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Sample records for low-enthalpy mineral waters

  1. The chemistry and isotopic composition of waters in the low-enthalpy geothermal system of Cimino-Vico Volcanic District, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battistel, Maria; Hurwitz, Shaul; Evans, William; Barbieri, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal energy exploration is based in part on interpretation of the chemistry, temperature, and discharge rate of thermal springs. Here we present the major element chemistry and the δD, δ18O, 87Sr/86Sr and δ11B isotopic ratio of groundwater from the low-enthalpy geothermal system near the city of Viterbo in the Cimino-Vico volcanic district of west-Central Italy. The geothermal system hosts many thermal springs and gas vents, but the resource is still unexploited. Water chemistry is controlled by mixing between low salinity,HCO3-rich fresh waters (<24.2°C) flowing in shallow volcanic rocks and SO4-rich thermal waters (25.3°C to 62.2°C) ascending from deep, high permeability Mesozoic limestones. The (equivalent) SO4/Cl (0.01–0.02), Na/Cl (2.82–5.83) and B/Cl ratios (0.02–0.38) of thermal waters differs from the ratios in other geothermal systems from Central Italy, probably implying a lack of hydraulic continuity across the region. The δ18O (−6.6‰ to −5.9‰) and δD (−40.60‰ to −36.30‰) isotopic composition of spring water suggest that the recharge area for the geothermal system is the summit region of Mount Cimino. The strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) of thermal waters (0.70797–0.70805) are consistent with dissolution of the Mesozoic evaporite-carbonate units that constitute the reservoir, and the ratios of cold fresh waters mainly reflect shallow circulation through the volcanic cover and some minor admixture (<10%) of thermal water as well. The boron isotopic composition (δ11B) of fresh waters (−5.00 and 6.12‰) is similar to that of the volcanic cover, but the δ11B of thermal waters (−8.37‰ to −4.12‰) is a mismatch for the Mesozoic reservoir rocks and instead reflects dissolution of secondary boron minerals during fluid ascent through flysch units that overlie the reservoir. A slow and tortuous ascent enhances extraction of boron but also promotes conductive cooling, partially masking the heat present in the

  2. The chemistry and isotopic composition of waters in the low-enthalpy geothermal system of Cimino-Vico Volcanic District, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistel, Maria; Hurwitz, Shaul; Evans, William C.; Barbieri, Maurizio

    2016-12-01

    Geothermal energy exploration is based in part on interpretation of the chemistry, temperature, and discharge rate of thermal springs. Here we present the major element chemistry and the δD, δ18O, 87Sr/86Sr and δ11B isotopic ratio of groundwater from the low-enthalpy geothermal system near the city of Viterbo in the Cimino-Vico volcanic district of west-Central Italy. The geothermal system hosts many thermal springs and gas vents, but the resource is still unexploited. Water chemistry is controlled by mixing between low salinity,HCO3-rich fresh waters (< 24.2 °C) flowing in shallow volcanic rocks and SO4-rich thermal waters (25.3 °C to 62.2 °C) ascending from deep, high permeability Mesozoic limestones. The (equivalent) SO4/Cl (0.01-0.02), Na/Cl (2.82-5.83) and B/Cl ratios (0.02-0.38) of thermal waters differs from the ratios in other geothermal systems from Central Italy, probably implying a lack of hydraulic continuity across the region. The δ18O (- 6.6‰ to - 5.9‰) and δD (- 40.60‰ to - 36.30‰) isotopic composition of spring water suggest that the recharge area for the geothermal system is the summit region of Mount Cimino. The strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) of thermal waters (0.70797-0.70805) are consistent with dissolution of the Mesozoic evaporite-carbonate units that constitute the reservoir, and the ratios of cold fresh waters mainly reflect shallow circulation through the volcanic cover and some minor admixture (< 10%) of thermal water as well. The boron isotopic composition (δ11B) of fresh waters (- 5.00 and 6.12‰) is similar to that of the volcanic cover, but the δ11B of thermal waters (- 8.37‰ to - 4.12‰) is a mismatch for the Mesozoic reservoir rocks and instead reflects dissolution of secondary boron minerals during fluid ascent through flysch units that overlie the reservoir. A slow and tortuous ascent enhances extraction of boron but also promotes conductive cooling, partially masking the heat present in the reservoir

  3. Application of selected geothermometers to exploration of low-enthalpy thermal water: the Sudetic Geothermal Region in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Porowski; Jan, Dowgiałło

    2009-10-01

    The most important intakes of thermal waters within the Sudetic Geothermal Region occur in three separate hydrogeothermal systems: (1) Lądek, (2) Duszniki and (3) Cieplice. All these waters are of meteoric origin and circulate in crystalline rocks to different depths. Their outflow temperatures are between less than 20°C and to about 87°C. To evaluate the geothermal fields in the light of their prospectiveness, to further exploration of thermal energy resources, we took an effort to apply selected isotopic and chemical geothermometers to assess the maximum possible temperatures, which may be found in the reservoirs. The only chemical geothermometers which give a reliable range of reservoir temperatures are SiO2 (chalcedony), Na-Ka-Ca and partly Na-K ones. The oxygen isotopic geothermometer in the SO4-H2O system gives a real range of estimated reservoir temperatures only for deeply circulating waters in the Cieplice area. On the other hand, in the case of CO2 rich waters in the Duszniki area, where outflow temperatures do not exceed 30°C, application of chemical or isotopic temperature indicators always leads to erroneous results due to the lack of equilibrium in the thermodynamic system of water-rock interaction.

  4. Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Potential of the Czech Republic with Particular Focus on Waters of Metalliferous Mining Districts in Crystalline Structures of the Bohemian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stibitz, M.; Jirakova, H.; Frydrych, V.

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays, numerous underground mines in the Czech Republic are mostly left to spontaneous natural flooding with water. These huges volumes and favourable water temperature represent promissing source of thermal energy. The primary temperature of the mine waters is given by the rock massif temeprature, i.e. by the heat flux which is in the moldanubikum region around 50 - 60 mWm-2 (Michálek et al., 2007). Higher heat flux has been observed in several mountainous regions throughout the country. The real water temperature results form the depth of mines, geothermal gradient and the water circulation in the mine. Temperature measurements suggest a distinct temperature depth stratification. Several metalliferous mining districts in Crystalline Structures with the water outflow exceeding 1 Ls-1 have been subject of investigation. The temperature was not the only determining factoras it is relatively stable in mines all year round. The data on yield, temperatures, etc. prepared for further mathematical modeling were primarily measured in uranium and oremines in Příbram mining district, Jáchymov, Zlaté Hory and Rožná. Water of about 18°C and radioactivity make favourable condition for the Jáchymov spa purposes. The average yield reaches 20 Ls-1. The entire outflow for the Jáchymov mines before its decommissioning reached 136 Ls-1.The entire heat capacity of mine waters is supposed to be around 1.150 kW. Severa l galleries in Zlaté Hory region could be used for thermal purposes. The yield around 60 Ls-1 and temeperature around 7°C was observed in the main drainage gallery. Measurements were accompanied by chemical analysis of water having both a huge pH range from 3 to 9 and huge mineralization range from 135 to 6 500 mgL-1. The Rožná and Příbram conditions are quite similar with the outflow from 20 - 45 Ls-1 and temperatures from 11 - 18°C. Possible temperature decrease originates from the fact that colder shallow groundwater will inflow into mine spaces

  5. Geophysical techniques for low enthalpy geothermal exploration in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soengkono, Supri; Bromley, Chris; Reeves, Robert; Bennie, Stewart; Graham, Duncan

    2013-05-01

    Shallow warm water resources associated with low enthalpy geothermal systems are often difficult to explore using geophysical techniques, mainly because the warm water creates an insufficient physical change from the host rocks to be easily detectable. In addition, often the system also has a limited or narrow size. However, appropriate use of geophysical techniques can still help the exploration and further investigation of low enthalpy geothermal resources. We present case studies on the use of geophysical techniques for shallow warm water explorations over a variety of settings in New Zealand (mostly in the North Island) with variable degrees of success. A simple and direct method for the exploration of warm water systems is shallow temperature measurements. In some New Zealand examples, measurements of near surface temperatures helped to trace the extent of deeper thermal water. The gravity method was utilised as a structural technique for the exploration of some warm water systems in New Zealand. Our case studies show the technique can be useful in identifying basement depths and tracing fault systems associated with the occurrence of hot springs. Direct current (DC) ground resistivity measurements using a variety of electrode arrays have been the most common method for the exploration of low enthalpy geothermal resources in New Zealand. The technique can be used to detect the extent of shallow warm waters that are more electrically conductive than the surrounding cold groundwater. Ground resistivity investigations using the electromagnetic (EM) techniques of audio magnetotellurics (AMT or shallow MT), controlled source audio magnetotellurics (CSAMT) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) methods have also been used. Highly conductive clays of thermal or sedimentary origin often limit the penetration depth of the resistivity techniques and can create some interpretation difficulties. Interpretation of resistivity anomalies needs to be treated in a site specific

  6. Multicomponent geothermometry applied to a medium-low enthalpy carbonate-evaporite geothermal reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistel, Maria; Barbieri, Maurizio; Hurwitz, Shaul; Eavans, William; Chiodini, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve the knowledge of the thermal state of medium to low-enthalpy thermal systems hosted in carbonate-evaporite rocks, a mineral-solution equilibrium model was compared to other theoretical geothermoters. We use the GeoT code (Spycher et al., 2014) which calculates reservoir temperatures based on a statistical evaluation of mineral saturation indices. The calculations were applied to study the medium and low enthalpy geothermal systems in the Tyrrhenian-Apennine area (central Italy). The study area is mainly characterized by Paleozoic metamorphic basement and a Mesozoic carbonate-evaporite sequence overlain by Oligocene-Mid Miocene flysch formations and Quaternary volcanic complexes associated with crustal extension in the Tyrrhenian area. A regional aquifer is hosted in the carbonate-evaporate formations, and smaller aquifers are hosted in the volcanic rocks. For reservoir temperature calculations the chemical composition of 58 springs and wells with a temperature between 22° and 65°C was taken into account. The waters are classified as Ca-HCO3 waters with low TDS, Ca-SO4 waters with high TDS and few HCO3-NaK type waters. The calculated reservoir temperatures of the medium-low enthalpy hydrothermal systems in Tyrrhenian-Apennine area range between 40 and 100°C. As expected, cation geothermometers provide unrealistic values of equilibrium temperature. Calculations based on the chalcedony geothermeter provide more realistic temperatures than the quartz geothermometers because silica solubility at temperatures <180°C is controlled by amorphous silica or chalcedony. GeoT simulation results show that all the considered mineral phases are either near saturation or oversaturated and the equilibrium temperatures range between 48° and 116°C. The statistical approach of "best clustering minerals", used in this model, solves the problems related to cation or single component geothermometers. For these cases, multicomponent geothermometry coupled with

  7. Water, mineral waters and health.

    PubMed

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  8. Study of Shallow Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Resources Using Integrated Geophysical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Giorgi, Lara; Leucci, Giovanni

    2015-02-01

    The paper is focused on low enthalpy geothermal exploration performed in south Italy and provides an integrated presentation of geological, hydrogeological, and geophysical surveys carried out in the area of municipality of Lecce. Geological and hydrogeological models were performed using the stratigraphical data from 51 wells. A ground-water flow (direction and velocity) model was obtained. Using the same wells data, the ground-water annual temperature was modeled. Furthermore, the ground surface temperature records from ten meteorological stations were studied. This allowed us to obtain a model related to the variations of the temperature at different depths in the subsoil. Integrated geophysical surveys were carried out in order to explore the low-enthalpy geothermal fluids and to evaluate the results of the model. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and self-potential (SP) methods were used. The results obtained upon integrating the geophysical data with the models show a low-enthalpy geothermal resource constituted by a shallow ground-water system.

  9. Study of Shallow Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Resources Using Integrated Geophysical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, Lara De; Leucci, Giovanni

    2015-02-01

    The paper is focused on low enthalpy geothermal exploration performed in south Italy and provides an integrated presentation of geological, hydrogeological, and geophysical surveys carried out in the area of municipality of Lecce. Geological and hydrogeological models were performed using the stratigraphical data from 51 wells. A ground-water flow (direction and velocity) model was obtained. Using the same wells data, the ground-water annual temperature was modeled. Furthermore, the ground surface temperature records from ten meteorological stations were studied. This allowed us to obtain a model related to the variations of the temperature at different depths in the subsoil. Integrated geophysical surveys were carried out in order to explore the low-enthalpy geothermal fluids and to evaluate the results of the model. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and self-potential (SP) methods were used. The results obtained upon integrating the geophysical data with the models show a low-enthalpy geothermal resource constituted by a shallow ground-water system

  10. Thermal investigation in S. Pedro do Sul low enthalpy geothermal field (Portugal)

    SciTech Connect

    Correia, A.; Ramalho, E.C.; Lourenco, M.C.; Cruz, J.F. ||

    1997-12-31

    The S. Pedro Sul thermal springs are one of the most important low enthalpy geothermal areas in mainland Portugal. The water temperature at emergence points can reach values as high as 67{degrees}C with water flows of 10 l/s. Based on silica geothermometry, the regional heat flow density is estimated as 170 m W/m{sup 2}, and the heat production of the S. Pedro do Sul granite, that crops out in the region where the thermal springs are located, is about 11 {mu}W/m{sup 3}. These values allow an estimate that the depth of the geothermal reservoir is about 2,000 metres. The geothermal reservoir is fed by meteoric water that is heated to temperatures of about 130{degrees}C at 2,000 metres depth. Then, the heated water flows to the surface through the Termas fault, mixing with colder water at shallow depths.

  11. Mineral and water nutrition.

    PubMed

    Beede, D K

    1991-07-01

    In providing minerals to dairy cattle it is important to distinguish between dietary requirements and feeding recommendations. The requirement is the absolute amount of an element needed to meet the animal's metabolic needs for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, and lactation divided by the coefficient of absorption; this is estimated by the factorial method. Actual estimates of requirements for lactating dairy cattle have been determined for Ca and P. The major difficulties in relying on the requirement estimate are that dry matter intake varies and the true absorption coefficient of the mixture of feeds in the ration generally is unknown. Therefore, feeding recommendations, based on feeding graded concentrations of an element, often offer more applicable information. With the exception of Ca and P, the current feeding recommendations for the other macrominerals, Mg, Na, K, Cl and S, have resulted from feeding trials. With certain environmental and physiologic situations the feeding recommendations may vary. For example, during heat stress the dietary K recommendation for the lactating cow should be higher than in cool weather because of increased sweating and decreased feed intake. Another example may be that the source of supplemental Mg may affect what dietary inclusion rate will yield optimal performance and should be recommended. An important consideration in dairy ration formulation in the future will address the interrelationships of the various macrominerals. There is accumulating evidence that shows that different concentrations of Na, Cl, and K may interrelate and affect lactational performance. Many times the naturally occurring concentrations of one or more of these elements may have to be associated with varying concentrations of the others in order to optimize animal performance and health. Much experimentation likely will examine these interrelationships in the future. Supplementation of trace elements in diets of dairy cattle is common practice. This

  12. [Mineral water as a cure].

    PubMed

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  13. Mineral/Water Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    An x-ray fluorescence spectrometer developed for the Viking Landers by Martin Marietta was modified for geological exploration, water quality monitoring, and aircraft engine maintenance. The aerospace system was highly miniaturized and used very little power. It irradiates the sample causing it to emit x-rays at various energies, then measures the energy levels for sample composition analysis. It was used in oceanographic applications and modified to identify element concentrations in ore samples, on site. The instrument can also analyze the chemical content of water, and detect the sudden development of excessive engine wear.

  14. Case studies for utilizing groundwater-source and low-enthalpy geothermal resources in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.-H.; Shin, J.; Lee, K.-K.; Lee, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    As one of the top 10 oil-consuming countries in the world, Korea recently has had a great interest in extending the ways to utilize renewable energy. In this regard, geothermal energy resource is attracting more concerns from both of the government and the research field. Korea has neither active volcanic sites nor areas with abnormally higher heat flow. In spite of these natural conditions, many efforts have been exerted to utilize geothermal energy. Here, we introduce two case studies of using groundwater-source geothermal energy with relatively low-enthalpy: One is a riverbank filtration facility, which has been using some of its riverbank filtrate water for the indoor air-conditioning. The other is the first EGS plant planning site, where a few fault-related artesian wells reaching 70C were discovered lately. Numerical simulations to predict the temperature evolution of the two sites, which is dominated by several hydrogeologic factors, were carried out and compared. Simulation of temperature profile of riverbank filtrate water using HydroGeoSphere shows that the primary factor in determining filtrate water temperature is the pumping rate. It also shows that maintaining the facility operation with present pumping rate for the next 30 years will not cause any significant change of water temperature. However, following the new plan of the facility to install additional 37 wells with 6 times higher pumping rate than the current rate might cause about 2C decrease in filtrate water temperature in 10 years after the extension. Simulation for the temperature evolution in a faulted geothermal reservoir in EGS planning site under the supposed injection-extraction operating conditions were carried out using TOUGH2. A MINC model including a hydraulic discontinuity, which reflected the analysis from several geophysical explorations, was generated. Temperature distribution calculated from the simulation shows a rise of relatively hot geothermal water along the fault plane

  15. Geochemical study of the Sakalol-Harralol geothermal field (Republic of Djibouti): Evidences of a low enthalpy aquifer between Manda-Inakir and Asal rift settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaleh, Mohamed Osman; Boschetti, Tiziano; Soubaneh, Youssouf Djibril; Baudron, Paul; Kawalieh, Ali Dirir; Dabar, Omar Assowe; Ahmed, Moussa Mahdi; Ahmed, Samaleh Idriss; Daoud, Mohamed Ahmed; Egueh, Nima Moussa; Mohamed, Jalludin

    2017-02-01

    Eighty-six sodium bicarbonate to sodium chloride hot springs and four water wells in the Tadjourah Region of Djibouti were investigated for major, minor (B, Br, F, Sr, Li) chemistry and isotope composition of water and dissolved components (87Sr/86Sr, 11B/10B, 13C/12C and 14C of DIC, 34S/32S and 18O/16O of sulfate). The deep saline Na-Cl reservoir at 143 °C shows affinity with the shallow geothermal water from the "active" Asal rift. Asal water is a diluted and recycled seawater component with the major cation composition obliterated by equilibration with Stratoid basalt. Locally, the deep reservoir is differentiated in term of recharge, and re-equilibration with rocks and mixing. In particular, two spring groups reveal contributions from evaporites typical of the "passive" graben setting of the Afar. A model on 34S/32S and 18O/16O demonstrates the isotope imprint of magmatic SO2 disproportionation on dissolved and solid sulfate, whose values probably persists in a sedimentary environment without trace of seawater. On the other hand a seawater signature, modified by mixing and secondary fractionation effects, is partially maintained according to the boron isotope composition (up to + 27.4‰). Temperature estimation in low-enthalpy geothermal reservoirs is notoriously difficult, especially where mixing with fluids of differing genesis and/or conduction cooling take place. From a geothermometric point of view, the multi-method approach followed in this study (up-to-date theoretical and thermodynamic equations, ad-hoc silica geothermometers inferred from local rocks, checking of the results on a 18Oαsulfate-water vs. temperature diagram) provides some insights and perspectives on how to tackle the problem. Table S2. Sampling locations, T, pH, EC, TDS and hydrochemical types of the sampled waters. Table S3. Chemical analyses of thermal and cold waters from Sakalaol-Haralol geothermal field. Table S4. Mineral saturation indices of SHGF hot springs waters calculated

  16. Mineral constituents in water and their significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dover, T.B.

    1950-01-01

    Pure water does not exist in nature. Because water is a powerful solvent, every drop of rain water carries dissolved or suspended material - dust, pollen, and smoke, as well as the atmospheric gases, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. When rain falls, the water running over the rocks and percolating through the soil gathers more and more mineral matter in solution. As the uses to which a water supply may be put depend primarily on its mineral content, information concerning the chemical characteristics of water is of importance to each of us. (available as photostat copy only)

  17. Water-Signature Mineral Found by Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This spectrum, taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's Moessbauer spectrometer, shows the presence of an iron-bearing mineral called goethite in a rock called 'Clovis' in the 'Columbia Hills' of Mars. Goethite contains water in the form of hydroxyl as a part of its structure. By identifying this mineral, the examination of Clovis produced strong evidence for past water activity in the area that Spirit is exploring.

  18. Natural mineral waters: chemical characteristics and health effects

    PubMed Central

    Quattrini, Sara; Pampaloni, Barbara; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Summary Water contributes significantly to health and a daily intake of 1.5 to 2 liters of water should be guaranteed, because a good hydration is essential to maintain the body water equilibrium, although needs may vary among people. However, worldwide population is far from the Recommended Allowance for water intake. Among the waters for human uses, there are ‘waters (treated or not), intended for drinking, used for the food and beverages preparation or for other domestic purposes’ and natural mineral waters, that are ‘originated from an aquifer or underground reservoir, spring from one or more natural or bore sources and have specific hygienic features and, eventually, healthy properties’. According to the European Legislation (2009/54/EC Directive), physical and chemical characterization is used to make a classification of the different mineral waters, basing on the analysis of main parameters. Mineral composition enables to classify natural mineral waters as bicarbonate mineral waters, sulphate mineral waters, chloride mineral waters, calcic mineral waters, magnesiac mineral waters, fluorurate mineral waters, ferrous mineral waters and sodium-rich mineral waters. Although the concerns about bottled mineral waters (due to plasticizers and endocrine disruptors), many are the health effects of natural mineral waters and several studies explored their properties and their role in different physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:28228777

  19. Microcoulometric measurement of water in minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cremer, M.; Elsheimer, H.N.; Escher, E.E.

    1972-01-01

    A DuPont Moisture Analyzer is used in a microcoulometric method for determining water in minerals. Certain modifications, which include the heating of the sample outside the instrument, protect the system from acid gases and insure the conversion of all hydrogen to water vapor. Moisture analyzer data are compared to concurrent data obtained by a modified Penfield method. In general, there is a positive bias of from 0.1 to 0.2% in the moisture analyzer results and a similarity of bias in minerals of the same kind. Inhomogeneity, sample size, and moisture pick-up are invoked to explain deviations. The method is particularly applicable to small samples. ?? 1972.

  20. Quality assessment of Romanian bottled mineral water and tap water.

    PubMed

    M Carstea, Elfrida; Levei, Erika A; Hoaghia, Maria-Alexandra; Savastru, Roxana

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the evaluation of bottled mineral water characteristics using fluorescence spectroscopy (synchronous fluorescence scans and emission spectra) and physico-chemical analyses. Samples from 14 still mineral water brands were compared to 11 tap waters collected from two Romanian cities. Correlation and factor analyses were undertaken to understand the relationships between the individual components. The concentration of major and minor ions showed great variation between the bottled mineral water samples highlighting the diversity of the water intakes, while in the case of tap water the chemical composition was relatively similar for samples collected in the same city. Fluorescence data showed that the mineral water contained low quantities of organic matter. The humic fraction was dominant in all samples, while the microbial fraction was low in most samples. Synchronous fluorescence scans provided more information, regarding the composition of organic matter, compared to emission spectra. The study evidenced the correlation between fluorescence parameters and major elements and highlighted the potential of using fluorescence for qualitative evaluation of the bottled mineral water quality, as a screening method before undertaking complex analyses.

  1. Natural mineral waters, curative-medical waters and their protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, M.

    1993-10-01

    In Europe different types of water are marketed, each strictly defined by EC Directive 80/777 (Natural Mineral Water, Spring and Table Water) or 80/778 (Drinking Water). In Germany, an additional type of water is common in the market: curative/medical water. Product quality and safety, registration as medicine, and pharmaceutical control are defined by the German Federal Medicine Act. A medical water is treated as any other medicine and may be sold only in pharmacies. The use of any water in Germany is controlled and strictly regulated by the Federal Water Act (Fricke 1981). The following requirements are set by the act: (1) No water use without a permit, which is limited in time and quantity. (2) No single or juristic person may own water. (3) Water resources of public interest and their recharge areas are to be protected by the definition of water protection zones. (Natural mineral water is not of public interest and therefore is not required to be protected by the definition of water protection zones, although it represents a market value of more than US2 billion. Medical water is of public interest). The definition of water protection zones impacts private property rights and has to be handled carefully. In order to protect water resources, sometimes the economic basis of a traditional industrial and/or agricultural infrastructure is destroyed. The concerns and needs all citizens, including industry, must be considered in analyzing the adequacy of water protection zones.

  2. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... water; brines; minerals taken in solution. (a) In mining or prospecting deposits of sodium, potassium or other minerals soluble in water, all wells, shafts, prospecting holes and other openings shall be... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water;...

  3. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... water; brines; minerals taken in solution. (a) In mining or prospecting deposits of sodium, potassium or other minerals soluble in water, all wells, shafts, prospecting holes and other openings shall be... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water;...

  4. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... water; brines; minerals taken in solution. (a) In mining or prospecting deposits of sodium, potassium or other minerals soluble in water, all wells, shafts, prospecting holes and other openings shall be... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water;...

  5. An efficient computational model for deep low-enthalpy geothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeid, Sanaz; Al-Khoury, Rafid; Barends, Frans

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, a computationally efficient finite element model for transient heat and fluid flow in a deep low-enthalpy geothermal system is formulated. Emphasis is placed on coupling between the involved wellbores and a soil mass, represented by a geothermal reservoir and a surrounding soil. The finite element package COMSOL is utilized as a framework for implementing the model. Two main aspects have contributed to the computational efficiency and accuracy: the wellbore model, and the 1D-2D coupling of COMSOL. In the first aspect, heat flow in the wellbore is modelled as pseudo three-dimensional conductive-convective, using a one-dimensional element. In this model, thermal interactions between the wellbore components are included in the mathematical model, alleviating the need for typical 3D spatial discretization, and thus reducing the mesh size significantly. In the second aspect, heat flow in the soil mass is coupled to the heat flow in the wellbores, giving accurate description of heat loss and gain along the pathway of the injected and produced fluid. Heat flow in the geothermal reservoir, and due to dependency of fluid density and viscosity on temperature, is simulated as two-dimensional fully saturated nonlinear conductive-convective, whereas in the surrounding soil, heat flow is simulated as linear conductive. Numerical and parametric examples describing the computational capabilities of the model and its suitability for utilization in engineering practice are presented.

  6. Mineral water or tap water? An endless debate.

    PubMed

    De Giglio, O; Quaranta, A; Lovero, G; Caggiano, G; Montagna, M T

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of mineral water has been increasing because of the frequent and unjustified reports of the water supply contamination. However some authors have shown that bottled waters are not always better than tap water. Mineral waters are more palatable for organoleptic characteristic because, being pure at source, they do not undergo disinfection treatments and are sometimes enriched with CO2. In fact, they are characterized by their microbial facies subject to changes during the production cycle which can contribute to their contamination. It is necessary to provide people with the tools necessary to operate a critical choice of the type of water to be consumed not exclusively for their organoleptic characteristics or marketing strategies.

  7. [The determination of molecular sulphur in Matsesta mineral water and its analog Novonukutskaya mineral water].

    PubMed

    Khutorianskiĭ, V A; Smirnov, A I; Matveev, D A

    2014-01-01

    The method of microcolumn reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (rp-HPLC) was employed to determine the content of elemental sulphur in mineral waters. The study envisaged the analysis of the samples of sulphide-containing mineral waters Novonukutskaya and Matsesta obtained by the solid phase extraction technique. Based on these data, the authors discuss the origin and the circulation of sulphur in the hydrogen sulphide sources. The elution conditions selected in this study ensured the high-resolution separation of the octasulphur peak from the peaks of allotropic components of the extract whereas the two-wave detection technique allowed to identify the peaks of molecular sulphur.

  8. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution. 3594.5 Section 3594.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  9. IRETHERM: Research and Exploration Challenges in Assessing Ireland's Deep Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Energy Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Fullea, J.; Vozar, J.; Blake, S.; Delhaye, R.; Farrell, T.; Yeomans, C.; Loewer, M.; Reay, D.

    2012-12-01

    IRETHERM (www.iretherm.ie) is a new, academic-government-industry, collaborative research project, funded by Science Foundation Ireland, with the overarching objective of developing a holistic understanding of Ireland's low-enthalpy geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. A regional south-to-north trend in surface heat-flow is mapped across Ireland, ~40 to >80 mWm-2, but the source of the heat variation (whether crustal and/or lithospheric-mantle in origin) is unknown. With the exception of Permo-Triassic basins in Northern Ireland, hosting geothermal aquifers of promising but currently poorly-defined potential, rocks with high primary porosity have not been identified elsewhere. Whether any major Irish shear zones/faults might host a geothermal aquifer at depth is also unknown, although clusters of warm-springs in the vicinity of two major shear zones are promising. Our paper discusses the approaches and strategies that IRETHERM has adopted to meet the challenges of exploring for unknown deep geothermal resources (either hydrothermal aquifers or hot, dry rock) starting from a limited knowledge-base. IRETHERM's objectives over a four-year period are to: (i) Develop multi-parameter geophysical modelling and interpretation software tools that will enhance our ability to explore for and assess deep aquifers and granitic intrusions. (ii) Model and understand temperature variations in the upper-crust. Firstly, by building a 3-D model of crustal heat-production based on geochemical analysis of surface, borehole and mid- to lower-crustal xenolith samples. Secondly, by modelling, using a fully self-consistent 3-D approach, observed surface heat-flow variation as a function of variation in the structure and thermal properties of the crust and lithosphere, additionally constrained by surface elevation, geoid, gravity, seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) data. (iii) Test a strategic set of eight "type

  10. IRETHERM: Research and Exploration Challenges in Assessing Ireland's Deep Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Energy Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, M. R.; Jones, A. G.; Fullea, J.; Yeomans, C. M.; Loewer, M.; Reay, D.

    2012-04-01

    IRETHERM (www.iretherm.ie) is a new academic-government-industry collaborative research project, funded by Science Foundation Ireland, initiated in 2011, with the overarching objective of developing a holistic understanding of Ireland's low-enthalpy geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. All historic geothermal energy research that took place in the 1980s focused on Ireland's three major exposed radiogenic granite intrusions. These granites were found to be characterised by elevated radiogenic heat production (2-7µW/m3) and surface heat-flow (65-85mW/m2), but impetus in assessing their potential stalled at the end of the oil-crisis and remains poorly defined. The accuracy of predictions of temperatures in the depth range of 3000-6000m is limited by the sparse, clustered database provided by relatively shallow industry boreholes - only two boreholes drilled to date exceed 2,500m. While a significant regional trend in surface heat-flow is purported from these borehole data, from ~40mW/m2 in the south of Ireland to >80mW/m2 in the north with thermal gradients in the range 8-32°C/km, the source of the heat variation (whether crustal and/or lithospheric-mantle in origin) is unknown. Except for Permo-Triassic basins in Northern Ireland, which host known geothermal aquifers of promising but currently poorly defined potential, sedimentary rocks with high primary porosity have not been identified elsewhere. Whether any of the shear zones and faults that traverse the country might host geothermal aquifers at depth is also unknown, although the occurrence of warm-spring clusters close to two major fault zones is promising. Our paper discusses the approaches and strategies that IRETHERM has adopted to meet the challenges of exploring for unknown deep geothermal resources (either aquifers or hot, dry rock) starting from a limited knowledge-base. The objectives of the project over a four-year period are to

  11. Stable isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bădăluţă, Carmen; Nagavciuc, Viorica; Perșoiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    Romania has a high potential of mineral waters resources, featuring one of the largest mineral resources at European and global level. In the last decade, due to increased in consumption of bottled water, numerous brands have appeared on the market, with equally numerous and variable sources of provenance. In this study we have analyzed the isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania in order to determine their source and authenticity. We have analysed 32 carbonated and 24 non-carbonated mineral waters from Romania. and the results were analysed in comparison with stable isotope data from precipitation and river waters. Generally, the isotopic values of the mineral waters follow those in precipitation; however, differences occur in former volcanic regions (due to deep circulation of meteoric waters and increased exchange with host rock and volcanic CO2), as well as in mountainous regions, where high-altitude recharge occurs.

  12. Evaluation of minerals content of drinking water in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  13. The mineral content of tap water in United States households

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The composition of tap water contributes to dietary intake of minerals. The USDA’s Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) conducted a study of the mineral content of residential tap water, to generate current data for the USDA National Nutrient Database. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper...

  14. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water. PMID:22649292

  15. Variation of 66 elements in European bottled mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Misund, A; Frengstad, B; Siewers, U; Reimann, C

    1999-12-15

    Fifty-six bottled mineral waters bought at random all over Europe were analysed for 66 chemical elements by ICP-AES, ICP-MS and IC-techniques. Results show that there is a wide spread in the chemical composition of mineral waters. The EEC drinking water safeguard values for chemical constituents do not apply to mineral water, although mineral water is increasingly used for general drinking water purposes. Only 15 of the randomly selected 56 mineral waters would fulfil the drinking water regulations for all parameters where action levels are defined. Differences in chemical composition observed between countries or regions are due to geological environment and to different taste or local regulations of what is mineral water. There are indications that element concentrations for some unwanted constituents (e.g. Pb) are higher in waters sold in glass bottles than in those in plastic bottles. Some elements show a clear regional dependency. Studying the large natural variation in concentration for many of the 66 studied elements it becomes clear that we know little about the natural variation of element concentration in water and the health effects of most elements in drinking water.

  16. Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhijian; Wang, Xuming; Liu, Haining; Zhang, Huifang; Miller, Jan D

    2016-09-01

    Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation including hydration phenomena, associations and interactions between collectors, air bubbles, and water-soluble mineral particles are presented. Flotation carried out in saturated salt solutions, and a wide range of collector concentrations for effective flotation of different salts are two basic aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation. Hydration of salt ions, mineral particle surfaces, collector molecules or ions, and collector aggregates play an important role in water-soluble mineral flotation. The adsorption of collectors onto bubble surfaces is suggested to be the precondition for the association of mineral particles with bubbles. The association of collectors with water-soluble minerals is a complicated process, which may include the adsorption of collector molecules or ions onto such surfaces, and/or the attachment of collector precipitates or crystals onto the mineral surfaces. The interactions between the collectors and the minerals include electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and specific interactions, with electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions being the common mechanisms. For the association of ionic collectors with minerals with an opposite charge, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions could have a synergistic effect, with the hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic groups of the previously associated collectors and the hydrophobic groups of oncoming collectors being an important attractive force. Association between solid particles and air bubbles is the key to froth flotation, which is affected by hydrophobicity of the mineral particle surfaces, surface charges of mineral particles and bubbles, mineral particle size and shape, temperature, bubble size, etc. The use of a collector together with a frother and the use of mixed surfactants as collectors are suggested to improve flotation.

  17. The Link between Fluid Flow, Structure and Hydrothermal Inputs in Central Chile: An Interdisciplinary Approach for Low-Enthalpy Andean Hydrogeothermal Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arancibia, G.; Daniele, L.; Navarro, L.; Astudillo, F.; Vázquez, M.; Morata, D.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between fault zones and hydrogeological domains are an open challenge and require the understanding of the complex relationship between structure, fluid flow and hydrothermal transport and processes. Faults stimulate hydraulic conductivity when acting as conduit, but it can also be a barrier by mineral precipitation and comminution. Structural heterogeneity of fractured lithology induces a flow partition within the aquifer system creating preferential flows paths and some fracture connectivity. We propose an interdisciplinary approach from hydrogeological and structural point of view, in a low-enthalpy aquifer system in the central valley of Central Chile, where several low-temperature thermal springs are spatially related to regional long-lived fault zone (Pocuro Fault Zone). Pocuro Fault zone is a kilometric NS-striking steeply dipping fault zone, with at least 50 km long. Metric wide fault core includes gouge and cataclastic rocks, whereas decametric damage zone consists of intensely fractured and hydrothermal altered Meso-Cenozoic volcanic and volcaniclastic host rocks, crossed by centimetric to milimetric subvertical NE-striking veins. Preliminary results of vein infill clays minerals and zeolites from damage zone, suggest P-T conditions interpreted as an exhumed fossil high-temperature (120º-230ºC) geothermal system. Currently, only low-temperature thermal springs are discharging with different geochemical patterns (bicarbonate to chlorine and sulphate dominant ions) and a homogeneous temperature range (20º-25ºC). This is an interesting study case, to better understand the permeability evolution of geothermal system and the link between internal fault architecture, hydrogeology and hydrothermal inputs.

  18. Syndepositional shallow-water precipitation of glauconitic minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chafetz, H. S.; Reid, A.

    2000-10-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that glauconitic minerals predominantly form in water depths of mid-shelf to upper slope in modern oceans. These areas tend to have slow sedimentation rates, another commonly cited requisite for glauconitic mineral precipitation. Cambro-Ordovician strata from the southwestern US are rich in glauconitic minerals. Stratigraphic, sedimentological, and petrographic constraints indicate that the glauconitic minerals are autochthonous. In marked contrast to the modern environments of deposition, these Cambro-Ordovician strata formed under very shallow-water to tidal-flat conditions. The trough cross-stratified deposits of the most glauconitic mineral-rich accumulations (glaucarenites) indicate a high energy environment and probably a normal to high rate of sedimentation. The presence of fibroradiated rims of glauconitic minerals on glauconitic mineral pellets, echinoderm fragments, and quartz grains demonstrates that the Cambro-Ordovician glauconitic minerals precipitated on or in close proximity to the sea floor and prior to calcite precipitation. Consequently, glauconitic minerals must have formed under markedly different conditions in the lower Paleozoic than they do today. Thus, the occurrence of glauconitic minerals in the rock record cannot be used a priori as an environmental indicator of either mid-shelf and deeper water and/or a slow rate of sedimentation.

  19. Ground Thermal Diffusivity Calculation by Direct Soil Temperature Measurement. Application to very Low Enthalpy Geothermal Energy Systems.

    PubMed

    Andújar Márquez, José Manuel; Martínez Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel; Gómez Melgar, Sergio

    2016-02-29

    This paper presents a methodology and instrumentation system for the indirect measurement of the thermal diffusivity of a soil at a given depth from measuring its temperature at that depth. The development has been carried out considering its application to the design and sizing of very low enthalpy geothermal energy (VLEGE) systems, but it can has many other applications, for example in construction, agriculture or biology. The methodology is simple and inexpensive because it can take advantage of the prescriptive geotechnical drilling prior to the construction of a house or building, to take at the same time temperature measurements that will allow get the actual temperature and ground thermal diffusivity to the depth of interest. The methodology and developed system have been tested and used in the design of a VLEGE facility for a chalet with basement at the outskirts of Huelva (a city in the southwest of Spain). Experimental results validate the proposed approach.

  20. Ground Thermal Diffusivity Calculation by Direct Soil Temperature Measurement. Application to very Low Enthalpy Geothermal Energy Systems

    PubMed Central

    Andújar Márquez, José Manuel; Martínez Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel; Gómez Melgar, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology and instrumentation system for the indirect measurement of the thermal diffusivity of a soil at a given depth from measuring its temperature at that depth. The development has been carried out considering its application to the design and sizing of very low enthalpy geothermal energy (VLEGE) systems, but it can has many other applications, for example in construction, agriculture or biology. The methodology is simple and inexpensive because it can take advantage of the prescriptive geotechnical drilling prior to the construction of a house or building, to take at the same time temperature measurements that will allow get the actual temperature and ground thermal diffusivity to the depth of interest. The methodology and developed system have been tested and used in the design of a VLEGE facility for a chalet with basement at the outskirts of Huelva (a city in the southwest of Spain). Experimental results validate the proposed approach. PMID:26938534

  1. Distribution of Water in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals during Metamorphic Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Lankvelt, A.; Seaman, S. J.; Williams, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Nominally anhydrous minerals are a reservoir for water in otherwise dry rocks. This water may play a role in facilitating metamorphic reactions and enhancing deformation. In this study, we examined orthopyroxene-bearing granites from the Athabasca Granulite terrane in northern Saskatchewan. These rocks intruded the lower crust (pressures of 1 GPa) at circa 2.6 Ga at temperatures of > 900 ºC and were subsequently metamorphosed at granulite facies conditions (700 ºC and 1 GPa) in the Paleoproterozoic (Williams et al., 2000). One of the primary reactions recorded by these rocks is locally known as the "Mary" reaction and involves the anhydrous reaction: orthopyroxene + Ca-plagioclase = clinopyroxene + garnet + Na-plagioclase. Measurements of water concentrations in both product and reactant assemblages were performed using a Bruker Vertex 70 Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and revealed that there is a slight excess of water in product minerals over reactant minerals. There are two possible explanations for this. The first is that water was derived from an external source, possibly hydrous, likely contemporaneous, mafic dikes. This interpretation is supported by higher concentrations of K, which is essentially absent from the reactant minerals, in the Na-rich rims of plagioclase. However, only modest amounts of external fluids could have been introduced, or amphiboles would have been stabilized at the expense of clinopyroxene (Moore & Carmichael, 1998). An alternative interpretation is that slightly more water-rich minerals reacted more readily, releasing water that was then incorporated into their products, whereas the water-poorer minerals failed to react. Support for this interpretation comes from very low water concentrations in orthopyroxene and plagioclase from an unreacted and undeformed sample. This interpretation suggests that water in anhydrous minerals may catalyze metamorphic reactions, and a lack of water may be critical for preserving metastable

  2. Evaluation of the Aggressiveness of Slovak Mineral Water Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrablíková, Dana; Porubská, Diana; Fendeková, Miriam; Božíková, Jarmila; Kókaiová, Denisa

    2014-07-01

    The aggressive properties of natural waters arise due to their specific physical properties and chemical composition. The latest analyses of certified natural and healing mineral water sources according to Act No. 538/2005 were used for the evaluation. A total of 53 sources in 26 localities were evaluated; they comprised 25 sources of bottled natural mineral and healing waters and 28 sources of natural healing waters in 9 spas. The aggressiveness of the water against concrete was weak (17 sources), medium (17 sources), or none (19 sources). The aggressiveness was mostly caused by low pH values and/or increased SO42- content. Their corrosiveness to metal was mostly very high. The results showed that the disintegration of concrete building constructions, well casings and pipelines could occur in most of the evaluated localities in the case of mineral water contacting them. Therefore, preventive measures are necessary.

  3. Regional Geophysical Reconnaissance for Low Enthalpy Geothermal Resources in NE Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poureslami Ardakani, E.; Schmitt, D.; Bown, T.; Chan, J.; Idowu, S.; Majorowicz, J. A.; Unsworth, M. J.; van der Baan, M.; Bauer, K.; Moeck, I.; Pussak, M.; Weides, S.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI), a major initial goal is to undertake a critical study of the potential for Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) as a source of thermal energy in northern Alberta. The geology of this area consists to first order as westward thickening wedge of Cretaceous siliclastics overlying Devonian carbonates and evaporites all of which lies upon the metamorphic Canadian Shield craton. Generally, the north eastern of Alberta is characterized by low geothermal gradients (near 20 mK/m) and temperatures; and deep drilling to as much as 4-5 km into the craton will be necessary to obtain requisite conditions (i.e. 80-100 C water at the source). Consequently, at this early stage it is important to search for zones with the greatest potential; and in the context of EGS this can mean finding greater fracture permeability through pre-existing faults and joint systems. State of stress information is also being considered as this will be an important constraint on fluid flow in such fractured systems. Current studies are integrating reprocessed legacy industrial and LITHOPROBE seismic reflection profiles, high-resolution aeromagnetic and gravity surveys, and existing borehole and core data are used to develop regional geophysical and geological models of Northern Alberta. Particular areas will focus on structural and tectonic linkages between the sedimentary basin and the underlying craton that are possibly related to, for example, Devonian reef complexes, extensive karsting, or evaporite collapse.

  4. Comparison of the Mineral Content of Tap Water and Bottled Waters

    PubMed Central

    Azoulay, Arik; Garzon, Philippe; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Because of growing concern that constituents of drinking water may have adverse health effects, consumption of tap water in North America has decreased and consumption of bottled water has increased. Our objectives were to 1) determine whether North American tap water contains clinically important levels of calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), and sodium (Na+) and 2) determine whether differences in mineral content of tap water and commercially available bottled waters are clinically important. DESIGN We obtained mineral analysis reports from municipal water authorities of 21 major North American cities. Mineral content of tap water was compared with published data regarding commercially available bottled waters and with dietary reference intakes (DRIs). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Mineral levels varied among tap water sources in North America and among bottled waters. European bottled waters generally contained higher mineral levels than North American tap water sources and North American bottled waters. For half of the tap water sources we examined, adults may fulfill between 8% and 16% of their Ca2+ DRI and between 6% and 31% of their Mg2+ DRI by drinking 2 liters per day. One liter of most moderate mineralization European bottled waters contained between 20% and 58% of the Ca2+ DRI and between 16% and 41% of the Mg2+ DRI in adults. High mineralization bottled waters often contained up to half of the maximum recommended daily intake of Na+. CONCLUSION Drinking water sources available to North Americans may contain high levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+ and may provide clinically important portions of the recommended dietary intake of these minerals. Physicians should encourage patients to check the mineral content of their drinking water, whether tap or bottled, and choose water most appropriate for their needs. PMID:11318912

  5. Ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eakin, T.E.; Robinson, T.W.

    1950-01-01

    As a part of the State-wide cooperative program between the Office of the State Engineer of Nevada and the U.S. Geological Survey, the Ground Water Branch of the Geological Survey made a reconnaissance study of ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada.

  6. Water molecules in clay minerals: Thermodynamic functions and hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailhanou, Helène; Amouric, Marc; Olives, Juan; Rogez, Jacques; van Miltenburg, J. C.; van der Berg, G. J. K.; de Weireld, G.; Gaucher, E.; Blanc, P.

    2010-05-01

    Thermodynamic functions and adsorption of water molecules are very important properties for clay minerals. Smectite MX-80 and mixed-layer illite-smectite ISCz-1 were selected. They were first carefully characterized (HRTEM with EDX analysis), revealing original results. Then, the thermodynamic properties of water in clay were obtained by (i) comparison of the thermodynamic properties of anhydrous and hydrated minerals, between 0 and 350 K (adiabatic calorimetry, solution isothermal calorimetry), and (ii) water vapor adsorption isotherms, between 300 and 380 K (magnetic suspension thermobalance). Solution isothermal calorimetry is used to determine the enthalpies of formation of the minerals (1 bar and 298 K). Comparison of the results, for the anhydrous and the hydrated minerals, leads to the enthalpies of hydration at 298 K. Adiabatic calorimetry measurements give the heat capacities of the minerals from 5 to 350 K. Entropies, enthalpies of formation and Gibbs free energies of formation, for the anhydrous and the hydrated minerals, and then, entropies of hydration, enthalpies of hydration and Gibbs free energies of hydration, between 0 and 350 K, are finally obtained. Comparison of two close hydration states leads to the entropy, the enthalpy and the Gibbs free energy of the adsorption reaction: H2O free - H2O adsorbed. The Cp(T) curve, for the heat capacity of water in clay - i.e., the difference between the heat capacities of the hydrated and the anhydrous minerals -, shows that water in clay is a glass at low temperature, undergoes one or two continuous glass transitions between 150 and 270 K, and behaves as free liquid water above 273 K. The two glass transitions might correspond to two types of water molecules: (i) first adsorbed water molecules, bound to the interlayer cations of the clay mineral; (ii) last adsorbed water molecules, not bound to the interlayer cations. In addition, water vapor adsorption isotherms are obtained from 298 to 378 K (magnetic

  7. Mineralization of sparsely water-soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a water table fluctuation zone

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, H.Y.N.; Tsang, Y.W.; Holman, W.R.

    1999-06-01

    The mineralization potential of sparsely water-soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) within a highly diesel-contaminated water table fluctuation zone (WTFZ) was investigated using core-scale column microcosms. Experimental conditions mimicked overall seasonal changes in water and oxygen content at the site. During the first aerobic winter, PAH mineralization rates in the freshly contaminated soil were fastest for contaminant [{sup 14}C]-naphthalene which was the least hydrophobic and most water-soluble. Lowering the water table nearly doubled the mineralization rates of all [{sup 14}C]PAHs studied. During the oxygen-poor summer, all mineralization rates were insignificant and failed to respond to water table changes. Neither a return to water-saturated aerobic (winter) conditions nor lowering the water table under aerobic conditions induced detectable mineralization of [{sup 14}C]-naphthalene, but lowering the water table did markedly hasten the still slow mineralization of [{sup 14}C]phenanthrene and [{sup 14}C]anthracene. The time-dependent mineralization behavior and its response to water table fluctuations were explicable in terms of microbial responses to the changing oxygen content and depleting mineral nutrients.

  8. [Hyperhydration with low mineral Rocchetta water after extracorporeal lithotripsy].

    PubMed

    Valli, P P; Cesaroni, M; Mearini, L; Rociola, W; Cervelli, B; Porena, M

    2000-04-01

    Both prophylaxis and stone-free status after ESWL are most important goals in treating urinary stone disease, because his high social cost. In order to this situation, we matched two homogeneous groups of patients that underwent ESWL because renal stones: during a one year follow-up with several US controls, daily 1.5 litres of low mineral content water was drank by I group patients; vice versa, daily 3 litres (1st ten days) and afterwards 2 litres of Rocchetta low mineral content water was drank by II group patients. This last kind of approach led to a significant improvement in stone fragments elimination time, in inferior calix stone cure and in stone recurrences rate. So we conclude that hyperhydration using right low mineral content water, is a simple and cheap way to improve both treatment and prophylaxis of urinary stones.

  9. Thin Water and Ice Films at Mineral Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    Mineral-water and ice interactions play important roles in atmospheric cloud formation. They also affect soil biogeochemistry as well as outer-space processes. In this study, thin water and ice films formed on minerals of varied bulk and surface structure, shape, size and surface roughness were probed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and by Dynamic Vapor Adsorption (DVA). Measurements on several types of iron (oxyhydr)oxides, phyllosilicates, orthosilicates, tectosilicates as well as Arizona Test Dust (ATD) and Icelandic volcanic ash constrained our understanding of the molecular-level nature of mineral surface-water and ice interactions. DVA experiments showed that particle size is the key feature controlling water loadings at 25 ° C. Under this condition, nano-sized particles stabilized the equivalence of no more than ˜6 monolayers of water at the near saturation of water vapor while sub-micron sized particles stabilized several thousand layers. This result can be explained by the greater ability of larger sized particles at driving water condensation reactions. Cryogenic FTIR measurements at -10 and -50 ° C revealed that most minerals acquired the thin ice films with similar hydrogen bonding environments as those formed at room temperature.[1,2] These thin ice films have weaker hydrogen bond environments than hexagonal ice (νOH ≈ 3130 cm-1), a result seen by FTIR through predominant O-H stretching modes at νOH ≈ 3408-3425 cm-1. The water bending region (˜1630 cm-1) also reveals that most thin ice films are rather supercooled forms of water. Only the materials with greatest levels of heterogeneity, namely ATD and volcanic ash, stabilized solid forms of water reminiscent to hexagonal ice. This work thus constrains further our understanding of how interfacial ice is stabilized at mineral surfaces, and opens possibilities for future studies focused on atmospheric gas uptake on mineral- water and ice admixtures. [1] Song, X. and Boily, J

  10. Water in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals from Nakhlites and Shergottites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the amount of water in the interior of terrestrial planets has tremendous implications on our understanding of solar nebula evolution, planet formation and geological history, and extraterrestrial volcanism. Mars has been a recent focus of such enquiry with complementary datasets from spacecrafts, rovers and martian meteorite studies. In planetary interiors, water can be dissolved in fluids or melts and hydrous phases, but can also be locked as protons attached to structural oxygen in lattice defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) such as olivine, pyroxene, or feldspar [1-3]. Measuring water in Martian meteorite NAM is challenging because the minerals are fragile and riddled with fractures from impact processes that makes them break apart during sample processing. Moreover, curing the sample in epoxy causes problems for the two main water analysis techniques, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS). Measurements to date have resulted in a heated debate on how much water the mantle of Mars contains. SIMS studies of NAM [4], amphiboles [5], and apatites [6-8] from Martian meteorites report finding enough water in these phases to infer that the martian mantle is as hydrous as that of the Earth. On the other hand, a SIMS study of glass in olivine melt inclusions from shergottites concludes that the Martian mantle is much drier [9]. The latter interpretation is also supported by the fact that most martian hydrous minerals generally have the relevant sites filled with Cl and F instead of H [10,11]. As for experimental results, martian basalt compositions can be reproduced using water as well as Cl in the parent melts [12,13]. Here FTIR is used to measure water in martian meteorite minerals in order to constrain the origin of the distribution of water in martian meteorite phases.

  11. [Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].

    PubMed

    Medverec Knežević, Zvonimira; Nadih, Martina; Josipović, Renata; Grgić, Ivanka; Cvitković, Ante

    2011-12-01

    On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this.

  12. Numerical modeling and strontium isotopic signal to assess the arsenic distribution in a low-enthalpy hydrothermal system: the case study of Viterbo geothermal area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistel, M.; Barbieri, M.

    2013-12-01

    Several studies on the groundwater geochemistry of the hydrothermal area west of Viterbo, highlight the presence of arsenic and other trace elements. The groundwater of Viterbo area was used as source of drinking water by about 150,000 local inhabitants, until 2010, when it was prohibited the use by EU due to the high level of arsenic. The hydrogeological setting highlights the presence of a shallow volcanic aquifer (composed by alkaline-potassic volcanics), characterized by fresh waters, limited at its base by the semiconfining marly-calcareous-arenaceous complex and low-permeability clays. To the west of Viterbo, vertical upflows of hot waters (with a temperature between 50 and 64°C), are due to the locally uplifted of evaporitic reservoir, the reduced thickness of the semiconfining layer and the high local geothermal gradient. Current study is focused on news geochemical approaches to defining the conditions which control arsenic mobility in groundwater in the low- enthalpy thermal area of Viterbo, related to the interaction between the volcanic aquifer and the geothermal reservoir. In addition to determinate chemical components and chemical-physical properties (T, pH, electrical conductivity) the study provided the isotopic values of 87Sr/86Sr of Viterbo geothermal area. Geochemical modelling is conducted using Phreeqc. The program monitors the significant species and calculates equilibrium concentrations and the pCO2 at desired temperatures. Investigations were undertaken in the area exhibiting thermal manifestations and in the immediate surroundings. On the basis of major ions and temperature, it is possible to subdivide the waters sampled into three main groups: the thermal waters with a sulphate -alkaline-earth facies, the fresh waters with a biocarbonate-alkaline facies, and a group of mixing waters with a undefined facies. The values of strontium isotopic ratio 87Sr/86Sr marks out the different circuits of groundwater. Values lower than 0.70800 are

  13. Criticality of Water: Aligning Water and Mineral Resources Assessment.

    PubMed

    Sonderegger, Thomas; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2015-10-20

    The concept of criticality has been used to assess whether a resource may become a limiting factor to economic activities. It has been primarily applied to nonrenewable resources, in particular to metals. However, renewable resources such as water may also be overused and become a limiting factor. In this paper, we therefore developed a water criticality method that allows for a new, user-oriented assessment of water availability and accessibility. Comparability of criticality across resources is desirable, which is why the presented adaptation of the criticality approach to water is based on a metal criticality method, whose basic structure is maintained. With respect to the necessary adaptations to the water context, a transparent water criticality framework is proposed that may pave the way for future integrated criticality assessment of metals, water, and other resources. Water criticality scores were calculated for 159 countries subdivided into 512 geographic units for the year 2000. Results allow for a detailed analysis of criticality profiles, revealing locally specific characteristics of water criticality. This is useful for the screening of sites and their related water criticality, for indication of water related problems and possible mitigation options and water policies, and for future water scenario analysis.

  14. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  15. Kinetic theory of oxygen isotopic exchange between minerals and water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criss, R.E.; Gregory, R.T.; Taylor, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    Kinetic and mass conservation equations are used to describe oxygen isotopic exchange between minerals and water in "closed" and open hydrothermal systems. In cases where n coexisting mineral phases having different reaction rates are present, the exchange process is described by a system of n + 1 simultaneous differential equations consisting of n pseudo first-order rate equations and a conservation of mass equation. The simultaneous solutions to these equations generate curved exchange trajectories on ??-?? plots. Families of such trajectories generated under conditions allowing for different fluid mole fractions, different fluid isotopic compositions, or different fluid flow rates are connected by positive-sloped isochronous lines. These isochrons reproduce the effects observed in hydrothermally exchanged mineral pairs including 1) steep positive slopes, 2) common reversals in the measured fractionation factors (??), and 3) measured fractionations that are highly variable over short distances where no thermal gradient can be geologically demonstrated. ?? 1987.

  16. Understanding hydrothermal circulation patterns at a low-enthalpy thermal spring using audio-magnetotelluric data: A case study from Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Moore, John Paul; Murray, John; Campanyà, Joan; Vozar, Jan; Walsh, John; Rath, Volker

    2016-09-01

    re-circulation of meteoric waters within this structurally controlled hydrothermal circulation system. This paper illustrates how AMT may be useful in a multi-disciplinary investigation of an intermediate-depth (100-1000 m), low-enthalpy, geothermal target, and shows how the different strands of inquiry from a multi-disciplinary investigation may be woven together to gain a deeper understanding of a complex hydrothermal system.

  17. Kinetics of mineralization of phenols in lake water.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, S H; Alexander, M

    1986-01-01

    The kinetics of mineralization of phenol and p-nitrophenol in lake water was determined at concentrations from 200 pg/ml to 5 micrograms/ml. The mineralization data were fit by nonlinear regression to equations for 14 kinetic models that describe patterns of biodegradation by nongrowing cells or by microorganisms growing on either the test chemical or other organic substrates. The kinetics od mineralization of phenol in water samples collected in July was best described by first-order models for 0.5 ng of phenol per ml; by Monod-without-growth, logistic, and logarithmic models for 1.0 and 2.0 ng/ml and 5.0 ng/ml to 1.0 micrograms/ml, respectively, if it is assumed that the mineralizing population uses phenol as the sole carbon source for growth; by models (for phenol at concentrations of 2.0 ng/ml to 1.0 micrograms/ml) that assume that the phenol-mineralizing populations do not grow or grow logarithmically or logistically on uncharacterized carbon compounds but metabolize the phenol when present at levels below and above Km, respectively, for that compound; and by a logarithmic model at 5.0 micrograms/ml. Under the test conditions, usually less than 10% of the phenol C that was metabolized was incorporated into microbial cells or retained by other particulate material in the water at substrate concentrations of 10 ng/ml or less, and the percentage increased at higher substrate concentrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3755316

  18. The sensitivity of production temperatures and thermal recharge of low-enthalpy geothermal reservoirs to the thermal conductivity of the confining beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbs Poulsen, Søren; Balling, Niels; Bom Nielsen, Søren

    2013-04-01

    The exploration and exploitation of low-enthalpy geothermal energy has increased globally within recent decades in the pursuit of sustainable, low carbon emission energy sources. In 2009 funding was dedicated to a national multi-disciplinary research project with the aim of quantifying the thermal properties and temperature distributions of geothermal reservoirs in Denmark and to develop models for utilisation. The Danish subsurface encompasses low-enthalpy geothermal reservoirs of Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous age with formation temperatures between 40° C and 80° C. In previous literature it is shown that the ratio between the circulation rate in doublet well configurations and the vertical thermal conductivity of confining rocks significantly influences the temporal development in production temperatures in low-enthalpy geothermal reservoirs. We analyse the thermal interplay between a reservoir which is utilised by an injection- and production well, and its confining beds in four conceptual reservoir systems, inspired by the low-enthalpy reservoirs found in Denmark. The analysis is based on state-of-the-art high resolution finite element modelling. Three of the four conceptual reservoirs represent different geological settings in which the confining beds of the reservoir have different thermal conductivities. In the first case, no heat is conducted across the boundaries of the reservoir, which serves merely as a reference. In the three remaining cases, the matrix thermal conductivity of the confining beds is set equal to 1.5, 3 and 4.5 W/m/K. In one additional case study, the anisotropy of the thermal conductivity of the confining beds is increased from 1 (isotropic) to 1.7 (horizontal conductivity is set equal to 1.5 W/m/K). For the considered reservoirs, we calculate the ratio between the accumulated energy that can be attributed conductive heat flow from the confining beds to the reservoir and the accumulated extracted energy from the pumping well

  19. Occurrences of Mineralized Waters and Mineral Springs in Kysuce and Their Meaning for Geotourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemiec, Dominik; Marschalko, Marian; Duraj, Miloš; Yilmaz, Işik

    2016-10-01

    Kysuce is a region situated in north-western Slovakia and it borders the Czech Republic on the west and Poland on the north. From the geological point of view, the locality is mainly formed by Tertiary flysch formation. This composition together with the relief of this location created very suitable conditions for occurrences of numerous mineral springs which can be found in this region. The increased concentration of mineral contents in the waters which find their expression not only through taste but also through their typical odour held the interest of local inhabitants already in the past centuries. Currently, they are frequently visited not only by inhabitants of the region but also by visitors to Kysuce. From the geotourism point of view, this region offers more interesting geological phenomena. Some of them, such as a crude oil seep in Korna or occurrences of sandstone and agglomerate stone balls, rank among world unique.

  20. Predicted mineral intake utilizing both water and forage analysis varies by source and location of livestock water in Eastern Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock water can play an important role in contributing to mineral intake of cows grazing rangelands. Mineral analysis of both forage and water is needed to accurately assess mineral intake compared to animal requirements. Therefore, 93 pasture and water source combinations were sampled in May ...

  1. Radium Adsorption to Iron Bearing Minerals in Variable Salinity Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Radium is a common, naturally occurring radioactive metal found in many subsurface environments. Radium isotopes are a product of natural uranium and thorium decay, and are particularly abundant within groundwaters where minimal flux leads to accumulation within porewaters. Radium has been used as a natural tracer to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) [1], where the ratios of various radium isotopes are used to estimate total groundwater flux to and from the ocean [2]. Further, it represents a substantial hazard in waste water produced after hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction [3], resulting in a significant risk of environmental release and increased cost for water treatment or disposal. Adsorption to mineral surfaces represents a primary pathway of radium retention within subsurface environments. For SGD studies, it is important to understand adsorption processes to correctly estimate GW fluxes, while in hydraulic fracturing, radium adsorption to aquifer solids will mediate the activities of radium within produced water. While some studies of radium adsorption to various minerals have been performed [4], there is a limited understanding of the surface chemistry of radium adsorption, particularly to iron-bearing minerals such as pyrite, goethite and ferrihydrite. Accordingly, we present the results of sorption experiments of radium to a suite of iron-bearing minerals representative of those found within deep saline and near-surface (freshwater) aquifers, and evaluate impacts of varying salinity solutions through the use of artificial groundwater, seawater, and shale formation brine. Further, we explore the impacts of pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite transformation to other iron-bearing secondary minerals on the retention of radium. This work lays the groundwork for further study of radium use as a tracer for SGD, as well as understanding mechanisms of radium retention and release from deep aquifer materials following hydraulic fracturing

  2. [Comparative study of the short-term effect of mineral water on calcium metabolism].

    PubMed

    Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Arcidiacono, Teresa; Puzzovio, Maria; Mora, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Mineral water may be a useful means to achieve optimal dietary calcium intake, but the effect of different mineral waters on calcium metabolism is unknown. We therefore evaluated calcium excretion in 24-hour urine in 10 healthy individuals (5 women and 5 men) after two weeks of drinking at least 1500 mL/day of mineral water with a low electrolyte content or 1500 mL/day of mineral water rich in calcium and bicarbonate but with a different sodium content. The low-sodium water Sangemini was one of these two mineral waters. Calcium excretion did not significantly increase after intake of the Sangemini mineral water in comparison with the baseline period of low-electrolyte mineral water intake. Conversely, the calcium excretion increased significantly after intake of the second mineral water. The plasma concentration of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and the urinary phosphate excretion decreased after intake of the second mineral water in comparison with the baseline period, whereas they did not decrease after intake of Sangemini water. Therefore, phosphate excretion was higher after drinking Sangemini water than the other studied mineral water. Drinking Sangemini water may have a slight effect on calcium excretion and may not inhibit bone turnover in the short term. The lesser effect of Sangemini water on calcium excretion could be useful in the treatment of osteoporosis.

  3. Geochemistry of surface-waters in mineralized and non-mineralized areas of the Yukon-Tanana Uplands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, B.; Wanty, R.B.; Vohden, J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Alaska Department of Natural Resources (ADNR) are continuing investigations on element mobility in mineralized and non-mineralized areas of the Yukon-Tanana Upland in east-central Alaska. The chemistry of stream water is evaluated in the context of regional bedrock geology and geologic structure. Sampling sites were located in the Big Delta B2 quadrangle, which includes the mineralized areas of the Pogo claim block. The area is typified by steep, subarctic-alpine, boreal forest catchment basins. Samples were collected from catchments that either cross structural features and lithologic contacts, or are underlain by a single lithology. Waters are generally dilute (< 213 mg/L TDS), and are classified as Ca2+ and Mg2+-HCO3- to Ca2+ and Mg2+-SO42- waters. Gneissic lithologies are more SO42- dominated than the intrusive units. The major-ion chemistry of the waters reflects a rock-dominated aqueous system. Trace-element concentrations in water are generally low; however, As and Sb are detected near mineralized areas but in most cases rapidly attenuated downstream and processes other than simple dilution are controlling the concentrations of these trace elements. There is a tendency toward increasing SO42- concentrations downstream in waters both proximal and distal to mineralized areas. More work is necessary to determine what proportion of the increase in SO42- could be derived from the oxidation of sulfide minerals as opposed to water influenced by the underlying gneissic units.

  4. Mineral carbonation in water-unsaturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, A. L.; Dipple, G. M.; Mayer, K. U.; Power, I. M.

    2014-12-01

    Ultramafic mine tailings have an untapped capacity to sequester CO2 directly from air or CO2-rich gas streams via carbonation of tailings minerals [1]. The CO2 sequestration capacity of these sites could be exploited simply by increasing the supply of CO2 into tailings, such as through circulation of air or flue gas from mine site power plants [1,2]. Mine tailings storage facilities typically have heterogeneously distributed pore water [1], affecting both the reactive capacity of the porous medium and the exposure of reactive phases to CO2 [3]. We examine the physical reaction processes that govern carbonation efficiency in variably saturated porous media using meter-scale column experiments containing the tailings mineral, brucite [Mg(OH)2], that were supplied with 10% CO2 gas streams. The experiments were instrumented with water content and gas phase CO2 sensors to track changes in water saturation and CO2concentration with time. The precipitation of hydrated Mg-carbonates as rinds encasing brucite particles resulted in passivation of brucite surfaces and an abrupt shut down of the reaction prior to completion. Moreover, the extent of reaction was further limited at low water saturation due to the lack of water available to form hydrated Mg-carbonates, which incorporate water into their crystal structures. Reactive transport modeling using MIN3P-DUSTY [4] revealed that the instantaneous reaction rate was not strongly affected by water saturation, but the reactive capacity was reduced significantly. Surface passivation and water-limited reaction resulted in a highly non-geometric evolution of reactive surface area. The extent of reaction was also limited at high water content because viscous fingering of the gas streams injected at the base of the columns resulted in narrow zones of highly carbonated material, but left a large proportion of brucite unreacted. The implication is that carbonation efficiency in mine tailings could be maximized by targeting an

  5. Discharge, water temperature, and water quality of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida: A retrospective analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, Patricia A.

    2016-09-27

    Warm Mineral Springs, located in southern Sarasota County, Florida, is a warm, highly mineralized, inland spring. Since 1946, a bathing spa has been in operation at the spring, attracting vacationers and health enthusiasts. During the winter months, the warm water attracts manatees to the adjoining spring run and provides vital habitat for these mammals. Well-preserved late Pleistocene to early Holocene-age human and animal bones, artifacts, and plant remains have been found in and around the spring, and indicate the surrounding sinkhole formed more than 12,000 years ago. The spring is a multiuse resource of hydrologic importance, ecological and archeological significance, and economic value to the community.The pool of Warm Mineral Springs has a circular shape that reflects its origin as a sinkhole. The pool measures about 240 feet in diameter at the surface and has a maximum depth of about 205 feet. The sinkhole developed in the sand, clay, and dolostone of the Arcadia Formation of the Miocene-age to Oligocene-age Hawthorn Group. Underlying the Hawthorn Group are Oligocene-age to Eocene-age limestones and dolostones, including the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. Mineralized groundwater, under artesian pressure in the underlying aquifers, fills the remnant sink, and the overflow discharges into Warm Mineral Springs Creek, to Salt Creek, and subsequently into the Myakka River. Aquifers described in the vicinity of Warm Mineral Springs include the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system within the Hawthorn Group, and the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. The Hawthorn Group acts as an upper confining unit of the Upper Floridan aquifer.Groundwater flow paths are inferred from the configuration of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer for September 2010. Groundwater flow models indicate the downward flow of water into the Upper Floridan aquifer

  6. Precise determination of water exchanges on a mineral surface

    SciTech Connect

    Stack, Andrew G.; Borreguero, Jose M.; Prisk, Timothy R.; Mamontov, Eugene; Wang, Hsiu-Wen

    2016-10-03

    Solvent exchanges on solid surfaces and dissolved ions are a fundamental property important for understanding chemical reactions, but the rates of fast exchanges are poorly constrained. In this paper, we probed the diffusional motions of water adsorbed onto nanoparticles of the mineral barite (BaSO4) using quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and classical molecular dynamics (MD) to reveal the complex dynamics of water exchange along mineral surfaces. QENS data as a function of temperature and momentum transfer (Q) were fit using scattering functions derived from MD trajectories. The simulations reproduce the dynamics measured in the experiments at ambient temperatures, but as temperature is lowered the simulations overestimate slower motions. Decomposition of the MD-computed QENS intensity into contributions from adsorbed and unbound water shows that the majority of the signal arises from adsorbed species, although the dynamics of unbound water cannot be dismissed. The mean residence times of water on each of the four surface sites present on the barite {001} were calculated using MD: at room temperature the low barium site is 194 ps, whereas the high barium site contains two distributions of motions at 84 and 2.5 ps. These contrast to 13 ps residence time on both sulfate sites, with an additional surface diffusion exchange of 66 ps. Surface exchanges are similar to those of the aqueous ions calculated using the same force field: Baaq2+ is 208 ps and SO4aq2- is 5.8 ps. Finally, this work demonstrates how MD can be a reliable method to deconvolute solvent exchange reactions when quantitatively validated by QENS measurements.

  7. Precise determination of water exchanges on a mineral surface

    DOE PAGES

    Stack, Andrew G.; Borreguero, Jose M.; Prisk, Timothy R.; ...

    2016-10-03

    Solvent exchanges on solid surfaces and dissolved ions are a fundamental property important for understanding chemical reactions, but the rates of fast exchanges are poorly constrained. In this paper, we probed the diffusional motions of water adsorbed onto nanoparticles of the mineral barite (BaSO4) using quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and classical molecular dynamics (MD) to reveal the complex dynamics of water exchange along mineral surfaces. QENS data as a function of temperature and momentum transfer (Q) were fit using scattering functions derived from MD trajectories. The simulations reproduce the dynamics measured in the experiments at ambient temperatures, but as temperaturemore » is lowered the simulations overestimate slower motions. Decomposition of the MD-computed QENS intensity into contributions from adsorbed and unbound water shows that the majority of the signal arises from adsorbed species, although the dynamics of unbound water cannot be dismissed. The mean residence times of water on each of the four surface sites present on the barite {001} were calculated using MD: at room temperature the low barium site is 194 ps, whereas the high barium site contains two distributions of motions at 84 and 2.5 ps. These contrast to 13 ps residence time on both sulfate sites, with an additional surface diffusion exchange of 66 ps. Surface exchanges are similar to those of the aqueous ions calculated using the same force field: Baaq2+ is 208 ps and SO4aq2- is 5.8 ps. Finally, this work demonstrates how MD can be a reliable method to deconvolute solvent exchange reactions when quantitatively validated by QENS measurements.« less

  8. [Biotests for mineral waters with natural and recombinant luminescent microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Deriabin, D G; Aleshina, E S

    2008-01-01

    We have developed methods of biotesting mineral waters involving use of natural or recombinant luminescent strains with elimination of the effect of salt concentration and pH. To overcome the adverse effect of high salt concentrations, disguising the action of chemical pollutants, a special method of mineral water sample preparation is proposed. In this method, the marine luminescent bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microbiosensor B17 677f) is used as a test object. Samples to be analyzed are supplemented with NaCl depending on their natural salt concentration to adjust it to 3 g/l. Another approach, more universal and efficient, involves pH adjustment in the samples to 7.5. This value is suitable for application of both Microbiosensor B17 677f and the recombinant Escherichia coli strain harboring the cloned lux operon of P. leiognathi (Ecolum 9). It has been shown that this treatment, retaining the natural luminescence level of the bacterial biosensors, allows bioluminescent detection of exogenous pollutants added to the samples, including benzene and Cr(VI).

  9. Iron oxide mineral-water interface reactions studied by AFM

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, M.E.; Rogers, P.S.Z.

    1994-07-01

    Natural iron mineral surfaces have been examined in air by atomic force (AFM) and scanning tunneling (STM) microscopies. A number of different surface features were found to be characteristic of the native surface. Even surfaces freshly exposed by crushing larger crystals were found to have a pebbly surface texture caused by the presence of thin coatings of what might be surface precipitates. This finding is interpreted as evidence for previous exposure to water, probably through an extensive network of microfractures. Surface reactions on the goethite crystals were studied by AFM at size resolutions ranging from microns to atomic resolution before, during, and after reaction with distilled water and 0.lN HCl. Immediate and extensive surface reconfiguration occurred on contact with water. In one case, after equilibration with water for 3 days, surface reprecipitation, etching and pitting were observed. Atomic resolution images taken under water were found to be disordered. The result of surface reaction was generally to increase the surface area substantially through the extension of surface platelet arrays, present prior to reaction. This work is being done in support of the site characterization project at Yucca Mountain.

  10. Survival of allochthonous bacteria in still mineral water bottled in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and glass.

    PubMed

    Moreira, L; Agostinho, P; Morais, P V; da Costa, M S

    1994-09-01

    The mortality of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, based on the culturability of these bacteria, was assessed in non-carbonated mineral water, bottled in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containing the indigenous flora, sterile mineral water bottled in PVC, sterile mineral water in glass containers, and sterile tap water in glass containers. There was a general decrease in the culturability of these organisms in the four test waters, except that Ps. aeruginosa grew in sterile tap water. Escherichia coli and Kl. pneumoniae had the highest mortality rates under the conditions tested, while Ent. cloacae had a very low and constant mortality rate that would have resulted in the persistence of this organism in mineral water for a long period of time. After a sharp initial decrease in culturability, Ps. aeruginosa also had a very low mortality rate in mineral water bottled in PVC.

  11. Evaluation of Water-Mineral Interaction Using Microfluidic Tests with Thin Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Y. S.; Ryu, J. H.; Koh, Y. K.; Jo, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    For the geological disposal of radioactive wastes, geological settings and groundwater conditions are significantly important because of their effects on a radionuclide migration. One of the preferred host rocks for the radioactive waste disposal is crystalline rock. Fractures in crystalline rocks are main fluid pathways. Groundwater reacts with fracture filling minerals in fracture zones, resulting in physicochemical changes in the minerals and groundwater. In this study, fracture filling mineral-groundwater interactions were investigated by conducting microfluidic tests using thin sections at various conditions (i.e., fluid chemistry and flow rate). Groundwater and rock core samples collected from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) located in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) were used in this study. Dominant bedrock is two-mica granite, which contains both biotite and muscovite. Secondary minerals (e.g., chlorite, calcite and clay minerals) occur in fracture and alteration zones. In nature, water-mineral interactions generally take long time. Microfluidic tests were conducted to simulate water-mineral interactions in shorter time with smaller scale. Thin sections of fracture filling minerals, minerals from alteration zones, and natural and synthetic groundwater samples were used for the microfluidic tests. Results showed that water-mineral interactions at various conditions caused changes in groundwater chemistry, dissolution of minerals, precipitation of secondary minerals, and formation of colloids, which can affect radionuclide migration. In addition, the fluid chemistry and flow rate affected characteristics of water-rock interactions.

  12. The effect of mineral bond strength and adsorbed water on fault gouge frictional strength

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, C.A.; Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the tendency of many fault gouge minerals to take on adsorbed or interlayer water may strongly influence their frictional strength. To test this hypothesis, triaxial sliding experiments were conducted on 15 different single-mineral gouges with various water-adsorbing affinities. Vacuum dried samples were sheared at 100 MPa, then saturated with water and sheared farther to compare dry and wet strengths. The coefficients of friction, μ, for the dry sheet-structure minerals (0.2-0.8), were related to mineral bond strength, and dropped 20-60% with the addition of water. For non-adsorbing minerals (μ = 0.6-0.8), the strength remained unchanged after saturation. These results confirm that the ability of minerals to adsorb various amounts of water is related to their relative frictional strengths, and may explain the anomalously low strength of certain natural fault gouges.

  13. Deep ocean mineral water accelerates recovery from physical fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Deep oceans have been suggested as a possible site where the origin of life occurred. Along with this theoretical lineage, experiments using components from deep ocean water to recreate life is underway. Here, we propose that if terrestrial organisms indeed evolved from deep oceans, supply of deep ocean mineral water (DOM) to humans, as a land creature, may replenish loss of molecular complexity associated with evolutionary sea-to-land migration. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover human study to evaluate the effect of DOM, taken from a depth of 662 meters off the coast of Hualien, Taiwan, on time of recovery from a fatiguing exercise conducted at 30°C. Results The fatiguing exercise protocol caused a protracted reduction in aerobic power (reduced VO2max) for 48 h. However, DOM supplementation resulted in complete recovery of aerobic power within 4 h (P < 0.05). Muscle power was also elevated above placebo levels within 24 h of recovery (P < 0.05). Increased circulating creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin, indicatives of exercise-induced muscle damage, were completely eliminated by DOM (P < 0.05) in parallel with attenuated oxidative damage (P < 0.05). Conclusion Our results provide compelling evidence that DOM contains soluble elements, which can increase human recovery following an exhaustive physical challenge. PMID:23402436

  14. Hydrolysis of organic esters at the mineral/water interface

    SciTech Connect

    Torrents, A.

    1992-01-01

    Organic esters are widely used as insecticides and are part of many commercial products and industrial processes. When these compounds are released into the environment, they contaminate natural resources. To assess their fate and transport it is important to explore degradation and retainment processes. Numerous previous studies have studied the role of adsorption in lowering pollutant concentration and retarding pollutant migration into soils. However, adsorption at the mineral/water interface also affects the mechanisms of degradation and reaction rates. This dissertation research focuses on the ability of metal oxides to catalyze ester hydrolysis and a reaction mechanism is proposed. Furthermore, the authors studied the role of natural occurring adsorbates on the reaction rates. The oxides used in this study are amorphous silica (SiO[sub 2]), [gamma]-aluminum oxide (Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]), anatase (TiO[sub 2]), and geothite (FeOOH). These either occur naturally, or are similar to naturally occurring surfaces. The capability of such oxides to catalyze ester hydrolysis was studied in batch reactors. The organic compounds investigated were carboxylic acid esters and organophosphate pesticides. The hydrolysis of several esters was catalyzed by the presence of oxide suspensions; the extent of catalysis was dependent on the ester structure, the metal oxide, and solution composition. Results suggest that catalysis for carboxylate esters occurs via a surface chelate formation between the carbonyl oxygen, a second donor group of the ester and the surface metal. The presence of organic co-solvents appears to diminish the catalytic effect. Inhibition of surface catalysis was also observed from specific adsorption of naturally occurring ions onto the oxide surface. Natural organic matter was also observed to influence surface catalysis. This research suggests that mineral surfaces may have a role in abiotic transformations of organic pollutants.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of water, solution, and clay mineral-water systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.

    2009-12-01

    Clays and clay minerals together with zeolites are major mineral components in the earth's surface environment. These minerals interact with the atmosphere, natural water, inorganic and organic components in soils, etc. Physicochemical processes in the surface region are generally complex and difficult to understand because of the complicated "molecular" structures and the ambient conditions under wet circumstances. We have investigated the structure and physical/dynamical properties of the mineral-gas/liquid systems by means of molecular simulation methods; molecular dynamics and Metropolis Monte Carlo methods. Swelling of smectite and adsorption of inorganic molecules in clay minerals and zeolites, etc. were simulated and analyzed on the basis of the atomic and molecular processes. We have developed atomic and molecular interaction models of inorganic systems. The models compose of electrostatic, short range repulsive, van der Waals and covalent (radial and angular) terms with respect to all the elements appeared in the mineral-water systems. All of our molecular dynamics simulations (MD) were performed with full degree of freedom of atom motions. Using the model for H2O molecule, the structure and physical properties such as density, diffusion coefficients, etc. of ice polymorphs and water are well reproduced. Alkaliharide aqueous solutions and gas hydrates and their (hydrophobic) solutions are also reasonably simulated. Clay mineral-water interactions are particularly important to understand the mechanical and chemical processes in the environments, in order to develop nano-composite materials, and to use clays in engineering applications. Absorption and swelling are the most remarkable properties of clay minerals, specially smectite. We have investigate these properties by means of molecular simulation methods using various clay minerals-water/solution systems. The swelling curves, the relation between humidity and the basal spacings, were reproduced

  16. An Intervention with Mineral Water Decreases Cardiometabolic Risk Biomarkers. A Crossover, Randomised, Controlled Trial with Two Mineral Waters in Moderately Hypercholesterolaemic Adults.

    PubMed

    Toxqui, Laura; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2016-06-28

    Water intake is essential for health maintenance and disease prevention. The effects of an intervention with two mineral waters, sodium-bicarbonated mineral water (BW) or control mineral water low in mineral content (CW), on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were studied. In a randomised-controlled crossover-trial, sixty-four moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults were randomly assigned to consume 1 L/day of either BW (sodium, 1 g/L; bicarbonate, 2 g/L) or CW with the main meals for eight weeks, separated by an eight-week washout period. Blood lipids, lipid oxidation, glucose, insulin, aldosterone, urine pH, urinary electrolytes, blood pressure, body weight, fluid intake, energy, and nutrients from total diet and beverages were determined. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and glucose decreased (p < 0.01), oxidised LDL tended to decrease (p = 0.073), and apolipoprotein B increased during the intervention, without water type effect. Energy and carbohydrates from beverages decreased since soft drinks and fruit juice consumptions decreased throughout the trial. BW increased urinary pH (p = 0.006) and reduced calcium/creatinine excretion (p = 0.011). Urinary potassium/creatinine decreased with both waters. Consumption of 1 L/day of mineral water with the main meals reduces cardiometabolic risk biomarkers, likely to be attributed to a replacement of soft drinks by water. In addition, BW does not affect blood pressure and exerts a moderate alkalizing effect in the body.

  17. An Intervention with Mineral Water Decreases Cardiometabolic Risk Biomarkers. A Crossover, Randomised, Controlled Trial with Two Mineral Waters in Moderately Hypercholesterolaemic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Toxqui, Laura; Vaquero, M. Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Water intake is essential for health maintenance and disease prevention. The effects of an intervention with two mineral waters, sodium-bicarbonated mineral water (BW) or control mineral water low in mineral content (CW), on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were studied. In a randomised-controlled crossover-trial, sixty-four moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults were randomly assigned to consume 1 L/day of either BW (sodium, 1 g/L; bicarbonate, 2 g/L) or CW with the main meals for eight weeks, separated by an eight-week washout period. Blood lipids, lipid oxidation, glucose, insulin, aldosterone, urine pH, urinary electrolytes, blood pressure, body weight, fluid intake, energy, and nutrients from total diet and beverages were determined. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and glucose decreased (p < 0.01), oxidised LDL tended to decrease (p = 0.073), and apolipoprotein B increased during the intervention, without water type effect. Energy and carbohydrates from beverages decreased since soft drinks and fruit juice consumptions decreased throughout the trial. BW increased urinary pH (p = 0.006) and reduced calcium/creatinine excretion (p = 0.011). Urinary potassium/creatinine decreased with both waters. Consumption of 1 L/day of mineral water with the main meals reduces cardiometabolic risk biomarkers, likely to be attributed to a replacement of soft drinks by water. In addition, BW does not affect blood pressure and exerts a moderate alkalizing effect in the body. PMID:27367723

  18. Mineralizing urban net-zero water treatment: Field experience for energy-positive water management.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D

    2016-12-01

    An urban net-zero water treatment system, designed for energy-positive water management, 100% recycle of comingled black/grey water to drinking water standards, and mineralization of hormones and other organics, without production of concentrate, was constructed and operated for two years, serving an occupied four-bedroom, four-bath university residence hall apartment. The system comprised septic tank, denitrifying membrane bioreactor (MBR), iron-mediated aeration (IMA) reactor, vacuum ultrafilter, and peroxone or UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation, with 14% rainwater make-up and concomitant discharge of 14% of treated water (ultimately for reuse in irrigation). Chemical oxygen demand was reduced to 12.9 ± 3.7 mg/L by MBR and further decreased to below the detection limit (<0.7 mg/L) by IMA and advanced oxidation treatment. The process produced a mineral water meeting 115 of 115 Florida drinking water standards that, after 10 months of recycle operation with ∼14% rainwater make-up, had a total dissolved solids of ∼500 mg/L, pH 7.8 ± 0.4, turbidity 0.12 ± 0.06 NTU, and NO3-N concentration 3.0 ± 1.0 mg/L. None of 97 hormones, personal care products, and pharmaceuticals analyzed were detected in the product water. For a typical single-home system with full occupancy, sludge pumping is projected on a 12-24 month cycle. Operational aspects, including disinfection requirements, pH evolution through the process, mineral control, advanced oxidation by-products, and applicability of point-of-use filters, are discussed. A distributed, peroxone-based NZW management system is projected to save more energy than is consumed in treatment, due largely to retention of wastewater thermal energy. Recommendations regarding design and operation are offered.

  19. Water-bearing minerals on mars: source of observed mid-latitude water?

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D. L.; Carey, J. W.; Fialips, C. I.

    2003-01-01

    The Odyssey spacecraft documented the existence of heterogeneously distributed hydrogen at martian mid-latitudes, suggesting that large areas of the near-equatorial highlands contain near-surface deposits of 'chemically and/or physically bound H20 and/or OH' in amounts up to 3 .8% equivalent H20. Shallow occurrences of water ice are not stable near the martian equator, making the hydrogen deposits at these latitudes somewhat enigmatic. Clay minerals and zeolites have both been proposed as possible water-bearing constituents on Mars, and both are common terrestrial alteration products of hydrovolcanic basaltic ashes and palagonitic material comparable to those that may be widespread on Mars. Smectites within martian meteorites, attributed to hydrous alteration on Mars rather than on Earth, provide direct evidence of clay minerals from Mars. In addition, new thermal emission spectrometer (TES) data provide good evidence for unspecified zeolites in martian surface dust [6] . The nature of the hydrogen-containing material observed in the equatorial martian regolith is of particular importance to the question of whether hydrous minerals have formed in the past on Mars. Also, whether these minerals exist in a hydrated (i .e., containing H2O molecules in their structures) or dehydrated state is a crucial question . The existence of hydrous minerals is also important in connection with their possible role in affecting the diurnal variation of the martian atmosphere, in their potential role in unraveling the paleohydrology and paleobiology of Mars, and in their possible use as a water resource to support exploration of the martian mid-latitudes.

  20. Links between climate change, water-table depth, and water chemistry in a mineralized mountain watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Caine,; Todd, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that climate change is causing rising solute concentrations in mountain lakes and streams. These changes may be more pronounced in mineralized watersheds due to the sensitivity of sulfide weathering to changes in subsurface oxygen transport. Specific causal mechanisms linking climate change and accelerated weathering rates have been proposed, but in general remain entirely hypothetical. For mineralized watersheds, a favored hypothesis is that falling water tables caused by declining recharge rates allow an increasing volume of sulfide-bearing rock to become exposed to air, thus oxygen. Here, we test the hypothesis that falling water tables are the primary cause of an increase in metals and SO4 (100-400%) observed since 1980 in the Upper Snake River (USR), Colorado. The USR drains an alpine watershed geologically and climatologically representative of many others in mineralized areas of the western U.S. Hydrologic and chemical data collected from 2005 to 2011 in a deep monitoring well (WP1) at the top of the USR watershed are utilized. During this period, both water table depths and groundwater SO4 concentrations have generally increased in the well. A numerical model was constructed using TOUGHREACT that simulates pyrite oxidation near WP1, including groundwater flow and oxygen transport in both saturated and unsaturated zones. The modeling suggests that a falling water table could produce an increase in metals and SO4 of a magnitude similar to that observed in the USR (up to 300%). Future water table declines may produce limited increases in sulfide weathering high in the watershed because of the water table dropping below the depth of oxygen penetration, but may continue to enhance sulfide weathering lower in the watershed where water tables are shallower. Advective air (oxygen) transport in the unsaturated zone caused by seasonally variable recharge and associated water table fluctuations was found to have little influence on pyrite

  1. Particle Size Controls on Water Adsorption and Condensation Regimes at Mineral Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric water vapour interacting with hydrophilic mineral surfaces can produce water films of various thicknesses and structures. In this work we show that mineral particle size controls water loadings achieved by water vapour deposition on 21 contrasting mineral samples exposed to atmospheres of up to ~16 Torr water (70% relative humidity at 25 °C). Submicrometer-sized particles hosted up to ~5 monolayers of water, while micrometer-sized particles up to several thousand monolayers. All films exhibited vibrational spectroscopic signals akin to liquid water, yet with a disrupted network of hydrogen bonds. Water adsorption isotherms were predicted using models (1- or 2- term Freundlich and Do-Do models) describing an adsorption and a condensation regime, respectively pertaining to the binding of water onto mineral surfaces and water film growth by water-water interactions. The Hygroscopic Growth Theory could also account for the particle size dependence on condensable water loadings under the premise that larger particles have a greater propensity of exhibiting of surface regions and interparticle spacings facilitating water condensation reactions. Our work should impact our ability to predict water film formation at mineral surfaces of contrasting particle sizes, and should thus contribute to our understanding of water adsorption and condensation reactions occuring in nature. PMID:27561325

  2. Particle Size Controls on Water Adsorption and Condensation Regimes at Mineral Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric water vapour interacting with hydrophilic mineral surfaces can produce water films of various thicknesses and structures. In this work we show that mineral particle size controls water loadings achieved by water vapour deposition on 21 contrasting mineral samples exposed to atmospheres of up to ~16 Torr water (70% relative humidity at 25 °C). Submicrometer-sized particles hosted up to ~5 monolayers of water, while micrometer-sized particles up to several thousand monolayers. All films exhibited vibrational spectroscopic signals akin to liquid water, yet with a disrupted network of hydrogen bonds. Water adsorption isotherms were predicted using models (1- or 2- term Freundlich and Do-Do models) describing an adsorption and a condensation regime, respectively pertaining to the binding of water onto mineral surfaces and water film growth by water-water interactions. The Hygroscopic Growth Theory could also account for the particle size dependence on condensable water loadings under the premise that larger particles have a greater propensity of exhibiting of surface regions and interparticle spacings facilitating water condensation reactions. Our work should impact our ability to predict water film formation at mineral surfaces of contrasting particle sizes, and should thus contribute to our understanding of water adsorption and condensation reactions occuring in nature.

  3. Determination of water in NIST reference material for mineral oils

    PubMed

    Cedergren; Nordmark

    2000-07-15

    The accuracy of the reference concentrations of moisture in electrical insulating oil RM 8506 and lubricating oil RM 8507 (both of mineral type) and specified by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as containing 39.7 and 76.8 ppm (w/w) water, respectively, has recently been the subject of debate in this journal. To shed some further light on this controversy, we report in this correspondence results for these oils obtained by two additional methods, one based on specially designed reagents for diaphragm-free Karl Fischer (KF) coulometry and the other based on the concept of stripping at elevated temperature/continuous KF coulometry. A positive interference effect was shown to take place for RM 8506 when the direct coulometric method was used. If the results are corrected for this, the values including six different procedures varied in the range 13.5-15.6 ppm (w/w). For RM 8507, all values were between 42.5 and 47.2 ppm (w/w), which means that the values recommended by NIST for both reference oils using volumetric titration are about twice as high as those obtained with the other techniques. A possible explanation for this discrepancy is presented.

  4. Do rock fragments participate to plant water and mineral nutrition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Tétégan, Marion; Besnault, Adeline; Cousin, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    Rock fragments modify soil properties, and can be a potential reservoir of water. Besides, recent studies showed that this coarse soil fraction is chemically active, release nutrients, and could therefore be involved in biogeochemical nutrient cycles. However, these studies carried out on rock fragments, crushed pebbles or mineral particles do not answer the question whether the coarse soil fraction has significant nutritive functions. Only a couple of studies were conducted on plants, one on grass and the other on coniferous seedlings. This present work attempted to assess if pebbles may act as water and nutrient sources for poplar saplings, a deciduous species. Remoulded soils were set up in 5 L-pots with three percentages of pebbles: 0, 20, and 40% in volume. We used, as substrate either fine earth or sand (quartz), and as rock fragments either calcareous or inert pebbles (quartz). Additional modalities were settled with sand mixed with 20 and 40% pebbles enriched with nutrients. Both fine earth and calcareous pebbles were collected from the Ap horizon of a calcareous lacustrine limestone silty soil located in the central region of France. After cleaning, all pebbles were mixed to reach a bulk density in pots of 1.1 g/cm3 for the fine earth and 1.5 g/cm3 for the sand. Ten replicates were settled per modality, and one cutting of Populus robusta was planted in each. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions. All pots were saturated at the beginning of the experiment, then irrigated by capillarity and controlled to maintain a moderate water stress. Growth and evapotranspiration were followed regularly, while water stress status was measured by stomatal conductivity every day during two drying periods of 10 days. After three months, plants were collected, separated in below- and above-ground parts for biomass and cation analysis (Ca, Mg, K). Results showed that pebbles can participate to plant nutrition, but no reduction of water stress was observed

  5. [Pay attention to the human health risk of drinking low mineral water].

    PubMed

    Shu, Weiqun

    2015-10-01

    The consumption of low mineral drinking water has been increasing around the world with the shortage of water resources and the development of advanced water treatment technologies. Evidences from systematic document reviews, ecological epidemiological observations, and experimental drinking water intervention studies indicate that lack of minerals in drinking water may cause direct or indirect harm to human health, among which, the associations of magnesium in water with cardiovascular disease, as well as calcium in water with osteoporosis, are well proved by sufficient evidence. This article points out that it is urgent to pay more attention to the issues about establishment of health risk evaluation system on susceptible consuming population, establishment of lab evaluation system on water quality and health effect for non-traditional drinking water, and program of safety mineralization for demineralized or desalinated water and so on.

  6. Sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters in the treatment of biliary and digestive tract diseases.

    PubMed

    Fraioli, A; Menunni, G; Petraccia, L; Fontana, M; Nocchi, S; Grassi, M

    2010-01-01

    The authors point out the therapeutic properties of sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters. After summarizing the general mechanism of action of mineral waters, the main indications of such waters in thermal treatment are examined including: biliary sand, biliary dyskinesia, functional dyspepsia, irritable colon, chronic primitive constipation. The dysfunctions of biliary and digestive tracts are growing, mainly in the affluent world, because of the increase for stress, dietary habits, modern life style. Now they affect from 2,4% of general population to 7% of men and 20% of women, according to different studies. Mineral waters can improve symptoms and care some physiopathological underlying mechanisms. Authors stress the efficacy of sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters in the therapy of biliary dyskinesias, namely gallbladder hypokinesia and Oddi's sphincter spasm, caused by their content in SO4 = anion and Mg++ cation and related effects on paracrine-endocrine gastrointestinal system. In addition, they report the effects of sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters in the lithogenic bile (sand bile), because of their diluting and washing activity. Among the sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters, the Authors outline the well-documented therapeutic activity of Acqua Santa and Fucoli of Chianciano Terme. Acqua Santa has stimulating effect on cholecystis's motility, as proved by controlled clinical trials. Finally, the therapeutic use of sulphate-bicarbonate mineral water is discussed in functional dyspepsia, chronic primitive constipation and irritable bowel syndrome.

  7. Multi-disciplinary study for the exploration of deep low enthalpy geothermal reservoirs, Neuchâtel, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauri, G.; Abdelfettah, Y.; Negro, F.; Schill, E.; Vuataz, F.

    2011-12-01

    different DEM resolution ranging from a very high resolution (0.5 m pixel in the vicinity of each station) toward a lower resolution (25 m for the distal areas as far as 110 km away from each station). The bathymetry of the Lake of Neuchâtel (218 km2) has been used to correct gravity effects from the large volume of water along the Lake shore of Neuchâtel. The combination of 3D geological models with a high resolution gravity survey allows to better constrain the geometry of the Triassic formation, just above the detachment layer, as well to quantify the karstic processes, which could affect the three deep aquifers.

  8. Multi-Generational Drinking of Bottled Low Mineral Water Impairs Bone Quality in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hui; Wang, Lingqiao; Wang, Dahua; Luo, Jiaohua; Zhang, Liang; Huang, Yujing; Chen, Ji-an; Shu, Weiqun

    2015-01-01

    Background Because of reproductions and hormone changes, females are more sensitive to bone mineral loss during their lifetime. Bottled water has become more popular in recent years, and a large number of products are low mineral water. However, research on the effects of drinking bottled low mineral water on bone health is sparse. Objective To elucidate the skeletal effects of multi-generational bottled water drinking in female rats. Methods Rats continuously drank tap water (TW), bottled natural water (bNW), bottled mineralized water (bMW), or bottled purified water (bPW) for three generations. Results The maximum deflection, elastic deflection, and ultimate strain of the femoral diaphysis in the bNW, bMW, and bPW groups and the fracture strain in the bNW and bMW groups were significantly decreased. The tibiae calcium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. The tibiae and teeth magnesium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than those in the TW group. The collagen turnover markers PICP (in both bNW and bPW groups) were significantly lower than that in the TW group. In all three low mineral water groups, the 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D levels were significantly lower than those in the TW group. Conclusion Long-term drinking of low mineral water may disturb bone metabolism and biochemical properties and therefore weaken biomechanical bone properties in females. Drinking tap water, which contains adequate minerals, was found to be better for bone health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on drinking bottled low mineral water and female bone quality on three generation model. PMID:25803851

  9. Mineralization of biogenic materials in the water masses of the South Atlantic Ocean. II: Stoichiometric ratios and mineralization rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Salgado, X. A.; Álvarez, M.; Brea, S.; Mèmery, L.; Messias, M. J.

    2014-04-01

    The variability of nitrate (N), phosphate (P), silicate (Si) and Apparent Oxygen Utilization (AOU) due to water mass mixing was objectively separated from the variability due to mineralization of biogenic materials in the western and eastern South Atlantic Ocean on basis of the constrained Optimum MultiParameter (OMP) analysis implemented in the companion manuscript. Using a consensus linear regression model, AOU/N/P/Si mineralization ratios and the corresponding oxygen utilisation rates (OURs) were obtained for the realm of each water mass defined after the OMP analysis. Combining these results with a stoichiometric model, the organic carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios and the biochemical composition (carbohydrates + lipids, proteins and phosphorus compounds) of the mineralized material, were derived. The vertical variability of the AOU/N, AOU/P and AOU/C mineralization ratios pointed to a significant fractionation during the mineralization of sinking organic matter. This fractionation was confirmed by preferential consumption of organic phosphorous compounds and proteins in shallower levels, which produced an increase of the C/N ratio of the mineralised materials of 0.5 ± 0.2 mol C mol N-1 every 1000 dbar. OURs in the twilight zone decreased quadratically with the C/N molar ratio of the mineralised material and exponentially with pressure (p, in 103 dbar) according to the following regression equation: Ln (OUR) = 6.2(±1.2) - 2.0(±0.7) * Ln (C/N) - 0.6(±0.2) * p (r2 = 0.87, p < 0.006, n = 8). This variability in the rates and stoichiometric ratios of the biogenic material mineralization compromises our capacity to predict the ocean biogeochemistry response to global change, including the CO2 uptake and storage and the corresponding feedback mechanisms.

  10. Water in Nominally Anhydrous Deep Crustal Minerals: Facilitators of Deformation and Partial Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, S. J.; Williams, M. L.; Koteas, G. C.

    2010-12-01

    Igneous rocks of the lowest crust are commonly dominated by anhydrous minerals such as plagioclase feldspar, alkali feldspar, and quartz. Hydrous minerals such as muscovite, biotite, and hornblende can facilitate melting through dehydration melting reactions. Eutectic melting is aided by the relatively high ambient temperature of the lowermost crust and by the tendency of partial melts of mantle rocks to heat the lower crust both as a result of underplating and by intrusion into the lower crust. Free water is the most typical flux for lowering the eutectic temperature of the crystalline rocks of the lowermost crust, and subduction is the most commonly cited mechanism for delivering water to this setting. However, water in nominally anhydrous minerals such as quartz and feldspar is an additional flux for partial melting of granitoid source rocks. Water occurs both in structural sites in the host minerals and in fluid inclusions. Although water occurs in low concentrations (300-5000 ppm is typical), the abundance of these minerals in granitoids makes the effect of the water significant in terms of slightly lowering the solidus and initiating partial melting. 500 ppm water in minerals that make up large volumes of crustal rocks (alkali feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, quartz) would lower the dry solidus of granite by 24oC at 1 GPa and, because of the small bulk distribution coefficient likely for water in these minerals, would produce a near-solidus melt with XH20 = 0.248, corresponding to 8.3 weight percent water in the partial melt. Water that is trapped in a single phase is not an effective flux. It is likely that deformation of lower crustal minerals by dislocation creep mobilizes water from mineral interiors and transporting it to sites of cotectic or eutectic mineral assemblages. Water in mineral structures is likely to weaken nominally anhydrous minerals, making them susceptible to deformation by dislocation creep. The positive feedback between structural

  11. Mineral concentrations in diets, water, and milk and their value in estimating on-farm excretion of manure minerals in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castillo, A R; St-Pierre, N R; Silva del Rio, N; Weiss, W P

    2013-05-01

    Thirty-nine commercial dairies in Merced County, California were enrolled in the present study to (1) compare lactating cow mineral intakes (via drinking water and total mixed ration) to the National Research Council (NRC) requirements, (2) evaluate the association between dietary concentrations of minerals with and without drinking water and adjusted for mineral concentrations in milk, and (3) compare 4 different methods to estimate excretion of minerals using either assays or estimations of milk mineral outputs and total daily mineral intake per cow with or without minerals coming from drinking water. Dairies were selected to represent a range of herd milk yields and a range of water mineral contents. Samples of total mixed ration, drinking water, and bulk tank milk were taken on 2 different days, 3 to 7d apart in each farm. Across-farm medians and percentile distributions were used to analyze results. The herd median milk yield interquartile ranged (10th to 90th percentile) from less than 25 to more than 39 kg/d and the concentration of total solids in water interquartile ranged from less than 200 to more than 1,490 mg/L. Including drinking water minerals in the diets increased dietary concentrations by <4% for all minerals except for Na and Cl, which increased by 9.3 and 6.5%, respectively. Concentrations of P and K in milk were essentially the same as the NRC value to estimate lactation requirements. However, NRC milk values of Ca, Cl, and Zn were 10 to 20% greater than dairy farm values; and Na, Cu, Fe, and Mn were no less than 36% below NRC values. Estimated excretion of minerals via manure varied substantially across farms. Farms in the 10th percentile did have 2 to 3 times less estimated mineral excretions than those in the 90th percentile (depending on the mineral). Although including water minerals increased excretion of most minerals, the actual median effect of Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, and Mn was less than 5%, and about 8% for Na and Cl. Replacing assayed

  12. Cavitation pitting and erosion of Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The authors are currently carrying out a study of the cavitation erosion of different bearing metals and alloys in mineral oils were studied. The variations of weight loss, the pit diameter and depth due to cavitation erosion on Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water are presented.

  13. Training of panellists for the sensory control of bottled natural mineral water in connection with water chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Rey-Salgueiro, Ledicia; Gosálbez-García, Aitana; Pérez-Lamela, Concepción; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Falqué-López, Elena

    2013-11-01

    As bottled mineral water market is increasing in the world (especially in emergent and developed countries), the development of a simple protocol to train a panel to evaluate sensory properties would be a useful tool for natural drinking water industry. A sensory protocol was developed to evaluate bottled natural mineral water (17 still and 10 carbonated trademarks). The tasting questionnaire included 13 attributes for still water plus overall impression and they were sorted by: colour hues, transparency and brightness, odour/aroma and taste/flavour/texture and 2 more for carbonated waters (bubbles and effervescence). The training lasted two months with, at least, 10 sessions, was adequate to evaluate bottled natural mineral water. To confirm the efficiency of the sensory training procedure two sensory groups formed the whole panel. One trained panel (6 persons) and one professional panel (6 sommeliers) and both participated simultaneously in the water tasting evaluation of 3 sample lots. Similar average scores obtained from trained and professional judges, with the same water trademarks, confirmed the usefulness of the training protocol. The differences obtained for trained panel in the first lot confirm the necessity to train always before a sensory procedure. A sensory water wheel is proposed to guide the training in bottled mineral water used for drinking, in connection with their chemical mineral content.

  14. [Fundamental study on effect of high-mineral drinking water for osteogenesis in calciprivia ovariectomized rats].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2014-01-01

    Since osteoporosis is a major public health problem in Japan, it is important to clarify the effect of high-mineral drinking water consumption on osteogenesis. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the relationship between high-mineral drinking water consumption and osteogenesis in ovariectomized rats that received a low-calcium diet and purified water (PW group) or a low-calcium diet and high-mineral drinking water (CR group). High-mineral drinking water affected the rats' body weight. After 3 months, the bone density of the CR group was higher than that of the PW group (p<0.05). Furthermore, the CR group showed a decrease in the amount of calcium in the bones after 3 months. These results suggest that high-mineral drinking water contributes to the maintenance of bone density and not to the amount of calcium in bone. On the other hand, serum alkaline phosphatase levels in the PW group at 3 months were higher than those in the CR group, which indicates that the blood concentration of calcium in the CR group was maintained. Moreover, the amount of magnesium in the bones and the blood concentration of magnesium in the CR group after 3 months were higher than the corresponding values in the PW group. These results suggest that consumption of high-mineral drinking water could be beneficial for osteogenesis (i.e., for maintaining bone quantity).

  15. Real-time QEXAFS spectroscopy measures rapid precipitate formation at the mineral-water interface.

    PubMed

    Siebecker, Matthew; Li, Wei; Khalid, Syed; Sparks, Donald

    2014-09-19

    Reactions at the mineral-water interface are central to numerous geochemical processes and have consequences at local, regional and global scales. They are also important in materials science research. Kinetics greatly influences mineral-water interface reactions; however, there are few kinetic data in real-time and at the molecular scale. Here we report real-time data illustrating the rapid formation of nickel aluminium-layered double hydroxide precipitates at the mineral-water interface in a flow environment in as little as 31-40 min. Layered double hydroxides have a variety of applications in environmental remediation and materials science. The real-time data shown here enhance our fundamental understanding of the kinetics of mineral-water interface processes, such as adsorption, dissolution and precipitation, by illustrating their rapid and simultaneous occurrence in a dynamic environment. Both precipitation and adsorption can occur on the same rapid timescale.

  16. Cavitation pitting and erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Cavitation erosion studies of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil and in ordinary tap water are presented. The maximum erosion rate (MDPR, or mean depth of penetration rate) in mineral oil was about four times that in water. The MDPR in mineral oil decreased continuously with time, but the MDPR in water remained approximately constant. The cavitation pits in mineral oil were of smaller diameter and depth than the pits in water. Treating the pits as spherical segments, we computed the radius r of the sphere. The logarithm of h/a, where h is the pit depth and 2a is the top width of the pit, was linear when plotted against the logarithm of 2r/h - 1.

  17. Harnessing Water and Resources from Clay Minerals on Mars and Planetary Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. L.

    2017-02-01

    Clay minerals provide a source of water, metals, and cations that can be harvested to provide resources for human exploration on Mars, asteroids, etc. Planning how to access these resources from clays could be a vital component of human exploration.

  18. Mineral paragenesis in the talc-water experimental hydrothermal system.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, G.; Eberl, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    The talc-like gel was treated between 300o and 550oC at 1 kbar for 7, 30, 50, 120 and 200 days. The trends suggest that stevensite and/or corrensite are the stable minerals at <450oC. At 500o- 550oC, talc is stable.-K.A.R.

  19. Carbonate-mineral/water interactions in sulfide-rich mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al, Tom A.; Martin, Chris J.; Blowes, David W.

    2000-12-01

    The chemical composition and mineralogy of coatings on carbonate minerals from mine tailings have been studied using aqueous geochemical methods, Time-of-Flight Laser-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TOF-LIMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The goal is to study major and trace element partitioning between the aqueous and solid phase, and to infer mechanisms that control the concentrations of elements in the pore water of sulfide-rich mine tailings. Pore-water samples and carbonate-mineral grains were collected from four geochemically distinct zones within the tailings. Oxidation of sulfide minerals near the surface results in a large range in pore-water pH (3.85 to 6.98) and aqueous concentrations of metals and sulfate. With increasing depth in the tailings, mineral-water interactions lead to increasing pH, and decreasing concentrations of metals and sulfate. Calculated mineral saturation indices, trends in the abundance of Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in TOF-LIMS profiles through the secondary coatings, and electron diffraction patterns obtained from the coatings, suggest that precipitation/dissolution of jarosite-group minerals, gypsum, goethite, akaganéite, amorphous Fe oxyhydroxides and siderite control the aqueous Ca, Fe, Na, K and SO 4 concentrations. The occurrence of secondary coatings on primary minerals is widespread, and reactions with the secondary minerals, rather than the primary mineral substrate, probably represent the principal controls on trace-element distributions in the pore water. The data indicate that adsorption, surface-complexation and co-precipitation reactions are important controls on the concentrations of trace elements in the pore water. The occurrence of siderite coatings on the surface of ankerite grains suggests that Fe-bearing dolomite-structure carbonate minerals dissolve incongruently. This corroborates inferences made by previous workers that solubility differences between calcite and siderite lead to calcite dissolution and

  20. [Impact of the mineral composition of drinking water on children's health].

    PubMed

    Rylova, N V

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of highly mineralized drinking water on children's health. To reveal a relationship of children's health to the chemical composition of portable water, two Kazan districts differing in the conditions of water supply and the mineral composition of the water were selected. A total of 833 schoolchildren aged 7-9 years underwent a questionnaire survey and their objective status was examined. Special methods were used to determine the urinary content of trace elements, such as copper, zinc, cadmium, and gross elements, such as calcium and magnesium, by performing atomic absorption spectrophotometry on an AAS-SA 10 MP apparatus.

  1. Authigenic Mineralization of Silicates at the Organic-water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, B.; Wallace, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    It is relatively common for some fraction of organic material to be preserved in the sedimentary rock record as disseminated molecular fragments. The survival of wholly coherent tissues from primarily soft-bodied organisms is far more unusual. However, the literature is now well- populated with spectacular examples of soft-tissue preservation ranging from a 2,600 year old human brain to the tissues of the Ediacaran biota that have survived ~600 million years. Some of the most exceptional examples of soft tissue preservation are from the Proterozoic-Cambrian transition, however, nearly all modes of fossil preservation during this time are debated. Clay mineral templates have been implicated as playing a role in several types of soft tissue preservation, including Burgess Shale and Beecher's Trilobite-type preservation, and more recently, Bitter Springs-type silicification. Yet, there is still much debate over whether these clay mineral coatings form during early stage burial and diagenesis, or later stage metamorphism. This research addresses this question by using in situ fluid cell Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to investigate the nucleation and growth of silicate minerals on model biological surfaces. Herein we present preliminary results on the deposition of hydrous magnesium silicates on self-assembled monolayers (-OH, -COOH, -CH3, and -H2PO3 terminated surfaces) at ambient conditions.

  2. Mineral-water reactions in metamorphism and volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, I.

    1985-01-01

    Low-temperature (120??C and less) metamorphism of graywacke, granite and andesite yields zeolites and precursor gels by reaction with fresh water but low-greenschist facies by reaction with salt (sea)water. ?? 1985.

  3. Geochemistry and origins of mineralized waters in the Floridan aquifer system, northeastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, G.G.

    2001-01-01

    Increases in chloride concentration have been observed in water from numerous wells tapping the Floridan aquifer system in northeastern Florida. Although most increases have been in the eastern part of Duval County, Florida, no spatial pattern in elevated chloride concentrations is discernible. Possible sources of the mineralized water include modern seawater intrusion; unflushed Miocene-to-Pleistocene-age seawater or connate water in aquifer sediments; or mineralized water from deeper zones of the aquifer system or from formations beneath the Floridan aquifer system. The purpose of this study was to document the chemical and isotopic characteristics of water samples from various aquifer zones, and from geochemical and hydrogeologic data, to infer the source of the increased mineralization. Water samples were collected from 53 wells in northeastern Florida during 1997-1999. Wells tapped various zones of the aquifer including: the Fernandina permeable zone (FPZ), the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer (UZLF), the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA), and both the UFA and the UZLF. Water samples were analyzed for major ions and trace constituents and for isotopes of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, sulfur, strontium, chlorine, and boron. Samples of rock from the aquifer were analyzed for isotopes of oxygen, carbon, and strontium. In general, water from various aquifer zones cannot be differentiated based on chemistry, except for water from FPZ wells. Major-ion concentrations vary as much within the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the Upper Floridan aquifer as between these two zones. Simple models of mixing between fresh ground water and either modern seawater or water from the FPZ as a mineralized end member show that many water samples from the UZLF aquifer and the UFA are enriched in bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, fluoride, and silica and are depleted in sodium and potassium (as compared to concentrations predicted by simple mixing). Chemical mass

  4. Water geochemistry of the Lucero Uplift, New Mexico: geothermal investigation of low-temperature mineralized fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; McCormick, T.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Vidale, R.; Charles, R.

    1983-04-01

    A detailed geochemical investigation of 27 waters of the Lucero uplift, central New Mexico, was performed to determine if the fluids originate from a high-temperature geothermal system along the Rio Grande rift. Two types of mineralized water issue from the Lucero region: a relatively saline (high-Cl, high-SO/sub 4/) type and a relatively dilute (low-Cl, high-SO/sub 4/) type. Emergence temperatures of both types range from 12 to 26/sup 0/C. Chemical data and thermodynamic and geothermometer calculations all indicate that both water types are in equilibrium with carbonate and evaporite minerals found in local Colorado Plateau rocks at surface temperatures or slightly higher. Stable isotope data do not indicate high-temperature rock-water interaction. Although evidence is seen for mixing between mineralized waters and dilute surface waters, no evidence for mixing of a deep hot fluid and surface waters is seen. Dilute mineral waters, which issue from a large area of Chinle Formation on the west side of the Lucero uplift, may be useful for low-temperature geothermal applications with appropriate design of equipment. Saline mineral waters, which leak from a zone of faulted and folded rocks along the Comanche fault zone, do not appear to have much, if any, geothermal potential due to their low-temperature, restricted distribution, and high concentration of dissolved solids. No evidence that saline mineral waters are associated with Quaternary faults of the Rio Grande rift or Quaternary basaltic volcanism within the immediate area is seen.

  5. [Effects of mineral water TIB-2 on metabolic processes in urolithiasis patients].

    PubMed

    Dzeranov, N K; Beshliev, D A; Golovanov, S A; Kon'kova, T A

    2000-01-01

    Natural low-mineralized hydrocarbonate-calcium-magnesium mineral water (total mineralization 2 g/l) in bottles has been examined for therapeutic effects on metabolism in urolithiasis patients. The complex of biochemical blood and urine indices indicative of the renal function and concentration of lithogenic components was studied in 52 patients (age 23-68 years, 23 males and 29 females). Ten of them had nephrostoma. All the patients have undergone extracorporeal lithotripsy or other operations for renal or ureteric calculi. In nephrostoma patients urine samples were obtained both from nephrostoma and urinary bladder. The tests were made before the treatment and on the treatment day 3-5 and 10-12. TIB-2 mineral water was taken 3 times a day in a dose 200 ml 30-45 minutes before meal. The data were statistically processed. From the data obtained it was concluded that mineral water TIB-2 normalizes azotemia and clearance of endogenic creatinine, plasma values of calcium and uric acid, enhances urinary elimination of uric acid and calcium oxalate microcrystals that is TIB-2 improves metabolism of lithogenic substances and ions. Indications to drinking mineral water TIB-2 for urological patients are formulated.

  6. [Studies on the bottles of mineral water and the foreign plastic like substances].

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Y; Sugita, T; Watanabe, Y; Takano, T; Itakura, T; Ikegawa, T; Yamada, T

    1997-01-01

    The containers of mineral water and the foreign plastic substances which were found in the mineral water were investigated. Most of plastic bottles were made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and the caps were made of polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) or aluminum. PE liners were attached to some caps. Most of the foreign plastic substances were PET while others were PE, PP, Teflon and rubber. Some bottles had a scratch on the top inside. The origin of most PET fragments was presumed to be scraped off the bottles by the lowering of the injection nozzle during the water filling process. The sources of the other substances were also determined.

  7. Mineral content of sorghum genotypes and the influence of water stress.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Caroline Liboreiro; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Simeone, Maria Lúcia Ferreira; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; de Oliveira, Antônio Carlos; da Silva, Camila Santana

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum is a source of several minerals whose content may vary depending on the genotype and the production environment. The objective of this study was to screen sorghum genotypes for mineral content and to investigate the effect of water stress on it. A large variability was observed in the mineral content of 100 sorghum genotypes grown in environments without (WoWS) and with water stress (WthWS). The water stress decreased Mn, P, Mg and S contents in 100, 96, 93 and 56% of genotypes, respectively. The genotypes and other factors seemed to have more impact than water stress on K, Ca, Cu, Fe and Zn levels. In 100 sorghum genotypes, 2 were classified as excellent sources of Fe and 25 of Zn, in both environments. The best two genotypes to Fe content were SC21 and SC655 and to Zn were SC320 and SHAN-QUI-RED which showed great potential for use in biofortification.

  8. Natural radioactivity in bottled mineral and thermal spring waters of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Taskin, Halim; Asliyuksek, Hizir; Bozkurt, Ahmet; Kam, Erol

    2013-12-01

    Radiological assessment of bottled mineral waters and thermal spring waters collected from various natural sources in Turkey was carried out using gross alpha and gross beta counting techniques. For 40 samples of bottled mineral water, the mean gross alpha activity concentration was determined to be 164 mBq l(-1) (min.:7 mBq l(-1); max.: 3042 mBq l(-1)), whereas the gross beta activity concentration was found to be 555 mBq l(-1) (min.: 21 mBq l(-1); max.: 4845 mBq l(-1)). For 24 samples of thermal spring water, the mean gross alpha activity concentration was obtained to be 663 mBq l(-1) (min.: 18 mBq l(-1); max.: 3070 mBq l(-1)). The gross beta activity concentration for these samples, on the other hand, was determined to be 3314 mBq l(-1) (min.: 79 mBq l(-1); max.: 17955 mBq l(-1)). These values lead to the average annual effective doses of 313 µSv for mineral waters and 1805 µSv for thermal spa waters, which are found to be higher than those recommended for drinking waters by the World Health Organization. It should be noted, however, that one will get less dose from mineral waters since the daily consumption is much lower than 2 l that these calculations assume.

  9. Potential mineralization of four herbicides in a ground water--fed wetland area.

    PubMed

    Larsen, L; Jørgensen, C; Aamand, J

    2001-01-01

    Herbicides may leach from agricultural fields into ground water feeding adjacent wetlands. However, only little is known of the fate of herbicides in wetland areas. The purpose of the study was to examine the potential of a riparian fen to mineralize herbides that could leach from an adjacent catchment area. Slurries were prepared from sediment and ground water collected from different parts of a wetland representing different redox conditions. The slurries were amended with O2, NO3-, SO4(2-), and CO2, or CO2 alone as electron acceptors to simulate the in situ conditions and their ability to mineralize the herbides mecoprop, metsulfuron-methyl, isoproturon and atrazine. In addition, the abundance of bacteria able to utilize O2, NO3-, SO4(2-) + CO2, and CO2 as electron acceptors was investigated along with the O2-reducing and methanogenic potential of the sediment. The recalcitrance to bacterial degradation depended on both the type of herbicide and the redox conditions pertaining. Mecoprop was the most readily degraded herbicide, with 36% of [ring-U-14C]mecoprop being mineralized to 14CO2 under aerobic conditions after 473 d. In comparison, approximately 29% of [phenyl-U-14C]metsulfuron-methyl and 16% of [ring-U-14C]isoproturon mineralized in aerobic slurries during the same period. Surprisingly, 8 to 13% of mecoprop also mineralized under anaerobic conditions. Neither metsulfuron-methyl nor isoproturon were mineralized under anaerobic conditions and atrazine was not mineralized under any of the redox conditions examined. The present study is the first to report mineralization of meco-prop in ground water in a wetland area, and the first to report mineralization of a phenoxyalcanoic acid herbicide under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

  10. The spectral reflectance of water-mineral mixtures at low temperatures. [observed on natural satellites and other solar system objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory reflectance spectra in the 0.325-2.5 micron region of bound water, water-mineral mixtures, mineral grains on frost, and frost on minerals are presented. The materials used in this study are montmorillonite, kaolinite, beryl, Mauna Kea red cinder, and black charcoal. It is found that the wavelengths of bound water and bound OH absorptions do not shift appreciably with temperature and can be detected when large amounts of free water ice are present. The decrease in the visible reflectance seen in many planetary reflectance spectra containing strong water ice absorptions can be explained by water-mineral mixtures, mineral grains on frost, or frost on mineral grains. Mineral grains on frost are detectable in very small quantities (fractional areal coverage less than approximately 0.005) depending on the mineral reflectance features, while it takes a thick layer of frost (greater than approximately 1 mm) to mask a mineral below 1.4 microns, again depending on the mineral reflectance. Frost on a very dark surface (albedo about 6%) is easily seen; however, a dark mineral mixed with water could completely mask the water absorptions (shortward of 2.5 microns).

  11. Microbiological safety of bottled mineral water in patients susceptible to infections.

    PubMed

    Oie, Shigeharu; Matsuzaka, Yuuki; Kiyonaga, Hiroko; Maeda, Kumiko; Kamiya, Akira

    2008-08-01

    We evaluated the microbiological safety of bottled mineral water products commercially available in Japan. Of 10 bottled mineral water products manufactured in Japan, no bacteria or fungi were detected in 9 (90%), but 1 (10%) contained 1.8x10(3) colony-forming units (cfu)/mL. Of 12 bottled mineral water products manufactured in the EU, 11 (91.7%) contained 23-3.5x10(4) cfu/mL. On the other hand, of 5 bottled mineral water products manufactured in North America, 2 (40%) contained 2.3x10(2)-2.5x10(3) cfu/mL. The detected microorganisms were glucose-nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli such as Brevundimonas vesicularis, Moraxella spp., and Burkholderia cepacia, but Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not detected in any product. For immunocompromised host patients being managed in ultra-clean rooms, the examined bottled mineral water products manufactured in Japan, except 1, were microbiologically safe.

  12. Adsorption mechanisms of microcystin variant conformations at water-mineral interfaces: A molecular modeling investigation.

    PubMed

    Pochodylo, Amy L; Aoki, Thalia G; Aristilde, Ludmilla

    2016-10-15

    Microcystins (MCs) are potent toxins released during cyanobacterial blooms. Clay minerals are implicated in trapping MCs within soil particles in surface waters and sediments. In the absence of molecular characterization, the relevance of previously proposed adsorption mechanisms is lacking. Towards obtaining this characterization, we conducted Monte Carlo simulations combined with molecular dynamics relaxation of two MC variants, MC-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) and MC-leucine-alanine (MC-LA), adsorbed on hydrated montmorillonite with different electrolytes. The resulting adsorbate structures revealed how MC conformations and aqueous conditions dictate binding interactions at the mineral surface. Electrostatic coupling between the arginine residue and a carboxylate in MC-LR excluded the participation of arginine in mediating adsorption on montmorillonite in a NaCl solution. However, in a CaCl2 solution, the complexation of Ca by two carboxylate moieties in MC-LR changed the MC conformation, which allowed arginine to mediate electrostatic interaction with the mineral. By contrast, due to the lack of arginine in MC-LA, complexation of Ca by only one carboxylate in MC-LA was required to favor Ca-bridging interaction with the mineral. Multiple water-bridged H-bonding interactions were also important in anchoring MCs at the mineral surface. Our modeling results offer molecular insights into the structural and chemical factors that can control the fate of MCs at water-mineral interfaces.

  13. [Effects of water content on redox potential and carbon mineralization of wetland sediments].

    PubMed

    Yang, Gai-ren; Tong, Cheng-li; Xiao, He-ai; Wu, Jin-shui

    2009-08-15

    To better understand the effect of soil water contents on redox potential (Eh), and their impacts on C mineralization in natural wetland, sediment samples from 3 types of wetlands (fen, humus marsh and marshy meadow) in the San-jiang Plate region of North China were incubated (25 degrees C) for 155 d under a range of reducing and oxidizing conditions by controlling water contents (varied from 24% to 232% of water holding capacity) (WHC). CO2-C evolved during incubation was measured at different time intervals. Results showed that Eh of sediments decreased significantly as water content increased from 24% WHC (lighted moisturized) to about 100% WHC, then decreased slightly as water content increased further to a level of submersed (about 2 cm water-depths). The accumulative amount of CO2-C evolved from the sediments indicated that the optimum water contents for mineralization of organic C are 32%, 48% and 76%-100% WHC for sediments of fen, humus marsh, and marshy meadow, respectively. The relationship between mineralization rates and redox potentials (Eh) were well fitted with second order parabola equations (p < 0.05). Mineralization rates and accumulative amount of organic C displayed a positive correlation with Eh up to 300 mV. However, a significant negative correlation was observed when Eh increased above 300 mV. Results demonstrated that low redox potential is the controlling factor of carbon accumulation of wetland in San-jiang Plate region.

  14. Calibration of Mineralization Degree for Dynamic Pure-water Measurement in Horizontal Oil-water Two-phase Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Weihang; Li, Lei; Kong, Lingfu; Liu, Xingbin

    2016-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of dynamic pure-water electrical conductivity measurement in the process of calculating water content of oil-water two-phase flow of production profile logging in horizontal wells, a six-group local-conductance probe (SGLCP) is proposed to measure dynamic pure-water electrical conductivity in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow. The structures of conductance sensors which include the SGLCP and ring-shaped conductance probe (RSCP) are analyzed by using the finite-element method (FEM). In the process of simulation, the electric field distribution generated by the SGLCP and RSCP are investigated, and the responses of the measuring electrodes are calculated under the different values of the water resistivity. The static experiments of the SGLCP and RSCP under different mineralization degrees in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. Results of simulation and experiments demonstrate a nice linearity between the SGLCP and RSCP under different mineralization degrees. The SGLCP has also a good adaptability to stratified flow, stratified flow with mixing at the interface and dispersion of oil in water and water flow. The validity and feasibility of pure-water electrical conductivity measurement with the designed SGLCP under different mineralization degrees are verified by experimental results.

  15. Therapeutic Effects and Immunomodulation of Suanbo Mineral Water Therapy in a Murine Model of Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Lee, Hye Jin; Lee, Do Hyun; Woo, So Youn; Lee, Kyung Ho; Yun, Seong Taek; Kim, Jong Moon; Kim, Hong Jig

    2013-01-01

    Background Balneotherapy is widely used as an alternative treatment modality for AD. Although the clinical benefit of some mineral waters has been established, their mechanisms of action in alleviating AD are only partly understood. Objective The clinical modification and immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory effects of mineral water from the Suanbo hot springs on the differentiation and cytokine production of Th1, Th2, and regulatory T cells (Treg) were investigated using spleen, skin tissue, and serum from NC/Nga mice. Methods The therapeutic effects of bathing in mineral water in a Dermatophagoides farinae body extract ointment (Dfb ointment)-induced AD mouse model were assessed by measuring the modified Scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) index scores, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), histological and immunohistochemical changes of the skin lesion, serum levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and immunoglobulin E, mRNA expression of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 of dorsal skin, and helper T cell differentiation in the spleen. Results Bathing in mineral water significantly reduced the modified SCORAD index scores, TEWL, epidermal hyperplasia, and inflammatory cell infiltration. IL-4 production and Th2 cell differentiation showed a decreasing tendency with mineral water bathing, but the Th1 cells did not. On the contrary, differentiation to Treg cells was promoted with mineral water bathing. Conclusion Balneotherapy not only has anti-inflammatory activity, but also shows positive effects on cutaneous barrier homeostasis. These results suggest that the favorable effects of balneotherapy may be mediated by modifying the Th2 response, and possibly in part by inducing Treg cell differentiation. PMID:24371394

  16. Mineral-Coated Polymer Membranes with Superhydrophilicity and Underwater Superoleophobicity for Effective Oil/Water Separation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000 L m−2 h−1), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140 kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation. PMID:24072204

  17. Mineral-coated polymer membranes with superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity for effective oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2013-09-27

    Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000 L m(-2) h(-1)), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140 kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation.

  18. Influence of mineral weathering reactions on the chemical composition of soil water, springs, and ground water, Catoctin Mountains, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.

    1989-01-01

    During 1983 and 1984, wet precipitation was primarily a solution of dilute sulphuric acid, whereas calcium and bicarbonate were the major ions in springs and ground water in two small watersheds with a deciduous forest cover in central Maryland. Dominant ions in soil water were calcium, magnesium, and sulphate. The relative importance of mineral weathering reactions on the chemical composition of these subsurface waters was compared to the contribution from wet precipitation, biological processes, and road deicing salts. -from Author

  19. A target-oriented magnetotelluric inversion approach for characterizing the low enthalpy Groß Schönebeck geothermal reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, G.; Ritter, O.; Moeck, I.

    2010-12-01

    Electrical conductivity is a key parameter for the exploration and characterization of geothermal reservoirs as hot mineralized formation water of active geothermal areas usually exhibits significantly higher conductivity than the surrounding host rock. Here we present results of a magnetotelluric (MT) exploration experiment carried out in the vicinity of the Groß Schönebeck geothermal test site in Northern Germany, where a doublet system of two 4.3-km deep boreholes was drilled to establish an in situ laboratory to investigate the potential for geothermal energy production. Classical 2-D smooth inversion of the MT data, recorded along two profiles, reveals a shallow conductive structure in good agreement with information from regional geology and seismic images. However, at the northernmost part of the profiles, the conductivity models reveal deep-reaching conductive structures, which appear uncorrelated with existing (geophysical or geological) data. Incorporating information from seismics as independent constraints for MT inversions allows us to examine the model space rigorously but target oriented. Employing so-called tear-zone inversions we can effectively derive an alternative class of models, which are consistent with the MT observations but also with the other data sets. We speculate that the zones of high conductivity imaged at reservoir depth are related areas of reduced thickness of the overlaying evapourite layer. The enhanced conductivity can be explained by a higher fracture density in anhydritic layers and/or generally lower resistivity of the pore fluid.

  20. Effect of inorganic nutrients on the acclimation period preceding mineralization of organic chemicals in lake water

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.H.; Alexander, M.

    1988-12-01

    The addition of phosphate, nitrate, or sulfate (each at 10 mM) decreased the acclimation period for the mineralization of low concentrations of p-nitrophenol (PNP) in lake water. Added phosphate shortened the acclimation period for biodegradation of 2 ng to 2 micrograms of PNP per ml in various lake water samples and of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate at 100 ng/ml. Added P enhanced the rate of growth of PNP-mineralizing microorganisms in waters containing 200 ng or 2 micrograms of PNP per ml. We suggest that the effect of P on the acclimation period results from an increase in the growth rate of the initially small population of microorganisms able to mineralize the synthetic chemicals.

  1. Trace metal contamination of mineral spring water in an historical mining area in regional Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Rachael; Dowling, Kim

    2013-11-01

    Significant global consumption of spring and mineral water is fuelled by perceived therapeutic and medicinal qualities, cultural habits and taste. The Central Victorian Mineral Springs Region, Australia comprises approximately 100 naturally effervescent, cold, high CO2 content springs with distinctive tastes linked to a specific spring or pump. The area has a rich settlement history. It was first settled by miners in the 1840s closely followed by the first commercial operations of a health resort 1895. The landscape is clearly affected by gold mining with geographically proximal mine waste, mullock heaps or tailings. Repeated mineral springs sampling since 1985 has revealed elevated arsenic concentrations. In 1985 an arsenic concentration five times the current Australian Drinking Water Guideline was recorded at a popular tourist spring site. Recent sampling and analyses have confirmed elevated levels of heavy metals/metalloids, with higher concentrations occurring during periods of low rainfall. Despite the elevated levels, mineral water source points remain accessible to the public with some springs actively promoting the therapeutic benefits of the waters. In light of our analysis, the risk to consumers (some of whom are likely to be negatively health-affected or health-compromised) needs to be considered with a view to appropriate and verified analyses made available to the public.

  2. Influence of the consumption pattern of magnesium from magnesium-rich mineral water on magnesium bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Sabatier, Magalie; Grandvuillemin, Antoine; Kastenmayer, Peter; Aeschliman, Jean-Marc; Bouisset, Florilène; Arnaud, Maurice J; Dumoulin, Gilles; Berthelot, Alain

    2011-08-01

    It is generally considered that the absorption of Mg is inversely related to the ingested dose. The objective of the present study was to determine if the mode of administration (bolus v. consumption throughout the day) could influence Mg bioavailability from Mg-rich natural mineral water comparing the same nutritional Mg amount (126 mg). Using a 2 d cross-over design, twelve healthy men were asked to drink 1·5 litres Mg-rich mineral water either as 2 × 750 ml or 7 × 212 ml throughout the day. Two stable isotopes ((25)Mg and (26)Mg) were used to label the water in order to distinguish both regimens. Fractional apparent Mg absorption was determined by faecal monitoring and Mg retention was determined by measuring urinary excretion of Mg isotopes. Higher Mg absorption (50·7 (SD 12·7) v. 32·4 (SD 8·1) %; P = 0·0007) and retention (47·5 (SD 12·9) v. 29·0 (SD 7·5) %; P = 0·0008) from Mg-rich mineral water were observed when it was consumed in seven servings compared with larger servings. Thus, regular water consumption throughout the day is an effective way to increase Mg bioavailability from Mg-rich mineral water.

  3. Erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in mineral oil and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of the erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in distilled water, ordinary tap water and a viscous mineral oil are presented. The mean depth of penetration for the mineral oil was about 40 percent of that for water at the end of a 40 min test. The mean depth of penetration and its rate did not differ significantly for distilled and tap water. The mean depth of penetration rate for both distilled and tap water increased to a maximum and then decreased with test duration, while that for mineral oil had a maximum during the initial period. The ratio h/2a of the pit depth h to the pit diameter 2a varied from 0.04 to 0.13 in water and from 0.06 to 0.20 in mineral oil. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the pits are initially formed over the grain boundaries and precipitates while the surface grains are deformed under cavitation attack.

  4. Crystallographic controls on the frictional behavior of dry and water-saturated sheet structure minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    We compare the frictional strengths of 17 sheet structure mineral powders, measured under dry and water-saturated conditions, to identify the factors that cause many of them to be relatively weak. The dry coefficient of friction ?? ranges upward from 0.2 for graphite, leveling off at 0.8 for margarite, clintonite, gibbsite, kaolinite, and lizardite. The values of ?? (dry) correlate directly with calculated (001) interlayer bond strengths of the minerals. This correlation occurs because shear becomes localized along boundary and Riedel shears and the platy minerals in them rotate into alignment with the shear planes. For those gouges with ?? (dry) < 0.8, shear occurs by breaking the interlayer bonds to form new cleavage surfaces. Where ?? (dry) = 0.8, consistent with Byerlee's law, the interlayer bonds are sufficiently strong that other frictional processes dominate. The transition in dry friction mechanisms corresponds to calculated surface energies of 2-3 J/m2. Adding water causes ?? to decrease for every mineral tested except graphite. If the minerals are separated into groups with similar crystal structures, ?? (wet) increases with increasing interlayer bond strength within each group. This relationship also holds for the swelling clay montmorillonite, whose water-saturated strength is consistent with the strengths of nonswelling clays of similar crystal structure. Water in the saturated gouges forms thin, structured films between the plate surfaces. The polar water molecules are bonded to the plate surfaces in proportion to the mineral's surface energy, and ?? (wet) reflects the stresses required to shear through the water films. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Norwalk-like virus sequences in mineral waters: one-year monitoring of three brands.

    PubMed

    Beuret, Christian; Kohler, Dorothe; Baumgartner, Andreas; Lüthi, Thomas M

    2002-04-01

    In a recent study, RNA with nucleotide sequeces specific for "Norwalk-like viruses" (NLV) was detected in 11 different brands of European mineral waters. To clarify this finding, a 1-year monitoring study was conducted. Samples of three European brands of mineral water without gas were monitored weekly by reverse transcriptase PCR using generic and genogroup-specific oligonucleotides. Additional analyses were performed to investigate a possible correlation between NLV sequence contamination and mineral water lot numbers, the long-term stability (persistence) of NLV sequences in mineral water, and the level of contamination. NLV sequences were detected in 53 of 159 samples analyzed (33%) and belonged entirely to genogroup II. Although all NLV strains identified were closely related, three mineral water brand-specific clusters could be identified for both primer systems by sequencing. Analyses of second samples from lots previously shown to be positive for NLV sequences gave corresponding results in 45 of 53 cases (85%) (within a six-pack). NLV persistence was tested by analyzing 10 positive samples after 6 and 12 months of storage in darkness at room temperature. After 6 months, all samples remained positive; after 12 months, 9 of 10 samples were still positive for NLV sequences. No NLV sequences could be detected by analysis of 0.1-liter aliquots of 53 samples shown to be positive by testing of 1-liter volumes. Based on this fact and a test sensitivity of approximately 10 viral units, levels of contamination in positive mineral water samples were estimated to be in the range of 10 to 100 genomic equivalents per liter.

  6. Interaction between Bisphosphonates and Mineral Water: Study of Oral Risedronate Absorption in Rats.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Akihisa; Akagi, Yuuki; Shimomura, Hitoshi; Aoyama, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are antiosteoporotic agents prescribed for patients with osteoporosis. Drug package inserts for bisphosphonate supplements indicate that their bioavailability is reduced by high levels of metal cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), etc.). However, standards for these cations in water used for taking risedronate have not been defined. Here, we examined the effect of calcium and magnesium in mineral waters on the bioavailability of the third-generation bisphosphonate, risedronate, following oral administration in rats. As risedronate is unchanged and eliminated renally, risedronate absorption was estimated from the amount excreted in the urine. Risedronate was dissolved in mineral water samples and administered orally at 0.35 mg/kg. Urine samples were collected for 24 h after dosing. Risedronate was extracted from urine using ion-pair solid-phase cartridges and quantified by HPLC with UV detection (262 nm). Cumulative recovery of risedronate was calculated from the amount excreted in the urine. The 24-h recovery of risedronate from evian® (0.32±0.02% [mean±standard deviation (S.D.)], n=4) and Contrex(®) (0.22±0.05%) mineral waters was significantly lower than that from tap water (0.47±0.04%, p<0.01). Absorption of risedronate in calcium chloride and magnesium chloride aqueous solutions of the same hardness (822 mg/L) was 54% (0.27±0.04%) and 12% (0.51±0.08%) lower, respectively, compared with ultrapure water; suggesting that absorption of risedronate declines as the calcium concentration of mineral waters increases. Consumption of mineral waters containing high levels of calcium (80 mg/L or above), such as evian® and Contrex(®), is therefore not recommended when taking risedronate.

  7. Several properties offilament fibers made from recycled bottles of mineral water using melt spinning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslim, Ikhwanul; Mardiyati; Basuki, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Waste mineral water bottles made of PET called post-consumer POSTC-PET packaging with recycling code no. 1 can be made into another material other than the bottle by using a mechanical recycling process. In this experiment carried waste recycling process bottled mineral water bottles of PET into filament fibres with the aid of a melt spinning. From the resulting experimental filament fibres diameter of 14-15 microns, obtained the draw ratio is 1/46, 573,5 - 699,8 MPa tensile strength, modulus of elasticity of 2,01 - 2,45GPa, moisture regain of 2,84. Keywords. PET; Bottle; Fiber; Melt; Spinning; Drawing.

  8. [Thiamine metabolism in experimental hepatitis and the intake of Naftusia mineral water].

    PubMed

    Leus, N F

    1986-01-01

    The level and metabolism of vitamin B1 and its coenzymic form were studied in the tissues and subcellular structures of the internal organs of white rats with experimental toxic hepatitis, receiving mineral water naphtusya. It was found that naphtusya given per os stimulated the metabolism of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), enhanced its concentration in the hepatic tissue and intestinal mucosa, producing a stabilizing effect on the TPP activity. It is concluded that the mineral water naphtusya can be used for enteral correction of vitamin balance in hepatitis patients.

  9. Effects of drain-fill cycling on chlorpyrifos mineralization in wetland sediment-water microcosms.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Seyoum Yami; Beutel, Marc W

    2010-03-01

    Constructed treatment wetlands are efficient at retaining a range of pesticides, however the ultimate fate of many of these compound is not well understood. This study evaluated the effect of drain-fill cycling on the mineralization of chlorpyrifos, a commonly used organophosphate insecticide, in wetland sediment-water microcosms. Monitoring of the fate of (14)C ring-labeled chlorpyrifos showed that drain-fill cycling resulted in significantly lower mineralization rates relative to permanently flooded conditions. The reduction in mineralization was linked to enhanced partitioning of the pesticide to the sediment phase, which could potentially inhibit chlorpyrifos hydrolysis and mineralization. Over the nearly two-month experiment, less than 2.5% of the added compound was mineralized. While rates of mineralization in this experiment were higher than those reported for other soils and sediments, their low magnitude underscores how persistent chlorpyrifos and its metabolites are in aquatic environments, and suggests that management strategies and ecological risk assessment should focus more on ultimate mineralization rather than the simple disappearance of the parent compound.

  10. Mineral Identification as an Indicator of Water and Geochemical History on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. L.

    2000-07-01

    Mineral identification on Mars is an essential aspect of basic geological science that will provide information about the climate and geochemical history of the planet and provide clues about the existence and extent of past water bodies or systems on Mars. Remote spectral data from orbiters, landers and rovers are the primary source of information about the surface mineralogy on Mars. Chemical and magnetic data also constrain the types or abundance of minerals present. The most successful mineral identification procedures will include data from a combination of spectral regions, as well as chemical and magnetic data. Other techniques, such as Moessbauer spectroscopy and thermal analysis (DTA, DSC, TGA), have been suggested for in situ measurements on the Martian surface; these analyses in combination with spectral and chemical data would enable even more precise identification of the types or classes of minerals present on Mars.

  11. [Determination of boron content in natural mineral and spring waters by ICP-OES technique].

    PubMed

    Swiecicka, Dorota; Garbos, Sławomir

    2009-01-01

    Maximum admissible level of boron concentration in water intended for human consumption and in natural mineral and spring waters is usually estimated taking into account actual WHO criteria and requirements listed in Directive No 98/83/EC - 1 mg/l. In majority countries of European Union maximum admissible level of boron in water intended for human consumption is 1 mg/l, however in Slovakia and in Netherlands maximum admissible levels of this element are 0.3 mg/l and 0.5 mg/l, respectively. In this work developed and validated method of determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry technique was applied for determination of this element in 26 natural mineral and spring waters. Concentrations of boron determined in sixteen mineral and spring waters analyzed were in the range from 0.029 mg/l to 0.552 mg/l while in ten waters analyzed the contents of boron were below 0.026 mg/l. The contents of boron in analyzed waters were below maximum admissible level in Poland presented in the Decree of Minister of Health from 29 March 2007 on the quality of water intended for human consumption and were not dangerous for human health.

  12. Water-soluble organophosphorus reagents for mineralization of heavy metals.

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K. L.

    1999-02-26

    In this report, we have described the principal stages of a two-step process for the in-situ stabilization of actinide ions in the environment. The combination of cation exchange and mineralization appears likely to provide a long-term solution to environments contaminated with heavy metals. Relying on a naturally occurring sequestering agent has obvious potential advantages from a regulatory standpoint. There are additional aspects of this technology requiring further elucidation, including the demonstration of the effect of these treatment protocols on the geohydrology of soil columns, further examination of the influence of humates and other colloidal species on cation uptake, and microbiological studies of phytate hydrolysis. We have learned during the course of this investigation that phytic acid is potentially available in large quantities. In the US alone, phytic acid is produced at an annual rate of several hundred thousand metric tons as a byproduct of fermentation processes (11). This material presently is not isolated for use. Instead, most of the insoluble phyate (as phytin) is being recycled along with the other solid fermentation residues for animal feed. This material is in fact considered undesirable in animal feed. The details of possible separation processes for phytate from these residues would have to be worked out before this untapped resource would be available for application to heavy metal sequestration. The results described emphasize the behavior of actinide and trivalent lanthanide metal ions, as these species are of primary interest to the Department of Energy for the cleanup of the former nuclear weapons production complex. While the specific demonstration includes this limited selection of metal ions, the technique should be readily applicable to any class of metal ions that form insoluble phosphate compounds under appropriate conditions. Further, though this demonstration has been conducted in the pH 5-8 range, it is conceivable that

  13. Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal springs and mineral springs of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

    1982-01-01

    Water from thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute NaHC03, to moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl waters. St. Martin 's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline NaCl water, is the notable exception. Mineral springs generally discharge a moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl water. The dilute Na-HC03 waters are generally associated with granite. The warm to hot waters charged with C02 issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes and many of the mineral springs also occur near the large volcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen isotopic compositions which indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The C02-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. Carbon-13 in the C02-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 permil) than in the cold C02-charged soda springs (-2 to -8 permil) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold C02-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaC03, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaC03. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur , and Ohanapecosh seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100C. (USGS)

  14. Survival of human pathogenic bacteria in different types of natural mineral water.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Concepción; Romero, Margarita; Alou, Luis; Sevillano, David; Corvillo, Iluminada; Armijo, Francisco; Maraver, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the survival of human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in five natural mineral waters (NMWs) with different properties and mineralization levels. Five NMWs from four Spanish spas with different dry residue at 110 °C were used: A = 76,935 mg/L; B = 1,827 mg/L; C = 808.4 mg/L; D = 283.8 mg/L; and E = 170.4 mg/L. An initial inoculum of 1 × 10(6) colony forming units (cfu)/mL was used for survival studies. Distilled water, chlorinated tap water and Mueller-Hinton broth were used as controls. Colony counts in all different waters were lower than those achieved with Mueller-Hinton broth over all incubation periods. A direct effect between the bacterial survival and the level of mineralization water was observed. The NMW E with low mineralization level along with the radioactive properties showed the highest antibacterial activity among all NMWs.

  15. Mars Gully: No Mineral Trace of Liquid Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of the Centauri-Hellas Montes region was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 2107 UTC (4:07 p.m. EST) on Jan. 9, 2007, near 38.41 degrees south latitude, 96.81 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is slightly wider than 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) at its narrowest point.

    Narrow gullies found on hills and crater walls in many mid-latitude regions of Mars have been interpreted previously as cut by geologically 'recent' running water, meaning water that flowed on Mars long after impact cratering, tectonic forces, volcanism or other processes created the underlying landforms. Some gullies even eroded into sand dunes, which would date their formation at thousands to millions of years ago, or less. In fact, Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images showed two of the gullies have bright deposits near their downslope ends - but those deposits were absent in images taken just a few years earlier. The bright deposits must have formed within the period 1999-2004.

    Has there been running water on Mars so recently? To address that question, CRISM and MRO's other instruments observed the bright gully deposits. CRISM's objective was to determine if the bright deposits contained salts left behind from water evaporating into Mars' thin air. The high-resolution imager's (HiRISE's) objective was to determine if the small-scale morphology was consistent with formation by running water.

    This CRISM image of a bright gully deposit was constructed by showing 2.53, 1.50, and 1.08 micrometer light in the red, green, and blue image planes. CRISM can just resolve the deposits (highlighted by arrows in the inset), which are only a few tens of meters (about 150 feet) across. The spectrum of the deposits barely differs from that of the surrounding material, and is just a little brighter. This difference

  16. [Laboratories "Produits Scientia" and mineral waters from Pougues and Carabana].

    PubMed

    Raynal, Cécile; Lefebvre, Thierry

    2011-10-01

    In the end of XIXth century, the french "Compagnie des eaux minérales de Pougues-les-Eaux" begins to exploit the spanish natural purgativ water of Carabaña. In the same way, Edouard Jéramec, director of the french compagny, decides to associate to his firm the best medicine to fight against rickets and tuberculosis. He joins the new medical theory wich recommends to give more calcium to tubercular patients, called "méthode de recalcification du Dr Ferrier". Then, with the chemist Emile Perraudin, he creates the pharmaceutical laboratory named "Produits Scientia". One of their famous patents medicines will be the "Tricalcine".

  17. Electromembrane recycling of highly mineralized alkaline blowdown water from evaporative water treatment plants at thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Lyapin, A. I.; Minibaev, A. I.; Silov, I. Yu.; Tolmachev, L. I.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal power stations (TPS) are the main source of highly mineralized effluents affecting the environment. An analysis of their water systems demonstrates that alkaline effluents prevail at TPSs. Extraction of an alkali from highly mineralized effluents can make the recycling of effluents economically feasible. A method is proposed of electromembrane recycling of liquid alkaline highly mineralized wastes from TPSs. The process includes electromembrane apparatuses of two types, namely, a diffusion dialysis extractor (DDE) intended for extraction of the alkali from a highly mineralized solution having a complex composition and an electrodialysis concentrator for increasing the concentration of the extracted solution to a value suitable for use in water treatment plants at TPSs. For implementation of the first process (i.e. the extraction of alkali from alkaline-salt solution) various membranes from various manufacturers were studied: CM-PAD and AM-PAD (Ralex, Czechia), MK-40, MA-40, MA-41, MA-414, and MB-2 (OOO OKhK "Shchekinoazot", Russia), AR103-QDF and CR61-CMP (Ionies Inc., USA). The experiments demonstrate that the acceptable degree of separation of the alkali and the salt is achieved in a pair of cation-exchange membranes with the efficiency of separation being higher without an electric field. The highest efficiency was attained with Russian-made membranes (MK-40, OOO OKhK "Shchekinoazot"). A full scale experiment on recycling of highly-mineralized blowdown water from the evaporating water treatment system at the Kazan cogeneration power station No. 3 (TETs-3) was performed in a pilot unit consisting of two electromembrane apparatuses made by UAB "Membraninės Technologijos LT". In the experiments every ton of blowdown water yielded 0.1 t of concentrated alkaline solution with an alkali content of up to 4 wt % and 0.9 t of the softened salt solution suitable for the reuse in the TPS cycle. The power rate is 6 kWh / ton of blowdown water.

  18. Water in the Earth's Mantle: Mineral-specific IR Absorption Coefficients and Radiative Thermal Conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Minor and trace element chemistry, phase relations, rheology, thermal structure and the role of volatiles and their abundance in the deep Earth mantle are still far from fully explored, but fundamental to understanding the processes involved in Earth formation and evolution. Theory and high pressure experiments imply a significant water storage capacity of nominally anhydrous minerals, such as majoritic garnet, olivine, wadsleyite and ringwoodite, composing the Earth's upper mantle and transition zone to a depth of 660 km. Studying the effect of water incorporation on chemical and physical mineral properties is of importance, because the presence of trace amounts of water, incorporated as OH through charge-coupled chemical substitutions into such nominally anhydrous high-pressure silicates, notably influences phase relations, melting behavior, conductivity, elasticity, viscosity and rheology. Knowledge of absolute water contents in nominally anhydrous minerals is essential for modeling the Earth's interior water cycle. One of the most common and sensitive tools for water quantification is IR spectroscopy for which mineral-specific absorption coefficients are required. Such calibration constants can be derived from hydrogen concentrations determined by independent techniques, such as secondary ion mass spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy or proton-proton(pp)-scattering. Here, analytical advances and mineral-specific IR absorption coefficients for the quantification of H2O in major phases of the Earth's mantle will be discussed. Furthermore, new data from optical absorption measurements in resistively heated diamond-anvil cells at high pressures and temperatures up to 1000 K will be presented. Experiments were performed on synthetic single-crystals of olivine, ringwoodite, majoritic garnet, and Al-bearing phase D with varying iron, aluminum and OH contents to calculate radiative thermal conductivities and study their contribution to heat transfer in the Earth's interior

  19. [Radioprotective effect of drinking sulfate mineral water on spermatogenesis in offspring of irradiated male rats].

    PubMed

    Korolev, Iu N; Geniatulina, M S; Nikulina, L A; Kurilo, L F

    2003-01-01

    Histological and electron-microscopic studies of a radioprotective action of drinking sulphate mineral water (SMW) on spermatogenesis of irradiated male rats' progeny have found that SMW used before radiation (2 Gy) and 10 days after it is able to reduce postradiation sequelae in the progeny (2-5 month and 1.5 year old rats) testes.

  20. Discrimination of fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Dowall, J.

    1969-01-01

    Fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water can be discriminated by their different spreading characteristics and by their reflectivities and color variations over a range of wavelengths. Reflectivities of oil and oil films are determined using a duel beam reflectance apparatus.

  1. Climatic and landscape controls on water transit times and silicate mineral weathering in the critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Rios, Xavier; McIntosh, Jennifer; Rademacher, Laura; Troch, Peter A.; Brooks, Paul D.; Rasmussen, Craig; Chorover, Jon

    2015-08-01

    The critical zone (CZ) can be conceptualized as an open system reactor that is continually transforming energy and water fluxes into an internal structural organization and dissipative products. In this study, we test a controlling factor on water transit times (WTT) and mineral weathering called Effective Energy and Mass Transfer (EEMT). We hypothesize that EEMT, quantified based on local climatic variables, can effectively predict WTT within—and mineral weathering products from—the CZ. This study tests whether EEMT or static landscape characteristics are good predictors of WTT, aqueous phase solutes, and silicate weathering products. Our study site is located around Redondo Peak, a rhyolitic volcanic resurgent dome, in northern New Mexico. At Redondo Peak, springs drain slopes along an energy gradient created by differences in terrain aspect. This investigation uses major solute concentrations, the calculated mineral mass undergoing dissolution, and the age tracer tritium and relates them quantitatively to EEMT and landscape characteristics. We found significant correlations between EEMT, WTT, and mineral weathering products. Significant correlations were observed between dissolved weathering products (Na+ and DIC), 3H concentrations, and maximum EEMT. In contrast, landscape characteristics such as contributing area of spring, slope gradient, elevation, and flow path length were not as effective predictive variables of WTT, solute concentrations, and mineral weathering products. These results highlight the interrelationship between landscape, hydrological, and biogeochemical processes and suggest that basic climatic data embodied in EEMT can be used to scale hydrological and hydrochemical responses in other sites.

  2. Homogenous VUV advanced oxidation process for enhanced degradation and mineralization of antibiotics in contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Pourakbar, Mojtaba; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Shekoohiyan, Sakine

    2016-03-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the degradation and mineralization of amoxicillin(AMX), using VUV advanced process. The effect of pH, AMX initial concentration, presence of water ingredients, the effect of HRT, and mineralization level by VUV process were taken into consideration. In order to make a direct comparison, the test was also performed by UVC radiation. The results show that the degradation of AMX was following the first-order kinetic. It was found that direct photolysis by UVC was able to degrade 50mg/L of AMX in 50min,while it was 3min for VUV process. It was also found that the removal efficiency by VUV process was directly influenced by pH of the solution, and higher removal rates were achieved at high pH values.The results show that 10mg/L of AMX was completely degraded and mineralized within 50s and 100s, respectively, indicating that the AMX was completely destructed into non-hazardous materials. Operating the photoreactor in contentious-flow mode revealed that 10mg/L AMX was completely degraded and mineralized at HRT values of 120s and 300s. it was concluded that the VUV advanced process was an efficient and viable technique for degradation and mineralization of contaminated water by antibiotics.

  3. Formation of water-soluble metal cyanide complexes from solid minerals by Pseudomonas plecoglossicida.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Mohammad A; Brandl, Helmut

    2006-06-01

    A few Pseudomonas species are able to form hydrocyanic acid (HCN), particularly when grown under glycine-rich conditions. In the presence of metals, cyanide can form water-soluble metal complexes of high chemical stability. We studied the possibility to mobilize metals as cyanide complexes from solid minerals using HCN-forming microorganisms. Pseudomonas plecoglossicida was cultivated in the presence of copper- and nickel-containing solid minerals. On powdered elemental nickel, fast HCN generation within the first 12 h of incubation was observed and water-soluble tetracyanaonickelate was formed. Cuprite, tenorite, chrysocolla, malachite, bornite, turquoise, millerite, pentlandite as well as shredded electronic scrap was also subjected to a biological treatment. Maximum concentrations of cyanide-complexed copper corresponded to a solubilization of 42% and 27% when P. plecoglossicida was grown in the presence of cuprite or tenorite, respectively. Crystal system, metal oxidation state and mineral hydrophobicity might have a significant influence on metal mobilization. However, it was not possible to allocate metal mobilization to a single mineral property. Cyanide-complexed gold was detected during growth on manually cut circuit boards. Maximum dicyanoaurate concentration corresponded to a 68.5% dissolution of the total gold added. These findings represent a novel type of microbial mobilization of nickel and copper from solid minerals based on the ability of certain microbes to form HCN.

  4. Urban net-zero water treatment and mineralization: experiments, modeling and design.

    PubMed

    Englehardt, James D; Wu, Tingting; Tchobanoglous, George

    2013-09-01

    Water and wastewater treatment and conveyance account for approximately 4% of US electric consumption, with 80% used for conveyance. Net zero water (NZW) buildings would alleviate demands for a portion of this energy, for water, and for the treatment of drinking water for pesticides and toxic chemical releases in source water. However, domestic wastewater contains nitrogen loads much greater than urban/suburban ecosystems can typically absorb. The purpose of this work was to identify a first design of a denitrifying urban NZW treatment process, operating at ambient temperature and pressure and circum-neutral pH, and providing mineralization of pharmaceuticals (not easily regulated in terms of environmental half-life), based on laboratory tests and mass balance and kinetic modeling. The proposed treatment process is comprised of membrane bioreactor, iron-mediated aeration (IMA, reported previously), vacuum ultrafiltration, and peroxone advanced oxidation, with minor rainwater make-up and H2O2 disinfection residual. Similar to biological systems, minerals accumulate subject to precipitative removal by IMA, salt-free treatment, and minor dilution. Based on laboratory and modeling results, the system can produce potable water with moderate mineral content from commingled domestic wastewater and 10-20% rainwater make-up, under ambient conditions at individual buildings, while denitrifying and reducing chemical oxygen demand to below detection (<3 mg/L). While economics appear competitive, further development and study of steady-state concentrations and sludge management options are needed.

  5. Molecular statics calculations for iron oxide and oxyhydroxide minerals: Toward a flexible model of the reactive mineral-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustad, James R.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hay, Benjamin P.

    1996-05-01

    Molecular statics calculations are used to model the major FeOOH polymorphs and hematite. The potentials were taken from a previous investigation of Fe(III) in aqueous solutions which involved the extrapolation of the gas-phase Fe(III)-OH 2 potential energy surface to the solvated hexaaqua complex. Using this model for the solid phases, lattice parameters for goethite, akaganeite, lepidocrocite, and hematite are generally within 4% of experiment. Internal energies (at 0 K) were computed for each structure; lepidocrocite is energetically the most stable polymorph, followed by akaganeite, with goethite being the least stable. While the model exhibits some variances with experiment, it performs remarkably well, despite the challenging constraint of being consistent with a dissociating molecular dynamics model for water in its gas, aqueous, and solid phases. Because of this consistency, the model allows qualitative theoretical treatment of previously unapproachable problems in mineral-water interface geochemistry. We apply the model to identify surface species on the solvated (110) surface of goethite.

  6. [Combined effect of musically-modulated electrical current and mineral drinking water from Khadyzhensky spring in experimental atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Zubkova, S M; Varakina, N I; Mikhaĭlik, L V; Bobkova, A S; Chabanenko, S S

    2002-01-01

    Male rats with experimental atherosclerosis drank mineral water (Khadyzhensky spring) and were exposed to music-modulated electric current. This combined treatment showed synergism of physical (current) and balneological (mineral water) factors providing lipolytic, antioxidant, stress-limiting and antiinflammatory intravascular effects and recovery of microcirculatory processes.

  7. Geochemistry of summit fumarole vapors and flanking thermal/mineral waters at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, C.; Goff, F.; Janik, C.J.

    1997-06-01

    Popocatepetl Volcano is potentially devastating to populations living in the greater Mexico City area. Systematic monitoring of fumarole gases and flanking thermal/mineral springs began in early 1994 after increased fumarolic and seismic activity were noticed in 1991. These investigations had two major objectives: (1) to determine if changes in magmatic conditions beneath Popocatepetl might be reflected by chemical changes in fumarolic discharges and (2) to determine if thermal/mineral spring waters in the vicinity of Popocatepetl are geochemically related to or influences by the magmatic system. This report summarizes results from these two discrete studies.

  8. Detection of solar wind-produced water in irradiated rims on silicate minerals.

    PubMed

    Bradley, John P; Ishii, Hope A; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J; Ciston, James; Nielsen, Michael H; Bechtel, Hans A; Martin, Michael C

    2014-02-04

    The solar wind (SW), composed of predominantly ∼1-keV H(+) ions, produces amorphous rims up to ∼150 nm thick on the surfaces of minerals exposed in space. Silicates with amorphous rims are observed on interplanetary dust particles and on lunar and asteroid soil regolith grains. Implanted H(+) may react with oxygen in the minerals to form trace amounts of hydroxyl (-OH) and/or water (H2O). Previous studies have detected hydroxyl in lunar soils, but its chemical state, physical location in the soils, and source(s) are debated. If -OH or H2O is generated in rims on silicate grains, there are important implications for the origins of water in the solar system and other astrophysical environments. By exploiting the high spatial resolution of transmission electron microscopy and valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we detect water sealed in vesicles within amorphous rims produced by SW irradiation of silicate mineral grains on the exterior surfaces of interplanetary dust particles. Our findings establish that water is a byproduct of SW space weathering. We conclude, on the basis of the pervasiveness of the SW and silicate materials, that the production of radiolytic SW water on airless bodies is a ubiquitous process throughout the solar system.

  9. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Shinnosuke; Goto, Yasuaki; Ito, Kyo; Hayasaka, Shinya; Kurihara, Shigeo; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Fukuda, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW) has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW) or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition. PMID:26798400

  10. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shinnosuke; Goto, Yasuaki; Ito, Kyo; Hayasaka, Shinya; Kurihara, Shigeo; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Fukuda, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW) has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW) or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition.

  11. Detection of solar wind-produced water in irradiated rims on silicate minerals

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, John P.; Ishii, Hope A.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Ciston, James; Nielsen, Michael H.; Bechtel, Hans A.; Martin, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    The solar wind (SW), composed of predominantly ∼1-keV H+ ions, produces amorphous rims up to ∼150 nm thick on the surfaces of minerals exposed in space. Silicates with amorphous rims are observed on interplanetary dust particles and on lunar and asteroid soil regolith grains. Implanted H+ may react with oxygen in the minerals to form trace amounts of hydroxyl (−OH) and/or water (H2O). Previous studies have detected hydroxyl in lunar soils, but its chemical state, physical location in the soils, and source(s) are debated. If −OH or H2O is generated in rims on silicate grains, there are important implications for the origins of water in the solar system and other astrophysical environments. By exploiting the high spatial resolution of transmission electron microscopy and valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we detect water sealed in vesicles within amorphous rims produced by SW irradiation of silicate mineral grains on the exterior surfaces of interplanetary dust particles. Our findings establish that water is a byproduct of SW space weathering. We conclude, on the basis of the pervasiveness of the SW and silicate materials, that the production of radiolytic SW water on airless bodies is a ubiquitous process throughout the solar system. PMID:24449869

  12. Bacteriological quality and risk assessment of the imported and domestic bottled mineral water sold in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Zeenat, A; Hatha, A A M; Viola, L; Vipra, K

    2009-12-01

    Considering the popularity of bottled mineral water among indigenous Fijians and tourists alike, a study was carried out to determine the bacteriological quality of different bottled waters. A risk assessment was also carried out. Seventy-five samples of bottled mineral water belonging to three domestic brands and 25 samples of one imported brand were analysed for heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria and faecal coliforms. HPC counts were determined at 22 degrees C and 37 degrees C using R2A medium and a membrane filtration technique was used to determine the faecal coliform (FC) load in 100 ml of water on mFC agar. Between 28 and 68% of the samples of the various domestic brands failed to meet the WHO standard of 100 colony forming units (cfu) per 100 ml at 22 degrees C and 7% of these also tested positive for faecal coliforms. All imported bottled mineral water samples were within WHO standards. A risk assessment of the HPC bacteria was carried out in terms of beta haemolytic activity and antibiotic resistance. More than 50% of the isolates showed beta haemolytic activity and were multi-drug resistant. While the overall quality of the product was generally good, there is a need to enforce stringent quality standards for the domestic bottlers to ensure the safety of consumers.

  13. Comparative assessment of genotoxicity of mineral water packed in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and glass bottles.

    PubMed

    Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zani, Claudia; Zerbini, Ilaria; Guzzella, Licia; Scaglia, Mauro; Berna, Vanda; Donato, Francesco; Monarca, Silvano; Feretti, Donatella

    2010-03-01

    The potential migration of genotoxic compounds into mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles was evaluated by an integrated chemical/biological approach using short-term toxicity/genotoxicity tests and chemical analysis. Six commercial brands of still and carbonated mineral water bottled in PET and in glass were stored at 40 degrees C for 10 days in a stove according to the standard EEC total migration test (82/711/EEC), or at room temperature in the dark. After treatment, the samples were analysed using gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to detect volatile and non-volatile compounds, the Microtox test to evaluate potential toxicity of the samples, and three mutagenicity tests -Tradescantia and Allium cepa micronucleus tests and the Comet assay on human leukocytes - to detect their genotoxic activity. GC/MS analysis did not detect phthalates or acetaldehyde in the water samples. The Microtox test found no toxic effects. Mutagenicity tests detected genotoxic properties of some samples in both PET and glass bottles. Statistical analyses showed a positive association between mineral content and mutagenicity (micronuclei in A. cepa and DNA damage in human leukocytes). No clear effect of treatment and PET bottle was found. These results suggest the absence of toxic compounds migrating from PET regardless of time and conditions of storage. In conclusion, bottle material and stove treatment were not associated with the genotoxic properties of the water; the genotoxic effects detected in bottled water may be related to the characteristics of the water (minerals and CO(2) content).

  14. First-principles calculation of H/D isotopic fractionation between hydrous minerals and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méheut, Merlin; Lazzeri, Michele; Balan, Etienne; Mauri, Francesco

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen fractionation laws between selected hydrous minerals (brucite, kaolinite, lizardite, and gibbsite) and perfect water gas have been computed from first-principles quantum-mechanical calculations. The β-factor of each phase was calculated using the harmonic phonon dispersion curves obtained within density functional theory. All the fractionation laws show the same shape, with a minimum between 200 °C (brucite) and 500 °C (gibbsite). At low temperatures, the mineral/liquid water fractionation laws have been obtained using the experimental gas/liquid water fractionation laws. The resulting fractionation laws systematically overestimate measurements by 15‰ at low temperatures to 8‰ at ≈400 °C. Based on this general agreement, all calculated laws were empirically corrected with reference to brucite/water data. These considerations suggest that the experimental or natural calibrations by Xu and Zheng (1999) and Horita et al. (2002) (brucite/water), Gilg and Sheppard (1996) (kaolinite/water), Wenner and Taylor (1973) (lizardite/water), and in some extents Vitali et al. (2001) (gibbsite/water) are representative of equilibrium fractionations. Besides, internal isotopic fractionation of hydrogen between inner-surface and inner hydroxyl groups has been computed for kaolinite and lizardite. The obtained fractionation is large, of opposite sign for the two systems (respectively, -23‰ and +63‰ at 25 °C) and is linear in T-2. Internal fractionation of hydrogen in TO phyllosilicates might thus be used in geothermometry.

  15. Biomimetic mineral self-organization from silica-rich spring waters

    PubMed Central

    García-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Nakouzi, Elias; Kotopoulou, Electra; Tamborrino, Leonardo; Steinbock, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Purely inorganic reactions of silica, metal carbonates, and metal hydroxides can produce self-organized complex structures that mimic the texture of biominerals, the morphology of primitive organisms, and that catalyze prebiotic reactions. To date, these fascinating structures have only been synthesized using model solutions. We report that mineral self-assembly can be also obtained from natural alkaline silica-rich water deriving from serpentinization. Specifically, we demonstrate three main types of mineral self-assembly: (i) nanocrystalline biomorphs of barium carbonate and silica, (ii) mesocrystals and crystal aggregates of calcium carbonate with complex biomimetic textures, and (iii) osmosis-driven metal silicate hydrate membranes that form compartmentalized, hollow structures. Our results suggest that silica-induced mineral self-assembly could have been a common phenomenon in alkaline environments of early Earth and Earth-like planets. PMID:28345049

  16. Effects of land use on fresh waters: Agriculture, forestry, mineral exploitation, urbanisation

    SciTech Connect

    Solbe, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This book offers a broad consideration of the effects of land use on fresh waters above and below ground. Experts address a wide range of issues in relation to the four major uses of land. Taken from an international conference held at the University of Stirling in 1985, coverage includes sewerage and waste-water treatment, long-term contamination of aquifers below cities, mineral exploitation, use of water in food production, wood production and more. Remedies and areas requiring further study are outlined.

  17. Predicting consumer preferences for mineral composition of bottled and tap water.

    PubMed

    Platikanov, Stefan; Hernández, Alejandra; González, Susana; Luis Cortina, Jose; Tauler, Roma; Devesa, Ricard

    2017-01-01

    The overall liking for taste of water was correlated with the mineral composition of selected bottled and tap waters. Sixty-nine untrained volunteers assessed and rated twenty-five different commercial bottled and tap waters from. Water samples were physicochemical characterised by analysing conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS) and major anions and cations: HCO3(-), SO4(2-), Cl(-), NO3(-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+). Residual chlorine levels were also analysed in the tap water samples. Globally, volunteers preferred waters rich in calcium bicarbonate and sulfate, rather than in sodium chloride. This study also demonstrated that it was possible to accurately predict the overall liking by a Partial Least Squares regression using either all measured physicochemical parameters or a reduced number of them. These results were in agreement with previously published results using trained panellists.

  18. Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Analysis of Interfacial Water at Selected Sulfide Mineral Surfaces under Anaerobic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Jiaqi; Miller, Jan D.; Dang, Liem X.

    2014-04-10

    In this paper, we report on a molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) study of the behavior of interfacial water at selected sulfide mineral surfaces under anaerobic conditions. The study revealed the interfacial water structure and wetting characteristics of the pyrite (100) surface, galena (100) surface, chalcopyrite (012) surface, sphalerite (110) surface, and molybdenite surfaces (i.e., the face, armchair-edge, and zigzag-edge surfaces), including simulated contact angles, relative number density profiles, water dipole orientations, hydrogen-bonding, and residence times. For force fields of the metal and sulfur atoms in selected sulfide minerals used in the MDS, we used the universal force field (UFF) and another set of force fields optimized by quantum chemical calculations for interactions with interfacial water molecules at selected sulfide mineral surfaces. Simulation results for the structural and dynamic properties of interfacial water molecules indicate the natural hydrophobic character for the selected sulfide mineral surfaces under anaerobic conditions as well as the relatively weak hydrophobicity for the sphalerite (110) surface and two molybdenite edge surfaces. Part of the financial support for this study was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Basic Science Grant No. DE-FG-03-93ER14315. The Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), of the DOE, funded work performed by Liem X. Dang. Battelle operates Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for DOE. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by BES. The authors are grateful to Professor Tsun-Mei Chang for valuable discussions.

  19. The importance of water transit time and mineral dissolution kinetics for the flux of weathering products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandsson, Martin; Bishop, Kevin; Köhler, Stephan; Amvrosiadi, Nino

    2016-04-01

    Soil mineral weathering is one of the major sources of base cations (BC), which play a dual role for a forest ecosystem; they function both as plant nutrients, and for buffering against acidification of catchment runoff. On a long-term basis, the soil weathering rates will determine the highest sustainable forest productivity without causing acidification. It is believed that the hydrologic residence time play a key role in determining weathering rates on a landscape scale. In this study, we investigate the significance of the water transit residence time (WTT) distribution for the transport of base cations to catchment runoff. By modelling hillslope flowpaths with different transit times, using the geochemical computing code PHREEQC, we demonstrate how in-stream dynamics as exemplified by elemental ratios can be explained by mineral dissolution kinetics and equilibria. Specifically, we hypothesize that equilibrium of plagioclase regulates the delivery of base cations and silica to catchment runoff. These patters can be seen in field data from 10 years of sampling from a nested-catchment, where the Na+/BC and the Si/BC-ratios vary systematically with WTT on both a temporal and a spatial scale. This behavior has implications for the total transport of products from mineral dissolution to catchment runoff. As the water entering the stream is a mixture of water with different transit times, the composition of stream water will not only be dependent on the average WTT, but also on the shape of the WTT distribution. For the base cations associated with minerals that becomes supersaturated or with precipitating secondary phases within the range of WTT, i.e. Na+ and K+, the tails of "old water" of the WRT-distribution will not contribute to any extra transport of these elements. Finally, we use the derived relationships to estimate the transport of weathering products from a forested hillslope, given the modelled WRT distribution.

  20. Dissolved gas composition of groundwater in the natural spa complex "Choygan mineral waters" (East Tuva)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylova, Y.; Guseva, N.; Shestakova, A.; Khvaschevskaya, A.; Arakchaa, K.

    2014-08-01

    The natural spa complex "Choygan mineral waters", a unique deposit of natural carbon dioxide mineral waters in Siberia, is located in the Eastern Sayan Mountains. There are 33 springs discharge in this area. Spring waters are mainly HCO3-Na-Ca type. TDS varies from 300 mg/L to 2600 mg/L and temperature ranges from 7 °C (in spring 33) to 39 °C (in spring 12), pH varies from 5.9 to 8.3, and the value of the oxidation-reduction potential is from - 170 mV to 236 mV. All studied waters were divided into two groups according to their temperature and geochemical conditions: cold fresh water with oxidizing conditions and warm slightly brackish water with reductive conditions. The gas composition of the studied waters is represented by nitrogen (28-75 vol.%), carbon dioxide (6-65 vol.%), oxygen (7-19 vol.%), radon (4-948 Bq/l). The studied gases differ not only by the content but by the different sources.

  1. [Effects of soil texture and water content on the mineralization of soil organic carbon in paddy soils].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhong-lin; Wu, Jin-shui; Ge, Ti-da; Tang, Guo-yong; Tong, Cheng-li

    2009-01-01

    To understand how soil texture and water content affect the mineralization of organic C in paddy soil, 3 selected soils (sandy loam, clay loam, and silty clay) were incubated (25 degrees C) with 14 C-labelled rice straw (1.0 g x kg(-1)) at water content varied from 45% to 105% of water holding capacity (WHC). Data indicated that, in the sandy loam and clay loam, the mineralization rate of 14 C-labelled rice straw reached the maximum at 75% WHC, as 53% and 58% of the straw C mineralized in the incubation period of 160 d, whereas in the silty clay, it increased gradually (from 41.8% to 49.0%) as water content increased up to 105% WHC. For all of the three soils, the mineralization rate of soil native organic C reached the maximum at 75% WHC, with 5.8% of the organic C mineralized in the same period for the sandy loam, and 8.0% and 4.8% for the clay loam and silty clay, respectively. As water content increased further, the mineralization rate of native organic C in the three soils significantly declined. The mineralization rate of added rice straw and native organic C in all the three soils, was well fitted with a conic curve. These results suggest that water-logging can decrease the mineralization of organic C in paddy soils.

  2. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  3. [Calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc in drinking water and status biomarkers of these minerals among elder people from Warsaw region].

    PubMed

    Madej, Dawid; Kaluza, Joanna; Antonik, Anna; Brzozowska, Anna; Roszkowski, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc contents in drinking water on chosen parameters of nutritional status of these minerals in 164 elder people, 75-80 age, living in Warsaw region. Blood, hair and saliva were collected to assess the calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc nutritional status, while the samples of drinking water were collected to determine these minerals in water Mineral concentrations in blood, hair saliva and water were assessment using the atomic spectrophotometer absorption method It was showed that contribution of drinking water to calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc intake was: 15%, 4%, 5%, 9%, respectively. The relationship between the contents of these minerals in drinking water and their levels in the blood, hair and saliva had low correlation coefficients. It probably showed that homeostasis was maintained in the human body and other factors such as demographic or lifestyle factors were important.

  4. Natural radioactivity levels in mineral, therapeutic and spring waters in Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labidi, S.; Mahjoubi, H.; Essafi, F.; Ben Salah, R.

    2010-12-01

    Radioactivity measurements were carried out in 26 groundwater samples from Tunisia. Activity concentrations of uranium were studied by radiochemical separation procedures followed by alpha spectrometry and that for radium isotopes by gamma-ray spectrometry. The results show that, the concentrations in water samples range from 1.2 to 69 mBq/L.1, 1.3 to 153.4 mBq/L, 2.0 to 1630.0 mBq/L and 2.0 to 1032.0 mBq/L for 238U, 234U, 226Ra and 228Ra, respectively. The U and Ra activity concentrations are low and similar to those published for other regions in the world. The natural radioactivity levels in the investigated samples are generally increased from mineral waters through therapeutic to the spring waters. The results show that a correlation between total dissolved solids (TDS) values and the 226Ra concentrations was found to be high indicating that 266Ra has a high affinity towards the majority of mineral elements dissolved in these waters. High correlation coefficients were also observed between 226Ra content and chloride ions for Cl --Na + water types. This can be explained by the fact that radium forms a complex with chloride and in this form is more soluble. The isotopic ratio of 234U/ 238U and 226Ra/ 234U varies in the range from 0.8 to 2.6 and 0.6 to 360.8, respectively, in all investigated waters, which means that there is no radioactive equilibrium between the two members of the 238U series. The fractionation of isotopes of a given element may occur because of preferential leaching of one, or by the direct action of recoil during radioactive decay. The annual effective doses due to ingestion of the mineral waters have been estimated to be well below the 0.1 mSv/y reference dose level.

  5. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    The radionuclides of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10-3 (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  6. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-25

    The radionuclides of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10{sup −3} (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  7. Hydrogeochemical and stable isotopic investigations on CO2-rich mineral waters from Harghita Mts. (Eastern Carpathians, Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kis, Boglárka-Mercedesz; Baciu, Călin; Kármán, Krisztina; Kékedy-Nagy, Ladislau; Francesco, Italiano

    2013-04-01

    There is a worldwide interest on geothermal, mineral and groundwater as a resource for energy, drinking water supply and therapeutic needs. The increasing trend in replacing tap water with commercial bottled mineral water for drinking purposes has become an economic, hydrogeologic and medical concern in the last decades. Several investigations have been carried out worldwide on different topics related to geothermal and mineral waters, dealing with mineral water quality assessment, origin of geothermal and mineral waters, geochemical processes that influence water chemistry and water-rock interaction In Romania, the Călimani-Gurghiu-Harghita Neogene to Quaternary volcanic chain (Eastern Carpathians) is one of the most important areas from the point of view of CO2-rich mineral waters. These mineral water springs occur within other post-volcanic phenomena like dry CO2 emissions, moffettes, bubbling pools, H2S gas emissions etc. Mineral waters from this area are used for bottling, local spas and drinking purposes for local people. The number of springs, around 2000 according to literature data, shows that there is still a significant unexploited potential for good quality drinking water in this area. Within the youngest segment of the volcanic chain, the Harghita Mts., its volcaniclastic aprons and its boundary with the Transylvanian Basin, we have carried out an investigation on 23 CO2-rich mineral water springs from a hydrogeochemical and stable isotopic point of view. The mineral waters are Ca-Mg-HCO3 to Na-Cl type. Sometimes mixing between the two types can be observed. We have detected a great influence of water-rock interaction on the stable isotopic composition of the mineral waters, shown by isotopic shifts to the heavier oxygen isotope, mixing processes between shallow and deeper aquifers and local thermal anomalies. Acknowledgements: The present work was financially supported by the Romanian National Research Council, Project PN-II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0537 and by

  8. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters.

  9. Concentration of Ra-226 in Malaysian Drinking and Bottled Mineral Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Y. B. Mohd; Jemangin, M. H.; Mahat, R. H.

    2010-07-01

    The concentration of the radionuclide 226Ra was determined in the drinking water which was taken from various sources. It was found that the concentration varies from non-detectable (ND) to highest value of 0.30 Bq per liter. The concentration was found to be high in mineral water as compare with surface water such as domestic pipe water. Some of these values have exceeded the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) of America regulations. The activity concentrations obtained are compared with data from other countries. The estimated annual effective doses from drinking the water are determined. The values obtained range from 0.02 mSv to about 0.06 mSv per year.

  10. Concentration of Ra-226 in Malaysian Drinking and Bottled Mineral Water

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, Y. B. Mohd; Jemangin, M. H.; Mahat, R. H.

    2010-07-07

    The concentration of the radionuclide {sup 226}Ra was determined in the drinking water which was taken from various sources. It was found that the concentration varies from non-detectable (ND) to highest value of 0.30 Bq per liter. The concentration was found to be high in mineral water as compare with surface water such as domestic pipe water. Some of these values have exceeded the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) of America regulations. The activity concentrations obtained are compared with data from other countries. The estimated annual effective doses from drinking the water are determined. The values obtained range from 0.02 mSv to about 0.06 mSv per year.

  11. Methyl t-Butyl Ether Mineralization in Surface-Water Sediment Microcosms under Denitrifying Conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.; Landmeyer, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    Mineralization of [U-14C] methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) to 14CO2 without accumulation of t-butyl alcohol (TBA) was observed in surface-water sediment microcosms under denitrifying conditions. Methanogenic activity and limited transformation of MTBE to TBA were observed in the absence of denitrification. Results indicate that bed sediment microorganisms can effectively degrade MTBE to nontoxic products under denitrifying conditions.

  12. The prediction of borate mineral equilibria in natural waters: Application to Searles Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Weare, John H.

    1986-12-01

    The chemical equilibrium model of HARVIEet al. (1984) has been extended to include borate species. The model is based upon the semi-empirical equations of PITZER (1973) and coworkers and is valid to high ionic strength (≈14 m) and high borate concentration. Excellent agreement with the existing emf, isopiestic and solubility data in the system (Na-K-Ca-Mg-H-Cl-SO4-CO2-B(OH)4-H2O) is obtained. Calculated mineral solubilities are in general within 10% of their experimental values, even at high ionic strengths. The model was applied to the multicomponent, high ionic strength (I ~ 10) and high borate concentration (BT ~ 0.5 m) Searles Lake evaporite deposit. Utilizing the chemical composition of the interstitial brine, the model predicts equilibrium between the brine and only those minerals which are known to be in contact with the brine. These calculations clearly demonstrate the applicability of the model to high ionic strength, high borate concentration natural waters. The model was also utilized to calculate the mineral sequences which should result from evaporation of the major source of water for Searles Lake, the Owens River. The geochemical conditions necessary for the formation of the most recent mud and saline units are examined. The final results indicate that the mineral sequences found in the most recent saline unit in Searles Lake can be produced by evaporation of a water close in composition to present Owens River water, provided primary dolomite formation is delayed and back reaction between the Parting Mud and the Upper Salt is inhibited.

  13. Influence of minerals on the taste of bottled and tap water: a chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Platikanov, Stefan; Garcia, Veronica; Fonseca, Ignacio; Rullán, Elena; Devesa, Ricard; Tauler, Roma

    2013-02-01

    Chemometric analysis was performed on two sets of sensory data obtained from two separate studies. Twenty commercially-available bottled mineral water samples (from the first study) and twenty-five drinking tap and bottled water samples (from the second study) were blind tasted by trained panelists. The panelists expressed their overall liking of the water samples by rating from 0 (worst flavor) to 10 (best flavor). The mean overall score was compared to the physicochemical properties of the samples. Thirteen different physicochemical parameters were considered in both studies and, additionally, residual chlorine levels were assessed in the second study. Principal component analysis performed on the physicochemical parameters and the panelists' mean scores generated models that explain most of the total data variance. Moreover, partial least squares regression of the panelists' sensory evaluations of the physicochemical data helped elucidate the main features underlying the panelists' ratings. The preferred bottled and tap water samples were associated with moderate (relatively to the parameters mean values) contents of total dissolved solids and with relatively high concentrations of HCO₃⁻, SO₄²⁻, Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺ as well as with relatively high pH values. High concentrations of Na⁺, K⁺ and Cl⁻ were scored low by many of the panelists, while residual chlorine did not affect the ratings, but did enable the panel to distinguish between bottled mineral water and tap water samples.

  14. (222)Rn, (220)Rn and other dissolved gases in mineral waters of southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the natural radioactivity due to (222)Rn and (220)Rn in mineral waters occurring at São Paulo and Minas Gerais states, Brazil, that are extensively used for drinking in public places, bottling and bathing purposes, among other. The measurements of these alpha-emitting radionuclides were also accompanied by the monitoring of temperature and some dissolved gases (O2, CO2 and H2S) in 75 water sources located in 14 municipalities of those states. Eight water sources yielded (220)Rn activity concentration values below the detection limit of 4 mBq/L. On other hand, (222)Rn activity concentration values exceeding the WHO guidance level of 100 Bq/L in drinking-water for public water supplies were found in two springs, named Villela and Dona Beja, whose discharge occurs in areas characterized by the presence of enhanced levels of natural radioelements in rocks. The obtained results were compared with the guidelines of the Brazilian Code of Mineral Waters (BCMW) that was established in 1945 and is still in force in the country. The (222)Rn and (220)Rn activity concentration data allowed perform dose radiation calculations based on the potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC), whose implications for health risk have been also considered in this paper.

  15. Fission track studies on some minerals and water of the north-east India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Thoudam Nandababu

    The present work is aimed at the geochronological investigations of the minerals of some granitic rocks and estimation of uranium contents in minerals, rocks and water of some parts of the North-East India with the help of fission track (FT) technique. The study includes FT dating of minerals from granites of four different plutons and from pegmatites of two different regions of Meghalaya, annealing studies of the minerals including the correction of the observed mineral ages and calculation of the cooling and uplift rates of the rocks. Precision on the errors of the mineral ages has also been studied in detail in the present work. The experiment was carried out at the Research laboratories of the Physics and the Geology Departments, Gauhati University, Assam, India during 1981-1984. Experimental results show four different age groups of the minerals which would reflect meaningful geological events in the history of these rocks. Sphenes of the Nartiang and Dawki granites record the highest FT ages ~ 1120 m.y. which may be linked with a major plutonic event. Muscovites of the Nartiang and Jowai pegmatites measure ages ~ 690 m.y. which may correspond to the time of emplacements of these pegmatites. Apatites of the Nartiang granites show FT ages ~ 470 m.y. which falls within the period of Indian Ocean cycle event. But, apatites of the Jowai, Pynursla and Dawki granites record the youngest ages ~ 90 m.y. which lies within the period of extrusion of cretaceous lavas (Sylhet traps). Apatite age of the Nartiang granite and muscovite ages of the Nartiang and Jowai pegmatites were corrected to ~ 510 m.y., ~ 743 m.y. and ~ 741 m.y. respectively by applying the plateau method of age correction. However, insignificant corrections were found in the sphene ages of the Nartiang and Dawki granites and apatite ages of the Jowai and Dawki granites. An interesting finding of the present work is the wide discrepancy between the apatite ages ~ 90 m.y. (Cretaceous) of Jowai, Pynursla

  16. Efficient artificial mineralization route to decontaminate Arsenic(III) polluted water - the Tooeleite Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakar, Arindam; Das, Bidisa; Islam, Samirul; Meneghini, Carlo; de Giudici, Giovanni; Merlini, Marco; Kolen’Ko, Yury V.; Iadecola, Antonella; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Acharya, Somobrata; Ray, Sugata

    2016-05-01

    Increasing exposure to arsenic (As) contaminated ground water is a great threat to humanity. Suitable technology for As immobilization and removal from water, especially for As(III) than As(V), is not available yet. However, it is known that As(III) is more toxic than As(V) and most groundwater aquifers, particularly the Gangetic basin in India, is alarmingly contaminated with it. In search of a viable solution here, we took a cue from the natural mineralization of Tooeleite, a mineral containing Fe(III) and As(III)ions, grown under acidic condition, in presence of SO42‑ ions. Complying to this natural process, we could grow and separate Tooeleite-like templates from Fe(III) and As(III) containing water at overall circumneutral pH and in absence of SO42‑ ions by using highly polar Zn-only ends of wurtzite ZnS nanorods as insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces. The central idea here is to exploit these insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces (called as INAS in the manuscript) as nucleation centres for Tooeleite growth while keeping the overall pH of the aqueous media neutral. Therefore, we propose a novel method of artificial mineralization of As(III) by mimicking a natural process at nanoscale.

  17. Efficient artificial mineralization route to decontaminate Arsenic(III) polluted water - the Tooeleite Way

    PubMed Central

    Malakar, Arindam; Das, Bidisa; Islam, Samirul; Meneghini, Carlo; De Giudici, Giovanni; Merlini, Marco; Kolen’ko, Yury V.; Iadecola, Antonella; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Acharya, Somobrata; Ray, Sugata

    2016-01-01

    Increasing exposure to arsenic (As) contaminated ground water is a great threat to humanity. Suitable technology for As immobilization and removal from water, especially for As(III) than As(V), is not available yet. However, it is known that As(III) is more toxic than As(V) and most groundwater aquifers, particularly the Gangetic basin in India, is alarmingly contaminated with it. In search of a viable solution here, we took a cue from the natural mineralization of Tooeleite, a mineral containing Fe(III) and As(III)ions, grown under acidic condition, in presence of SO42− ions. Complying to this natural process, we could grow and separate Tooeleite-like templates from Fe(III) and As(III) containing water at overall circumneutral pH and in absence of SO42− ions by using highly polar Zn-only ends of wurtzite ZnS nanorods as insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces. The central idea here is to exploit these insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces (called as INAS in the manuscript) as nucleation centres for Tooeleite growth while keeping the overall pH of the aqueous media neutral. Therefore, we propose a novel method of artificial mineralization of As(III) by mimicking a natural process at nanoscale. PMID:27189251

  18. Linear adsorption of nonionic organic compounds from water onto hydrophilic minerals: Silica and alumina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Su, Y.-H.; Zhu, Y.-G.; Sheng, G.; Chiou, C.T.

    2006-01-01

    To characterize the linear adsorption phenomena in aqueous nonionic organic solute-mineral systems, the adsorption isotherms of some low-molecular- weightnonpolar nonionic solutes (1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, lindane, phenanthrene, and pyrene) and polar nonionic solutes (1,3-dinitrobenzene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene) from single-and binary-solute solutions on hydrophilic silica and alumina were established. Toward this objective, the influences of temperature, ionic strength, and pH on adsorption were also determined. It is found that linear adsorption exhibits low exothermic heats and practically no adsorptive competition. The solute-solid configuration and the adsorptive force consistent with these effects were hypothesized. For nonpolar solutes, the adsorption occurs presumably by London (dispersion) forces onto a water film above the mineral surface. For polar solutes, the adsorption is also assisted by polar-group interactions. The reduced adsorptive forces of solutes with hydrophilic minerals due to physical separation by the water film and the low fractions of the water-film surface covered by solutes offer a theoretical basis for linear solute adsorption, low exothermic heats, and no adsorptive competition. The postulated adsorptive forces are supported by observations that ionic strength or pH poses no effect on the adsorption of nonpolar solutes while it exhibits a significant effect on the uptake of polar solutes. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  19. Networking and rheology of concentrated clay suspensions "matured" in mineral medicinal water.

    PubMed

    Aguzzi, Carola; Sánchez-Espejo, Rita; Cerezo, Pilar; Machado, José; Bonferoni, Cristina; Rossi, Silvia; Salcedo, Inmaculada; Viseras, César

    2013-09-10

    This work studied the influence of "maturation" conditions (time and agitation) on aggregation states, gel structure and rheological behaviour of a special kind of pharmaceutical semisolid products made of concentrated clay suspensions in mineral medicinal water. Maturation of the samples was carried out in distilled and sulphated mineral medicinal water, both in static conditions (without agitation) and with manual stirring once a week, during a maximum period of three months. At the measured pH interval (7.5-8.0), three-dimensional band-type networks resulting from face/face contacts were predominant in the laminar (disc-like) clay suspensions, whereas the fibrous (rod-like) particles formed micro-aggregates by van der Waals attractions. The high concentration of solids in the studied systems greatly determined their behaviour. Rod-like sepiolite particles tend to align the major axis in aggregates promoted by low shearing maturation, whereas aggregates of disc-like smectite particles did not have a preferential orientation and their complete swelling required long maturation time, being independent of stirring. Maturation of both kinds of suspensions resulted in improved rheological properties. Laminar clay suspensions became more structured with time, independently from static or dynamic maturation conditions, whereas for fibrous clay periodic agitation was also required. Rheological properties of the studied systems have been related to aggregation states and networking mechanisms, depending on the type of clay minerals constituents. Physical stability of the suspensions was not impaired by the specific composition of the Graena medicinal water.

  20. A compilation of rate parameters of water-mineral interaction kinetics for application to geochemical modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palandri, James L.; Kharaka, Yousif K.

    2004-01-01

    Geochemical reaction path modeling is useful for rapidly assessing the extent of water-aqueous-gas interactions both in natural systems and in industrial processes. Modeling of some systems, such as those at low temperature with relatively high hydrologic flow rates, or those perturbed by the subsurface injection of industrial waste such as CO2 or H2S, must account for the relatively slow kinetics of mineral-gas-water interactions. We have therefore compiled parameters conforming to a general Arrhenius-type rate equation, for over 70 minerals, including phases from all the major classes of silicates, most carbonates, and many other non-silicates. The compiled dissolution rate constants range from -0.21 log moles m-2 s-1 for halite, to -17.44 log moles m-2 s-1 for kyanite, for conditions far from equilibrium, at 25 ?C, and pH near neutral. These data have been added to a computer code that simulates an infinitely well-stirred batch reactor, allowing computation of mass transfer as a function of time. Actual equilibration rates are expected to be much slower than those predicted by the selected computer code, primarily because actual geochemical processes commonly involve flow through porous or fractured media, wherein the development of concentration gradients in the aqueous phase near mineral surfaces, which results in decreased absolute chemical affinity and slower reaction rates. Further differences between observed and computed reaction rates may occur because of variables beyond the scope of most geochemical simulators, such as variation in grain size, aquifer heterogeneity, preferred fluid flow paths, primary and secondary mineral coatings, and secondary minerals that may lead to decreased porosity and clogged pore throats.

  1. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water.

    PubMed

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő; Czégény, Zsuzsanna; Záray, Gyula; Mihucz, Victor G

    2013-08-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: <3.0 ng L(-1)-0.2 μg L(-1), <6.6 ng L(-1)-0.8 μg L(-1), <6.0 ng L(-1)-0.1 μg L(-1) and <16.0 ng L(-1)-1.7 μg L(-1), respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET).

  2. [Comparative study of several sulfurated mineral water sources from Iasi County].

    PubMed

    Stefanache, Alina; Stan, Cătălina; Caraman, C; Nastase, V; Miftode, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The comparative study aimed the actualization of the analytical panel of some mineral water sources, sulfurated, iso- and hypertonic (existing in Nicolina area, Iaşi county), that is the constant physico-chemical composition, in order to signal the alteration of water's quality. From the performed analysis, along the time and the presented ones, it can be observed than the sources maintain intact, along many decades, the chemical composition and their physical characteristics, and also their therapeutical action, due to the fact they are localised deep underground.

  3. Contribution of tap water to mineral intakes of Canadian preschool children.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R S; Vanderkooy, P S; McLennan, C E; Mercer, N M

    1987-01-01

    Tap water consumption was estimated from 3 day weighed dietary records in 102 Canadian preschool children (4-5 yr of age; 58 males, 44 females). Cold tap water samples were also collected from each child's household (64 hard water households, 38 soft water households) and analyzed for calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, copper, and sodium by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Median consumption of tap water consumed alone and tapwater alone plus that used in beverages (ml per day) was 36.5 (range 0-791) and 171.5 (range 0-1036), respectively. Average intakes of macrominerals for males (M) and females (F) from all sources of hard tap water were (mg/day): calcium (M) 16.5, (F) 13.2; magnesium (M) 6.6, (F) 4.5; and sodium (M) 2.3, (F) 2.3. Average intakes of macrominerals from soft water are as follows: calcium (M) 0.1, (F) 0.1; magnesium (M) 0, (F) 0; and sodium (M) 31.0, (F) 24.4. Trace element intakes from tap water were negligible. Hard tap water provided less than 8% of the Canadian Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) for magnesium, less than 3% for calcium, and less than 1% for zinc. Mineral contributions of soft tap water to the RNIs were less than 2%.

  4. Natural radioactivity of 226Ra and 228Ra in thermal and mineral waters in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bituh, Tomislav; Marovic, Gordana; Petrinec, Branko; Sencar, Jasminka; Franulovic, Iva

    2009-01-01

    Thermal waters are known as valuable natural resources of a country. They contain certain degree of natural radioactivity attributable to the elements of the uranium and thorium natural decay series. Among these elements, the most radiotoxic and the most important is radium that exists in several isotopic forms (226Ra and 228Ra). The focus of attention was the content of radium in samples of thermal and mineral spring water from several spas in Croatia. These waters are mainly used for medical, bathing and recreational purposes, and some of them are used for drinking. Measured activity concentrations of 226Ra ranged from 87 to 6200 mBq l(-1) which, in some springs, exceed the maximal permissible level of 1 Bq l(-1) for drinking water. Measured activity concentrations of 228Ra ranged from 23 to 3480 mBq l(-1). The study showed that radium content for the investigated thermal and mineral waters is below the levels at which negative consequences would arise due to ingestion.

  5. Influence of Water Content on the Mechanical Behaviour of Limestone: Role of the Clay Minerals Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherblanc, F.; Berthonneau, J.; Bromblet, P.; Huon, V.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical characteristics of various sedimentary stones significantly depend on the water content, where 70 % loss of their mechanical strengths can be observed when saturated by water. Furthermore, the clay fraction has been shown to be a key factor of their hydro-mechanical behaviour since it governs for instance the hydric dilation. This work aims at investigating the correlations between the clay mineral content and the mechanical weakening experienced by limestones when interacting with water. The experimental characterization focuses on five different limestones that exhibit very different micro-structures. For each of them, we present the determination of clay mineral composition, the sorption isotherm curve and the dependences of tensile and compressive strengths on the water content. It emerges from these results that, first, the sorption behaviour is mainly governed by the amount of smectite layers which exhibit the larger specific area and, second, the rate of mechanical strength loss depends linearly on the sorption capacity. Indeed, the clay fraction plays the role of a retardation factor that delays the appearance of capillary bridges as well as the mechanical weakening of stones. However, no correlation was evidenced between the clay content and the amplitude of weakening. Since the mechanisms whereby the strength decreases with water content are not clearly established, these results would help to discriminate between various hypothesis proposed in the literature.

  6. Mineral composition and heavy metal contamination of sediments originating from radium rich formation water.

    PubMed

    Bzowski, Zbigniew; Michalik, Bogusław

    2015-03-01

    Radium rich formation water is often associated with fossil fuels as crude oil, natural gas and hard coal. As a result of fossil fuels exploitation high amount of such water is released into environment. In spite of the high radium content such waters create a serious radiation risk neither to humans nor biota directly. First and foremost due to very high mineralization they are not drinkable at all. But after discharge chemical and physical conditions are substantially changed and sediments which additionally concentrated radium are arising. Due to features of technological processes such phenomenon is very intensive in underground coal mining where huge volume of such water must be pumped into surface in order to keep underground galleries dry. Slightly different situation occurs in oil rigs, but finally also huge volume of so called process water is pumped into environment. Regardless their origin arising sediments often contain activity concentration of radium isotopes exceeding the clearance levels set for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) (Council Directive, 2013). The analysis of metals and minerals content showed that besides radioactivity such sediments contain high amount of metals geochemically similar to radium as barium, strontium and lead. Correlation analysis proved that main mechanism leading to sediment creation is co-precipitation radium with these metals as a sulfate. The absorption on clay minerals is negligible even when barium is not present in significant quantities. Owing to very low solubility of sulfates radium accumulated in this way should not migrate into environment in the neighborhood of a site where such sediment were deposited.

  7. Inelastic neutron scattering and molecular simulation of the dynamics of interlayer water in smectite clay minerals

    DOE PAGES

    Cygan, Randall T.; Daemen, Luke L.; Ilgen, Anastasia G.; ...

    2015-11-16

    The study of mineral–water interfaces is of great importance to a variety of applications including oil and gas extraction, gas subsurface storage, environmental contaminant treatment, and nuclear waste repositories. Understanding the fundamentals of that interface is key to the success of those applications. Confinement of water in the interlayer of smectite clay minerals provides a unique environment to examine the interactions among water molecules, interlayer cations, and clay mineral surfaces. Smectite minerals are characterized by a relatively low layer charge that allows the clay to swell with increasing water content. Montmorillonite and beidellite varieties of smectite were investigated to comparemore » the impact of the location of layer charge on the interlayer structure and dynamics. Inelastic neutron scattering of hydrated and dehydrated cation-exchanged smectites was used to probe the dynamics of the interlayer water (200–900 cm–1 spectral region) and identify the shift in the librational edge as a function of the interlayer cation. Molecular dynamics simulations of equivalent phases and power spectra, derived from the resulting molecular trajectories, indicate a general shift in the librational behavior with interlayer cation that is generally consistent with the neutron scattering results for the monolayer hydrates. Both neutron scattering and power spectra exhibit librational structures affected by the location of layer charge and by the charge of the interlayer cation. Furthermore, divalent cations (Ba2+ and Mg2+) characterized by large hydration enthalpies typically exhibit multiple broad librational peaks compared to monovalent cations (Cs+ and Na+), which have relatively small hydration enthalpies.« less

  8. Inelastic neutron scattering and molecular simulation of the dynamics of interlayer water in smectite clay minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Cygan, Randall T.; Daemen, Luke L.; Ilgen, Anastasia G.; Krumhansl, James L.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2015-11-16

    The study of mineral–water interfaces is of great importance to a variety of applications including oil and gas extraction, gas subsurface storage, environmental contaminant treatment, and nuclear waste repositories. Understanding the fundamentals of that interface is key to the success of those applications. Confinement of water in the interlayer of smectite clay minerals provides a unique environment to examine the interactions among water molecules, interlayer cations, and clay mineral surfaces. Smectite minerals are characterized by a relatively low layer charge that allows the clay to swell with increasing water content. Montmorillonite and beidellite varieties of smectite were investigated to compare the impact of the location of layer charge on the interlayer structure and dynamics. Inelastic neutron scattering of hydrated and dehydrated cation-exchanged smectites was used to probe the dynamics of the interlayer water (200–900 cm–1 spectral region) and identify the shift in the librational edge as a function of the interlayer cation. Molecular dynamics simulations of equivalent phases and power spectra, derived from the resulting molecular trajectories, indicate a general shift in the librational behavior with interlayer cation that is generally consistent with the neutron scattering results for the monolayer hydrates. Both neutron scattering and power spectra exhibit librational structures affected by the location of layer charge and by the charge of the interlayer cation. Furthermore, divalent cations (Ba2+ and Mg2+) characterized by large hydration enthalpies typically exhibit multiple broad librational peaks compared to monovalent cations (Cs+ and Na+), which have relatively small hydration enthalpies.

  9. Mineralogy and geochemistry of efflorescent minerals on mine tailings and their potential impact on water chemistry.

    PubMed

    Grover, B P C; Johnson, R H; Billing, D G; Weiersbye, I M G; Tutu, H

    2016-04-01

    In the gold mining Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa, efflorescent mineral crusts are a common occurrence on and nearby tailings dumps during the dry season. The crusts are readily soluble and generate acidic, metal- and sulphate-rich solutions on dissolution. In this study, the metal content of efflorescent crusts at an abandoned gold mine tailings dump was used to characterise surface and groundwater discharges from the site. Geochemical modelling of the pH of the solution resulting from the dissolution of the crusts was used to better understand the crusts' potential impact on water chemistry. The study involved two approaches: (i) conducting leaching experiments on oxidised and unoxidised tailings using artificial rainwater and dilute sulphuric acid and correlating the composition of crusts to these leachates and (ii) modelling the dissolution of the crusts in order to gain insight into their mineralogy and their potential impact on receiving waters. The findings suggested that there were two chemically distinct discharges from the site, namely an aluminium- and magnesium-rich surface water plume and an iron-rich groundwater plume. The first plume was observed to originate from the oxidised tailings following leaching with rainwater while the second plume originated from the underlying unoxidised tailings with leaching by sulphuric acid. Both groups of minerals forming from the respective plumes were found to significantly lower the pH of the receiving water with simulations of their dissolution found to be within 0.2 pH units of experimental values. It was observed that metals in a low abundance within the crust (for example, iron) had a stronger influence on the pH of the resulting solutions than metals in a greater abundance (aluminium or magnesium). Techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and in situ mineral determination techniques such as remote sensing can effectively determine the dominant mineralogy. However, the minerals or metals

  10. Molecular dynamics simulation of water at mineral surfaces: Structure, dynamics, energetics and hydrogen bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinichev, A. G.; Wang, J.; Kirkpatrick, R.

    2006-05-01

    Fundamental molecular-level understanding of the properties of aqueous mineral interfaces is of great importance for many geochemical and environmental systems. Interaction between water and mineral surfaces substantially affects the properties of both phases, including the reactivity and functionality of the substrate surface, and the structure, dynamics, and energetics of the near surface aqueous phase. Experimental studies of interfacial water structure and dynamics using surface-sensitive techniques such as sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy or X-ray and neutron reflectivity are not always possible for many practically important substrates, and their results often require interpretation concerning the atomistic mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior. Molecular computer simulations can provide new insight into the underlying molecular- level relationships between the inorganic substrate structure and composition and the structure, ordering, and dynamics of interfacial water. We have performed a series of molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations of aqueous interfaces with several silicates (quartz, muscovite, and talc) and hydroxides (brucite, portlandite, gibbsite, Ca/Al and Mg/Al double hydroxides) to quantify the effects of the substrate mineral structure and composition on the structural, transport, and thermodynamic properties of water on these mineral surfaces. Due to the prevalent effects of the development of well-interconnected H-bonding networks across the mineral- water interfaces, all the hydroxide surfaces (including a fully hydroxylated quartz surface) show very similar H2O density profiles perpendicular to the interface. However, the predominant orientations of the interfacial H2O molecules and their detailed 2-dimensional near-surface structure and dynamics parallel to the interface are quite different reflecting the differences in the substrate structural charge distribution and the density and orientations of the surface OH

  11. Ultrasound with mineral water or aqua gel to reduce pain and improve the WOMAC of knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Abdalbary, Sahar Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Osteoarthritis is the most degenerative joint disease. The aim was to investigate the effects of ultrasound using mineral water or aqua sonic gel on severity of knee pain, measured by the visual analog scale and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC). Materials and methods: Thirty women with bilateral osteoarthritis of the knee were assigned to two groups: ultrasound with mineral water (group 1, n = 15) or with aqua sonic gel (group 2, n = 15). Both groups underwent 4 weeks intervention, three per week. The participants were assessed using the visual analog scale and the WOMAC. Tests were performed before and after interventions. Results: Both groups had significantly reduced pain and improved WOMAC compared with preintervention values. Discussion: The ultrasound with mineral water group had more pronounced improvement at p-value < 0.001. Conclusion: Ultrasound with mineral water is preferable in treatment of knee OA. PMID:28031953

  12. Effects of mineral content of bovine drinking water: does iron content affect milk quality?

    PubMed

    Mann, G R; Duncan, S E; Knowlton, K F; Dietrich, A D; O'Keefe, S F

    2013-01-01

    The composition of water given to dairy cattle is often ignored, yet water is a very important nutrient and plays a major role in milk synthesis. The objective of this study was to study effects of elevated levels of iron in bovine drinking water on milk quality. Ferrous lactate treatments corresponding to 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/kg drinking water concentrations were delivered through the abomasum at 10 L/d to 4 lactating dairy cows over 4 periods (1 wk infusion/period) in a Latin square design. On d 6 of infusion, milk was collected, processed (homogenized, pasteurized), and analyzed. Mineral content (Fe, Cu, P, Ca) was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Oxidative stability of whole processed milk was measured by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde (MDA) and sensory analysis (triangle test) within 72 h of processing and after 7d of storage (4°C). Significant sensory differences between processed milks from cows receiving iron and the control infusion were observed. No differences in TBARS (1.46±0.04 mg of MDA/kg) or mineral content (0.22±0.01 mg/kg Fe) were observed. A 2-way interaction (iron treatment by cow) for Ca, Cu, and Fe concentrations was seen. While iron added directly to milk causes changes in oxidation of milk, high levels of iron given to cattle have subtle effects that initially may not be obvious.

  13. Minerals consumption by Acetobacter xylinum on cultivation medium on coconut water

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Denise Milleo; Prestes, Rosilene Aparecida; da Fonseca, Adriel Ferreira; Woiciechowski, Adenise L.; Wosiacki, Gilvan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to verifying the consume of the minerals K, Na, Fe, Mg, P, S-SO4−2, B, N Total Kjedahl (NTK), NO3−-N, and NH4+-N in the production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum, according to the medium and the manner of cultivation. The fermentative process was in ripe and green coconut water. K and Na were determined by flame emission photometry, Mg and Fe by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, P by molecular absorption spectrophotometry, S-SO4−2 by barium sulphate turbidimetry, B by Azomethin-H method, NTK by Kjeldahl method, N-NO3− and N-NH4+ by vapor distillation with magnesium oxide and Devarda’s alloy, respectively. In Fermentation of ripe coconut water there were higher consumption of K (69%), Fe (84,3%), P (97,4%), S-SO2−2 (64,9%), B (56,1%), N-NO3− (94,7%) and N-NH4+ (95,2%), whereas coconut water of green fruit the most consumed ions were Na (94,5%), Mg (67,7%) and NTK (56,6%). The cultivation under agitation showed higher mineral consumption. The higher bacterial cellulose production, 6 g.L−1, was verified in the coconut water fermentative in ripe fruit, added KH2PO4, FeSO4 and NaH2PO4 kept under agitation. PMID:24159306

  14. [Physicochemical quality of drinking water in Southern Algeria: study of excess mineral salts].

    PubMed

    Djellouli, H M; Taleb, S; Harrache-Chettouh, D; Djaroud, S

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical composition of water intended for human consumption in several regions of Southern Algeria. Excess minerals in drinking water, including magnesium, calcium, sulfates and fluorides play a fundamental role in the prevention of urinary calculi, which are formed mainly from calcium oxalate. The ever-increasingly prevalence of this disorder and its recurrence make it a real public health problem in Algeria. The most elementary preventive treatment, recommended to all subjects with lithiasis, is to drink 2 to 3 L water distributed throughout the (24-hour) day. This study began by conducting a physicochemical analysis of the principal components of water from several sources. We will subsequently test it to examine the effects of its mineral salts on the crystallization kinetics of the principal component of calculi (calcium oxalate). The results indicate that 77.5 % of the samples had magnesium concentrations ([Mg 2+] > 50 mg/L), 95 % were sulfated, with sulfate ion concentrations exceeding the standard recommended by WHO ([SO4 2-] > 250 mg/L). Moreover, 57.5 % had excess fluoride levels, [F-] > 1.5 mg/L, and 65 % excessive calcium concentrations, with Ca 2+ > 150 mg/L.

  15. The Geysers-Clear Lake area, California: thermal waters, mineralization, volcanism, and geothermal potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Burns, M.G.; Goff, F.E.; Peters, E.K.; Thompson, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Manifestations of a major thermal anomaly in the Geysers-Clear Lake area of northern California include the late Pliocene to Holocene Clear Lake Volcanics, The Geysers geothermal field, abundant thermal springs, and epithermal mercury and gold mineralization. The epithermal mineralization and thermal springs typically occur along high-angle faults within the broad San Andreas transform fault system that forms the western boundary of the North American plate in this area. The young volcanic rocks overlie Mesozoic marine rocks of the Great Valley sequence which have been thrust above the coeval Franciscan Complex and penecontemporaneously dropped back down along low-angle detachment faults. Geothermal power production has peaked at The Geysers and pressure declines indicate significant depletion of the fluid resource. It is proposed that recently discovered, isotopically shifted steam in the northwest Geysers area indicates the presence not of deep connate water but rather of boiled-down, boron-rich Franciscan evolved meteoric water. This water is likely to be present in limited quantities and will not provide a significant hot water resource for geothermal power production at The Geysers field or from the main Clear Lake volcanic field. -from Authors

  16. Minerals consumption by Acetobacter xylinum on cultivation medium on coconut water.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Denise Milleo; Prestes, Rosilene Aparecida; da Fonseca, Adriel Ferreira; Woiciechowski, Adenise L; Wosiacki, Gilvan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to verifying the consume of the minerals K, Na, Fe, Mg, P, S-SO4 (-2), B, N Total Kjedahl (NTK), NO3 (-)-N, and NH4 (+)-N in the production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum, according to the medium and the manner of cultivation. The fermentative process was in ripe and green coconut water. K and Na were determined by flame emission photometry, Mg and Fe by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, P by molecular absorption spectrophotometry, S-SO4 (-2) by barium sulphate turbidimetry, B by Azomethin-H method, NTK by Kjeldahl method, N-NO3 (-) and N-NH4 (+) by vapor distillation with magnesium oxide and Devarda's alloy, respectively. In Fermentation of ripe coconut water there were higher consumption of K (69%), Fe (84,3%), P (97,4%), S-SO2 (-2) (64,9%), B (56,1%), N-NO3 (-) (94,7%) and N-NH4 (+) (95,2%), whereas coconut water of green fruit the most consumed ions were Na (94,5%), Mg (67,7%) and NTK (56,6%). The cultivation under agitation showed higher mineral consumption. The higher bacterial cellulose production, 6 g.L(-1), was verified in the coconut water fermentative in ripe fruit, added KH2PO4, FeSO4 and NaH2PO4 kept under agitation.

  17. Trace elements and heavy metals in mineral and bottled drinking waters on the Iranian market.

    PubMed

    Hadiani, Mohammad Rasoul; Dezfooli-Manesh, Shirin; Shoeibi, Shahram; Ziarati, Parisa; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin

    2015-01-01

    A survey of Iranian waters, sampled from 2010 to 2013, is presented. A total of 128 water samples from 42 different brands of bottled mineral and drinking water were collected and analysed for contamination levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg). Determinations were performed using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Pb, Cd and Cu, a hydride vapour generation as well as an Arsenator digital kit (Wagtech WTD, Tyne and Wear, UK) for As and a direct mercury analyser for Hg. Arsenic concentration in six bottled gaseous mineral samples was higher than the related limit. Regardless of these, mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, As and Hg in all types of water samples were 4.50 ± 0.49, 1.08 ± 0.09, 16.11 ± 2.77, 5.80 ± 1.63 and 0.52 ± 0.03 µg L⁻¹, respectively. Values obtained for analysed heavy metals in all samples were permissible according to the limits of national and international standards.

  18. Mineral Dissolution and Precipitation due to Carbon Dioxide-Water-Rock Interactions: The Significance of Accessory Minerals in Carbonate Reservoirs (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaszuba, J. P.; Marcon, V.; Chopping, C.

    2013-12-01

    Accessory minerals in carbonate reservoirs, and in the caprocks that seal these reservoirs, can provide insight into multiphase fluid (CO2 + H2O)-rock interactions and the behavior of CO2 that resides in these water-rock systems. Our program integrates field data, hydrothermal experiments, and geochemical modeling to evaluate CO2-water-rock reactions and processes in a variety of carbonate reservoirs in the Rocky Mountain region of the US. These studies provide insights into a wide range of geologic environments, including natural CO2 reservoirs, geologic carbon sequestration, engineered geothermal systems, enhanced oil and gas recovery, and unconventional hydrocarbon resources. One suite of experiments evaluates the Madison Limestone on the Moxa Arch, Southwest Wyoming, a sulfur-rich natural CO2 reservoir. Mineral textures and geochemical features developed in the experiments suggest that carbonate minerals which constitute the natural reservoir will initially dissolve in response to emplacement of CO2. Euhedral, bladed anhydrite concomitantly precipitates in response to injected CO2. Analogous anhydrite is observed in drill core, suggesting that secondary anhydrite in the natural reservoir may be related to emplacement of CO2 into the Madison Limestone. Carbonate minerals ultimately re-precipitate, and anhydrite dissolves, as the rock buffers the acidity and reasserts geochemical control. Another suite of experiments emulates injection of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery in the Desert Creek Limestone (Paradox Formation), Paradox Basin, Southeast Utah. Euhedral iron oxyhydroxides (hematite) precipitate at pH 4.5 to 5 and low Eh (approximately -0.1 V) as a consequence of water-rock reaction. Injection of CO2 decreases pH to approximately 3.5 and increases Eh by approximately 0.1 V, yielding secondary mineralization of euhedral pyrite instead of iron oxyhydroxides. Carbonate minerals also dissolve and ultimately re-precipitate, as determined by experiments in the

  19. Maxwell-Wagner relaxation in common minerals and a desert soil at low water contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcone, Steven A.; Boitnott, Ginger E.

    2012-06-01

    Penetration of 100- to 1000-MHz ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals is virtually non-existent in arid and desert soils despite their low water content and moderate conductivity, the latter of which cannot explain the loss. Under the hypothesis that strong dielectric relaxation supplements DC conductivity to cause high intrinsic attenuation rates, we compared the complex permittivity of a desert soil sample with that of controlled samples of quartz, feldspars, calcite, coarse and crystallite gypsum, kaolinite and montmorillonite. The soil had 80% quartz, 10% feldspars and 10% gypsum by weight, with the latter composed of crystallites and crustations. All samples had 4-7% volumetric water content. We measured permittivity most accurately from 1.6 MHz to 4 GHz with Fourier Transform time domain reflectometry, and used grain sizes less than 53 μm. All samples show low-frequency dispersion with the soil, gypsum crystallites and montmorillonite having the strongest below 100 MHz, the highest attenuation rates, and conductivity values unable to account for these rates. The soil rate exceeded 100 dB m- 1 by 1 GHz. Through modeling we find that a broadened relaxation centered from 2 to 16 MHz sufficiently supplements losses caused by conductivity and free water relaxation to account for loss rates in all our samples, and accounts for low-frequency dispersion below 1 GHz. We interpret the relaxation to be of the Maxwell-Wagner (MW) type because of the 2- to 16-MHz values, relaxation broadening, the lack of salt, clay and magnetic minerals, and insufficient surface area to support adsorbed water. The likely MW dipolar soil inclusions within the predominantly quartz matrix were gypsum particles coated with water containing ions dissolved from the gypsum, and the conducting water layers themselves. The inclusions for the monomineralic soils were likely ionized partially or completely water-filled interstices, and partially filled galleries for the montmorillonite. The low

  20. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope exchange reactions between clay minerals and water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neil, J.R.; Kharaka, Y.K.

    1976-01-01

    The extent of hydrogen and oxygen isotope exchange between clay minerals and water has been measured in the temperature range 100-350?? for bomb runs of up to almost 2 years. Hydrogen isotope exchange between water and the clays was demonstrable at 100??. Exchange rates were 3-5 times greater for montmorillonite than for kaolinite or illite and this is attributed to the presence of interlayer water in the montmorillonite structure. Negligible oxygen isotope exchange occurred at these low temperatures. The great disparity in D and O18 exchange rates observed in every experiment demonstrates that hydrogen isotope exchange occurred by a mechanism of proton exchange independent of the slower process of O18 exchange. At 350?? kaolinite reacted to form pyrophyllite and diaspore. This was accompanied by essentially complete D exchange but minor O18 exchange and implies that intact structural units in the pyrophyllite were inherited from the kaolinite precursor. ?? 1976.

  1. Subsurface water and clay mineral formation during the early history of Mars.

    PubMed

    Ehlmann, Bethany L; Mustard, John F; Murchie, Scott L; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Meunier, Alain; Fraeman, Abigail A; Langevin, Yves

    2011-11-02

    Clay minerals, recently discovered to be widespread in Mars's Noachian terrains, indicate long-duration interaction between water and rock over 3.7 billion years ago. Analysis of how they formed should indicate what environmental conditions prevailed on early Mars. If clays formed near the surface by weathering, as is common on Earth, their presence would indicate past surface conditions warmer and wetter than at present. However, available data instead indicate substantial Martian clay formation by hydrothermal groundwater circulation and a Noachian rock record dominated by evidence of subsurface waters. Cold, arid conditions with only transient surface water may have characterized Mars's surface for over 4 billion years, since the early-Noachian period, and the longest-duration aqueous, potentially habitable environments may have been in the subsurface.

  2. The importance of hygienic practices during the collection and bottling of mineral water.

    PubMed

    Windle-Taylor, E

    1976-01-01

    Natural water suitable for direct bottling must be clear, colourless, and free from objectionable taste and odour. The mineral content must be limited in amount, otherwise the water would come within the medicinal water category. There should be no detectable organic matter present and the water must be of the highest bacteriological quality -- virtually sterile - and should remain in this condition during the collection and bottling processes. In order to achieve and maintain this high quality, the gathering grounds of the source must be protected from pollution; the construction of the well or spring must be such as to prevent external contamination, as also should be the collecting and bottling apparatus. Personnel employed in the factory should wear protective clothing and be regularly checked as to their freedom from waterborne infectious diseases. Control of the water as to its hygienic quality should be by regular and frequent analysis of samples of the water and the air at various points in the process and in the factory. A new problem that has arisen and has to be faced in this situation is the risk of contamination by certain materials in contact with the water that may contain substances that encourage the growth of saprophytic bacteria which would contaminate by the production of taste, odour, discolouration, cloudiness and definite evidence of microbial growth. It is emphasized that the extent of this new problem is not yet delineated and that methods of laboratory control and safeguards against such happenings are still evolving.

  3. Remote pulsed laser Raman spectroscopy system for detecting water, ice, and hydrous minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Christopher S.; Abedin, M. Nurul; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; Sandford, Steve P.

    2006-08-01

    For exploration of planetary surfaces, detection of water and ice is of great interest in supporting existence of life on other planets. Therefore, a remote Raman spectroscopy system was demonstrated at NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with the University of Hawaii for detecting ice-water and hydrous minerals on planetary surfaces. In this study, a 532 nm pulsed laser is utilized as an excitation source to allow detection in high background radiation conditions. The Raman scattered signal is collected by a 4-inch telescope positioned in front of a spectrograph. The Raman spectrum is analyzed using a spectrograph equipped with a holographic super notch filter to eliminate Rayleigh scattering, and a holographic transmission grating that simultaneously disperses two spectral tracks onto the detector for higher spectral range. To view the spectrum, the spectrograph is coupled to an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), which allows detection of very weak Stokes line. The ICCD is operated in gated mode to further suppress effects from background radiation and long-lived fluorescence. The sample is placed at 5.6 m from the telescope, and the laser is mounted on the telescope in a coaxial geometry to achieve maximum performance. The system was calibrated using the spectral lines of a Neon lamp source. To evaluate the system, Raman standard samples such as calcite, naphthalene, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol were analyzed. The Raman evaluation technique was used to analyze water, ice and other hydrous minerals and results from these species are presented.

  4. Does plant uptake or low soil mineral-N production limit mineral-N losses to surface waters and groundwater from soils under grass in summer?

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Ambreen; McClean, Colin J; Cresser, Malcolm S

    2013-07-01

    Summer minima and autumn/winter maxima in nitrate concentrations in rivers are reputedly due to high plant uptake of nitrate from soils in summer. A novel alternative hypothesis is tested here for soils under grass. By summer, residual readily mineralizable plant litter from the previous autumn/winter is negligible and fresh litter input low. Consequently little mineral-N is produced in the soil. Water-soluble and KCl-extractable mineral N in fresh soils and soils incubated outdoors for 7 days have been monitored over 12 months for soil transects at two permanent grassland sites near York, UK, using 6 replicates throughout. Vegetation-free soil is shown to produce very limited mineral-N in summer, despite the warm, moist conditions. Litter accumulates in autumn/winter and initially its high C:N ratio favours N accumulation in the soil. It is also shown that mineral-N generated monthly in situ in soil substantially exceeds the monthly mineral-N inputs via wet deposition at the sites.

  5. Can hydrous minerals account for the observed mid-latitude water on Mars?

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Fialips, C. I.; Carey, J. W.; Feldman, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    Great interest was generated with the discovery by the Odyssey spacecraft OC heterogeneously distributed hydrogcn at martian mid-latitudes, suggesting that large areas of the near-equatorial highlands contain near-surface deposits of 'chemically and/or physically bound 1120 and/or OH' in amounts up to 3.8% equivalent H20. More recent interpretations of the Odyssey data using new calibrations suggest that some near-equatorial areas, such as Arabia Terra, contain up to 8.5f I .3% water-equivalent hydrogen. Such shallow occurrences (minerals and zeolites, have been proposed as possible M20-bearing constituents on Mars, and both groups of minerals are common terrestrial alteration products of hydrovolcanic basaltic ashes and palagonitic material comparable io those that may be widespread on Mars. Smectites within martian meteorites, attributed to hydrous alteration on Mars rather than on Earth, provide direct evidence of clay minerals from Mars. In addition, new thermal emission spectrometer (TES) data provide evidence for unspecified zeolites in martian surface dust, and concluded that spectral deconvolution of MGS TES and Mariner 9 IRIS data is consistent with the presence of zeolite in the martian surface dust.

  6. Elaboration of new ceramic microfiltration membranes from mineral coal fly ash applied to waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Jedidi, Ilyes; Saïdi, Sami; Khemakhem, Sabeur; Larbot, André; Elloumi-Ammar, Najwa; Fourati, Amine; Charfi, Aboulhassan; Salah, Abdelhamid Ben; Amar, Raja Ben

    2009-12-15

    This work aims to develop a new mineral porous tubular membrane based on mineral coal fly ash. Finely ground mineral coal powder was calcinated at 700 degrees C for about 3 h. The elaboration of the mesoporous layer was performed by the slip-casting method using a suspension made of the mixture of fly-ash powder, water and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The obtained membrane was submitted to a thermal treatment which consists in drying at room temperature for 24 h then a sintering at 800 degrees C. SEM photographs indicated that the membrane surface was homogeneous and did not present any macrodefects (cracks, etc...). The average pore diameter of the active layer was 0.25 microm and the thickness was around 20 microm. The membrane permeability was 475 l/h m(2) bar. This membrane was applied to the treatment of the dying effluents generated by the washing baths in the textile industry. The performances in term of permeate flux and efficiency were determined and compared to those obtained using a commercial alumina microfiltration membrane. Almost the same stabilised permeate flux was obtained (about 100 l h(-1)m(-2)). The quality of permeate was almost the same with the two membranes: the COD and color removal was 75% and 90% respectively.

  7. Correction methods of medicinal properties of mineral waters in Pyatigorsk resort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reps, Valentina; Potapov, Evgeniy; Abramtsova, Anna; Kotova, Margarita

    2016-04-01

    Mineral Water (MW) of Pyatigorsk deposit (PD) is united in five genetic groups (operational stocks of 2809,8 m3/day): carbonic and hydrosulphuric, carbonic, carbonic chloride-hydrocarbonate sodium (salt and alkaline), radonic low carbonate, nitrogen-carbonic terms. A variety of MW types is explained by peculiarities of geological structure and hydrogeological conditions of PD. Here on the sites of the development of deep semi-ring splits there are overflows and a mixture of various complexes. Unloading of deep water strikes happens not only on the earth surface in the form of springs but also at the depth in its edging crumbling rocks of Palaeocene and quarternary deposits. As a result of mixture processes of water and its subsequent metamorphization, various types of mineral water of this deposit are formed. Pyatigorsk resort is in a special protected ecologo-resort region which mode allows to keep stability of structure and ecological purity of MW. Nevertheless, MW variability, compositional differences and MW mineralization determining the level of its biological effect demand studying of action mechanisms of both natural MW, and possibility of its modification for range expansion of rehabilitation action. There have been examined biological effects of the course drinking reception In experiment on 80 rats males of the Wistar line biological effects of the course drinking reception of two MW types: "Krasnoarmeyskaya new" (MW1) of sulphate-hydrocarbonate-chloride calcium-sodium structure with the raised contents of iron (3-5 mg/dm3), mineralization of 5,0-5,2 g/dm3, CO2 of 1,3-2,2 g/dm3, daily flow of 10-86 m3/day, temperature from 14 to 370C on the mouth of the well and spring №2 (MW2) low sulphate, low carbonate sulphate-hydrocarbonate-chloride calcium-sodium, mineralization of 5,0 g/l, CO2 of 0,7 g/dm3, H2 of S 0,01 g/dm3. There has been shown an ability of the drinking course MW1 to influence on endocrine and metabolic continium - cortisol level increased

  8. Trace Element Speciation and Distribution Study at Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Biofilm/Mineral/Water Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelabert, A.; Wang, Y.; Gescher, J.; Ha, J.; Cordova, C. D.; Singer, D. M.; Spormann, A. M.; Trainor, T. P.; Eng, P. J.; Brown, G. E.

    2006-12-01

    Fe- and Al-(oxyhydr)oxides are among the most reactive mineral surfaces contacted by surface and ground waters, and thus they constitute important sorbents for heavy metal and metalloid ions. As microbial biofilms may be present as coatings on these minerals, they are likely to induce major changes in surface charges and sorption capacities for metal(loid) ions compared to biofilm-free mineral surfaces. In addition, the micro- environments in biofilms can be quite different from those in bulk solutions, which can enhance (or inhibit) metal adsorption on mineral surfaces and produce biominerals that are not predicted by equilibrium thermodynamics based on the bulk solution values. In order to provide a more quantitative understanding of these effects, we have carried out a study of the interaction of Zn(II), Pb(II), and As(V) with Shewanella oneidensis (wild type, EPS-deficient mutant, and ppx- and ppk-deficient mutants) grown on highly polished and oriented single crystal surfaces of α-Al2O3 (1-102) and α-Fe2O3 (0001). This gram-negative bacterium commonly found in soil and sediments can use a wide range of electron donors and terminal electron acceptors including Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides under anaerobic conditions. In-situ ATR-FTIR analyses and potentiometric titrations of S. oneidensis biofilm collected from a glass bead-filled column inoculated with S. oneidensis were conducted in order to determine the nature of functional groups present on the bacterial surfaces, to quantify the site densities and protonation constants for these groups, and to determine the electrostatic parameters for S. oneidensis surfaces. GI-XAFS analyses performed on BL 11-2 at SSRL, together with macroscopic metal adsorption experiments as a function of pH (2 to 6.5), metal concentration (10-3 to 10-7 M), and ionic strength (10-1 to 10-3 M), were used to determine ion speciation and local coordination environments in the biofilm and to develop a surface complexation model describing

  9. Low water contents in diamond mineral inclusions: Proto-genetic origin in a dry cratonic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Logvinova, Alla M.; Howarth, Geoffrey H.; Liu, Yang; Peslier, Anne H.; Rossman, George R.; Guan, Yunbin; Chen, Yang; Sobolev, Nikolay V.

    2016-01-01

    The mantle is the major reservoir of Earth's water, hosted within Nominally Anhydrous Minerals (NAMs) (e.g., Bell and Rossman, 1992; Peslier et al., 2010; Peslier, 2010; Nestola and Smyth, 2015), in the form of hydrogen bonded to the silicate's structural oxygen. From whence cometh this water? Is the water in these minerals representative of the Earth's primitive upper mantle or did it come from melting events linked to crustal formation or to more recent metasomatic/re-fertilization events? During diamond formation, NAMs are encapsulated at hundreds of kilometers depth within the mantle, thereby possibly shielding and preserving their pristine water contents from re-equilibrating with fluids and melts percolating through the lithospheric mantle. Here we show that the NAMs included in diamonds from six locales on the Siberian Craton contain measurable and variable H2O concentrations from 2 to 34 parts per million by weight (ppmw) in olivine, 7 to 276 ppmw in clinopyroxene, and 11-17 ppmw in garnets. Our results suggest that if the inclusions were in equilibrium with the diamond-forming fluid, the water fugacity would have been unrealistically low. Instead, we consider the H2O contents of the inclusions, shielded by diamonds, as pristine representatives of the residual mantle prior to encapsulation, and indicative of a protogenetic origin for the inclusions. Hydrogen diffusion in the diamond does not appear to have modified these values significantly. The H2O contents of NAMs in mantle xenoliths may represent some later metasomatic event(s), and are not always representative of most of the continental lithospheric mantle. Results from the present study also support the conclusions of Peslier et al. (2010) and Novella et al. (2015) that the dry nature of the SCLM of a craton may provide stabilization of its thickened continental roots.

  10. Ion adsorption-induced wetting transition in oil-water-mineral systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalli, Andrea; Bera, Bijoyendra; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2015-11-01

    The relative wettability of a rock substrate to oil and water is a central issue in many technological applications, especially in the field of enhanced oil recovery. We here consider a salty water droplet deposited on a mica substrate inside an oil bath. By adding specific ions to the water phase, a wetting transition can be induced. The water solution completely wet the mica substrate if it only contains monovalent cations (K+, Na+) . However, when divalent (Ca2+ , Mg2+) cations are added to the water phase, a finite contact angle (around 10o) can be observed. We explain this phenomenon in the scope of a Poisson-Boltzmann model. The absorption of divalent ions at the mica interface generates a positive surface charge, and induces an attractive interaction to the negatively charged oil-water interface, which triggers the transition. We also observe that different cations can be arranged in an Hofmeister-like sequence, based on their effectiveness in changing the wettability of the mineral substrate. Finally, we show that adding small amounts of a polar surfactant to the oil phase synergistically enhances the wetting transition.

  11. Variability of mineral intakes from drinking water: a possible explanation for the controversy over the relationship of water quality to cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Gillies, M E; Paulin, H V

    1983-03-01

    The assumption that people using the same water supply have similar intakes of minerals from drinking water is examined. Duplicate samples of all water drunk during a 24 hour period, including that boiled for beverage preparation, were collected by 109 adult subjects. The results showed that there may be more than a tenfold variation in the amount of water people drink daily. In addition it was found that the mineral concentrations in the 24 hour samples can vary markedly from those in water collected from the source or supply or from household taps which are the usual sampling points for epidemiological studies. The convention of using total hardness as an indicator of mineral intakes from hard and soft water is questioned.

  12. Influence of Seasonal and Geochemical Changes on the Geomicrobiology of an Iron Carbonate Mineral Water Spring

    PubMed Central

    Hegler, Florian; Lösekann-Behrens, Tina; Hanselmann, Kurt; Behrens, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Fuschna Spring in the Swiss Alps (Engadin region) is a bicarbonate iron(II)-rich, pH-neutral mineral water spring that is dominated visually by dark green microbial mats at the side of the flow channel and orange iron(III) (oxyhydr)oxides in the flow channel. Gradients of O2, dissolved iron(II), and bicarbonate establish in the water. Our goals were to identify the dominating biogeochemical processes and to determine to which extent changing geochemical conditions along the flow path and seasonal changes influence mineral identity, crystallinity, and microbial diversity. Geochemical analysis showed microoxic water at the spring outlet which became fully oxygenated within 2.3 m downstream. X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed calcite (CaCO3) and ferrihydrite [Fe(OH)3] to be the dominant minerals which increased in crystallinity with increasing distance from the spring outlet. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis banding pattern cluster analysis revealed that the microbial community composition shifted mainly with seasons and to a lesser extent along the flow path. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that microbial communities differ between the flow channel and the flanking microbial mat. Microbial community analysis in combination with most-probable-number analyses and quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that the mat was dominated by cyanobacteria and the channel was dominated by microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers (1.97 × 107 ± 4.36 × 106 16S rRNA gene copies g−1 using Gallionella-specific qPCR primers), while high numbers of Fe(III) reducers (109 cells/g) were identified in both the mat and the flow channel. Phototrophic and nitrate-reducing Fe(II) oxidizers were present as well, although in lower numbers (103 to 104 cells/g). In summary, our data suggest that mainly seasonal changes caused microbial community shifts, while geochemical gradients along the flow path influenced mineral crystallinity. PMID:22865064

  13. Peroxone mineralization of chemical oxygen demand for direct potable water reuse: Kinetics and process control.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D

    2015-04-15

    Mineralization of organics in secondary effluent by the peroxone process was studied at a direct potable water reuse research treatment system serving an occupied four-bedroom, four bath university residence hall apartment. Organic concentrations were measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and kinetic runs were monitored at varying O3/H2O2 dosages and ratios. COD degradation could be accurately described as the parallel pseudo-1st order decay of rapidly and slowly-oxidizable fractions, and effluent COD was reduced to below the detection limit (<0.7 mg/L). At dosages ≥4.6 mg L(-1) h(-1), an O3/H2O2 mass ratio of 3.4-3.8, and initial COD <20 mg/L, a simple first order decay was indicated for both single-passed treated wastewater and recycled mineral water, and a relationship is proposed and demonstrated to estimate the pseudo-first order rate constant for design purposes. At this O3/H2O2 mass ratio, ORP and dissolved ozone were found to be useful process control indicators for monitoring COD mineralization in secondary effluent. Moreover, an average second order rate constant for OH oxidation of secondary effluent organics (measured as MCOD) was found to be 1.24 × 10(7) ± 0.64 × 10(7) M(-1) S(-1). The electric energy demand of the peroxone process is estimated at 1.73-2.49 kW h electric energy for removal of one log COD in 1 m(3) secondary effluent, comparable to the energy required for desalination of medium strength seawater. Advantages/disadvantages of the two processes for municipal wastewater reuse are discussed.

  14. Uranium in stream and mineral water of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    PubMed

    Birke, Manfred; Rauch, Uwe; Lorenz, Hans

    2009-12-01

    The concentration of uranium was determined in 944 samples from stream water by the inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) method and represented on a color-shaded contour map. Uranium concentrations in surface water were determined to be between 0.007 μg/l and 43.7 μg/l with median of 0.33 μg/l. The regional distribution of uranium is influenced primarily by lithological and anthropogenic factors. In Mecklenburg, northern Brandenburg, and eastern Schleswig-Holstein, elevated uranium concentrations coincide with the extent of the last Weichselian ice sheet. The maximum concentrations are observed in the surface waters of the old mining districts in the western part of the Ore Mountains and in eastern Thuringia. Elevated concentrations are found in areas of agriculturally used loess soils. These concentrations correlate with the use of phosphate fertilizers. There is a zone of elevated concentrations up to 10.0 μg U/l in the Keuper Sandstone area south of the Thuringian Forest and from northwest of Stuttgart as far as Coburg. The distribution of elevated values in mineral water shows a clear correlation with the elevated values in surface water and the geology of those locations. Bunter and Keuper strata are the most important uranium source.

  15. Common and specific responses to availability of mineral nutrients and water

    PubMed Central

    Kudoyarova, Guzel R.; Dodd, Ian C.; Veselov, Dmitry S.; Rothwell, Shane A.; Yu. Veselov, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Changes in resource (mineral nutrients and water) availability, due to their heterogeneous distribution in space and time, affect plant development. Plants need to sense these changes to optimize growth and biomass allocation by integrating root and shoot growth. Since a limited supply of water or nutrients can elicit similar physiological responses (the relative activation of root growth at the expense of shoot growth), similar underlying mechanisms may affect perception and acquisition of either nutrients or water. This review compares root and shoot responses to availability of different macronutrients and water. Attention is given to the roles of root-to-shoot signalling and shoot-to-root signalling, with regard to coordinating changes in root and shoot growth and development. Involvement of plant hormones in regulating physiological responses such as stomatal and hydraulic conductance is revealed by measuring the effects of resource availability on phytohormone concentrations in roots and shoots, and their flow between roots and shoots in xylem and phloem saps. More specific evidence can be obtained by measuring the physiological responses of genotypes with altered hormone responses or concentrations. We discuss the similarity and diversity of changes in shoot growth, allocation to root growth, and root architecture under changes in water, nitrate, and phosphorus availability, and the possible involvement of abscisic acid, indole-acetic acid, and cytokinin in their regulation. A better understanding of these mechanisms may contribute to better crop management for efficient use of these resources and to selecting crops for improved performance under suboptimal soil conditions. PMID:25697793

  16. Characterization of the bacterial flora in mineral waters in upstreaming fluids of deep igneous rock aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, C.; Mau, M.; SchlöMann, M.; Heinicke, J.; Koch, U.

    2007-03-01

    The bacterial community of the mineral spring Wettinquelle in the Vogtland/NW Bohemian region (German-Czech border) was characterized by sequence analysis of amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes. The acidulous spring water consists mostly of old groundwater from deep aquifers, which is mixed with 15-20% young water from upper groundwater horizons. The spring water contains high concentrations of iron, Ca2+ and SO42- ions. A remarkable attribute is the high radon activity of 27 kBq L-1 water. Free escaping spring gas consists mainly of CO2 originating from the mantle, N2 (1.2%) and traces of other gases, like methane and helium. Close relatives of Gallionella ferruginea, a micro-aerobic oxidizer of ferrous iron, contributed most to the clone library. Clones with sequences related to Thiobacillus aquaesulis, members of the Sulfuricurvum-cluster and members of several branches of the OP11 group were present in significantly lower numbers but still with some microdiversity. These bacterial groups, which contributed strongly to the clone library and have known physiology, obviously depend on the oxygen in the younger water and reduced compounds from the below.

  17. The maximum water storage capacities in nominally anhydrous minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, T.; Yurimoto, H.

    2012-12-01

    Water is the most important volatile component in the Earth, and affects the physicochemical properties of mantle minerals, e.g. density, elastic property, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, rheological property, melting temperature, melt composition, element partitioning, etc. So many high pressure experiments have been conducted so far to determine the effect of water on mantle minerals. To clarify the maximum water storage capacity in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle is an important issue to discuss the possibility of the existence of water reservoir in the Earth mantle. So we have been clarifying the maximum water storage capacity in mantle minerals using MA-8 type (KAWAI-type) high pressure apparatus and SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy). Upper mantle mineral, olivine can contain ~0.9 wt% H2O in the condition just above 410 km discontinuity in maximum (e.g. Chen et al., 2002; Smyth et al., 2006). On the other hand, mantle transition zone mineral, wadsleyite and ringwoodite can contain significant amount (about 2-3 wt.%) of H2O (e.g. Inoue et al., 1995, 1998, 2010; Kawamoto et al., 1996; Ohtani et al., 2000). But the lower mantle mineral, perovskite can not contain significant amount of H2O, less than ~0.1 wt% (e.g. Murakami et al., 2002; Inoue et al., 2010). In addition, garnet and stishovite also can not contain significant amount of H2O (e.g. Katayama et al., 2003; Mookherjee and Karato, 2010; Litasov et al., 2007). On the other hand, the water storage capacities of mantle minerals are supposed to be significantly coupled with Al by a substitution with Mg2+, Si4+ or Mg2+ + Si4+, because Al3+ is the trivalent cation, and H+ is the monovalent cation. To clarify the degree of the substitution, the water contents and the chemical compositions of Al-bearing minerals in the mantle transition zone and the lower mantle were also determined in the Al-bearing systems with H2O. We will introduce the

  18. Thermoelasticity, Water Partitioning, and Equations of State of Lower Mantle Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Joshua Paul

    How is water distributed in the Earth, and how might it be detected from seismic obser- vations? Recent geochemical, geodynamic, and astrophysical results suggest that the Earth may contain significantly more water than exists on its surface. Yet, how water might be distributed between lower mantle minerals is poorly understood. This dissertation encompasses three projects that explore the properties of materials under lower mantle pressures and temperatures. In the first study I used density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate the effects of water on the elastic properties of bridgmanite (brg), and postperovskite (ppv), at pressures of the lowermost mantle (called D''). The results indicate that the reduction in elastic moduli in D'' is expected to be approximately 1%, and 3%, per weight % water, for the bulk and shear moduli, respectively. In the second study I used DFT and ab-initio lattice dynamics to study the distribution of water between brg and ppv with aluminum-bearing and aluminum-free hydrogen defects. The results indicate that aluminous ppv may be a host for primordial water in D'' as suggested by recent geochemical measurements, and the presence of Al-bearing hydrous ppv reduces the adiabatic bulk sound velocity contrast across the brg-ppv phase transition, and increases the radial velocity gradient. Together, these two projects indicate that ppv may be a host for primordial water in the D'' region and suggest that the state of hydration of the lowermost mantle may potentially be inferred through correlated regions of low impedance contrast and high velocity gradients. In the third study I describe a computer program, GEOST, designed to help researchers re- fine accurate equations of state (EOS) from experimental measurements of pressure, volume, and temperature.

  19. Transient Phase of Ice Observed by Sum Frequency Generation at the Water/Mineral Interface During Freezing.

    PubMed

    Lovering, Kaitlin A; Bertram, Allan K; Chou, Keng C

    2017-02-16

    We observed a transient noncentrosymmetric phase of ice at water/mineral interfaces during freezing, which enhanced the intensity of the IR-visible sum frequency generation intensity by up to 20-fold. The lifetime of the transient phase was several minutes. Since the most stable form of ice, hexagonal and cubic ice, are centrosymmetric, our study suggests the transient existence of stacking-disordered ice during the freezing process at water/mineral interfaces. Stacking-disordered ice, which has only been observed in bulk ice at temperatures lower than -20 °C, is a random mixture of layers of hexagonal ice and cubic ice. However, the transient phase at the ice/mineral interface was observed at temperatures as high as -1 °C. It suggests that the mineral surface may play a role in promoting and stabilizing the formation of stacking-disordered ice at the interface.

  20. Sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) combined with distilled water, chlorhexidine, and doxycycline.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Roberta A A; Cunha, Rodrigo S; Miguita, Kenner B; Silveira, Cláudia F M; De Martin, Alexandre S; Pinheiro, Sérgio L; Rocha, Daniel G P; Bueno, Carlos E S

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA Bio) combined with different mixing agents (distilled water, chlorhexidine, doxycycline), used as an apical root-end filling material. Forty-two extracted human teeth were divided into three groups (n = 12); six teeth were used as controls. Root-ends were resected at 90 degrees, 3 mm from the apex. Root-end cavities were prepared using ultrasonic tips and filled with MTA Bio plus distilled water, 2% chlorhexidine solution, or 10% doxycycline solution. Apical sealing was assessed by microleakage of 50% silver nitrate solution. Roots were longitudinally sectioned in a buccolingual plane and analyzed using an operating microscope (20× magnification). Depth of dye leakage into the dentinal walls was measured in millimeters. Results were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (P = 0.05). MTA Bio plus distilled water showed significantly higher mean leakage results (1.06 mm) when compared with MTA Bio plus doxycycline (0.61 mm), and higher, although not significant, results when compared with MTA Bio plus chlorhexidine (0.79 mm). In conclusion, replacing distilled water with two biologically active mixing agents (doxycycline and chlorhexidine) did not alter the sealing properties of MTABio. The antimicrobial properties of these combinations should be further investigated.

  1. Arsenic removal from water using natural iron mineral-quartz sand columns.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huaming; Stüben, Doris; Berner, Zolt

    2007-05-15

    The study has investigated the feasibility of using siderite-coated quartz sand and/or hematite-coated quartz sand columns for removing As from water. Arsenic-spiked tap water and synthetic As solution with As concentrations from 200 to 500 mug/L were used for the experiments. Since three coating methods employed to prepare siderite-coated quartz sand and hematite-coated quartz sand had no significant impact on As adsorption in batch tests, the column fillings were produced by means of the simplest one involving mechanically mixing the Fe mineral with quartz sand. Fixed bed tests show that the combination of siderite-coated quartz sand and hematite-coated quartz sand greatly promoted the column performance in removing As and the presence of As(III) in the influent improved the removal efficiency of the column. The relatively low capacity in treating As-spiked tap water arose from the suppression of FeCO(3) dissolution in the presence of high HCO(3)(-) concentration (333 mg/L), which consequently limited the formation of fresh Fe(III) oxides. However, the H(2)O(2)-conditioning greatly increased As adsorption capacity of the column for remediating As-spiked tap water. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test shows that the spent adsorbents were not hazardous and could be safely disposed of to landfill.

  2. Radium and (40)K in Algerian bottled mineral waters and consequent doses.

    PubMed

    Seghour, A; Seghour, F Z

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K in the five most popular Algerian bottled mineral waters have been found to be 13.9 to 148.9 mBq l(-1), 7.2 to 52.9 mBq l(-1) and <0.07 to 2.19 Bq l(-1), respectively. Ratios of (226)Ra to (228)Ra activities ranged from 1.0 to 13.66 with a mean of 5.62. The annual effective doses due to ingestion of these waters have been estimated for three age categories (infants, children and adults) using the measured activities of these radionuclides and assuming the World Health Organisation's default water intake rate. Annual doses for children and adults have been found to be well below the 0.1 mSv y(-1) reference dose level, whereas for the most vulnerable group the annual effective dose from all the waters exceeds the reference value and contributes 12% to the mean annual dose from natural exposure.

  3. Effects of Sulphate-Sulphide Mineral Water “Mlječanica” in Patients with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Erceg-Rukavina, Tatjana; Stefanovski, Mihajlo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Arterial hypertension is the main independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease and death. It affects development and course of cerebrovascular insult (CVI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Balneotherapy with sulphide baths was administered to patients having stage I hypertension (BP values 140-159/90-99), with no arrhythmia or pronounced coronary disease. Baths also had advantage in patients having hypertension joined with obesity, diabetes, microangiopathy, and atherosclerosis of peripheral arteries. Goal: Determine the effects of sulphate-sulphide mineral baths on stage I hypertension after 10 days therapy. Materials and methods: Patients having stage I hypertension were sent to “Mlječanica” Institute for rehabilitation. All subjects were treated with kinesitherapy and electrotherapy, while experimental group (n=30) was also treated with 20 minute baths, daily, for period of 10 days. Results: In experimental group BP level lowered in average 10 mmHg after 10-day therapy, and change was evident even after only 5 days. Conclusion: Sulphate-sulphide mineral water “Mlječanica” caused significant (p<0.05) lowering of arterial BP level after 10 days of therapy in patients who had stage I hypertension. PMID:25685078

  4. Application of mineral bed materials during fast pyrolysis of rice husk to improve water-soluble organics production.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Zhong, Z P; Jin, B S; Zheng, A J

    2012-09-01

    Fast pyrolysis of rice husk was performed in a spout-fluid bed to produce water-soluble organics. The effects of mineral bed materials (red brick, calcite, limestone, and dolomite) on yield and quality of organics were evaluated with the help of principal component analysis (PCA). Compared to quartz sand, red brick, limestone, and dolomite increased the yield of the water-soluble organics by 6-55% and the heating value by 16-19%. The relative content of acetic acid was reduced by 23-43% with calcite, limestone and dolomite when compared with quartz sand. The results from PCA showed all minerals enhanced the ring-opening reactions of cellulose into furans and carbonyl compounds rather than into monomeric sugars. Moreover, calcite, limestone, and dolomite displayed the ability to catalyze the degradation of heavy compounds and the demethoxylation reaction of guaiacols into phenols. Minerals, especially limestone and dolomite, were beneficial to the production of water-soluble organics.

  5. Preliminary bounds on the water composition and secondary mineral development that may influence the near-field environment

    SciTech Connect

    Whitbeck, M.; Glassley, W.

    1998-02-01

    The evolution of the water chemistry and secondary mineral development in the vicinity of the near-field of a potential Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository will be controlled by temperature, and interaction of water with rock over time. This report describes initial bounds on water composition and secondary mineral development, as a function of time, temperature, and rock type (devitrified, welded tuff and vitrophyre). The code EQ3/6 was used in the calculations, with explicit use of transition state theory models for mineral dissolution rates for the framework minerals of the tuff. Simulations were run for time durations sufficient to achieve steady state conditions. Uncertainty in the calculations, due to uncertainty in the measured dissolution rates, was considered by comparing results in simulations in which rates were varied within the range of known uncertainties for dissolution rate constants. The results demonstrate that the steady state mineralogy and water compositions are relatively insensitive to the rock unit modeled, which is consistent with the fact that the compositions of the rock units in the vicinity if the potential repository are similar, and will tend toward similar thermodynamic free energy minima, for similar rock:water ratios. Significant differences are observed, however, for large differences in rock: water ratios. The rates at which this end point condition are approached are a function of the rate parameters used, and can vary by orders of magnitude.

  6. Spectrofluorimetric determination of trace amounts of beryllium in mineral water and human's hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chongqiu; He, Fang

    2003-04-01

    A new fluorescent reagent, 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehydene-8-aminoquinoline (HNAAQ), was synthesized. The fluorescent reaction of this reagent with beryllium was also studied. Based on this chelation, a highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed for determination of trace amounts of beryllium at pH 9.2. Under these conditions, the Be-HNAAQ complex has excitation and emission maxima at 410 and 450 nm, respectively. The linear range of the method is from 0 to 35 μg l -1 and detection limit is 0.099 μg l -1 of beryllium. Interference of other ions was studied. It is necessary to remove the interfering cations through concealing by EDTA and extraction separation techniques. The selectivity of the method can be increased remarkably. The procedure can be easily performed and affords good precision and accuracy. This method has been successfully applied to the determination of beryllium in mineral water and human's hair.

  7. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado, using Skylab EREP data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. (Principal Investigator); Prost, G. L.; Knepper, D. H.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Huntley, D.; Weimer, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab photographs are superior to ERTS images for photogeologic interpretation, primarily because of improved resolution. Lithologic contacts can be detected consistently better on Skylab S190A photos than on ERTS images. Color photos are best; red and green band photos are somewhat better than color-infrared photos; infrared band photos are worst. All major geologic structures can be recognized on Skylab imagery. Large folds, even those with very gentle flexures, can be mapped accurately and with confidence. Bedding attitudes of only a few degrees are recognized; vertical exaggeration factor is about 2.5X. Mineral deposits in central Colorado may be indicated on Skylab photos by lineaments and color anomalies, but positive identification of these features is not possible. S190A stereo color photography is adequate for defining drainage divides that in turn define the boundaries and distribution of ground water recharge and discharge areas within a basin.

  8. Enumeration and characterization of bacteria in mineral water by improved direct viable count method.

    PubMed

    Guyard, S; Mary, P; Defives, C; Hornez, J P

    1999-05-01

    Fifteen strains from two emergent mineral waters were isolated and tentatively identified with API 20NE and BIOLOG GN systems. These strains were screened for their sensitivities to seven replication-inhibiting antibiotics of the (fluoro)quinolone group (nalidixic and pipemidic acid, flumequine, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin and ciprofloxacin). It was shown that the direct viable count (DVC) procedure could be improved by using certain antibiotic cocktails, which were active against the isolates. Geometric bacterial features were successfully determined with image analysis and adapted software (ICONIX, Perfect Image). Elongations were significant and allowed rapid discrimination of antibiotic inhibited and non-inhibited strains. Particular isolates in a mixed culture were characterized and enumerated after only 14 h exposure with the appropriate antibiotic cocktail. This method can also be applied to other communities, such as mixed cultures in bio-fermentors or in food with known microflora.

  9. Use of charge-selective membranes for electrodialytic desalination of mineralized drainage collector waters

    SciTech Connect

    Grebenyuk, V.D.; Veisov, B.K.; Chebotareva, R.D.; Braude, K.P.; Nefedova, G.Z.

    1986-10-10

    The purpose of this work was to examine the possibility of desalination, without preliminary softening, of drainage collector waters of a medium degree mineralization, represented by a simulated solution of the same cation composition, with the use of single-charge-selective membranes. A cation-exchange membrane obtained by modification of the commercial MK-100 membrane with ethylenediamine (6), was used for this purpose. The modification was effected by treatment of the chlorosulfonated matrix with aqueous ethylenediamine solution at room temperature. The matrix, aminated on one side was then treated with concentrated NaOH solution to convert unreacted sulfonyl chloride groups into sulfo. The capacity of the modified MK-100M membrane for sulfo groups was 1.8 meq/g. The possibility of obtaining highly concentrated brines was examined at the same time.

  10. Study of the bacterial flora of a non-carbonated natural mineral water.

    PubMed

    Mavridou, A

    1992-10-01

    Natural mineral water from a UK spring was monitored at various stages after it was pumped from the ground, through to bottling and during shelf life before consumption. Samples were collected in commercial PVC bottles, in PVC bottles previously sterilized and hand-filled and in glass bottles. The bacterial flora was counted on plate count agar (PCA) and on PCA diluted 10 times (PCA/10). The predominant bacteria were identified to genus level. Growth rates and nutrient types of isolates were determined by the nutrient-tolerance test (NT). The plate counts at the pre-bottling stage were low. During storage larger numbers of bacteria grew in glass than PVC bottles; the largest number grew in PVC bottles filled by hand. Most of the pigmented bacteria isolated were oligocarbotolerant.

  11. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 13. Mineral Microscopy and Chemistry of Mined and Unmined Porphyry Molybdenum Mineralization Along the Red River, New Mexico: Implications for Ground- and Surface-Water Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoff; Lowers, Heather; Ludington, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Briggs, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This report is one in a series presenting results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized but unmined Straight Creek drainage is being used as an analogue for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity at the mine site prior to mining. This report summarizes results of reconnaissance mineralogical and chemical characterization studies of rock samples collected from the various scars and the Molycorp open pit, and of drill cuttings or drill core from bedrock beneath the scars and adjacent debris fans.

  12. Bioremediating oil spills in nutrient poor ocean waters using fertilized clay mineral flakes: some experimental constraints.

    PubMed

    Warr, Laurence N; Friese, André; Schwarz, Florian; Schauer, Frieder; Portier, Ralph J; Basirico, Laura M; Olson, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98%) of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity.

  13. Acanthamoeba T4, T5 and T11 isolated from mineral water bottles in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maschio, Vinicius José; Chies, Fernanda; Carlesso, Ana Maris; Carvalho, Amanda; Rosa, Sayonara Peixoto; Van Der Sand, Sueli Teresinha; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is a protist potential pathogen, capable of causing a blinding keratitis in contact lens wearers and disseminated infection, leading to granulomatous amebic encephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. This amoeba is a ubiquitous organism that has been isolated from various domestic water systems, such as cooling towers and hospital water networks. The objective of this work was to investigate the presence of Acanthamoeba in mineral water bottles marketed in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. Positive samples were further classified at the genotype level after sequencing the ASA.S1 region of 18S rDNA gene. Six of the eight isolates belonged to T5 genotype, one to T4 genotype, and one was T11. Several genotypes have been reported worldwide as causative of pathologies in humans, including genotypes T4, T5 and T11. Overall, the widespread distribution of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains in the studied source demands more awareness within the public and health professionals, because this pathogen is emerging as a risk for human health worldwide.

  14. Flow cytometric determination of bacterial populations in bottled natural mineral waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beisker, Wolfgang; Meier, H.

    1998-04-01

    In order to enhance the quality and safety of bottled natural mineral waters, new methodologies besides classical bacteriology have been evaluated. Multi laser flow cytometry has been used to identify bacterial populations based on their DNA content, physiological activity and phylogeny from in situ hybridization with rRNA targeted DNA probes. Due to the low content of organic material in these waters, the bacterial population are under conditions (low ribosome content, low activity, etc.) which makes it hard to detect them flow cytometrically. The numbers of bacteria are in the range between 1000 and 100,000 per ml (for uncarbonated waters). Filtration techniques to enrich the bacterial population have been developed in combination with specific staining and hybridization protocols. First results on some selected brands show, that most bacteria belong to the beta subclass of proteobacteria. If the DNA containing cells (DAPI staining) are counted as 100%, 84% could be stained with a eubacteria probe. From these 84% 68% belong to the beta subclass, 8.2% to the alpha and 0.3% to the gamma subclass of roteobacteria. 8.5% could be identified as cytophaga flexibacter. By optimizing DNA staining with cyanine dyes and enhancing the sensitivity of light scatter detection, the detection limit could be considerably lowered.

  15. Bioremediating Oil Spills in Nutrient Poor Ocean Waters Using Fertilized Clay Mineral Flakes: Some Experimental Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Warr, Laurence N.; Friese, André; Schwarz, Florian; Schauer, Frieder; Portier, Ralph J.; Basirico, Laura M.; Olson, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98%) of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity. PMID:23864952

  16. Inorganic arsenic speciation in natural mineral drinking waters by flow-through anodic stripping chronopotentiometry.

    PubMed

    Jedryczko, Dominika; Pohl, Pawel; Welna, Maja

    2016-04-01

    A simple and inexpensive method for chemical speciation of inorganic As in natural mineral drinking waters by using anodic stripping chronopotentiometry (ASCP) in an electrochemical flow-through cell with an Au wire as the working electrode was described in the present work. The presented method is an attractive alternative to laborious and time-consuming procedures requiring pre-separation of various forms of As before their detection by other flow-through and non flow-through stripping methods. The limits of detection were found to be 0.42 µg L(-1) for As(III) and 0.55 µg L(-1) for As(V), obtained at the deposition potentials of -350 mV and -1600 mV, respectively. The accuracy of the method was assessed by the spiking-and-recovery experiments for particular water samples and the recoveries found, being in range from 99% to 105% for As(III) and from 104% to 106% for As(V), respectively, were quantitative. The proposed method was successfully applied to speciation analysis of inorganic As in water samples with a high content of Cu.

  17. Competition between trees and grasses for both soil water and mineral nitrogen in dry savannas.

    PubMed

    Donzelli, D; De Michele, C; Scholes, R J

    2013-09-07

    The co-existence of trees and grasses in savannas in general can be the result of processes involving competition for resources (e.g. water and nutrients) or differential response to disturbances such as fire, animals and human activities; or a combination of both broad mechanisms. In moist savannas, the tree-grass coexistence is mainly attributed to of disturbances, while in dry savannas, limiting resources are considered the principal mechanism of co-existence. Virtually all theoretical explorations of tree-grass dynamics in dry savannas consider only competition for soil water. Here we investigate whether coexistence could result from a balanced competition for two resources, namely soil water and mineral nitrogen. We introduce a simple dynamical resource-competition model for trees and grasses. We consider two alternative hypotheses: (1) trees are the superior competitors for nitrogen while grasses are superior competitors for water, and (2) vice-versa. We study the model properties under the two hypotheses and test each hypothesis against data from 132 dry savannas in Africa using Kendall's test of independence. We find that Hypothesis 1 gets much more support than Hypothesis 2, and more support than the null hypothesis that neither is operative. We further consider gradients of rainfall and nitrogen availability and find that the Hypothesis 1 model reproduces the observed patterns in nature. We do not consider our results to definitively show that tree-grass coexistence in dry savannas is due to balanced competition for water and nitrogen, but show that this mechanism is a possibility, which cannot be a priori excluded and should thus be considered along with the more traditional explanations.

  18. Opportunistic pathogens and elements of the resistome that are common in bottled mineral water support the need for continuous surveillance.

    PubMed

    Falcone-Dias, Maria Fernanda; Centrón, Daniela; Pavan, Fernando; Moura, Adriana Candido da Silva; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; de Souza, Victor Costa; Farache Filho, Adalberto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura

    2015-01-01

    Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). A total of one hundred and six isolates were recovered from four of these bottled mineral water brands. Betaproteobacteria was predominant followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Ninety percent of the bacteria isolated demonstrated resistance to seventeen of the nineteen antimicrobials tested. These antimicrobials included eight different classes, including 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected for fifty-nine percent of isolates in three water brands at counts up to 103 CFU/ml. Of major concern, the two bottled mineral water harboring opportunistic pathogens were also source of elements of the resistome that could be directly transferred to humans. All these differences found among brands highlight the need for continuous bacteriological surveillance of bottled mineral water.

  19. Opportunistic Pathogens and Elements of the Resistome that Are Common in Bottled Mineral Water Support the Need for Continuous Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Falcone-Dias, Maria Fernanda; Centrón, Daniela; Pavan, Fernando; Moura, Adriana Candido da Silva; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; de Souza, Victor Costa; Farache Filho, Adalberto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura

    2015-01-01

    Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). A total of one hundred and six isolates were recovered from four of these bottled mineral water brands. Betaproteobacteria was predominant followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Ninety percent of the bacteria isolated demonstrated resistance to seventeen of the nineteen antimicrobials tested. These antimicrobials included eight different classes, including 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected for fifty-nine percent of isolates in three water brands at counts up to 103 CFU/ml. Of major concern, the two bottled mineral water harboring opportunistic pathogens were also source of elements of the resistome that could be directly transferred to humans. All these differences found among brands highlight the need for continuous bacteriological surveillance of bottled mineral water. PMID:25803794

  20. Deep mineral water accelerates recovery after dehydrating aerobic exercise: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of deep mineral water (DMW) with moderate mineralization on the recovery of physical performance after prolonged dehydrating aerobic exercise in the heat was studied in nine healthy, physically active (VO2max = 45.8 ± 8.4 mL kg−1 min−1) women aged 24.0 ± 3.7 years. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover human study to evaluate the effect of ingestion of natural mineral water extracted from a depth of 689 m on recovery from prolonged fatiguing aerobic running conducted at 30°C. Results Mean body weight decreased by 2.6–2.8% following dehydrating exercise. VO2max was 9% higher after 4 h of recovery after rehydrating with DMW compared with plain water. Leg muscle power recovered better during the slow phase of recovery and was significantly higher after 48 h of recovery after rehydrating with DMW compared with plain water. Conclusions DMW with moderate mineralization was more effective in inducing recovery of aerobic capacity and leg muscle power compared with plain water following prolonged dehydrating aerobic running exercise. PMID:25002835

  1. Low enthalpy geothermal project in Zambia

    SciTech Connect

    Dominco, E.; Liguori, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    A project financed by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MAE), implements the installation of two organic Rankine cycle (ORC) turbogenerators in remote, rural areas of Zambia. The Italian Government grant amounts to 2,000,000 US dollars. The Government of Zambia will bear all costs of the Zambian counterpart and will provide the low voltage transmission line and distribution grid.

  2. Wine Valley Inn: A mineral water spa in Calistoga, California. Geothermal-energy-system conceptual design and economic feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-26

    The purpose of this study is to determine the engineering and economic feasibility for utilizing geothermal energy for air conditioning and service water heating at the Wine Valley Inn, a mineral water spa in Calistoga, California. The study evaluates heating, ventilating, air conditioning and water heating systems suitable for direct heat geothermal application. Due to the excellent geothermal temperatures available at this site, the mechanics and economics of a geothermally powered chilled water cooling system are evaluated. The Wine Valley Inn has the resource potential to have one of the few totally geothermal powered air conditioning and water heating systems in the world. This total concept is completely developed. A water plan was prepared to determine the quantity of water required for fresh water well development based on the special requirements of the project. An economic evaluation of the system is included to justify the added capital investment needed to build the geothermally powered mineral spa. Energy payback calculations are presented. A thermal cascade system is proposed to direct the geothermal water through the energy system to first power the chiller, then the space heating system, domestic hot water, the two spas and finally to heat the swimming pool. The Energy Management strategy required to automatically control this cascade process using industrial quality micro-processor equipment is described. Energy Management controls are selected to keep equipment sizing at a minimum, pump only the amount of geothermal water needed and be self balancing.

  3. Migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate used in mineral water bottles.

    PubMed

    Carneado, S; Hernández-Nataren, E; López-Sánchez, J F; Sahuquillo, A

    2015-01-01

    The influence of storage time and temperature on Sb migration from PET bottles into mineral water was studied in short-term tests lasting up to 15 days and long-term studies lasting up to 220 days. Samples purchased were stored in three different coloured bottles: clear (CL), light blue (LB) and dark blue (DB). Sb migration was assayed by HG-AFS for total determination and HPLC-ICP-MS for speciation analysis. Migration studies showed that waters stored at 4 and 20 °C were not subject to Sb migration. At 40 °C there was a significant increase in Sb concentration, although the maximum limit established by the European Union (5.0 μgL(-)(1)) was not exceeded, whereas at 60 °C samples were subject to considerable Sb migration after 30 days of storage. In this case, the maximum limit established by the European Union was exceeded and both Sb (V) and Sb (III) were detected.

  4. Separation and preconcentration of aluminum in parenteral solutions and bottled mineral water using different analytical techniques.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Tasneem G; Khan, Sumaira; Baig, Jameel A; Kolachi, Nida F; Afridi, Hassan I; Kandhro, Ghulam A; Kumar, Sham; Shah, Abdul Q

    2009-12-30

    A new method is reported for the separation of aluminum ions [Al(III)] from interfering elements in parenteral and pharmaceutical solutions (PS) and bottled mineral water (BMW) samples, through solid-phase extraction with 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (quinaldine) adsorbed onto activated silica gel. While the enrichment step of separated Al(III) was carried out by cloud point extraction (CPE) using 8-hydroxyquinoline as complexing reagent, the resulted complex was entrapped in a non-ionic surfactant octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). The enriched Al(III) in sample solutions were determined by spectrofluorometry (SPF) at lambda(excitation) 370 nm and lambda(emission) 510 nm, and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for comparative purpose. The variables affecting the complexation and extraction steps were studied and optimized. The validity of methodology was checked with certified reference material of water and standard addition method. The enrichment factor and detection limit of Al(III) for the preconcentration of 50 ml of PS and BMW were found to be 100 and 0.25 microg/L, respectively. The proposed method has been applied for the determination of trace amount of Al(III) in PS and BMW samples with satisfactory results. In PS the levels of Al(III) are above than permissible limit (25 microg/L).

  5. A comparison of pre- and post-remediation water quality, Mineral Creek, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, R.L.; Bencala, K.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Walton-Day, K.; Verplanck, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Pre- and post-remediation data sets are used herein to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures implemented in the headwaters of the Mineral Creek watershed, where contamination from hard rock mining has led to elevated metal concentrations and acidic pH. Collection of pre- and post-remediation data sets generally followed the synoptic mass balance approach, in which numerous stream and inflow locations are sampled for the constituents of interest and estimates of streamflow are determined by tracer dilution. The comparison of pre- and post-remediation data sets is confounded by hydrologic effects and the effects of temporal variation. Hydrologic effects arise due to the relatively wet conditions that preceded the collection of pre-remediation data, and the relatively dry conditions associated with the post-remediation data set. This difference leads to a dilution effect in the upper part of the study reach, where pre-remediation concentrations were diluted by rainfall, and a source area effect in the lower part of the study reach, where a smaller portion of the watershed may have been contributing constituent mass during the drier post-remediation period. A second confounding factor, temporal variability, violates the steady-state assumption that underlies the synoptic mass balance approach, leading to false identification of constituent sources and sinks. Despite these complications, remedial actions completed in the Mineral Creek headwaters appear to have led to improvements in stream water quality, as post-remediation profiles of instream load are consistently lower than the pre-remediation profiles over the entire study reach for six of the eight constituents considered (aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc). Concentrations of aluminium, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc remain above chronic aquatic-life standards, however, and additional remedial actions may be needed. Future implementations of the synoptic mass balance approach should be

  6. Measuring water adsorption on mineral surfaces in air, CO2, and supercritical CO2 with a quartz-crystal microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, C. R.; Wells, R. K.; Burton, P. D.; Heath, J. E.; Dewers, T. A.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon sequestration via underground storage in geologic formations is a proposed approach for reducing industrial CO2 emissions. However, current models for carbon injection and long-term storage of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) do not consider the development and stability of adsorbed water films at the scCO2-hydrophilic mineral interface. The thickness and properties of the water films control the surface tension and wettability of the mineral surface, and on the core scale, affect rock permeability, saturation, and capillary properties. The film thickness is strongly dependent upon the activity of water in the supercritical fluid, which will change as initially anhydrous scCO2 absorbs water from formation brine. As described in a companion paper by the coauthors, the thickness of the adsorbed water layer is controlled by the disjoining pressure; structural and van der Waals components dominate at low water activity, while electrostatic forces become more important with increasing film thickness (higher water activities). As scCO2 water activity and water layer thickness increase, concomitant changes in mineral surface properties and reservoir/caprock hydrologic properties will affect the mobility of the aqueous phase and of scCO2. Moreover, the development of a water layer may be critical to mineral dissolution reactions in scCO2. Here, we describe the use of a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) to monitor adsorption of water by mineral surfaces. QCMs utilize a piezoelectrically-stimulated quartz wafer to measure adsorbed or deposited mass via changes in vibrational frequency. When used to measure the mass of adsorbed liquid films, the frequency response of the crystal must be corrected for the viscoelastic, rather than elastic, response of the adsorbed layer. Results are presented for adsorption to silica in N2 and CO2 at one bar, and in scCO2. Additional data are presented for water uptake by clays deposited on a QCM wafer. In this case, water uptake occurs by the

  7. Profiling contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients to evaluate the effects of pesticides and organic and chemical fertilizers on tomato fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masami; Ohta, Yuko; Licang, Sun; Motoyama, Naoki; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-02-15

    In this study, the contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients were measured in tomatoes cultured using organic and chemical fertilizers, with or without pesticides. Mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, respectively, and results were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA). The mineral nutrient and water-soluble metabolite profiles differed between organic and chemical fertilizer applications, which accounted for 88.0% and 55.4%, respectively, of the variation. (1)H-(13)C-hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified aliphatic protons that contributed to the discrimination of PCA. Pesticide application had little effect on mineral nutrient content (except Fe and P), but affected the correlation between mineral nutrients and metabolites. Differences in the content of mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites resulting from different fertilizer and pesticide applications probably affect tomato quality.

  8. Contact angles at the water-air interface of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and clay minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofinskaya, O. A.; Kosterin, A. V.; Kosterina, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Contact angles at the water-air interface have been measured for triturated preparations of clays and soils in order to assess changes in their hydrophobic properties under the effect of oil hydrocarbons. Tasks have been to determine the dynamics of contact angle under soil wetting conditions and to reveal the effect of chemical removal of organic matter from soils on the hydrophilicity of preparations. The potentialities of static and dynamic drop tests for assessing the hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of soils have been estimated. Clays (kaolinite, gumbrine, and argillite) have been investigated, as well as plow horizons of soils from the Republic of Tatarstan: heavy loamy leached chernozem, medium loamy dark gray forest soil, and light loamy soddy-calcareous soil. The soils have been contaminated with raw oil and kerosene at rates of 0.1-3 wt %. In the uncontaminated and contaminated chernozem, capillary water capacity has been maintained for 250 days. The contact angles have been found to depend on the degree of dispersion of powdered preparation, the main type of clay minerals in the soil, the presence and amount of oxidation-resistant soil organic matter, and the soil-water contact time. Characteristic parameters of mathematical models for drop behavior on triturated preparations have been calculated. Contamination with hydrocarbons has resulted in a reliable increase in the contact angles of soil preparations. The hydrophobization of soil surface in chernozem is more active than in soils poorer in organic matter. The complete restoration of the hydrophilic properties of soils after hydrocarbon contamination is due to the oxidation of easily oxidizable organic matter at the low content of humus, or to wetting during several months in the absence of the mazut fraction.

  9. The composition of coexisting jarosite-group minerals and water from the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamieson, H.E.; Robinson, C.; Alpers, C.N.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Poustovetov, A.; Lowers, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Jarosite-group minerals accumulate in the form of stalactites and fine-grained mud on massive pyrite in the D drift of the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California. Water samples were collected by placing beakers under the dripping stalactites and by extracting pore water from the mud using a centrifuge. The water is rich in Fe3+ and SO42-, with a pH of approximately 2.1, which is significantly higher than the extremely acidic waters found elsewhere in the mine. Electron-microprobe analysis and X-ray mapping indicate that the small crystals (<10 ??m in diameter) are compositionally zoned with respect to Na and K, and include hydronium jarosite corresponding to the formula (H3O)0.6K0.3 Na0.1Fe3+3 (SO4)2(OH)6. The proton-microprobe analyses indicate that the jarosite-group minerals contain significant amounts of As, Pb and Zn, and minor levels of Bi, Rb, Sb, Se, Sn and Sr. Speciation modeling indicates that the drip waters are supersaturated with respect to jarosite-group minerals. The expected range in composition of jarosite-group solid-solution in equilibrium with the pore water extracted from the mud was found to be consistent with the observed range in composition.

  10. Mathematic modeling of complex aquifer: Evian Natural Mineral Water case study considering lumped and distributed models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriot, abel; Blavoux, bernard; Travi, yves; Lachassagne, patrick; Beon, olivier; Dewandel, benoit; Ladouche, bernard

    2013-04-01

    The Evian Natural Mineral Water (NMW) aquifer is a highly heterogeneous Quaternary glacial deposits complex composed of three main units, from bottom to top: - The "Inferior Complex" mainly composed of basal and impermeable till lying on the Alpine rocks. It outcrops only at the higher altitudes but is known in depth through drilled holes. - The "Gavot Plateau Complex" is an interstratified complex of mainly basal and lateral till up to 400 m thick. It outcrops at heights above approximately 850 m a.m.s.l. and up to 1200 m a.m.s.l. over a 30 km² area. It is the main recharge area known for the hydromineral system. - The "Terminal Complex" from which the Evian NMW is emerging at 410 m a.m.s.l. It is composed of sand and gravel Kame terraces that allow water to flow from the deep "Gavot Plateau Complex" permeable layers to the "Terminal Complex". A thick and impermeable terminal till caps and seals the system. Aquifer is then confined at its downstream area. Because of heterogeneity and complexity of this hydrosystem, distributed modeling tools are difficult to implement at the whole system scale: important hypothesis would have to be made about geometry, hydraulic properties, boundary conditions for example and extrapolation would lead with no doubt to unacceptable errors. Consequently a modeling strategy is being developed and leads also to improve the conceptual model of the hydrosystem. Lumped models mainly based on tritium time series allow the whole hydrosystem to be modeled combining in series: an exponential model (superficial aquifers of the "Gavot Plateau Complex"), a dispersive model (Gavot Plateau interstratified complex) and a piston flow model (sand and gravel from the Kame terraces) respectively 8, 60 and 2.5 years of mean transit time. These models provide insight on the governing parameters for the whole mineral aquifer. They help improving the current conceptual model and are to be improved with other environmental tracers such as CFC, SF6. A

  11. Influence of changing water sources and mineral chemistry on the everglades ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, P.V.; Harvey, J.W.; Crawford, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    Human influences during the previous century increased mineral inputs to the Florida Everglades by changing the sources and chemistry of surface inflows. Biogeochemical responses to this enrichment include changes in the availability of key limiting nutrients such as P, the potential for increased turnover of nutrient pools due to accelerated plant decomposition, and increased rates of mercury methylation associated with sulfate enrichment. Mineral enrichment has also been linked to the loss of sensitive macrophyte species, although dominant Everglades species appear tolerant of a broad range of mineral chemistry. Shifts in periphyton community composition and function provide an especially sensitive indicator of mineral enrichment. Understanding the influence of mineral chemistry on Everglades processes and biota may improve predictions of ecosystem responses to ongoing hydrologic restoration efforts and provide guidelines for protecting remaining mineral-poor areas of this peatland. Copyright ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  12. Water quality improvement by natural plant-mineral composites and field temperatures of a eutrophic lake in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung-Hwan, Byung; Kim, Ha-Kyung; Mun, Sun-Ki; Kim, Baik-Ho

    2014-09-01

    To improve the water quality of Shingal Reservoir, a eutrophic lake in South Korea, field tests were performed to assess the influence of water temperature on water quality improvement (WQI) ability of domestic plant-mineral composites (PMCs). Interestingly, Cyanobacterium was found to be dominant even in low-temperature seasons, especially winter leading to more effective for diatom growth. Factors such as phytoplankton, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and phosphorous showed high WQI over 70% at 20 degrees C, but declined to 40% at temperatures above 25 degrees C. WQI for Cyanobacteria decreased with increasing water temperature, whereas for diatoms WQI was 90% regardless of water temperature. Additionally, bacterial density and total nitrogen showed very low WQI without water temperature. Collectively, the results indicate that high water temperature decreased WQI ability of a PMC to control phytoplankton (Microcystis aeruginosa) and increased their ability to control diatoms.

  13. In situ mid-infrared spectroscopic titration of forsterite with water in supercritical CO2: Dependence of mineral carbonation on quantitative water speciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loring, J. S.; Thompson, C. J.; Wang, Z.; Schaef, H. T.; Martin, P.; Qafoku, O.; Felmy, A. R.; Rosso, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide holds promise for helping mitigate CO2 emissions generated from the burning of fossil fuels. Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) plumes containing variable water concentrations (wet scCO2) will displace aqueous solution and dominate the pore space adjacent to caprocks. It is important to understand possible mineral reactions with wet scCO2 to better predict long-term caprock integrity. We introduce novel in situ instrumentation that enables quantitative titrations of reactant minerals with water in scCO2 at temperatures and pressures relevant to target geologic reservoirs. The system includes both transmission and attenuated total reflection mid-infrared optics. Transmission infrared spectroscopy is used to measure concentrations of water dissolved in the scCO2, adsorbed on mineral surfaces, and incorporated into precipitated carbonates. Single-reflection attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy is used to monitor water adsorption, mineral dissolution, and carbonate precipitation reactions. Results are presented for the infrared spectroscopic titration of forsterite (Mg2SiO4), a model divalent metal silicate, with water in scCO2 at 100 bar and at both 50 and 75°C. The spectral data demonstrate that the quantitative speciation of water as either dissolved or adsorbed is important for understanding the types, growth rates, and amounts of carbonate precipitates formed. Relationships between dissolved/adsorbed water, water concentrations, and the role of liquid-like adsorbed water are discussed. Our results unify previous in situ studies from our laboratory based on infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction.

  14. Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue for sensing flavored mineral water taste attributes.

    PubMed

    Sipos, László; Gere, Attila; Szöllősi, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

    2013-10-01

    In this article a trained sensory panel evaluated 6 flavored mineral water samples. The samples consisted of 3 different brands, each with 2 flavors (pear-lemon grass and josta berry). The applied sensory method was profile analysis. Our aim was to analyze the sensory profiles and to investigate the similarities between the sensitivity of the trained human panel and an electronic tongue device. Another objective was to demonstrate the possibilities for the prediction of sensory attributes from electronic tongue measurements using a multivariate statistical method (Partial Least Squares regression [PLS]). The results showed that the products manufactured under different brand name but with the same aromas had very similar sensory profiles. The panel performance evaluation showed that it is appropriate (discrimination ability, repeatability, and panel consensus) to compare the panel's results with the results of the electronic tongue. The samples can be discriminated by the electronic tongue and an accurate classification model can be built. Principal Component Analysis BiPlot diagrams showed that Brand A and B were similar because the manufacturers use the same aroma brands for their products. It can be concluded that Brand C was quite different compared to the other samples independently of the aroma content. Based on the electronic tongue results good prediction models can be obtained with high correlation coefficient (r(2) > 0.81) and low prediction error (RMSEP < 13.71 on the scale of the sensory evaluation from 0 to 100).

  15. [Development and Applicability of Analytical Methods for Quantifying Cyanide and Bromic Acid in Mineral Waters].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Yusaku; Kataoka, Yohei; Sano, Yuki; Takizawa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Takahiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    We developed and evaluated methods of quantifying cyanide (cyanide ion and cyanogen chloride) and bromic acid in mineral waters (MW). After performance evaluation, recovery studies were performed on 110 kinds of MW products to examine the applicability of the methods. The approximate proportion of the MW samples, in which the recovery rate of these anionic compounds was within 90 to 110%, was 95% in the cyanide ion and bromic acid analysis and 45% in the cyanogen chloride analysis. We observed low rates of recovery of cyanogen chloride from some MW products with pH values around neutral. To increase the recovery rate, we propose adding phosphoric acid buffer to adjust the pH of these MW samples. The retention times for bromic acid in some MW products differed from that in standard solution. We concluded that carbonic acid influences the retention times. It may be necessary to to exclude carbon dioxide from the MW samples by degassing to synchronize the retention times of bromic acid in the MW samples and the standard solution.

  16. Antibiotic resistance and antibacterial activity in heterotrophic bacteria of mineral water origin.

    PubMed

    Messi, Patrizia; Guerrieri, Elisa; Bondi, Moreno

    2005-06-15

    Antibiotic resistance and antibacterial activity were determined on heterotrophic bacteria isolated from mineral waters. Of the 120 isolates Pseudomonas spp. (55.8%) was the predominant group followed by Acinetobacter spp. (14.17%), Flavobacterium spp. (10.83%), Achromobacter spp. (10%), Burkholderia cepacia (3.3%), Agrobacterium/radiobacter (2.5%), Moraxella spp. (1.7%), Aeromonas hydrophila (1.7%). Over 80% of the isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and the highest resistance was found for chloramphenicol, ampicillin, colistin and sulfamethizole (60%, 55%, 50% and 47.5%, respectively). Strains with multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) represented 55% of isolates and the most resistant organism belonged to the genus Pseudomonas. Of 40 randomly selected strains, 27 (67.5%) had antibacterial activity towards one or more indicators. This activity, found in a high percentage in the genus Pseudomonas (92%), emerged mainly against closely related microorganisms. Several producers were active also against Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Forty-six percent of the isolates harboured 1 to 5 plasmids with molecular weights ranging from 2.1 to 41.5 MDa.

  17. Geochemistry of thermal/mineral waters in the Clear Lake region, California, and implications for hot dry rock geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Adams, A.I.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Mansfield, J.

    1993-02-01

    Thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region are broadly classified as thermal meteoric and connote types based on chemical and isotopic criteria. Ratios of conservative components such as B/Cl are extremely different among all thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region except for clusters of waters emerging from specific areas such as the Wilbur Springs district and the Agricultural Park area south of Mt. Konocti. In contrast, ratios of conservative components in large, homogeneous geothermal reservoirs are constant. Stable isotope values of Clear Lake region waters show a mixing trend between thermal meteoric and connote end-members. The latter end-member has enriched [delta]D as well as enriched d[sup l8]O, very different from typical high-temperature geothermal reservoir waters. Tritium data and modeling of ages indicate most Clear Lake region waters are 500 to > 10,000 yr., although mixing of old and young components is implied by the data. The age of end-member connate water is probably > 10,000 yr. Subsurface equilibration temperature of most thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region is [le] 150[degrees]C based on chemical geothermometers but it is recognized that Clear Lake region waters are not typical geothermal fluids and that they violate rules of application of many geothermometers. The combined data indicate that no large geothermal reservoir underlies the Clear Lake region and that small localized reservoirs have equilibration temperatures [le] 150[degrees]C (except for Sulphur Bank Mine). Hot dry rock technologies are the best way to commercially exploit the known high temperatures existing beneath the Clear Lake region, particularly within the main Clear Lake volcanic field.

  18. The bacterial flora of non-carbonated, natural mineral water from the springs to reservoir and glass and plastic bottles.

    PubMed

    Bischofberger, T; Cha, S K; Schmitt, R; König, B; Schmidt-Lorenz, W

    1990-08-01

    Quantitative and qualitative determinations of the bacterial flora of non-carbonated natural mineral water at the most important steps during bottling at a large water source yielded the following results: (i) Colony counts (on 1:10 diluted plate count agar, incubated at 20 degrees C for 14 days) for water of the five springs and the mixed water were less than 1 to 4 cfu ml-1. The Gram-negative bacterial flora (n = 50 isolates) showed a very different but constant spring specific species distributions with predominance of either eutrophic fluorescent pseudomonads, oligotrophic non-fluorescent pseudomonads or oligotrophic yellow bacteria. (ii) In the reservoir and immediately after bottling the counts were in the range of 10 cfu ml-1. But nearly 30% of the species of the spring water were no longer detectable and there was a significant increase of Gram-positive bacteria. (iii) After 1 week of storage at 20 degrees C colony counts of more than 10(5) cfu ml-1 were found in plastic bottles, but only about 10(4) cfu ml-1 in glass bottles. Besides, a very distinct change of the composition of the microflora occurred. In glass bottles slow-growing oligotrophic non-fluorescent pseudomonads, yellow bacteria and Acinetobacter predominated. In plastic bottles fast-growing eutrophic and mesotrophic fluorescent pseudomonads, Flexibacter and Acinetobacter were dominating. In mineral water, bottled into thoroughly cleaned glass bottles, colony counts of more than 10(5) cfu ml-1 were found within 4 days. In bottles, cleaned mechanically as usual, the increase was significantly slower with a maximum of only 5 x 10(3) cfu ml-1 after 8 days. The results of inoculation experiments in sterile filtered mineral and distilled water led to the suggestion that the difference between the two types of bottles is caused firstly by an inhibition of growth due to residues of cleaning detergents in the glass bottles. Growth promotion by dissolved organic substances in the plastic bottles only

  19. 3-D Numerical Modeling as a Tool for Managing Mineral Water Extraction from a Complex Groundwater Basin in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanini, A.; Tanda, M.

    2007-12-01

    The groundwater in Italy plays an important role as drinking water; in fact it covers about the 30% of the national demand (70% in Northern Italy). The mineral water distribution in Italy is an important business with an increasing demand from abroad countries. The mineral water Companies have a great interest in order to increase the water extraction, but for the delicate and complex geology of the subsoil, where such very high quality waters are contained, a particular attention must be paid in order to avoid an excessive lowering of the groundwater reservoirs or great changes in the groundwater flow directions. A big water Company asked our University to set up a numerical model of the groundwater basin, in order to obtain a useful tool which allows to evaluate the strength of the aquifer and to design new extraction wells. The study area is located along Appennini Mountains and it covers a surface of about 18 km2; the topography ranges from 200 to 600 m a.s.l.. In ancient times only a spring with naturally sparkling water was known in the area, but at present the mineral water is extracted from deep pumping wells. The area is characterized by a very complex geology: the subsoil structure is described by a sequence of layers of silt-clay, marl-clay, travertine and alluvial deposit. Different groundwater layers are present and the one with best quality flows in the travertine layer; the natural flow rate seems to be not subjected to seasonal variations. The water age analysis revealed a very old water which means that the mineral aquifers are not directly connected with the meteoric recharge. The Geologists of the Company suggest that the water supply of the mineral aquifers comes from a carbonated unit located in the deep layers of the mountains bordering the spring area. The valley is crossed by a river that does not present connections to the mineral aquifers. Inside the area there are about 30 pumping wells that extract water at different depths. We built a 3

  20. Major and trace element composition of copiapite-group minerals and coexisting water from the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamieson, H.E.; Robinson, C.; Alpers, C.N.; McCleskey, R.B.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Peterson, Ronald C.

    2005-01-01

    Copiapite-group minerals of the general formula AR4 (SO4)6(OH)2??nH2O, where A is predominantly Mg, Fe2+, or 0.67Al3+, R is predominantly Fe3+, and n is typically 20, are among several secondary hydrous Fe sulfates occurring in the inactive mine workings of the massive sulfide deposit at Iron Mountain, CA, a USEPA Superfund site that produces extremely acidic drainage. Samples of copiapite-group minerals, some with coexisting water, were collected from the Richmond mine. Approximately 200 mL of brownish pore water with a pH of -0.9 were extracted through centrifugation from a 10-L sample of moist copiapite-group minerals taken from pyritic muck piles. The pore water is extremely rich in ferric iron (Fe3+=149 g L-1, FeT=162 g L-1 and has a density of 1.52 g mL-1. The composition of the pore water is interpreted in the context of published phase relations in the Fe2O3- SO3-H2O system and previous work on the chemistry of extremely acid mine waters and associated minerals in the Richmond mine. Two distinct members of the copiapite mineral group were identified in the samples with coexisting water: (1) abundant magnesiocopiapite consisting of platy crystals 10 to 50 ??m and (2) minor aluminocopiapite present as smaller platy crystals that form spheroidal aggregates. The average composition (n=5) of the magnesiocopiapite is (Mg0.90Fe0.172+ Zn0.02Cu0.01)???1.10(Fe3.833+Al0.09)???3.92(SO4) 6.00(OH)1.96??20H2O. Bulk compositions determined by digestion and wet-chemical analysis are consistent with the microanalytical results. These results suggest that magnesiocopiapite is the least soluble member of the copiapite group under the prevailing conditions. Micro-PIXE analysis indicates that the copiapite-group minerals in this sample sequester Zn (average 1420 ppm), with lesser amounts of Cu (average 270 ppm) and As (average 64 ppm). ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Oxygen isotope fractionation effects in soil water via interaction with cations (Mg, Ca, K, Na) adsorbed to phyllosilicate clay minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oerter, Erik; Finstad, Kari; Schaefer, Justin; Goldsmith, Gregory R.; Dawson, Todd; Amundson, Ronald

    2014-07-01

    In isotope-enabled hydrology, soil and vadose zone sediments have been generally considered to be isotopically inert with respect to the water they host. This is inconsistent with knowledge that clay particles possessing an electronegative surface charge and resulting cation exchange capacity (CEC) interact with a wide range of solutes which, in the absence of clays, have been shown to exhibit δ18O isotope effects that vary in relation to the ionic strength of the solutions. To investigate the isotope effects caused by high CEC clays in mineral-water systems, we created a series of monominerallic-water mixtures at gravimetric water contents ranging from 5% to 32%, consisting of pure deionized water of known isotopic composition with homoionic (Mg, Ca, Na, K) montmorillonite. Similar mixtures were also created with quartz to determine the isotope effect of non-, or very minimally-, charged mineral surfaces. The δ18O value of the water in these monominerallic soil analogs was then measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) after direct headspace CO2 equilibration. Mg- and Ca-exchanged homoionic montmorillonite depleted measured δ18O values up to 1.55‰ relative to pure water at 5% water content, declining to 0.49‰ depletion at 30% water content. K-montmorillonite enriched measured δ18O values up to 0.86‰ at 5% water content, declining to 0.11‰ enrichment at 30% water. Na-montmorillonite produces no measureable isotope effect. The isotope effects observed in these experiments may be present in natural, high-clay soils and sediments. These findings have relevance to the interpretation of results of direct CO2-water equilibration approaches to the measurement of the δ18O value of soil water. The adsorbed cation isotope effect may bear consideration in studies of pedogenic carbonate, plant-soil water use and soil-atmosphere interaction. Finally, the observed isotope effects may prove useful as molecular scale probes of the nature of mineral-water

  2. Trace level determination of beryllium in natural and flavored mineral waters after pre-concentration using activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Kılınç, Ersin; Bakırdere, Sezgin; Yaman, Mehmet

    2011-04-01

    The concentrations of beryllium (Be) in natural and flavored mineral water samples were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) after pre-concentration based on the complexation of Be(+2) with a mixture of acetylacetone (pentane-2,4-dione) plus morin (3,5,7,2',4'-pentaoxyflavone) and adsorption on activated carbon. The adsorbed complex was eluted with 1.5 ml of 2.0 M HNO(3) and evaporated to dryness. After adding 1.5 ml of 2 M HNO(3) and centrifuging, Be in acid solution was determined by FAAS. To remove a number of metals present in water, EDTA was used as a chelating agent. Beryllium in mineral water samples was pre-concentrated by 500-fold, taking 750 ml as initial sample and 1.5 ml as the final volume. The relative standard deviations were sufficiently low for practical purposes and recoveries were up to 85%. Spiking experiments were performed in real samples to establish accuracy and recoveries. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.01 and 0.03 ng ml(-1), respectively. Twenty samples were analyzed for their beryllium content using optimum parameters. The highest concentration of beryllium was found to be 0.94 ± 0.15 ng ml(-1) in a natural mineral water, while beryllium was not detected in five samples.

  3. Supplementation of Acqua Lete® (Bicarbonate Calcic Mineral Water) improves hydration status in athletes after short term anaerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Experimental studies suggest that mineral waters with high concentrations of calcium and bicarbonate can impact acid–base balance. The purpose of this study was to test the effect on acid–base balance and specific urine gravity, of a bicarbonate calcic mineral water (Acqua Lete®) compared to a minimally mineralized water. Methods 88 amateur male athletes underwent two experimental trials with a modified Wingate test: the first was carried out without hydration (Control Test, Test C, n = 88); the second was carried out after one week of controlled hydration (Test with hydration, Test H, n = 88), with 1.5 L/day of a very low mineral content water (Group A, n = 44) or 1.5 L/day of Acqua Lete® (Group B, n = 44). Measure of body temperature, bioimpedance analysis, muscular ultrasound, and urinalysis were taken before (t0), immediately after (t1), 5’ (t2), and 30’ (t3) after exercise. Results Hydration results in a decreased core temperature; muscular ultrasound showed increased muscle thickness after exercise related to content of body water. Regarding urinalysis, in test H, we found in both groups after exercise a significant decrease of specific urine gravity with significantly lower levels in Group B. We also found a significant increase of pH in the same Group B. Conclusions In conclusion all the athletes hydrated with Acqua Lete® showed a positive impact on hydration status after anaerobic exercise with significant decrease of specific urine gravity and a positive effect on pH. PMID:22835267

  4. CO2 hydrate nucleation kinetics enhanced by an organo-mineral complex formed at the montmorillonite-water interface.

    PubMed

    Kyung, Daeseung; Lim, Hyung-Kyu; Kim, Hyungjun; Lee, Woojin

    2015-01-20

    In this study, we investigated experimentally and computationally the effect of organo-mineral complexes on the nucleation kinetics of CO2 hydrate. These complexes formed via adsorption of zwitter-ionic glycine (Gly-zw) onto the surface of sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT). The electrostatic attraction between the −NH3(+) group of Gly-zw, and the negatively charged Na-MMT surface, provides the thermodynamic driving force for the organo-mineral complexation. We suggest that the complexation of Gly-zw on the Na-MMT surface accelerates CO2 hydrate nucleation kinetics by increasing the mineral–water interfacial area (thus increasing the number of effective hydrate-nucleation sites), and also by suppressing the thermal fluctuation of solvated Na(+) (a well-known hydrate formation inhibitor) in the vicinity of the mineral surface by coordinating with the −COO(–) groups of Gly-zw. We further confirmed that the local density of hydrate-forming molecules (i.e., reactants of CO2 and water) at the mineral surface (regardless of the presence of Gly-zw) becomes greater than that of bulk phase. This is expected to promote the hydrate nucleation kinetics at the surface. Our study sheds new light on CO2 hydrate nucleation kinetics in heterogeneous marine environments, and could provide knowledge fundamental to successful CO2 sequestration under seabed sediments.

  5. Use of fracture filling mineral assemblages for characterizing water-rock interactions during exhumation of an accretionary complex: An example from the Shimanto Belt, southern Kyushu Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Takuya; Yoshida, Hidekazu; Metcalfe, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Various fracture filling minerals and secondary minerals in fracture walls were formed by fluid-rock interaction during the exhumation of the Palaeogene Shimanto Belt of Kyushu, Japan, which is located in an accretionary complex. Each mineral formed under favourable geological conditions and can be used to estimate the conditions of accretion and formation of the related rock sequences. Petrographic observations, mineralogical and geochemical analyses were made on fracture filling minerals and secondary minerals from boreholes of ca. 140 m depth, drilled in the Shimanto Belt. Results reveal that the secondary minerals were formed in three major stages distinguished by the sequential textural relationships of the minerals and the interpreted environment of mineral formation. Filling mineral assemblages show that the studied rock formation has been subducted to a depth of several km and the temperature reached was ca. 200-300 °C. After the subduction, the rock formation was uplifted and surface acidic water penetrated up to 80 m beneath the present ground surface. The acid water dissolved calcite fracture filling minerals to form the present groundwater flow-paths, which allowed recent wall rock alteration to occur. The results shown here imply that filling mineral assemblages can be an effective tool to evaluate the environmental changes during exhumation of an accretionary complex.

  6. Effect of chemical environment on the dynamics of water confined in calcium silicate minerals: natural and synthetic tobermorite.

    PubMed

    Monasterio, Manuel; Gaitero, Juan J; Manzano, Hegoi; Dolado, Jorge S; Cerveny, Silvina

    2015-05-05

    Confined water in the slit mesopores of the mineral tobermorite provides an excellent model system for analyzing the dynamic properties of water confined in cement-like materials. In this work, we use broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) to analyze the dynamic of water entrapped in this crystalline material. Two samples, one natural and one synthetic, were analyzed, and despite their similar structure, the motion of confined water in their zeolitic cavity displays considerably different behavior. The water dynamics splits into two different behaviors depending on the chemical nature of the otherwise identical structural environment: water molecules located in areas where the primary building units are SiO4 relax slowly compared to water molecules located in cavities built with both AlO4 and SiO4. Compared to water confined in regular porous systems, water restricted in tobermorite is slower, indicating that the mesopore structure induces high disorder in the water structure. A comparison with water confined in the C-S-H gel is also discussed in this work. The strong dynamical changes in water due to the presence of aluminum might have important implications in the chemical transport of ions within hydrated calcium silicates, a process that governs the leaching and chemical degradation of cement.

  7. Determination of minerals extracted from several commercial teas (Camellia sinensis) to hot water (infusion).

    PubMed

    Gezgin, Sait; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Atalay, Emine

    2006-01-01

    Mineral contents of some tea and their infusions drunk in Turkey were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The Al, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, P, and S contents were very high in both infusions and tea (i.e., pieces of the tea plant). The As, Cd, Cr, Li, Pb, and Se contents of infusion and tea were found to be very low. The level of K of all samples is higher than those of other minerals. Generally, mineral contents of tea were found to be higher than those of tea infusions. In addition, the health benefits of teas and knowledge of their mineral contents are of great interest and may be useful for further study of enzyme systems and vital biochemical functions.

  8. Can Hydrous Minerals Account for the Observed Mid-Latitude Water on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Fialips, C.; Carey, J. W.; Feldman, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    Clays, zeolites, and Mg-sulfates are all phases that could potentially retain H2O in martian regolith. The nature of the hydrogen-containing material observed in the equatorial martian regolith is of particular importance to the question of whether hydrous minerals have formed in the past on Mars. Also, whether these minerals exist in a hydrated (i.e., containing H2O molecules in their structures) or dehydrated state is a crucial question. The purpose of this communication is to estimate the possible magnitude of the H2O reservoir constituted by these H2O-bearing minerals. In other words, can minerals containing H2O and/or OH such clays, zeolites, or Mg-sulfates, reasonably be expected to account for the amounts of near-equatorial H2O-equivalent hydrogen recently documented by Mars Odyssey?

  9. The relationships between two different drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis and bone mineral density of children.

    PubMed

    Grobler, S R; Louw, A J; Chikte, U M E; Rossouw, R J; van W Kotze, T J

    2009-04-03

    This field study included the whole population of children aged 10-15 years (77 from a 0.19 mg/L F area; 89 from a 3.00 mg/L F area), with similar nutritional, dietary habits and similar ethnic and socioeconomic status. The fluoride concentration in the drinking water, the bone mineral content, the bone density and the degree of dental fluorosis were determined. The left radius was measured for bone width, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density. The mean fluorosis score was 1.3 in the low fluoride area and 3,6 in the high fluoride area. More than half the children in the low fluoride area had no fluorosis (scores 0 and 1) while only 5% in the high fluoride area had none. Severe fluorosis (30%) was only observed in the high fluoride area. The Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test indicated that fluorosis levels differed significantly (p < 0.05) between the two areas. No relationships were found between dental fluorosis and bone width or between fluorosis and bone mineral density in the two areas (Spearment Rank correlations). A significant increase in bone width was found with age but no differences amongst and boys and girls. A significant positive correlation was found in the high fluoride area between bone mineral density over age. In the 12-13 and 13-14 year age groups in the high fluoride area, girls had higher bone mineral densities. However, a significant negative correlation (p<0.02) was found for the low fluoride area (0.19 mg/L F) over age.

  10. [Prevention of early post-stress disorders in rat testicles under effect of drinking sulfate mineral water containing zinc and silicium].

    PubMed

    Korolev, Iu N; Nikulina, L A; Geniatulina, M S; Mikhaĭlik, L V; Bobkova, A S

    2011-01-01

    Experiments performed on outbred male rats have demonstrated that consumption of drinking sulfate mineral water containing microelements (zinc and silicium) considerably slows down the development of stress-induced pathological changes in the testicles compared with the action of pure mineral water containing no admixtures. This finding confirms the important role of zinc and silicon in combination with the ion-salt base of mineral water in the enhancement of the efficacy of the adaptive and protective reactions in the testicles during the early post-stress period.

  11. Bioelectro-Fenton: A sustainable integrated process for removal of organic pollutants from water: Application to mineralization of metoprolol.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Vargas, Hugo; Cocerva, Tatiana; Oturan, Nihal; Buisson, Didier; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2016-12-05

    The relevant environmental hazard related to the presence of pharmaceuticals in water sources requires the development of high effective and suitable wastewater treatment technologies. In the present work, a hybrid process coupling electro-Fenton (EF) process and aerobic biological treatment (Bio-EF process) was implemented for the efficient and cost-effective mineralization of beta-blocker metoprolol (MPTL) aqueous solutions. Firstly, operating factors influencing EF process were assessed. MTPL solutions were completely mineralized after 4h-electrolysis under optimal operating conditions and BDD anode demonstrated its oxidation superiority. The absolute rate constant of MTPL oxidation byOH (kMTPL) was determined by the competition kinetics method and found to be (1.72±0.04)×10(9)M(-1)s(-1). A reaction pathway for the mineralization of the drug was proposed based on the identification of oxidation by-products. Secondly, EF process was used as pre-treatment. An increase of BOD5/COD ratio from 0.012 to 0.44 was obtained after 1h EF treatment, along with 47% TOC removal and a significant decrease of toxicity, demonstrating the feasibility of a post-biological treatment. Finally, biological treatment successfully oxidized 43% of the total TOC content. An overall 90% mineralization of MPTL solutions was achieved by the Bio-EF process, demonstrating its potentiality for treating wastewater containing pharmaceutical residues.

  12. Influence of mineral colloids and humic substances on uranium(VI) transport in water-saturated geologic porous media.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Cheng, Tao; Wu, Yang

    2014-12-01

    Mineral colloids and humic substances often co-exist in subsurface environment and substantially influence uranium (U) transport. However, the combined effects of mineral colloids and humic substances on U transport are not clear. This study is aimed at quantifying U transport and elucidating geochemical processes that control U transport when both mineral colloids and humic acid (HA) are present. U-spiked solutions/suspensions were injected into water-saturated sand columns, and U and colloid concentrations in column effluent were monitored. We found that HA promoted U transport via (i) formation of aqueous U-HA complexes, and (ii) competition against aqueous U for surface sites on transport media. Illite colloids had no influence on U transport at pH5 in the absence of HA due to low mobility of the colloids. At pH9, U desorbed from mobile illite and the presence of illite decreased U transport. At pH5, high U transport occurred when both illite colloids and HA were present, which was attributed to enhanced U adsorption to illite colloids via formation of ternary illite-HA-U surface complexes, and enhanced illite transport due to HA attachment to illite and transport media. This study demonstrates that the combined effects of mineral colloids and HA on contaminant transport is different from simple addition of the individual effect.

  13. Interaction among minerals, organics and water in comets: insights from Antarctic micrometeorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagahara, Hiroko; Noguchi, Takaaki; Yabuta, Hikaru; Itoh, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Mitsunari, Takuya; Okubo, Aya; Okazaki, Ryuji; Nakamura, Tomoki; Tachibana, Shogo; Terada, Kentaro; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Imae, Naoya; Kimura, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    supplied from organics or carbon dioxide and/or methane ice. Finally, the assemblage of micrometeorites becomes Mg-saponite, magnetite, and carbonates, of which mineral assemblage and chemical compositions are very similar to those of primitive carbonaceous chondrites. Stages I and II should have taken place at ~0 °C and almost instantaneously, probably in hours to days, in order to prevent total aqueous alteration of silicates. Therefore, most plausible process would be transient heat-ing by an impact. On the other hand, Stage III was at a little higher temperature in order to homogenize Mg and Fe in heterogeneous phyllosilicates and/or lasted for a little longer duration. A possible process may be either by a shock or approaching of cometary bodies to the Sun. However, we should evaluate the temperature and dura-tion very carefully, because the Rosetta mission showed us extremely porous nature of comets. It should be noted that the final products of aqueous reactions shown in the present study are the same as those of primitive carbonaceous chondrites. More compact nature of chondrites and probably higher temperature by short-lived radio-isotopes resulted in pervasive water flow in the bodies and through alteration of silicates into phyllosilicates.

  14. Effects of mineral composition of drinking water on risk for stone formation and bone metabolism in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Marangella, M; Vitale, C; Petrarulo, M; Rovera, L; Dutto, F

    1996-09-01

    1. To assess whether the mineral content of drinking water influences both risk of stone formation and bone metabolism in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis, 21 patients were switched from their usual home diets to a 10 mmol calcium, low-oxalate, protein-controlled diet, supplemented with 21 of three different types of mineral water. Drinking water added 1, 6 and 20 mmol of calcium and 0.5, 10 and 50 mmol of bicarbonate respectively to the controlled diet. 2. The three controlled study periods lasted 1 month each and were separated by a 20 day washout interval. Blood and urine chemistries, including intact parathyroid hormone, calcitriol and two markers of bone resorption, were performed at the end of each study period. The stone-forming risk was assessed by calculating urine saturation with calcium oxalate (beta CaOx), calcium phosphate (beta bsh) and uric acid (beta UA). 3. The addition of any mineral water produced the expected increase in urine output and was associated with similar decreases in beta CaOx and beta UA, whereas beta bsh varied marginally. These equal decreases in beta CaOx, however, resulted from peculiar changes in calcium, oxalate and citrate excretion during each study period. The increase in overall calcium intake due to different drinking water induced modest increases in calcium excretion, whereas oxalate excretion tended to decrease. The changes in oxalate excretion during any one study period compared with another were significantly related to those in calcium intake. Citrate excretion was significantly higher with the high-calcium, alkaline water. 4. Parathyroid hormone, calcitriol and markers of bone resorption increased when patients were changed from the high-calcium, alkaline to the low-calcium drinking water. 5. We suggest that overall calcium intake may be tailored by supplying calcium in drinking water. Adverse effects on bone turnover with low-calcium diets can be prevented by giving high-calcium, alkaline drinking water, and the

  15. TiO2-promoted mineralization of organic sunscreens in water suspension and sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Andrea; Chrétien, Michelle N; Maretti, Luca; Scaiano, J C

    2003-05-01

    The photostability of the widely used UVB sunscreen agents 2'-ethylhexyl-2-cyano-3-phenylcinnamate (1), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (2), octyl salicilate (3), and 2'-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (4) has been investigated under UVA irradiation in the absence and presence of TiO2, an inorganic filter commonly employed in combination with organic filters in sunscreen preparations. In the absence of TiO2, 1-3 are photostable and 4 undergoes the expected E-Z isomerization; the presence of TiO2 caused mineralization of the organic filters and, surprisingly, the process is noticeably faster in the presence of surfactant than in sunscreen and water suspensions. The results indicate that in water suspension, mineralization is likely to occur on or near the TiO2 particle surface; when the organic sunscreens are segregated in the micelle core, reactive radicals, produced during TiO2-promoted degradation of the micellar system, may participate in sunscreen degradation. In addition, a pre-fluorescent probe for carbon-centered radical detection, 4-(3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-quinolineoxy)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl free radical or QT (5), was employed to demonstrate that carbon-centered radicals are evolved during micelle degradation and may participate in the mineralization of sunscreens.

  16. Identification of Cryptosporidium spp. Oocysts in United Kingdom Noncarbonated Natural Mineral Waters and Drinking Waters by Using a Modified Nested PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Assay

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, R. A. B.; Campbell, B. M.; Smith, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method for detecting low densities of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in natural mineral waters and drinking waters. Oocysts were recovered from seeded 1-liter volumes of mineral water by filtration through polycarbonate membranes and from drinking waters by filtration, immunomagnetizable separation, and filter entrapment, followed by direct extraction of DNA. The DNA was released from polycarbonate filter-entrapped oocysts by disruption in lysis buffer by using 15 cycles of freeze-thawing (1 min in liquid nitrogen and 1 min at 65°C), followed by proteinase K digestion. Amplicons were readily detected from two to five intact oocysts on ethidium bromide-stained gels. DNA extracted from Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, C. muris (RN 66), C. baileyi (Belgium strain, LB 19), human-derived C. meleagridis, C. felis (DNA from oocysts isolated from a cat), and C. andersoni was used to demonstrate species identity by PCR-RFLP after simultaneous digestion with the restriction enzymes DraI and VspI. Discrimination between C. andersoni and C. muris isolates was confirmed by a separate, subsequent digestion with DdeI. Of 14 drinking water samples tested, 12 were found to be positive by microscopy, 8 were found to be positive by direct PCR, and 14 were found to be positive by using a nested PCR. The Cryptosporidium species detected in these finished water samples was C. parvum genotype 1. This method consistently and routinely detected >5 oocysts per sample. PMID:12839797

  17. Effect of mineral and organic fertilization on grey water footprint in a fertirrigated crop under semiarid conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa; Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; María Tarquis Alfonso, Ana

    2016-04-01

    The concept of "water footprint" (WF) was introduced as an indicator for the total volume of direct and indirect freshwater used, consumed and/or polluted [1]. The WF distinguishes between blue water (volume of surface and groundwater consumed), green water (rain-water consumed), and grey water (volume of freshwater that is required to assimilate the load of pollutants based on existing ambient water quality standards). In semiarid scenarios with low water quality, where the irrigation is necessary to maintain production, green WF is zero because the effective rainfall is negligible. As well as blue WF includes: i) extra consumption or irrigation water that the farmer has to apply to compensate the fail of uniformity on discharge of drips, ii) percolation out of control or salts leaching, which depends on the salt tolerance of the crop, soil and quality of irrigation water, to ensure the fruit yield. The major concern is grey WF, because the irrigation and nitrogen dose have to be adjusted to the crop needs in order to minimize nitrate pollution. This study is focused in assessment mineral and organic fertilization on grey WF in a fertirrigated melon crop under semiarid conditions, which is principally cultivated in the centre of Spain declared vulnerable zone to nitrate pollution by applying the Directive 91/676/CEE. During successive years, a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.) was grown under field conditions. Different doses of ammonium nitrate were used as well as compost derived from the wine-distillery industry which is relevant in this area. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA04-111-C3 and INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03. Keywords: Water footprint, nitrogen, fertirrigation, inorganic fertilizers, organic amendments, semiarid conditions. [1] Hoekstra, A.Y. 2003. Virtual water trade. Proceedings of the International Expert Meeting on Virtual Water Trade, Delft, The Netherlands, 12-13 December 2002. Value of Water Research Report Series No. 12

  18. Crystal chemistry of hydroxyl and water in silicate minerals. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, J.R.

    1998-06-01

    This was a project to investigate the crystal chemistry of OH and H{sub 2}O substitution in silicate minerals by use of X-ray and neutron diffraction methods combined with IR spectroscopy and to interpret and generalize the results using an electrostatic model for these mineral structures. Using these data together with published H position data electrostatic parameters for H sites were calculated from a simple electrostatic model. The data were then used to refine the model for incorporation of H into the wadsleyite structure. This has led to recent work on the synthesis and characterization of hydrous wadsleyites.

  19. Water Quality Evaluation of PET Bottled Water by Mineral Balance in the Northeast Asian Region: A Case Study of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Houri, Daisuke; Koo, Chung Mo

    2015-01-01

    Background The past few years have seen a demand for drinking water in contemporary society with a focus on safety and taste. Mineral water is now marketed as a popular commercial product and, partly due to health concerns, the production. Methods For the study, a comparison was carried out of water samples from 9 types of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water sold in South Korea as well as from tap water in the cities of Seoul and Chuncheon. These were compared with samples of Japanese PET bottled water in order to determine shared commonalities and identify individual characteristics. To evaluate water quality objectively, we quantified the elements contained in the water samples. Samples were assessed not with the usual sensory evaluation but with the evaluation approach advocated by Hashimoto et al. which employs the Water Index of Taste and the Water Index of Health. The levels of water quality obtained were compared with the “Prerequisites for Tasty Water” and the “Standards for Tasty Water” devised for city water. Results The PET Bottled water varieties analyzed in this study—Seoksu, Icis, Bong Pyong, Soon Soo 100, Dong Won Saem Mul, GI JANG SOO and DIAMOND—showed the Water Index of Taste ≥ 2.0 and the Water Index of Health ≥ 5.2, which we classified as tasty/healthy water. SamDaSoo and NamiNeral can be classified as tasty water due to their values of the Water Index of Taste ≥ 2.0 and the Water Index of Health < 5.2. Conclusion The South Korean PET bottled water studied here fulfills the “Water Index of Taste,” “Water Index of Health,” “Standard for Tasty Water” and “Prerequisites for Tasty Water” that Japanese people value for city water. We can conclude that bottled water which meets water quality requirements will be considered good-tasting by a majority of people. PMID:26538797

  20. Carbonation of Clay Minerals Exposed to scCO2/Water at 200 degrees and 250 degrees C

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Ecker, L.; Gill, S.; Butcher, T.; Bour, D.

    2010-11-01

    To clarify the mechanisms of carbonation of clay minerals, such as bentonite, kaolinite, and soft clay, we exposed them to supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2)/water at temperatures of 200 and 250 C and pressures of 1500 and 2000 psi for 72- and 107-hours. Bentonite, comprising three crystalline phases, montmorillonite (MMT), anorthoclase-type albite, and quartz was susceptible to reactions with ionic carbonic acid yielded by the interactions between scCO2 and water, particularly MMT and anorthoclase-type albite phases. For MMT, the cation-exchangeable ions, such as Na+ and Ca2+, present in its basal interplanar space, were replaced by proton, H+, from ionic carbonic acid; thereafter, the cations leaching from MMT directly reacted with CO32- as a counter ion of H+ to form carbonate compounds. Such in-situ carbonation process in basal space caused the shrinkage and breakage of the spacing structure within MMT. In contrast, the wet carbonation of anorthoclase-type albite, categorized as rock minerals, entailed the formation of three amorphous by-products, such as carbonates, kaolinite-like compounds, and silicon dioxide. Together, these two different carbonations caused the disintegration and corruption of bentonite. Kaolinite clay containing the amorphous carbonates and silicon dioxide was inert to wet carbonation. We noted only a gain in weight due to its water uptake, suggesting that kaolinite-like by-products generated by the wet carbonation of rock minerals might remain unchanged even during extended exposure. Soft clay consisting of two crystalline phases, dolomite and silicon dioxide, also was unaltered by wet carbonation, despite the uptake of water.

  1. Self-assembled biomimetic superhydrophobic CaCO3 coating inspired from fouling mineralization in geothermal water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gong G; Zhu, Li Q; Liu, Hui C; Li, Wei P

    2011-10-18

    Inspired from fouling self-mineralization in geothermal water, a novel biomimetic cactuslike CaCO(3) coating with superhydrophobic features is reported in this letter. The structure, morphologies, and phases of the CaCO(3) coating were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and infrared spectrophotometry. After prenucleation treatment, a continuous cactuslike CaCO(3) coating with hierarchical nano- and microstructures was self-assembled on stainless steel surfaces after immersion in simulated geothermal water at 50 °C for 48 h. After being modified with a low-surface-energy monolayer of sodium stearate, the as-prepared coating exhibited superhydrophobic properties with a water contact angle of 158.9° and a sliding angle of 2°. Therefore, this work might open up a new application field of geothermal resources and provide insight into designing multidimensional structures with functional applications, including superhydrophobic surfaces.

  2. Deficit irrigation and rootstock: their effects on water relations, vegetative development, yield, fruit quality and mineral nutrition of Clemenules mandarin.

    PubMed

    Romero, P; Navarro, J M; Pérez-Pérez, J; García-Sánchez, F; Gómez-Gómez, A; Porras, I; Martinez, V; Botía, P

    2006-12-01

    Differences between rootstocks, 'Cleopatra' mandarin and 'Carrizo' citrange, in soil-plant water relations and the influence of these factors on vigor, crop yield, fruit quality and mineral nutrition were evaluated in field-grown Clemenules mandarin trees irrigated at 100% of potential seasonal evaporation (ET(c)) (control treatment), or irrigated at 100% ET(c), except during Phases I and III of fruit growth and post-harvest when no irrigation was applied (deficit irrigation (DI) treatment), for 3 years. Differences between rootstocks in plant-soil water relations were the primary cause of differences among trees in vegetative development and fruit yield. After 3 years of DI treatment, trees on 'Cleopatra' showed more efficient soil water extraction than trees on 'Carrizo', and maintained a higher plant water status, a higher gas exchange rate during periods of water stress and achieved faster recovery in gas exchange following irrigation after water stress. The DI treatment reduced vegetative development more in trees on 'Carrizo' than in trees on 'Cleopatra'. Cumulative fruit yield decreased more in DI trees on 'Carrizo' (40%) than on 'Cleopatra' (27%). The yield component most affected by DI in 'Cleopatra' was the number of fruit, whereas in 'Carrizo' it depended on the severity of water stress reached in each phase (severe water stress in Phase I affected mainly the number of fruit, whereas it affected fruit size the most in Phase III). In the third year of DI treatment, water-use efficiency decreased sharply in trees on 'Carrizo' (70%) compared to trees on 'Cleopatra' (30%). Thus, trees on 'Cleopatra' were able to tolerate moderate water stress, whereas trees on 'Carrizo' were more sensitive to changes in soil water content.

  3. Performance, meat quality, meat mineral contents and caecal microbial population responses to humic substances administered in drinking water in broilers.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, E; Coskun, I; Ocak, N; Erener, G; Dervisoglu, M; Turhan, S

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of humic substances (HS) administered in drinking water on caecal microflora and mineral composition and colour characteristics of breast and thigh meats and the growth performance, carcass and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits of broiler chicks. A total of 480 3-d-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 4 cages per treatment and 30 bird (15 males and 15 females) chicks per cage. All birds were fed on commercial basal diet. The control birds (HS0) received drinking water with no additions, whereas birds in the other treatment groups received a drinking water with 7.5 (HS7.5), 15.0 (HS15.0) and 22.5 (HS22.5) g/kg HS. Mush feed were provided on an ad libitum basis. Body weight and feed intake of broilers were determined at d 0, 21, and 42, and feed conversion ratio was calculated. On d 42, 4 broilers (2 males and 2 females) from each cage were slaughtered and the breast and thigh meats were collected for mineral composition and quality measurements. Performance, carcass and GIT traits and caecal microbial population of broiler chicks at d 42 were not affected by the dietary treatments. The lightness (L*) of breast and thigh meat decreased in broilers supplemented with 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS in drinking water. Although the redness (a*) of breast meat increased, yellowness of thigh meat decreased in broilers supplemented with 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS in drinking water (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS administration in drinking water can be applied for broiler chicks to maintain growth performance and improve meat quality without changing caecal microflora.

  4. Impact of Coastal Pollution on Microbial and Mineral Profile of Edible Oyster (Crassostrea rivularis) in the Coastal Waters of Andaman.

    PubMed

    Seetharaman, Prabukumar; Sarma, Kamal; George, Grinson; Krishnan, Pandian; Roy, S Dam; Sankar, Kiruba

    2015-11-01

    The impact of coastal pollution was studied using edible oysters, Crassostrea rivularis as an indicator at two sites viz., North Wandoor (NW) and Phoenix Jetty (PJ) in Port Blair, Andaman. The hydrographic parameters showed that nitrite, nitrate and phosphate concentration were less and dissolved oxygen were more at NW compared to PJ. The oysters were collected from the study sites and biochemical, microbial, mineral profiles and ATPase activities were estimated. ATPase activity was inhibited in the gill tissue of oysters (p<0.05) of PJ sample. Total microbial load in the water and oyster, and coliform bacteria (MPN) in the water were significantly (p<0.05) higher at PJ compared to the NW. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the mineral profile of water collected from both the sites. However, calcium and magnesium were more in the oysters collected from NW (p<0.05), and Cu, Zn and Cd were more in PJ samples (p<0.05).

  5. Free and total magnesium in lymphocytes of migraine patients - effect of magnesium-rich mineral water intake.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J; Millot, J M; Sebille, S; Delabroise, A M; Thomas, E; Manfait, M; Arnaud, M J

    2000-05-01

    Dietary surveys performed in Western countries show magnesium intakes lower than the recommended dietary allowances, suggesting a large prevalence of magnesium deficiency. Low brain magnesium as well as impaired magnesium metabolism have also been reported in various diseases such as migraine. To detect these deficiencies, a non-invasive and sensitive test assessing magnesium status is needed. Because magnesium is an intracellular cation, either total or ionized magnesium (Mg(2+)) of blood cells were suggested as the most adequate tests. Total magnesium levels in plasma, erythrocytes and lymphocytes and Mg(2+) in lymphocytes were analyzed in a group of 29 migraine patients and 18 control subjects. Results show significantly lower concentrations of total magnesium in erythrocytes (50.7+/-4.7 vs. 53.5+/-2.9 mg/l; P<0.01) and of Mg(2+) in lymphocytes (12.0+/-3.5 vs. 14.2+/-3.8 mg/l; P<0.05) in migraine patients as compared to controls. While a significant difference of mean values was noted between migraine patients and controls, an overlap of individual values was observed. These analyses were repeated on migraine patients before and after a 2-week intake of a mineral water containing 110 mg/l magnesium, and a significant increase in all intracellular magnesium concentrations with no effect on plasma magnesium was observed. These increased intracellular magnesium concentrations demonstrate the bioavailability of magnesium from this mineral water. Among the analyzed parameters, Mg(2+) in lymphocytes appears to be the most sensitive index of magnesium deficiency with a 15% decrease in migraine patients when compared to controls and a 16% increase after 2 weeks of a magnesium-rich mineral water intake.

  6. Influence of Long Time Storage in Mineral Water on RNA Stability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli after Heat Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Cenciarini, Claire; Courtois, Sophie; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Background Research of RNA viability markers was previously studied for many bacterial species. Few and different targets of each species have been checked and motley results can be found in literature. No research has been done about Pseudomonas aeruginosa in this way. Methodology/Principal Findings Disappearance of 48 transcripts was analyzed by two-steps reverse transcription and real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after heat-killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa previously stored in mineral water or not. Differential results were obtained for each target. 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, groEL, and rpmE were showed as the most persistent transcripts and rplP, rplV, rplE and rpsD were showed as the most labile transcripts after P. aeruginosa death. However, the labile targets appeared more persistent in bacteria previously stored in mineral water than freshly cultivated (non stored). These nine transcripts were also analyzed in Escherichia coli after heat-killing and different to opposite results were obtained, notably for groEL which was the most labile transcript of E. coli. Moreover, opposite results were obtained between mineral water stored and freshly cultivated E. coli. Conclusions and Significance This study highlights four potential viability markers for P. aeruginosa and four highly persistent transcripts. In a near future, these targets could be associated to develop an efficient viability kit. The present study also suggests that it would be difficult to determine universal RNA viability markers for environmental bacteria, since opposite results were obtained depending on the bacterial species and the physiological conditions. PMID:18941615

  7. Hydrochemistry and origin of CO2 gas and noble gas of carbonated mineral water in the Gyeongbuk-Gangwon Province, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, C. H.; Yoo, S. W.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrochemical, carbon isotopic (δ13CDIC) analyses of 11 samples, and noble gas isotopic analyses of 8 samples collected in the Gangwon and the Gyeongbuk area of South Korea were carried out to elucidate hydrochemical characteristics and to interpret the source of noble gases and CO2 gas. The carbonated mineral waters show a weak acidic pH between 5.59 and 6.04. An electrical conductivity of carbonated mineral waters ranges from 302 to 864 μS/cm. The chemical composition of all carbonated mineral waters can be grouped into only one type such as Ca-HCO3. A high content of Fe and Mn in carbonated mineral waters exceeds a regulation limit of drinking water. The δ13CDIC values of carbonated mineral waters show the range of -5.30~-2.84 ‰. This range indicates that the carbon of carbonated mineral waters is mainly supplied from a deep-seated source and partly from an inorganic carbonate source. The 3He/4He ratios of the carbonated mineral waters show the range of 1.51×10-6 to 6.45×10-6. The carbonated mineral waters on the 3He/4He and 4He/20Ne diagram are plotted into three groups: deep seated area such as mantle source, atmospheric area, and air-mantle mixing area. A wide range of 4He/20Ne ratios is observed (0.036×10-6 to 1.76×10-6), showing evidence that while radiogenic 4He is dominant in these water samples, He of mantle-origin is also supplied to these waters. It is estimated that supply of CO2 gas and noble gas of a deep-seated source into carbonated waters is closely related to geologic structures such as fault and geologic boundary. Key words: carbonated mineral waters, hydrochemical composition, carbon isotope, 3He/4He, deep-seated origin

  8. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado using ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Hutchinson, R. M.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Trexler, D. W.; Bruns, D. L.; Nicolais, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Topography was found to be the most important factor defining folds on ERTS-1 imagery of northwestern Colorado; tonal variations caused by rock reflectance and vegetation type and density are the next most important factors. Photo-linears mapped on ERTS-1 imagery of central Colorado correlate well with ground-measured joint and fracture trends. In addition, photo-linears have been successfully used to determine the location and distribution of metallic mineral deposits in the Colorado Mineral Belt. True color composites are best for general geologic analysis and false color composites prepared with positive/negative masks are useful for enhancing local geologic phenomena. During geologic analysis of any given area, ERTS-1 imagery from several different dates should be studied.

  9. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado using ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Most of the geologic information in ERTS-1 imagery can be extracted from bulk processed black and white transparencies by a skilled interpreter using standard photogeologic techniques. In central and western Colorado, the detectability of lithologic contacts on ERTS-1 imagery is closely related to the time of year the imagery was acquired. Geologic structures are the most readily extractable type of geologic information contained in ERTS images. Major tectonic features and associated minor structures can be rapidly mapped, allowing the geologic setting of a large region to be quickly accessed. Trends of geologic structures in younger sedimentary appear to strongly parallel linear trends in older metamorphic and igneous basement terrain. Linears and color anomalies mapped from ERTS imagery are closely related to loci of known mineralization in the Colorado mineral belt.

  10. In-situ alteration of minerals by acidic ground water resulting from mining activities: Preliminary evaluation of method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind, Carol J.; Creasey, C.L.; Angeroth, C.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical composition of the Cu-mining-related acidic ground water (pH ~ 3.5 to near neutral) in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona has been monitored since 1980. In-situ experiments are planned using alluvial sediments placed in the ground-water flow path to measure changes in mineral and chemical composition and changes in dissolution rates of subsurface alluvial sediments. The test results should help refine developed models of predicted chemical changes in ground-water composition and models of streamflow. For the preliminary test, sediment from the depth of the well screen of a newly drilled well was installed in three wells, the source well (pH 4.96) and two up-gradient wells (pHs 4.27 and 4.00). The sediment was placed in woven macrofilters, fastened in series to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes, and hung at the screened level of each well. After interacting with the slowly moving ground water for 48 days, the test sediments were removed for analysis. There was no evidence that any of the materials used were biologically or chemically degraded or that the porosity of the filters was diminished by ferric hydroxide precipitation. These materials included 21-??m-pore (21PEMF) and 67-??m-pore polyester and the 174-??m-pore fluorocarbon Spectra/mesh macrofilters containing the in-situ sediment, the polypropylene (PP) macrofilter support structures, and the Nylon (NY) monofilament line used to attach the samples to the PVC pipe. Based on chemical and mineral composition and on particle-size distribution of the sediment before and after ground-water exposure, the 21PEMF macrofilter was chosen as the most suitable macrofilter for the long-term in-situ experiment. Tests also showed that the PP support structures and the NY monofilament line were sufficiently durable for this experiment.The chemical composition of the Cu-mining-related acidic ground water (pH approx. 3.5 to near neutral) in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona has been monitored since 1980. In-situ experiments are

  11. Investigation of mineral water springs of Miercurea Ciuc (Csíkszereda) region (Romania) with cultivation-dependent microbiological methods.

    PubMed

    Máthé, I; Táncsics, A; György, Eva; Pohner, Zsuzsanna; Vladár, P; Székely, Anna J; Márialigeti, K

    2010-06-01

    Water samples of ten mineral water springs at Miercurea Ciuc (Csíkszereda) region (Romania) were examined during 2005-2006 using cultivation-dependent microbiological methods. The results of standard hygienic bacteriological tests showed that the Hargita Spring had perfect and five other springs had microbiologically acceptable water quality (Zsögöd-, Nagy-borvíz-, Taploca-, Szentegyháza- and Lobogó springs). The water of Borsáros Spring was exceptionable (high germ count, presence of Enterococcus spp.).Both standard bacteriological and molecular microbiological methods indicated that the microbiological water quality of the Szeltersz-, Nádasszék- and Délo springs was not acceptable. Bad water quality resulted from inadequate spring catchment and hygiene (low yield, lack of runoff, negligent usage of the springs, horse manure around the spring).The 16S rRNA gene-based identification of strains isolated on standard meat-peptone medium resulted in the detection of typical aquatic organisms such as Shewanella baltica, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas veronii, Psychrobacter sp,. Acinetobacter spp. and allochthonous microbes, like Nocardia, Streptomyces, Bacillus, Microbacterium , and Arthrobacter strains indicating the impact of soil. Other allochthonous microbes, such as Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus sp., Lactococcus sp., Clostridium butyricum, Yersinia spp., Aerococcus sp., may have originated from animal/human sources.

  12. Origin of Asteroidal Water: Constraints from Isotopic Compositions of Aqueously-Formed Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, A. N.; Doyle, P. M.; Nagashima, K.; Jogo, K.; Wakita, S.; Ciesla, F. J.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2013-09-01

    Oxygen and Mn-Cr isotope systematics of fayalite, magnetite, and carbonates in carbonaceous chondrites suggest that water in their parent asteroids had a local, inner solar system origin, consistent with the inferred D/H ratio of asteroidal water.

  13. Effects of ionised or chelated water-soluble mineral mixture supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, meat quality and intestinal microbiota in broilers.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, S D; Lee, B R; Kim, I H

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary supplementation of water-soluble ionised or chelated mineral mixture on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, relative organ weight, meat quality and excreta microflora in broilers. A total of 408 Arbor Acres broilers (17 birds in 8 replicate pens) were randomly allocated into one of the following three treatments: (1) Control/basal diet (CON), (2) T1 (basal diet + 0.5% ionised mineral mixture solution, pH 3.0) and (3) T2 (basal diet + 0.5% chelated mineral mixture solution, pH 3.0). The body weight gain was greater and feed conversion ratio was lower in broilers supplemented with ionised or chelated mineral liquid complex compared to CON during the grower and overall phase of the experiment. No significant effect in the concentration of Ca and P in the blood was observed in birds supplemented with ionised or chelated mineral mixture solution. No adverse effects were observed in organ weight and meat quality with ionised or chelated mineral mixture supplementation. Regarding intestinal microbiota counts there was a reduction of Escherichia coli counts in the small intestine in ionised mineral supplemented birds. In the large intestine, E. coli as well as Salmonella populations were reduced in ionised mineral supplemented birds. In conclusion, ionised or chelated minerals have partial positive effects in improving growth performance and reducing pathogenic bacteria load in the gastro-intestinal tract.

  14. Authentication potential of 87Sr/86Sr in water - reference of signatures in natural mineral water to regional geology in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, G. D.; Voerkelius, S.

    2009-04-01

    The study presents the investigation of strontium isotope ratios of about 650 different European natural mineral waters as part of the food traceability project "TRACE" funded by the EU. The 87Sr/86Sr analysis is part of a multi-element approach for authen-ticity which also includes 18O, 2H, 3H, main and trace elements as well as 34S. The analysed 87Sr/86Sr cover a wide range of values from 0.7035 to 0.7777 indicating that the natural mineral water samples cover the span from young mantle derived basal-tic rocks to very old silicic continental crust. The results of the large-scale investigation are used to elaborate a novel spatial predic-tion for strontium isotope ratios by combining the measured data with a GIS based geo-logical map of Europe. The resulting map can be used to predict the strontium isotopic composition of ground-water and as such the composition of bioavailable strontium, which can be taken up by plants and further transferred into the food chain. In this study we show, as an example, that the strontium isotopic composition of honey and wheat from specific sample region within the TRACE project correlates well with that of the natural mineral water as pre-dicted by our map. The proof of principle shown is highly relevant for geographical food authentication as it will allow an assessment of the origin of food products without the immediate need for geographically authenticated materials which may not always be available in the first instance. As such, our approach provides a cost effective first instance screening tool. There is an increasing demand for independent analytical methods which can control the geographical origin. The EU project TRACE was started with the aim to develop a gen-eral understanding of the relation between the geo-bio-climatic environment and the isotope and elemental signature in food commodities. As one part of the study detailed isotope maps (e.g. 18O, 87Sr/86Sr) for groundwater will be generated by the isotope re

  15. Hydrogeochemical processes governing the origin, transport and fate of major and trace elements from mine wastes and mineralized rock to surface waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Mobility of potential or actual contaminants from mining and mineral processing activities depends on (1) occurrence: is the mineral source of the contaminant actually present? (2) abundance: is the mineral present in sufficient quantity to make a difference? (3) reactivity: what are the energetics, rates, and mechanisms of sorption and mineral dissolution and precipitation relative to the flow rate of the water? and (4) hydrology: what are the main flow paths for contaminated water? Estimates of relative proportions of minerals dissolved and precipitated can be made with mass-balance calculations if minerals and water compositions along a flow path are known. Combined with discharge, these mass-balance estimates quantify the actual weathering rate of pyrite mineralization in the environment and compare reasonably well with laboratory rates of pyrite oxidation except when large quantities of soluble salts and evaporated mine waters have accumulated underground. Quantitative mineralogy with trace-element compositions can substantially improve the identification of source minerals for specific trace elements through mass balances. Post-dissolution sorption and precipitation (attenuation) reactions depend on the chemical behavior of each element, solution composition and pH, aqueous speciation, temperature, and contact-time with mineral surfaces. For example, little metal attenuation occurs in waters of low pH (2, and redox-sensitive oxyanions (As, Sb, Se, Mo, Cr, V). Once dissolved, metal and metalloid concentrations are strongly affected by redox conditions and pH. Iron is the most reactive because it is rapidly oxidized by bacteria and archaea and Fe(III) hydrolyzes and precipitates at low pH (1–3) which is related directly to its first hydrolysis constant, pK1 = 2.2. Several insoluble sulfate minerals precipitate at low pH including anglesite, barite, jarosite, alunite and basaluminite. Aluminum hydrolyzes near pH 5 (pK1 = 5.0) and provides buffering and removal

  16. Development of an LC-MS/MS method for studying migration characteristics of acetaldehyde in polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-packed mineral water.

    PubMed

    Baumjohann, Nina; Harms, Diedrich

    2015-01-01

    During storage, acetaldehyde migration from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles can affect the quality of mineral water even in the low µg l(-1) range negatively, as it features a fruity or plastic-like off-flavour. For a sensitive and fast analysis of acetaldehyde in mineral water, a new analysis method of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatisation followed by HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was developed. Acetaldehyde was directly derivatised in the mineral water sample avoiding extraction and/or pre-concentration steps and then analysed by reversed-phase HPLC-ESI-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Along with method development, the optimum molar excess of DNPH in contrast to acetaldehyde was studied for the mineral water matrix, because no specific and robust data were yet available for this critical parameter. Best results were obtained by using a calibration via the derivatisation reaction. Without any analyte enrichment or extraction, an LOD of 0.5 µg l(-1) and an LOQ of 1.9 µg l(-1) were achieved. Using the developed method, mineral water samples packed in PET bottles from Germany were analysed and the correlation between the acetaldehyde concentration and other characteristics of the samples was evaluated illustrating the applicability of the method. Besides a relationship between bottle size and CO2 content of the mineral water and acetaldehyde migration, a correlation with acetaldehyde migration and the material composition of the bottle, e.g. recycled PET, was noted. Investigating the light influence on the acetaldehyde migration with a newly developed, reproducible light exposure setup, a significant increase of the acetaldehyde concentration in carbonated mineral water samples was observed.

  17. Physiological traits of Penicillium glabrum strain LCP 08.5568, a filamentous fungus isolated from bottled aromatized mineral water.

    PubMed

    Nevarez, L; Vasseur, V; Le Madec, A; Le Bras, M A; Coroller, L; Leguérinel, I; Barbier, G

    2009-04-15

    Penicillium glabrum is a ubiquitous fungus distributed world wide. This fungus is a frequent contaminant in the food manufacturing industry. Environmental factors such as temperature, water activity and pH have a great influence on fungal development. In this study, a strain of P. glabrum referenced to as LCP 08.5568, has been isolated from a bottle of aromatized mineral water. The effects of temperature, a(w) and pH on radial growth rate were assessed on Czapeck Yeast Agar (CYA) medium. Models derived from the cardinal model with inflection [Rosso et al., 1993 An unexpected correlation between cardinal temperatures of microbial growth highlighted by a new model. J. Theor. Bio. 162, 447-463.] were used to fit the experimental data and determine for each factor, the cardinal parameters (minimum, optimum and maximum). Precise characterisation of the growth conditions for such a fungal contaminant, has an evident interest to understand and to prevent spoilage of food products.

  18. The solubilities of some major and minor element minerals in ground waters associated with a sandstone-hosted uranium deposit.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, R.B.; Chatcham, J.R.; Langmuir, D.

    1987-01-01

    Ground-water samples from 41 wells penetrating basal Oakville sandstone (Miocene) in S Texas were chemically analysed to identify chemical changes related to nearby U orebodies. The coverage included a 240 km2 area which contains several fault-related U deposits. Factors affecting the hydrochemistry include: 1) relatively high permeabilities of buried fluvial-channel sediments; 2) upwards leakage of brines along growth faults into the aquifer; 3) development of a redox interface (Eh = 0 volts) within the aquifer; and 4) the semi-arid climate. Variations in the saturation index (SI) for chemically reduced minerals of U, As, Mo, Se and for associated minerals such as pyrite outlined the position of known deposits. The SI increases towards zero as the deposits are approached from updip distances of 3-4.5 km, then decreases again downdip. The radiogenic pathfinders Ra and Rn showed very strong anomalies with ore, but diminished to background levels at short distances from ore. A strong He anomaly is deflected in the direction of ground-water flow away from the ore.-R.A.H.

  19. State of water molecules and silanol groups in opal minerals: a near infrared spectroscopic study of opals from Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boboň, Miroslav; Christy, Alfred A.; Kluvanec, Daniel; Illášová, L'udmila

    2011-12-01

    Recently, near infrared spectroscopy in combination with double derivative technique has been effectively used by Christy (Vib Spectrosc 54:42-49, 2010) to study and differentiate between free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups on silica gel surface. The method has given some insight into the type of functionalities, their location in silica gel samples, and the way the water molecules bind onto the silanol groups. The important information in this respect comes from the overtones of the OH groups of water molecules hydrogen-bonded to free silanol groups, and hydrogen-bonded silanol groups absorbing in the region 5,500-5,100 cm-1. Chemically, opal minerals are hydrated silica and the same approach was adapted to study the state of water molecules, silanol functionalities, and their locations in opal samples from Slovakia. Twenty opal samples classified into CT and A classes and one quartz sample were used in this work. The samples were crushed using a hydraulic press and powderized. Each sample was then subjected to evacuation process to remove surface-adsorbed water at 200°C, and the near infrared spectrum of each sample was measured using a Perkin Elmer NTS FT-NIR spectrometer equipped with a transflectance accessory and a DTGS detector. The samples were also heated to 750°C to remove the hydrogen-bonded silanol groups on the surface to reveal their locality. Second derivative profiles of the near infrared reflectance spectra were obtained using the instrument's software and used in the detailed analysis of the samples. The analysis of the near infrared spectra and their second derivative profiles had the aim in finding relationships between the surface chemical structure and the classification of opal samples. The dry opal samples were also tested for their surface adsorption effectivity toward water molecules. The results indicate that the opal samples contain (1) surface-adsorbed water, (2) free and hydrogen-bonded silanol groups on the surface, (3) trapped

  20. Mineralization of the Common Groundwater Pollutant 2,6-Dichlorobenzamide (BAM) and its Metabolite 2,6-Dichlorobenzoic Acid (2,6-DCBA) in Sand Filter Units of Drinking Water Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Vandermaesen, Johanna; Horemans, Benjamin; Degryse, Julie; Boonen, Jos; Walravens, Eddy; Springael, Dirk

    2016-09-20

    The intrinsic capacity to mineralize the groundwater pollutant 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) and its metabolite 2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid (2,6-DCBA) was evaluated in samples from sand filters (SFs) of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). Whereas BAM mineralization occurred rarely and only in SFs exposed to BAM, 2,6-DCBA mineralization was common in SFs, including those treating uncontaminated water. Nevertheless, SFs treating BAM contaminated water showed the highest 2,6-DCBA mineralization rates. For comparison, 2,6-DCBA and BAM mineralization were determined in various topsoil samples. As in SF samples, BAM mineralization was rare, whereas 2,6-DCBA mineralization capacity appeared widespread, with high mineralization rates found especially in forest soils. Multivariate analysis showed that in both SF and soil samples, high 2,6-DCBA mineralization correlated with high organic carbon content. Adding a 2,6-DCBA degradation deficient mutant of the BAM mineralizing Aminobacter sp. MSH1 confirmed that 2,6-DCBA produced from BAM is rapidly mineralized by the endogenous microbial community in SFs showing intrinsic 2,6-DCBA mineralization. This study demonstrates that (i) 2,6-DCBA mineralization is widely established in SFs of DWTPs, allowing the mineralization of 2,6-DCBA produced during BAM degradation and (ii) the first metabolic step in BAM mineralization is rare in microbial communities, rather than its further degradation beyond 2,6-DCBA.

  1. [The isolation of organic compounds from hydrosulfuric mineral waters with the use of the extractive freezing-out technique with centrifugation].

    PubMed

    Bekhterev, V N; Kabina, E A

    2017-01-01

    The mineral waters, enriched with organic substances find extensive application in balneotherapy. The fast and efficient methods for the identification and quantitative measurement of organic compounds (in the first place, organic acids) in such waters need to be developed for the estimation of their quality and biological activity.

  2. Structure, dynamics and stability of water/scCO2/mineral interfaces from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Mal -Soon; Peter McGrail, B.; Rousseau, Roger; ...

    2015-10-12

    Here, the interface between a solid and a complex multi-component liquid forms a unique reaction environment whose structure and composition can significantly deviate from either bulk or liquid phase and is poorly understood due the innate difficulty to obtain molecular level information. Feldspar minerals, as typified by the Ca-end member Anorthite, serve as prototypical model systems to assess the reactivity and ion mobility at solid/water-bearing supercritical fluid (WBSF) interfaces due to recent X-ray based measurements that provide information on water-film formation, and cation vacancies at these surfaces. Using density functional theory based molecular dynamics, which allows the evaluation of reactivitymore » and condensed phase dynamics on equal footing, we report on the structure and dynamics of water nucleation and surface aggregation, carbonation and Ca mobilization under geologic carbon sequestration scenarios (T = 323 K and P = 90 bar). We find that water has a strong enthalpic preference for aggregation on a Ca-rich, O-terminated anorthite (001) surface, but entropy strongly hinders the film formation at very low water concentrations. Carbonation reactions readily occur at electron-rich terminal Oxygen sites adjacent to cation vacancies, when in contact with supercritical CO2. Cation vacancies of this type can form readily in the presence of a water layer that allows for facile and enthalpicly favorable Ca2+ extraction and solvation. Apart from providing unprecedented molecular level detail of a complex three component (mineral, water and scCO2) system), this work highlights the ability of modern capabilities of AIMD methods to begin to qualitatively and quantitatively address structure and reactivity at solid-liquid interfaces of high chemical complexity. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (M.-S. L., B. P. M. and V.-A. G.) and the Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of Chemical Sciences

  3. How can the water concentrations in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) from mantle xenoliths be used to learn about the distribution of water in the mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, K. J.; Kohn, S. C.; Brooker, R. A.

    2005-12-01

    Water has a very large effect on the physical and chemical properties of the Earth's mantle. In recent years, progress has been made in understanding how water is stored in mantle phases and the maximum amount which can be dissolved in each phase has been constrained to some extent. However, the methods which are used to estimate the actual amount of water in different regions of the mantle remain rather crude. Although mantle xenoliths would ideally be convenient samples which record the water concentrations in their source regions, the very fast diffusion of H in silicates means that water could potentially be either lost or gained by interaction with the host magma during ascent. Methods are therefore required to assess the degree of xenolith-melt interaction which has occurred in each case. In this study we have performed high pressure experiments to obtain mineral-mineral and mineral-melt partitioning coefficients to use as the basis of such methods. Careful analysis of the OH stretching region in the FTIR spectra of the experimentally produced samples, and natural xenolith material, provides an additional, powerful method for comparing the pressure, temperature and chemical environment preserved by the xenoliths. Several series of experiments were performed. Firstly equilibrium partitioning experiments between forsterite and enstatite in the system MgO-SiO2-H2O and partitioning between forsterite, enstatite and melt in the system Na2O-MgO-SiO2-Al2O3-H2O were used to study the effect of pressure, temperature and composition on the equilibrium water concentrations in the phases and the equilibrium hydrated defect structure, as observed by FTIR. DHopx/ol varies from about 3 to 30 depending on Al concentration and pressure. Finally, FTIR measurements of olivine and orthopyroxene in several xenoliths were made, and compared with experimentally hydrated crystals from the same xenoliths. Large (4 mm) crystals were annealed for different lengths of time to assess the

  4. Petroleum, oil field waters, and authigenic mineral assemblages - Are they in metastable equilibrium in hydrocarbon reservoirs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgeson, Harold C.; Knox, Annette M.; Owens, Christine E.; Shock, Everett L.

    1993-07-01

    The hypothesis that although the presence of carboxylic acids and carboxylate anions in oil field waters is commonly attributed to the thermal maturation of kerogen or bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons during water-washing of petroleum in relatively shallow reservoirs, they may have also been produced in deeper reservoirs by the hydrolysis of hydrocarbons in petroleum at the oil-water interface is tested. Calculations were carried out to determine the distribution of species with the minimum Gibbs free energy in overpressured oil field waters in the Texas Gulf Coast assuming metastable equilibrium among calcite, albite, and a representative spectrum of organic and inorganic aqueous species at reservoir temperatures and pressures. The hypothesis that homogeneous equilibrium obtains among carboxylate and carbonate species in oil field waters is confirmed.

  5. [Study on the concentration of mineral oil in water by online intelligent detection based on fluorescence spectrum].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuan-he; Liu, Qing-song; Ivieng, Lei; Liu, Han-chen; Liu, Qian; Li, Cun-xia

    2015-02-01

    In order to monitor the oil pollution of water real time and accurately for the environmental protection, an intelligent online detection system for the mineral oil in water is put forward in the present paper, based on the technology of ultraviolet fluorescence and internet of things (IOT). For this system, the resolution can be improved by using the higher precision asymmetric Czemy-Turner monochromator; the impact of light fluctuations on the results of exploration can be corrected by a bunch reference light; the optical system deviation caused by the instrument vibration can be reduced by optical fiber transmission; the coupling efficiency of fiber and output signal can be increased by a special fiber beam; the real-time measurement, data processing and remote control can be achieved by the control module and wireless communication module. This system has characteristics of high integration, high precision and good stability etc. The concentration of the unknown sample can be accurately calculated by the methods of parallel algorithms of chemometric metrology and the calculation errors caused by different components can be reduced by the theory of chemical correction factor analysis. The fluorescence spectra of three kinds of sample solution, diesel, engine and crude oil in preparative concentration of 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg x L(-1) were measured by this system respectively. The absorption wavelengths of the above-mentioned three oils were measured to be 256, 365 and 397 nm by a grating spectrometer; their absorbances were measured to be 0.028, 0.036 and 0.041 by fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. Their fluorescence emission wavelengths are 355, 419 and 457 nm respectively. Finally the concentration detection limits of the mineral oil in water of diesel, engine and crude oil were obtained, i.e., 0.03, 0.04 and 0.06 mg x L(-1) respectively. Their relative errors are 2.1%, 1.0% and 2.8% respectively.

  6. Endocrine disruptors in bottled mineral water: estrogenic activity in the E-Screen.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Martin; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2011-10-01

    Human exposure to endocrine disruptors is well documented by biomonitoring data. However, this information is limited to few chemicals like bisphenol A or phthalate plasticizers. To account for so-far unidentified endocrine disruptors and potential mixture effects we employ bioassays to detect endocrine activity in foodstuff and consequently characterize the integrated exposure to endocrine active compounds. Recently, we reported a broad contamination of commercially available bottled water with estrogenic activity and presented evidence for the plastic packaging being a source of this contamination. In continuation of that work, we here compare different sample preparation methods to extract estrogen-like compounds from bottled water. These data demonstrate that inappropriate extraction methods and sample treatment may lead to false-negative results when testing water extracts in bioassays. Using an optimized sample preparation strategy, we furthermore present data on the estrogenic activity of bottled water from France, Germany, and Italy: eleven of the 18 analyzed water samples (61.1%) induced a significant estrogenic response in a bioassay employing a human carcinoma cell line (MCF7, E-Screen). The relative proliferative effects ranged from 19.8 to 50.2% corresponding to an estrogenic activity of 1.9-12.2 pg estradiol equivalents per liter bottled water. When comparing water of the same spring that is packed in glass or plastic bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), estrogenic activity is three times higher in water from plastic bottles. These data support the hypothesis that PET packaging materials are a source of estrogen-like compounds. Furthermore, the findings presented here conform to previous studies and indicate that the contamination of bottled water with endocrine disruptors is a transnational phenomenon.

  7. The settling velocity of mineral, biomineral, and biological particles and aggregates in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, Federico

    2013-04-01

    A new equation was developed to relate the size and settling velocity of particulate matter commonly recurring in aqueous ecosystems. This equation explicitly balanced the gravitational, buoyancy, viscous, and inertial forces as in Rubey () but was amended to describe in one instance both individual particles and granular aggregates with an internal fractal architecture. This approach allowed for an algebraic solution of the settling velocity, thus overcoming earlier approaches that required iterative numerical solutions. The equation was tested with mineral, biomineral, and biological suspended particles and granular aggregates from 52 existing experimental data sets, and resulted in average correlation coefficients R between 71% and 93.9%, and normilized residuals between 14.3% and 24.8% over Reynolds numbers ranging within 10-7 and 102. Accuracy of these results was generally better than for the Stokes' law, the Stokes' law modified with the Schiller-Naumann drag coefficient, and Rubey's equation. Estimated parameters ranged within observed ones, thus suggesting that the equation was robust. An analysis of the drag showed that inertial force was negligible only for biological cells (isolated cysts), whereas it contributed by not less than 5% to the drag on large mineral particles and up to 20% for biomineral and biological aggregates. Finally, a correlation was found between the organic matter content and fractal properties of granular aggregates, which were described by empirical equations proposed here for the first time. The hypothesis that the settling velocity is a function of linear and nonlinear drag, and is ultimately determined by physical characteristics as much as biological composition and internal aggregate geometry, is supported here by quantitative analyses.

  8. Calculation of pH and mineral equilibria in hydrothermal waters with application to geothermometry and studies of boiling and dilution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Mark; Spycher, Nicolas

    1984-07-01

    Using chemical analyses and 25° pH measurements of quenched high-temperature waters, we calculate in situ pH and distribution of aqueous species at high temperature. This is accomplished by solving simultaneous mass action equations for complexes and redox equilibria and mass balance equations, on all components, including a H + equation with as many as 60 terms (depending on water composition). This calculation provides accurate values for the activities of aqueous ions in a given water at high temperature, which are used to calculate an ion activity product ( Q) for each of more than 100 minerals. The value of log( Q/ K) for each mineral, where K is the equilibrium constant, provides a measure of proximity of the aqueous solution to equilibrium with the mineral. By plotting log Q/ Kvs. T for natural waters, it is possible to determine: a) whether the water was in equilibrium with a host rock mineral assemblage, b) probable minerals in the equilibrium assemblage and c) the temperature of equilibrium. In cases where the fluid departs from equilibrium with a host rock assemblage, it is possible to determine whether this may result from boiling or dilution, and an estimate of amount of lost gas or diluting water can be determined. The calculation is illustrated by application to geothermal waters from Iceland, Broadlands, and Sulphur Bank, hot spring waters from Jemez, Yellowstone and Blackfoot Reservoir (Idaho) and fluid inclusions from the Sunnyside Mine, Colorado. It is shown that most geothermal waters approach equilibrium with a subsurface mineral assemblage at a temperature close to measured temperatures and that some hot springs also approach equilibrium with the host rock at temperatures above outlet temperatures but commonly below the Na-K-Ca temperatures. The log Q/ K plots show that some discrepancies between Na-K-Ca temperatures on spring waters and actual temperatures result from a failure of alkali feldspars to equilibrate with the fluid and with each

  9. The role of surface physicochemical properties in determining the distribution of the autochthonous microflora in mineral water bottles.

    PubMed

    Jones, C R; Adams, M R; Zhdan, P A; Chamberlain, A H

    1999-06-01

    Investigation of the distribution of the viable autochthonous microflora in three brands of 1-2-month-old bottled mineral water showed that 1.8 x 10(4) (S.E.M. 8.9 x 10(3), n = 5) to 1.2 x 10(5) (S.E.M. 1.3 x 10(4), n = 5) cfu ml-1 were planktonic cells while 11 (S.E.M. 4, n = 5)-632 (S.E.M. 176, n = 5) cfu cm-2 were found in the biofilm. The biofilm represented between 0.03 and 1.79% of the total viable microbial population in the 1.5 litre bottles studied. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed that the cells adhering to the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were predominantly rod-shaped, sparsely distributed over the surface. In contrast, the cells adhering to the high density polyethylene (HDPE) caps were found to be mainly clumps of coccoid cells, suggesting that the bottle may provide different microhabitats for different microfloras. Large-scale roughness, such as that observed as lettering inside the cap (average height (z) = 93 microns) was associated with a 46-fold increase in cell numbers. Increased small-scale roughness, as measured by atomic force microscopy on PET and HDPE surfaces (average roughness (Ra) = 5-551 (nm), showed no correlation with adhesion. Investigations of surface hydrophobicity by the sessile drop technique showed that contact angles (theta) were greater on the HDPE caps (theta = 89-96 degrees) than on the PET surfaces (theta = 69-80 degrees). However, no correlation was found between contact angle and attached cell numbers. Measurements of surface electrostatic charge by streaming potential showed that the PET carried an overall negative charge, measuring -15.9 to -16.6 mV in mineral water. No significant change in charge occurred when the monomer composition of the PET was altered. It was concluded that surface roughness, in particular the scale of surface topographical features, is the most important physicochemical surface characteristic determining the distribution of the autochthonous microflora in mineral water

  10. Water in Hawaiian peridotite minerals: A case for a dry metasomatized oceanic mantle lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Bizimis, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of water concentrations in the oceanic upper mantle has drastic influence on its melting, rheology, and electrical and thermal conductivities and yet is primarily known indirectly from analyses of OIB and MORB. Here, actual mantle samples, eight peridotite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater (SLC) and one from Pali in Oahu in Hawaii were analyzed by FTIR. Water contents of orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and the highest measured in olivine are 116-222, 246-442, and 10-26 ppm weight H2O, respectively. Although pyroxene water contents correlate with indices of partial melting, they are too high to be explained by simple melting modeling. Mantle-melt interaction modeling reproduces best the SLC data. These peridotites represent depleted oceanic mantle older than the Pacific lithosphere that has been refertilized by nephelinite melts containing <5 weight % H2O. Metasomatism in the Hawaiian peridotites resulted in an apparent decoupling of water and LREE that can be reconciled via assimilation and fractional crystallization. Calculated bulk-rock water contents for SLC (50-96 ppm H2O) are on the low side of that of the MORB source (50-200 ppm H2O). Preceding metasomatism, the SLC peridotites must have been even drier, with a water content similar to that of the Pali peridotite (45 ppm H2O), a relatively unmetasomatized fragment of the Pacific lithosphere. Moreover, our data show that the oceanic mantle lithosphere above plumes is not necessarily enriched in water. Calculated viscosities using olivine water contents allow to estimate the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath Hawaii at ˜90 km.

  11. About Prospects of Enrichment of Mineral Raw Materials and Chemical Activation of Water Suspensions by Electroexplosive Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordunov, S. V.; Galtseva, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    A series of experiments is conducted on laboratory and pilot-production installation for the application of high-voltage pulsed discharge in the processes of enrichment of goldbearing mineral raw materials with a relatively low energy electrical discharge in the pulse of 120 J. At the same time the conglomerates of clay components are breaking down to micron and submicron sizes completely. Solid minerals such as quartz are simultaneously destroyed by defects and grains and withdrawn from the installation with water, thus increasing degree of enrichment of concentrate. The results of the processing by high-voltage pulsed discharges of building sand from the Ob riverbed are given. Discharge energy is 45 J. Relations of fractions in the original sand and in the sand after electroexplosive process show the uniform crushing of sand particles with splitting off particles with size of less than 0.045 mm. A content of chipped particles is 18%. The results of particle-size and X-ray structural analyses are shown.

  12. The 1.7- to 4.2-micron spectrum of asteroid 1 Ceres - Evidence for structural water in clay minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Feierberg, M. A.; Larson, H. P.; Johnson, J. R.; Tokunaga, A. T.

    1981-01-01

    A high-resolution Fourier spectrum (1.7-3.5 microns) and medium-resolution spectrophotometry (2.7-4.2 microns) were obtained for Asteroid 1 Ceres. The presence of the 3-micron absorption feature due to water of hydration was confirmed. The 3-micron feature is compared with the 3-micron bands due to water of hydration in clays and salts. It is concluded that the spectrum of Ceres shows a strong absorption at 2.7-2.8 microns due to structural OH groups in clay minerals. The dominant minerals on the surface of Ceres are therefore hydrated clay minerals structurally similar to terrestrial montmorillonites. There is also a narrow absorption feature at 3.1 microns which is attributable to a very small amount of water ice on Ceres. This is the first evidence for ice on the surface of an asteroid.

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Budget Cuts Funds for Minerals, Hazards, and Water Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-02-01

    The Bush administration's proposed US$968.5 million budget for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for fiscal year (FY) 2009 is a $38 million decrease from the FY 2008 enacted level. The proposed budget also includes some increases for high-priority programs. Funding includes an $8.2 million net increase for a water census that would be the first U.S.-wide assessment of water availability and human and environmental water use and an increase of $7 million to support the U.S. Department of Interior's Ocean and Coastal Frontiers Initiative, which will acquire key ocean health data while also providing objective scientific data to evaluate U.N. Law of the Sea claims made by other nations.

  14. Radioactivity and geochemistry of selected mineral-spring waters in the Western United States; basic data and multivariate statistical analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felmlee, J.K.; Cadigan, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analyses were performed on data from 156 mineral-spring sites in nine Western States to analyze relationships among the various parameters measured in the spring waters. Correlation analysis and R-mode factor analysis indicate that three major factors affect water composition in the spring systems studied: (1) duration of water circulation, (2) depth of water circulation, and (3) partial pressure of carbon dioxide. An examination of factor scores indicates that several types of hydrogeologic systems were sampled. Most of the samples are (1) older water from deeper circulating systems having relatively high salinity, high temperature, and low Eh or (2) younger water from shallower circulating systems having relatively low salinity, low temperature, and high Eh. The rest of the samples are from more complex systems. Any of the systems can have a relatively high or low content of dissolved carbonate species, resulting in a low or high pH, respectively. Uranium concentrations are commonly higher in waters of relatively low temperature and high Eh, and radium concentrations are commonly higher in waters having a relatively high carbonate content (low pH) and, secondarily, relatively high salinity. Water samples were collected and (or) measurements were taken at 156 of the 171 mineral-spring sites visited. Various samples were analyzed for radium, uranium, radon, helium, and radium-228 as well as major ions and numerous trace elements. On-site measurements for physical properties including temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh, and dissolved oxygen were made. All constituents and properties show a wide range of values. Radium concentrations range from less than 0.01 to 300 picocuries per liter; they average 1.48 picocuries per liter and have an anomaly threshold value of 171 picocuries per liter for the samples studied. Uranium concentrations range from less than 0.01 to 120 micrograms per liter and average 0.26 micrograms per liter; they

  15. Ultra-trace analysis of hormones, pharmaceutical substances, alkylphenols and phthalates in two French natural mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Dévier, Marie-Hélène; Le Menach, Karyn; Viglino, Liza; Di Gioia, Lodovico; Lachassagne, Patrick; Budzinski, Hélène

    2013-01-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential presence of a broad range of organic compounds, such as hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates, as well as pharmaceutical substances in two brands of bottled natural mineral waters (Evian and Volvic, Danone). The phthalates were determined by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and the other compounds by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after solid-phase extraction. The potential migration of alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles was also investigated under standardized test conditions. Evian and Volvic natural mineral waters contain none of the around 120 targeted organic compounds. Traces of 3 pharmaceuticals (ketoprofen, salicylic acid, and caffeine), 3 alkylphenols (4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol diethoxylate), and some phthalates including di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) were detected in the samples, but they were also present in the procedural blanks at similar levels. The additional test procedures demonstrated that the few detected compounds originated from the background laboratory contamination. Analytical procedures have been designed both in the bottling factory and in the laboratory in order to investigate the sources of DEHP and to minimize to the maximum this unavoidable laboratory contamination. It was evidenced that no migration of the targeted compounds from bottles occurred under the test conditions. The results obtained in this study underline the complexity of reaching a reliable measure to qualify the contamination of a sample at ultra-trace level, in the field of very pure matrices. The analytical procedures involving glassware, equipment, hoods, and rooms specifically dedicated to trace analysis allowed us to reach reliable procedural limits of quantification at the ng/L level, by

  16. Formation of Carbonate Minerals in Martian Meteorite ALH 84001 from Cool Water Near the Surface of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2011-12-01

    Carbonate minerals in the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite are important because they ought to contain information about the chemistry and temperature of the water they formed in. They are also an important part of testing the idea that the meteorite contains evidence of past life on Mars. Hypotheses for the origin of the carbonates are impressively varied. A key test of the ideas is to determine the temperature at which the carbonates formed. Estimates up to now range from a bit below freezing to 700 oC, too big a range to test anything! To address the problem Itay Halevy, Woodward Fischer, and John Eiler (Caltech) used an approach that involves "clumped" isotope thermometry, which makes comparisons among different isotopic compositions of extracted CO2. This allowed the investigators to use the isotopic abundances of both carbon and oxygen. The results indicate that the carbonates formed at 18 ± 4 oC from a shallow subsurface (upper few meters to tens of meters) pool of water that was gradually evaporating. The wet episode did not last long, leading Halevy and his colleagues to conclude that the environment may have been too transient for life to have emerged here from scratch. On the other hand, if life already existed on the Martian surface this wet near-surface environment would have provided a happy home. An impact blasted the Martian home of ALH 84001, causing a transient heating event, perhaps disturbing the isotopic record...or perhaps not because the event was so short. In any case, the clumped isotope thermometry approach seems to have given a good measurement of the temperature at which the carbonate minerals formed.

  17. Analysis of adolescents' beliefs about the outcome of using dental floss and drinking non-sugared mineral water.

    PubMed

    Astrøm, A N; Rise, J

    1996-06-01

    Using an expectancy value approach, personal and normative beliefs about the outcome of using dental floss and drinking non-sugared mineral water were studied in a sample of 970 15-year-old adolescents in the county of Hordaland in Norway. The data stem from a survey performed in October 1992. A detailed analysis of these beliefs provides information about which of them should be targeted in a persuasive communication directed at changing behavior. The adolescents evaluated six outcomes of each behavior in terms of how much they wanted or feared them, and rated the probability of each outcomes happening. The adolescents also rated the probability that four significant referents would approve the performance of each behavior and how much they valued the approval of each referent. Subjects with relatively strong and relatively weak intentions to use dental floss and to drink non-sugared mineral water (intenders and non-intenders) were compared with respect to their scores on each measure. A one-way analysis of variance showed consistent differences between intenders and non-intenders. Intenders were more likely to believe that the specified behaviors would result in positive outcomes and they evaluated these outcomes as more desirable than non-intenders. Intenders believed their referens, in particular dentists and parents, to be more concerned about whether or not to perform the specified behaviors than non-intenders. The most promising candidates for persuasive communication among behavioral beliefs with respect to the specified behaviors appeared to be reduced tooth decay and several non, health beliefs in terms of immediate social and sensory concerns.

  18. A comprehensive evaluation of water uptake on atmospherically relevant mineral surfaces: DRIFT spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and aerosol growth measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, R. J.; Orlov, A.; Badger, C. L.; Griffiths, P. T.; Cox, R. A.; Lambert, R. M.

    2005-08-01

    The hygroscopicity of mineral aerosol samples has been examined by three independent methods: diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential mobility analysis. All three methods allow an evaluation of the water coverage of two samples, CaCO3 and Arizona Test dust, as a function of relative humidity. For the first time, a correlation between absolute gravimetric measurements and the other two (indirect) methods has been established. Water uptake isotherms were reliably determined for both solids which at 298 K and 80% relative humidity exhibited similar coverages of ~4 monolayers. However, the behaviour at low relative humidity was markedly different in the two cases, with Arizona Test Dust showing a substantially higher affinity for water in the contact layer. This is understandable in terms of the chemical composition of these two materials. The mobility analysis results are in good accord with field observations and with our own spectroscopic and gravimetric measurements. These findings are of value for an improved understanding of atmospheric chemical processes.

  19. A comprehensive evaluation of water uptake on atmospherically relevant mineral surfaces: DRIFT spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and aerosol growth measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, R. J.; Orlov, A.; Badger, C. L.; Griffiths, P. T.; Cox, R. A.; Lambert, R. M.

    2005-12-01

    The hygroscopicity of mineral aerosol samples has been examined by three independent methods: diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential mobility analysis. All three methods allow an evaluation of the water coverage of two samples, CaCO3 and Arizona Test dust, as a function of relative humidity. For the first time, a correlation between absolute gravimetric measurements and the other two (indirect) methods has been established. Water uptake isotherms were reliably determined for both solids which at 298 K and 80% relative humidity exhibited similar coverages of ~4 monolayers. However, the behaviour at low relative humidity was markedly different in the two cases, with Arizona Test Dust showing a substantially higher affinity for water in the contact layer. This is understandable in terms of the chemical composition of these two materials. The mobility analysis results are in good accord with field observations and with our own spectroscopic and gravimetric measurements. These findings are of value for an understanding of atmospheric chemical processes.

  20. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado, using Skylab EREP data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. (Principal Investigator); Hutchinson, R. M.; Prost, G. L.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Spoelhof, R. W.; Thigpen, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Discovery of three major north-trending, throughgoing faults in the Front Range, previously mapped only as isolated segments, demonstrates the utility of space photography and may lead to reinterpretation of the Front Range tectonic style. Faulting and alteration appear to be the most useful indicators of mineralization in central Colorado. These phenomena appear on Skylab photography as tonal lineaments and color anomalies. Twenty-three lineaments have been mapped in the San Juan Mountains, the longest of which is 156 km long. Twelve lineaments intersect or are tangent to calderas. Intrusive domes are aligned along lineaments, but calderas appear to occur at the intersections of major lineaments. Lineaments can be recognized on some EREP passes but not on other passes over the same area. The difference is attributed to solar elevation effects. Bedding attitudes can be photogeologically estimated down to surprisingly low dips, on the order of + or - 1-2 deg, and attitudes can be subdivided easily into quantitative groups. The primary application of Skylab photography to geologic mapping in montane areas is clearly limited to regional mapping at scales smaller than 1:24,000.

  1. Analysis of minerals containing dissolved traces of the fluid phase components water and carbon dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann

    1991-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made towards a better understanding of the dissolution of common gas/fluid phase components, notably H2O and CO2, in minerals. It has been shown that the dissolution mechanisms are significantly more complex than currently believed. By judiciously combining various solid state analytical techniques, convincing evidence was obtained that traces of dissolved gas/fluid phase components undergo, at least in part, a redox conversion by which they split into reduced H2 and and reduced C on one hand and oxidized oxygen, O(-), on the other. Analysis for 2 and C as well as for any organic molecules which may form during the process of co-segregation are still impeded by the omnipresent danger of extraneous contamination. However, the presence of O(-), an unusual oxidized form of oxygen, has been proven beyond a reasonable doubt. The presence of O(-) testifies to the fact that a redox reaction must have taken place in the solid state involving the dissolved traces of gas/fluid phase components. Detailed information on the techniques used and the results obtained are given.

  2. Water pollution in relation to mineral exploration: a case study from Alayi-Ovim area of southeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ibe, Kalu K; Akaolisa, Casmir C Zanders

    2012-05-01

    Water samples from rivers, streams, springs, and shallow wells in Alayi-Ovim area of southeast Nigeria have been analyzed for Pb, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mg, PO(4), NO(3), CO(3), SO(4), Cl, and pH. The analyses were carried out using atomic absorption spectrometer and Hach Direct Reading Equipment. Results of the analyses from the area conform to the WHO (1995) standards for drinking water. However, the results show relative enrichment of Ca, pH, Mg, CO(3), and Cl. Low values were obtained for Fe, SO(4), and NO(3). While the Cl and Pb enrichment in the area north of Alayi-Ovim axis is attributed to proximity to the lead-zinc and chloride-rich formations of the Turonian Eze-Aku and the Albian Asu River; the Ca, Mg, SO(4), and CO(3) enrichment in Southern part of Alayi-Ovim is due to the limestone-bearing Late Maastrichtian Nsukka Formation. Furthermore, the very low values of less than 5 ppm for these characters in water in the central region correlate well with the relatively clean Maastrichtian quartz arenite Ajali Sandstone Formation. The Pb-Zn and Cl incursions into the water system from the Older Albian Asu River/Turonian Eze-Aku Formations in the northern part of Alayi-Ovim area and the leaching of Mg, and Ca into the water system in the Maastrichtian limestone area in the south thus constitute geochemical indices for chemical pollution and mineral exploration for brine and dolomitic limestone in the area.

  3. Bone Mineral 31P and Matrix-Bound Water Densities Measured by Solid-State 1H and 31P MRI

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Alan C.; Li, Cheng; Rajapakse, Chamith S.; Bashoor- Zadeh, Mahdieh; Bhagat, Yusuf A.; Wright, Alexander C.; Zemel, Babette S.; Zavaliangos, Antonios; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2014-01-01

    Bone is a composite material consisting of mineral and hydrated collagen fractions. MRI of bone is challenging due to extremely short transverse relaxation times, but solid-state imaging sequences exist that can acquire the short-lived signal from bone tissue. Previous work to quantify bone density via MRI used powerful experimental scanners. This work seeks to establish the feasibility of MRI-based measurement on clinical scanners of bone mineral and collagen-bound water densities, the latter as a surrogate of matrix density, and to examine the associations of these parameters with porosity and donors’ age. Mineral and matrix-bound water images of reference phantoms and cortical bone from 16 human donors, ages 27-97 years, were acquired by zero-echo-time 31P and 1H MRI on whole body 7T and 3T scanners, respectively. Images were corrected for relaxation and RF inhomogeneity to obtain density maps. Cortical porosity was measured by micro-CT, and apparent mineral density by pQCT. MRI-derived densities were compared to x-ray-based measurements by least-squares regression. Mean bone mineral 31P density was 6.74±1.22 mol/L (corresponding to 1129±204 mg/cc mineral), and mean bound water 1H density was 31.3±4.2 mol/L (corresponding to 28.3±3.7 %v/v). Both 31P and bound water (BW) densities were correlated negatively with porosity (31P: R2 = 0.32, p < 0.005; BW: R2 = 0.63, p < 0.0005) and age (31P: R2 = 0.39, p < 0.05; BW: R2 = 0.70, p < 0.0001), and positively with pQCT density (31P: R2 = 0.46, p < 0.05; BW: R2 = 0.50, p < 0.005). In contrast, the bone mineralization ratio (expressed here as the ratio of 31P density to bound water density), which is proportional to true bone mineralization, was found to be uncorrelated with porosity, age, or pQCT density. This work establishes the feasibility of image-based quantification of bone mineral and bound water densities using clinical hardware. PMID:24846186

  4. Salinity impact on yield, water use, mineral and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experimental study was carried out to determine the effects of salinity on water consumption, plant height, fresh and seed yields, biomass production, ion accumulation and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) under greenhouse conditions. The experiment was conducted with a ...

  5. Geology and ground-water hydrology of the Angostura irrigation project, South Dakota, with a section on the mineral quality of the waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littleton, Robert T.; Swenson, Herbert A.

    1949-01-01

    The lands to be irrigated from water stored in the Angostura Reservoir are situated on the lover of two terraces along the southeast side of the Cheyenne River in northeastern Fall River County and on the terrace known as Harrison Plat in southeastern Custer County, S. Dak. The terrace deposits are composed of relatively permeable sands and gravels that rest on a shale bedrock platform. The terrace surfaces are mantled in part by slope wash derived from higher shale slopes and by wind-blown sand. Ground water occurs under water-table conditions in the river alluvium and in terraces above the river. Although the zone of saturation in the terrace deposits is 6enerally thin, it is essentially continuous in the area southeast of the river, and the water issues as springs in the terrace faces along the inner valley of the river and along the valleys of tributary streams cuttin6 back into the terraces. A zone of saturation is present only in part of the Harrison Plat area, and it extends to the terrace face only along Cottonwood Creek. Wells in the unconsolidated mantle rock supply water for domestic and stock purposes, but yields are small. Abundant supplies of artesian water are available at depths ranging up to 3,000 feet but are not now utilized except at the extreme western end of the area where the bedrock aquifer is close below the surface. The effect of applying irrigation water on the terrace lands will depend on the character of the underlying material and on the measures taken to forestall waterlogging and other undesirable effects. Terrace areas that are mantled by slope wash will be especially susceptible to waterlogging, as will valley-bottom areas mantled by colluvium that are adjacent to irrigated terracea. Periodic measurements of water levels in observation wells will give warning of potential waterlogging in time to permit taking preventive measures. Analyses of samples of both ground water and surface water indicate a high mineral content. In general

  6. The effect of pyrite on Escherichia coli in water: proof-of-concept for the elimination of waterborne bacteria by reactive minerals.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Lonia R; Puri, Neha; Schoonen, Martin A A; Wali Karzai, A

    2015-03-01

    We present proof-of-concept results for the elimination of waterborne bacteria by reactive minerals. We exposed Escherichia coli MG1655 suspended in water to the reactive mineral pyrite (FeS₂) at room temperature and ambient light. This slurry eliminates 99.9% of bacteria in fewer than 4 hours. We also exposed Escherichia coli to pyrite leachate (supernatant liquid from slurry after 24 hours), which eliminates 99.99% of bacteria over the same time-scale. Unlike SOlar water DISinfection (SODIS), our results do not depend on the presence of ultraviolet (UV) light. We confirmed this by testing proposed SODIS additive and known photo-catalyst anatase (TiO₂) for antibacterial properties and found that, in contrast to pyrite, it does not eliminate E. coli under our experimental conditions. Previous investigations of naturally antibiotic minerals have focused on the medical applications of antibiotic clays, and thus have not been conducted under experimental conditions resembling those found in water purification. In our examination of the relevant literature, we have not found previously reported evidence for the use of reactive minerals in water sanitization. The results from this proof-of-concept experiment may have important implications for future directions in household water purification research.

  7. Mineral saturation states in natural waters and their sensitivity to thermodynamic and analytical errors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D.K.; Ball, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Saturation indices computed with WATEQ4F for chemical analyses from a groundwater in crystalline bedrock and a surface water receiving acid mine drainage are frequently at or above saturation with respect to calcite, fluorite, barite, gibbsite and ferrihydrite. A sensitivity analysis has been performed by varying the analytic and thermodynamic parameters for which the saturation indices are most sensitive. For calcite, fluorite and barite, the supersaturation effect appears to be real because it is only slightly decreased by sources of uncertainty. Apparent supersaturation for gibbsite is most likely caused by the degree of crystallinity on solubility behavior. Apparent supersaturation for ferric hydroxide is likely caused by small colloidal particles (<0.1 μm) in the water sample that cannot be removed by standard field filtration, although several other possible explanations cannot be easily excluded.

  8. Mineral saturation states in natural waters and their sensitivity to thermodynamic and analytic errors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D.K.; Ball, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Saturation indices computed with WATEQ4F for chemical analyses from a groundwater in crystalline bedrock and a surface water receiving acid mine drainage are frequently at or above saturation with respect to calcite, fluorite, barite, gibbsite and ferrihydrite. A sensitivity analysis has been performed by varying the analytic and thermodynamic parameters for which the saturation indices are most sensitive. For calcite, fluorite and barite, the supersaturation effect appears to be real because it is only slightly decreased by sources of uncertainty. Apparent supersaturation for gibbsite is most likely caused by the degree of crystallinity on solubility behavior. Apparent supersaturation for ferric hydroxide is likely caused by small colloidal particles (<0.1 ??m) in the water sample that cannot be removed by standard field filtration, although several other possible explanations cannot be easily excluded. -from Authors

  9. Raman spectral classification of mineral- and collagen-bound water's associations to elastic and post-yield mechanical properties of cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Unal, Mustafa; Akkus, Ozan

    2015-12-01

    Water that is bound to bone's matrix is implied as a predictor of fracture resistance; however, bound water is an elusive variable to be measured nondestructively. To date, the only nondestructive method used for studying bone hydration status is magnetic resonance variants (NMR or MRI). For the first time, bone hydration status was studied by short-wave infrared (SWIR) Raman spectroscopy to investigate associations of mineral-bound and collagen-bound water compartments with mechanical properties. Thirty cortical bone samples were used for quantitative Raman-based water analysis, gravimetric analysis, porosity measurement, and biomechanical testing. A sequential dehydration protocol was developed to replace unbound (heat drying) and bound (ethanol treatment) water in bone. Raman spectra were collected serially to track the OH-stretch band during dehydration. Four previously identified peaks were investigated: I3220/I2949, I3325/I2949 and I3453/I2949 reflect status of organic-matrix related water (mostly collagen-related water) compartments and collagen portion of bone while I3584/I2949 reflects status of mineral-related water compartments and mineral portion of bone. These spectroscopic biomarkers were correlated with elastic and post-yield mechanical properties of bone. Collagen-water related biomarkers (I3220/I2949 and I3325/I2949) correlated significantly and positively with toughness (R(2)=0.81 and R(2)=0.79; p<0.001) and post-yield toughness (R(2)=0.65 and R(2)=0.73; p<0.001). Mineral-water related biomarker correlated significantly and negatively with elastic modulus (R(2)=0.78; p<0.001) and positively with strength (R(2)=0.46; p<0.001). While MR-based techniques have been useful in measuring unbound and bound water, this is the first study which probed bound-water compartments differentially for collagen and mineral-bound water. For the first time, we showed an evidence for contributions of different bound-water compartments to mechanical properties of wet

  10. Stable silicon isotope signatures of marine pore waters - Biogenic opal dissolution versus authigenic clay mineral formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlert, Claudia; Doering, Kristin; Wallmann, Klaus; Scholz, Florian; Sommer, Stefan; Grasse, Patricia; Geilert, Sonja; Frank, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Dissolved silicon isotope compositions have been analysed for the first time in pore waters (δ30SiPW) of three short sediment cores from the Peruvian margin upwelling region with distinctly different biogenic opal content in order to investigate silicon isotope fractionation behaviour during early diagenetic turnover of biogenic opal in marine sediments. The δ30SiPW varies between +1.1‰ and +1.9‰ with the highest values occurring in the uppermost part close to the sediment-water interface. These values are of the same order or higher than the δ30Si of the biogenic opal extracted from the same sediments (+0.3‰ to +1.2‰) and of the overlying bottom waters (+1.1‰ to +1.5‰). Together with dissolved silicic acid concentrations well below biogenic opal saturation, our collective observations are consistent with the formation of authigenic alumino-silicates from the dissolving biogenic opal. Using a numerical transport-reaction model we find that approximately 24% of the dissolving biogenic opal is re-precipitated in the sediments in the form of these authigenic phases at a relatively low precipitation rate of 56 μmol Si cm-2 yr-1. The fractionation factor between the precipitates and the pore waters is estimated at -2.0‰. Dissolved and solid cation concentrations further indicate that off Peru, where biogenic opal concentrations in the sediments are high, the availability of reactive terrigenous material is the limiting factor for the formation of authigenic alumino-silicate phases.

  11. [The external application of "Plastunskaya" fluoride-containing mineral water in the course of the combined spa and health resort-based treatment of deforming osteoarthrosis].

    PubMed

    Mel'Nichuk, L P; Khodasevich, L S

    2015-01-01

    Mineral waters containing fluorine (fluorinated waters) at a concentration in excess of 1 mg per liter are extensively used in the newly developing spa and health resort areas of the Russian Federation. They have been found in Siberia, Trans-Baikal regions, and the Krasnodar Territory (together with the Greater Sochi). These waters are mainly used for drinking as a component of the balneo- therapeutic treatment. In this context, the study of the therapeutic effects of low-mineralized hydrocarbonate-sodium waters containing fluorine in high concentrations is of paramount importance for the substantiation and facilitation of their external application in the framework of the programs of combined spa and health resort-based treatment of various diseases. We have investigated the possibility of the external application of "Plastunskaya" mineral water characterized above all by the high content of fluorine for the external treatment of osteoarthritis in 187 patients at the age varying from 37 to 63 years in the combination with the sparing regimen of physical activity, therapeutic physical exercises, klimatotherapy of moderate intensity, and a balanced diet. The patients were prescribed to take general "Plastunskaya" mineral water baths with the fluoride concentration of 7.4 mg/l at a temperature of 36 C from 7 to 15 minutes in duration for 2 consecutive days with a break on every third day (the total course consisted of 14-16 baths). It was shown that the combined treatment with the use of fluorine-containing mineral water resulted in the significant improvement of the clinical and biochemical parameters characterizing the health status of the patients suffering from deforming osteoarthrosis.

  12. Structural Investigation of Alkali Activated Clay Minerals for Application in Water Treatment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumanis, G.; Bajare, D.; Dembovska, L.

    2015-11-01

    Alkali activation technology can be applied for a wide range of alumo-silicates to produce innovative materials with various areas of application. Most researches focuse on the application of alumo-silicate materials in building industry as cement binder replacement to produce mortar and concrete [1]. However, alkali activation technology offers high potential also in biotechnologies [2]. In the processes where certain pH level, especially alkaline environment, must be ensured, alkali activated materials can be applied. One of such fields is water treatment systems where high level pH (up to pH 10.5) ensures efficient removal of water pollutants such as manganese [3]. Previous investigations had shown that alkali activation technology can be applied to calcined clay powder and aluminium scrap recycling waste as a foam forming agent to create porous alkali activated materials. This investigation focuses on the structural investigation of calcined kaolin and illite clay alkali activation processes. Chemical and mineralogical composition of both clays were determined and structural investigation of alkali activated materials was made by using XRD, DTA, FTIR analysis; the microstructure of hardened specimens was observed by SEM. Physical properties of the obtained material were determined. Investigation indicates the essential role of chemical composition of the clay used in the alkali activation process, and potential use of the obtained material in water treatment systems.

  13. Experimental Measurement of Water Bands in Anhydrous Minerals to Improve Modeling of Adsorbed and Bound Water on the Regoliths of Inner Solar System Airless Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    Investigating the characteristics of H2O/OH-absorption bands is critical for understanding their abundance and adherence to remotely observed surfaces. Our goal is to experimentally measure the spectra of anhydrous minerals in thin section and as powders to distinguish between internal H2O, surface adsorbed H2O, adsorbed OH, and OH that was formed as a result of irradiation. From these spectra, we are developing a model that will allow us to better deconvolve the abundance of adsorbed H2O and internally bound OH-/H2O in these materials. With this model, we aim to be able to remove the effects of terrestrial adsorbed H2O, thus enabling us to use the dry spectra to model these materials in the regoliths of airless bodies found in the inner solar system. To complete this task, we created un-mounted thin sections of two ordinary chondrite meteorites (Kilabo - LL6 and Gao-Guenie - H5) and eight ultramafic and banded rocks collected at the Stillwater Intrusion to serve as analogs for the Earth's moon. These rocks host an abundance of three key mineral series of interest: olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase. We conducted EDS scans of each rock to create an elemental map and assess the specific mineral composition of phases in each sample. Transmittance spectra of each thin section were also collected from the visible through mid-IR range using the FTIR microscope to characterize bound water in each sample. These thin sections will be heated up to ~1000°C in a vacuum to remove any internal water and will be measured in transmission for a second time to determine their true anhydrous spectral baseline. Subsets of the samples have been powdered and will be measured under ultra-high vacuum conditions at temperatures ranging from ~293K to 650K to examine the spectral parameters for adsorbed terrestrial water on each sample. Ultimately, these powdered samples will be used for space weathering experiments to examine the nature of the OH- bands induced by irradiation.

  14. Water in cratonic lithosphere: Calibrating laboratory-determined models of electrical conductivity of mantle minerals using geophysical and petrological observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alan G.; Fullea, Javier; Evans, Rob L.; Muller, Mark R.

    2012-06-01

    Measurements of electrical conductivity of "slightly damp" mantle minerals from different laboratories are inconsistent, requiring geophysicists to make choices between them when interpreting their electrical observations. These choices lead to dramatically different conclusions about the amount of water in the mantle, resulting in conflicting conclusions regarding rheological conditions; this impacts on our understanding of mantle convection, among other processes. To attempt to reconcile these differences, we test the laboratory-derived proton conduction models by choosing the simplest petrological scenario possible - cratonic lithosphere - from two locations in southern Africa where we have the most complete knowledge. We compare and contrast the models with field observations of electrical conductivity and of the amount of water in olivine and show that none of the models for proton conduction in olivine proposed by three laboratories are consistent with the field observations. We derive statistically model parameters of the general proton conduction equation that satisfy the observations. The pre-exponent dry proton conduction term (σ0) and the activation enthalpy (ΔHwet) are derived with tight bounds, and are both within the broader 2σ errors of the different laboratory measurements. The two other terms used by the experimentalists, one to describe proton hopping (exponent ron pre-exponent water contentCw) and the other to describe H2O concentration-dependent activation enthalpy (termαCw1/3 added to the activation energy), are less well defined and further field geophysical and petrological observations are required, especially in regions of higher temperature and higher water content.

  15. Low to Extremely Low Water Abundances Measured in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals in Mafic to Granitic Apollo Rock Clasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, J. I.; Christoffersen, R.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Mills, R. D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2017-01-01

    Lunar sample-based volatile studies have focused on assessing the inventory and distribution of water in the Moon. Some have focused on the relatively young mare basalts and pyroclastic glasses, which result from partial melting of the relatively young lunar mantle. Less certain is the water inventory for the oldest materials available, which have the greater potential to record the earliest history of volatiles in the Moon (and thus provide evidence for the "wet" vs. "dry" accretion hypotheses of the Earth-Moon system. Studies of volatiles in ancient lunar rocks have largely focused on apatite. One recent FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Radiometer) study of plagioclase reported a relatively "wet" (approximately 320 parts per million) magma for primordial ferroan anorthosites (FANs). Another, a NanoSIMS study of alkali feldspar, reported a "wet" (approximately 1 weight percentage) felsic magma, but due to the differentiation processes required for silicic magmatism in the lunar crust, predicted an essentially "dry" (less than 100 parts per million) bulk Moon. Thus, despite evidence that appears to complicate the early "dry" Moon paradigm, there is no apparent unanimity among the measurements, even those on apatite. This disparity is clearly seen by the order of magnitude different water estimates for lunar "alkali-rich suite rocks" (Fig. 1). Some of the apparent differences may be explained by recent improvements in the apatite-based water estimates that better account for relative compatibilities of OH-, Cl, and F. In the present work, we seek to expand our understanding of the volatile abundances in early formed lunar magmas, their source reservoirs, and to address the potential role that felsic magmas play on the lunar hydrogen budget over time by employing NanoSIMS analysis of nominally anhydrous minerals.

  16. Using Pore Water Chemistry to Understand Critical Zone Mineral Weathering Reactions: A Comparison of Three Tropical Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buss, H. L.; White, A. F.; Dessert, C.; Gaillardet, J.

    2007-12-01

    Geochemical, physical, biological, and hydrologic processes are tightly coupled within the critical zone and impact global and local water cycles, solute movement, weathering rates, and nutrient bioavailability. The weathering of primary minerals in regolith and at bedrock-regolith interfaces directly impacts the availability of many important soil nutrients including Mg, Ca, K, PO4, and Fe. However, surprisingly little biogeochemical data exists as a function of depth in terrestrial regolith below the rooting zone. This shortage of data hinders quantification of the coupled processes that control nutrient fluxes. Installation of nested suction soil water samplers enables multiple researchers to measure biogeochemical parameters as a function of depth. Nested suction water samplers have been installed in soil and regolith at 0.15 m to as deep as 16.0 m in two watersheds in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico and in a watershed on Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, in the French Antilles. All three watersheds are steep, rugged, humid, and tropical, have similar vegetation and land- use, and contain thick saprolites developed on volcanic materials: a quartz diorite intrusion in the Rio Icacos watershed, Puerto Rico; marine bedded volcaniclastics in the Bisley watershed, Puerto Rico; and a volcanic debris flow in the Bras-David watershed, Guadeloupe. The two Puerto Rican watersheds are part of the USGS Water Energy and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program and also constitute a Critical Zone Exploration Network (CZEN) seed site. The Bisley watershed is also part of the Luquillo Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. The Guadeloupean watershed is a Critical Zone International Scholar seed site and the surface water chemistry is monitored by the Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique de Guadeloupe and the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP). In the mid 1990's the Rio Icacos watershed was instrumented with regolith gas samplers, tensiometers, and nested

  17. Magnesium in tap and bottled mineral water in Spain and its contribution to nutritional recommendations.

    PubMed

    Maraver, Francisco; Vitoria, Isidro; Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Armijo, Francisco; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: Una adecuada ingesta de magnesio condiciona una buena salud ósea y previene y la resistencia a la insulina y la arteriosclerosis. Objetivo: Determinar el contenido en magnesio en aguas de bebida en España y valorar su contribución diaria a las ingestas recomendadas de este mineral. Métodos: En 2012 se analizaron por cromatografía iónica las concentraciones de magnesio de distintas aguas de consumo público en una muestra representativa de 108 poblaciones españolas que abastecen a 21.290.707 personas, así como de 109 aguas minerales naturales embotelladas comercializadas en España (97 españolas y 12 importadas). Resultados: La concentración media de magnesio en aguas de consumo público fue de 14,65±16,23 mg/L (rango: 0,07-70,08 mg/L). En 25 poblaciones el agua contenía 15-45 mg/L de magnesio y en 7 fue superior a 45 mg/L. La concentración media de magnesio de las 97 marcas españolas de aguas fue 16,27 mg/L (rango: 0,11-141,2 mg/L), 33 de ellas contenían 15-45 mg/L de magnesio, mientras que en 4 de ellas era mayor de 45 mg/L. De las 12 marcas importadas, 4 contenían más de 45 mg/L. Asumiendo la cantidad de ingesta de agua recomendada por la EFSA, si el agua contiene 15-45 mg/L de magnesio, ésta aportaría entre el 9 y el 76,5% de la ingesta de magnesio recomendada para los niños de 1-13 años, hasta el 25,7% en adolescentes, entre 7,5 y 25,7% en adultos, y hasta el 27% en lactantes. El agua conteniendo 60 mg/L de magnesio aportaría entre el 30 y el 102% de las recomendaciones según la edad. Discusión: El agua de consumo público de un tercio de ciudades españolas y de aguas minerales naturales puede ser considerada como una fuente complementaria importante de magnesio ingerido.

  18. Pore water chemistry reveals gradients in mineral transformation across a model basaltic hillslope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlmann, Michael; Dontsova, Katerina; Root, Robert; Ruiz, Joaquin; Troch, Peter; Chorover, Jon

    2016-06-01

    The extent of weathering incongruency during soil formation from rock controls local carbon and nutrient cycling in ecosystems, as well as the evolution of hydrologic flow paths. Prior studies of basalt weathering, including those that have quantified the dynamics of well-mixed, bench-scale laboratory reactors or characterized the structure and integrated response of field systems, indicate a strong influence of system scale on weathering rate and trajectory. For example, integrated catchment response tends to produce lower weathering rates than do well mixed reactors, but the mechanisms underlying these disparities remain unclear. Here we present pore water geochemistry and physical sensor data gathered during two controlled rainfall-runoff events on a large-scale convergent model hillslope mantled with 1 m uniform depth of granular basaltic porous media. The dense sampler and sensor array (1488 samplers and sensors embedded in 330 m3 of basalt) showed that rainfall-induced dissolution of basaltic glass produced supersaturation of pore waters with respect to multiple secondary solids including allophane, gibbsite, ferrihydrite, birnessite and calcite. The spatial distribution of saturation state was heterogeneous, suggesting an accumulation of solutes leading to precipitation of secondary solids along hydrologic flow paths. Rapid dissolution of primary silicates was widespread throughout the entire hillslope, irrespective of up-gradient flowpath length. However, coherent spatial variations in solution chemistry and saturation indices were observed in depth profiles and between distinct topographic regions of the hillslope. Colloids (110-2000 nm) enriched in iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), and phosphorus (P) were mobile in soil pore waters.

  19. Application of banana peels nanosorbent for the removal of radioactive minerals from real mine water.

    PubMed

    Oyewo, Opeyemi A; Onyango, Maurice S; Wolkersdorfer, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Transformation of agricultural waste such as banana peels into a valuable sorbent material has been proven effective and efficient in wastewater treatment. Further, transformation into nanosorbent to enhance the removal capacity of actinides (uranium and thorium) from synthetic and real mine water is extensively investigated in this study. The nanosorbent samples before and after adsorption were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), zetasizer nanoseries and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) while the amount of radioactive substances adsorbed was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Results revealed that there was a crystallite size and particle size reduction from 108 to 12 nm and <65,000 nm to <25 nm respectively as a function of milling time. Furthermore, appearance and disappearance of nanofibers via milling was noticed during structural analysis. The functional groups responsible for the banana peels capability to coordinate and remove metal ions were identified at absorption bands of 1730 cm(-1) (carboxylic groups) and 889 cm(-1) (amine groups) via FTIR analysis. Equilibrium isotherm results demonstrated that the adsorption process was endothermic for both uranium and thorium. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity was 27.1 mg g(-1), 34.13 mg g(-1) for uranium and 45.5 mg g(-1), 10.10 mg g(-1) for thorium in synthetic and real mine water, respectively. The results obtained indicate that nanostructured banana peels is a potential adsorbent for the removal of radioactive substances from aqueous solution and also from real mine water. However, the choice of this sorbent material for any application depends on the composition of the effluent to be treated.

  20. Distribution of hexavalent Cr species across the clay mineral surface-water interface.

    PubMed

    Fritzen, Mauricia B; Souza, Aloisio J; Silva, Tiago A G; Souza, Luciana; Nome, Rene A; Fiedler, Haidi D; Nome, Faruk

    2006-04-15

    The adsorption isotherms of Cr(VI) on kaolinite, montmorillonite, and alumina were adequately treated with Langmuir model showing behavior characteristic of single-layer adsorption. The efficiency of the adsorbents in removing Cr(VI) from water follows the order alumina > kaolinite > montmorillonite > silica. Speciation studies indicate that hydrogen chromate ions were the major adsorbed species and simultaneous adsorption of dichromate ion occurred at concentrations greater than approximately 10(-3) mol L(-1). It is most probable that the mechanism of adsorption of the hydrogen chromate ion at the surface of alumina is predominantly electrostatic adsorption, with outer sphere complex formation.

  1. Silicon alleviates drought stress of rice plants by improving plant water status, photosynthesis and mineral nutrient absorption.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yao, Xiaoqin; Cai, Kunzheng; Chen, Jining

    2011-07-01

    Drought is a major constraint for rice production in the rainfed lowlands in China. Silicon (Si) has been verified to play an important role in enhancing plant resistance to environmental stress. Two near-isogenic lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.), w-14 (drought susceptible) and w-20 (drought resistant), were selected to study the effects of exogenous Si application on the physiological traits and nutritional status of rice under drought stress. In wet conditions, Si supply had no effects on growth and physiological parameters of rice plants. Drought stress was found to reduce dry weight, root traits, water potential, photosynthetic parameters, basal quantum yield (F(v)/F(0)), and maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (F(v)/F(m)) in rice plants, while Si application significantly increased photosynthetic rate (Pr), transpiration rate (Tr), F(v)/F(0), and F(v)/F(m) of rice plants under drought stress. In addition, water stress increased K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe content of rice plants, but Si treatment significantly reduced these nutrient level. These results suggested that silicon application was useful to increase drought resistance of rice through the enhancement of photochemical efficiency and adjustment of the mineral nutrient absorption in rice plants.

  2. Spectral properties of mixtures of montmorillonite and dark grains - Implications for remote sensing minerals containing chemically and physically adsorbed water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    The spectral properties from 0.4 to 3 microns of montmorillonite plus dark carbon grains (called opaques) of various sizes are studied as a function of the weight fraction of opaques present. The reflectance level and band depths of the 1.4-, 1.9-, 2.2-, and 2.8-micron water and/or OH absorption features are analyzed using derived empirical relationships and scattering theory. It is found that the absorption band depths and reflectance level are a very nonlinear function of the weight fraction of opaques present but can be predicted in many cases by simple scattering theory. The 2.8-micron bound water fundamental band is the most difficult absorption feature to suppress. The overtone absorptions are suppressed a greater amount than the fundamental but are still apparent even when 10-20 wt pct opaques are present. The relationships observed and the simple scattering theory presented show that quantitative compositional remote sensing studies are feasible for surfaces containing complex mineral mixtures.

  3. The plant stress hypothesis and variable responses by blue grama grass (Bouteloua gracilis) to water, mineral nitrogen, and insect herbivory.

    PubMed

    Joern, Anthony; Mole, Simon

    2005-09-01

    Acting simultaneously or sequentially, plants encounter multiple stresses from combined abiotic and biotic factors that result in decreased growth and internal reallocation of resources. The plant stress hypothesis predicts that environmental stresses on plants decrease plant resistance to insect herbivory by altering biochemical source-sink relationships and foliar chemistry, leading to more palatable food. Such changes in the nutritional landscape for insects may facilitate insect population outbreaks during periods of moderate stress on host plants. We examined the plant stress hypothesis with field experiments in continental grassland (USA) using the C4 grass Bouteloua gracilis. Water, nitrogen fertilizer, and herbivory from the grass-feeding grasshopper Ageneotettix deorum were manipulated. Combined stresses from water and mineral-N in the soil decreased plant growth and altered foliar percent total N (TN) and percent total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) concentrations in an additive fashion. Grasshopper herbivory affected final biomass only in dry years; plants compensated for tissue loss when rainfall was abundant. Foliar TN and TNC concentrations were dynamic with respect to variable climatic conditions and treatment combinations, showing significant interactions. Grasshopper herbivory had its greatest impact on TN or TNC in dry years, interacting with other forms of stress. Herbivory as a single factor had strong effects on TNC in years with normal precipitation, but not in a dry year. Performance (developmental rate and survival) by the grasshoppers Phoetaliotes nebrascensis and A. deorum were not greatly affected by plant stress in a manner consistent with the plant stress hypothesis.

  4. Atomic structure and surface defects at mineral-water interfaces probed by in situ atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Siretanu, Igor; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2016-04-21

    Atomic scale details of surface structure play a crucial role for solid-liquid interfaces. While macroscopic characterization techniques provide averaged information about bulk and interfaces, high resolution real space imaging reveals unique insights into the role of defects that are believed to dominate many aspects of surface chemistry and physics. Here, we use high resolution dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to visualize and characterize in ambient water the morphology and atomic scale structure of a variety of nanoparticles of common clay minerals adsorbed to flat solid surfaces. Atomically resolved images of the (001) basal planes are obtained on all materials investigated, namely gibbsite, kaolinite, illite, and Na-montmorillonite of both natural and synthetic origin. Next to regions of perfect crystallinity, we routinely observe extended regions of various types of defects on the surfaces, including vacancies of one or few atoms, vacancy islands, atomic steps, apparently disordered regions, as well as strongly adsorbed seemingly organic and inorganic species. While their exact nature is frequently difficult to identify, our observations clearly highlight the ubiquity of such defects and their relevance for the overall physical and chemical properties of clay nanoparticle-water interfaces.

  5. Water chemistry impacts on arsenic mobilization from arsenopyrite dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation: implications for managed aquifer recharge.

    PubMed

    Neil, Chelsea W; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Schupp, Don; Jun, Young-Shin

    2014-04-15

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is a water reuse technique with the potential to meet growing water demands. However, MAR sites have encountered arsenic mobilization resulting from recharge operations. To combat this challenge, it is imperative to identify the mechanisms of arsenic mobilization during MAR. In this bench-scale study, arsenic mobilization from arsenopyrite (FeAsS) was characterized for conditions relevant to MAR operations. Experimentally determined activation energies for arsenic mobilization from FeAsS under aerobic conditions were 36.9 ± 2.3 kJ/mol for 10 mM sodium chloride, 40.8 ± 3.5 kJ/mol for 10 mM sodium nitrate, and 43.6 ± 5.0 kJ/mol for secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant. Interestingly, the sodium chloride system showed higher arsenic mobilization under aerobic conditions. In addition, secondary mineral precipitation varied among systems and further affected arsenic mobilization. For example, the wastewater system inhibited precipitation, while in the sodium chloride system, faster phase transformation of iron(III) (hydr)oxide precipitates was observed, resulting in hematite formation after 7 days. The phase transformation to hematite will result in less available surface area for arsenic attenuation. These new observations and activation energies can be useful to develop improved reactive transport models for the fate of arsenic during MAR, and develop strategies to minimize arsenic release.

  6. Seawater/Saline Agriculture for Energy, Warming, Water, Rainfall, Land, Food and Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    The combination of the incipient demise of cheap oil and increasing evidence of Global Warming due to anthropogenic fossil carbon release has reinvigorated the need for and efforts on Renewable energy sources, especially for transportation applications. Biomass/Bio-diesel appears to have many benefits compared to Hydrogen, the only other major renewable transportation fuel candidate. Biomass Production is currently limited by available arable land and fresh water. Halophyte Plants and seawater irrigation proffer a wholly new biomass production mantra using wastelands and very plentiful seawater. Such an approach addresses many-to-most of the major emerging Societal Problems including Land, Water, Food, Warming and Energy. For many reasons, including seawater agriculture, portions of the Sahara appear to be viable candidates for future Biomass Production. The apparent nonlinearity between vegetation cover and atmospheric conditions over North Africa necessitates serious coupled boundary layer Meteorology and Global Circulation Modeling to ensure that this form of Terra Forming is Favorable and to avoid adverse Unintended Consequences.

  7. [The ultrastructure of Leydig cells under the influence of drinking mineral water and electromagnetic radiation under the stress conditions in the rats].

    PubMed

    Geniatulina, M S; Korolev, Yu N; Nikulina, L A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was elucidate the peculiar features of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (LI EMR) and mineral water (MW) on the ultrastructure of rat Leydig cells under conditions of immobilization stress. The experiments were carried out on outbred male rats with the use of electron microscopy. It has been demonstrated that the prophylactic consumption of drinking sulfate-containing mineral water and the application low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (with the flow power density of 1 mcW/cm2 and frequency around 1,000 Hz) or the combination of these two modalities under conditions of immobilization stress reduced the degree of ultrastructural derangement in the rat Leydig cells and stimulated the development of regenerative processes. In the cases of the single-factor impact, drinking mineral water exerted more pronounced action than low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on mitochondrial regeneration. In case of the simultaneous application of the two factors their protective action on the Leydig cells was much more conspicuous than that of either of them applied alone. It is concluded that drinking sulfate-containing mineral water in combination with the application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation enhances resistance of the rat Leydig cells to stress.

  8. Screening of endocrine-disrupting phenols, herbicides, steroid estrogens, and estrogenicity in drinking water from the waterworks of 35 Italian cities and from PET-bottled mineral water.

    PubMed

    Maggioni, Silvia; Balaguer, Patrick; Chiozzotto, Claudia; Benfenati, Emilio

    2013-03-01

    We investigated contamination by endocrine-disrupting chemicals in drinking water from 35 major Italian cities and five popular Italian brands of bottled mineral water. The quality of Italian drinking water was assessed by combing chemical analysis with bioassay to quantify specific estrogenic contaminants and to characterize the actual biological effect of the mixture of chemicals present in drinking water including the contribution of not targeted compounds. The selected contaminants were natural and synthetic steroid estrogens, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, linuron, triazine herbicides, and their metabolites. A specific analytical method was developed based on solid phase extraction of 1 L of water and concentration to 100 μL for quantification by electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, achieving quantification limits of 0.05-0.36 ng/L for herbicides and 0.64-7.70 ng/L for steroids and phenols. No steroid estrogens were detected in any of the samples, while bisphenol A and nonylphenols were detected in the ranges of 0.82-102.00 and 10.30-84.00 ng/L respectively. Herbicides and their degradation products, when present, were found from slightly above the quantification limits up to 49.91 ng/L, mainly from cities in northern Italy. Chemical analyses were complemented by the performance of a bioassay for the determination of the estrogenic activity in the extracts based on the transactivation of estrogen receptor α-transfected reporter HeLa-ERE-Luciferase-Neomycin cell line. Activity was generally low with maximum estrogenicity of 13.6 pg/L estradiol equivalents.

  9. Electron transfer at the mineral/water interface: Selenium reduction by ferrous iron sorbed on clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlet, L.; Scheinost, A. C.; Tournassat, C.; Greneche, J. M.; Géhin, A.; Fernández-Martínez, A.; Coudert, S.; Tisserand, D.; Brendle, J.

    2007-12-01

    The mobility and availability of the toxic metalloid selenium in the environment are largely controlled by sorption and redox reactions, which may proceed at temporal scales similar to that of subsurface water movement under saturated or unsaturated conditions. Since such waters are often anaerobic and rich in Fe 2+, we investigated the long-term (⩽1 month) kinetics of selenite (Se(IV)O3-) sorption to montmorillonite in the presence of Fe 2+ under anoxic conditions. A synthetic montmorillonite was used to eliminate the influence of structural Fe. In the absence of aqueous Fe 2+, selenite was sorbed as outer-sphere sorption complex, covering only part of the positive edge sites, as verified by a structure-based MUSIC model and Se K-edge XAS (X-ray absorption spectroscopy). When selenite was added to montmorillonite previously equilibrated with Fe 2+ solution however, slow reduction of Se and formation of a solid phase was observed with Se K-edge XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy) and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine-structure) spectroscopy. Iterative transformation factor analysis of XANES and EXAFS spectra suggested that only one Se reaction product formed, which was identified as nano-particulate Se(0). Even after one month, only 75% of the initially sorbed Se(IV) was reduced to this solid species. Mössbauer spectrometry revealed that before and after addition and reduction of Se, 5% of total sorbed Fe occurred as Fe(III) species on edge sites of montmorillonite (≈2 mmol kg -1). The only change observed after addition of Se was the formation of a new Fe(II) species (15%) attributed to the formation of an outer-sphere Fe(II)-Se sorption complex. The combined Mössbauer and XAS results hence clearly suggest that the Se and Fe redox reactions are not directly coupled. Based on the results of a companion paper, we hypothesize that the electrons produced in the absence of Se by oxidation of sorbed Fe(II) are stored, for example by formation of

  10. [Immediate thyrotropic effects of mineral water Naftussya their autonomic relevence and possibility to forecast].

    PubMed

    Koziavkina, N V; Baryliak, L H; Ianchiĭ, O R; Fuchko, O L

    2013-01-01

    Clinical physiological monitoring of 32 men aged 25-60 years with chronic stoneless cholecystitis in the phase of remission found that in 14 patients 75-85 minutes after drinking the bioactive water Naftussya (3 ml/kg, t(0) 18-20 degrees C) the plasma level of total triiodothyronine (T3) was not significantly changed, while in 9 patients it was reduced to 0.26 +/- 0.10 nM/1 (by 11%). In the other 9 patients the level increased to 0.29 +/- 0,04 nM/1 (by 17%). The changes in T3 level correlated negatively with the changes in absolute (r = -0.55) and relative (r = -0.47) power spectral density (PSD) of ultra very low-frequency components of heart rate variability (HRV). These changes correlated positively (r = 0.46) with the changes in relative PSD of low-frequency components of HRV. Subject to a weak correlation with HRV parameter pNN50 (r = -0.21) canonical correlation coefficient (R) between changes in HRV parameters and T3 reaches 0.68 (p = 0.002). On the other hand, the changes in T3 correlated with its initial level (r = -0.46), as well as initial levels of moda (r = -0.40), its amplitude (r = 0.30) and absolute PSD of low-frequency components HRV (r = -0.33), i.e. thyrotropic effects conditionized these parameters by 30% (R = 0.55; p = 0.038). The method ofdiscriminant analysis has identified 14 primary parameters that allowed predicting the thyrotropic effect of Naftussya water with 100% accuracy.

  11. Naturally acidic surface and ground waters draining porphyry-related mineralized areas of the Southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Bove, D.J.; Plumlee, G.S.; Runkel, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Acidic, metal-rich waters produced by the oxidative weathering and resulting leaching of major and trace elements from pyritic rocks can adversely affect water quality in receiving streams and riparian ecosystems. Five study areas in the southern Rocky Mountains with naturally acidic waters associated with porphyry mineralization were studied to document variations in water chemistry and processes that control the chemical variations. Study areas include the Upper Animas River watershed, East Alpine Gulch, Mount Emmons, and Handcart Gulch in Colorado and the Red River in New Mexico. Although host-rock lithologies in all these areas range from Precambrian gneisses to Cretaceous sedimentary units to Tertiary volcanic complexes, the mineralization is Tertiary in age and associated with intermediate to felsic composition, porphyritic plutons. Pyrite is ubiquitous, ranging from ???1 to >5 vol.%. Springs and headwater streams have pH values as low as 2.6, SO4 up to 3700 mg/L and high dissolved metal concentrations (for example: Fe up to 400 mg/L; Cu up to 3.5 mg/L; and Zn up to 14.4 mg/L). Intensity of hydrothermal alteration and presence of sulfides are the primary controls of water chemistry of these naturally acidic waters. Subbasins underlain by intensely hydrothermally altered lithologies are poorly vegetated and quite susceptible to storm-induced surface runoff. Within the Red River study area, results from a storm runoff study documented downstream changes in river chemistry: pH decreased from 7.80 to 4.83, alkalinity decreased from 49.4 to <1 mg/L, SO4 increased from 162 to 314 mg/L, dissolved Fe increased from to 0.011 to 0.596 mg/L, and dissolved Zn increased from 0.056 to 0.607 mg/L. Compared to mine drainage in the same study areas, the chemistry of naturally acidic waters tends to overlap but not reach the extreme concentrations of metals and acidity as some mine waters. The chemistry of waters draining these mineralized but unmined areas can be used to

  12. Environmental geochemistry of shale-hosted Ag-Pb-Zn massive sulfide deposits in northwest Alaska: Natural background concentrations of metals in water from mineralized areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, K.D.; Taylor, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    Red Dog, Lik and Drenchwater are shale-hosted stratiform Ag-Pb-Zn massive sulfide deposits in the northwestern Brooks Range. Natural background concentrations of metals in waters from the undisturbed (unmined) Drenchwater prospect and Lik deposit were compared to pre-mining baseline studies conducted at Red Dog. The primary factors affecting water chemistry are the extent of exposure of the deposits, the grade of mineralization, the presence of carbonate reeks in the section, and the proportion of Fe-sulfide in the ore. Surface water samples from the Drenchwater prospect, which has pyrite-dominant mineralization exposed in outcrop, have pH values as low as 2.8 and high dissolved concentrations of metals including as much as 95 mg 1-1 Al, 270 mg 1-1 Fe, 8 ??1-1 Cd, 10 ??1-1 Pb, and 2600 ??1-1 Zn, with As up to 26 ??g1-1. Surface waters from the Red Dog deposit prior to mining were also acidic and metal-rich, however, dissolved metal concentrations in Red Dog waters were many times greater. The higher metal concentrations in Red Dog waters reflect the high Zn grades and the abundant sphalerite, pyrite, and galena that were present in outcrop prior to mining. In contrast, despite significant mineralization at the Lik deposit, carbonate rocks in the section buffer the system, resulting in less acidic, mostly near-neutral pH values with low concentrations of most metals except Zn.

  13. Metabolic acidosis mimicking diabetic ketoacidosis after use of calorie-free mineral water.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Gry T; Woldseth, Berit; Lindemann, Rolf

    2012-09-01

    A previously healthy boy was admitted with fever, tachycardia, dyspnea, and was vomiting. A blood test showed a severe metabolic acidosis with pH 7.08 and an anion gap of 36 mmol/L. His urine had an odor of acetone. The serum glucose was 5.6 mmol/L, and no glucosuria was found. Diabetic ketoacidosis could therefore be eliminated. Lactate level was normal. Tests for the most common metabolic diseases were negative. Because of herpes stomatitis, the boy had lost appetite and only been drinking Diet Coke and water the last days. Diet Coke or Coca-Cola Light is sweetened with a blend containing cyclamates, aspartame, and acesulfame potassium, all free of calories. The etiology of the metabolic acidosis appeared to be a catabolic situation exaggerated by fasting with no intake of calories. The elevated anion gap was due to a severe starvation ketoacidosis, mimicking a diabetic ketoacidosis. Pediatricians should recommend carbohydrate/calorie-containing fluids for rehydration of children with acute fever, diarrhea, or illness.

  14. Impact of Natural and Man-Made Factors on Mineral Composition of the Ardon River Water and Hydrophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadim, Ermakov; Elena, Korobova; Alexander, Degtyarev; Nina, Petrunina; Sergey, Tyutikov

    2013-04-01

    The Unal basin located in mountain region of Northern Ossetia (the Caucasus) belongs to Pb-Zn natural province with anthropogenic and natural transformation of the environment leading to risks of ecological damage. Activity of the Misursk Mining Combine and its Arkhon-Khosta tailings caused a significant local increase of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn content in soils, water and biotic components relative to background values [1-5]. A catastrophic mud flow of 2002 and the later construction of a gas pipeline and a dam for hydroelectric power station changed local landscapes and biota (plants, algae, and amphibia). Biogeochemical studies performed in the area in 2001, 2003 and 2008 showed that in some cases the specified factors might change the structure of landscapes due to enhanced mass migration and the erosion of outcropping rocks which could be followed by corresponding transformation of the chemical composition of draining waters and flood plain soils, and could also change the character of species' invasion. Algae were proved to adapt and to indicate both natural and man-made transformation of the environment [3, 4]. A distinct relation between the particle size of the suspended matter in the Ardon river waters and water mineralization was discovered. However, heavy metals' concentration level in waters of the Ardon river appeared in general to be within the acceptable hygienic standards and therefore ecologically not critical. References 1. Degtyarev V.P., Ermakov V.V. Ecological and geochemical evaluation of the the Ardon river basin (Northern Ossetia). Geokhimiya, 1998, 1, 88-94. 2. Karpova E.A., Krechetova E.V., Degtyarev V.P. Parameters of heavy metal migration in soils of biogeochemical anomalies of the Northern Ossetia. Modern problems of soil contamination, Moscow State University, V. 1, 2007, 106-110. 3. Petrunina N.S., Ermakov V.V., Tuytikov S.F., Karpova E.A., Levkina L.M., Gololobova M.A. Biogeochemical identification of natural and technogenic polymetallic

  15. The relationship between water content and Al-content in the MTZ and the lower mantle minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, T.; Yabuki, T.; Yurimoto, H.

    2011-12-01

    Water is an important volatile component in the Earth mantle, and many high pressure experiments have been conducted so far to determine the stability region of both dense hydrous magnesium silicate (DHMS) and nominally anhydrous minerals with some water. Al3+ is supposed to be coupled with H+ by a substitution with Mg2+, Si4+ or Mg2+ + Si4+. To clarify the degree of the substitution, the water contents and the chemical compositions of Al-bearing minerals in the mantle transition zone and the lower mantle were determined in the systems pyrope - enstatite with H2O of 11.3 wt% and 18.7 wt% at pressures of 20-26 GPa and temperatures of 1473-1873 K, corresponding to the mantle transition zone (MTZ) and the lower mantle. High pressure experiments were conducted by Kawai-type high pressure apparatuses at Ehime University. Starting materials were the mixtures of MgO and SiO2 oxides, and Mg(OH)2 and Al(OH)3 hydroxides with appropriate proportions. We selected the molar ratios of Mg:Si:Al:H = 3:3:1:9 and 3:3:1:5, which H2O contents were 18.7 and 11.3 wt%, respectively, as the starting compositions. The sample was sealed by an AuPd capsule. The recovered charges were polished, and identified by micro-RAMAN spectroscopy, and the chemical compositions for Mg, Si and Al were measured by SEM-EDS at Ehime University. The water contents were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) at Hokkaido University. In all experimental conditions, hydrous liquid was observed. At 20 GPa, garnet and stishovite was observed, but above 22.5 GPa, phase D was observed instead of garnet in the wide range of the present experimental conditions. At 26 GPa and 1873 K, perovskite was observed. The present phase D included a large amount of Al2O3 (~12-21 wt%), and the Mg/Si molar ratios were ~0.7-0.8. The Al content increased and the Mg/Si ratio decreased, with increasing temperature. Frost and Fei (1998) first reported phase D in the MgO-SiO2-H2O system. Our Mg/Si ratio is ~0.1 larger than

  16. CO2-water-mineral reactions during CO2 leakage into glauconitic sands: geochemical and isotopic monitoring of batch experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humez, P.; Lions, J.; Lagneau, V.; Negrel, Ph.

    2012-04-01

    The assessment of environmental impacts of carbon dioxide geological storage requires the investigation of the potential CO2 leakages into fresh groundwater reserves. The Albian aquifer of the Paris Basin was chosen as a case of study because i) the Paris Basin contains deep saline Jurassic and Triassic aquifers identified as targets by the French national program of CO2 geological storage and ii) the Albian aquifer is a deep freshwater resource of strategic national importance, above the Jurassic and Triassic formations. An experimental and a geochemical modelling approach were carried out in order to better understand the rock-water-CO2 interactions with two main objectives: to assess the evolution of the chemistry of the formation water and of the mineralogy of the solid phase during the interaction and to design a monitoring program for freshwater resources. The main focus is to select and develop suitable indirect indicators of the presence of CO2 in the aquifer. We present here the experimental results, which combines both major and trace elements and isotopic tools, some of them new in the CCS field. Batch reactors with a liquid/solid ratio of 10 made of appropriate materials (PTFE, stainless steel) were equipped with simultaneous controls on several parameters (pH measurement, gas phase composition, pressure, tightness…) after CO2 injection (PCO2= 2 bar; room temperature). Ten reactors were run simultaneously, over pre-determined durations of CO2-water-rock interaction (1, 7, 15 and 30 days). During the batch experiment, we observed major changes in several chemical parameters due to the CO2 injection. A sharp drop in pH from 6.6 to 4.9 was noticeable, immediately after the injection, due to CO2 dissolution in the water phase. Alkalinity varies from 1.3 mmol.L-1 in the initial water to 2.0 mmol.L-1 at the end of the 1-month experiment. Four types of ion behaviors are observed: (1) calcium, silicon and magnesium concentrations increase during the 1-month

  17. A renewable copper electrode as an amperometric flow detector for nitrate determination in mineral water and soft drink samples.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, Juan C M; Peña, Roselyn C; Paixão, Thiago R L C; Bertotti, Mauro

    2009-12-15

    A novel approach was developed for nitrate analysis in a FIA configuration with amperometric detection (E=-0.48 V). Sensitive and reproducible current measurements were achieved by using a copper electrode activated with a controlled potential protocol. The response of the FIA amperometric method was linear over the range from 0.1 to 2.5 mmol L(-1) nitrate with a detection limit of 4.2 micromol L(-1) (S/N=3). The repeatability of measurements was determined as 4.7% (n=9) at the best conditions (flow rate: 3.0 mL min(-1), sample volume: 150 microL and nitrate concentration: 0.5 mmol L(-1)) with a sampling rate of 60 samples h(-1). The method was employed for the determination of nitrate in mineral water and soft drink samples and the results were in agreement with those obtained by using a recommended procedure. Studies towards a selective monitoring of nitrite were also performed in samples containing nitrate by carrying out measurements at a less negative potential (-0.20 V).

  18. Anthropogenic versus mineral aerosols in the stimulation of microbial planktonic communities in coastal waters of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Marín, I; Nunes, S; Sánchez-Pérez, E D; Aparicio, F L; Estrada, M; Marrasé, C; Moreno, T; Wagener, T; Querol, X; Peters, F

    2017-01-01

    The atmosphere of the northwestern (NW) Mediterranean Sea is affected by continuous inputs of anthropogenic aerosols and episodic Saharan dust events. These atmospheric inputs deliver to the surface waters high amounts of macronutrients and trace metals that can constitute their main source at certain times of the year. The effect of both anthropogenic and crustal particles over the autotrophic and heterotrophic planktonic community assembles was evaluated through three microcosm experiments carried out in the summer of 2013 and in the winter and spring of 2014 at an urban coastal location of the NW Mediterranean (Barcelona, Spain). Particles were added to seawater at a concentration of 0.8mgl(-1). The results showed that (i) a greater stimulation of the whole community was observed in summer and spring than in winter; (ii) both kinds of aerosols produced an increase in the growth of phytoplankton, although the stimulation of nanoeukaryotes was significantly larger with anthropogenic aerosols; and (iii) bacterial abundance increased more with mineral dust, whereas bacterial production was more stimulated with anthropogenic inputs. Overall, the effect of atmospheric particles was dependent on their composition and solubility in seawater, as well as on the initial biogeochemical conditions present in the seawater and had the potential to change the net metabolic balance of the microbial planktonic community.

  19. A novel vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction approach using auxiliary solvent: Determination of iodide in mineral water samples.

    PubMed

    Zaruba, Serhii; Vishnikin, Andriy B; Andruch, Vasil

    2016-01-01

    A novel vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VA-LLME) for determination of iodide was developed. The method includes the oxidation of iodide with iodate in the presence of hydrochloric acid followed by VA-LLME of the ion-pair formed between ICl2(-) and Astra Phloxine reagent (AP) and subsequent absorbance measurement at 555nm. The appropriate experimental conditions were investigated and found to be: 5mL of sample, 0.27molL(-)(1) HCl, 0.027mmolL(-1) KIO3 as the oxidation agent, 250μL of extraction mixture containing amyl acetate as the extraction solvent and carbon tetrachloride as the auxiliary solvent (1:1, v/v), 0.04mmolL(-1) AP reagent, vortex time: 20s at 3000rpm, centrifugation: 4min at 3000rpm. The calibration plot was linear in the range 16.9-169μg L(-1) of iodide, with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.996, and the relative standard deviation ranged from 1.9 to 5.7%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1.75 and 6.01μgL(-)(1) of iodide, respectively. The suggested procedure was applied for determination of iodide in real mineral water samples.

  20. Electrospinning of calcium phosphate-poly (d,l-lactic acid) nanofibers for sustained release of water-soluble drug and fast mineralization.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qi-Wei; Zi, Yun-Peng; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Rong; Cai, Zhu-Yun; Zheng, Wei-Jie; Chen, Feng; Qian, Qi-Rong

    Calcium phosphate-based biomaterials have been well studied in biomedical fields due to their outstanding chemical and biological properties which are similar to the inorganic constituents in bone tissue. In this study, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) nanoparticles were prepared by a precipitation method, and used for preparation of ACP-poly(d,l-lactic acid) (ACP-PLA) nanofibers and water-soluble drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers by electrospinning. Promoting the encapsulation efficiency of water-soluble drugs in electrospun hydrophobic polymer nanofibers is a common problem due to the incompatibility between the water-soluble drug molecules and hydrophobic polymers solution. Herein, we used a native biomolecule of lecithin as a biocompatible surfactant to overcome this problem, and successfully prepared water-soluble drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers. The lecithin and ACP nanoparticles played important roles in stabilizing water-soluble drug in the electrospinning composite solution. The electrospun drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers exhibited fast mineralization in simulated body fluid. The ACP nanoparticles played the key role of seeds in the process of mineralization. Furthermore, the drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers exhibited sustained drug release which simultaneously occurred with the in situ mineralization in simulated body fluid. The osteoblast-like (MG63) cells with spreading filopodia were well observed on the as-prepared nanofibrous mats after culturing for 24 hours, indicating a high cytocompatibility. Due to the high biocompatibility, sustained drug release, and fast mineralization, the as-prepared composite nanofibers may have potential applications in water-soluble drug loading and release for tissue engineering.

  1. Electrospinning of calcium phosphate-poly (d,l-lactic acid) nanofibers for sustained release of water-soluble drug and fast mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qi-Wei; Zi, Yun-Peng; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Rong; Cai, Zhu-Yun; Zheng, Wei-Jie; Chen, Feng; Qian, Qi-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Calcium phosphate-based biomaterials have been well studied in biomedical fields due to their outstanding chemical and biological properties which are similar to the inorganic constituents in bone tissue. In this study, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) nanoparticles were prepared by a precipitation method, and used for preparation of ACP-poly(d,l-lactic acid) (ACP-PLA) nanofibers and water-soluble drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers by electrospinning. Promoting the encapsulation efficiency of water-soluble drugs in electrospun hydrophobic polymer nanofibers is a common problem due to the incompatibility between the water-soluble drug molecules and hydrophobic polymers solution. Herein, we used a native biomolecule of lecithin as a biocompatible surfactant to overcome this problem, and successfully prepared water-soluble drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers. The lecithin and ACP nanoparticles played important roles in stabilizing water-soluble drug in the electrospinning composite solution. The electrospun drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers exhibited fast mineralization in simulated body fluid. The ACP nanoparticles played the key role of seeds in the process of mineralization. Furthermore, the drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers exhibited sustained drug release which simultaneously occurred with the in situ mineralization in simulated body fluid. The osteoblast-like (MG63) cells with spreading filopodia were well observed on the as-prepared nanofibrous mats after culturing for 24 hours, indicating a high cytocompatibility. Due to the high biocompatibility, sustained drug release, and fast mineralization, the as-prepared composite nanofibers may have potential applications in water-soluble drug loading and release for tissue engineering. PMID:27785016

  2. Results of mineral, chemical, and sulfate isotopic analyses of water, soil, rocks, and soil extracts from the Pariette Draw Watershed, Uinta Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Jean M.; Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Fahy, Juli W.

    2015-08-06

    The goal of this study was to establish a process-based understanding of salt, Se, and B behavior to address whether these contaminants can be better managed, or if uncontrollable natural processes will overwhelm any attempts to bring Pariette Draw into compliance with respect to recently established total maximum daily limits (TMDLs). We collected data to refine our knowledge about the role of rock weathering and soil formation in the transport and storage of salt in the watershed and to show how salt is cycled under irrigated and natural conditions. Our approach was to sample rock, soils, and sediment on irrigated and natural terrain for mineralogical analysis to determine the residence of salt and associated Se and B, classify minerals as primary (related to rock formation) or secondary weathering products, and characterize mineral dissolution kinetics. Mineral and chemical analyses and selective extractions of rocks and soils provide useful information in understanding solute movement and mineral dissolution/ formation. The resulting data are critical in determining residence of salt, Se, and B in weathered rock and soil and understanding the mobility during water-rock-soil interactions. This report summarizes our methods for sample and data collection and tabulates the mineral, chemical, and isotopic data collected.

  3. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  4. Sodium-potassium synergism in Theobroma cacao: stimulation of photosynthesis, water-use efficiency and mineral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Gattward, James N; Almeida, Alex-Alan F; Souza, José O; Gomes, Fábio P; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2012-11-01

    In ecological setting, sodium (Na(+)) can be beneficial or toxic, depending on plant species and the Na(+) level in the soil. While its effects are more frequently studied at high saline levels, Na(+) has also been shown to be of potential benefit to some species at lower levels of supply, especially in C4 species. Here, clonal plants of the major tropical C3 crop Theobroma cacao (cacao) were grown in soil where potassium (K(+)) was partially replaced (at six levels, up to 50% replacement) by Na(+), at two concentrations (2.5 and 4.0 mmol(c) dm(-3)). At both concentrations, net photosynthesis per unit leaf area (A) increased more than twofold with increasing substitution of K(+) by Na(+). Concomitantly, instantaneous (A/E) and intrinsic (A/g(s)) water-use efficiency (WUE) more than doubled. Stomatal conductance (g(s)) and transpiration rate (E) exhibited a decline at 2.5 mmol dm(-3), but remained unchanged at 4 mmol dm(-3). Leaf nitrogen content was not impacted by Na(+) supplementation, whereas sulfur (S), calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)) and zinc (Zn(2+)) contents were maximized at 2.5 mmol dm(-3) and intermediate (30-40%) replacement levels. Leaf K(+) did not decline significantly. In contrast, leaf Na(+) content increased steadily. The resultant elevated Na(+)/K(+) ratios in tissue correlated with increased, not decreased, plant performance. The results show that Na(+) can partially replace K(+) in the nutrition of clonal cacao, with significant beneficial effects on photosynthesis, WUE and mineral nutrition in this major perennial C3 crop.

  5. Magnesium hydrogen carbonate natural mineral water enriched with K(+)-citrate and vitamin B6 improves urinary abnormalities in patients with calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Bren, A; Kmetec, A; Kveder, R; Kaplan-Pavlovcic, S

    1998-01-01

    The influence of drinking magnesium hydrogen carbonate natural mineral water enriched with potassium citrate on urinary metabolic abnormalities was prospectively studied in 27 patients with recurrent calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. The mean 24-hour urinary pH shifted from 6.34 to 6.93 (p < 0.01), the mean urinary magnesium/urinary creatinine ratio rose from 0.47 to 0.67 (p < 0.01), the mean urinary citrate/urinary creatinine ratio increased from 0.26 to 0.35 (p NS), and the mean 24-hour urinary calcium decreased from 7.98 to 6.05 mmol (p < 0.05). The effects of magnesium hydrogen carbonate natural mineral water enriched with potassium citrate were found to be favorable on urinary calcium, urinary magnesium/urinary creatinine ratio and urinary pH in patients with calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

  6. Dissolved-mineral inflow to Great Salt Lake and chemical characteristics of the salt lake brine: Summary for water years 1960, 1961, and 1964

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahl, D.C.

    1968-01-01

    The investigation of dissolved-mineral inflow to Great Salt Lake during the water years 1960, 1961, and 1964 was conducted during conditions of streamflow that were representative of the lowest and the average recorded during the water years 1934-64. The study conducted during the 1960 and 1961 water years was limited to defining surface-water inflow at sites close to the lakeshore, as well as at sites used in the 1960-6 study. From these comparative data, estimates of inflow at the lakeshore were made for the 1960 and 1961 water years. During the 1964 water year, when inflow to the lake was probably representative of the 31-year period, about 800,000 acre-feet of water containing 2,200,000 tons of dissolved solids entered the lake.During the years of average streamflow, about 500,000 acre-feet of water which might be developed for culinary use, passes the lowest sampling sites on the Bear and Weber Rivers. Also, more than 90 percent of the flow near the mouths of the Bear, Weber, and Jordan Rivers would be suitable for irrigation.Sources of inflow could be selected to provide a water supply for a fresh-water lake east of Antelope Island. The supply would range from 300,000 acre-feet of water containing 800 ppm (parts per million) of dissolved solids during periods of low streamflow to 1 million acre-feet containing 500 ppm during periods of average streamflow.

  7. [INDICES OF THE OXIDATIVE STATUS IN CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF COLLOID CARBONATE CALCIUM PRAPARATION WITH FAUCET AND LOW-MINERALIZED DRINKING WATER IN RATS].

    PubMed

    Khripach, L V; Mikhaylova, R I; Koganova, Z I; Knyazeva, T D; Alekseeva, A V; Savostikova, O N; Ryzhova, I N; Kruglova, E V; Revzova, T L

    2015-01-01

    There are discussed the changes of an array of indices of the oxidative status in chronic administration of colloidal calcium carbonate preparation with faucet and low-mineralized drinking water to rats. Slight differences between significant effects of administration of 3 and 30 mg/L of preparation permit to suggest that the process of its incoming delivery into organism of rats has a bottleneck in the nature of total capacity of macrophages of intestinal lymphoid tissue to absorption of particles.

  8. Nutritional properties of green gram germinated in mineral fortified soak water: II. Effect of cooking on total and bioaccessible nutrients and bioactive components.

    PubMed

    Oghbaei, Morteza; Prakash, Jamuna

    2017-03-01

    The effect of pressure and microwave cooking on total and bioaccessible nutrients and bioactive components in whole and dehulled green gram (GG) germinated in mineral fortified soak water was studied. Whole GG was soaked in water fortified with iron (100 or 200 mg/100 ml) or zinc (50 or 100 mg/100 ml), germinated, cooked by two methods and analyzed. Results showed that method of cooking did not affect the nutrient composition of whole or dehulled grains, however, phytic acid and dietary fiber were higher in microwave cooked samples. Minor differences were noted in total and percent available nutrients in differently cooked samples, significance being observed only for starch, protein and zinc in few samples. Significant differences were observed among variations, wherein the mineral fortified samples had a higher level of bioaccessibility compared to non-fortified samples. Cooking reduced the content of bioactive components in germinated GG, though bioaccessibility was higher. Comparison between raw and cooked grains showed that starch digestibility increased on cooking, though protein digestibility was not affected significantly. Bioactive components were also lower in cooked samples in comparison to the raw counterparts. In conclusion, the cooking methods did not affect the nutrient composition of green gram germinated in mineral fortified soak water, though available nutrients were higher in cooked legumes.

  9. The impact of four ethylene oxide-propylene oxide block copolymers on the surface tension of dispersions of soils and minerals in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenhoff, Kerstin; Dong, Jingfeng; Chowdhry, Babur; Torres, Luis; Leharne, Stephen

    A comprehensive series of aqueous solutions of four ethylene oxide-propylene oxide-ethylene oxide block copolymers (EPE) of varying concentrations have been prepared. The EPE molecules are amphiphilic with the P blocks providing the hydrophobic segment of the molecules and the E blocks providing the hydrophilic parts. The surface tension of these solutions has been measured and compared with the surface tension of dispersions of soils (a clay soil and a sandy soil) and minerals (quartz-silica sand, bentonite and kaolinite) in the same aqueous solutions. It is observed that all the block copolymers reduce the surface tension of water; the extent to which it is reduced is determined by the surface activity of the EPE block copolymer, which in turn is related to the balance between the sizes of the P and E blocks. It is further observed that the in the presence of soil the surface tension increases as a result of block copolymer adsorption to the soil/water interface. The extent of adsorption appears to be related to the texture of the soil - the clay soil used in this investigation adsorbs more block copolymer than the sandy soil. In the presence of the mineral phases the surface tension reductions are variable. With bentonite the EPE block copolymers are completely adsorbed at low EPE concentrations as shown by surface tension values that are the same as those measured for pure water. Adsorption to kaolinite is limited and once the adsorption sites have been filled the surface tension of the aqueous phase is approaches the surface tension of the same solution without the presence of bentonite. On the other hand the silica sand is a poor adsorbent. Adsorption to the mineral phases is also dependent upon the relative hydrophobicity of the block copolymer. The more hydrophobic (as inferred by the critical micelle concentration) the copolymer the less readily it is adsorbed by the mineral phases. Thus relatively hydrophobic EPE block copolymers produce a relatively

  10. The influence of the mineral level in drinking water and the thermal environment on the performance and intestinal fluid flux of newly-weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Maenz, D D; Patience, J F; Wolynetz, M S

    1994-02-01

    The effects of drinking water containing high levels of dissolved minerals including sulphate (HMW) and a chilled environment on the performance of newly-weaned pigs were evaluated in three replicate 10-d trials. In each trial, 12, 28-d-old pigs were taken from the sow and allocated by weight and litter to treatment groups following a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of HMW vs low-mineral drinking water (LMW) and normal (heat lamp) vs chilled (21 degrees C) pen temperature. No interactive effects of water mineral level and pen temperature on any of the measurements of health and productivity were found. Pigs given the HMW consumed more water on d 7 to 10 and 1 to 10 (P < .05) and more feed from d 4 to 6, 7 to 10, and 1 to 10 (P < .05), had greater weight gains from d 7 to 10 and 1 to 10 (P < .05), and had higher scour scores on d 4 and 7 (P < .05). Pigs maintained in a chilled environment had lower body weights on d 3, 6, and 10 (P < .05), lower feed conversion efficiency from d 7 to 10 (P < .05) and 1 to 10 (P < .05) and 7 to 10 (P < .01). Pen temperature had no effect on feed intake and scour scores. There was a correlation (P < .05) between feed intake and growth rates throughout the trial, between feed intake and water intake on d 4 to 6, 7 to 10, and 1 to 10, and between water intake and growth rate on d 7 to 10.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Possible uranium mineralization, Mineral Mountains, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W. Roger; McHugh, John B.; Ficklin, Walter H.

    1979-01-01

    The Mineral Mountains block in west-central Utah is a horst whose core stands structurally high relative to all nearby basin-and-range fault blocks. Rocks of the Mineral Mountains range from Precambrian to Quaternary in age, but mostly consist of Tertiary granitic rocks. The range lies with the Wah Wah-Tusher mineral belt. Lead, silver, gold, and tungsten have been mined commercially. During a geochemical survey conducted in the summer of 1978, 30 water samples and 29 stream-sediment samples were collected from the Mineral Mountains area. The interpretation of simple plots of uranium concentrations and the results of a Q-mode factor analysis indicate that potential exists for uranium mineral deposits within the Mineral Mountains. The most favorable areas are in the granitic pluton near its contacts with sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The most likely source of the uranium anomalies is uraninite-bearing epigenic veins along faults and fractures within the pluton. Three hypothetical models are proposed to account for the uranium mineralization.

  12. Clinical study on the effect of mineral waters containing bicarbonate on the risk of urinary stone formation in patients with multiple episodes of CaOx-urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Karagülle, O; Smorag, U; Candir, F; Gundermann, G; Jonas, U; Becker, A J; Gehrke, A; Gutenbrunner, C

    2007-06-01

    Investigations in healthy persons have shown that drinking mineral water containing HCO(3) has a positive effect on urine supersaturated with calcium oxalate (SS(CaOx)). The present study evaluates in a common setting whether these effects are also relevant in patients with multiepisodic urinary stone formation. A total of 34 patients with evident multiepisodic CaOx-urolithiasis were included in the study. Patients with hyperparathyroidism, renal tubular acidosis, Wilson's disease, Cushing disease, osteoporosis and malignant diseases were excluded. In a cross-over design and double-blinded the patients received 1.5 l of a mineral water with 2.673 mg HCO(3)/l (test water) or the same amount of water with a low mineral content (98 mg HCO(3)/l) (control water) daily for 3 days. During the study period the patients diet was recorded in a protocol, but not standardised. The main target parameter was SS(CaOx )in 24 h urine. In addition, urinary pH and the most important inhibiting and promoting factors were measured in 24 h urine (Ca, Ox, Mg, Cit). Both waters tested led to a highly significant increase in 24 h urine volume without a difference between each other. In the group, drinking the water containing HCO(3) the urinary pH increased significantly and was within a range relevant for metaphylaxis of calcium oxalate stone formation (x=6.73). This change was highly significant compared to the control group. In addition, significantly increased magnesium and citrate concentration were also observed. Supersaturation with calcium oxalate decreased significantly and to a relevant extent; however, there was no difference between the waters tested. As expected, the risk of uric acid precipitation also decreased significantly under bicarbonate water intake. However, an increase of the risk of calcium phosphate stone formation was observed. It is evident that both waters tested are able to lower significantly and to a relevant extent the risk of urinary stone formation in

  13. Mars residual north polar cap - Earth-based spectroscopic confirmation of water ice as a major constituent and evidence for hydrated minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.; Mccord, T. B.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of new earth-based reflectance spectra of the Martian north residual polar cap. The spectra indicate that the composition is at least mostly water ice plus another component with a 'gray' reflectance. The other minerals in the ice cap appear to be hydrated. The data were obtained with a cooled circular variable filter spectrometer on February 20, 1978, using the 2.2-m telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. It is pointed out that the identification of water ice in the north polar cap alone does not indicate that water makes up all or even most of the bulk of the cap. Kieffer (1970) has shown that a small amount of water will mask the spectral features of CO2.

  14. Increased water salinity applied to tomato plants accelerates the development of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta through bottom-up effects.

    PubMed

    Han, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Lavoir, Anne-Violette; Michel, Thomas; Seassau, Aurélie; Zheng, Wen-Yan; Niu, Chang-Ying; Desneux, Nicolas

    2016-09-13

    Variation in resource inputs to plants may trigger bottom-up effects on herbivorous insects. We examined the effects of water input: optimal water vs. limited water; water salinity: with vs. without addition of 100 mM NaCl; and their interactions on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum), and consequently, the bottom-up effects on the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meytick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Plant growth was significantly impeded by limited water input and NaCl addition. In terms of leaf chemical defense, the production of tomatidine significantly increased with limited water and NaCl addition, and a similar but non-significant trend was observed for the other glycoalkaloids. Tuta absoluta survival did not vary with the water and salinity treatments, but the treatment "optimal water-high salinity" increased the development rate without lowering pupal mass. Our results suggest that caution should be used in the IPM program against T. absoluta when irrigating tomato crops with saline water.

  15. Increased water salinity applied to tomato plants accelerates the development of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta through bottom-up effects

    PubMed Central

    Han, Peng; Wang, Zhi-jian; Lavoir, Anne-Violette; Michel, Thomas; Seassau, Aurélie; Zheng, Wen-yan; Niu, Chang-ying; Desneux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Variation in resource inputs to plants may trigger bottom-up effects on herbivorous insects. We examined the effects of water input: optimal water vs. limited water; water salinity: with vs. without addition of 100 mM NaCl; and their interactions on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum), and consequently, the bottom-up effects on the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meytick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Plant growth was significantly impeded by limited water input and NaCl addition. In terms of leaf chemical defense, the production of tomatidine significantly increased with limited water and NaCl addition, and a similar but non-significant trend was observed for the other glycoalkaloids. Tuta absoluta survival did not vary with the water and salinity treatments, but the treatment “optimal water-high salinity” increased the development rate without lowering pupal mass. Our results suggest that caution should be used in the IPM program against T. absoluta when irrigating tomato crops with saline water. PMID:27619473

  16. Mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  17. Structure and hydrogeochemical functioning of a sparkling natural mineral water system determined using a multidisciplinary approach: a case study from southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maréchal, J. C.; Lachassagne, P.; Ladouche, B.; Dewandel, B.; Lanini, S.; Le Strat, P.; Petelet-Giraud, E.

    2013-12-01

    Natural mineral waters (NMW), often used to produce bottled water, are of high socio-economic interest and need appropriate management to ensure the sustainability of the resource. A complex sparkling NMW system at La Salvetat, southern France, was investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Geological and geophysical investigations, pumping test analyses, time-series signal processing, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data (both stable and radiogenic), and numerical modelling provided complementary information on the geometry, hydrodynamic characteristics and functioning of this mineral system. The conceptual model consists of a compartmentalized reservoir characterized by two subvertical, parallel deeply rooted hydraulically independent permeable structures that are fed by deep CO2-rich crustal fluids. The non-mineralized shallow aquifer system corresponds to a fissured layer within the weathered zone that is recharged by leakage from the overlying saprolite. This surficial aquifer responds rapidly to recharge (40-80 days), whereas the deep system's response to recharge is much longer (up to 120 days). This research demonstrates the need for multidisciplinary approaches and modelling (quantity, hydrochemistry) for understanding complex NMW systems. This knowledge is already being applied by the bottling company that manages the resource at La Salvetat, and would be useful for conceptualising other NMW sites.

  18. Infrared spectroscopy of OD vibrators in minerals at natural dilution: hydroxyl groups in talc and kaolinite, and structural water in beryl and emerald.

    PubMed

    de Donato, Philippe; Cheilletz, Alain; Barres, Odile; Yvon, Jacques

    2004-05-01

    An infrared (IR) study of natural deuteration is conducted on minerals containing hydroxyl groups (talc and kaolinite) and channel-water-bearing minerals (beryl and emerald). In talc, the OD valence vibration is located at 2710 cm(-1), corresponding to OD groups surrounded by 3 Mg atoms. In kaolinite, the OD valence vibrations are located at 2671 cm(-1) (inner OD group), 2712, 2706, and 2700 cm(-1) (three inner-surface OD groups). In beryl and emerald, natural deuteration of channel water is observed for the first time by infrared microspectroscopy. In beryl from Minas Gerais (Brazil), the OD profiles are characterized by four bands at 2735, 2686, 2672, and 2641 cm(-1). In emeralds from Colombia and Brazil, the OD profiles are characterized by five or four bands, respectively, at 2816, 2737, 2685, 2673, and 2641 cm(-1) (Colombia) and 2730, 2684, 2672, and 2640 cm(-1) (Brazil). The band at 2816 cm(-1) can be assigned to -OD or OD(-), and bands at 2686-2684, 2673-2672, and 2641-2640 cm(-1) can be assigned to type-I and type-II HOD molecules. The band at 2737-2730 cm(-1) is partially disturbed by combination bands of the mineral. Such OD profiles are different from those obtained by artificial deuteration at higher OD dilution.

  19. Validation of an Analytical Method for Determination of 13 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mineral water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Ramezan; Kobarfard, Farzad; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Eslamizad, Samira; Bayat, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used for the extraction and determination of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mineral water samples. In this procedure, the suitable combination of extraction solvent (500 µL chloroform) and disperser solvent (1000 µL acetone) were quickly injected into the water sample (10.00 mL) by Hamilton syringe. After centrifugation, 500 µL of the lower organic phase was dried under a gentle stream of nitrogen, re-dissolved in chloroform and injected into GC-MS. Chloroform and acetone were found to be the best extraction and disperser solvent, respectively. Validation of the method was performed using spiked calibration curves. The enrichment factor ranged from 93 to 129 and the recovery ranged from 71 to 90%. The linear ranges for all the PAHs were 0.10-2.80 ngmL-1. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of PAHs in water by using anthracene-d10 as internal standard, were in the range of 4-11% for most of the analytes (n = 3). Limit of detection (LOD) for different PAHs were between 0.03 and 0.1 ngmL-1. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of PAHs in mineral water samples collected from Tehran. PMID:27610156

  20. [Determination of sodium, magnesium, calcium, lithium and strontium in natural mineral drinking water by microwave plasma torch spectrometer with nebulization sample introduction system].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Xiong, Hai-long; Feng, Guo-dong; Yu, Ai-min; Chen, Huan-wen

    2014-06-01

    The microwave plasma torch (MPT) was used as the emission light source. Aqueous samples were introduced with a nebulizer and a desolvation system. A method for the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr in natural mineral drinking water by argon microwave plasma torch spectrometer (ArMPT spectrometer) was established. The effects of microwave power, flow rate of carrier gas and support gas were investigated in detail and these parameters were optimized. Under the optimized condition, the experiments for the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr in 11 kinds of bottled mineral drinking water were carried out by ArMPT spectrometer. The limit-of-detection (LOD) of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr was found to be 4.4, 21, 56, 11 and 84 μg x mL(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviation (n = 6) was in the range of 1.30%-5.45% and standard addition recoveries were in the range of 84.6%-98.5%. MPT spectrometer was simpler, more convenient and of lower cost as compared to ICP unit. MPT spectrometer demonstrated its rapid analysis speed, accuracy, sensitivity and simultaneous multi element analysis ability during the analysis process. The results showed that MPT spectrometer was suitable for metal elements detection for natural mineral drinking water. This approach provides not only one way for resisting the illegal dealings, but also a security for the quality of drinking water. Moreover, the usability of MPT spectrometer in the field of food security; drug safety; clinical diagnostic is promised.

  1. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the Prestea Huni Valley District of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O.; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Cobbina, Samuel J.; Armah, Frederick A.; Ason, Benjamin; Antwi, Edward; Quansah, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR—Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As), 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd), 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb) and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg), respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd), 1.45 (Pb), 4.60 (Hg) and 1.98 (As); while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10−3. The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10−4 to 1 × 10−6. These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  2. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the Prestea Huni Valley District of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-Kumi, Sam; Cobbina, Samuel J; Armah, Frederick A; Ason, Benjamin; Antwi, Edward; Quansah, Reginald

    2016-01-18

    A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR-Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As), 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd), 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb) and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg), respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd), 1.45 (Pb), 4.60 (Hg) and 1.98 (As); while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10(-3). The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10(-4) to 1 × 10(-6). These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  3. Kingian Co-Evolution of the Water and Mineral/Rock Components for Earth and Mars: Implications for Planetary Habitability (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, V. R.

    2013-12-01

    Planetary habitability may fluctuate episodically against a background provided by the co-evolution of a planet's mineral/rock (geosphere) components and its water (hydrosphere) in relation to its position in a circumstellar system. The water/rock (geosphere/hydrosphere) co-evolution can be inferred from the geological histories of the terrestrial planets of the solar system, particularly from the very extensive understanding of Earth and Mars. Habitability and water/rock co-evolution have components that are tychistic (i.e., driven by chance) and anancastic (i.e., dynamically driven largely by deterministic forces). They also have a final, end-directed (i.e., teleomatic) aspect that operates in accordance with natural laws. This is a larger perspective on the idea of planetary habitability than is generally associated with an astronomical approach, and it incorporates additional insights from a geological perspective on the issue. The geological histories of Mars and Earth are punctuated with critical, short-term epochs of extreme change, which for Earth are known to be associated with major disruptions of its biosphere. These catastrophic epochs can be described as a type of non-Darwinian evolution that was envisioned by the geologist Clarence King. In an 1877 paper King proposed that accelerated evolutionary change occurs during sudden environmental disruptions. Such Kingian disruptions in mineral/rock and water evolution mark the planetary histories of Mars and Earth, including the early formation and condensation of a steam atmosphere, an impacting cataclysm at about 3.9 to 4 Ga, episodes of concentrated volcanism and tectonism, and associated rapid changes in the linked atmosphere and hydrosphere. These disruptions are closely tied to migrations of water between different planetary reservoirs, the nature of planetary accretion, the origin of a physically coupled atmosphere and ocean, the prospects for initiating plate tectonics, and punctuated greenhouse

  4. A Protocol, a standard and a (PULI) database for quantitative micro-FTIR measurements of water in nominally anhydrous minerals: an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Istvan; Udvardi, Beatrix; Pintér, Zsanett; Hidas, Károly; Kutassy, Lászlóné; Falus, György; Lendvay, Pál; István, Török; Zelei, Tamás; Fancsik, Tamás; Gál, Tamás; Mihály, Judith; Németh, Csaba; Ingrin, Jannick; Xia, Qunke; Hermann, Jörg; Stalder, Roland; Perucchi, Andrea; Kamarás, Katalin; Szekrényes, Zsolt

    2014-05-01

    'Water' (H2O, OH and H+) in the nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) of the upper mantle play a key role in determining its geochemical and geophysical properties. Both the concentration and the substitution mechanism of water are important to formulate its effect on material properties. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry can provide both qualitative and quantitative information on the substitution of water into NAMs, therefore, it is a widely used analytical technique. The quantitative evaluation of micro-FTIR mineral spectra, however, seems to be still rather ambiguous. This is because there are several different - sometimes controversial - ways to measure or estimate the total polarized integrated absorbance (Atot). Furthermore, there are mineral-, substitution mechanism- and wavenumber-dependent calibrations factors available to convert Atot to the absolute concentration of water (usually given in ppm wt.%). No wonder that very different absolute water concentrations may be obtained from the very same IR spectrum. Thus, there is certainly a need for an evaluation protocol which would reduce these uncertainties giving clear instructions how Atot should be obtained and what calibrations factors should be used. This will be introduced in our study. Inter laboratory differences were monitored by analysing the some unoriented grains of the Pakistani olivine standard using different brands of infrared microscopes in several different countries and laboratories worldwide. During these measurements optimal measurement settings for the IR analysis of NAMs were constrained. The results show that the inter laboratory deviations are typically less than 10%. To put constraints on the micro-scale (<50 microns) distribution of water in the Pakistani olivine standard high resolution infrared maps were recorded using a synchrotron light source. The hyper spectral images revealed small-scale heterogeneities within the crystals which otherwise could not have been

  5. A New Method of Absorption-Phase Nanotomography for 3D Observation of Mineral-Organic-Water Textiles and its Application to Pristine Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Nakato, A.; Matsuno, J.; Sugimoto, M.; Uesugi, K.; Takeuchi, A.; Nakano, T.; Vaccaro, E.; Russel, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Burton, A. S.; Messenger, S.; Miyake, A.; Takigawa, A.; Takayama, A.

    2017-01-01

    Pristine carbonaceous chondrites contain fine-grained matrix, which is composed largely of amorphous silicates, sub-micron silicate and sulfide crystals, and organic materials. They are regarded as primitive dust in the early Solar System that have suffered minimal alteration in their parent bodies. The matrix generally has different lithologies; some of them are unaltered but some are more or less aqueously altered. Their textures have been examined in 2D usually by FE-SEM/EDS, TEM/EDS, nano-SIMS and micro-XRD. Observation of their complex fine textures, such as spatial relation between different lithologies in 3D, is important for understanding aggregation and alteration processes. Synchrotron radiation (SR)-based X-ray tomography reveals 3D structures nondestructively with high spatial resolution of approximately greater than 100 nm. We have developed a new technique using absorption contrasts called "dual-energy tomography" (DET) to obtain 3D distribution of minerals at SPring-8, SR facility in Japan, and applied successfully to Itokawa particles. Phase and absorption contrast images can be simultaneously obtained in 3D by using "scanning-imaging x-ray microscopy" (SIXM) at SPring-8, which can discriminate between void, water and organic materials. We applied this technique combined with FIB micro-sampling to carbonaceous chondrites to search for primitive liquid water. In this study, we combined the DET and SIXM to obtain three dimensional submicron-scale association between minerals, organic materials and water and applied this to pristine carbonaceous chondrites.

  6. Water Soluble Components of 'Osteocare' Promote Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, and Matrix Mineralization in Human Osteoblast-Like SaOS-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Varma, Sandeep R; Sharath Kumar, L M; Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Patki, Pralhad Sadashiv

    2014-01-01

    Osteocare, a herbal formulation, has been found to be very effective in bone mineralization and support of the microstructure of bone tissue. The water-soluble components of Osteocare (WSCO) induced osteogenic activity in human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. The addition of WSCO (100 μg/ml) to SaOS-2 cells was effective in increasing the cell proliferation by 41.49% and DNA content by 1.9-fold. WSCO increased matrix mineralization in SaOS-2 cells by increased alkaline phosphatase levels and calcium-rich deposits as observed by Alizarin red staining. WSCO markedly increased mRNA expression for osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), type I collagen (Col I) in SaOS-2 cells, and it down-regulated IL-6 mRNA levels in SaOS-2 cells. The present study showed that WSCO plays an important role in osteoblastic bone formation through enhanced activities of ALP, Col I, bone matrix proteins such as OPN and OCN, down-regulation of cytokines like IL-6, as well as promoting mineralization in SaOS-2 cells.

  7. Metal Reduction and Mineral formation by a Psychrotolerant Fe(III)-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from an Iron-Rich Waters near a Hydrothermal Vent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Y.; Vali, H.; Stapleton, R. D.; Fields, M. M.; Phelps, T. J.; Zhou, J.

    2002-12-01

    Although dissimilatory metal reduction and mineral formation under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions are extensively examined, they are poorly understood under low temperature. The objective of this study was to examine metal reduction and mineral formation using a psychrotolerant iron-reducing bacterium (Shewanella alga, PV-4) isolated from iron-rich waters associated with the Naha vents off the Hawaiian coast. The psychrotolerant iron-reducing bacterium was able to use lactate, formate, and hydrogen as an electron donor while reducing Fe(III)-citrate, Fe(III)-EDTA, Co(III)-EDTA, Cr(VI), Mn(IV), and iron oxyhydroxide (FeOOH) at temperatures between 0 and 37°C. The psychrotolerant bacterium exhibited diverse mineral precipitation capabilities including the formation of magnetite (Fe3O4), siderite (FeCO3), and rhodochrosite (MnCO3). Transmission electron microscopic data showed that PV-4 formed mainly superparamagnetic magnetite at temperatures ranging from 0 to 14°C and formed mainly single-domain magnetite at temperatures ranging from 18 to 37°C. This study indicats that iron-reducing bacteria may contribute to the biogeochemical cycling of metals and carbon at low temperatures and may contribute to the natural remnant magnetism of marine sediments.

  8. The effect of water structure and solute hydration on the kinetics of mineral growth and dissolution (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Putnis, C. V.; Putnis, A.

    2012-04-01

    Classical crystal growth theory relates growth and dissolution rates to the degree of supersaturation. However, the solution composition may also affect the growth rate of carbonate minerals, via the Ca2+ to CO32- concentration ratio (e.g. Perdikouri et al., 2009; Stack and Grantham, 2010), ionic strength (e.g. Ruiz-Agudo et al. 2010) or the presence of organic matter (Hoch et al., 2000). For this reason, the influence of these parameters on the kinetics of mineral growth and dissolution has generated a considerable amount of research in the last decade. In particular, effects of both inorganic and organic impurities on mineral growth and dissolution have been frequently reported in the literature. Commonly, water in contact with rock forming minerals, contains significant and variable amounts of ions in solution. The effect of such ions on dissolution and growth rates has been traditionally ascribed to changes in solubility. However, experimental studies performed on different minerals have shown that the dependence of growth or dissolution rates on ionic strength is complex, and that the effect of ionic strength is not independent of the ionic species producing it. Here, we report investigations aimed at addressing the basic hypothesis that mineral growth and dissolution is governed by complex interactions between solvent structure, surface hydration and the ion solvation environment induced by the presence of electrolytes. It is proposed that any factor affecting ion solvation should alter growth and dissolution rates. These results have opened the possibility of a new understanding of very diverse phenomena in geochemistry and demonstrate the need for the inclusion of this "hydration effect" in the development of predictive models that describe crystal growth and dissolution in complex systems, such as those found in nature. Furthermore, we can hypothesise that ion-assisted dehydration of trace and minor element ions could occur in biological systems, thus

  9. [The combined action of drinking mineral water and low-intensity electromagnetic radiation under the immobilization stress conditions (an experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Korolev, Yu N; Bobrovnitsky, I P; Geniatulina, M S; Mikhailik, L V; Nikulina, L A; Bobkova, A S; Yakovlev, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    The present study carried out on white male rats in experiments with the use of biochemical, radioimmunological, and electron- microscopic methods. It was shown that the combined treatment with potable mineral water (MV) and low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (LIEMR) of ultrahigh frequency (power density less than 1 pW/cm2, the frequency about 1000 MHz) facilitated the activation of metabolic and intracellular regenerative processes in the liver and testes. One of the advantages of the combined application of MV and LIEMR over the single-factor treatment manifested itself as the weakening of stress reactions, the increase in the frequency of the plastic processes, and the more harmonious development of different forms of intracellular regeneration. The results of the study provide a deeper insight ino the mechanisms underlying the combined actions of drinking mineral water and low-intensity electromagnetic radiation; also, they justify the application of these factors for the protection of the reproductive system and the entire body from stress-induced disorders.

  10. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet for the determination of triazine and triazoles in mineral water samples.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Cátia M; Caldas, Sergiane S; Guimarães, Bruno S; Primel, Ednei G

    2016-09-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for the determination of atrazine, simazine, cyproconazole, tebuconazole, and epoxiconazole in mineral water employing the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with solidification of a floating organic drop with determination by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed. A mixed solution of 250 μL 1-dodecanol and 1250 μL methanol was injected rapidly into 10 mL aqueous solution (pH 7.0) with 2% w/v NaCl. After centrifugation for 5 min at 2000 rpm, the organic solvent droplets floated on the surface of the aqueous solution and the floating solvent solidified. The method limits of detection were between 3.75 and 37.5 ng/L and limits of quantification were between 12.5 and 125 ng/L. The recoveries ranged from 70 to 118% for repeatability and between 76 and 95% for intermediate precision with a relative standard deviation from 2 to 18% for all compounds. Low matrix effect was observed. The proposed method can be successfully applied in routine analysis for determination of pesticide residues in mineral water samples, allowing for monitoring of triazine and triazoles at levels below the regulatory limits set by international and national legislations.

  11. [Monitoring of contamination of foodstuffs with elements noxious to human health. Part II. Mineral waters, soft drinks, fruits, nuts, rice, soybeans, fish and seafood].

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Starska, Krystyna; Mania, Monika; Brulińska-Ostrowska, Elzbieta; Biernat, Urszula; Karłowski, Kazimierz

    2010-01-01

    Results of the 5-years cycle (2004-2008) monitoring investigations on food contamination with elements noxious to human health, involving testing of mineral waters and soft drinks (226 samples), fruits (467 samples), rice (234 samples), soybeans (236 samples), nuts and peanuts (237 samples), fish and seafood (237 samples) are discussed. The parties involved in testing were: laboratories of State Sanitary Inspection and the national reference laboratory of the Department of Food and Consumer Articles Research of National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. The reported metals contents did not give rise to health concerns, remaining generally below the levels set forth in food legislation and being comparable with contamination levels reported in other European countries; and for cadmium--often lower. Health hazard assessment was performed taking into account the mean contamination levels obtained and average domestic consumption of these food products groups in Poland. The highest intake expressed as the percentage of provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) was obtained for mercury in fish, which has reached mean 3.2% PTWI. Controlled fish consumption recommendations should be adhered to by prospective mothers, pregnant women, breast-feeding women and young children. Lead and arsenic intake with mineral waters and soft drinks comprises approx. 15% of total intake of these elements with food.

  12. Infiltration of late Palaeozoic evaporative brines in the reelfoot rift: A possible salt source for Illinois Basin formation waters and MVT mineralizing fluids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, E.L.; De Marsily, G.

    2001-01-01

    Salinities and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits provide important insights into the regional hydrology of the Illinois basin/Reelfoot rift system in late Palaeozoic time. Although the thermal regime of this basin system has been plausibly explained, the origin of high salinities in the basin fluids remains enigmatic. Topographically driven flow appears to have been essential in forming these MVT districts, as well as many other districts worldwide. However, this type of flow is recharged by fresh water making it difficult to account for the high salinities of the mineralizing fluids over extended time periods. Results of numerical experiments carried out in this study provide a possible solution to the salinity problem presented by the MVT zinc-lead and fluorite districts at the margins of the basin system. Evaporative concentration of surface water and subsequent infiltration into the subsurface are proposed to account for large volumes of brine that are ultimately responsible for mineralization of these districts. This study demonstrates that under a range of geologically reasonable conditions, brine infiltration into an aquifer in the deep subsurface can coexist with topographically driven flow. Infiltration combined with regional flow and local magmatic heat sources in the Reelfoot rift explain the brine concentrations as well as the temperatures observed in the Southern Illinois and Upper Mississippi Valley districts.

  13. Acid extraction of molybdenum, nickel and cobalt from mineral sludge generated by rainfall water at a metal recycling plant.

    PubMed

    Vemic, M; Bordas, F; Guibaud, G; Comte, S; Joussein, E; Lens, P N L; Van Hullebusch, E D

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the leaching yields of Mo, Ni and Co from a mineral sludge of a metal recycling plant generated by rainfalls. The investigated mineral sludge had a complex heterogeneous composition, consisting of particles of settled soil combined with metal-bearing particles (produced by catalysts, metallic oxides and battery recycling). The leaching potential of different leaching reagents (stand-alone strong acids (HNO3 (68%), H2SO4 (98%) and HCl (36%)) and acid mixtures (aqua regia (nitric + hydrochloric (1:3)), nitric + sulphuric (1:1) and nitric + sulphuric + hydrochloric (2:1:1)) was investigated at changing operational parameters (solid-liquid (S/L) ratio, leaching time and temperature), in order to select the leaching reagent which achieves the highest metal leaching yields. Sulphuric acid (98% H2SO4) was found to be the leachant with the highest metal leaching potential. The optimal leaching conditions were a three-stage successive leaching at 80 °C with a leaching time of 2 h and S/L ratio of 0.25 g L(-1). Under these conditions, the achieved mineral sludge sample leaching yields were 85.5%, 40.5% and 93.8% for Mo, Ni and Co, respectively. The higher metal leaching potential of H2SO4 in comparison with the other strong acids/acid mixtures is attributed to the fact that H2SO4 is a diacidic compound, thus it has more H(+) ions, resulting in its stronger oxidizing power and corrosiveness.

  14. Light-induced catalytic transformation of ofloxacin by solar Fenton in various water matrices at a pilot plant: mineralization and characterization of major intermediate products.

    PubMed

    Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Aceña, J; Perez, S; Petrović, M; Zapata, A; Barceló, D; Malato, S; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2013-09-01

    This work investigated the application of a solar driven advanced oxidation process (solar Fenton), for the degradation of the antibiotic ofloxacin (OFX) in various environmental matrices at a pilot-scale. All experiments were carried out in a compound parabolic collector pilot plant in the presence of doses of H2O2 (2.5 mg L(-1)) and at an initial Fe(2+) concentration of 2 mg L(-1). The water matrices used for the solar Fenton experiments were: demineralized water (DW), simulated natural freshwater (SW), simulated effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant (SWW) and pre-treated real effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant (RE) to which OFX had been spiked at 10 mg L(-1). Dissolved organic carbon removal was found to be dependent on the chemical composition of the water matrix. OFX mineralization was higher in DW (78.1%) than in SW (58.3%) at 12 mg L(-1) of H2O2 consumption, implying the complexation of iron or the scavenging of hydroxyl radicals by the inorganic ions present in SW. On the other hand, the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in SWW and RE, led to lower mineralization per dose of H2O2 compared to DW and SW. The major transformation products (TPs) formed during the solar Fenton treatment of OFX, were elucidated using liquid chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ToF-MS). The transformation of OFX proceeded through a defluorination reaction, accompanied by some degree of piperazine and quinolone substituent transformation while a hydroxylation mechanism occurred by attack of the hydroxyl radicals generated during the process leading to the formation of TPs in all the water matrices, seven of which were tentatively identified. The results obtained from the toxicity bioassays indicated that the toxicity originates from the DOM present in RE and its oxidation products formed during the photocatalytic treatment and not from the TPs resulted from the oxidation of OFX.

  15. Differentiating atmospheric and mineral sources of sulfur during snowmelt using δ 34S, 35S activity, and δ 18O of sulfate and water as tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanley, J. B.; Mayer, B.; Mitchell, M. J.; Michel, R. L.; Bailey, S.; Kendall, C.

    2003-12-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of sulfur was studied during the 2000 snowmelt at Sleepers River Research Watershed in northeastern Vermont, USA using a combination of isotopic, chemical, and hydrometric measurements. The snowpack and 10 streams of varying size and land use were sampled for sulfate concentrations and isotopic analyses of 35S, δ 34S, and δ 18O of sulfate. Values of δ 18O of water were measured at one of the streams. Apportionment of atmospheric and mineral S sources based on δ 34S was possible at 7 of the 10 streams. Weathering of S-containing minerals was a major contributor to sulfate flux in streamwater, but atmospheric contributions exceeded 50% in several of the streams at peak snowmelt and averaged 41% overall. In contrast, δ 18Osulfate values of streamwater remained significantly lower than those of atmospheric sulfate throughout the melt period, indicating that atmospheric sulfate undergoes microbial redox reactions in the soil that replace the oxygen of atmospheric sulfate with isotopically lighter oxygen from soil water. Streamwater 35S activities were low relative to those of the snowpack; the youngest 35S-ages of the atmospheric S component in each of the 7 streams ranged from 184 to 320 days. Atmospheric S contributions to streamwater, as determined by δ 34S values, co-varied both with 35S activity and new water contributions as determined by δ 18Owater. However, the δ 18Osulfate and 35S ages clearly show that this new water carries very little of the atmospheric sulfate entering with the current snowmelt to the stream. Most incoming atmospheric sulfate first cycles through the organic soil S pool and ultimately reaches the stream as pedogenic sulfate.

  16. Water-mineral relations of Quaternary deposits in the Lower Platte River drainage area in eastern Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Ivan; Bentall, Ray

    1968-01-01

    The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), the degree of saturation with respect to calcite (IAP/K calcite), the pH, and the concentrations of selected constituents in solution were determined for water from 52 wells and the Platte River. Compared to the PCO2 in the atmosphere, the average PCO2 in the ground water was many times greater and that in .the river water was about twice as great. The high PCO2 in the ground water probably results from the absorption, by infiltrating precipitation, of carbon dioxide produced in the soil by respiration of plant roots ,and microorganisms. The values for IAP/K calcite for the ground water ranged from 0.141 to 1.29 and for the river water the average was 9.6. Water from each of the 10 sampled wells on the terrace plain in southeastern Saunders County was unsaturated with respect to calcite, whereas water from seven of the 42 wells on the Platte River flood plain was nearly saturated or supersaturated. Of the ,seven, two were in the Lincoln city well field where hydrologic relations indicate that a large fraction of the water yielded by the wells is induced seepage from the .river. That more of the city wells did not yield supersaturated water is surprising in view of the high IAP/K calcite values for the river water. Supersaturation of water from five of nine sampled wells downvalley from the well field probably is due to the presence of numerous limestone fragments in the Quaternary deposits in that part of the area. also surprising was the finding that the average pH of the water from the city wells was 1 unit lower than that of the river water. The presence of both dissolved iron and dissolved oxygen in the water from several of the city wells probably reflects derivation of the water from two distinct sources : ground water naturally in the aquifer and induced seepage from the river.

  17. The Growth of Melt Inclusion- and Water-Rich Zones in Clinopyroxene Phenocrysts of the Powai Ankaramite Flow, Deccan Traps, India: Rapid Closed System Oscillatory Mineral Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Water concentrations were measured and mapped using FTIR spectroscopy in clinopyroxene phenocrysts of the Powai ankaramite flow, located near Mumbai, west of the Western Ghats escarpment of the Deccan province, India. Samples were provided by Dr. Hetu Sheth of the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai. Chatterjee and Sheth (2015) showed that phenocrysts in the flow were part of a cumulate layer intruded by high-temperature basaltic melt at ~ 6 kb and ~1230oC. Cpx phenocrysts are euhedral and have concentric bands (100 to 200 microns thick) of fine (10-20 micron diameter) melt inclusions. Cpx bands that host melt inclusions have higher concentrations of water than inclusion-free bands. Water concentrations of cpx and ol were used to calculate water concentrations in the melt from which the crystals formed. Water concentrations in the parent magma were between 4.35 and 8.26 wt. % based on water concentrations in cpx, and between 8.24 and 9.41 wt. % based on those in ol. Both Mg and Fe are relatively depleted in the water- and melt inclusion-rich zones in cpx, and Ca is enriched in these zones. We suggest that oscillatory zoning in cpx is a result of repeated growth of cpx in water-richer and water-poorer boundary layers in which water lowered melt viscosity and enhanced diffusion and crystal growth rates. Water-enhanced growth rates may have resulted in preferential capture of melt inclusions preserved in water-rich cpx zones. Mg was preferentially incorporated into the cpx, causing Ca and water to build up in the boundary layer, and Mg and Fe to become relatively depleted in the boundary layer, as discussed for oscillatorially-zoned minerals by Wang and Merino (1993). Application of the equations for growth of oscillatory zones in crystals given by Wang and Merino (1993) to the growth of cpx crystals in the Powai ankaramite indicate that crystal growth occurred relatively quickly, on the order of days, although the width of the boundary zone, which is uncertain

  18. Mineralization of reactive azo dyes present in simulated textile waste water using down flow microaerophilic fixed film bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Balapure, Kshama; Bhatt, Nikhil; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-01-01

    The present research emphasizes on degradation of azo dyes from simulated textile wastewater using down flow microaerophilic fixed film reactor. Degradation of simulated textile wastewater (COD 7200mg/L and dye concentration 300mg/L) was studied in a microaerophilic fixed film reactor using pumice stone as a support material under varying hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR). The intense metabolic activity of the inoculated bacterial consortium in the reactor led to 97.5% COD reduction and 99.5% decolorization of simulated wastewater operated under OLR of 7.2kgCODm(3)/d and 24h of HRT. FTIR, (1)H NMR and GC-MS studies revealed the formation of lower molecular weight aliphatic compounds under 24h of HRT, leading to complete mineralization of simulated wastewater. The detection of oxido-reductive enzyme activities suggested the enzymatic reduction of azo bonds prior to mineralization. Toxicity studies indicated that microbial treatment favors detoxification of simulated wastewater.

  19. Mineralization of aromatics in water by sunlight-assisted electro-fenton technology in a pilot reactor.

    PubMed

    Casado, Juan; Fornaguera, Jordi; Galán, María Isabel

    2005-03-15

    The viability of the degradation of aqueous solutions of aniline, nitrobenzene, and 4-chlorophenol by the so-called Photoelectro-Fenton process in a pilot reactor is reported. The Electro-Fenton process stage, based on the flow of oxygen through a gas diffusion cathode to produce H2O2, allows mineralization of about a half of the TOC content in ca. 1 h, because anodic oxidation is coupled with Fenton reaction in the presence of Fe2+ catalyst. An intensity of 20 A was applied in a flow cell comprising a Ti/Pt anode and a carbon-PTFE cathode. After electrolysis, samples of the effluent were exposed to sunlight, and almost complete mineralization was reached after ca. 50 min. Effect of parameters such as electrolysis time, pH, initial concentration, and solar or UVA irradiation on the process efficiencies and the running costs are studied. The Photoelectro-Fenton process using sunlight effectively diminishes these costs. The analogous behavior of the three aromatics suggests similar degradation pathways, regardless of the different groups attached to the ring.

  20. Mapping minerals, amorphous materials, environmental materials, vegetation, water, ice and snow, and other materials: The USGS tricorder algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.

    1995-01-01

    One of the challenges of Imaging Spectroscopy is the identification, mapping and abundance determination of materials, whether mineral, vegetable, or liquid, given enough spectral range, spectral resolution, signal to noise, and spatial resolution. Many materials show diagnostic absorption features in the visual and near infrared region (0.4 to 2.5 micrometers) of the spectrum. This region is covered by the modern imaging spectrometers such as AVIRIS. The challenge is to identify the materials from absorption bands in their spectra, and determine what specific analyses must be done to derive particular parameters of interest, ranging from simply identifying its presence to deriving its abundance, or determining specific chemistry of the material. Recently, a new analysis algorithm was developed that uses a digital spectral library of known materials and a fast, modified-least-squares method of determining if a single spectral feature for a given material is present. Clark et al. made another advance in the mapping algorithm: simultaneously mapping multiple minerals using multiple spectral features. This was done by a modified-least-squares fit of spectral features, from data in a digital spectral library, to corresponding spectral features in the image data. This version has now been superseded by a more comprehensive spectral analysis system called Tricorder.

  1. Structure, dynamics and stability of water/scCO2/mineral interfaces from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Mal -Soon; Peter McGrail, B.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki -Alexandra

    2015-10-12

    Here, the interface between a solid and a complex multi-component liquid forms a unique reaction environment whose structure and composition can significantly deviate from either bulk or liquid phase and is poorly understood due the innate difficulty to obtain molecular level information. Feldspar minerals, as typified by the Ca-end member Anorthite, serve as prototypical model systems to assess the reactivity and ion mobility at solid/water-bearing supercritical fluid (WBSF) interfaces due to recent X-ray based measurements that provide information on water-film formation, and cation vacancies at these surfaces. Using density functional theory based molecular dynamics, which allows the evaluation of reactivity and condensed phase dynamics on equal footing, we report on the structure and dynamics of water nucleation and surface aggregation, carbonation and Ca mobilization under geologic carbon sequestration scenarios (T = 323 K and P = 90 bar). We find that water has a strong enthalpic preference for aggregation on a Ca-rich, O-terminated anorthite (001) surface, but entropy strongly hinders the film formation at very low water concentrations. Carbonation reactions readily occur at electron-rich terminal Oxygen sites adjacent to cation vacancies, when in contact with supercritical CO2. Cation vacancies of this type can form readily in the presence of a water layer that allows for facile and enthalpicly favorable Ca2+ extraction and solvation. Apart from providing unprecedented molecular level detail of a complex three component (mineral, water and scCO2) system), this work highlights the ability of modern capabilities of AIMD methods to begin to qualitatively and quantitatively address structure and reactivity at solid-liquid interfaces of high chemical complexity. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (M.-S. L., B. P. M. and V.-A. G.) and the Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of

  2. Water Chemistry Impacts on Arsenic Mobilization from Arsenopyrite Dissolution and Secondary Mineral Precipitation: Implications for Managed Aquifer Recharge

    EPA Science Inventory

    Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is one water reuse technique with the potential to meet growing water demands. However, MAR sites have encountered arsenic remobilization resulting from recharge operations. To combat this challenge, it is important to identify the mechanism of arse...

  3. Use of Industrial Byproducts and Natural Minerals to Filter Nutrients and Pesticides in Golf Green Drainage Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tile drainage is an essential water management feature of managed turfgrass systems. Drainage water carries soluble nutrients and pesticides to streams. Identifying materials and testing the efficacy of those materials as filtering agents is one proposed solution to mitigate offsite transport. We co...

  4. Storm-induced upwelling of high pCO2 waters onto the continental shelf of the western Arctic Ocean and implications for carbonate mineral saturation states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, Jeremy T.; Pickart, Robert S.; Byrne, Robert H.; McNeil, Craig L.; Moore, G. W. K.; Juranek, Laurie W.; Liu, Xuewu; Ma, Jian; Easley, Regina A.; Elliot, Matthew M.; Cross, Jessica N.; Reisdorph, Stacey C.; Bahr, Frank; Morison, Jamie; Lichendorf, Trina; Feely, Richard A.

    2012-04-01

    The carbon system of the western Arctic Ocean is undergoing a rapid transition as sea ice extent and thickness decline. These processes are dynamically forcing the region, with unknown consequences for CO2 fluxes and carbonate mineral saturation states, particularly in the coastal regions where sensitive ecosystems are already under threat from multiple stressors. In October 2011, persistent wind-driven upwelling occurred in open water along the continental shelf of the Beaufort Sea in the western Arctic Ocean. During this time, cold (<-1.2°C), salty (>32.4) halocline water—supersaturated with respect to atmospheric CO2 (pCO2 > 550 μatm) and undersaturated in aragonite (Ωaragonite < 1.0) was transported onto the Beaufort shelf. A single 10-day event led to the outgassing of 0.18-0.54 Tg-C and caused aragonite undersaturations throughout the water column over the shelf. If we assume a conservative estimate of four such upwelling events each year, then the annual flux to the atmosphere would be 0.72-2.16 Tg-C, which is approximately the total annual sink of CO2 in the Beaufort Sea from primary production. Although a natural process, these upwelling events have likely been exacerbated in recent years by declining sea ice cover and changing atmospheric conditions in the region, and could have significant impacts on regional carbon budgets. As sea ice retreat continues and storms increase in frequency and intensity, further outgassing events and the expansion of waters that are undersaturated in carbonate minerals over the shelf are probable.

  5. Large-basin ground water circulation and paleo-reconstruction of circulation leading to uranium mineralization in Grand Canyon breccia pipes, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Huntoon, P.W.

    1996-07-01

    Breccia pipes - vertical collapse structures - are common in the Phanerozoic sedimentary section in the Grand Canyon region. Breccias in economically significant pipes are as great as 900 m high and 90 m in diameter. The pipes originated through collapse into paleocaverns in Mississippian carbonates. The large heights of the mineralized pipes is attributed to upward stoping resulting from progressive creation of space within the pipes through dissolution of wall rocks and soluble constituents in the breccia clasts. The paleocaves that served as nucleation sites for the pipes date from Mississippian time. Stoping appears to have been reactivated or accelerated during Triassic time as terrains to the south became uplifted. Uplift cause hydraulic gradients within aquifers in the Paleozoic section to increase significantly which enhanced ground water circulation and attendant dissolution. The most likely source for uranium in the Grand Canyon breccia pipes was eroding volcanic and Precambrian crystalline rocks in the Triassic Mogollon highlands south of the Grand Canyon region. The circulation model proposed herein assumes that uranium-rich waters originating in the highlands recharged through the exposed Redwall Limestone and circulated northward in the artesian Redwall aquifer. On reaching the Grand Canyon region, the water circulated upward into the Phanerozoic section in the breccia pipes which served as permeability pathways through thick confining strata. The pipes concentrated fluid circulation and directed it through reducing environments which caused precipitation of the uranium and associated metals yielding a number of economic uranium ore bodies. The architecture of the circulation systems in the Colorado plateau prior to incision of the Colorado river was such that hydraulic heads decreased within successively shallower aquifers. Consequently, head gradients at any location were upward in the pipes during the mineralizing stages.

  6. [Study of the diuretic efficacy and tolerability of therapy with Rocchetta mineral water in patients with recurrent calcium kidney stones].

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, A; Boccafoschi, C; Chisena, S; De Angelis, M; Seveso, M

    1999-04-01

    The diluition of urine decreases the risk of stone formation by lowering the concentration of calcium, oxalate and uric acid, but involves a simultaneous decrease of the concentration of the inhibitors of crystallization. On the other hand the ion content of the drinking water used for stone prevention could by itself modify urine composition. We tested the effect of the administration of a mild-calcium high-bicarbonate content water on urine composition of a group of calcium renal stone formers. A group of 40 calcium renal stone formers was instructed to drink 3 l/day of a mild-calcium (57 mg/l) and high-bicarbonate (180 mg/l) content water (Rocchetta) for a 7 day period. A 24-h collection was obtained before and after water administration for analyses of calcium, magnesium, oxalate and citrate. Urine volume was significantly increased after water administration (1601 +/- 357 vs 1878 +/- 339). Daily urinary calcium, magnesium and citrate were significantly increased, whereas daily urinary oxalate was unchanged after water administration. In conclusion the mild-calcium high-bicarbonate content water administration seems suitable for stone prevention because of the increased excretion of urinary inhibitors counterbalancing increased urinary calcium excretion.

  7. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with specific sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  8. Effects of natural mineral-rich water consumption on the expression of sirtuin 1 and angiogenic factors in the erectile tissue of rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cidália D; Severo, Milton; Rafael, LuIsa; Martins, Maria João; Neves, Delminda

    2014-01-01

    Consuming a high-fructose diet induces metabolic syndrome (MS)-like features, including endothelial dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction is an early manifestation of endothelial dysfunction and systemic vascular disease. Because mineral deficiency intensifies the deleterious effects of fructose consumption and mineral ingestion is protective against MS, we aimed to characterize the effects of 8 weeks of natural mineral-rich water consumption on the structural organization and expression of vascular growth factors and receptors on the corpus cavernosum (CC) in 10% fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (FRUCT). Differences were not observed in the organization of the CC either on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or the components of the angiopoietins/Tie2 system. However, opposing expression patterns were observed for VEGF receptors (an increase and a decrease for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, respectively) in FRUCT animals, with these patterns being strengthened by mineral-rich water ingestion. Mineral-rich water ingestion (FRUCTMIN) increased the proportion of smooth muscle cells compared with FRUCT rats and induced an upregulatory tendency of sirtuin 1 expression compared with the control and FRUCT groups. Western blot results were consistent with the dual immunofluorescence evaluation. Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein and plasma testosterone levels were similar among the experimental groups, although a tendency for an increase in the former was observed in the FRUCTMIN group. The mineral-rich water-treated rats presented changes similar to those observed in rats treated with MS-protective polyphenol-rich beverages or subjected to energy restriction, which led us to hypothesize that the effects of mineral-rich water consumption may be more vast than those directly observed in this study.

  9. Estimated intake of the sweeteners, acesulfame-K and aspartame, from soft drinks, soft drinks based on mineral waters and nectars for a group of Portuguese teenage students.

    PubMed

    Lino, C M; Costa, I M; Pena, A; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S M

    2008-11-01

    In a survey of levels of acesulfame-K and aspartame in soft drinks and in light nectars, the intake of these intense sweeteners was estimated for a group of teenage students. Acesulfame-K was detected in 72% of the soft drinks, with a mean concentration of 72 mg l(-1) and aspartame was found in 92% of the samples with a mean concentration of 89 mg l(-1). When data on the content of these sweeteners in soft drinks were analysed according to flavour, cola drinks had the highest mean levels for both sweeteners with 98 and 103 mg l(-1) for acesulfame-K and aspartame, respectively. For soft drinks based on mineral water, aspartame was found in 62% of the samples, with a mean concentration of 82 mg l(-1) and acesulfame-K was found in 77%, with a mean level of 48 mg l(-1). All samples of nectars contained acesulfame-K, with a mean concentration of 128 mg l(-1) and aspartame was detected in 80% of the samples with a mean concentration of 73 mg l(-1). A frequency questionnaire, designed to identify adolescents having high consumption of these drinks, was completed by a randomly selected sample of teenagers (n = 65) living in the city of Coimbra, in 2007. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of acesulfame-K and aspartame for the average consumer were below the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). For acesulfame-K, the EDI was 0.7 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for soft drinks, 0.2 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for soft drinks based on mineral waters, and 0.5 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for nectars, representing 8.0%, 2.2%, and 5.8% of the ADI, respectively. A similar situation was observed for aspartame. In this way, the EDI for soft drinks was 1.1 mg kg(-1) day(-1), representing only 2.9% of the ADI. In respect of nectars, the EDI was 0.2 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), representing 0.5% of the ADI. Soft drinks based on mineral waters showed the lowest EDI values of 0.3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), accounting for 0.7% of the ADI.

  10. Assessing human exposure to phthalic acid and phthalate esters from mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate and glass bottles.

    PubMed

    Montuori, P; Jover, E; Morgantini, M; Bayona, J M; Triassi, M

    2008-04-01

    Phthalic acid and phthalate esters are of growing interest due to their significant usage and potential toxicity. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and glass are both widely used materials for bottled drinking water. In this study, phthalic acid (PhA), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiisoBP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were analysed in a large number of Italian bottled water samples. These samples showed different concentrations of phthalates are nearly 20 times higher in samples bottled in PET than those from glass bottles with total levels of phthalates of 3.52 and 0.19 microg l(-1), respectively. However, the observed levels do not represent a significant exposure pathway when considering the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) reference dose (an estimate of a daily oral exposure to the human population, including sensitive subgroups, that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime). In addition, no significant correlation was found between the phthalate concentrations and the physicochemical properties of the different water samples, apart from the still/sparkling water parameter for the PET samples. In this instance, slightly higher concentrations were observed for the PET bottled still water samples than for the sparkling water samples, although no explanation has been found yet.

  11. Recrystallization and stability of Zn and Pb minerals on their migration to groundwater in soils affected by Acid Mine Drainage under CO2 rich atmospheric waters.

    PubMed

    Goienaga, N; Carrero, J A; Zuazagoitia, D; Baceta, J I; Murelaga, X; Fernández, L A; Madariaga, J M

    2015-01-01

    The extent of vertical contamination is intimately related to the soil solution and surface chemistry of the soil matrix with reference to the metal and waste matrix in question. The present research demonstrated the impact that the dissolved CO2 of the meteoric waters, which acidify the environment with pH values below 4, has in the increase of the metal mobility. Although under the given conditions the Zn remains mainly dissolved, the initial PbS and ZnS have evolved into newly formed secondary carbonates and sulphates (i.e., hydrozincite, gunningite, hydrocerussite) that can be found in the efflorescences. The chemical simulation done on the weathering of the original sulphide ores for the formation of these secondary minerals has proved the transient storage mainly of Pb. Nonetheless, many of the minerals formed inside the galleries will be easily dissolved in the next rains and release in an ionic form to the groundwater. The analytical procedure exposed has been proved to be useful not only for the characterization of AMD but also for the prediction of the mobility of metals.

  12. Uranium and thorium in soils, mineral sands, water and food samples in a tin mining area in Nigeria with elevated activity.

    PubMed

    Arogunjo, A M; Höllriegl, V; Giussani, A; Leopold, K; Gerstmann, U; Veronese, I; Oeh, U

    2009-03-01

    The activity concentrations of uranium and thorium have been determined in soils and mineral sands from the Nigerian tin mining area of Bisichi, located in the Jos Plateau, and from two control areas in Nigeria (Jos City and Akure) using high-purity germanium detectors (HPGe). High resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (HR-SF-ICP-MS) was used to determine uranium and thorium in liquids and foodstuffs consumed locally in the mining area. The activities of uranium and thorium measured in the soils and mineral sands from Bisichi ranged from 8.7 kBq kg(-1) to 51 kBq kg(-1) for (238)U and from 16.8 kBq kg(-1) to 98 kBq kg(-1) for (232)Th, respectively. These values were significantly higher than those in the control areas of Jos City and Akure and than the reference values reported in the literature. They even exceeded the concentrations reported for areas of high natural radioactive background. Radionuclide concentrations in samples of the local foodstuffs and in water samples collected in Bisichi were found to be higher than UNSCEAR reference values. The results reveal the pollution potential of the mining activities on the surrounding areas.

  13. Geology and ground-water hydrology of the Heart River irrigation project and the Dickinson area, North Dakota, with a section on the mineral quality of waters of the Heart River project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tychsen, Paul C.; Swenson, Herbert A.

    1950-01-01

    The Heart River irrigation project, in southwestern North Dakota, lies in the Missouri Plateau section of the Great Plains physiographic province, which extends from the Missouri escarpment to and beyond the western border of the State. The area ranges in altitude from 1,620 to 2,275 feet and locally has strong relief. The floor of the Heart River Valley is underlain by alluvial deposits of Quaternary age. In the westernmost part of the areas the Fort Union formation of Paleocene (Tertiary) age forms the valley sides, but in a downstream direction the Cannonball and Ludlow formations, here undifferentiated, also of Paleocene age, crop out in the valley sides and underlie progressively broader areas of the upland surface. The Hell Creek formation of Upper Cretaceous age appears above stream level only in the stretch of the valley between the center of T. 136 N., R. 85 W., and the northeastern part of T.. 137 N., R. 84 W. Glacial Drift, which once covered the whole area, now has been almost entirely removed by erosion except for .scattered boulders on the uplands. The Cannonball and Ludlow unit and the Fort Union formation yield, moderate supplies of ground water, and the river alluvium yields more abundant supplies. At the present rate of withdrawal and with normal precipitation there is little danger of seriously depleting the supply. In 1946 the average depth to water in observation wells in the Heart River Valley was 19 feet, whereas the depth to water in observation wells in the upland averaged 30 feet. The Dickinson area is small and is about 45 miles upstream from the Heart River irrigation project. Ground-water levels in the Dickinson municipal well field have declined considerably within recent years, but the impounding of Heart River water is expected to insure a more adequate water supply for the town. Samples of ground water from four wells in the lower Heart River Valley were analyzed to determine the present mineral character of the waters in this

  14. Relevance of a Hypersaline Sodium-Rich Naturally Sparkling Mineral Water to the Protection against Metabolic Syndrome Induction in Fructose-Fed Sprague-Dawley Rats: A Biochemical, Metabolic, and Redox Approach

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Cidália Dionísio; Severo, Milton; Araújo, João Ricardo; Guimarães, João Tiago; Pestana, Diogo; Santos, Alejandro; Ferreira, Rita; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José; Azevedo, Isabel; Monteiro, Rosário; Martins, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome increases the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Increased fructose consumption and/or mineral deficiency have been associated with Metabolic Syndrome development. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 8 weeks consumption of a hypersaline sodium-rich naturally sparkling mineral water on 10% fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (Metabolic Syndrome animal model). The ingestion of the mineral water (rich in sodium bicarbonate and with higher potassium, calcium, and magnesium content than the tap water used as control) reduced/prevented not only the fructose-induced increase of heart rate, plasma triacylglycerols, insulin and leptin levels, hepatic catalase activity, and organ weight to body weight ratios (for liver and both kidneys) but also the decrease of hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and oxidized glutathione content. This mineral-rich water seems to have potential to prevent Metabolic Syndrome induction by fructose. We hypothesize that its regular intake in the context of modern diets, which have a general acidic character interfering with mineral homeostasis and are poor in micronutrients, namely potassium, calcium, and magnesium, could add surplus value and attenuate imbalances, thus contributing to metabolic and redox health and, consequently, decreasing the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:24672546

  15. Structure, dynamics and stability of water/scCO2/mineral interfaces from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mal-Soon; Peter McGrail, B.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The boundary layer at solid-liquid interfaces is a unique reaction environment that poses significant scientific challenges to characterize and understand by experimentation alone. Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) methods, we report on the structure and dynamics of boundary layer formation, cation mobilization and carbonation under geologic carbon sequestration scenarios (T = 323 K and P = 90 bar) on a prototypical anorthite (001) surface. At low coverage, water film formation is enthalpically favored, but entropically hindered. Simulated adsorption isotherms show that a water monolayer will form even at the low water concentrations of water-saturated scCO2. Carbonation reactions readily occur at electron-rich terminal Oxygen sites adjacent to cation vacancies that readily form in the presence of a water monolayer. These results point to a carbonation mechanism that does not require prior carbonic acid formation in the bulk liquid. This work also highlights the modern capabilities of theoretical methods to address structure and reactivity at interfaces of high chemical complexity. PMID:26456362

  16. Fit for purpose validated method for the determination of the strontium isotopic signature in mineral water samples by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brach-Papa, Christophe; Van Bocxstaele, Marleen; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Quétel, Christophe R.

    2009-03-01

    A robust method allowing the routine determination of n( 87Sr)/ n( 86Sr) with at least five significant decimal digits for large sets of mineral water samples is described. It is based on 2 consecutive chromatographic separations of Sr associated to multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) measurements. Separations are performed using commercial pre-packed columns filled with "Sr resin" to overcome isobaric interferences affecting the determination of strontium isotope ratios. The careful method validation scheme applied is described. It included investigations on all parameters influencing both chromatographic separations and MC-ICPMS measurements, and also the test on a synthetic sample made of an aliquot of the NIST SRM 987 certified reference material dispersed in a saline matrix to mimic complex samples. Correction for mass discrimination was done internally using the n( 88Sr)/ n( 86Sr) ratio. For comparing mineral waters originating from different geological backgrounds or identifying counterfeits, calculations involved the well known consensus value (1/0.1194) ± 0 as reference. The typical uncertainty budget estimated for these results was 40 'ppm' relative ( k = 2). It increased to 150 'ppm' ( k = 2) for the establishment of stand alone results, taking into account a relative difference of about 126 'ppm' systematically observed between measured and certified values of the NIST SRM 987. In case there was suspicion of a deviation of the n( 88Sr)/ n( 86Sr) ratio (worst case scenario) our proposal was to use the NIST SRM 987 value 8.37861 ± 0.00325 ( k = 2) as reference, and assign a typical relative uncertainty budget of 300 'ppm' ( k = 2). This method is thus fit for purpose and was applied to eleven French samples.

  17. Influence of spray equipment and water volume on coverage of citrus and control of citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Hemiptera: Coccidae) with mineral oil.

    PubMed

    Chueca, P; Grafton-Cardwell, E E; Moltó, E

    2009-02-01

    A trial was conducted in a commercial Citrus sinensis L. variety 'Washington' navel orange orchard to compare the coverage and efficacy against citricola scale Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) of 45.5 liters/ha of an nC24 agricultural mineral oil treatment applied by two different methods: a conventional air blast sprayer and a rotary atomizer. Three water volumes (2,340, 4,680, and 7,020 liters/ha) were applied with the air blast sprayer to determine the optimal spray volume for that equipment. A single volume (2,340 liters/ha) was applied with the rotary atomizer to compare its effectiveness with that of the air blast sprayer at this same volume. Results demonstrated that all treatments reduced citricola scale densities. Moreover, all treatments conducted with the air blast sprayer provided significantly greater coverage and significantly reduced citricola scale densities compared with the treatment made with the rotary atomizer. Larger water volume applications with the air blast sprayer did not significantly reduce citricola scale densities, although significantly better coverage was attained in the interior of the tree when spraying with 4,680 and 7,020 liters/ha. As a consequence, this study demonstrated that the increased coverage obtained by applying higher water volume with the air blast sprayer was not required for an optimal treatment in August, when the citricola scale population consisted of nymphs inhabiting the outside leaves of the tree.

  18. Optical water quality model of Lake Ontario. 2: Determination of chlorophyll a and suspended mineral concentrations of natural waters from submersible and low altitude optical sensors.

    PubMed

    Bukata, R P; Bruton, J E; Jerome, J H; Jain, S C; Zwick, H H

    1981-05-01

    Spectrooptical and water quality data collected from a 1979 coordinated in situ and airborne study of western Lake Ontario are used to devise a five-component model from which subsurface chlorophyll a and suspended solids concentrations may be determined from submersible optical sensors capable of measuring spectral irradiance reflectance just beneath the free-surface layer. A water-air interface model, which incorporates the effects of surface reflection, is also presented in an attempt to extend such water quality estimations to low altitude remote sensors. Special emphasis is given to the spectral wavelength bands of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner aboard Nimbus-7.

  19. Determination of thorium isotopes in mineral and environmental water and soil samples by alpha-spectrometry and the fate of thorium in water.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guogang; Torri, G; Ocone, R; Di Lullo, A; De Angelis, A; Boschetto, R

    2008-10-01

    A method has been developed for determination of thorium isotopes in water and soil samples by alpha-spectrometry. After fusion with Na(2)CO(3) and Na(2)O(2) at 600 degrees C, soil samples were leached with HNO(3) and HCl. Thorium in water sample or in soil leaching solution was coprecipitated together with iron (III) as hydroxides and/or carbonates at pH 9 with ammonia solution, separated from uranium and other alpha-emitters by a Microthene-TOPO (tri-octyl-phosphine oxide) chromatographic column, electrodeposited on a stainless steel disk, and measured by alpha-spectrometry. The method was checked with two certified reference materials supplied by the IAEA, and reliable results were obtained. The detection limits of the method for water (soil) samples are 0.44 microBq l(-1) (0.070 Bq kg(-1)) for (232)Th, 0.80 microBq l(-1) (0.13 Bq kg(-1)) for (230)Th and 1.0 microBq l(-1) (0.16 Bq kg(-1)) for (228)Th, respectively, if 100 l of water (0.50 g) for each sample are analysed. A variety of water or soil samples were analysed using this procedure and giving average thorium yields of 75.5+/-14.2% for water and 93.4+/-4.5% for soil. The obtained concentrations of thorium isotopes in water samples are in the range of 0.0007-0.0326 mBq l(-1) for (232)Th, water is observed and the fate of thorium isotopes in water was studied. The exposure impact due to intake of thorium in the analysed drinking water was evaluated, showing a negligible amount of dose contribution. The concentrations of (232)Th, (230)Th and (228)Th in the analysed soil samples are in the range of 30.2-48.6, 32.5-60.5 and 31.0-53.0 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The obtained mean ratio is 1.04+/-0.05 for (228)Th/(232)Th and 1.20+/-0.41 for (230)Th/(232)Th.

  20. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  1. Detection of crystalline hematite mineralization on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer: evidence for near-surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, P.R.; Bandfield, J.L.; Clark, R.N.; Edgett, K.S.; Hamilton, V.E.; Hoefen, T.; Kieffer, H.H.; Kuzmin, R.O.; Lane, M.D.; Malin, M.C.; Morris, R.V.; Pearl, J.C.; Pearson, R.; Roush, T.L.; Ruff, S.W.; Smith, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission has discovered a remarkable accumulation of crystalline hematite (α-Fe2O3) that covers an area with very sharp boundaries approximately 350 by 350–750 km in size centered near 2°S latitude between 0° and 5°W longitude (Sinus Meridiani). Crystalline hematite is uniquely identified by the presence of fundamental vibrational absorption features centered near 300, 450, and >525 cm−1 and by the absence of silicate fundamentals in the 1000 cm−1 region. Spectral features resulting from atmospheric CO2, dust, and water ice were removed using a radiative transfer model. The spectral properties unique to Sinus Meridiani were emphasized by removing the average spectrum of the surrounding region. The depth and shape of the hematite fundamental bands show that the hematite is crystalline and relatively coarse grained (>5–10 μm). Diameters up to and greater than hundreds of micrometers are permitted within the instrumental noise and natural variability of hematite spectra. Hematite particles 30 μm diameter) to 40–60% (10 μm diameter). The hematite in Sinus Meridiani is thus distinct from the fine-grained (diameter <5–10 μm), red, crystalline hematite considered, on the basis of visible, near-IR data, to be a minor spectral component in Martian bright regions like Olympus-Amazonis. Sinus Meridiani hematite is closely associated with a smooth, layered, friable surface that is interpreted to be sedimentary in origin. This material may be the uppermost surface in the region, indicating that it might be a late stage sedimentary unit or a layered portion of the heavily cratered plains units. We consider five possible mechanisms for the formation of coarse-grained, crystalline hematite. These processes fall into two classes depending on whether they require a significant amount of near-surface water: the first is chemical precipitation that includes origin by (1

  2. Search for the OH (X(2)Pi) Meinel band emission in meteors as a tracer of mineral water in comets: detection of N(2)(+) (A-X)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O.

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of the N(2)(+) A-X Meinel band in the 780-840 nm meteor emission from two Leonid meteoroids that were ejected less than 1000 years ago by comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle. Our analysis indicates that the N(2)(+) molecule is at least an order of magnitude less abundant than expected, possibly as a result of charge transfer reactions with meteoric metal atoms. This new band was found while searching for rovibrational transitions in the X(2)Pi electronic ground state of OH (the OH Meinel band), a potential tracer of water bound to minerals in cometary matter. The electronic A-X transition of OH has been identified in other Leonid meteors. We did not detect this OH Meinel band, which implies that the excited A state is not populated by thermal excitation but by a mechanism that directly produces OH in low vibrational levels of the excited A(2)Sigma state. Ultraviolet dissociation of atmospheric or meteoric water vapor is such a mechanism, as is the possible combustion of meteoric organics.

  3. Experimental rock-water interactions at temperatures to 300/sup 0/C: implications for fluid flow, solute transport, and silicate mineral zoning in crustal geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal reservoirs commonly occur in permeable volcanic rock (rhyolite, andesite, basalt) or sedimentary (sandstone) strata at temperatures below 300/sup 0/C. Knowledge of how these reservoirs develop chemically and physically has been based almost entirely on field studies. Four types of experiments were conducted to supplement available data on the chemistry, mineralogy, and fluid flow aspects of hydrothermal processes occurring in crustal geothermal systems: (1) agitated rock-water experiments; (2) high temperature flow through experiments; (3) low temperature permeability experiments; and (4) corrosion monitoring experiments. Initial experiments reacted rhyolite glass and holocrystalline basalt with water-NaCl solutions at 300/sup 0/C in agitated hydrothermal equipment. Concentrations of components in solution depend on initial salinity, rock type, and particle size. The secondary phases consist of zeolites, clay, and feldspar minerals and the alteration assemblage is dependent on both initial salinity, rock type, and duration of the experiment. A second set of experiments were conducted at 300/sup 0/C using the rhyolite glass in a flow through type of apparatus. Compositions of outlet fluids show a dependence of fluid flow rate and core length.

  4. Search for the OH (X(2)Pi) Meinel band emission in meteors as a tracer of mineral water in comets: detection of N(2)(+) (A-X).

    PubMed

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of the N(2)(+) A-X Meinel band in the 780-840 nm meteor emission from two Leonid meteoroids that were ejected less than 1000 years ago by comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle. Our analysis indicates that the N(2)(+) molecule is at least an order of magnitude less abundant than expected, possibly as a result of charge transfer reactions with meteoric metal atoms. This new band was found while searching for rovibrational transitions in the X(2)Pi electronic ground state of OH (the OH Meinel band), a potential tracer of water bound to minerals in cometary matter. The electronic A-X transition of OH has been identified in other Leonid meteors. We did not detect this OH Meinel band, which implies that the excited A state is not populated by thermal excitation but by a mechanism that directly produces OH in low vibrational levels of the excited A(2)Sigma state. Ultraviolet dissociation of atmospheric or meteoric water vapor is such a mechanism, as is the possible combustion of meteoric organics.

  5. The investigation of the LED-activated FeFNS-TiO2 nanocatalyst for photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of organophosphate pesticides in water.

    PubMed

    Hossaini, Hiwa; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Farrokhi, Mehrdad

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the preparation and characterization of an efficient doped TiO2 as a novel catalyst for degradation of diazinon model pesticide using LED-activated photocatalysis. TiO2 was doped using N, NS, FeNS, and FeFNS. The FeFNS-doped TiO2 showed the highest catalytic activity in LED/photocatalysis. FeFNS-doped TiO2 is a mesoporous nanocrystal powder with a mean pore diameter of 10.2 nm, a specific surface area of 104.4 m(2)/g and a crystallite size of 6.7 nm. LED/photocatalysis using FeFNS-doped TiO2 improved diazinon degradation by 52.3% over that of as-made plain TiO2 at an optimum solution pH of 7. The diazinon degradation in LED/photocatalysis using FeFNS-doped TiO2 increased from 44.8% to 96.3% when the catalyst concentration increased from 25% to 300%at a reaction time of 100 min. The degradation and mineralization of diazinon during LED/photocatalysis with FeFNS-doped TiO2 catalyst followed the pseudo-first-order reaction model with the rate constants of 0.973 h(-1) and 0.541 h(-1), respectively. The FeFNS-doped TiO2 was found to be an efficient catalyst that was photoactivated using UV-LED lamps. LED/photocatalysis with FeFNS-doped TiO2 catalyst is a promising alternative to conventional UV/TiO2photocatalysis for producing free OH radicals for use in the degradation and mineralization of water toxic contaminants.

  6. Detection of Crystalline Hematite Mineralization on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer: Evidence for Near-surface Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, P. R.; Bandfield, J. L.; Clark, R. N.; Edgett, K. S.; Hamilton, V. E.; Hoefen, T.; Kieffer, H. H.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Lane, M. D.; Malin, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission has discovered a remarkable accumulation of crystalline hematite ((alpha-Fe2O3) that covers an area with very sharp boundaries approximately 350 by 350-750 km in size centered near 2 S latitude between 0 and 5 W longitude (Sinus Meridiani). Crystalline hematite is uniquely identified by the presence of fundamental vibrational absorption features centered near 300, 450, and >525/cm, and by the absence of silicate fundamentals in the 1000/cm region. Spectral features resulting from atmospheric CO2, dust, and water ice were removed using a radiative transfer model. The spectral properties unique to Sinus Meridiani were emphasized by removing the average spectrum of the surrounding region. The depth and shape of the hematite fundamental bands show that the hematite is crystalline and relatively coarse grained (>5-10 micron). Diameters up to and greater than 100s of micrometers are permitted within the instrumental noise and natural variability of hematite spectra. Hematite particles <5-10 micron in diameter (either as an unpacked or hard-packed powders) fail to match the TES spectra. The spectrally-derived areal abundance of hematite varies with particle size from approximately 10% for particles >30 micron in diameter to 40-60% for unpacked 10 micron powders. The hematite in Sinus Meridiani is thus distinct from the fine-grained (diameter <5-10 micron), red, crystalline hematite considered, on the basis of visible, near-IR data, to be a minor spectral component in Martian bright regions like Olympus-Amazonis. Sinus Meridiani hematite is closely associated with a smooth, layered, friable surface that is interpreted to be sedimentary in origin. This material may be the uppermost surface in the region, indicating that it could be a late-stage sedimentary unit, or it could be a layered portion of the heavily cratered plains units. We consider five possible mechanisms for the

  7. Effects of mineral water differing in chemical composition on the post-radiation restorative processes of tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Zubkova, S.M.; Bulyakova, N.V.; Azarova, V.S.; Popova, M.F.; Korolev, Yu.N.; Nikulina, L.A.; Panova, L.N. |

    1994-11-01

    Experiments have show that natural and manufactured water containing arsenic and iodine may alter radiosensitivity in rats. This effect is associated with the ability of certain concentrations of iodine and arsenic ions to decrease respiration and stimulate phosphorylation in rat liver mintochondria, with resulting tissue hypoxia. Combination of iodine and calcium produced a protective effect after 21 days of daily administration to rats that absorbed radiation. In particular the survival rate of the rates increased to 67% in comparison with a 36% survival rate in rats that received only calcium and a 100% death rate in rats which were left untreated. In addition to increased energization of rat liver mitochondria, the treatment produced an inhibition of renal parenchyma clacification caused by radiation. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  9. Mineral bioprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  10. A geochemical and geophysical approach to derive a conceptual circulation model of CO2-rich mineral waters: A case study of Vilarelho da Raia, northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, J. M.; Santos, Monteiro; Graça, R. C.; Castro, R.; Aires-Barros, L.; Mendes Victor, L. A.

    2001-11-01

    The Vilarelho da Raia-Chaves region, located in northern Portugal adjacent to the Spanish border, is characterized by both hot and cold CO2-rich mineral waters issuing from springs and drilled wells. The present paper updates the conceptual circulation model of the Vilarelho da Raia cold CO2-rich mineral waters. Vilarelho da Raia mineral waters, dominated by Na and HCO3 ions, have formed mainly by interaction with CO2 of deep-seated mantle origin. The δ18O, δ2H and 3H values indicate that these waters are the result of meteoric waters infiltrating into Larouco Mountain, NW of Vilarelho da Raia, circulating at shallow depths in granitic rocks and moving into Vilarelho da Raia area. The conceptual geochemical and geophysical circulation model indicates that the hot and cold CO2-rich mineral waters of Chaves (76 °C) and Vilarelho da Raia (17 °C) should be considered manifestations of similar but not the same geohydrological systems. Résumé. La région de Vilarelho da Raia - Chaves, située au Portugal près de la frontière Espagnole, est caractérisée par des eaux carbogazeuses, chaudes et froides, émergeant à des sources et dans des puits. Ce travail constitue une mise au point du modèle conceptuel de circulation des eaux minérales carbogazeuses froides de Vilarelho da Raia. Les eaux minérales de Vilarelho da Raia, dans lesquelles les ions Na and HCO3 sont dominants, résultent principalement d'interactions avec du CO2 d'origine mantellique. Les δ18O, les δ2H, et les teneurs en 3H indiquent que ces eaux proviennent de l'infiltration d'eaux météoriques dans le Mont Larouco au NW de Vilarelho da Raia, circulant à faible profondeur dans les granites en direction de la région de Vilarelho da Raia. Le modèle de circulation géochimique et géophysique conduit à penser que les eaux minérales carbogazeuses chaudes et froides de Chaves (76 °C) et de Vilarelho da Raia (17 °C) doivent être considérées comme des manifestations de systèmes hydrog

  11. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on norovirus infectivity and genome stability in strawberry puree and mineral water.

    PubMed

    Kovač, Katarina; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Raspor, Peter; Hernández, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2012-01-03

    We report an evaluation of the effect of various combinations of pressures and times on the inactivation of norovirus (NoV) in two types of matrices that are important in NoV transmission: water and soft fruits. The human NoV surrogate murine norovirus was used as the model virus. The effect of HHP on the viral genome was evaluated by using RT real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), and infectivity assay was used to assess effects on the ability of the virus to attach to and replicate in cells. HHP treatments of 400 MPa for 2.5 min proved to be sufficient for efficient inactivation of NoV (>99.9% reduction). The efficacy of viral inactivation was highly dependent on the matrix in which the virus was present. Therefore, the effect of HHP should be carefully studied in all matrices to which HHP could potentially be applied. Finally, we found no consistent correlation between RT-qPCR and virus infectivity results, and consequently RT-qPCR is not a satisfactory tool for predicting risks to human health.

  12. Quality survey of natural mineral water and spring water sold in France: Monitoring of hormones, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, perfluoroalkyl substances, phthalates, and alkylphenols at the ultra-trace level.

    PubMed

    Le Coadou, Laurine; Le Ménach, Karyn; Labadie, Pierre; Dévier, Marie-Hélène; Pardon, Patrick; Augagneur, Sylvie; Budzinski, Hélène

    2017-03-24

    The aim of the present study, one of the most complete ever performed in France, was to carry out an extensive survey on the potential presence of a large amount of emerging contaminants in 40 French bottled waters, including parent compounds and metabolites. The studied samples represented 70% of the French bottled water market in volume. Six classes of compounds were investigated, most of them being unregulated in bottled waters: pesticides and their transformation products (118), pharmaceutical substances (172), hormones (11), alkylphenols (APs) (8), phthalates (11) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) (10). One of the objectives of this work was to achieve low and reliable limits of quantification (LOQs) (87% of the LOQs were below 10ng/L) using advanced analytical technologies and reliable sample preparation methodologies, including stringent quality controls. Among the 14,000 analyses performed, 99.7% of the results were below the LOQs. None of the hormones, pharmaceutical substances and phthalates were quantified. Nineteen compounds out of the 330 investigated were quantified in 11 samples. Eleven were pesticides including 7 metabolites, 6 were PFAS and 2 were APs. As regards pesticides, their sum was at least twice lower than the quality standards applicable for bottled waters in France. The presence of a majority of pesticide metabolites suggested a former use in the recharge areas of the exploited aquifers. The quantification of a few unregulated emerging compounds at the nano-trace level, such as PFAS, raised the issue of their potential sources, including long-range atmospheric transport and deposition. This study confirmed that the groundwater aquifers exploited for bottling were well-preserved from chemicals, as compared to less geologically protected groundwaters, and also underlined the need to pursue the protection policies implemented in recharge areas in order to limit the anthropogenic pressure.

  13. Effect of humic acid on pyrene removal from water by polycation-clay mineral composites and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Radian, Adi; Mishael, Yael

    2012-06-05

    Pyrene removal by polycation-montmorillonite (MMT) composites and granulated activated carbon (GAC) in the presence of humic acid (HA) was examined. Pyrene, HA, and sorbent interactions were characterized by FTIR, fluorescence and zeta measurements, adsorption, and column filtration experiments. Pyrene binding coefficients to the macromolecules were in the order of PVPcoS (poly-4-vinylpiridine-co-styrene) > HA > PDADMAC (poly diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium-chloride), correlating to pyrene-macromolecules compatibility. Electrostatic interactions explained the high adsorption of HA to both composites (∼100%), whereas HA adsorption by GAC was low. Pyrene removal by the composites, unlike GAC, was enhanced in the presence of HA; removal by PDADMAC-MMT increased from ∼50 (k(d) = 2.2 × 10(3) kg/L) to ∼70% (k(d) = 2.4 × 10(3) kg/L) in the presence of HA. This improvement was attributed to the adsorption of pyrene-HA complexes. PVPcoS-MMT was most efficient in removing pyrene (k(d) = 1.1 × 10(4) kg/L, >95% removal) which was explained in terms of specific π donor-π acceptor interactions. Pyrene uptake by column filters of GAC reached ∼50% and decreased to ∼30% in the presence of HA. Pyrene removal by the PVPcoS-MMT filter was significantly higher (100-85% removal), exhibiting only a small decrease in the presence of HA. The utilization of HA as an enhancing agent in pollutant removal is novel and of major importance in water treatment.

  14. Sealing ability of white and gray mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with distilled water and 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate when used as root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Shahriar; Rahimi, Saeed; Yavari, Hamid Reza; Shakouie, Sahar; Nezafati, Saeed; Abdolrahimi, Majid

    2007-12-01

    This in vitro study used dye penetration to compare the sealing ability of white and gray mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with distilled water and 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate when used as root-end filling materials. Ninety-six single-rooted human teeth were cleaned, shaped, and obturated with gutta-percha and AH26 root canal sealer. The apical 3 mm of each root was resected, and 3-mm deep root-end cavity preparations were made. The teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups, each containing 20 teeth, and 2 negative and positive control groups, each containing 8 teeth. Root-end cavities in the experimental groups were filled with the experimental materials. After decoronation of the teeth and application of nail polish, the teeth were exposed to India ink for 72 hours and longitudinally sectioned, and the extent of dye penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis showed that there were no significant differences among the 4 experimental groups.

  15. A flow-batch analyzer with piston propulsion applied to automatic preparation of calibration solutions for Mn determination in mineral waters by ET AAS.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luciano F; Vale, Maria G R; Dessuy, Morgana B; Silva, Márcia M; Lima, Renato S; Santos, Vagner B; Diniz, Paulo H D; Araújo, Mário C U

    2007-10-31

    The increasing development of miniaturized flow systems and the continuous monitoring of chemical processes require dramatically simplified and cheap flow schemes and instrumentation with large potential for miniaturization and consequent portability. For these purposes, the development of systems based on flow and batch technologies may be a good alternative. Flow-batch analyzers (FBA) have been successfully applied to implement analytical procedures, such as: titrations, sample pre-treatment, analyte addition and screening analysis. In spite of its favourable characteristics, the previously proposed FBA uses peristaltic pumps to propel the fluids and this kind of propulsion presents high cost and large dimension, making unfeasible its miniaturization and portability. To overcome these drawbacks, a low cost, robust, compact and non-propelled by peristaltic pump FBA is proposed. It makes use of a lab-made piston coupled to a mixing chamber and a step motor controlled by a microcomputer. The piston-propelled FBA (PFBA) was applied for automatic preparation of calibration solutions for manganese determination in mineral waters by electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrometry (ET AAS). Comparing the results obtained with two sets of calibration curves (five by manual and five by PFBA preparations), no significant statistical differences at a 95% confidence level were observed by applying the paired t-test. The standard deviation of manual and PFBA procedures were always smaller than 0.2 and 0.1mugL(-1), respectively. By using PFBA it was possible to prepare about 80 calibration solutions per hour.

  16. Phase shifting speckle interferometry for determination of strain and Young's modulus of mineralized biological materials: a study of tooth dentin compression in water.

    PubMed

    Zaslansky, Paul; Currey, John D; Friesem, Asher A; Weiner, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Mineralized biological materials have complex hierarchical graded structures. It is therefore difficult to understand the relations between their structure and mechanical properties. We report the use of electronic speckle pattern-correlation interferometry (ESPI) combined with a mechanical compression apparatus to measure the strain and Young's modulus of root dentin compressed under water. We describe the optomechanical instrumentation, experimental techniques and procedures needed to measure cubes as small as 1 x 1 x 2 mm. Calibration of the method is performed using aluminum, which shows that the measurements are accurate within 3% of the compression modulus reported for standard aluminum 6061. Our results reveal that the compression moduli of root dentin from the buccal and lingual sides of the root are quite different from the moduli of the interproximal sides. Root dentin from interproximal locations is found to have an average modulus of 21.3 GPa, which is about 40% stiffer than root dentin from the buccal and lingual locations, found to have a modulus of 15.0 GPa. Our approach can be used to map deformations on irregular surfaces, and measure strain on wet samples of varying sizes. This can be extended to the study of other biological materials including bone and synthetic biomaterials.

  17. Removal of Pb, Cd, and Cr in a water purification system using modified mineral waste materials and activated carbon derived from waste materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H. R.; Su, L. C.; Ruan, H. D.

    2016-08-01

    This study attempts to find out and optimize the removal efficiency of heavy metals in a water purification unit using a low-cost waste material and modified mineral waste materials (MMWM) accompanied with activated carbon (AC) derived from waste materials. The factors of the inner diameter of the purification unit (2.6-5cm), the height of the packing materials (5-20cm), the size of AC (200-20mesh), the size of MMWM (1-0.045mm), and the ratio between AC and MMWM in the packing materials (1:0 - 0:1) were examined based on a L18 (5) 3 orthogonal array design. In order to achieve an optimally maximum removal efficiency, the factors of the inner diameter of the purification unit (2.6-7.5cm), the height of the packing materials (10-30cm), and the ratio between AC and MMWM in the packing materials (1:4-4:1) were examined based on a L16 (4) 3 orthogonal array design. A height of 25cm, inner diameter of 5cm, ratio between AC and MMWM of 3:2 with size of 60-40mesh and 0.075-0.045mm, respectively, were the best conditions determined by the ICP-OES analysis to perform the adsorption of heavy metals in this study.

  18. The influence of Citrosept addition to drinking water and Scutellaria baicalensis root extract on the content of selected mineral elements in the blood plasma of turkey hens.

    PubMed

    Rusinek-Prystupa, Elżbieta; Lechowski, Jerzy; Zukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Sobczak, Paweł; Zawiślak, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research work was to indicate the influence of Citrosept preparation and Scutellaria baicalensis root extract, administered per os to growing turkey hens in 3 different dosages, on the content of selected mineral elements in blood plasma of slaughter turkey hens. An attempt was also made to specify the most effective dosage of the applied preparations with the highest efficiency as regards increased levels of examined macro- and microelements in the birds' blood. The research experiment was conducted on 315 turkey hens randomly divided into seven groups, each consisting of 45 turkey hens. Group K constituted the control group without experimental additions of the above-mentioned preparations. When it comes to turkey hens which belonged to groups II-IV, Citrosept preparation was instilled to water in the following dosages: Group II - 0.011 ml/kg of bm; Group III - 0.021 ml/kg of bm; Group IV - 0.042 ml/kg bm. For birds which belonged to groups V-VII preparation, which was Scutellaria baicalensis root extract, was instilled to water in the following dosages: Group V - 0.009 ml/kg of bm; Group VI - 0.018 ml/kg of bm, Group VII - 0.036 ml/kg bm. In the examined plant extracts and blood plasma of the birds the levels of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, and Fe were identified. The use of examined extracts influenced the changes in the levels of all tested elements in slaughter turkey hens' blood plasma. An upward tendency was recorded which regarded the level of calcium and magnesium, and a downward tendency of sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, and iron in relation to the results achieved in the control group.

  19. A study on the efficacy of treatment with mud packs and baths with Sillene mineral water (Chianciano Spa Italy) in patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Fraioli, Antonio; Serio, Angelo; Mennuni, Gioacchino; Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Petraccia, Luisa; Fontana, Mario; Grassi, Marcello; Valesini, Guido

    2011-10-01

    Mud-bath therapy plays a primary role in the treatment and prevention of osteoarthritis that has been recognised since antiquity. Numerous studies have demonstrated its clinical benefits and its effects on inflammatory mediators (interleukins), the immune system, cenesthesic factors (endorphins), and the diencephalic–pituitary–adrenal axis. This study was conducted to assess the effi