment computer for space flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sell, Steven; Zapetis, Joseph; Littlefield, Jim; Vining, Joanne

    2004-08-01

    The high cost associated with spaceflight research often compels experimenters to scale back their research goals significantly purely for budgetary reasons; among experiment systems, control and data collection electronics are a major contributor to total project cost. ESF-X was developed as an architecture demonstration in response to this need: it is a highly capable, radiation-protected experiment support computer, designed to be configurable on demand to each investigator's particular experiment needs, and operational in LEO for missions lasting up to several years (e.g., ISS EXPRESS) without scheduled service or maintenance. ESF-X can accommodate up to 255 data channels (I/O, A/D, D/A, etc.), allocated per customer request, with data rates up to 40kHz. Additionally, ESF-X can be programmed using the graphical block-diagram based programming languages Simulink and MATLAB. This represents a major cost saving opportunity for future investigators, who can now obtain a customized, space-qualified experiment controller at steeply reduced cost compared to 'new' design, and without the performance compromises associated with using preexisting 'generic' systems. This paper documents the functional benchtop prototype, which utilizes a combination of COTS and space-qualified components, along with unit-gravity-specific provisions appropriate to laboratory environment evaluation of the ESF-X design concept and its physical implementation.

  8. Potential public sector cost-savings from over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Foster, Diana G; Biggs, M Antonia; Phillips, Kathryn A; Grindlay, Kate; Grossman, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    This study estimates how making oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) available without a prescription may affect contraceptive use, unintended pregnancies and associated contraceptive and pregnancy costs among low-income women. Based on published figures, we estimate two scenarios [low over-the-counter (OTC) use and high OTC use] of the proportion of low-income women likely to switch to an OTC pill and predict adoption of OCPs according to the out-of-pocket costs per pill pack. We then estimate cost-savings of each scenario by comparing the total public sector cost of providing OCPs OTC and medical care for unintended pregnancy. Twenty-one percent of low-income women at risk for unintended pregnancy are very likely to use OCPs if they were available without a prescription. Women's use of OTC OCPs varies widely by the out-of-pocket pill pack cost. In a scenario assuming no out-of-pocket costs for the over-the counter pill, an additional 11-21% of low-income women will use the pill, resulting in a 20-36% decrease in the number of women using no method or a method less effective than the pill, and a 7-25% decrease in the number of unintended pregnancies, depending on the level of use and any effect on contraceptive failure rates. If out-of-pocket costs for such pills are low, OTC access could have a significant effect on use of effective contraceptives and unintended pregnancy. Public health plans may reduce expenditures on pregnancy and contraceptive healthcare services by covering oral contraceptives as an OTC product. Interest in OTC access to oral contraceptives is high. Removing the prescription barrier, particularly if pill packs are available at low or zero out-of-pocket cost, could increase the use of effective methods of contraception and reduce unintended pregnancy and healthcare costs for contraceptive and pregnancy care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Space Station Freedom operations costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Accola, Anne L.; Williams, Gregory J.

    1988-01-01

    Measures to reduce the operation costs of the Space Station which can be implemented in the design and development stages are discussed. Operational functions are described in the context of an overall operations concept. The provisions for operations cost responsibilities among the partners in the Space Station program are presented. Cost estimating methodologies and the way in which operations costs affect the design and development process are examined.

  10. The U.S. Commercial Space Launch Program and the Department of Defense Dilemma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, William G.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. space launch program no longer dominates the world and is now playing 'catch-up' with the world's first commercial launch company, Arianespace. A healthy U.S. commercial launch program is essential and will assure continued low-cost military access to space. The effort to regain the lead in commercial space launch market has been hindered by declining Department of Defense budgets. President Clinton's space policy prohibits expensive new launch vehicles and limits the Department of Defense to low cost upgrades of existing launch vehicles. The U.S. government created the space sector and must ensure a smooth and effective split from the emerging commercial space program in order to regain world dominance. Until U.S. government and commercial ties are severed, the Department of Defense must consider commercial space launch interests when making military decisions. Ariane provides an excellent 'bench mark' for the U.S. to base future launch vehicle upgrades. Ariane advantages were identified and low-cost recommendations have been made. If the U.S. sets the target of first equaling and then surpassing Ariane by incorporating these recommendations, then the U.S. could once again dominate the world commercial launch market and ensure low cost military access to space.

  11. Advanced Low-Cost O2/H2 Engines for the SSTO Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goracke, B. David; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Nixon, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    The recent NASA Access to Space study examined future Earth to orbit (ETO) transportation needs and fleets out to 2030. The baseline in the option 3 assessment was a single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicle. A study was conducted to assess the use of new advanced low cost O2/H2 engines for this SSTO application. The study defined baseline configurations and ground rules and defined six engine cycles to explore engine performance. The cycles included an open cycle, and a series of closed cycles with varying abilities to extract energy from the propellants to power he turbomachinery. The cycles thus varied in the maximum chamber pressure they could reach and in their weights at any given chamber pressure. The weight of each cycle was calculated for two technology levels versus chamber pressure up to the power limit of the cycle. The performance in the SSTO mission was then modeled using the resulting engine weights and specific impulse performance using the Access to Space option 3 vehicle. The results showed that new O2/H2 engines are viable and competitive candidates for the SSTO application using chamber pressures of 4,000 psi.

  12. Access from Space: A New Perspective on NASA's Space Transportation Technology Requirements and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasky, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    The need for robust and reliable access from space is clearly demonstrated by the recent loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia; as well as the NASA s goals to get the Shuttle re-flying and extend its life, build new vehicles for space access, produce successful robotic landers and s a q k retrr? llisrions, and maximize the science content of ambitious outer planets missions that contain nuclear reactors which must be safe for re-entry after possible launch aborts. The technology lynch pin of access from space is hypersonic entry systems such the thermal protection system, along with navigation, guidance and control (NG&C). But it also extends to descent and landing systems such as parachutes, airbags and their control systems. Current space access technology maturation programs such as NASA s Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program or the In-Space Propulsion (ISP) program focus on maturing laboratory demonstrated technologies for potential adoption by specific mission applications. A key requirement for these programs success is a suitable queue of innovative technologies and advanced concepts to mature, including mission concepts enabled by innovative, cross cutting technology advancements. When considering space access, propulsion often dominates the capability requirements, as well as the attention and resources. From the perspective of access from space some new cross cutting technology drivers come into view, along with some new capability opportunities. These include new miniature vehicles (micro, nano, and picosats), advanced automated systems (providing autonomous on-orbit inspection or landing site selection), and transformable aeroshells (to maximize capabilities and minimize weight). This paper provides an assessment of the technology drivers needed to meet future access from space mission requirements, along with the mission capabilities that can be envisioned from innovative, cross cutting access from space technology developments.

  13. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Green Space Quality and Accessibility-Evidence from a Southern European City.

    PubMed

    Hoffimann, Elaine; Barros, Henrique; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel

    2017-08-15

    Background : The provision of green spaces is an important health promotion strategy to encourage physical activity and to improve population health. Green space provision has to be based on the principle of equity. This study investigated the presence of socioeconomic inequalities in geographic accessibility and quality of green spaces across Porto neighbourhoods (Portugal). Methods : Accessibility was evaluated using a Geographic Information System and all the green spaces were audited using the Public Open Space Tool. Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficients and ordinal regression were used to test whether socioeconomic differences in green space quality and accessibility were statistically significant. Results : Although the majority of the neighbourhoods had an accessible green space, mean distance to green space increased with neighbourhood deprivation. Additionally, green spaces in the more deprived neighbourhoods presented significantly more safety concerns, signs of damage, lack of equipment to engage in active leisure activities, and had significantly less amenities such as seating, toilets, cafés, etc. Conclusions : Residents from low socioeconomic positions seem to suffer from a double jeopardy; they lack both individual and community resources. Our results have important planning implications and might contribute to understanding why deprived communities have lower physical activity levels and poorer health.

  14. Ultra-Low-Cost Room Temperature SiC Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faur, Maria

    1997-01-01

    The research group at CSU has conducted theoretical and experimental research on 'Ultra-Low-Cost Room Temperature SiC Thin Films. The effectiveness of a ultra-low-cost room temperature thin film SiC growth technique on Silicon and Germanium substrates and structures with applications to space solar sells, ThermoPhotoVoltaic (TPV) cells and microelectronic and optoelectronic devices was investigated and the main result of this effort are summarized.

  15. The Extended Duration Sounding Rocket (EDSR): Low Cost Science and Technology Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruddace, R. G.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cash, W.; Eberspeaker, P.; Figer, D.; Figueroa, O.; Harris, W.; Kowalski, M.; Maddox, R.; Martin, C.; McCammon, D.; Nordsieck, K.; Polidan, R.; Sanders, W.; Wilkinson, E.; Asrat

    2011-12-01

    The 50-year old NASA sounding rocket (SR) program has been successful in launching scientific payloads into space frequently and at low cost with a 85% success rate. In 2008 the NASA Astrophysics Sounding Rocket Assessment Team (ASRAT), set up to review the future course of the SR program, made four major recommendations, one of which now called Extended Duration Sounding Rocket (EDSR). ASRAT recommended a system capable of launching science payloads (up to 420 kg) into low Earth orbit frequently (1/yr) at low cost, with a mission duration of approximately 30 days. Payload selection would be based on meritorious high-value science that can be performed by migrating sub-orbital payloads to orbit. Establishment of this capability is a essential for NASA as it strives to advance technical readiness and lower costs for risk averse Explorers and flagship missions in its pursuit of a balanced and sustainable program and achieve big science goals within a limited fiscal environment. The development of a new generation of small, low-cost launch vehicles (SLV), primarily the SpaceX Falcon 1 and the Orbital Sciences Minotaur I has made this concept conceivable. The NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF)conducted a detailed engineering concept study, aimed at defining the technical characteristics of all phases of a mission, from design, procurement, assembly, test, integration and mission operations. The work was led by Dr. Raymond Cruddace, a veteran of the SR program and the prime mover of the EDSR concept. The team investigated details such as, the "FAA licensed contract" for launch service procurement, with WFF and NASA SMD being responsible for mission assurance which results in a factor of two cost savings over the current approach. These and other creative solutions resulted in a proof-of-concept Class D mission design that could have a sustained launch rate of at least 1/yr, a mission duration of up to about 3 months, and a total cost of $25-30 million for each mission

  16. Space Transportation System Availability Relationships to Life Cycle Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Chen, Timothy T.

    2009-01-01

    Future space transportation architectures and designs must be affordable. Consequently, their Life Cycle Cost (LCC) must be controlled. For the LCC to be controlled, it is necessary to identify all the requirements and elements of the architecture at the beginning of the concept phase. Controlling LCC requires the establishment of the major operational cost drivers. Two of these major cost drivers are reliability and maintainability, in other words, the system's availability (responsiveness). Potential reasons that may drive the inherent availability requirement are the need to control the number of unique parts and the spare parts required to support the transportation system's operation. For more typical space transportation systems used to place satellites in space, the productivity of the system will drive the launch cost. This system productivity is the resultant output of the system availability. Availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. Since many operational factors cannot be projected early in the definition phase, the focus will be on inherent availability which is equal to the mean time between a failure (MTBF) divided by the MTBF plus the mean time to repair (MTTR) the system. The MTBF is a function of reliability or the expected frequency of failures. When the system experiences failures the result is added operational flow time, parts consumption, and increased labor with an impact to responsiveness resulting in increased LCC. The other function of availability is the MTTR, or maintainability. In other words, how accessible is the failed hardware that requires replacement and what operational functions are required before and after change-out to make the system operable. This paper will describe how the MTTR can be equated to additional labor, additional operational flow time, and additional structural access capability, all of which drive up the LCC. A methodology will be presented that

  17. Affordable In-Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, L. A.; VanDyke, M. K.; Lajoie, R. M.; Woodcock, G. R.

    1996-01-01

    Current and proposed launch systems will provide access to low-Earth orbit (LEO), and destinations beyond LEO, but the cost of delivering payloads will preclude the use of these services by many users. To develop and encourage revolutionary commercial utilization of geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and to provide an affordable means to continue NASA space science and exploration missions, the transportation costs to in-space destinations must be reduced. The principal objective of this study was to conceptually define three to four promising approaches to in-space transportation for delivery of satellites and other payloads, 3,000- to 10,000-lb class, to GEO destinations. This study established a methodology for evaluating in-space transportation systems based on life-cycle cost. The reusable concepts seemed to fare better in the evaluation than expendable, since a major driver in the life-cycle cost was the stage production cost.

  18. Adaptation of the low-cost and low-power tactical split Stirling cryogenic cooler for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, A.; Zechtzer, S.; Pundak, N.; Kirkconnell, C.; Freeman, J.; Riabzev, S.

    2011-06-01

    Cryogenic coolers are often used in modern spacecraft in conjunction with sensitive electronics and sensors of military, commercial and scientific instrumentation. The typical space requirements are: power efficiency, low vibration export, proven reliability, ability to survive launch vibration/shock and long-term exposure to space radiation. A long-standing paradigm of exclusively using "space heritage" equipment has become the standard practice for delivering high reliability components. Unfortunately, this conservative "space heritage" practice can result in using outdated, oversized, overweight and overpriced cryogenic coolers and is becoming increasingly unacceptable for space agencies now operating within tough monetary and time constraints. The recent trend in developing mini and micro satellites for relatively inexpensive missions has prompted attempts to adapt leading-edge tactical cryogenic coolers for suitability in the space environment. The primary emphasis has been on reducing cost, weight and size. The authors are disclosing theoretical and practical aspects of a collaborative effort to develop a space qualified cryogenic refrigerator system based on the tactical cooler model Ricor K527 and the Iris Technology radiation hardened Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics (LCCE). The K27/LCCE solution is ideal for applications where cost, size, weight, power consumption, vibration export, reliability and time to spacecraft integration are of concern.

  19. Outcomes from a university-based low-cost in vitro fertilization program providing access to care for a low-resource socioculturally diverse urban community.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Christopher N; Anaya, Yanett; Noel, Martha; Cakmak, Hakan; Cedars, Marcelle I

    2017-10-01

    To report on outcomes from a university-based low-cost and low-complexity IVF program using mild stimulation approaches and simplified protocols to provide basic access to ART to a socioculturally diverse low-income urban population. Retrospective cohort study. Academic infertility center. Sixty-five infertile couples were enrolled from a county hospital serving a low-resource largely immigrant population. Patients were nonrandomly allocated to one of four mild stimulation protocols: clomiphene/letrozole alone, two clomiphene/letrozole-based protocols involving sequential or flare addition of low-dose gonadotropins, and low-dose gonadotropins alone. Clinical fellows managed all aspects of cycle preparation, monitoring, oocyte retrieval, and embryo transfer under an attending preceptor. Retrieval was undertaken without administration of deep anesthesia, and laboratory interventions were minimized. All embryo transfers were performed at the cleavage stage. Sociomedical demographics, treatment response, and pregnancy outcomes were recorded. From August 2010 to June 2016, 65 patients initiated 161 stimulation IVF cycles, which resulted in 107 retrievals, 91 fresh embryo transfers, and 40 frozen embryo transfer cycles. The mean age of patients was 33.3 years, and mean reported duration of infertility was 5.3 years; 33.5% (54/161) of cycles were cancelled before oocyte retrieval, with 13% due to premature ovulation. Overall, cumulative live birth rates per retrieval including subsequent use of frozen embryos was 29.0%; 44.6% (29/65) of patients enrolled in the program achieved pregnancy. Use of mild stimulation protocols, simplified monitoring, and minimized laboratory handling procedures enabled access to care in a low-resource socioculturally diverse infertile population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Cost Modeling for Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Parametric cost models are an important tool for planning missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper presents on-going efforts to develop single variable and multi-variable cost models for space telescope optical telescope assembly (OTA). These models are based on data collected from historical space telescope missions. Standard statistical methods are used to derive CERs for OTA cost versus aperture diameter and mass. The results are compared with previously published models.

  1. Much Lower Launch Costs Make Resupply Cheaper than Recycling for Space Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    The development of commercial launch vehicles by SpaceX has greatly reduced the cost of launching mass to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Reusable launch vehicles may further reduce the launch cost per kilogram. The new low launch cost makes open loop life support much cheaper than before. Open loop systems resupply water and oxygen in tanks for crew use and provide disposable lithium hydroxide (LiOH) in canisters to remove carbon dioxide. Short human space missions such as Apollo and shuttle have used open loop life support, but the long duration International Space Station (ISS) recycles water and oxygen and removes carbon dioxide with a regenerative molecular sieve. These ISS regenerative and recycling life support systems have significantly reduced the total launch mass needed for life support. But, since the development cost of recycling systems is much higher than the cost of tanks and canisters, the relative cost savings have been much less than the launch mass savings. The Life Cycle Cost (LCC) includes development, launch, and operations. If another space station was built in LEO, resupply life support would be much cheaper than the current recycling systems. The mission most favorable to recycling would be a long term lunar base, since the resupply mass would be large, the proximity to Earth would reduce the need for recycling reliability and spares, and the launch cost would be much higher than for LEO due to the need for lunar transit and descent propulsion systems. For a ten-year lunar base, the new low launch costs make resupply cheaper than recycling systems similar to ISS life support.

  2. Low cost split stirling cryogenic cooler for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, Alexander; Zechtzer, Semeon; Pundak, Nachman; Riabzev, Sergey; Kirckconnel, C.; Freeman, Jeremy

    2012-06-01

    Cryogenic coolers are used in association with sensitive electronics and sensors for military, commercial or scientific space payloads. The general requirements are high reliability and power efficiency, low vibration export and ability to survive launch vibration extremes and long-term exposure to space radiation. A long standing paradigm of using exclusively space heritage derivatives of legendary "Oxford" cryocoolers featuring linear actuators, flexural bearings, contactless seals and active vibration cancellation is so far the best known practice aiming at delivering high reliability components for the critical and usually expensive space missions. The recent tendency of developing mini and micro satellites for the budget constrained missions has spurred attempts to adapt leading-edge tactical cryogenic coolers to meet the space requirements. The authors are disclosing theoretical and practical aspects of a collaborative effort on developing a space qualified cryogenic refrigerator based on the Ricor model K527 tactical cooler and Iris Technology radiation hardened, low cost cryocooler electronics. The initially targeted applications are cost-sensitive flight experiments, but should the results show promise, some long-life "traditional" cryocooler missions may well be satisfied by this approach.

  3. Preliminary Cost Model for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Prince, F. Andrew; Smart, Christian; Stephens, Kyle; Henrichs, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. However, great care is required. Some space telescope cost models, such as those based only on mass, lack sufficient detail to support such analysis and may lead to inaccurate conclusions. Similarly, using ground based telescope models which include the dome cost will also lead to inaccurate conclusions. This paper reviews current and historical models. Then, based on data from 22 different NASA space telescopes, this paper tests those models and presents preliminary analysis of single and multi-variable space telescope cost models.

  4. A comparison of Frequency Domain Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) approaches to satellite service for low data rate Earth stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G.

    1983-01-01

    A technological and economic assessment is made of providing low data rate service to small earth stations by satellite at Ka-band. Various Frequency Domain Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) scenarios are examined and compared on the basis of cost to the end user. Very small stations (1 to 2 meters in diameter) are found not to be viable alternatives to available terrestrial services. However, medium size (3 to 5 meters) earth stations appear to be very competitive if a minimum throughput of about 1.5 Mbs is maintained. This constrains the use of such terminals to large users and shared use by smaller users. No advantage was found to the use of FDMA. TDMA had a slight advantage from a total system viewpoint and a very significant advantage in the space segment (about 1/3 the required payload weight for an equivalent capacity).

  5. Marshall Space Flight Center's role in EASE/ACCESS mission management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, Gerald W.

    1987-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Spacelab Payload Project Office was responsible for the mission management and development of several successful payloads. Two recent space construction experiments, the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity (EASE) and the Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS), were combined into a payload managed by the center. The Ease/ACCESS was flown aboard the Space Shuttle Mission 61-B. The EASE/ACCESS experiments were the first structures assembled in space, and the method used to manage this successful effort will be useful for future space construction missions. The MSFC mission management responsibilities for the EASE/ACCESS mission are addressed and how the lessons learned from the mission can be applied to future space construction projects are discussed.

  6. Achievable space elevators for space transportation and starship acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Jerome

    1990-01-01

    Space elevator concepts for low-cost space launches are reviewed. Previous concepts suffered from requirements for ultra-high-strength materials, dynamically unstable systems, or from danger of collision with space debris. The use of magnetic grain streams solves these problems. Magnetic grain streams can support short space elevators for lifting payloads cheaply into Earth orbit, overcoming the material strength problem in building space elevators. Alternatively, the stream could support an international spaceport circling the Earth daily tens of miles above the equator, accessible to advanced aircraft. Mars could be equipped with a similar grain stream, using material from its moons Phobos and Deimos. Grain-stream arcs about the sun could be used for fast launches to the outer planets and for accelerating starships to near lightspeed for interstellar reconnaisance. Grain streams are essentially impervious to collisions, and could reduce the cost of space transportation by an order of magnitude.

  7. Costs and benefits of employment transportation for low-wage workers: an assessment of job access public transportation services.

    PubMed

    Thakuriah Vonu, Piyushimita; Persky, Joseph; Soot, Siim; Sriraj, P S

    2013-04-01

    This paper focuses on an evaluation of public transportation-based employment transportation (ET) services to transport low-wage workers to jobs in the US. We make an attempt to capture a more comprehensive range of intended and unintended outcomes of ET services than those traditionally considered in the case of public transportation services. Using primary data from 23 locations across the country, we present a framework to evaluate how transportation improvements, in interaction with labor markets, can affect users' short-run economic welfare, users' long-run human capital accumulation and non-users' short-run economic welfare. These services were partially funded by a specialized program - the Job Access and Reverse Commute (JARC) program - which was consolidated into larger transit funding programs by recent legislation. In the sites examined, we found that low wage users benefited from self-reported increased access to jobs, improvements in earnings potential, as well as from savings in transport cost and time. Simulations show the potential of users to accrue long-term worklife benefits. At the same time, users may have accrued changes in leisure time as a result of transitioning from unemployment to employment, and generated a range of societal impacts on three classes of non-users: the general tax-paying public, the general commuting public in the service operating area and other low-wage workers in local labor markets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary design and cost of a 1-megawatt solar-pumped iodide laser space-to-space transmission station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Walker, G. H.; Williams, M. D.; Schuster, G. L.; Conway, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary conceptual design of a space-based solar pumped iodide laser emitting 1 megawatt of laser power for space-to-space power transmission is described. A near parabolic solar collector focuses sunlight onto the t-C4F9I (perfluoro-t butyl iodide) lasant within a transverse flow optical cavity. Using waste heat, a thermal system was designed to supply compressor and auxiliary power. System components were designed with weight and cost estimates assigned. Although cost is very approximate, the cost comparison of individual system components leads to valuable insights for future research. In particular, it was found that laser efficiency was not a dominant cost or weight factor, the dominant factor being the laser cavity and laser transmission optics. The manufacturing cost was approx. two thirds of the total cost with transportation to orbit the remainder. The flowing nonrenewable lasant comprised 20% of the total life cycle cost of the system and thus was not a major cost factor. The station mass was 92,000 kg without lasant, requiring approx. four shuttle flights to low Earth orbit where an orbital transfer vehicle will transport it to the final altitude of 6378 km.

  9. Cost-effective, transfer-free, flexible resistive random access memory using laser-scribed reduced graphene oxide patterning technology.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Chen, Hong-Yu; Ren, Tian-Ling; Li, Cheng; Xue, Qing-Tang; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Wu, Can; Yang, Yi; Wong, H-S Philip

    2014-06-11

    Laser scribing is an attractive reduced graphene oxide (rGO) growth and patterning technology because the process is low-cost, time-efficient, transfer-free, and flexible. Various laser-scribed rGO (LSG) components such as capacitors, gas sensors, and strain sensors have been demonstrated. However, obstacles remain toward practical application of the technology where all the components of a system are fabricated using laser scribing. Memory components, if developed, will substantially broaden the application space of low-cost, flexible electronic systems. For the first time, a low-cost approach to fabricate resistive random access memory (ReRAM) using laser-scribed rGO as the bottom electrode is experimentally demonstrated. The one-step laser scribing technology allows transfer-free rGO synthesis directly on flexible substrates or non-flat substrates. Using this time-efficient laser-scribing technology, the patterning of a memory-array area up to 100 cm(2) can be completed in 25 min. Without requiring the photoresist coating for lithography, the surface of patterned rGO remains as clean as its pristine state. Ag/HfOx/LSG ReRAM using laser-scribing technology is fabricated in this work. Comprehensive electrical characteristics are presented including forming-free behavior, stable switching, reasonable reliability performance and potential for 2-bit storage per memory cell. The results suggest that laser-scribing technology can potentially produce more cost-effective and time-effective rGO-based circuits and systems for practical applications.

  10. The Ruggedized STD Bus Microcomputer - A low cost computer suitable for Space Shuttle experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budney, T. J.; Stone, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Previous space flight computers have been costly in terms of both hardware and software. The Ruggedized STD Bus Microcomputer is based on the commercial Mostek/Pro-Log STD Bus. Ruggedized PC cards can be based on commercial cards from more than 60 manufacturers, reducing hardware cost and design time. Software costs are minimized by using standard 8-bit microprocessors and by debugging code using commercial versions of the ruggedized flight boards while the flight hardware is being fabricated.

  11. Parametric Cost Models for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    A study is in-process to develop a multivariable parametric cost model for space telescopes. Cost and engineering parametric data has been collected on 30 different space telescopes. Statistical correlations have been developed between 19 variables of 59 variables sampled. Single Variable and Multi-Variable Cost Estimating Relationships have been developed. Results are being published.

  12. 46 CFR 111.01-7 - Accessibility and spacing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accessibility and spacing. 111.01-7 Section 111.01-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-7 Accessibility and spacing. (a) The design and arrangement of...

  13. 46 CFR 111.01-7 - Accessibility and spacing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accessibility and spacing. 111.01-7 Section 111.01-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-7 Accessibility and spacing. (a) The design and arrangement of...

  14. Key issues in space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W.

    1991-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to the success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems.

  15. Cost-estimating relationships for space programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Cost-estimating relationships (CERs) are defined and discussed as they relate to the estimation of theoretical costs for space programs. The paper primarily addresses CERs based on analogous relationships between physical and performance parameters to estimate future costs. Analytical estimation principles are reviewed examining the sources of errors in cost models, and the use of CERs is shown to be affected by organizational culture. Two paradigms for cost estimation are set forth: (1) the Rand paradigm for single-culture single-system methods; and (2) the Price paradigms that incorporate a set of cultural variables. For space programs that are potentially subject to even small cultural changes, the Price paradigms are argued to be more effective. The derivation and use of accurate CERs is important for developing effective cost models to analyze the potential of a given space program.

  16. CAIRSENSE Study: Real-world evaluation of low cost sensors in Denver, Colorado

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low-cost air pollution sensors are a rapidly developing field in air monitoring. In recent years, numerous sensors have been developed that can provide real-time concentration data for different air pollutants at costs accessible to individuals and non-regulatory groups. Addition...

  17. Effectiveness of a reusable low-cost balloon trocar dissection device in the creation of preperitoneal space during endoscopic surgery. An experimental study in swine.

    PubMed

    Nácul, Miguel Prestes; Cavazzola, Leandro Totti; Loureiro, Marcelo de Paula; Bonin, Eduardo Aimoré; Ferreira, Paulo Roberto Walter

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate a new, low-cost, reusable balloon trocar device for dissection of the preperitoneal space during endoscopic surgery. Twenty swine (weight: 15-37 kg) were randomized to two groups, according to whether the preperitoneal space was created with a new balloon device manufactured by Bhio-Supply (group B) or with the commercially available OMSPDB 1000® balloon device manufactured by Covidien (group C). Quality and size of the created preperitoneal space, identification of anatomic structures, balloon dissection time, total procedure time, balloon resistance and internal pressure after insufflation with 300 mL of ambient air, balloon-related complications, and procedure cost were assessed. No significant differences in dissection time, total procedure time, or size of the created preperitoneal space were found between the groups. Balloons in group B had a significantly higher internal pressure compared to balloons in group C. None of the balloons ruptured during the experiment. Three animals in group C had balloon-related peritoneal lacerations. Despite a higher individual device cost, group B had a lower procedure cost over the entire experiment. The new balloon device is not inferior to the commercially available device in terms of the safety and effectiveness for creating a preperitoneal space in swine.

  18. Low-cost laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, B.L.; Skidmore, J.A.

    1999-06-01

    A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring (which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove). The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost. 19 figs.

  19. Low-cost laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, Barry L.; Skidmore, Jay A.

    1999-01-01

    A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring (which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove). The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost.

  20. Analyzing costs of space debris mitigation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, C.; Krag, H.; Bendisch, J.; Sdunnus, H.

    2004-01-01

    The steadily increasing number of space objects poses a considerable hazard to all kinds of spacecraft. To reduce the risks to future space missions different debris mitigation measures and spacecraft protection techniques have been investigated during the last years. However, the economic efficiency has not been considered yet in this context. Current studies have the objective to evaluate the mission costs due to space debris in a business as usual (no mitigation) scenario compared to the missions costs considering debris mitigation. The aim is an estimation of the time until the investment in debris mitigation will lead to an effective reduction of mission costs. This paper presents the results of investigations on the key issues of cost estimation for spacecraft and the influence of debris mitigation and shielding on cost. Mitigation strategies like the reduction of orbital lifetime and de- or re-orbit of non-operational satellites are methods to control the space debris environment. These methods result in an increase of costs. In a first step the overall costs of different types of unmanned satellites are analyzed. A selected cost model is simplified and generalized for an application on all operational satellites. In a next step the influence of space debris on cost is treated, if the implementation of mitigation strategies is considered.

  1. Breakthrough Science Enabled by Regular Access to Orbits Beyond Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorjian, V.

    2018-02-01

    Regular launches to the Deep Space Gateway (DSG) will enable smallsats to access orbits not currently easily available to low cost missions. These orbits will allow great new science, especially when using the DSG as an optical hub for downlink.

  2. Analyzing costs of space debris mitigation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, C.; Krag, H.; Bendisch, J.; Sdunnus, H.

    The steadily increasing number of space objects poses a considerable hazard to all kinds of spacecraft. To reduce the risks to future space missions different debris mitigation measures and spacecraft protection techniques have been investigated during the last years. However, the economic efficiency has not been considered yet in this context. This economical background is not always clear to satellite operators and the space industry. Current studies have the objective to evaluate the mission costs due to space debris in a business as usual (no mitigation) scenario compared to the missions costs considering debris mitigation. The aim i an estimation of thes time until the investment in debris mitigation will lead to an effective reduction of mission costs. This paper presents the results of investigations on the key problems of cost estimation for spacecraft and the influence of debris mitigation and shielding on cost. The shielding of a satellite can be an effective method to protect the spacecraft against debris impact. Mitigation strategies like the reduction of orbital lifetime and de- or re-orbit of non-operational satellites are methods to control the space debris environment. These methods result in an increase of costs. In a first step the overall costs of different types of unmanned satellites are analyzed. The key problem is, that it is not possible to provide a simple cost model that can be applied to all types of satellites. Unmanned spacecraft differ very much in mission, complexity of design, payload and operational lifetime. It is important to classify relevant cost parameters and investigate their influence on the respective mission. The theory of empirical cost estimation and existing cost models are discussed. A selected cost model is simplified and generalized for an application on all operational satellites. In a next step the influence of space debris on cost is treated, if the implementation of mitigation strategies is considered.

  3. Ethernet access network based on free-space optic deployment technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhart, Michael; Leitgeb, Erich; Birnbacher, Ulla; Schrotter, Peter

    2004-06-01

    The satisfaction of all communication needs from single households and business companies over a single access infrastructure is probably the most challenging topic in communications technology today. But even though the so-called "Last Mile Access Bottleneck" is well known since more than ten years and many distribution technologies have been tried out, the optimal solution has not yet been found and paying commercial access networks offering all service classes are still rare today. Conventional services like telephone, radio and TV, as well as new and emerging services like email, web browsing, online-gaming, video conferences, business data transfer or external data storage can all be transmitted over the well known and cost effective Ethernet networking protocol standard. Key requirements for the deployment technology driven by the different services are high data rates to the single customer, security, moderate deployment costs and good scalability to number and density of users, quick and flexible deployment without legal impediments and high availability, referring to the properties of optical and wireless communication. We demonstrate all elements of an Ethernet Access Network based on Free Space Optic distribution technology. Main physical parts are Central Office, Distribution Network and Customer Equipment. Transmission of different services, as well as configuration, service upgrades and remote control of the network are handled by networking features over one FSO connection. All parts of the network are proven, the latest commercially available technology. The set up is flexible and can be adapted to any more specific need if required.

  4. MESA - A new approach to low cost scientific spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyes, G. W.; Case, C. M.

    1982-09-01

    Today, the greatest obstacle to science and exploration in space is its cost. The present investigation is concerned with approaches for reducing this cost. Trends in the scientific spacecraft market are examined, and a description is presented for the MESA space platform concept. The cost drivers are considered, taking into account planning, technical aspects, and business factors. It is pointed out that the primary function of the MESA concept is to provide a satellite system at the lowest possible price. In order to reach this goal an attempt is made to benefit from all of the considered cost drivers. It is to be tried to work with the customer early in the mission analysis stage in order to assist in finding the right compromise between mission cost and return. A three phase contractual arrangement is recommended for MESA platforms. The phases are related to mission feasibility, specification definition, and design and development. Modular kit design promotes flexibility at low cost.

  5. The minimal cost of life in space.

    PubMed

    Drysdale, A E; Rutkze, C J; Albright, L D; LaDue, R L

    2004-01-01

    The cost of keeping people alive in space is assessed from a theoretical viewpoint and using two actual designs for plant growth systems. While life support is theoretically not very demanding, our ability to implement life support is well below theoretical limits. A theoretical limit has been calculated from requirements and the state of the art for plant growth has been calculated using data from the BIO-Plex PDR and from the Cornell CEA prototype system. The very low efficiency of our current approaches results in a high mission impact, though we can still see how to get a significant reduction in cost of food when compared to supplying it from Earth. Seeing the distribution of costs should allow us to improve our current designs. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The minimal cost of life in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drysdale, A. E.; Rutkze, C. J.; Albright, L. D.; LaDue, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    The cost of keeping people alive in space is assessed from a theoretical viewpoint and using two actual designs for plant growth systems. While life support is theoretically not very demanding, our ability to implement life support is well below theoretical limits. A theoretical limit has been calculated from requirements and the state of the art for plant growth has been calculated using data from the BIO-Plex PDR and from the Cornell CEA prototype system. The very low efficiency of our current approaches results in a high mission impact, though we can still see how to get a significant reduction in cost of food when compared to supplying it from Earth. Seeing the distribution of costs should allow us to improve our current designs. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cost Modeling for low-cost planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, Eric; Habib-Agahi, Hamid; Rosenberg, Leigh

    2005-01-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of the JPL parametric cost models used to estimate flight science spacecrafts and instruments. This material will emphasize the cost model approaches to estimate low-cost flight hardware, sensors, and instrumentation, and to perform cost-risk assessments. This presentation will also discuss JPL approaches to perform cost modeling and the methodologies and analyses used to capture low-cost vs. key cost drivers.

  8. Community Perspectives on Access to and Availability of Healthy Food in Rural, Low-Resource, Latino Communities.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Zulema; Ramírez, A Susana; Estrada, Erendira; Grassi, Kathleen; Nathan, Stephanie

    2016-12-15

    Attention has focused on the food environment as a result of the growing concern with obesity rates among Latinos in rural areas. Researchers have observed associations between a lack of physical access to affordable produce in areas where supermarkets and grocery stores are limited and poor dietary intake and obesity; these associations are high in rural, low-resource neighborhoods with a high population of Latino residents. We aimed to engage residents of low-resource, Latino-majority neighborhoods in discussions of food access in a rural yet agricultural community setting, which is typically described as a "food desert." We used a mixed-methods approach and conducted 3 focus groups (n = 20) and in-depth interviews (n = 59) and surveys (n = 79) with residents of a rural yet agricultural community. We used thematic analysis to explore residents' perceptions of access to healthy foods. Residents (n = 79; mean age, 41.6 y; 72% female; 79% Latino; 53% Spanish-speaking) reported that dollar and discount stores in this agricultural area provided access to produce; however, produce at retail stores was less affordable than produce at nonretail outlets such as fruit and vegetable stands. Gifts and trades of fruits and vegetables from neighbors and community organizations supplied no-cost or low-cost healthy foods. Residents' suggestions to improve food access centered on lowering the cost of produce in existing retail outlets and seeking out nonretail outlets. Our findings contribute to understanding of the food environment in low-resource, rural yet agricultural areas. Although such areas are characterized as "food deserts," residents identified nonretail outlets as a viable source of affordable produce, while indicating that the cost of retail produce was a concern. Innovative policy solutions to increase healthy food consumption must focus on affordability as well as accessibility, and consider alternate, nonretail food outlets in agricultural areas.

  9. Leveraging Knowledge: Impact on Low Cost Planetary Mission Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momjian, Jennifer

    This paper discusses innovations developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) librarians to reduce the information query cycle time for teams planning low-cost, planetary missions. The first section provides background on JPL and its library. The second section addresses the virtual information environment, including issues of access, content,…

  10. Fast Paced, Low Cost Projects at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson-Morgan, Lisa; Clinton, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    What does an orbiting microsatellite, a robotic lander and a ruggedized camera and telescope have in common? They are all fast paced, low cost projects managed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) teamed with successful industry partners. MSFC has long been synonymous with human space flight large propulsion programs, engineering acumen and risk intolerance. However, there is a growing portfolio/product line within MSFC that focuses on these smaller, fast paced projects. While launching anything into space is expensive, using a managed risk posture, holding to schedule and keeping costs low by stopping at egood enough f were key elements to their success. Risk is defined as the possibility of loss or failure per Merriam Webster. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) defines risk using procedural requirement 8705.4 and establishes eclasses f to discern the acceptable risk per a project. It states a Class D risk has a medium to significant risk of not achieving mission success. MSFC, along with industry partners, has created a niche in Class D efforts. How did the big, cautious MSFC succeed on these projects that embodied the antithesis of its heritage in human space flight? A key factor toward these successful projects was innovative industry partners such as Dynetics Corporation, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville), Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU APL), Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE), Von Braun Center for Science and Innovation (VCSI), SAIC, and Jacobs. Fast Affordable Satellite Technology (FastSat HSV01) is a low earth orbit microsatellite that houses six instruments with the primary scientific objective of earth observation and technology demonstration. The team was comprised of Dynetics, UAHuntsvile, SAIC, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and VCSI with the United States Air Force Space Test Program as the customer. The team completed design, development, manufacturing, environmental test and integration in

  11. Preliminary Tests of a New Low-Cost Photogrammetric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santise, M.; Thoeni, K.; Roncella, R.; Sloan, S. W.; Giacomini, A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents preliminary tests of a new low-cost photogrammetric system for 4D modelling of large scale areas for civil engineering applications. The system consists of five stand-alone units. Each of the units is composed of a Raspberry Pi 2 Model B (RPi2B) single board computer connected to a PiCamera Module V2 (8 MP) and is powered by a 10 W solar panel. The acquisition of the images is performed automatically using Python scripts and the OpenCV library. Images are recorded at different times during the day and automatically uploaded onto a FTP server from where they can be accessed for processing. Preliminary tests and outcomes of the system are discussed in detail. The focus is on the performance assessment of the low-cost sensor and the quality evaluation of the digital surface models generated by the low-cost photogrammetric systems in the field under real test conditions. Two different test cases were set up in order to calibrate the low-cost photogrammetric system and to assess its performance. First comparisons with a TLS model show a good agreement.

  12. Improving access to high-cost cancer drugs in Latin America: Much to be done.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Rossana; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Touya, Diego; Herrero Vincent, Carmen; Hernandez-Blanquisett, Abraham; St Louis, Jessica; Bukowski, Alexandra; Goss, Paul E

    2017-04-15

    Lack of access to high-cost medications is a complex issue at the intersection of economics, medicine, politics, and ethics, and it poses a significant threat to global health care. The problem is even more significant in low- and middle-income countries, such as those in Latin America, where governments and individuals struggle to pay for products that are priced at several times the level of their per capita gross domestic product. In this review, we examine the determinants for increasing drug costs and how Latin American countries face this burgeoning crisis. We emphasize that a number of opportunities and strategies to reduce costs and improve access exist and should be identified and implemented, ideally within a regional approach with multiple stakeholders involved and based on systematic and transparent cost-effectiveness analyses. Cancer 2017;123:1313-1323. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. Engineering a responsive, low cost, tactical satellite, TACSAT-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, M.; Duffey, T.; Huffine, Christopher; Weldy, Ken; Clevland, Jeff; Hauser, Joe

    2004-11-01

    The Secretary of Defense's Office of Force Transformation (OFT) is currently undertaking an initiative to develop a low-cost, responsive, operationally relevant space capability using small satellites. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is tasked to be program manger for this initiative, which seeks to make space assets and capabilities available to operational users. TacSat-1 is the first in a series of small satellites that will result in rapid, tailored, and operationally relevant experimental space capabilities for tactical forces. Components of the resulting tactical architecture include a highly automated small satellite bus, modular payloads, common launch and payload interfaces, tasking and data dissemination using the SIPRNET (Secret Internet Protocol Routing Network), and low cost, rapid response launches. The overall goal of TacSat-1 is to demonstrate the utility of a broader complementary business model and provide a catalyst for energizing DoD and industry in the operational space area. This paper first provides a brief overview of the TacSat- 1 experiment and then discusses the engineering designs and practices used to achieve the aggressive cost and schedule goals. Non-standard approaches and engineering philosophies that allowed the TacSat-1 spacecraft to be finished in twelve months are detailed and compared with "normal" satellite programs where applicable. Specific subsystem design, integration and test techniques, which contributed to the successful completion of the TacSat-1 spacecraft, are reviewed. Finally, lessons learned are discussed.

  14. Space processes for extended low-G testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, W. H.; Kaye, S.; Gorham, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    Results of an investigation of verifying the capabilities of space processes in ground based experiments at low-g periods are presented. Limited time experiments were conducted with the processes. A valid representation of the complete process cycle was achieved at low-g periods ranging from 40 to 390 seconds. A minimum equipment inventory, is defined. A modular equipment design, adopted to assure low cost and high program flexibility, is presented as well as procedures and data established for the synthesis and definition of dedicated and mixed rocket payloads.

  15. Low Cost Balloon programme of Indian Centre for Space Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Indian Centre for Space Physics has launched 89 Missions to near space using single or multiple weather balloons or very light plastic balloons. Basic goal was to capitalize miniaturization of equipments in modern ages. Our typical payload of less than 4kg weight consists of GPS, video camera, cosmic ray detectors, Attitude measurement unit, sunsensor and most importantly a 50-100sqcm X-ray/Gamma-ray detector (usually a scintillator type). The main purpose of the latter is to study spectra of secondary cosmic ray spectra (till our ceiling altitude of 36-42km) over the years and their seasonal variation or variation with solar cycle. We also study solar X-ray spectra, especially of solar flares. We have detected a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) and pulsars. Our observation of black hole candidates did not yield satisfactory result yet mainly because of poor collimation (~ 10 deg x 10 deg) by lead collimator which introduces strong background also. Our effort with multiple balloon flights enabled us to have long duration flights. We believe that our procedure is very futuristic and yet at an affordable cost.

  16. DART: Delta Advanced Reusable Transport. An alternate manned space system proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Delta Advanced Reusable Transport (DART) craft is being developed to add, multiple, rapid, and cost effective space access to the U.S. capability and to further the efforts towards a permanent space presence. The DART craft provides an augmentative and an alternative system to the Shuttle. As a supplement launch vehicle, the DART adds low cost and easily accessible transport of crew and cargo to specific space destinations to the U.S. program. This adds significant opportunities for manned rated missions that do not require Shuttle capabilities. In its alternative role, the DART can provide emergency space access and satellite repair, the continuation of scientific research, and the furthering of U.S. manned efforts in the event of Shuttle incapabilities. In addition, the DART is being designed for Space Station Freedom compatibility, including its use as a 'lifeboat' emergency reentry craft for Freedom astronauts, as well as the transport of crew and cargo for station resupply.

  17. Space Costing: Who Should Pay for the Use of College Space? A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacher, Sy

    The costs of owning and operating physical facilities are consuming an increasing share of the budgets of colleges and universities. In the past, academic and operating units of colleges have viewed their space as a free commodity and often used it extravagantly. Space costing is a method of cost accounting the space and operating and maintenance…

  18. Improving memory after interruption: exploiting soft constraints and manipulating information access cost.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Phillip L; Patrick, John; Waldron, Samuel M; King, Sophia L; Patrick, Tanya

    2009-12-01

    Forgetting what one was doing prior to interruption is an everyday problem. The recent soft constraints hypothesis (Gray, Sims, Fu, & Schoelles, 2006) emphasizes the strategic adaptation of information processing strategy to the task environment. It predicts that increasing information access cost (IAC: the time, and physical and mental effort involved in accessing information) encourages a more memory-intensive strategy. Like interruptions, access costs are also intrinsic to most work environments, such as when opening documents and e-mails. Three experiments investigated whether increasing IAC during a simple copying task can be an effective method for reducing forgetting following interruption. IAC was designated Low (all information permanently visible), Medium (a mouse movement to uncover target information), or High (an additional few seconds to uncover such information). Experiment 1 found that recall improved across all three levels of IAC. Subsequent experiments found that High IAC facilitated resumption after interruption, particularly when interruption occurred on half of all trials (Experiment 2), and improved prospective memory following two different interrupting tasks, even when one involved the disruptive effect of using the same type of resource as the primary task (Experiment 3). The improvement of memory after interruption with increased IAC supports the prediction of the soft constraints hypothesis. The main disadvantage of a high access cost was a reduction in speed of task completion. The practicality of manipulating IAC as a design method for inducing a memory-intensive strategy to protect against forgetting is discussed. Copyright 2009 APA

  19. A Systems Approach to Lower Cost Missions: Following the Rideshare Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrell, L.

    2009-01-01

    Small-satellite rideshare capabilities and opportunities for low-cost access to space have been evolving over the past 10 years. Small space launch vehicle technology is rapidly being developed and demonstrated, including the Minotaur series and the Space X Falcon, among others, along with the lower cost launch facilities at Alaska's Kodiak Launch Complex, NASA's Wallops Flight Facility, and the Reagan Test Site in the Pacific. Demonstrated capabilities for the launch of multiple payloads have increased (and continue to increase) significantly. This will allow more efficient and cost-effective use of the various launch opportunities, including utilizing the excess capacity of the emerging Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV)-based missions. The definition of standardized interfaces and processes, along with various user guides and payload implementation plans, has been developed and continues to be refined. Top-level agency policies for the support of low-cost access to space for small experimental payloads, such as the DoD policy structure on auxiliary payloads, have been defined and provide the basis for the continued refinement and implementation of these evolving technologies. Most importantly, the coordination and cooperative interfaces between the various stakeholders continues to evolve. The degree of this coordination and technical interchange is demonstrated by the wide stakeholder participation at the recent 2008 Small Payload Rideshare Workshop, held at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. This annual workshop has been the major platform for coordination and technical interchange within the rideshare community and with the various sponsoring agencies. These developments have provided the foundation for a robust low-cost small payload rideshare capability. However, the continued evolution, sustainment, and utilization of these capabilities will require continued stakeholder recognition, support, and nourishing. Ongoing, coordinated effort, partnering, and

  20. Cost estimating methods for advanced space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cyr, Kelley

    1994-01-01

    NASA is responsible for developing much of the nation's future space technology. Cost estimates for new programs are required early in the planning process so that decisions can be made accurately. Because of the long lead times required to develop space hardware, the cost estimates are frequently required 10 to 15 years before the program delivers hardware. The system design in conceptual phases of a program is usually only vaguely defined and the technology used is so often state-of-the-art or beyond. These factors combine to make cost estimating for conceptual programs very challenging. This paper describes an effort to develop parametric cost estimating methods for space systems in the conceptual design phase. The approach is to identify variables that drive cost such as weight, quantity, development culture, design inheritance and time. The nature of the relationships between the driver variables and cost will be discussed. In particular, the relationship between weight and cost will be examined in detail. A theoretical model of cost will be developed and tested statistically against a historical database of major research and development projects.

  1. The costs of accessing abortion in South Africa: women's costs associated with second-trimester abortion services in Western Cape Province.

    PubMed

    Lince-Deroche, Naomi; Constant, Deborah; Harries, Jane; Blanchard, Kelly; Sinanovic, Edina; Grossman, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    To assess women's costs of accessing second-trimester labor induction and dilation and evacuation (D&E) services at four public hospitals in Western Cape Province, South Africa. From April to August 2010, in interviews immediately after completion of their abortion, we asked women about specific direct and indirect costs incurred. We collected information on recurring costs (i.e., per visit) and one-time expenditures and calculated total costs. In total, 194 patients participated (136 D&E; 58 induction). Their median age was 26; 37.6% reported being employed or doing paid work. Most (73.2%) women visited two different facilities, including the study facility, while seeking the procedure. Induction women reported a median of three required visits [interquartile range (IQR) 2.0-3.0] to the study facility, while D&E women reported two required visits [IQR 1.0-2.0]. Twenty-seven percent of women missed work due to the procedure, and few (4.6%) paid for childcare. At each visit, almost all women (180, 92.8%) paid for transportation costs and reported additional one-time costs (177, 91.2%) such as sanitary supplies or doctor's fees. The total median cost incurred per woman was $21.23 [IQR 11.94-44.68]. Roughly half (49.0%) received help with these costs. Although technically offered freely or low cost in the public sector, women accessing second-trimester abortion lost income and incurred costs for transport, fees, supplies and childcare. Their total costs could be reduced by minimizing the number of required visits to facilities and freely offering supplies such as sanitary pads and pregnancy tests. Limited access to second-trimester, safe abortion services in South Africa may result in some women incurring unnecessary costs. Women make multiple visits in attempting to obtain an abortion, often because of facility or health systems requirements, and incur costs for lost income, child care, transport, fees and supplies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An overview of the EASE/ACCESS space construction demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, George M.; Ross, Jerry L.; Spring, Sherwood C.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is given to the development of the Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA/Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (EASE/ACCESS) space construction demonstration, which was performed during Space Shuttle mission 61-B. The mission equipment is described and illustrated and the EASE/ACCESS mission management structure is outlined. Simulations of the assembly and disassembly in the NASA neutral buoyancy simulators were used to test the mission plans. In addition, EVA training and crew performance for the mission are discussed.

  3. Fast Access to Space Tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favata', P.; Martineau, N.

    2002-01-01

    creating a revolutionary space-orbiting habitat dedicated to tourism. Up to now, such proposals have focused on two approaches. The first accounts for financial and technological constraints on space flight and living, and sacrifices creativity for practicality. The second is more utopic in nature and proposes projects, which are imaginative but unfeasible in the near future. This proposal is innovative because it considers the current obstacles to space tourism and utilizes existing technologies and infrastructures, but also includes the forethinking of futuristic commercial projects. Project Objectives: NASA claims that commercialization of space activities is so difficult that it will require decades more funding of so-called space-technology development. The benefits of this project show that this is not true. First, safety has been addressed because this proposal utilizes already space tested and assured technologies. Second, the project demonstrates potential for significant economic profit within the near future. Because we are using the least expensive technology available, we have limited start up costs. We forecast up to forty flights per year, with a potential capacity of eighty tourists. The design objectives focus on the proposal of a new approach to space tourism. These include: the expansion of the living space in the interiors, innovative and creative interior design, increased concern for the physiological and psychological comfort of tourists, and attention to entertainment possibilities. Project Content: The efficiency of the launch and configuration phase is one of the strengths of the proposed project. We propose the use of the Zenith 2 launcher, a large two-stage vehicle developed in the Soviet Union in the early 1980s, for the configuration of the orbiting platform. Following the Russian outfitting philosophy, once in orbit, the platform is already functional. The interior design is based on advanced lightweight inflatable technologies which

  4. Community Perspectives on Access to and Availability of Healthy Food in Rural, Low-Resource, Latino Communities

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, A. Susana; Estrada, Erendira; Grassi, Kathleen; Nathan, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attention has focused on the food environment as a result of the growing concern with obesity rates among Latinos in rural areas. Researchers have observed associations between a lack of physical access to affordable produce in areas where supermarkets and grocery stores are limited and poor dietary intake and obesity; these associations are high in rural, low-resource neighborhoods with a high population of Latino residents. We aimed to engage residents of low-resource, Latino-majority neighborhoods in discussions of food access in a rural yet agricultural community setting, which is typically described as a “food desert.” Methods We used a mixed-methods approach and conducted 3 focus groups (n = 20) and in-depth interviews (n = 59) and surveys (n = 79) with residents of a rural yet agricultural community. We used thematic analysis to explore residents’ perceptions of access to healthy foods. Results Residents (n = 79; mean age, 41.6 y; 72% female; 79% Latino; 53% Spanish-speaking) reported that dollar and discount stores in this agricultural area provided access to produce; however, produce at retail stores was less affordable than produce at nonretail outlets such as fruit and vegetable stands. Gifts and trades of fruits and vegetables from neighbors and community organizations supplied no-cost or low-cost healthy foods. Residents’ suggestions to improve food access centered on lowering the cost of produce in existing retail outlets and seeking out nonretail outlets. Conclusion Our findings contribute to understanding of the food environment in low-resource, rural yet agricultural areas. Although such areas are characterized as “food deserts,” residents identified nonretail outlets as a viable source of affordable produce, while indicating that the cost of retail produce was a concern. Innovative policy solutions to increase healthy food consumption must focus on affordability as well as accessibility, and consider alternate, nonretail

  5. Hubble Space Telescope: cost reduction by re-engineering telemetry processing and archiving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miebach, Manfred P.

    1998-05-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the first of NASA's Great Observatories, was launched on April 24, 1990. The HST was designed for a minimum fifteen-year mission with on-orbit servicing by the Space Shuttle System planned at approximately three-year intervals. Major changes to the HST ground system are planned to be in place for the third servicing mission in December 1999. The primary objectives of the ground system reengineering effort, a project called 'vision December 1999. The primary objectives of the ground system re-engineering effort, a project called 'vision 2000 control center systems (CCS)', are to reduce both development and operating costs significantly for the remaining years of HST's lifetime. Development costs will be reduced by providing a modern hardware and software architecture and utilizing commercial of f the shelf (COTS) products wherever possible. Operating costs will be reduced by eliminating redundant legacy systems and processes and by providing an integrated ground system geared toward autonomous operation. Part of CCS is a Space Telescope Engineering Data Store, the design of which is based on current Data Warehouse technology. The purpose of this data store is to provide a common data source of telemetry data for all HST subsystems. This data store will become the engineering data archive and will include a queryable database for the user to analyze HST telemetry. The access to the engineering data in the Data Warehouse is platform- independent from an office environment using commercial standards. Latest internet technology is used to reach the HST engineering community. A WEB-based user interface allows easy access to the data archives. This paper will provide a high level overview of the CCS system and will illustrate some of the CCS telemetry capabilities. Samples of CCS user interface pages will be given. Vision 2000 is an ambitious project, but one that is well under way. It will allow the HST program to realize reduced

  6. Why Atens Enjoy Enhanced Accessibility for Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Adamo, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Near-Earth objects can be grouped into multiple orbit classifications, among them being the Aten group, whose members have orbits crossing Earth's with semi-major axes less than 1 astronomical unit. Atens comprise well under 10% of known near-Earth objects. This is in dramatic contrast to results from recent human space flight near-Earth object accessibility studies, where the most favorable known destinations are typically almost 50% Atens. Geocentric dynamics explain this enhanced Aten accessibility and lead to an understanding of where the most accessible near-Earth objects reside. Without a comprehensive space-based survey, however, highly accessible Atens will remain largely unknown.

  7. The National Aerospace Initiative (NAI): Technologies For Responsive Space Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbertson, Andrew; Bhat, Biliyar N.

    2003-01-01

    The Secretary of Defense has set new goals for the Department of Defense (DOD) to transform our nation's military forces. The Director for Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E) has responded to this challenge by defining and sponsoring a transformational initiative in Science and Technology (S&T) - the National Aerospace Initiative (NAI) - which will have a fundamental impact on our nation's military capabilities and on the aerospace industry in general. The NAI is planned as a joint effort among the tri-services, DOD agencies and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It is comprised of three major focus areas or pillars: 1) High Speed Hypersonics (HSH), 2) Space Access (SA), and 3) Space Technology (ST). This paper addresses the Space Access pillar. The NAI-SA team has employed a unique approach to identifying critical technologies and demonstrations for satisfying both military and civilian space access capabilities needed in the future. For planning and implementation purposes the NAI-SA is divided into five technology subsystem areas: Airframe, Propulsion, Flight Subsystems, Operations and Payloads. Detailed technology roadmaps were developed under each subsystem area using a time-phased, goal oriented approach that provides critical space access capabilities in a timely manner and involves subsystem ground and flight demonstrations. This S&T plan addresses near-term (2009), mid-term (2016), and long-term (2025) goals and objectives for space access. In addition, system engineering and integration approach was used to make sure that the plan addresses the requirements of the end users. This paper describes in some detail the technologies in NAI-Space Access pillar. Some areas of emphasis are: high temperature materials, thermal protection systems, long life, lightweight, highly efficient airframes, metallic and composite cryotanks, advanced liquid rocket engines, integrated vehicle health monitoring and management, highly operable systems and

  8. Situational Awareness from a Low-Cost Camera System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.; Ward, David; Lesage, John

    2010-01-01

    A method gathers scene information from a low-cost camera system. Existing surveillance systems using sufficient cameras for continuous coverage of a large field necessarily generate enormous amounts of raw data. Digitizing and channeling that data to a central computer and processing it in real time is difficult when using low-cost, commercially available components. A newly developed system is located on a combined power and data wire to form a string-of-lights camera system. Each camera is accessible through this network interface using standard TCP/IP networking protocols. The cameras more closely resemble cell-phone cameras than traditional security camera systems. Processing capabilities are built directly onto the camera backplane, which helps maintain a low cost. The low power requirements of each camera allow the creation of a single imaging system comprising over 100 cameras. Each camera has built-in processing capabilities to detect events and cooperatively share this information with neighboring cameras. The location of the event is reported to the host computer in Cartesian coordinates computed from data correlation across multiple cameras. In this way, events in the field of view can present low-bandwidth information to the host rather than high-bandwidth bitmap data constantly being generated by the cameras. This approach offers greater flexibility than conventional systems, without compromising performance through using many small, low-cost cameras with overlapping fields of view. This means significant increased viewing without ignoring surveillance areas, which can occur when pan, tilt, and zoom cameras look away. Additionally, due to the sharing of a single cable for power and data, the installation costs are lower. The technology is targeted toward 3D scene extraction and automatic target tracking for military and commercial applications. Security systems and environmental/ vehicular monitoring systems are also potential applications.

  9. Effects of well spacing on geological storage site distribution costs and surface footprint.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Jordan; Pratson, Lincoln F; Chandel, Munish Kumar

    2012-04-17

    Geological storage studies thus far have not evaluated the scale and cost of the network of distribution pipelines that will be needed to move CO(2) from a central receiving point at a storage site to injection wells distributed about the site. Using possible injection rates for deep-saline sandstone aquifers, we estimate that the footprint of a sequestration site could range from <100 km(2) to >100,000 km(2), and that distribution costs could be <$0.10/tonne to >$10/tonne. Our findings are based on two models for determining well spacing: one which minimizes spacing in order to maximize use of the volumetric capacity of the reservoir, and a second that determines spacing to minimize subsurface pressure interference between injection wells. The interference model, which we believe more accurately reflects reservoir dynamics, produces wider well spacings and a counterintuitive relationship whereby total injection site footprint and thus distribution cost declines with decreasing permeability for a given reservoir thickness. This implies that volumetric capacity estimates should be reexamined to include well spacing constraints, since wells will need to be spaced further apart than void space calculations might suggest. We conclude that site-selection criteria should include thick, low-permeability reservoirs to minimize distribution costs and site footprint.

  10. Policy model for space economy infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komerath, Narayanan; Nally, James; Zilin Tang, Elizabeth

    2007-12-01

    Extraterrestrial infrastructure is key to the development of a space economy. Means for accelerating transition from today's isolated projects to a broad-based economy are considered. A large system integration approach is proposed. The beginnings of an economic simulation model are presented, along with examples of how interactions and coordination bring down costs. A global organization focused on space infrastructure and economic expansion is proposed to plan, coordinate, fund and implement infrastructure construction. This entity also opens a way to raise low-cost capital and solve the legal and public policy issues of access to extraterrestrial resources.

  11. The Design and Operation of Suborbital Low Cost and Low Risk Vehicle to the Edge of Space (SOLVES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, Norul; Nasrun, Nasri; Rashidy Zulkifi, Mohd; Izmir Yamin, Mohd; Othman, Jamaludin; Rafidi Zakaria, Norul

    2013-09-01

    Inclusive in the planning of Spaceport Malaysia are 2 local suborbital vehicles development. One of the vehicles is called SOLVES or Suborbital Low Cost and Low Risk Vehicle to the Edge of Space. The emphasis on the design and operation of SOLVES is green and robotic technology, where both green technology and robotic technology are used to protect the environment and enhance safety. As SOLVES climbs, its center of gravity stabilizes and remains at the bottom as its propellant being used until it depletes, due to the position of the vehicle's passenger cabin and its engines at its lower end. It will reach 80km from sea level generally known as "the edge of space" due to its momentum although its propellant will be depleted at a lower altitude. As the suborbital vehicle descends tail first, its wings automatically extend and rotate at horizontal axes perpendicular to the fuselage. These naturally and passively rotating wings ensure controlled low velocity and stable descend of the vehicle. The passenger cabin also rotates automatically at a steady low speed at the centerline of its fuselage as it descends, caused naturally by the lift force, enabling its passengers a surrounding 360 degrees view. SOLVES is steered automatically to its landing point by an electrical propulsion system with a vectoring nozzle. The electrical propulsion minimizes space and weight and is free of pollution and noise. Its electrical power comes from a battery aided by power generated by the naturally rotating wings. When the vehicle lands, it is in the safest mode as its propellant is depleted and its center of gravity remains at the bottom of its cabin. The cabin, being located at the bottom of the fuselage, enables very convenient, rapid and safe entry and exit of its passengers. SOLVES will be a robotic suborbital vehicle with green technology. The vehicle will carry 4 passengers and each passenger will be trained to land the vehicle manually if the fully automated landing system fails

  12. Low-cost Active Structural Control Space Experiment (LASC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinett, Rush; Bukley, Angelia P.

    1992-01-01

    The DOE Lab Director's Conference identified the need for the DOE National Laboratories to actively and aggressively pursue ways to apply DOE technology to problems of national need. Space structures are key elements of DOD and NASA space systems and a space technology area in which DOE can have a significant impact. LASC is a joint agency space technology experiment (DOD Phillips, NASA Marshall, and DOE Sandia). The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: phase 4 investigator testbed; control of large flexible structures in orbit; INFLEX; Controls, Astrophysics; and structures experiments in space; SARSAT; and LASC mission objectives.

  13. The Economics of Advanced In-Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangalore, Manju; Dankanich, John

    2016-01-01

    The cost of access to space is the single biggest driver is commercial space sector. NASA continues to invest in both launch technology and in-space propulsion. Low-cost launch systems combined with advanced in-space propulsion offer the greatest potential market capture. Launch market capture is critical to national security and has a significant impact on domestic space sector revenue. NASA typically focuses on pushing the limits on performance. However, the commercial market is driven by maximum net revenue (profits). In order to maximum the infusion of NASA investments, the impact on net revenue must be known. As demonstrated by Boeing's dual launch, the Falcon 9 combined with all Electric Propulsion (EP) can dramatically shift the launch market from foreign to domestic providers.

  14. Space Planning: A Basis for Cost Containment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Fred A.; And Others

    Decreasing budgets and enrollments, the reluctance of state legislatures to provide funds for higher education facilities, and the rising costs of energy necessitate the development of space ownership management. Three patterns of space planning problems have developed at different colleges: (1) costly, underutilized facilities due to optimistic…

  15. Mars Pathfinder Microrover- Implementing a Low Cost Planetary Mission Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matijevic, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Microrover Flight Experiment (MFEX) is a NASA Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT) flight experiment which has been delivered and integrated with the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) lander and spacecraft system. The total cost of the MFEX mission, including all subsystem design and development, test, integration with the MPF lander and operations on Mars has been capped at $25 M??is paper discusses the process and the implementation scheme which has resulted in the development of this first Mars rover.

  16. The importance of creating a social business to produce low-cost hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Caccamo, Samantha; Voloshchenko, Anastasia; Dankyi, Nana Yaa

    2014-09-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 280 million people worldwide have a bilateral hearing loss, mostly living in poor countries. Hearing loss causes heavy social burdens on individuals, families, communities and countries. However, due to the lack of accessibility and affordability, the vast majority of people in the world who need hearing aids do not have access to them. Low-income countries are thus pulled into a disability/poverty spiral. From this standpoint, the production of available, accessible and affordable hearing aids for the poorest populations of our planet should be one of the main issues in global hearing healthcare. Designing and producing a brand new low-cost hearing aid is the most effective option. Involving a large producer of hearing aids in the creation of a social business to solve the problem of access to affordable hearing aids is an essential step to reduce hearing disability on a large scale globally. Today's technology allows for the creation of a "minimal design" product that does not exceed $100-$150, that can be further lowered when purchased in large quantities and dispensed with alternative models. It is conceivable that by making a sustainable social business, the low cost product could be sold with a cross-subsidy model in order to recover the overhead costs. Social business is an economic model that has the potential to produce and distribute affordable hearing aids in low- and middle-income countries. Rehabilitation of hearing impaired children will be carried out in partnership with Sahic (Society of Assistance to Hearing Impaired Children) in Dhaka, Bangladesh and the ENT Department of Ospedale Burlo di Trieste, Dr. Eva Orzan.

  17. Prosthetic design directives: Low-cost hands within reach.

    PubMed

    Jones, G K; Rosendo, A; Stopforth, R

    2017-07-01

    Although three million people around the world suffer from the lack of one or both upper limbs 80% of this number is located within developing countries. While prosthetic prices soar with technology 3D printing and low cost electronics present a sensible solution for those that cannot afford expensive prosthetics. The electronic and control design of a low-cost prosthetic hand, the Touch Hand II, is discussed. This paper shows that sensorless techniques can be used to reduce design complexities, costs, and provide easier access to the electronics. A closing and opening finite state machine (COFSM) was developed to handle the actuated digit joint control state and a supervisory switching control scheme, used for speed and grip strength control. Three torque and speed settings were created to be preset for specific grasps. The hand was able to replicate ten frequently used grasps and grip some common objects. Future work is necessary to enable a user to control it with myoelectric signals (MESs) and to solve operational problems related to electromagnetic interference (EMI).

  18. Space construction system analysis. Part 2: Cost and programmatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonflue, F. W.; Cooper, W.

    1980-01-01

    Cost and programmatic elements of the space construction systems analysis study are discussed. The programmatic aspects of the ETVP program define a comprehensive plan for the development of a space platform, the construction system, and the space shuttle operations/logistics requirements. The cost analysis identified significant items of cost on ETVP development, ground, and flight segments, and detailed the items of space construction equipment and operations.

  19. Microinsurance: innovations in low-cost health insurance.

    PubMed

    Dror, David M; Radermacher, Ralf; Khadilkar, Shrikant B; Schout, Petra; Hay, François-Xavier; Singh, Arbind; Koren, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Microinsurance--low-cost health insurance based on a community, cooperative, or mutual and self-help arrangements-can provide financial protection for poor households and improve access to health care. However, low benefit caps and a low share of premiums paid as benefits--both designed to keep these arrangements in business--perversely limited these schemes' ability to extend coverage, offer financial protection, and retain members. We studied three schemes in India, two of which are member-operated and one a commercial scheme, using household surveys of insured and uninsured households and interviews with managers. All three enrolled poor households and raised their use of hospital services, as intended. Financial exposure was greatest, and protection was least, in the commercial scheme, which imposed the lowest caps on benefits and where income was the lowest.

  20. GOES-R Space Weather Data: Ensuring Access and Usability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilton, M.; Rowland, W. F.; Wilkinson, D. C.; Denig, W. F.; Darnel, J.; Kress, B. T.; Loto'aniu, P. T. M.; Machol, J. L.; Redmon, R. J.; Rodriguez, J. V.

    2015-12-01

    The upcoming Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite series, GOES-R, will provide critical space weather data. These data are used to prevent communication outages, mitigate the damage solar weather causes to satellites and power grids, and reduce astronaut radiation exposure. The space weather instruments aboard GOES-R will deliver an operational dataset of unprecedented breadth. However, NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)—the organization that provides access to archived GOES-R data—has faced several challenges in delivering this information to customers in usable form. For instance, the GOES-R ground system was contracted to develop higher-level products for terrestrial data but not space weather data. Variations in GOES-R data file formats and archive locations have also threatened to create an inconsistent user experience. This presentation will examine the ways in which NCEI is making GOES-R space weather data more accessible and actionable for customers. These efforts include NCEI's development of high-level data products to meet the requirements of NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center—a role NCEI has not previously played. In addition, NCEI is creating a demonstration system to show how these products can be produced in real-time. The organization is also examining customer usage of the GOES-NOP data access system and using these access patterns to drive decisions about the GOES-R user interface.

  1. Macroeconomic Benefits of Low-Cost Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Eric J.; Greenberg, Joel

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) initiated its Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Technology Program to provide information on the technical and commercial feasibility of single-stage to orbit (SSTO), fully-reusable launchers. Because RLVs would not depend on expendable hardware to achieve orbit, they could take better advantage of economies of scale than expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) that discard costly hardware on ascent. The X-33 experimental vehicle, a sub-orbital, 60%-scale prototype of Lockheed Martin's VentureStar SSTO RLV concept, is being built by Skunk Works for a 1999 first flight. If RLVs achieve prices to low-earth orbit of less than $1000 US per pound, they could hold promise for eliciting an elastic response from the launch services market. As opposed to the capture of existing market, this elastic market would represent new space-based industry businesses. These new opportunities would be created from the next tier of business concepts, such as space manufacturing and satellite servicing, that cannot earn a profit at today's launch prices but could when enabled by lower launch costs. New business creation contributes benefits to the US Government (USG) and the US economy through increases in tax revenues and employment. Assumptions about the costs and revenues of these new ventures, based on existing space-based and aeronautics sector businesses, can be used to estimate the macroeconomic benefits provided by new businesses. This paper examines these benefits and the flight prices and rates that may be required to enable these new space industries.

  2. Senate Hearing on Assured Access to Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-16

    General William Sherlton, Commander of the United States Air Force Space Command, answers a question during testimony in front of the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces and Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on Wednesday, July 16, 2014, at the Hart Senate Office Building in Washington, DC. The Senate hearing focused on assured access to space.

  3. Senate Hearing on Assured Access to Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-16

    General William Sherlton, Commander of the United States Air Force Space Command, left; answers a question during testimony in front of the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces and Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on Wednesday, July 16, 2014, at the Hart Senate Office Building in Washington, DC. The Senate hearing focused on assured access to space.

  4. Senate Hearing on Assured Access to Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-16

    General William Shelton, Commander of the United States Air Force Space Command, delivers his opening statement during testimony in front of the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces and Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on Wednesday, July 16, 2014, at the Hart Senate Office Building in Washington, DC. The Senate hearing focused on assured access to space.

  5. Space shuttle low cost/risk avionics study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    All work breakdown structure elements containing any avionics related effort were examined for pricing the life cycle costs. The analytical, testing, and integration efforts are included for the basic onboard avionics and electrical power systems. The design and procurement of special test equipment and maintenance and repair equipment are considered. Program management associated with these efforts is described. Flight test spares and labor and materials associated with the operations and maintenance of the avionics systems throughout the horizontal flight test are examined. It was determined that cost savings can be achieved by using existing hardware, maximizing orbiter-booster commonality, specifying new equipments to MIL quality standards, basing redundancy on cost effective analysis, minimizing software complexity and reducing cross strapping and computer-managed functions, utilizing compilers and floating point computers, and evolving the design as dictated by the horizontal flight test schedules.

  6. 47 CFR 1.1417 - Allocation of Unusable Space Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocation of Unusable Space Costs. 1.1417... by Random Selection Pole Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1417 Allocation of Unusable Space Costs... providing unusable space on a pole so that such apportionment equals two-thirds of the costs of providing...

  7. 47 CFR 1.1417 - Allocation of Unusable Space Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocation of Unusable Space Costs. 1.1417... by Random Selection Pole Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1417 Allocation of Unusable Space Costs... providing unusable space on a pole so that such apportionment equals two-thirds of the costs of providing...

  8. 47 CFR 1.1417 - Allocation of Unusable Space Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocation of Unusable Space Costs. 1.1417... by Random Selection Pole Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1417 Allocation of Unusable Space Costs... providing unusable space on a pole so that such apportionment equals two-thirds of the costs of providing...

  9. Examining the implications of dental treatment costs for low-income families.

    PubMed

    Snow, Patrick; McNally, Mary E

    2010-01-01

    Dental disease is concentrated among those with low socioeconomic status. Dental care is not publicly funded, and many Canadians must therefore make difficult financial choices when accessing dental care. Families who live in poverty have difficulty meeting even their most basic household needs, so dental treatment may not be affordable. The objective of this study was to understand how the cost of dental treatment affects the monthly budgets of families with low incomes. A chart review was conducted for a sample of 213 new patients examined at the Dalhousie University dental clinic over a 1-year period. Costs for proposed treatment plans were averaged. The patients" ability to pay for proposed treatment was examined in the context of various income scenarios. Two hundred and one patients were included in the final analysis. Dental treatment costs per patient averaged approximately $1600 for the year, with 42% of the planned treatment completed within the first year. The estimated monthly cost of completed treatment was $55. When the cost of a healthy diet was included in the monthly budget, it was determined that families in Nova Scotia with parents working for minimum wage and those receiving income assistance would experience a 100% shortfall for dental expenses. Low-income families in Nova Scotia were unable to afford both a nutritious diet and dental care. This is disturbing, given the links between a healthy diet and both overall health and dental health. An understanding of the significance of income shortfalls for those with low incomes, especially as they affect even basic nutritional needs, will help dental professionals to appreciate the seriousness of this issue and the difficulties that many Canadians face when trying to access basic dental care.

  10. Low-cost management aspects for developing, producing and operating future space transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehlich, Robert A.; Rücker, Udo

    2005-01-01

    It is believed that a potential means for further significant reduction of the recurrent launch cost, which results also in a stimulation of launch rates of small satellites, is to make the launcher reusable, to increase its reliability and to make it suitable for new markets such as mass space tourism. Therefore, not only launching small satellites with expendable rockets on non-regular flights but also with reusable rockets on regular flights should be considered for the long term. However, developing, producing and operating reusable rockets require a fundamental change in the current "business as usual" philosophy. Under current conditions, it might not be possible to develop, to produce or to operate a reusable vehicle fleet economically. The favorite philosophy is based on "smart business" processes adapted by the authors using cost engineering techniques. In the following paper, major strategies for reducing costs are discussed, which are applied for a representative program proposal.

  11. COMPASS Final Report: Low Cost Robotic Lunar Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    The COllaborative Modeling for the Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team designed a robotic lunar Lander to deliver an unspecified payload (greater than zero) to the lunar surface for the lowest cost in this 2006 design study. The purpose of the low cost lunar lander design was to investigate how much payload can an inexpensive chemical or Electric Propulsion (EP) system deliver to the Moon s surface. The spacecraft designed as the baseline out of this study was a solar powered robotic lander, launched on a Minotaur V launch vehicle on a direct injection trajectory to the lunar surface. A Star 27 solid rocket motor does lunar capture and performs 88 percent of the descent burn. The Robotic Lunar Lander soft-lands using a hydrazine propulsion system to perform the last 10% of the landing maneuver, leaving the descent at a near zero, but not exactly zero, terminal velocity. This low-cost robotic lander delivers 10 kg of science payload instruments to the lunar surface.

  12. Key issues in space nuclear power challenges for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to the success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems.

  13. The University of Arizona Nanosat Program: Making Space accessible to scientific and commercial packages.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, U.; Fevig, R. A.

    2003-05-01

    For the last couple of years we have been engaged in building nanosatellites within a student-mentor framework. The satellites are 10x10x10cm cubes, have a maximum mass of 1 kg, and power of a few watts. The standardized "cube-sat" form factor was suggested by Bob Twiggs of Stanford University so that a common launch platform could be utilized and more Universities could participate. We have now built four "cube-sats': a launchable Engineering model, Rincon 1 & 2, (funded by Rincon corporation), and Alcatel funded by Alcatel Espace. The costs for the four satellites are \\250,000. Launch costs using a Russian SS-18 are typically \\10,000 per kg. The payload for Rincon 1 & 2 is a sophisticated telecommunications board using only 10 mw of transmitting power. The Alcatel payload consists of three communications IC's whose radiation exposure and annealing properties will be studied over a period of years. Future nanosatellites will have considerable value in providing low cost access to space for experiments in nanotechnology, space electronics, micropropulsion, radiation experiments, astrobionics and climate change studies. For the latter area we are considering experiments to monitor the solar constant, the solar UV spectrum, the chromospheric activity through the Mg II index, the Earth's Albedo, etc. For this purpose we are developing a slightly larger satellite, 20x20x20cm and 10 kg. We have built a C-MOS camera with a 1 ms exposure time for attitude determination, and we are working with Honeywell Industries to develop micro-reaction wheels for attitude control. We are also working on micro-propulsion units with the Air Force and several aerospace companies. Preliminary calculations show that we can develop delta-V's of 5km/s which will allow us to visit 5% (about 100) of the NEA population or possibly some comets. We firmly believe a vigorous nanosatellite program will allow useful space experiments for costs of millions of Dollars instead of the present tens of

  14. 47 CFR 1.1417 - Allocation of Unusable Space Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation of Unusable Space Costs. 1.1417... Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1417 Allocation of Unusable Space Costs. (a) With respect to the formula referenced in § 1.1409(e)(2), a utility shall apportion the cost of providing unusable space on a pole so...

  15. 47 CFR 1.1417 - Allocation of Unusable Space Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation of Unusable Space Costs. 1.1417... Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1417 Allocation of Unusable Space Costs. (a) With respect to the formula referenced in § 1.1409(e)(2), a utility shall apportion the cost of providing unusable space on a pole so...

  16. Evolutionary space platform concept study. Volume 2, part A: SASP special emphasis trade studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Efforts are in progress to define an approach to provide a simple and cost effective solution to the problem of long duration space flight. This approach involves a Space Platform in low Earth orbit, which can be tended by the Space Shuttle and which will provide, for extended periods of time, stability, utilities and access for a variety of replaceable payloads. The feasibility of an evolutionary space system which would cost effectively support unmanned payloads in groups, using a Space Platform which provides centralized basic subsystems is addressed.

  17. 46 CFR 111.01-7 - Accessibility and spacing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accessibility and spacing. 111.01-7 Section 111.01-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... electric apparatus must afford accessibility to each part as needed to facilitate proper inspection...

  18. 46 CFR 111.01-7 - Accessibility and spacing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accessibility and spacing. 111.01-7 Section 111.01-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... electric apparatus must afford accessibility to each part as needed to facilitate proper inspection...

  19. 46 CFR 111.01-7 - Accessibility and spacing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accessibility and spacing. 111.01-7 Section 111.01-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... electric apparatus must afford accessibility to each part as needed to facilitate proper inspection...

  20. Senate Hearing on Assured Access to Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-16

    General William Shelton, Commander of the United States Air Force Space Command, second from right, answers a question during testimony in front of the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces and Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on Wednesday, July 16, 2014, at the Hart Senate Office Building in Washington, DC. The Senate hearing focused on assured access to space.

  1. Low energy stage study. Volume 4: Cost benefits analysis and recommendations. [orbital launching of space shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The costs and benefits of existing/planned systems, new propulsion concepts, and adaptations of existing/planned systems (as supported by Orbiter interface requirements and operations requirements) were quantified. Scenarios of these propulsion approaches were established which accommodate the low energy regime as defined by the new low energy payload mission model. These scenarios were screened on a cost and then a benefits basis. A propulsion approach comprising existing/planned systems and a new propulsion concept were selected as the most cost effective approach to accommodate the model payloads and the low energy regime they represent. Key cost drivers and sensitivity trends were identified. All costs were derived in 1977 dollars.

  2. Low-cost blast wave generator for studies of hearing loss and brain injury: blast wave effects in closed spaces.

    PubMed

    Newman, Andrew J; Hayes, Sarah H; Rao, Abhiram S; Allman, Brian L; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Ding, Dalian; Stolzberg, Daniel; Lobarinas, Edward; Mollendorf, Joseph C; Salvi, Richard

    2015-03-15

    Military personnel and civilians living in areas of armed conflict have increased risk of exposure to blast overpressures that can cause significant hearing loss and/or brain injury. The equipment used to simulate comparable blast overpressures in animal models within laboratory settings is typically very large and prohibitively expensive. To overcome the fiscal and space limitations introduced by previously reported blast wave generators, we developed a compact, low-cost blast wave generator to investigate the effects of blast exposures on the auditory system and brain. The blast wave generator was constructed largely from off the shelf components, and reliably produced blasts with peak sound pressures of up to 198dB SPL (159.3kPa) that were qualitatively similar to those produced from muzzle blasts or explosions. Exposure of adult rats to 3 blasts of 188dB peak SPL (50.4kPa) resulted in significant loss of cochlear hair cells, reduced outer hair cell function and a decrease in neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Existing blast wave generators are typically large, expensive, and are not commercially available. The blast wave generator reported here provides a low-cost method of generating blast waves in a typical laboratory setting. This compact blast wave generator provides scientists with a low cost device for investigating the biological mechanisms involved in blast wave injury to the rodent cochlea and brain that may model many of the damaging effects sustained by military personnel and civilians exposed to intense blasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Low-Cost Blast Wave Generator for Studies of Hearing Loss and Brain Injury: Blast Wave Effects in Closed Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Andrew J.; Hayes, Sarah H.; Rao, Abhiram S.; Allman, Brian L.; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Ding, Dalian; Stolzberg, Daniel; Lobarinas, Edward; Mollendorf, Joseph C.; Salvi, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background Military personnel and civilians living in areas of armed conflict have increased risk of exposure to blast overpressures that can cause significant hearing loss and/or brain injury. The equipment used to simulate comparable blast overpressures in animal models within laboratory settings is typically very large and prohibitively expensive. New Method To overcome the fiscal and space limitations introduced by previously reported blast wave generators, we developed a compact, low-cost blast wave generator to investigate the effects of blast exposures on the auditory system and brain. Results The blast wave generator was constructed largely from off the shelf components, and reliably produced blasts with peak sound pressures of up to 198 dB SPL (159.3 kPa) that were qualitatively similar to those produced from muzzle blasts or explosions. Exposure of adult rats to 3 blasts of 188 dB peak SPL (50.4 kPa) resulted in significant loss of cochlear hair cells, reduced outer hair cell function and a decrease in neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Comparison to existing methods Existing blast wave generators are typically large, expensive, and are not commercially available. The blast wave generator reported here provides a low-cost method of generating blast waves in a typical laboratory setting. Conclusions This compact blast wave generator provides scientists with a low cost device for investigating the biological mechanisms involved in blast wave injury to the rodent cochlea and brain that may model many of the damaging effects sustained by military personnel and civilians exposed to intense blasts. PMID:25597910

  4. A Preliminary Analysis of the Costs and Benefits of Older Age Accessions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    8217AD-A143 160 A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF THE COSTS AND BENEFITS OF I/ OLDER AGE ACCESSIONS(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL N A MONTEREY CA S D BARCLAY MAR...ELECTE JUL 1884d THESIS A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS CF THE COSTS AND BENEFITS OF OLDER AGE ACCESSIONS CL by Susan D. Barclay March 1984 Thesis Advisor...for public release; distribution unlimited. A Preliminary Analysis of the Costs and Benefits of Older Age Accessions by Susan D. Barclay Lieutenant

  5. Space Network IP Services (SNIS): An Architecture for Supporting Low Earth Orbiting IP Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Space Network (SN) supports a variety of missions using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), which includes ground stations in White Sands, New Mexico and Guam. A Space Network IP Services (SNIS) architecture is being developed to support future users with requirements for end-to-end Internet Protocol (IP) communications. This architecture will support all IP protocols, including Mobile IP, over TDRSS Single Access, Multiple Access, and Demand Access Radio Frequency (RF) links. This paper will describe this architecture and how it can enable Low Earth Orbiting IP satellite missions.

  6. Development of Electronics for Low-Temperature Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Dickman, John E.; Gerber, Scott S.; Overton, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Electronic systems that are capable of operating at cryogenic temperatures will be needed for many future NASA space missions, including deep space probes and spacecraft for planetary surface exploration. In addition to being able to survive the harsh deep space environment, low-temperature electronics would help improve circuit performance, increase system efficiency, and reduce payload development and launch costs. Terrestrial applications where components and systems must operate in low-temperature environments include cryogenic instrumentation, superconducting magnetic energy storage, magnetic levitation transportation systems, and arctic exploration. An ongoing research and development project for the design, fabrication, and characterization of low-temperature electronics and supporting technologies at NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on efficient power systems capable of surviving in and exploiting the advantages of low-temperature environments. Supporting technologies include dielectric and insulating materials, semiconductor devices, passive power components, optoelectronic devices, and packaging and integration of the developed components into prototype flight hardware. An overview of the project is presented, including a description of the test facilities, a discussion of selected data from component testing, and a presentation of ongoing research activities being performed in collaboration with various organizations.

  7. Low energy CMOS for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Alkalaj, Leon

    1992-01-01

    The current focus of NASA's space flight programs reflects a new thrust towards smaller, less costly, and more frequent space missions, when compared to missions such as Galileo, Magellan, or Cassini. Recently, the concept of a microspacecraft was proposed. In this concept, a small, compact spacecraft that weighs tens of kilograms performs focused scientific objectives such as imaging. Similarly, a Mars Lander micro-rover project is under study that will allow miniature robots weighing less than seven kilograms to explore the Martian surface. To bring the microspacecraft and microrover ideas to fruition, one will have to leverage compact 3D multi-chip module-based multiprocessors (MCM) technologies. Low energy CMOS will become increasingly important because of the thermodynamic considerations in cooling compact 3D MCM implementations and also from considerations of the power budget for space applications. In this paper, we show how the operating voltage is related to the threshold voltage of the CMOS transistors for accomplishing a task in VLSI with minimal energy. We also derive expressions for the noise margins at the optimal operating point. We then look at a low voltage CMOS (LVCMOS) technology developed at Stanford University which improves the power consumption over conventional CMOS by a couple of orders of magnitude and consider the suitability of the technology for space applications by characterizing its SEU immunity.

  8. Low-cost fluorescence microscopy for point-of-care cell imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochhead, Michael J.; Ives, Jeff; Givens, Monique; Delaney, Marie; Moll, Kevin; Myatt, Christopher J.

    2010-02-01

    Fluorescence microscopy has long been a standard tool in laboratory medicine. Implementation of fluorescence microscopy for near-patient diagnostics, however, has been limited due to cost and complexity associated with traditional fluorescence microscopy techniques. There is a particular need for robust, low-cost imaging in high disease burden areas in the developing world, where access to central laboratory facilities and trained staff is limited. Here we describe a point-of-care assay that combines a disposable plastic cartridge with an extremely low cost fluorescence imaging instrument. Based on a novel, multi-mode planar waveguide configuration, the system capitalizes on advances in volume-manufactured consumer electronic components to deliver an imaging system with minimal moving parts and low power requirements. A two-color cell imager is presented, with magnification optimized for enumeration of immunostained human T cells. To demonstrate the system, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stained with fluorescently labeled anti-human-CD4 and anti-human-CD3 antibodies. Registered images were used to generate fractional CD4+ and CD3+ staining and enumeration results that show excellent correlation with flow cytometry. The cell imager is under development as a very low cost CD4+ T cell counter for HIV disease management in limited resource settings.

  9. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Suzanne; Naidoo, Thegaran; Davies, Emlyn; Fourie, Louis; Nxumalo, Zandile; Swart, Hein; Marais, Philip; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    We present a visualization pipeline from sample to answer for point-of-care blood cell counting applications. Effective and low-cost point-of-care medical diagnostic tests provide developing countries and rural communities with accessible healthcare solutions [1], and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient [2]. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge [3] for sample processing. Analysis of the processed samples has been implemented by means of two main optical visualization systems developed in-house: 1) a fluidic operation analysis system using high speed video data to determine volumes, mixing efficiency and flow rates, and 2) a microscopy analysis system to investigate homogeneity and concentration of blood cells. Fluidic parameters were derived from the optical flow [4] as well as color-based segmentation of the different fluids using a hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space. Cell count estimates were obtained using automated microscopy analysis and were compared to a widely accepted manual method for cell counting using a hemocytometer [5]. The results using the first iteration microfluidic device [3] showed that the most simple - and thus low-cost - approach for microfluidic component implementation was not adequate as compared to techniques based on manual cell counting principles. An improved microfluidic design has been developed to incorporate enhanced mixing and metering components, which together with this work provides the foundation on which to successfully implement automated, rapid and low-cost blood cell counting tests.

  10. New ideas for affordable space missions

    PubMed

    Eller, E; Roussel-Dupre, D; Weiss, R; Bruegman, O

    1996-04-01

    In September 1995, NASA-Goddard held a workshop on low-cost access to space for science missions. The workshop provided briefings on balloons, sounding rockets, Shuttle payloads, and low-cost free-flyer concepts, to provide options of getting experiments into space. This report is the result of a panel session organized with the aim of generating new ideas beyond those presented in the workshop. In addition to the authors, Orlando Figueroa and Paul Ondrus of NASA-Goddard and Richard Zwirnbaum of Computer Sciences Corp. participated in the discussions. The ideas presented do not necessarily reflect the current thinking of NASA managers. Although the panel discussion was focused on the kinds of science missions usually funded by NASA, most of the ideas that were generated are relevant to military and commercial missions as well.

  11. Access to free or low-cost tuberculosis treatment for migrants and refugees along the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tschirhart, Naomi; Nosten, Francois; Foster, Angel M

    2016-07-07

    In Tak province, Thailand migrants and refugees from Myanmar navigate a pluralistic healthcare system to seek Tuberculosis (TB) care from a variety of government and non-governmental providers. This multi-methods qualitative study examined access to TB, TB/HIV and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment with an emphasis on barriers to care and enabling factors. In the summer and fall of 2014, we conducted 12 key informant interviews with public health officials and TB treatment providers. We also conducted 11 focus group discussions with migrants and refugees who were receiving TB, TB/HIV and MDR-TB treatment in Tak province as well as non-TB patients. We analyzed these data through thematic analysis using both predetermined and emergent codes. As a second step in the qualitative analysis, we explored the barriers and enabling factors separately for migrants and refugees. We found that refugees face fewer barriers to accessing TB treatment than migrants. For both migrants and refugees, legal status plays an important intermediary role in influencing the population's ability to access care and eligibility for treatment. Our results suggest that there is a large geographical catchment area for migrants who seek TB treatment in Tak province that extends beyond provincial boundaries. Migrant participants described their ability to seek care as linked to the financial and non-financial resources required to travel and undergo treatment. Patients identified language of health services, availability of free or low cost services, and psychosocial support as important health system characteristics that affect accessibility. Access to TB treatment for migrants and refugees occurs at the interface of health system accessibility, population ability and legal status. In Tak province, migrant patients draw upon their social networks and financial resources to navigate a pathway to treatment. We revised a conceptual framework for access to healthcare to incorporate

  12. Directions for Space-Based Low-Frequency Radio Astronomy 2. Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basart, J. P.; Burns, J. O.; Dennison, B. K.; Weiler, K. W.; Kassim, N. E.; Castillo, S. P.; McCune, B. M.

    Astronomical studies of celestial sources at low radio frequencies (0.3 to 30 MHz) lag far behind the investigations of celestial sources at high radio frequencies. In a companion paper [Basart et al., this issue] we discussed the need for low-frequency investigations, and in this paper we discuss the telescopes required to make the observations. Radio telescopes for use in the low-frequency range can be built principally from ``off-the-shelf'' components. For relatively little cost for a space mission, great strides can be made in deploying arrays of antennas and receivers in space that would produce data contributing significantly to our understanding of galaxies and galactic nebulae. In this paper we discuss an evolutionary sequence of telescopes, antenna systems, receivers, and (u,v) plane coverage. The telescopes are space-based because of the disruptive aspects of the Earth's ionosphere on low-frequency celestial signals traveling to the Earth's surface. Orbiting antennas consisting of array elements deposited on a Kevlar balloon have strong advantages of nearly identical multiple beams over 4π steradians and few mechanical aspects in deployment and operation. The relatively narrow beam width of these antennas can significantly help reduce the ``confusion'' problem. The evolutionary sequence of telescopes starts with an Earth-orbiting spectrometer to measure the low-frequency radio environment in space, proceeds to a two-element interferometer, then to an orbiting array, and ends with a telescope on the lunar farside. The sequence is in the order of increasing capability which is also the order of increasing complexity and cost. All the missions can be accomplished with current technology.

  13. Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Vascular Access Referral Policies in CKD.

    PubMed

    Shechter, Steven M; Chandler, Talon; Skandari, M Reza; Zalunardo, Nadia

    2017-09-01

    The optimal timing of vascular access referral for patients with chronic kidney disease who may need hemodialysis (HD) is a pressing question in nephrology. Current referral policies have not been rigorously compared with respect to costs and benefits and do not consider patient-specific factors such as age. Monte Carlo simulation model. Patients with chronic kidney disease, referred to a multidisciplinary kidney clinic in a universal health care system. Cost-effectiveness analysis, payer perspective, lifetime horizon. The following vascular access referral policies are considered: central venous catheter (CVC) only, arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or graft (AVG) referral upon HD initiation, AVF (or AVG) referral when HD is forecast to begin within 12 (or 3 for AVG) months, AVF (or AVG) referral when estimated glomerular filtration rate is <15 (or <10 for AVG) mL/min/1.73m 2 . Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs, in 2014 US dollars per quality-adjusted life-year [QALY] gained). The ICER of AVF (AVG) referral within 12 (3) months of forecasted HD initiation, compared to using only a CVC, is ∼$105k/QALY ($101k/QALY) at a population level (HD costs included). Pre-HD AVF or AVG referral dominates delaying referral until HD initiation. The ICER of pre-HD referral increases with patient age. Results are most sensitive to erythropoietin costs, ongoing HD costs, and patients' utilities for HD. When ongoing HD costs are excluded from the analysis, pre-HD AVF dominates both pre-HD AVG and CVC-only policies. Literature-based estimates for HD, AVF, and AVG utilities are limited. The cost-effectiveness of vascular access referral is largely driven by the annual costs of HD, erythropoietin costs, and access-specific utilities. Further research is needed in the field of dialysis-related quality of life to inform decision making regarding vascular access referral. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 75 FR 47304 - Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People Who Are Blind, Deaf-Blind, or Have Low Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION [CG Docket No. 10-145; DA 10-1324] Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People Who Are Blind, Deaf- Blind, or Have Low Vision AGENCY: Federal Communications... wireless communication access by these populations; the cost and feasibility of technical solutions to...

  15. Assessing equitable access to urban green space: the role of engineered water infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Heather E Wright; Downs, Joni A; Mihelcic, James R

    2011-08-15

    Urban green space and water features provide numerous social, environmental, and economic benefits, yet disparities often exist in their distribution and accessibility. This study examines the link between issues of environmental justice and urban water management to evaluate potential improvements in green space and surface water access through the revitalization of existing engineered water infrastructures, namely stormwater ponds. First, relative access to green space and water features were compared for residents of Tampa, Florida, and an inner-city community of Tampa (East Tampa). Although disparities were not found in overall accessibility between Tampa and East Tampa, inequalities were apparent when quality, diversity, and size of green spaces were considered. East Tampa residents had significantly less access to larger, more desirable spaces and water features. Second, this research explored approaches for improving accessibility to green space and natural water using three integrated stormwater management development scenarios. These scenarios highlighted the ability of enhanced water infrastructures to increase access equality at a variety of spatial scales. Ultimately, the "greening" of gray urban water infrastructures is advocated as a way to address environmental justice issues while also reconnecting residents with issues of urban water management.

  16. Plastic Cubesat: An innovative and low-cost way to perform applied space research and hands-on education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piattoni, Jacopo; Candini, Gian Paolo; Pezzi, Giulio; Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio

    2012-12-01

    maneuvers on the basis of commands received in real time from ground. The subsystems developed for this Cubesat have also been designed to be scaled up for larger satellites such as 2U or 3U Cubesats. The additional volume can be used for more complex payloads. Thus the satellite can be used as a low cost platform for companies, institutions or universities to test components in space.

  17. Parametric cost estimation for space science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Thompson, Bruce E.

    2008-07-01

    Cost estimation for space science missions is critically important in budgeting for successful missions. The process requires consideration of a number of parameters, where many of the values are only known to a limited accuracy. The results of cost estimation are not perfect, but must be calculated and compared with the estimates that the government uses for budgeting purposes. Uncertainties in the input parameters result from evolving requirements for missions that are typically the "first of a kind" with "state-of-the-art" instruments and new spacecraft and payload technologies that make it difficult to base estimates on the cost histories of previous missions. Even the cost of heritage avionics is uncertain due to parts obsolescence and the resulting redesign work. Through experience and use of industry best practices developed in participation with the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA), Northrop Grumman has developed a parametric modeling approach that can provide a reasonably accurate cost range and most probable cost for future space missions. During the initial mission phases, the approach uses mass- and powerbased cost estimating relationships (CER)'s developed with historical data from previous missions. In later mission phases, when the mission requirements are better defined, these estimates are updated with vendor's bids and "bottoms- up", "grass-roots" material and labor cost estimates based on detailed schedules and assigned tasks. In this paper we describe how we develop our CER's for parametric cost estimation and how they can be applied to estimate the costs for future space science missions like those presented to the Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey Study Committees.

  18. 10 CFR 440.20 - Low-cost/no-cost weatherization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low-cost/no-cost weatherization activities. 440.20 Section 440.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.20 Low-cost/no-cost weatherization activities. (a) An eligible dwelling unit may be...

  19. Low-income individuals’ perceptions about fruit and vegetable access programs: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Auvergne, Lauriane; Mark, Barbara; Ammerman, Alice; Weiner, Bryan J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine how fruit and vegetable (F&V) programs address barriers to F&V access and consumption as perceived by low-income individuals. Design From 2011–2012 thirteen focus groups were used to better understand low-income individuals’ perceptions about F&V programs. Setting Five North Carolina counties at community-serving organizations. Participants Low-income participants ages 18 or older were included in the study. A majority were African American females with a high school education or less and received government assistance. Phenomenon of Interest Low-income individuals’ perceptions about how F&V access programs can reduce barriers and increase consumption. Analysis A socioecological framework guided data analysis, and 2 trained researchers coded transcripts, identified major themes, and summarized findings. Results A total of 105 participants discussed that mobile markets could overcome barriers such as availability, convenience, transportation, and quality/variety. Some were worried about safety in higher crime communities. Participants’ opinions about how successful food assistance programs were at overcoming cost barriers were mixed. Participants agreed that community gardens could increase access to affordable, conveniently located produce, but worried about feasibility/implementation issues. Implications for Research and Practice Addressing access barriers through F&V programs could improve consumption. Programs have the potential to be successful if they address multiple access barriers. (200 words). PMID:25910929

  20. Low-Cost SIRTF Flight Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, M.-J.; Ebersole, M.; Nichols, J.

    1997-12-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) , the fourth of the Great Observatories, will be placed in a unique solar orbit trailing the Earth, in 2001. SIRTF will acquire both imaging and spectral data using large infrared detector arrays from 3.5mm to 160mm. The primary science objectives are (1) search for and study of brown dwarfs and super planets, (2) discovery and study of protoplanetary debris disks, (3) study of ultraluminous galaxies and active galactic nuclei, and (4) study of the early Universe. Driven by the limited cryogenic lifetime of 2.5 years, with a goal of 5 years, and the severely cost-capped development, a Mission Planning and Operations system is being designed that will result in high on-board efficiency (>90%) and low-cost operation, yet will accommodate rapid response science requirements . SIRTF is designing an architecture for an operations system that will be shared between science and flight operations. Crucial to this effort is the philosophy of an integrated science and engineering plan, co-location, cross-training of teams and common planning tools. The common tool set will enable the automatic generation of an integrated and conflict free planned schedule accommodating 20 000 observations and engineering activities a year. The shared tool set will help generate standard observations , (sometimes non-standard) engineering activities and manage the ground and flight resources and constraints appropriately. The ground software will allow the development from the ground of robust event driven sequences. Flexibility will be provided to incorporate newly discovered science opportunities or health issues late in the process and via quick links. This shared science and flight operations process if used from observation selection through sequence and command generation, will provide a low-cost operations system. Though SIRTF is a 'Great Observatory', its annual mission operations costs will more closely resemble those of an Explorer class

  1. Efficient solid rocket propulsion for access to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, Filippo; Bandera, Alessio; Galfetti, Luciano; De Luca, Luigi T.; Jackson, Thomas L.

    2010-06-01

    Space launch activity is expected to grow in the next few years in order to follow the current trend of space exploitation for business purpose. Granting high specific thrust and volumetric specific impulse, and counting on decades of intense development, solid rocket propulsion is a good candidate for commercial access to space, even with common propellant formulations. Yet, some drawbacks such as low theoretical specific impulse, losses as well as safety issues, suggest more efficient propulsion systems, digging into the enhancement of consolidated techniques. Focusing the attention on delivered specific impulse, a consistent fraction of losses can be ascribed to the multiphase medium inside the nozzle which, in turn, is related to agglomeration; a reduction of agglomerate size is likely. The present paper proposes a model based on heterogeneity characterization capable of describing the agglomeration trend for a standard aluminized solid propellant formulation. Material microstructure is characterized through the use of two statistical descriptors (pair correlation function and near-contact particles) looking at the mean metal pocket size inside the bulk. Given the real formulation and density of a propellant, a packing code generates the material representative which is then statistically analyzed. Agglomerate predictions are successfully contrasted to experimental data at 5 bar for four different formulations.

  2. Introduction to the Space Transportation System. [space shuttle cost effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    A new space transportation concept which is consistent with the need for more cost effective space operations has been developed. The major element of the Space Transportation System (STS) is the Space Shuttle. The rest of the system consists of a propulsive stage which can be carried within the space shuttle to obtain higher energy orbits. The final form of this propulsion stage will be called the Space Tug. A third important element, which is not actually a part of the STS since it has no propulsive capacity, is the Space Laboratory. The major element of the Space Shuttle is an aircraft-like orbiter which contains the crew, the cargo, and the liquid rocket engines in the rear.

  3. Motivating and Facilitating Advancements in Space Weather Real-Time Data Availability: Factors, Data, and Access Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratz, C. K.; Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Elkington, S. R.; Baltzer, T.; Sanchez, F.

    2017-12-01

    and models that are available, and present methods for meeting the data management and access needs of the disparate communities who require low-latency space weather data and information.

  4. Cost estimating methods for advanced space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cyr, Kelley

    1988-01-01

    The development of parametric cost estimating methods for advanced space systems in the conceptual design phase is discussed. The process of identifying variables which drive cost and the relationship between weight and cost are discussed. A theoretical model of cost is developed and tested using a historical data base of research and development projects.

  5. Contrast in low-cost operational concepts for orbiting satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walyus, Keith D.; Reis, James; Bradley, Arthur J.

    2002-12-01

    Older spacecraft missions, especially those in low Earth orbit with telemetry intensive requirements, required round-the-clock control center staffing. The state of technology relied on control center personnel to continually examine data, make decisions, resolve anomalies, and file reports. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a prime example of this description. Technological advancements in hardware and software over the last decade have yielded increases in productivity and operational efficiency, which result in lower cost. The re-engineering effort of HST, which has recently concluded, utilized emerging technology to reduce cost and increase productivity. New missions, of which NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer Satellite (TRACE) is an example, have benefited from recent technological advancements and are more cost-effective than when HST was first launched. During its launch (1998) and early orbit phase, the TRACE Flight Operations Team (FOT) employed continually staffed operations. Yet once the mission entered its nominal phase, the FOT reduced their staffing to standard weekday business hours. Operations were still conducted at night and during the weekends, but these operations occurred autonomously without compromising their high standards for data collections. For the HST, which launched in 1990, reduced cost operations will employ a different operational concept, when the spacecraft enters its low-cost phase after its final servicing mission in 2004. Primarily due to the spacecraft"s design, the HST Project has determined that single-shift operations will introduce unacceptable risks for the amount of dollars saved. More importantly, significant cost-savings can still be achieved by changing the operational concept for the FOT, while still maintaining round-the-clock staffing. It"s important to note that the low-cost solutions obtained for one satellite may not be applicable for other satellites. This paper will contrast the differences between

  6. Express Payload Project - A new method for rapid access to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhran, Mark L.; Timm, Marc G.

    1993-01-01

    The deployment and permanent operation of Space Station Freedom will enable researchers to enter a new era in the 21st century, in which continuous on-orbit experimentation and observation become routine. In support of this objective, the Space Station Freedom Program Office has initiated the Express Payload Project. The fundamental project goal is to reduce the marginal cost associated with small payload development, integration, and operation. This is to be accomplished by developing small payload accommodations hardware and a new streamlined small payload integration process. Standardization of small payload interfaces, certification of small payload containers, and increased payload developer responsibility for mission success are key aspects of the Express Payload Project. As the project progresses, the principles will be applied to both pressurized payloads flown inside the station laboratories and unpressurized payloads attached to the station external structures. The increased access to space afforded by Space Station Freedom and the Express Payload Project has the potential to significantly expand the scope, magnitude, and success of future research in the microgravity environment.

  7. Socializing in an open drug scene: the relationship between access to private space and drug-related street disorder.

    PubMed

    Debeck, Kora; Wood, Evan; Qi, Jiezhi; Fu, Eric; McArthur, Doug; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Limited attention has been given to the potential role that the structure of housing available to people who are entrenched in street-based drug scenes may play in influencing the amount of time injection drug users (IDU) spend on public streets. We sought to examine the relationship between time spent socializing in Vancouver's drug scene and access to private space. Using multivariate logistic regression we evaluated factors associated with socializing (three+ hours each day) in Vancouver's open drug scene among a prospective cohort of IDU. We also assessed attitudes towards relocating socializing activities if greater access to private indoor space was provided. Among our sample of 1114 IDU, 43% fit our criteria for socializing in the open drug scene. In multivariate analysis, having limited access to private space was independently associated with socializing (adjusted odds ratio: 1.80, 95% confidence interval: 1.28-2.55). In further analysis, 65% of 'socializers' reported positive attitudes towards relocating socializing if they had greater access to private space. These findings suggest that providing IDU with greater access to private indoor space may reduce one component of drug-related street disorder. Low-threshold supportive housing based on the 'housing first' model that include safeguards to manage behaviors associated with illicit drug use appear to offer important opportunities to create the types of private spaces that could support a reduction in street disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Socializing in an Open Drug Scene: The relationship Between Access to Private Space and Drug-Related Street Disorder

    PubMed Central

    DeBeck, Kora; Wood, Evan; Qi, Jiezhi; Fu, Eric; McArthur, Doug; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Limited attention has been given to the potential role that the structure of housing available to people who are entrenched in street-based drug scenes may play in influencing the amount of time injection drug users (IDU) spend on public streets. We sought to examine the relationship between time spent socializing in Vancouver's drug scene and access to private space. Methods Using multivariate logistic regression we evaluated factors associated with socializing (three+ hours each day) in Vancouver's open drug scene among a prospective cohort of IDU. We also assessed attitudes towards relocating socializing activities if greater access to private indoor space was provided. Results Among our sample of 1114 IDU, 43% fit our criteria for socializing in the open drug scene. In multivariate analysis, having limited access to private space was independently associated with socializing (adjusted odds ratio: 1.80, 95% confidence interval: 1.28 – 2.55). In further analysis, 65% of ‘socializers’ reported positive attitudes towards relocating socializing if they had greater access to private space. Conclusion These findings suggest that providing IDU with greater access to private indoor space may reduce one component of drug-related street disorder. Low-threshold supportive housing based on the ‘housing first’ model that include safeguards to manage behaviors associated with illicit drug use appear to offer important opportunities to create the types of private spaces that could support a reduction in street disorder. PMID:21764528

  9. Space Transportation Booster Engine Configuration Study. Volume 3: Program Cost estimates and work breakdown structure and WBS dictionary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Space Transportation Booster Engine Configuration Study is to contribute to the ALS development effort by providing highly reliable, low cost booster engine concepts for both expendable and reusable rocket engines. The objectives of the Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study were: (1) to identify engine development configurations which enhance vehicle performance and provide operational flexibility at low cost; and (2) to explore innovative approaches to the follow-on Full-Scale Development (FSD) phase for the STBE.

  10. Sources and Transportation of Bulk, Low-Cost Lunar Simulant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has built the Lunar Surface Testbed using 200 tons of volcanic cinder and ash from the same source used for the simulant series JSC-1. This Technical Memorandum examines the alternatives examined for transportation and source. The cost of low-cost lunar simulant is driven by the cost of transportation, which is controlled by distance and, to a lesser extent, quantity. Metabasalts in the eastern United States were evaluated due to their proximity to MSFC. Volcanic cinder deposits in New Mexico, Colorado, and Arizona were recognized as preferred sources. In addition to having fewer green, secondary minerals, they contain vesicular glass, both of which are desirable. Transportation costs were more than 90% of the total procurement costs for the simulant material.

  11. Top Level Space Cost Methodology (TLSCM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-02

    Software 7 6. ACEIT . 7 C. Ground Rules and Assumptions 7 D. Typical Life Cycle Cost Distribution 7 E. Methodologies 7 1. Cost/budget Threshold 9 2. Analogy...which is based on real-time Air Force and space programs. Ref.(25:2- 8, 2-9) 6. ACEIT : Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools( ACEIT ), Tecolote...Research, Inc. There is a way to use the ACEIT cost program to get a print-out of an expanded WBS. Therefore, find someone that has ACEIT experience and

  12. Need low-cost networking? Consider DeviceNet

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Moss, W.H.

    1996-11-01

    The drive to reduce production costs and optimize system performance in manufacturing facilities causes many end users to invest in network solutions. Because of distinct differences between the way tasks are performed and the way data are handled for various applications, it is clear than more than one network will be needed in most facilities. What is not clear is which network is most appropriate for a given application. The information layer is the link between automation and information environments via management information systems (MISs) and manufacturing execution systems (MESs) and manufacturing execution systems (MESs). Here the market has chosenmore » a de facto standard in Ethernet, primarily transmission control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP) and secondarily manufacturing messaging system (MMS). There is no single standard at the device layer. However, the DeviceNet communication standard has made strides to reach this goal. This protocol eliminates expensive hardwiring and provides improved communication between devices and important device-level diagnostics not easily accessible or available through hardwired I/O interfaces. DeviceNet is a low-cost communications link connecting industrial devices to a network. Many original equipment manufacturers and end users have chosen the DeviceNet platform for several reasons, but most frequently because of four key features: interchangeability; low cost; advanced diagnostics; insert devices under power.« less

  13. Commercial opportunities utilizing the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Michael E.; Mongan, Phil; Overmyer, Carolyn M.; Jackson, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has the unique capability of providing a low-g environment for both short- and long-duration experimentation. This environment can provide a unique and competitive research capability to industry; but until recently, utilization of this environment by the private sector has been limited if not totally unavailable. NASA has recently expressed an interest in the commercial development of space and this is now an integral part of the Agency's enabling legislation through the Space Act. NASA's objective is to foster the use of the space environment for the development of commercial products and processes. Through alliances and agreements with several commercial companies and universities, SPACEHAB, Inc., has built a comprehensive package of services designed to provide low-cost reliable access to space for experimenters. These services provide opportunities to support engineering test beds for materials exposure analysis, to mitigate structural failures as observed on the Hubble Space Telescope; materials processing, remote sensing; space environment definition; and electronic experiments. The intent of this paper is to identify commercial opportunities for utilizing the International Space Station and provide examples of several facilities currently being designed and manufactured by commercial companies with the purpose of providing access to the space environment for commercial users.

  14. 46 CFR 154.340 - Access to tanks and spaces in the cargo area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... access from the weather deck to gas-safe spaces in the cargo area must be at least 2.4 m (7.9 ft.) above... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to tanks and spaces in the cargo area. 154.340... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.340 Access to tanks and spaces in the cargo area. (a) Each cargo tank must...

  15. 46 CFR 154.340 - Access to tanks and spaces in the cargo area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... access from the weather deck to gas-safe spaces in the cargo area must be at least 2.4 m (7.9 ft.) above... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to tanks and spaces in the cargo area. 154.340... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.340 Access to tanks and spaces in the cargo area. (a) Each cargo tank must...

  16. 46 CFR 154.340 - Access to tanks and spaces in the cargo area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... access from the weather deck to gas-safe spaces in the cargo area must be at least 2.4 m (7.9 ft.) above... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access to tanks and spaces in the cargo area. 154.340... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.340 Access to tanks and spaces in the cargo area. (a) Each cargo tank must...

  17. 46 CFR 154.340 - Access to tanks and spaces in the cargo area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... access from the weather deck to gas-safe spaces in the cargo area must be at least 2.4 m (7.9 ft.) above... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to tanks and spaces in the cargo area. 154.340... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.340 Access to tanks and spaces in the cargo area. (a) Each cargo tank must...

  18. 46 CFR 154.340 - Access to tanks and spaces in the cargo area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... access from the weather deck to gas-safe spaces in the cargo area must be at least 2.4 m (7.9 ft.) above... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access to tanks and spaces in the cargo area. 154.340... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.340 Access to tanks and spaces in the cargo area. (a) Each cargo tank must...

  19. Preliminary Multivariable Cost Model for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. Previously, the authors published two single variable cost models based on 19 flight missions. The current paper presents the development of a multi-variable space telescopes cost model. The validity of previously published models are tested. Cost estimating relationships which are and are not significant cost drivers are identified. And, interrelationships between variables are explored

  20. The Economic Benefits of Space Tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P.

    The recent growth of activities towards developing passenger space travel services is very promising; however there is a widespread but mistaken idea that space tourism will remain a small-scale activity of the very wealthy. The truth is that, having been delayed for over three decades by government space agencies' failure to develop more than a small fraction of the commercial potential of space, the start of space travel services is long overdue, and so they are capable of growing rapidly into a major new industry. That is, the technical and business know-how exists to enable space tourism to grow to a turnover of 100 billion Euros/year within a few decades if it receives public support of even 10% of space agencies budgets. This development would sharply reduce the cost of accessing the resources of space, which could prevent the spread of the “resource wars” which have begun so ominously. No activity therefore offers greater economic benefits than the rapid development of low-cost space tourism services. A range of government policies should be revised to reflect this.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of an improving access to psychological therapies service.

    PubMed

    Mukuria, Clara; Brazier, John; Barkham, Michael; Connell, Janice; Hardy, Gillian; Hutten, Rebecca; Saxon, Dave; Dent-Brown, Kim; Parry, Glenys

    2013-03-01

    Effective psychological therapies have been recommended for common mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety, but provision has been poor. Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) may provide a cost-effective solution to this problem. To determine the cost-effectiveness of IAPT at the Doncaster demonstration site (2007-2009). An economic evaluation comparing costs and health outcomes for patients at the IAPT demonstration site with those for comparator sites, including a separate assessment of lost productivity. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken. The IAPT site had higher service costs and was associated with small additional gains in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) compared with its comparator sites, resulting in a cost per QALY gained of £29 500 using the Short Form (SF-6D). Sensitivity analysis using predicted EQ-5D scores lowered this to £16 857. Costs per reliable and clinically significant (RCS) improvement were £9440 per participant. Improving Access to Psychological Therapies provided a service that was probably cost-effective within the usual National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) threshold range of £20 000-30 000, but there was considerable uncertainty surrounding the costs and outcome differences.

  2. Large area, low cost space solar cells with optional wraparound contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaels, D.; Mendoza, N.; Williams, R.

    1981-01-01

    Design parameters for two large area, low cost solar cells are presented, and electron irradiation testing, thermal alpha testing, and cell processing are discussed. The devices are a 2 ohm-cm base resistivity silicon cell with an evaporated aluminum reflector produced in a dielectric wraparound cell, and a 10 ohm-cm silicon cell with the BSF/BSR combination and a conventional contact system. Both cells are 5.9 x 5.9 cm and require 200 micron thick silicon material due to mission weight constraints. Normalized values for open circuit voltage, short circuit current, and maximum power calculations derived from electron radiation testing are given. In addition, thermal alpha testing values of absorptivity and emittance are included. A pilot cell processing run produced cells averaging 14.4% efficiencies at AMO 28 C. Manufacturing for such cells will be on a mechanized process line, and the area of coverslide application technology must be considered in order to achieve cost effective production.

  3. Senate Hearing on Assured Access to Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-16

    A general view of a hearing in front of the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces and Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation regarding assured access to space on Wednesday, July 16, 2014, at the Hart Senate Office Building in Washington, DC.

  4. Implementation and Testing of Low Cost Uav Platform for Orthophoto Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucas, D.; Suziedelyte-Visockiene, J.; Ragauskas, U.; Berteska, E.; Rudinskas, D.

    2013-08-01

    Implementation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for civilian applications is rapidly increasing. Technologies which were expensive and available only for military use have recently spread on civilian market. There is a vast number of low cost open source components and systems for implementation on UAVs available. Using of low cost hobby and open source components ensures considerable decrease of UAV price, though in some cases compromising its reliability. In Space Science and Technology Institute (SSTI) in collaboration with Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) researches have been performed in field of constructing and implementation of small UAVs composed of low cost open source components (and own developments). Most obvious and simple implementation of such UAVs - orthophoto imaging with data download and processing after the flight. The construction, implementation of UAVs, flight experience, data processing and data implementation will be further covered in the paper and presentation.

  5. Advanced Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation describes a number of advanced space propulsion technologies with the potential for meeting the need for dramatic reductions in the cost of access to space, and the need for new propulsion capabilities to enable bold new space exploration (and, ultimately, space exploitation) missions of the 21st century. For example, current Earth-to-orbit (e.g., low Earth orbit, LEO) launch costs are extremely high (ca. $10,000/kg); a factor 25 reduction (to ca. $400/kg) will be needed to produce the dramatic increases in space activities in both the civilian and government sectors identified in the Commercial Space Transportation Study (CSTS). Similarly, in the area of space exploration, all of the relatively 'easy' missions (e.g., robotic flybys, inner solar system orbiters and landers; and piloted short-duration Lunar missions) have been done. Ambitious missions of the next century (e.g., robotic outer-planet orbiters/probes, landers, rovers, sample returns; and piloted long-duration Lunar and Mars missions) will require major improvements in propulsion capability. In some cases, advanced propulsion can enable a mission by making it faster or more affordable, and in some cases, by directly enabling the mission (e.g., interstellar missions). As a general rule, advanced propulsion systems are attractive because of their low operating costs (e.g., higher specific impulse, ISD) and typically show the most benefit for relatively 'big' missions (i.e., missions with large payloads or AV, or a large overall mission model). In part, this is due to the intrinsic size of the advanced systems as compared to state-of-the-art (SOTA) chemical propulsion systems. Also, advanced systems often have a large 'infrastructure' cost, either in the form of initial R&D costs or in facilities hardware costs (e.g., laser or microwave transmission ground stations for beamed energy propulsion). These costs must then be amortized over a large mission to be cost-competitive with a SOTA

  6. Expanding access to high-cost medicines through the E2 access program in Thailand: effects on utilisation, health outcomes and cost using an interrupted time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Sruamsiri, Rosarin; Wagner, Anita K; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Lu, Christine Y; Dhippayom, Teerapon; Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2016-03-17

    In 2008, the Thai government introduced the 'high-cost medicines E2 access program' as a part of the National List of Essential Medicines to increase patient access to medicines, improve clinical outcomes and make medicines more affordable. Our objective was to examine whether the 'high-cost medicines E2 access program' achieved its goals. Interrupted time-series design study. 3 tertiary hospitals in different regions of Thailand, January 2006 to December 2012. Patients with target acute and chronic disease diagnoses who newly met E2 program criteria for selected study medicines. High-cost medicines E2 access program. Level and trend changes over time in the proportions of eligible patients who received the indicated E2 medicines and who improved clinically, as well as in costs of treatment. A total of 2024 patients were included in utilisation analyses and 1375 patients with selected acute diseases contributed to analyses of clinical outcome. After 1 year of the E2 program implementation, the percentage of eligible patients receiving the indicated E2 program medicines increased significantly (relative change 12.7% (95% CI 4.4% to 21.0%), especially among those insured by the government's universal coverage scheme (relative change 19.9% (95% CI 9.5% to 30.5%)). The increase in the proportion of clinically improved patients with acute conditions was not significant (relative change 6.2% (95% CI -1.9% to 15.1%)). Quarterly healthcare costs per patient dropped significantly (relative change -13.5% (95% CI -26.9% to -1.7%)). In the study hospitals, the E2 access program seems to have facilitated patient access to specialty medicines, may have contributed to improved health outcomes, and decreased treatment costs. Routine monitoring is needed to assess effects of expanding the programme, including effects on quality of care and financial sustainability. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  7. Multivariable parametric cost model for space and ground telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd

    2016-09-01

    Parametric cost models can be used by designers and project managers to perform relative cost comparisons between major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades; enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment; and, provide a basis for estimating total project cost between related concepts. This paper hypothesizes a single model, based on published models and engineering intuition, for both ground and space telescopes: OTA Cost (X) D (1.75 +/- 0.05) λ (-0.5 +/- 0.25) T-0.25 e (-0.04) Y Specific findings include: space telescopes cost 50X to 100X more ground telescopes; diameter is the most important CER; cost is reduced by approximately 50% every 20 years (presumably because of technology advance and process improvements); and, for space telescopes, cost associated with wavelength performance is balanced by cost associated with operating temperature. Finally, duplication only reduces cost for the manufacture of identical systems (i.e. multiple aperture sparse arrays or interferometers). And, while duplication does reduce the cost of manufacturing the mirrors of segmented primary mirror, this cost savings does not appear to manifest itself in the final primary mirror assembly (presumably because the structure for a segmented mirror is more complicated than for a monolithic mirror).

  8. Mini-Satellites for Affordable Space Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Andy; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Gibbon, Dave; Richardson, Guy; Cropp, Alex; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    Magnetospheric science missions are a key component of solar terrestrial physics programmes - charged with the unravelling of these fundamental processes. These missions require distributed science gathering in a wide variety of alternative orbits. Missions typically require constellations of high delta-v formation flying spacecraft - single launch vehicles are usually mandated. Typical missions baseline space standard technology and standard communication and operations architectures - all driving up programme cost. By trading on the requirements, applying prudent analysis of performance as well as selection of subsystems outside the traditional space range most of the mission objectives can be met for a reduced overall mission cost. This paper describes Surrey's platform solution which has been studied for a future NASA opportunity. It will emphasise SSTL's proven spacecraft engineering philosophies and the use of terrestrial commercial off-the-shelf technology in this demanding environment. This will lead to a cost-capped science mission, and extend the philosophy of affordable access to space beyond Low Earth Orbit.

  9. Commerical (terrestrial) and modified solar array design studies for low cost, low power space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, J. C.; Riley, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    The suitability of commercial (terrestrial) solar arrays for use in low Earth orbit is examined. It is shown that commercial solar arrays degrade under thermal cycling because of material flexure, and that certain types of silicones used in the construction of these arrays outgas severely. Based on the results, modifications were made. The modified array retains the essential features of typical commercial arrays and can be easily built by commercial fabrication techniques at low cost. The modified array uses a metal tray for containment, but eliminates the high outgassing potting materials and glass cover sheets. Cells are individually mounted with an adhesive and individually covered with glass cover slips, or clear plastic tape. The modified array is found to withstand severe thermal cycling for long intervals of time.

  10. A low-cost vector processor boosting compute-intensive image processing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adorf, Hans-Martin

    1992-01-01

    Low-cost vector processing (VP) is within reach of everyone seriously engaged in scientific computing. The advent of affordable add-on VP-boards for standard workstations complemented by mathematical/statistical libraries is beginning to impact compute-intensive tasks such as image processing. A case in point in the restoration of distorted images from the Hubble Space Telescope. A low-cost implementation is presented of the standard Tarasko-Richardson-Lucy restoration algorithm on an Intel i860-based VP-board which is seamlessly interfaced to a commercial, interactive image processing system. First experience is reported (including some benchmarks for standalone FFT's) and some conclusions are drawn.

  11. Thermal infrared reference sources fabricated from low-cost components and materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovland, Harald; Skauli, Torbjørn

    2018-04-01

    Mass markets, including mobile phones and automotive sensors, drive rapid developments of imaging technologies toward high performance, low cost sensors, even for the thermal infrared. Good infrared calibration blackbody sources have remained relatively costly, however. Here we demonstrate how to make low-cost reference sources, making quantitative infrared radiometry more accessible to a wider community. Our approach uses ordinary construction materials combined with low cost microcontrollers, digital temperature sensors and foil heater elements from massmarket 3D printers. Blackbodies are constructed from a foil heater of some chosen size and shape, attached to the back of a similarly shaped aluminum plate coated with commercial black paint, which normally exhibits high emissivity. The emissivity can be readily checked by using a thermal imager to view the reflection of a hot object. A digital temperature sensor is attached to the back of the plate. Thermal isolation of the backside minimizes temperature gradients through the plate, ensuring correct readings of the front temperature. The isolation also serves to minimize convection gradients and keeps power consumption low, which is useful for battery powered operation in the field. We demonstrate surface blackbodies (200x200 mm2) with surface homogeneities as low as 0.1°C at 100°C. Homogeneous heating and low thermal mass provides for fast settling time and setup/pack-down time. The approach is scalable to larger sizes by tiling, enabling portable and foldable square-meter-size or larger devices.

  12. Long-range planning cost model for support of future space missions by the deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherif, J. S.; Remer, D. S.; Buchanan, H. R.

    1990-01-01

    A simple model is suggested to do long-range planning cost estimates for Deep Space Network (DSP) support of future space missions. The model estimates total DSN preparation costs and the annual distribution of these costs for long-range budgetary planning. The cost model is based on actual DSN preparation costs from four space missions: Galileo, Voyager (Uranus), Voyager (Neptune), and Magellan. The model was tested against the four projects and gave cost estimates that range from 18 percent above the actual total preparation costs of the projects to 25 percent below. The model was also compared to two other independent projects: Viking and Mariner Jupiter/Saturn (MJS later became Voyager). The model gave cost estimates that range from 2 percent (for Viking) to 10 percent (for MJS) below the actual total preparation costs of these missions.

  13. Space Access for Small Satellites on the K-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faktor, L.

    Affordable access to space remains a major obstacle to realizing the increasing potential of small satellites systems. On a per kilogram basis, small launch vehicles are simply too expensive for the budgets of many small satellite programs. Opportunities for rideshare with larger payloads on larger launch vehicles are still rare, given the complications associated with coordinating delivery schedules and deployment orbits. Existing contractual mechanisms are also often inadequate to facilitate the launch of multiple payload customers on the same flight. Kistler Aerospace Corporation is committed to lowering the price and enhancing the availability of space access for small satellite programs through the fully-reusable K-1 launch vehicle. Kistler has been working with a number of entities, including Astrium Ltd., AeroAstro, and NASA, to develop innovative approaches to small satellite missions. The K-1 has been selected by NASA as a Flight Demonstration Vehicle for the Space Launch Initiative. NASA has purchased the flight results during the first four K-1 launches on the performance of 13 advanced launch vehicle technologies embedded in the K-1 vehicle. On K-1 flights #2-#4, opportunities exist for small satellites to rideshare to low-earth orbit for a low-launch price. Kistler's flight demonstration contract with NASA also includes options to fly Add-on Technology Experiment flights. Opportunities exist for rideshare payloads on these flights as well. Both commercial and government customers may take advantage of the rideshare pricing. Kistler is investigating the feasibility of flying dedicated, multiple small payload missions. Such a mission would launch multiple small payloads from a single customer or small payloads from different customers. The orbit would be selected to be compatible with the requirements of as many small payload customers as possible, and make use of reusable hardware, standard interfaces (such as the existing MPAS) and verification plans

  14. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study. Volume 5: Cost benefits and programmatic analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The science, applications, commercial, U.S. national security and space operations missions that would require or be materially benefited by the availability of a permanent manned space station in low Earth orbit are considered. Space station attributes and capabilities which will be necessary to satisfy these mission requirements are identified. Emphasis is placed on the identification and validation of potential users, their requirements, and the benefits accruing to them from the existence of a space station, and the programmatic and cost implications of a space station program.

  15. Cost Modeling for Space Optical Telescope Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Luedtke, Alexander; West, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Parametric cost models are used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper reviews an on-going effort to develop cost modes for space telescopes. This paper summarizes the methodology used to develop cost models and documents how changes to the database have changed previously published preliminary cost models. While the cost models are evolving, the previously published findings remain valid: it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; technology development as a function of time reduces cost; and lower areal density telescopes cost more than more massive telescopes.

  16. 46 CFR 153.217 - Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks... DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.217 Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast...

  17. 46 CFR 153.217 - Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks... DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.217 Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast...

  18. 46 CFR 153.217 - Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks... DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.217 Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast...

  19. 46 CFR 153.217 - Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks... DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.217 Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast...

  20. 46 CFR 153.217 - Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast tanks... DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.217 Access to enclosed spaces and dedicated ballast...

  1. MESSOC capabilities and results. [Model for Estimating Space Station Opertions Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert

    1990-01-01

    MESSOC (Model for Estimating Space Station Operations Costs) is the result of a multi-year effort by NASA to understand and model the mature operations cost of Space Station Freedom. This paper focuses on MESSOC's ability to contribute to life-cycle cost analyses through its logistics equations and databases. Together, these afford MESSOC the capability to project not only annual logistics costs for a variety of Space Station scenarios, but critical non-cost logistics results such as annual Station maintenance crewhours, upweight/downweight, and on-orbit sparing availability as well. MESSOC results using current logistics databases and baseline scenario have already shown important implications for on-orbit maintenance approaches, space transportation systems, and international operations cost sharing.

  2. MPEG-1 low-cost encoder solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grueger, Klaus; Schirrmeister, Frank; Filor, Lutz; von Reventlow, Christian; Schneider, Ulrich; Mueller, Gerriet; Sefzik, Nicolai; Fiedrich, Sven

    1995-02-01

    A solution for real-time compression of digital YCRCB video data to an MPEG-1 video data stream has been developed. As an additional option, motion JPEG and video telephone streams (H.261) can be generated. For MPEG-1, up to two bidirectional predicted images are supported. The required computational power for motion estimation and DCT/IDCT, memory size and memory bandwidth have been the main challenges. The design uses fast-page-mode memory accesses and requires only one single 80 ns EDO-DRAM with 256 X 16 organization for video encoding. This can be achieved only by using adequate access and coding strategies. The architecture consists of an input processing and filter unit, a memory interface, a motion estimation unit, a motion compensation unit, a DCT unit, a quantization control, a VLC unit and a bus interface. For using the available memory bandwidth by the processing tasks, a fixed schedule for memory accesses has been applied, that can be interrupted for asynchronous events. The motion estimation unit implements a highly sophisticated hierarchical search strategy based on block matching. The DCT unit uses a separated fast-DCT flowgraph realized by a switchable hardware unit for both DCT and IDCT operation. By appropriate multiplexing, only one multiplier is required for: DCT, quantization, inverse quantization, and IDCT. The VLC unit generates the video-stream up to the video sequence layer and is directly coupled with an intelligent bus-interface. Thus, the assembly of video, audio and system data can easily be performed by the host computer. Having a relatively low complexity and only small requirements for DRAM circuits, the developed solution can be applied to low-cost encoding products for consumer electronics.

  3. Senate Hearing on Assured Access to Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-16

    Sen. Ted Cruz, R-Texas, listens during testimony in front of the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces and Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on Wednesday, July 16, 2014, at the Hart Senate Office Building in Washington, DC. The Senate hearing focused on assured access to space.

  4. Multinational Experiment 7. Protecting Access to Space: Presentation to Senior Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-08

    Multinational Experiment 7: Outcome 3: Space Access Briefing to SLS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...operations Consequence management Ship status during search & rescue Tele-medicine Broadband internet TV signal distribution Satellite radio Rural...military-usage • Significant economic & societal consequences Access to space at risk • Current approach unsustainable • Broad range of threats

  5. Development of Low Cost Satellite Communications System for Helicopters and General Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farazian, K.; Abbe, B.; Divsalar, D.; Raphaeli, D.; Tulintseff, A.; Wu, T.; Hinedi, S.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the development of low-cost satellite communications (SATCOM) system for helicopters and General Aviation (GA) aircrafts is described. System design and standards analysis have been conducted to meet the low-cost, light-weight, small-size and low-power system requirements for helicopters and GA aircraft environments. Other specific issues investigated include coding schemes, spatial diversity, and antenna arraying techniques. Coding schemes employing Channel State Information (CSI) and inverleaving have been studied in order to mitigate severe banking angle fading and the periodic RF signal blockage due to the helicopter rotor blades. In addition, space diversity and antenna arraying techniques have been investigated to further reduce the fading effects and increase the link margin.

  6. CAIRSENSE Study: Real-world evaluation of low cost sensors ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Low-cost air pollution sensors are a rapidly developing field in air monitoring. In recent years, numerous sensors have been developed that can provide real-time concentration data for different air pollutants at costs accessible to individuals and non-regulatory groups. Additionally, these sensors have the potential to improve the spatial resolution of monitoring networks and provide a better understanding of neighborhood- and local-scale air quality and sources. However, many new sensors have not been evaluated to determine their long-term performance and capabilities. In this study, nine different low-cost sensor models, including O3, NO2 and particle sensors, were deployed in Denver, CO from September 2015 to February 2016. Three sensors of each type were deployed to evaluate instrument precision and consistency over the time period. Sensors were co-located with reference monitors at the Denver NCore site in order to evaluate sensor accuracy and precision. Denver was chosen as the location for this study to evaluate sensor performance in dry, high altitude, and low winter temperatures. Sensors were evaluated for data completeness, performance over time, and comparison with regulatory monitors. This presentation will also address challenges and approaches to data logging and processing. Preliminary analysis revealed that most sensors had high data completeness when data loggers were operational (e.g., the Aeroqual O3 sensor ranged from 94-100%), and exhibited

  7. Low Cost Airline Service Revolution

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-04-01

    This study concentrates on new entry by airlines with low cost operating : strategies. Low cost strategies have been the most successful in competing : with network carriers whose very size confers certain competitive advantages. : The purposes of th...

  8. Space Shuttle capabilities, constraints, and cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    The capabilities, constraints, and costs of the Space Transportation System (STS), which combines reusable and expendable components, are reviewed, and an overview of the current planning activities for operating the STS in an efficient and cost-effective manner is presented. Traffic forecasts, performance constraints and enhancements, and potential new applications are discussed. Attention is given to operating costs, pricing policies, and the steps involved in 'getting on board', which includes all the interfaces between NASA and the users necessary to come to launch service agreements.

  9. Cost estimating methods for advanced space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cyr, Kelley

    1988-01-01

    Parametric cost estimating methods for space systems in the conceptual design phase are developed. The approach is to identify variables that drive cost such as weight, quantity, development culture, design inheritance, and time. The relationship between weight and cost is examined in detail. A theoretical model of cost is developed and tested statistically against a historical data base of major research and development programs. It is concluded that the technique presented is sound, but that it must be refined in order to produce acceptable cost estimates.

  10. NASA Affordable Vehicle Avionics (AVA). Common Modular Avionics System for Nanolaunchers Offering Affordable Access to Space; [Space Technology: Game Changing Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aquilina, Rudy

    2017-01-01

    Small satellites are becoming ever more capable of performing valuable missions for both government and commercial customers. However, currently these satellites can be launched affordably only as secondary payloads. This makes it difficult for the small satellite mission to launch when needed, to the desired orbit, and with acceptable risk. What is needed is a class of low-cost launchers, so that launch costs to low-Earth orbit (LEO) are commensurate with payload costs. Several private and government-sponsored launch vehicle developers are working toward just that-the ability to affordably insert small payloads into LEO. But until now, cost of the complex avionics remained disproportionately high. AVA (Affordable Vehicle Avionics) solves this problem. Significant contributors to the cost of launching nanosatellites to orbit are the avionics and software systems that steer and control the launch vehicles, sequence stage separation, deploy payloads, and telemeter data. The high costs of these guidance, navigation and control (GNC) avionics systems are due in part to the current practice of developing unique, single-use hardware and software for each launch. High-performance, high-reliability inertial sensors components with heritage from legacy launchers also contribute to costs-but can low-cost commercial inertial sensors work just as well? NASA Ames Research Center has developed and tested a prototype low-cost avionics package for space launch vehicles that provides complete GNC functionality in a package smaller than a tissue box (100 millimeters by 120 millimeters by 69 millimeters; 4 inches by 4.7 inches by 2.7 inches), with a mass of less than 0.84 kilogram (2 pounds. AVA takes advantage of commercially available, low-cost, mass-produced, miniaturized sensors, filtering their more noisy inertial data with real-time GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) data. The goal of the AVA project is to produce and light-verify a common suite of avionics and software that

  11. Senate Hearing on Assured Access to Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-16

    Robert Lightfoot, NASA Associate Administrator, answers a question during testimony in front of the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces and Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on Wednesday, July 16, 2014, at the Hart Senate Office Building in Washington, DC. The Senate hearing focused on assured access to space.

  12. Senate Hearing on Assured Access to Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-16

    Sen. Ted Cruz, R-Texas, asks a question during a hearing in front of the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces and Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on Wednesday, July 16, 2014, at the Hart Senate Office Building in Washington, DC. The Senate hearing focused on assured access to space.

  13. Senate Hearing on Assured Access to Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-16

    Sen. Mark Udall, D-CO, asks a question during a hearing in front of the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces and Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on Wednesday, July 16, 2014, at the Hart Senate Office Building in Washington, DC. The Senate hearing focused on assured access to space.

  14. Low-cost high purity production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapur, V. K.

    1978-01-01

    Economical process produces high-purity silicon crystals suitable for use in solar cells. Reaction is strongly exothermic and can be initiated at relatively low temperature, making it potentially suitable for development into low-cost commercial process. Important advantages include exothermic character and comparatively low process temperatures. These could lead to significant savings in equipment and energy costs.

  15. Polyimide Based Nanocomposites for Affordable Space Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Derrick; Islam, Mohsina; Small, Sharee; Aldridge, Brandon; Campbell, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In setting forth its strategic plan, NASA has indicated that low-cost access to space is the key to unleashing the commercial potential of space and greatly expanding space research and exploration. The development of advanced materials will be an enabling technology for this quest for low-cost space access. In this research program, we are attempting to address the need for new advanced materials by developing high-performance nanodispersed inorganic/organic and organic/organic polyimide composites utilizing specific interactions. Our goal is to systematically manipulate these interactions and investigate the resulting processing morphology-property relationships. Specifically, we will investigate three main parameters on these relationships. These include (1) the type of polyimide; (2) the structure of the inorganic nanoparticle being used; and (3) manipulation of the interfacial energy. During the first year of this effort, we have demonstrated the successful synthesis of PMR-15/layered silicate nanocomposites. Morphological studies indicate that exfoliated structures were obtained in most instances, with a mixture of exfoliated and intercalated structures being observed also. Significant enhancements of the onset of decomposition were obtained by varying the strength of the interaction between the nanoparticle and the polymer. Varying the amount of a specific nanoparticle also affected the decomposition temperatures. A slight catalytic effect of the nanoparticles on both the imidization and crosslinking reaction has been observed and will be presented. In addition, incorporation of the nanoparticles was found to increase the glass transition temperature and slightly broaden the breadth of this relaxation.

  16. Payload maintenance cost model for the space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    An optimum maintenance cost model for the space telescope for a fifteen year mission cycle was developed. Various documents and subsequent updates of failure rates and configurations were made. The reliability of the space telescope for one year, two and one half years, and five years were determined using the failure rates and configurations. The failure rates and configurations were also used in the maintenance simulation computer model which simulate the failure patterns for the fifteen year mission life of the space telescope. Cost algorithms associated with the maintenance options as indicated by the failure patterns were developed and integrated into the model.

  17. Space transportation activities in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabris, Edward A.

    1994-01-01

    The status of the existing space transportation systems in the U.S. and options for increased capability is being examined in the context of mission requirements, options for new vehicles, cost to operate the existing vehicles, cost to develop new vehicles, and the capabilities and plans of other suppliers. This assessment is addressing the need to build and resupply the space station, to maintain necessary military assets in a rapidly changing world, and to continue a competitive commercial space transportation industry. The Department of Defense (DOD) and NASA each conducted an 'access to space' study using a common mission model but with the emphasis on their unique requirements. Both studies considered three options: maintain and improve the existing capability, build a new launch vehicle using contemporary technology, and build a new launch vehicle using advanced technology. While no decisions have been made on a course of action, it will be influenced by the availability of funds in the U.S. budget, the changing need for military space assets, the increasing competition among space launch suppliers, and the emerging opportunity for an advanced technology, low cost system and international partnerships to develop it.

  18. The cost of acquiring public hunting access on family forests lands

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Kilgore; Stephanie A. Snyder; Joesph M. Schertz; Steven J. Taff

    2008-01-01

    To address the issue of declining access to private forest land in the United States for hunting, over 1,000 Minnesota family forest owners were surveyed to estimate the cost of acquiring non-exclusive public hunting access rights. The results indicate landowner interest in selling access rights is extremely modest. Using binary logistic regression, the mean annual...

  19. The prohibitive costs of accessing evidence online.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Nancy; Lockett, Donna

    2004-01-01

    Delivering continuing education online involves making published materials available to learners. As part of a study that examined the use of the Internet for dissemination of information, permission to provide resources online was sought from 43 publishers, of whom 36 responded. Four (11.1%) denied permission to copy their materials. Seven (19.4%) granted permission to copy articles at no cost. The remaining 25 (69.4%) granted permission for a fee, ranging from dollar 2 to dollar 410 per article. These findings highlight a need for more accessible and cost-effective online resources to meet the challenges of evidence-based programs and practice in public health.

  20. Senate Hearing on Assured Access to Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-16

    Robert Lightfoot, NASA Associate Administrator, delivers his opening statement during a hearing in front of the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces and Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on Wednesday, July 16, 2014, at the Hart Senate Office Building in Washington, DC. The Senate hearing focused on assured access to space.

  1. Senate Hearing on Assured Access to Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-16

    Robert Lightfoot, NASA Associate Administrator, third from left, answers a question during testimony in front of the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces and Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on Wednesday, July 16, 2014, at the Hart Senate Office Building in Washington, DC. The Senate hearing focused on assured access to space.

  2. Potential cost-effectiveness of universal access to modern contraceptives in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Babigumira, Joseph B; Stergachis, Andy; Veenstra, David L; Gardner, Jacqueline S; Ngonzi, Joseph; Mukasa-Kivunike, Peter; Garrison, Louis P

    2012-01-01

    Over two thirds of women who need contraception in Uganda lack access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to estimate the potential cost-effectiveness of achieving universal access to modern contraceptives in Uganda by implementing a hypothetical new contraceptive program (NCP) from both societal and governmental (Ministry of Health (MoH)) perspectives. A Markov model was developed to compare the NCP to the status quo or current contraceptive program (CCP). The model followed a hypothetical cohort of 15-year old girls over a lifetime horizon. Data were obtained from the Uganda National Demographic and Health Survey and from published and unpublished sources. Costs, life expectancy, disability-adjusted life expectancy, pregnancies, fertility and incremental cost-effectiveness measured as cost per life-year (LY) gained, cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted, cost per pregnancy averted and cost per unit of fertility reduction were calculated. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the robustness of results. Mean discounted life expectancy and disability-adjusted life expectancy (DALE) were higher under the NCP vs. CCP (28.74 vs. 28.65 years and 27.38 vs. 27.01 respectively). Mean pregnancies and live births per woman were lower under the NCP (9.51 vs. 7.90 and 6.92 vs. 5.79 respectively). Mean lifetime societal costs per woman were lower for the NCP from the societal perspective ($1,949 vs. $1,987) and the MoH perspective ($636 vs. $685). In the incremental analysis, the NCP dominated the CCP, i.e. it was both less costly and more effective. The results were robust to univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Universal access to modern contraceptives in Uganda appears to be highly cost-effective. Increasing contraceptive coverage should be considered among Uganda's public health priorities.

  3. Potential Cost-Effectiveness of Universal Access to Modern Contraceptives in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Babigumira, Joseph B.; Stergachis, Andy; Veenstra, David L.; Gardner, Jacqueline S.; Ngonzi, Joseph; Mukasa-Kivunike, Peter; Garrison, Louis P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Over two thirds of women who need contraception in Uganda lack access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to estimate the potential cost-effectiveness of achieving universal access to modern contraceptives in Uganda by implementing a hypothetical new contraceptive program (NCP) from both societal and governmental (Ministry of Health (MoH)) perspectives. Methodology/Principal Findings A Markov model was developed to compare the NCP to the status quo or current contraceptive program (CCP). The model followed a hypothetical cohort of 15-year old girls over a lifetime horizon. Data were obtained from the Uganda National Demographic and Health Survey and from published and unpublished sources. Costs, life expectancy, disability-adjusted life expectancy, pregnancies, fertility and incremental cost-effectiveness measured as cost per life-year (LY) gained, cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted, cost per pregnancy averted and cost per unit of fertility reduction were calculated. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the robustness of results. Mean discounted life expectancy and disability-adjusted life expectancy (DALE) were higher under the NCP vs. CCP (28.74 vs. 28.65 years and 27.38 vs. 27.01 respectively). Mean pregnancies and live births per woman were lower under the NCP (9.51 vs. 7.90 and 6.92 vs. 5.79 respectively). Mean lifetime societal costs per woman were lower for the NCP from the societal perspective ($1,949 vs. $1,987) and the MoH perspective ($636 vs. $685). In the incremental analysis, the NCP dominated the CCP, i.e. it was both less costly and more effective. The results were robust to univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Conclusion/Significance Universal access to modern contraceptives in Uganda appears to be highly cost-effective. Increasing contraceptive coverage should be considered among Uganda's public health priorities. PMID:22363480

  4. Integrated orbital servicing study for low-cost payload programs. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derocher, W. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Various operating methodologies to achieve low-cost space operations were investigated as part of the Space Transportation System (STS) planning. The emphasis was to show that the development investment, initial fleet costs, and supporting facilities for the STS could be effectively offset by exploiting the capabilities of the STS to satisfy mission requirements and reduce the cost of payload programs. The following major conclusions were reached: (1) the development of an on-orbit servicer maintenance system is compatible with many spacecraft programs and is recommended as the most cost-effective system, (2) spacecraft can be designed to be serviceable with acceptable design, weight, volume, and cost effects, (3) use of on-orbit servicing over a 12 year period results in savings ranging between four and nine billion dollars, (4) the pivoting arm on-orbit servicer was selected and a preliminary design was prepared, (5) orbital maintenance has no significant impact on the STS.

  5. Feasibility of a low-cost hearing screening in rural Indiana.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khalid M; Bielko, Sylvanna L; Barnes, Priscilla A; Evans, Sydney S; Main, Anna L K

    2017-09-18

    Hearing loss remains a neglected public health issue in the rural and agricultural communities in the United States and therefore, promotion of a low-cost hearing screening may be important for these underserved populations. The major objectives of our study were to assess feasibility of a low-cost telephone-administered hearing test in rural Indiana and to identify the challenges, barriers and viable implementation strategies associated with this test. Also, we evaluated whether a focus group session could change the hearing health attitude of rural residents. We recruited 126 adults from six rural Indiana counties who participated in study activities in the following order: 1) a pre-focus group demographic, knowledge and attitude survey, 2) a focus group for discussing the feasibility of a telephone-administered hearing screening, 3) a post focus group attitude survey and 4) hearing was screened using an audiometer and self-assessment scale. These activities generated both qualitative and quantitative data, which were subsequently analyzed. Hearing impairment was perceived as an important public health issue. Many participants expressed interests to try the low-cost National Hearing Test (NHT). However, participants recommended NHT to be facilitated by community organizations to provide access to landline phones. The focus group turned out to be an excellent awareness building activity producing significant improvement in hearing health attitudes. Comparison of self and audiometric evaluations indicated underestimation of hearing handicap in our rural study population. The study results underscore the urgent need for an effective strategy to promote low-cost hearing screening in rural US communities.

  6. Space station needs, attributes, and architectural options: Space station program cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowls, R. S.; Goodwin, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    This report documents the principal cost results (Task 3) derived from the Space Station Needs, Attributes, and Architectural Options study conducted for NASA by the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company. The determined costs were those of Architectural Options (Task 2) defined to satisfy Mission Requirements (Task 1) developed within the study. A major feature of this part of the study was the consideration of realistic NASA budget constraints on the recommended architecture. Thus, the space station funding requirements were adjusted by altering schedules until they were consistent with current NASA budget trends.

  7. Legislation should support optimal breastfeeding practices and access to low-cost, high-quality complementary foods: Indonesia provides a case study.

    PubMed

    Soekarjo, Damayanti; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2011-10-01

    It is important to support women to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months and continue breastfeeding for 24 months and beyond. It is also necessary to provide the poor with access to affordable ways to improve the quality of complementary foods. Currently, many countries do not have the legal and policy environment necessary to support exclusive and continued breastfeeding. Legislative and policy changes are also necessary for introducing complementary food supplements, allowing them to be marketed to those who need them, and ensuring that marketing remains appropriate and in full compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. This paper aims to illustrate the above with examples from Indonesia and to identify legislative requirements for supporting breastfeeding and enabling appropriate access to high-quality complementary food supplements for children 6-24 months of age. Requirements include improved information, training, monitoring and enforcement systems for the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes; implementation and monitoring of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative; establishment of a registration category for complementary food supplements to enhance availability of high-quality, low-cost fortified products to help improve young child feeding; clear identification and marketing of these products as complementary food supplements for 6-24-month-olds so as to promote proper use and not interfere with breastfeeding. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Low-cost information distribution - New directions for technology developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catoe, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    The use of space satellites for data storage and retrieval is discussed with respect to short-term (1978-1985) and long-term (1985-2000) developments. The present structure, where access to satellite-transmitted data is controlled largely by the Federal Government for its own use, will be gradually replaced by a continually expanding user-community with a broadening scope of needs. Technological improvements in satellite-communication and data-processing will drive down the cost of both transmitting and receiving hardware, making such hardware available to more and more people. By the closing years of the century, personal, direct satellite communication should be available to every American household, providing video, printed, and archivable data over a wide range of subjects, from bank statements to medical records.

  9. A low cost thermal infrared hyperspectral imager for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.

    2011-06-01

    The traditional model for space-based earth observations involves long mission times, high cost, and long development time. Because of the significant time and monetary investment required, riskier instrument development missions or those with very specific scientific goals are unlikely to successfully obtain funding. However, a niche for earth observations exploiting new technologies in focused, short lifetime missions is opening with the growth of the small satellite market and launch opportunities for these satellites. These low-cost, short-lived missions provide an experimental platform for testing new sensor technologies that may transition to larger, more long-lived platforms. The low costs and short lifetimes also increase acceptable risk to sensors, enabling large decreases in cost using commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts and allowing early-career scientists and engineers to gain experience with these projects. We are building a low-cost long-wave infrared spectral sensor, funded by the NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research program (EPSCOR), to demonstrate the ways in which a university's scientific and instrument development programs can fit into this niche. The sensor is a low-mass, power efficient thermal hyperspectral imager with electronics contained in a pressure vessel to enable the use of COTS electronics, and will be compatible with small satellite platforms. The sensor, called Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI), is based on a Sagnac interferometer and uses an uncooled 320x256 microbolometer array. The sensor will collect calibrated radiance data at long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) wavelengths in 230-meter pixels with 20 wavenumber spectral resolution from a 400-km orbit.

  10. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) space transportation cost analysis and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A picture of Space Power Systems space transportation costs at the present time is given with respect to accuracy as stated, reasonableness of the methods used, assumptions made, and uncertainty associated with the estimates. The approach used consists of examining space transportation costs from several perspectives to perform a variety of sensitivity analyses or reviews and examine the findings in terms of internal consistency and external comparison with analogous systems. These approaches are summarized as a theoretical and historical review including a review of stated and unstated assumptions used to derive the costs, and a performance or technical review. These reviews cover the overall transportation program as well as the individual vehicles proposed. The review of overall cost assumptions is the principal means used for estimating the cost uncertainty derived. The cost estimates used as the best current estimate are included.

  11. Improving Space Project Cost Estimating with Engineering Management Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, Joseph W.; Roth, Axel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Current space project cost models attempt to predict space flight project cost via regression equations, which relate the cost of projects to technical performance metrics (e.g. weight, thrust, power, pointing accuracy, etc.). This paper examines the introduction of engineering management parameters to the set of explanatory variables. A number of specific engineering management variables are considered and exploratory regression analysis is performed to determine if there is statistical evidence for cost effects apart from technical aspects of the projects. It is concluded that there are other non-technical effects at work and that further research is warranted to determine if it can be shown that these cost effects are definitely related to engineering management.

  12. Update on Multi-Variable Parametric Cost Models for Ground and Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Luedtke, Alexander; West, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Parametric cost models can be used by designers and project managers to perform relative cost comparisons between major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades; enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment; and, provide a basis for estimating total project cost between related concepts. This paper reports on recent revisions and improvements to our ground telescope cost model and refinements of our understanding of space telescope cost models. One interesting observation is that while space telescopes are 50X to 100X more expensive than ground telescopes, their respective scaling relationships are similar. Another interesting speculation is that the role of technology development may be different between ground and space telescopes. For ground telescopes, the data indicates that technology development tends to reduce cost by approximately 50% every 20 years. But for space telescopes, there appears to be no such cost reduction because we do not tend to re-fly similar systems. Thus, instead of reducing cost, 20 years of technology development may be required to enable a doubling of space telescope capability. Other findings include: mass should not be used to estimate cost; spacecraft and science instrument costs account for approximately 50% of total mission cost; and, integration and testing accounts for only about 10% of total mission cost.

  13. Operationally Responsive Space Launch for Space Situational Awareness Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, T.

    Command researched and identified a course of action that has maximized operationally responsive space for Low-Earth-Orbit Space Situational Awareness assets. On 1 Aug 06, Air Force Space Command activated the Space Development and Test Wing (SDTW) to perform development, test and evaluation of Air Force space systems and to execute advanced space deployment and demonstration projects to exploit new concepts and technologies, and rapidly migrate capabilities to the warfighter. The SDTW charged the Launch Test Squadron (LTS) to develop the operationally responsive spacelift capability for Low-Earth-Orbit Space Situational Awareness assets. The LTS created and executed a space enterprise strategy to place small payloads (1500 pounds), at low cost (less than 28M to 30M per launch), repeatable and rapidly into 100 - 255 nautical miles orbits. In doing so, the squadron provides scalable launch support services including program management support, engineering support, payload integration, and post-test evaluation for space systems. The Air Force, through the SDTW/LTS, will continue to evolve as the spacelift execution arm for Space Situational Awareness by creating small, less-expensive, repeatable and operationally responsive space launch capability.

  14. Senate Hearing on Assured Access to Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-16

    Howard Mitchell, Vice President of Program Assessments at The Aerospace Corporation, listens to opening statements during a hearing in front of the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces and Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on Wednesday, July 16, 2014, at the Hart Senate Office Building in Washington, DC. The Senate hearing focused on assured access to space.

  15. Senate Hearing on Assured Access to Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-16

    Howard Mitchell, Vice President of Program Assessments at The Aerospace Corporation, delivers his opening statement during a hearing in front of the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces and Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on Wednesday, July 16, 2014, at the Hart Senate Office Building in Washington, DC. The Senate hearing focused on assured access to space.

  16. Senate Hearing on Assured Access to Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-16

    Dr. Yool Kim, Senior Engineer at the Rand Corporation, delivers her opening statment during a hearing in front of the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces and Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on Wednesday, July 16, 2014, at the Hart Senate Office Building in Washington, DC. The Senate hearing focused on assured access to space.

  17. Local, national, and service component cost variations in the management of low back pain: Considerations for the clinician.

    PubMed

    Babu, Ashwin N; McCormick, Zachary; Kennedy, David J; Press, Joel

    2016-11-21

    In the past two decades, the cost associated with managing low back pain has increased significantly. Improved consciousness of how clinicians utilize resources when managing low back pain is necessary in the current economic climate. The goal of this review is to examine the component costs associated with managing low back pain and provide practical solutions for reducing healthcare costs. This is accomplished by utilizing examples from a major metropolitan area with several major academic institutions and private health care centers. It is clear that there is considerable local and national variation in the component costs of managing low back pain, including physician visits, imaging studies, medications, and therapy services. By being well informed about these variations in one's environment, clinicians and patients alike can make strides towards reducing the financial impact of low back pain. Investigation of the cost discrepancies for services within one's community of practice is important. Improved public access to both cost and outcomes data is needed.

  18. CASH 2021: commercial access and space habitation.

    PubMed

    Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Feretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frederic; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

    2002-01-01

    Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed. c2002 International Astronautical Federation. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Space station program phase B definition: Nuclear reactor-powered space station cost and schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Tabulated data are presented on the costs, schedules, and technical characteristics for the space station phases C and D program. The work breakdown structure, schedule data, program ground rules, program costs, cost-estimating rationale, funding schedules, and supporting data are included.

  20. A low cost ion beam profile monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, L.; Hoyes, G. G.; Pairsuwan, W.

    1990-09-01

    An intercepting multiwire ion beam profile monitor, of thickness 0.9 cm and active area 5 × 5 cm, has been developed for use with the low-intensity deuteron beamline at the Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF), Chiang Mai University. It has been used to optimise the transport of a continuous ion beam of current up to 200 μA and kinetic energy up to 140 keV. The monitor enables the determination of the two-dimensional beam profile using closely-spaced samples at 1.5 mm, and the measurement of relative beam current. The design incorporates low material and labour costs, elimination of the need for commercial vacuum feedthroughs, a minimal amount of devoted electronics with no need for preamplifiers, and permits quick insertion of the monitors, wherever needed along the beamline, with minimum disruption to neighbouring elements.

  1. Space tug economic analysis study. Volume 3: Cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Cost estimates for the space tug operation are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) research and development costs, (2) investment costs, (3) operations costs, and (4) funding requirements. The emphasis is placed on the single stage tug configuration using various types of liquid propellants.

  2. Low-Income Low-Qualified Employees' Access to Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Rebecca; Wang, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to investigate the embedded process that enables or constrains low-income low-qualified employees' access to workplace learning in small organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Informed by the sociomaterial approach and cultural historical activity theory, this study adopted a qualitative cross-case study…

  3. Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA is making space exploration more affordable and viable by developing and utilizing innovative manufacturing technologies. Technology development efforts at NASA in propulsion are committed to continuous innovation of design and manufacturing technologies for rocket engines in order to reduce the cost of NASA's journey to Mars. The Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP) effort will develop and utilize emerging Additive Manufacturing (AM) to significantly reduce the development time and cost for complex rocket propulsion hardware. Benefit of Additive Manufacturing (3-D Printing) Current rocket propulsion manufacturing techniques are costly and have lengthy development times. In order to fabricate rocket engines, numerous complex parts made of different materials are assembled in a way that allow the propellant to collect heat at the right places to drive the turbopump and simultaneously keep the thrust chamber from melting. The heat conditioned fuel and oxidizer come together and burn inside the combustion chamber to provide thrust. The efforts to make multiple parts precisely fit together and not leak after experiencing cryogenic temperatures on one-side and combustion temperatures on the other is quite challenging. Additive manufacturing has the potential to significantly reduce the time and cost of making rocket parts like the copper liner and Nickel-alloy jackets found in rocket combustion chambers where super-cold cryogenic propellants are heated and mixed to the extreme temperatures needed to propel rockets in space. The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) machine fuses 8,255 layers of copper powder to make a section of the chamber in 10 days. Machining an equivalent part and assembling it with welding and brazing techniques could take months to accomplish with potential failures or leaks that could require fixes. The design process is also enhanced since it does not require the 3D model to be converted to 2-D drawings. The design and fabrication process

  4. Cost-Benefit Analysis For Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/ Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    Stennis Space Center (SSC), Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) identified particulate emissions and waste generated from the depainting process of steel structures as hazardous materials to be eliminated or reduced. A Potential Alternatives Report, Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternative Low Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, provided a technical analyses of identified alternatives to the current coating removal processes, criteria used to select alternatives for further analysis, and a list of those alternatives recommended for testing. The initial coating removal alternatives list was compiled using literature searches and stakeholder recommendations. The involved project participants initially considered approximately 13 alternatives. In late 2003, core project members selected the following depainting processes to be further evaluated: (1) Plastic Blast Media-Quickstrip(R)-A. (2) Hard Abrasive-Steel-Magic(R). (3) Sponge Blasting-Sponge-Jet(R). (4) Liquid Nitrogen-NItroJet(R). (5) Mechanical Removal with Vacuum Attachment-DESCO and OCM Clean-Air (6) Laser Coating Removal Alternatives were tested in accordance with the Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, and the Field Evaluation Test Plan for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel. Results of the testing are documented in the Joint Test Report. This Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) focuses on the three alternatives (Quickstrip(R)-A, SteelMagic (R), and Sponge-Jet(R)) that were considered viable alternatives for large area operations based on the results of the field demonstration and lab testing. This CBA was created to help participants determine if implementation of the candidate alternatives is economically justified. Each of the alternatives examined reduced Environmental

  5. Accessibility and usability of parks and playgrounds.

    PubMed

    Perry, Meredith A; Devan, Hemakumar; Fitzgerald, Harry; Han, Karen; Liu, Li-Ting; Rouse, Jack

    2018-04-01

    Public parks and playgrounds are an environment for leisure activity, which all generations can enjoy at low or no financial cost. Evaluating the accessibility and usability of parks and playgrounds is crucial because their design, environment (natural and built) and safety could restrict participation of persons with disabilities. To evaluate the accessibility and usability of 21 public parks and playgrounds in three metropolitan cities of New Zealand. Secondary aims were to compare the accessibility and usability by park type (destination or neighborhood) and deprivation level (high and low). Twenty-one parks were evaluated. A stratified random sampling was used to select 18 parks (six from each city). Three additional parks were purposely selected (one from each city) at the request of each respective city council. The parks and playgrounds were evaluated using a customized tool. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. None of the parks we evaluated met the national standards and/or international guidelines for park and playground design. We identified potential accessibility and usability issues with car parking spaces, path surfaces and play equipment as well as lack of lighting and fencing. The presence of amenities (e.g. toilets and drinking fountains) was more common in destination parks. Fewer parks in areas of higher deprivation had accessible car parking spaces and main paths wider than 1.5 m. Our evaluation identified potential design, environmental and safety barriers to park and playground based participation for persons with disabilities across the lifespan. A larger, more comprehensive evaluation of parks and playgrounds is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Astronaut Ross Approaches Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure (ACCESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross, perched on the Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) approaches the erected ACCESS. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  7. Analytical validation of an ultra low-cost mobile phone microplate reader for infectious disease testing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ju; Naudé, Nicole; Demissie, Misganaw; Crivaro, Anne; Kamoun, Malek; Wang, Ping; Li, Lei

    2018-07-01

    Most mobile health (mHealth) diagnostic devices for laboratory tests only analyze one sample at a time, which is not suitable for large volume serology testing, especially in low-resource settings with shortage of health professionals. In this study, we developed an ultra-low-cost clinically-accurate mobile phone microplate reader (mReader), and clinically validated this optical device for 12 infectious disease tests. The mReader optically reads 96 samples on a microplate at one time. 771 de-identified patient samples were tested for 12 serology assays for bacterial/viral infections. The mReader and the clinical instrument blindly read and analyzed all tests in parallel. The analytical accuracy and the diagnostic performance of the mReader were evaluated across the clinical reportable categories by comparison with clinical laboratorial testing results. The mReader exhibited 97.59-99.90% analytical accuracy and <5% coefficient of variation (CV). The positive percent agreement (PPA) in all 12 tests achieved 100%, negative percent agreement (NPA) was higher than 83% except for one test (42.86%), and overall percent agreement (OPA) ranged 89.33-100%. We envision the mReader can benefit underserved areas/populations and low-resource settings in rural clinics/hospitals at a low cost (~$50 USD) with clinical-level analytical quality. It has the potential to improve health access, speed up healthcare delivery, and reduce health disparities and education disparities by providing access to a low-cost spectrophotometer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. GOES-R Space Weather Data: Products and Data Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilton, M.; Rowland, W. F.; Codrescu, S.; Denig, W. F.; Seaton, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    In November 2016 NOAA launched the first in the "R" series of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R). GOES-R continues a tradition of almost 40 years of continuous space and solar observations at geostationary orbit. Compared to its predecessors, the GOES-R satellite provides improved in situ measurements of charged particle and magnetic field environments. The satellite also offers enhanced remote sensing of the sun through ultraviolet (UV) imagery and X-ray/UV irradiance. After the spacecraft completes early-orbit checkout and calibration, GOES-R space weather data and derived products will be used for operations within NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center and publicly released through the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). This presentation will provide an overview of GOES-R space weather data ranging from direct measurements (L0 data) to higher level science (L2+) products developed by NCEI scientists. We will also present planned data access and distribution features. We emphasize our strategy to ensure data discoverability and accessibility, including our participation in NOAA's OneStop project and potential partnerships with NASA's Virtual Solar Observatory and projects like Helioviewer.

  9. A rapid prototyping/artificial intelligence approach to space station-era information management and access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnahan, Richard S., Jr.; Corey, Stephen M.; Snow, John B.

    1989-01-01

    Applications of rapid prototyping and Artificial Intelligence techniques to problems associated with Space Station-era information management systems are described. In particular, the work is centered on issues related to: (1) intelligent man-machine interfaces applied to scientific data user support, and (2) the requirement that intelligent information management systems (IIMS) be able to efficiently process metadata updates concerning types of data handled. The advanced IIMS represents functional capabilities driven almost entirely by the needs of potential users. Space Station-era scientific data projected to be generated is likely to be significantly greater than data currently processed and analyzed. Information about scientific data must be presented clearly, concisely, and with support features to allow users at all levels of expertise efficient and cost-effective data access. Additionally, mechanisms for allowing more efficient IIMS metadata update processes must be addressed. The work reported covers the following IIMS design aspects: IIMS data and metadata modeling, including the automatic updating of IIMS-contained metadata, IIMS user-system interface considerations, including significant problems associated with remote access, user profiles, and on-line tutorial capabilities, and development of an IIMS query and browse facility, including the capability to deal with spatial information. A working prototype has been developed and is being enhanced.

  10. Low-cost, high-density sensor network for urban emission monitoring: BEACO2N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Shusterman, A.; Lieschke, K.; Newman, C.; Cohen, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    In urban environments, air quality is spatially and temporally heterogeneous as diverse emission sources create a high degree of variability even at the neighborhood scale. Conventional air quality monitoring relies on continuous measurements with limited spatial resolution or passive sampling with high-density and low temporal resolution. Either approach averages the air quality information over space or time and hinders our attempts to understand emissions, chemistry, and human exposure in the near-field of emission sources. To better capture the true spatio-temporal heterogeneity of urban conditions, we have deployed a low-cost, high-density air quality monitoring network in San Francisco Bay Area distributed at 2km horizontal spacing. The BErkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network (BEACO2N) consists of approximately 50 sensor nodes, measuring CO2, CO, NO, NO2, O­3, and aerosol. Here we describe field-based calibration approaches that are consistent with the low-cost strategy of the monitoring network. Observations that allow inference of emission factors and identification of specific local emission sources will also be presented.

  11. Low-Cost Radar Sensors for Personnel Detection and Tracking in Urban Areas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-31

    progress on the reserach grant "Low-Cost Radar Sensors for Personnel Detection and Tracking in Urban Areas" during the period 1 May 2005 - 31 December...the DOA of target i with respect to the array boresight is given by: O 1sin-1 -/- fD)--F2(. )(1) where d is the spacing between the elements and A, is...wall. A large database was collected for different parameter spaces including number of humans, types of movements, wall types and radar polarization

  12. Cost study of solar cell space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    Historical costs for solar cell space power systems were evaluated. The study covered thirteen missions that represented a broad cross section of flight projects over the past decade. Fully burdened costs in terms of 1971 dollars are presented for the system and the solar array. The costs correlate reasonably well with array area and do not increase in proportion to array area. The trends for array costs support the contention that solar cell and module standardization reduce costs.

  13. Senate Hearing on Assured Access to Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-16

    The Hon. Alan Estevez, Principle Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquision, TEchnology, and Logitics, answers a question during testimony in front of the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces and Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on Wednesday, July 16, 2014, at the Hart Senate Office Building in Washington, DC. The Senate hearing focused on assured access to space.

  14. Senate Hearing on Assured Access to Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-16

    Cristina Chaplain, Director of Acquisition and Sourcing Management at the Government Accountability Office, delivers her opening statement during a hearing in front of the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces and Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on Wednesday, July 16, 2014, at the Hart Senate Office Building in Washington, DC. The Senate hearing focused on assured access to space.

  15. Television broadcast from space systems: Technology, costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuccia, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    Broadcast satellite systems are described. The technologies which are unique to both high power broadcast satellites and small TV receive-only earth terminals are also described. A cost assessment of both space and earth segments is included and appendices present both a computer model for satellite cost and the pertinent reported experience with the Japanese BSE.

  16. Low Cost Science Teaching Equipment for Visually Impaired Children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, H. O.; Singh, Rakshpal

    1998-05-01

    A low cost null detector an electronic thermometer and a colorimeter have been designed and developed for enabling visually impaired children (VIC) to do experiments in science that normally are accessible only to sighted children. The instruments are based on audio null detection in a balanced bridge and use a themistor for sensing the temperature and an LDR for color change. The analog output can be tactually read by VIC. The equipment has been tested for suitability with VIC. The approach followed in developing these equipment would be generally appropriate to a wide variety of science equipment for VIC by incorporating suitable sensors.

  17. Preliminary Multi-Variable Cost Model for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hendrichs, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper reviews the methodology used to develop space telescope cost models; summarizes recently published single variable models; and presents preliminary results for two and three variable cost models. Some of the findings are that increasing mass reduces cost; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years.

  18. 4273π: bioinformatics education on low cost ARM hardware.

    PubMed

    Barker, Daniel; Ferrier, David Ek; Holland, Peter Wh; Mitchell, John Bo; Plaisier, Heleen; Ritchie, Michael G; Smart, Steven D

    2013-08-12

    Teaching bioinformatics at universities is complicated by typical computer classroom settings. As well as running software locally and online, students should gain experience of systems administration. For a future career in biology or bioinformatics, the installation of software is a useful skill. We propose that this may be taught by running the course on GNU/Linux running on inexpensive Raspberry Pi computer hardware, for which students may be granted full administrator access. We release 4273π, an operating system image for Raspberry Pi based on Raspbian Linux. This includes minor customisations for classroom use and includes our Open Access bioinformatics course, 4273π Bioinformatics for Biologists. This is based on the final-year undergraduate module BL4273, run on Raspberry Pi computers at the University of St Andrews, Semester 1, academic year 2012-2013. 4273π is a means to teach bioinformatics, including systems administration tasks, to undergraduates at low cost.

  19. Changing concepts in long-term central venous access: catheter selection and cost savings.

    PubMed

    Horattas, M C; Trupiano, J; Hopkins, S; Pasini, D; Martino, C; Murty, A

    2001-02-01

    Long-term central venous access is becoming an increasingly important component of health care today. Long-term central venous access is important therapeutically for a multitude of reasons, including the administration of chemotherapy, antibiotics, and total parenteral nutrition. Central venous access can be established in a variety of ways varying from catheters inserted at the bedside to surgically placed ports. Furthermore, in an effort to control costs, many traditionally inpatient therapies have moved to an outpatient setting. This raises many questions regarding catheter selection. Which catheter will result in the best outcome at the least cost? It has become apparent in our hospital that traditionally placed surgical catheters (ie, Hickmans and central venous ports) may no longer be the only options. The objective of this study was to explore the various modalities for establishing central venous access comparing indications, costs, and complications to guide the clinician in choosing the appropriate catheter with the best outcome at the least cost. We evaluated our institution's central venous catheter use during a 3-year period from 1995 through 1997. Data was obtained retrospectively through chart review. In addition to demographic data, specific information regarding catheter type, placement technique, indications, complications, and catheter history were recorded. Cost data were obtained from several departments including surgery, radiology, nursing, anesthesia, pharmacy, and the hospital purchasing department. During a 30-month period, 684 attempted central venous catheter insertions were identified, including 126 surgically placed central venous catheters, 264 peripherally inserted central catheters by the nursing service, and 294 radiologically inserted peripheral ports. Overall complications were rare but tended to be more severe in the surgical group. Relative cost differences between the groups were significant. Charges for peripherally inserted

  20. Cost-benefit analysis of space technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, G. F.; Stevenson, S. M.; Sivo, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of the implications and problems associated with the use of cost-benefit techniques is presented. Knowledge of these problems is useful in the structure of a decision making process. A methodology of cost-benefit analysis is presented for the evaluation of space technology. The use of the methodology is demonstrated with an evaluation of ion thrusters for north-south stationkeeping aboard geosynchronous communication satellites. A critique of the concept of consumers surplus for measuring benefits is also presented.

  1. Costs of vaccine programs across 94 low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Allison; Ozawa, Sachiko; Grewal, Simrun; Norman, Bryan A; Rajgopal, Jayant; Gorham, Katrin M; Haidari, Leila A; Brown, Shawn T; Lee, Bruce Y

    2015-05-07

    While new mechanisms such as advance market commitments and co-financing policies of the GAVI Alliance are allowing low- and middle-income countries to gain access to vaccines faster than ever, understanding the full scope of vaccine program costs is essential to ensure adequate resource mobilization. This costing analysis examines the vaccine costs, supply chain costs, and service delivery costs of immunization programs for routine immunization and for supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) for vaccines related to 18 antigens in 94 countries across the decade, 2011-2020. Vaccine costs were calculated using GAVI price forecasts for GAVI-eligible countries, and assumptions from the PAHO Revolving Fund and UNICEF for middle-income countries not supported by the GAVI Alliance. Vaccine introductions and coverage levels were projected primarily based on GAVI's Adjusted Demand Forecast. Supply chain costs including costs of transportation, storage, and labor were estimated by developing a mechanistic model using data generated by the HERMES discrete event simulation models. Service delivery costs were abstracted from comprehensive multi-year plans for the majority of GAVI-eligible countries and regression analysis was conducted to extrapolate costs to additional countries. The analysis shows that the delivery of the full vaccination program across 94 countries would cost a total of $62 billion (95% uncertainty range: $43-$87 billion) over the decade, including $51 billion ($34-$73 billion) for routine immunization and $11 billion ($7-$17 billion) for SIAs. More than half of these costs stem from service delivery at $34 billion ($21-$51 billion)-with an additional $24 billion ($13-$41 billion) in vaccine costs and $4 billion ($3-$5 billion) in supply chain costs. The findings present the global costs to attain the goals envisioned during the Decade of Vaccines to prevent millions of deaths by 2020 through more equitable access to existing vaccines for people in all

  2. IQ-Station: A Low Cost Portable Immersive Environment

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Eric Whiting; Patrick O'Leary; William Sherman

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of inexpensive 3D TV’s, affordable input and rendering hardware and open-source software has created a yeasty atmosphere for the development of low-cost immersive environments (IE). A low cost IE system, or IQ-station, fashioned from commercial off the shelf technology (COTS), coupled with a targeted immersive application can be a viable laboratory instrument for enhancing scientific workflow for exploration and analysis. The use of an IQ-station in a laboratory setting also has the potential of quickening the adoption of a more sophisticated immersive environment as a critical enabler in modern scientific and engineering workflows. Prior work in immersive environmentsmore » generally required either a head mounted display (HMD) system or a large projector-based implementation both of which have limitations in terms of cost, usability, or space requirements. The solution presented here provides an alternative platform providing a reasonable immersive experience that addresses those limitations. Our work brings together the needed hardware and software to create a fully integrated immersive display and interface system that can be readily deployed in laboratories and common workspaces. By doing so, it is now feasible for immersive technologies to be included in researchers’ day-to-day workflows. The IQ-Station sets the stage for much wider adoption of immersive environments outside the small communities of virtual reality centers.« less

  3. Attached shuttle payload carriers: Versatile and affordable access to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The shuttle has been primarily designed to be a versatile vehicle for placing a variety of scientific and technological equipment in space including very large payloads; however, since many large payloads do not fill the shuttle bay, the space and weight margins remaining after the major payloads are accommodated often can be made available to small payloads. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has designed standardized mounting structures and other support systems, collectively called attached shuttle payload (ASP) carriers, to make this additional space available to researchers at a relatively modest cost. Other carrier systems for ASP's are operated by other NASA centers. A major feature of the ASP carriers is their ease of use in the world of the Space Shuttle. ASP carriers attempt to minimized the payload interaction with Space Transportation System (STS) operations whenever possible. Where this is not possible, the STS services used are not extensive. As a result, the interfaces between the carriers and the STS are simplified. With this near autonomy, the requirements for supporting documentation are considerably lessened and payload costs correspondingly reduced. The ASP carrier systems and their capabilities are discussed in detail. The range of available capabilities assures that an experimenter can select the simplest, most cost-effective carrier that is compatible with his or her experimental objectives. Examples of payloads which use ASP basic hardware in nonstandard ways are also described.

  4. Totally Connected Healthcare with TV White Spaces.

    PubMed

    Katzis, Konstantinos; Jones, Richard W; Despotou, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Recent technological advances in electronics, wireless communications and low cost medical sensors generated a plethora of Wearable Medical Devices (WMDs), which are capable of generating considerably large amounts of new, unstructured real-time data. This contribution outlines how this data can be propagated to a healthcare system through the internet, using long distance Radio Access Networks (RANs) and proposes a novel communication system architecture employing White Space Devices (WSD) to provide seamless connectivity to its users. Initial findings indicate that the proposed communication system can facilitate broadband services over a large geographical area taking advantage of the freely available TV White Spaces (TVWS).

  5. Novel Low-Cost, Low-Power Miniature Thermionic Cathode Developed for Microwave/Millimeter Wave Tube and Cathode Ray Tube Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.

    1999-01-01

    A low cost, small size and mass, low heater power, durable high-performance barium dispenser thermionic cathode has been developed that offers significant advancements in the design, manufacture, and performance of the electron sources used in vacuum electronic devices--such as microwave (and millimeter wave) traveling-wave tubes (TWT's)--and in display devices such as high-brightness, high-resolution cathode ray tubes (CRT's). The lower cathode heater power and the reduced size and mass of the new cathode are expected to be especially beneficial in TWT's for deep space communications, where future missions are requiring smaller spacecraft, higher data transfer rates (higher frequencies and radiofrequency output power), and greater electrical efficiency. Also expected to benefit are TWT's for commercial and government communication satellites, for both low and geosynchronous Earth orbit, with additional benefits offered by lower cost and potentially higher cathode current loading. A particularly important TWT application is in the microwave power module (MPM), which is a hybrid microwave (or millimeter wave) amplifier consisting of a low-noise solid state driver, a vacuum power booster (small TWT), and an electronic power conditioner integrated into a single compact package. The attributes of compactness and potentially high electrical efficiency make the MPM very attractive for many commercial and government (civilian and defense) applications in communication and radar systems. The MPM is already finding application in defense electronic systems and is under development by NASA for deep space communications. However, for the MPM to become competitive and commercially successful, a major reduction in cost must be achieved.

  6. Kennedy Space Center - "America's Gateway to Space"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Janet; Chevalier, Mary Ann; Hurst, Chery

    2011-01-01

    KSC fits into the overall NASA vision and mission by moving forward so that what we do and learn will benefit all here on Earth. In January of last year, KSC revised its Mission and Vision statements to articulate our identity as we align with this new direction the Agency is heading. Currently KSC is endeavoring to form partnerships with industry, , Government, and academia, utilizing institutional assets and technical capabilities to support current and future m!issions. With a goal of safe, low-cost, and readily available access to space, KSC seeks to leverage emerging industries to initiate development of a new space launch system, oversee the development of a multipurpose crew vehicle, and assist with the efficient and timely evolution of commercial crew transportation capabilities. At the same time, KSC is pursuing modernizing the Center's infrastructure and creating a multi-user launch complex with increased onsite processing and integration capabilities.

  7. Spherical Primary Optical Telescope (SPOT): An Architecture Demonstration for Cost-effective Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.; Hagopian, John; Budinoff, Jason; Dean, Bruce; Howard, Joe

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes efforts underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to demonstrate a new type of space telescope architecture that builds on the rigid segmented telescope heritage of the James Webb Space Telescope but that solves several key challenges for future space telescopes. The architecture is based on a cost-effective segmented spherical primary mirror combined with a unique wavefront sensing and control system that allows for continuous phasing of the primary mirror. The segmented spherical primary allows for cost-effective 3-meter class (e.g., Midex and Discovery) missions as well as enables 30-meter telescope solutions that can be manufactured in a reasonable amount of time and for a reasonable amount of money. The continuous wavefront sensing and control architecture enables missions in low-earth-orbit and missions that do not require expensive stable structures and thermal control systems. For the 30-meter class applications, the paper discusses considerations for assembling and testing the telescopes in space. The paper also summarizes the scientific and technological roadmap for the architecture and also gives an overview of technology development, design studies, and testbed activities underway to demonstrate its feasibility.

  8. Spherical Primary Optical Telescope (SPOT): An Architecture Demonstration for Cost-effective Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Hagopian, John; Budinoff, Jason; Dean, Bruce; Howard, Joe

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes efforts underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to demonstrate a new type of space telescope architecture that builds on the rigid, segmented telescope heritage of the James Webb Space Telescope but that solves several key challenges for future space telescopes. The architecture is based on a cost-effective segmented spherical primary mirror combined with a unique wavefront sensing and control system that allows for continuous phasing of the primary mirror. The segmented spherical primary allows for cost-effective 3-meter class (eg, Midex and Discovery) missions as well as enables 30-meter telescope solutions that can be manufactured in a reasonable amount of time and for a reasonable amount of money. The continuous wavefront sensing and control architecture enables missions in low-earth-orbit and missions that do not require expensive stable structures and thermal control systems. For the 30-meter class applications, the paper discusses considerations for assembling and testing the telescopes in space. The paper also summarizes the scientific and technological roadmap for the architecture and also gives an overview of technology development, design studies, and testbed activities underway to demonstrate it s feasibility.

  9. A multidisciplinary approach to the development of low-cost high-performance lightwave networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maitan, Jacek; Harwit, Alex

    1991-01-01

    Our research focuses on high-speed distributed systems. We anticipate that our results will allow the fabrication of low-cost networks employing multi-gigabit-per-second data links for space and military applications. The recent development of high-speed low-cost photonic components and new generations of microprocessors creates an opportunity to develop advanced large-scale distributed information systems. These systems currently involve hundreds of thousands of nodes and are made up of components and communications links that may fail during operation. In order to realize these systems, research is needed into technologies that foster adaptability and scaleability. Self-organizing mechanisms are needed to integrate a working fabric of large-scale distributed systems. The challenge is to fuse theory, technology, and development methodologies to construct a cost-effective, efficient, large-scale system.

  10. Dental Care And Medicare Beneficiaries: Access Gaps, Cost Burdens, And Policy Options.

    PubMed

    Willink, Amber; Schoen, Cathy; Davis, Karen

    2016-12-01

    Despite the wealth of evidence that oral health is related to physical health, Medicare explicitly excludes dental care from coverage, leaving beneficiaries at risk for tooth decay and periodontal disease and exposed to high out-of-pocket spending. To profile these risks, we examined access to dental care across income groups and types of insurance coverage in 2012. High-income beneficiaries were almost three times as likely to have received dental care in the previous twelve months, compared to low-income beneficiaries-74 percent of whom received no dental care. We also describe two illustrative policies that would expand access, in part by providing income-related subsidies. One would offer a voluntary, premium-financed benefit similar to those offered by Part D prescription drug plans, with an estimated premium of $29 per month. The other would cover basic dental care in core Medicare Part B benefits, financed in part by premiums ($7 or $15 per month, depending on whether premiums covered 25 percent or 50 percent of the cost) and in part by general revenues. The fact that beneficiaries are forgoing dental care and are exposed to significant costs if they seek care underscores the need for action. The policies offer pathways for improving health and financial independence for older adults. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. Low cost attitude control system scanwheel development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialke, William; Selby, Vaughn

    1991-03-01

    In order to satisfy a growing demand for low cost attitude control systems for small spacecraft, development of low cost scanning horizon sensor coupled to a low cost/low power consumption Reaction Wheel Assembly was initiated. This report addresses the details of the versatile design resulting from this effort. Tradeoff analyses for each of the major components are included, as well as test data from an engineering prototype of the hardware.

  12. Low cost attitude control system scanwheel development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialke, William; Selby, Vaughn

    1991-01-01

    In order to satisfy a growing demand for low cost attitude control systems for small spacecraft, development of low cost scanning horizon sensor coupled to a low cost/low power consumption Reaction Wheel Assembly was initiated. This report addresses the details of the versatile design resulting from this effort. Tradeoff analyses for each of the major components are included, as well as test data from an engineering prototype of the hardware.

  13. Cost study of solar cell space power systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    A study of historical costs for solar cell space power systems was made by a NASA ad hoc study group. The study covered thirteen missions that represented a broad cross-section of flight projects over the past decade. Fully burdened costs in terms of 1971 dollars are presented for the system and the solar array. The costs correlate reasonably well with array area and do not increase in proportion to array area. The trends for array costs support the contention that solar cell and module standardization would reduce costs.

  14. Construction bidding cost of KSC's space shuttle facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Joseph Andrew

    1977-01-01

    The bidding cost of the major Space Transportation System facilities constructed under the responsibility of the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is described and listed. These facilities and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) are necessary for the receiving, assembly, testing, and checkout of the Space Shuttle for launch and landing missions at KSC. The Shuttle launch configuration consists of the Orbiter, the External Tank, and the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB). The reusable Orbiter and SRB's is the major factor in the program that will result in lowering space travel costs. The new facilities are the Landing Facility; Orbiter Processing Facility; Orbiter Approach and Landing Test Facility (Dryden Test Center, California); Orbiter Mating Devices; Sound Suppression Water System; and Emergency Power System for LC-39. Also, a major factor was to use as much Apollo facilities and hardware as possible to reduce the facilities cost. The alterations to existing Apollo facilities are the VAB modifications; Mobile Launcher Platforms; Launch Complex 39 Pads A and B (which includes a new concept - the Rotary Service Structure), which was featured in ENR, 3 Feb. 1977, 'Hinged Space Truss will Support Shuttle Cargo Room'; Launch Control Center mods; External Tank and SRB Processing and Storage; Fluid Test Complex mods; O&C Spacelab mods; Shuttle mods for Parachute Facility; SRB Recovery and Disassembly Facility at Hangar 'AF'; and an interesting GSE item - the SRB Dewatering Nozzle Plug Sets (Remote Controlled Submarine System) used to inspect and acquire for reuse of SRB's.

  15. Development of a Multivariable Parametric Cost Analysis for Space-Based Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollinger, Courtnay

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 400 years, the telescope has proven to be a valuable tool in helping humankind understand the Universe around us. The images and data produced by telescopes have revolutionized planetary, solar, stellar, and galactic astronomy and have inspired a wide range of people, from the child who dreams about the images seen on NASA websites to the most highly trained scientist. Like all scientific endeavors, astronomical research must operate within the constraints imposed by budget limitations. Hence the importance of understanding cost: to find the balance between the dreams of scientists and the restrictions of the available budget. By logically analyzing the data we have collected for over thirty different telescopes from more than 200 different sources, statistical methods, such as plotting regressions and residuals, can be used to determine what drives the cost of telescopes to build and use a cost model for space-based telescopes. Previous cost models have focused their attention on ground-based telescopes due to limited data for space telescopes and the larger number and longer history of ground-based astronomy. Due to the increased availability of cost data from recent space-telescope construction, we have been able to produce and begin testing a comprehensive cost model for space telescopes, with guidance from the cost models for ground-based telescopes. By separating the variables that effect cost such as diameter, mass, wavelength, density, data rate, and number of instruments, we advance the goal to better understand the cost drivers of space telescopes.. The use of sophisticated mathematical techniques to improve the accuracy of cost models has the potential to help society make informed decisions about proposed scientific projects. An improved knowledge of cost will allow scientists to get the maximum value returned for the money given and create a harmony between the visions of scientists and the reality of a budget.

  16. Low-cost commercial transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherson, J.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form. The objectives are to develop and validate technology, design tools and methodologies to enable the low cost commercial development and operational uses of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fueled liquid engines, low pressure booster engines and hybrid engines.

  17. The ESPAS e-infrastructure: Access to data from near-Earth space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belehaki, Anna; James, Sarah; Hapgood, Mike; Ventouras, Spiros; Galkin, Ivan; Lembesis, Antonis; Tsagouri, Ioanna; Charisi, Anna; Spogli, Luca; Berdermann, Jens; Häggström, Ingemar; ESPAS Consortium

    2016-10-01

    ESPAS, the ;near-Earth space data infrastructure for e-science; is a data e-infrastructure facilitating discovery and access to observations, ground-based and space borne, and to model predictions of the near-Earth space environment, a region extending from the Earth's atmosphere up to the outer radiation belts. ESPAS provides access to metadata and/or data from an extended network of data providers distributed globally. The interoperability of the heterogeneous data collections is achieved with the adoption and adaption of the ESPAS data model which is built entirely on ISO 19100 series geographic information standards. The ESPAS data portal manages a vocabulary of space physics keywords that can be used to narrow down data searches to observations of specific physical content. Such content-targeted search is an ESPAS innovation provided in addition to the commonly practiced data selection by time, location, and instrument. The article presents an overview of the architectural design of the ESPAS system, of its data model and ontology, and of interoperable services that allow the discovery, access and download of registered data. Emphasis is given to the standardization, and expandability concepts which represent also the main elements that support the building of long-term sustainability activities of the ESPAS e-infrastructure.

  18. Cost effective Internet access and video conferencing for a community cancer network.

    PubMed Central

    London, J. W.; Morton, D. E.; Marinucci, D.; Catalano, R.; Comis, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    Utilizing the ubiquitous personal computer as a platform, and Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) communications, cost effective medical information access and consultation can be provided for physicians at geographically remote sites. Two modes of access are provided: information retrieval via the Internet, and medical consultation video conferencing. Internet access provides general medical information such as current treatment options, literature citations, and active clinical trials. During video consultations, radiographic and pathology images, and medical text reports (e.g., history and physical, pathology, radiology, clinical laboratory reports), may be viewed and simultaneously annotated by either video conference participant. Both information access modes have been employed by physicians at community hospitals which are members of the Jefferson Cancer Network, and oncologists at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital. This project has demonstrated the potential cost effectiveness and benefits of this technology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8563397

  19. Incremental cost of increasing access to maternal health care services: perspectives from a demand and supply side intervention in Eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mayora, Chrispus; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Bishai, David; Peters, David H; Okui, Olico; Baine, Sebastian Olikira

    2014-01-01

    High maternal and infant mortality continue to be major challenges to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals for many low and middle-income countries. There is now evidence that voucher initiatives can increase access to maternal health services. However, a dearth of knowledge exists on the cost implications of voucher schemes. This paper estimates the incremental costs of a demand and supply side intervention aimed at increasing access to maternal health care services. This costing study was part of a quasi-experimental voucher study conducted in two districts in Eastern Uganda to explore the impact of demand and supply - side incentives on increasing access to maternal health services. The provider's perspective was used and the ingredients approach to costing was employed. Costs were based on market prices as recorded in program records. Total, unit, and incremental costs were calculated. The estimated total financial cost of the intervention for the one year of implementation was US$525,472 (US$1 = 2200UgShs). The major cost drivers included costs for transport vouchers (35.3%), health system strengthening (29.2%) and vouchers for maternal health services (18.2%). The average cost of transport per woman to and from the health facility was US$4.6. The total incremental costs incurred on deliveries (excluding caesarean section) was US$317,157 and US$107,890 for post natal care (PNC). The incremental costs per additional delivery and PNC attendance were US$23.9 and US$7.6 respectively. Subsidizing maternal health care costs through demand and supply - side initiatives may not require significant amounts of resources contrary to what would be expected. With Uganda's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita of US$55` (2012), the incremental cost per additional delivery (US$23.9) represents about 5% of GDP per capita to save a mother and probably her new born. For many low income countries, this may not be affordable, yet reliance on donor funding is often

  20. Cyborg beast: a low-cost 3d-printed prosthetic hand for children with upper-limb differences.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Jorge; Katsavelis, Dimitrios; Peck, Jean; Stollberg, John; Petrykowski, Marc; Carson, Adam; Fernandez, Cristina

    2015-01-20

    There is an increasing number of children with traumatic and congenital hand amputations or reductions. Children's prosthetic needs are complex due to their small size, constant growth, and psychosocial development. Families' financial resources play a crucial role in the prescription of prostheses for their children, especially when private insurance and public funding are insufficient. Electric-powered (i.e., myoelectric) and body-powered (i.e., mechanical) devices have been developed to accommodate children's needs, but the cost of maintenance and replacement represents an obstacle for many families. Due to the complexity and high cost of these prosthetic hands, they are not accessible to children from low-income, uninsured families or to children from developing countries. Advancements in computer-aided design (CAD) programs, additive manufacturing, and image editing software offer the possibility of designing, printing, and fitting prosthetic hands devices at a distance and at very low cost. The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to describe a low-cost three-dimensional (3D)-printed prosthetic hand for children with upper-limb reductions and to propose a prosthesis fitting methodology that can be performed at a distance. No significant mean differences were found between the anthropometric and range of motion measurements taken directly from the upper limbs of subjects versus those extracted from photographs. The Bland and Altman plots show no major bias and narrow limits of agreements for lengths and widths and small bias and wider limits of agreements for the range of motion measurements. The main finding of the survey was that our prosthetic device may have a significant potential to positively impact quality of life and daily usage, and can be incorporated in several activities at home and in school. This investigation describes a low-cost 3D-printed prosthetic hand for children and proposes a distance fitting procedure. The Cyborg Beast

  1. Get away special the low-cost route to orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prouty, C.

    1986-01-01

    NASA has established the Get Away Special (GAS) program as a means for providing anyone who wishes the opportunity to place a small self-contained experimental payload aboard a Space Shuttle mission for a very low cost. The GAS program is now well established, and has a respectable history with 53 payloads flown to date. The GAS experimenters are a diverse group who have demonstrated that people from all walks of life, and from many nations, are interested in working in space. This paper traces the history of the program from its concept through the development phase to the present time, and takes a brief look at the future. It also addresses the steps involved in making a payload reservation and the programmatic and technical relationships that are established between NASA and GAS customers.

  2. [Analysis on accessibility of urban park green space: the case study of Shenyang Tiexi District].

    PubMed

    Lu, Ning; Li, Jun-Ying; Yan, Hong-Wei; Shi, Tuo; Li, Ying

    2014-10-01

    The accessibility of urban park green space is an important indicator to reflect how much the natural service supplied by parks could be enjoyed by citizens conveniently and fairly. This paper took Shenyang Tiexi District as an example to evaluate the accessibility of urban park green space based on QuickBird imagery and GIS software, with four modes of transportation, walking, non-motor vehicle, motor vehicle and public transport being considered. The research compared and analyzed the distribution of the accessible area and the accessible people of park green space. The result demonstrated that park green space in Shenyang Tiexi District was not enough and the distribution was not even. To be precise, the accessibility in southwest part and central part was relatively good, that in marginal sites was worse, and that in east part and north part was the worst. Furthermore, the accessibility based on different modes of transportation varied a lot. The accessibility of motor vehicle was the best, followed by non-motor vehicle and public transport, and walking was the worst. Most of the regions could be reached within 30 minutes by walking, 15 minutes by non-motor vehicle and public transport, and 10 minutes by motor vehicle. This paper had a realistic significance in terms of further, systematic research on the green space spatial pattern optimization.

  3. A Low-Cost Femtosatellite to Enable Distributed Space Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-20

    pdfs/CyroBroSS.pdf Concept in Distributed Space-based Sensing," in Proc. AIAA [36] H . Helvajian and S. W. Janson, "The Fabrication of a 100 gm Defense...press/pressOl.php [21] F. A. Herrero, M. DiJoseph, T. E. Moore, J. A. Slavin, and R. [38] S. W. Janson, H . Helvajian , S. Amimoto, G. Smit, D. Mayer...Congress," [39] H . Helvajian , Microengineering Aerospace Systems, Reston, Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics, Committee on VA, AIAA Press, 1999

  4. 4273π: Bioinformatics education on low cost ARM hardware

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Teaching bioinformatics at universities is complicated by typical computer classroom settings. As well as running software locally and online, students should gain experience of systems administration. For a future career in biology or bioinformatics, the installation of software is a useful skill. We propose that this may be taught by running the course on GNU/Linux running on inexpensive Raspberry Pi computer hardware, for which students may be granted full administrator access. Results We release 4273π, an operating system image for Raspberry Pi based on Raspbian Linux. This includes minor customisations for classroom use and includes our Open Access bioinformatics course, 4273π Bioinformatics for Biologists. This is based on the final-year undergraduate module BL4273, run on Raspberry Pi computers at the University of St Andrews, Semester 1, academic year 2012–2013. Conclusions 4273π is a means to teach bioinformatics, including systems administration tasks, to undergraduates at low cost. PMID:23937194

  5. Performance of a Low-Cost, Low-Concentration Photovoltaic Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shell, Kara A.; Brown, Scott A.; Schuetz, Mark A.; Davis, Bob J.; French, Roger H.

    2011-12-01

    In order to significantly reduce the cost of solar power, Replex Plastics has developed a low-cost, low-concentration PV module incorporating acrylic mirror reflectors. The reflectors are compound parabolic concentrators designed for use with low-accuracy single axis trackers. The prototypes use crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells and achieved 7.1x concentration over a receiver without reflectors. The 1×1.6 m module used 1/10th the silicon of a standard module and produced a max power of 140 W.

  6. A Coating That Cools and Cuts Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    To enable low-cost space access for advanced exploration vehicles, researchers from NASA's Ames Research Center invented and patented a protective coating for ceramic materials (PCCM) in 1994. The technology, originally intended to coat the heat shields of the X-33 and X-34 next-generation vehicles for optimum protection during atmospheric reentry, greatly reduces surface temperature of a thermal control structure while it reradiates absorbed energy to a cooler surface or body, thus preventing degradation of the underlying ceramic material.

  7. Accessible bioprinting: adaptation of a low-cost 3D-printer for precise cell placement and stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Reid, John A; Mollica, Peter A; Johnson, Garett D; Ogle, Roy C; Bruno, Robert D; Sachs, Patrick C

    2016-06-07

    The precision and repeatability offered by computer-aided design and computer-numerically controlled techniques in biofabrication processes is quickly becoming an industry standard. However, many hurdles still exist before these techniques can be used in research laboratories for cellular and molecular biology applications. Extrusion-based bioprinting systems have been characterized by high development costs, injector clogging, difficulty achieving small cell number deposits, decreased cell viability, and altered cell function post-printing. To circumvent the high-price barrier to entry of conventional bioprinters, we designed and 3D printed components for the adaptation of an inexpensive 'off-the-shelf' commercially available 3D printer. We also demonstrate via goal based computer simulations that the needle geometries of conventional commercially standardized, 'luer-lock' syringe-needle systems cause many of the issues plaguing conventional bioprinters. To address these performance limitations we optimized flow within several microneedle geometries, which revealed a short tapered injector design with minimal cylindrical needle length was ideal to minimize cell strain and accretion. We then experimentally quantified these geometries using pulled glass microcapillary pipettes and our modified, low-cost 3D printer. This systems performance validated our models exhibiting: reduced clogging, single cell print resolution, and maintenance of cell viability without the use of a sacrificial vehicle. Using this system we show the successful printing of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into Geltrex and note their retention of a pluripotent state 7 d post printing. We also show embryoid body differentiation of hiPSC by injection into differentiation conducive environments, wherein we observed continuous growth, emergence of various evaginations, and post-printing gene expression indicative of the presence of all three germ layers. These data demonstrate an

  8. The Now Age, New Space, and Transforming the Exploration of Geospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    In this talk I will discuss: 1) Changing our description of how and why we do Heliophysics (NASA) and Geospace Science (NSF) research 2) How we can take advantage of the New Space industry capabilities 3) How and why we can use the technology that has begun the transformation of our society into the "Now Age" I will discuss trends that I see that enable, if we have the will, a fundamental revitalization of the science that we aspire to do. I will focus on our opportunities to revolutionize the exploration of geospace (the region below about 1000km) and how that addresses fundamental questions about our place in the universe. Exploration of space, in particular exploration of geospace, is at a cusp - we can either attempt to continue to move forward using the same, tried and true techniques or we can embrace the "Now Age" and the capabilities enabled by the New Space industry to move forward to a fuller understanding of our world's place in the solar system. Heliophysics at NASA and Geospace Science at NSF can be recast as fundamental exploratory basic research that asks and answers questions that everyone can understand. We are in the Now Age because the human race has enabled and embraced a fundamentally different way of accessing information and, potentially gaining knowledge. For the first time, we have the capability to provide essentially all of recorded human knowledge immediately and to anyone - and people want that access "now". Even in the scientific community we expect to be able to see the latest data right now. This is enabled by the internet and ubiquitous connectivity; low cost data storage and memory; fast, low-cost computing; the means to visualize the information; advances in the way we store, catalog and retrieve information; and advances in modeling and simulation. Concomitant with the Now Age, and providing an impetus to do things "now", the New Space industry has enabled low cost access to space and has embraced a vision of human presence in

  9. Improved low-cost, non-hazardous, all-iron cell for the developing world

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tucker, Michael C.; Lambelet, David; Oueslati, Mohamed

    A low-cost, non-hazardous personal-power system based on an aqueous all-iron electrochemical cell is demonstrated in this paper. The system is intended to be assembled and operated by developing-world households that lack sufficient access to electricity, thereby enabling LED lighting or mobile phone charging on demand. Lab-scale hardware is used to assess the performance of individual cell components. It is found that coffee filter paper is an effective low-cost separator. Carbon felt is a low-cost electrode material, and its performance and wetting by the electrolyte solution is greatly improved by pre-treatment with sulfuric acid. The carbon felt does not degrade aftermore » a week of daily use. By using these components, performance of the system is significantly improved over the previous baseline, with power density more than doubling to 40 mW cm -2, and iron utilization improving from 78% to 88%. The operating cost is estimated to be less than US$0.03 per mobile phone charge. Based on the lab-scale results, a stand-alone prototype consumer product is designed, fabricated, and tested. It successfully provides 2.5 h of LED illumination while consuming 200 mL of electrolyte solution via gravity feed. Finally, we anticipate these results will enable deployment of this innovative system to energy-impoverished individuals in the developing world.« less

  10. Improved low-cost, non-hazardous, all-iron cell for the developing world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Michael C.; Lambelet, David; Oueslati, Mohamed; Williams, Benjamin; Wang, Wu-Chieh Jerry; Weber, Adam Z.

    2016-11-01

    A low-cost, non-hazardous personal-power system based on an aqueous all-iron electrochemical cell is demonstrated. The system is intended to be assembled and operated by developing-world households that lack sufficient access to electricity, thereby enabling LED lighting or mobile phone charging on demand. Lab-scale hardware is used to assess the performance of individual cell components. It is found that coffee filter paper is an effective low-cost separator. Carbon felt is a low-cost electrode material, and its performance and wetting by the electrolyte solution is greatly improved by pre-treatment with sulfuric acid. The carbon felt does not degrade after a week of daily use. By using these components, performance of the system is significantly improved over the previous baseline, with power density more than doubling to 40 mW cm-2, and iron utilization improving from 78% to 88%. The operating cost is estimated to be less than US0.03 per mobile phone charge. Based on the lab-scale results, a stand-alone prototype consumer product is designed, fabricated, and tested. It successfully provides 2.5 h of LED illumination while consuming 200 mL of electrolyte solution via gravity feed. We anticipate these results will enable deployment of this innovative system to energy-impoverished individuals in the developing world.

  11. Improved low-cost, non-hazardous, all-iron cell for the developing world

    DOE PAGES

    Tucker, Michael C.; Lambelet, David; Oueslati, Mohamed; ...

    2016-09-28

    A low-cost, non-hazardous personal-power system based on an aqueous all-iron electrochemical cell is demonstrated in this paper. The system is intended to be assembled and operated by developing-world households that lack sufficient access to electricity, thereby enabling LED lighting or mobile phone charging on demand. Lab-scale hardware is used to assess the performance of individual cell components. It is found that coffee filter paper is an effective low-cost separator. Carbon felt is a low-cost electrode material, and its performance and wetting by the electrolyte solution is greatly improved by pre-treatment with sulfuric acid. The carbon felt does not degrade aftermore » a week of daily use. By using these components, performance of the system is significantly improved over the previous baseline, with power density more than doubling to 40 mW cm -2, and iron utilization improving from 78% to 88%. The operating cost is estimated to be less than US$0.03 per mobile phone charge. Based on the lab-scale results, a stand-alone prototype consumer product is designed, fabricated, and tested. It successfully provides 2.5 h of LED illumination while consuming 200 mL of electrolyte solution via gravity feed. Finally, we anticipate these results will enable deployment of this innovative system to energy-impoverished individuals in the developing world.« less

  12. The development of a cislunar space infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, C. A.; Johnson, A. S.; Mcglinchey, J. M.; Ryan, K. D.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of this Advanced Mission Design Program is to define the general characteristics and phased evolution of a near-Earth space infrastructure. The envisioned foundation includes a permanently manned, self-sustaining base on the lunar surface, a space station at the Libration Point between earth and the moon (L1), and a transportation system that anchors these elements to the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) station. The implementation of this conceptual design was carried out with the idea that the infrastructure is an important step in a larger plan to expand man's capabilities in space science and technology. Such expansion depends on low cost, reliable, and frequent access to space for those who wish to use the multiple benefits of this environment. The presence of a cislunar space infrastructure would greatly facilitate the staging of future planetary missions, as well as the full exploration of the lunar potential for science and industry. The rationale for, and a proposed detailed scenario in support of, the cislunar space infrastructure are discussed.

  13. A Low Cost Micro-Computer Based Local Area Network for Medical Office and Medical Center Automation

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Mel H.; Epstein, Lynn H.; Emerson, Ron G.

    1984-01-01

    A Low Cost Micro-computer based Local Area Network for medical office automation is described which makes use of an array of multiple and different personal computers interconnected by a local area network. Each computer on the network functions as fully potent workstations for data entry and report generation. The network allows each workstation complete access to the entire database. Additionally, designated computers may serve as access ports for remote terminals. Through “Gateways” the network may serve as a front end for a large mainframe, or may interface with another network. The system provides for the medical office environment the expandability and flexibility of a multi-terminal mainframe system at a far lower cost without sacrifice of performance.

  14. Cost and risk assessment for spacecraft operation decisions caused by the space debris environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaub, Hanspeter; Jasper, Lee E. Z.; Anderson, Paul V.; McKnight, Darren S.

    2015-08-01

    Space debris is a topic of concern among many in the space community. Most forecasting analyses look centuries into the future to attempt to predict how severe debris densities and fluxes will become in orbit regimes of interest. Conversely, space operators currently do not treat space debris as a major mission hazard. This survey paper outlines the range of cost and risk evaluations a space operator must consider when determining a debris-related response. Beyond the typical direct costs of performing an avoidance maneuver, the total cost including indirect costs, political costs and space environmental costs are discussed. The weights on these costs can vary drastically across mission types and orbit regimes flown. The operator response options during a mission are grouped into four categories: no action, perform debris dodging, follow stricter mitigation, and employ ADR. Current space operations are only considering the no action and debris dodging options, but increasing debris risk will eventually force the stricter mitigation and ADR options. Debris response equilibria where debris-related risks and costs settle on a steady-state solution are hypothesized.

  15. Launch vehicles of the future - Earth to near-earth space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyworth, G. A., II

    Attention is given to criteria for launch vehicles of the future, namely, cost, flexibility of payload size, and routine access to space. The National Aerospace Plane (NASP), an airplane designed to achieve hypersonic speeds using a sophisticated air-breathing engine, is argued to meet these criteria. Little additional oxygen is needed to enter low-earth orbit, and it will return to an airport runway under powered flight. Cost estimates for a NASP-derived vehicle are two to five million dollars for a payload of 20,000 to 30,000 pounds to orbit. For the Shuttle, a comparable payload is nominally about 150 million dollars. NASP estimates for the new single-stage-to-orbit designs are substantially lower than existing launch costs. The NASP also offers fast turnaround and minimal logistics. Access to virtually all near-earth orbits will be provided as well.

  16. Concepts for a Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory (SGO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Robin T.

    2012-01-01

    The low-frequency band (0.0001 - 1 Hz) of the gravitational wave spectrum has the most interesting astrophysical sources. It is only accessible from space. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) concept has been the leading contender for a space-based detector in this band. Despite a strong recommendation from Astro2010, constrained budgets motivate the search for a less expensive concept, even at the loss of some science. We have explored the range of lower cost mission concepts derived from two decades of studying the LISA concept We describe LlSA-like concepts that span the range of affordable and scientifically worthwhile missions, and summarize the analyses behind them.

  17. A Low Cost Spacecraft Architecture for Robotic Lunar Exploration Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Lawrence G.; Gonzales, Andrew A.

    2006-01-01

    A program of frequent, capable, but affordable lunar robotic missions prior to return of humans to the moon can contribute to the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) NASA is tasked to execute. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and its secondary payload are scheduled to orbit the moon, and impact it, respectively, in 2008. It is expected that the sequence of missions occurring for approximately the decade after 2008 will place an increasing emphasis on soft landed payloads. These missions are requited to explore intrinsic characteristics of the moon, such as hydrogen distribution in the regolith, and levitated dust, to demonstrate the ability to access and process in-situ resources, and to demonstrate functions critical to supporting human presence, such as automated precision navigation and landing. Additional factors governing the design of spacecraft to accomplish this diverse set of objectives are: operating within a relatively modest funding profile, the need tb visit multiple sites (both polar and equatorial) repeatedly, and to use the current generation of launch vehicles. In the US, this implies use of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles, or EELVs, although this design philosophy may be extended to launch vehicles of other nations, as well. Many of these factors are seemingly inconsistent with each other. For example, the cost of a spacecraft usually increases with mass; therefore the desire to fly frequent, modestly priced spacecraft seems to imply small spacecraft (< 1 Mt, injected mass). On the other hand, the smallest of the EELVs will inject approx. 3 Mt. on a Trans Lunar Injection (TLI) trajectory md would therefore be wasteful or launching a single, small spacecraft. Increasing the technical capability of a spacecraft (such as autonomous navigation and soft landing) also usually increases cost. A strategy for spacecraft design that meets these conflicting requirements is presented. Taken together, spacecraft structure and propulsion subsystems

  18. LifeSat - A satellite for space biological research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstead, Thora W.; Morey-Holton, Emily R.

    1990-01-01

    The LifeSat Program addresses the need for continuing access by biological scientists to space experimentation by accommodating a wide range of experiments involving animals and plants for durations up to 60 days in an unmanned satellite. The program will encourage interdisciplinary and international cooperation at both the agency and scientist levels, and will provide a recoverable, reusable facility for low-cost missions addressing key scientific issues that can only be answered by space experimentation. It will provide opportunities for research in gravitational biology and on the effects of cosmic radiation on life systems. The scientific aspects of LifeSat are addressed here.

  19. Access Services Are Human Services: Collaborating to Provide Textbook Access to Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElroy, Kelly; Moore, Dan; Hilterbrand, Lori; Hindes, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Despite the clear negative impact of high textbook costs on students, limits--including space, funding, and policies--prevent many academic libraries from fully supporting textbook collections. Partnering with other campus units on textbook lending requires creative thinking but can provide students access to other services in addition to the…

  20. Who Purchases Low-Cost Alcohol in Australia?

    PubMed

    Callinan, Sarah; Room, Robin; Livingston, Michael; Jiang, Heng

    2015-11-01

    Debates surrounding potential price-based polices aimed at reducing alcohol-related harms tend to focus on the debate concerning who would be most affected-harmful or low-income drinkers. This study will investigate the characteristics of people who purchase low-cost alcohol using data from the Australian arm of the International Alcohol Control study. 1681 Australians aged 16 and over who had consumed alcohol and purchased it in off-licence premises were asked detailed questions about both practices. Low-cost alcohol was defined using cut-points of 80¢, $1.00 or $1.25 per Australian standard drink. With a $1.00 cut-off low income (OR = 2.1) and heavy drinkers (OR = 1.7) were more likely to purchase any low-cost alcohol. Harmful drinkers purchased more, and low-income drinkers less, alcohol priced at less than $1.00 per drink than high income and moderate drinkers respectively. The relationship between the proportion of units purchased at low cost and both drinker category and income is less clear, with hazardous, but not harmful, drinkers purchasing a lower proportion of units at low cost than moderate drinkers. The impact of minimum pricing on low income and harmful drinkers will depend on whether the proportion or total quantity of all alcohol purchased at low cost is considered. Based on absolute units of alcohol, minimum unit pricing could be differentially effective for heavier drinkers compared to other drinkers, particularly for young males. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  1. Low energy stage study. Volume 5: Program study cost elements and appendices. [orbital launching of space shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The methodology and rationale used in the development of costs for engineering, manufacturing, testing and operating a low thrust system for placing automated shuttle payloads into earth orbits are described. Cost related information for the recommended propulsion approach is included.

  2. Cost of improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme: an analysis of cost of session, treatment and recovery in selected Primary Care Trusts in the East of England region.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Muralikrishnan; Hammond, Geoffrey; Jones, Peter B; Watson, Alison; McMillan-Shields, Fiona; Lafortune, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature on Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) has reported on improvements in clinical outcomes, changes in employment status and the concept of recovery attributable to IAPT treatment, but not on the costs of the programme. This article reports the costs associated with a single session, completed course of treatment and recovery for four treatment courses (i.e., remaining in low or high intensity treatment, stepping up or down) in IAPT services in 5 East of England region Primary Care Trusts. Costs were estimated using treatment activity data and gross financial information, along with assumptions about how these financial data could be broken down. The estimated average cost of a high intensity session was £177 and the average cost for a low intensity session was £99. The average cost of treatment was £493 (low intensity), £1416 (high intensity), £699 (stepped down), £1514 (stepped up) and £877 (All). The cost per recovered patient was £1043 (low intensity), £2895 (high intensity), £1653 (stepped down), £2914 (stepped up) and £1766 (All). Sensitivity analysis revealed that the costs are sensitive to cost ratio assumptions, indicating that inaccurate ratios are likely to influence overall estimates. Results indicate the cost per session exceeds previously reported estimates, but cost of treatment is only marginally higher. The current cost estimates are supportive of the originally proposed IAPT model on cost-benefit grounds. The study also provides a framework to estimate costs using financial data, especially when programmes have block contract arrangements. Replication and additional analyses along with evidence-based discussion regarding alternative, cost-effective methods of intervention is recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Usability of a Low-Cost Head Tracking Computer Access Method following Stroke.

    PubMed

    Mah, Jasmine; Jutai, Jeffrey W; Finestone, Hillel; Mckee, Hilary; Carter, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Assistive technology devices for computer access can facilitate social reintegration and promote independence for people who have had a stroke. This work describes the exploration of the usefulness and acceptability of a new computer access device called the Nouse™ (Nose-as-mouse). The device uses standard webcam and video recognition algorithms to map the movement of the user's nose to a computer cursor, thereby allowing hands-free computer operation. Ten participants receiving in- or outpatient stroke rehabilitation completed a series of standardized and everyday computer tasks using the Nouse™ and then completed a device usability questionnaire. Task completion rates were high (90%) for computer activities only in the absence of time constraints. Most of the participants were satisfied with ease of use (70%) and liked using the Nouse™ (60%), indicating they could resume most of their usual computer activities apart from word-processing using the device. The findings suggest that hands-free computer access devices like the Nouse™ may be an option for people who experience upper motor impairment caused by stroke and are highly motivated to resume personal computing. More research is necessary to further evaluate the effectiveness of this technology, especially in relation to other computer access assistive technology devices.

  4. Low Cost Comprehensive Microcomputer-Based Medical History Database Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Robert R. C.

    1980-01-01

    A carefully detailed, comprehensive medical history database is the fundamental essence of patient-physician interaction. Computer generated medical history acquisition has repeatedly been shown to be highly acceptable to both patient and physician while consistantly providing a superior product. Cost justification of machine derived problem and history databases, however, has in the past been marginal, at best. Routine use of the technology has therefore been limited to large clinics, university hospitals and federal installations where feasible volume applications are supported by endowment, research funds or taxes. This paper summarizes the use of a unique low cost device which marries advanced microprocessor technology with random access, variable-frame film projection techniques to acquire a detailed comprehensive medical history database. Preliminary data are presented which compare patient, physician, and machine generated histories for content, discovery, compliance and acceptability. Results compare favorably with the findings in similar studies by a variety of authors. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4

  5. A scheme for a high-power, low-cost transmitter for deep space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffer, L. K.

    2005-10-01

    Applications such as planetary radars and spacecraft communications require transmitters with extremely high effective isotropic radiated power. Until now, this has been done by combining a high-power microwave source with a large reflective antenna. However, this arrangement has a number of disadvantages. It is costly, since the steerable reflector alone is quite expensive, and for spacecraft communications, the need to transmit hurts the receive performance. For planetary radars, the utilization is very low since the antenna must be shared with other applications such as radio astronomy or spacecraft communications. This paper describes a potential new way of building such transmitters with lower cost, greater versatility, higher reliability, and potentially higher power. The basic idea is a phased array with a very large number of low-power elements, built with mass production techniques that have been optimized for consumer markets. The antennas are built en mass on printed circuit boards and are driven by chips, built with consumer complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, that adjust the phase of each element. Assembly and maintenance should be comparatively inexpensive since the boards need only be attached to large, flat, unmoving, ground-level infrastructure. Applications to planetary radar and spacecraft communications are examined. Although we would be unlikely to use such a facility in this way, an implication for Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) is that high-power beacons are easier to build than had been thought.

  6. Review of hardware cost estimation methods, models and tools applied to early phases of space mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivailo, O.; Sippel, M.; Şekercioğlu, Y. A.

    2012-08-01

    of an estimate, and techniques and/or methods to attain representative and justifiable cost estimates are consequently discussed. Ultimately, the aim of the paper is to establish a baseline for development of a non-commercial, low cost, transparent cost estimation methodology to be applied during very early program research phases at a complete vehicle system level, for largely unprecedented manned launch vehicles in the future. This paper takes the first step to achieving this through the identification, analysis and understanding of established, existing techniques, models, tools and resources relevant within the space sector.

  7. Low-Cost Aqueous Coal Desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K.

    1982-01-01

    Water-based process for desulfurizing coal not only eliminates need for costly organic solvent but removes sulfur more effectively than an earlier solvent-based process. New process could provide low-cost commercial method for converting high-sulfur coal into environmentally acceptable fuel.

  8. The relationship of physical activity and overweight to objectively measured green space accessibility and use

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the association between objectively measured access to green space, frequency of green space use, physical activity, and the probability of being overweight or obese in the city of Bristol, England. Data from the Bristol Quality of Life in your Neighbourhood survey for 6,821 adults were combined with a comprehensive GIS database of neighbourhood and green space characteristics.. A range of green space accessibility measures were computed. Associations between accessibility and the odds of respondents achieving a recommended 30 minutes or more of moderate activity five times a week, or being overweight or obese, were examined using logistic regression. Results showed that the reported frequency of green space use declined with increasing distance. The study also found that respondents living closest to the type of green space classified as a Formal park were more likely to achieve the physical activity recommendation and less likely to be overweight or obese. The association with physical activity, but not with overweight or obesity, remained after adjustment for respondent characteristics, area deprivation, and a range of characteristics of the neighbourhood environment. The findings suggest that the provision of good access to green spaces in urban areas may help promote population physical activity. PMID:20060635

  9. Senate Hearing on Assured Access to Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-16

    From left; Hon. Alan Estevez, Principle Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics; General William Shelton, Commander of the United States Air Force Space Command; Robert Lightfoot, NASA Associate Administrator; Cristina Chaplain, Director of Acquisition and Sourcing Management at the Government Accountability Office; major General Howard Mitchell (USAF Ret.), Vice President for Program Assessments at The Aerospace Corporation; Daniel Dunbacher, Professor of Practice in the Department of Aeronautics and Aerospace Engineering at Purdue University; and Dr. Yool Kim, Senior Engineer at The Rand Corporation; are seen during a hearing in front of the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces and Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on Wednesday, July 16, 2014, at the Hart Senate Office Building in Washington, DC. The Senate hearing focused on assured access to space.

  10. Space Station: Actions Under Way to Manage Cost, but Significant Challenges Remain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    GAO United States General Accounting OfficeReport to Congressional CommitteesJuly 2002 SPACE STATION Actions Under Way to Manage Cost , but...because NASA does not have good cost - accounting systems or practices. 1 The estimated cost growth is having a profound effect on the utility of the...SPACE STATION: Actions Under Way to Manage Cost , but Significant Challenges Remain Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s

  11. Weight and the Future of Space Flight Hardware Cost Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Frank A.

    2003-01-01

    Weight has been used as the primary input variable for cost estimating almost as long as there have been parametric cost models. While there are good reasons for using weight, serious limitations exist. These limitations have been addressed by multi-variable equations and trend analysis in models such as NAFCOM, PRICE, and SEER; however, these models have not be able to address the significant time lags that can occur between the development of similar space flight hardware systems. These time lags make the cost analyst's job difficult because insufficient data exists to perform trend analysis, and the current set of parametric models are not well suited to accommodating process improvements in space flight hardware design, development, build and test. As a result, people of good faith can have serious disagreement over the cost for new systems. To address these shortcomings, new cost modeling approaches are needed. The most promising approach is process based (sometimes called activity) costing. Developing process based models will require a detailed understanding of the functions required to produce space flight hardware combined with innovative approaches to estimating the necessary resources. Particularly challenging will be the lack of data at the process level. One method for developing a model is to combine notional algorithms with a discrete event simulation and model changes to the total cost as perturbations to the program are introduced. Despite these challenges, the potential benefits are such that efforts should be focused on developing process based cost models.

  12. Web client and ODBC access to legacy database information: a low cost approach.

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, N. W.; Mann, N. H.; Spengler, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the Department of Orthopaedics of Vanderbilt University Medical Center to access departmental clinical data. Previously this data was stored only in the medical center's mainframe DB2 database, it is now additionally stored in a departmental SQL database. Access to this data is available via any ODBC compliant front-end or a web client. With a small budget and no full time staff, we were able to give our department on-line access to many years worth of patient data that was previously inaccessible. PMID:9357735

  13. Strategies to fight low-cost rivals.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nirmalya

    2006-12-01

    Companies find it challenging and yet strangely reassuring to take on opponents whose strategies, strengths, and weaknesses resemble their own. Their obsession with familiar rivals, however, has blinded them to threats from disruptive, low-cost competitors. Successful price warriors, such as the German retailer Aldi, are changing the nature of competition by employing several tactics: focusing on just one or a few consumer segments, delivering the basic product or providing one benefit better than rivals do, and backing low prices with superefficient operations. Ignoring cutprice rivals is a mistake because they eventually force companies to vacate entire market segments. Price wars are not the answer, either: Slashing prices usually lowers profits for incumbents without driving the low-cost entrants out of business. Companies take various approaches to competing against cut-price players. Some differentiate their products--a strategy that works only in certain circumstances. Others launch low-cost businesses of their own, as many airlines did in the 1990s--a so-called dual strategy that succeeds only if companies can generate synergies between the existing businesses and the new ventures, as the financial service providers HSBC and ING did. Without synergies, corporations are better off trying to transform themselves into low-cost players, a difficult feat that Ryanair accomplished in the 1990s, or into solution providers. There will always be room for both low-cost and value-added players. How much room each will have depends not only on the industry and customers' preferences, but also on the strategies traditional businesses deploy.

  14. Robust Low Cost Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber by Advanced Vacuum Plasma Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard; Elam, Sandra; Ellis, David L.; McKechnie, Timothy; Hickman, Robert; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Next-generation, regeneratively cooled rocket engines will require materials that can withstand high temperatures while retaining high thermal conductivity. Fabrication techniques must be cost efficient so that engine components can be manufactured within the constraints of shrinking budgets. Three technologies have been combined to produce an advanced liquid rocket engine combustion chamber at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using relatively low-cost, vacuum-plasma-spray (VPS) techniques. Copper alloy NARloy-Z was replaced with a new high performance Cu-8Cr-4Nb alloy developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center (GRC), which possesses excellent high-temperature strength, creep resistance, and low cycle fatigue behavior combined with exceptional thermal stability. Functional gradient technology, developed building composite cartridges for space furnaces was incorporated to add oxidation resistant and thermal barrier coatings as an integral part of the hot wall of the liner during the VPS process. NiCrAlY, utilized to produce durable protective coating for the space shuttle high pressure fuel turbopump (BPFTP) turbine blades, was used as the functional gradient material coating (FGM). The FGM not only serves as a protection from oxidation or blanching, the main cause of engine failure, but also serves as a thermal barrier because of its lower thermal conductivity, reducing the temperature of the combustion liner 200 F, from 1000 F to 800 F producing longer life. The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate the technology to fabricate high-performance, robust, inexpensive combustion chambers for advanced propulsion systems (such as Lockheed-Martin's VentureStar and NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle, RLV) using the low-cost VPS process. VPS formed combustion chamber test articles have been formed with the FGM hot wall built in and hot fire tested, demonstrating for the first time a coating that will remain intact through the hot firing test, and with

  15. Space station systems analysis study. Part 3: Documentation. Volume 5: Cost and schedule data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Cost estimates for the space station systems analysis were recorded. Space construction base costs and characteristics were cited as well as mission hardware costs and characteristics. Also delineated were cost ground rules, the program schedule, and a detail cost estimate and funding distribution.

  16. Exposure assessment in SMES: a low-cost approach to bring OHS services to small-scale enterprises.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Mahinda; Phoon, Wai On

    2006-01-01

    There is increased attention to improving occupational health and safety in small to medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The Workers Health Centre, a not-for-profit OHS service in western Sydney, assessed workplace exposures in two SMEs following intervention by regulatory agencies. A low-cost monitoring program for noise, airbone dust, fibers and chemicals was conducted at these two metal working industry workplaces. Results showed that exposure to the hazards were above the statutory limits and there was generally an unhealthy access to OHS information by the predominantly immigrant or low literate worker population, were identified. The potential for using a program of low-cost exposure assessments, accompanied by a strategy to provide OHSs information for workers in small-scale enterprises, is discussed.

  17. DOD Space Test Program (STP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Llwyn

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the Space Test Program (STP) which provides access to space for the DOD-wide space research and development (R&D) community. STP matches a ranked list of sanctioned experiments with available budgets and searches for the most cost effective mechanisms to get the experiments into space. The program has successfully flown over 350 experiments, using dedicated freeflyer spacecraft, secondary space on the Space Shuttle, and various host satellites.

  18. The Virtual Space Physics Observatory: Quick Access to Data and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornwell, Carl; Roberts, D. Aaron; McGuire, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    The Virtual Space Physics Observatory (VSPO; see http://vspo.gsfc.nasa.gov) has grown to provide a way to find and access about 375 data products and services from over 100 spacecraft/observatories in space and solar physics. The datasets are mainly chosen to be the most requested, and include most of the publicly available data products from operating NASA Heliophysics spacecraft as well as from solar observatories measuring across the frequency spectrum. Service links include a "quick orbits" page that uses SSCWeb Web Services to provide a rapid answer to questions such as "What spacecraft were in orbit in July 1992?" and "Where were Geotail, Cluster, and Polar on 2 June 2001?" These queries are linked back to the data search page. The VSPO interface provides many ways of looking for data based on terms used in a registry of resources using the SPASE Data Model that will be the standard for Heliophysics Virtual Observatories. VSPO itself is accessible via an API that allows other applications to use it as a Web Service; this has been implemented in one instance using the ViSBARD visualization program. The VSPO will become part of the Space Physics Data Facility, and will continue to expand its access to data. A challenge for all VOs will be to provide uniform access to data at the variable level, and we will be addressing this question in a number of ways.

  19. Environet: An interactive space-environment information resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vampola, A. L.; Hall, William N.; Lauriente, Michael

    1989-05-01

    EnviroNET is an interactive menu-driven system set up as an information resource for experimenters, program managers, and design and test engineers who are involved in space missions. Its basic use is as a fundamental single-source of data for the environment encountered by Shuttle and Space Station payloads, but is also has wider applicability in that it includes information on environments encountered by other satellites in both low altitude and high altitude (including geosynchronous) orbits. It incorporates both a text-retrieval mode and an interactive modeling code mode. The system is maintained on the ENVNET and MicroVAX computer at NASA/Goddard. It's services are available at no cost to any user who has access to a terminal and a dial-up port. It is a tail-node on SPAN and so it is accessible either directly or through BITNET, ARPANET, and GTE/TELENET via NPSS.

  20. A Cis-Lunar Propellant Infrastructure for Flexible Path Exploration and Space Commerce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a space infrastructure concept that exploits lunar water for propellant production and delivers it to users in cis-lunar space. The goal is to provide responsive economical space transportation to destinations beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) and enable in-space commerce. This is a game changing concept that could fundamentally affect future space operations, provide greater access to space beyond LEO, and broaden participation in space exploration. The challenge is to minimize infrastructure development cost while achieving a low operational cost. This study discusses the evolutionary development of the infrastructure from a very modest robotic operation to one that is capable of supporting human operations. The cis-lunar infrastructure involves a mix of technologies including cryogenic propellant production, reusable lunar landers, propellant tankers, orbital transfer vehicles, aerobraking technologies, and electric propulsion. This cislunar propellant infrastructure replaces Earth-launched propellants for missions beyond LEO. It enables users to reach destinations with smaller launchers or effectively multiplies the user s existing payload capacity. Users can exploit the expanded capacity to launch logistics material that can then be traded with the infrastructure for propellants. This mutually beneficial trade between the cis-lunar infrastructure and propellant users forms the basis of in-space commerce.

  1. Low Cost Structures, but How Much are we Paying for Them?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Molinero, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    Based on more than 37 years developing spacecraft structures - both for launchers starting with Ariane-1 up to the most modern ones and for satellites of any type - a critical review of the current trends, aiming specially to low cost solutions, will be presented.Airbus Defence and Space (CASA Espacio previously) has been developing structures for launchers and satellites during more than 4 decades. All types of spacecraft structures - primary and secondary ones, high stability ones and special critical cases like antenna reflectors, high stiffness structures and load carrying ones - have been developed using different types of materials and structural constructions. Although our main expertise is concentrated on composite structures, we have also developed many types of metallic ones, when the best solution was that one, not necessarily only based on pure technical reasons.From that perspective and experience, this paper tries to review the current trend of imposing the low cost as the main requirement for the development of satellites and launchers and its intrinsic characteristic of being a non- ending process: the spacecraft structures are never sufficiently cheaper.The main ways used today to justify low cost spacecraft structures will be reviewed trying to understand their rationale and some prejudices always present when the trade-off studies are performed. Some of the reviewed cost-killing factors will be (non-exhaustive list) Material type (i.e.: metallic vs composite). Low cost materials in general. Manufacturing process (i.e.: autoclave curing vs out-of-autoclave one). Automation in manufacturing. Automation in assembly. Automation in inspection and verification. Lean manufacturing techniques. Standardization. Some insight about how to solve this problem without losing our distinctive nature (we are developing high performance systems many of them unique prototypes and thought to work in environments not perfectly known and highly unknown in some cases

  2. The US commercial space launch program and the Department of Defense dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, William G.

    1994-08-01

    A scenario by which the United States might regain its lost advantage in launching commercial satellites is developed using the Ariane space commercial launch company as a benchmark. Ariane's advantages are identified and low-cost recommendations for countering them are presented The four areas selected for analysis inidentifying an American strategy are launch vehicle: (1) payload characteristics; (2) delivery costs; (3) selection process; and (4) technology. Several of the recommendations require Department of Defense funding even though the primary beneficiary appears to be the commercial space sector. But this will ensure that the military has affordable access to space and it is part of a dual purpose strategy whereby government spending benefits both the public and private sector. There is also a brief discussion of other foreign launch vehicle competition.

  3. Integrated orbital servicing study for low-cost payload programs. Volume 2: Technical and cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cody, E. R.; Deats, C. L.; Derocher, W. L., Jr.; Kyrias, G. M.; Snodgrass, M. R.; Sosnay, R. D.; Spencer, R. A.; Wudell, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    Orbital maintenance concepts were examined in an effort to determine a cost effective orbital maintenance system compatible with the space transportation system. An on-orbit servicer maintenance system is recommended as the most cost effective system. A pivoting arm on-orbit servicer was selected and a preliminary design was prepared. It is indicated that orbital maintenance does not have any significant impact on the space transportation system.

  4. Choice of Hemodialysis Access in Older Adults: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Rasheeda K; Myers, Evan R; Rosas, Sylvia E; O'Hare, Ann M; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S

    2017-06-07

    Although arteriovenous fistulas have been found to be the most cost-effective form of hemodialysis access, the relative benefits of placing an arteriovenous fistula versus an arteriovenous graft seem to be least certain for older adults and when placed preemptively. However, older adults' life expectancy is heterogeneous, and most patients do not undergo permanent access creation until after dialysis initiation. We evaluated cost-effectiveness of arteriovenous fistula placement after dialysis initiation in older adults as a function of age and life expectancy. Using a hypothetical cohort of patients on incident hemodialysis with central venous catheters, we constructed Markov models of three treatment options: ( 1 ) arteriovenous fistula placement, ( 2 ) arteriovenous graft placement, or ( 3 ) continued catheter use. Costs, utilities, and transitional probabilities were derived from existing literature. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed by age group (65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, and 85-89 years old) and quartile of life expectancy. Costs, quality-adjusted life-months, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were evaluated for up to 5 years. The arteriovenous fistula option was cost effective compared with continued catheter use for all age and life expectancy groups, except for 85-89 year olds in the lowest life expectancy quartile. The arteriovenous fistula option was more cost effective than the arteriovenous graft option for all quartiles of life expectancy among the 65- to 69-year-old age group. For older age groups, differences in cost-effectiveness between the strategies were attenuated, and the arteriovenous fistula option tended to only be cost effective in patients with life expectancy >2 years. For groups for which the arteriovenous fistula option was not cost saving, the cost to gain one quality-adjusted life-month ranged from $2294 to $14,042. Among older adults, the cost-effectiveness of an arteriovenous fistula placed within the first

  5. Access criteria for anti-TNF agents in spondyloarthritis: influence on comparative 1-year cost-effectiveness estimates.

    PubMed

    Harvard, Stephanie; Guh, Daphne; Bansback, Nick; Richette, Pascal; Saraux, Alain; Fautrel, Bruno; Anis, Aslam

    2017-01-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents are an effective, but costly, treatment for spondyloarthritis (SpA). Worldwide, multiple sets of access criteria aim to restrict anti-TNF therapy to patients with specific clinical characteristics, yet the influence of access criteria on anti-TNF cost-effectiveness is unknown. Our objective was to use data from the DESIR cohort, a prospective study of early SpA patients in France, to determine whether the French anti-TNF access criteria are the most cost-effective in that setting relative to other potential restrictions. We used data from the DESIR cohort to create five study populations of patients meeting anti-TNF access criteria from Canada, France, Germany, United Kingdom, and Hong Kong, respectively. For each study population, we calculated the costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) over 1 year of patients treated and not treated with anti-TNF therapy. To control for differences between anti-TNF users and non-users, we used linear regression models to derive adjusted mean costs and QALYs. We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) representing the incremental cost per additional QALY gained by treating with an anti-TNF within each of the five study populations, using bootstrapping to explore the range of uncertainty in costs and QALYs. A series of sensitivity analyses was conducted, including one to simulate the effect of a 24-week stopping rule for anti-TNF non-responders. Anti-TNF access criteria from France were satisfied by the largest proportion of DESIR patients (27.8%), followed by Germany (25.1%), Canada (23.8%), the UK (12.1%) and Hong Kong (8.6%). Confidence intervals around incremental costs and QALYs in the basecase analysis were overlapping, indicating that anti-TNF cost-effectiveness estimates derived from each subset were similar. In the sensitivity analysis that examined the effect of excluding costs accumulated past 24 weeks by anti-TNF non-responders, the incremental cost

  6. Orbital Observatory for Planetary Science on Low Cost Autonomous Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavrov, Alexander; Bisikalo, Dmitry; Vedenkin, Nikolay; Korablev, Oleg; Markov, Alexander; Kiselev, Alexander; Kokorich, Mikhail

    The Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Science (IKI RAS) and Dauria Aerospace are currently developing the middle class space telescope project aiming to observe Solar system planets by a long term spectroscopy and polarimetry monitoring, as well aiming to extra solar planets (exoplanets) engineering and scientific goals. The spacecraft is scheduled to be launched in 2017. It is planned first to be delivered on board of the ISS by the Progress spacecraft, then it will be released to the desired orbit approx. 550 km by the Progress in the way to its final destination. The “Planetary monitoring” telescope has a 0.6 meter primary mirror diameter Telescope currently includes 5 science instruments: NIR: 1000..4000 nm high-resolution spectrometer with the spectral resolution of R>10000; Visible Field camera with filters wheel; UV-VIS field resolved Fourier spectrometer; UV-VIS spectropolarimeter; Stellar coronagraph linked with a low-resolution spectrometer. The scientific goals of the “Planetary monitoring” telescope are devoted to explore not yet well studied questions on Mars (methane, ozone, dust and clouds, isotope ratio of HDO/H2O), on Venus (UV absorber, night glow, atmosphere dynamics), icy and gaseous Solar system planets, Jovian moons, Lunar exosphere, comets, meteorites. This telescope aims also for engineering development of exoplanet study by stellar coronagraphy linked with a low-resolution spectrometry. This Orbital Observatory mission uses the first low cost small satellite platform developed by the Dauria Aerospace® - Russian private company and reuses the Progress to elevate the observatory orbit. The Progress launches four times per year to provide supplies and scientific instruments to the ISS. The Progress is capable of raising the height of the orbit for the piggyback scientific missions; therefore, the implementation of the Orbital Observatory mission is considered not just as a development of a successful science mission so it

  7. Space station needs, attributes, and architectural options study. Volume 3: Cost and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Cost and schedule, cost/incremental capability, and schedule impact analyses are presented. Quantifiable benefits, space technology, non-quantifiable benefits, and space commercialization are addressed.

  8. A Low-Cost Real Color Picker Based on Arduino

    PubMed Central

    Agudo, Juan Enrique; Pardo, Pedro J.; Sánchez, Héctor; Pérez, Ángel Luis; Suero, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Color measurements have traditionally been linked to expensive and difficult to handle equipment. The set of mathematical transformations that are needed to transfer a color that we observe in any object that doesn't emit its own light (which is usually called a color-object) so that it can be displayed on a computer screen or printed on paper is not at all trivial. This usually requires a thorough knowledge of color spaces, colorimetric transformations and color management systems. The TCS3414CS color sensor (I2C Sensor Color Grove), a system for capturing, processing and color management that allows the colors of any non-self-luminous object using a low-cost hardware based on Arduino, is presented in this paper. Specific software has been developed in Matlab and a study of the linearity of chromatic channels and accuracy of color measurements for this device has been undertaken. All used scripts (Arduino and Matlab) are attached as supplementary material. The results show acceptable accuracy values that, although obviously do not reach the levels obtained with the other scientific instruments, for the price difference they present a good low cost option. PMID:25004152

  9. A low-cost real color picker based on Arduino.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Juan Enrique; Pardo, Pedro J; Sánchez, Héctor; Pérez, Ángel Luis; Suero, María Isabel

    2014-07-07

    Color measurements have traditionally been linked to expensive and difficult to handle equipment. The set of mathematical transformations that are needed to transfer a color that we observe in any object that doesn't emit its own light (which is usually called a color-object) so that it can be displayed on a computer screen or printed on paper is not at all trivial. This usually requires a thorough knowledge of color spaces, colorimetric transformations and color management systems. The TCS3414CS color sensor (I2C Sensor Color Grove), a system for capturing, processing and color management that allows the colors of any non-self-luminous object using a low-cost hardware based on Arduino, is presented in this paper. Specific software has been developed in Matlab and a study of the linearity of chromatic channels and accuracy of color measurements for this device has been undertaken. All used scripts (Arduino and Matlab) are attached as supplementary material. The results show acceptable accuracy values that, although obviously do not reach the levels obtained with the other scientific instruments, for the price difference they present a good low cost option.

  10. Towards a Multi-Variable Parametric Cost Model for Ground and Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Parametric cost models can be used by designers and project managers to perform relative cost comparisons between major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades; enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment; and, provide a basis for estimating total project cost between related concepts. This paper hypothesizes a single model, based on published models and engineering intuition, for both ground and space telescopes: OTA Cost approximately (X) D(exp (1.75 +/- 0.05)) lambda(exp(-0.5 +/- 0.25) T(exp -0.25) e (exp (-0.04)Y). Specific findings include: space telescopes cost 50X to 100X more ground telescopes; diameter is the most important CER; cost is reduced by approximately 50% every 20 years (presumably because of technology advance and process improvements); and, for space telescopes, cost associated with wavelength performance is balanced by cost associated with operating temperature. Finally, duplication only reduces cost for the manufacture of identical systems (i.e. multiple aperture sparse arrays or interferometers). And, while duplication does reduce the cost of manufacturing the mirrors of segmented primary mirror, this cost savings does not appear to manifest itself in the final primary mirror assembly (presumably because the structure for a segmented mirror is more complicated than for a monolithic mirror).

  11. Highly reusable space transportation: Approaches for reducing ETO launch costs to $100 - $200 per pound of payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.

    1995-01-01

    The Commercial Space Transportation Study (CSTS) suggests that considerable market expansion in earth-to-orbit transportation would take place if current launch prices could be reduced to around $400 per pound of payload. If these low prices can be achieved, annual payload delivered to low earth orbit (LEO) is predicted to reach 6.7 million pounds. The primary market growth will occur in communications, government missions, and civil transportation. By establishing a cost target of $100-$200 per pound of payload for a new launch system, the Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) program has clearly set its sights on removing the current restriction on market growth imposed by today's high launch costs. In particular, achieving the goal of $100-$200 per pound of payload will require significant coordinated efforts in (1) marketing strategy development, (2) business planning, (3) system operational strategy, (4) vehicle technical design, and (5) vehicle maintenance strategy.

  12. Space program payload costs and their possible reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanvleck, E. M.; Deerwester, J. M.; Norman, S. M.; Alton, L. R.

    1973-01-01

    The possible ways by which NASA payload costs might be reduced in the future were studied. The major historical reasons for payload costs being as they were, and if there are technologies (hard and soft), or criteria for technology advances, that could significantly reduce total costs of payloads were examined. Payload costs are placed in historical context. Some historical cost breakdowns for unmanned NASA payloads are presented to suggest where future cost reductions could be most significant. Space programs of NOAA, DoD and COMSAT are then examined to ascertain if payload reductions have been brought about by the operational (as opposed to developmental) nature of such programs, economies of scale, the ability to rely on previously developed technology, or by differing management structures and attitudes. The potential impact was investigated of NASA aircraft-type management on spacecraft program costs, and some examples relating previous costs associated with aircraft costs on the one hand and manned and unmanned costs on the other are included.

  13. Low Cost Benefit Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyel, Hoyt W.; McMillan, John D.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines eight low-cost employee benefits and summarizes their relative advantages. The eight include a stock ownership program, a sick leave pool, flexible working hours, production incentives, and group purchase plans. (IRT)

  14. Ross Works on the Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure (ACCESS) During

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross works on ACCESS high above the orbiter. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  15. Space Manufacturing: The Next Great Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Curreri, Peter; Sharpe, Jonathan B.; Colberg, Wendell R.; Vickers, John H.

    1998-01-01

    Space manufacturing encompasses the research, development and manufacture necessary for the production of any product to be used in near zero gravity, and the production of spacecraft required for transporting research or production devices to space. Manufacturing for space, and manufacturing in space will require significant breakthroughs in materials and manufacturing technology, as well as in equipment designs. This report reviews some of the current initiatives in achieving space manufacturing. The first initiative deals with materials processing in space, e.g., processing non-terrestrial and terrestrial materials, especially metals. Some of the ramifications of the United States Microgravity Payloads fourth (USMP-4) mission are discussed. Some problems in non-terrestrial materials processing are mentioned. The second initiative is structures processing in space. In order to accomplish this, the International Space Welding Experiment was designed to demonstrate welding technology in near-zero gravity. The third initiative is advancements in earth-based manufacturing technologies necessary to achieve low cost access to space. The advancements discussed include development of lightweight material having high specific strength, and automated fabrication and manufacturing methods for these materials.

  16. Methodological proceedings to evaluate the physical accessibility in urban historic sites.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Gabriela Sousa; Martins, Laura Bezerra; Monteiro, Circe Maria Gama

    2012-01-01

    Historic urban sites are set by cultural and social diversities, generating multiple activities and use and access to these sites should be available to all people including those with disabilities. Taking into consideration that using the same methodology that was used in different historic sites researches with positive results facilitates replication, we aimed to develop methodological procedures that identify conditions of physical accessibility in open public spaces and access to public buildings in historic urban sites to support proposals about design requirements for improvements to the problems diagnosed and control inadequacies of the physical environment. The study methods and techniques from different areas of knowledge culminated in a proposal built with an emphasis on user participation that could be applied with low cost and in relatively short period of time.

  17. Low Cost, Low Power, High Sensitivity Magnetometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    which are used to measure the small magnetic signals from brain. Other types of vector magnetometers are fluxgate , coil based, and magnetoresistance...concentrator with the magnetometer currently used in Army multimodal sensor systems, the Brown fluxgate . One sees the MEMS fluxgate magnetometer is...Guedes, A.; et al., 2008: Hybrid - LOW COST, LOW POWER, HIGH SENSITIVITY MAGNETOMETER A.S. Edelstein*, James E. Burnette, Greg A. Fischer, M.G

  18. Study of high energy phenomena from near space using low-cost meteorological balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Sarkar, Ritabrata; Bhowmick, Debashis; Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2017-06-01

    Indian Centre for Space Physics has taken a novel strategy to study low energy cosmic rays and astrophysical X-ray sources which involve very light weight payloads up to about five kilograms on board a single or multiple balloons which are used for meteorological purposes. The mission duration could be anywhere from 3-12 hours. Our strategy provides extreme flexibility in mission preparation and its operation using a very economical budget. There are several limitations but our innovative approach has been able to extract significant amount of scientific data out of these missions. So far, over one hundred missions have been completed by us to near space and a wealth of data has been collected. The payloads are recovered and are used again. Scientific data is stored on board computer and the atmospheric data or payload location is sent to ground in real time. Since each mission is different, we present here the general strategy for a typical payload and provide some results we obtained in some of these missions.

  19. GPS/REFSAT definition study report for low-cost terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A relay transponder, located either on a satellite in geostationary orbit or on a local tower to relay acquisition-aiding data, ephemerides, etc, from a ground-based remote control station to a GPS civil user terminal located on a ship or land-transportation vehicle is described. Termed REFSAT (Reference Satellite), this concept reduces the circuit complexity and cost of user terminals. The various systems needed to implement the REFSAT concept for low-cost, GPS civil terminals are defined. The GPS/REFSAT system compatible with the NAVSTAR GPS system consists of a geostationary relay satellite, civil user terminals, and the central facility which performs operations common to all users for relay via the space segment. A GPS/REFSAT system utilizing a local tower for the relay transponder is described, results of a study of civil user requirements are presented, and specifications for the GPS/REFSAT system and its individual segments are included.

  20. Emerging low-cost LED thermal management materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl H.

    2004-10-01

    As chip size and power levels continue to increase, thermal management, thermal stresses and cost have become key LED packaging issues. Until recently, low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) materials, which are needed to minimize thermal stresses, had thermal conductivities that are no better than those of aluminum alloys, about 200 W/m-K. Copper, which has a higher thermal conductivity (400 W/m-K), also has a high CTE, which can cause severe thermal stresses. We now have over a dozen low-CTE materials with thermal conductivities ranging between 400 and 1700 W/m-K, and almost a score with thermal conductivities at least 50% greater than that of aluminum. Some of these materials are low cost. Others have the potential to be low cost in high volume production. Emphasizing low cost, this paper reviews traditional packaging materials and the six categories of advanced materials: polymer matrix-, metal matrix-, ceramic matrix-, and carbon matrix composites; monolithic carbonaceous materials; and metal-metal composites/alloys. Topics include properties, status, applications, cost and likely future directions of new advanced materials, including carbon nanotubes and inexpensive graphite nanoplatelets.

  1. Estimating the Cost of NASA's Space Launch Initiative: How SLI Cost Stack Up Against the Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, Joseph H.; Roth, Axel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA is planning to replace the Space Shuttle with a new completely reusable Second Generation Launch System by approximately 2012. Numerous contracted and NASA in-house Space Transportation Architecture Studies and various technology maturation activities are proceeding and have resulted in scores of competing architecture configurations being proposed. Life cycle cost is a key discriminator between all these various concepts. However, the one obvious analogy for costing purposes remains the current Shuttle system. Are there credible reasons to believe that a second generation reusable launch system can be accomplished at less cost than the Shuttle? The need for a credible answer to this question is critical. This paper reviews the cost estimating approaches being used by the contractors and the government estimators to address this issue and explores the rationale behind the numbers.

  2. Standard semiconductor packaging for high-reliability low-cost MEMS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harney, Kieran P.

    2005-01-01

    Microelectronic packaging technology has evolved over the years in response to the needs of IC technology. The fundamental purpose of the package is to provide protection for the silicon chip and to provide electrical connection to the circuit board. Major change has been witnessed in packaging and today wafer level packaging technology has further revolutionized the industry. MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology has created new challenges for packaging that do not exist in standard ICs. However, the fundamental objective of MEMS packaging is the same as traditional ICs, the low cost and reliable presentation of the MEMS chip to the next level interconnect. Inertial MEMS is one of the best examples of the successful commercialization of MEMS technology. The adoption of MEMS accelerometers for automotive airbag applications has created a high volume market that demands the highest reliability at low cost. The suppliers to these markets have responded by exploiting standard semiconductor packaging infrastructures. However, there are special packaging needs for MEMS that cannot be ignored. New applications for inertial MEMS devices are emerging in the consumer space that adds the imperative of small size to the need for reliability and low cost. These trends are not unique to MEMS accelerometers. For any MEMS technology to be successful the packaging must provide the basic reliability and interconnection functions, adding the least possible cost to the product. This paper will discuss the evolution of MEMS packaging in the accelerometer industry and identify the main issues that needed to be addressed to enable the successful commercialization of the technology in the automotive and consumer markets.

  3. Standard semiconductor packaging for high-reliability low-cost MEMS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harney, Kieran P.

    2004-12-01

    Microelectronic packaging technology has evolved over the years in response to the needs of IC technology. The fundamental purpose of the package is to provide protection for the silicon chip and to provide electrical connection to the circuit board. Major change has been witnessed in packaging and today wafer level packaging technology has further revolutionized the industry. MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology has created new challenges for packaging that do not exist in standard ICs. However, the fundamental objective of MEMS packaging is the same as traditional ICs, the low cost and reliable presentation of the MEMS chip to the next level interconnect. Inertial MEMS is one of the best examples of the successful commercialization of MEMS technology. The adoption of MEMS accelerometers for automotive airbag applications has created a high volume market that demands the highest reliability at low cost. The suppliers to these markets have responded by exploiting standard semiconductor packaging infrastructures. However, there are special packaging needs for MEMS that cannot be ignored. New applications for inertial MEMS devices are emerging in the consumer space that adds the imperative of small size to the need for reliability and low cost. These trends are not unique to MEMS accelerometers. For any MEMS technology to be successful the packaging must provide the basic reliability and interconnection functions, adding the least possible cost to the product. This paper will discuss the evolution of MEMS packaging in the accelerometer industry and identify the main issues that needed to be addressed to enable the successful commercialization of the technology in the automotive and consumer markets.

  4. A Systematic Scheme for Multiple Access in Ethernet Passive Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Maode; Zhu, Yongqing; Hiang Cheng, Tee

    2005-11-01

    While backbone networks have experienced substantial changes in the last decade, access networks have not changed much. Recently, passive optical networks (PONs) seem to be ready for commercial deployment as access networks, due to the maturity of a number of enabling technologies. Among the PON technologies, Ethernet PON (EPON) standardized by the IEEE 802.3ah Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM) Task Force is the most attractive one because of its high speed, low cost, familiarity, interoperability, and low overhead. In this paper, we consider the issue of upstream channel sharing in the EPONs. We propose a novel multiple-access control scheme to provide bandwidth-guaranteed service for high-demand customers, while providing best effort service to low-demand customers according to the service level agreement (SLA). The analytical and simulation results prove that the proposed scheme performs best in what it is designed to do compared to another well-known scheme that has not considered providing differentiated services. With business customers preferring premium services with guaranteed bandwidth and residential users preferring low-cost best effort services, our scheme could benefit both groups of subscribers, as well as the operators.

  5. Industry survey of space system cost benefits from New Ways Of Doing Business

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosmait, Russell L.

    1992-01-01

    The cost of designing, building and operating space system hardware has always been expensive. Small quantities of specialty parts escalate engineering design, production and operations cost. Funding cutbacks and shrinking revenues dictate aggressive cost saving programs. NASA's highest priority is providing economical transportation to and from space. Over the past three decades NASA has seen technological advances that provide grater efficiencies in designing, building, and operating of space system hardware. As future programs such as NLS, LUTE and SEI begin, these greater efficiencies and cost savings should be reflected in the cost models. There are several New Ways Of Doing Business (NWODB) which, when fully implemented will reduce space system costs. These philosophies and/or culture changes are integrated in five areas: (1) More Extensive Pre-Phase C/D & E, (2) Multi Year Funding Stability, (3) Improved Quality, Management and Procurement Processes, (4) Advanced Design Methods, and (5) Advanced Production Methods. Following is an overview of NWODB and the Cost Quantification Analysis results using an industry survey, one of the four quantification techniques used in the study. The NWODB Cost Quantification Analysis is a study performed at Marshall Space Flight Center by the Engineering Cost Group, Applied Research Incorporated and Pittsburg State University. This study took place over a period of four months in mid 1992. The purpose of the study was to identify potential NWODB which could lead to improved cost effectiveness within NASA and to quantify potential cost benefits that might accrue if these NWODB were implemented.

  6. Design and validation of a low cost, high-capacity weighing device for wheelchair users and bariatrics

    PubMed Central

    Sherrod, Brandon A.; Dew, Dustin A.; Rogers, Rebecca; Rimmer, James H.; Eberhardt, Alan W.

    2017-01-01

    Accessible high-capacity weighing scales are scarce in healthcare facilities, in part due to high device cost and weight. This shortage impairs weight monitoring and health maintenance for people with disabilities and/or morbid obesity. We conducted this study to design and validate a lighter, lower cost, high-capacity accessible weighing device. A prototype featuring 360 kg (800 lbs) weight capacity, a wheelchair-accessible ramp, and wireless data transmission was fabricated. Forty-five participants (20 standing, 20 manual wheelchair users, and 5 power wheelchair users) were weighed using the prototype and a calibrated scale. Participants were surveyed to assess perception of each weighing device and the weighing procedure. Weight measurements between devices demonstrated a strong linear correlation (R2=0.997) with absolute differences of 1.4±2.0% (mean±SD). Participant preference ratings showed no difference between devices. The prototype weighed 11 kg (38%) less than the next lightest high-capacity commercial device found by author survey. The prototype’s estimated commercial price range, $500–600, is approximately half the price of the least expensive commercial device found by author survey. Such low cost weighing devices may improve access to weighing instrumentation, which may in turn help eliminate current health disparities. Future work is needed to determine the feasibility of market transition. PMID:27450105

  7. Design and validation of a low cost, high-capacity weighing device for wheelchair users and bariatrics.

    PubMed

    Sherrod, Brandon A; Dew, Dustin A; Rogers, Rebecca; Rimmer, James H; Eberhardt, Alan W

    2017-01-01

    Accessible high-capacity weighing scales are scarce in healthcare facilities, in part due to high device cost and weight. This shortage impairs weight monitoring and health maintenance for people with disabilities and/or morbid obesity. We conducted this study to design and validate a lighter, lower cost, high-capacity accessible weighing device. A prototype featuring 360 kg (800 lbs) of weight capacity, a wheelchair-accessible ramp, and wireless data transmission was fabricated. Forty-five participants (20 standing, 20 manual wheelchair users, and five power wheelchair users) were weighed using the prototype and a calibrated scale. Participants were surveyed to assess perception of each weighing device and the weighing procedure. Weight measurements between devices demonstrated a strong linear correlation (R 2  = 0.997) with absolute differences of 1.4 ± 2.0% (mean±SD). Participant preference ratings showed no difference between devices. The prototype weighed 11 kg (38%) less than the next lightest high-capacity commercial device found by author survey. The prototype's estimated commercial price range, $500-$600, is approximately half the price of the least expensive commercial device found by author survey. Such low cost weighing devices may improve access to weighing instrumentation, which may in turn help eliminate current health disparities. Future work is needed to determine the feasibility of market transition.

  8. Research Opportunities in Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    Rocket propulsion determines the primary characteristics of any space vehicle; how fast and far it can go, its lifetime, and its capabilities. It is the primary factor in safety and reliability and the biggest cost driver. The extremes of heat and pressure produced by propulsion systems push the limits of materials used for manufacturing. Space travel is very unforgiving with little room for errors, and so many things can go wrong with these very complex systems. So we have to plan for failure and that makes it costly. But what is more exciting than the roar of a rocket blasting into space? By its nature the propulsion world is conservative. The stakes are so high at every launch, in terms of payload value or in human life, that to introduce new components to a working, qualified system is extremely difficult and costly. Every launch counts and no risks are tolerated, which leads to the space world's version of Catch-22:"You can't fly till you flown." The last big 'game changer' in propulsion was the use of liquid hydrogen as a fuel. No new breakthrough, low cost access to space system will be developed without new efficient propulsion systems. Because there is no large commercial market driving investment in propulsion, what propulsion research is done is sponsored by government funding agencies. A further difficulty in propulsion technology development is that there are so few new systems flying. There is little opportunity to evolve propulsion technologies and to update existing systems with results coming out of research as there is in, for example, the auto industry. The biggest hurdle to space exploration is getting off the ground. The launch phase will consume most of the energy required for any foreseeable space exploration mission. The fundamental physical energy requirements of escaping earth's gravity make it difficult. It takes 60,000 kJ to put a kilogram into an escape orbit. The vast majority (-97%) of the energy produced by a launch vehicle is used

  9. Space shuttle. [a transportation system for low orbit space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The space shuttle is discussed as a reusable space vehicle operated as a transportation system for space missions in low earth orbit. Space shuttle studies and operational capabilities are reported for potential missions indicating that about 38 percent are likely to be spacelab missions with the remainder being the replacement, revisit, or retrieval of automated spacecraft.

  10. Space system operations and support cost analysis using Markov chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit; Dean, Edwin B.; Moore, Arlene A.; Fairbairn, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the use of Markov chain process in probabilistic life cycle cost analysis and suggests further uses of the process as a design aid tool. A methodology is developed for estimating operations and support cost and expected life for reusable space transportation systems. Application of the methodology is demonstrated for the case of a hypothetical space transportation vehicle. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to explore the effects of uncertainty in key model inputs.

  11. A Robust, Low-Cost Virtual Archive for Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Vollmer, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Despite their expense tape silos are still often the only affordable option for petabytescale science data archives, particularly when other factors such as data reliability, floor space, power and cooling load are accounted for. However, the complexity, management software, hardware reliability and access latency of tape silos make online data storage ever more attractive. Drastic reductions in low-cost mass-market PC disk drivers help to make this more affordable (approx. 1$/GB), but are challenging to scale to the petabyte range and of questionable reliability for archival use, On the other hand, if much of the science archive could be "virtualized", i.e., produced on demand when requested by users, we would need store only a fraction of the data online, perhaps bringing an online-only system into in affordable range. Radiance data from the satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument provides a good opportunity for such a virtual archive: the raw data amount to 140 GB/day, but these are small relative to the 550 GB/day making up the radiance products. These data are routinely processed as inputs for geophysical parameter products and then archived on tape at the Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive (GES DAAC) for distributing to users. Virtualizing them would be an immediate and signifcant reduction in the amount of data being stored in the tape archives and provide more customizable products. A prototype of such a virtual archive is being developed to prove the concept and develop ways of incorporating the robustness that a science data archive requires.

  12. The cost of performance - A comparison of the space transportation main engine and the Space Shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barisa, B. B.; Flinchbaugh, G. D.; Zachary, A. T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper compares the cost of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) proposed by the Advanced Launch System Program. A brief description of the SSME and STME engines is presented, followed by a comparison of these engines that illustrates the impact of focusing on acceptable performance at minimum cost (as for the STME) or on maximum performance (as for the SSME). Several examples of cost reduction methods are presented.

  13. Why Atens Enjoy Enhanced Accessibility For Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent; Adamo, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    (SBDB), comprising 37.7% of known NEOs. Apollos have orbits crossing Earth's with periods greater than Earth's. An Apollo is therefore defined to have perihelion less than 1.017 AU and a greater than 1.0 AU. As of 2011.0 UT, Apollos numbered 4080 in the SBDB, comprising 53.9% of known NEOs. Atens have orbits crossing Earth's with periods less than Earth's. An Aten is therefore defined to have aphelion greater than 0.983 AU and a less than 1.0 AU. As of 2011.0 UT, Atens numbered 618 in the SBDB, comprising 8.2% of known NEOs. Atiras have orbits everywhere inferior to (inside of) Earth's. An Atira is therefore defined to have aphelion less than 0.983 AU. As of 2011.0 UT, Atiras numbered 11 in the SBDB, comprising 0.1% of known NEOs. It is no surprise that the largest n values are chiefly associated with Apollos and Atens. Because these orbits cross Earth's, distance to be covered in a given round trip mission time delta-t can be far less than is possible for Amors or Atiras . This delta-t or the sum of mission propulsive impulse magnitudes delta-v can more frequently be minimized to enhance NHATS compliance for Apollos and Atens than is generally the case for Amors and Atiras. A less intuitive trend in NHATS results is that Atens nearly outnumber the more numerous Apollos among the most compliant NEOs as measured by n. This trend is completely out of proportion to the degree Atens are represented among the known NEO population. A theory based on geocentric NEO dynamics is presented by this paper to explain why Atens enjoy inherently greater accessibility than do Apollos. Another trend evident from mapping into (a, e, i) space is the dearth of known NEOs at low e when a < 1 AU. Underrepresentation of Atens and Atiras in the NEO catalog is at least in part attributable to observing exclusively from a perspective near Earth. Generally inferior Aten and Atira orbits are rarely, if ever, in Earth's night sky. Until a comprehensive NEO survey is conducted from an

  14. “You can get there from here”: Advanced low cost propulsion concepts for small satellites beyond LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Adam M.; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Schaffner, Jake; Sweeting, Martin

    2005-07-01

    Small satellites have historically been forced to use low cost propulsion, or to do without in order to maintain low cost. Since 1999 an increasing number of SSTL's customers have demanded the capability to precisely position and subsequently manoeuvre their satellites, driven largely by the current attraction of small satellite constellations such as Disaster Monitoring (DMC), which require propulsion for launcher injection error correction, drag compensation, constellation phasing and proximity manoeuvring and rendezvous. SSTL has successfully flight qualified a simple, low cost propulsion system based on a low power (15-100 W) resistojet employing green propellants such as butane and xenon, and demonstrated key constellation manoeuvres. The system is capable of up to 60 m/s deltaV and will be described here. The SSTL low power resistojet is however limited by a low Isp ( ˜50s for Xenon in the present design, and ˜100s with nitrogen and butane) and a slow reaction time ( 10min warm-up required). An increasing desire to apply small satellite technology to high deltaV missions while retaining the low cost aspect demands new solutions. 'Industry standard' solutions based on cryogenic propulsion, or toxic, carcinogenic storable propellants such as hydrazine/nitrogen oxides combination are not favourable for small satellite missions developed within SSTL's low cost engineering environment. This paper describes a number of strawman missions with high deltaV and/or precision manoeuvring requirements and some low cost propulsion solutions which have been explored at the Surrey Space Centre to meet future needs: Deployment of a complex constellation of nano- or pico-satellites from a secondary launch to a new orbit. The S3TV concept has been developed to allow deployment up to 12 payloads from an 'off-the-shelf' thrust tube, using a restartable nitrous oxide hybrid engine, operating in a dual mode with resistojets for attitude control. Orbit transfer of an enhanced

  15. Method: low-cost delivery of the cotton leaf crumple virus-induced gene silencing system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously developed a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vector for cotton from the bipartite geminivirusCotton leaf crumple virus (CLCrV). The original CLCrV VIGS vector was designed for biolistic delivery by a gene gun. This prerequisite limited the use of the system to labs with access to biolistic equipment. Here we describe the adaptation of this system for delivery by Agrobacterium (Agrobacterium tumefaciens). We also describe the construction of two low-cost particle inflow guns. Results The biolistic CLCrV vector was transferred into two Agrobacterium binary plasmids. Agroinoculation of the binary plasmids into cotton resulted in silencing and GFP expression comparable to the biolistic vector. Two homemade low-cost gene guns were used to successfully inoculate cotton (G. hirsutum) and N. benthamiana with either the CLCrV VIGS vector or the Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) VIGS vector respectively. Conclusions These innovations extend the versatility of CLCrV-based VIGS for analyzing gene function in cotton. The two low-cost gene guns make VIGS experiments affordable for both research and teaching labs by providing a working alternative to expensive commercial gene guns. PMID:22853641

  16. Low-cost satellite mechanical design and construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisjolie-Gair, Nathaniel; Straub, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a discussion of techniques for low-cost design and construction of a CubeSat mechanical structure that can serve as a basis for academic programs and a starting point for government, military and commercial large-scale sensing networks, where the cost of each node must be minimized to facilitate system affordability and lower the cost and associated risk of losing any node. Spacecraft Design plays a large role in manufacturability. An intentionally simplified mechanical design is presented which reduces machining costs, as compared to more intricate designs that were considered. Several fabrication approaches are evaluated relative to the low-cost goal.

  17. Effects of network node consolidation in optical access and aggregation networks on costs and power consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Christoph; Hülsermann, Ralf; Kosiankowski, Dirk; Geilhardt, Frank; Gladisch, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The increasing demand for higher bit rates in access networks requires fiber deployment closer to the subscriber resulting in fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) access networks. Besides higher access bit rates optical access network infrastructure and related technologies enable the network operator to establish larger service areas resulting in a simplified network structure with a lower number of network nodes. By changing the network structure network operators want to benefit from a changed network cost structure by decreasing in short and mid term the upfront investments for network equipment due to concentration effects as well as by reducing the energy costs due to a higher energy efficiency of large network sites housing a high amount of network equipment. In long term also savings in operational expenditures (OpEx) due to the closing of central office (CO) sites are expected. In this paper different architectures for optical access networks basing on state-of-the-art technology are analyzed with respect to network installation costs and power consumption in the context of access node consolidation. Network planning and dimensioning results are calculated for a realistic network scenario of Germany. All node consolidation scenarios are compared against a gigabit capable passive optical network (GPON) based FTTH access network operated from the conventional CO sites. The results show that a moderate reduction of the number of access nodes may be beneficial since in that case the capital expenditures (CapEx) do not rise extraordinarily and savings in OpEx related to the access nodes are expected. The total power consumption does not change significantly with decreasing number of access nodes but clustering effects enable a more energyefficient network operation and optimized power purchase order quantities leading to benefits in energy costs.

  18. Low-cost rural surface alternatives : tech transfer summary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-12-01

    Freezing-thawing action induces physical changes to granular surface : roads that can negatively impact public users, reduce emergency : responder access/time, and result in maintenance costs for secondary : road departments. Stabilization can help r...

  19. Preliminary Multi-Variable Parametric Cost Model for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hendrichs, Todd

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews creating a preliminary multi-variable cost model for the contract costs of making a space telescope. There is discussion of the methodology for collecting the data, definition of the statistical analysis methodology, single variable model results, testing of historical models and an introduction of the multi variable models.

  20. Open-Access, Low-Magnetic-Field MRI System for Lung Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, Ross W.; Rosen, Matthew S.; Tsai, Leo L.; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Patz, Samuel; Ruset, Iullian C.; Hersman, F. William

    2009-01-01

    An open-access magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system is being developed for use in research on orientational/gravitational effects on lung physiology and function. The open-access geometry enables study of human subjects in diverse orientations. This system operates at a magnetic flux density, considerably smaller than the flux densities of typical other MRI systems, that can be generated by resistive electromagnet coils (instead of the more-expensive superconducting coils of the other systems). The human subject inhales air containing He-3 or Xe-129 atoms, the nuclear spins of which have been polarized by use of a laser beam to obtain a magnetic resonance that enables high-resolution gas space imaging at the low applied magnetic field. The system includes a bi-planar, constant-current, four-coil electromagnet assembly and associated electronic circuitry to apply a static magnetic field of 6.5 mT throughout the lung volume; planar coils and associated circuitry to apply a pulsed magnetic-field-gradient for each spatial dimension; a single, detachable radio-frequency coil and associated circuitry for inducing and detecting MRI signals; a table for supporting a horizontal subject; and electromagnetic shielding surrounding the electromagnet coils.

  1. A Collaborative Approach for Providing Low-Cost ELF Monitoring from Ground and Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleier, T. E.; Franklin, L.

    2003-12-01

    This paper describes a collaborative effort among several groups, including a small business (QuakeFinder,LLC), dozens of high schools in northern California, several universities (Stanford and Cal Poly SLO), and Lockheed Martin in Sunnyvale to build a combined ground-based and space-based ELF monitoring system. The goal is to monitor and characterize the raw RF spectrum in the ELF band, and to look for pre- and post-earthquake signatures. Previous attempts at monitoring ELF signals associated with earthquakes have always been summarized with the statement, more data is needed. QuakeFinder is a small business that approached the problem with a different strategy. Rather than deploy a few, expensive, commercial high sensitivity, AC magnetometers on the ground, a collaboration was formed with high school physics classes to build a large number of medium sensitivity magnetometers from partially-assembled kits, and to deploy these sensors in a close spacing along the major California earthquake faults. The strategy was to have a 3-axis ELF ground monitor within 15 km of any large (>M5) quake-- before, during, and after the event. To date, 34 sites have been deployed (out of 50 planned), and they now collect and display daily averages from these 3-axis monitors on a web site (www.earthquaketracker.com). Likewise, satellite-based monitoring is severely restricted by the high cost of building and flying space-based ELF monitors. QuakeFinder formed a collaboration between Stanford Space System Development Laboratory and Lockheed Martin to design and build a nano-satellite (4.5 kg) whose mission was to collect ELF background signatures. QuakeFinder built and donated a single axis ELF (1-1000Hz) magnetometer payload and provided integration and a launch opportunity for "QuakeSat I". The satellite was launched on June 30, 2003 into a 820 km circular polar orbit, and has recorded natural signals (lightning, whistlers, auroral noise, and several unidentified signatures) as well

  2. Cost-effectiveness of Increasing Access to Contraception during the Zika Virus Outbreak, Puerto Rico, 2016.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Simmons, Katharine B; Bertolli, Jeanne; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda; Cox, Shanna; Romero, Lisa; Koonin, Lisa M; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Bracero, Nabal; Jamieson, Denise J; Barfield, Wanda; Moore, Cynthia A; Mai, Cara T; Korhonen, Lauren C; Frey, Meghan T; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Torres-Muñoz, Ricardo; Grosse, Scott D

    2017-01-01

    We modeled the potential cost-effectiveness of increasing access to contraception in Puerto Rico during a Zika virus outbreak. The intervention is projected to cost an additional $33.5 million in family planning services and is likely to be cost-saving for the healthcare system overall. It could reduce Zika virus-related costs by $65.2 million ($2.8 million from less Zika virus testing and monitoring and $62.3 million from avoided costs of Zika virus-associated microcephaly [ZAM]). The estimates are influenced by the contraception methods used, the frequency of ZAM, and the lifetime incremental cost of ZAM. Accounting for unwanted pregnancies that are prevented, irrespective of Zika virus infection, an additional $40.4 million in medical costs would be avoided through the intervention. Increasing contraceptive access for women who want to delay or avoid pregnancy in Puerto Rico during a Zika virus outbreak can substantially reduce the number of cases of ZAM and healthcare costs.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of Increasing Access to Contraception during the Zika Virus Outbreak, Puerto Rico, 2016

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Katharine B.; Bertolli, Jeanne; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda; Cox, Shanna; Romero, Lisa; Koonin, Lisa M.; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Bracero, Nabal; Jamieson, Denise J.; Barfield, Wanda; Moore, Cynthia A.; Mai, Cara T.; Korhonen, Lauren C.; Frey, Meghan T.; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Torres-Muñoz, Ricardo; Grosse, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    We modeled the potential cost-effectiveness of increasing access to contraception in Puerto Rico during a Zika virus outbreak. The intervention is projected to cost an additional $33.5 million in family planning services and is likely to be cost-saving for the healthcare system overall. It could reduce Zika virus–related costs by $65.2 million ($2.8 million from less Zika virus testing and monitoring and $62.3 million from avoided costs of Zika virus–associated microcephaly [ZAM]). The estimates are influenced by the contraception methods used, the frequency of ZAM, and the lifetime incremental cost of ZAM. Accounting for unwanted pregnancies that are prevented, irrespective of Zika virus infection, an additional $40.4 million in medical costs would be avoided through the intervention. Increasing contraceptive access for women who want to delay or avoid pregnancy in Puerto Rico during a Zika virus outbreak can substantially reduce the number of cases of ZAM and healthcare costs. PMID:27805547

  4. A General Purpose Experiment Controller for low cost Space Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman-Garcia, D.; Rowland, D. E.; Uribe, P.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.

    2012-12-01

    Space activities are very expensive and include a high degree of risk. Nowadays, CubeSat missions represent a fast and inexpensive way to conduct scientific space research. These platforms are less expensive to develop and build than conventional satellites. There are ample demonstration that these platforms are well suited for a wide range of science missions in different fields, such as astrobiology, astronomy, atmospheric science, space weather and biology. This paper presents a hybrid "processor in an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)" experiment/spacecraft controller for Cubesat missions. The system has two objectives, first is to obtain a multipurpose and easily customizable system aimed at processing the data from the widest kind of instruments and second, to provide the system with the highest processing capabilities in order to be able to perform complex onboard algorithms. Due to the versatility of the system and its reduced dimensions, it can be employed in different space platforms. The system is envisioned to be employed for the first time as the smart radio receiver for the upcoming NASA FireStation instrument. It is one of four experiments manifested to fly on an experiment pallet the U.S Department of Defense plans to deploy on the International Space Station in 2013. FireStation will continue analyzing the link between the Lightning and the Terrestrial Gamma Rays initiated by the FireFly Cubesat. The system is responsible for the management of a set of small Heliophysics instrumentats, including a photometer, magnetometer, and electric and magnetic field antennas. A description of the system architecture and its main features are presented. The main functional and performance tests during the integration and calibration phase of the instruments are also discussed.

  5. Using low-cost drones to map malaria vector habitats.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Andy; Makame, Makame; Cross, Dónall; Majambere, Silas; Msellem, Mwinyi

    2017-01-14

    There is a growing awareness that if we are to achieve the ambitious goal of malaria elimination, we must compliment indoor-based vector control interventions (such as bednets and indoor spraying) with outdoor-based interventions such as larval source management (LSM). The effectiveness of LSM is limited by our capacity to identify and map mosquito aquatic habitats. This study provides a proof of concept for the use of a low-cost (< $1000) drone (DJI Phantom) for mapping water bodies in seven sites across Zanzibar including natural water bodies, irrigated and non-irrigated rice paddies, peri-urban and urban locations. With flying times of less than 30 min for each site, high-resolution (7 cm) georeferenced images were successfully generated for each of the seven sites, covering areas up to 30 ha. Water bodies were readily identifiable in the imagery, as well as ancillary information for planning LSM activities (access routes to water bodies by road and foot) and public health management (e.g. identification of drinking water sources, mapping individual households and the nature of their construction). The drone-based surveys carried out in this study provide a low-cost and flexible solution to mapping water bodies for operational dissemination of LSM initiatives in mosquito vector-borne disease elimination campaigns. Generated orthomosaics can also be used to provide vital information for other public health planning activities.

  6. Scopes for Schools: A Low-Cost Model for Bringing Hands-On Astronomy to the K-12 Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, K. G.; Lattis, J.

    1999-12-01

    We present a low-cost, field-tested model for astronomy and space-related outreach aimed at minority and under-serviced populations at the middle-school and high-school levels. The model centers around the creation of an extracurricular astronomy ``club" at a middle school or high school, and an in-service training activity for teachers who will serve as club leaders. Students in the club engage in two hands-on activities: telescope-building and model rocketry. Implementation of the model requires a time investment of 1--2 hours per week over the course of one school year. The primary end products are (1) an ongoing extracurricular school club with trained teacher-leaders, (2) a set of portable Dobsonian telescopes for night-time sky-viewing sessions performed by the club as a service to the community, and (3) basic materials for continued model-rocketry activities. In its ideal implementation, the model brings together teachers and amateur astronomers in a lasting partnership. A specific example for funding an outreach program based on this model is presented. This outreach development was funded by a Special Initiatives outreach grant from the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium, and by the UW-Madison College Access Program. Additional support was provided by Madison's amateur astronomy organization, the Madison Astronomical Society.

  7. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-02-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  8. Low-cost high performance distributed data storage for multi-channel observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying-bo; Wang, Feng; Deng, Hui; Ji, Kai-fan; Dai, Wei; Wei, Shou-lin; Liang, Bo; Zhang, Xiao-li

    2015-10-01

    The New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) is a 1-m solar telescope that aims to observe the fine structures in both the photosphere and the chromosphere of the Sun. The observational data acquired simultaneously from one channel for the chromosphere and two channels for the photosphere bring great challenges to the data storage of NVST. The multi-channel instruments of NVST, including scientific cameras and multi-band spectrometers, generate at least 3 terabytes data per day and require high access performance while storing massive short-exposure images. It is worth studying and implementing a storage system for NVST which would balance the data availability, access performance and the cost of development. In this paper, we build a distributed data storage system (DDSS) for NVST and then deeply evaluate the availability of real-time data storage on a distributed computing environment. The experimental results show that two factors, i.e., the number of concurrent read/write and the file size, are critically important for improving the performance of data access on a distributed environment. Referring to these two factors, three strategies for storing FITS files are presented and implemented to ensure the access performance of the DDSS under conditions of multi-host write and read simultaneously. The real applications of the DDSS proves that the system is capable of meeting the requirements of NVST real-time high performance observational data storage. Our study on the DDSS is the first attempt for modern astronomical telescope systems to store real-time observational data on a low-cost distributed system. The research results and corresponding techniques of the DDSS provide a new option for designing real-time massive astronomical data storage system and will be a reference for future astronomical data storage.

  9. SpaceCube Mini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Michael; Petrick, David; Geist, Alessandro; Flatley, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This version of the SpaceCube will be a full-fledged, onboard space processing system capable of 2500+ MIPS, and featuring a number of plug-andplay gigabit and standard interfaces, all in a condensed 3x3x3 form factor [less than 10 watts and less than 3 lb (approximately equal to 1.4 kg)]. The main processing engine is the Xilinx SIRF radiation- hardened-by-design Virtex-5 FX-130T field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Even as the SpaceCube 2.0 version (currently under test) is being targeted as the platform of choice for a number of the upcoming Earth Science Decadal Survey missions, GSFC has been contacted by customers who wish to see a system that incorporates key features of the version 2.0 architecture in an even smaller form factor. In order to fulfill that need, the SpaceCube Mini is being designed, and will be a very compact and low-power system. A similar flight system with this combination of small size, low power, low cost, adaptability, and extremely high processing power does not otherwise exist, and the SpaceCube Mini will be of tremendous benefit to GSFC and its partners. The SpaceCube Mini will utilize space-grade components. The primary processing engine of the Mini is the Xilinx Virtex-5 SIRF FX-130T radiation-hardened-by-design FPGA for critical flight applications in high-radiation environments. The Mini can also be equipped with a commercial Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA with integrated PowerPCs for a low-cost, high-power computing platform for use in the relatively radiation- benign LEOs (low-Earth orbits). In either case, this version of the Space-Cube will weigh less than 3 pounds (.1.4 kg), conform to the CubeSat form-factor (10x10x10 cm), and will be low power (less than 10 watts for typical applications). The SpaceCube Mini will have a radiation-hardened Aeroflex FPGA for configuring and scrubbing the Xilinx FPGA by utilizing the onboard FLASH memory to store the configuration files. The FLASH memory will also be used for storing algorithm and

  10. Neighbourhood access to open spaces and the physical activity of residents: a national study.

    PubMed

    Witten, Karen; Hiscock, Rosemary; Pearce, Jamie; Blakely, Tony

    2008-09-01

    Increasing population levels of physical activity is high on the health agenda in many countries. There is some evidence that neighbourhood access to public open space can increase physical activity by providing easier and more direct access to opportunities for exercise. This national study examines the relationship between travel time access to parks and beaches, BMI and physical activity in New Zealand neighbourhoods. Access to parks and beaches, measured in minutes taken by a car, was calculated for 38,350 neighbourhoods nationally using Geographic Information Systems. Multilevel regression analyses were used to establish the significance of access to these recreational amenities as a predictor of BMI, and levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the 12,529 participants, living in 1178 neighbourhoods, of the New Zealand Health Survey 2002/3. Neighbourhood access to parks was not associated with BMI, sedentary behaviour or physical activity, after controlling for individual-level socio-economic variables, and neighbourhood-level deprivation and urban/rural status. There was some evidence of a relationship between beach access and BMI and physical activity in the expected direction. This study found little evidence of an association between locational access to open spaces and physical activity.

  11. Aviation or space policy: New challenges for the insurance sector to private human access to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oijhuizen Galhego Rosa, Ana Cristina

    2013-12-01

    The phenomenon of private human access to space has introduced a new set of problems in the insurance sector. Orbital and suborbital space transportation will surely be unique commercial services for this new market. Discussions are under way regarding space insurance, in order to establish whether this new market ought to be regulated by aviation or space law. Alongside new definitions, infrastructures, legal frameworks and liability insurances, the insurance sector has also been introducing a new approach. In this paper, I aim to analyse some of the possibilities of new premiums, capacities, and policies (under aviation or space insurance rules), as well as the new insurance products related to vehicles, passengers and third party liability. This paper claims that a change toward new insurance regimes is crucial, due to the current stage in development of space tourism and the urgency to adapt insurance rules to support future development in this area.

  12. Cost prediction model for various payloads and instruments for the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, F. E.

    1984-01-01

    The following cost parameters of the space shuttle were undertaken: (1) to develop a cost prediction model for various payload classes of instruments and experiments for the Space Shuttle Orbiter; and (2) to show the implications of various payload classes on the cost of: reliability analysis, quality assurance, environmental design requirements, documentation, parts selection, and other reliability enhancing activities.

  13. Utilizing time-driven activity-based costing to understand the short- and long-term costs of treating localized, low-risk prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Laviana, Aaron A; Ilg, Annette M; Veruttipong, Darlene; Tan, Hung-Jui; Burke, Michael A; Niedzwiecki, Douglas R; Kupelian, Patrick A; King, Chris R; Steinberg, Michael L; Kundavaram, Chandan R; Kamrava, Mitchell; Kaplan, Alan L; Moriarity, Andrew K; Hsu, William; Margolis, Daniel J A; Hu, Jim C; Saigal, Christopher S

    2016-02-01

    Given the costs of delivering care for men with prostate cancer remain poorly described, this article reports the results of time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) for competing treatments of low-risk prostate cancer. Process maps were developed for each phase of care from the initial urologic visit through 12 years of follow-up for robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), cryotherapy, high-dose rate (HDR) and low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), and active surveillance (AS). The last modality incorporated both traditional transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsy and multiparametric-MRI/TRUS fusion biopsy. The costs of materials, equipment, personnel, and space were calculated per unit of time and based on the relative proportion of capacity used. TDABC for each treatment was defined as the sum of its resources. Substantial cost variation was observed at 5 years, with costs ranging from $7,298 for AS to $23,565 for IMRT, and they remained consistent through 12 years of follow-up. LDR brachytherapy ($8,978) was notably cheaper than HDR brachytherapy ($11,448), and SBRT ($11,665) was notably cheaper than IMRT, with the cost savings attributable to shorter procedure times and fewer visits required for treatment. Both equipment costs and an inpatient stay ($2,306) contributed to the high cost of RALP ($16,946). Cryotherapy ($11,215) was more costly than LDR brachytherapy, largely because of increased single-use equipment costs ($6,292 vs $1,921). AS reached cost equivalence with LDR brachytherapy after 7 years of follow-up. The use of TDABC is feasible for analyzing cancer services and provides insights into cost-reduction tactics in an era focused on emphasizing value. By detailing all steps from diagnosis and treatment through 12 years of follow-up for low-risk prostate cancer, this study has demonstrated significant cost variation between competing treatments. © 2015

  14. Landslide monitoring using Geocubes, a wireless network of low-cost GPS receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Lionel; Thom, Christian; Martin, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    Many geophysical structures such as landslides, glaciers or even volcanoes are features characterized by small extend area and deformation rate in the order of 1 to 10cm per day. Their study needs ever more accurate positioning data with an increased space and time resolution. Using an ublox LEA-6T GPS receiver, the French national mapping agency IGN developed its own wireless multi-sensor geo-monitoring system named Geocube. The basic device is equipped with a GPS and a wireless communication media and can be completed with various sensor modules such as meteorological sensors, ground humidity and pressure or seismograph. Due to the low cost of each receiver, spatial dense surveying networks are deployed. Data are then continuously collected and transmitted to a processing computer in real-time as well as saved in situ on a Micro-SD card. Among them, raw GPS carrier phase data give access to real-time accurate relative positioning on all mesh nodes if small baselines are used. In order to achieve a high accuracy, a dedicated GPS data processing method based on a Kalman filter is proposed. It allows an epoch by epoch positioning providing a high time resolution. Special attention is paid on two points : adaptation to wireless networks of low-cost GPS and real-time ability. A first test of Geocubes usability under field conditions was carried out during summer 2012. A fifteen receivers network was deployed on the landslide of Super-Sauze (French Alps) for a two months trial. The experimental area, the deployed network and the acquisition protocol are presented. Position time series with a 30 seconds sampling rate are then derived from raw data for 10 mobile receivers on a forty days session. A sub-centimetric accuracy on an epoch by epoch positioning is reached despite difficult field conditions due to a 40° elevation mask in the south direction. Then, the measured deformations are compared with in situ rainfall measurements collected by a dedicated sensor added to

  15. Landslide monitoring using Geocubes, a wireless network of low-cost GPS receivers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Lionel; Thom, Christian; Martin, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    Many geophysical structures such as landslides, glaciers or even volcanoes are features characterized by small extend area and deformation rate in the order of 1 to 10cm per day. Their study needs ever more accurate positioning data with an increased space and time resolution. Using an Ublox LEA-6T GPS receiver, the French national mapping agency IGN developed its own wireless multi-sensor geo-monitoring system named Geocube. The basic device is equipped with a GPS and a wireless communication media and can be completed with various sensor modules such as meteorological sensors, ground humidity and pressure or seismograph. Due to the low cost of each receiver, spatial dense surveying networks are deployed. Data are then continuously collected and transmitted to a processing computer in real-time as well as saved in situ on a Micro-SD card. Among them, raw GPS carrier phase data give access to real-time accurate relative positioning on all mesh nodes if small baselines are used. In order to achieve a high accuracy, a dedicated GPS data processing method based on a Kalman filter is proposed. It allows an epoch by epoch positioning providing a high time resolution. Special attention is paid on two points : adaptation to wireless networks of low-cost GPS and real-time ability. A first test of Geocubes usability under field conditions was carried out during summer 2012. A fifteen receivers network was deployed on the landslide of Super-Sauze (French Alps) for a two months trial. The experimental area, the deployed network and the acquisition protocol are presented. Position time series with a 30 seconds sampling rate are then derived from raw data for 10 mobile receivers on a forty days session. A sub-centimetric accuracy on an epoch by epoch positioning is reached despite difficult field conditions due to a 40° elevation mask in the south direction. Then, the measured deformations are compared with in situ rainfall measurements collected by a dedicated sensor added to

  16. Patient costs associated with accessing HIV/AIDS care in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Andrew D; van Lettow, Monique; Rachlis, Beth; Chan, Adrienne K; Sodhi, Sumeet K

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The decentralization of HIV services has been shown to improve equity in access to care for the rural poor of sub-Saharan Africa. This study aims to contribute to our understanding of the impact of decentralization on costs borne by patients. Such information is valuable for economic evaluations of anti-retroviral therapy programmes that take a societal perspective. We compared costs reported by patients who received care in an urban centralized programme to those in the same district who received care through rural decentralized care (DC). Methods A cross-sectional survey on patient characteristics and costs associated with accessing HIV care was conducted, in May 2010, on 120 patients in centralized care (CC) at a tertiary referral hospital and 120 patients in DC at five rural health centres in Zomba District, Malawi. Differences in costs borne by each group were compared using χ2 and t-tests, and a regression model was developed to adjust for confounders, using bootstrapping to address skewed cost data. Results There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to sex and age. However, there were significant differences in socio-economic status, with higher educational attainment (p<0.001), personal income (p=0.007) and household income per person (p=0.005) in CC. Travel times were similar (p=0.65), as was time waiting at the clinic (p=0.63) and total time spent seeking care (p=0.65). There was a significant difference in travel-related expenses (p<0.001) related to the type of travel participants noted that they used. In CC, 60% of participants reported using a mini-bus to reach the clinic; in DC only 4% reported using a mini-bus, and the remainder reported travelling on foot or by bicycle. There were no significant differences between the groups in the amount of lost income reported or other out-of-pocket costs. Approximately 91 Malawi Kwacha (95% confidence intervals: 1–182 MKW) or US$0.59 represents the adjusted difference in

  17. NASA Affordable Vehicle Avionics (AVA): Common Modular Avionics System for Nano-Launchers Offering Affordable Access to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James

    2015-01-01

    Small satellites are becoming ever more capable of performing valuable missions for both government and commercial customers. However, currently these satellites can only be launched affordably as secondary payloads. This makes it difficult for the small satellite mission to launch when needed, to the desired orbit, and with acceptable risk. NASA Ames Research Center has developed and tested a prototype low-cost avionics package for space launch vehicles that provides complete GNC functionality in a package smaller than a tissue box with a mass less than 0.84 kg. AVA takes advantage of commercially available, low-cost, mass-produced, miniaturized sensors, filtering their more noisy inertial data with realtime GPS data. The goal of the Advanced Vehicle Avionics project is to produce and flight-verify a common suite of avionics and software that deliver affordable, capable GNC and telemetry avionics with application to multiple nano-launch vehicles at 1 the cost of current state-of-the-art avionics.

  18. High data rate modem simulation for the space station multiple-access communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    The communications system for the space station will require a space based multiple access component to provide communications between the space based program elements and the station. A study was undertaken to investigate two of the concerns of this multiple access system, namely, the issues related to the frequency spectrum utilization and the possibilities for higher order (than QPSK) modulation schemes for use in possible modulators and demodulators (modems). As a result of the investigation, many key questions about the frequency spectrum utilization were raised. At this point, frequency spectrum utilization is seen as an area requiring further work. Simulations were conducted using a computer aided communications system design package to provide a straw man modem structure to be used for both QPSK and 8-PSK channels.

  19. Balancing low cost with reliable operation in the rotordynamic design of the ALS Liquid Hydrogen Fuel Turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhill, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Air Force/NASA Advanced Launch System (ALS) Liquid Hydrogen Fuel Turbopump (FTP) has primary design goals of low cost and high reliability, with performance and weight having less importance. This approach is atypical compared with other rocket engine turbopump design efforts, such as on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), which emphasized high performance and low weight. Similar to the SSME turbopumps, the ALS FTP operates supercritically, which implies that stability and bearing loads strongly influence the design. In addition, the use of low cost/high reliability features in the ALS FTP such as hydrostatic bearings, relaxed seal clearances, and unshrouded turbine blades also have a negative influence on rotordynamics. This paper discusses the analysis conducted to achieve a balance between low cost and acceptable rotordynamic behavior, to ensure that the ALS FTP will operate reliably without subsynchronous instabilities or excessive bearing loads.

  20. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is designed to develop and demonstrate relevant, low-cost, low-burden monitoring strategies that could be used in large longitudinal exposure/epidemiological studies, such as the National Children's Study. The focus of this study is on (1) recruiting and retaining p...

  1. Orbiter processing facility: Access platforms Kennedy Space Center, Florida, from challenge to achievement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haratunian, M.

    1985-01-01

    A system of access platforms and equipment within the space shuttle orbiter processing facility at Kennedy Space Center is described. The design challenges of the platforms, including clearance envelopes, load criteria, and movement, are discussed. Various applications of moveable platforms are considered.

  2. Specific Space Transportation Costs to GEO - Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.

    2002-01-01

    The largest share of space missions is going to the Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO); they have the highest commercial importance. The paper first shows the historic trend of specific transportation costs to GEO from 1963 to 2002. It started out with more than 500 000 /kg(2002-value) and has come down to 36 000 /kg. This reduction looks impressive, however, the reason is NOT improved technology or new techniques but solely the growth of GEO payloads`unit mass. The first GEO satellite in 1963 did have a mass of 36 kg mass (BoL) . This has grown to a weight of 1600 kg (average of all GEO satellites) in the year 2000. Mass in GEO after injection is used here instead of GTO mass since the GTO mass depends on the launch site latitude. The specific cost reduction is only due to the "law-of-scale", valid in the whole transportation business: the larger the payload, the lower the specific transportation cost. The paper shows the actual prices of launch services to GTO by the major launch vehicles. Finally the potential GEO transportation costs of future launch systems are evaluated. What is the potential reduction of specific transportation costs if reusable elements are introduced in future systems ? Examples show that cost reductions up to 75 % seem achievable - compared to actual costs - but only with launch systems optimized according to modern principles of cost engineering. 1. 53rd International Astronautical Congress, World Space Congress Houston 2. First Submission 3. Specific Space Transportation Costs to GEO - Past, Present and Future 4. KOELLE, D.E. 5. IAA.1.1 Launch Vehicles' Cost Engineering and Economic Competitiveness 6. D.E. Koelle; A.E. Goldstein 7. One overhead projector and screen 8. Word file attached 9. KOELLE I have approval to attend the Congress. I am not willing to present this paper at the IAC Public Outreach Program.

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

  4. Volumetric calculation using low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, A. A. Ab; Maulud, K. N. Abdul; Mohd, F. A.; Jaafar, O.; Tahar, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) technology has evolved dramatically in the 21st century. It is used by both military and general public for recreational purposes and mapping work. Operating cost for UAV is much cheaper compared to that of normal aircraft and it does not require a large work space. The UAV systems have similar functions with the LIDAR and satellite images technologies. These systems require a huge cost, labour and time consumption to produce elevation and dimension data. Measurement of difficult objects such as water tank can also be done by using UAV. The purpose of this paper is to show the capability of UAV to compute the volume of water tank based on a different number of images and control points. The results were compared with the actual volume of the tank to validate the measurement. In this study, the image acquisition was done using Phantom 3 Professional, which is a low cost UAV. The analysis in this study is based on different volume computations using two and four control points with variety set of UAV images. The results show that more images will provide a better quality measurement. With 95 images and four GCP, the error percentage to the actual volume is about 5%. Four controls are enough to get good results but more images are needed, estimated about 115 until 220 images. All in all, it can be concluded that the low cost UAV has a potential to be used for volume of water and dimension measurement.

  5. Barriers to accessing low vision services.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Tamara L; Simpson, John A; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Keeffe, Jill E

    2003-07-01

    To investigate barriers to accessing low vision services in Australia. Adults with a vision impairment (<6/12 in the better eye and/or significant visual field defect), who were current patients at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital (RVEEH), were interviewed. The questions investigated self-perceived vision difficulties, duration of vision loss and satisfaction with vision and also examined issues of awareness of low vision services and referral to services. Focus groups were also conducted with vision impaired (<6/12 in the better eye) patients from the RVEEH, listeners of the Radio for the Print Handicapped and peer workers at Vision Australia Foundation. The discussions were recorded and transcribed. The questionnaire revealed that referral to low vision services was associated with a greater degree of vision loss (p = 0.002) and a greater self-perception of low vision (p = 0.005) but that referral was not associated with satisfaction (p = 0.144) or difficulties related to vision (p = 0.169). Participants with mild and moderate vision impairment each reported similar levels of difficulties with daily activities and satisfaction with their vision (p > 0.05). However, there was a significant difference in the level of difficulties experienced with daily activities between those with mild-moderate and severe vision impairment (p < 0.05). The participants of the focus groups identified barriers to accessing low vision services related to awareness of services among the general public and eye care professionals, understanding of low vision and the services available, acceptance of low vision, the referral process, and transport. In addition to the expected difficulties with lack of awareness of services by people with low vision, many people do not understand what the services provide and do not identify themselves as having low vision. Knowledge of these barriers, from the perspective of people with low vision, can now be used to guide the development and

  6. Low-Cost III-V Solar Cells | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Low-Cost III-V Solar Cells Low-Cost III-V Solar Cells At present, the cost of III-V solar cells is to drastically lower the cost of these devices, while maintaining their conversion efficiency, thus costs in the production of high-efficiency III-V devices: the cost of the epitaxy and the single-crystal

  7. Method for Controlling Space Transportation System Life Cycle Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Bartine, David E.

    2006-01-01

    A structured, disciplined methodology is required to control major cost-influencing metrics of space transportation systems during design and continuing through the test and operations phases. This paper proposes controlling key space system design metrics that specifically influence life cycle costs. These are inclusive of flight and ground operations, test, and manufacturing and infrastructure. The proposed technique builds on today's configuration and mass properties control techniques and takes on all the characteristics of a classical control system. While the paper does not lay out a complete math model, key elements of the proposed methodology are explored and explained with both historical and contemporary examples. Finally, the paper encourages modular design approaches and technology investments compatible with the proposed method.

  8. Technology Estimating 2: A Process to Determine the Cost and Schedule of Space Technology Research and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Stuart K.; Wallace, Jon; Schaffer, Mark; May, M. Scott; Greenberg, Marc W.

    2014-01-01

    As a leader in space technology research and development, NASA is continuing in the development of the Technology Estimating process, initiated in 2012, for estimating the cost and schedule of low maturity technology research and development, where the Technology Readiness Level is less than TRL 6. NASA' s Technology Roadmap areas consist of 14 technology areas. The focus of this continuing Technology Estimating effort included four Technology Areas (TA): TA3 Space Power and Energy Storage, TA4 Robotics, TA8 Instruments, and TA12 Materials, to confine the research to the most abundant data pool. This research report continues the development of technology estimating efforts completed during 2013-2014, and addresses the refinement of parameters selected and recommended for use in the estimating process, where the parameters developed are applicable to Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) used in the parametric cost estimating analysis. This research addresses the architecture for administration of the Technology Cost and Scheduling Estimating tool, the parameters suggested for computer software adjunct to any technology area, and the identification of gaps in the Technology Estimating process.

  9. Low cost silicon solar cell array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, F. T. C.

    1974-01-01

    The technological options available for producing low cost silicon solar cell arrays were examined. A project value of approximately $250/sq m and $2/watt is projected, based on mass production capacity demand. Recommendations are included for the most promising cost reduction options.

  10. Low cost miniature data collection platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The development of the RF elements of a telecommunications package involved detailed study and analysis of concepts and techniques followed by laboratory testing and evaluation of designs. The design goals for a complete telecommunications package excluding antenna were a total weight of 300 grams, in a total volume of 400 cu cm with a capability of unattended operation for a period of six months. Of utmost importance is extremely low cost when produced in lots of 10,000. Early in the program it became apparent that a single Miniature Data Collection Platform would not satisfy all users. A single high efficiency system would not satisfy a user who had available a large battery capacity but required a low cost system. Conversely, the low cost system would not satisfy the end user who had a very limited battery capacity. A system design to satisfy these varied requirements was implemented by designing several versions of the system building blocks and then constructing three systems from these building blocks.

  11. Food access and cost in American Indian communities in Washington State.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Meghan; Buchwald, Dedra S; Duncan, Glen E

    2011-09-01

    Limited access to foods that make up a nutritious diet at minimal cost may influence eating behaviors and, ultimately, obesity. This study examined the number and type of food stores (convenience, grocery, supermarket) on federal reservations in Washington State, and the availability and cost of foods in the US Department of Agriculture Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit market basket, to describe the food environment of American Indians. Stores were identified by telephone survey of tribal headquarters, a commercial database, and on-site visitation. Foods were assessed using a standardized instrument containing 68 items in seven major food groups during April and May 2009. Store type and availability and cost of foods were recorded on a checklist. Fifty stores were identified on 22 American Indian reservations, including 25 convenience, 16 grocery, and 9 supermarkets. Across all stores, about 38% of checklist items were available, with supermarkets having the most and convenience stores the fewest. Foods from the dairy and sugars/sweets groups were the most prevalent, while fresh fruits/vegetables were the least. Cost of the most commonly available items was lowest in supermarkets. Seventeen reservations did not have a supermarket on their reservation, and the nearest off-reservation supermarket was about 10 miles from the tribe's headquarters, which was used as the standard for distance calculations. These results demonstrate that American Indians living on federal reservations in Washington State may have limited access to foods that make up a nutritious diet at minimal cost. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sharing Ideas: Making Earth and Space Science Accessible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runyon, C. J.; Guimond, K.; Atkinson, C.

    2005-12-01

    There are nearly six million K-12 students with some form of disability in the U.S. and the majority of them are required to achieve the same academic levels as their non-impaired peers. Historically, students with disabilities have experienced difficulties in fully accessing and participating in middle school and high school science programs. With the passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and increasing focus on reading and math performance, many students with exceptional needs are now being taught science by mainstream science teachers, who have little to no training on how to work with students with exceptional needs. For the past 5 years, SERCH has engaged in organizing and hosting a series of Exceptional Space Science Materials for Exceptional Students Workshops (ENWS) focused on educating students with special needs about the space sciences. Each workshop has focused on a different aspect of formal and informal education and working with the various special needs. In all of these workshops, participants experience what a person or student with special needs might encounter when working through educational activities or exhibits by experiencing it first-hand. In addition to making many of NASA's education materials accessible for all learners, a top-ten list of "best practices" has been compiled by the professional educators as a result of our working together for five years and their formal and informal educational experiences.

  13. The Association of Recreational Space with Youth Smoking in Low Socio-Economic Status Neighborhoods in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Sanhueza, Guillermo; Andrade, Fernando H.; Delva, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study examines the relationship of neighborhood recreational space with youth smoking in mid- to low- income areas in the capital of Chile, Santiago. Methods A unique data set of adolescents (n=779, mean age=14, 51% male) provided home addresses of study participants which were geocoded and mapped. Satellite maps of neighborhoods were used to identify open spaces for recreational use (e.g., soccer fields and plazas). Thiessen polygons were generated to associate study participants with the nearest available open space using ArcGIS. Regression models, with smoking as a dependent variable, were estimated in which age, sex, family socioeconomic status, peer substance usage, neighborhood crime, and accessibility of open space were covariates. Results The results show that residential proximity to recreational space was associated with decreases in tobacco consumption among female adolescents but this association was not statistically significant among male adolescents. Age and neighborhood crime were the common contributing factors for tobacco consumption across both male and female adolescents. Conclusions This study suggests that recreational spaces in proximity to residences may have a positive impact on reducing adolescents’ inclination to consume tobacco. The relationship of the accessibility to such spaces with smoking appears to vary by adolescents’ sex. PMID:23722521

  14. A DTN-Based Multiple Access Fast Forward Service for the NASA Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, David; Davis, Faith; Marquart. Jane

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Space Network provides a demand access return link service capable of providing users a space link "on demand". An equivalent service in the forward link direction is not possible due to Tracking and Data Relay Spacecraft (TDRS) constraints. A Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN)-based Multiple Access Fast Forward (MAFF) service has been proposed to provide a forward link to a user as soon as possible. Previous concept studies have identified a basic architecture and implementation approach. This paper reviews the user scenarios and benefits of an MAFF service and proposes an implementation approach based on the use of DTN protocols.

  15. A low-cost colorimeter.

    PubMed

    Jones, N B; Riley, C; Sheya, M S; Hosseinmardi, M M

    1984-01-01

    A need for a colorimeter with low capital and maintenance costs has been suggested for countries with foreign exchange problems and no local medical instrumentation industry. This paper puts forward a design for such a device based on a domestic light-bulb, photographic filters and photovoltaic cells. The principle of the design is the use of a balancing technique involving twin light paths for test solution and reference solution and an electronic bridge circuit. It is shown that proper selection of the components will allow the cost objectives to be met and also provide acceptable linearity, precision, accuracy and repeatability.

  16. Multi-Site Simultaneous Time-Resolved Photometry with a Low Cost Electro-Optics System.

    PubMed

    Gasdia, Forrest; Barjatya, Aroh; Bilardi, Sergei

    2017-05-30

    Sunlight reflected off of resident space objects can be used as an optical signal for astrometric orbit determination and for deducing geometric information about the object. With the increasing population of small satellites and debris in low Earth orbit, photometry is a powerful tool in operational support of space missions, whether for anomaly resolution or object identification. To accurately determine size, shape, spin rate, status of deployables, or attitude information of an unresolved resident space object, multi-hertz sample rate photometry is required to capture the relatively rapid changes in brightness that these objects can exhibit. OSCOM, which stands for Optical tracking and Spectral characterization of CubeSats for Operational Missions, is a low cost and portable telescope system capable of time-resolved small satellite photometry, and is field deployable on short notice for simultaneous observation from multiple sites. We present the electro-optical design principles behind OSCOM and light curves of the 1.5 U DICE-2 CubeSat and simultaneous observations of the main body of the ASTRO-H satellite after its fragmentation event.

  17. Determinants of escalating costs in low risk workers' compensation claims.

    PubMed

    Bernacki, Edward J; Yuspeh, Larry; Tao, Xuguang

    2007-07-01

    To identify and quantify attributes that lead to unanticipated cost escalation in workers' compensation claims. We constructed four claim categories: low initial reserve/low cost, migrated catastrophic (low initial reserve/high cost), high initial reserve/low cost, and catastrophic (high initial reserve/high cost). To assess the attributes associated with the increased cost of migrated catastrophic claims, we analyzed 36,329 Louisiana workers' compensation claims in the four categories over a 5-year period. In the 729 claims initially thought to be low-cost claims (migrated catastrophic), the most significant predictors for cost escalation were attorney involvement and claim duration, followed by low back disorder, married/single/divorced status, male gender, small company size, high premium, reporting delays, and older age. These injuries accounted for 2% of all claims but 32.3% of the costs. Accelerated escalation of costs occurred late in the claim cycle (2 years). Certain attributes, particularly attorney involvement and claim duration, are associated with unanticipated cost escalation in a small number of claims that drastically affect overall losses. The results of this study suggest that these cases may be identified and addressed before rapid escalation occurs.

  18. Promoting Environmental Justice Through Urban Green Space Access: A Synopsis

    Treesearch

    Viniece Jennings; Cassandra Johnson Gaither; Richard Schulterbrandt Gragg

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews literature on the connection between urban green space access and environmental justice. It discusses the dynamics of the relationship as it relates to factors such as environmental quality, land use, and environmental health disparities. Urban development stresses the landscape and may compromise environmental quality. Since some communities are...

  19. Design optimization of space launch vehicles using a genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayley, Douglas James

    The United States Air Force (USAF) continues to have a need for assured access to space. In addition to flexible and responsive spacelift, a reduction in the cost per launch of space launch vehicles is also desirable. For this purpose, an investigation of the design optimization of space launch vehicles has been conducted. Using a suite of custom codes, the performance aspects of an entire space launch vehicle were analyzed. A genetic algorithm (GA) was employed to optimize the design of the space launch vehicle. A cost model was incorporated into the optimization process with the goal of minimizing the overall vehicle cost. The other goals of the design optimization included obtaining the proper altitude and velocity to achieve a low-Earth orbit. Specific mission parameters that are particular to USAF space endeavors were specified at the start of the design optimization process. Solid propellant motors, liquid fueled rockets, and air-launched systems in various configurations provided the propulsion systems for two, three and four-stage launch vehicles. Mass properties models, an aerodynamics model, and a six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) flight dynamics simulator were all used to model the system. The results show the feasibility of this method in designing launch vehicles that meet mission requirements. Comparisons to existing real world systems provide the validation for the physical system models. However, the ability to obtain a truly minimized cost was elusive. The cost model uses an industry standard approach, however, validation of this portion of the model was challenging due to the proprietary nature of cost figures and due to the dependence of many existing systems on surplus hardware.

  20. TGF Observations From A Small, Low-Cost, Low-Mass, High-Speed Versatile Detector System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sample, J. G.; Smith, D. M.; Johnson, J.; Varney, C.; Gannon, J.; Hunter, S.; Murtaugh, J.; Durtka, J.; Cunningham, B.

    2017-12-01

    The Light And Fast TGF Recorder or LAFTR is a NASA-University Student Instrumentation Project (USIP) that is designed to observe Terrestrial Gamma Flashes from a sounding balloon. LAFTR is a joint project between UC-Santa Cruz and Montana State University. LAFTR utilizes a small plastic scintillator with a fast shaped SiPM readout and a comparator based digitization similar to ADELE but with 6 energy channels. The discriminator bank is read out with a low-cost FPGA and data stored on board for recovery. LAFTR is able to time-tag gamma ray photons to 10ns at an approximate maximum rate of >5 MCounts/s. The entire systems fits well within the 6lb limit for unrestricted balloon launching and launch plans will be in advance of approaching thunderstorms. The small size of the scintillator and fast counting are ideal for unsaturated observations from near the TGF generation region which LAFTR will access via a valved latex balloon developed by the BOREALIS program at MSU. The valved balloon allows for a flight of several hours at >15km altitude. A test flight is planned for Fall 2017 followed by science observation flights throughout the next year. Although designed for single balloon flights, the low-cost nature of LAFTR potentially allows for many units to be produced allowing multi-point measurements and distributed arrays of ground and tower-based TGF observations as it affords significant student experiences throughout.

  1. Space system production cost benefits from contemporary philosophies in management and manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosmait, Russell L.

    1991-01-01

    The cost of manufacturing space system hardware has always been expensive. The Engineering Cost Group of the Program Planning office at Marshall is attempting to account for cost savings that result from new technologies in manufacturing and management. The objective is to identify and define contemporary philosophies in manufacturing and management. The seven broad categories that make up the areas where technological advances can assist in reducing space system costs are illustrated. Included within these broad categories is a list of the processes or techniques that specifically provide the cost savings within todays design, test, production and operations environments. The processes and techniques listed achieve savings in the following manner: increased productivity; reduced down time; reduced scrap; reduced rework; reduced man hours; and reduced material costs. In addition, it should be noted that cost savings from production and processing improvements effect 20 to 40 pct. of production costs whereas savings from management improvements effects 60 to 80 of production cost. This is important because most efforts in reducing costs are spent trying to reduce cost in the production.

  2. Contextualising renal patient routines: Everyday space-time contexts, health service access, and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    McQuoid, Julia; Jowsey, Tanisha; Talaulikar, Girish

    2017-06-01

    Stable routines are key to successful illness self-management for the growing number of people living with chronic illness around the world. Yet, the influence of chronically ill individuals' everyday contexts in supporting routines is poorly understood. This paper takes a space-time geographical approach to explore the everyday space-time contexts and routines of individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We ask: what is the relationship between renal patients' space-time contexts and their ability to establish and maintain stable routines, and, what role does health service access play in this regard? We draw from a qualitative case study of 26 individuals with CKD in Australia. Data comprised self-reported two day participant diaries and semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts was guided by an inductive-deductive approach. We examined the embeddedness of routines within the space-time contexts of participants' everyday lives. We found that participants' everyday space-time contexts were highly complex, especially for those receiving dialysis and/or employed, making routines difficult to establish and vulnerable to disruption. Health service access helped shape participants' everyday space-time contexts, meaning that incidences of unpredictability in accessing health services set-off 'ripple effects' within participants' space-time contexts, disrupting routines and making everyday life negotiation more difficult. The ability to absorb ripple effects from unpredictable health services without disrupting routines varied by space-time context. Implications of these findings for the deployment of the concept of routine in health research, the framing of patient success in self-managing illness, and health services design are discussed. In conclusion, efforts to understand and support individuals in establishing and maintaining routines that support health and wellbeing can benefit from approaches that contextualise and de

  3. Contextualising renal patient routines: Everyday space-time contexts, health service access, and wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    McQuoid, Julia; Jowsey, Tanisha; Talaulikar, Girish

    2017-01-01

    Stable routines are key to successful illness self-management for the growing number of people living with chronic illness around the world. Yet, the influence of chronically ill individuals’ everyday contexts in supporting routines is poorly understood. This paper takes a space-time geographical approach to explore the everyday space-time contexts and routines of individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We ask: what is the relationship between renal patients’ space-time contexts and their ability to establish and maintain stable routines, and, what role does health service access play in this regard? We draw from a qualitative case study of 26 individuals with CKD in Australia. Data comprised self-reported two day participant diaries and semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts was guided by an inductive-deductive approach. We examined the embeddedness of routines within the space-time contexts of participants’ everyday lives. We found that participants’ everyday space-time contexts were highly complex, especially for those receiving dialysis and/or employed, making routines difficult to establish and vulnerable to disruption. Health service access helped shape participants’ everyday space-time contexts, meaning that incidences of unpredictability in accessing health services set-off ‘ripple effects’ within participants’ space-time contexts, disrupting routines and making everyday life negotiation more difficult. The ability to absorb ripple effects from unpredictable health services without disrupting routines varied by space-time context. Implications of these findings for the deployment of the concept of routine in health research, the framing of patient success in self-managing illness, and health services design are discussed. In conclusion, efforts to understand and support individuals in establishing and maintaining routines that support health and wellbeing can benefit from approaches that contextualise

  4. Space shuttle solid rocket booster cost-per-flight analysis technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    A cost per flight computer model is described which considers: traffic model, component attrition, hardware useful life, turnaround time for refurbishment, manufacturing rates, learning curves on the time to perform tasks, cost improvement curves on quantity hardware buys, inflation, spares philosophy, long lead, hardware funding requirements, and other logistics and scheduling constraints. Additional uses of the model include assessing the cost per flight impact of changing major space shuttle program parameters and searching for opportunities to make cost effective management decisions.

  5. Design guide for low cost standardized payloads, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Concept point designs of low cost and refurbishable spacecraft, subsystems, and modules revealed payload program savings up to 50 percent. The general relationship of payload approaches to program costs; cost reductions from low cost standardized payloads; cost effective application of payload reliability, MMD, repair, and refurbishment; and implementation of standardization for future spacecraft are discussed. Shuttle interfaces and support equipment for future payloads are also considered

  6. Space Surveillance Catalog growth during SBIRS low deployment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoult, C. P.; Wright, R. P.

    The Space Surveillance Catalog is a database of all Resident Space Objects (RSOs) on Earth orbit. It is expected to grow in the future as more RSOs accumulate on orbit. Potentially still more dramatic growth could follow the deployment of the Space Based Infrared System Low Earth Orbit Component (SBTRS Low). SBIRS Low, currently about to enter development, offers the potential to detect and acquire much smaller debris RSOs than can be seen by the current ground-based Space Surveillance Network (SSN). SBIRS Low will host multicolor infrared/visible sensors on each satellite in a proliferated constellation on low Earth orbit, and if appropriately tasked, these sensors could provide significant space surveillance capability. Catalog growth during SBIRS Low deployment was analyzed using a highly aggregated code that numerically integrates the Markov equations governing the state transitions of RSOs from uncataloged to cataloged, and back again. It was assumed that all newly observed debris RSOs will be detected as by-products of routine Catalog maintenance, not including any post breakup searches, and if sufficient sensor resources are available, be acquired into the Catalog. Debris over the entire low to high altitude regime were considered.

  7. Better Informing Decision Making with Multiple Outcomes Cost-Effectiveness Analysis under Uncertainty in Cost-Disutility Space

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, Nikki; Agar, Meera; Harlum, Janeane; Karnon, Jonathon; Currow, David; Eckermann, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Comparing multiple, diverse outcomes with cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is important, yet challenging in areas like palliative care where domains are unamenable to integration with survival. Generic multi-attribute utility values exclude important domains and non-health outcomes, while partial analyses—where outcomes are considered separately, with their joint relationship under uncertainty ignored—lead to incorrect inference regarding preferred strategies. Objective The objective of this paper is to consider whether such decision making can be better informed with alternative presentation and summary measures, extending methods previously shown to have advantages in multiple strategy comparison. Methods Multiple outcomes CEA of a home-based palliative care model (PEACH) relative to usual care is undertaken in cost disutility (CDU) space and compared with analysis on the cost-effectiveness plane. Summary measures developed for comparing strategies across potential threshold values for multiple outcomes include: expected net loss (ENL) planes quantifying differences in expected net benefit; the ENL contour identifying preferred strategies minimising ENL and their expected value of perfect information; and cost-effectiveness acceptability planes showing probability of strategies minimising ENL. Results Conventional analysis suggests PEACH is cost-effective when the threshold value per additional day at home ( 1) exceeds $1,068 or dominated by usual care when only the proportion of home deaths is considered. In contrast, neither alternative dominate in CDU space where cost and outcomes are jointly considered, with the optimal strategy depending on threshold values. For example, PEACH minimises ENL when 1=$2,000 and 2=$2,000 (threshold value for dying at home), with a 51.6% chance of PEACH being cost-effective. Conclusion Comparison in CDU space and associated summary measures have distinct advantages to multiple domain comparisons, aiding

  8. Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft, (LCRRS): A Research Project in Low Cost Spacecraft Design and Fabrication in a Rapid Prototyping Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spremo, Stevan; Bregman, Jesse; Dallara, Christopher D.; Ghassemieh, Shakib M.; Hanratty, James; Jackson, Evan; Kitts, Christopher; Klupar, Pete; Lindsay, Michael; Ignacio, Mas; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft (LCRRS) is an ongoing research development project at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, California. The prototype spacecraft, called Cost Optimized Test for Spacecraft Avionics and Technologies (COTSAT) is the first of what could potentially be a series of rapidly produced low-cost satellites. COTSAT has a target launch date of March 2009 on a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle. The LCRRS research system design incorporates use of COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf), MOTS (Modified Off The Shelf), and GOTS (Government Off The Shelf) hardware for a remote sensing satellite. The design concept was baselined to support a 0.5 meter Ritchey-Chretien telescope payload. This telescope and camera system is expected to achieve 1.5 meter/pixel resolution. The COTSAT team is investigating the possibility of building a fully functional spacecraft for $500,000 parts and $2,000,000 labor. Cost is dramatically reduced by using a sealed container, housing the bus and payload subsystems. Some electrical and RF designs were improved/upgraded from GeneSat-1 heritage systems. The project began in January 2007 and has yielded two functional test platforms. It is expected that a flight-qualified unit will be finished in December 2008. Flight quality controls are in place on the parts and materials used in this development with the aim of using them to finish a proto-flight satellite. For LEO missions the team is targeting a mission class requiring a minimum of six months lifetime or more. The system architecture incorporates several design features required by high reliability missions. This allows for a true skunk works environment to rapidly progress toward a flight design. Engineering and fabrication is primarily done in-house at NASA Ames with flight certifications on materials. The team currently employs seven Full Time Equivalent employees. The success of COTSATs small team in this effort can be attributed to highly cross trained

  9. Space Station needs, attributes and architectural options, volume 2, book 3: Cost and programmatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The cost and programmatic considerations which integrate mission requirements and architectural options into a cohesive system for exploitation of space opportunities within affordable limits are discussed. The mission requirements, baseline architecture, a top level baseline schedule, and acquisition costs are summarized. The work breakdown structure (WBS) used to structure the program, and the WBS dictionary are included. The costing approach used, including the operation of the primary costing tool, the SPACE cost model are described. The rationale for the choice of cost estimating relationships is given and costs at the module level are shown. Detailed costs at the subsystem level are shown. The baseline schedule and annual funding profiles are provided. Alternate schedules are developed to provide different funding profiles. Alternate funding sources are discussed and foreign and contractor participation is outlined. The results of the benefit analysis are given and the accrued benefits deriving from an implemented space station program are outlined.

  10. Low-Cost Servomotor Driver for PFM Control

    PubMed Central

    Aragon-Jurado, David

    2017-01-01

    Servomotors have already been around for some decades and they are extremely popular among roboticists due to their simple control technique, reliability and low-cost. They are usually controlled by using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and this paper aims to keep the idea of simplicity and low-cost, while introducing a new control technique: Pulse Frequency Modulation (PFM). The objective of this paper is to focus on our development of a low-cost servomotor controller which will allow the research community to use them with PFM. A low-cost commercial servomotor is used as the base system for the development: a small PCB that fits inside the case and allocates all the electronic components to control the motor has been designed to replace the original. The potentiometer is retained as the feedback sensor and a microcontroller is responsible for controlling the position of the motor. The paper compares the performance of a PWM and a PFM controlled servomotor. The comparison shows that the servomotor with our controller achieves a faster mechanism for switching targets and a lower latency. This controller can be used with neuromorphic systems to remove the conversion from events to PWM. PMID:29301221

  11. Low-Cost Servomotor Driver for PFM Control.

    PubMed

    Aragon-Jurado, David; Morgado-Estevez, Arturo; Perez-Peña, Fernando

    2017-12-31

    Servomotors have already been around for some decades and they are extremely popular among roboticists due to their simple control technique, reliability and low-cost. They are usually controlled by using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and this paper aims to keep the idea of simplicity and low-cost, while introducing a new control technique: Pulse Frequency Modulation (PFM). The objective of this paper is to focus on our development of a low-cost servomotor controller which will allow the research community to use them with PFM. A low-cost commercial servomotor is used as the base system for the development: a small PCB that fits inside the case and allocates all the electronic components to control the motor has been designed to replace the original. The potentiometer is retained as the feedback sensor and a microcontroller is responsible for controlling the position of the motor. The paper compares the performance of a PWM and a PFM controlled servomotor. The comparison shows that the servomotor with our controller achieves a faster mechanism for switching targets and a lower latency. This controller can be used with neuromorphic systems to remove the conversion from events to PWM.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of surgical decompression for space-occupying hemispheric infarction.

    PubMed

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; van der Worp, H Bart; Kappelle, L Jaap; Eshuis, Sara; Algra, Ale; Greving, Jacoba P

    2013-10-01

    Surgical decompression reduces mortality and increases the probability of a favorable functional outcome after space-occupying hemispheric infarction. Its cost-effectiveness is uncertain. We assessed clinical outcomes, costs, and cost-effectiveness for the first 3 years in patients who were randomized to surgical decompression or best medical treatment within 48 hours after symptom onset in the Hemicraniectomy After Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction With Life-Threatening Edema Trial (HAMLET). Data on medical consumption were derived from case record files, hospital charts, and general practitioners. We calculated costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Uncertainty was assessed with bootstrapping. A Markov model was constructed to estimate costs and health outcomes after 3 years. Of 39 patients enrolled within 48 hours, 21 were randomized to surgical decompression. After 3 years, 5 surgical (24%) and 14 medical patients (78%) had died. In the first 3 years after enrollment, operated patients had more QALYs than medically treated patients (mean difference, 1.0 QALY [95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.4]), but at higher costs (mean difference, €127,000 [95% confidence interval, 73,100-181,000]), indicating incremental costs of €127,000 per QALY gained. Ninety-eight percent of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios replicated by bootstrapping were >€80,000 per QALY gained. Markov modeling suggested costs of ≈€60,000 per QALY gained for a patient's lifetime. Surgical decompression for space-occupying infarction results in an increase in QALYs, but at very high costs. http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN94237756.

  13. Development of low cost custom hybrid microcircuit technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Selected potentially low cost, alternate packaging and interconnection techniques were developed and implemented in the manufacture of specific NASA/MSFC hardware, and the actual cost savings achieved by their use. The hardware chosen as the test bed for this evaluation ws the hybrids and modules manufactured by Rockwell International fo the MSFC Flight Accelerometer Safety Cut-Off System (FASCOS). Three potentially low cost packaging and interconnection alternates were selected for evaluation. This study was performed in three phases: hardware fabrication and testing, cost comparison, and reliability evaluation.

  14. Making optics appealing in Colombia through low-cost experiments with lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Juan R.; Barbosa, Nicolás.; Cotrino, Sergio; Guzmán, David A.; Mahecha, Víctor; Medina, Cristian; Navarrete, M. Cristina; Uribe, Leonardo; Valencia, Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    With the aim of making optics reachable to all audiences, regardless of their age or area of study, we have decided to select, build and test a set of four experiments based on optical phenomena. An important factor in our approach is that the experiments should be used by any non-experienced exhibitor to amaze the audience and to arise in them interest in optics. Ease of setup is therefore desired. Requirements such as durability, repeatability and reduced cost are welcome as well. Taking advantage of the low prices of laser pointers, we focused on experiments which use this nowadays accessible element. The experiments that integrate our selection, costing less than USD75, are: a water stream optical fiber, curved light beams on a honey-water mixture, an optical music transmitter-receiver, and holographic film projections. Among the covered concepts are reflection and refraction of light, color, optical communications, optical interference and modern everyday life's applications. We have presented these setups in activities at our university to a wide range of educational levels, from 12-year old students, passing by last year high school students on a career day event, not leaving behind undergraduate students of any discipline. Moved by the positive response of the audience, we plan to expand its application to continuing education courses and kids' science fairs. We proved that having low-cost setups, useful when teaching science in developing countries, can help to broaden the target audience.

  15. Universal access to HIV treatment versus universal 'test and treat': transmission, drug resistance & treatment costs.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bradley G; Blower, Sally

    2012-01-01

    In South Africa (SA) universal access to treatment for HIV-infected individuals in need has yet to be achieved. Currently ~1 million receive treatment, but an additional 1.6 million are in need. It is being debated whether to use a universal 'test and treat' (T&T) strategy to try to eliminate HIV in SA; treatment reduces infectivity and hence transmission. Under a T&T strategy all HIV-infected individuals would receive treatment whether in need or not. This would require treating 5 million individuals almost immediately and providing treatment for several decades. We use a validated mathematical model to predict impact and costs of: (i) a universal T&T strategy and (ii) achieving universal access to treatment. Using modeling the WHO has predicted a universal T&T strategy in SA would eliminate HIV within a decade, and (after 40 years) cost ~$10 billion less than achieving universal access. In contrast, we predict a universal T&T strategy in SA could eliminate HIV, but take 40 years and cost ~$12 billion more than achieving universal access. We determine the difference in predictions is because the WHO has under-estimated survival time on treatment and ignored the risk of resistance. We predict, after 20 years, ~2 million individuals would need second-line regimens if a universal T&T strategy is implemented versus ~1.5 million if universal access is achieved. Costs need to be realistically estimated and multiple evaluation criteria used to compare 'treatment as prevention' with other prevention strategies. Before implementing a universal T&T strategy, which may not be sustainable, we recommend striving to achieve universal access to treatment as quickly as possible. We predict achieving universal access to treatment would be a very effective 'treatment as prevention' approach and bring the HIV epidemic in SA close to elimination, preventing ~4 million infections after 20 years and ~11 million after 40 years.

  16. Researchers View the Small Low Cost Engine and the Large Quiet Engine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-02-21

    Researchers Robert Cummings, left, and Harold Gold with the small Low Cost Engine in the shadow of the much larger Quiet Engine at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. The two engines were being studied in different test cells at the Propulsion Systems Laboratory. Jet engines had proven themselves on military and large transport aircraft, but their use on small general aviation aircraft was precluded by cost. Lewis undertook a multiyear effort to develop a less expensive engine to fill this niche using existing technologies. Lewis researchers designed a four-stage, axial-flow engine constructed from sheet metal. It was only 11.5 inches in diameter and weighed 100 pounds. The final design specifications were turned over to a manufacturer in 1972. Four engines were created, and, as expected, the fabrication and assembly of the engine were comparatively inexpensive. In 1973 the Low Cost Engine had its first realistic analysis in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory altitude tank. The engine successfully operated at speeds up to Mach 1.24 and simulated altitudes of 30,000 feet. NASA released the engine to private industry in the hope that design elements would be incorporated into future projects and reduce the overall cost of small jet aircraft. Small jet and turboprop engines became relatively common in general aviation aircraft by the late 1970s.

  17. The importance of operations, risk, and cost assessment to space transfer systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, J. M.; Komerska, R. J.; Rowell, L. F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines several methodologies which contribute to comprehensive subsystem cost estimation. The example of a space-based lunar space transfer vehicle (STV) design is used to illustrate how including both primary and secondary factors into cost affects the decision of whether to use aerobraking or propulsion for earth orbit capture upon lunar return. The expected dominant cost factor in this decision is earth-to-orbit launch cost driven by STV mass. However, to quantify other significant cost factors, this cost comparison included a risk analysis to identify development and testing costs, a Taguchi design of experiments to determine a minimum mass aerobrake design, and a detailed operations analysis. As a result, the predicted cost advantage of aerobraking, while still positive, was subsequently reduced by about 30 percent compared to the simpler mass-based cost estimates.

  18. Measuring accessibility of sustainable transportation using space syntax in Bojonggede area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryawinata, B. A.; Mariana, Y.; Wijaksono, S.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in the physical structure of regional space as a result of the increase of planned and unplanned settlements in the Bojonggede area have an impact on the road network pattern system. Changes in road network patterns will have an impact on the permeability of the area. Permeability measures the extent to which road network patterns provide an option in traveling. If the permeability increases the travel distance decreases and the route of travel choice increases, permeability like this can create an easy access system and physically integrated. This study aims to identify the relationship of physical characteristics of residential area and road network pattern to the level of space permeability in Bojonggede area. By conducting this research can be a reference for the arrangement of circulation, accessibility, and land use in the vicinity of Bojonggede. This research uses quantitative method and space syntax method to see global integration and local integration on the region which become the parameter of permeability level. The results showed that the level of permeability globally and locally high in Bojonggede physical area is the physical characteristics of the area that has a grid pattern of road network grid.

  19. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 3: Hardware miniaturization versus cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Davidson, William L.; Herbert, Frank J.; Bilodeau, James W.; Stoval, J. Michael; Sutton, Terry

    1989-01-01

    The optimum hardware miniaturization level with the lowest cost impact for space biology hardware was determined. Space biology hardware and/or components/subassemblies/assemblies which are the most likely candidates for application of miniaturization are to be defined and relative cost impacts of such miniaturization are to be analyzed. A mathematical or statistical analysis method with the capability to support development of parametric cost analysis impacts for levels of production design miniaturization are provided.

  20. Key issues for low-cost FGD installations

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    DePriest, W.; Mazurek, J.M.

    1995-12-01

    This paper will discuss various methods for installing low-cost FGD systems. The paper will include a discussion of various types of FGD systems available, both wet and dry, and will compare the relative cost of each type. Important design issues, such as use of spare equipment, materials of construction, etc. will be presented. An overview of various low-cost construction techniques (i.e., modularization) will be included. This paper will draw heavily from Sargent & Lundy`s database of past and current FGD projects together with information we gathered for several Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies on the subject.