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Sample records for low-enthalpy mineral waters

  1. Geophysical techniques for low enthalpy geothermal exploration in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soengkono, Supri; Bromley, Chris; Reeves, Robert; Bennie, Stewart; Graham, Duncan

    2013-05-01

    Shallow warm water resources associated with low enthalpy geothermal systems are often difficult to explore using geophysical techniques, mainly because the warm water creates an insufficient physical change from the host rocks to be easily detectable. In addition, often the system also has a limited or narrow size. However, appropriate use of geophysical techniques can still help the exploration and further investigation of low enthalpy geothermal resources. We present case studies on the use of geophysical techniques for shallow warm water explorations over a variety of settings in New Zealand (mostly in the North Island) with variable degrees of success. A simple and direct method for the exploration of warm water systems is shallow temperature measurements. In some New Zealand examples, measurements of near surface temperatures helped to trace the extent of deeper thermal water. The gravity method was utilised as a structural technique for the exploration of some warm water systems in New Zealand. Our case studies show the technique can be useful in identifying basement depths and tracing fault systems associated with the occurrence of hot springs. Direct current (DC) ground resistivity measurements using a variety of electrode arrays have been the most common method for the exploration of low enthalpy geothermal resources in New Zealand. The technique can be used to detect the extent of shallow warm waters that are more electrically conductive than the surrounding cold groundwater. Ground resistivity investigations using the electromagnetic (EM) techniques of audio magnetotellurics (AMT or shallow MT), controlled source audio magnetotellurics (CSAMT) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) methods have also been used. Highly conductive clays of thermal or sedimentary origin often limit the penetration depth of the resistivity techniques and can create some interpretation difficulties. Interpretation of resistivity anomalies needs to be treated in a site specific

  2. Water, mineral waters and health.

    PubMed

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  3. Mineral and water nutrition.

    PubMed

    Beede, D K

    1991-07-01

    In providing minerals to dairy cattle it is important to distinguish between dietary requirements and feeding recommendations. The requirement is the absolute amount of an element needed to meet the animal's metabolic needs for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, and lactation divided by the coefficient of absorption; this is estimated by the factorial method. Actual estimates of requirements for lactating dairy cattle have been determined for Ca and P. The major difficulties in relying on the requirement estimate are that dry matter intake varies and the true absorption coefficient of the mixture of feeds in the ration generally is unknown. Therefore, feeding recommendations, based on feeding graded concentrations of an element, often offer more applicable information. With the exception of Ca and P, the current feeding recommendations for the other macrominerals, Mg, Na, K, Cl and S, have resulted from feeding trials. With certain environmental and physiologic situations the feeding recommendations may vary. For example, during heat stress the dietary K recommendation for the lactating cow should be higher than in cool weather because of increased sweating and decreased feed intake. Another example may be that the source of supplemental Mg may affect what dietary inclusion rate will yield optimal performance and should be recommended. An important consideration in dairy ration formulation in the future will address the interrelationships of the various macrominerals. There is accumulating evidence that shows that different concentrations of Na, Cl, and K may interrelate and affect lactational performance. Many times the naturally occurring concentrations of one or more of these elements may have to be associated with varying concentrations of the others in order to optimize animal performance and health. Much experimentation likely will examine these interrelationships in the future. Supplementation of trace elements in diets of dairy cattle is common practice. This

  4. [Mineral water as a cure].

    PubMed

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  5. Radioactivity in bottled mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Martín Sánchez, A; Rubio Montero, M P; Gómez Escobar, V; Jurado Vargas, M

    1999-06-01

    Consumption of bottled mineral water is a growing practice and is sometimes a necessity rather than a choice. In this work, a study of the radioactive content of a wide selection of commercial bottled mineral waters for human intake was carried out. The origins of the analyzed waters were very different, coming from various locations in France, Portugal and Spain. Their total alpha and beta activity concentrations were determined and also gamma spectrometry was used to detect some radionuclides. In some cases, the waters presented high values of the total alpha and beta activity concentrations surpassing the reference levels established by the CSN, the Spanish. Regulatory Organization. In these cases, a determination of uranium and 226Ra was also performed by using low-level liquid scintillation counting. The results revealed a strong correlation between radioactive content and dry residue, and lead one to conclude that high radioactive content is mainly related to the mineralization in waters of underground origin.

  6. Case studies for utilizing groundwater-source and low-enthalpy geothermal resources in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.-H.; Shin, J.; Lee, K.-K.; Lee, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    As one of the top 10 oil-consuming countries in the world, Korea recently has had a great interest in extending the ways to utilize renewable energy. In this regard, geothermal energy resource is attracting more concerns from both of the government and the research field. Korea has neither active volcanic sites nor areas with abnormally higher heat flow. In spite of these natural conditions, many efforts have been exerted to utilize geothermal energy. Here, we introduce two case studies of using groundwater-source geothermal energy with relatively low-enthalpy: One is a riverbank filtration facility, which has been using some of its riverbank filtrate water for the indoor air-conditioning. The other is the first EGS plant planning site, where a few fault-related artesian wells reaching 70C were discovered lately. Numerical simulations to predict the temperature evolution of the two sites, which is dominated by several hydrogeologic factors, were carried out and compared. Simulation of temperature profile of riverbank filtrate water using HydroGeoSphere shows that the primary factor in determining filtrate water temperature is the pumping rate. It also shows that maintaining the facility operation with present pumping rate for the next 30 years will not cause any significant change of water temperature. However, following the new plan of the facility to install additional 37 wells with 6 times higher pumping rate than the current rate might cause about 2C decrease in filtrate water temperature in 10 years after the extension. Simulation for the temperature evolution in a faulted geothermal reservoir in EGS planning site under the supposed injection-extraction operating conditions were carried out using TOUGH2. A MINC model including a hydraulic discontinuity, which reflected the analysis from several geophysical explorations, was generated. Temperature distribution calculated from the simulation shows a rise of relatively hot geothermal water along the fault plane

  7. Mineral constituents in water and their significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dover, T.B.

    1950-01-01

    Pure water does not exist in nature. Because water is a powerful solvent, every drop of rain water carries dissolved or suspended material - dust, pollen, and smoke, as well as the atmospheric gases, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. When rain falls, the water running over the rocks and percolating through the soil gathers more and more mineral matter in solution. As the uses to which a water supply may be put depend primarily on its mineral content, information concerning the chemical characteristics of water is of importance to each of us. (available as photostat copy only)

  8. Water-Signature Mineral Found by Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This spectrum, taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's Moessbauer spectrometer, shows the presence of an iron-bearing mineral called goethite in a rock called 'Clovis' in the 'Columbia Hills' of Mars. Goethite contains water in the form of hydroxyl as a part of its structure. By identifying this mineral, the examination of Clovis produced strong evidence for past water activity in the area that Spirit is exploring.

  9. Thermal mineral water springs in Karlovy Vary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrba, J.

    1996-03-01

    In the western part of the Czech Republic about 130 180 km west of the capital of Prague, in an area of about 300 sq km, several dozen mineral springs occur from various origins, with water of different chemical characteristics, temperatures, and levels of carbonation and radioactive intensity. Mineral waters are widely utilized, in particular for spa treatment of a broad range of ailments as well as for bottling (curative and table waters), industrial uses of carbon dioxide, evaporation for the salts dissolved in them and, in regard to thermal waters, for local heating.

  10. Quality assessment of Romanian bottled mineral water and tap water.

    PubMed

    M Carstea, Elfrida; Levei, Erika A; Hoaghia, Maria-Alexandra; Savastru, Roxana

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the evaluation of bottled mineral water characteristics using fluorescence spectroscopy (synchronous fluorescence scans and emission spectra) and physico-chemical analyses. Samples from 14 still mineral water brands were compared to 11 tap waters collected from two Romanian cities. Correlation and factor analyses were undertaken to understand the relationships between the individual components. The concentration of major and minor ions showed great variation between the bottled mineral water samples highlighting the diversity of the water intakes, while in the case of tap water the chemical composition was relatively similar for samples collected in the same city. Fluorescence data showed that the mineral water contained low quantities of organic matter. The humic fraction was dominant in all samples, while the microbial fraction was low in most samples. Synchronous fluorescence scans provided more information, regarding the composition of organic matter, compared to emission spectra. The study evidenced the correlation between fluorescence parameters and major elements and highlighted the potential of using fluorescence for qualitative evaluation of the bottled mineral water quality, as a screening method before undertaking complex analyses. PMID:27526046

  11. Natural mineral waters, curative-medical waters and their protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, M.

    1993-10-01

    In Europe different types of water are marketed, each strictly defined by EC Directive 80/777 (Natural Mineral Water, Spring and Table Water) or 80/778 (Drinking Water). In Germany, an additional type of water is common in the market: curative/medical water. Product quality and safety, registration as medicine, and pharmaceutical control are defined by the German Federal Medicine Act. A medical water is treated as any other medicine and may be sold only in pharmacies. The use of any water in Germany is controlled and strictly regulated by the Federal Water Act (Fricke 1981). The following requirements are set by the act: (1) No water use without a permit, which is limited in time and quantity. (2) No single or juristic person may own water. (3) Water resources of public interest and their recharge areas are to be protected by the definition of water protection zones. (Natural mineral water is not of public interest and therefore is not required to be protected by the definition of water protection zones, although it represents a market value of more than US2 billion. Medical water is of public interest). The definition of water protection zones impacts private property rights and has to be handled carefully. In order to protect water resources, sometimes the economic basis of a traditional industrial and/or agricultural infrastructure is destroyed. The concerns and needs all citizens, including industry, must be considered in analyzing the adequacy of water protection zones.

  12. Microbiological safety of natural mineral water.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Henri; Moreau, Annick

    2002-06-01

    Natural mineral water originates from groundwater, an oligotrophic ecosystem where the level of organic matter is low and of a very limited bioavailability. The bacterial populations that evolve in these ecosystems are heterotrophic and in starvation-survival state resulting from an insufficient amount of nutrients; for this reason they enter a viable but non-culturable state. After bottling, the number of viable counts increases rapidly, attaining 10(4)-10(5) colony-forming units ml(-1) within 3-7 days. These bacterial communities, identified by culture or with specific probes, are primarily aerobic, saprophytic, Gram-negative rods. Groundwater sources for natural mineral waters are selected such that they are not vulnerable to fecal contamination. Ecological data, especially the diversity and physiological properties of bacterial communities, are essential together with epidemiological studies in order to perform a risk analysis for natural mineral waters. On a continuing basis, the management of microbial risks has to rely on assessment of the heterotrophic plate count and, more specially, on detection of marker organisms, i.e. the classic fecal contamination indicators that have to be absent, and vulnerability indicators for which the occurrence should be as low as possible. It is also recommended to search regularly, but not routinely, for viral and protozoan pathogens.

  13. Water concentrations in mantle peridotite minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, J. M.; Hauri, E. H.

    2010-12-01

    The concentration and distribution of volatiles in the mantle is important for constraining many key properties, including melting systematics at ridges and subduction zones. We present measurements of water concentrations in nominally anhydrous minerals from abyssal, orogenic and xenolith peridotites. Analyses of fresh and altered samples from a variety of locations are used to assess the extent to which mineral water concentrations reflect primary mantle compositions, versus diffusive loss and/or hydration due to secondary processes. Water concentrations were measured in olivine (Ol), orthopyroxene (Opx) and clinopyroxene (Cpx) by ion microprobe, using mineral specific standards and monitoring background concentrations by analysis of synthetic forsterite. Analytical reproducibility, based on 11 repeat analyses of an Ol grain, is 10%, while background H2O levels varied from 7-19 ppm. Samples include xenoliths from Pali Aike, Samoa and Spitsbergen, along with unusually fresh oceanic peridotites from the Gakkel Ridge and the Tonga Trench. In addition, samples were analyzed from the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) and the Josephine Peridotite, both of which have moderate degrees of alteration. In olivine, water concentrations are <11 ppm, with the exception of Pali Aike xenoliths, which have water concentrations of 16-33 ppm. On average, peridotite Opx have 187 ppm and Cpx have 474 ppm. Pyroxenite veins from the Southwest Indian Ridge have systematically lower concentrations, with an average of 12 ppm in Opx and 55 ppm in Cpx. Water partition coefficients for Opx/Ol have an average value of 28 and Cpx/Ol of 57, significantly higher than previous estimates (e.g., Hirth and Kohlstedt, 1996). Excluding the pyroxenites, the average Cpx/Opx partition coefficient is 2, in agreement with published estimates. This suggests that Cpx and Opx preserve mantle water concentrations, whereas Ol has undergone hydrogen loss. Mineral rims have water concentrations that are within error

  14. Mineral water or tap water? An endless debate.

    PubMed

    De Giglio, O; Quaranta, A; Lovero, G; Caggiano, G; Montagna, M T

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of mineral water has been increasing because of the frequent and unjustified reports of the water supply contamination. However some authors have shown that bottled waters are not always better than tap water. Mineral waters are more palatable for organoleptic characteristic because, being pure at source, they do not undergo disinfection treatments and are sometimes enriched with CO2. In fact, they are characterized by their microbial facies subject to changes during the production cycle which can contribute to their contamination. It is necessary to provide people with the tools necessary to operate a critical choice of the type of water to be consumed not exclusively for their organoleptic characteristics or marketing strategies.

  15. [The determination of molecular sulphur in Matsesta mineral water and its analog Novonukutskaya mineral water].

    PubMed

    Khutorianskiĭ, V A; Smirnov, A I; Matveev, D A

    2014-01-01

    The method of microcolumn reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (rp-HPLC) was employed to determine the content of elemental sulphur in mineral waters. The study envisaged the analysis of the samples of sulphide-containing mineral waters Novonukutskaya and Matsesta obtained by the solid phase extraction technique. Based on these data, the authors discuss the origin and the circulation of sulphur in the hydrogen sulphide sources. The elution conditions selected in this study ensured the high-resolution separation of the octasulphur peak from the peaks of allotropic components of the extract whereas the two-wave detection technique allowed to identify the peaks of molecular sulphur.

  16. IRETHERM: Research and Exploration Challenges in Assessing Ireland's Deep Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Energy Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, M. R.; Jones, A. G.; Fullea, J.; Yeomans, C. M.; Loewer, M.; Reay, D.

    2012-04-01

    IRETHERM (www.iretherm.ie) is a new academic-government-industry collaborative research project, funded by Science Foundation Ireland, initiated in 2011, with the overarching objective of developing a holistic understanding of Ireland's low-enthalpy geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. All historic geothermal energy research that took place in the 1980s focused on Ireland's three major exposed radiogenic granite intrusions. These granites were found to be characterised by elevated radiogenic heat production (2-7µW/m3) and surface heat-flow (65-85mW/m2), but impetus in assessing their potential stalled at the end of the oil-crisis and remains poorly defined. The accuracy of predictions of temperatures in the depth range of 3000-6000m is limited by the sparse, clustered database provided by relatively shallow industry boreholes - only two boreholes drilled to date exceed 2,500m. While a significant regional trend in surface heat-flow is purported from these borehole data, from ~40mW/m2 in the south of Ireland to >80mW/m2 in the north with thermal gradients in the range 8-32°C/km, the source of the heat variation (whether crustal and/or lithospheric-mantle in origin) is unknown. Except for Permo-Triassic basins in Northern Ireland, which host known geothermal aquifers of promising but currently poorly defined potential, sedimentary rocks with high primary porosity have not been identified elsewhere. Whether any of the shear zones and faults that traverse the country might host geothermal aquifers at depth is also unknown, although the occurrence of warm-spring clusters close to two major fault zones is promising. Our paper discusses the approaches and strategies that IRETHERM has adopted to meet the challenges of exploring for unknown deep geothermal resources (either aquifers or hot, dry rock) starting from a limited knowledge-base. The objectives of the project over a four-year period are to

  17. Hydrogeochemical tracing of mineral water in Jingyu County, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Baizhong; Xiao, Changlai; Liang, Xiujuan; Wu, Shili

    2016-02-01

    The east Jilin Province in China, Jingyu County has been explored as a potential for enriching mineral water. In order to assess the water quality and quantity, it is of crucial importance to investigate the origin of the mineral water and its flow paths. In this study, eighteen mineral springs were sampled in May and September of 2012, May and September of 2013, and May 2014 and the environment, evolvement, and reaction mechanism of mineral water formation were analysed by hydrochemical data analysis, geochemical modelling and multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that the investigated mineral water was rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, fluoride, nitrate, total iron, silicate, and strontium, and mineral water ages ranged from 11.0 to more than 61.0 years. The U-shape contours of the mineral ages indicate a local and discrete recharge. The mineral compositions of the rocks were olivine, potassium feldspar, pyroxene, albite, and anorthite and were under-saturated in the mineral water. The origin of mineral water was from the hydrolysis of basalt minerals under a neutral to slightly alkaline and CO2-rich environment. PMID:26040975

  18. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution. 3594.5 Section 3594.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  19. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution. 3594.5 Section 3594.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  20. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution. 3594.5 Section 3594.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  1. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution. 3594.5 Section 3594.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  2. Stable isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bădăluţă, Carmen; Nagavciuc, Viorica; Perșoiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    Romania has a high potential of mineral waters resources, featuring one of the largest mineral resources at European and global level. In the last decade, due to increased in consumption of bottled water, numerous brands have appeared on the market, with equally numerous and variable sources of provenance. In this study we have analyzed the isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania in order to determine their source and authenticity. We have analysed 32 carbonated and 24 non-carbonated mineral waters from Romania. and the results were analysed in comparison with stable isotope data from precipitation and river waters. Generally, the isotopic values of the mineral waters follow those in precipitation; however, differences occur in former volcanic regions (due to deep circulation of meteoric waters and increased exchange with host rock and volcanic CO2), as well as in mountainous regions, where high-altitude recharge occurs.

  3. Evaluation of minerals content of drinking water in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water. PMID:22649292

  4. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water. PMID:22649292

  5. Microbiological monitoring of mineral water commercialized in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pontara, André Venturini; de Oliveira, Christianne Dezuani Dias; Barbosa, Amir Horiquini; dos Santos, Rafael Aparecido; Pires, Regina Helena; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2011-01-01

    The quality of mineral water commercialized in Brazil regarding the microbial content was analyzed and the results were compared with the standards established by the current legislation. Results demonstrated there was no bacterial contamination, but several types of fungi were found. Therefore, bottled mineral water could be considered a possible route for the transmission of filamentous fungi and yeasts. PMID:24031667

  6. The mineral content of tap water in United States households

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The composition of tap water contributes to dietary intake of minerals. The USDA’s Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) conducted a study of the mineral content of residential tap water, to generate current data for the USDA National Nutrient Database. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper...

  7. Evaluation of minerals content of drinking water in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  8. Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhijian; Wang, Xuming; Liu, Haining; Zhang, Huifang; Miller, Jan D

    2016-09-01

    Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation including hydration phenomena, associations and interactions between collectors, air bubbles, and water-soluble mineral particles are presented. Flotation carried out in saturated salt solutions, and a wide range of collector concentrations for effective flotation of different salts are two basic aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation. Hydration of salt ions, mineral particle surfaces, collector molecules or ions, and collector aggregates play an important role in water-soluble mineral flotation. The adsorption of collectors onto bubble surfaces is suggested to be the precondition for the association of mineral particles with bubbles. The association of collectors with water-soluble minerals is a complicated process, which may include the adsorption of collector molecules or ions onto such surfaces, and/or the attachment of collector precipitates or crystals onto the mineral surfaces. The interactions between the collectors and the minerals include electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and specific interactions, with electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions being the common mechanisms. For the association of ionic collectors with minerals with an opposite charge, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions could have a synergistic effect, with the hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic groups of the previously associated collectors and the hydrophobic groups of oncoming collectors being an important attractive force. Association between solid particles and air bubbles is the key to froth flotation, which is affected by hydrophobicity of the mineral particle surfaces, surface charges of mineral particles and bubbles, mineral particle size and shape, temperature, bubble size, etc. The use of a collector together with a frother and the use of mixed surfactants as collectors are suggested to improve flotation. PMID:27346329

  9. Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhijian; Wang, Xuming; Liu, Haining; Zhang, Huifang; Miller, Jan D

    2016-09-01

    Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation including hydration phenomena, associations and interactions between collectors, air bubbles, and water-soluble mineral particles are presented. Flotation carried out in saturated salt solutions, and a wide range of collector concentrations for effective flotation of different salts are two basic aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation. Hydration of salt ions, mineral particle surfaces, collector molecules or ions, and collector aggregates play an important role in water-soluble mineral flotation. The adsorption of collectors onto bubble surfaces is suggested to be the precondition for the association of mineral particles with bubbles. The association of collectors with water-soluble minerals is a complicated process, which may include the adsorption of collector molecules or ions onto such surfaces, and/or the attachment of collector precipitates or crystals onto the mineral surfaces. The interactions between the collectors and the minerals include electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and specific interactions, with electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions being the common mechanisms. For the association of ionic collectors with minerals with an opposite charge, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions could have a synergistic effect, with the hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic groups of the previously associated collectors and the hydrophobic groups of oncoming collectors being an important attractive force. Association between solid particles and air bubbles is the key to froth flotation, which is affected by hydrophobicity of the mineral particle surfaces, surface charges of mineral particles and bubbles, mineral particle size and shape, temperature, bubble size, etc. The use of a collector together with a frother and the use of mixed surfactants as collectors are suggested to improve flotation.

  10. Ground Thermal Diffusivity Calculation by Direct Soil Temperature Measurement. Application to very Low Enthalpy Geothermal Energy Systems

    PubMed Central

    Andújar Márquez, José Manuel; Martínez Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel; Gómez Melgar, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology and instrumentation system for the indirect measurement of the thermal diffusivity of a soil at a given depth from measuring its temperature at that depth. The development has been carried out considering its application to the design and sizing of very low enthalpy geothermal energy (VLEGE) systems, but it can has many other applications, for example in construction, agriculture or biology. The methodology is simple and inexpensive because it can take advantage of the prescriptive geotechnical drilling prior to the construction of a house or building, to take at the same time temperature measurements that will allow get the actual temperature and ground thermal diffusivity to the depth of interest. The methodology and developed system have been tested and used in the design of a VLEGE facility for a chalet with basement at the outskirts of Huelva (a city in the southwest of Spain). Experimental results validate the proposed approach. PMID:26938534

  11. Ground Thermal Diffusivity Calculation by Direct Soil Temperature Measurement. Application to very Low Enthalpy Geothermal Energy Systems.

    PubMed

    Andújar Márquez, José Manuel; Martínez Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel; Gómez Melgar, Sergio

    2016-02-29

    This paper presents a methodology and instrumentation system for the indirect measurement of the thermal diffusivity of a soil at a given depth from measuring its temperature at that depth. The development has been carried out considering its application to the design and sizing of very low enthalpy geothermal energy (VLEGE) systems, but it can has many other applications, for example in construction, agriculture or biology. The methodology is simple and inexpensive because it can take advantage of the prescriptive geotechnical drilling prior to the construction of a house or building, to take at the same time temperature measurements that will allow get the actual temperature and ground thermal diffusivity to the depth of interest. The methodology and developed system have been tested and used in the design of a VLEGE facility for a chalet with basement at the outskirts of Huelva (a city in the southwest of Spain). Experimental results validate the proposed approach.

  12. Ground Thermal Diffusivity Calculation by Direct Soil Temperature Measurement. Application to very Low Enthalpy Geothermal Energy Systems.

    PubMed

    Andújar Márquez, José Manuel; Martínez Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel; Gómez Melgar, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology and instrumentation system for the indirect measurement of the thermal diffusivity of a soil at a given depth from measuring its temperature at that depth. The development has been carried out considering its application to the design and sizing of very low enthalpy geothermal energy (VLEGE) systems, but it can has many other applications, for example in construction, agriculture or biology. The methodology is simple and inexpensive because it can take advantage of the prescriptive geotechnical drilling prior to the construction of a house or building, to take at the same time temperature measurements that will allow get the actual temperature and ground thermal diffusivity to the depth of interest. The methodology and developed system have been tested and used in the design of a VLEGE facility for a chalet with basement at the outskirts of Huelva (a city in the southwest of Spain). Experimental results validate the proposed approach. PMID:26938534

  13. Distribution of Water in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals during Metamorphic Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Lankvelt, A.; Seaman, S. J.; Williams, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Nominally anhydrous minerals are a reservoir for water in otherwise dry rocks. This water may play a role in facilitating metamorphic reactions and enhancing deformation. In this study, we examined orthopyroxene-bearing granites from the Athabasca Granulite terrane in northern Saskatchewan. These rocks intruded the lower crust (pressures of 1 GPa) at circa 2.6 Ga at temperatures of > 900 ºC and were subsequently metamorphosed at granulite facies conditions (700 ºC and 1 GPa) in the Paleoproterozoic (Williams et al., 2000). One of the primary reactions recorded by these rocks is locally known as the "Mary" reaction and involves the anhydrous reaction: orthopyroxene + Ca-plagioclase = clinopyroxene + garnet + Na-plagioclase. Measurements of water concentrations in both product and reactant assemblages were performed using a Bruker Vertex 70 Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and revealed that there is a slight excess of water in product minerals over reactant minerals. There are two possible explanations for this. The first is that water was derived from an external source, possibly hydrous, likely contemporaneous, mafic dikes. This interpretation is supported by higher concentrations of K, which is essentially absent from the reactant minerals, in the Na-rich rims of plagioclase. However, only modest amounts of external fluids could have been introduced, or amphiboles would have been stabilized at the expense of clinopyroxene (Moore & Carmichael, 1998). An alternative interpretation is that slightly more water-rich minerals reacted more readily, releasing water that was then incorporated into their products, whereas the water-poorer minerals failed to react. Support for this interpretation comes from very low water concentrations in orthopyroxene and plagioclase from an unreacted and undeformed sample. This interpretation suggests that water in anhydrous minerals may catalyze metamorphic reactions, and a lack of water may be critical for preserving metastable

  14. Minerals leached into drinking water from rubber stoppers

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B.W.; Beal, T.S. )

    1991-06-01

    Drinking water and its delivery system are potential sources of variation in animal research. Concern arose that rubber stoppers used to cork water bottles might be a source of some nutritionally required minerals which could leach into drinking water. Six types of stoppers, each having different compositions, were cleaned with stainless-steel sipper tubes inserted into them and attached to polypropylene bottles filled with either deionized water (pH 4.5) or acidified-deionized water (pH 2.5). After six days of contact, water levels of copper, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, chromium, and selenium were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, three of the stopper types were analyzed for mineral content. Minerals were present in both stoppers and drinking water. Acidified-deionized water generally leached minerals from the stoppers than did deionized water. The black stopper which is commonly used in animal facilities contained and leached measurable levels of some minerals, but it still can be recommended for typical animal husbandry uses, although other types of stoppers would be more suitable for specific nutritional and toxicologic studies.

  15. Evaluation of the Aggressiveness of Slovak Mineral Water Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrablíková, Dana; Porubská, Diana; Fendeková, Miriam; Božíková, Jarmila; Kókaiová, Denisa

    2014-07-01

    The aggressive properties of natural waters arise due to their specific physical properties and chemical composition. The latest analyses of certified natural and healing mineral water sources according to Act No. 538/2005 were used for the evaluation. A total of 53 sources in 26 localities were evaluated; they comprised 25 sources of bottled natural mineral and healing waters and 28 sources of natural healing waters in 9 spas. The aggressiveness of the water against concrete was weak (17 sources), medium (17 sources), or none (19 sources). The aggressiveness was mostly caused by low pH values and/or increased SO42- content. Their corrosiveness to metal was mostly very high. The results showed that the disintegration of concrete building constructions, well casings and pipelines could occur in most of the evaluated localities in the case of mineral water contacting them. Therefore, preventive measures are necessary.

  16. Ground and Intermediate Water Equilibrium with Water-Bearing Rock Minerals (Moldova) under Anthropogenic Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoshenkova, A. N.; Moraru, C. Ye; Pasechnik, Ye Yu; Tokarenko, O. G.; Butoshina, V. A.

    2016-03-01

    The calculation results of ground water equilibrium with the major water-bearing rock minerals (Moldova) are presented under the condition of anthropogenic impact. As a calculation model the HydroGeo software is used. It is shown that both “ground water-rock” and “intermediate water-rock” systems are in equilibrium with a number of minerals.

  17. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

  18. Ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eakin, T.E.; Robinson, T.W.

    1950-01-01

    As a part of the State-wide cooperative program between the Office of the State Engineer of Nevada and the U.S. Geological Survey, the Ground Water Branch of the Geological Survey made a reconnaissance study of ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada.

  19. Comparison of the Mineral Content of Tap Water and Bottled Waters

    PubMed Central

    Azoulay, Arik; Garzon, Philippe; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Because of growing concern that constituents of drinking water may have adverse health effects, consumption of tap water in North America has decreased and consumption of bottled water has increased. Our objectives were to 1) determine whether North American tap water contains clinically important levels of calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), and sodium (Na+) and 2) determine whether differences in mineral content of tap water and commercially available bottled waters are clinically important. DESIGN We obtained mineral analysis reports from municipal water authorities of 21 major North American cities. Mineral content of tap water was compared with published data regarding commercially available bottled waters and with dietary reference intakes (DRIs). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Mineral levels varied among tap water sources in North America and among bottled waters. European bottled waters generally contained higher mineral levels than North American tap water sources and North American bottled waters. For half of the tap water sources we examined, adults may fulfill between 8% and 16% of their Ca2+ DRI and between 6% and 31% of their Mg2+ DRI by drinking 2 liters per day. One liter of most moderate mineralization European bottled waters contained between 20% and 58% of the Ca2+ DRI and between 16% and 41% of the Mg2+ DRI in adults. High mineralization bottled waters often contained up to half of the maximum recommended daily intake of Na+. CONCLUSION Drinking water sources available to North Americans may contain high levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+ and may provide clinically important portions of the recommended dietary intake of these minerals. Physicians should encourage patients to check the mineral content of their drinking water, whether tap or bottled, and choose water most appropriate for their needs. PMID:11318912

  20. Thin Water and Ice Films at Mineral Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    Mineral-water and ice interactions play important roles in atmospheric cloud formation. They also affect soil biogeochemistry as well as outer-space processes. In this study, thin water and ice films formed on minerals of varied bulk and surface structure, shape, size and surface roughness were probed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and by Dynamic Vapor Adsorption (DVA). Measurements on several types of iron (oxyhydr)oxides, phyllosilicates, orthosilicates, tectosilicates as well as Arizona Test Dust (ATD) and Icelandic volcanic ash constrained our understanding of the molecular-level nature of mineral surface-water and ice interactions. DVA experiments showed that particle size is the key feature controlling water loadings at 25 ° C. Under this condition, nano-sized particles stabilized the equivalence of no more than ˜6 monolayers of water at the near saturation of water vapor while sub-micron sized particles stabilized several thousand layers. This result can be explained by the greater ability of larger sized particles at driving water condensation reactions. Cryogenic FTIR measurements at -10 and -50 ° C revealed that most minerals acquired the thin ice films with similar hydrogen bonding environments as those formed at room temperature.[1,2] These thin ice films have weaker hydrogen bond environments than hexagonal ice (νOH ≈ 3130 cm-1), a result seen by FTIR through predominant O-H stretching modes at νOH ≈ 3408-3425 cm-1. The water bending region (˜1630 cm-1) also reveals that most thin ice films are rather supercooled forms of water. Only the materials with greatest levels of heterogeneity, namely ATD and volcanic ash, stabilized solid forms of water reminiscent to hexagonal ice. This work thus constrains further our understanding of how interfacial ice is stabilized at mineral surfaces, and opens possibilities for future studies focused on atmospheric gas uptake on mineral- water and ice admixtures. [1] Song, X. and Boily, J

  1. Water in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals from Nakhlites and Shergottites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the amount of water in the interior of terrestrial planets has tremendous implications on our understanding of solar nebula evolution, planet formation and geological history, and extraterrestrial volcanism. Mars has been a recent focus of such enquiry with complementary datasets from spacecrafts, rovers and martian meteorite studies. In planetary interiors, water can be dissolved in fluids or melts and hydrous phases, but can also be locked as protons attached to structural oxygen in lattice defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) such as olivine, pyroxene, or feldspar [1-3]. Measuring water in Martian meteorite NAM is challenging because the minerals are fragile and riddled with fractures from impact processes that makes them break apart during sample processing. Moreover, curing the sample in epoxy causes problems for the two main water analysis techniques, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS). Measurements to date have resulted in a heated debate on how much water the mantle of Mars contains. SIMS studies of NAM [4], amphiboles [5], and apatites [6-8] from Martian meteorites report finding enough water in these phases to infer that the martian mantle is as hydrous as that of the Earth. On the other hand, a SIMS study of glass in olivine melt inclusions from shergottites concludes that the Martian mantle is much drier [9]. The latter interpretation is also supported by the fact that most martian hydrous minerals generally have the relevant sites filled with Cl and F instead of H [10,11]. As for experimental results, martian basalt compositions can be reproduced using water as well as Cl in the parent melts [12,13]. Here FTIR is used to measure water in martian meteorite minerals in order to constrain the origin of the distribution of water in martian meteorite phases.

  2. Numerical modeling and strontium isotopic signal to assess the arsenic distribution in a low-enthalpy hydrothermal system: the case study of Viterbo geothermal area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistel, M.; Barbieri, M.

    2013-12-01

    Several studies on the groundwater geochemistry of the hydrothermal area west of Viterbo, highlight the presence of arsenic and other trace elements. The groundwater of Viterbo area was used as source of drinking water by about 150,000 local inhabitants, until 2010, when it was prohibited the use by EU due to the high level of arsenic. The hydrogeological setting highlights the presence of a shallow volcanic aquifer (composed by alkaline-potassic volcanics), characterized by fresh waters, limited at its base by the semiconfining marly-calcareous-arenaceous complex and low-permeability clays. To the west of Viterbo, vertical upflows of hot waters (with a temperature between 50 and 64°C), are due to the locally uplifted of evaporitic reservoir, the reduced thickness of the semiconfining layer and the high local geothermal gradient. Current study is focused on news geochemical approaches to defining the conditions which control arsenic mobility in groundwater in the low- enthalpy thermal area of Viterbo, related to the interaction between the volcanic aquifer and the geothermal reservoir. In addition to determinate chemical components and chemical-physical properties (T, pH, electrical conductivity) the study provided the isotopic values of 87Sr/86Sr of Viterbo geothermal area. Geochemical modelling is conducted using Phreeqc. The program monitors the significant species and calculates equilibrium concentrations and the pCO2 at desired temperatures. Investigations were undertaken in the area exhibiting thermal manifestations and in the immediate surroundings. On the basis of major ions and temperature, it is possible to subdivide the waters sampled into three main groups: the thermal waters with a sulphate -alkaline-earth facies, the fresh waters with a biocarbonate-alkaline facies, and a group of mixing waters with a undefined facies. The values of strontium isotopic ratio 87Sr/86Sr marks out the different circuits of groundwater. Values lower than 0.70800 are

  3. Understanding hydrothermal circulation patterns at a low-enthalpy thermal spring using audio-magnetotelluric data: A case study from Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Moore, John Paul; Murray, John; Campanyà, Joan; Vozar, Jan; Walsh, John; Rath, Volker

    2016-09-01

    re-circulation of meteoric waters within this structurally controlled hydrothermal circulation system. This paper illustrates how AMT may be useful in a multi-disciplinary investigation of an intermediate-depth (100-1000 m), low-enthalpy, geothermal target, and shows how the different strands of inquiry from a multi-disciplinary investigation may be woven together to gain a deeper understanding of a complex hydrothermal system.

  4. [Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].

    PubMed

    Medverec Knežević, Zvonimira; Nadih, Martina; Josipović, Renata; Grgić, Ivanka; Cvitković, Ante

    2011-12-01

    On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this.

  5. Bacteriological and chemical evaluation of overseas mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiromi; Matsumura, Yasuyo; Fukui, Sadao; Mine, Takanori; Nishikawa, Junichi; Semma, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    Overseas and imported mineral waters were subjected to visual examination, tested for standard plate count and heterotrophic bacteria, and also analyzed to determine the concentrations of several anions and cations. Some products showed turbidity or color, and several had standard plate count and/or heterotrophic bacteria. One imported natural mineral water product had a high level of standard plate count, and the levels differed with the lot. Tests for total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were negative on additional testing of samples having standard plate counts of more than 100. The fluoride concentration of one European region sample exceeded the production standard of the Food Sanitation Act in Japan (raw water: less than 2 mg/L) and most of the products lacked the warning labels which are mandatory for fluoride concentrations over 0.8 mg/L. These results indicate that none of the raw water for mineral waters was seriously polluted, but insufficient sterilization of the bottle or cap or contamination with air-borne microbes during the production process was probably responsible for the pollution. Attention needs to be paid to fair labeling, such as no sterilization/no sterile filtration and high fluoride concentration. PMID:22200803

  6. Kinetic theory of oxygen isotopic exchange between minerals and water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criss, R.E.; Gregory, R.T.; Taylor, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    Kinetic and mass conservation equations are used to describe oxygen isotopic exchange between minerals and water in "closed" and open hydrothermal systems. In cases where n coexisting mineral phases having different reaction rates are present, the exchange process is described by a system of n + 1 simultaneous differential equations consisting of n pseudo first-order rate equations and a conservation of mass equation. The simultaneous solutions to these equations generate curved exchange trajectories on ??-?? plots. Families of such trajectories generated under conditions allowing for different fluid mole fractions, different fluid isotopic compositions, or different fluid flow rates are connected by positive-sloped isochronous lines. These isochrons reproduce the effects observed in hydrothermally exchanged mineral pairs including 1) steep positive slopes, 2) common reversals in the measured fractionation factors (??), and 3) measured fractionations that are highly variable over short distances where no thermal gradient can be geologically demonstrated. ?? 1987.

  7. Criticality of Water: Aligning Water and Mineral Resources Assessment.

    PubMed

    Sonderegger, Thomas; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2015-10-20

    The concept of criticality has been used to assess whether a resource may become a limiting factor to economic activities. It has been primarily applied to nonrenewable resources, in particular to metals. However, renewable resources such as water may also be overused and become a limiting factor. In this paper, we therefore developed a water criticality method that allows for a new, user-oriented assessment of water availability and accessibility. Comparability of criticality across resources is desirable, which is why the presented adaptation of the criticality approach to water is based on a metal criticality method, whose basic structure is maintained. With respect to the necessary adaptations to the water context, a transparent water criticality framework is proposed that may pave the way for future integrated criticality assessment of metals, water, and other resources. Water criticality scores were calculated for 159 countries subdivided into 512 geographic units for the year 2000. Results allow for a detailed analysis of criticality profiles, revealing locally specific characteristics of water criticality. This is useful for the screening of sites and their related water criticality, for indication of water related problems and possible mitigation options and water policies, and for future water scenario analysis.

  8. Criticality of Water: Aligning Water and Mineral Resources Assessment.

    PubMed

    Sonderegger, Thomas; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2015-10-20

    The concept of criticality has been used to assess whether a resource may become a limiting factor to economic activities. It has been primarily applied to nonrenewable resources, in particular to metals. However, renewable resources such as water may also be overused and become a limiting factor. In this paper, we therefore developed a water criticality method that allows for a new, user-oriented assessment of water availability and accessibility. Comparability of criticality across resources is desirable, which is why the presented adaptation of the criticality approach to water is based on a metal criticality method, whose basic structure is maintained. With respect to the necessary adaptations to the water context, a transparent water criticality framework is proposed that may pave the way for future integrated criticality assessment of metals, water, and other resources. Water criticality scores were calculated for 159 countries subdivided into 512 geographic units for the year 2000. Results allow for a detailed analysis of criticality profiles, revealing locally specific characteristics of water criticality. This is useful for the screening of sites and their related water criticality, for indication of water related problems and possible mitigation options and water policies, and for future water scenario analysis. PMID:26392153

  9. Cholera in Portugal, 1974. II. Transmission by bottled mineral water.

    PubMed

    Blake, P A; Rosenberg, M L; Florencia, J; Costa, J B; do Prado Quintino, L; Gangarosa, E J

    1977-04-01

    During a cholera epidemic, Vibrio cholerae was isolated from two springs which supplied mineral water to a spa and to a commercial water bottling plant. Epidemiologic investigation found that cholera attack rates were 10-fold greater among visitors to the spa than among non-visitors. A subsequent matched-pair case-control study which excluded persons who had visted the spa showed that a history of consumption of the bottled non-carbonated water was significantly more common among bacteriologically confirmed cholera cases than among paired controls.

  10. Interactions of Water with Mineral Dust Aerosol: Water Adsorption, Hygroscopicity, Cloud Condensation, and Ice Nucleation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingjin; Cziczo, Daniel J; Grassian, Vicki H

    2016-04-13

    Mineral dust aerosol is one of the major types of aerosol present in the troposphere. The molecular level interactions of water vapor with mineral dust are of global significance. Hygroscopicity, light scattering and absorption, heterogneous reactivity and the ability to form clouds are all related to water-dust interactions. In this review article, experimental techniques to probe water interactions with dust and theoretical frameworks to understand these interactions are discussed. A comprehensive overview of laboratory studies of water adsorption, hygroscopicity, cloud condensation, and ice nucleation of fresh and atmspherically aged mineral dust particles is provided. Finally, we relate laboratory studies and theoretical simulations that provide fundemental insights into these processes on the molecular level with field measurements that illustrate the atmospheric significance of these processes. Overall, the details of water interactions with mineral dust are covered from multiple perspectives in this review article. PMID:27015126

  11. Interactions of Water with Mineral Dust Aerosol: Water Adsorption, Hygroscopicity, Cloud Condensation, and Ice Nucleation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingjin; Cziczo, Daniel J; Grassian, Vicki H

    2016-04-13

    Mineral dust aerosol is one of the major types of aerosol present in the troposphere. The molecular level interactions of water vapor with mineral dust are of global significance. Hygroscopicity, light scattering and absorption, heterogneous reactivity and the ability to form clouds are all related to water-dust interactions. In this review article, experimental techniques to probe water interactions with dust and theoretical frameworks to understand these interactions are discussed. A comprehensive overview of laboratory studies of water adsorption, hygroscopicity, cloud condensation, and ice nucleation of fresh and atmspherically aged mineral dust particles is provided. Finally, we relate laboratory studies and theoretical simulations that provide fundemental insights into these processes on the molecular level with field measurements that illustrate the atmospheric significance of these processes. Overall, the details of water interactions with mineral dust are covered from multiple perspectives in this review article.

  12. A microbiological study of bottled mineral water marketed in Ludhiana.

    PubMed

    Lal, M; Kaur, H

    2006-01-01

    The microbiological quality of bottled mineral water marketed in Ludhiana was examined, Twenty three brands were analyzed for presumptive coliform count by multiple tube tests, and E. coli count was confirmed by Eijkman test. Bacterial and fungal loads were tested by membrane filtration test. Out of 23 only one sample (4.4%) showed the presumptive coliform count to be 460 most probable number (MPN)l 1 00ml,and 1 was found to be positive when tested by Eijkman test for Ecoli. In the membrane filtration test three samples (13%) showed more than two types of bacteria. Different types of bacteria isolated included Bacillus sp (19/23). Pseudomonas spp (13123), Ecoli, Klebsiella sp and S.albus one each Fungi was isolated from five of twenty three. (22%) samples. Only one brand of mineral water was unfit for human consumption. The rest of the samples were contaminated with non pathogenic flora. PMID:17193757

  13. A microbiological study of bottled mineral water marketed in Ludhiana.

    PubMed

    Lal, M; Kaur, H

    2006-01-01

    The microbiological quality of bottled mineral water marketed in Ludhiana was examined, Twenty three brands were analyzed for presumptive coliform count by multiple tube tests, and E. coli count was confirmed by Eijkman test. Bacterial and fungal loads were tested by membrane filtration test. Out of 23 only one sample (4.4%) showed the presumptive coliform count to be 460 most probable number (MPN)l 1 00ml,and 1 was found to be positive when tested by Eijkman test for Ecoli. In the membrane filtration test three samples (13%) showed more than two types of bacteria. Different types of bacteria isolated included Bacillus sp (19/23). Pseudomonas spp (13123), Ecoli, Klebsiella sp and S.albus one each Fungi was isolated from five of twenty three. (22%) samples. Only one brand of mineral water was unfit for human consumption. The rest of the samples were contaminated with non pathogenic flora.

  14. [The use of the natural mineral saponite for water decontamination].

    PubMed

    Hyrin, V M; Boĭko, I I; Rudychenko, V F

    1999-01-01

    Sorption properties were studied of natural and activated specimens of saponite with respect to poliomyelitis virus, Coxsackie B 1 and B 6 viruses as well as to Enterobacteriaceae group bacteria. With the purpose of comparing the processes of sorption of microorganisms, other minerals were also used, such as bentonite, alunite, glauconite, ceolite. The natural saponite adsorptive properties were found out to undergo changes during the process of thermoactivation. Mechanisms are discussed of a decontaminating effect of thermoactivated saponite in water.

  15. Determination of parathion, aldicarb, and thiobencarb in tap water and bottled mineral water in Mashhad, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, Ramin; Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, Mohammad; Mehri, Fereshteh; Khashyarmanesh, Zahra; Moallemzadeh, Hamideh; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2012-04-01

    Water is a necessity for life. Currently, because of different contaminations in tap water, most people prefer using bottled mineral waters. Pesticides (e.g., organophophorous, carbamates, etc.) are among the most dangerous chemicals that may be found in drinking waters, which can cause long- and short-term complications. Because all people consume at least 2 L of water per day, water-quality monitoring is vital. In this study, we determined the concentration of three pesticides (aldicarb, parathion, and thiobencarb) in 13 tap-water samples collected from 13 different urban areas and 10 samples of bottled mineral water in Mashhad, a major city in northeast Iran. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with a pulsed flame photometric detector after solid-phase extraction. Results showed that 2 of 13 tap-water samples and 2 of 10 bottled mineral water trademarks were contaminated either by parathion or by thiobencarb or both, with concentrations ranging between 0.6 and 0.8 ppb. According to the defined guideline values, determined concentrations of pesticides are below the permissible World Health Organization level for these toxic agents, and it is considered that drinking these tap waters and bottled mineral waters are safe for human consumption. PMID:21939365

  16. Determination of parathion, aldicarb, and thiobencarb in tap water and bottled mineral water in Mashhad, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, Ramin; Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, Mohammad; Mehri, Fereshteh; Khashyarmanesh, Zahra; Moallemzadeh, Hamideh; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2012-04-01

    Water is a necessity for life. Currently, because of different contaminations in tap water, most people prefer using bottled mineral waters. Pesticides (e.g., organophophorous, carbamates, etc.) are among the most dangerous chemicals that may be found in drinking waters, which can cause long- and short-term complications. Because all people consume at least 2 L of water per day, water-quality monitoring is vital. In this study, we determined the concentration of three pesticides (aldicarb, parathion, and thiobencarb) in 13 tap-water samples collected from 13 different urban areas and 10 samples of bottled mineral water in Mashhad, a major city in northeast Iran. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with a pulsed flame photometric detector after solid-phase extraction. Results showed that 2 of 13 tap-water samples and 2 of 10 bottled mineral water trademarks were contaminated either by parathion or by thiobencarb or both, with concentrations ranging between 0.6 and 0.8 ppb. According to the defined guideline values, determined concentrations of pesticides are below the permissible World Health Organization level for these toxic agents, and it is considered that drinking these tap waters and bottled mineral waters are safe for human consumption.

  17. Bacterial flora in bottled uncarbonated mineral drinking water.

    PubMed

    González, C; Gutiérrez, C; Grande, T

    1987-12-01

    A quantitative study of bacterial populations in mineral water was carried out. Samples were stored at 6 and 20 degrees C, and the colony counts were determined on tryptone agar plates incubated at 22 and 37 degrees C. Samples were collected from the spring source in sterile glass flasks and from the bottling factory in conventional plastic and glass containers. In both cases, the initial population (10(1)-10(2) cfu/mL water) increased to 10(5)-10(6) cfu/mL after 3 days storage as determined from plate counts incubated at 22 degrees C. The levels reached by this population were similar to those of samples of mineral water obtained at the market stage. Results from plate counts incubated at 37 degrees C showed that populations in samples collected at the bottling factory reached 10(2)-10(3) cfu/mL. No growth was observed in water collected from spring source. Bacterial multiplication was not stopped even when water was stored at 6 degrees C. Caulobacter was the genus found most frequently in both types of samples, followed by Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Pseudomonas fluorescens were frequently found in only two springs, and Pseudomonas putida, Arthrobacter, Aeromonas hydrophilia, and Corynebacterium were isolated less frequently. Janthinobacterium was recovered only once from a single spring. A giant bacterium closely resembling Hyphomicrobium and a budding one similar to Pasteuria were recovered from all samples of a single spring and from some of the commercial samples.

  18. Radium Adsorption to Iron Bearing Minerals in Variable Salinity Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Radium is a common, naturally occurring radioactive metal found in many subsurface environments. Radium isotopes are a product of natural uranium and thorium decay, and are particularly abundant within groundwaters where minimal flux leads to accumulation within porewaters. Radium has been used as a natural tracer to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) [1], where the ratios of various radium isotopes are used to estimate total groundwater flux to and from the ocean [2]. Further, it represents a substantial hazard in waste water produced after hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction [3], resulting in a significant risk of environmental release and increased cost for water treatment or disposal. Adsorption to mineral surfaces represents a primary pathway of radium retention within subsurface environments. For SGD studies, it is important to understand adsorption processes to correctly estimate GW fluxes, while in hydraulic fracturing, radium adsorption to aquifer solids will mediate the activities of radium within produced water. While some studies of radium adsorption to various minerals have been performed [4], there is a limited understanding of the surface chemistry of radium adsorption, particularly to iron-bearing minerals such as pyrite, goethite and ferrihydrite. Accordingly, we present the results of sorption experiments of radium to a suite of iron-bearing minerals representative of those found within deep saline and near-surface (freshwater) aquifers, and evaluate impacts of varying salinity solutions through the use of artificial groundwater, seawater, and shale formation brine. Further, we explore the impacts of pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite transformation to other iron-bearing secondary minerals on the retention of radium. This work lays the groundwork for further study of radium use as a tracer for SGD, as well as understanding mechanisms of radium retention and release from deep aquifer materials following hydraulic fracturing

  19. [The balneotherapeutic components of sulfide-containing mineral waters].

    PubMed

    Khutoryansky, V A; Gorshkov, A G

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested in an early study that sulfanes may serve as a source of sulfur contained in hydrogen sulfide sources. We have performed derivatization of sulfanes, known to be present in the "Novonukutskaya" mineral water. The presence of polysulfanes in balneotherapeutic sulfide waters was confirmed by the HPLC-UV and chromato-mass spectrometric techniques. Derivatization of inorganic polysulfides was achieved by using the reaction with methyl iodide. It was shown that polysulfanes contained in the examined samples were metastable and disintegrated into So and H2S. Almost all molecular zero-valent sulfur was present in the form of S8. The application of HPLC allowed to determine the equilibrium concentration of molecular sulfur. The presence of the above compounds in therapeutic sulfide waters raises the question of the mechanism of their curative action. The authors hypothesize that it may be related to the high therapeutic potency of the substances obtained by steam distillation from the "Novonukutskaya" mineral water. PMID:26841531

  20. Nicotine occurrence in bottled mineral water: analysis of 10 brands of water in Spain.

    PubMed

    González Alonso, S; Valcárcel, Y; Montero, J C; Catalá, M

    2012-02-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in surface and drinking water has been evidenced in numerous studies. Despite representing one of the most common consumption sources, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in bottled mineral water. Pollution of these sources not only could pose a serious human health risk, but would also warn about the quality of the water in our aquifers, a vital and vulnerable source of water, essential for the future water supply. Fifty eight pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) belonging to the 12 main therapeutic groups were analyzed in 10 bottled mineral water brands produced in Spain. Nicotine was detected in concentrations ranging from 7ngL(-1) to 15ngL(-1) in 5 of 10 bottled mineral waters. Despite the low nicotine concentration measured, the presence of this compound in bottled water still raises concern. Health risk assessment researchers have postulated that the risk to adult healthy humans from oral intake of nicotine at low levels is negligible. However, no studies have been conducted to assess the human health risk of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and newborns. This population is the target of advertising on the purity and quality characteristics of bottled mineral water.

  1. Nicotine occurrence in bottled mineral water: analysis of 10 brands of water in Spain.

    PubMed

    González Alonso, S; Valcárcel, Y; Montero, J C; Catalá, M

    2012-02-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in surface and drinking water has been evidenced in numerous studies. Despite representing one of the most common consumption sources, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in bottled mineral water. Pollution of these sources not only could pose a serious human health risk, but would also warn about the quality of the water in our aquifers, a vital and vulnerable source of water, essential for the future water supply. Fifty eight pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) belonging to the 12 main therapeutic groups were analyzed in 10 bottled mineral water brands produced in Spain. Nicotine was detected in concentrations ranging from 7ngL(-1) to 15ngL(-1) in 5 of 10 bottled mineral waters. Despite the low nicotine concentration measured, the presence of this compound in bottled water still raises concern. Health risk assessment researchers have postulated that the risk to adult healthy humans from oral intake of nicotine at low levels is negligible. However, no studies have been conducted to assess the human health risk of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and newborns. This population is the target of advertising on the purity and quality characteristics of bottled mineral water. PMID:22137651

  2. Geochemistry of surface-waters in mineralized and non-mineralized areas of the Yukon-Tanana Uplands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, B.; Wanty, R.B.; Vohden, J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Alaska Department of Natural Resources (ADNR) are continuing investigations on element mobility in mineralized and non-mineralized areas of the Yukon-Tanana Upland in east-central Alaska. The chemistry of stream water is evaluated in the context of regional bedrock geology and geologic structure. Sampling sites were located in the Big Delta B2 quadrangle, which includes the mineralized areas of the Pogo claim block. The area is typified by steep, subarctic-alpine, boreal forest catchment basins. Samples were collected from catchments that either cross structural features and lithologic contacts, or are underlain by a single lithology. Waters are generally dilute (< 213 mg/L TDS), and are classified as Ca2+ and Mg2+-HCO3- to Ca2+ and Mg2+-SO42- waters. Gneissic lithologies are more SO42- dominated than the intrusive units. The major-ion chemistry of the waters reflects a rock-dominated aqueous system. Trace-element concentrations in water are generally low; however, As and Sb are detected near mineralized areas but in most cases rapidly attenuated downstream and processes other than simple dilution are controlling the concentrations of these trace elements. There is a tendency toward increasing SO42- concentrations downstream in waters both proximal and distal to mineralized areas. More work is necessary to determine what proportion of the increase in SO42- could be derived from the oxidation of sulfide minerals as opposed to water influenced by the underlying gneissic units.

  3. Mineral carbonation in water-unsaturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, A. L.; Dipple, G. M.; Mayer, K. U.; Power, I. M.

    2014-12-01

    Ultramafic mine tailings have an untapped capacity to sequester CO2 directly from air or CO2-rich gas streams via carbonation of tailings minerals [1]. The CO2 sequestration capacity of these sites could be exploited simply by increasing the supply of CO2 into tailings, such as through circulation of air or flue gas from mine site power plants [1,2]. Mine tailings storage facilities typically have heterogeneously distributed pore water [1], affecting both the reactive capacity of the porous medium and the exposure of reactive phases to CO2 [3]. We examine the physical reaction processes that govern carbonation efficiency in variably saturated porous media using meter-scale column experiments containing the tailings mineral, brucite [Mg(OH)2], that were supplied with 10% CO2 gas streams. The experiments were instrumented with water content and gas phase CO2 sensors to track changes in water saturation and CO2concentration with time. The precipitation of hydrated Mg-carbonates as rinds encasing brucite particles resulted in passivation of brucite surfaces and an abrupt shut down of the reaction prior to completion. Moreover, the extent of reaction was further limited at low water saturation due to the lack of water available to form hydrated Mg-carbonates, which incorporate water into their crystal structures. Reactive transport modeling using MIN3P-DUSTY [4] revealed that the instantaneous reaction rate was not strongly affected by water saturation, but the reactive capacity was reduced significantly. Surface passivation and water-limited reaction resulted in a highly non-geometric evolution of reactive surface area. The extent of reaction was also limited at high water content because viscous fingering of the gas streams injected at the base of the columns resulted in narrow zones of highly carbonated material, but left a large proportion of brucite unreacted. The implication is that carbonation efficiency in mine tailings could be maximized by targeting an

  4. Discharge, water temperature, and water quality of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida: A retrospective analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, Patricia A.

    2016-09-27

    Warm Mineral Springs, located in southern Sarasota County, Florida, is a warm, highly mineralized, inland spring. Since 1946, a bathing spa has been in operation at the spring, attracting vacationers and health enthusiasts. During the winter months, the warm water attracts manatees to the adjoining spring run and provides vital habitat for these mammals. Well-preserved late Pleistocene to early Holocene-age human and animal bones, artifacts, and plant remains have been found in and around the spring, and indicate the surrounding sinkhole formed more than 12,000 years ago. The spring is a multiuse resource of hydrologic importance, ecological and archeological significance, and economic value to the community.The pool of Warm Mineral Springs has a circular shape that reflects its origin as a sinkhole. The pool measures about 240 feet in diameter at the surface and has a maximum depth of about 205 feet. The sinkhole developed in the sand, clay, and dolostone of the Arcadia Formation of the Miocene-age to Oligocene-age Hawthorn Group. Underlying the Hawthorn Group are Oligocene-age to Eocene-age limestones and dolostones, including the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. Mineralized groundwater, under artesian pressure in the underlying aquifers, fills the remnant sink, and the overflow discharges into Warm Mineral Springs Creek, to Salt Creek, and subsequently into the Myakka River. Aquifers described in the vicinity of Warm Mineral Springs include the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system within the Hawthorn Group, and the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. The Hawthorn Group acts as an upper confining unit of the Upper Floridan aquifer.Groundwater flow paths are inferred from the configuration of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer for September 2010. Groundwater flow models indicate the downward flow of water into the Upper Floridan aquifer

  5. The Mineral Content of U.S. Drinking and Municipal Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The mineral composition of tap water may contribute significant amounts of some minerals to dietary intake. The USDA’s Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) conducted a study of the mineral content of residential tap water, to generate new current data for the USDA National Nutrient Database. ...

  6. Mineral concentration of livestock water varies from surface to ground sources in Eastern Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mineral content of water drank by livestock grazing native rangelands can be an important source of minerals affecting health and drinkability. To estimate water intake contribution, fifteen indicators of water quality were measured at 98 livestock water sites in May 2009 at the 22,257 ha USDA-ARS F...

  7. Mineral concentration of livestock water varies from surfaceto ground sources in Eastern Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mineral content of water drank by livestock grazing native rangelands can be an important source of minerals affecting health and drinkability. To estimate water intake contribution, fifteen indicators of water quality were measured at 98 livestock water sites in May 2009 at the 22,257 ha USDA-ARS F...

  8. Radiological of natural and mineral drinking waters in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Benedik, L; Jeran, Z

    2012-08-01

    Various types of water were collected in Slovenia and analysed in order to assess the radiation doses from (238)U, (234)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po for three different age groups of the population. It was found in all cases that the calculated median committed effective dose from the investigated radionuclides for each population group was well below the recommended value of 100 µSv y(-1), ranging from 4 to 7 µSv y(-1) for adults, from 8 to 10 µSv y(-1) for children and from 6 to 7 µSv y(-1) for infants. Of the investigated groups of the population children are the most exposed with the highest absolute doses of 19.1 and 18.7 µSv y(-1) after drinking a certain bottled brand of mineral and natural water, respectively. The contribution of each particular radionuclide to total doses varied among different water types and within each type, as well as between different age groups.

  9. Evaluation of Water-Mineral Interaction Using Microfluidic Tests with Thin Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Y. S.; Ryu, J. H.; Koh, Y. K.; Jo, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    For the geological disposal of radioactive wastes, geological settings and groundwater conditions are significantly important because of their effects on a radionuclide migration. One of the preferred host rocks for the radioactive waste disposal is crystalline rock. Fractures in crystalline rocks are main fluid pathways. Groundwater reacts with fracture filling minerals in fracture zones, resulting in physicochemical changes in the minerals and groundwater. In this study, fracture filling mineral-groundwater interactions were investigated by conducting microfluidic tests using thin sections at various conditions (i.e., fluid chemistry and flow rate). Groundwater and rock core samples collected from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) located in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) were used in this study. Dominant bedrock is two-mica granite, which contains both biotite and muscovite. Secondary minerals (e.g., chlorite, calcite and clay minerals) occur in fracture and alteration zones. In nature, water-mineral interactions generally take long time. Microfluidic tests were conducted to simulate water-mineral interactions in shorter time with smaller scale. Thin sections of fracture filling minerals, minerals from alteration zones, and natural and synthetic groundwater samples were used for the microfluidic tests. Results showed that water-mineral interactions at various conditions caused changes in groundwater chemistry, dissolution of minerals, precipitation of secondary minerals, and formation of colloids, which can affect radionuclide migration. In addition, the fluid chemistry and flow rate affected characteristics of water-rock interactions.

  10. The effect of mineral bond strength and adsorbed water on fault gouge frictional strength

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, C.A.; Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the tendency of many fault gouge minerals to take on adsorbed or interlayer water may strongly influence their frictional strength. To test this hypothesis, triaxial sliding experiments were conducted on 15 different single-mineral gouges with various water-adsorbing affinities. Vacuum dried samples were sheared at 100 MPa, then saturated with water and sheared farther to compare dry and wet strengths. The coefficients of friction, μ, for the dry sheet-structure minerals (0.2-0.8), were related to mineral bond strength, and dropped 20-60% with the addition of water. For non-adsorbing minerals (μ = 0.6-0.8), the strength remained unchanged after saturation. These results confirm that the ability of minerals to adsorb various amounts of water is related to their relative frictional strengths, and may explain the anomalously low strength of certain natural fault gouges.

  11. Hydrolysis of organic esters at the mineral/water interface

    SciTech Connect

    Torrents, A.

    1992-01-01

    Organic esters are widely used as insecticides and are part of many commercial products and industrial processes. When these compounds are released into the environment, they contaminate natural resources. To assess their fate and transport it is important to explore degradation and retainment processes. Numerous previous studies have studied the role of adsorption in lowering pollutant concentration and retarding pollutant migration into soils. However, adsorption at the mineral/water interface also affects the mechanisms of degradation and reaction rates. This dissertation research focuses on the ability of metal oxides to catalyze ester hydrolysis and a reaction mechanism is proposed. Furthermore, the authors studied the role of natural occurring adsorbates on the reaction rates. The oxides used in this study are amorphous silica (SiO[sub 2]), [gamma]-aluminum oxide (Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]), anatase (TiO[sub 2]), and geothite (FeOOH). These either occur naturally, or are similar to naturally occurring surfaces. The capability of such oxides to catalyze ester hydrolysis was studied in batch reactors. The organic compounds investigated were carboxylic acid esters and organophosphate pesticides. The hydrolysis of several esters was catalyzed by the presence of oxide suspensions; the extent of catalysis was dependent on the ester structure, the metal oxide, and solution composition. Results suggest that catalysis for carboxylate esters occurs via a surface chelate formation between the carbonyl oxygen, a second donor group of the ester and the surface metal. The presence of organic co-solvents appears to diminish the catalytic effect. Inhibition of surface catalysis was also observed from specific adsorption of naturally occurring ions onto the oxide surface. Natural organic matter was also observed to influence surface catalysis. This research suggests that mineral surfaces may have a role in abiotic transformations of organic pollutants.

  12. Discharge, water temperature, and water quality of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida: A retrospective analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, Patricia A.

    2016-09-27

    Warm Mineral Springs, located in southern Sarasota County, Florida, is a warm, highly mineralized, inland spring. Since 1946, a bathing spa has been in operation at the spring, attracting vacationers and health enthusiasts. During the winter months, the warm water attracts manatees to the adjoining spring run and provides vital habitat for these mammals. Well-preserved late Pleistocene to early Holocene-age human and animal bones, artifacts, and plant remains have been found in and around the spring, and indicate the surrounding sinkhole formed more than 12,000 years ago. The spring is a multiuse resource of hydrologic importance, ecological and archeological significance, and economic value to the community.The pool of Warm Mineral Springs has a circular shape that reflects its origin as a sinkhole. The pool measures about 240 feet in diameter at the surface and has a maximum depth of about 205 feet. The sinkhole developed in the sand, clay, and dolostone of the Arcadia Formation of the Miocene-age to Oligocene-age Hawthorn Group. Underlying the Hawthorn Group are Oligocene-age to Eocene-age limestones and dolostones, including the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. Mineralized groundwater, under artesian pressure in the underlying aquifers, fills the remnant sink, and the overflow discharges into Warm Mineral Springs Creek, to Salt Creek, and subsequently into the Myakka River. Aquifers described in the vicinity of Warm Mineral Springs include the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system within the Hawthorn Group, and the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. The Hawthorn Group acts as an upper confining unit of the Upper Floridan aquifer.Groundwater flow paths are inferred from the configuration of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer for September 2010. Groundwater flow models indicate the downward flow of water into the Upper Floridan aquifer

  13. Water-related minerals in Aureum Chaos, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowe, Mariam; Wendt, Lorenz; Kneissl, Thomas; McGuire, Patrick C.; Neukum, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    Collapsed plateau material, chaotic terrain, and Interior Layered Deposits (ILDs) characterize Aureum Chaos that is located east of Valles Marineris. As elsewhere on Mars, spectrometers on Mars Express (MEX-OMEGA), Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO-CRISM) and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS-TES) detected water-related minerals (hydrated sulfates, hematite) in association with ILDs. We studied the hydrated minerals by utilizing MRO-CRISM data and co-aligned MEX-HRSC, MRO-HiRISE and MRO-CTX data since their extent indicates where water was present in the past. Hydrated sulfates (mono- and polyhydrated sulfate) crop out below a spectrally neutral cap rock, whereas monohydrated sulfate underlies polyhydrated sulfate (PHS, e.g. epsomite MgSO4 x 7H2O). PHS is detected at elevations below -3600m, monohydrated sulfate (kieserite MgSO4 x H2O) below -4100m, and phyllosilicate below -4000m. In some regions, weathered PHS (e.g. debris fans on scarps) to some extent covers monohydrated sulfate exposures. These regions have a massive, high-albedo texture which otherwise is observed in outcrops that show a monohydrated sulfate signature. Phyllosilicate is present below sulfates or occurs as windblown material but is not associated with ILDs. Ferric oxide is found in both, bedrock and loose material down slope of sulfates. Local thicknesses of hydrated sulfate were determined to 50m on average, in contrast, phyllosilicate-rich knobs are 20m thick on average. The fact that ILDs are mainly buried by mantling deposits and show an abundant cap rock, overlying most of the sulfate-rich ILDs, may explain why sulfates were not found in all CRISM observations. However, the hydrated area as shown by CRISM is ~70km². Since ILDs are heavily eroded and hardly show impact craters on their surfaces, their indicated impact-cratering ages appear very young (Late Amazonian) and hence do not correspond to their formation ages. In order to define the age of the ILDs, we measured impact-cratering ages of

  14. An Intervention with Mineral Water Decreases Cardiometabolic Risk Biomarkers. A Crossover, Randomised, Controlled Trial with Two Mineral Waters in Moderately Hypercholesterolaemic Adults.

    PubMed

    Toxqui, Laura; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Water intake is essential for health maintenance and disease prevention. The effects of an intervention with two mineral waters, sodium-bicarbonated mineral water (BW) or control mineral water low in mineral content (CW), on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were studied. In a randomised-controlled crossover-trial, sixty-four moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults were randomly assigned to consume 1 L/day of either BW (sodium, 1 g/L; bicarbonate, 2 g/L) or CW with the main meals for eight weeks, separated by an eight-week washout period. Blood lipids, lipid oxidation, glucose, insulin, aldosterone, urine pH, urinary electrolytes, blood pressure, body weight, fluid intake, energy, and nutrients from total diet and beverages were determined. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and glucose decreased (p < 0.01), oxidised LDL tended to decrease (p = 0.073), and apolipoprotein B increased during the intervention, without water type effect. Energy and carbohydrates from beverages decreased since soft drinks and fruit juice consumptions decreased throughout the trial. BW increased urinary pH (p = 0.006) and reduced calcium/creatinine excretion (p = 0.011). Urinary potassium/creatinine decreased with both waters. Consumption of 1 L/day of mineral water with the main meals reduces cardiometabolic risk biomarkers, likely to be attributed to a replacement of soft drinks by water. In addition, BW does not affect blood pressure and exerts a moderate alkalizing effect in the body. PMID:27367723

  15. An Intervention with Mineral Water Decreases Cardiometabolic Risk Biomarkers. A Crossover, Randomised, Controlled Trial with Two Mineral Waters in Moderately Hypercholesterolaemic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Toxqui, Laura; Vaquero, M. Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Water intake is essential for health maintenance and disease prevention. The effects of an intervention with two mineral waters, sodium-bicarbonated mineral water (BW) or control mineral water low in mineral content (CW), on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were studied. In a randomised-controlled crossover-trial, sixty-four moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults were randomly assigned to consume 1 L/day of either BW (sodium, 1 g/L; bicarbonate, 2 g/L) or CW with the main meals for eight weeks, separated by an eight-week washout period. Blood lipids, lipid oxidation, glucose, insulin, aldosterone, urine pH, urinary electrolytes, blood pressure, body weight, fluid intake, energy, and nutrients from total diet and beverages were determined. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and glucose decreased (p < 0.01), oxidised LDL tended to decrease (p = 0.073), and apolipoprotein B increased during the intervention, without water type effect. Energy and carbohydrates from beverages decreased since soft drinks and fruit juice consumptions decreased throughout the trial. BW increased urinary pH (p = 0.006) and reduced calcium/creatinine excretion (p = 0.011). Urinary potassium/creatinine decreased with both waters. Consumption of 1 L/day of mineral water with the main meals reduces cardiometabolic risk biomarkers, likely to be attributed to a replacement of soft drinks by water. In addition, BW does not affect blood pressure and exerts a moderate alkalizing effect in the body. PMID:27367723

  16. Water-bearing minerals on mars: source of observed mid-latitude water?

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D. L.; Carey, J. W.; Fialips, C. I.

    2003-01-01

    The Odyssey spacecraft documented the existence of heterogeneously distributed hydrogen at martian mid-latitudes, suggesting that large areas of the near-equatorial highlands contain near-surface deposits of 'chemically and/or physically bound H20 and/or OH' in amounts up to 3 .8% equivalent H20. Shallow occurrences of water ice are not stable near the martian equator, making the hydrogen deposits at these latitudes somewhat enigmatic. Clay minerals and zeolites have both been proposed as possible water-bearing constituents on Mars, and both are common terrestrial alteration products of hydrovolcanic basaltic ashes and palagonitic material comparable to those that may be widespread on Mars. Smectites within martian meteorites, attributed to hydrous alteration on Mars rather than on Earth, provide direct evidence of clay minerals from Mars. In addition, new thermal emission spectrometer (TES) data provide good evidence for unspecified zeolites in martian surface dust [6] . The nature of the hydrogen-containing material observed in the equatorial martian regolith is of particular importance to the question of whether hydrous minerals have formed in the past on Mars. Also, whether these minerals exist in a hydrated (i .e., containing H2O molecules in their structures) or dehydrated state is a crucial question . The existence of hydrous minerals is also important in connection with their possible role in affecting the diurnal variation of the martian atmosphere, in their potential role in unraveling the paleohydrology and paleobiology of Mars, and in their possible use as a water resource to support exploration of the martian mid-latitudes.

  17. Links between climate change, water-table depth, and water chemistry in a mineralized mountain watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Caine,; Todd, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that climate change is causing rising solute concentrations in mountain lakes and streams. These changes may be more pronounced in mineralized watersheds due to the sensitivity of sulfide weathering to changes in subsurface oxygen transport. Specific causal mechanisms linking climate change and accelerated weathering rates have been proposed, but in general remain entirely hypothetical. For mineralized watersheds, a favored hypothesis is that falling water tables caused by declining recharge rates allow an increasing volume of sulfide-bearing rock to become exposed to air, thus oxygen. Here, we test the hypothesis that falling water tables are the primary cause of an increase in metals and SO4 (100-400%) observed since 1980 in the Upper Snake River (USR), Colorado. The USR drains an alpine watershed geologically and climatologically representative of many others in mineralized areas of the western U.S. Hydrologic and chemical data collected from 2005 to 2011 in a deep monitoring well (WP1) at the top of the USR watershed are utilized. During this period, both water table depths and groundwater SO4 concentrations have generally increased in the well. A numerical model was constructed using TOUGHREACT that simulates pyrite oxidation near WP1, including groundwater flow and oxygen transport in both saturated and unsaturated zones. The modeling suggests that a falling water table could produce an increase in metals and SO4 of a magnitude similar to that observed in the USR (up to 300%). Future water table declines may produce limited increases in sulfide weathering high in the watershed because of the water table dropping below the depth of oxygen penetration, but may continue to enhance sulfide weathering lower in the watershed where water tables are shallower. Advective air (oxygen) transport in the unsaturated zone caused by seasonally variable recharge and associated water table fluctuations was found to have little influence on pyrite

  18. Do rock fragments participate to plant water and mineral nutrition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Tétégan, Marion; Besnault, Adeline; Cousin, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    Rock fragments modify soil properties, and can be a potential reservoir of water. Besides, recent studies showed that this coarse soil fraction is chemically active, release nutrients, and could therefore be involved in biogeochemical nutrient cycles. However, these studies carried out on rock fragments, crushed pebbles or mineral particles do not answer the question whether the coarse soil fraction has significant nutritive functions. Only a couple of studies were conducted on plants, one on grass and the other on coniferous seedlings. This present work attempted to assess if pebbles may act as water and nutrient sources for poplar saplings, a deciduous species. Remoulded soils were set up in 5 L-pots with three percentages of pebbles: 0, 20, and 40% in volume. We used, as substrate either fine earth or sand (quartz), and as rock fragments either calcareous or inert pebbles (quartz). Additional modalities were settled with sand mixed with 20 and 40% pebbles enriched with nutrients. Both fine earth and calcareous pebbles were collected from the Ap horizon of a calcareous lacustrine limestone silty soil located in the central region of France. After cleaning, all pebbles were mixed to reach a bulk density in pots of 1.1 g/cm3 for the fine earth and 1.5 g/cm3 for the sand. Ten replicates were settled per modality, and one cutting of Populus robusta was planted in each. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions. All pots were saturated at the beginning of the experiment, then irrigated by capillarity and controlled to maintain a moderate water stress. Growth and evapotranspiration were followed regularly, while water stress status was measured by stomatal conductivity every day during two drying periods of 10 days. After three months, plants were collected, separated in below- and above-ground parts for biomass and cation analysis (Ca, Mg, K). Results showed that pebbles can participate to plant nutrition, but no reduction of water stress was observed

  19. Particle Size Controls on Water Adsorption and Condensation Regimes at Mineral Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric water vapour interacting with hydrophilic mineral surfaces can produce water films of various thicknesses and structures. In this work we show that mineral particle size controls water loadings achieved by water vapour deposition on 21 contrasting mineral samples exposed to atmospheres of up to ~16 Torr water (70% relative humidity at 25 °C). Submicrometer-sized particles hosted up to ~5 monolayers of water, while micrometer-sized particles up to several thousand monolayers. All films exhibited vibrational spectroscopic signals akin to liquid water, yet with a disrupted network of hydrogen bonds. Water adsorption isotherms were predicted using models (1- or 2- term Freundlich and Do-Do models) describing an adsorption and a condensation regime, respectively pertaining to the binding of water onto mineral surfaces and water film growth by water-water interactions. The Hygroscopic Growth Theory could also account for the particle size dependence on condensable water loadings under the premise that larger particles have a greater propensity of exhibiting of surface regions and interparticle spacings facilitating water condensation reactions. Our work should impact our ability to predict water film formation at mineral surfaces of contrasting particle sizes, and should thus contribute to our understanding of water adsorption and condensation reactions occuring in nature. PMID:27561325

  20. Particle Size Controls on Water Adsorption and Condensation Regimes at Mineral Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric water vapour interacting with hydrophilic mineral surfaces can produce water films of various thicknesses and structures. In this work we show that mineral particle size controls water loadings achieved by water vapour deposition on 21 contrasting mineral samples exposed to atmospheres of up to ~16 Torr water (70% relative humidity at 25 °C). Submicrometer-sized particles hosted up to ~5 monolayers of water, while micrometer-sized particles up to several thousand monolayers. All films exhibited vibrational spectroscopic signals akin to liquid water, yet with a disrupted network of hydrogen bonds. Water adsorption isotherms were predicted using models (1- or 2- term Freundlich and Do-Do models) describing an adsorption and a condensation regime, respectively pertaining to the binding of water onto mineral surfaces and water film growth by water-water interactions. The Hygroscopic Growth Theory could also account for the particle size dependence on condensable water loadings under the premise that larger particles have a greater propensity of exhibiting of surface regions and interparticle spacings facilitating water condensation reactions. Our work should impact our ability to predict water film formation at mineral surfaces of contrasting particle sizes, and should thus contribute to our understanding of water adsorption and condensation reactions occuring in nature. PMID:27561325

  1. Particle Size Controls on Water Adsorption and Condensation Regimes at Mineral Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric water vapour interacting with hydrophilic mineral surfaces can produce water films of various thicknesses and structures. In this work we show that mineral particle size controls water loadings achieved by water vapour deposition on 21 contrasting mineral samples exposed to atmospheres of up to ~16 Torr water (70% relative humidity at 25 °C). Submicrometer-sized particles hosted up to ~5 monolayers of water, while micrometer-sized particles up to several thousand monolayers. All films exhibited vibrational spectroscopic signals akin to liquid water, yet with a disrupted network of hydrogen bonds. Water adsorption isotherms were predicted using models (1- or 2- term Freundlich and Do-Do models) describing an adsorption and a condensation regime, respectively pertaining to the binding of water onto mineral surfaces and water film growth by water-water interactions. The Hygroscopic Growth Theory could also account for the particle size dependence on condensable water loadings under the premise that larger particles have a greater propensity of exhibiting of surface regions and interparticle spacings facilitating water condensation reactions. Our work should impact our ability to predict water film formation at mineral surfaces of contrasting particle sizes, and should thus contribute to our understanding of water adsorption and condensation reactions occuring in nature.

  2. [Pay attention to the human health risk of drinking low mineral water].

    PubMed

    Shu, Weiqun

    2015-10-01

    The consumption of low mineral drinking water has been increasing around the world with the shortage of water resources and the development of advanced water treatment technologies. Evidences from systematic document reviews, ecological epidemiological observations, and experimental drinking water intervention studies indicate that lack of minerals in drinking water may cause direct or indirect harm to human health, among which, the associations of magnesium in water with cardiovascular disease, as well as calcium in water with osteoporosis, are well proved by sufficient evidence. This article points out that it is urgent to pay more attention to the issues about establishment of health risk evaluation system on susceptible consuming population, establishment of lab evaluation system on water quality and health effect for non-traditional drinking water, and program of safety mineralization for demineralized or desalinated water and so on. PMID:26813714

  3. [Pay attention to the human health risk of drinking low mineral water].

    PubMed

    Shu, Weiqun

    2015-10-01

    The consumption of low mineral drinking water has been increasing around the world with the shortage of water resources and the development of advanced water treatment technologies. Evidences from systematic document reviews, ecological epidemiological observations, and experimental drinking water intervention studies indicate that lack of minerals in drinking water may cause direct or indirect harm to human health, among which, the associations of magnesium in water with cardiovascular disease, as well as calcium in water with osteoporosis, are well proved by sufficient evidence. This article points out that it is urgent to pay more attention to the issues about establishment of health risk evaluation system on susceptible consuming population, establishment of lab evaluation system on water quality and health effect for non-traditional drinking water, and program of safety mineralization for demineralized or desalinated water and so on.

  4. Radionuclide and chemical concentrations in mineral waters at Saratoga Springs, New York.

    PubMed

    Kitto, Michael E; Parekh, Pravin P; Torres, Miguel A; Schneider, Dominik

    2005-01-01

    A project to characterize the radionuclide and chemical components in natural spring waters in the vicinity of Saratoga Springs, New York (USA) has been completed. As a result of the measured radionuclide and chemical content, eight springs were labeled as mineral waters, whereas three springs contained very low concentrations of these components. The mineral waters were highly enriched in alkaline and alkaline-earth elements, as well as chloride ions. Three isotopes of radium ((224)Ra, (226)Ra, (228)Ra) were detected in the mineral waters and reached concentrations of 1, 20, and 2 Bq/L, respectively. Overall, the (226)Ra isotope constituted about 80% of the total radioactivity measured in the water samples. Dissolved uranium concentrations in the mineral waters were very low (mean approximately 50 mBq/L).

  5. Mineralization of biogenic materials in the water masses of the South Atlantic Ocean. II: Stoichiometric ratios and mineralization rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Salgado, X. A.; Álvarez, M.; Brea, S.; Mèmery, L.; Messias, M. J.

    2014-04-01

    The variability of nitrate (N), phosphate (P), silicate (Si) and Apparent Oxygen Utilization (AOU) due to water mass mixing was objectively separated from the variability due to mineralization of biogenic materials in the western and eastern South Atlantic Ocean on basis of the constrained Optimum MultiParameter (OMP) analysis implemented in the companion manuscript. Using a consensus linear regression model, AOU/N/P/Si mineralization ratios and the corresponding oxygen utilisation rates (OURs) were obtained for the realm of each water mass defined after the OMP analysis. Combining these results with a stoichiometric model, the organic carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios and the biochemical composition (carbohydrates + lipids, proteins and phosphorus compounds) of the mineralized material, were derived. The vertical variability of the AOU/N, AOU/P and AOU/C mineralization ratios pointed to a significant fractionation during the mineralization of sinking organic matter. This fractionation was confirmed by preferential consumption of organic phosphorous compounds and proteins in shallower levels, which produced an increase of the C/N ratio of the mineralised materials of 0.5 ± 0.2 mol C mol N-1 every 1000 dbar. OURs in the twilight zone decreased quadratically with the C/N molar ratio of the mineralised material and exponentially with pressure (p, in 103 dbar) according to the following regression equation: Ln (OUR) = 6.2(±1.2) - 2.0(±0.7) * Ln (C/N) - 0.6(±0.2) * p (r2 = 0.87, p < 0.006, n = 8). This variability in the rates and stoichiometric ratios of the biogenic material mineralization compromises our capacity to predict the ocean biogeochemistry response to global change, including the CO2 uptake and storage and the corresponding feedback mechanisms.

  6. Multi-Generational Drinking of Bottled Low Mineral Water Impairs Bone Quality in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hui; Wang, Lingqiao; Wang, Dahua; Luo, Jiaohua; Zhang, Liang; Huang, Yujing; Chen, Ji-an; Shu, Weiqun

    2015-01-01

    Background Because of reproductions and hormone changes, females are more sensitive to bone mineral loss during their lifetime. Bottled water has become more popular in recent years, and a large number of products are low mineral water. However, research on the effects of drinking bottled low mineral water on bone health is sparse. Objective To elucidate the skeletal effects of multi-generational bottled water drinking in female rats. Methods Rats continuously drank tap water (TW), bottled natural water (bNW), bottled mineralized water (bMW), or bottled purified water (bPW) for three generations. Results The maximum deflection, elastic deflection, and ultimate strain of the femoral diaphysis in the bNW, bMW, and bPW groups and the fracture strain in the bNW and bMW groups were significantly decreased. The tibiae calcium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. The tibiae and teeth magnesium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than those in the TW group. The collagen turnover markers PICP (in both bNW and bPW groups) were significantly lower than that in the TW group. In all three low mineral water groups, the 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D levels were significantly lower than those in the TW group. Conclusion Long-term drinking of low mineral water may disturb bone metabolism and biochemical properties and therefore weaken biomechanical bone properties in females. Drinking tap water, which contains adequate minerals, was found to be better for bone health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on drinking bottled low mineral water and female bone quality on three generation model. PMID:25803851

  7. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in mineral bottled water according to difference in mineral content: application of the Weibull model.

    PubMed

    Guillou, S; Leguerinel, I; Garrec, N; Renard, M A; Cappelier, J M; Federighi, M

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the hypothesis proposed by Evans et al. [2003. Hazards of healthy living: bottled water and salad vegetables as risk factors for Campylobacter infection. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9(10), 1219-1225] that mineral bottled water accidentally contaminated by Campylobacter jejuni would represent a risk factor for Campylobacter infection. Culturability of C. jejuni cells inoculated in low- and high-mineral bottled water during storage at 4 degrees C in the dark was performed by surface plating and modelled using the Weibull model. The loss of C. jejuni culturability observed in all conditions tested was shown to be dependent on strain, preculture condition and water composition. Following inoculation of C. jejuni, the rapid loss of culturability was not correlated to complete cell death as the passage into embryonated eggs enabled recovery of cells from the viable but non-culturable state. In conclusion, the sanitary risk associated with contaminated bottled water cannot be excluded although it is presumably low. Culture conditions, strain and water type must be taken into account in the evaluation of the risk factors as they influence significantly Campylobacter survival in water.

  8. [Effect of fluorine in drinking water of varying hardness on protein-mineral metabolism of mineralized tissues of rats maintained on a sugar diet].

    PubMed

    Kosenko, K M; Podorozhnia, R P; Henesina, T I

    1993-01-01

    Variations of mineral and protein metabolism in calcified tissues were studied using 32P, 45Ca and 35S methionine in the rats on sugar diet and water of different hardness with F and without it. Hard drinking water without F like soft water and water of medium hardness with F affect metabolism in mineralized tissues preventing the development of carious process. Incorporation of 32P and 45Ca to mineralized tissues, specific radioactivity of 32P and 35S methionine of tooth and bone proteins are lower in rats which drank soft water without F. These parameters increase in rats which received hard water without F almost to the level of animals which received water with F. Ways of the effect of Ca2+ Mg2+ and F on protein and mineral metabolism of calcified tissues of rats on sugar diet (including proteins (osteo-induced, etc., which initiate mineralization) and enzymes are considered.

  9. An assessment of the quality of various bottled mineral water marketed in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baba, A; Ereeş, F S; Hiçsönmez, U; Cam, S; Ozdilek, H G

    2008-04-01

    Fifteen bottled mineral waters purchased at random all over Turkey were analyzed for their chemical composition by OPTIMA-2000 ICP-AES Perkin Elmer techniques. Results show a wide spread in the chemical specification of these mineral waters, with differences in chemical composition observed in the regions being due to the geological environment and the majority of bottled mineral waters exceeding the pH limit of Turkish drinking water standards. When the concentrations of elements are evaluated, it can readily be seen that generally there are three types of mineral water in Turkey. The concentrations of Al, B, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn Pb and Zn in mineral water were compared with the limits established by the Turkish Standard for Natural Mineral Waters (Turkish Official Gazette 2004); water standards prepared by World Health Organization (2006) and the United States of America Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) drinking water standards (1993). Such a comparison shows that, except for Ba and Mn, the concentrations of the other heavy metals are lower than the limit of the US. EPA in Turkey. Some parameters examined were found to comprise strong correlations pair-wise. PMID:17577674

  10. Hydrogenous mineral neoformations in Tomsk water intake facility from underground sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutova, E.; Vologdina, I.; Pokrovsky, D.; Nalivaiko, N.; Kuzevanov, K.; Pokrovsky, V.

    2016-03-01

    The article considers study outcomes of hydrogenous mineral neoformations precipitated on deferrization filters of Tomsk water intake facility from underground sources. Compositionally, these precipitations are colloform and polymineral including ferrous, carbonate and aluminosilicate mineral phases. Ferrous phase predominates and embraces ferric hydroxides (ferrihydrate, goethite, hematite and lepidocrocite) and ferrous hydrophosphates (vivianite, strengite, strunzite and rockbridgeit). Carbonate and aluminosilicate minerals are calcite and kaolinite-group, respectively.

  11. Mineral concentrations in diets, water, and milk and their value in estimating on-farm excretion of manure minerals in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castillo, A R; St-Pierre, N R; Silva del Rio, N; Weiss, W P

    2013-05-01

    Thirty-nine commercial dairies in Merced County, California were enrolled in the present study to (1) compare lactating cow mineral intakes (via drinking water and total mixed ration) to the National Research Council (NRC) requirements, (2) evaluate the association between dietary concentrations of minerals with and without drinking water and adjusted for mineral concentrations in milk, and (3) compare 4 different methods to estimate excretion of minerals using either assays or estimations of milk mineral outputs and total daily mineral intake per cow with or without minerals coming from drinking water. Dairies were selected to represent a range of herd milk yields and a range of water mineral contents. Samples of total mixed ration, drinking water, and bulk tank milk were taken on 2 different days, 3 to 7d apart in each farm. Across-farm medians and percentile distributions were used to analyze results. The herd median milk yield interquartile ranged (10th to 90th percentile) from less than 25 to more than 39 kg/d and the concentration of total solids in water interquartile ranged from less than 200 to more than 1,490 mg/L. Including drinking water minerals in the diets increased dietary concentrations by <4% for all minerals except for Na and Cl, which increased by 9.3 and 6.5%, respectively. Concentrations of P and K in milk were essentially the same as the NRC value to estimate lactation requirements. However, NRC milk values of Ca, Cl, and Zn were 10 to 20% greater than dairy farm values; and Na, Cu, Fe, and Mn were no less than 36% below NRC values. Estimated excretion of minerals via manure varied substantially across farms. Farms in the 10th percentile did have 2 to 3 times less estimated mineral excretions than those in the 90th percentile (depending on the mineral). Although including water minerals increased excretion of most minerals, the actual median effect of Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, and Mn was less than 5%, and about 8% for Na and Cl. Replacing assayed

  12. Water in the formation of biogenic minerals: peeling away the hydration layers.

    PubMed

    Dorvee, Jason R; Veis, Arthur

    2013-08-01

    Minerals of biogenic origin form and crystallize from aqueous environments at ambient temperatures and pressures. The in vivo environment either intracellular or intercellular, contains many components that modulate both the activity of the ions which associate to form the mineral, as well as the activity and structure of the crowded water. Most of the studies about the mechanism of mineralization, that is, the detailed pathways by which the mineral ions proceed from solution to crystal state, have been carried out in relatively dilute solutions and clean solutions. These studies have considered both thermodynamic and kinetic controls. Most have not considered the water itself. Is the water a passive bystander, or is it intimately a participant in the mineral ion densification reaction? A wide range of experiments show that the mineralization pathways proceed through a series of densification stages with intermediates, such as a "dense liquid" phase and the prenucleation clusters that form within it. This is in contrast to the idea of a single step phase transition, but consistent with the Gibbs concept of discontinuous phase transitions from supersaturated mother liquor to crystal. Further changes in the water structure at every surface and interface during densification guides the free energy trajectory leading to the crystalline state. In vertebrates, mineralization takes place in a hydrated collagen matrix, thus water must be considered as a direct participant. Although different in detail, the crystallization of calcium phosphates, as apatite, and calcium carbonates, as calcite, are mechanistically identical from the viewpoint of water.

  13. Cavitation pitting and erosion of Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The authors are currently carrying out a study of the cavitation erosion of different bearing metals and alloys in mineral oils were studied. The variations of weight loss, the pit diameter and depth due to cavitation erosion on Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water are presented.

  14. Training of panellists for the sensory control of bottled natural mineral water in connection with water chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Rey-Salgueiro, Ledicia; Gosálbez-García, Aitana; Pérez-Lamela, Concepción; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Falqué-López, Elena

    2013-11-01

    As bottled mineral water market is increasing in the world (especially in emergent and developed countries), the development of a simple protocol to train a panel to evaluate sensory properties would be a useful tool for natural drinking water industry. A sensory protocol was developed to evaluate bottled natural mineral water (17 still and 10 carbonated trademarks). The tasting questionnaire included 13 attributes for still water plus overall impression and they were sorted by: colour hues, transparency and brightness, odour/aroma and taste/flavour/texture and 2 more for carbonated waters (bubbles and effervescence). The training lasted two months with, at least, 10 sessions, was adequate to evaluate bottled natural mineral water. To confirm the efficiency of the sensory training procedure two sensory groups formed the whole panel. One trained panel (6 persons) and one professional panel (6 sommeliers) and both participated simultaneously in the water tasting evaluation of 3 sample lots. Similar average scores obtained from trained and professional judges, with the same water trademarks, confirmed the usefulness of the training protocol. The differences obtained for trained panel in the first lot confirm the necessity to train always before a sensory procedure. A sensory water wheel is proposed to guide the training in bottled mineral water used for drinking, in connection with their chemical mineral content.

  15. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in City Water, Dental Units' Water, and Bottled Mineral Water in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ghasemian Safaei, Hajieh

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection in human is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via water. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in tap water, dental units' water, and bottled mineral water in Iran. In the present study, totally 200 water samples were collected in Isfahan province and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by the detection of the ureC (glmM) gene. Using cultural method totally 5 cultures were positive. Two out of 50 tap water samples (4%), 2 out of 35 dental units' water (5.8%) samples, and 1 out of 40 (2.5% ) from water cooler in public places were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 14 (7%) of water samples including 5 tap water (10%), 4 dental units' water (11.4%), 1 refrigerated water with filtration, and 4 (10%) water cooler in public places samples. This may be due to the coccoid form of bacteria which is detected by PCR method. PMID:23606812

  16. Thermal behavior of water confined in micro porous of clay mineral at additional pressure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Y.; Takemura, T.; Fujimori, H.; Nagoe, A.; Sugimoto, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water is the most familiar substance. However water has specific properties that has a crystal structure of a dozen and density of that is maximum at 277.15 K. Therefore it understands various natural phenomena to study physical properties of water. Oodo et al study physical properties of water confined in silica gel [1]. They indicate that melting point of water confined in silica gel decrease with decreasing pore size of silica gel. Also in case that pore size is less than 2 nm, water confined in silica gel is unfreezing water at low temperature. It is considered that effect of pore size prevent crystal growth of water. Therefore we are interested in water confined in clay minerals. Clay minerals have a number of water conditions. Also it is thought that water confined in clay minerals show different physical behavior to exist the domain where change with various effect. Therefore we studied a thermal properties and phase behavior of absorption water in clay minerals. In addition, we analyzed the changes in the thermal behavior of absorption water due to the effect of earth pressure that was an environmental factor in the ground. [1] Oodo & Fujimori, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 357 (2011) 683.

  17. [Fundamental study on effect of high-mineral drinking water for osteogenesis in calciprivia ovariectomized rats].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2014-01-01

    Since osteoporosis is a major public health problem in Japan, it is important to clarify the effect of high-mineral drinking water consumption on osteogenesis. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the relationship between high-mineral drinking water consumption and osteogenesis in ovariectomized rats that received a low-calcium diet and purified water (PW group) or a low-calcium diet and high-mineral drinking water (CR group). High-mineral drinking water affected the rats' body weight. After 3 months, the bone density of the CR group was higher than that of the PW group (p<0.05). Furthermore, the CR group showed a decrease in the amount of calcium in the bones after 3 months. These results suggest that high-mineral drinking water contributes to the maintenance of bone density and not to the amount of calcium in bone. On the other hand, serum alkaline phosphatase levels in the PW group at 3 months were higher than those in the CR group, which indicates that the blood concentration of calcium in the CR group was maintained. Moreover, the amount of magnesium in the bones and the blood concentration of magnesium in the CR group after 3 months were higher than the corresponding values in the PW group. These results suggest that consumption of high-mineral drinking water could be beneficial for osteogenesis (i.e., for maintaining bone quantity).

  18. Cavitation pitting and erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Cavitation erosion studies of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil and in ordinary tap water are presented. The maximum erosion rate (MDPR, or mean depth of penetration rate) in mineral oil was about four times that in water. The MDPR in mineral oil decreased continuously with time, but the MDPR in water remained approximately constant. The cavitation pits in mineral oil were of smaller diameter and depth than the pits in water. Treating the pits as spherical segments, we computed the radius r of the sphere. The logarithm of h/a, where h is the pit depth and 2a is the top width of the pit, was linear when plotted against the logarithm of 2r/h - 1.

  19. Real-time QEXAFS spectroscopy measures rapid precipitate formation at the mineral-water interface.

    PubMed

    Siebecker, Matthew; Li, Wei; Khalid, Syed; Sparks, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Reactions at the mineral-water interface are central to numerous geochemical processes and have consequences at local, regional and global scales. They are also important in materials science research. Kinetics greatly influences mineral-water interface reactions; however, there are few kinetic data in real-time and at the molecular scale. Here we report real-time data illustrating the rapid formation of nickel aluminium-layered double hydroxide precipitates at the mineral-water interface in a flow environment in as little as 31-40 min. Layered double hydroxides have a variety of applications in environmental remediation and materials science. The real-time data shown here enhance our fundamental understanding of the kinetics of mineral-water interface processes, such as adsorption, dissolution and precipitation, by illustrating their rapid and simultaneous occurrence in a dynamic environment. Both precipitation and adsorption can occur on the same rapid timescale. PMID:25233849

  20. Conditions that regulate the growth of moulds inoculated into bottled mineral water.

    PubMed

    Criado, Maria Victoria; Fernández Pinto, Virginia E; Badessari, Alicia; Cabral, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    The influence of different storage conditions (temperature, illumination, brand of mineral water and storage time) on growth of mould spores was studied. Alternaria alternata, Penicillium citrinum and Cladosporium cladosporioides spores were inoculated in bottles of mineral and mineralised water, packaged in polyethylene terephtalate (PET). The bottles were incubated under different storage conditions. The strains had been isolated from bottled mineral water in a previous study. Storage time was the parameter that had the most important influence in mould growth. The spores grew into visible colonies after 5 month of incubation in bottles just filled, and in a month in bottles that had been stored for 5 month. This could be due to the migration of compounds from PET packaging material into mineral water. This compounds could be used as nutrients (organic matter) for mould growth. The plasticizer additive di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) concentration in recently bottled mineral water and in 5-month stored bottles was measured. An increase of 20% of DBP concentration was observed. A. alternata and P. citrinum strains were toxicological characterised. Both strains produced mycotoxins in vitro, and P. citrinum produced citrinin in mineral water, posing a potential health risk for consumers.

  1. [Contribution of natural mineral water to the iodine supply of the population].

    PubMed

    Kirchner, S; Stelz, A; Muskat, E

    1996-10-01

    Most parts of Germany are iodine deficiency areas. Daily iodine intake may be increased by food with high iodine content. Therefore determination of iodine in different foodstuffs is of importance. Aim of our work was to develop a method for mineral waters. Besides, we wanted to find out to what extent natural mineral waters can contribute to the iodine supply of the population. The method is based on the reaction of the halogenids iodide and bromide with ethylene oxide in a sulfuric acid medium while converting into 2-iodo- and 2-bromoethanol. After extraction, the reaction products are determined by capillary gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The method was modified for mineral waters. Single results were confirmed by ICP-MS. For mineral waters the limits of determination are 3 micrograms/L for iodide and 42 micrograms/L for bromide. The investigation of mineral waters from Hessen showed, that only few sources contain iodide in remarkable amounts. Therefore a considerable improvement of iodide intake is possible only with single mineral waters.

  2. Conditions that regulate the growth of moulds inoculated into bottled mineral water.

    PubMed

    Criado, Maria Victoria; Fernández Pinto, Virginia E; Badessari, Alicia; Cabral, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    The influence of different storage conditions (temperature, illumination, brand of mineral water and storage time) on growth of mould spores was studied. Alternaria alternata, Penicillium citrinum and Cladosporium cladosporioides spores were inoculated in bottles of mineral and mineralised water, packaged in polyethylene terephtalate (PET). The bottles were incubated under different storage conditions. The strains had been isolated from bottled mineral water in a previous study. Storage time was the parameter that had the most important influence in mould growth. The spores grew into visible colonies after 5 month of incubation in bottles just filled, and in a month in bottles that had been stored for 5 month. This could be due to the migration of compounds from PET packaging material into mineral water. This compounds could be used as nutrients (organic matter) for mould growth. The plasticizer additive di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) concentration in recently bottled mineral water and in 5-month stored bottles was measured. An increase of 20% of DBP concentration was observed. A. alternata and P. citrinum strains were toxicological characterised. Both strains produced mycotoxins in vitro, and P. citrinum produced citrinin in mineral water, posing a potential health risk for consumers. PMID:15808368

  3. Carbonate-mineral/water interactions in sulfide-rich mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al, Tom A.; Martin, Chris J.; Blowes, David W.

    2000-12-01

    The chemical composition and mineralogy of coatings on carbonate minerals from mine tailings have been studied using aqueous geochemical methods, Time-of-Flight Laser-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TOF-LIMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The goal is to study major and trace element partitioning between the aqueous and solid phase, and to infer mechanisms that control the concentrations of elements in the pore water of sulfide-rich mine tailings. Pore-water samples and carbonate-mineral grains were collected from four geochemically distinct zones within the tailings. Oxidation of sulfide minerals near the surface results in a large range in pore-water pH (3.85 to 6.98) and aqueous concentrations of metals and sulfate. With increasing depth in the tailings, mineral-water interactions lead to increasing pH, and decreasing concentrations of metals and sulfate. Calculated mineral saturation indices, trends in the abundance of Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in TOF-LIMS profiles through the secondary coatings, and electron diffraction patterns obtained from the coatings, suggest that precipitation/dissolution of jarosite-group minerals, gypsum, goethite, akaganéite, amorphous Fe oxyhydroxides and siderite control the aqueous Ca, Fe, Na, K and SO 4 concentrations. The occurrence of secondary coatings on primary minerals is widespread, and reactions with the secondary minerals, rather than the primary mineral substrate, probably represent the principal controls on trace-element distributions in the pore water. The data indicate that adsorption, surface-complexation and co-precipitation reactions are important controls on the concentrations of trace elements in the pore water. The occurrence of siderite coatings on the surface of ankerite grains suggests that Fe-bearing dolomite-structure carbonate minerals dissolve incongruently. This corroborates inferences made by previous workers that solubility differences between calcite and siderite lead to calcite dissolution and

  4. Authigenic Mineralization of Silicates at the Organic-water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, B.; Wallace, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    It is relatively common for some fraction of organic material to be preserved in the sedimentary rock record as disseminated molecular fragments. The survival of wholly coherent tissues from primarily soft-bodied organisms is far more unusual. However, the literature is now well- populated with spectacular examples of soft-tissue preservation ranging from a 2,600 year old human brain to the tissues of the Ediacaran biota that have survived ~600 million years. Some of the most exceptional examples of soft tissue preservation are from the Proterozoic-Cambrian transition, however, nearly all modes of fossil preservation during this time are debated. Clay mineral templates have been implicated as playing a role in several types of soft tissue preservation, including Burgess Shale and Beecher's Trilobite-type preservation, and more recently, Bitter Springs-type silicification. Yet, there is still much debate over whether these clay mineral coatings form during early stage burial and diagenesis, or later stage metamorphism. This research addresses this question by using in situ fluid cell Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to investigate the nucleation and growth of silicate minerals on model biological surfaces. Herein we present preliminary results on the deposition of hydrous magnesium silicates on self-assembled monolayers (-OH, -COOH, -CH3, and -H2PO3 terminated surfaces) at ambient conditions.

  5. Mineral-water reactions in metamorphism and volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, I.

    1985-01-01

    Low-temperature (120??C and less) metamorphism of graywacke, granite and andesite yields zeolites and precursor gels by reaction with fresh water but low-greenschist facies by reaction with salt (sea)water. ?? 1985.

  6. Molecular Simulations of Water and Ion Diffusion in Nanosized Mineral Fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Liu, Chongxuan

    2009-02-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the effects of confinement and of the presence of the mineral surface on the diffusion of water and electrolyte ions in nano-sized mineral fractures. Feldspar was used as a representative mineral because recent studies found that it is an important mineral that hosts contaminants within its intragrain fractures at US Department of Energy Hanford site (1, 2). Several properties of the mineral-water interface were varied, such as the fracture width, the ionic strength of the contacting solution, and the surface charge, to provide atomic-level insights into the diffusion of ions and contaminants within intragrain regions. In each case, the self-diffusion coefficient of water and that of the electrolyte ions were computed as a function of distance from the mineral surface. Our calculations reveal a 2.0 to 2.5 nm interfacial region within which the self-diffusion coefficient of water and that of the electrolyte ions decrease as the diffusing species approach the surface. As a result of the extent of the interfacial region, water and electrolyte ions are predicted to never reach bulk-like diffusion in fractures narrower than approximately 5 nm. A density weighted, averaged diffusion coefficient was computed as a function of fracture width and indicated that the surface effects only become negligible for fractures several tens of nanometers wide. The calculations also showed that, within 1.2 nm from the surface, the diffusion of electrolyte ions is affected by the presence of the mineral surface to a greater extent than that of water. The molecular dynamics results improve our conceptual models of ion transport in nano-scale pore regions surrounded by mineral surfaces in porous media.

  7. Geochemistry and origins of mineralized waters in the Floridan aquifer system, northeastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, G.G.

    2001-01-01

    Increases in chloride concentration have been observed in water from numerous wells tapping the Floridan aquifer system in northeastern Florida. Although most increases have been in the eastern part of Duval County, Florida, no spatial pattern in elevated chloride concentrations is discernible. Possible sources of the mineralized water include modern seawater intrusion; unflushed Miocene-to-Pleistocene-age seawater or connate water in aquifer sediments; or mineralized water from deeper zones of the aquifer system or from formations beneath the Floridan aquifer system. The purpose of this study was to document the chemical and isotopic characteristics of water samples from various aquifer zones, and from geochemical and hydrogeologic data, to infer the source of the increased mineralization. Water samples were collected from 53 wells in northeastern Florida during 1997-1999. Wells tapped various zones of the aquifer including: the Fernandina permeable zone (FPZ), the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer (UZLF), the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA), and both the UFA and the UZLF. Water samples were analyzed for major ions and trace constituents and for isotopes of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, sulfur, strontium, chlorine, and boron. Samples of rock from the aquifer were analyzed for isotopes of oxygen, carbon, and strontium. In general, water from various aquifer zones cannot be differentiated based on chemistry, except for water from FPZ wells. Major-ion concentrations vary as much within the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the Upper Floridan aquifer as between these two zones. Simple models of mixing between fresh ground water and either modern seawater or water from the FPZ as a mineralized end member show that many water samples from the UZLF aquifer and the UFA are enriched in bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, fluoride, and silica and are depleted in sodium and potassium (as compared to concentrations predicted by simple mixing). Chemical mass

  8. Water geochemistry of the Lucero Uplift, New Mexico: geothermal investigation of low-temperature mineralized fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; McCormick, T.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Vidale, R.; Charles, R.

    1983-04-01

    A detailed geochemical investigation of 27 waters of the Lucero uplift, central New Mexico, was performed to determine if the fluids originate from a high-temperature geothermal system along the Rio Grande rift. Two types of mineralized water issue from the Lucero region: a relatively saline (high-Cl, high-SO/sub 4/) type and a relatively dilute (low-Cl, high-SO/sub 4/) type. Emergence temperatures of both types range from 12 to 26/sup 0/C. Chemical data and thermodynamic and geothermometer calculations all indicate that both water types are in equilibrium with carbonate and evaporite minerals found in local Colorado Plateau rocks at surface temperatures or slightly higher. Stable isotope data do not indicate high-temperature rock-water interaction. Although evidence is seen for mixing between mineralized waters and dilute surface waters, no evidence for mixing of a deep hot fluid and surface waters is seen. Dilute mineral waters, which issue from a large area of Chinle Formation on the west side of the Lucero uplift, may be useful for low-temperature geothermal applications with appropriate design of equipment. Saline mineral waters, which leak from a zone of faulted and folded rocks along the Comanche fault zone, do not appear to have much, if any, geothermal potential due to their low-temperature, restricted distribution, and high concentration of dissolved solids. No evidence that saline mineral waters are associated with Quaternary faults of the Rio Grande rift or Quaternary basaltic volcanism within the immediate area is seen.

  9. Concentrations of selected trace elements in mineral and spring bottled waters on the Serbian market.

    PubMed

    Ristić, M; Popović, I; Pocajt, V; Antanasijević, D; Perić-Grujić, A

    2011-01-01

    Eight selected trace elements, which are generally included in regulations, were analyzed in 23 types of bottled waters. Ten mineral and seven spring bottled waters were from the Serbian market and six mineral bottled waters were obtained in different EU countries. For the purpose of comparison, selected tap waters were also analyzed. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead and antimony). Results were compared with the Serbian regulations for bottled water, EU regulations and guideline values set by the World Health Organization for drinking water. With few exceptions, the trace element levels of most bottled waters were below the guideline values. However, a higher content of antimony was observed in waters from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers, indicating a potential leaching of this element from the plastic packaging.

  10. The occurrence of cytotoxic Aeromonas hydrophila strains in Italian mineral and thermal waters.

    PubMed

    Biscardi, D; Castaldo, A; Gualillo, O; de Fusco, R

    2002-06-26

    Bacteria of the genus Aeromonas are ubiquitous in aquatic environments, including mineral drinking and thermal waters. Motile species are related to different diseases, mostly gastrointestinal disorders. Criteria for Aeromonas pathogenicity in humans and animals are still unclear and neither is the relationship between production virulence and pathogenicity factors. In the present study, strains of Aeromonas hydrophila, from 61 samples of bottled mineral waters and 23 thermal Italian sources have been isolated and identified by biochemical tests, for toxicity and detection of the aerolysin gene by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Six strains were isolated from the mineral waters and were found to be cytotoxic and in possession of the aerolysin gene. For the twelve strains isolated from thermal waters, seven were cytotoxic and eleven contained the aerolysin gene.

  11. Natural radioactivity in bottled mineral and thermal spring waters of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Taskin, Halim; Asliyuksek, Hizir; Bozkurt, Ahmet; Kam, Erol

    2013-12-01

    Radiological assessment of bottled mineral waters and thermal spring waters collected from various natural sources in Turkey was carried out using gross alpha and gross beta counting techniques. For 40 samples of bottled mineral water, the mean gross alpha activity concentration was determined to be 164 mBq l(-1) (min.:7 mBq l(-1); max.: 3042 mBq l(-1)), whereas the gross beta activity concentration was found to be 555 mBq l(-1) (min.: 21 mBq l(-1); max.: 4845 mBq l(-1)). For 24 samples of thermal spring water, the mean gross alpha activity concentration was obtained to be 663 mBq l(-1) (min.: 18 mBq l(-1); max.: 3070 mBq l(-1)). The gross beta activity concentration for these samples, on the other hand, was determined to be 3314 mBq l(-1) (min.: 79 mBq l(-1); max.: 17955 mBq l(-1)). These values lead to the average annual effective doses of 313 µSv for mineral waters and 1805 µSv for thermal spa waters, which are found to be higher than those recommended for drinking waters by the World Health Organization. It should be noted, however, that one will get less dose from mineral waters since the daily consumption is much lower than 2 l that these calculations assume.

  12. Buffering of Marshall Sandstone pore waters by mineral-water interactions in the overlying glacial drift

    SciTech Connect

    Sibley, D.F.; Westjohn, D.B.; Long, D.T. . Dept. of Geological Sciences Geological Survey, Lansing, MI . Michigan Basin RASA)

    1994-04-01

    The salinity of pore waters in the Marshall Sandstone increases by three orders in magnitude from basin margin to center. Chlorite, dolomite-ankerite and kaolinite cements in the Marshall were analyzed to determine if these cements reflect this salinity gradient. One test of the hypothesis that cements reflect the present pore water salinity gradient is the distribution of cements. If kaolinite formed by influx of freshwater into the Marshall from the basin periphery the distribution of kaolinite would parallel distribution of salinity. However, kaolinite is common in brine bearing and freshwater bearing samples. Another consequence of freshwater recharge from the basin periphery could be dissolution of dolomite-ankerite cements. However, SEM analyses of dolomite-ankerite cements show no evidence of dissolution. Lack of apparent mineral alteration in response to the strong salinity gradient can be explained by the fact that freshwater recharges the Marshall Sandstone through glacial drift. As a result of drift-water interactions, recharge to the Marshall Sandstone may be close to equilibrium with the major diagenetic phases.

  13. The spectral reflectance of water-mineral mixtures at low temperatures. [observed on natural satellites and other solar system objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory reflectance spectra in the 0.325-2.5 micron region of bound water, water-mineral mixtures, mineral grains on frost, and frost on minerals are presented. The materials used in this study are montmorillonite, kaolinite, beryl, Mauna Kea red cinder, and black charcoal. It is found that the wavelengths of bound water and bound OH absorptions do not shift appreciably with temperature and can be detected when large amounts of free water ice are present. The decrease in the visible reflectance seen in many planetary reflectance spectra containing strong water ice absorptions can be explained by water-mineral mixtures, mineral grains on frost, or frost on mineral grains. Mineral grains on frost are detectable in very small quantities (fractional areal coverage less than approximately 0.005) depending on the mineral reflectance features, while it takes a thick layer of frost (greater than approximately 1 mm) to mask a mineral below 1.4 microns, again depending on the mineral reflectance. Frost on a very dark surface (albedo about 6%) is easily seen; however, a dark mineral mixed with water could completely mask the water absorptions (shortward of 2.5 microns).

  14. Microbiological safety of bottled mineral water in patients susceptible to infections.

    PubMed

    Oie, Shigeharu; Matsuzaka, Yuuki; Kiyonaga, Hiroko; Maeda, Kumiko; Kamiya, Akira

    2008-08-01

    We evaluated the microbiological safety of bottled mineral water products commercially available in Japan. Of 10 bottled mineral water products manufactured in Japan, no bacteria or fungi were detected in 9 (90%), but 1 (10%) contained 1.8x10(3) colony-forming units (cfu)/mL. Of 12 bottled mineral water products manufactured in the EU, 11 (91.7%) contained 23-3.5x10(4) cfu/mL. On the other hand, of 5 bottled mineral water products manufactured in North America, 2 (40%) contained 2.3x10(2)-2.5x10(3) cfu/mL. The detected microorganisms were glucose-nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli such as Brevundimonas vesicularis, Moraxella spp., and Burkholderia cepacia, but Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not detected in any product. For immunocompromised host patients being managed in ultra-clean rooms, the examined bottled mineral water products manufactured in Japan, except 1, were microbiologically safe.

  15. Adsorption mechanisms of microcystin variant conformations at water-mineral interfaces: A molecular modeling investigation.

    PubMed

    Pochodylo, Amy L; Aoki, Thalia G; Aristilde, Ludmilla

    2016-10-15

    Microcystins (MCs) are potent toxins released during cyanobacterial blooms. Clay minerals are implicated in trapping MCs within soil particles in surface waters and sediments. In the absence of molecular characterization, the relevance of previously proposed adsorption mechanisms is lacking. Towards obtaining this characterization, we conducted Monte Carlo simulations combined with molecular dynamics relaxation of two MC variants, MC-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) and MC-leucine-alanine (MC-LA), adsorbed on hydrated montmorillonite with different electrolytes. The resulting adsorbate structures revealed how MC conformations and aqueous conditions dictate binding interactions at the mineral surface. Electrostatic coupling between the arginine residue and a carboxylate in MC-LR excluded the participation of arginine in mediating adsorption on montmorillonite in a NaCl solution. However, in a CaCl2 solution, the complexation of Ca by two carboxylate moieties in MC-LR changed the MC conformation, which allowed arginine to mediate electrostatic interaction with the mineral. By contrast, due to the lack of arginine in MC-LA, complexation of Ca by only one carboxylate in MC-LA was required to favor Ca-bridging interaction with the mineral. Multiple water-bridged H-bonding interactions were also important in anchoring MCs at the mineral surface. Our modeling results offer molecular insights into the structural and chemical factors that can control the fate of MCs at water-mineral interfaces.

  16. Adsorption mechanisms of microcystin variant conformations at water-mineral interfaces: A molecular modeling investigation.

    PubMed

    Pochodylo, Amy L; Aoki, Thalia G; Aristilde, Ludmilla

    2016-10-15

    Microcystins (MCs) are potent toxins released during cyanobacterial blooms. Clay minerals are implicated in trapping MCs within soil particles in surface waters and sediments. In the absence of molecular characterization, the relevance of previously proposed adsorption mechanisms is lacking. Towards obtaining this characterization, we conducted Monte Carlo simulations combined with molecular dynamics relaxation of two MC variants, MC-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) and MC-leucine-alanine (MC-LA), adsorbed on hydrated montmorillonite with different electrolytes. The resulting adsorbate structures revealed how MC conformations and aqueous conditions dictate binding interactions at the mineral surface. Electrostatic coupling between the arginine residue and a carboxylate in MC-LR excluded the participation of arginine in mediating adsorption on montmorillonite in a NaCl solution. However, in a CaCl2 solution, the complexation of Ca by two carboxylate moieties in MC-LR changed the MC conformation, which allowed arginine to mediate electrostatic interaction with the mineral. By contrast, due to the lack of arginine in MC-LA, complexation of Ca by only one carboxylate in MC-LA was required to favor Ca-bridging interaction with the mineral. Multiple water-bridged H-bonding interactions were also important in anchoring MCs at the mineral surface. Our modeling results offer molecular insights into the structural and chemical factors that can control the fate of MCs at water-mineral interfaces. PMID:27433998

  17. Mineral-coated polymer membranes with superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity for effective oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000 L m(-2) h(-1)), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140 kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation. PMID:24072204

  18. Mineral-Coated Polymer Membranes with Superhydrophilicity and Underwater Superoleophobicity for Effective Oil/Water Separation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000 L m−2 h−1), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140 kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation. PMID:24072204

  19. Calibration of Mineralization Degree for Dynamic Pure-water Measurement in Horizontal Oil-water Two-phase Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Weihang; Li, Lei; Kong, Lingfu; Liu, Xingbin

    2016-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of dynamic pure-water electrical conductivity measurement in the process of calculating water content of oil-water two-phase flow of production profile logging in horizontal wells, a six-group local-conductance probe (SGLCP) is proposed to measure dynamic pure-water electrical conductivity in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow. The structures of conductance sensors which include the SGLCP and ring-shaped conductance probe (RSCP) are analyzed by using the finite-element method (FEM). In the process of simulation, the electric field distribution generated by the SGLCP and RSCP are investigated, and the responses of the measuring electrodes are calculated under the different values of the water resistivity. The static experiments of the SGLCP and RSCP under different mineralization degrees in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. Results of simulation and experiments demonstrate a nice linearity between the SGLCP and RSCP under different mineralization degrees. The SGLCP has also a good adaptability to stratified flow, stratified flow with mixing at the interface and dispersion of oil in water and water flow. The validity and feasibility of pure-water electrical conductivity measurement with the designed SGLCP under different mineralization degrees are verified by experimental results.

  20. Study of mineral water resources from the Eastern Carpathians using stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Magdas, Dana A; Cuna, Stela M; Berdea, Petre; Balas, Gabriela; Cuna, Cornel; Dordai, Edina; Falub, Mihaela C

    2009-08-30

    The Eastern Carpathians contain many mineral water springs that feed famous Romanian health resorts such as Borsec, Biborteni and Vatra Dornei. These waters have been used for their different therapeutic effects. In this work, mineral and spring waters from these Romanian regions were investigated by means of chemical and isotopic (deltaD and delta(18)O) analyses in order to understand the recharge mechanisms and also to determine their origins. Most of the investigated springs are of meteoric origin, having the average deuterium content of the local meteoric water. The higher (18)O content with respect to the Meteoric Water Line (MWL) indicated an exchange reaction with crystalline igneous rocks at depth and with other rocks that the water encounters on its journey back to the surface. PMID:19603457

  1. Study of mineral water resources from the Eastern Carpathians using stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Magdas, Dana A; Cuna, Stela M; Berdea, Petre; Balas, Gabriela; Cuna, Cornel; Dordai, Edina; Falub, Mihaela C

    2009-08-30

    The Eastern Carpathians contain many mineral water springs that feed famous Romanian health resorts such as Borsec, Biborteni and Vatra Dornei. These waters have been used for their different therapeutic effects. In this work, mineral and spring waters from these Romanian regions were investigated by means of chemical and isotopic (deltaD and delta(18)O) analyses in order to understand the recharge mechanisms and also to determine their origins. Most of the investigated springs are of meteoric origin, having the average deuterium content of the local meteoric water. The higher (18)O content with respect to the Meteoric Water Line (MWL) indicated an exchange reaction with crystalline igneous rocks at depth and with other rocks that the water encounters on its journey back to the surface.

  2. Application of Membrane Crystallization for Minerals' Recovery from Produced Water.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aamer; Quist-Jensen, Cejna Anna; Macedonio, Francesca; Drioli, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Produced water represents the largest wastewater stream from oil and gas production. Generally, its high salinity level restricts the treatment options. Membrane crystallization (MCr) is an emerging membrane process with the capability to extract simultaneously fresh water and valuable components from various streams. In the current study, the potential of MCr for produced water treatment and salt recovery was demonstrated. The experiments were carried out in lab scale and semi-pilot scale. The effect of thermal and hydrodynamic conditions on process performance and crystal characteristics were explored. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses confirmed that the recovered crystals are sodium chloride with very high purity (>99.9%), also indicated by the cubic structure observed by microscopy and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) analysis. It was demonstrated experimentally that at recovery factor of 37%, 16.4 kg NaCl per cubic meter of produced water can be recovered. Anti-scaling surface morphological features of membranes were also identified. In general, the study provides a new perspective of isolation of valuable constituents from produced water that, otherwise, is considered as a nuisance.

  3. Application of Membrane Crystallization for Minerals' Recovery from Produced Water.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aamer; Quist-Jensen, Cejna Anna; Macedonio, Francesca; Drioli, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Produced water represents the largest wastewater stream from oil and gas production. Generally, its high salinity level restricts the treatment options. Membrane crystallization (MCr) is an emerging membrane process with the capability to extract simultaneously fresh water and valuable components from various streams. In the current study, the potential of MCr for produced water treatment and salt recovery was demonstrated. The experiments were carried out in lab scale and semi-pilot scale. The effect of thermal and hydrodynamic conditions on process performance and crystal characteristics were explored. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses confirmed that the recovered crystals are sodium chloride with very high purity (>99.9%), also indicated by the cubic structure observed by microscopy and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) analysis. It was demonstrated experimentally that at recovery factor of 37%, 16.4 kg NaCl per cubic meter of produced water can be recovered. Anti-scaling surface morphological features of membranes were also identified. In general, the study provides a new perspective of isolation of valuable constituents from produced water that, otherwise, is considered as a nuisance. PMID:26610581

  4. [Study of combined application of mineral water and medicinal plants as regulators of gastric secretion].

    PubMed

    Gridneva, V I; Mamonova, N V; Zadorozhnaia, N A

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study the impact of the concurrent application of mineral water from the lake of Shira (Khakassia) and phytotherapeutic preparations on the secretory and excretory stomach functions. Mineral water from the lake of Shira belongs to highly mineralized (18.4 g/l) hydrocarbonate sodium-magnesium waters with alkaline reaction (pH 8.9). Phytotherapeutic preparations included the following herbs: common St. John's wort--4 parts (6.0 g per liter), bay willow--5 parts (7.5 g), peppermint: 5 parts (7.5 g), quinquelobate motherwort--3 parts (4.5 g), and shelf fungus--3 parts (4.5 g). PMID:15065539

  5. Geochemical Insight from Nonlinear Optical Studies of Mineral-Water Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covert, Paul A.; Hore, Dennis K.

    2016-05-01

    The physics and chemistry of mineral-water interfaces are complex, even in idealized systems. Our need to understand this complexity is driven by both pure and applied sciences, that is, by the need for basic understanding of earth systems and for the knowledge to mitigate our influences upon them. The second-order nonlinear optical techniques of second-harmonic generation and sum-frequency generation spectroscopy have proven adept at probing these types of interfaces. This review focuses on the contributions to geochemistry made by nonlinear optical methods. The types of questions probed have included a basic description of the structure adopted by water molecules at the mineral interface, how flow and porosity affect this structure, adsorption of trace metal and organic species, and dissolution mechanisms. We also discuss directions and challenges that lie ahead and the outlook for the continued use of nonlinear optical methods for studies of mineral-water boundaries.

  6. Minerals, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant capacity of citrus peel extract by hot water.

    PubMed

    Xu, G H; Chen, J C; Liu, D H; Zhang, Y H; Jiang, P; Ye, X Q

    2008-01-01

    Some dried citrus peels, more familiar as chenpi in China, have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicines from ancient times. This paper reports the efficiency of infusion cooking on extracting minerals and phenolic compounds (flavanone glycosides [FGs], polymethoxylated flavones [PMFs], and phenolic acids), and also antioxidant activity of hot water extract of citrus peels. Peels of 2 citrus varieties, namely, Satsuma mandarin (C. unshiu Marc.) and Ponkan (C. poonensis Hort. ex Tanaka), which belong to C. reticulata, were selected. As a result, hot water extraction was efficient in extracting phenolic acids and some minerals. As for citrus flavonoids, narirutin, nobiletin, and tangeretin were easier to extract than hesperidin. The result of antioxidant capacity assays indicated that for citrus peels, hot water extract had almost the same capacity as the methanol extract. We suggested that Ponkan was more suitable as the source of chenpi, since its hot water extract had much higher content of phenolic acids, FGs and PMFs, and higher antioxidant capacity than those of Satsuma mandarin. Generally, to raise the extraction temperature or to prolong the time could not yield higher content of phenolic compounds and stronger antioxidant capacity, though the content of minerals increased to some extent. Furthermore, a 2nd-time extraction seemed necessary since considerable minerals and phenolic compounds could be obtained by doing so. Finally, we suggested that 2 times extraction at 100 degrees C for 30 min was proper to extract the minerals and phenolic compounds in chenpi. PMID:18211343

  7. Trace metal contamination of mineral spring water in an historical mining area in regional Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Rachael; Dowling, Kim

    2013-11-01

    Significant global consumption of spring and mineral water is fuelled by perceived therapeutic and medicinal qualities, cultural habits and taste. The Central Victorian Mineral Springs Region, Australia comprises approximately 100 naturally effervescent, cold, high CO2 content springs with distinctive tastes linked to a specific spring or pump. The area has a rich settlement history. It was first settled by miners in the 1840s closely followed by the first commercial operations of a health resort 1895. The landscape is clearly affected by gold mining with geographically proximal mine waste, mullock heaps or tailings. Repeated mineral springs sampling since 1985 has revealed elevated arsenic concentrations. In 1985 an arsenic concentration five times the current Australian Drinking Water Guideline was recorded at a popular tourist spring site. Recent sampling and analyses have confirmed elevated levels of heavy metals/metalloids, with higher concentrations occurring during periods of low rainfall. Despite the elevated levels, mineral water source points remain accessible to the public with some springs actively promoting the therapeutic benefits of the waters. In light of our analysis, the risk to consumers (some of whom are likely to be negatively health-affected or health-compromised) needs to be considered with a view to appropriate and verified analyses made available to the public.

  8. Influence of mineral weathering reactions on the chemical composition of soil water, springs, and ground water, Catoctin Mountains, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.

    1989-01-01

    During 1983 and 1984, wet precipitation was primarily a solution of dilute sulphuric acid, whereas calcium and bicarbonate were the major ions in springs and ground water in two small watersheds with a deciduous forest cover in central Maryland. Dominant ions in soil water were calcium, magnesium, and sulphate. The relative importance of mineral weathering reactions on the chemical composition of these subsurface waters was compared to the contribution from wet precipitation, biological processes, and road deicing salts. -from Author

  9. Erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in mineral oil and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of the erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in distilled water, ordinary tap water and a viscous mineral oil are presented. The mean depth of penetration for the mineral oil was about 40 percent of that for water at the end of a 40 min test. The mean depth of penetration and its rate did not differ significantly for distilled and tap water. The mean depth of penetration rate for both distilled and tap water increased to a maximum and then decreased with test duration, while that for mineral oil had a maximum during the initial period. The ratio h/2a of the pit depth h to the pit diameter 2a varied from 0.04 to 0.13 in water and from 0.06 to 0.20 in mineral oil. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the pits are initially formed over the grain boundaries and precipitates while the surface grains are deformed under cavitation attack.

  10. Influence of the consumption pattern of magnesium from magnesium-rich mineral water on magnesium bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Sabatier, Magalie; Grandvuillemin, Antoine; Kastenmayer, Peter; Aeschliman, Jean-Marc; Bouisset, Florilène; Arnaud, Maurice J; Dumoulin, Gilles; Berthelot, Alain

    2011-08-01

    It is generally considered that the absorption of Mg is inversely related to the ingested dose. The objective of the present study was to determine if the mode of administration (bolus v. consumption throughout the day) could influence Mg bioavailability from Mg-rich natural mineral water comparing the same nutritional Mg amount (126 mg). Using a 2 d cross-over design, twelve healthy men were asked to drink 1·5 litres Mg-rich mineral water either as 2 × 750 ml or 7 × 212 ml throughout the day. Two stable isotopes ((25)Mg and (26)Mg) were used to label the water in order to distinguish both regimens. Fractional apparent Mg absorption was determined by faecal monitoring and Mg retention was determined by measuring urinary excretion of Mg isotopes. Higher Mg absorption (50·7 (SD 12·7) v. 32·4 (SD 8·1) %; P = 0·0007) and retention (47·5 (SD 12·9) v. 29·0 (SD 7·5) %; P = 0·0008) from Mg-rich mineral water were observed when it was consumed in seven servings compared with larger servings. Thus, regular water consumption throughout the day is an effective way to increase Mg bioavailability from Mg-rich mineral water. PMID:21473800

  11. Crystallographic controls on the frictional behavior of dry and water-saturated sheet structure minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    We compare the frictional strengths of 17 sheet structure mineral powders, measured under dry and water-saturated conditions, to identify the factors that cause many of them to be relatively weak. The dry coefficient of friction ?? ranges upward from 0.2 for graphite, leveling off at 0.8 for margarite, clintonite, gibbsite, kaolinite, and lizardite. The values of ?? (dry) correlate directly with calculated (001) interlayer bond strengths of the minerals. This correlation occurs because shear becomes localized along boundary and Riedel shears and the platy minerals in them rotate into alignment with the shear planes. For those gouges with ?? (dry) < 0.8, shear occurs by breaking the interlayer bonds to form new cleavage surfaces. Where ?? (dry) = 0.8, consistent with Byerlee's law, the interlayer bonds are sufficiently strong that other frictional processes dominate. The transition in dry friction mechanisms corresponds to calculated surface energies of 2-3 J/m2. Adding water causes ?? to decrease for every mineral tested except graphite. If the minerals are separated into groups with similar crystal structures, ?? (wet) increases with increasing interlayer bond strength within each group. This relationship also holds for the swelling clay montmorillonite, whose water-saturated strength is consistent with the strengths of nonswelling clays of similar crystal structure. Water in the saturated gouges forms thin, structured films between the plate surfaces. The polar water molecules are bonded to the plate surfaces in proportion to the mineral's surface energy, and ?? (wet) reflects the stresses required to shear through the water films. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Evidence for influence of mineral weathering on stream water sulphate in Vermont and New Hampshire (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, S. W.; Mayer, B.; Mitchell, M. J.

    2004-06-01

    Mass balance studies in forested catchments in the northeastern USA show that S losses via streamwater SO42- exceed measured atmospheric S inputs. Possible sources of the excess S loss include underestimated dry deposition, mineralization of organic S in soils, desorption of soil sulphate, oxidation of recently formed sulphides and mineral weathering. Evaluating the relative contribution of these sources and processes to SO42- export is important to our understanding of S cycling as well as to policy makers in their evaluation of the efficacy of S emission controls. In order to evaluate the potential for mineral weathering contributions to SO42- export, we measured concentration and isotopic composition (34S and δ18O) of SO42- in stream water, and concentration and δ34S values of four S fractions in bedrock and soil parent material in catchments of varying geological composition. Geological substrates with low S concentrations were represented by catchments underlain by quartzite and granite, whereas geological substrates with high S concentrations were represented by catchments underlain by sulphidic slate, schist and metavolcanic rocks. Catchments with S-poor bedrock had stream-water SO42- concentrations <100 μeq L-1 and isotopic values consistent with those of atmospheric SO42- that had been cycled through the organic soil pool. Catchments with S-rich bedrock had stream-water SO42- concentrations ranging from 56 to 229 μeq L-1. Isotopic values deviated from those of SO42- in atmospheric deposition, clearly indicating a mineral weathering source in some cases, whereas in others spatial variability of mineral δ34S values precluded the isotopic detection of a weathering contribution. These results, along with evidence suggesting formation of secondary sulphate minerals in bedrock weathering rinds, indicate that mineral weathering may be an important source of S in the surface waters of some forested catchments in the northeastern USA.

  13. Effect of a natural mineral-rich water on catechol-O-methyltransferase function.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Pedro; Araújo, João Ricardo; Azevedo, Isabel; Martins, Maria João; Ribeiro, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a magnesium-dependent, catecholamine-metabolizing enzyme, whose impaired activity has been positively associated with cardiovascular diseases, particularly hypertension. Consumption of some natural mineral-rich waters has been shown to exert protective effects on cardiovascular risk factors, eg. by decreasing arterial blood pressure and blood lipids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are still poorly understood. So, the aim of this work was to investigate the effect of natural mineral-rich water ingestion upon liver and adrenal glands COMT expression and activity in Wistar Han rats. Over a seven-week period, animals had access to one of the following three drinking solutions: 1) tap water (control group; TW), 2) tap water with added Na(+) (to make the same concentration as in the MW group (TWNaCl group), or 3) natural mineral-rich water [Pedras Salgadas(®), which is very rich in bicarbonate, and with higher sodium, calcium and magnesium content than control tap water (MW group)]. COMT expression and activity were determined by RT-PCR and HPLC-ED, respectively. A higher hepatic COMT activity was found in the MW group compared with the TW and TWNaCl groups. On the other hand, adrenal gland COMT mRNA expression decreased in the MW group compared to TW group. In conclusion, the ability of natural mineral-rich waters to increase hepatic COMT activity may eventually explain the positive cardiovascular effects associated with the consumption of some natural mineral-rich waters. PMID:25560240

  14. Effect of a natural mineral-rich water on catechol-O-methyltransferase function.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Pedro; Araújo, João Ricardo; Azevedo, Isabel; Martins, Maria João; Ribeiro, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a magnesium-dependent, catecholamine-metabolizing enzyme, whose impaired activity has been positively associated with cardiovascular diseases, particularly hypertension. Consumption of some natural mineral-rich waters has been shown to exert protective effects on cardiovascular risk factors, eg. by decreasing arterial blood pressure and blood lipids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are still poorly understood. So, the aim of this work was to investigate the effect of natural mineral-rich water ingestion upon liver and adrenal glands COMT expression and activity in Wistar Han rats. Over a seven-week period, animals had access to one of the following three drinking solutions: 1) tap water (control group; TW), 2) tap water with added Na(+) (to make the same concentration as in the MW group (TWNaCl group), or 3) natural mineral-rich water [Pedras Salgadas(®), which is very rich in bicarbonate, and with higher sodium, calcium and magnesium content than control tap water (MW group)]. COMT expression and activity were determined by RT-PCR and HPLC-ED, respectively. A higher hepatic COMT activity was found in the MW group compared with the TW and TWNaCl groups. On the other hand, adrenal gland COMT mRNA expression decreased in the MW group compared to TW group. In conclusion, the ability of natural mineral-rich waters to increase hepatic COMT activity may eventually explain the positive cardiovascular effects associated with the consumption of some natural mineral-rich waters.

  15. Several properties offilament fibers made from recycled bottles of mineral water using melt spinning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslim, Ikhwanul; Mardiyati; Basuki, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Waste mineral water bottles made of PET called post-consumer POSTC-PET packaging with recycling code no. 1 can be made into another material other than the bottle by using a mechanical recycling process. In this experiment carried waste recycling process bottled mineral water bottles of PET into filament fibres with the aid of a melt spinning. From the resulting experimental filament fibres diameter of 14-15 microns, obtained the draw ratio is 1/46, 573,5 - 699,8 MPa tensile strength, modulus of elasticity of 2,01 - 2,45GPa, moisture regain of 2,84. Keywords. PET; Bottle; Fiber; Melt; Spinning; Drawing.

  16. Innovative Approaches to Teaching Packaging Design Using the Example of Mineral Water Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestyánszka Škůrková, Katarína; Bajor, Peter; Trafela, Sabrina

    2013-12-01

    Designing the packaging of a product has many critical factors. In our paper, we present some of them on the example of a simple product: mineral water. In spite of the fact that today not only products, but also supply chains are competing with each other, designers sometimes pay little attention to considering the packaging system not only from the customer and the producer side, but for warehousing and transportation as well. We cover a lot of "what can go wrong" scenarios on the example of mineral water packaging for the purpose of defining the critical points in the supply chain.

  17. Water-soluble organophosphorus reagents for mineralization of heavy metals.

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K. L.

    1999-02-26

    In this report, we have described the principal stages of a two-step process for the in-situ stabilization of actinide ions in the environment. The combination of cation exchange and mineralization appears likely to provide a long-term solution to environments contaminated with heavy metals. Relying on a naturally occurring sequestering agent has obvious potential advantages from a regulatory standpoint. There are additional aspects of this technology requiring further elucidation, including the demonstration of the effect of these treatment protocols on the geohydrology of soil columns, further examination of the influence of humates and other colloidal species on cation uptake, and microbiological studies of phytate hydrolysis. We have learned during the course of this investigation that phytic acid is potentially available in large quantities. In the US alone, phytic acid is produced at an annual rate of several hundred thousand metric tons as a byproduct of fermentation processes (11). This material presently is not isolated for use. Instead, most of the insoluble phyate (as phytin) is being recycled along with the other solid fermentation residues for animal feed. This material is in fact considered undesirable in animal feed. The details of possible separation processes for phytate from these residues would have to be worked out before this untapped resource would be available for application to heavy metal sequestration. The results described emphasize the behavior of actinide and trivalent lanthanide metal ions, as these species are of primary interest to the Department of Energy for the cleanup of the former nuclear weapons production complex. While the specific demonstration includes this limited selection of metal ions, the technique should be readily applicable to any class of metal ions that form insoluble phosphate compounds under appropriate conditions. Further, though this demonstration has been conducted in the pH 5-8 range, it is conceivable that

  18. Floating bioplato for purification of waste quarry waters from mineral nitrogen compounds in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Evdokimova, Galina A; Ivanova, Lyubov A; Mozgova, Natalia P; Myazin, Vladimir A; Fokina, Nadezhda V

    2016-08-23

    A bioplato was organized at Kirovogorskiy pond-settling of OLKON Company (the city of Olenegorsk, in Murmansk region) to reduce the content of nitrogen mineral compounds in water which come into the pond with the quarry waters after blasting operations using nitrogen compounds. The assortment of aboriginal plants was selected, a method of fixing and growing them on the water surface was developed, and observations of their vegetation were carried out. The dynamics of nitrogen compounds was determined in the laboratory and with full-scale tests. The coverage area pond by plants for the effective reduction of mineral nitrogen compounds was calculated. The use of floating bioplato helped to reduce content of ammonium and nitrite to maximum permissible levels or even lower in pond water. Also there was a tendency towards reduction of nitrate concentrations in water. The developmental technology can be used in any climatic zone with a specific assortment of plants-ameliorants.

  19. Survival of human pathogenic bacteria in different types of natural mineral water.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Concepción; Romero, Margarita; Alou, Luis; Sevillano, David; Corvillo, Iluminada; Armijo, Francisco; Maraver, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the survival of human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in five natural mineral waters (NMWs) with different properties and mineralization levels. Five NMWs from four Spanish spas with different dry residue at 110 °C were used: A = 76,935 mg/L; B = 1,827 mg/L; C = 808.4 mg/L; D = 283.8 mg/L; and E = 170.4 mg/L. An initial inoculum of 1 × 10(6) colony forming units (cfu)/mL was used for survival studies. Distilled water, chlorinated tap water and Mueller-Hinton broth were used as controls. Colony counts in all different waters were lower than those achieved with Mueller-Hinton broth over all incubation periods. A direct effect between the bacterial survival and the level of mineralization water was observed. The NMW E with low mineralization level along with the radioactive properties showed the highest antibacterial activity among all NMWs.

  20. Mars Gully: No Mineral Trace of Liquid Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of the Centauri-Hellas Montes region was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 2107 UTC (4:07 p.m. EST) on Jan. 9, 2007, near 38.41 degrees south latitude, 96.81 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is slightly wider than 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) at its narrowest point.

    Narrow gullies found on hills and crater walls in many mid-latitude regions of Mars have been interpreted previously as cut by geologically 'recent' running water, meaning water that flowed on Mars long after impact cratering, tectonic forces, volcanism or other processes created the underlying landforms. Some gullies even eroded into sand dunes, which would date their formation at thousands to millions of years ago, or less. In fact, Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images showed two of the gullies have bright deposits near their downslope ends - but those deposits were absent in images taken just a few years earlier. The bright deposits must have formed within the period 1999-2004.

    Has there been running water on Mars so recently? To address that question, CRISM and MRO's other instruments observed the bright gully deposits. CRISM's objective was to determine if the bright deposits contained salts left behind from water evaporating into Mars' thin air. The high-resolution imager's (HiRISE's) objective was to determine if the small-scale morphology was consistent with formation by running water.

    This CRISM image of a bright gully deposit was constructed by showing 2.53, 1.50, and 1.08 micrometer light in the red, green, and blue image planes. CRISM can just resolve the deposits (highlighted by arrows in the inset), which are only a few tens of meters (about 150 feet) across. The spectrum of the deposits barely differs from that of the surrounding material, and is just a little brighter. This difference

  1. Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal springs and mineral springs of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

    1982-01-01

    Water from thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute NaHC03, to moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl waters. St. Martin 's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline NaCl water, is the notable exception. Mineral springs generally discharge a moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl water. The dilute Na-HC03 waters are generally associated with granite. The warm to hot waters charged with C02 issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes and many of the mineral springs also occur near the large volcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen isotopic compositions which indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The C02-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. Carbon-13 in the C02-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 permil) than in the cold C02-charged soda springs (-2 to -8 permil) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold C02-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaC03, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaC03. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur , and Ohanapecosh seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100C. (USGS)

  2. Extraction of reusable water from a mineral mining process

    SciTech Connect

    Gleim, W.K.

    1982-01-19

    A method for the treatment of an aqueous effluent slime derived from a tar sand extraction process is disclosed. The effluent slime ph is adjusted to an acidic ph and treated with an anionic surface active agent to create flocculation of solid asphaltic material entrained within the slime. A solvent solution comprising chlorinated hydrocarbon and a solvent therefor is added so that upon centrifuging of the treated slime three physical layers of material comprising (1) water; (2) asphaltics in the solvent solution and (3) clay are formed.

  3. Scientific basis for the study of demineralization of highly mineralized water for use in public water supply systems.

    PubMed Central

    Sidorenko, G I; Rakhmanin, Y A

    1979-01-01

    New criteria (full physiological value and preservation of the properties of drinking water) are scientifically substantiated. Also discussed are indices (minimal admissible and optimal levels of basic water mineralization and calcium content, standards of microelements such as boron and bromine content, content of individual groups of microorganisms, water temperature) for evaluating the quality of demineralized water obtained from brackish and briny water (including water from the sea and ocean) by various methods which are designed for public water supply systems. Research results served as the scientific hygiene basis for the development of a new technology of obtaining drinking water. The necessity for developing a special quality standard for demineralized drinking water is shown. PMID:446445

  4. Survival of Brucella spp. in mineral water, milk and yogurt.

    PubMed

    Falenski, Alexander; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Filter, Matthias; Göllner, Cornelia; Appel, Bernd; Nöckler, Karsten

    2011-01-31

    Knowledge of the number of organisms in a food product at the time of consumption is crucial to assess the risk from a deliberate contamination of food samples with Brucella. To date, very little data on the survival times of Brucella in different food matrices is available. This study was conducted to assess the survival times of Brucella spp. in water, milk and yogurt. These food products were inoculated with bacteria, serial dilutions of the food samples plated and the number of surviving bacteria counted. Under normal storage conditions Brucella survived in UHT milk for 87 days, for 60 days in water and less than a week in yogurt. Also, when milk was inoculated with low bacterial numbers, Brucella multiplied by five log units within three weeks. Further we could not confirm that a high fat content in food has a protective effect on Brucella survival. Brucella survived in 3.5% and 10.0% fat yogurt for four and two days, respectively. These results show that appropriate methods for the rapid detection of this pathogen from food matrices are required.

  5. Discrimination of fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Dowall, J.

    1969-01-01

    Fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water can be discriminated by their different spreading characteristics and by their reflectivities and color variations over a range of wavelengths. Reflectivities of oil and oil films are determined using a duel beam reflectance apparatus.

  6. Homogenous VUV advanced oxidation process for enhanced degradation and mineralization of antibiotics in contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Pourakbar, Mojtaba; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Shekoohiyan, Sakine

    2016-03-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the degradation and mineralization of amoxicillin(AMX), using VUV advanced process. The effect of pH, AMX initial concentration, presence of water ingredients, the effect of HRT, and mineralization level by VUV process were taken into consideration. In order to make a direct comparison, the test was also performed by UVC radiation. The results show that the degradation of AMX was following the first-order kinetic. It was found that direct photolysis by UVC was able to degrade 50mg/L of AMX in 50min,while it was 3min for VUV process. It was also found that the removal efficiency by VUV process was directly influenced by pH of the solution, and higher removal rates were achieved at high pH values.The results show that 10mg/L of AMX was completely degraded and mineralized within 50s and 100s, respectively, indicating that the AMX was completely destructed into non-hazardous materials. Operating the photoreactor in contentious-flow mode revealed that 10mg/L AMX was completely degraded and mineralized at HRT values of 120s and 300s. it was concluded that the VUV advanced process was an efficient and viable technique for degradation and mineralization of contaminated water by antibiotics. PMID:26669695

  7. Formation of water-soluble metal cyanide complexes from solid minerals by Pseudomonas plecoglossicida.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Mohammad A; Brandl, Helmut

    2006-06-01

    A few Pseudomonas species are able to form hydrocyanic acid (HCN), particularly when grown under glycine-rich conditions. In the presence of metals, cyanide can form water-soluble metal complexes of high chemical stability. We studied the possibility to mobilize metals as cyanide complexes from solid minerals using HCN-forming microorganisms. Pseudomonas plecoglossicida was cultivated in the presence of copper- and nickel-containing solid minerals. On powdered elemental nickel, fast HCN generation within the first 12 h of incubation was observed and water-soluble tetracyanaonickelate was formed. Cuprite, tenorite, chrysocolla, malachite, bornite, turquoise, millerite, pentlandite as well as shredded electronic scrap was also subjected to a biological treatment. Maximum concentrations of cyanide-complexed copper corresponded to a solubilization of 42% and 27% when P. plecoglossicida was grown in the presence of cuprite or tenorite, respectively. Crystal system, metal oxidation state and mineral hydrophobicity might have a significant influence on metal mobilization. However, it was not possible to allocate metal mobilization to a single mineral property. Cyanide-complexed gold was detected during growth on manually cut circuit boards. Maximum dicyanoaurate concentration corresponded to a 68.5% dissolution of the total gold added. These findings represent a novel type of microbial mobilization of nickel and copper from solid minerals based on the ability of certain microbes to form HCN.

  8. Formation of water-soluble metal cyanide complexes from solid minerals by Pseudomonas plecoglossicida.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Mohammad A; Brandl, Helmut

    2006-06-01

    A few Pseudomonas species are able to form hydrocyanic acid (HCN), particularly when grown under glycine-rich conditions. In the presence of metals, cyanide can form water-soluble metal complexes of high chemical stability. We studied the possibility to mobilize metals as cyanide complexes from solid minerals using HCN-forming microorganisms. Pseudomonas plecoglossicida was cultivated in the presence of copper- and nickel-containing solid minerals. On powdered elemental nickel, fast HCN generation within the first 12 h of incubation was observed and water-soluble tetracyanaonickelate was formed. Cuprite, tenorite, chrysocolla, malachite, bornite, turquoise, millerite, pentlandite as well as shredded electronic scrap was also subjected to a biological treatment. Maximum concentrations of cyanide-complexed copper corresponded to a solubilization of 42% and 27% when P. plecoglossicida was grown in the presence of cuprite or tenorite, respectively. Crystal system, metal oxidation state and mineral hydrophobicity might have a significant influence on metal mobilization. However, it was not possible to allocate metal mobilization to a single mineral property. Cyanide-complexed gold was detected during growth on manually cut circuit boards. Maximum dicyanoaurate concentration corresponded to a 68.5% dissolution of the total gold added. These findings represent a novel type of microbial mobilization of nickel and copper from solid minerals based on the ability of certain microbes to form HCN. PMID:16684101

  9. Urban net-zero water treatment and mineralization: experiments, modeling and design.

    PubMed

    Englehardt, James D; Wu, Tingting; Tchobanoglous, George

    2013-09-01

    Water and wastewater treatment and conveyance account for approximately 4% of US electric consumption, with 80% used for conveyance. Net zero water (NZW) buildings would alleviate demands for a portion of this energy, for water, and for the treatment of drinking water for pesticides and toxic chemical releases in source water. However, domestic wastewater contains nitrogen loads much greater than urban/suburban ecosystems can typically absorb. The purpose of this work was to identify a first design of a denitrifying urban NZW treatment process, operating at ambient temperature and pressure and circum-neutral pH, and providing mineralization of pharmaceuticals (not easily regulated in terms of environmental half-life), based on laboratory tests and mass balance and kinetic modeling. The proposed treatment process is comprised of membrane bioreactor, iron-mediated aeration (IMA, reported previously), vacuum ultrafiltration, and peroxone advanced oxidation, with minor rainwater make-up and H2O2 disinfection residual. Similar to biological systems, minerals accumulate subject to precipitative removal by IMA, salt-free treatment, and minor dilution. Based on laboratory and modeling results, the system can produce potable water with moderate mineral content from commingled domestic wastewater and 10-20% rainwater make-up, under ambient conditions at individual buildings, while denitrifying and reducing chemical oxygen demand to below detection (<3 mg/L). While economics appear competitive, further development and study of steady-state concentrations and sludge management options are needed. PMID:23770482

  10. Urban net-zero water treatment and mineralization: experiments, modeling and design.

    PubMed

    Englehardt, James D; Wu, Tingting; Tchobanoglous, George

    2013-09-01

    Water and wastewater treatment and conveyance account for approximately 4% of US electric consumption, with 80% used for conveyance. Net zero water (NZW) buildings would alleviate demands for a portion of this energy, for water, and for the treatment of drinking water for pesticides and toxic chemical releases in source water. However, domestic wastewater contains nitrogen loads much greater than urban/suburban ecosystems can typically absorb. The purpose of this work was to identify a first design of a denitrifying urban NZW treatment process, operating at ambient temperature and pressure and circum-neutral pH, and providing mineralization of pharmaceuticals (not easily regulated in terms of environmental half-life), based on laboratory tests and mass balance and kinetic modeling. The proposed treatment process is comprised of membrane bioreactor, iron-mediated aeration (IMA, reported previously), vacuum ultrafiltration, and peroxone advanced oxidation, with minor rainwater make-up and H2O2 disinfection residual. Similar to biological systems, minerals accumulate subject to precipitative removal by IMA, salt-free treatment, and minor dilution. Based on laboratory and modeling results, the system can produce potable water with moderate mineral content from commingled domestic wastewater and 10-20% rainwater make-up, under ambient conditions at individual buildings, while denitrifying and reducing chemical oxygen demand to below detection (<3 mg/L). While economics appear competitive, further development and study of steady-state concentrations and sludge management options are needed.

  11. Redistributed water by saprotrophic fungi triggers carbon mineralization in dry soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guhr, Alexander; Borken, Werner; Matzner, Egbert

    2015-04-01

    Summer droughts are common in temperate forests and especially the upper soil horizons experience soil drought. Drought events can be accompanied by negative effects for forest ecosystems but many plants can reduce drought stress by hydraulic redistribution (HR). Similar processes were recently described for ectomycorrhizal networks but no information is available for mycelia networks of saprotrophic fungi. They strongly contribute to belowground nutrient cycling, C and N mineralization. We hypothesize that redistributed water by saprotrophic fungi triggers mineralization of organic matter in soils under drought conditions. The impact of HR by saprotrophic fungi on mineralization was determined using mesocosms comprising two chambers, separated by a 2 mm air gap to prevent bulk flow of water. After inoculation with fungal cultures and a growth phase, both chambers were desiccated. Subsequently, only chamber I was rewetted while chamber II was treated with 13C labelled plant material. CO2 samples were collected over 7 days after rewetting and analyzed for stable isotope ratio. In addition, enzymatic activity of chitinases and cellobiohydrolases in chamber II was determined after 7 days using the soil zymographie method with fluorogenic 4-Methylumbelliferyl-substrates. A negative control was provided by mesocosms in which hyphal connections between the chambers were severed before rewetting. Intact fungal connections between the chambers led to a strong increase in volumetric water content in chamber II after rewetting of chamber I and the CO2 had a higher enrichment in 13C than in the control mescosms with severed connections. Enrichment started 48 h after rewetting and continued for the rest of the experiment. This resulted in a more than two fold higher total carbon mineralization after 7 days in chamber II of mesocosms with intact hyphal connections. In addition, enzyme activities were also strongly increased compared to controls. In conclusion, mycelia networks

  12. Geochemistry of summit fumarole vapors and flanking thermal/mineral waters at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, C.; Goff, F.; Janik, C.J.

    1997-06-01

    Popocatepetl Volcano is potentially devastating to populations living in the greater Mexico City area. Systematic monitoring of fumarole gases and flanking thermal/mineral springs began in early 1994 after increased fumarolic and seismic activity were noticed in 1991. These investigations had two major objectives: (1) to determine if changes in magmatic conditions beneath Popocatepetl might be reflected by chemical changes in fumarolic discharges and (2) to determine if thermal/mineral spring waters in the vicinity of Popocatepetl are geochemically related to or influences by the magmatic system. This report summarizes results from these two discrete studies.

  13. Synchrotron X-ray scattering studies at mineral-water interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarello, R.P.; Sturchio, N.C.

    1995-03-01

    Synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques provide a powerful tool for the in situ study of atomic scale processes occurring at solid-liquid interfaces. We have applied these techniques to characterize and study reactions at mineral-water interfaces. Here we present two examples. The first is the characterization of the calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) (10{bar 1}4) cleavage surface, in equilibrium with deionized water, by crystal truncation rod measurements. The second is the in situ study of the heteroepitaxial growth of otavite (CdCO{sub 3}) on the calcite (10{bar 1}4) cleavage surface. The results of such studies will lead to significant progress in understanding mineral-water interface geochemistry.

  14. [The hepatotropic action of sodium chloride and hydrocarbonate mineral water containing humic acids (an experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Verigo, N S; Ulashchik, V S

    2015-01-01

    The present article summarizes the results of experimental studies on the hepatotropic action of native and modified low-mineralized sodium chloride and bicarbonate waters differing in the content of humic acids. It was found that the most beneficial changes after a course of 21 day therapy with the use of such mineral waters for the treatment of experimental hepatitis were observed after the application of the water with a humic acid content of roughly 20 g/dm3. Such treatment resulted in the significant improvement of the liver antitoxic function, intensification of basal metabolism, reduction of the inflammatory processes, normalization of the hepatic enzyme activity, and stimulation of proteinsynthetic function in parallel with positive dynamics of the morphological and histochemical characteristics of the liver.

  15. Bacteriological quality and risk assessment of the imported and domestic bottled mineral water sold in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Zeenat, A; Hatha, A A M; Viola, L; Vipra, K

    2009-12-01

    Considering the popularity of bottled mineral water among indigenous Fijians and tourists alike, a study was carried out to determine the bacteriological quality of different bottled waters. A risk assessment was also carried out. Seventy-five samples of bottled mineral water belonging to three domestic brands and 25 samples of one imported brand were analysed for heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria and faecal coliforms. HPC counts were determined at 22 degrees C and 37 degrees C using R2A medium and a membrane filtration technique was used to determine the faecal coliform (FC) load in 100 ml of water on mFC agar. Between 28 and 68% of the samples of the various domestic brands failed to meet the WHO standard of 100 colony forming units (cfu) per 100 ml at 22 degrees C and 7% of these also tested positive for faecal coliforms. All imported bottled mineral water samples were within WHO standards. A risk assessment of the HPC bacteria was carried out in terms of beta haemolytic activity and antibiotic resistance. More than 50% of the isolates showed beta haemolytic activity and were multi-drug resistant. While the overall quality of the product was generally good, there is a need to enforce stringent quality standards for the domestic bottlers to ensure the safety of consumers.

  16. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shinnosuke; Goto, Yasuaki; Ito, Kyo; Hayasaka, Shinya; Kurihara, Shigeo; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Fukuda, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW) has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW) or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition. PMID:26798400

  17. Detection of solar wind-produced water in irradiated rims on silicate minerals.

    PubMed

    Bradley, John P; Ishii, Hope A; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J; Ciston, James; Nielsen, Michael H; Bechtel, Hans A; Martin, Michael C

    2014-02-01

    The solar wind (SW), composed of predominantly ∼1-keV H(+) ions, produces amorphous rims up to ∼150 nm thick on the surfaces of minerals exposed in space. Silicates with amorphous rims are observed on interplanetary dust particles and on lunar and asteroid soil regolith grains. Implanted H(+) may react with oxygen in the minerals to form trace amounts of hydroxyl (-OH) and/or water (H2O). Previous studies have detected hydroxyl in lunar soils, but its chemical state, physical location in the soils, and source(s) are debated. If -OH or H2O is generated in rims on silicate grains, there are important implications for the origins of water in the solar system and other astrophysical environments. By exploiting the high spatial resolution of transmission electron microscopy and valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we detect water sealed in vesicles within amorphous rims produced by SW irradiation of silicate mineral grains on the exterior surfaces of interplanetary dust particles. Our findings establish that water is a byproduct of SW space weathering. We conclude, on the basis of the pervasiveness of the SW and silicate materials, that the production of radiolytic SW water on airless bodies is a ubiquitous process throughout the solar system.

  18. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Shinnosuke; Goto, Yasuaki; Ito, Kyo; Hayasaka, Shinya; Kurihara, Shigeo; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Fukuda, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW) has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW) or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition. PMID:26798400

  19. Comparative assessment of genotoxicity of mineral water packed in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and glass bottles.

    PubMed

    Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zani, Claudia; Zerbini, Ilaria; Guzzella, Licia; Scaglia, Mauro; Berna, Vanda; Donato, Francesco; Monarca, Silvano; Feretti, Donatella

    2010-03-01

    The potential migration of genotoxic compounds into mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles was evaluated by an integrated chemical/biological approach using short-term toxicity/genotoxicity tests and chemical analysis. Six commercial brands of still and carbonated mineral water bottled in PET and in glass were stored at 40 degrees C for 10 days in a stove according to the standard EEC total migration test (82/711/EEC), or at room temperature in the dark. After treatment, the samples were analysed using gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to detect volatile and non-volatile compounds, the Microtox test to evaluate potential toxicity of the samples, and three mutagenicity tests -Tradescantia and Allium cepa micronucleus tests and the Comet assay on human leukocytes - to detect their genotoxic activity. GC/MS analysis did not detect phthalates or acetaldehyde in the water samples. The Microtox test found no toxic effects. Mutagenicity tests detected genotoxic properties of some samples in both PET and glass bottles. Statistical analyses showed a positive association between mineral content and mutagenicity (micronuclei in A. cepa and DNA damage in human leukocytes). No clear effect of treatment and PET bottle was found. These results suggest the absence of toxic compounds migrating from PET regardless of time and conditions of storage. In conclusion, bottle material and stove treatment were not associated with the genotoxic properties of the water; the genotoxic effects detected in bottled water may be related to the characteristics of the water (minerals and CO(2) content).

  20. Effects of land use on fresh waters: Agriculture, forestry, mineral exploitation, urbanisation

    SciTech Connect

    Solbe, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This book offers a broad consideration of the effects of land use on fresh waters above and below ground. Experts address a wide range of issues in relation to the four major uses of land. Taken from an international conference held at the University of Stirling in 1985, coverage includes sewerage and waste-water treatment, long-term contamination of aquifers below cities, mineral exploitation, use of water in food production, wood production and more. Remedies and areas requiring further study are outlined.

  1. Magnesium absorption from mineral water decreases with increasing quantities of magnesium per serving in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Eri; Tai, Hideyuki; Uozumi, Yoshinobu; Nakagawa, Koji; Matsui, Tohru

    2012-01-01

    It is hypothesized that magnesium (Mg) absorption from mineral water is affected by the concentration of Mg in the water, the consumption pattern, and the volume consumed per serving. The present study examined the effect of serving volume and consumption pattern of artificial mineral water (AMW) and Mg concentration on Mg absorption in rats. Magnesium in AMW was labeled with magnesium-25 as a tracer. Each group consisted of 6 or 7 rats. In experiment 1, the rats received 1 mL of AMW containing 200 mg Mg/L at 4 times, 400 mg Mg/L twice, or 800 mg Mg/L at 1 time. In experiment 2, the rats received 1 mL of AMW containing 200 mg Mg/L or 0.25 mL of AMW containing 800 mg Mg/L at 4 times or 1 mL of AMW containing 800 mg Mg/L at 1 time. The absorption of Mg decreased with increasing Mg concentrations in the same serving volume of AMW with different serving frequencies. When the AMW containing 800 mg Mg/L was portioned into 4 servings, Mg absorption increased to the level of absorption in the group exposed to AMW containing 200 mg Mg/L served at the same frequency. These results suggest that the Mg concentration and the volume of AMW do not affect Mg absorption per se, but Mg absorption from AMW decreases when the amount of Mg in each serving is increased. Thus, frequent consumption is preferable for mineral water rich in Mg when the total consumption of mineral water is the same.

  2. Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Analysis of Interfacial Water at Selected Sulfide Mineral Surfaces under Anaerobic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Jiaqi; Miller, Jan D.; Dang, Liem X.

    2014-04-10

    In this paper, we report on a molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) study of the behavior of interfacial water at selected sulfide mineral surfaces under anaerobic conditions. The study revealed the interfacial water structure and wetting characteristics of the pyrite (100) surface, galena (100) surface, chalcopyrite (012) surface, sphalerite (110) surface, and molybdenite surfaces (i.e., the face, armchair-edge, and zigzag-edge surfaces), including simulated contact angles, relative number density profiles, water dipole orientations, hydrogen-bonding, and residence times. For force fields of the metal and sulfur atoms in selected sulfide minerals used in the MDS, we used the universal force field (UFF) and another set of force fields optimized by quantum chemical calculations for interactions with interfacial water molecules at selected sulfide mineral surfaces. Simulation results for the structural and dynamic properties of interfacial water molecules indicate the natural hydrophobic character for the selected sulfide mineral surfaces under anaerobic conditions as well as the relatively weak hydrophobicity for the sphalerite (110) surface and two molybdenite edge surfaces. Part of the financial support for this study was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Basic Science Grant No. DE-FG-03-93ER14315. The Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), of the DOE, funded work performed by Liem X. Dang. Battelle operates Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for DOE. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by BES. The authors are grateful to Professor Tsun-Mei Chang for valuable discussions.

  3. The importance of water transit time and mineral dissolution kinetics for the flux of weathering products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandsson, Martin; Bishop, Kevin; Köhler, Stephan; Amvrosiadi, Nino

    2016-04-01

    Soil mineral weathering is one of the major sources of base cations (BC), which play a dual role for a forest ecosystem; they function both as plant nutrients, and for buffering against acidification of catchment runoff. On a long-term basis, the soil weathering rates will determine the highest sustainable forest productivity without causing acidification. It is believed that the hydrologic residence time play a key role in determining weathering rates on a landscape scale. In this study, we investigate the significance of the water transit residence time (WTT) distribution for the transport of base cations to catchment runoff. By modelling hillslope flowpaths with different transit times, using the geochemical computing code PHREEQC, we demonstrate how in-stream dynamics as exemplified by elemental ratios can be explained by mineral dissolution kinetics and equilibria. Specifically, we hypothesize that equilibrium of plagioclase regulates the delivery of base cations and silica to catchment runoff. These patters can be seen in field data from 10 years of sampling from a nested-catchment, where the Na+/BC and the Si/BC-ratios vary systematically with WTT on both a temporal and a spatial scale. This behavior has implications for the total transport of products from mineral dissolution to catchment runoff. As the water entering the stream is a mixture of water with different transit times, the composition of stream water will not only be dependent on the average WTT, but also on the shape of the WTT distribution. For the base cations associated with minerals that becomes supersaturated or with precipitating secondary phases within the range of WTT, i.e. Na+ and K+, the tails of "old water" of the WRT-distribution will not contribute to any extra transport of these elements. Finally, we use the derived relationships to estimate the transport of weathering products from a forested hillslope, given the modelled WRT distribution.

  4. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  5. Batch study of arsenate (V) adsorption using Akadama mud: Effect of water mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rongzhi; Zhang, Zhenya; Feng, Chuanping; Lei, Zhongfang; Li, Yuan; Li, Miao; Shimizu, Kazuya; Sugiura, Norio

    2010-02-01

    Akadama mud, consisting mainly of different forms of iron and aluminum oxide minerals, was used for arsenate (V) adsorption from aqueous solutions. The adsorption process fitted the first-order kinetic equation and the Langmuir monolayer model well. The adsorption capacity, estimated by the Langmuir isotherm model, was 5.30 mg/g at 20 ± 0.5 °C. The effects of the solution properties (initial concentration of As (V), pH, temperature, and mineralization degree) on As (V) removal were investigated. Various mineralization degrees in underground water were simulated by adjusting the ionic strength of the solution or adding coexisting ions to the contaminated solution. It was found that mineralization of the water significantly influenced the arsenic adsorption. The existence of multivalent metallic cations significantly enhanced the As (V) adsorption ability, whereas competing anions such as fluoride and phosphate greatly decreased the As (V) adsorption. This result suggests that Akadama mud is more suitable for arsenic adsorption in low-level phosphate and fluoride solutions. The loaded Akadama mud could be desorbed at polar pH conditions, especially in acidic conditions, and more than 65% As (V) sorption has been achieved at pH 1.

  6. Redistribution of soil water by a saprotrophic fungus enhances carbon mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Guhr, Alexander; Borken, Werner; Spohn, Marie; Matzner, Egbert

    2015-01-01

    The desiccation of upper soil horizons is a common phenomenon, leading to a decrease in soil microbial activity and mineralization. Recent studies have shown that fungal communities and fungal-based food webs are less sensitive and better adapted to soil desiccation than bacterial-based food webs. One reason for a better fungal adaptation to soil desiccation may be hydraulic redistribution of water by mycelia networks. Here we show that a saprotrophic fungus (Agaricus bisporus) redistributes water from moist (–0.03 MPa) into dry (–9.5 MPa) soil at about 0.3 cm⋅min−1 in single hyphae, resulting in an increase in soil water potential after 72 h. The increase in soil moisture by hydraulic redistribution significantly enhanced carbon mineralization by 2,800% and enzymatic activity by 250–350% in the previously dry soil compartment within 168 h. Our results demonstrate that hydraulic redistribution can partly compensate water deficiency if water is available in other zones of the mycelia network. Hydraulic redistribution is likely one of the mechanisms behind higher drought resistance of soil fungi compared with bacteria. Moreover, hydraulic redistribution by saprotrophic fungi is an underrated pathway of water transport in soils and may lead to a transfer of water to zones of high fungal activity. PMID:26554004

  7. Redistribution of soil water by a saprotrophic fungus enhances carbon mineralization.

    PubMed

    Guhr, Alexander; Borken, Werner; Spohn, Marie; Matzner, Egbert

    2015-11-24

    The desiccation of upper soil horizons is a common phenomenon, leading to a decrease in soil microbial activity and mineralization. Recent studies have shown that fungal communities and fungal-based food webs are less sensitive and better adapted to soil desiccation than bacterial-based food webs. One reason for a better fungal adaptation to soil desiccation may be hydraulic redistribution of water by mycelia networks. Here we show that a saprotrophic fungus (Agaricus bisporus) redistributes water from moist (-0.03 MPa) into dry (-9.5 MPa) soil at about 0.3 cm ⋅ min(-1) in single hyphae, resulting in an increase in soil water potential after 72 h. The increase in soil moisture by hydraulic redistribution significantly enhanced carbon mineralization by 2,800% and enzymatic activity by 250-350% in the previously dry soil compartment within 168 h. Our results demonstrate that hydraulic redistribution can partly compensate water deficiency if water is available in other zones of the mycelia network. Hydraulic redistribution is likely one of the mechanisms behind higher drought resistance of soil fungi compared with bacteria. Moreover, hydraulic redistribution by saprotrophic fungi is an underrated pathway of water transport in soils and may lead to a transfer of water to zones of high fungal activity.

  8. Water Partition Coefficients Between Nominally Anhydrous Minerals and Basaltic Melts: Implication on Mantle Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubaud, C. P.; Hauri, E. H.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2004-12-01

    Partitioning of water between peridotite minerals and basaltic magma has a significant influence on the initiation of melting in the mantle and on the rheological structure of the lithosphere. To investigate mineral/melt and mineral/mineral partitioning of H2O applicable to the mantle, we have conducted multiple saturation experiments consisting of hydrous basalt±ol±opx±cpx in a piston-cylinder apparatus at pressures of 1--2 GPa, temperatures of 1230--1380\\deg C and bulk initial water contents of 3.3 to 6.3 wt.%. We measured H2O in melts and minerals (ol, opx, cpx) by SIMS using methods described by [1]. Resulting liquids have 3.1-6.4 wt.% H2O and average mineral/melt partition coefficients as follows: Dol-melt=0.0017±0.0005 (n=9), Dopx-melt=0.019±0.004 (n=8), and Dcpx-melt=0.023±0.005 (n=2). Mineral/mineral partition coefficients are Dol-opx=0.11±0.01 (n=4), Dol-cpx=0.08±0.01 (n=2) and Dcpx-opx=1.4±0.3 (n=1). Observed partition coefficients are reproducible between experiments and systematic variations with pressure, temperature or concentration of H2O are not apparent, possibly because of the relatively small range of pressures and compositions examined. The Dpyroxene-melt increases with the Al2O3 content of the pyroxene due to enhanced solubility of water in Al-bearing pyroxenes. For a peridotite consisting of 58% ol, 30% opx, 10% cpx, and 2% spinel (assumed nominally anhydrous) the calculated bulk sol-liq D is 0.009±0.002 confirming that water is highly incompatible in mantle minerals. Compared to conventional trace elements, water has a behavior similar to Ce, in accordance with studies on natural basaltic glasses (e.g., [2]). If this bulk D is applicable to the deeper parts of the MORB melting regime, then following [3], we can estimate the effect of H2O on peridotite partial melting: for mantle water concentrations of 50--200 ppm, the near-solidus melt would contain 0.6-2.3 wt.% water. Using the data of [4] for Δ Hfusion, the freezing point

  9. IR-based Water Quantification in Nominally Anhydrous High-Pressure Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch-Müller, Monika; Rhede, Dieter

    2010-05-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool to determine traces of OH and H2O in minerals and glasses. The application is based on the Beer Lambert law A = ɛ*c*t, where A is the absorbance, ɛ the absorption coefficient, e.g. in L mol H2O-1 cm-2, c the concentration in mol/L and t the thickness in cm. It has been shown in numerous experimental and theoretical studies, i.e. Paterson (1982) and Libowitzky and Rossman (1997) that ɛ generally increases with decreasing wavenumbers. However, this general trend seems to be valid only for hydrous minerals and glasses and should not be applied to water quantification in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) which incorporate traces of water in their structures (e.g. Rossman 2006, Thomas et al. 2009). For example, Bell et al. (2003) showed that if the general IR calibration of Paterson (1982) is adopted, the water concentration of olivine is underestimated by about 25 %. A similar result has been obtained by Deon et al. (2010) for Mg-wadsleyite. Thomas et al. (2009) evidenced using a large variety of analytical methods that not using mineral-specific IR-calibrations for the OH quantification in NAMs (e.g. SiO2 polymorphs and olivine) leads to either underestimation as for olivine or overestimation of the water content as for stishovite and coesite. Thus, to quantify the water content of NAMs mineral specific absorption coefficients are needed but unfortunately only for a few minerals available. In this study we propose that within a polymorphic mineral series of the same composition ɛ positively correlates with the density and negatively with the molar volume of the respective mineral phase. To prove this hypothesis we determined ɛ-values for synthetic hydrous ringwoodite samples ranging in composition from xMg = 0.0 to 0.6 by combining results of FTIR-spectroscopy with those of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. The ɛ-values plot well below the general calibration curves of Paterson (1982) and Libowitzky and Rossman (1997

  10. [Calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc in drinking water and status biomarkers of these minerals among elder people from Warsaw region].

    PubMed

    Madej, Dawid; Kaluza, Joanna; Antonik, Anna; Brzozowska, Anna; Roszkowski, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc contents in drinking water on chosen parameters of nutritional status of these minerals in 164 elder people, 75-80 age, living in Warsaw region. Blood, hair and saliva were collected to assess the calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc nutritional status, while the samples of drinking water were collected to determine these minerals in water Mineral concentrations in blood, hair saliva and water were assessment using the atomic spectrophotometer absorption method It was showed that contribution of drinking water to calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc intake was: 15%, 4%, 5%, 9%, respectively. The relationship between the contents of these minerals in drinking water and their levels in the blood, hair and saliva had low correlation coefficients. It probably showed that homeostasis was maintained in the human body and other factors such as demographic or lifestyle factors were important.

  11. 238U, 226Ra, 210Po concentrations of bottled mineral waters in Hungary and their committed effective dose.

    PubMed

    Kovács, T; Bodrogi, E; Dombovári, P; Somlai, J; Németh, Cs; Capote, A; Tarján, S

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays the consumption of bottled mineral waters has become very popular. The average consumption of these is 0.36 l d(-1) per person in Europe. A considerable segment of the population drinks almost only mineral water as drinking water, which is about 1 l d(-1). As is known, some kinds of mineral waters contain naturally occurring radionuclides in higher concentration than the usual drinking (tap) water. The WHO (1993) legislation concerning the drinking waters does not include the mineral waters. In our work, the concentrations of (226)Ra, (238)U and (210)Po were determined in mineral waters available in Hungary. To determine the (226)Ra concentration the emanation method was used. The (238)U and (210)Po concentrations were determined by alpha spectrometry using semiconductor detector. The dose contribution was calculated using the radionuclide concentrations and the dose conversion factors from the Basic Safety Standard IAEA (1995), for 1 l d(-1) mineral water consumption. In some cases the calculated doses were considerable higher than the limit for drinking waters. Especially for children the doses can be remarkably high.

  12. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-25

    The radionuclides of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10{sup −3} (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  13. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    The radionuclides of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10-3 (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  14. Interactions of 14C-labeled multi-walled carbon nanotubes with soil minerals in water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liwen; Petersen, Elijah J; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Yongsheng; Cabrera, Miguel; Huang, Qingguo

    2012-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes are often modified to be stable in the aqueous phase by adding extensive hydrophilic surface functional groups. The stability of such CNTs in water with soil or sediment is one critical factor controlling their environmental fate. We conducted a series of experiments to quantitatively assess the association between water dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and three soil minerals (kaolinite, smectite, or shale) in aqueous solution under different sodium concentrations. (14)C-labeling was used in these experiments to unambiguously quantify MWCNTs. The results showed that increasing ionic strength strongly promoted the removal of MWCNTs from aqueous phase. The removal tendency is inversely correlated with the soil minerals' surface potential and directly correlated with their hydrophobicity. This removal can be interpreted by the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (EDLVO) theory especially for kaolinite and smectite. Shale, which contains large and insoluble organic materials, sorbed MWCNTs the most strongly.

  15. Mineral species control of aluminum solubility in sulfate-rich acidic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Adele M.; Collins, Richard N.; Waite, T. David

    2011-02-01

    The identification of the mineral species controlling the solubility of Al in acidic waters rich in sulfate has presented researchers with several challenges. One of the particular challenges is that the mineral species may be amorphous by X-ray diffraction. The difficulty in discerning between adsorbed or structural sulfate is a further complication. Numerous studies have employed theoretical calculations to determine the Al mineral species forming in acid sulfate soil environments. The vast majority of these studies indicate the formation of a mineral species matching the stoichiometry of jurbanite, Al(OH)SO 4·5H 2O. Much debate, however, exists as to the reality of jurbanite forming in natural environments, particularly in view of its apparent rare occurrence. In this work the use of Al, S and O K-edge XANES spectroscopy, in combination with elemental composition analyses of groundwater precipitates and a theoretical analysis of soluble Al concentrations ranging from pH 3.5 to 7, were employed to determine the mineral species controlling the solubility of Al draining from acid sulfate soils into Blacks Drain in north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. The results indicate that a mixture of amorphous Al hydroxide (Al(OH) 3) and basaluminite (Al 4(SO 4)(OH) 10·5H 2O) was forming. The use of XANES spectroscopy is particularly useful as it provides insight into the nature of the bond between sulfate and Al, and confirms the presence of basaluminite. This counters the possibility that an Al hydroxide species, with appreciable amounts of adsorbed sulfate, is forming within these groundwaters. Below approximately pH 4.5, prior to precipitation of this amorphous Al(OH) 3/basaluminite mixture, our studies indicate that the Al 3+ activity of these acidic sulfate-rich waters is limited by the availability of dissolved Al from exchangeable and amorphous/poorly crystalline mineral species within adjacent soils. Further evidence suggests the Al 3+ activity below pH 4.5 is

  16. Methyl t-Butyl Ether Mineralization in Surface-Water Sediment Microcosms under Denitrifying Conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.; Landmeyer, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    Mineralization of [U-14C] methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) to 14CO2 without accumulation of t-butyl alcohol (TBA) was observed in surface-water sediment microcosms under denitrifying conditions. Methanogenic activity and limited transformation of MTBE to TBA were observed in the absence of denitrification. Results indicate that bed sediment microorganisms can effectively degrade MTBE to nontoxic products under denitrifying conditions.

  17. Hydrogeochemical and stable isotopic investigations on CO2-rich mineral waters from Harghita Mts. (Eastern Carpathians, Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kis, Boglárka-Mercedesz; Baciu, Călin; Kármán, Krisztina; Kékedy-Nagy, Ladislau; Francesco, Italiano

    2013-04-01

    There is a worldwide interest on geothermal, mineral and groundwater as a resource for energy, drinking water supply and therapeutic needs. The increasing trend in replacing tap water with commercial bottled mineral water for drinking purposes has become an economic, hydrogeologic and medical concern in the last decades. Several investigations have been carried out worldwide on different topics related to geothermal and mineral waters, dealing with mineral water quality assessment, origin of geothermal and mineral waters, geochemical processes that influence water chemistry and water-rock interaction In Romania, the Călimani-Gurghiu-Harghita Neogene to Quaternary volcanic chain (Eastern Carpathians) is one of the most important areas from the point of view of CO2-rich mineral waters. These mineral water springs occur within other post-volcanic phenomena like dry CO2 emissions, moffettes, bubbling pools, H2S gas emissions etc. Mineral waters from this area are used for bottling, local spas and drinking purposes for local people. The number of springs, around 2000 according to literature data, shows that there is still a significant unexploited potential for good quality drinking water in this area. Within the youngest segment of the volcanic chain, the Harghita Mts., its volcaniclastic aprons and its boundary with the Transylvanian Basin, we have carried out an investigation on 23 CO2-rich mineral water springs from a hydrogeochemical and stable isotopic point of view. The mineral waters are Ca-Mg-HCO3 to Na-Cl type. Sometimes mixing between the two types can be observed. We have detected a great influence of water-rock interaction on the stable isotopic composition of the mineral waters, shown by isotopic shifts to the heavier oxygen isotope, mixing processes between shallow and deeper aquifers and local thermal anomalies. Acknowledgements: The present work was financially supported by the Romanian National Research Council, Project PN-II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0537 and by

  18. Managing the potential risks of using bacteria-laden water in mineral processing to protect freshwater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenying; Moran, Chris J; Vink, Sue

    2013-06-18

    The minerals industry is being driven to access multiple water sources and increase water reuse to minimize freshwater withdrawal. Bacteria-laden water, such as treated effluent, has been increasingly used as an alternative to freshwater for mineral processing, in particular flotation, where conditions are favorable for bacterial growth. However, the risk posed by bacteria to flotation efficiency is poorly understood. This could be a barrier to the ongoing use of this water source. This study tested the potential of a previously published risk-based approach as a management tool to both assist mine sites in quantifying the risk from bacteria, and finding system-wide cost-effective solutions for risk mitigation. The result shows that the solution of adjusting the flotation chemical regime could only partly control the risk. The second solution of using tailings as an absorbent was shown to be effective in the laboratory in reducing bacterial concentration and thus removing the threat to flotation recovery. The best solution is likely to combine internal and external approaches, that is, inside and outside processing plants. Findings in this study contribute possible methods applicable to managing the risk from water-borne bacteria to plant operations that choose to use bacteria-containing water, when attempting to minimize freshwater use, and avoiding the undesirable consequences of increasing its use.

  19. Influence of minerals on the taste of bottled and tap water: a chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Platikanov, Stefan; Garcia, Veronica; Fonseca, Ignacio; Rullán, Elena; Devesa, Ricard; Tauler, Roma

    2013-02-01

    Chemometric analysis was performed on two sets of sensory data obtained from two separate studies. Twenty commercially-available bottled mineral water samples (from the first study) and twenty-five drinking tap and bottled water samples (from the second study) were blind tasted by trained panelists. The panelists expressed their overall liking of the water samples by rating from 0 (worst flavor) to 10 (best flavor). The mean overall score was compared to the physicochemical properties of the samples. Thirteen different physicochemical parameters were considered in both studies and, additionally, residual chlorine levels were assessed in the second study. Principal component analysis performed on the physicochemical parameters and the panelists' mean scores generated models that explain most of the total data variance. Moreover, partial least squares regression of the panelists' sensory evaluations of the physicochemical data helped elucidate the main features underlying the panelists' ratings. The preferred bottled and tap water samples were associated with moderate (relatively to the parameters mean values) contents of total dissolved solids and with relatively high concentrations of HCO₃⁻, SO₄²⁻, Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺ as well as with relatively high pH values. High concentrations of Na⁺, K⁺ and Cl⁻ were scored low by many of the panelists, while residual chlorine did not affect the ratings, but did enable the panel to distinguish between bottled mineral water and tap water samples.

  20. Concentration of Ra-226 in Malaysian Drinking and Bottled Mineral Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Y. B. Mohd; Jemangin, M. H.; Mahat, R. H.

    2010-07-01

    The concentration of the radionuclide 226Ra was determined in the drinking water which was taken from various sources. It was found that the concentration varies from non-detectable (ND) to highest value of 0.30 Bq per liter. The concentration was found to be high in mineral water as compare with surface water such as domestic pipe water. Some of these values have exceeded the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) of America regulations. The activity concentrations obtained are compared with data from other countries. The estimated annual effective doses from drinking the water are determined. The values obtained range from 0.02 mSv to about 0.06 mSv per year.

  1. Concentration of Ra-226 in Malaysian Drinking and Bottled Mineral Water

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, Y. B. Mohd; Jemangin, M. H.; Mahat, R. H.

    2010-07-07

    The concentration of the radionuclide {sup 226}Ra was determined in the drinking water which was taken from various sources. It was found that the concentration varies from non-detectable (ND) to highest value of 0.30 Bq per liter. The concentration was found to be high in mineral water as compare with surface water such as domestic pipe water. Some of these values have exceeded the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) of America regulations. The activity concentrations obtained are compared with data from other countries. The estimated annual effective doses from drinking the water are determined. The values obtained range from 0.02 mSv to about 0.06 mSv per year.

  2. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters. PMID:26852288

  3. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters.

  4. Long-term survival of hepatitis A virus and poliovirus type 1 in mineral water.

    PubMed

    Biziagos, E; Passagot, J; Crance, J M; Deloince, R

    1988-11-01

    The survival in mineral water of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and poliovirus type 1 was compared, under controlled experimental conditions, at 4 degrees C and room temperature. Viral infectivity titers were determined by cell culture titration, while HAV antigenicity was monitored by radioimmunoassay-endpoint titration. Both viruses persisted longest at 4 degrees C. At this temperature, after 1 year of exposure, the inactivation of either HAV or poliovirus type 1 was not important. At room temperature, poliovirus type 1 was not detected after 300 days, whereas HAV was still infectious. For both temperatures, the computed regression coefficients of best-fit lines for inactivation rates for the two viruses were significantly different. The survival of HAV was also studied at 4 degrees C and room temperature in mineral water with 5- and 50-micrograms/ml protein concentrations (i.e., purity of the virus suspension) for 120 days. As shown by a comparison of the regression coefficients for the inactivation rates, the stability of HAV in mineral water depends on protein concentration and temperature. Radioimmunoassay-endpoint titration results showed inactivation patterns similar to those of cell culture titration, with the most significant reduction in HAV antigenicity at room temperature. At the two temperatures, the infectivity of HAV declined at a faster rate than the antigenicity.

  5. Efficient artificial mineralization route to decontaminate Arsenic(III) polluted water - the Tooeleite Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakar, Arindam; Das, Bidisa; Islam, Samirul; Meneghini, Carlo; de Giudici, Giovanni; Merlini, Marco; Kolen’Ko, Yury V.; Iadecola, Antonella; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Acharya, Somobrata; Ray, Sugata

    2016-05-01

    Increasing exposure to arsenic (As) contaminated ground water is a great threat to humanity. Suitable technology for As immobilization and removal from water, especially for As(III) than As(V), is not available yet. However, it is known that As(III) is more toxic than As(V) and most groundwater aquifers, particularly the Gangetic basin in India, is alarmingly contaminated with it. In search of a viable solution here, we took a cue from the natural mineralization of Tooeleite, a mineral containing Fe(III) and As(III)ions, grown under acidic condition, in presence of SO42‑ ions. Complying to this natural process, we could grow and separate Tooeleite-like templates from Fe(III) and As(III) containing water at overall circumneutral pH and in absence of SO42‑ ions by using highly polar Zn-only ends of wurtzite ZnS nanorods as insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces. The central idea here is to exploit these insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces (called as INAS in the manuscript) as nucleation centres for Tooeleite growth while keeping the overall pH of the aqueous media neutral. Therefore, we propose a novel method of artificial mineralization of As(III) by mimicking a natural process at nanoscale.

  6. Networking and rheology of concentrated clay suspensions "matured" in mineral medicinal water.

    PubMed

    Aguzzi, Carola; Sánchez-Espejo, Rita; Cerezo, Pilar; Machado, José; Bonferoni, Cristina; Rossi, Silvia; Salcedo, Inmaculada; Viseras, César

    2013-09-10

    This work studied the influence of "maturation" conditions (time and agitation) on aggregation states, gel structure and rheological behaviour of a special kind of pharmaceutical semisolid products made of concentrated clay suspensions in mineral medicinal water. Maturation of the samples was carried out in distilled and sulphated mineral medicinal water, both in static conditions (without agitation) and with manual stirring once a week, during a maximum period of three months. At the measured pH interval (7.5-8.0), three-dimensional band-type networks resulting from face/face contacts were predominant in the laminar (disc-like) clay suspensions, whereas the fibrous (rod-like) particles formed micro-aggregates by van der Waals attractions. The high concentration of solids in the studied systems greatly determined their behaviour. Rod-like sepiolite particles tend to align the major axis in aggregates promoted by low shearing maturation, whereas aggregates of disc-like smectite particles did not have a preferential orientation and their complete swelling required long maturation time, being independent of stirring. Maturation of both kinds of suspensions resulted in improved rheological properties. Laminar clay suspensions became more structured with time, independently from static or dynamic maturation conditions, whereas for fibrous clay periodic agitation was also required. Rheological properties of the studied systems have been related to aggregation states and networking mechanisms, depending on the type of clay minerals constituents. Physical stability of the suspensions was not impaired by the specific composition of the Graena medicinal water.

  7. Efficient artificial mineralization route to decontaminate Arsenic(III) polluted water - the Tooeleite Way.

    PubMed

    Malakar, Arindam; Das, Bidisa; Islam, Samirul; Meneghini, Carlo; De Giudici, Giovanni; Merlini, Marco; Kolen'ko, Yury V; Iadecola, Antonella; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Acharya, Somobrata; Ray, Sugata

    2016-01-01

    Increasing exposure to arsenic (As) contaminated ground water is a great threat to humanity. Suitable technology for As immobilization and removal from water, especially for As(III) than As(V), is not available yet. However, it is known that As(III) is more toxic than As(V) and most groundwater aquifers, particularly the Gangetic basin in India, is alarmingly contaminated with it. In search of a viable solution here, we took a cue from the natural mineralization of Tooeleite, a mineral containing Fe(III) and As(III)ions, grown under acidic condition, in presence of SO4(2-) ions. Complying to this natural process, we could grow and separate Tooeleite-like templates from Fe(III) and As(III) containing water at overall circumneutral pH and in absence of SO4(2-) ions by using highly polar Zn-only ends of wurtzite ZnS nanorods as insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces. The central idea here is to exploit these insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces (called as INAS in the manuscript) as nucleation centres for Tooeleite growth while keeping the overall pH of the aqueous media neutral. Therefore, we propose a novel method of artificial mineralization of As(III) by mimicking a natural process at nanoscale. PMID:27189251

  8. Efficient artificial mineralization route to decontaminate Arsenic(III) polluted water - the Tooeleite Way

    PubMed Central

    Malakar, Arindam; Das, Bidisa; Islam, Samirul; Meneghini, Carlo; De Giudici, Giovanni; Merlini, Marco; Kolen’ko, Yury V.; Iadecola, Antonella; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Acharya, Somobrata; Ray, Sugata

    2016-01-01

    Increasing exposure to arsenic (As) contaminated ground water is a great threat to humanity. Suitable technology for As immobilization and removal from water, especially for As(III) than As(V), is not available yet. However, it is known that As(III) is more toxic than As(V) and most groundwater aquifers, particularly the Gangetic basin in India, is alarmingly contaminated with it. In search of a viable solution here, we took a cue from the natural mineralization of Tooeleite, a mineral containing Fe(III) and As(III)ions, grown under acidic condition, in presence of SO42− ions. Complying to this natural process, we could grow and separate Tooeleite-like templates from Fe(III) and As(III) containing water at overall circumneutral pH and in absence of SO42− ions by using highly polar Zn-only ends of wurtzite ZnS nanorods as insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces. The central idea here is to exploit these insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces (called as INAS in the manuscript) as nucleation centres for Tooeleite growth while keeping the overall pH of the aqueous media neutral. Therefore, we propose a novel method of artificial mineralization of As(III) by mimicking a natural process at nanoscale. PMID:27189251

  9. Efficient artificial mineralization route to decontaminate Arsenic(III) polluted water - the Tooeleite Way.

    PubMed

    Malakar, Arindam; Das, Bidisa; Islam, Samirul; Meneghini, Carlo; De Giudici, Giovanni; Merlini, Marco; Kolen'ko, Yury V; Iadecola, Antonella; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Acharya, Somobrata; Ray, Sugata

    2016-05-18

    Increasing exposure to arsenic (As) contaminated ground water is a great threat to humanity. Suitable technology for As immobilization and removal from water, especially for As(III) than As(V), is not available yet. However, it is known that As(III) is more toxic than As(V) and most groundwater aquifers, particularly the Gangetic basin in India, is alarmingly contaminated with it. In search of a viable solution here, we took a cue from the natural mineralization of Tooeleite, a mineral containing Fe(III) and As(III)ions, grown under acidic condition, in presence of SO4(2-) ions. Complying to this natural process, we could grow and separate Tooeleite-like templates from Fe(III) and As(III) containing water at overall circumneutral pH and in absence of SO4(2-) ions by using highly polar Zn-only ends of wurtzite ZnS nanorods as insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces. The central idea here is to exploit these insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces (called as INAS in the manuscript) as nucleation centres for Tooeleite growth while keeping the overall pH of the aqueous media neutral. Therefore, we propose a novel method of artificial mineralization of As(III) by mimicking a natural process at nanoscale.

  10. Linear adsorption of nonionic organic compounds from water onto hydrophilic minerals: Silica and alumina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Su, Y.-H.; Zhu, Y.-G.; Sheng, G.; Chiou, C.T.

    2006-01-01

    To characterize the linear adsorption phenomena in aqueous nonionic organic solute-mineral systems, the adsorption isotherms of some low-molecular- weightnonpolar nonionic solutes (1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, lindane, phenanthrene, and pyrene) and polar nonionic solutes (1,3-dinitrobenzene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene) from single-and binary-solute solutions on hydrophilic silica and alumina were established. Toward this objective, the influences of temperature, ionic strength, and pH on adsorption were also determined. It is found that linear adsorption exhibits low exothermic heats and practically no adsorptive competition. The solute-solid configuration and the adsorptive force consistent with these effects were hypothesized. For nonpolar solutes, the adsorption occurs presumably by London (dispersion) forces onto a water film above the mineral surface. For polar solutes, the adsorption is also assisted by polar-group interactions. The reduced adsorptive forces of solutes with hydrophilic minerals due to physical separation by the water film and the low fractions of the water-film surface covered by solutes offer a theoretical basis for linear solute adsorption, low exothermic heats, and no adsorptive competition. The postulated adsorptive forces are supported by observations that ionic strength or pH poses no effect on the adsorption of nonpolar solutes while it exhibits a significant effect on the uptake of polar solutes. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  11. A compilation of rate parameters of water-mineral interaction kinetics for application to geochemical modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palandri, James L.; Kharaka, Yousif K.

    2004-01-01

    Geochemical reaction path modeling is useful for rapidly assessing the extent of water-aqueous-gas interactions both in natural systems and in industrial processes. Modeling of some systems, such as those at low temperature with relatively high hydrologic flow rates, or those perturbed by the subsurface injection of industrial waste such as CO2 or H2S, must account for the relatively slow kinetics of mineral-gas-water interactions. We have therefore compiled parameters conforming to a general Arrhenius-type rate equation, for over 70 minerals, including phases from all the major classes of silicates, most carbonates, and many other non-silicates. The compiled dissolution rate constants range from -0.21 log moles m-2 s-1 for halite, to -17.44 log moles m-2 s-1 for kyanite, for conditions far from equilibrium, at 25 ?C, and pH near neutral. These data have been added to a computer code that simulates an infinitely well-stirred batch reactor, allowing computation of mass transfer as a function of time. Actual equilibration rates are expected to be much slower than those predicted by the selected computer code, primarily because actual geochemical processes commonly involve flow through porous or fractured media, wherein the development of concentration gradients in the aqueous phase near mineral surfaces, which results in decreased absolute chemical affinity and slower reaction rates. Further differences between observed and computed reaction rates may occur because of variables beyond the scope of most geochemical simulators, such as variation in grain size, aquifer heterogeneity, preferred fluid flow paths, primary and secondary mineral coatings, and secondary minerals that may lead to decreased porosity and clogged pore throats.

  12. Influence of Water Content on the Mechanical Behaviour of Limestone: Role of the Clay Minerals Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherblanc, F.; Berthonneau, J.; Bromblet, P.; Huon, V.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical characteristics of various sedimentary stones significantly depend on the water content, where 70 % loss of their mechanical strengths can be observed when saturated by water. Furthermore, the clay fraction has been shown to be a key factor of their hydro-mechanical behaviour since it governs for instance the hydric dilation. This work aims at investigating the correlations between the clay mineral content and the mechanical weakening experienced by limestones when interacting with water. The experimental characterization focuses on five different limestones that exhibit very different micro-structures. For each of them, we present the determination of clay mineral composition, the sorption isotherm curve and the dependences of tensile and compressive strengths on the water content. It emerges from these results that, first, the sorption behaviour is mainly governed by the amount of smectite layers which exhibit the larger specific area and, second, the rate of mechanical strength loss depends linearly on the sorption capacity. Indeed, the clay fraction plays the role of a retardation factor that delays the appearance of capillary bridges as well as the mechanical weakening of stones. However, no correlation was evidenced between the clay content and the amplitude of weakening. Since the mechanisms whereby the strength decreases with water content are not clearly established, these results would help to discriminate between various hypothesis proposed in the literature.

  13. Natural radioactivity of 226Ra and 228Ra in thermal and mineral waters in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bituh, Tomislav; Marovic, Gordana; Petrinec, Branko; Sencar, Jasminka; Franulovic, Iva

    2009-01-01

    Thermal waters are known as valuable natural resources of a country. They contain certain degree of natural radioactivity attributable to the elements of the uranium and thorium natural decay series. Among these elements, the most radiotoxic and the most important is radium that exists in several isotopic forms (226Ra and 228Ra). The focus of attention was the content of radium in samples of thermal and mineral spring water from several spas in Croatia. These waters are mainly used for medical, bathing and recreational purposes, and some of them are used for drinking. Measured activity concentrations of 226Ra ranged from 87 to 6200 mBq l(-1) which, in some springs, exceed the maximal permissible level of 1 Bq l(-1) for drinking water. Measured activity concentrations of 228Ra ranged from 23 to 3480 mBq l(-1). The study showed that radium content for the investigated thermal and mineral waters is below the levels at which negative consequences would arise due to ingestion.

  14. Mineral composition and heavy metal contamination of sediments originating from radium rich formation water.

    PubMed

    Bzowski, Zbigniew; Michalik, Bogusław

    2015-03-01

    Radium rich formation water is often associated with fossil fuels as crude oil, natural gas and hard coal. As a result of fossil fuels exploitation high amount of such water is released into environment. In spite of the high radium content such waters create a serious radiation risk neither to humans nor biota directly. First and foremost due to very high mineralization they are not drinkable at all. But after discharge chemical and physical conditions are substantially changed and sediments which additionally concentrated radium are arising. Due to features of technological processes such phenomenon is very intensive in underground coal mining where huge volume of such water must be pumped into surface in order to keep underground galleries dry. Slightly different situation occurs in oil rigs, but finally also huge volume of so called process water is pumped into environment. Regardless their origin arising sediments often contain activity concentration of radium isotopes exceeding the clearance levels set for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) (Council Directive, 2013). The analysis of metals and minerals content showed that besides radioactivity such sediments contain high amount of metals geochemically similar to radium as barium, strontium and lead. Correlation analysis proved that main mechanism leading to sediment creation is co-precipitation radium with these metals as a sulfate. The absorption on clay minerals is negligible even when barium is not present in significant quantities. Owing to very low solubility of sulfates radium accumulated in this way should not migrate into environment in the neighborhood of a site where such sediment were deposited.

  15. Mineral composition and heavy metal contamination of sediments originating from radium rich formation water.

    PubMed

    Bzowski, Zbigniew; Michalik, Bogusław

    2015-03-01

    Radium rich formation water is often associated with fossil fuels as crude oil, natural gas and hard coal. As a result of fossil fuels exploitation high amount of such water is released into environment. In spite of the high radium content such waters create a serious radiation risk neither to humans nor biota directly. First and foremost due to very high mineralization they are not drinkable at all. But after discharge chemical and physical conditions are substantially changed and sediments which additionally concentrated radium are arising. Due to features of technological processes such phenomenon is very intensive in underground coal mining where huge volume of such water must be pumped into surface in order to keep underground galleries dry. Slightly different situation occurs in oil rigs, but finally also huge volume of so called process water is pumped into environment. Regardless their origin arising sediments often contain activity concentration of radium isotopes exceeding the clearance levels set for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) (Council Directive, 2013). The analysis of metals and minerals content showed that besides radioactivity such sediments contain high amount of metals geochemically similar to radium as barium, strontium and lead. Correlation analysis proved that main mechanism leading to sediment creation is co-precipitation radium with these metals as a sulfate. The absorption on clay minerals is negligible even when barium is not present in significant quantities. Owing to very low solubility of sulfates radium accumulated in this way should not migrate into environment in the neighborhood of a site where such sediment were deposited. PMID:25434264

  16. Inelastic neutron scattering and molecular simulation of the dynamics of interlayer water in smectite clay minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Cygan, Randall T.; Daemen, Luke L.; Ilgen, Anastasia G.; Krumhansl, James L.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2015-11-16

    The study of mineral–water interfaces is of great importance to a variety of applications including oil and gas extraction, gas subsurface storage, environmental contaminant treatment, and nuclear waste repositories. Understanding the fundamentals of that interface is key to the success of those applications. Confinement of water in the interlayer of smectite clay minerals provides a unique environment to examine the interactions among water molecules, interlayer cations, and clay mineral surfaces. Smectite minerals are characterized by a relatively low layer charge that allows the clay to swell with increasing water content. Montmorillonite and beidellite varieties of smectite were investigated to compare the impact of the location of layer charge on the interlayer structure and dynamics. Inelastic neutron scattering of hydrated and dehydrated cation-exchanged smectites was used to probe the dynamics of the interlayer water (200–900 cm–1 spectral region) and identify the shift in the librational edge as a function of the interlayer cation. Molecular dynamics simulations of equivalent phases and power spectra, derived from the resulting molecular trajectories, indicate a general shift in the librational behavior with interlayer cation that is generally consistent with the neutron scattering results for the monolayer hydrates. Both neutron scattering and power spectra exhibit librational structures affected by the location of layer charge and by the charge of the interlayer cation. Furthermore, divalent cations (Ba2+ and Mg2+) characterized by large hydration enthalpies typically exhibit multiple broad librational peaks compared to monovalent cations (Cs+ and Na+), which have relatively small hydration enthalpies.

  17. Inelastic neutron scattering and molecular simulation of the dynamics of interlayer water in smectite clay minerals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cygan, Randall T.; Daemen, Luke L.; Ilgen, Anastasia G.; Krumhansl, James L.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2015-11-16

    The study of mineral–water interfaces is of great importance to a variety of applications including oil and gas extraction, gas subsurface storage, environmental contaminant treatment, and nuclear waste repositories. Understanding the fundamentals of that interface is key to the success of those applications. Confinement of water in the interlayer of smectite clay minerals provides a unique environment to examine the interactions among water molecules, interlayer cations, and clay mineral surfaces. Smectite minerals are characterized by a relatively low layer charge that allows the clay to swell with increasing water content. Montmorillonite and beidellite varieties of smectite were investigated to comparemore » the impact of the location of layer charge on the interlayer structure and dynamics. Inelastic neutron scattering of hydrated and dehydrated cation-exchanged smectites was used to probe the dynamics of the interlayer water (200–900 cm–1 spectral region) and identify the shift in the librational edge as a function of the interlayer cation. Molecular dynamics simulations of equivalent phases and power spectra, derived from the resulting molecular trajectories, indicate a general shift in the librational behavior with interlayer cation that is generally consistent with the neutron scattering results for the monolayer hydrates. Both neutron scattering and power spectra exhibit librational structures affected by the location of layer charge and by the charge of the interlayer cation. Furthermore, divalent cations (Ba2+ and Mg2+) characterized by large hydration enthalpies typically exhibit multiple broad librational peaks compared to monovalent cations (Cs+ and Na+), which have relatively small hydration enthalpies.« less

  18. Following water and hydrated minerals along a path of MSL rover by DAN Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Malakhov, A. V.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretyakov, V. I.; Vostrukhin, A. A.; Varenikov, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons instrument is designed to perform an in-situ analysis of the hydrogen content of the bulk Martian subsurface at depths down to 0.5-1 meter. DAN is also designed to perform an in-situ analysis of the layering structure of hydrogen bearing minerals (or water) in the Martian subsurface, with horizontal resolution up to 1 m as MSL traverses on Mars. In 2008 the flight model of DAN has been assembled, tested, calibrated and delivered to Jet Propulsion laboratory (USA, NASA) for the integration with MSL rover. But in the end of 2008 NASA has announced decision to shift launch of MSL to 2011. Taking this into account we decided focused on the additional field tests with spare flight models of DAN to provide fine adjusting and calibration of DAN. We would like to improve our knowledge about instrument response functions and its sensitivity to the presence of Hydrogen in the different form (water, chemically bound water, hydrated materials) and in the different soils (various compositions and structure). The first results of the field tests including sensitivity to the layered regolith and discovery of water rich spots along MSL path are already presented in this investigation. In addition we also discussed the different possibilities to perform field tests with DAN instrument in Martian like conditions (dry deserts, permafrost areas, Antarctica). Based on first field tests and calibrations we have created numerical model of DAN which can be used for various predictions showing how DAN will be able to find water and locations of layered deposits of hydrated minerals. The most interesting areas of such investigation are MSL landing cite candidates (Nili Fossae Trough, Holden crater fan, Mawrth Vallis, Eberswalde Crater, Miyamoto, S Meridiani, Gale Crater) selected during last MSL landing site workshop. Practically all of these candidates are considered (based on the orbital observations from MGS, Odyssey, Mars Express and MRO missions) as a

  19. Water of Hydration Dynamics in Minerals Gypsum and Bassanite: Ultrafast 2D IR Spectroscopy of Rocks.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chang; Nishida, Jun; Yuan, Rongfeng; Fayer, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    Water of hydration plays an important role in minerals, determining their crystal structures and physical properties. Here ultrafast nonlinear infrared (IR) techniques, two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) and polarization selective pump-probe (PSPP) spectroscopies, were used to measure the dynamics and disorder of water of hydration in two minerals, gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and bassanite (CaSO4·0.5H2O). 2D IR spectra revealed that water arrangement in freshly precipitated gypsum contained a small amount of inhomogeneity. Following annealing at 348 K, water molecules became highly ordered; the 2D IR spectrum became homogeneously broadened (motional narrowed). PSPP measurements observed only inertial orientational relaxation. In contrast, water in bassanite's tubular channels is dynamically disordered. 2D IR spectra showed a significant amount of inhomogeneous broadening caused by a range of water configurations. At 298 K, water dynamics cause spectral diffusion that sampled a portion of the inhomogeneous line width on the time scale of ∼30 ps, while the rest of inhomogeneity is static on the time scale of the measurements. At higher temperature, the dynamics become faster. Spectral diffusion accelerates, and a portion of the lower temperature spectral diffusion became motionally narrowed. At sufficiently high temperature, all of the dynamics that produced spectral diffusion at lower temperatures became motionally narrowed, and only homogeneous broadening and static inhomogeneity were observed. Water angular motions in bassanite exhibit temperature-dependent diffusive orientational relaxation in a restricted cone of angles. The experiments were made possible by eliminating the vast amount of scattered light produced by the granulated powder samples using phase cycling methods. PMID:27385320

  20. Mineralogy and geochemistry of efflorescent minerals on mine tailings and their potential impact on water chemistry.

    PubMed

    Grover, B P C; Johnson, R H; Billing, D G; Weiersbye, I M G; Tutu, H

    2016-04-01

    In the gold mining Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa, efflorescent mineral crusts are a common occurrence on and nearby tailings dumps during the dry season. The crusts are readily soluble and generate acidic, metal- and sulphate-rich solutions on dissolution. In this study, the metal content of efflorescent crusts at an abandoned gold mine tailings dump was used to characterise surface and groundwater discharges from the site. Geochemical modelling of the pH of the solution resulting from the dissolution of the crusts was used to better understand the crusts' potential impact on water chemistry. The study involved two approaches: (i) conducting leaching experiments on oxidised and unoxidised tailings using artificial rainwater and dilute sulphuric acid and correlating the composition of crusts to these leachates and (ii) modelling the dissolution of the crusts in order to gain insight into their mineralogy and their potential impact on receiving waters. The findings suggested that there were two chemically distinct discharges from the site, namely an aluminium- and magnesium-rich surface water plume and an iron-rich groundwater plume. The first plume was observed to originate from the oxidised tailings following leaching with rainwater while the second plume originated from the underlying unoxidised tailings with leaching by sulphuric acid. Both groups of minerals forming from the respective plumes were found to significantly lower the pH of the receiving water with simulations of their dissolution found to be within 0.2 pH units of experimental values. It was observed that metals in a low abundance within the crust (for example, iron) had a stronger influence on the pH of the resulting solutions than metals in a greater abundance (aluminium or magnesium). Techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and in situ mineral determination techniques such as remote sensing can effectively determine the dominant mineralogy. However, the minerals or metals

  1. Mineralogy and geochemistry of efflorescent minerals on mine tailings and their potential impact on water chemistry.

    PubMed

    Grover, B P C; Johnson, R H; Billing, D G; Weiersbye, I M G; Tutu, H

    2016-04-01

    In the gold mining Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa, efflorescent mineral crusts are a common occurrence on and nearby tailings dumps during the dry season. The crusts are readily soluble and generate acidic, metal- and sulphate-rich solutions on dissolution. In this study, the metal content of efflorescent crusts at an abandoned gold mine tailings dump was used to characterise surface and groundwater discharges from the site. Geochemical modelling of the pH of the solution resulting from the dissolution of the crusts was used to better understand the crusts' potential impact on water chemistry. The study involved two approaches: (i) conducting leaching experiments on oxidised and unoxidised tailings using artificial rainwater and dilute sulphuric acid and correlating the composition of crusts to these leachates and (ii) modelling the dissolution of the crusts in order to gain insight into their mineralogy and their potential impact on receiving waters. The findings suggested that there were two chemically distinct discharges from the site, namely an aluminium- and magnesium-rich surface water plume and an iron-rich groundwater plume. The first plume was observed to originate from the oxidised tailings following leaching with rainwater while the second plume originated from the underlying unoxidised tailings with leaching by sulphuric acid. Both groups of minerals forming from the respective plumes were found to significantly lower the pH of the receiving water with simulations of their dissolution found to be within 0.2 pH units of experimental values. It was observed that metals in a low abundance within the crust (for example, iron) had a stronger influence on the pH of the resulting solutions than metals in a greater abundance (aluminium or magnesium). Techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and in situ mineral determination techniques such as remote sensing can effectively determine the dominant mineralogy. However, the minerals or metals

  2. The Geysers-Clear Lake area, California: thermal waters, mineralization, volcanism, and geothermal potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Burns, M.G.; Goff, F.E.; Peters, E.K.; Thompson, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Manifestations of a major thermal anomaly in the Geysers-Clear Lake area of northern California include the late Pliocene to Holocene Clear Lake Volcanics, The Geysers geothermal field, abundant thermal springs, and epithermal mercury and gold mineralization. The epithermal mineralization and thermal springs typically occur along high-angle faults within the broad San Andreas transform fault system that forms the western boundary of the North American plate in this area. The young volcanic rocks overlie Mesozoic marine rocks of the Great Valley sequence which have been thrust above the coeval Franciscan Complex and penecontemporaneously dropped back down along low-angle detachment faults. Geothermal power production has peaked at The Geysers and pressure declines indicate significant depletion of the fluid resource. It is proposed that recently discovered, isotopically shifted steam in the northwest Geysers area indicates the presence not of deep connate water but rather of boiled-down, boron-rich Franciscan evolved meteoric water. This water is likely to be present in limited quantities and will not provide a significant hot water resource for geothermal power production at The Geysers field or from the main Clear Lake volcanic field. -from Authors

  3. Minerals consumption by Acetobacter xylinum on cultivation medium on coconut water

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Denise Milleo; Prestes, Rosilene Aparecida; da Fonseca, Adriel Ferreira; Woiciechowski, Adenise L.; Wosiacki, Gilvan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to verifying the consume of the minerals K, Na, Fe, Mg, P, S-SO4−2, B, N Total Kjedahl (NTK), NO3−-N, and NH4+-N in the production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum, according to the medium and the manner of cultivation. The fermentative process was in ripe and green coconut water. K and Na were determined by flame emission photometry, Mg and Fe by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, P by molecular absorption spectrophotometry, S-SO4−2 by barium sulphate turbidimetry, B by Azomethin-H method, NTK by Kjeldahl method, N-NO3− and N-NH4+ by vapor distillation with magnesium oxide and Devarda’s alloy, respectively. In Fermentation of ripe coconut water there were higher consumption of K (69%), Fe (84,3%), P (97,4%), S-SO2−2 (64,9%), B (56,1%), N-NO3− (94,7%) and N-NH4+ (95,2%), whereas coconut water of green fruit the most consumed ions were Na (94,5%), Mg (67,7%) and NTK (56,6%). The cultivation under agitation showed higher mineral consumption. The higher bacterial cellulose production, 6 g.L−1, was verified in the coconut water fermentative in ripe fruit, added KH2PO4, FeSO4 and NaH2PO4 kept under agitation. PMID:24159306

  4. Trace elements and heavy metals in mineral and bottled drinking waters on the Iranian market.

    PubMed

    Hadiani, Mohammad Rasoul; Dezfooli-Manesh, Shirin; Shoeibi, Shahram; Ziarati, Parisa; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin

    2015-01-01

    A survey of Iranian waters, sampled from 2010 to 2013, is presented. A total of 128 water samples from 42 different brands of bottled mineral and drinking water were collected and analysed for contamination levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg). Determinations were performed using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Pb, Cd and Cu, a hydride vapour generation as well as an Arsenator digital kit (Wagtech WTD, Tyne and Wear, UK) for As and a direct mercury analyser for Hg. Arsenic concentration in six bottled gaseous mineral samples was higher than the related limit. Regardless of these, mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, As and Hg in all types of water samples were 4.50 ± 0.49, 1.08 ± 0.09, 16.11 ± 2.77, 5.80 ± 1.63 and 0.52 ± 0.03 µg L⁻¹, respectively. Values obtained for analysed heavy metals in all samples were permissible according to the limits of national and international standards.

  5. Trace elements and heavy metals in mineral and bottled drinking waters on the Iranian market.

    PubMed

    Hadiani, Mohammad Rasoul; Dezfooli-Manesh, Shirin; Shoeibi, Shahram; Ziarati, Parisa; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin

    2015-01-01

    A survey of Iranian waters, sampled from 2010 to 2013, is presented. A total of 128 water samples from 42 different brands of bottled mineral and drinking water were collected and analysed for contamination levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg). Determinations were performed using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Pb, Cd and Cu, a hydride vapour generation as well as an Arsenator digital kit (Wagtech WTD, Tyne and Wear, UK) for As and a direct mercury analyser for Hg. Arsenic concentration in six bottled gaseous mineral samples was higher than the related limit. Regardless of these, mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, As and Hg in all types of water samples were 4.50 ± 0.49, 1.08 ± 0.09, 16.11 ± 2.77, 5.80 ± 1.63 and 0.52 ± 0.03 µg L⁻¹, respectively. Values obtained for analysed heavy metals in all samples were permissible according to the limits of national and international standards. PMID:25174358

  6. Minerals consumption by Acetobacter xylinum on cultivation medium on coconut water.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Denise Milleo; Prestes, Rosilene Aparecida; da Fonseca, Adriel Ferreira; Woiciechowski, Adenise L; Wosiacki, Gilvan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to verifying the consume of the minerals K, Na, Fe, Mg, P, S-SO4 (-2), B, N Total Kjedahl (NTK), NO3 (-)-N, and NH4 (+)-N in the production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum, according to the medium and the manner of cultivation. The fermentative process was in ripe and green coconut water. K and Na were determined by flame emission photometry, Mg and Fe by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, P by molecular absorption spectrophotometry, S-SO4 (-2) by barium sulphate turbidimetry, B by Azomethin-H method, NTK by Kjeldahl method, N-NO3 (-) and N-NH4 (+) by vapor distillation with magnesium oxide and Devarda's alloy, respectively. In Fermentation of ripe coconut water there were higher consumption of K (69%), Fe (84,3%), P (97,4%), S-SO2 (-2) (64,9%), B (56,1%), N-NO3 (-) (94,7%) and N-NH4 (+) (95,2%), whereas coconut water of green fruit the most consumed ions were Na (94,5%), Mg (67,7%) and NTK (56,6%). The cultivation under agitation showed higher mineral consumption. The higher bacterial cellulose production, 6 g.L(-1), was verified in the coconut water fermentative in ripe fruit, added KH2PO4, FeSO4 and NaH2PO4 kept under agitation. PMID:24159306

  7. Effects of mineral content of bovine drinking water: does iron content affect milk quality?

    PubMed

    Mann, G R; Duncan, S E; Knowlton, K F; Dietrich, A D; O'Keefe, S F

    2013-01-01

    The composition of water given to dairy cattle is often ignored, yet water is a very important nutrient and plays a major role in milk synthesis. The objective of this study was to study effects of elevated levels of iron in bovine drinking water on milk quality. Ferrous lactate treatments corresponding to 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/kg drinking water concentrations were delivered through the abomasum at 10 L/d to 4 lactating dairy cows over 4 periods (1 wk infusion/period) in a Latin square design. On d 6 of infusion, milk was collected, processed (homogenized, pasteurized), and analyzed. Mineral content (Fe, Cu, P, Ca) was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Oxidative stability of whole processed milk was measured by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde (MDA) and sensory analysis (triangle test) within 72 h of processing and after 7d of storage (4°C). Significant sensory differences between processed milks from cows receiving iron and the control infusion were observed. No differences in TBARS (1.46±0.04 mg of MDA/kg) or mineral content (0.22±0.01 mg/kg Fe) were observed. A 2-way interaction (iron treatment by cow) for Ca, Cu, and Fe concentrations was seen. While iron added directly to milk causes changes in oxidation of milk, high levels of iron given to cattle have subtle effects that initially may not be obvious.

  8. [The effectiveness of sulfate magnesium-calcium mineral water for the treatment of the patients presenting with chronic acalculous cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Tudakova, V G; Vladimirskiĭ, E V; Kunstman, T G

    2013-01-01

    This paper was designed to report the results of investigations into the therapeutic effectiveness of "Kluchi" sulfate magnesiumcalcium mineral water used to treat 194 patients presenting with chronic acalculous cholecystitis and different types of biliary tract dysfunction. The control group was comprised of 92 patients who took a diet. It was shown, that mineral water "Kluchi" exerted well apparent beneficial action on the motor function of the gallbladder and the sphincter apparatus. Moreover, drinking the mineral water improved colloidal stability of bile. It is concluded that the therapeutic application of "Kluchi" sulfate magnesium-calcium mineral water results in the reduction of bile lihogenicity, produces anti-inflammatory and choleretic effects, and promotes normalization of the motor and tonic condition of the biliary tract. PMID:23819416

  9. Influences of pH and CO2 on the formation of Metasilicate mineral water in Changbai Mountain, Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Baizhong; Xiao, Changlai; Liang, Xiujuan; Wu, Shili

    2015-07-01

    Mineral dissolution reactions actively participate in controlling the composition of mineral water. In this study, water soluble, acidic-alkaline and carbonated solution experiments were designed, and mineral reaction mechanisms were researched using chemical kinetics and the minimum free-energy method. The results showed that the release of metasilicate was controlled by pH, CO2, and rock characteristics. In the water soluble experiment, the release process of metasilicate in powdered rocks reached equilibrium after 40 days, while metasilicate in solid rocks took 170 days. The release process of metasilicate in solid rocks satisfied an asymptotic model, while in powdered rocks it accorded with the Stanford reaction kinetic model. In the acidic-alkaline experiment, metasilicate was released earlier under acidic conditions (2.46 < pH < 7) than under alkaline conditions (7 < pH < 10.61). The release process of metasilicate under acidic conditions reached equilibrium in 40 days, compared with 60 days for alkaline conditions. The addition of CO2 to the water solution was beneficial to the formation of metasilicate. Under neutral pH conditions, the reaction barely occurred. Under alkaline conditions, metasilicate was produced by the hydrolysis of metasilicate minerals. Under acidic and additional CO2 conditions, metasilicate formation was mainly via the reaction of H+, CO2, and metasilicate minerals. From these results, we concluded that the metasilicate mineral water from the Changbai Mountains, Jingyu County, is generated by a combination of the hydrolysis of metasilicate minerals and the reaction of H+, CO2, and metasilicate minerals. These results can contribute to a better development and protection of the mineral water resources in the Changbai Mountains.

  10. Subsurface water and clay mineral formation during the early history of Mars.

    PubMed

    Ehlmann, Bethany L; Mustard, John F; Murchie, Scott L; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Meunier, Alain; Fraeman, Abigail A; Langevin, Yves

    2011-11-01

    Clay minerals, recently discovered to be widespread in Mars's Noachian terrains, indicate long-duration interaction between water and rock over 3.7 billion years ago. Analysis of how they formed should indicate what environmental conditions prevailed on early Mars. If clays formed near the surface by weathering, as is common on Earth, their presence would indicate past surface conditions warmer and wetter than at present. However, available data instead indicate substantial Martian clay formation by hydrothermal groundwater circulation and a Noachian rock record dominated by evidence of subsurface waters. Cold, arid conditions with only transient surface water may have characterized Mars's surface for over 4 billion years, since the early-Noachian period, and the longest-duration aqueous, potentially habitable environments may have been in the subsurface.

  11. Radium isotopes in the Polish Outer Carpathian mineral waters of various chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Chau, Nguyen Dinh; Lucyna, Rajchel; Jakub, Nowak; Paweł, Jodłowski

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the activity concentrations of radium isotopes ((226)Ra, (228)Ra) and chemical compositions of above 70 mineral water samples collected from several dozens of springs and boreholes localized in the Polish Outer Carpathians. The activity concentrations of both radium isotopes clearly increase with the increase of water TDS, but decrease when the SO(4)(2-) content increases. These concentrations vary in the broad interval from a few to near 1000 mBq/L. The coefficient of the linear correlation between concentrations of these isotopes amounts to 0.85, and the activity ratio (226)Ra/(228)Ra is >1 for chloride-sodium waters, being ≈1 for hydrogen-carbonate and <1 for the sulfate ones.

  12. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope exchange reactions between clay minerals and water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neil, J.R.; Kharaka, Y.K.

    1976-01-01

    The extent of hydrogen and oxygen isotope exchange between clay minerals and water has been measured in the temperature range 100-350?? for bomb runs of up to almost 2 years. Hydrogen isotope exchange between water and the clays was demonstrable at 100??. Exchange rates were 3-5 times greater for montmorillonite than for kaolinite or illite and this is attributed to the presence of interlayer water in the montmorillonite structure. Negligible oxygen isotope exchange occurred at these low temperatures. The great disparity in D and O18 exchange rates observed in every experiment demonstrates that hydrogen isotope exchange occurred by a mechanism of proton exchange independent of the slower process of O18 exchange. At 350?? kaolinite reacted to form pyrophyllite and diaspore. This was accompanied by essentially complete D exchange but minor O18 exchange and implies that intact structural units in the pyrophyllite were inherited from the kaolinite precursor. ?? 1976.

  13. Effect of sewage water on mineral nutritive potential of six fodder species grown under semiarid conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Kafeel; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Khan, Zafar Iqbal; Rizwan, Yasir; Ejaz, Abid; Fardsous, Asia; Gondal, Sumaira; Lee, Dong Jin; Al-Yemeni, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Investigation was performed to assess the effect of different sewage water treatments on the metal status of different fodder species consumed by ruminants under semi-arid conditions. Five samples each of six fodder species viz., Trifolium alexandrinum, Cichorium intybus, Avena sativa, Medicago polymorpha, Brassica campestris and Medicago sativa were collected from three fields irrigated with canal water, mix water (canal water and sewage water) and sewage water, respectively. Fodder samples were analyzed to determine the Mg, Co and Zn concentrations in shoots. Higher values of these metals were found in fodder species irrigated with sewage water relatively. Mg and Zn concentrations in all the fodder species were found to be below the critical level among all treatments. Whereas, concentrations of Co in the different fodder species were significantly different (p < 0.05) and above the critical level. Consequently, ruminants feeding on these fodder species need continued mineral supplementation of Zn and Mg elements to prevent diseases caused by the deficiency of these elements, and to support optimum animal productivity. PMID:23961142

  14. Climate-change-driven deterioration of water quality in a mineralized watershed.

    PubMed

    Todd, Andrew S; Manning, Andrew H; Verplanck, Philip L; Crouch, Caitlin; McKnight, Diane M; Dunham, Ryan

    2012-09-01

    A unique 30-year streamwater chemistry data set from a mineralized alpine watershed with naturally acidic, metal-rich water displays dissolved concentrations of Zn and other metals of ecological concern increasing by 100-400% (400-2000 μg/L) during low-flow months, when metal concentrations are highest. SO(4) and other major ions show similar increases. A lack of natural or anthropogenic land disturbances in the watershed during the study period suggests that climate change is the underlying cause. Local mean annual and mean summer air temperatures have increased at a rate of 0.2-1.2 °C/decade since the 1980s. Other climatic and hydrologic indices, including stream discharge during low-flow months, do not display statistically significant trends. Consideration of potential specific causal mechanisms driven by rising temperatures suggests that melting of permafrost and falling water tables (from decreased recharge) are probable explanations for the increasing concentrations. The prospect of future widespread increases in dissolved solutes from mineralized watersheds is concerning given likely negative impacts on downstream ecosystems and water resources, and complications created for the establishment of attainable remediation objectives at mine sites.

  15. Remote pulsed laser Raman spectroscopy system for detecting water, ice, and hydrous minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Christopher S.; Abedin, M. Nurul; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; Sandford, Steve P.

    2006-08-01

    For exploration of planetary surfaces, detection of water and ice is of great interest in supporting existence of life on other planets. Therefore, a remote Raman spectroscopy system was demonstrated at NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with the University of Hawaii for detecting ice-water and hydrous minerals on planetary surfaces. In this study, a 532 nm pulsed laser is utilized as an excitation source to allow detection in high background radiation conditions. The Raman scattered signal is collected by a 4-inch telescope positioned in front of a spectrograph. The Raman spectrum is analyzed using a spectrograph equipped with a holographic super notch filter to eliminate Rayleigh scattering, and a holographic transmission grating that simultaneously disperses two spectral tracks onto the detector for higher spectral range. To view the spectrum, the spectrograph is coupled to an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), which allows detection of very weak Stokes line. The ICCD is operated in gated mode to further suppress effects from background radiation and long-lived fluorescence. The sample is placed at 5.6 m from the telescope, and the laser is mounted on the telescope in a coaxial geometry to achieve maximum performance. The system was calibrated using the spectral lines of a Neon lamp source. To evaluate the system, Raman standard samples such as calcite, naphthalene, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol were analyzed. The Raman evaluation technique was used to analyze water, ice and other hydrous minerals and results from these species are presented.

  16. Analysis of phthalate migration from plastic containers to packaged cooking oil and mineral water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Yin, Xueyan; Wang, Min; Wang, Haifeng; Zhang, Niping; Shen, Yanyan; Xu, Shi; Zhang, Ling; Gu, Zhongze

    2010-11-10

    The migration of phthalates (PAEs), a class of typical environmental estrogen contaminants in food, from food packaging to packaged food attracts more and more attention worldwide. Many factors will affect the migration processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PAE migration from plastic containers to cooking oil and mineral water packed in authentic commercial packaging and stored under various conditions (different storage temperatures, contact times, and storage states (static or dynamic state)) and to identify a potential relationship between the amount and type of PAEs migrated and the lipophilic character of the food matrix. The samples were analyzed by a novel method of liquid chromatography combined with solid-phase extraction by an electrospun nylon 6 nanofibers mat, with PAE detection limits of 0.001 μg/L in mineral water and 0.020 μg/L in cooking oil, respectively. The results demonstrated that the cooking oil was a more suitable medium for the migration of PAEs from packages into foodstuffs than mineral water. Scilicet, the migration potential of the PAEs into foodstuffs, depends on the lipophilic characteristics of the food matrix. The results also demonstrated that migrations were more significant at higher temperature, longer contact time, and higher dynamic frequency; thus, the migration tests should be evaluated with consideration of different storage temperatures and contact times. Mathematical models with good logarithmic relationships were established to demonstrate the relationship between the PAE migration and food/packaging contact time for different storage temperatures. These established mathematical models would be expected to become a set of practical tools for the prediction of PAE migration.

  17. Evaluation of toxic chemical parameters and ecotoxicity levels in bottled mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Signorile, G; Neve, A; Lugoli, F; Piccinni, M C; Arena, R; Di Marino, R

    2007-03-01

    Heavy metals, phthalates, characterizing elements, CO2 concentrations and pH and hardness levels were measured in forty samples of bottled mineral waters. In some samples arsenic, manganese, mercury and selenium were present in higher concentrations than permitted by Italian law. No significant release of phthalates from containers in PET was observed. In the same samples, toxicity tests with Daphnia magna were carried out. Toxicity levels, expressed as % of immobile organisms, ranged from 0 to 100%; generally the highest toxicity values were found in the hardwaters.

  18. Can hydrous minerals account for the observed mid-latitude water on Mars?

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Fialips, C. I.; Carey, J. W.; Feldman, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    Great interest was generated with the discovery by the Odyssey spacecraft OC heterogeneously distributed hydrogcn at martian mid-latitudes, suggesting that large areas of the near-equatorial highlands contain near-surface deposits of 'chemically and/or physically bound 1120 and/or OH' in amounts up to 3.8% equivalent H20. More recent interpretations of the Odyssey data using new calibrations suggest that some near-equatorial areas, such as Arabia Terra, contain up to 8.5f I .3% water-equivalent hydrogen. Such shallow occurrences (minerals and zeolites, have been proposed as possible M20-bearing constituents on Mars, and both groups of minerals are common terrestrial alteration products of hydrovolcanic basaltic ashes and palagonitic material comparable io those that may be widespread on Mars. Smectites within martian meteorites, attributed to hydrous alteration on Mars rather than on Earth, provide direct evidence of clay minerals from Mars. In addition, new thermal emission spectrometer (TES) data provide evidence for unspecified zeolites in martian surface dust, and concluded that spectral deconvolution of MGS TES and Mariner 9 IRIS data is consistent with the presence of zeolite in the martian surface dust.

  19. Elaboration of new ceramic microfiltration membranes from mineral coal fly ash applied to waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Jedidi, Ilyes; Saïdi, Sami; Khemakhem, Sabeur; Larbot, André; Elloumi-Ammar, Najwa; Fourati, Amine; Charfi, Aboulhassan; Salah, Abdelhamid Ben; Amar, Raja Ben

    2009-12-15

    This work aims to develop a new mineral porous tubular membrane based on mineral coal fly ash. Finely ground mineral coal powder was calcinated at 700 degrees C for about 3 h. The elaboration of the mesoporous layer was performed by the slip-casting method using a suspension made of the mixture of fly-ash powder, water and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The obtained membrane was submitted to a thermal treatment which consists in drying at room temperature for 24 h then a sintering at 800 degrees C. SEM photographs indicated that the membrane surface was homogeneous and did not present any macrodefects (cracks, etc...). The average pore diameter of the active layer was 0.25 microm and the thickness was around 20 microm. The membrane permeability was 475 l/h m(2) bar. This membrane was applied to the treatment of the dying effluents generated by the washing baths in the textile industry. The performances in term of permeate flux and efficiency were determined and compared to those obtained using a commercial alumina microfiltration membrane. Almost the same stabilised permeate flux was obtained (about 100 l h(-1)m(-2)). The quality of permeate was almost the same with the two membranes: the COD and color removal was 75% and 90% respectively. PMID:19699033

  20. Correction methods of medicinal properties of mineral waters in Pyatigorsk resort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reps, Valentina; Potapov, Evgeniy; Abramtsova, Anna; Kotova, Margarita

    2016-04-01

    Mineral Water (MW) of Pyatigorsk deposit (PD) is united in five genetic groups (operational stocks of 2809,8 m3/day): carbonic and hydrosulphuric, carbonic, carbonic chloride-hydrocarbonate sodium (salt and alkaline), radonic low carbonate, nitrogen-carbonic terms. A variety of MW types is explained by peculiarities of geological structure and hydrogeological conditions of PD. Here on the sites of the development of deep semi-ring splits there are overflows and a mixture of various complexes. Unloading of deep water strikes happens not only on the earth surface in the form of springs but also at the depth in its edging crumbling rocks of Palaeocene and quarternary deposits. As a result of mixture processes of water and its subsequent metamorphization, various types of mineral water of this deposit are formed. Pyatigorsk resort is in a special protected ecologo-resort region which mode allows to keep stability of structure and ecological purity of MW. Nevertheless, MW variability, compositional differences and MW mineralization determining the level of its biological effect demand studying of action mechanisms of both natural MW, and possibility of its modification for range expansion of rehabilitation action. There have been examined biological effects of the course drinking reception In experiment on 80 rats males of the Wistar line biological effects of the course drinking reception of two MW types: "Krasnoarmeyskaya new" (MW1) of sulphate-hydrocarbonate-chloride calcium-sodium structure with the raised contents of iron (3-5 mg/dm3), mineralization of 5,0-5,2 g/dm3, CO2 of 1,3-2,2 g/dm3, daily flow of 10-86 m3/day, temperature from 14 to 370C on the mouth of the well and spring №2 (MW2) low sulphate, low carbonate sulphate-hydrocarbonate-chloride calcium-sodium, mineralization of 5,0 g/l, CO2 of 0,7 g/dm3, H2 of S 0,01 g/dm3. There has been shown an ability of the drinking course MW1 to influence on endocrine and metabolic continium - cortisol level increased

  1. Trace Element Speciation and Distribution Study at Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Biofilm/Mineral/Water Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelabert, A.; Wang, Y.; Gescher, J.; Ha, J.; Cordova, C. D.; Singer, D. M.; Spormann, A. M.; Trainor, T. P.; Eng, P. J.; Brown, G. E.

    2006-12-01

    Fe- and Al-(oxyhydr)oxides are among the most reactive mineral surfaces contacted by surface and ground waters, and thus they constitute important sorbents for heavy metal and metalloid ions. As microbial biofilms may be present as coatings on these minerals, they are likely to induce major changes in surface charges and sorption capacities for metal(loid) ions compared to biofilm-free mineral surfaces. In addition, the micro- environments in biofilms can be quite different from those in bulk solutions, which can enhance (or inhibit) metal adsorption on mineral surfaces and produce biominerals that are not predicted by equilibrium thermodynamics based on the bulk solution values. In order to provide a more quantitative understanding of these effects, we have carried out a study of the interaction of Zn(II), Pb(II), and As(V) with Shewanella oneidensis (wild type, EPS-deficient mutant, and ppx- and ppk-deficient mutants) grown on highly polished and oriented single crystal surfaces of α-Al2O3 (1-102) and α-Fe2O3 (0001). This gram-negative bacterium commonly found in soil and sediments can use a wide range of electron donors and terminal electron acceptors including Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides under anaerobic conditions. In-situ ATR-FTIR analyses and potentiometric titrations of S. oneidensis biofilm collected from a glass bead-filled column inoculated with S. oneidensis were conducted in order to determine the nature of functional groups present on the bacterial surfaces, to quantify the site densities and protonation constants for these groups, and to determine the electrostatic parameters for S. oneidensis surfaces. GI-XAFS analyses performed on BL 11-2 at SSRL, together with macroscopic metal adsorption experiments as a function of pH (2 to 6.5), metal concentration (10-3 to 10-7 M), and ionic strength (10-1 to 10-3 M), were used to determine ion speciation and local coordination environments in the biofilm and to develop a surface complexation model describing

  2. Low water contents in diamond mineral inclusions: Proto-genetic origin in a dry cratonic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Logvinova, Alla M.; Howarth, Geoffrey H.; Liu, Yang; Peslier, Anne H.; Rossman, George R.; Guan, Yunbin; Chen, Yang; Sobolev, Nikolay V.

    2016-01-01

    The mantle is the major reservoir of Earth's water, hosted within Nominally Anhydrous Minerals (NAMs) (e.g., Bell and Rossman, 1992; Peslier et al., 2010; Peslier, 2010; Nestola and Smyth, 2015), in the form of hydrogen bonded to the silicate's structural oxygen. From whence cometh this water? Is the water in these minerals representative of the Earth's primitive upper mantle or did it come from melting events linked to crustal formation or to more recent metasomatic/re-fertilization events? During diamond formation, NAMs are encapsulated at hundreds of kilometers depth within the mantle, thereby possibly shielding and preserving their pristine water contents from re-equilibrating with fluids and melts percolating through the lithospheric mantle. Here we show that the NAMs included in diamonds from six locales on the Siberian Craton contain measurable and variable H2O concentrations from 2 to 34 parts per million by weight (ppmw) in olivine, 7 to 276 ppmw in clinopyroxene, and 11-17 ppmw in garnets. Our results suggest that if the inclusions were in equilibrium with the diamond-forming fluid, the water fugacity would have been unrealistically low. Instead, we consider the H2O contents of the inclusions, shielded by diamonds, as pristine representatives of the residual mantle prior to encapsulation, and indicative of a protogenetic origin for the inclusions. Hydrogen diffusion in the diamond does not appear to have modified these values significantly. The H2O contents of NAMs in mantle xenoliths may represent some later metasomatic event(s), and are not always representative of most of the continental lithospheric mantle. Results from the present study also support the conclusions of Peslier et al. (2010) and Novella et al. (2015) that the dry nature of the SCLM of a craton may provide stabilization of its thickened continental roots.

  3. Influence of Seasonal and Geochemical Changes on the Geomicrobiology of an Iron Carbonate Mineral Water Spring

    PubMed Central

    Hegler, Florian; Lösekann-Behrens, Tina; Hanselmann, Kurt; Behrens, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Fuschna Spring in the Swiss Alps (Engadin region) is a bicarbonate iron(II)-rich, pH-neutral mineral water spring that is dominated visually by dark green microbial mats at the side of the flow channel and orange iron(III) (oxyhydr)oxides in the flow channel. Gradients of O2, dissolved iron(II), and bicarbonate establish in the water. Our goals were to identify the dominating biogeochemical processes and to determine to which extent changing geochemical conditions along the flow path and seasonal changes influence mineral identity, crystallinity, and microbial diversity. Geochemical analysis showed microoxic water at the spring outlet which became fully oxygenated within 2.3 m downstream. X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed calcite (CaCO3) and ferrihydrite [Fe(OH)3] to be the dominant minerals which increased in crystallinity with increasing distance from the spring outlet. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis banding pattern cluster analysis revealed that the microbial community composition shifted mainly with seasons and to a lesser extent along the flow path. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that microbial communities differ between the flow channel and the flanking microbial mat. Microbial community analysis in combination with most-probable-number analyses and quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that the mat was dominated by cyanobacteria and the channel was dominated by microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers (1.97 × 107 ± 4.36 × 106 16S rRNA gene copies g−1 using Gallionella-specific qPCR primers), while high numbers of Fe(III) reducers (109 cells/g) were identified in both the mat and the flow channel. Phototrophic and nitrate-reducing Fe(II) oxidizers were present as well, although in lower numbers (103 to 104 cells/g). In summary, our data suggest that mainly seasonal changes caused microbial community shifts, while geochemical gradients along the flow path influenced mineral crystallinity. PMID:22865064

  4. Peroxone mineralization of chemical oxygen demand for direct potable water reuse: Kinetics and process control.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D

    2015-04-15

    Mineralization of organics in secondary effluent by the peroxone process was studied at a direct potable water reuse research treatment system serving an occupied four-bedroom, four bath university residence hall apartment. Organic concentrations were measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and kinetic runs were monitored at varying O3/H2O2 dosages and ratios. COD degradation could be accurately described as the parallel pseudo-1st order decay of rapidly and slowly-oxidizable fractions, and effluent COD was reduced to below the detection limit (<0.7 mg/L). At dosages ≥4.6 mg L(-1) h(-1), an O3/H2O2 mass ratio of 3.4-3.8, and initial COD <20 mg/L, a simple first order decay was indicated for both single-passed treated wastewater and recycled mineral water, and a relationship is proposed and demonstrated to estimate the pseudo-first order rate constant for design purposes. At this O3/H2O2 mass ratio, ORP and dissolved ozone were found to be useful process control indicators for monitoring COD mineralization in secondary effluent. Moreover, an average second order rate constant for OH oxidation of secondary effluent organics (measured as MCOD) was found to be 1.24 × 10(7) ± 0.64 × 10(7) M(-1) S(-1). The electric energy demand of the peroxone process is estimated at 1.73-2.49 kW h electric energy for removal of one log COD in 1 m(3) secondary effluent, comparable to the energy required for desalination of medium strength seawater. Advantages/disadvantages of the two processes for municipal wastewater reuse are discussed.

  5. Peroxone mineralization of chemical oxygen demand for direct potable water reuse: Kinetics and process control.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D

    2015-04-15

    Mineralization of organics in secondary effluent by the peroxone process was studied at a direct potable water reuse research treatment system serving an occupied four-bedroom, four bath university residence hall apartment. Organic concentrations were measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and kinetic runs were monitored at varying O3/H2O2 dosages and ratios. COD degradation could be accurately described as the parallel pseudo-1st order decay of rapidly and slowly-oxidizable fractions, and effluent COD was reduced to below the detection limit (<0.7 mg/L). At dosages ≥4.6 mg L(-1) h(-1), an O3/H2O2 mass ratio of 3.4-3.8, and initial COD <20 mg/L, a simple first order decay was indicated for both single-passed treated wastewater and recycled mineral water, and a relationship is proposed and demonstrated to estimate the pseudo-first order rate constant for design purposes. At this O3/H2O2 mass ratio, ORP and dissolved ozone were found to be useful process control indicators for monitoring COD mineralization in secondary effluent. Moreover, an average second order rate constant for OH oxidation of secondary effluent organics (measured as MCOD) was found to be 1.24 × 10(7) ± 0.64 × 10(7) M(-1) S(-1). The electric energy demand of the peroxone process is estimated at 1.73-2.49 kW h electric energy for removal of one log COD in 1 m(3) secondary effluent, comparable to the energy required for desalination of medium strength seawater. Advantages/disadvantages of the two processes for municipal wastewater reuse are discussed. PMID:25704155

  6. Mineral-Water Interface Processes Affecting Uranium Fate in Contaminated Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Widespread uranium contamination of soil, sediments, and groundwater systems has resulted from mining activities, nuclear weapon production, and energy generation. The fate and transport of uranium in such systems is strongly affected by geochemical processes occurring at mineral-water interfaces. I will present a summary of the mineral-water interface processes found to affect uranium fate in example contaminated sediments at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford sites and in related model systems. Processes occurring under oxic conditions will be the primary focus of this talk as under these conditions uranium is most mobile and thus presents the greatest hazard. Three dominant solid-phase uranium species are observed in contaminated soil and sediments at the Hanford site: uranyl silicates, uranyl phosphates, and uranyl adsorbed to clays and iron oxides. In deep sediments, uranyl silicates are found in microfractures in feldspar grains, likely because slow diffusion in such fractures maintains a high silicate activity. Such silicates are also found in waste-impacted shallow sediments and soil; waste fluids or evaporative processes may have generated the silicate activity needed to produce such phases. Uranyl phosphates are less abundant, occurring primarily in shallow sediments exposed to P-bearing waste fluids. However, remediation approaches under consideration may produce substantial quantities of uranyl phosphates in the future. Adsorbed uranyl is dispersed throughout contaminated soils and shallow sediments and likely has the greatest potential for remobilization. Analogue studies show that precipitation of uranyl phosphates is rapid when such phases are supersaturated and that both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation may occur. Specific adsorption of uranyl to minerals is strongly affected by the presence of complexation anions. Carbonate suppresses uranyl adsorption but also forms uranyl-carbonate ternary surface complexes. At conditions below

  7. Characterization of the bacterial flora in mineral waters in upstreaming fluids of deep igneous rock aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, C.; Mau, M.; SchlöMann, M.; Heinicke, J.; Koch, U.

    2007-03-01

    The bacterial community of the mineral spring Wettinquelle in the Vogtland/NW Bohemian region (German-Czech border) was characterized by sequence analysis of amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes. The acidulous spring water consists mostly of old groundwater from deep aquifers, which is mixed with 15-20% young water from upper groundwater horizons. The spring water contains high concentrations of iron, Ca2+ and SO42- ions. A remarkable attribute is the high radon activity of 27 kBq L-1 water. Free escaping spring gas consists mainly of CO2 originating from the mantle, N2 (1.2%) and traces of other gases, like methane and helium. Close relatives of Gallionella ferruginea, a micro-aerobic oxidizer of ferrous iron, contributed most to the clone library. Clones with sequences related to Thiobacillus aquaesulis, members of the Sulfuricurvum-cluster and members of several branches of the OP11 group were present in significantly lower numbers but still with some microdiversity. These bacterial groups, which contributed strongly to the clone library and have known physiology, obviously depend on the oxygen in the younger water and reduced compounds from the below.

  8. Uranium in stream and mineral water of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    PubMed

    Birke, Manfred; Rauch, Uwe; Lorenz, Hans

    2009-12-01

    The concentration of uranium was determined in 944 samples from stream water by the inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) method and represented on a color-shaded contour map. Uranium concentrations in surface water were determined to be between 0.007 μg/l and 43.7 μg/l with median of 0.33 μg/l. The regional distribution of uranium is influenced primarily by lithological and anthropogenic factors. In Mecklenburg, northern Brandenburg, and eastern Schleswig-Holstein, elevated uranium concentrations coincide with the extent of the last Weichselian ice sheet. The maximum concentrations are observed in the surface waters of the old mining districts in the western part of the Ore Mountains and in eastern Thuringia. Elevated concentrations are found in areas of agriculturally used loess soils. These concentrations correlate with the use of phosphate fertilizers. There is a zone of elevated concentrations up to 10.0 μg U/l in the Keuper Sandstone area south of the Thuringian Forest and from northwest of Stuttgart as far as Coburg. The distribution of elevated values in mineral water shows a clear correlation with the elevated values in surface water and the geology of those locations. Bunter and Keuper strata are the most important uranium source.

  9. The maximum water storage capacities in nominally anhydrous minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, T.; Yurimoto, H.

    2012-12-01

    Water is the most important volatile component in the Earth, and affects the physicochemical properties of mantle minerals, e.g. density, elastic property, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, rheological property, melting temperature, melt composition, element partitioning, etc. So many high pressure experiments have been conducted so far to determine the effect of water on mantle minerals. To clarify the maximum water storage capacity in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle is an important issue to discuss the possibility of the existence of water reservoir in the Earth mantle. So we have been clarifying the maximum water storage capacity in mantle minerals using MA-8 type (KAWAI-type) high pressure apparatus and SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy). Upper mantle mineral, olivine can contain ~0.9 wt% H2O in the condition just above 410 km discontinuity in maximum (e.g. Chen et al., 2002; Smyth et al., 2006). On the other hand, mantle transition zone mineral, wadsleyite and ringwoodite can contain significant amount (about 2-3 wt.%) of H2O (e.g. Inoue et al., 1995, 1998, 2010; Kawamoto et al., 1996; Ohtani et al., 2000). But the lower mantle mineral, perovskite can not contain significant amount of H2O, less than ~0.1 wt% (e.g. Murakami et al., 2002; Inoue et al., 2010). In addition, garnet and stishovite also can not contain significant amount of H2O (e.g. Katayama et al., 2003; Mookherjee and Karato, 2010; Litasov et al., 2007). On the other hand, the water storage capacities of mantle minerals are supposed to be significantly coupled with Al by a substitution with Mg2+, Si4+ or Mg2+ + Si4+, because Al3+ is the trivalent cation, and H+ is the monovalent cation. To clarify the degree of the substitution, the water contents and the chemical compositions of Al-bearing minerals in the mantle transition zone and the lower mantle were also determined in the Al-bearing systems with H2O. We will introduce the

  10. Impact of mineral deposition on shrimp, Penaeus monodon in a high alkaline water.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, A; Rajkumar, M; Sun, Jun; Martin, Gary G; Parida, A

    2011-05-01

    This study compares water quality parameters, shrimp growth and mortality rates, and biomass at harvest in two ponds of equal size, seeded with the same density (7 m2) of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and Monodon Baculo Virus (MBV) negative post-larvae (PL)-20 of shrimp, Penaeus monodon in the Vellar estuary of South India. The primary difference between the ponds was the water source; one was filled from the estuary and the second with water from bore wells with high alkalinity. Temperature in both ponds was similar and reached 320C after 185 days of culture. Dissolved oxygen (DO) levels were within the acceptable range although levels in the alkaline pond were near the lower limit for the last 90 days before harvest. Salinity levels were similar in both ponds, above optimal levels, and increased over the 185 days. Alkalinity in the estuarine water was typically <50 ppm and again 200-320 ppm in the alkaline pond. In the alkaline pond, beginning on the 75th day mineral deposits was observed covering all parts of the shrimp including the eye and the inner gill chambers, and by harvest, 42% of the shrimp showed this coating. Elemental analysis identified the major constituents as calcium, phosphorus and manganese. Survival rates in the estuarine-water-fed pond was 92% with a total pond biomass at harvest of 1.65 tons ha-1 compared to survival of 79% in the alkaline pond and a biomass at harvest of 1.020 tons ha-1. When well water must be used, its alkalinity should be monitored and diluted with water from other sources.

  11. Determination of 226Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra and 228Ra in mineral water samples of the Slovak Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durecová, A.; Durec, F.; Bursová, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Slovak Republic is very rich in mineral water sources. In recent years, it has been discovered that a number of mineral waters in the Slovak Republic contain high levels of 226Ra and 228Ra. Moreover, there is a lack of information on 224Ra and 223Ra concentrations in mineral waters as well. The currently approved techniques for alpha emitting radium isotopes are based on radon emanation methods. Due to the long ingrowth periods required by these techniques, any 224Ra and 223Ra in the sample decay away and go undetected. For this reason, we have used an alpha spectrometric method for the simultaneous determination of 226Ra, 223Ra and 224Ra. Radium was concentrated by a lead sulphate co-precipitation. The precipitate was dissolved in EDTA and the radium isotopes were separated from possible interfering radionuclides using barium sulphate micro precipitation. The radium-barium precipitate was filtered and counted by alpha spectrometry. 133Ba was used to quantify the yield by gamma spectrometry. In our laboratory, gamma spectrometry was also used for the determination of 228Ra in mineral water samples. Radium was concentrated by a lead-barium sulphate co-precipitation. 133Ba was used to quantify the yield, found to be 97% on the average, by gamma spectrometry. Furthermore, the committed effective doses for 226Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra, 228Ra intake via ingestion of mineral waters for the members of public were calculated.

  12. Effect of UV radiation and temperature on mineralization and volatilization of coumaphos in water.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Tanu; Singh, Dileep K; Agarwal, H C

    2007-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the dissipation and degradation of coumaphos [O-(3-chloro-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-7-yl) O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate] under different sunlight conditions and at different temperatures. The effect of the ultra violet (UV) component of solar radiation was also studied using quartz tubes in addition to other radiation in the visible range using glass tubes and the results were compared with those obtained under the dark light conditions. Water suspensions of coumaphos were incubated at three temperatures viz. 22 degrees C, 37 degrees C and 53 degrees C in closed systems to study the effect of temperature. Volatilization, mineralization and degradation of coumaphos increased with an increase in temperature and exposure to solar radiation, particularly under the UV component of the solar radiation. Major loss of the pesticide occurred through volatilization. The optimum temperature for the degradation of coumaphos was found to be at 37 degrees C. The data obtained from the mineralization and degradation studies indicated that 53 degrees C crosses the biological range for suitable growth of microorganism. UV radiation exposure along with maintaining temperature at 37 degrees C may prove useful in the dissipation and/or degradation of coumaphos prior to its disposal as waste from cattle dipping vats. PMID:17474015

  13. Effects of Sulphate-Sulphide Mineral Water “Mlječanica” in Patients with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Erceg-Rukavina, Tatjana; Stefanovski, Mihajlo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Arterial hypertension is the main independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease and death. It affects development and course of cerebrovascular insult (CVI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Balneotherapy with sulphide baths was administered to patients having stage I hypertension (BP values 140-159/90-99), with no arrhythmia or pronounced coronary disease. Baths also had advantage in patients having hypertension joined with obesity, diabetes, microangiopathy, and atherosclerosis of peripheral arteries. Goal: Determine the effects of sulphate-sulphide mineral baths on stage I hypertension after 10 days therapy. Materials and methods: Patients having stage I hypertension were sent to “Mlječanica” Institute for rehabilitation. All subjects were treated with kinesitherapy and electrotherapy, while experimental group (n=30) was also treated with 20 minute baths, daily, for period of 10 days. Results: In experimental group BP level lowered in average 10 mmHg after 10-day therapy, and change was evident even after only 5 days. Conclusion: Sulphate-sulphide mineral water “Mlječanica” caused significant (p<0.05) lowering of arterial BP level after 10 days of therapy in patients who had stage I hypertension. PMID:25685078

  14. Application of mineral bed materials during fast pyrolysis of rice husk to improve water-soluble organics production.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Zhong, Z P; Jin, B S; Zheng, A J

    2012-09-01

    Fast pyrolysis of rice husk was performed in a spout-fluid bed to produce water-soluble organics. The effects of mineral bed materials (red brick, calcite, limestone, and dolomite) on yield and quality of organics were evaluated with the help of principal component analysis (PCA). Compared to quartz sand, red brick, limestone, and dolomite increased the yield of the water-soluble organics by 6-55% and the heating value by 16-19%. The relative content of acetic acid was reduced by 23-43% with calcite, limestone and dolomite when compared with quartz sand. The results from PCA showed all minerals enhanced the ring-opening reactions of cellulose into furans and carbonyl compounds rather than into monomeric sugars. Moreover, calcite, limestone, and dolomite displayed the ability to catalyze the degradation of heavy compounds and the demethoxylation reaction of guaiacols into phenols. Minerals, especially limestone and dolomite, were beneficial to the production of water-soluble organics.

  15. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado, using Skylab EREP data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. (Principal Investigator); Prost, G. L.; Knepper, D. H.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Huntley, D.; Weimer, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab photographs are superior to ERTS images for photogeologic interpretation, primarily because of improved resolution. Lithologic contacts can be detected consistently better on Skylab S190A photos than on ERTS images. Color photos are best; red and green band photos are somewhat better than color-infrared photos; infrared band photos are worst. All major geologic structures can be recognized on Skylab imagery. Large folds, even those with very gentle flexures, can be mapped accurately and with confidence. Bedding attitudes of only a few degrees are recognized; vertical exaggeration factor is about 2.5X. Mineral deposits in central Colorado may be indicated on Skylab photos by lineaments and color anomalies, but positive identification of these features is not possible. S190A stereo color photography is adequate for defining drainage divides that in turn define the boundaries and distribution of ground water recharge and discharge areas within a basin.

  16. Mineralization of alkylbenzenesulfonates in water by means of contact glow discharge electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Amano, Ryo; Tezuka, Meguru

    2006-05-01

    Mineralization of aqueous alkylbenzenesulfonates (ABS) was investigated by means of contact glow discharge electrolysis (CGDE). Toluenesulfonic and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acids in a neutral phosphate buffer solution were smoothly degraded and eventually converted to inorganic carbon and sulfate ion when CGDE was conducted under the applied DC voltage of 500 V and current of ca. 90 mA. As the intermediate products, some phenolic compounds were detected as well as carboxylic acids such as oxalate, formate and so on. It was demonstrated that the decay of ABS followed the first-order rate law. Based on the detailed analysis of the hydroxylation products and kinetic consideration, it was assumed that hydroxyl radicals would play a crucial role in the oxidative degradation of aqueous ABS. The features of CGDE as a tool for the removal of organic pollutants in water were discussed in comparison with other physicochemical methods. PMID:16616949

  17. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 13. Mineral Microscopy and Chemistry of Mined and Unmined Porphyry Molybdenum Mineralization Along the Red River, New Mexico: Implications for Ground- and Surface-Water Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoff; Lowers, Heather; Ludington, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Briggs, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This report is one in a series presenting results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized but unmined Straight Creek drainage is being used as an analogue for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity at the mine site prior to mining. This report summarizes results of reconnaissance mineralogical and chemical characterization studies of rock samples collected from the various scars and the Molycorp open pit, and of drill cuttings or drill core from bedrock beneath the scars and adjacent debris fans.

  18. Flow cytometric determination of bacterial populations in bottled natural mineral waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beisker, Wolfgang; Meier, H.

    1998-04-01

    In order to enhance the quality and safety of bottled natural mineral waters, new methodologies besides classical bacteriology have been evaluated. Multi laser flow cytometry has been used to identify bacterial populations based on their DNA content, physiological activity and phylogeny from in situ hybridization with rRNA targeted DNA probes. Due to the low content of organic material in these waters, the bacterial population are under conditions (low ribosome content, low activity, etc.) which makes it hard to detect them flow cytometrically. The numbers of bacteria are in the range between 1000 and 100,000 per ml (for uncarbonated waters). Filtration techniques to enrich the bacterial population have been developed in combination with specific staining and hybridization protocols. First results on some selected brands show, that most bacteria belong to the beta subclass of proteobacteria. If the DNA containing cells (DAPI staining) are counted as 100%, 84% could be stained with a eubacteria probe. From these 84% 68% belong to the beta subclass, 8.2% to the alpha and 0.3% to the gamma subclass of roteobacteria. 8.5% could be identified as cytophaga flexibacter. By optimizing DNA staining with cyanine dyes and enhancing the sensitivity of light scatter detection, the detection limit could be considerably lowered.

  19. Bioremediating oil spills in nutrient poor ocean waters using fertilized clay mineral flakes: some experimental constraints.

    PubMed

    Warr, Laurence N; Friese, André; Schwarz, Florian; Schauer, Frieder; Portier, Ralph J; Basirico, Laura M; Olson, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98%) of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity.

  20. Bioremediating oil spills in nutrient poor ocean waters using fertilized clay mineral flakes: some experimental constraints.

    PubMed

    Warr, Laurence N; Friese, André; Schwarz, Florian; Schauer, Frieder; Portier, Ralph J; Basirico, Laura M; Olson, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98%) of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity. PMID:23864952

  1. Microbial diversity and dynamics of a groundwater and a still bottled natural mineral water.

    PubMed

    França, Luís; Lopéz-Lopéz, Arantxa; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; da Costa, Milton S

    2015-03-01

    The microbial abundance and diversity at source, after bottling and through 6 months of storage of a commercial still natural mineral water were assessed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. The results revealed clear shifts of the dominant communities present in the three different stages. The borehole waters displayed low cell densities that increased 1.5-fold upon bottling and storage, reaching a maximum (6.2 × 10(8)  cells l(-1) ) within 15 days after bottling, but experienced a significant decrease in diversity. In all cases, communities were largely dominated by Bacteria. The culturable heterotrophic community was characterized by recovering 3626 isolates, which were primarily affiliated with the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. This study indicates that bottling and storage induce quantitative and qualitative changes in the microbial assemblages that seem to be similar as revealed by the two sample batches collected on 2 consecutive years. To our knowledge, this is the first study combining culture-independent with culture-dependent methods, and repeated tests to reveal the microbial dynamics occurring from source to stored bottled water.

  2. Bioremediating Oil Spills in Nutrient Poor Ocean Waters Using Fertilized Clay Mineral Flakes: Some Experimental Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Warr, Laurence N.; Friese, André; Schwarz, Florian; Schauer, Frieder; Portier, Ralph J.; Basirico, Laura M.; Olson, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98%) of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity. PMID:23864952

  3. Competition between trees and grasses for both soil water and mineral nitrogen in dry savannas.

    PubMed

    Donzelli, D; De Michele, C; Scholes, R J

    2013-09-01

    The co-existence of trees and grasses in savannas in general can be the result of processes involving competition for resources (e.g. water and nutrients) or differential response to disturbances such as fire, animals and human activities; or a combination of both broad mechanisms. In moist savannas, the tree-grass coexistence is mainly attributed to of disturbances, while in dry savannas, limiting resources are considered the principal mechanism of co-existence. Virtually all theoretical explorations of tree-grass dynamics in dry savannas consider only competition for soil water. Here we investigate whether coexistence could result from a balanced competition for two resources, namely soil water and mineral nitrogen. We introduce a simple dynamical resource-competition model for trees and grasses. We consider two alternative hypotheses: (1) trees are the superior competitors for nitrogen while grasses are superior competitors for water, and (2) vice-versa. We study the model properties under the two hypotheses and test each hypothesis against data from 132 dry savannas in Africa using Kendall's test of independence. We find that Hypothesis 1 gets much more support than Hypothesis 2, and more support than the null hypothesis that neither is operative. We further consider gradients of rainfall and nitrogen availability and find that the Hypothesis 1 model reproduces the observed patterns in nature. We do not consider our results to definitively show that tree-grass coexistence in dry savannas is due to balanced competition for water and nitrogen, but show that this mechanism is a possibility, which cannot be a priori excluded and should thus be considered along with the more traditional explanations.

  4. Opportunistic pathogens and elements of the resistome that are common in bottled mineral water support the need for continuous surveillance.

    PubMed

    Falcone-Dias, Maria Fernanda; Centrón, Daniela; Pavan, Fernando; Moura, Adriana Candido da Silva; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; de Souza, Victor Costa; Farache Filho, Adalberto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura

    2015-01-01

    Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). A total of one hundred and six isolates were recovered from four of these bottled mineral water brands. Betaproteobacteria was predominant followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Ninety percent of the bacteria isolated demonstrated resistance to seventeen of the nineteen antimicrobials tested. These antimicrobials included eight different classes, including 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected for fifty-nine percent of isolates in three water brands at counts up to 103 CFU/ml. Of major concern, the two bottled mineral water harboring opportunistic pathogens were also source of elements of the resistome that could be directly transferred to humans. All these differences found among brands highlight the need for continuous bacteriological surveillance of bottled mineral water.

  5. Deep mineral water accelerates recovery after dehydrating aerobic exercise: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of deep mineral water (DMW) with moderate mineralization on the recovery of physical performance after prolonged dehydrating aerobic exercise in the heat was studied in nine healthy, physically active (VO2max = 45.8 ± 8.4 mL kg−1 min−1) women aged 24.0 ± 3.7 years. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover human study to evaluate the effect of ingestion of natural mineral water extracted from a depth of 689 m on recovery from prolonged fatiguing aerobic running conducted at 30°C. Results Mean body weight decreased by 2.6–2.8% following dehydrating exercise. VO2max was 9% higher after 4 h of recovery after rehydrating with DMW compared with plain water. Leg muscle power recovered better during the slow phase of recovery and was significantly higher after 48 h of recovery after rehydrating with DMW compared with plain water. Conclusions DMW with moderate mineralization was more effective in inducing recovery of aerobic capacity and leg muscle power compared with plain water following prolonged dehydrating aerobic running exercise. PMID:25002835

  6. Role of sulfurous mineral water and sodium hydrosulfide as potent inhibitors of fibrosis in the heart of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    El-Seweidy, Mohamed M; Sadik, Nermin A H; Shaker, Olfat G

    2011-02-01

    This study examined the downstream signaling whereby hyperglycemia may lead to myocardial fibrosis and apoptosis in the left ventricle of diabetic rats. The effects of sulfurous mineral water or sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) as possible modulators were also examined. Sulfurous mineral water (as drinking water) and NaHS (14μmol/kg/day, IP) were administered for 7 week to rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Hyperglycemia, overproduction of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and serum decline in insulin, C-peptide and insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) were observed in diabetic rats. Up-regulation of gene expressions of nuclear factor (NF-κB), profibrogenic growth factor such as transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), matrix metalloproteniase-2 (MMP-2), procollagen-1 and Fas ligand (Fas-L) were observed in the left ventricle of diabetic rats. A linear positive correlation between TGF-β1 and MMP-2 was also detected in diabetic group. An increase in hydroxyproline level and a disturbance in oxidative balance were detected in heart of diabetic rats. Sulfurous mineral water and NaHS treatment possibly, by improving cardiac GSH level, counteracted the enhanced expression of NF-κB, the profibrogenic and apoptotic parameters. Histopathological examination was in accordance with the biochemical and molecular findings of this study. We suggest a novel therapeutic approach of sulfurous mineral water and exogenous supplementation of H(2)S in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  7. Natural radionuclides in Austrian mineral water and their sequential measurement by fast methods.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Gabriele; Wagner, Rosmarie; Katzlberger, Christian

    2008-07-01

    Ten samples of Austrian mineral water were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (238)U and (234)U. The radium isotopes as well as (210)Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore Radium Disks) and (210)Po was determined by alpha-spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette. Uranium was determined by ICP-MS as well as by alpha-spectroscopy after ion separation and microprecipitation with NdF(3). From the measured activity concentrations the committed effective doses for adults and babies were calculated and compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/a given in the EC Drinking Water Directive as a maximum dose. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to the radium isotopes; the dose from (228)Ra in most samples clearly exceeded the dose from (226)Ra.

  8. Migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate used in mineral water bottles.

    PubMed

    Carneado, S; Hernández-Nataren, E; López-Sánchez, J F; Sahuquillo, A

    2015-01-01

    The influence of storage time and temperature on Sb migration from PET bottles into mineral water was studied in short-term tests lasting up to 15 days and long-term studies lasting up to 220 days. Samples purchased were stored in three different coloured bottles: clear (CL), light blue (LB) and dark blue (DB). Sb migration was assayed by HG-AFS for total determination and HPLC-ICP-MS for speciation analysis. Migration studies showed that waters stored at 4 and 20 °C were not subject to Sb migration. At 40 °C there was a significant increase in Sb concentration, although the maximum limit established by the European Union (5.0 μgL(-)(1)) was not exceeded, whereas at 60 °C samples were subject to considerable Sb migration after 30 days of storage. In this case, the maximum limit established by the European Union was exceeded and both Sb (V) and Sb (III) were detected.

  9. A comparison of pre- and post-remediation water quality, Mineral Creek, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, R.L.; Bencala, K.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Walton-Day, K.; Verplanck, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Pre- and post-remediation data sets are used herein to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures implemented in the headwaters of the Mineral Creek watershed, where contamination from hard rock mining has led to elevated metal concentrations and acidic pH. Collection of pre- and post-remediation data sets generally followed the synoptic mass balance approach, in which numerous stream and inflow locations are sampled for the constituents of interest and estimates of streamflow are determined by tracer dilution. The comparison of pre- and post-remediation data sets is confounded by hydrologic effects and the effects of temporal variation. Hydrologic effects arise due to the relatively wet conditions that preceded the collection of pre-remediation data, and the relatively dry conditions associated with the post-remediation data set. This difference leads to a dilution effect in the upper part of the study reach, where pre-remediation concentrations were diluted by rainfall, and a source area effect in the lower part of the study reach, where a smaller portion of the watershed may have been contributing constituent mass during the drier post-remediation period. A second confounding factor, temporal variability, violates the steady-state assumption that underlies the synoptic mass balance approach, leading to false identification of constituent sources and sinks. Despite these complications, remedial actions completed in the Mineral Creek headwaters appear to have led to improvements in stream water quality, as post-remediation profiles of instream load are consistently lower than the pre-remediation profiles over the entire study reach for six of the eight constituents considered (aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc). Concentrations of aluminium, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc remain above chronic aquatic-life standards, however, and additional remedial actions may be needed. Future implementations of the synoptic mass balance approach should be

  10. Wine Valley Inn: A mineral water spa in Calistoga, California. Geothermal-energy-system conceptual design and economic feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-26

    The purpose of this study is to determine the engineering and economic feasibility for utilizing geothermal energy for air conditioning and service water heating at the Wine Valley Inn, a mineral water spa in Calistoga, California. The study evaluates heating, ventilating, air conditioning and water heating systems suitable for direct heat geothermal application. Due to the excellent geothermal temperatures available at this site, the mechanics and economics of a geothermally powered chilled water cooling system are evaluated. The Wine Valley Inn has the resource potential to have one of the few totally geothermal powered air conditioning and water heating systems in the world. This total concept is completely developed. A water plan was prepared to determine the quantity of water required for fresh water well development based on the special requirements of the project. An economic evaluation of the system is included to justify the added capital investment needed to build the geothermally powered mineral spa. Energy payback calculations are presented. A thermal cascade system is proposed to direct the geothermal water through the energy system to first power the chiller, then the space heating system, domestic hot water, the two spas and finally to heat the swimming pool. The Energy Management strategy required to automatically control this cascade process using industrial quality micro-processor equipment is described. Energy Management controls are selected to keep equipment sizing at a minimum, pump only the amount of geothermal water needed and be self balancing.

  11. Areal extent of a plume of mineralized water from a flowing artesian well in Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Bradley G.

    1982-01-01

    A flowing artesian well that taps the Floridan aquifer at Chekika Hammock State Park is contaminating the overlying Biscayne aquifer with saline water. The plume of mineralized water extends approximately 7 miles southeast of the well and ranges in width from 1 to 2 miles. The areal extent of contamination in the primary plume is approximately 12 square miles. The principal ions contaminating the Biscayne aquifer are chloride, sodium, and sulfate. (USGS)

  12. Profiling contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients to evaluate the effects of pesticides and organic and chemical fertilizers on tomato fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masami; Ohta, Yuko; Licang, Sun; Motoyama, Naoki; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-02-15

    In this study, the contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients were measured in tomatoes cultured using organic and chemical fertilizers, with or without pesticides. Mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, respectively, and results were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA). The mineral nutrient and water-soluble metabolite profiles differed between organic and chemical fertilizer applications, which accounted for 88.0% and 55.4%, respectively, of the variation. (1)H-(13)C-hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified aliphatic protons that contributed to the discrimination of PCA. Pesticide application had little effect on mineral nutrient content (except Fe and P), but affected the correlation between mineral nutrients and metabolites. Differences in the content of mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites resulting from different fertilizer and pesticide applications probably affect tomato quality. PMID:25236242

  13. Profiling contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients to evaluate the effects of pesticides and organic and chemical fertilizers on tomato fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masami; Ohta, Yuko; Licang, Sun; Motoyama, Naoki; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-02-15

    In this study, the contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients were measured in tomatoes cultured using organic and chemical fertilizers, with or without pesticides. Mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, respectively, and results were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA). The mineral nutrient and water-soluble metabolite profiles differed between organic and chemical fertilizer applications, which accounted for 88.0% and 55.4%, respectively, of the variation. (1)H-(13)C-hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified aliphatic protons that contributed to the discrimination of PCA. Pesticide application had little effect on mineral nutrient content (except Fe and P), but affected the correlation between mineral nutrients and metabolites. Differences in the content of mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites resulting from different fertilizer and pesticide applications probably affect tomato quality.

  14. The composition of coexisting jarosite-group minerals and water from the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamieson, H.E.; Robinson, C.; Alpers, C.N.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Poustovetov, A.; Lowers, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Jarosite-group minerals accumulate in the form of stalactites and fine-grained mud on massive pyrite in the D drift of the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California. Water samples were collected by placing beakers under the dripping stalactites and by extracting pore water from the mud using a centrifuge. The water is rich in Fe3+ and SO42-, with a pH of approximately 2.1, which is significantly higher than the extremely acidic waters found elsewhere in the mine. Electron-microprobe analysis and X-ray mapping indicate that the small crystals (<10 ??m in diameter) are compositionally zoned with respect to Na and K, and include hydronium jarosite corresponding to the formula (H3O)0.6K0.3 Na0.1Fe3+3 (SO4)2(OH)6. The proton-microprobe analyses indicate that the jarosite-group minerals contain significant amounts of As, Pb and Zn, and minor levels of Bi, Rb, Sb, Se, Sn and Sr. Speciation modeling indicates that the drip waters are supersaturated with respect to jarosite-group minerals. The expected range in composition of jarosite-group solid-solution in equilibrium with the pore water extracted from the mud was found to be consistent with the observed range in composition.

  15. Influence of changing water sources and mineral chemistry on the everglades ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, P.V.; Harvey, J.W.; Crawford, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    Human influences during the previous century increased mineral inputs to the Florida Everglades by changing the sources and chemistry of surface inflows. Biogeochemical responses to this enrichment include changes in the availability of key limiting nutrients such as P, the potential for increased turnover of nutrient pools due to accelerated plant decomposition, and increased rates of mercury methylation associated with sulfate enrichment. Mineral enrichment has also been linked to the loss of sensitive macrophyte species, although dominant Everglades species appear tolerant of a broad range of mineral chemistry. Shifts in periphyton community composition and function provide an especially sensitive indicator of mineral enrichment. Understanding the influence of mineral chemistry on Everglades processes and biota may improve predictions of ecosystem responses to ongoing hydrologic restoration efforts and provide guidelines for protecting remaining mineral-poor areas of this peatland. Copyright ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  16. Mineral saturation and scaling tendencies of waters discharged from wells (>150 şC) in geothermal areas of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarcan, Gültekin

    2005-04-01

    Aqueous species distribution was calculated from the chemical composition of water discharges from 27 selected production wells, with reservoir temperatures >150 şC, in seven geothermal areas including Kızıldere, Salavatlı, Germencik, Kavaklıdere-Sazdere, Salihli-Caferbeyli, Simav, and Tuzla. Twenty-five of the water compositions are relatively dilute with electroconductivity values of 1826 to 7200 μS/cm and are dominated by Na (410 to 2027 mg/kg), Cl (45 to 1882 mg/kg), and alkalinity-CO 2 (491 to 2312 mg/kg). Two water samples from Tuzla are highly saline connate waters with Cl of 35 273 to 44 140 mg/kg and Na of 18 200 to 22 250 mg/kg. Mineral equilibrium modeling indicates that the aquifer waters in these selected geothermal wells, with some exceptions, are oversaturated with respect to calcite, aragonite, and celestite, but undersaturated with respect to gypsum, anhydrite, fluorite, Ca-montmorillonite, anorthite, albite-low, gibbsite, illite, kaolinite, and K-feldspar. The waters are at near saturation with respect to chalcedony, quartz, amorphous silica, dolomite, and strontianite. Calculation of mineral saturation states, geochemical studies, and field observations show that carbonate minerals (calcite, aragonite, and dolomite), amorphous silica, and sulfate minerals (celestite and anhydrite) are most likely to be precipitated as scales in geothermal wells. Assessment of calcite and amorphous silica scaling tendencies for selected well waters indicates that hot injection is favorable for Tuzla well T-2 (˜50-170 şC) and for Kızıldere wells R-1 and KD-6 (around 100 şC). For the other wells, cold injection (<50 şC) is favored if calcite and amorphous silica accumulation is to be avoided in injection wells.

  17. Water quality improvement by natural plant-mineral composites and field temperatures of a eutrophic lake in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung-Hwan, Byung; Kim, Ha-Kyung; Mun, Sun-Ki; Kim, Baik-Ho

    2014-09-01

    To improve the water quality of Shingal Reservoir, a eutrophic lake in South Korea, field tests were performed to assess the influence of water temperature on water quality improvement (WQI) ability of domestic plant-mineral composites (PMCs). Interestingly, Cyanobacterium was found to be dominant even in low-temperature seasons, especially winter leading to more effective for diatom growth. Factors such as phytoplankton, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and phosphorous showed high WQI over 70% at 20 degrees C, but declined to 40% at temperatures above 25 degrees C. WQI for Cyanobacteria decreased with increasing water temperature, whereas for diatoms WQI was 90% regardless of water temperature. Additionally, bacterial density and total nitrogen showed very low WQI without water temperature. Collectively, the results indicate that high water temperature decreased WQI ability of a PMC to control phytoplankton (Microcystis aeruginosa) and increased their ability to control diatoms. PMID:25204051

  18. [Development and Applicability of Analytical Methods for Quantifying Cyanide and Bromic Acid in Mineral Waters].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Yusaku; Kataoka, Yohei; Sano, Yuki; Takizawa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Takahiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    We developed and evaluated methods of quantifying cyanide (cyanide ion and cyanogen chloride) and bromic acid in mineral waters (MW). After performance evaluation, recovery studies were performed on 110 kinds of MW products to examine the applicability of the methods. The approximate proportion of the MW samples, in which the recovery rate of these anionic compounds was within 90 to 110%, was 95% in the cyanide ion and bromic acid analysis and 45% in the cyanogen chloride analysis. We observed low rates of recovery of cyanogen chloride from some MW products with pH values around neutral. To increase the recovery rate, we propose adding phosphoric acid buffer to adjust the pH of these MW samples. The retention times for bromic acid in some MW products differed from that in standard solution. We concluded that carbonic acid influences the retention times. It may be necessary to to exclude carbon dioxide from the MW samples by degassing to synchronize the retention times of bromic acid in the MW samples and the standard solution.

  19. [Development and Applicability of Analytical Methods for Quantifying Cyanide and Bromic Acid in Mineral Waters].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Yusaku; Kataoka, Yohei; Sano, Yuki; Takizawa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Takahiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    We developed and evaluated methods of quantifying cyanide (cyanide ion and cyanogen chloride) and bromic acid in mineral waters (MW). After performance evaluation, recovery studies were performed on 110 kinds of MW products to examine the applicability of the methods. The approximate proportion of the MW samples, in which the recovery rate of these anionic compounds was within 90 to 110%, was 95% in the cyanide ion and bromic acid analysis and 45% in the cyanogen chloride analysis. We observed low rates of recovery of cyanogen chloride from some MW products with pH values around neutral. To increase the recovery rate, we propose adding phosphoric acid buffer to adjust the pH of these MW samples. The retention times for bromic acid in some MW products differed from that in standard solution. We concluded that carbonic acid influences the retention times. It may be necessary to to exclude carbon dioxide from the MW samples by degassing to synchronize the retention times of bromic acid in the MW samples and the standard solution. PMID:26699274

  20. Pseudomonas brenneri sp. nov., a new species isolated from natural mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Baïda, N; Yazourh, A; Singer, E; Izard, D

    2001-06-01

    The vernacular name 'fluorescent Pseudomonas group 97-391' was coined for a group of 11 strains isolated from two French natural mineral waters. All these strains were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. They produced fluorescent pigment (pyoverdin) on King B medium, catalase and cytochrome oxidase. They were not able to accumulate poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. They were capable of respiratory but not fermentative metabolism. DNA-DNA hybridization results and DNA base composition analysis revealed that strains of the 'fluorescent Pseudomonas group 97-391' were members of a new species, for which the name Pseudomonas brenneri sp. nov. (type strain CIP 106646T) is proposed. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness within this group ranged from 70 to 100% with DeltaTm below 1 degree C. The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain was 58 mol%. DNA relatedness with 72 strains representing well-known or partially characterized species of the genus Pseudomonas (sensu stricto) was below 48%. The complete 16S rRNA sequence of the type strain CIP 106646T was determined and compared with those of the type strains of Pseudomonas species. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was inferred from sequence analysis and demonstrated that the new species fell into the 'Pseudomonas fluorescens intrageneric cluster'. The clinical significance of P. brenneri is unknown. PMID:11446518

  1. In situ observations of nanoparticle early development kinetics at mineral-water interfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Y. S.; Lee, B.; Waychunas, G. A.

    2010-10-08

    The early development of nanoparticles at mineral?water interfaces exerts crucial influences on the sequestration and transport of aqueous toxic species originating from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation often occur simultaneously, making it difficult to sort out whether toxic species are transported as free species, sorbed on nanoparticle surfaces, or trapped between aggregated nanoparticles. Here, using a newly developed X-ray scattering setup, we show how homogeneous nucleation and growth can be quantitatively separated from heterogeneous processes under aqueous conditions in real-time. Under conditions found in acid-mine-drainage (at pH 3.6 and [Fe{sup 3+}] = 10{sup -4} M), heterogeneous nucleation of iron oxide nanoparticles on quartz dominated homogeneous nucleation by a factor of 192 (by particle volume). The smallest heterogeneously formed nanoparticles had radii of 1.7 {+-} 0.5 nm, significantly smaller than the size estimated using classical nucleation theory (CNT). Based on the data, the dominant nucleation and growth mechanisms of iron oxide nanoparticles depending on ionic strength were presented. Our findings have implications for the formation and transport of nanoparticles, and thus toxins, in both environmental and biological systems.

  2. [Shmakovka narzan mineral water in the treatment of chronic pyelonephritis in children].

    PubMed

    Olofinskiĭ, L A; Alekseeva, I L

    1990-01-01

    The impact of "Pasechnyĭ" spa of the Shmakovka health resort on the circadian urinary output, renal excretion of magnesium, calcium, nonorganic phosphorus, oxalates, uric acid, phospholipids, acido- and ammoniogenases, daily fluctuations of urinary pH was studied for the first time in 65 children with chronic pyelonephritis. In the presence of spa treatment the authors revealed a 75-100 per cent increase in the circadian urinary output, urinary excretion of magnesium, uric acid, ammonia, titrated acids, a decrease in the levels of calcium, oxalates, nonorganic phosphorus and acidification of the urine at 9 o'clock in the morning mainly in children with primary pyelonephritis and at 9 and 6 o'clock in the morning in patients with concurrent uricosuria. Other parameters were not significantly different from those in the controls. Acidification of the urine in the presence of high uricosuria resulted in crystalluria of urates and oxalates in 26.31 per cent of patients with the concurrent urate diathesis. The water of Shmakovka mineral springs is recommended for patients with primary pyelonephritis, phosphaturia and calcium oxalate crystalluria with alkaline reaction of the urine and unjustified for those who suffered from urate diathesis.

  3. Herminiimonas fonticola gen. nov., sp. nov., a Betaproteobacterium isolated from a source of bottled mineral water.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Chantal; Rainey, Fred A; Nobre, M Fernanda; Pinhal, Isabel; Folhas, Fátima; da Costa, Milton S

    2005-09-01

    Several yellowish-pigmented bacteria with an optimum growth temperature of about 30 degrees C, were recovered from the source (borehole) of bottled mineral water in the Serra da Estrela in Eastern Portugal. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strains S-94T , S-97, S-99 and S-92 indicated that these organisms represent a new species of the Betaproteobacteria that is not closely related to any other known species. The major fatty acids of the strains are 16:1 omega7c and 16:0. Ubiquinone 8 is the major respiratory quinone. The new isolates are strictly organotrophic and aerobic. The new strains only assimilated organic acids, glycine and alanine. Casamino acids and a mixture of all natural amino acids are not used as sole carbon and nitrogen sources; these are used as nitrogen source in the presence of organic acids. On the basis of the phylogenetic analyses, physiological and biochemical characteristics, we are of the opinion that strains S-94T, S-97, S-99 and S-92 represent a new species of a novel genus for which we propose the name Herminiimonas fonticola gen. nov., sp. nov.

  4. [A De-Noising Algorithm for Fluorescence Detection Signal of Mineral Oil in Water by SWT].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-tian; Cheng, Peng-fei; Hou, Pei-guo; Yang, Zhe

    2015-05-01

    Fluorescence analysis is an important means of detecting mineral oil in water pollutants because of high sensitivity, selectivity, ease of design, etc. Noise generated from Photo detector will affect the sensitivity of fluorescence detection system, so the elimination of fluorescence signal noise has been a hot issue. For the fluorescence signal, due to the length increase of the branch set, it produces some boundary issues. The dbN wavelet family can flexibly balance the border issues, retain the useful signals and get. rid of noise, the de-noising effects of dbN families are compared, the db7 wavelet is chosen as the optimal wavelet. The noisy fluorescence signal is statically decomposed into 5 levels via db7 wavelet, and the thresholds are chosen adaptively based on the wavelet entropy theory. The pure fluorescence signal is obtained after the approximation coefficients and detail coefficients quantified by thresholds reconstructed. Compared with the DWT, the signal de-noised via SWT has the advantage of information integrity and time translation invariance.

  5. Geochemistry of thermal/mineral waters in the Clear Lake region, California, and implications for hot dry rock geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Adams, A.I.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Mansfield, J.

    1993-02-01

    Thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region are broadly classified as thermal meteoric and connote types based on chemical and isotopic criteria. Ratios of conservative components such as B/Cl are extremely different among all thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region except for clusters of waters emerging from specific areas such as the Wilbur Springs district and the Agricultural Park area south of Mt. Konocti. In contrast, ratios of conservative components in large, homogeneous geothermal reservoirs are constant. Stable isotope values of Clear Lake region waters show a mixing trend between thermal meteoric and connote end-members. The latter end-member has enriched [delta]D as well as enriched d[sup l8]O, very different from typical high-temperature geothermal reservoir waters. Tritium data and modeling of ages indicate most Clear Lake region waters are 500 to > 10,000 yr., although mixing of old and young components is implied by the data. The age of end-member connate water is probably > 10,000 yr. Subsurface equilibration temperature of most thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region is [le] 150[degrees]C based on chemical geothermometers but it is recognized that Clear Lake region waters are not typical geothermal fluids and that they violate rules of application of many geothermometers. The combined data indicate that no large geothermal reservoir underlies the Clear Lake region and that small localized reservoirs have equilibration temperatures [le] 150[degrees]C (except for Sulphur Bank Mine). Hot dry rock technologies are the best way to commercially exploit the known high temperatures existing beneath the Clear Lake region, particularly within the main Clear Lake volcanic field.

  6. Ground water regimes containing country rock minerals in Southern Kuzbass (case study: Narysk-Ostashkin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domrocheva, E.; Lepokurova, O.

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes the calculation results revealing groundwater in equilibrium to carbonates and aluminosilicate minerals of country rocks in Narysk-Ostashkinsk area. It was proved that groundwater is in nonequilibrium to primary (endogenous) minerals in which they dissolve, however are in equilibrium to clays and carbonates which precipitate in the groundwater. The groundwater composition varies.

  7. 3-D Numerical Modeling as a Tool for Managing Mineral Water Extraction from a Complex Groundwater Basin in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanini, A.; Tanda, M.

    2007-12-01

    The groundwater in Italy plays an important role as drinking water; in fact it covers about the 30% of the national demand (70% in Northern Italy). The mineral water distribution in Italy is an important business with an increasing demand from abroad countries. The mineral water Companies have a great interest in order to increase the water extraction, but for the delicate and complex geology of the subsoil, where such very high quality waters are contained, a particular attention must be paid in order to avoid an excessive lowering of the groundwater reservoirs or great changes in the groundwater flow directions. A big water Company asked our University to set up a numerical model of the groundwater basin, in order to obtain a useful tool which allows to evaluate the strength of the aquifer and to design new extraction wells. The study area is located along Appennini Mountains and it covers a surface of about 18 km2; the topography ranges from 200 to 600 m a.s.l.. In ancient times only a spring with naturally sparkling water was known in the area, but at present the mineral water is extracted from deep pumping wells. The area is characterized by a very complex geology: the subsoil structure is described by a sequence of layers of silt-clay, marl-clay, travertine and alluvial deposit. Different groundwater layers are present and the one with best quality flows in the travertine layer; the natural flow rate seems to be not subjected to seasonal variations. The water age analysis revealed a very old water which means that the mineral aquifers are not directly connected with the meteoric recharge. The Geologists of the Company suggest that the water supply of the mineral aquifers comes from a carbonated unit located in the deep layers of the mountains bordering the spring area. The valley is crossed by a river that does not present connections to the mineral aquifers. Inside the area there are about 30 pumping wells that extract water at different depths. We built a 3

  8. Electronic structure calculations of mercury mobilization from mineral phases and photocatalytic removal from water and the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Da Pieve, Fabiana; Stankowski, Martin; Hogan, Conor

    2014-09-15

    Mercury is a hazardous environmental pollutant mobilized from natural sources, and anthropogenically contaminated and disturbed areas. Current methods to assess mobility and environmental impact are mainly based on field measurements, soil monitoring, and kinetic modelling. In order to understand in detail the extent to which different mineral sources can give rise to mercury release it is necessary to investigate the complexity at the microscopic level and the possible degradation/dissolution processes. In this work, we investigated the potential for mobilization of mercury structurally trapped in three relevant minerals occurring in hot spring environments and mining areas, namely, cinnabar (α-HgS), corderoite (α-Hg3S2Cl2), and mercuric chloride (HgCl2). Quantum chemical methods based on density functional theory as well as more sophisticated approaches are used to assess the possibility of a) direct photoreduction and formation of elemental Hg at the surface of the minerals, providing a path for ready release in the environment; and b) reductive dissolution of the minerals in the presence of solutions containing halogens. Furthermore, we study the use of TiO2 as a potential photocatalyst for decontamination of polluted waters (mainly Hg(2+)-containing species) and air (atmospheric Hg(0)). Our results partially explain the observed pathways of Hg mobilization from relevant minerals and the microscopic mechanisms behind photocatalytic removal of Hg-based pollutants. Possible sources of disagreement with observations are discussed and further improvements to our approach are suggested.

  9. Major and trace element composition of copiapite-group minerals and coexisting water from the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamieson, H.E.; Robinson, C.; Alpers, C.N.; McCleskey, R.B.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Peterson, Ronald C.

    2005-01-01

    Copiapite-group minerals of the general formula AR4 (SO4)6(OH)2??nH2O, where A is predominantly Mg, Fe2+, or 0.67Al3+, R is predominantly Fe3+, and n is typically 20, are among several secondary hydrous Fe sulfates occurring in the inactive mine workings of the massive sulfide deposit at Iron Mountain, CA, a USEPA Superfund site that produces extremely acidic drainage. Samples of copiapite-group minerals, some with coexisting water, were collected from the Richmond mine. Approximately 200 mL of brownish pore water with a pH of -0.9 were extracted through centrifugation from a 10-L sample of moist copiapite-group minerals taken from pyritic muck piles. The pore water is extremely rich in ferric iron (Fe3+=149 g L-1, FeT=162 g L-1 and has a density of 1.52 g mL-1. The composition of the pore water is interpreted in the context of published phase relations in the Fe2O3- SO3-H2O system and previous work on the chemistry of extremely acid mine waters and associated minerals in the Richmond mine. Two distinct members of the copiapite mineral group were identified in the samples with coexisting water: (1) abundant magnesiocopiapite consisting of platy crystals 10 to 50 ??m and (2) minor aluminocopiapite present as smaller platy crystals that form spheroidal aggregates. The average composition (n=5) of the magnesiocopiapite is (Mg0.90Fe0.172+ Zn0.02Cu0.01)???1.10(Fe3.833+Al0.09)???3.92(SO4) 6.00(OH)1.96??20H2O. Bulk compositions determined by digestion and wet-chemical analysis are consistent with the microanalytical results. These results suggest that magnesiocopiapite is the least soluble member of the copiapite group under the prevailing conditions. Micro-PIXE analysis indicates that the copiapite-group minerals in this sample sequester Zn (average 1420 ppm), with lesser amounts of Cu (average 270 ppm) and As (average 64 ppm). ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Trace level determination of beryllium in natural and flavored mineral waters after pre-concentration using activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Kılınç, Ersin; Bakırdere, Sezgin; Yaman, Mehmet

    2011-04-01

    The concentrations of beryllium (Be) in natural and flavored mineral water samples were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) after pre-concentration based on the complexation of Be(+2) with a mixture of acetylacetone (pentane-2,4-dione) plus morin (3,5,7,2',4'-pentaoxyflavone) and adsorption on activated carbon. The adsorbed complex was eluted with 1.5 ml of 2.0 M HNO(3) and evaporated to dryness. After adding 1.5 ml of 2 M HNO(3) and centrifuging, Be in acid solution was determined by FAAS. To remove a number of metals present in water, EDTA was used as a chelating agent. Beryllium in mineral water samples was pre-concentrated by 500-fold, taking 750 ml as initial sample and 1.5 ml as the final volume. The relative standard deviations were sufficiently low for practical purposes and recoveries were up to 85%. Spiking experiments were performed in real samples to establish accuracy and recoveries. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.01 and 0.03 ng ml(-1), respectively. Twenty samples were analyzed for their beryllium content using optimum parameters. The highest concentration of beryllium was found to be 0.94 ± 0.15 ng ml(-1) in a natural mineral water, while beryllium was not detected in five samples.

  11. [The environmental conditions of the Kavkazskie Mineralnye Vody (Caucasian Mineral Waters) health resort region, methods for their monitoring and improvement].

    PubMed

    Evseeva, M M; Rud', N Iu; Pershin, I M

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the unique environmental conditions of the Kavkazskie Mineralnye Vody (Caucasian Mineral Waters) health resort region with special reference to its paramount importance for the national interests of Russia. It is emphasized, however, that the environmental conditions in the region under consideration are far from being satisfactory. In connection with this, the authors point out to the necessity of expanding areas of protective forest stands and prohibition of the implementation of new building projects in the frontal mountain sanitary zones; they draw special attention to the potential danger of degradation of mineral water springs under the influence of changes in the distribution of vertical hydraulic gradients in the upper part of the lithosphere leading to the deterioration of their composition and the contamination of ground and surface waters with municipal and domestic effluents. Special attention is given to the harm and impermissibility of illegal extraction of mineral waters from producing wells. An original method for water quality control and estimation of the optimal production rate is proposed. The authors hypothesize the possible causes behind the discontinuation of mud formation at the Tambukan deposits and substantiate the necessity of using the resource-saving technologies for processing raw materials and urgent measures to eliminate the factors responsible for desalination and pollution of this mineral mud lake. It is concluded that strict state control should be exercised in the region by means of the introduction of the multilevel automated information system for round-the-clock environmental monitoring. The authors believe that only joint efforts of scientists, legislative and executive authorities can preserve Kavkazskie Mineralnye Vody health resort region for the future generations.

  12. Supplementation of Acqua Lete® (Bicarbonate Calcic Mineral Water) improves hydration status in athletes after short term anaerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Experimental studies suggest that mineral waters with high concentrations of calcium and bicarbonate can impact acid–base balance. The purpose of this study was to test the effect on acid–base balance and specific urine gravity, of a bicarbonate calcic mineral water (Acqua Lete®) compared to a minimally mineralized water. Methods 88 amateur male athletes underwent two experimental trials with a modified Wingate test: the first was carried out without hydration (Control Test, Test C, n = 88); the second was carried out after one week of controlled hydration (Test with hydration, Test H, n = 88), with 1.5 L/day of a very low mineral content water (Group A, n = 44) or 1.5 L/day of Acqua Lete® (Group B, n = 44). Measure of body temperature, bioimpedance analysis, muscular ultrasound, and urinalysis were taken before (t0), immediately after (t1), 5’ (t2), and 30’ (t3) after exercise. Results Hydration results in a decreased core temperature; muscular ultrasound showed increased muscle thickness after exercise related to content of body water. Regarding urinalysis, in test H, we found in both groups after exercise a significant decrease of specific urine gravity with significantly lower levels in Group B. We also found a significant increase of pH in the same Group B. Conclusions In conclusion all the athletes hydrated with Acqua Lete® showed a positive impact on hydration status after anaerobic exercise with significant decrease of specific urine gravity and a positive effect on pH. PMID:22835267

  13. The influence of water table position on soil microbial processes and carbon mineralization in a mid-latitude spruce peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, A. L.; Finzi, A.

    2013-12-01

    High latitude forest and peatland soils represent a major global carbon store sensitive to the impacts of global climate change. While increased temperatures may impact rates of microbial enzyme activity and greenhouse gas release from peat soils, the interaction between increased temperatures and changing precipitation patterns is projected to simultaneously reduce soil moisture and water table (WT) height in high latitude peatlands. WT reduction increases oxygen diffusion within the peat profile and potentially impacts (1) microbial activity and enzyme production, and (2) the rate of carbon mineralization and greenhouse gas emission. We performed an experiment investigating the influence temperature and available oxygen on rates of microbial enzyme activity and carbon mineralization across a 0-40 cm depth-to-water-table gradient in Caribou Bog, Orono, ME. We incubated peat samples acrotelm and catotelm peat samples at four temperatures and three oxygen concentrations for 28 days in order to investigate the temperature and oxygen sensitivity of extracellular enzyme activity and carbon gas emission. We assayed rates of four hydrolytic and two oxidative exoenzymes that depolymerize carbon (C), nitrogen (N), or phosphorus (P) and compared enzymatic activity to rates of carbon mineralization and CO2 production in incubated samples. Microbial biomass increased significantly with water table depth and incubation temperature, but did not vary significantly with sampling depth or [O2]. In contrast, hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme activity consistently decreased with sampling depth, but did not typically vary significantly with site water table position. The chitinase, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, however, demonstrated significantly higher activity at low water table sites than high water table sites, potentially due to high fungal abundances at low water table height. Enzyme activity increased with temperature, although increases were not significant above 21°C and weakly

  14. The interaction between decomposition, net N and P mineralization and their mobilization to the surface water in fens.

    PubMed

    Geurts, Jeroen J M; Smolders, Alfons J P; Banach, Artur M; van de Graaf, Jan P M; Roelofs, Jan G M; Lamers, Leon P M

    2010-06-01

    Worldwide, fens and peat lakes that used to be peat-forming systems have become a significant source of C, N and P due to increased peat decomposition. To test the hypothesis that net nutrient mineralization rates may be uncoupled from decomposition rates, we investigated decomposition and net mineralization rates of nutrients in relation to sediment and pore water characteristics. We incubated 28 non-calcareous peat sediments and floating fen soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We also tried to find a simple indicator to estimate the potential nutrient mobilization rates from peat sediments to the water layer by studying their relation with sediment and pore water characteristics in 44 Dutch non-calcareous peat lakes and ditches. Decomposition rates were primarily determined by the organic matter content, and were higher under aerobic conditions. However, highly decomposed peat sediments with low C:P and C:N ratios still showed high net nutrient mineralization rates. At Fe:PO(4) ratios below 1molmol(-1), PO(4) mobilization from the sediment to the water layer was considerable and linearly related to the pore water PO(4) concentration. At higher ratios, there was a strong linear correlation between the Fe:PO(4) ratio and PO(4) mobilization. Hence, measuring Fe and PO(4) in anaerobic sediment pore water provides a powerful tool for a quick assessment of internal PO(4) fluxes. Mobilization of mineral N was largely determined by diffusion. Total sediment Fe:S ratios gave an important indication of the amount of Fe that is available to immobilize PO(4). Pore water Fe concentrations decreased at ratios <1molmol(-1), whereas pore water PO(4) concentrations and PO(4) mobilization to the water layer increased. As PO(4) mobilization rates from the sediment to the water layer contribute to almost half of the total P load in Dutch peat lakes and fens, it is of pivotal importance to examine the magnitude of internal fluxes. Dredging of the nutrient-rich upper

  15. CO2 hydrate nucleation kinetics enhanced by an organo-mineral complex formed at the montmorillonite-water interface.

    PubMed

    Kyung, Daeseung; Lim, Hyung-Kyu; Kim, Hyungjun; Lee, Woojin

    2015-01-20

    In this study, we investigated experimentally and computationally the effect of organo-mineral complexes on the nucleation kinetics of CO2 hydrate. These complexes formed via adsorption of zwitter-ionic glycine (Gly-zw) onto the surface of sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT). The electrostatic attraction between the −NH3(+) group of Gly-zw, and the negatively charged Na-MMT surface, provides the thermodynamic driving force for the organo-mineral complexation. We suggest that the complexation of Gly-zw on the Na-MMT surface accelerates CO2 hydrate nucleation kinetics by increasing the mineral–water interfacial area (thus increasing the number of effective hydrate-nucleation sites), and also by suppressing the thermal fluctuation of solvated Na(+) (a well-known hydrate formation inhibitor) in the vicinity of the mineral surface by coordinating with the −COO(–) groups of Gly-zw. We further confirmed that the local density of hydrate-forming molecules (i.e., reactants of CO2 and water) at the mineral surface (regardless of the presence of Gly-zw) becomes greater than that of bulk phase. This is expected to promote the hydrate nucleation kinetics at the surface. Our study sheds new light on CO2 hydrate nucleation kinetics in heterogeneous marine environments, and could provide knowledge fundamental to successful CO2 sequestration under seabed sediments.

  16. Use of fracture filling mineral assemblages for characterizing water-rock interactions during exhumation of an accretionary complex: An example from the Shimanto Belt, southern Kyushu Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Takuya; Yoshida, Hidekazu; Metcalfe, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Various fracture filling minerals and secondary minerals in fracture walls were formed by fluid-rock interaction during the exhumation of the Palaeogene Shimanto Belt of Kyushu, Japan, which is located in an accretionary complex. Each mineral formed under favourable geological conditions and can be used to estimate the conditions of accretion and formation of the related rock sequences. Petrographic observations, mineralogical and geochemical analyses were made on fracture filling minerals and secondary minerals from boreholes of ca. 140 m depth, drilled in the Shimanto Belt. Results reveal that the secondary minerals were formed in three major stages distinguished by the sequential textural relationships of the minerals and the interpreted environment of mineral formation. Filling mineral assemblages show that the studied rock formation has been subducted to a depth of several km and the temperature reached was ca. 200-300 °C. After the subduction, the rock formation was uplifted and surface acidic water penetrated up to 80 m beneath the present ground surface. The acid water dissolved calcite fracture filling minerals to form the present groundwater flow-paths, which allowed recent wall rock alteration to occur. The results shown here imply that filling mineral assemblages can be an effective tool to evaluate the environmental changes during exhumation of an accretionary complex.

  17. Effect of chemical environment on the dynamics of water confined in calcium silicate minerals: natural and synthetic tobermorite.

    PubMed

    Monasterio, Manuel; Gaitero, Juan J; Manzano, Hegoi; Dolado, Jorge S; Cerveny, Silvina

    2015-05-01

    Confined water in the slit mesopores of the mineral tobermorite provides an excellent model system for analyzing the dynamic properties of water confined in cement-like materials. In this work, we use broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) to analyze the dynamic of water entrapped in this crystalline material. Two samples, one natural and one synthetic, were analyzed, and despite their similar structure, the motion of confined water in their zeolitic cavity displays considerably different behavior. The water dynamics splits into two different behaviors depending on the chemical nature of the otherwise identical structural environment: water molecules located in areas where the primary building units are SiO4 relax slowly compared to water molecules located in cavities built with both AlO4 and SiO4. Compared to water confined in regular porous systems, water restricted in tobermorite is slower, indicating that the mesopore structure induces high disorder in the water structure. A comparison with water confined in the C-S-H gel is also discussed in this work. The strong dynamical changes in water due to the presence of aluminum might have important implications in the chemical transport of ions within hydrated calcium silicates, a process that governs the leaching and chemical degradation of cement.

  18. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of calcium and magnesium in mineral waters by means of multivariate partial least-squares regression.

    PubMed

    Blasco, F; Medina-Hernández, M J; Sagrado, S; Fernández, F M

    1997-07-01

    A method for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of calcium and magnesium in mineral waters using multivariate calibration methods is proposed. The method is based on the development of the reaction between the analytes and Methylthymol Blue at pH 11. Two operational modes were used: static (spectral information) and flow injection (FI) (spectral and kinetic information). The selection of variables was studied. A series of synthetic solutions containing different concentrations of calcium and magnesium were used to check the prediction ability of the partial least-squares models. The method was applied to the analysis of mineral waters and the results were compared with those obtained by complexometry. No significant differences at the 95% confidence level were found. The proposed method is simple, accurate and reproducible, and it could be easily adapted as a portable (static mode) or automatic (FI) method.

  19. Determination of minerals extracted from several commercial teas (Camellia sinensis) to hot water (infusion).

    PubMed

    Gezgin, Sait; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Atalay, Emine

    2006-01-01

    Mineral contents of some tea and their infusions drunk in Turkey were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The Al, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, P, and S contents were very high in both infusions and tea (i.e., pieces of the tea plant). The As, Cd, Cr, Li, Pb, and Se contents of infusion and tea were found to be very low. The level of K of all samples is higher than those of other minerals. Generally, mineral contents of tea were found to be higher than those of tea infusions. In addition, the health benefits of teas and knowledge of their mineral contents are of great interest and may be useful for further study of enzyme systems and vital biochemical functions. PMID:16579740

  20. Can Hydrous Minerals Account for the Observed Mid-Latitude Water on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Fialips, C.; Carey, J. W.; Feldman, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    Clays, zeolites, and Mg-sulfates are all phases that could potentially retain H2O in martian regolith. The nature of the hydrogen-containing material observed in the equatorial martian regolith is of particular importance to the question of whether hydrous minerals have formed in the past on Mars. Also, whether these minerals exist in a hydrated (i.e., containing H2O molecules in their structures) or dehydrated state is a crucial question. The purpose of this communication is to estimate the possible magnitude of the H2O reservoir constituted by these H2O-bearing minerals. In other words, can minerals containing H2O and/or OH such clays, zeolites, or Mg-sulfates, reasonably be expected to account for the amounts of near-equatorial H2O-equivalent hydrogen recently documented by Mars Odyssey?

  1. Inactivation effects of UV irradiation and ozone treatment on the yeast and the mold in mineral water.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M; Masaki, H; Mori, T; Tsuchiya, T; Konuma, H; Hara-Kudo, Y; Takatori, K

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, bottled mineral water has undergone inactivation by methods other than the traditional heat treatment during the production process; there are fewer reports of the effectiveness of these inactivation methods on yeasts and molds in mineral water than on bacteria and protozoan oocysts. In this study, we evaluated the effects of UV irradiation and ozone treatment compared with heat treatment at 85 degrees C on yeast cells and mold spores inoculated into mineral water. A 5-log reduction occurred at a UV radiation dose of 31,433 microJ/cm2 for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and at 588,285 microJ/cm2 for Penicillium pinophilum. The treatment time for 5-log reduction estimated for UV irradiation was about 0.6 min for S. cerevisiae and about 10.7 min for P. pinophilum; at an ozone concentration of 0.1 ppm, it was 1.75 min for S. cerevisiae and 2.70 min for P. pinophilum, and at a concentration of 0.6 ppm, it was 0.32 min for S. cerevisiae and 0.57 min for P. pinophilum. Comparison of the inactivation effects among the three methods showed that UV irradiation and ozone treatment were less effective than heat treatment at 85 degrees C. Thus, when UV irradiation and ozone treatment are used for inactivation of mineral water, it seems that they need to be combined with heat treatment to achieve a definite effect. Yeast cells are more sensitive to all three inactivation methods than are mold spores, and the sensitivity of yeast cells and mold spores to these inactivation methods may vary among genera.

  2. The relationships between two different drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis and bone mineral density of children.

    PubMed

    Grobler, S R; Louw, A J; Chikte, U M E; Rossouw, R J; van W Kotze, T J

    2009-04-03

    This field study included the whole population of children aged 10-15 years (77 from a 0.19 mg/L F area; 89 from a 3.00 mg/L F area), with similar nutritional, dietary habits and similar ethnic and socioeconomic status. The fluoride concentration in the drinking water, the bone mineral content, the bone density and the degree of dental fluorosis were determined. The left radius was measured for bone width, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density. The mean fluorosis score was 1.3 in the low fluoride area and 3,6 in the high fluoride area. More than half the children in the low fluoride area had no fluorosis (scores 0 and 1) while only 5% in the high fluoride area had none. Severe fluorosis (30%) was only observed in the high fluoride area. The Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test indicated that fluorosis levels differed significantly (p < 0.05) between the two areas. No relationships were found between dental fluorosis and bone width or between fluorosis and bone mineral density in the two areas (Spearment Rank correlations). A significant increase in bone width was found with age but no differences amongst and boys and girls. A significant positive correlation was found in the high fluoride area between bone mineral density over age. In the 12-13 and 13-14 year age groups in the high fluoride area, girls had higher bone mineral densities. However, a significant negative correlation (p<0.02) was found for the low fluoride area (0.19 mg/L F) over age.

  3. [Mineral-based alkaline waters' prescription in France: Patients are the key point for both nephrologists and urologists].

    PubMed

    Citarda, Salvatore; Hanf, William; Vrigneaud, Laurence; Bataille, Stanislas; Gosselin, Morgane; Beaume, Julie; Dariane, Charles; Madec, François-Xavier; Larceneux, Fabrice; Fiard, Gaëlle; Bertocchio, Jean-Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Alkali therapy is frequently used during chronic kidney disease and nephrolithiasis: nephrologists and urologists are the key operators. Very few is known about the underlying conditions of such a prescription: the aim of this study was to delineate those determinants. We conducted a prospective survey where French nephrologists and urologists were involved. Responders were without gender distinction and principally nephrologists. Prescription frequency was associated with gender (women), specialty (nephrologists), indications and perceived efficiency. Urologists prescribe more often during nephrolithiasis and nephrologists during chronic kidney disease. Urologists were more expert (by scoring on mineral-based alkaline waters compositions knowledge). By multivariate analysis, prescription frequency is associated with gender (women), indications and perceived efficiency by prescribers, which is itself influenced by feedback from patients. These results could have been influenced by a huge representation of nephrologists but foster physicians to go on listening to feedback from patients, due to a lack of clinical trials on the efficiency of mineral-based alkaline waters in such a field. Finally, physicians' education (especially young nephrologists) on mineral-based alkaline waters should be intensified. PMID:26563589

  4. Silicon-rich mineral water as a non-invasive test of the 'aluminum hypothesis' in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Davenward, Samantha; Bentham, Peter; Wright, Jan; Crome, Peter; Job, Deborah; Polwart, Anthony; Exley, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    There has been a plausible link between human exposure to aluminum and Alzheimer's disease for several decades. We contend that the only direct and ethically acceptable experimental test of the 'aluminum hypothesis', which would provide unequivocal data specific to the link, is to test the null hypothesis that a reduction in the body burden of aluminum to its lowest practical limit would have no influence upon the incidence, progression, or severity of Alzheimer's disease. Herein we are testing the hypothesis that silicon-rich mineral waters can be used as non-invasive methods to reduce the body burden of aluminum in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and a control group consisting of their carers and partners. We have shown that drinking up to 1 L of a silicon-rich mineral water each day for 12 weeks facilitated the removal of aluminum via the urine in both patient and control groups without any concomitant affect upon the urinary excretion of the essential metals, iron and copper. We have provided preliminary evidence that over 12 weeks of silicon-rich mineral water therapy the body burden of aluminum fell in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and, concomitantly, cognitive performance showed clinically relevant improvements in at least 3 out of 15 individuals. This is a first step in a much needed rigorous test of the 'aluminum hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease' and a longer term study involving many more individuals is now warranted.

  5. Chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal waters in Anatolia, Turkey: A link to fluid-mineral equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu, Halim; Gülec, Nilgün; Hilton, David R.

    2015-04-01

    The complex magmato-tectonic setting of Turkey has resulted in the occurrence of numerous geothermal fields with distinct chemical and isotopic fluid compositions. We evaluate the data on these fluids in terms of water-rock interaction, mineral equilibrium conditions and reservoir temperatures of each geothermal field. The Ca-HCO3 rich nature of most waters is ascribed to derivation from carbonate-type reservoir rocks. SO4-type waters are found in areas where the reservoir is partly comprised of evaporite units. Na-Cl type waters are characteristic for the coastal areas of west Anatolia. Chemical geothermometer applications estimate average reservoir temperatures of 180 °C for the western Anatolian region, 120 °C for the Balıkesir region, 130 °C for the eastern Anatolian region, 140 °C for the North Anatolian Fault Zone and 70 °C for the Eskişehir region. For most of the waters, chalcedony controls the silica solubility and the majority of waters are equilibrated with calcite and chalcedony minerals. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions (-13.5 to -4 permil (VSMOW) and -95.4 to -23 permil (VSMOW), respectively) are generally conformable with Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL); however, stable isotope systematics of geothermal waters close to the coast are consistent with the Mediterranean Meteoric Water Line (MMWL). Carbon and sulfur isotope compositions (δ13C (VPDB): -17.7 to +5.6 permil and δ34S (VCDT): -5.5 to +45.7 permil) suggest marine carbonates and terrestrial evaporite units as the main source of dissolved carbon and sulfate in the waters.

  6. Influence of mineral colloids and humic substances on uranium(VI) transport in water-saturated geologic porous media.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Cheng, Tao; Wu, Yang

    2014-12-01

    Mineral colloids and humic substances often co-exist in subsurface environment and substantially influence uranium (U) transport. However, the combined effects of mineral colloids and humic substances on U transport are not clear. This study is aimed at quantifying U transport and elucidating geochemical processes that control U transport when both mineral colloids and humic acid (HA) are present. U-spiked solutions/suspensions were injected into water-saturated sand columns, and U and colloid concentrations in column effluent were monitored. We found that HA promoted U transport via (i) formation of aqueous U-HA complexes, and (ii) competition against aqueous U for surface sites on transport media. Illite colloids had no influence on U transport at pH5 in the absence of HA due to low mobility of the colloids. At pH9, U desorbed from mobile illite and the presence of illite decreased U transport. At pH5, high U transport occurred when both illite colloids and HA were present, which was attributed to enhanced U adsorption to illite colloids via formation of ternary illite-HA-U surface complexes, and enhanced illite transport due to HA attachment to illite and transport media. This study demonstrates that the combined effects of mineral colloids and HA on contaminant transport is different from simple addition of the individual effect.

  7. Bioelectro-Fenton: A sustainable integrated process for removal of organic pollutants from water: Application to mineralization of metoprolol.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Vargas, Hugo; Cocerva, Tatiana; Oturan, Nihal; Buisson, Didier; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2016-12-01

    The relevant environmental hazard related to the presence of pharmaceuticals in water sources requires the development of high effective and suitable wastewater treatment technologies. In the present work, a hybrid process coupling electro-Fenton (EF) process and aerobic biological treatment (Bio-EF process) was implemented for the efficient and cost-effective mineralization of beta-blocker metoprolol (MPTL) aqueous solutions. Firstly, operating factors influencing EF process were assessed. MTPL solutions were completely mineralized after 4h-electrolysis under optimal operating conditions and BDD anode demonstrated its oxidation superiority. The absolute rate constant of MTPL oxidation byOH (kMTPL) was determined by the competition kinetics method and found to be (1.72±0.04)×10(9)M(-1)s(-1). A reaction pathway for the mineralization of the drug was proposed based on the identification of oxidation by-products. Secondly, EF process was used as pre-treatment. An increase of BOD5/COD ratio from 0.012 to 0.44 was obtained after 1h EF treatment, along with 47% TOC removal and a significant decrease of toxicity, demonstrating the feasibility of a post-biological treatment. Finally, biological treatment successfully oxidized 43% of the total TOC content. An overall 90% mineralization of MPTL solutions was achieved by the Bio-EF process, demonstrating its potentiality for treating wastewater containing pharmaceutical residues. PMID:26707983

  8. Assessing Water Management of Mining Effluent Using Temporal and Spatial Hydrologic Analyses: The Case of QIT Madagascar Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoagland, N. E.

    2013-12-01

    Associated with the commencement of any water-intensive mining operation is the formation of a set of policies, standards, and sampling protocols that guide the management of all water resources connected to the mining facility, surrounding environment, and affected communities. This study explores the interface between corporate water management and hydrologic methods by evaluating changes in water quality over the course of the mining cycle at QIT Madagascar Minerals (QMM) in Tolagnaro, Madagascar. Sampling and lab research of processed water were conducted following established QMM procedures and then analyzed in conjunction with the complete QMM water quality database. Water quality was analyzed spatially to exhibit how processed water changes as it moves throughout the mining cycle before release into the environment. Graphical representation of the spatial changes in various parameters exhibit deterioration in water quality relative to the source, improvement in quality before being released as effluent, and natural remediation by wetlands before discharge into the Mandromondromotra River. In addition, water quality parameters were evaluated temporally, using data supplied by QMM's Service de l'Eau et Déchets. Yearly and monthly comparisons of hydrological parameters highlight data gaps, the effects of seasonality, and the evolution of water quality monitoring at QMM. Technical evaluation of processed water as it flows through the mining system provides insight into how water monitoring and management can best be adapted at the corporate level to prevent negative impacts on the environment. Water quality data for various parameters from April 2013 at each of the sampling locations. The graphs highlight spatial changes in parameters as water moves from the sources (WD90, Paddock 3), to sites on the mine (500M, Basmin, SCC2), to release points (WMC703, WMC803), to discharge points into the MMM River.

  9. Interaction among minerals, organics and water in comets: insights from Antarctic micrometeorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagahara, Hiroko; Noguchi, Takaaki; Yabuta, Hikaru; Itoh, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Mitsunari, Takuya; Okubo, Aya; Okazaki, Ryuji; Nakamura, Tomoki; Tachibana, Shogo; Terada, Kentaro; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Imae, Naoya; Kimura, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    supplied from organics or carbon dioxide and/or methane ice. Finally, the assemblage of micrometeorites becomes Mg-saponite, magnetite, and carbonates, of which mineral assemblage and chemical compositions are very similar to those of primitive carbonaceous chondrites. Stages I and II should have taken place at ~0 °C and almost instantaneously, probably in hours to days, in order to prevent total aqueous alteration of silicates. Therefore, most plausible process would be transient heat-ing by an impact. On the other hand, Stage III was at a little higher temperature in order to homogenize Mg and Fe in heterogeneous phyllosilicates and/or lasted for a little longer duration. A possible process may be either by a shock or approaching of cometary bodies to the Sun. However, we should evaluate the temperature and dura-tion very carefully, because the Rosetta mission showed us extremely porous nature of comets. It should be noted that the final products of aqueous reactions shown in the present study are the same as those of primitive carbonaceous chondrites. More compact nature of chondrites and probably higher temperature by short-lived radio-isotopes resulted in pervasive water flow in the bodies and through alteration of silicates into phyllosilicates.

  10. Effects of mineral composition of drinking water on risk for stone formation and bone metabolism in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Marangella, M; Vitale, C; Petrarulo, M; Rovera, L; Dutto, F

    1996-09-01

    1. To assess whether the mineral content of drinking water influences both risk of stone formation and bone metabolism in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis, 21 patients were switched from their usual home diets to a 10 mmol calcium, low-oxalate, protein-controlled diet, supplemented with 21 of three different types of mineral water. Drinking water added 1, 6 and 20 mmol of calcium and 0.5, 10 and 50 mmol of bicarbonate respectively to the controlled diet. 2. The three controlled study periods lasted 1 month each and were separated by a 20 day washout interval. Blood and urine chemistries, including intact parathyroid hormone, calcitriol and two markers of bone resorption, were performed at the end of each study period. The stone-forming risk was assessed by calculating urine saturation with calcium oxalate (beta CaOx), calcium phosphate (beta bsh) and uric acid (beta UA). 3. The addition of any mineral water produced the expected increase in urine output and was associated with similar decreases in beta CaOx and beta UA, whereas beta bsh varied marginally. These equal decreases in beta CaOx, however, resulted from peculiar changes in calcium, oxalate and citrate excretion during each study period. The increase in overall calcium intake due to different drinking water induced modest increases in calcium excretion, whereas oxalate excretion tended to decrease. The changes in oxalate excretion during any one study period compared with another were significantly related to those in calcium intake. Citrate excretion was significantly higher with the high-calcium, alkaline water. 4. Parathyroid hormone, calcitriol and markers of bone resorption increased when patients were changed from the high-calcium, alkaline to the low-calcium drinking water. 5. We suggest that overall calcium intake may be tailored by supplying calcium in drinking water. Adverse effects on bone turnover with low-calcium diets can be prevented by giving high-calcium, alkaline drinking water, and the

  11. Determination of δ2H and δ18O in mineral water based on Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonietto, G.; Godoy, J.; Godoy, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Stable isotopes of water are proven indicators, tracers and recorders of processes that affect the hydrologic cycle. Measurements of the stable isotope ratios (δ2H, δ18O and δ17O) of both liquid water and water vapor are widely used in hydrology, atmospheric sciences, and biogeochemistry to determine the migration of water through an ecosystem. Application of the method to Brazilian bottled mineral water has shown that it is possible to trace the origin of the water to at least the state level within Brazilian geographical regions. National and regional meteoric water lines were constructed with substantial differences between geographical regions, in particular for the central region of the country, with a slope coefficient of approximately seven and no deuterium excess. The repeatability, reproducibility and accuracy of the direct measurement of δ2H and δ18O isotopes in water samples were evaluated using Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometry, and values comparable with the Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry were obtained. Memory effect correction was negligible after five successive injections, and the time for each sample analysis was approximately 7 minutes. The new high throughput method measures isotopologues of water with a typical precision of better than 0.15‰ for δ18O and better than 0.6‰ for δ2H.

  12. State of Water Molecules and Silanol Groups in Opal Minerals: a Near Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Opals from Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobon, Miroslav; Christy, Alfred A.; Kluvanec, Daniel; Illasova, L'udmila

    2011-06-01

    Recently near infrared spectroscopy in combination with double derivative technique has been effectively used by Christy [1] to differentiate between free silanol groups and hydrogen bonded silanol groups on silica gel. The method has given some insight into the type of functionalities and their location in silica gel samples. The inportant information in this respect comes from the overtones of the OH groups of water molecules hydrogen bonded to free silanol groups, and hydrogen bonded silanol groups absorbing in the region 5500- 5100 Cm-1 region. The approach was adapted to study the state of water and silanol functionalities and their locations in opals from Slovakia. Twenty opal samples classified into CT and A classes and one quartz sample were used in this work. The samples were crushed using a hydrolic press and powderised. Each sample was then subjected to evacuation process to remove surface adsorbed water at 200°C and the near infrared spectrum of the sample was measured using a Perkin Elmer NTS near infrared spectrometer equipped with a transflectance accessory. The detailed analysis of the sample was carried out using the second derivative profile of the spectrum. The samples were also heated to 750°C to study the state of water molecules in Opal minerals. The results indicate that the opal samples contain 1) surface adsorbed water 2) free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups on the surface 3) Trapped water in the bulk 4) free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups in the cavity surfaces in the bulk. A part of the water molecules found in the bulk of opal minerals are free molecules and the rest are found in hydrogen bonded state to free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups. [1] A. A. Christy, New insights into the surface functionalities and adsorption evolution of water molecules on silica gel surface: A study by second derivative Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Vib. Spectrosc. 54 (2010) 42-49.

  13. Pore water evolution during sediment burial from isotopic and mineral chemistry of calcite, dolomite and siderite concretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, C. D.; Coleman, M. L.; Love, L. G.

    1986-10-01

    Coal measures often contain concretions; segregations of diagenetic minerals originally formed within unconsolidated sediments. Three different types (calcite/pyrite, dolomite/pyrite and siderite) occurring spatially quite close together in the Central Pennine Region of England vary widely in carbon isotope composition (+10.35%. > δ13C > -21.49%.) and in major cation chemistry (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn). Within some siderite concretions, very high Mn/Fe ratios were found in central subsamples; these were also most enriched in 13C. The Fe/Mg ratio decreases systematically from centre to edge (early, shallow to deeper, later precipitation). The calcite/pyrite and dolomite/pyrite concretions developed completely prior to significant burial. Both have high Mn/Fe ratios but negative δ 13C values (calcite -21.49%., dolomite -8.67 to -10.48%.). All of these patterns can be equated precisely with theories of pore water evolution developed on the basis of geochemical investigations of modem sediments. Microbial processes (sulphate reduction, methanogenesis) contributed significantly, as did thermal decarboxylation (to siderite precipitated at considerable burial depth). Mn(IV) and Fe(III) acted differentially as oxidants; producing CO 2 and increasing alkalinity. The interplay of fresh and marine depositional waters is seen most obviously in the presence or absence of sulphate reduction. This controlled mineral type (iron sulphide or carbonate) as well as isotopic and mineral chemistry.

  14. Crystal chemistry of hydroxyl and water in silicate minerals. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, J.R.

    1998-06-01

    This was a project to investigate the crystal chemistry of OH and H{sub 2}O substitution in silicate minerals by use of X-ray and neutron diffraction methods combined with IR spectroscopy and to interpret and generalize the results using an electrostatic model for these mineral structures. Using these data together with published H position data electrostatic parameters for H sites were calculated from a simple electrostatic model. The data were then used to refine the model for incorporation of H into the wadsleyite structure. This has led to recent work on the synthesis and characterization of hydrous wadsleyites.

  15. Identification of Cryptosporidium spp. Oocysts in United Kingdom Noncarbonated Natural Mineral Waters and Drinking Waters by Using a Modified Nested PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Assay

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, R. A. B.; Campbell, B. M.; Smith, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method for detecting low densities of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in natural mineral waters and drinking waters. Oocysts were recovered from seeded 1-liter volumes of mineral water by filtration through polycarbonate membranes and from drinking waters by filtration, immunomagnetizable separation, and filter entrapment, followed by direct extraction of DNA. The DNA was released from polycarbonate filter-entrapped oocysts by disruption in lysis buffer by using 15 cycles of freeze-thawing (1 min in liquid nitrogen and 1 min at 65°C), followed by proteinase K digestion. Amplicons were readily detected from two to five intact oocysts on ethidium bromide-stained gels. DNA extracted from Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, C. muris (RN 66), C. baileyi (Belgium strain, LB 19), human-derived C. meleagridis, C. felis (DNA from oocysts isolated from a cat), and C. andersoni was used to demonstrate species identity by PCR-RFLP after simultaneous digestion with the restriction enzymes DraI and VspI. Discrimination between C. andersoni and C. muris isolates was confirmed by a separate, subsequent digestion with DdeI. Of 14 drinking water samples tested, 12 were found to be positive by microscopy, 8 were found to be positive by direct PCR, and 14 were found to be positive by using a nested PCR. The Cryptosporidium species detected in these finished water samples was C. parvum genotype 1. This method consistently and routinely detected >5 oocysts per sample. PMID:12839797

  16. Effect of mineral and organic fertilization on grey water footprint in a fertirrigated crop under semiarid conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa; Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; María Tarquis Alfonso, Ana

    2016-04-01

    The concept of "water footprint" (WF) was introduced as an indicator for the total volume of direct and indirect freshwater used, consumed and/or polluted [1]. The WF distinguishes between blue water (volume of surface and groundwater consumed), green water (rain-water consumed), and grey water (volume of freshwater that is required to assimilate the load of pollutants based on existing ambient water quality standards). In semiarid scenarios with low water quality, where the irrigation is necessary to maintain production, green WF is zero because the effective rainfall is negligible. As well as blue WF includes: i) extra consumption or irrigation water that the farmer has to apply to compensate the fail of uniformity on discharge of drips, ii) percolation out of control or salts leaching, which depends on the salt tolerance of the crop, soil and quality of irrigation water, to ensure the fruit yield. The major concern is grey WF, because the irrigation and nitrogen dose have to be adjusted to the crop needs in order to minimize nitrate pollution. This study is focused in assessment mineral and organic fertilization on grey WF in a fertirrigated melon crop under semiarid conditions, which is principally cultivated in the centre of Spain declared vulnerable zone to nitrate pollution by applying the Directive 91/676/CEE. During successive years, a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.) was grown under field conditions. Different doses of ammonium nitrate were used as well as compost derived from the wine-distillery industry which is relevant in this area. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA04-111-C3 and INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03. Keywords: Water footprint, nitrogen, fertirrigation, inorganic fertilizers, organic amendments, semiarid conditions. [1] Hoekstra, A.Y. 2003. Virtual water trade. Proceedings of the International Expert Meeting on Virtual Water Trade, Delft, The Netherlands, 12-13 December 2002. Value of Water Research Report Series No. 12

  17. Experiment Study on the Removal of Phosphorus in Eutrophic Water Bodies by the Utilization of Mineral Calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hong; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Yiming

    For seeking a new method to solve the problem of eutrophication, we have made the experiments of removing phosphorus in eutropic water by use of mineral calcite. The results indicate that the mineral calcite can remove phosphorus from the solution, and that the initial phosphorus concentration may influence the efficiency of phosphorus removal. The dephosphorization rate is high when the initial phosphorus concentration is 5 mg/L, and phosphorus can be removed by 88.48%; the dephosphorization rate may reach 69.94% when the initial phosphorus concentration is 3 mg/L; at 1.2 mg/L initial concentration only 12.68% phosphorus can be removed. Increasing temperature can also raise the efficiency of phosphorus removal. The result of TEM shows that the Ca-P precipitation is not in crystalline state.

  18. Mineral content of longissimus dorsi thoracis from water buffalo and Zebu-influenced cattle at four comparative ages.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida-Mendoza, M; Arenas de Moreno, L; Uzcátegui-Bracho, S; Rincón-Villalobos, G; Huerta-Leidenz, N

    2007-03-01

    The longissimus dorsi thoracis (LDT) of 64 water buffalo and 68 Zebu-influenced cattle was used to determine the mineral content variation (mg/100g of fresh tissue) according to species, age (7, 17, 19 and 24 months-of-age, MOA) and gender (steers and bulls). Buffalo LDT had higher concentrations of K, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu at weaning (P<0.05). Phosphorous content was higher (P<0.05) at post-weaning ages. Mineral profile was affected by age without clear trends; the Na and K contents increased at 24 MOA. The age×species, age×gender and species×gender interactions affected (P<0.05) Fe content that ranged from 1.74 to 2.56mg/100g fresh tissue. Meat from both species contributes with more of 25% of K, P, Fe and Zn of the daily requirement for an adult.

  19. Reverse osmosis desalting of inland brackish water of high gypsum scaling propensity: kinetics and mitigation of membrane mineral scaling.

    PubMed

    Rahardianto, Anditya; McCool, Brian C; Cohen, Yoram

    2008-06-15

    The potential for mineral scaling that may limit the generation of new potable water resources by reverse osmosis (RO), from inland brackish water of high gypsum scaling propensity, was experimentally explored via flux decline measurements and real-time RO membrane surface imaging. Antagonistic gypsum and calcium carbonate scaling kinetics were demonstrated for high-sulfate brackish water desalting. RO scaling studies with brackish water from the California San Joaquin Valley (approximately 10 000 mg/L total dissolved solids) revealed that membrane gypsum scaling was increasingly retarded with rising bicarbonate concentrations. Crystal growth rate, fractional membrane scale coverage, and flux decline decreased by up to about 63, 78, and 73%, respectively, as the bicarbonate concentration increased, at the membrane surface, from < 0.01 to 7.81 mM, for a gypsum saturation index of 2. Inhibition of gypsum crystal growth was attributed to bicarbonate adsorption onto the crystal surfaces, and CaCO3 scaling was undetected even up to a calcite saturation index of approximately 16. Given the suppression of gypsum scaling by bicarbonate, it is essential to considerthis effect in the conventional practice of pH adjustment to suppress CaCO3 scaling. The present results suggest that antagonistic and synergistic mineral crystallization kinetics effects are important for optimizing scale-control strategies (e.g., acid and antiscalants addition to the RO feed).

  20. Reverse osmosis desalting of inland brackish water of high gypsum scaling propensity: kinetics and mitigation of membrane mineral scaling.

    PubMed

    Rahardianto, Anditya; McCool, Brian C; Cohen, Yoram

    2008-06-15

    The potential for mineral scaling that may limit the generation of new potable water resources by reverse osmosis (RO), from inland brackish water of high gypsum scaling propensity, was experimentally explored via flux decline measurements and real-time RO membrane surface imaging. Antagonistic gypsum and calcium carbonate scaling kinetics were demonstrated for high-sulfate brackish water desalting. RO scaling studies with brackish water from the California San Joaquin Valley (approximately 10 000 mg/L total dissolved solids) revealed that membrane gypsum scaling was increasingly retarded with rising bicarbonate concentrations. Crystal growth rate, fractional membrane scale coverage, and flux decline decreased by up to about 63, 78, and 73%, respectively, as the bicarbonate concentration increased, at the membrane surface, from < 0.01 to 7.81 mM, for a gypsum saturation index of 2. Inhibition of gypsum crystal growth was attributed to bicarbonate adsorption onto the crystal surfaces, and CaCO3 scaling was undetected even up to a calcite saturation index of approximately 16. Given the suppression of gypsum scaling by bicarbonate, it is essential to considerthis effect in the conventional practice of pH adjustment to suppress CaCO3 scaling. The present results suggest that antagonistic and synergistic mineral crystallization kinetics effects are important for optimizing scale-control strategies (e.g., acid and antiscalants addition to the RO feed). PMID:18605546

  1. Carbonation of Clay Minerals Exposed to scCO2/Water at 200 degrees and 250 degrees C

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Ecker, L.; Gill, S.; Butcher, T.; Bour, D.

    2010-11-01

    To clarify the mechanisms of carbonation of clay minerals, such as bentonite, kaolinite, and soft clay, we exposed them to supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2)/water at temperatures of 200 and 250 C and pressures of 1500 and 2000 psi for 72- and 107-hours. Bentonite, comprising three crystalline phases, montmorillonite (MMT), anorthoclase-type albite, and quartz was susceptible to reactions with ionic carbonic acid yielded by the interactions between scCO2 and water, particularly MMT and anorthoclase-type albite phases. For MMT, the cation-exchangeable ions, such as Na+ and Ca2+, present in its basal interplanar space, were replaced by proton, H+, from ionic carbonic acid; thereafter, the cations leaching from MMT directly reacted with CO32- as a counter ion of H+ to form carbonate compounds. Such in-situ carbonation process in basal space caused the shrinkage and breakage of the spacing structure within MMT. In contrast, the wet carbonation of anorthoclase-type albite, categorized as rock minerals, entailed the formation of three amorphous by-products, such as carbonates, kaolinite-like compounds, and silicon dioxide. Together, these two different carbonations caused the disintegration and corruption of bentonite. Kaolinite clay containing the amorphous carbonates and silicon dioxide was inert to wet carbonation. We noted only a gain in weight due to its water uptake, suggesting that kaolinite-like by-products generated by the wet carbonation of rock minerals might remain unchanged even during extended exposure. Soft clay consisting of two crystalline phases, dolomite and silicon dioxide, also was unaltered by wet carbonation, despite the uptake of water.

  2. Water-compacted Na-bentonite interaction in simulated nuclear fuel disposal conditions: The role of accessory minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Melamed, A.; Pitkaenen, P.

    1994-12-31

    In an earlier laboratory study, ion exchange processes and smectite alteration were investigated through the interaction between compacted Na-bentonite (Volclay MX-80) and simulated granitic groundwater solutions. In the water, a concentration decrease in Ca, Mg and K, and an increase in Na, HCO{sub 3} and SO{sub 4} were recorded. The total amount of Ca available in the water, however, was found insufficient to account for the recorded formation of Ca-smectite, and it is therefore assumed that the accessory Ca-bearing minerals in the bentonite provide the fundamental source of these cations. X-ray powder diffraction analyses and microscope observations of the bentonite samples were re-conducted. Quartz, feldspars, pyrite, calcite and traces of gypsum were revealed as the primary accessories. In reacted samples, goethite and siderite are found as the secondary mineral products in association with corroded pyrite grains, while calcite and gypsum tend to disappear. From these results it is assumed that the oxygen present in the water and bentonite pore space promotes the oxidation of pyrite (dissolved) and the precipitation of goethite. The pore water pH decreases and calcite is partly dissolved. Through the dissolution, the bulk amount of Ca ions in addition to those arising by diffusion from the water is provided. Some of the reaction-released bicarbonate and Fe{sup 2+} re-precipitate in the bentonite as siderite, while the rest (as also SO{sub 4} ions) diffuse into the water. Though the relative oxygen content in the experiment may be considered higher than that of the repository concept for nuclear fuel disposal (interaction in a semi-closed system with high water/bentonite ratio), the near field geochemistry predictions imply limited oxidizing conditions, which will be characterized by the above-described processes in sulphide-bearing bentonite and occur for some time after the sealing of the repository.

  3. Water Quality Evaluation of PET Bottled Water by Mineral Balance in the Northeast Asian Region: A Case Study of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Houri, Daisuke; Koo, Chung Mo

    2015-01-01

    Background The past few years have seen a demand for drinking water in contemporary society with a focus on safety and taste. Mineral water is now marketed as a popular commercial product and, partly due to health concerns, the production. Methods For the study, a comparison was carried out of water samples from 9 types of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water sold in South Korea as well as from tap water in the cities of Seoul and Chuncheon. These were compared with samples of Japanese PET bottled water in order to determine shared commonalities and identify individual characteristics. To evaluate water quality objectively, we quantified the elements contained in the water samples. Samples were assessed not with the usual sensory evaluation but with the evaluation approach advocated by Hashimoto et al. which employs the Water Index of Taste and the Water Index of Health. The levels of water quality obtained were compared with the “Prerequisites for Tasty Water” and the “Standards for Tasty Water” devised for city water. Results The PET Bottled water varieties analyzed in this study—Seoksu, Icis, Bong Pyong, Soon Soo 100, Dong Won Saem Mul, GI JANG SOO and DIAMOND—showed the Water Index of Taste ≥ 2.0 and the Water Index of Health ≥ 5.2, which we classified as tasty/healthy water. SamDaSoo and NamiNeral can be classified as tasty water due to their values of the Water Index of Taste ≥ 2.0 and the Water Index of Health < 5.2. Conclusion The South Korean PET bottled water studied here fulfills the “Water Index of Taste,” “Water Index of Health,” “Standard for Tasty Water” and “Prerequisites for Tasty Water” that Japanese people value for city water. We can conclude that bottled water which meets water quality requirements will be considered good-tasting by a majority of people. PMID:26538797

  4. Mineral Specific IR Molar Absorption Coefficients for Routine Water Determination in Olivine, SiO2 polymorphs and Garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S.; Koch-Mueller, M.; Reichart, P.; Rhede, D.; Thomas, R.

    2007-12-01

    Conventionally applied Infrared (IR) calibrations [1, 2] for quantitative water analyses in solids are established on hydrous minerals and glasses with several wt% water. These calibrations are based on a negative correlation between the IR molar absorption coefficient (ɛ) for water and the mean wavenumber of the corresponding OH pattern. The correlation reflects the dependence of the OH band position on the appropriate O- H...O distances and thereby the magnitude of the dipole momentum which is proportional to the band intensity. However, it has been observed that these calibrations can not be adopted to nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) [3].To study the potential dependence of ɛ on structure and chemistry in NAMs we synthesized olivine and SiO2 polymorphs with specific isolated hydroxyl point defects, e.g. quartz, coesite and stishovite with B3++H+=Si4+ and/or Al3++H+=Si4+ substitutions. Experiments were performed with water in excess in piston cylinder and multi-anvil presses. Single crystal IR spectra demonstrate that we successfully managed to seperate generally complex OH patterns as e.g. observed in natural quartz and synthetic coesite. We quantified sample water contents of both natural samples and our run products by applying proton-proton-scattering [4], confocal microRaman spectroscopy [5] and Secondary Ion mass spectrometry. Resulting water concentrations were used to calculate new mineral specific ɛs. For olivine with the mean wavenumber of 3517 cm-1 we determined an ɛ value of 41,000±5,000 lmol-1H2Ocm-2. Quantification of olivine with the mean wavenumber of 3550 cm-1 in contrast resulted in an ɛ value of 47,000±1,000 lmol-1H2Ocm-2. Taking into account previous studies [6, 7] there is evidence to suggest a linear wavenumber dependent correlation for olivine, where ɛ increases with decreasing wavenumber. In case of the SiO2 system it turns out that the magnitude of ɛ within one structure type is independent of the liable OH point defect and

  5. Self-assembled biomimetic superhydrophobic CaCO3 coating inspired from fouling mineralization in geothermal water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gong G; Zhu, Li Q; Liu, Hui C; Li, Wei P

    2011-10-18

    Inspired from fouling self-mineralization in geothermal water, a novel biomimetic cactuslike CaCO(3) coating with superhydrophobic features is reported in this letter. The structure, morphologies, and phases of the CaCO(3) coating were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and infrared spectrophotometry. After prenucleation treatment, a continuous cactuslike CaCO(3) coating with hierarchical nano- and microstructures was self-assembled on stainless steel surfaces after immersion in simulated geothermal water at 50 °C for 48 h. After being modified with a low-surface-energy monolayer of sodium stearate, the as-prepared coating exhibited superhydrophobic properties with a water contact angle of 158.9° and a sliding angle of 2°. Therefore, this work might open up a new application field of geothermal resources and provide insight into designing multidimensional structures with functional applications, including superhydrophobic surfaces.

  6. Self-assembled biomimetic superhydrophobic CaCO3 coating inspired from fouling mineralization in geothermal water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gong G; Zhu, Li Q; Liu, Hui C; Li, Wei P

    2011-10-18

    Inspired from fouling self-mineralization in geothermal water, a novel biomimetic cactuslike CaCO(3) coating with superhydrophobic features is reported in this letter. The structure, morphologies, and phases of the CaCO(3) coating were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and infrared spectrophotometry. After prenucleation treatment, a continuous cactuslike CaCO(3) coating with hierarchical nano- and microstructures was self-assembled on stainless steel surfaces after immersion in simulated geothermal water at 50 °C for 48 h. After being modified with a low-surface-energy monolayer of sodium stearate, the as-prepared coating exhibited superhydrophobic properties with a water contact angle of 158.9° and a sliding angle of 2°. Therefore, this work might open up a new application field of geothermal resources and provide insight into designing multidimensional structures with functional applications, including superhydrophobic surfaces. PMID:21919516

  7. Performance, meat quality, meat mineral contents and caecal microbial population responses to humic substances administered in drinking water in broilers.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, E; Coskun, I; Ocak, N; Erener, G; Dervisoglu, M; Turhan, S

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of humic substances (HS) administered in drinking water on caecal microflora and mineral composition and colour characteristics of breast and thigh meats and the growth performance, carcass and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits of broiler chicks. A total of 480 3-d-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 4 cages per treatment and 30 bird (15 males and 15 females) chicks per cage. All birds were fed on commercial basal diet. The control birds (HS0) received drinking water with no additions, whereas birds in the other treatment groups received a drinking water with 7.5 (HS7.5), 15.0 (HS15.0) and 22.5 (HS22.5) g/kg HS. Mush feed were provided on an ad libitum basis. Body weight and feed intake of broilers were determined at d 0, 21, and 42, and feed conversion ratio was calculated. On d 42, 4 broilers (2 males and 2 females) from each cage were slaughtered and the breast and thigh meats were collected for mineral composition and quality measurements. Performance, carcass and GIT traits and caecal microbial population of broiler chicks at d 42 were not affected by the dietary treatments. The lightness (L*) of breast and thigh meat decreased in broilers supplemented with 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS in drinking water. Although the redness (a*) of breast meat increased, yellowness of thigh meat decreased in broilers supplemented with 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS in drinking water (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS administration in drinking water can be applied for broiler chicks to maintain growth performance and improve meat quality without changing caecal microflora.

  8. Deficit irrigation and rootstock: their effects on water relations, vegetative development, yield, fruit quality and mineral nutrition of Clemenules mandarin.

    PubMed

    Romero, P; Navarro, J M; Pérez-Pérez, J; García-Sánchez, F; Gómez-Gómez, A; Porras, I; Martinez, V; Botía, P

    2006-12-01

    Differences between rootstocks, 'Cleopatra' mandarin and 'Carrizo' citrange, in soil-plant water relations and the influence of these factors on vigor, crop yield, fruit quality and mineral nutrition were evaluated in field-grown Clemenules mandarin trees irrigated at 100% of potential seasonal evaporation (ET(c)) (control treatment), or irrigated at 100% ET(c), except during Phases I and III of fruit growth and post-harvest when no irrigation was applied (deficit irrigation (DI) treatment), for 3 years. Differences between rootstocks in plant-soil water relations were the primary cause of differences among trees in vegetative development and fruit yield. After 3 years of DI treatment, trees on 'Cleopatra' showed more efficient soil water extraction than trees on 'Carrizo', and maintained a higher plant water status, a higher gas exchange rate during periods of water stress and achieved faster recovery in gas exchange following irrigation after water stress. The DI treatment reduced vegetative development more in trees on 'Carrizo' than in trees on 'Cleopatra'. Cumulative fruit yield decreased more in DI trees on 'Carrizo' (40%) than on 'Cleopatra' (27%). The yield component most affected by DI in 'Cleopatra' was the number of fruit, whereas in 'Carrizo' it depended on the severity of water stress reached in each phase (severe water stress in Phase I affected mainly the number of fruit, whereas it affected fruit size the most in Phase III). In the third year of DI treatment, water-use efficiency decreased sharply in trees on 'Carrizo' (70%) compared to trees on 'Cleopatra' (30%). Thus, trees on 'Cleopatra' were able to tolerate moderate water stress, whereas trees on 'Carrizo' were more sensitive to changes in soil water content. PMID:17169893

  9. Deficit irrigation and rootstock: their effects on water relations, vegetative development, yield, fruit quality and mineral nutrition of Clemenules mandarin.

    PubMed

    Romero, P; Navarro, J M; Pérez-Pérez, J; García-Sánchez, F; Gómez-Gómez, A; Porras, I; Martinez, V; Botía, P

    2006-12-01

    Differences between rootstocks, 'Cleopatra' mandarin and 'Carrizo' citrange, in soil-plant water relations and the influence of these factors on vigor, crop yield, fruit quality and mineral nutrition were evaluated in field-grown Clemenules mandarin trees irrigated at 100% of potential seasonal evaporation (ET(c)) (control treatment), or irrigated at 100% ET(c), except during Phases I and III of fruit growth and post-harvest when no irrigation was applied (deficit irrigation (DI) treatment), for 3 years. Differences between rootstocks in plant-soil water relations were the primary cause of differences among trees in vegetative development and fruit yield. After 3 years of DI treatment, trees on 'Cleopatra' showed more efficient soil water extraction than trees on 'Carrizo', and maintained a higher plant water status, a higher gas exchange rate during periods of water stress and achieved faster recovery in gas exchange following irrigation after water stress. The DI treatment reduced vegetative development more in trees on 'Carrizo' than in trees on 'Cleopatra'. Cumulative fruit yield decreased more in DI trees on 'Carrizo' (40%) than on 'Cleopatra' (27%). The yield component most affected by DI in 'Cleopatra' was the number of fruit, whereas in 'Carrizo' it depended on the severity of water stress reached in each phase (severe water stress in Phase I affected mainly the number of fruit, whereas it affected fruit size the most in Phase III). In the third year of DI treatment, water-use efficiency decreased sharply in trees on 'Carrizo' (70%) compared to trees on 'Cleopatra' (30%). Thus, trees on 'Cleopatra' were able to tolerate moderate water stress, whereas trees on 'Carrizo' were more sensitive to changes in soil water content.

  10. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado using ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Most of the geologic information in ERTS-1 imagery can be extracted from bulk processed black and white transparencies by a skilled interpreter using standard photogeologic techniques. In central and western Colorado, the detectability of lithologic contacts on ERTS-1 imagery is closely related to the time of year the imagery was acquired. Geologic structures are the most readily extractable type of geologic information contained in ERTS images. Major tectonic features and associated minor structures can be rapidly mapped, allowing the geologic setting of a large region to be quickly accessed. Trends of geologic structures in younger sedimentary appear to strongly parallel linear trends in older metamorphic and igneous basement terrain. Linears and color anomalies mapped from ERTS imagery are closely related to loci of known mineralization in the Colorado mineral belt.

  11. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado using ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Hutchinson, R. M.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Trexler, D. W.; Bruns, D. L.; Nicolais, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Topography was found to be the most important factor defining folds on ERTS-1 imagery of northwestern Colorado; tonal variations caused by rock reflectance and vegetation type and density are the next most important factors. Photo-linears mapped on ERTS-1 imagery of central Colorado correlate well with ground-measured joint and fracture trends. In addition, photo-linears have been successfully used to determine the location and distribution of metallic mineral deposits in the Colorado Mineral Belt. True color composites are best for general geologic analysis and false color composites prepared with positive/negative masks are useful for enhancing local geologic phenomena. During geologic analysis of any given area, ERTS-1 imagery from several different dates should be studied.

  12. [Effect of water sprinkling on total dust and mineral fiber concentration during serpentine asbestos processing].

    PubMed

    Woźniak, H; Wiecek, E; Pelc, W; Dobrucka, D; Opalska, B

    1993-01-01

    By means of personal air sampler and Fibre Monitor FM-7400 concentrations of total dust and respirable mineral fibre were measured at work-posts, after sprinkling places with the highest emission of dust, in the plant where serpentine asbestos, used as road stone, was processed. It was found that due to sprinkling mean concentrations of total dust during a shift decreased by 1.5 (at inspection post) to 13.5 times at the post where crushing and sorting machines were served (before sprinkling -29.7 mg/m3 and after 2.2 mg/m3). It was found, at the same time, that sprinkling no decreased the concentration of mineral fibres.

  13. Impacts of diffusive transport on carbonate mineral formation from magnesium silicate-CO2-water reactions.

    PubMed

    Giammar, Daniel E; Wang, Fei; Guo, Bin; Surface, J Andrew; Peters, Catherine A; Conradi, Mark S; Hayes, Sophia E

    2014-12-16

    Reactions of CO2 with magnesium silicate minerals to precipitate magnesium carbonates can result in stable carbon sequestration. This process can be employed in ex situ reactors or during geologic carbon sequestration in magnesium-rich formations. The reaction of aqueous CO2 with the magnesium silicate mineral forsterite was studied in systems with transport controlled by diffusion. The approach integrated bench-scale experiments, an in situ spectroscopic technique, and reactive transport modeling. Experiments were performed using a tube packed with forsterite and open at one end to a CO2-rich solution. The location and amounts of carbonate minerals that formed were determined by postexperiment characterization of the solids. Complementing this ex situ characterization, (13)C NMR spectroscopy tracked the inorganic carbon transport and speciation in situ. The data were compared with the output of reactive transport simulations that accounted for diffusive transport processes, aqueous speciation, and the forsterite dissolution rate. All three approaches found that the onset of magnesium carbonate precipitation was spatially localized about 1 cm from the opening of the forsterite bed. Magnesite was the dominant reaction product. Geochemical gradients that developed in the diffusion-limited zones led to locally supersaturated conditions at specific locations even while the volume-averaged properties of the system remained undersaturated.

  14. In-situ alteration of minerals by acidic ground water resulting from mining activities: Preliminary evaluation of method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind, Carol J.; Creasey, C.L.; Angeroth, C.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical composition of the Cu-mining-related acidic ground water (pH ~ 3.5 to near neutral) in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona has been monitored since 1980. In-situ experiments are planned using alluvial sediments placed in the ground-water flow path to measure changes in mineral and chemical composition and changes in dissolution rates of subsurface alluvial sediments. The test results should help refine developed models of predicted chemical changes in ground-water composition and models of streamflow. For the preliminary test, sediment from the depth of the well screen of a newly drilled well was installed in three wells, the source well (pH 4.96) and two up-gradient wells (pHs 4.27 and 4.00). The sediment was placed in woven macrofilters, fastened in series to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes, and hung at the screened level of each well. After interacting with the slowly moving ground water for 48 days, the test sediments were removed for analysis. There was no evidence that any of the materials used were biologically or chemically degraded or that the porosity of the filters was diminished by ferric hydroxide precipitation. These materials included 21-??m-pore (21PEMF) and 67-??m-pore polyester and the 174-??m-pore fluorocarbon Spectra/mesh macrofilters containing the in-situ sediment, the polypropylene (PP) macrofilter support structures, and the Nylon (NY) monofilament line used to attach the samples to the PVC pipe. Based on chemical and mineral composition and on particle-size distribution of the sediment before and after ground-water exposure, the 21PEMF macrofilter was chosen as the most suitable macrofilter for the long-term in-situ experiment. Tests also showed that the PP support structures and the NY monofilament line were sufficiently durable for this experiment.The chemical composition of the Cu-mining-related acidic ground water (pH approx. 3.5 to near neutral) in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona has been monitored since 1980. In-situ experiments are

  15. Effects of ionised or chelated water-soluble mineral mixture supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, meat quality and intestinal microbiota in broilers.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, S D; Lee, B R; Kim, I H

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary supplementation of water-soluble ionised or chelated mineral mixture on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, relative organ weight, meat quality and excreta microflora in broilers. A total of 408 Arbor Acres broilers (17 birds in 8 replicate pens) were randomly allocated into one of the following three treatments: (1) Control/basal diet (CON), (2) T1 (basal diet + 0.5% ionised mineral mixture solution, pH 3.0) and (3) T2 (basal diet + 0.5% chelated mineral mixture solution, pH 3.0). The body weight gain was greater and feed conversion ratio was lower in broilers supplemented with ionised or chelated mineral liquid complex compared to CON during the grower and overall phase of the experiment. No significant effect in the concentration of Ca and P in the blood was observed in birds supplemented with ionised or chelated mineral mixture solution. No adverse effects were observed in organ weight and meat quality with ionised or chelated mineral mixture supplementation. Regarding intestinal microbiota counts there was a reduction of Escherichia coli counts in the small intestine in ionised mineral supplemented birds. In the large intestine, E. coli as well as Salmonella populations were reduced in ionised mineral supplemented birds. In conclusion, ionised or chelated minerals have partial positive effects in improving growth performance and reducing pathogenic bacteria load in the gastro-intestinal tract. PMID:27088481

  16. Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal and mineral springs of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1982-02-01

    Waters from the thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute Na-HCO/sub 3/ to moderately saline CO/sub 2/-charged Na-HCO/sub 3/-Cl type waters. St. Martin's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline Na-Cl water, is the notable exception. The dilute Na-HCO/sub 3/ waters are generally associated with granitic intrusions; the warm to hot CO/sub 2/-charged waters issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen-isotopic compositions that indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The CO/sub 2/-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. The carbon-13 in the CO/sub 2/-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 %) than in the cold CO/sub 2/-charged soda springs (-2 to -8%) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold CO/sub 2/-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaCO/sub 3/, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaCO/sub 3/. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur, and Ohanapecosh hot springs seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100/sup 0/C. As these springs occur as individual springs or in small clusters, the respective aquifers are probably of restricted size.

  17. Hydrogeochemical processes governing the origin, transport and fate of major and trace elements from mine wastes and mineralized rock to surface waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Mobility of potential or actual contaminants from mining and mineral processing activities depends on (1) occurrence: is the mineral source of the contaminant actually present? (2) abundance: is the mineral present in sufficient quantity to make a difference? (3) reactivity: what are the energetics, rates, and mechanisms of sorption and mineral dissolution and precipitation relative to the flow rate of the water? and (4) hydrology: what are the main flow paths for contaminated water? Estimates of relative proportions of minerals dissolved and precipitated can be made with mass-balance calculations if minerals and water compositions along a flow path are known. Combined with discharge, these mass-balance estimates quantify the actual weathering rate of pyrite mineralization in the environment and compare reasonably well with laboratory rates of pyrite oxidation except when large quantities of soluble salts and evaporated mine waters have accumulated underground. Quantitative mineralogy with trace-element compositions can substantially improve the identification of source minerals for specific trace elements through mass balances. Post-dissolution sorption and precipitation (attenuation) reactions depend on the chemical behavior of each element, solution composition and pH, aqueous speciation, temperature, and contact-time with mineral surfaces. For example, little metal attenuation occurs in waters of low pH (2, and redox-sensitive oxyanions (As, Sb, Se, Mo, Cr, V). Once dissolved, metal and metalloid concentrations are strongly affected by redox conditions and pH. Iron is the most reactive because it is rapidly oxidized by bacteria and archaea and Fe(III) hydrolyzes and precipitates at low pH (1–3) which is related directly to its first hydrolysis constant, pK1 = 2.2. Several insoluble sulfate minerals precipitate at low pH including anglesite, barite, jarosite, alunite and basaluminite. Aluminum hydrolyzes near pH 5 (pK1 = 5.0) and provides buffering and removal

  18. Authentication potential of 87Sr/86Sr in water - reference of signatures in natural mineral water to regional geology in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, G. D.; Voerkelius, S.

    2009-04-01

    The study presents the investigation of strontium isotope ratios of about 650 different European natural mineral waters as part of the food traceability project "TRACE" funded by the EU. The 87Sr/86Sr analysis is part of a multi-element approach for authen-ticity which also includes 18O, 2H, 3H, main and trace elements as well as 34S. The analysed 87Sr/86Sr cover a wide range of values from 0.7035 to 0.7777 indicating that the natural mineral water samples cover the span from young mantle derived basal-tic rocks to very old silicic continental crust. The results of the large-scale investigation are used to elaborate a novel spatial predic-tion for strontium isotope ratios by combining the measured data with a GIS based geo-logical map of Europe. The resulting map can be used to predict the strontium isotopic composition of ground-water and as such the composition of bioavailable strontium, which can be taken up by plants and further transferred into the food chain. In this study we show, as an example, that the strontium isotopic composition of honey and wheat from specific sample region within the TRACE project correlates well with that of the natural mineral water as pre-dicted by our map. The proof of principle shown is highly relevant for geographical food authentication as it will allow an assessment of the origin of food products without the immediate need for geographically authenticated materials which may not always be available in the first instance. As such, our approach provides a cost effective first instance screening tool. There is an increasing demand for independent analytical methods which can control the geographical origin. The EU project TRACE was started with the aim to develop a gen-eral understanding of the relation between the geo-bio-climatic environment and the isotope and elemental signature in food commodities. As one part of the study detailed isotope maps (e.g. 18O, 87Sr/86Sr) for groundwater will be generated by the isotope re

  19. Modified Pseudomonas agar: new differential medium for the detection/enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in mineral water.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Rita; Cunha, Joaquim; Teixeira, Paula; Gibbs, Paul A

    2002-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been implicated as a foodborne and waterborne pathogen and is now considered a primary infectious agent. In the present study, the survival of P. aeruginosa inoculated in mineral water was evaluated by drop counts on Pseudomonas Agar Base (PAB), PAB with CN supplement X107, PAB with cetrimide, PAB with nalidixic acid, and these media with added FeSO(4). Initial counts, before starvation, were the same in all media tested. Following this period, P. aeruginosa became sensitive to PAB with added cetrimide. The addition of FeSO(4) did not improve the recovery of stressed P. aeruginosa but gave colonies a typical dark brown colour being easily differentiated from other species that can grow at 42 degrees C. The modified Pseudomonas agar medium was also tested with several P. aeruginosa strains, other species of Pseudomonas, and other genera. Only P. aeruginosa strains (pyocyanin positive) produced the typical colonies. Our results demonstrate that Pseudomonas agar with ferrous sulphate, used for the differentiation of P. aeruginosa colonies, and nalidixic acid, used as an inhibitor of Gram-positive bacteria, might be a useful medium for the detection of injured P. aeruginosa in mineral water. PMID:11777584

  20. The solubilities of some major and minor element minerals in ground waters associated with a sandstone-hosted uranium deposit.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, R.B.; Chatcham, J.R.; Langmuir, D.

    1987-01-01

    Ground-water samples from 41 wells penetrating basal Oakville sandstone (Miocene) in S Texas were chemically analysed to identify chemical changes related to nearby U orebodies. The coverage included a 240 km2 area which contains several fault-related U deposits. Factors affecting the hydrochemistry include: 1) relatively high permeabilities of buried fluvial-channel sediments; 2) upwards leakage of brines along growth faults into the aquifer; 3) development of a redox interface (Eh = 0 volts) within the aquifer; and 4) the semi-arid climate. Variations in the saturation index (SI) for chemically reduced minerals of U, As, Mo, Se and for associated minerals such as pyrite outlined the position of known deposits. The SI increases towards zero as the deposits are approached from updip distances of 3-4.5 km, then decreases again downdip. The radiogenic pathfinders Ra and Rn showed very strong anomalies with ore, but diminished to background levels at short distances from ore. A strong He anomaly is deflected in the direction of ground-water flow away from the ore.-R.A.H.

  1. Development of an LC-MS/MS method for studying migration characteristics of acetaldehyde in polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-packed mineral water.

    PubMed

    Baumjohann, Nina; Harms, Diedrich

    2015-01-01

    During storage, acetaldehyde migration from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles can affect the quality of mineral water even in the low µg l(-1) range negatively, as it features a fruity or plastic-like off-flavour. For a sensitive and fast analysis of acetaldehyde in mineral water, a new analysis method of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatisation followed by HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was developed. Acetaldehyde was directly derivatised in the mineral water sample avoiding extraction and/or pre-concentration steps and then analysed by reversed-phase HPLC-ESI-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Along with method development, the optimum molar excess of DNPH in contrast to acetaldehyde was studied for the mineral water matrix, because no specific and robust data were yet available for this critical parameter. Best results were obtained by using a calibration via the derivatisation reaction. Without any analyte enrichment or extraction, an LOD of 0.5 µg l(-1) and an LOQ of 1.9 µg l(-1) were achieved. Using the developed method, mineral water samples packed in PET bottles from Germany were analysed and the correlation between the acetaldehyde concentration and other characteristics of the samples was evaluated illustrating the applicability of the method. Besides a relationship between bottle size and CO2 content of the mineral water and acetaldehyde migration, a correlation with acetaldehyde migration and the material composition of the bottle, e.g. recycled PET, was noted. Investigating the light influence on the acetaldehyde migration with a newly developed, reproducible light exposure setup, a significant increase of the acetaldehyde concentration in carbonated mineral water samples was observed. PMID:26258902

  2. State of water molecules and silanol groups in opal minerals: a near infrared spectroscopic study of opals from Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boboň, Miroslav; Christy, Alfred A.; Kluvanec, Daniel; Illášová, L'udmila

    2011-12-01

    Recently, near infrared spectroscopy in combination with double derivative technique has been effectively used by Christy (Vib Spectrosc 54:42-49, 2010) to study and differentiate between free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups on silica gel surface. The method has given some insight into the type of functionalities, their location in silica gel samples, and the way the water molecules bind onto the silanol groups. The important information in this respect comes from the overtones of the OH groups of water molecules hydrogen-bonded to free silanol groups, and hydrogen-bonded silanol groups absorbing in the region 5,500-5,100 cm-1. Chemically, opal minerals are hydrated silica and the same approach was adapted to study the state of water molecules, silanol functionalities, and their locations in opal samples from Slovakia. Twenty opal samples classified into CT and A classes and one quartz sample were used in this work. The samples were crushed using a hydraulic press and powderized. Each sample was then subjected to evacuation process to remove surface-adsorbed water at 200°C, and the near infrared spectrum of each sample was measured using a Perkin Elmer NTS FT-NIR spectrometer equipped with a transflectance accessory and a DTGS detector. The samples were also heated to 750°C to remove the hydrogen-bonded silanol groups on the surface to reveal their locality. Second derivative profiles of the near infrared reflectance spectra were obtained using the instrument's software and used in the detailed analysis of the samples. The analysis of the near infrared spectra and their second derivative profiles had the aim in finding relationships between the surface chemical structure and the classification of opal samples. The dry opal samples were also tested for their surface adsorption effectivity toward water molecules. The results indicate that the opal samples contain (1) surface-adsorbed water, (2) free and hydrogen-bonded silanol groups on the surface, (3) trapped

  3. Mineralization of the Common Groundwater Pollutant 2,6-Dichlorobenzamide (BAM) and its Metabolite 2,6-Dichlorobenzoic Acid (2,6-DCBA) in Sand Filter Units of Drinking Water Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Vandermaesen, Johanna; Horemans, Benjamin; Degryse, Julie; Boonen, Jos; Walravens, Eddy; Springael, Dirk

    2016-09-20

    The intrinsic capacity to mineralize the groundwater pollutant 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) and its metabolite 2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid (2,6-DCBA) was evaluated in samples from sand filters (SFs) of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). Whereas BAM mineralization occurred rarely and only in SFs exposed to BAM, 2,6-DCBA mineralization was common in SFs, including those treating uncontaminated water. Nevertheless, SFs treating BAM contaminated water showed the highest 2,6-DCBA mineralization rates. For comparison, 2,6-DCBA and BAM mineralization were determined in various topsoil samples. As in SF samples, BAM mineralization was rare, whereas 2,6-DCBA mineralization capacity appeared widespread, with high mineralization rates found especially in forest soils. Multivariate analysis showed that in both SF and soil samples, high 2,6-DCBA mineralization correlated with high organic carbon content. Adding a 2,6-DCBA degradation deficient mutant of the BAM mineralizing Aminobacter sp. MSH1 confirmed that 2,6-DCBA produced from BAM is rapidly mineralized by the endogenous microbial community in SFs showing intrinsic 2,6-DCBA mineralization. This study demonstrates that (i) 2,6-DCBA mineralization is widely established in SFs of DWTPs, allowing the mineralization of 2,6-DCBA produced during BAM degradation and (ii) the first metabolic step in BAM mineralization is rare in microbial communities, rather than its further degradation beyond 2,6-DCBA. PMID:27533590

  4. Salinity and Alkaline pH in Irrigation Water Affect Marigold Plants: II. Mineral Ion Relations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scarcity of water of good quality for landscape irrigation is of outmost importance in arid and semiarid regions due to the competition with urban population. This is forcing the use of degraded waters with high levels of salinity and high pH, which may affect plant establishment and growth. The o...

  5. Structure, dynamics and stability of water/scCO2/mineral interfaces from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lee, Mal -Soon; Peter McGrail, B.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki -Alexandra

    2015-10-12

    Here, the interface between a solid and a complex multi-component liquid forms a unique reaction environment whose structure and composition can significantly deviate from either bulk or liquid phase and is poorly understood due the innate difficulty to obtain molecular level information. Feldspar minerals, as typified by the Ca-end member Anorthite, serve as prototypical model systems to assess the reactivity and ion mobility at solid/water-bearing supercritical fluid (WBSF) interfaces due to recent X-ray based measurements that provide information on water-film formation, and cation vacancies at these surfaces. Using density functional theory based molecular dynamics, which allows the evaluation of reactivitymore » and condensed phase dynamics on equal footing, we report on the structure and dynamics of water nucleation and surface aggregation, carbonation and Ca mobilization under geologic carbon sequestration scenarios (T = 323 K and P = 90 bar). We find that water has a strong enthalpic preference for aggregation on a Ca-rich, O-terminated anorthite (001) surface, but entropy strongly hinders the film formation at very low water concentrations. Carbonation reactions readily occur at electron-rich terminal Oxygen sites adjacent to cation vacancies, when in contact with supercritical CO2. Cation vacancies of this type can form readily in the presence of a water layer that allows for facile and enthalpicly favorable Ca2+ extraction and solvation. Apart from providing unprecedented molecular level detail of a complex three component (mineral, water and scCO2) system), this work highlights the ability of modern capabilities of AIMD methods to begin to qualitatively and quantitatively address structure and reactivity at solid-liquid interfaces of high chemical complexity. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (M.-S. L., B. P. M. and V.-A. G.) and the Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of Chemical Sciences

  6. Equilibrium of Groundwater with Carbonate Minerals of the Water-Bearing Rocks under Anthropogenic Impact (by the example of Kishinev, Moldova)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoshenkova, A. N.; Pasechnik, E. Yu; Tokarenko, O. G.

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents calculation results of equilibrium of groundwater in Kishenev with a variety of secondary carbonate minerals. It is shown that the groundwater-rock system is in equilibrium with some minerals, such as calcite, magnesite, dolomite, siderite, but at the same time is not in equilibrium with strontianite. It indicates that secondary mineral precipitation is possible. Specific nitrate chemical water type, which is rarely observed in nature and characterized by the presence of anthropogenic impact in this territory, in some cases is of higher saturation as compared to calcite, dolomite and magnesite due to the fact that nitrate ion content increases with the increase of calcium content.

  7. The settling velocity of mineral, biomineral, and biological particles and aggregates in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, Federico

    2013-04-01

    A new equation was developed to relate the size and settling velocity of particulate matter commonly recurring in aqueous ecosystems. This equation explicitly balanced the gravitational, buoyancy, viscous, and inertial forces as in Rubey () but was amended to describe in one instance both individual particles and granular aggregates with an internal fractal architecture. This approach allowed for an algebraic solution of the settling velocity, thus overcoming earlier approaches that required iterative numerical solutions. The equation was tested with mineral, biomineral, and biological suspended particles and granular aggregates from 52 existing experimental data sets, and resulted in average correlation coefficients R between 71% and 93.9%, and normilized residuals between 14.3% and 24.8% over Reynolds numbers ranging within 10-7 and 102. Accuracy of these results was generally better than for the Stokes' law, the Stokes' law modified with the Schiller-Naumann drag coefficient, and Rubey's equation. Estimated parameters ranged within observed ones, thus suggesting that the equation was robust. An analysis of the drag showed that inertial force was negligible only for biological cells (isolated cysts), whereas it contributed by not less than 5% to the drag on large mineral particles and up to 20% for biomineral and biological aggregates. Finally, a correlation was found between the organic matter content and fractal properties of granular aggregates, which were described by empirical equations proposed here for the first time. The hypothesis that the settling velocity is a function of linear and nonlinear drag, and is ultimately determined by physical characteristics as much as biological composition and internal aggregate geometry, is supported here by quantitative analyses.

  8. Water in Hawaiian peridotite minerals: A case for a dry metasomatized oceanic mantle lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Bizimis, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of water concentrations in the oceanic upper mantle has drastic influence on its melting, rheology, and electrical and thermal conductivities and yet is primarily known indirectly from analyses of OIB and MORB. Here, actual mantle samples, eight peridotite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater (SLC) and one from Pali in Oahu in Hawaii were analyzed by FTIR. Water contents of orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and the highest measured in olivine are 116-222, 246-442, and 10-26 ppm weight H2O, respectively. Although pyroxene water contents correlate with indices of partial melting, they are too high to be explained by simple melting modeling. Mantle-melt interaction modeling reproduces best the SLC data. These peridotites represent depleted oceanic mantle older than the Pacific lithosphere that has been refertilized by nephelinite melts containing <5 weight % H2O. Metasomatism in the Hawaiian peridotites resulted in an apparent decoupling of water and LREE that can be reconciled via assimilation and fractional crystallization. Calculated bulk-rock water contents for SLC (50-96 ppm H2O) are on the low side of that of the MORB source (50-200 ppm H2O). Preceding metasomatism, the SLC peridotites must have been even drier, with a water content similar to that of the Pali peridotite (45 ppm H2O), a relatively unmetasomatized fragment of the Pacific lithosphere. Moreover, our data show that the oceanic mantle lithosphere above plumes is not necessarily enriched in water. Calculated viscosities using olivine water contents allow to estimate the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath Hawaii at ˜90 km.

  9. Variable charge and electrical double layer of mineral-water interfaces: silver halides versus metal (hydr)oxides.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra, Tjisse

    2012-11-01

    Classically, silver (Ag) halides have been used to understand thermodynamic principles of the charging process and the corresponding development of the electrical double layer (EDL). A mechanistic approach to the processes on the molecular level has not yet been carried out using advanced surface complexation modeling (SCM) as applied to metal (hydr)oxide interfaces. Ag halides and metal (hydr)oxides behave quite differently in some respect. The location of charge in the interface of Ag halides is not a priori obvious. For AgI(s), SCM indicates the separation of interfacial charge in which the smaller silver ions are apparently farther away from the surface than iodide. This charge separation can be understood from the surface structure of the relevant crystal faces. Charge separation with positive charge above the surface is due to monodentate surface complex formation of Ag(+) ions binding to I sites located at the surface. Negative surface charge is due to the desorption of Ag(+) ions out of the lattice. These processes can be described with the charge distribution (CD) model. The MO/DFT optimized geometry of the complex is used to estimate the value of the CD. SCM reveals the EDL structure of AgI(s), having two Stern layers in series. The inner Stern layer has a very low capacitance (C(1) = 0.15 ± 0.01 F/m(2)) in comparison to that of metal (hydr)oxides, and this can be attributed to the strong orientation of the (primary) water molecules on the local electrostatic field of the Ag(+) and I(-) ions of the surface (relative dielectric constant ε(r) ≈ 6). Depending on the extent of water ordering, mineral surfaces may in principle develop a second Stern layer. The corresponding capacitance (C(2)) will depend on the degree of water ordering that may decrease in the series AgI (C(2) = 0.57 F/m(2)), goethite (C(2) = 0.74 F/m(2)), and rutile (C(2) = ∞), as discussed. The charging principles of AgI minerals iodargyrite and miersite may also be applied to minerals

  10. About Prospects of Enrichment of Mineral Raw Materials and Chemical Activation of Water Suspensions by Electroexplosive Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordunov, S. V.; Galtseva, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    A series of experiments is conducted on laboratory and pilot-production installation for the application of high-voltage pulsed discharge in the processes of enrichment of goldbearing mineral raw materials with a relatively low energy electrical discharge in the pulse of 120 J. At the same time the conglomerates of clay components are breaking down to micron and submicron sizes completely. Solid minerals such as quartz are simultaneously destroyed by defects and grains and withdrawn from the installation with water, thus increasing degree of enrichment of concentrate. The results of the processing by high-voltage pulsed discharges of building sand from the Ob riverbed are given. Discharge energy is 45 J. Relations of fractions in the original sand and in the sand after electroexplosive process show the uniform crushing of sand particles with splitting off particles with size of less than 0.045 mm. A content of chipped particles is 18%. The results of particle-size and X-ray structural analyses are shown.

  11. Effect of surface-exposed chemical groups on calcium-phosphate mineralization in water-treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Zvi; Rapaport, Hanna; Oren, Yoram; Kasher, Roni

    2010-10-15

    Calcium-phosphate-scale formation on reverse osmosis (RO) membranes is a major limiting factor for cost-effective desalination of wastewater. We determined the effects of various organic chemical groups found on membrane surfaces on calcium-phosphate scaling. Langmuir films exposing different functional groups were equilibrated with a solution simulating the ionic profile of secondary effluent (SSE). Surface pressure-area (Langmuir) isotherms combined with ICP elemental analyses of the interfacial precipitate suggested acceleration of calcium-phosphate mineralization by the surface functional groups in the order: PO(4) > COOH ∼ NH(2) > COOH:NH(2) (1:1) > OH > ethylene glycol. Immersion of gold-coated silicon wafers self-assembled with different alkanethiols in SSE solution showed formation of a hydroxyapatite precipitate by X-ray diffraction and ATR-IR analysis. Data showed diverse influences of functional groups on mineralization, implying low calcium-phosphate scaling for uncharged surfaces or surfaces coated with both positively and negatively charged groups. This information is valuable for understanding scaling processes, and for designing of novel low-scaling membranes for water desalination.

  12. The 1.7- to 4.2-micron spectrum of asteroid 1 Ceres - Evidence for structural water in clay minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Feierberg, M. A.; Larson, H. P.; Johnson, J. R.; Tokunaga, A. T.

    1981-01-01

    A high-resolution Fourier spectrum (1.7-3.5 microns) and medium-resolution spectrophotometry (2.7-4.2 microns) were obtained for Asteroid 1 Ceres. The presence of the 3-micron absorption feature due to water of hydration was confirmed. The 3-micron feature is compared with the 3-micron bands due to water of hydration in clays and salts. It is concluded that the spectrum of Ceres shows a strong absorption at 2.7-2.8 microns due to structural OH groups in clay minerals. The dominant minerals on the surface of Ceres are therefore hydrated clay minerals structurally similar to terrestrial montmorillonites. There is also a narrow absorption feature at 3.1 microns which is attributable to a very small amount of water ice on Ceres. This is the first evidence for ice on the surface of an asteroid.

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Budget Cuts Funds for Minerals, Hazards, and Water Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-02-01

    The Bush administration's proposed US$968.5 million budget for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for fiscal year (FY) 2009 is a $38 million decrease from the FY 2008 enacted level. The proposed budget also includes some increases for high-priority programs. Funding includes an $8.2 million net increase for a water census that would be the first U.S.-wide assessment of water availability and human and environmental water use and an increase of $7 million to support the U.S. Department of Interior's Ocean and Coastal Frontiers Initiative, which will acquire key ocean health data while also providing objective scientific data to evaluate U.N. Law of the Sea claims made by other nations.

  14. Analysis of minerals containing dissolved traces of the fluid phase components water and carbon dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann

    1991-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made towards a better understanding of the dissolution of common gas/fluid phase components, notably H2O and CO2, in minerals. It has been shown that the dissolution mechanisms are significantly more complex than currently believed. By judiciously combining various solid state analytical techniques, convincing evidence was obtained that traces of dissolved gas/fluid phase components undergo, at least in part, a redox conversion by which they split into reduced H2 and and reduced C on one hand and oxidized oxygen, O(-), on the other. Analysis for 2 and C as well as for any organic molecules which may form during the process of co-segregation are still impeded by the omnipresent danger of extraneous contamination. However, the presence of O(-), an unusual oxidized form of oxygen, has been proven beyond a reasonable doubt. The presence of O(-) testifies to the fact that a redox reaction must have taken place in the solid state involving the dissolved traces of gas/fluid phase components. Detailed information on the techniques used and the results obtained are given.

  15. Fundamental Understanding of the Flocculation of Mineral Tailings in High Salinity Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yaguan

    In this study, the effect of three polymer flocculants, polyacrylamide (PAM), Magnafloc 1011 (MF) and Al(OH)3-polyacrylamide (Al-PAM), on the settling of mineral freshwater and saline tailings was investigated. The settling of tailings significantly depends on solution salinity, polymer flocculant type and dosage. MF was identified as the most efficient flocculant among the three polymers to enhance the settling of freshwater and saline tailings. The flocculation mechanism of MF was further studied through model clay (i.e. kaolinite) under controlled solution conditions. The maximum initial settling rate (ISR) of kaolinite was found to increase with the addition of NaCl and CaCl2 at the cost of higher MF consumption. Using multiple advanced techniques, the interaction between MF molecules and clay particles were probed. The results indicate that the different settling behaviors of MF treated tailings of various salinities were mainly due to the change of polymer conformations and polymer-particle interactions in the suspensions.

  16. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado, using Skylab EREP data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. (Principal Investigator); Hutchinson, R. M.; Prost, G. L.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Spoelhof, R. W.; Thigpen, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Discovery of three major north-trending, throughgoing faults in the Front Range, previously mapped only as isolated segments, demonstrates the utility of space photography and may lead to reinterpretation of the Front Range tectonic style. Faulting and alteration appear to be the most useful indicators of mineralization in central Colorado. These phenomena appear on Skylab photography as tonal lineaments and color anomalies. Twenty-three lineaments have been mapped in the San Juan Mountains, the longest of which is 156 km long. Twelve lineaments intersect or are tangent to calderas. Intrusive domes are aligned along lineaments, but calderas appear to occur at the intersections of major lineaments. Lineaments can be recognized on some EREP passes but not on other passes over the same area. The difference is attributed to solar elevation effects. Bedding attitudes can be photogeologically estimated down to surprisingly low dips, on the order of + or - 1-2 deg, and attitudes can be subdivided easily into quantitative groups. The primary application of Skylab photography to geologic mapping in montane areas is clearly limited to regional mapping at scales smaller than 1:24,000.

  17. Formation of Carbonate Minerals in Martian Meteorite ALH 84001 from Cool Water Near the Surface of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2011-12-01

    Carbonate minerals in the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite are important because they ought to contain information about the chemistry and temperature of the water they formed in. They are also an important part of testing the idea that the meteorite contains evidence of past life on Mars. Hypotheses for the origin of the carbonates are impressively varied. A key test of the ideas is to determine the temperature at which the carbonates formed. Estimates up to now range from a bit below freezing to 700 oC, too big a range to test anything! To address the problem Itay Halevy, Woodward Fischer, and John Eiler (Caltech) used an approach that involves "clumped" isotope thermometry, which makes comparisons among different isotopic compositions of extracted CO2. This allowed the investigators to use the isotopic abundances of both carbon and oxygen. The results indicate that the carbonates formed at 18 ± 4 oC from a shallow subsurface (upper few meters to tens of meters) pool of water that was gradually evaporating. The wet episode did not last long, leading Halevy and his colleagues to conclude that the environment may have been too transient for life to have emerged here from scratch. On the other hand, if life already existed on the Martian surface this wet near-surface environment would have provided a happy home. An impact blasted the Martian home of ALH 84001, causing a transient heating event, perhaps disturbing the isotopic record...or perhaps not because the event was so short. In any case, the clumped isotope thermometry approach seems to have given a good measurement of the temperature at which the carbonate minerals formed.

  18. Analysis of adolescents' beliefs about the outcome of using dental floss and drinking non-sugared mineral water.

    PubMed

    Astrøm, A N; Rise, J

    1996-06-01

    Using an expectancy value approach, personal and normative beliefs about the outcome of using dental floss and drinking non-sugared mineral water were studied in a sample of 970 15-year-old adolescents in the county of Hordaland in Norway. The data stem from a survey performed in October 1992. A detailed analysis of these beliefs provides information about which of them should be targeted in a persuasive communication directed at changing behavior. The adolescents evaluated six outcomes of each behavior in terms of how much they wanted or feared them, and rated the probability of each outcomes happening. The adolescents also rated the probability that four significant referents would approve the performance of each behavior and how much they valued the approval of each referent. Subjects with relatively strong and relatively weak intentions to use dental floss and to drink non-sugared mineral water (intenders and non-intenders) were compared with respect to their scores on each measure. A one-way analysis of variance showed consistent differences between intenders and non-intenders. Intenders were more likely to believe that the specified behaviors would result in positive outcomes and they evaluated these outcomes as more desirable than non-intenders. Intenders believed their referens, in particular dentists and parents, to be more concerned about whether or not to perform the specified behaviors than non-intenders. The most promising candidates for persuasive communication among behavioral beliefs with respect to the specified behaviors appeared to be reduced tooth decay and several non, health beliefs in terms of immediate social and sensory concerns. PMID:8871022

  19. Ultra-trace analysis of hormones, pharmaceutical substances, alkylphenols and phthalates in two French natural mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Dévier, Marie-Hélène; Le Menach, Karyn; Viglino, Liza; Di Gioia, Lodovico; Lachassagne, Patrick; Budzinski, Hélène

    2013-01-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential presence of a broad range of organic compounds, such as hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates, as well as pharmaceutical substances in two brands of bottled natural mineral waters (Evian and Volvic, Danone). The phthalates were determined by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and the other compounds by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after solid-phase extraction. The potential migration of alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles was also investigated under standardized test conditions. Evian and Volvic natural mineral waters contain none of the around 120 targeted organic compounds. Traces of 3 pharmaceuticals (ketoprofen, salicylic acid, and caffeine), 3 alkylphenols (4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol diethoxylate), and some phthalates including di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) were detected in the samples, but they were also present in the procedural blanks at similar levels. The additional test procedures demonstrated that the few detected compounds originated from the background laboratory contamination. Analytical procedures have been designed both in the bottling factory and in the laboratory in order to investigate the sources of DEHP and to minimize to the maximum this unavoidable laboratory contamination. It was evidenced that no migration of the targeted compounds from bottles occurred under the test conditions. The results obtained in this study underline the complexity of reaching a reliable measure to qualify the contamination of a sample at ultra-trace level, in the field of very pure matrices. The analytical procedures involving glassware, equipment, hoods, and rooms specifically dedicated to trace analysis allowed us to reach reliable procedural limits of quantification at the ng/L level, by

  20. Surface water mineralization of isopyrazam according to OECD 309: observations on implementation of the new data requirement within agrochemical regulation.

    PubMed

    Hand, Laurence H; Moreland, Harriet J

    2014-03-01

    A surface water mineralization study (according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] guideline OECD 309) is a new requirement in European Union agrochemical regulations; therefore, industry has little experience with this test. The guideline allows for a number of options within the test design, notably the options to conduct the study under diffuse light and to include an inoculum of suspended sediment. The present study was designed to investigate the potential impact of these options on the degradation rate of a representative compound. The fungicide, isopyrazam, was chosen as it was previously shown to be susceptible to metabolism by phototrophic organisms under a fluorescent light-dark cycle. The impact of diffuse light was investigated at light intensities representative of those at depth in large, open water bodies (<7% of the incident intensity), and it was demonstrated that metabolism of isopyrazam by phototrophic microorganisms was rapid (median degradation time for 50% of the test compound [DT50] < 50 d), whereas degradation in continuous darkness was negligible. Furthermore, investigation at 2 different light intensities resulted in similar degradation rates, indicating that this transformation mechanism was not proportional to light intensity, provided that there was sufficient light for photosynthesis to occur. Inclusion of suspended sediment did not have a significant impact on the degradation rate of isopyrazam, except at extremely high sediment concentrations, which were not considered representative of conditions in large, open water bodies.

  1. Surface water mineralization of isopyrazam according to OECD 309: observations on implementation of the new data requirement within agrochemical regulation.

    PubMed

    Hand, Laurence H; Moreland, Harriet J

    2014-03-01

    A surface water mineralization study (according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] guideline OECD 309) is a new requirement in European Union agrochemical regulations; therefore, industry has little experience with this test. The guideline allows for a number of options within the test design, notably the options to conduct the study under diffuse light and to include an inoculum of suspended sediment. The present study was designed to investigate the potential impact of these options on the degradation rate of a representative compound. The fungicide, isopyrazam, was chosen as it was previously shown to be susceptible to metabolism by phototrophic organisms under a fluorescent light-dark cycle. The impact of diffuse light was investigated at light intensities representative of those at depth in large, open water bodies (<7% of the incident intensity), and it was demonstrated that metabolism of isopyrazam by phototrophic microorganisms was rapid (median degradation time for 50% of the test compound [DT50] < 50 d), whereas degradation in continuous darkness was negligible. Furthermore, investigation at 2 different light intensities resulted in similar degradation rates, indicating that this transformation mechanism was not proportional to light intensity, provided that there was sufficient light for photosynthesis to occur. Inclusion of suspended sediment did not have a significant impact on the degradation rate of isopyrazam, except at extremely high sediment concentrations, which were not considered representative of conditions in large, open water bodies. PMID:24318627

  2. Radioactivity and geochemistry of selected mineral-spring waters in the Western United States; basic data and multivariate statistical analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felmlee, J.K.; Cadigan, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analyses were performed on data from 156 mineral-spring sites in nine Western States to analyze relationships among the various parameters measured in the spring waters. Correlation analysis and R-mode factor analysis indicate that three major factors affect water composition in the spring systems studied: (1) duration of water circulation, (2) depth of water circulation, and (3) partial pressure of carbon dioxide. An examination of factor scores indicates that several types of hydrogeologic systems were sampled. Most of the samples are (1) older water from deeper circulating systems having relatively high salinity, high temperature, and low Eh or (2) younger water from shallower circulating systems having relatively low salinity, low temperature, and high Eh. The rest of the samples are from more complex systems. Any of the systems can have a relatively high or low content of dissolved carbonate species, resulting in a low or high pH, respectively. Uranium concentrations are commonly higher in waters of relatively low temperature and high Eh, and radium concentrations are commonly higher in waters having a relatively high carbonate content (low pH) and, secondarily, relatively high salinity. Water samples were collected and (or) measurements were taken at 156 of the 171 mineral-spring sites visited. Various samples were analyzed for radium, uranium, radon, helium, and radium-228 as well as major ions and numerous trace elements. On-site measurements for physical properties including temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh, and dissolved oxygen were made. All constituents and properties show a wide range of values. Radium concentrations range from less than 0.01 to 300 picocuries per liter; they average 1.48 picocuries per liter and have an anomaly threshold value of 171 picocuries per liter for the samples studied. Uranium concentrations range from less than 0.01 to 120 micrograms per liter and average 0.26 micrograms per liter; they

  3. Salinity impact on yield, water use, mineral and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experimental study was carried out to determine the effects of salinity on water consumption, plant height, fresh and seed yields, biomass production, ion accumulation and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) under greenhouse conditions. The experiment was conducted with a ...

  4. D/H Ratios and Water Contents in Eucrite Minerals: Implications for the Source and Abundance of Water on Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephant, A.; Hervig, R.; Bose, M.; Wadhwa, M.

    2016-08-01

    Eucrite pyroxenes are a good proxy to estimate D/H ratio and water concentration of eucrite parent magma. SIMS measurements in eucrite pyroxenes reveal a D/H value for Vesta lower than chondritic. They may have record a possible nebular reservoir.

  5. Bone mineral (31)P and matrix-bound water densities measured by solid-state (31)P and (1)H MRI.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Alan C; Li, Cheng; Rajapakse, Chamith S; Bashoor-Zadeh, Mahdieh; Bhagat, Yusuf A; Wright, Alexander C; Zemel, Babette S; Zavaliangos, Antonios; Wehrli, Felix W

    2014-07-01

    Bone is a composite material consisting of mineral and hydrated collagen fractions. MRI of bone is challenging because of extremely short transverse relaxation times, but solid-state imaging sequences exist that can acquire the short-lived signal from bone tissue. Previous work to quantify bone density via MRI used powerful experimental scanners. This work seeks to establish the feasibility of MRI-based measurement on clinical scanners of bone mineral and collagen-bound water densities, the latter as a surrogate of matrix density, and to examine the associations of these parameters with porosity and donors' age. Mineral and matrix-bound water images of reference phantoms and cortical bone from 16 human donors, aged 27-97 years, were acquired by zero-echo-time 31-phosphorus ((31)P) and 1-hydrogen ((1)H) MRI on whole body 7T and 3T scanners, respectively. Images were corrected for relaxation and RF inhomogeneity to obtain density maps. Cortical porosity was measured by micro-computed tomography (μCT), and apparent mineral density by peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT). MRI-derived densities were compared to X-ray-based measurements by least-squares regression. Mean bone mineral (31)P density was 6.74 ± 1.22 mol/l (corresponding to 1129 ± 204 mg/cc mineral), and mean bound water (1)H density was 31.3 ± 4.2 mol/l (corresponding to 28.3 ± 3.7 %v/v). Both (31)P and bound water (BW) densities were correlated negatively with porosity ((31)P: R(2) = 0.32, p < 0.005; BW: R(2) = 0.63, p < 0.0005) and age ((31)P: R(2) = 0.39, p < 0.05; BW: R(2) = 0.70, p < 0.0001), and positively with pQCT density ((31)P: R(2) = 0.46, p < 0.05; BW: R(2) = 0.50, p < 0.005). In contrast, the bone mineralization ratio (expressed here as the ratio of (31)P density to bound water density), which is proportional to true bone mineralization, was found to be uncorrelated with porosity, age or pQCT density. This work establishes the feasibility of image-based quantification of bone mineral and bound

  6. Atomic structure and surface defects at mineral-water interfaces probed by in situ atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siretanu, Igor; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2016-04-01

    Atomic scale details of surface structure play a crucial role for solid-liquid interfaces. While macroscopic characterization techniques provide averaged information about bulk and interfaces, high resolution real space imaging reveals unique insights into the role of defects that are believed to dominate many aspects of surface chemistry and physics. Here, we use high resolution dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to visualize and characterize in ambient water the morphology and atomic scale structure of a variety of nanoparticles of common clay minerals adsorbed to flat solid surfaces. Atomically resolved images of the (001) basal planes are obtained on all materials investigated, namely gibbsite, kaolinite, illite, and Na-montmorillonite of both natural and synthetic origin. Next to regions of perfect crystallinity, we routinely observe extended regions of various types of defects on the surfaces, including vacancies of one or few atoms, vacancy islands, atomic steps, apparently disordered regions, as well as strongly adsorbed seemingly organic and inorganic species. While their exact nature is frequently difficult to identify, our observations clearly highlight the ubiquity of such defects and their relevance for the overall physical and chemical properties of clay nanoparticle-water interfaces.Atomic scale details of surface structure play a crucial role for solid-liquid interfaces. While macroscopic characterization techniques provide averaged information about bulk and interfaces, high resolution real space imaging reveals unique insights into the role of defects that are believed to dominate many aspects of surface chemistry and physics. Here, we use high resolution dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to visualize and characterize in ambient water the morphology and atomic scale structure of a variety of nanoparticles of common clay minerals adsorbed to flat solid surfaces. Atomically resolved images of the (001) basal planes are obtained on all

  7. Adjuvant effects of sulfolipo-cyclodextrin in a squalane-in-water and water-in-mineral oil emulsions for BHV-1 vaccines in cattle.

    PubMed

    Romera, S A; Hilgers, L A; Puntel, M; Zamorano, P I; Alcon, V L; Dus Santos, M J; Blanco Viera, J; Borca, M V; Sadir, A M

    2000-08-15

    The antibody and cell mediated immune responses induced by BHV-1 were analysed in cattle after vaccination and challenge exposure to the virulent strain LA of BHV-1. Animals were vaccinated intramuscularly (IM) with inactivated virus vaccines against BHV-1 containing either a water in mineral oil adjuvant (W/O), a water in mineral oil adjuvant plus Avridine (W/O+Avridine) or sulfolipo-cyclodextrin in squalane in-water emulsion (SL-CD/S/W). No significant differences were registered in the antibody response induced by the three evaluated vaccines. However, the BHV-1 specific cell-mediated immunite response was stronger and appeared earlier when SL-CD/S/W was included in the formulation. The efficacy of the vaccines was also evaluated after intranasal challenge of the calves with a virulent BHV-1 LA strain. Animals vaccinated with SL-CD/S/W had reduced virus excretion and clinical symptoms compared with the mock-vaccinated animals. Comparison of levels of BHV-1 specific IgG2 and IgG1 with virus shedding revealed that, regardless of the adjuvant administered, animals showing BHV-1 specific IgG2/IgG1 ratios higher than 1 were those with a significant lower number of individuals shedding virus. Additionally, animals vaccinated with SL-CD/S/W presented no post-vaccinal reactions. These factors, combined with the higher efficacy and the ease of manipulation of the biodegradable oil, makes the vaccine formulated with this new adjuvant an important contribution for the veterinary vaccines industry.

  8. Stable silicon isotope signatures of marine pore waters - Biogenic opal dissolution versus authigenic clay mineral formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlert, Claudia; Doering, Kristin; Wallmann, Klaus; Scholz, Florian; Sommer, Stefan; Grasse, Patricia; Geilert, Sonja; Frank, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Dissolved silicon isotope compositions have been analysed for the first time in pore waters (δ30SiPW) of three short sediment cores from the Peruvian margin upwelling region with distinctly different biogenic opal content in order to investigate silicon isotope fractionation behaviour during early diagenetic turnover of biogenic opal in marine sediments. The δ30SiPW varies between +1.1‰ and +1.9‰ with the highest values occurring in the uppermost part close to the sediment-water interface. These values are of the same order or higher than the δ30Si of the biogenic opal extracted from the same sediments (+0.3‰ to +1.2‰) and of the overlying bottom waters (+1.1‰ to +1.5‰). Together with dissolved silicic acid concentrations well below biogenic opal saturation, our collective observations are consistent with the formation of authigenic alumino-silicates from the dissolving biogenic opal. Using a numerical transport-reaction model we find that approximately 24% of the dissolving biogenic opal is re-precipitated in the sediments in the form of these authigenic phases at a relatively low precipitation rate of 56 μmol Si cm-2 yr-1. The fractionation factor between the precipitates and the pore waters is estimated at -2.0‰. Dissolved and solid cation concentrations further indicate that off Peru, where biogenic opal concentrations in the sediments are high, the availability of reactive terrigenous material is the limiting factor for the formation of authigenic alumino-silicate phases.

  9. Structural Investigation of Alkali Activated Clay Minerals for Application in Water Treatment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumanis, G.; Bajare, D.; Dembovska, L.

    2015-11-01

    Alkali activation technology can be applied for a wide range of alumo-silicates to produce innovative materials with various areas of application. Most researches focuse on the application of alumo-silicate materials in building industry as cement binder replacement to produce mortar and concrete [1]. However, alkali activation technology offers high potential also in biotechnologies [2]. In the processes where certain pH level, especially alkaline environment, must be ensured, alkali activated materials can be applied. One of such fields is water treatment systems where high level pH (up to pH 10.5) ensures efficient removal of water pollutants such as manganese [3]. Previous investigations had shown that alkali activation technology can be applied to calcined clay powder and aluminium scrap recycling waste as a foam forming agent to create porous alkali activated materials. This investigation focuses on the structural investigation of calcined kaolin and illite clay alkali activation processes. Chemical and mineralogical composition of both clays were determined and structural investigation of alkali activated materials was made by using XRD, DTA, FTIR analysis; the microstructure of hardened specimens was observed by SEM. Physical properties of the obtained material were determined. Investigation indicates the essential role of chemical composition of the clay used in the alkali activation process, and potential use of the obtained material in water treatment systems.

  10. Distribution of metals in water and bed sediment in a mineral-rich watershed, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagorski, S.A.; Moore, J.N.; Smith, D.B.

    2002-01-01

    We sampled the Blackfoot River (Montana) and its major tributaries from the headwaters of the basin to near its confluence with the Clark Fork River over the course of 5 days in August 1998. We measured streamflow, collected fine-grained (<63 ??m) streambed sediment, and sampled the dissolved (operationally defined as <0.2 ??m) phase of the surface water using clean techniques. Water and sediment collected from near the historic Heddleston mining district contained the highest concentrations of most trace elements in the basin. Many solute trace metals were at their highest several kilometers downstream from the mining district, where the river flows through an unremediated marsh system that has collected mine wastes in the past. Downstream of the headwaters area, water and bed sediment metal concentrations declined sharply. Comparison of sediment samples with those collected by other workers in August 1989 and August 1995 do not show evidence of basin-scale long term changes, despite the onset of remediation efforts in 1993. The area of the proposed McDonald gold deposit near the confluence of the Landers Fork with the Blackfoot River was not contributing anomalous concentrations of naturally-occurring dissolved and bed-sediment metals into the basin. ?? IMWA Springer-Verlag 2002.

  11. The effect of pyrite on Escherichia coli in water: proof-of-concept for the elimination of waterborne bacteria by reactive minerals.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Lonia R; Puri, Neha; Schoonen, Martin A A; Wali Karzai, A

    2015-03-01

    We present proof-of-concept results for the elimination of waterborne bacteria by reactive minerals. We exposed Escherichia coli MG1655 suspended in water to the reactive mineral pyrite (FeS₂) at room temperature and ambient light. This slurry eliminates 99.9% of bacteria in fewer than 4 hours. We also exposed Escherichia coli to pyrite leachate (supernatant liquid from slurry after 24 hours), which eliminates 99.99% of bacteria over the same time-scale. Unlike SOlar water DISinfection (SODIS), our results do not depend on the presence of ultraviolet (UV) light. We confirmed this by testing proposed SODIS additive and known photo-catalyst anatase (TiO₂) for antibacterial properties and found that, in contrast to pyrite, it does not eliminate E. coli under our experimental conditions. Previous investigations of naturally antibiotic minerals have focused on the medical applications of antibiotic clays, and thus have not been conducted under experimental conditions resembling those found in water purification. In our examination of the relevant literature, we have not found previously reported evidence for the use of reactive minerals in water sanitization. The results from this proof-of-concept experiment may have important implications for future directions in household water purification research.

  12. The effect of pyrite on Escherichia coli in water: proof-of-concept for the elimination of waterborne bacteria by reactive minerals.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Lonia R; Puri, Neha; Schoonen, Martin A A; Wali Karzai, A

    2015-03-01

    We present proof-of-concept results for the elimination of waterborne bacteria by reactive minerals. We exposed Escherichia coli MG1655 suspended in water to the reactive mineral pyrite (FeS₂) at room temperature and ambient light. This slurry eliminates 99.9% of bacteria in fewer than 4 hours. We also exposed Escherichia coli to pyrite leachate (supernatant liquid from slurry after 24 hours), which eliminates 99.99% of bacteria over the same time-scale. Unlike SOlar water DISinfection (SODIS), our results do not depend on the presence of ultraviolet (UV) light. We confirmed this by testing proposed SODIS additive and known photo-catalyst anatase (TiO₂) for antibacterial properties and found that, in contrast to pyrite, it does not eliminate E. coli under our experimental conditions. Previous investigations of naturally antibiotic minerals have focused on the medical applications of antibiotic clays, and thus have not been conducted under experimental conditions resembling those found in water purification. In our examination of the relevant literature, we have not found previously reported evidence for the use of reactive minerals in water sanitization. The results from this proof-of-concept experiment may have important implications for future directions in household water purification research. PMID:25719464

  13. Geology and ground-water hydrology of the Angostura irrigation project, South Dakota, with a section on the mineral quality of the waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littleton, Robert T.; Swenson, Herbert A.

    1949-01-01

    The lands to be irrigated from water stored in the Angostura Reservoir are situated on the lover of two terraces along the southeast side of the Cheyenne River in northeastern Fall River County and on the terrace known as Harrison Plat in southeastern Custer County, S. Dak. The terrace deposits are composed of relatively permeable sands and gravels that rest on a shale bedrock platform. The terrace surfaces are mantled in part by slope wash derived from higher shale slopes and by wind-blown sand. Ground water occurs under water-table conditions in the river alluvium and in terraces above the river. Although the zone of saturation in the terrace deposits is 6enerally thin, it is essentially continuous in the area southeast of the river, and the water issues as springs in the terrace faces along the inner valley of the river and along the valleys of tributary streams cuttin6 back into the terraces. A zone of saturation is present only in part of the Harrison Plat area, and it extends to the terrace face only along Cottonwood Creek. Wells in the unconsolidated mantle rock supply water for domestic and stock purposes, but yields are small. Abundant supplies of artesian water are available at depths ranging up to 3,000 feet but are not now utilized except at the extreme western end of the area where the bedrock aquifer is close below the surface. The effect of applying irrigation water on the terrace lands will depend on the character of the underlying material and on the measures taken to forestall waterlogging and other undesirable effects. Terrace areas that are mantled by slope wash will be especially susceptible to waterlogging, as will valley-bottom areas mantled by colluvium that are adjacent to irrigated terracea. Periodic measurements of water levels in observation wells will give warning of potential waterlogging in time to permit taking preventive measures. Analyses of samples of both ground water and surface water indicate a high mineral content. In general

  14. [The external application of "Plastunskaya" fluoride-containing mineral water in the course of the combined spa and health resort-based treatment of deforming osteoarthrosis].

    PubMed

    Mel'Nichuk, L P; Khodasevich, L S

    2015-01-01

    Mineral waters containing fluorine (fluorinated waters) at a concentration in excess of 1 mg per liter are extensively used in the newly developing spa and health resort areas of the Russian Federation. They have been found in Siberia, Trans-Baikal regions, and the Krasnodar Territory (together with the Greater Sochi). These waters are mainly used for drinking as a component of the balneo- therapeutic treatment. In this context, the study of the therapeutic effects of low-mineralized hydrocarbonate-sodium waters containing fluorine in high concentrations is of paramount importance for the substantiation and facilitation of their external application in the framework of the programs of combined spa and health resort-based treatment of various diseases. We have investigated the possibility of the external application of "Plastunskaya" mineral water characterized above all by the high content of fluorine for the external treatment of osteoarthritis in 187 patients at the age varying from 37 to 63 years in the combination with the sparing regimen of physical activity, therapeutic physical exercises, klimatotherapy of moderate intensity, and a balanced diet. The patients were prescribed to take general "Plastunskaya" mineral water baths with the fluoride concentration of 7.4 mg/l at a temperature of 36 C from 7 to 15 minutes in duration for 2 consecutive days with a break on every third day (the total course consisted of 14-16 baths). It was shown that the combined treatment with the use of fluorine-containing mineral water resulted in the significant improvement of the clinical and biochemical parameters characterizing the health status of the patients suffering from deforming osteoarthrosis. PMID:26841530

  15. Raman spectral classification of mineral- and collagen-bound water's associations to elastic and post-yield mechanical properties of cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Unal, Mustafa; Akkus, Ozan

    2015-12-01

    Water that is bound to bone's matrix is implied as a predictor of fracture resistance; however, bound water is an elusive variable to be measured nondestructively. To date, the only nondestructive method used for studying bone hydration status is magnetic resonance variants (NMR or MRI). For the first time, bone hydration status was studied by short-wave infrared (SWIR) Raman spectroscopy to investigate associations of mineral-bound and collagen-bound water compartments with mechanical properties. Thirty cortical bone samples were used for quantitative Raman-based water analysis, gravimetric analysis, porosity measurement, and biomechanical testing. A sequential dehydration protocol was developed to replace unbound (heat drying) and bound (ethanol treatment) water in bone. Raman spectra were collected serially to track the OH-stretch band during dehydration. Four previously identified peaks were investigated: I3220/I2949, I3325/I2949 and I3453/I2949 reflect status of organic-matrix related water (mostly collagen-related water) compartments and collagen portion of bone while I3584/I2949 reflects status of mineral-related water compartments and mineral portion of bone. These spectroscopic biomarkers were correlated with elastic and post-yield mechanical properties of bone. Collagen-water related biomarkers (I3220/I2949 and I3325/I2949) correlated significantly and positively with toughness (R(2)=0.81 and R(2)=0.79; p<0.001) and post-yield toughness (R(2)=0.65 and R(2)=0.73; p<0.001). Mineral-water related biomarker correlated significantly and negatively with elastic modulus (R(2)=0.78; p<0.001) and positively with strength (R(2)=0.46; p<0.001). While MR-based techniques have been useful in measuring unbound and bound water, this is the first study which probed bound-water compartments differentially for collagen and mineral-bound water. For the first time, we showed an evidence for contributions of different bound-water compartments to mechanical properties of wet

  16. Raman spectral classification of mineral- and collagen-bound water's associations to elastic and post-yield mechanical properties of cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Unal, Mustafa; Akkus, Ozan

    2015-12-01

    Water that is bound to bone's matrix is implied as a predictor of fracture resistance; however, bound water is an elusive variable to be measured nondestructively. To date, the only nondestructive method used for studying bone hydration status is magnetic resonance variants (NMR or MRI). For the first time, bone hydration status was studied by short-wave infrared (SWIR) Raman spectroscopy to investigate associations of mineral-bound and collagen-bound water compartments with mechanical properties. Thirty cortical bone samples were used for quantitative Raman-based water analysis, gravimetric analysis, porosity measurement, and biomechanical testing. A sequential dehydration protocol was developed to replace unbound (heat drying) and bound (ethanol treatment) water in bone. Raman spectra were collected serially to track the OH-stretch band during dehydration. Four previously identified peaks were investigated: I3220/I2949, I3325/I2949 and I3453/I2949 reflect status of organic-matrix related water (mostly collagen-related water) compartments and collagen portion of bone while I3584/I2949 reflects status of mineral-related water compartments and mineral portion of bone. These spectroscopic biomarkers were correlated with elastic and post-yield mechanical properties of bone. Collagen-water related biomarkers (I3220/I2949 and I3325/I2949) correlated significantly and positively with toughness (R(2)=0.81 and R(2)=0.79; p<0.001) and post-yield toughness (R(2)=0.65 and R(2)=0.73; p<0.001). Mineral-water related biomarker correlated significantly and negatively with elastic modulus (R(2)=0.78; p<0.001) and positively with strength (R(2)=0.46; p<0.001). While MR-based techniques have been useful in measuring unbound and bound water, this is the first study which probed bound-water compartments differentially for collagen and mineral-bound water. For the first time, we showed an evidence for contributions of different bound-water compartments to mechanical properties of wet

  17. Magnesium in tap and bottled mineral water in Spain and its contribution to nutritional recommendations.

    PubMed

    Maraver, Francisco; Vitoria, Isidro; Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Armijo, Francisco; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: Una adecuada ingesta de magnesio condiciona una buena salud ósea y previene y la resistencia a la insulina y la arteriosclerosis. Objetivo: Determinar el contenido en magnesio en aguas de bebida en España y valorar su contribución diaria a las ingestas recomendadas de este mineral. Métodos: En 2012 se analizaron por cromatografía iónica las concentraciones de magnesio de distintas aguas de consumo público en una muestra representativa de 108 poblaciones españolas que abastecen a 21.290.707 personas, así como de 109 aguas minerales naturales embotelladas comercializadas en España (97 españolas y 12 importadas). Resultados: La concentración media de magnesio en aguas de consumo público fue de 14,65±16,23 mg/L (rango: 0,07-70,08 mg/L). En 25 poblaciones el agua contenía 15-45 mg/L de magnesio y en 7 fue superior a 45 mg/L. La concentración media de magnesio de las 97 marcas españolas de aguas fue 16,27 mg/L (rango: 0,11-141,2 mg/L), 33 de ellas contenían 15-45 mg/L de magnesio, mientras que en 4 de ellas era mayor de 45 mg/L. De las 12 marcas importadas, 4 contenían más de 45 mg/L. Asumiendo la cantidad de ingesta de agua recomendada por la EFSA, si el agua contiene 15-45 mg/L de magnesio, ésta aportaría entre el 9 y el 76,5% de la ingesta de magnesio recomendada para los niños de 1-13 años, hasta el 25,7% en adolescentes, entre 7,5 y 25,7% en adultos, y hasta el 27% en lactantes. El agua conteniendo 60 mg/L de magnesio aportaría entre el 30 y el 102% de las recomendaciones según la edad. Discusión: El agua de consumo público de un tercio de ciudades españolas y de aguas minerales naturales puede ser considerada como una fuente complementaria importante de magnesio ingerido.

  18. Pore water chemistry reveals gradients in mineral transformation across a model basaltic hillslope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlmann, Michael; Dontsova, Katerina; Root, Robert; Ruiz, Joaquin; Troch, Peter; Chorover, Jon

    2016-06-01

    The extent of weathering incongruency during soil formation from rock controls local carbon and nutrient cycling in ecosystems, as well as the evolution of hydrologic flow paths. Prior studies of basalt weathering, including those that have quantified the dynamics of well-mixed, bench-scale laboratory reactors or characterized the structure and integrated response of field systems, indicate a strong influence of system scale on weathering rate and trajectory. For example, integrated catchment response tends to produce lower weathering rates than do well mixed reactors, but the mechanisms underlying these disparities remain unclear. Here we present pore water geochemistry and physical sensor data gathered during two controlled rainfall-runoff events on a large-scale convergent model hillslope mantled with 1 m uniform depth of granular basaltic porous media. The dense sampler and sensor array (1488 samplers and sensors embedded in 330 m3 of basalt) showed that rainfall-induced dissolution of basaltic glass produced supersaturation of pore waters with respect to multiple secondary solids including allophane, gibbsite, ferrihydrite, birnessite and calcite. The spatial distribution of saturation state was heterogeneous, suggesting an accumulation of solutes leading to precipitation of secondary solids along hydrologic flow paths. Rapid dissolution of primary silicates was widespread throughout the entire hillslope, irrespective of up-gradient flowpath length. However, coherent spatial variations in solution chemistry and saturation indices were observed in depth profiles and between distinct topographic regions of the hillslope. Colloids (110-2000 nm) enriched in iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), and phosphorus (P) were mobile in soil pore waters.

  19. Investigating the Effectiveness of Mineral Precipitate as a Tool in the Removal of Heavy Metals from Mine Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abongwa, P. T.; Geyer, C.; Puckette, J.

    2014-12-01

    Mine water from a precious metal mine in Colorado drains into an underground tunnel and flows for about 8 km before being discharged into a series of sequentially connected settling ponds (5) aimed at removing suspended particulate. Our results suggest these ponds also remove heavy metals from solution through adsorption and mineral precipitation. Analyses of the precipitates and water in the settling ponds showed relatively higher metal concentration on the precipitates than in the corresponding aqueous solutions. Speciation modeling showed that the precipitates were mainly travertine, ferrihydrite, fe-oxyhdroxide and gypsum and these are expected to provide surfaces for metal adsorption. Overall, the average concentrations of trace metals were such that, Al concentration was 0.0 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 9.4 mg/L for the precipitate; Fe concentration was 0.04 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 20.1 mg/L for the precipitate; Mn concentration was 0.2 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 10.2 mg/L for the precipitate; Sr concentration was 3 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 8 mg/L for the precipitate; Zn concentration was 0.1 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 1.4 mg/L for the precipitate. Sulfate concentrations in solutions (1346 mg/L) were about seventeen times higher than on the precipitate (80 mg/L). As the water exits the tunnel, its carbon is expected to consistently decrease over space as it moves along the settling ponds while precipitating carbonates. The dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations showed consistent drop from 109 mg/L at the tunnel exit to 96 mg/L at middle pond and 92 mg/L at the exit pond, which corresponds to decreasing pCO2 and removal of carbon from solution through travertine precipitation and CO2 outgassing. This data indicate a strong influence of mineral precipitate as an effective component in the attenuation of metals in mine

  20. The plant stress hypothesis and variable responses by blue grama grass (Bouteloua gracilis) to water, mineral nitrogen, and insect herbivory.

    PubMed

    Joern, Anthony; Mole, Simon

    2005-09-01

    Acting simultaneously or sequentially, plants encounter multiple stresses from combined abiotic and biotic factors that result in decreased growth and internal reallocation of resources. The plant stress hypothesis predicts that environmental stresses on plants decrease plant resistance to insect herbivory by altering biochemical source-sink relationships and foliar chemistry, leading to more palatable food. Such changes in the nutritional landscape for insects may facilitate insect population outbreaks during periods of moderate stress on host plants. We examined the plant stress hypothesis with field experiments in continental grassland (USA) using the C4 grass Bouteloua gracilis. Water, nitrogen fertilizer, and herbivory from the grass-feeding grasshopper Ageneotettix deorum were manipulated. Combined stresses from water and mineral-N in the soil decreased plant growth and altered foliar percent total N (TN) and percent total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) concentrations in an additive fashion. Grasshopper herbivory affected final biomass only in dry years; plants compensated for tissue loss when rainfall was abundant. Foliar TN and TNC concentrations were dynamic with respect to variable climatic conditions and treatment combinations, showing significant interactions. Grasshopper herbivory had its greatest impact on TN or TNC in dry years, interacting with other forms of stress. Herbivory as a single factor had strong effects on TNC in years with normal precipitation, but not in a dry year. Performance (developmental rate and survival) by the grasshoppers Phoetaliotes nebrascensis and A. deorum were not greatly affected by plant stress in a manner consistent with the plant stress hypothesis.

  1. Spectral properties of mixtures of montmorillonite and dark grains - Implications for remote sensing minerals containing chemically and physically adsorbed water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    The spectral properties from 0.4 to 3 microns of montmorillonite plus dark carbon grains (called opaques) of various sizes are studied as a function of the weight fraction of opaques present. The reflectance level and band depths of the 1.4-, 1.9-, 2.2-, and 2.8-micron water and/or OH absorption features are analyzed using derived empirical relationships and scattering theory. It is found that the absorption band depths and reflectance level are a very nonlinear function of the weight fraction of opaques present but can be predicted in many cases by simple scattering theory. The 2.8-micron bound water fundamental band is the most difficult absorption feature to suppress. The overtone absorptions are suppressed a greater amount than the fundamental but are still apparent even when 10-20 wt pct opaques are present. The relationships observed and the simple scattering theory presented show that quantitative compositional remote sensing studies are feasible for surfaces containing complex mineral mixtures.

  2. Silicon alleviates drought stress of rice plants by improving plant water status, photosynthesis and mineral nutrient absorption.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yao, Xiaoqin; Cai, Kunzheng; Chen, Jining

    2011-07-01

    Drought is a major constraint for rice production in the rainfed lowlands in China. Silicon (Si) has been verified to play an important role in enhancing plant resistance to environmental stress. Two near-isogenic lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.), w-14 (drought susceptible) and w-20 (drought resistant), were selected to study the effects of exogenous Si application on the physiological traits and nutritional status of rice under drought stress. In wet conditions, Si supply had no effects on growth and physiological parameters of rice plants. Drought stress was found to reduce dry weight, root traits, water potential, photosynthetic parameters, basal quantum yield (F(v)/F(0)), and maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (F(v)/F(m)) in rice plants, while Si application significantly increased photosynthetic rate (Pr), transpiration rate (Tr), F(v)/F(0), and F(v)/F(m) of rice plants under drought stress. In addition, water stress increased K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe content of rice plants, but Si treatment significantly reduced these nutrient level. These results suggested that silicon application was useful to increase drought resistance of rice through the enhancement of photochemical efficiency and adjustment of the mineral nutrient absorption in rice plants.

  3. Atomic structure and surface defects at mineral-water interfaces probed by in situ atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Siretanu, Igor; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2016-04-21

    Atomic scale details of surface structure play a crucial role for solid-liquid interfaces. While macroscopic characterization techniques provide averaged information about bulk and interfaces, high resolution real space imaging reveals unique insights into the role of defects that are believed to dominate many aspects of surface chemistry and physics. Here, we use high resolution dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to visualize and characterize in ambient water the morphology and atomic scale structure of a variety of nanoparticles of common clay minerals adsorbed to flat solid surfaces. Atomically resolved images of the (001) basal planes are obtained on all materials investigated, namely gibbsite, kaolinite, illite, and Na-montmorillonite of both natural and synthetic origin. Next to regions of perfect crystallinity, we routinely observe extended regions of various types of defects on the surfaces, including vacancies of one or few atoms, vacancy islands, atomic steps, apparently disordered regions, as well as strongly adsorbed seemingly organic and inorganic species. While their exact nature is frequently difficult to identify, our observations clearly highlight the ubiquity of such defects and their relevance for the overall physical and chemical properties of clay nanoparticle-water interfaces.

  4. Seawater/Saline Agriculture for Energy, Warming, Water, Rainfall, Land, Food and Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    The combination of the incipient demise of cheap oil and increasing evidence of Global Warming due to anthropogenic fossil carbon release has reinvigorated the need for and efforts on Renewable energy sources, especially for transportation applications. Biomass/Bio-diesel appears to have many benefits compared to Hydrogen, the only other major renewable transportation fuel candidate. Biomass Production is currently limited by available arable land and fresh water. Halophyte Plants and seawater irrigation proffer a wholly new biomass production mantra using wastelands and very plentiful seawater. Such an approach addresses many-to-most of the major emerging Societal Problems including Land, Water, Food, Warming and Energy. For many reasons, including seawater agriculture, portions of the Sahara appear to be viable candidates for future Biomass Production. The apparent nonlinearity between vegetation cover and atmospheric conditions over North Africa necessitates serious coupled boundary layer Meteorology and Global Circulation Modeling to ensure that this form of Terra Forming is Favorable and to avoid adverse Unintended Consequences.

  5. [Effect of Seasonal Temperature Increasing on Nitrogen Mineralization in Soil of the Water Level Fluctuating Zone of Three Gorge Tributary During the Dry Period].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun-jie; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Dan; Zhou, Bin; Xiao, Xiao-jun; Ma, Hui-yan; Yu, Zhi-guo

    2016-02-15

    To reveal the effect of seasonal temperature increasing on nitrogen mineralization in soil of the water level fluctuating soil zone of three gorge reservoir areas in the Yangtze river tributary during the dry period, surface soils were collected from the water level fluctuating zone of Pengxi river crossing two hydrological sections, i.e., upstream and downstream and three water level altitudes, 155 m (low), 165 m (middle) and 175 m (high). We incubated the soil at 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C to determine the transformation rates of nitrogen in soil of Pengxi river basin during the dry period. The result showed that TN and NO3- -N contents in the soil of upstream section and higher (175 m) altitude of water level were higher than those in downstream and low (165 m) altitude of water level, whereas the pattern for NH4+ -N was different, with higher NH4+ -N contents in downstream and low water level. The inorganic nitrogen was dominated by NO3- -N, which accounted for up to 57.4%-84.7% of inorganic nitrogen. Generally, soil ammoniation, nitration and net N mineralization increased with the rising water level altitude and stream sections (P < 0.05). In summary, nitration and net N mineralization significantly increased with increasing temperature, (P < 0.05), while ammoniation showed no difference (P > 0.05).

  6. [Effect of Seasonal Temperature Increasing on Nitrogen Mineralization in Soil of the Water Level Fluctuating Zone of Three Gorge Tributary During the Dry Period].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun-jie; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Dan; Zhou, Bin; Xiao, Xiao-jun; Ma, Hui-yan; Yu, Zhi-guo

    2016-02-15

    To reveal the effect of seasonal temperature increasing on nitrogen mineralization in soil of the water level fluctuating soil zone of three gorge reservoir areas in the Yangtze river tributary during the dry period, surface soils were collected from the water level fluctuating zone of Pengxi river crossing two hydrological sections, i.e., upstream and downstream and three water level altitudes, 155 m (low), 165 m (middle) and 175 m (high). We incubated the soil at 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C to determine the transformation rates of nitrogen in soil of Pengxi river basin during the dry period. The result showed that TN and NO3- -N contents in the soil of upstream section and higher (175 m) altitude of water level were higher than those in downstream and low (165 m) altitude of water level, whereas the pattern for NH4+ -N was different, with higher NH4+ -N contents in downstream and low water level. The inorganic nitrogen was dominated by NO3- -N, which accounted for up to 57.4%-84.7% of inorganic nitrogen. Generally, soil ammoniation, nitration and net N mineralization increased with the rising water level altitude and stream sections (P < 0.05). In summary, nitration and net N mineralization significantly increased with increasing temperature, (P < 0.05), while ammoniation showed no difference (P > 0.05). PMID:27363162

  7. Monitoring the impact of urban effluents on mineral contents of water and sediments of four sites of the river Ravi, Lahore.

    PubMed

    Shakir, Hafiz Abdullah; Qazi, Javed Iqbal; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor

    2013-12-01

    We assessed the impact of urban effluents on the concentrations of selected minerals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, Mn, Ni, and Hg) in river Ravi before and after its passage through Lahore city. Water and sediment samples were collected from three lowly to highly polluted downstream sites (Shahdera (B), Sunder (C), and Balloki (D)) alongside the least polluted upstream site (Siphon (A)) during high and low river flow seasons. All the mineral concentrations increased up to site C but stabilized at site D, showing some recovery as compared to the third sampling site. The trend of mean mineral concentration was significantly higher during the low than the high flow season at all the sites. The mean Hg concentrations approached 0.14 and 0.12 mg/l at site A which increased (%) up to 107 and 25% at site B, 1,700 and 1,317% at site C, and 1,185 and 1,177% at site D during low and high river flows, respectively. All mineral concentrations were much higher in the sediment than the water samples. Mean Cd (917%), Cr (461%), Cu (300%), Fe (254%), Pb (179%), Zn (170%), Mn (723%), Ni (853%), and Hg (1,699%) concentrations were higher in riverbed sediments sampled from site C in comparison with the sample collected at site A during low flow season. The domestic and industrial discharges from Lahore city have created undesirable water qualities during the low river flow season. As majority of the mineral levels in the river Ravi were higher than the permissible and safe levels, this is of immediate concern for riverine fish consumers and the users of water for recreation and even irrigation. The use of these waters may pose health risks, and therefore, urgent intervention strategies are needed to minimize river water pollution and its impact on fish-consuming communities of this study area and beyond.

  8. Mineral resources of the New Water Mountains Wilderness Study Area, La Paz County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrod, D.R.; Smith, D.B.; Koch, R.D.; Hanna, W.F.; Pitkin, J.A.; Lane, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The New Water Mountains Wilderness Study Area, situated in La Paz County, west-central Arizona, locally has a moderate resource potential for gold and silver from replacement-type deposits occurring in Paleozoic marble in the western and north-central parts of the area, and a low resource potential for copper, lead, zinc, and manganese localized in fault zones that cut Tertiary volcanic rocks near the eastern edge of the range. Resource potential is low for geothermal energy or oil and gas. There is an unknown resource potential for lime, which could be developed from Paleozoic marble in the north-central part of the area. Sand and gravel occur in the area, but these materials are abundant closer to markets in the region.

  9. Electron transfer at the mineral/water interface: Selenium reduction by ferrous iron sorbed on clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlet, L.; Scheinost, A. C.; Tournassat, C.; Greneche, J. M.; Géhin, A.; Fernández-Martínez, A.; Coudert, S.; Tisserand, D.; Brendle, J.

    2007-12-01

    The mobility and availability of the toxic metalloid selenium in the environment are largely controlled by sorption and redox reactions, which may proceed at temporal scales similar to that of subsurface water movement under saturated or unsaturated conditions. Since such waters are often anaerobic and rich in Fe 2+, we investigated the long-term (⩽1 month) kinetics of selenite (Se(IV)O3-) sorption to montmorillonite in the presence of Fe 2+ under anoxic conditions. A synthetic montmorillonite was used to eliminate the influence of structural Fe. In the absence of aqueous Fe 2+, selenite was sorbed as outer-sphere sorption complex, covering only part of the positive edge sites, as verified by a structure-based MUSIC model and Se K-edge XAS (X-ray absorption spectroscopy). When selenite was added to montmorillonite previously equilibrated with Fe 2+ solution however, slow reduction of Se and formation of a solid phase was observed with Se K-edge XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy) and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine-structure) spectroscopy. Iterative transformation factor analysis of XANES and EXAFS spectra suggested that only one Se reaction product formed, which was identified as nano-particulate Se(0). Even after one month, only 75% of the initially sorbed Se(IV) was reduced to this solid species. Mössbauer spectrometry revealed that before and after addition and reduction of Se, 5% of total sorbed Fe occurred as Fe(III) species on edge sites of montmorillonite (≈2 mmol kg -1). The only change observed after addition of Se was the formation of a new Fe(II) species (15%) attributed to the formation of an outer-sphere Fe(II)-Se sorption complex. The combined Mössbauer and XAS results hence clearly suggest that the Se and Fe redox reactions are not directly coupled. Based on the results of a companion paper, we hypothesize that the electrons produced in the absence of Se by oxidation of sorbed Fe(II) are stored, for example by formation of

  10. [Immediate thyrotropic effects of mineral water Naftussya their autonomic relevence and possibility to forecast].

    PubMed

    Koziavkina, N V; Baryliak, L H; Ianchiĭ, O R; Fuchko, O L

    2013-01-01

    Clinical physiological monitoring of 32 men aged 25-60 years with chronic stoneless cholecystitis in the phase of remission found that in 14 patients 75-85 minutes after drinking the bioactive water Naftussya (3 ml/kg, t(0) 18-20 degrees C) the plasma level of total triiodothyronine (T3) was not significantly changed, while in 9 patients it was reduced to 0.26 +/- 0.10 nM/1 (by 11%). In the other 9 patients the level increased to 0.29 +/- 0,04 nM/1 (by 17%). The changes in T3 level correlated negatively with the changes in absolute (r = -0.55) and relative (r = -0.47) power spectral density (PSD) of ultra very low-frequency components of heart rate variability (HRV). These changes correlated positively (r = 0.46) with the changes in relative PSD of low-frequency components of HRV. Subject to a weak correlation with HRV parameter pNN50 (r = -0.21) canonical correlation coefficient (R) between changes in HRV parameters and T3 reaches 0.68 (p = 0.002). On the other hand, the changes in T3 correlated with its initial level (r = -0.46), as well as initial levels of moda (r = -0.40), its amplitude (r = 0.30) and absolute PSD of low-frequency components HRV (r = -0.33), i.e. thyrotropic effects conditionized these parameters by 30% (R = 0.55; p = 0.038). The method ofdiscriminant analysis has identified 14 primary parameters that allowed predicting the thyrotropic effect of Naftussya water with 100% accuracy. PMID:24605595

  11. Screening of endocrine-disrupting phenols, herbicides, steroid estrogens, and estrogenicity in drinking water from the waterworks of 35 Italian cities and from PET-bottled mineral water.

    PubMed

    Maggioni, Silvia; Balaguer, Patrick; Chiozzotto, Claudia; Benfenati, Emilio

    2013-03-01

    We investigated contamination by endocrine-disrupting chemicals in drinking water from 35 major Italian cities and five popular Italian brands of bottled mineral water. The quality of Italian drinking water was assessed by combing chemical analysis with bioassay to quantify specific estrogenic contaminants and to characterize the actual biological effect of the mixture of chemicals present in drinking water including the contribution of not targeted compounds. The selected contaminants were natural and synthetic steroid estrogens, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, linuron, triazine herbicides, and their metabolites. A specific analytical method was developed based on solid phase extraction of 1 L of water and concentration to 100 μL for quantification by electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, achieving quantification limits of 0.05-0.36 ng/L for herbicides and 0.64-7.70 ng/L for steroids and phenols. No steroid estrogens were detected in any of the samples, while bisphenol A and nonylphenols were detected in the ranges of 0.82-102.00 and 10.30-84.00 ng/L respectively. Herbicides and their degradation products, when present, were found from slightly above the quantification limits up to 49.91 ng/L, mainly from cities in northern Italy. Chemical analyses were complemented by the performance of a bioassay for the determination of the estrogenic activity in the extracts based on the transactivation of estrogen receptor α-transfected reporter HeLa-ERE-Luciferase-Neomycin cell line. Activity was generally low with maximum estrogenicity of 13.6 pg/L estradiol equivalents.

  12. Naturally acidic surface and ground waters draining porphyry-related mineralized areas of the Southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Bove, D.J.; Plumlee, G.S.; Runkel, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Acidic, metal-rich waters produced by the oxidative weathering and resulting leaching of major and trace elements from pyritic rocks can adversely affect water quality in receiving streams and riparian ecosystems. Five study areas in the southern Rocky Mountains with naturally acidic waters associated with porphyry mineralization were studied to document variations in water chemistry and processes that control the chemical variations. Study areas include the Upper Animas River watershed, East Alpine Gulch, Mount Emmons, and Handcart Gulch in Colorado and the Red River in New Mexico. Although host-rock lithologies in all these areas range from Precambrian gneisses to Cretaceous sedimentary units to Tertiary volcanic complexes, the mineralization is Tertiary in age and associated with intermediate to felsic composition, porphyritic plutons. Pyrite is ubiquitous, ranging from ???1 to >5 vol.%. Springs and headwater streams have pH values as low as 2.6, SO4 up to 3700 mg/L and high dissolved metal concentrations (for example: Fe up to 400 mg/L; Cu up to 3.5 mg/L; and Zn up to 14.4 mg/L). Intensity of hydrothermal alteration and presence of sulfides are the primary controls of water chemistry of these naturally acidic waters. Subbasins underlain by intensely hydrothermally altered lithologies are poorly vegetated and quite susceptible to storm-induced surface runoff. Within the Red River study area, results from a storm runoff study documented downstream changes in river chemistry: pH decreased from 7.80 to 4.83, alkalinity decreased from 49.4 to <1 mg/L, SO4 increased from 162 to 314 mg/L, dissolved Fe increased from to 0.011 to 0.596 mg/L, and dissolved Zn increased from 0.056 to 0.607 mg/L. Compared to mine drainage in the same study areas, the chemistry of naturally acidic waters tends to overlap but not reach the extreme concentrations of metals and acidity as some mine waters. The chemistry of waters draining these mineralized but unmined areas can be used to

  13. Metabolic acidosis mimicking diabetic ketoacidosis after use of calorie-free mineral water.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Gry T; Woldseth, Berit; Lindemann, Rolf

    2012-09-01

    A previously healthy boy was admitted with fever, tachycardia, dyspnea, and was vomiting. A blood test showed a severe metabolic acidosis with pH 7.08 and an anion gap of 36 mmol/L. His urine had an odor of acetone. The serum glucose was 5.6 mmol/L, and no glucosuria was found. Diabetic ketoacidosis could therefore be eliminated. Lactate level was normal. Tests for the most common metabolic diseases were negative. Because of herpes stomatitis, the boy had lost appetite and only been drinking Diet Coke and water the last days. Diet Coke or Coca-Cola Light is sweetened with a blend containing cyclamates, aspartame, and acesulfame potassium, all free of calories. The etiology of the metabolic acidosis appeared to be a catabolic situation exaggerated by fasting with no intake of calories. The elevated anion gap was due to a severe starvation ketoacidosis, mimicking a diabetic ketoacidosis. Pediatricians should recommend carbohydrate/calorie-containing fluids for rehydration of children with acute fever, diarrhea, or illness.

  14. Environmental geochemistry of shale-hosted Ag-Pb-Zn massive sulfide deposits in northwest Alaska: Natural background concentrations of metals in water from mineralized areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, K.D.; Taylor, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    Red Dog, Lik and Drenchwater are shale-hosted stratiform Ag-Pb-Zn massive sulfide deposits in the northwestern Brooks Range. Natural background concentrations of metals in waters from the undisturbed (unmined) Drenchwater prospect and Lik deposit were compared to pre-mining baseline studies conducted at Red Dog. The primary factors affecting water chemistry are the extent of exposure of the deposits, the grade of mineralization, the presence of carbonate reeks in the section, and the proportion of Fe-sulfide in the ore. Surface water samples from the Drenchwater prospect, which has pyrite-dominant mineralization exposed in outcrop, have pH values as low as 2.8 and high dissolved concentrations of metals including as much as 95 mg 1-1 Al, 270 mg 1-1 Fe, 8 ??1-1 Cd, 10 ??1-1 Pb, and 2600 ??1-1 Zn, with As up to 26 ??g1-1. Surface waters from the Red Dog deposit prior to mining were also acidic and metal-rich, however, dissolved metal concentrations in Red Dog waters were many times greater. The higher metal concentrations in Red Dog waters reflect the high Zn grades and the abundant sphalerite, pyrite, and galena that were present in outcrop prior to mining. In contrast, despite significant mineralization at the Lik deposit, carbonate rocks in the section buffer the system, resulting in less acidic, mostly near-neutral pH values with low concentrations of most metals except Zn.

  15. Impact of Natural and Man-Made Factors on Mineral Composition of the Ardon River Water and Hydrophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadim, Ermakov; Elena, Korobova; Alexander, Degtyarev; Nina, Petrunina; Sergey, Tyutikov

    2013-04-01

    The Unal basin located in mountain region of Northern Ossetia (the Caucasus) belongs to Pb-Zn natural province with anthropogenic and natural transformation of the environment leading to risks of ecological damage. Activity of the Misursk Mining Combine and its Arkhon-Khosta tailings caused a significant local increase of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn content in soils, water and biotic components relative to background values [1-5]. A catastrophic mud flow of 2002 and the later construction of a gas pipeline and a dam for hydroelectric power station changed local landscapes and biota (plants, algae, and amphibia). Biogeochemical studies performed in the area in 2001, 2003 and 2008 showed that in some cases the specified factors might change the structure of landscapes due to enhanced mass migration and the erosion of outcropping rocks which could be followed by corresponding transformation of the chemical composition of draining waters and flood plain soils, and could also change the character of species' invasion. Algae were proved to adapt and to indicate both natural and man-made transformation of the environment [3, 4]. A distinct relation between the particle size of the suspended matter in the Ardon river waters and water mineralization was discovered. However, heavy metals' concentration level in waters of the Ardon river appeared in general to be within the acceptable hygienic standards and therefore ecologically not critical. References 1. Degtyarev V.P., Ermakov V.V. Ecological and geochemical evaluation of the the Ardon river basin (Northern Ossetia). Geokhimiya, 1998, 1, 88-94. 2. Karpova E.A., Krechetova E.V., Degtyarev V.P. Parameters of heavy metal migration in soils of biogeochemical anomalies of the Northern Ossetia. Modern problems of soil contamination, Moscow State University, V. 1, 2007, 106-110. 3. Petrunina N.S., Ermakov V.V., Tuytikov S.F., Karpova E.A., Levkina L.M., Gololobova M.A. Biogeochemical identification of natural and technogenic polymetallic

  16. Electrospinning of calcium phosphate-poly (d,l-lactic acid) nanofibers for sustained release of water-soluble drug and fast mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qi-Wei; Zi, Yun-Peng; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Rong; Cai, Zhu-Yun; Zheng, Wei-Jie; Chen, Feng; Qian, Qi-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Calcium phosphate-based biomaterials have been well studied in biomedical fields due to their outstanding chemical and biological properties which are similar to the inorganic constituents in bone tissue. In this study, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) nanoparticles were prepared by a precipitation method, and used for preparation of ACP-poly(d,l-lactic acid) (ACP-PLA) nanofibers and water-soluble drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers by electrospinning. Promoting the encapsulation efficiency of water-soluble drugs in electrospun hydrophobic polymer nanofibers is a common problem due to the incompatibility between the water-soluble drug molecules and hydrophobic polymers solution. Herein, we used a native biomolecule of lecithin as a biocompatible surfactant to overcome this problem, and successfully prepared water-soluble drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers. The lecithin and ACP nanoparticles played important roles in stabilizing water-soluble drug in the electrospinning composite solution. The electrospun drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers exhibited fast mineralization in simulated body fluid. The ACP nanoparticles played the key role of seeds in the process of mineralization. Furthermore, the drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers exhibited sustained drug release which simultaneously occurred with the in situ mineralization in simulated body fluid. The osteoblast-like (MG63) cells with spreading filopodia were well observed on the as-prepared nanofibrous mats after culturing for 24 hours, indicating a high cytocompatibility. Due to the high biocompatibility, sustained drug release, and fast mineralization, the as-prepared composite nanofibers may have potential applications in water-soluble drug loading and release for tissue engineering. PMID:27785016

  17. A practical application of Driscoll's equation for predicting the acid-neutralizing capacity in acidic natural waters equilibria with the mineral phase gibbsite.

    PubMed

    Bi, S P; An, S Q; Liu, F

    2001-05-01

    A practical application of Driscoll's equation for predicting the acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) in acidic waters equilibria with the mineral phase gibbsite is reported in this paper. Theoretical predication values of ANC are compared with the experimental data obtained from different literatures. The effect of aluminum (Al) on the value of ANC is investigated. It indicates that Al plays an important role in regulating the buffering effects in acidic natural waters. Failure to consider Al in acidic waters may bias assessment results in certain situations so as to overestimate the ANC values in response to increase in atmospheric deposition.

  18. Results of mineral, chemical, and sulfate isotopic analyses of water, soil, rocks, and soil extracts from the Pariette Draw Watershed, Uinta Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Jean M.; Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Fahy, Juli W.

    2015-08-06

    The goal of this study was to establish a process-based understanding of salt, Se, and B behavior to address whether these contaminants can be better managed, or if uncontrollable natural processes will overwhelm any attempts to bring Pariette Draw into compliance with respect to recently established total maximum daily limits (TMDLs). We collected data to refine our knowledge about the role of rock weathering and soil formation in the transport and storage of salt in the watershed and to show how salt is cycled under irrigated and natural conditions. Our approach was to sample rock, soils, and sediment on irrigated and natural terrain for mineralogical analysis to determine the residence of salt and associated Se and B, classify minerals as primary (related to rock formation) or secondary weathering products, and characterize mineral dissolution kinetics. Mineral and chemical analyses and selective extractions of rocks and soils provide useful information in understanding solute movement and mineral dissolution/ formation. The resulting data are critical in determining residence of salt, Se, and B in weathered rock and soil and understanding the mobility during water-rock-soil interactions. This report summarizes our methods for sample and data collection and tabulates the mineral, chemical, and isotopic data collected.

  19. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  20. Sodium-potassium synergism in Theobroma cacao: stimulation of photosynthesis, water-use efficiency and mineral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Gattward, James N; Almeida, Alex-Alan F; Souza, José O; Gomes, Fábio P; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2012-11-01

    In ecological setting, sodium (Na(+)) can be beneficial or toxic, depending on plant species and the Na(+) level in the soil. While its effects are more frequently studied at high saline levels, Na(+) has also been shown to be of potential benefit to some species at lower levels of supply, especially in C4 species. Here, clonal plants of the major tropical C3 crop Theobroma cacao (cacao) were grown in soil where potassium (K(+)) was partially replaced (at six levels, up to 50% replacement) by Na(+), at two concentrations (2.5 and 4.0 mmol(c) dm(-3)). At both concentrations, net photosynthesis per unit leaf area (A) increased more than twofold with increasing substitution of K(+) by Na(+). Concomitantly, instantaneous (A/E) and intrinsic (A/g(s)) water-use efficiency (WUE) more than doubled. Stomatal conductance (g(s)) and transpiration rate (E) exhibited a decline at 2.5 mmol dm(-3), but remained unchanged at 4 mmol dm(-3). Leaf nitrogen content was not impacted by Na(+) supplementation, whereas sulfur (S), calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)) and zinc (Zn(2+)) contents were maximized at 2.5 mmol dm(-3) and intermediate (30-40%) replacement levels. Leaf K(+) did not decline significantly. In contrast, leaf Na(+) content increased steadily. The resultant elevated Na(+)/K(+) ratios in tissue correlated with increased, not decreased, plant performance. The results show that Na(+) can partially replace K(+) in the nutrition of clonal cacao, with significant beneficial effects on photosynthesis, WUE and mineral nutrition in this major perennial C3 crop.

  1. [INDICES OF THE OXIDATIVE STATUS IN CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF COLLOID CARBONATE CALCIUM PRAPARATION WITH FAUCET AND LOW-MINERALIZED DRINKING WATER IN RATS].

    PubMed

    Khripach, L V; Mikhaylova, R I; Koganova, Z I; Knyazeva, T D; Alekseeva, A V; Savostikova, O N; Ryzhova, I N; Kruglova, E V; Revzova, T L

    2015-01-01

    There are discussed the changes of an array of indices of the oxidative status in chronic administration of colloidal calcium carbonate preparation with faucet and low-mineralized drinking water to rats. Slight differences between significant effects of administration of 3 and 30 mg/L of preparation permit to suggest that the process of its incoming delivery into organism of rats has a bottleneck in the nature of total capacity of macrophages of intestinal lymphoid tissue to absorption of particles. PMID:26856141

  2. [INDICES OF THE OXIDATIVE STATUS IN CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF COLLOID CARBONATE CALCIUM PRAPARATION WITH FAUCET AND LOW-MINERALIZED DRINKING WATER IN RATS].

    PubMed

    Khripach, L V; Mikhaylova, R I; Koganova, Z I; Knyazeva, T D; Alekseeva, A V; Savostikova, O N; Ryzhova, I N; Kruglova, E V; Revzova, T L

    2015-01-01

    There are discussed the changes of an array of indices of the oxidative status in chronic administration of colloidal calcium carbonate preparation with faucet and low-mineralized drinking water to rats. Slight differences between significant effects of administration of 3 and 30 mg/L of preparation permit to suggest that the process of its incoming delivery into organism of rats has a bottleneck in the nature of total capacity of macrophages of intestinal lymphoid tissue to absorption of particles.

  3. Mineral Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Mineral Chart KidsHealth > For Teens > Mineral Chart Print A A A Text Size en ... sources of calcium. You'll also find this mineral in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables. Soy ...

  4. Mars residual north polar cap - Earth-based spectroscopic confirmation of water ice as a major constituent and evidence for hydrated minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.; Mccord, T. B.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of new earth-based reflectance spectra of the Martian north residual polar cap. The spectra indicate that the composition is at least mostly water ice plus another component with a 'gray' reflectance. The other minerals in the ice cap appear to be hydrated. The data were obtained with a cooled circular variable filter spectrometer on February 20, 1978, using the 2.2-m telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. It is pointed out that the identification of water ice in the north polar cap alone does not indicate that water makes up all or even most of the bulk of the cap. Kieffer (1970) has shown that a small amount of water will mask the spectral features of CO2.

  5. Calcium-ammonium exchange experiments on clay minerals using a (45)Ca tracer technique in marine pore water.

    PubMed

    Ockert, Charlotte; Wehrmann, Laura M; Kaufhold, Stephan; Ferdelman, Tim G; Teichert, Barbara M A; Gussone, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Understanding cation exchange processes is important for evaluating early diagenetic and synsedimentary processes taking place in marine sediments. To quantify calcium (Ca) exchange and Ca-ammonium exchange in a seawater environment, we performed experiments with a radioactive (45)Ca tracer on clay mineral standards (Fithian illite, montmorillonite and kaolinite) and marine sediments from the North Atlantic Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1306A in artificial seawater (ASW). The results show that equilibrium during the initial attachment of Ca as well as the exchange of Ca by [Formula: see text] is attained in less than 2 min. On average 8-20% of the exchangeable sites of the clay minerals were occupied by Ca in a seawater medium. The conditional selectivity coefficient, describing the [Formula: see text] exchange in ASW is mineral specific and it was determined to be 0.07 for montmorillonite, 0.05 for a natural marine sediment and 0.013 for Fithian illite.

  6. Increased water salinity applied to tomato plants accelerates the development of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta through bottom-up effects.

    PubMed

    Han, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Lavoir, Anne-Violette; Michel, Thomas; Seassau, Aurélie; Zheng, Wen-Yan; Niu, Chang-Ying; Desneux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Variation in resource inputs to plants may trigger bottom-up effects on herbivorous insects. We examined the effects of water input: optimal water vs. limited water; water salinity: with vs. without addition of 100 mM NaCl; and their interactions on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum), and consequently, the bottom-up effects on the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meytick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Plant growth was significantly impeded by limited water input and NaCl addition. In terms of leaf chemical defense, the production of tomatidine significantly increased with limited water and NaCl addition, and a similar but non-significant trend was observed for the other glycoalkaloids. Tuta absoluta survival did not vary with the water and salinity treatments, but the treatment "optimal water-high salinity" increased the development rate without lowering pupal mass. Our results suggest that caution should be used in the IPM program against T. absoluta when irrigating tomato crops with saline water. PMID:27619473

  7. Increased water salinity applied to tomato plants accelerates the development of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta through bottom-up effects

    PubMed Central

    Han, Peng; Wang, Zhi-jian; Lavoir, Anne-Violette; Michel, Thomas; Seassau, Aurélie; Zheng, Wen-yan; Niu, Chang-ying; Desneux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Variation in resource inputs to plants may trigger bottom-up effects on herbivorous insects. We examined the effects of water input: optimal water vs. limited water; water salinity: with vs. without addition of 100 mM NaCl; and their interactions on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum), and consequently, the bottom-up effects on the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meytick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Plant growth was significantly impeded by limited water input and NaCl addition. In terms of leaf chemical defense, the production of tomatidine significantly increased with limited water and NaCl addition, and a similar but non-significant trend was observed for the other glycoalkaloids. Tuta absoluta survival did not vary with the water and salinity treatments, but the treatment “optimal water-high salinity” increased the development rate without lowering pupal mass. Our results suggest that caution should be used in the IPM program against T. absoluta when irrigating tomato crops with saline water. PMID:27619473

  8. Increased water salinity applied to tomato plants accelerates the development of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta through bottom-up effects.

    PubMed

    Han, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Lavoir, Anne-Violette; Michel, Thomas; Seassau, Aurélie; Zheng, Wen-Yan; Niu, Chang-Ying; Desneux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Variation in resource inputs to plants may trigger bottom-up effects on herbivorous insects. We examined the effects of water input: optimal water vs. limited water; water salinity: with vs. without addition of 100 mM NaCl; and their interactions on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum), and consequently, the bottom-up effects on the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meytick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Plant growth was significantly impeded by limited water input and NaCl addition. In terms of leaf chemical defense, the production of tomatidine significantly increased with limited water and NaCl addition, and a similar but non-significant trend was observed for the other glycoalkaloids. Tuta absoluta survival did not vary with the water and salinity treatments, but the treatment "optimal water-high salinity" increased the development rate without lowering pupal mass. Our results suggest that caution should be used in the IPM program against T. absoluta when irrigating tomato crops with saline water.

  9. Infrared spectroscopy of OD vibrators in minerals at natural dilution: hydroxyl groups in talc and kaolinite, and structural water in beryl and emerald.

    PubMed

    de Donato, Philippe; Cheilletz, Alain; Barres, Odile; Yvon, Jacques

    2004-05-01

    An infrared (IR) study of natural deuteration is conducted on minerals containing hydroxyl groups (talc and kaolinite) and channel-water-bearing minerals (beryl and emerald). In talc, the OD valence vibration is located at 2710 cm(-1), corresponding to OD groups surrounded by 3 Mg atoms. In kaolinite, the OD valence vibrations are located at 2671 cm(-1) (inner OD group), 2712, 2706, and 2700 cm(-1) (three inner-surface OD groups). In beryl and emerald, natural deuteration of channel water is observed for the first time by infrared microspectroscopy. In beryl from Minas Gerais (Brazil), the OD profiles are characterized by four bands at 2735, 2686, 2672, and 2641 cm(-1). In emeralds from Colombia and Brazil, the OD profiles are characterized by five or four bands, respectively, at 2816, 2737, 2685, 2673, and 2641 cm(-1) (Colombia) and 2730, 2684, 2672, and 2640 cm(-1) (Brazil). The band at 2816 cm(-1) can be assigned to -OD or OD(-), and bands at 2686-2684, 2673-2672, and 2641-2640 cm(-1) can be assigned to type-I and type-II HOD molecules. The band at 2737-2730 cm(-1) is partially disturbed by combination bands of the mineral. Such OD profiles are different from those obtained by artificial deuteration at higher OD dilution. PMID:15165327

  10. Structure and hydrogeochemical functioning of a sparkling natural mineral water system determined using a multidisciplinary approach: a case study from southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maréchal, J. C.; Lachassagne, P.; Ladouche, B.; Dewandel, B.; Lanini, S.; Le Strat, P.; Petelet-Giraud, E.

    2013-12-01

    Natural mineral waters (NMW), often used to produce bottled water, are of high socio-economic interest and need appropriate management to ensure the sustainability of the resource. A complex sparkling NMW system at La Salvetat, southern France, was investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Geological and geophysical investigations, pumping test analyses, time-series signal processing, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data (both stable and radiogenic), and numerical modelling provided complementary information on the geometry, hydrodynamic characteristics and functioning of this mineral system. The conceptual model consists of a compartmentalized reservoir characterized by two subvertical, parallel deeply rooted hydraulically independent permeable structures that are fed by deep CO2-rich crustal fluids. The non-mineralized shallow aquifer system corresponds to a fissured layer within the weathered zone that is recharged by leakage from the overlying saprolite. This surficial aquifer responds rapidly to recharge (40-80 days), whereas the deep system's response to recharge is much longer (up to 120 days). This research demonstrates the need for multidisciplinary approaches and modelling (quantity, hydrochemistry) for understanding complex NMW systems. This knowledge is already being applied by the bottling company that manages the resource at La Salvetat, and would be useful for conceptualising other NMW sites.

  11. Infrared spectroscopy of OD vibrators in minerals at natural dilution: hydroxyl groups in talc and kaolinite, and structural water in beryl and emerald.

    PubMed

    de Donato, Philippe; Cheilletz, Alain; Barres, Odile; Yvon, Jacques

    2004-05-01

    An infrared (IR) study of natural deuteration is conducted on minerals containing hydroxyl groups (talc and kaolinite) and channel-water-bearing minerals (beryl and emerald). In talc, the OD valence vibration is located at 2710 cm(-1), corresponding to OD groups surrounded by 3 Mg atoms. In kaolinite, the OD valence vibrations are located at 2671 cm(-1) (inner OD group), 2712, 2706, and 2700 cm(-1) (three inner-surface OD groups). In beryl and emerald, natural deuteration of channel water is observed for the first time by infrared microspectroscopy. In beryl from Minas Gerais (Brazil), the OD profiles are characterized by four bands at 2735, 2686, 2672, and 2641 cm(-1). In emeralds from Colombia and Brazil, the OD profiles are characterized by five or four bands, respectively, at 2816, 2737, 2685, 2673, and 2641 cm(-1) (Colombia) and 2730, 2684, 2672, and 2640 cm(-1) (Brazil). The band at 2816 cm(-1) can be assigned to -OD or OD(-), and bands at 2686-2684, 2673-2672, and 2641-2640 cm(-1) can be assigned to type-I and type-II HOD molecules. The band at 2737-2730 cm(-1) is partially disturbed by combination bands of the mineral. Such OD profiles are different from those obtained by artificial deuteration at higher OD dilution.

  12. Validation of an Analytical Method for Determination of 13 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mineral water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Ramezan; Kobarfard, Farzad; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Eslamizad, Samira; Bayat, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used for the extraction and determination of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mineral water samples. In this procedure, the suitable combination of extraction solvent (500 µL chloroform) and disperser solvent (1000 µL acetone) were quickly injected into the water sample (10.00 mL) by Hamilton syringe. After centrifugation, 500 µL of the lower organic phase was dried under a gentle stream of nitrogen, re-dissolved in chloroform and injected into GC-MS. Chloroform and acetone were found to be the best extraction and disperser solvent, respectively. Validation of the method was performed using spiked calibration curves. The enrichment factor ranged from 93 to 129 and the recovery ranged from 71 to 90%. The linear ranges for all the PAHs were 0.10-2.80 ngmL-1. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of PAHs in water by using anthracene-d10 as internal standard, were in the range of 4-11% for most of the analytes (n = 3). Limit of detection (LOD) for different PAHs were between 0.03 and 0.1 ngmL-1. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of PAHs in mineral water samples collected from Tehran. PMID:27610156

  13. Validation of an Analytical Method for Determination of 13 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mineral water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Ramezan; Kobarfard, Farzad; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Eslamizad, Samira; Bayat, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for the extraction and determination of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mineral water samples. In this procedure, the suitable combination of extraction solvent (500 µL chloroform) and disperser solvent (1000 µL acetone) were quickly injected into the water sample (10.00 mL) by Hamilton syringe. After centrifugation, 500 µL of the lower organic phase was dried under a gentle stream of nitrogen, re-dissolved in chloroform and injected into GC-MS. Chloroform and acetone were found to be the best extraction and disperser solvent, respectively. Validation of the method was performed using spiked calibration curves. The enrichment factor ranged from 93 to 129 and the recovery ranged from 71 to 90%. The linear ranges for all the PAHs were 0.10-2.80 ngmL(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of PAHs in water by using anthracene-d10 as internal standard, were in the range of 4-11% for most of the analytes (n = 3). Limit of detection (LOD) for different PAHs were between 0.03 and 0.1 ngmL(-1). The method was successfully applied for the analysis of PAHs in mineral water samples collected from Tehran. PMID:27610156

  14. Validation of an Analytical Method for Determination of 13 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mineral water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Ramezan; Kobarfard, Farzad; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Eslamizad, Samira; Bayat, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used for the extraction and determination of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mineral water samples. In this procedure, the suitable combination of extraction solvent (500 µL chloroform) and disperser solvent (1000 µL acetone) were quickly injected into the water sample (10.00 mL) by Hamilton syringe. After centrifugation, 500 µL of the lower organic phase was dried under a gentle stream of nitrogen, re-dissolved in chloroform and injected into GC-MS. Chloroform and acetone were found to be the best extraction and disperser solvent, respectively. Validation of the method was performed using spiked calibration curves. The enrichment factor ranged from 93 to 129 and the recovery ranged from 71 to 90%. The linear ranges for all the PAHs were 0.10-2.80 ngmL-1. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of PAHs in water by using anthracene-d10 as internal standard, were in the range of 4-11% for most of the analytes (n = 3). Limit of detection (LOD) for different PAHs were between 0.03 and 0.1 ngmL-1. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of PAHs in mineral water samples collected from Tehran.

  15. [Determination of sodium, magnesium, calcium, lithium and strontium in natural mineral drinking water by microwave plasma torch spectrometer with nebulization sample introduction system].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Xiong, Hai-long; Feng, Guo-dong; Yu, Ai-min; Chen, Huan-wen

    2014-06-01

    The microwave plasma torch (MPT) was used as the emission light source. Aqueous samples were introduced with a nebulizer and a desolvation system. A method for the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr in natural mineral drinking water by argon microwave plasma torch spectrometer (ArMPT spectrometer) was established. The effects of microwave power, flow rate of carrier gas and support gas were investigated in detail and these parameters were optimized. Under the optimized condition, the experiments for the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr in 11 kinds of bottled mineral drinking water were carried out by ArMPT spectrometer. The limit-of-detection (LOD) of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr was found to be 4.4, 21, 56, 11 and 84 μg x mL(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviation (n = 6) was in the range of 1.30%-5.45% and standard addition recoveries were in the range of 84.6%-98.5%. MPT spectrometer was simpler, more convenient and of lower cost as compared to ICP unit. MPT spectrometer demonstrated its rapid analysis speed, accuracy, sensitivity and simultaneous multi element analysis ability during the analysis process. The results showed that MPT spectrometer was suitable for metal elements detection for natural mineral drinking water. This approach provides not only one way for resisting the illegal dealings, but also a security for the quality of drinking water. Moreover, the usability of MPT spectrometer in the field of food security; drug safety; clinical diagnostic is promised.

  16. Mineral resources of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Compiled and edited by Wright, Nancy A.; Williams, Paul L.

    1974-01-01

    Although the existence of mineral deposits in Antarctica is highly probable, the chances of finding them are quite small. Minerals have been found there in great variety but only as occurrences. Manganese nodules, water (as ice), geothermal energy, coal, petroleum, and natural gas are potential resources that could perhaps be exploited in the future. On the basis of known mineral occurrences in Antarctica and relationships between geologic provinces of Antarctica and those of neighboring Gondwana continents, the best discovery probability for a base-metal deposit in any part of Antarctica is in the Andean orogen; it is estimated to be 0.075 (75 chances in 1,000).

  17. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the Prestea Huni Valley District of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-Kumi, Sam; Cobbina, Samuel J; Armah, Frederick A; Ason, Benjamin; Antwi, Edward; Quansah, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR-Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As), 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd), 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb) and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg), respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd), 1.45 (Pb), 4.60 (Hg) and 1.98 (As); while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10(-3). The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10(-4) to 1 × 10(-6). These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  18. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the Prestea Huni Valley District of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O.; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Cobbina, Samuel J.; Armah, Frederick A.; Ason, Benjamin; Antwi, Edward; Quansah, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR—Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As), 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd), 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb) and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg), respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd), 1.45 (Pb), 4.60 (Hg) and 1.98 (As); while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10−3. The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10−4 to 1 × 10−6. These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  19. Respiration, mineralization, and biochemical properties of the particulate matter in the southern Nansen Basin water column in April 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packard, T. T.; Codispoti, L. A.

    2007-03-01

    Determinations of the activity of the respiratory electron transport system (ETS), during the FRAM III expedition permit us to estimate oxygen utilization rates ( RO 2) from the surface to 2000 m under the polar pack ice in the Nansen Basin just north of Svalbard (83°N, 7°E) during April 1981. We found RO 2 at in situ temperatures ranging from 20 pM O 2 min -1 just below the ice to 0.2 pM O 2 min -1 at 2000 m. These rates are low compared to most other ocean regions, but they could decrease particulate organic carbon and nitrogen by 76% and 74%, respectively, over a period of ˜6 months. The RO 2 calculations based on measurements made at 0 °C yielded a power function of RO 2 vs. depth ( Z) of RO 2=67 Z-0.5534. When this RO 2 profile was superimposed on a more recent oxygen utilization rate profile made using the 3He- 3H-AOU method (OUR), in the same vicinity of the Nansen Basin during 1987 (OUR=52 Z-0.4058, [Zheng, Y., Schlosser, P., Swift, J.W., Jones, E.P., 1997. Oxygen utilization rates in the Nansen Basin, Arctic Ocean: implications for new production. Deep Sea Research I 44, 1923-1943]), the agreement of the two profiles was close. On one hand, this was to be expected because RO 2 is the biological basis of OUR, on the other hand, it was a surprise because the methodologies are so different. Nitrate mineralization obtained from ETS activities also compared favorably with calculations based on the data of Zheng et al. [1997. Oxygen utilization rates in the Nansen Basin, Arctic Ocean: implications for new production. Deep Sea Research I 44, 1923-1943]. Chlorophyll ranged from 6 ng L -1 at 5 m to 0.06 ng L -1 at 2000 m. Particulate organic carbon (POC) decreased from 0.93 μM C just below the ice to less than 0.4 μM C at 500 m. Particulate organic nitrogen (PON) was not detectable below 70 m, however in the upper 70 m it ranged from 0.16 to 0.04 μM N. The C/N mass ratio over these depths ranged from 5.8 to 11.3. Annual carbon productivity as calculated to

  20. A Protocol, a standard and a (PULI) database for quantitative micro-FTIR measurements of water in nominally anhydrous minerals: an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Istvan; Udvardi, Beatrix; Pintér, Zsanett; Hidas, Károly; Kutassy, Lászlóné; Falus, György; Lendvay, Pál; István, Török; Zelei, Tamás; Fancsik, Tamás; Gál, Tamás; Mihály, Judith; Németh, Csaba; Ingrin, Jannick; Xia, Qunke; Hermann, Jörg; Stalder, Roland; Perucchi, Andrea; Kamarás, Katalin; Szekrényes, Zsolt

    2014-05-01

    'Water' (H2O, OH and H+) in the nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) of the upper mantle play a key role in determining its geochemical and geophysical properties. Both the concentration and the substitution mechanism of water are important to formulate its effect on material properties. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry can provide both qualitative and quantitative information on the substitution of water into NAMs, therefore, it is a widely used analytical technique. The quantitative evaluation of micro-FTIR mineral spectra, however, seems to be still rather ambiguous. This is because there are several different - sometimes controversial - ways to measure or estimate the total polarized integrated absorbance (Atot). Furthermore, there are mineral-, substitution mechanism- and wavenumber-dependent calibrations factors available to convert Atot to the absolute concentration of water (usually given in ppm wt.%). No wonder that very different absolute water concentrations may be obtained from the very same IR spectrum. Thus, there is certainly a need for an evaluation protocol which would reduce these uncertainties giving clear instructions how Atot should be obtained and what calibrations factors should be used. This will be introduced in our study. Inter laboratory differences were monitored by analysing the some unoriented grains of the Pakistani olivine standard using different brands of infrared microscopes in several different countries and laboratories worldwide. During these measurements optimal measurement settings for the IR analysis of NAMs were constrained. The results show that the inter laboratory deviations are typically less than 10%. To put constraints on the micro-scale (<50 microns) distribution of water in the Pakistani olivine standard high resolution infrared maps were recorded using a synchrotron light source. The hyper spectral images revealed small-scale heterogeneities within the crystals which otherwise could not have been

  1. Kingian Co-Evolution of the Water and Mineral/Rock Components for Earth and Mars: Implications for Planetary Habitability (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, V. R.

    2013-12-01

    Planetary habitability may fluctuate episodically against a background provided by the co-evolution of a planet's mineral/rock (geosphere) components and its water (hydrosphere) in relation to its position in a circumstellar system. The water/rock (geosphere/hydrosphere) co-evolution can be inferred from the geological histories of the terrestrial planets of the solar system, particularly from the very extensive understanding of Earth and Mars. Habitability and water/rock co-evolution have components that are tychistic (i.e., driven by chance) and anancastic (i.e., dynamically driven largely by deterministic forces). They also have a final, end-directed (i.e., teleomatic) aspect that operates in accordance with natural laws. This is a larger perspective on the idea of planetary habitability than is generally associated with an astronomical approach, and it incorporates additional insights from a geological perspective on the issue. The geological histories of Mars and Earth are punctuated with critical, short-term epochs of extreme change, which for Earth are known to be associated with major disruptions of its biosphere. These catastrophic epochs can be described as a type of non-Darwinian evolution that was envisioned by the geologist Clarence King. In an 1877 paper King proposed that accelerated evolutionary change occurs during sudden environmental disruptions. Such Kingian disruptions in mineral/rock and water evolution mark the planetary histories of Mars and Earth, including the early formation and condensation of a steam atmosphere, an impacting cataclysm at about 3.9 to 4 Ga, episodes of concentrated volcanism and tectonism, and associated rapid changes in the linked atmosphere and hydrosphere. These disruptions are closely tied to migrations of water between different planetary reservoirs, the nature of planetary accretion, the origin of a physically coupled atmosphere and ocean, the prospects for initiating plate tectonics, and punctuated greenhouse

  2. Water Soluble Components of ‘Osteocare’ Promote Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, and Matrix Mineralization in Human Osteoblast-Like SaOS-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Sandeep R.; Sharath Kumar, L. M.; Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Patki, Pralhad Sadashiv

    2014-01-01

    Osteocare, a herbal formulation, has been found to be very effective in bone mineralization and support of the microstructure of bone tissue. The water-soluble components of Osteocare (WSCO) induced osteogenic activity in human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. The addition of WSCO (100 μg/ml) to SaOS-2 cells was effective in increasing the cell proliferation by 41.49% and DNA content by 1.9-fold. WSCO increased matrix mineralization in SaOS-2 cells by increased alkaline phosphatase levels and calcium-rich deposits as observed by Alizarin red staining. WSCO markedly increased mRNA expression for osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), type I collagen (Col I) in SaOS-2 cells, and it down-regulated IL-6 mRNA levels in SaOS-2 cells. The present study showed that WSCO plays an important role in osteoblastic bone formation through enhanced activities of ALP, Col I, bone matrix proteins such as OPN and OCN, down-regulation of cytokines like IL-6, as well as promoting mineralization in SaOS-2 cells. PMID:24959407

  3. Water Soluble Components of 'Osteocare' Promote Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, and Matrix Mineralization in Human Osteoblast-Like SaOS-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Varma, Sandeep R; Sharath Kumar, L M; Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Patki, Pralhad Sadashiv

    2014-06-01

    Osteocare, a herbal formulation, has been found to be very effective in bone mineralization and support of the microstructure of bone tissue. The water-soluble components of Osteocare (WSCO) induced osteogenic activity in human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. The addition of WSCO (100 μg/ml) to SaOS-2 cells was effective in increasing the cell proliferation by 41.49% and DNA content by 1.9-fold. WSCO increased matrix mineralization in SaOS-2 cells by increased alkaline phosphatase levels and calcium-rich deposits as observed by Alizarin red staining. WSCO markedly increased mRNA expression for osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), type I collagen (Col I) in SaOS-2 cells, and it down-regulated IL-6 mRNA levels in SaOS-2 cells. The present study showed that WSCO plays an important role in osteoblastic bone formation through enhanced activities of ALP, Col I, bone matrix proteins such as OPN and OCN, down-regulation of cytokines like IL-6, as well as promoting mineralization in SaOS-2 cells.

  4. Calcium-ammonium exchange experiments on clay minerals using a (45)Ca tracer technique in marine pore water.

    PubMed

    Ockert, Charlotte; Wehrmann, Laura M; Kaufhold, Stephan; Ferdelman, Tim G; Teichert, Barbara M A; Gussone, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Understanding cation exchange processes is important for evaluating early diagenetic and synsedimentary processes taking place in marine sediments. To quantify calcium (Ca) exchange and Ca-ammonium exchange in a seawater environment, we performed experiments with a radioactive (45)Ca tracer on clay mineral standards (Fithian illite, montmorillonite and kaolinite) and marine sediments from the North Atlantic Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1306A in artificial seawater (ASW). The results show that equilibrium during the initial attachment of Ca as well as the exchange of Ca by [Formula: see text] is attained in less than 2 min. On average 8-20% of the exchangeable sites of the clay minerals were occupied by Ca in a seawater medium. The conditional selectivity coefficient, describing the [Formula: see text] exchange in ASW is mineral specific and it was determined to be 0.07 for montmorillonite, 0.05 for a natural marine sediment and 0.013 for Fithian illite. PMID:24437731

  5. Industrial Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lawrence L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses trends in and factors related to the production of industrial minerals during 1982, indicating that, as 1981 marked a downturn in production of industrial minerals, 1982 continued the trend with temporary and permanent cutbacks in mine and plant production. Includes highlights of several conferences/conference papers in this field.…

  6. Carbon Mineral Ecology: Predicting the Undiscovered Minerals of Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, R. M.; Hummer, D. R.; Downs, R. T.; Hystad, G.; Golden, J.

    2015-12-01

    The diversity and distribution of Earth's minerals through deep time reflects key events in our planet's crustal evolution. Studies in mineral ecology exploit mineralogical databases to document diversity-distribution relationships of minerals, which reveal that all carbon-bearing minerals, as well as subsets containing C with O, H, Ca, or Na, conform to Large Number of Rare Events (LNRE) distributions. LNRE models facilitate prediction of total mineral diversity, and thus point to minerals that exist on Earth but have not yet been discovered and described. Our model predicts that at least 548 C minerals exist on Earth today, indicating that at least 145 carbon-bearing mineral species have yet to be discovered. Furthermore, by analyzing subsets of the most common additional elements in carbon-bearing minerals (i.e., 378 C + O species; 282 C + H species; 133 C + Ca species; and 100 C + Na species), we predict that 129 of these missing carbon minerals contain oxygen, 118 contain hydrogen, 52 contain calcium, and more than 60 contain sodium. The majority of these as yet undescribed minerals are predicted to be hydrous carbonates, many of which may have been overlooked because they are colorless, poorly crystalized, and/or water-soluble. We propose the identities of plausible as yet undescribed carbon minerals, as well as search strategies for their discovery. Some of these minerals will be natural examples of known synthetic compounds, including carbides such as calcium carbide (CaC2), crystalline hydrocarbons such as pyrene (C16H10), and numerous oxalates, anhydrous carbonates, and hydrous carbonates. Many other missing carbon minerals will be isomorphs of known carbon minerals, notably of the more than 100 different hydrous carbonate structures. An understanding of Earth's "missing" minerals provides a more complete picture of geochemical processes that influence crustal evolution.

  7. Acid extraction of molybdenum, nickel and cobalt from mineral sludge generated by rainfall water at a metal recycling plant.

    PubMed

    Vemic, M; Bordas, F; Guibaud, G; Comte, S; Joussein, E; Lens, P N L; Van Hullebusch, E D

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the leaching yields of Mo, Ni and Co from a mineral sludge of a metal recycling plant generated by rainfalls. The investigated mineral sludge had a complex heterogeneous composition, consisting of particles of settled soil combined with metal-bearing particles (produced by catalysts, metallic oxides and battery recycling). The leaching potential of different leaching reagents (stand-alone strong acids (HNO3 (68%), H2SO4 (98%) and HCl (36%)) and acid mixtures (aqua regia (nitric + hydrochloric (1:3)), nitric + sulphuric (1:1) and nitric + sulphuric + hydrochloric (2:1:1)) was investigated at changing operational parameters (solid-liquid (S/L) ratio, leaching time and temperature), in order to select the leaching reagent which achieves the highest metal leaching yields. Sulphuric acid (98% H2SO4) was found to be the leachant with the highest metal leaching potential. The optimal leaching conditions were a three-stage successive leaching at 80 °C with a leaching time of 2 h and S/L ratio of 0.25 g L(-1). Under these conditions, the achieved mineral sludge sample leaching yields were 85.5%, 40.5% and 93.8% for Mo, Ni and Co, respectively. The higher metal leaching potential of H2SO4 in comparison with the other strong acids/acid mixtures is attributed to the fact that H2SO4 is a diacidic compound, thus it has more H(+) ions, resulting in its stronger oxidizing power and corrosiveness.

  8. Acid extraction of molybdenum, nickel and cobalt from mineral sludge generated by rainfall water at a metal recycling plant.

    PubMed

    Vemic, M; Bordas, F; Guibaud, G; Comte, S; Joussein, E; Lens, P N L; Van Hullebusch, E D

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the leaching yields of Mo, Ni and Co from a mineral sludge of a metal recycling plant generated by rainfalls. The investigated mineral sludge had a complex heterogeneous composition, consisting of particles of settled soil combined with metal-bearing particles (produced by catalysts, metallic oxides and battery recycling). The leaching potential of different leaching reagents (stand-alone strong acids (HNO3 (68%), H2SO4 (98%) and HCl (36%)) and acid mixtures (aqua regia (nitric + hydrochloric (1:3)), nitric + sulphuric (1:1) and nitric + sulphuric + hydrochloric (2:1:1)) was investigated at changing operational parameters (solid-liquid (S/L) ratio, leaching time and temperature), in order to select the leaching reagent which achieves the highest metal leaching yields. Sulphuric acid (98% H2SO4) was found to be the leachant with the highest metal leaching potential. The optimal leaching conditions were a three-stage successive leaching at 80 °C with a leaching time of 2 h and S/L ratio of 0.25 g L(-1). Under these conditions, the achieved mineral sludge sample leaching yields were 85.5%, 40.5% and 93.8% for Mo, Ni and Co, respectively. The higher metal leaching potential of H2SO4 in comparison with the other strong acids/acid mixtures is attributed to the fact that H2SO4 is a diacidic compound, thus it has more H(+) ions, resulting in its stronger oxidizing power and corrosiveness. PMID:26369315

  9. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet for the determination of triazine and triazoles in mineral water samples.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Cátia M; Caldas, Sergiane S; Guimarães, Bruno S; Primel, Ednei G

    2016-09-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for the determination of atrazine, simazine, cyproconazole, tebuconazole, and epoxiconazole in mineral water employing the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with solidification of a floating organic drop with determination by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed. A mixed solution of 250 μL 1-dodecanol and 1250 μL methanol was injected rapidly into 10 mL aqueous solution (pH 7.0) with 2% w/v NaCl. After centrifugation for 5 min at 2000 rpm, the organic solvent droplets floated on the surface of the aqueous solution and the floating solvent solidified. The method limits of detection were between 3.75 and 37.5 ng/L and limits of quantification were between 12.5 and 125 ng/L. The recoveries ranged from 70 to 118% for repeatability and between 76 and 95% for intermediate precision with a relative standard deviation from 2 to 18% for all compounds. Low matrix effect was observed. The proposed method can be successfully applied in routine analysis for determination of pesticide residues in mineral water samples, allowing for monitoring of triazine and triazoles at levels below the regulatory limits set by international and national legislations. PMID:27391582

  10. Infiltration of late Palaeozoic evaporative brines in the reelfoot rift: A possible salt source for Illinois Basin formation waters and MVT mineralizing fluids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, E.L.; De Marsily, G.

    2001-01-01

    Salinities and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits provide important insights into the regional hydrology of the Illinois basin/Reelfoot rift system in late Palaeozoic time. Although the thermal regime of this basin system has been plausibly explained, the origin of high salinities in the basin fluids remains enigmatic. Topographically driven flow appears to have been essential in forming these MVT districts, as well as many other districts worldwide. However, this type of flow is recharged by fresh water making it difficult to account for the high salinities of the mineralizing fluids over extended time periods. Results of numerical experiments carried out in this study provide a possible solution to the salinity problem presented by the MVT zinc-lead and fluorite districts at the margins of the basin system. Evaporative concentration of surface water and subsequent infiltration into the subsurface are proposed to account for large volumes of brine that are ultimately responsible for mineralization of these districts. This study demonstrates that under a range of geologically reasonable conditions, brine infiltration into an aquifer in the deep subsurface can coexist with topographically driven flow. Infiltration combined with regional flow and local magmatic heat sources in the Reelfoot rift explain the brine concentrations as well as the temperatures observed in the Southern Illinois and Upper Mississippi Valley districts.

  11. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet for the determination of triazine and triazoles in mineral water samples.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Cátia M; Caldas, Sergiane S; Guimarães, Bruno S; Primel, Ednei G

    2016-09-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for the determination of atrazine, simazine, cyproconazole, tebuconazole, and epoxiconazole in mineral water employing the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with solidification of a floating organic drop with determination by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed. A mixed solution of 250 μL 1-dodecanol and 1250 μL methanol was injected rapidly into 10 mL aqueous solution (pH 7.0) with 2% w/v NaCl. After centrifugation for 5 min at 2000 rpm, the organic solvent droplets floated on the surface of the aqueous solution and the floating solvent solidified. The method limits of detection were between 3.75 and 37.5 ng/L and limits of quantification were between 12.5 and 125 ng/L. The recoveries ranged from 70 to 118% for repeatability and between 76 and 95% for intermediate precision with a relative standard deviation from 2 to 18% for all compounds. Low matrix effect was observed. The proposed method can be successfully applied in routine analysis for determination of pesticide residues in mineral water samples, allowing for monitoring of triazine and triazoles at levels below the regulatory limits set by international and national legislations.

  12. [The combined action of drinking mineral water and low-intensity electromagnetic radiation under the immobilization stress conditions (an experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Korolev, Yu N; Bobrovnitsky, I P; Geniatulina, M S; Mikhailik, L V; Nikulina, L A; Bobkova, A S; Yakovlev, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    The present study carried out on white male rats in experiments with the use of biochemical, radioimmunological, and electron- microscopic methods. It was shown that the combined treatment with potable mineral water (MV) and low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (LIEMR) of ultrahigh frequency (power density less than 1 pW/cm2, the frequency about 1000 MHz) facilitated the activation of metabolic and intracellular regenerative processes in the liver and testes. One of the advantages of the combined application of MV and LIEMR over the single-factor treatment manifested itself as the weakening of stress reactions, the increase in the frequency of the plastic processes, and the more harmonious development of different forms of intracellular regeneration. The results of the study provide a deeper insight ino the mechanisms underlying the combined actions of drinking mineral water and low-intensity electromagnetic radiation; also, they justify the application of these factors for the protection of the reproductive system and the entire body from stress-induced disorders.

  13. Structure, dynamics, and function of the hammerhead ribozyme in bulk water and at a clay mineral surface from replica exchange molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Swadling, Jacob B; Wright, David W; Suter, James L; Coveney, Peter V

    2015-03-01

    Compared with proteins, the relationship between structure, dynamics, and function of RNA enzymes (known as ribozymes) is far less well understood, despite the fact that ribozymes are found in many organisms and are often conceived as "molecular fossils" of the first self-replicating molecules to have arisen on Earth. To investigate how ribozymal function is governed by structure and dynamics, we study the full hammerhead ribozyme in bulk water and in an aqueous clay mineral environment by computer simulation using replica-exchange molecular dynamics. Through extensive sampling of the major conformational states of the hammerhead ribozyme, we are able to show that the hammerhead manifests a free-energy landscape reminiscent of that which is well known in proteins, exhibiting a "funnel" topology that guides the ribozyme into its globally most stable conformation. The active-site geometry is found to be closely correlated to the tertiary structure of the ribozyme, thereby reconciling conflicts between previously proposed mechanisms for the self-scission of the hammerhead. The conformational analysis also accounts for the differences reported experimentally in the catalytic activity of the hammerhead ribozyme, which is reduced when interacting with clay minerals as compared with bulk water.

  14. Light-induced catalytic transformation of ofloxacin by solar Fenton in various water matrices at a pilot plant: mineralization and characterization of major intermediate products.

    PubMed

    Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Aceña, J; Perez, S; Petrović, M; Zapata, A; Barceló, D; Malato, S; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2013-09-01

    This work investigated the application of a solar driven advanced oxidation process (solar Fenton), for the degradation of the antibiotic ofloxacin (OFX) in various environmental matrices at a pilot-scale. All experiments were carried out in a compound parabolic collector pilot plant in the presence of doses of H2O2 (2.5 mg L(-1)) and at an initial Fe(2+) concentration of 2 mg L(-1). The water matrices used for the solar Fenton experiments were: demineralized water (DW), simulated natural freshwater (SW), simulated effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant (SWW) and pre-treated real effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant (RE) to which OFX had been spiked at 10 mg L(-1). Dissolved organic carbon removal was found to be dependent on the chemical composition of the water matrix. OFX mineralization was higher in DW (78.1%) than in SW (58.3%) at 12 mg L(-1) of H2O2 consumption, implying the complexation of iron or the scavenging of hydroxyl radicals by the inorganic ions present in SW. On the other hand, the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in SWW and RE, led to lower mineralization per dose of H2O2 compared to DW and SW. The major transformation products (TPs) formed during the solar Fenton treatment of OFX, were elucidated using liquid chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ToF-MS). The transformation of OFX proceeded through a defluorination reaction, accompanied by some degree of piperazine and quinolone substituent transformation while a hydroxylation mechanism occurred by attack of the hydroxyl radicals generated during the process leading to the formation of TPs in all the water matrices, seven of which were tentatively identified. The results obtained from the toxicity bioassays indicated that the toxicity originates from the DOM present in RE and its oxidation products formed during the photocatalytic treatment and not from the TPs resulted from the oxidation of OFX.

  15. Differentiating atmospheric and mineral sources of sulfur during snowmelt using δ 34S, 35S activity, and δ 18O of sulfate and water as tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanley, J. B.; Mayer, B.; Mitchell, M. J.; Michel, R. L.; Bailey, S.; Kendall, C.

    2003-12-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of sulfur was studied during the 2000 snowmelt at Sleepers River Research Watershed in northeastern Vermont, USA using a combination of isotopic, chemical, and hydrometric measurements. The snowpack and 10 streams of varying size and land use were sampled for sulfate concentrations and isotopic analyses of 35S, δ 34S, and δ 18O of sulfate. Values of δ 18O of water were measured at one of the streams. Apportionment of atmospheric and mineral S sources based on δ 34S was possible at 7 of the 10 streams. Weathering of S-containing minerals was a major contributor to sulfate flux in streamwater, but atmospheric contributions exceeded 50% in several of the streams at peak snowmelt and averaged 41% overall. In contrast, δ 18Osulfate values of streamwater remained significantly lower than those of atmospheric sulfate throughout the melt period, indicating that atmospheric sulfate undergoes microbial redox reactions in the soil that replace the oxygen of atmospheric sulfate with isotopically lighter oxygen from soil water. Streamwater 35S activities were low relative to those of the snowpack; the youngest 35S-ages of the atmospheric S component in each of the 7 streams ranged from 184 to 320 days. Atmospheric S contributions to streamwater, as determined by δ 34S values, co-varied both with 35S activity and new water contributions as determined by δ 18Owater. However, the δ 18Osulfate and 35S ages clearly show that this new water carries very little of the atmospheric sulfate entering with the current snowmelt to the stream. Most incoming atmospheric sulfate first cycles through the organic soil S pool and ultimately reaches the stream as pedogenic sulfate.

  16. Water-mineral relations of Quaternary deposits in the Lower Platte River drainage area in eastern Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Ivan; Bentall, Ray

    1968-01-01

    The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), the degree of saturation with respect to calcite (IAP/K calcite), the pH, and the concentrations of selected constituents in solution were determined for water from 52 wells and the Platte River. Compared to the PCO2 in the atmosphere, the average PCO2 in the ground water was many times greater and that in .the river water was about twice as great. The high PCO2 in the ground water probably results from the absorption, by infiltrating precipitation, of carbon dioxide produced in the soil by respiration of plant roots ,and microorganisms. The values for IAP/K calcite for the ground water ranged from 0.141 to 1.29 and for the river water the average was 9.6. Water from each of the 10 sampled wells on the terrace plain in southeastern Saunders County was unsaturated with respect to calcite, whereas water from seven of the 42 wells on the Platte River flood plain was nearly saturated or supersaturated. Of the ,seven, two were in the Lincoln city well field where hydrologic relations indicate that a large fraction of the water yielded by the wells is induced seepage from the .river. That more of the city wells did not yield supersaturated water is surprising in view of the high IAP/K calcite values for the river water. Supersaturation of water from five of nine sampled wells downvalley from the well field probably is due to the presence of numerous limestone fragments in the Quaternary deposits in that part of the area. also surprising was the finding that the average pH of the water from the city wells was 1 unit lower than that of the river water. The presence of both dissolved iron and dissolved oxygen in the water from several of the city wells probably reflects derivation of the water from two distinct sources : ground water naturally in the aquifer and induced seepage from the river.

  17. Mineralization of reactive azo dyes present in simulated textile waste water using down flow microaerophilic fixed film bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Balapure, Kshama; Bhatt, Nikhil; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-01-01

    The present research emphasizes on degradation of azo dyes from simulated textile wastewater using down flow microaerophilic fixed film reactor. Degradation of simulated textile wastewater (COD 7200mg/L and dye concentration 300mg/L) was studied in a microaerophilic fixed film reactor using pumice stone as a support material under varying hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR). The intense metabolic activity of the inoculated bacterial consortium in the reactor led to 97.5% COD reduction and 99.5% decolorization of simulated wastewater operated under OLR of 7.2kgCODm(3)/d and 24h of HRT. FTIR, (1)H NMR and GC-MS studies revealed the formation of lower molecular weight aliphatic compounds under 24h of HRT, leading to complete mineralization of simulated wastewater. The detection of oxido-reductive enzyme activities suggested the enzymatic reduction of azo bonds prior to mineralization. Toxicity studies indicated that microbial treatment favors detoxification of simulated wastewater.

  18. Mineralization of reactive azo dyes present in simulated textile waste water using down flow microaerophilic fixed film bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Balapure, Kshama; Bhatt, Nikhil; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-01-01

    The present research emphasizes on degradation of azo dyes from simulated textile wastewater using down flow microaerophilic fixed film reactor. Degradation of simulated textile wastewater (COD 7200mg/L and dye concentration 300mg/L) was studied in a microaerophilic fixed film reactor using pumice stone as a support material under varying hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR). The intense metabolic activity of the inoculated bacterial consortium in the reactor led to 97.5% COD reduction and 99.5% decolorization of simulated wastewater operated under OLR of 7.2kgCODm(3)/d and 24h of HRT. FTIR, (1)H NMR and GC-MS studies revealed the formation of lower molecular weight aliphatic compounds under 24h of HRT, leading to complete mineralization of simulated wastewater. The detection of oxido-reductive enzyme activities suggested the enzymatic reduction of azo bonds prior to mineralization. Toxicity studies indicated that microbial treatment favors detoxification of simulated wastewater. PMID:25459797

  19. Mapping minerals, amorphous materials, environmental materials, vegetation, water, ice and snow, and other materials: The USGS tricorder algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.

    1995-01-01

    One of the challenges of Imaging Spectroscopy is the identification, mapping and abundance determination of materials, whether mineral, vegetable, or liquid, given enough spectral range, spectral resolution, signal to noise, and spatial resolution. Many materials show diagnostic absorption features in the visual and near infrared region (0.4 to 2.5 micrometers) of the spectrum. This region is covered by the modern imaging spectrometers such as AVIRIS. The challenge is to identify the materials from absorption bands in their spectra, and determine what specific analyses must be done to derive particular parameters of interest, ranging from simply identifying its presence to deriving its abundance, or determining specific chemistry of the material. Recently, a new analysis algorithm was developed that uses a digital spectral library of known materials and a fast, modified-least-squares method of determining if a single spectral feature for a given material is present. Clark et al. made another advance in the mapping algorithm: simultaneously mapping multiple minerals using multiple spectral features. This was done by a modified-least-squares fit of spectral features, from data in a digital spectral library, to corresponding spectral features in the image data. This version has now been superseded by a more comprehensive spectral analysis system called Tricorder.

  20. Mineral Quantification.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Optimal intakes of elements, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, copper, zinc and iodine, can reduce individual risk factors including those related to cardiovascular diseases among humans and animals. In order to meet the need for vitamins, major minerals, trace minerals, fatty acids and amino acids, it is necessary to include a full spectrum programme that can deliver all of the nutrients in the right ratio. Minerals are required for normal growth, activities of muscles, skeletal development (such as calcium), cellular activity, oxygen transport (copper and iron), chemical reactions in the body, intestinal absorption (magnesium), fluid balance and nerve transmission (sodium and potassium), as well as the regulation of the acid base balance (phosphorus). The chapter discusses the chemical and instrumentation techniques used for estimation of minerals such as N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, B and Mb. PMID:26939263

  1. Mineral Quantification.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Optimal intakes of elements, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, copper, zinc and iodine, can reduce individual risk factors including those related to cardiovascular diseases among humans and animals. In order to meet the need for vitamins, major minerals, trace minerals, fatty acids and amino acids, it is necessary to include a full spectrum programme that can deliver all of the nutrients in the right ratio. Minerals are required for normal growth, activities of muscles, skeletal development (such as calcium), cellular activity, oxygen transport (copper and iron), chemical reactions in the body, intestinal absorption (magnesium), fluid balance and nerve transmission (sodium and potassium), as well as the regulation of the acid base balance (phosphorus). The chapter discusses the chemical and instrumentation techniques used for estimation of minerals such as N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, B and Mb.

  2. The Growth of Melt Inclusion- and Water-Rich Zones in Clinopyroxene Phenocrysts of the Powai Ankaramite Flow, Deccan Traps, India: Rapid Closed System Oscillatory Mineral Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Water concentrations were measured and mapped using FTIR spectroscopy in clinopyroxene phenocrysts of the Powai ankaramite flow, located near Mumbai, west of the Western Ghats escarpment of the Deccan province, India. Samples were provided by Dr. Hetu Sheth of the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai. Chatterjee and Sheth (2015) showed that phenocrysts in the flow were part of a cumulate layer intruded by high-temperature basaltic melt at ~ 6 kb and ~1230oC. Cpx phenocrysts are euhedral and have concentric bands (100 to 200 microns thick) of fine (10-20 micron diameter) melt inclusions. Cpx bands that host melt inclusions have higher concentrations of water than inclusion-free bands. Water concentrations of cpx and ol were used to calculate water concentrations in the melt from which the crystals formed. Water concentrations in the parent magma were between 4.35 and 8.26 wt. % based on water concentrations in cpx, and between 8.24 and 9.41 wt. % based on those in ol. Both Mg and Fe are relatively depleted in the water- and melt inclusion-rich zones in cpx, and Ca is enriched in these zones. We suggest that oscillatory zoning in cpx is a result of repeated growth of cpx in water-richer and water-poorer boundary layers in which water lowered melt viscosity and enhanced diffusion and crystal growth rates. Water-enhanced growth rates may have resulted in preferential capture of melt inclusions preserved in water-rich cpx zones. Mg was preferentially incorporated into the cpx, causing Ca and water to build up in the boundary layer, and Mg and Fe to become relatively depleted in the boundary layer, as discussed for oscillatorially-zoned minerals by Wang and Merino (1993). Application of the equations for growth of oscillatory zones in crystals given by Wang and Merino (1993) to the growth of cpx crystals in the Powai ankaramite indicate that crystal growth occurred relatively quickly, on the order of days, although the width of the boundary zone, which is uncertain

  3. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with specific sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  4. Water Chemistry Impacts on Arsenic Mobilization from Arsenopyrite Dissolution and Secondary Mineral Precipitation: Implications for Managed Aquifer Recharge

    EPA Science Inventory

    Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is one water reuse technique with the potential to meet growing water demands. However, MAR sites have encountered arsenic remobilization resulting from recharge operations. To combat this challenge, it is important to identify the mechanism of arse...

  5. Use of Industrial Byproducts and Natural Minerals to Filter Nutrients and Pesticides in Golf Green Drainage Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tile drainage is an essential water management feature of managed turfgrass systems. Drainage water carries soluble nutrients and pesticides to streams. Identifying materials and testing the efficacy of those materials as filtering agents is one proposed solution to mitigate offsite transport. We co...

  6. Structure, dynamics and stability of water/scCO2/mineral interfaces from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Mal -Soon; Peter McGrail, B.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki -Alexandra

    2015-10-12

    Here, the interface between a solid and a complex multi-component liquid forms a unique reaction environment whose structure and composition can significantly deviate from either bulk or liquid phase and is poorly understood due the innate difficulty to obtain molecular level information. Feldspar minerals, as typified by the Ca-end member Anorthite, serve as prototypical model systems to assess the reactivity and ion mobility at solid/water-bearing supercritical fluid (WBSF) interfaces due to recent X-ray based measurements that provide information on water-film formation, and cation vacancies at these surfaces. Using density functional theory based molecular dynamics, which allows the evaluation of reactivity and condensed phase dynamics on equal footing, we report on the structure and dynamics of water nucleation and surface aggregation, carbonation and Ca mobilization under geologic carbon sequestration scenarios (T = 323 K and P = 90 bar). We find that water has a strong enthalpic preference for aggregation on a Ca-rich, O-terminated anorthite (001) surface, but entropy strongly hinders the film formation at very low water concentrations. Carbonation reactions readily occur at electron-rich terminal Oxygen sites adjacent to cation vacancies, when in contact with supercritical CO2. Cation vacancies of this type can form readily in the presence of a water layer that allows for facile and enthalpicly favorable Ca2+ extraction and solvation. Apart from providing unprecedented molecular level detail of a complex three component (mineral, water and scCO2) system), this work highlights the ability of modern capabilities of AIMD methods to begin to qualitatively and quantitatively address structure and reactivity at solid-liquid interfaces of high chemical complexity. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (M.-S. L., B. P. M. and V.-A. G.) and the Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of

  7. Large-basin ground water circulation and paleo-reconstruction of circulation leading to uranium mineralization in Grand Canyon breccia pipes, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Huntoon, P.W.

    1996-07-01

    Breccia pipes - vertical collapse structures - are common in the Phanerozoic sedimentary section in the Grand Canyon region. Breccias in economically significant pipes are as great as 900 m high and 90 m in diameter. The pipes originated through collapse into paleocaverns in Mississippian carbonates. The large heights of the mineralized pipes is attributed to upward stoping resulting from progressive creation of space within the pipes through dissolution of wall rocks and soluble constituents in the breccia clasts. The paleocaves that served as nucleation sites for the pipes date from Mississippian time. Stoping appears to have been reactivated or accelerated during Triassic time as terrains to the south became uplifted. Uplift cause hydraulic gradients within aquifers in the Paleozoic section to increase significantly which enhanced ground water circulation and attendant dissolution. The most likely source for uranium in the Grand Canyon breccia pipes was eroding volcanic and Precambrian crystalline rocks in the Triassic Mogollon highlands south of the Grand Canyon region. The circulation model proposed herein assumes that uranium-rich waters originating in the highlands recharged through the exposed Redwall Limestone and circulated northward in the artesian Redwall aquifer. On reaching the Grand Canyon region, the water circulated upward into the Phanerozoic section in the breccia pipes which served as permeability pathways through thick confining strata. The pipes concentrated fluid circulation and directed it through reducing environments which caused precipitation of the uranium and associated metals yielding a number of economic uranium ore bodies. The architecture of the circulation systems in the Colorado plateau prior to incision of the Colorado river was such that hydraulic heads decreased within successively shallower aquifers. Consequently, head gradients at any location were upward in the pipes during the mineralizing stages.

  8. Cracks and Fins in Sulfate Sand: Evidence for Recent Mineral-Atmospheric Water Cycling in Meridiani Planum Outcrops?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavdarian, G. V.; Sumner, D. Y.

    2006-03-01

    The MER rover Opportunity catalogued polygonal cracks and fins on Meridiani. Similar cracks and fins are documented at White Sands National Monument, NM, providing evidence for recent water cycling between sulfate outcrops and the martian atmosphere.

  9. Uptake and distribution of minerals and heavy metals in commonly grown leafy vegetable species irrigated with sewage water.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Sumera; Nawaz, Muhammad Farrakh; Gul, Sadaf; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Kareem, Arshaad

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metal uptake and accumulation behavior in dietary vegetables irrigated with sewage waters is an important issue worldwide. The main objective of this study was to examine and compare the physiological and growth responses of leafy vegetables irrigated with sewage water. A pot experiment was conducted in a wire house with three leafy vegetables, coriander (Coriandrum sativum), mint (Mentha arvensis), and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum), grown under ambient conditions. Plants were irrigated with different concentrations, 0, 50 (T 1), and 100 % (T 2), of sewage water. After harvesting, morphological and physiological parameters of plants were measured. Heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in the sewage water were found much higher than safer limits. The results revealed that the highest plant biomass and lowest metal contents were observed in control treatments in all studied vegetables. The biomass of all the vegetables were negatively affected when irrigated with sewage water. In T 2, coriander accumulated maximum Cd (μg g(-1) DW) in shoots (4.97) as compared to other vegetables. The maximum Pb and Cu concentrations were accumulated in mint roots (44 and 3.9, respectively) as compared to coriander and fenugreek. Zinc was accumulated in the sequence of leaves > roots > shoots under polluted water irrigation. The concentrations of potassium increased in leaves, shoots, and roots in all vegetables, while phosphorous concentrations varied with species and plant parts with increasing sewage water concentration. It was found that the leafy vegetables grown with sewage water irrigation may cause severe human health problems. PMID:27581008

  10. Residual water in hydrous minerals as a kinetic factor for omphacite destabilization into symplectite in the eclogites of Vårdalsneset (WGR, Norway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Céline; Duchêne, Stéphanie

    2015-09-01

    Symplectitic intergrowths of sodic plagioclase + diopside ± amphibole as replacement of omphacite are commonly found in eclogites. These symplectites are interpreted as the exhumation-related decompression of eclogite into the amphibolite facies. The role of aqueous fluid in symplectite development, which would act as a catalyst and favor open-system reaction, has been suggested but not yet clearly established. In the Vårdalsneset outcrop of the Western Gneiss Region (Norway), eclogites that were not amphibolitized either display a primary eclogitic dry paragenesis (garnet + omphacite + rutile ± quartz) or a paragenesis including phengite. In the last case, omphacite is partly transformed into symplectite. The two groups have been further distinguished from a combined petrological, geochemical, and thermochemical study. Group I samples have a fine-grained unaltered microstructure, with medium Al2O3 (14-16 wt.%), high Fe2O3 (13-16 wt.%) and TiO2 (1.4-2.4 wt.%). Group II samples have a coarse-grained microstructure and are characterized by the presence of symplectites and phengite. They display higher Al2O3 (17.5-23 wt.%) and lower Fe2O3 (5.5-8 wt.%) and TIO2 (0.2-0.5 wt.%) contents than Group I. The P-T estimates for samples from both Groups I and II lead to similar conditions for peak eclogite metamorphism: temperatures range from 590 to 720 °C and pressures from 15 to 25 kbar. Perple_X modeling indicates that for Group I eclogites, temperature range is similar to the temperature range of the water saturation curve, whereas for Group II eclogites, due to slightly different chemical composition, the water saturation curve is located at much higher temperatures (770-900 °C), so that OH- remains in residual phengite at peak eclogite temperature. With no residual hydrous phase in the eclogite assemblage, and although some structural water may persist in nominally anhydrous minerals, Group I eclogites were preserved without change during exhumation. In contrast

  11. Estimated intake of the sweeteners, acesulfame-K and aspartame, from soft drinks, soft drinks based on mineral waters and nectars for a group of Portuguese teenage students.

    PubMed

    Lino, C M; Costa, I M; Pena, A; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S M

    2008-11-01

    In a survey of levels of acesulfame-K and aspartame in soft drinks and in light nectars, the intake of these intense sweeteners was estimated for a group of teenage students. Acesulfame-K was detected in 72% of the soft drinks, with a mean concentration of 72 mg l(-1) and aspartame was found in 92% of the samples with a mean concentration of 89 mg l(-1). When data on the content of these sweeteners in soft drinks were analysed according to flavour, cola drinks had the highest mean levels for both sweeteners with 98 and 103 mg l(-1) for acesulfame-K and aspartame, respectively. For soft drinks based on mineral water, aspartame was found in 62% of the samples, with a mean concentration of 82 mg l(-1) and acesulfame-K was found in 77%, with a mean level of 48 mg l(-1). All samples of nectars contained acesulfame-K, with a mean concentration of 128 mg l(-1) and aspartame was detected in 80% of the samples with a mean concentration of 73 mg l(-1). A frequency questionnaire, designed to identify adolescents having high consumption of these drinks, was completed by a randomly selected sample of teenagers (n = 65) living in the city of Coimbra, in 2007. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of acesulfame-K and aspartame for the average consumer were below the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). For acesulfame-K, the EDI was 0.7 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for soft drinks, 0.2 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for soft drinks based on mineral waters, and 0.5 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for nectars, representing 8.0%, 2.2%, and 5.8% of the ADI, respectively. A similar situation was observed for aspartame. In this way, the EDI for soft drinks was 1.1 mg kg(-1) day(-1), representing only 2.9% of the ADI. In respect of nectars, the EDI was 0.2 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), representing 0.5% of the ADI. Soft drinks based on mineral waters showed the lowest EDI values of 0.3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), accounting for 0.7% of the ADI.

  12. Effects of natural mineral-rich water consumption on the expression of sirtuin 1 and angiogenic factors in the erectile tissue of rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cidália D; Severo, Milton; Rafael, LuIsa; Martins, Maria João; Neves, Delminda

    2014-01-01

    Consuming a high-fructose diet induces metabolic syndrome (MS)-like features, including endothelial dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction is an early manifestation of endothelial dysfunction and systemic vascular disease. Because mineral deficiency intensifies the deleterious effects of fructose consumption and mineral ingestion is protective against MS, we aimed to characterize the effects of 8 weeks of natural mineral-rich water consumption on the structural organization and expression of vascular growth factors and receptors on the corpus cavernosum (CC) in 10% fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (FRUCT). Differences were not observed in the organization of the CC either on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or the components of the angiopoietins/Tie2 system. However, opposing expression patterns were observed for VEGF receptors (an increase and a decrease for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, respectively) in FRUCT animals, with these patterns being strengthened by mineral-rich water ingestion. Mineral-rich water ingestion (FRUCTMIN) increased the proportion of smooth muscle cells compared with FRUCT rats and induced an upregulatory tendency of sirtuin 1 expression compared with the control and FRUCT groups. Western blot results were consistent with the dual immunofluorescence evaluation. Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein and plasma testosterone levels were similar among the experimental groups, although a tendency for an increase in the former was observed in the FRUCTMIN group. The mineral-rich water-treated rats presented changes similar to those observed in rats treated with MS-protective polyphenol-rich beverages or subjected to energy restriction, which led us to hypothesize that the effects of mineral-rich water consumption may be more vast than those directly observed in this study.

  13. Recrystallization and stability of Zn and Pb minerals on their migration to groundwater in soils affected by Acid Mine Drainage under CO2 rich atmospheric waters.

    PubMed

    Goienaga, N; Carrero, J A; Zuazagoitia, D; Baceta, J I; Murelaga, X; Fernández, L A; Madariaga, J M

    2015-01-01

    The extent of vertical contamination is intimately related to the soil solution and surface chemistry of the soil matrix with reference to the metal and waste matrix in question. The present research demonstrated the impact that the dissolved CO2 of the meteoric waters, which acidify the environment with pH values below 4, has in the increase of the metal mobility. Although under the given conditions the Zn remains mainly dissolved, the initial PbS and ZnS have evolved into newly formed secondary carbonates and sulphates (i.e., hydrozincite, gunningite, hydrocerussite) that can be found in the efflorescences. The chemical simulation done on the weathering of the original sulphide ores for the formation of these secondary minerals has proved the transient storage mainly of Pb. Nonetheless, many of the minerals formed inside the galleries will be easily dissolved in the next rains and release in an ionic form to the groundwater. The analytical procedure exposed has been proved to be useful not only for the characterization of AMD but also for the prediction of the mobility of metals.

  14. Selective targeting of protein, water, and mineral in dentin using UV and IR pulse lasers: the effect on the bond strength to composite restorative materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Karishma K.; Staninec, Michal; Sarma, Anupama V.; Fried, Daniel

    2004-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that during the laser irradiation of dentin and bone, thermal damage can be minimized by using a highly absorbed laser wavelength, laser pulses shorter than the thermal relaxation time of the deposited laser energy at that wavelength, and the addition of a layer of water to the tissue surface before ablation. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of laser pulse duration and wavelength with and without the added water layer on the bond strength of composite to laser prepared dentin surfaces. The specific hypothesis that was tested was that thermal damage to the collagen matrix in dentin compromises the bond strength to composite restorative materials. Three laser systems were employed that were tuned to water, collagen and mineral absorption with pulse durations less than the thermal relaxation time of the deposited energy. The surfaces of human dentin were irradiated by laser irradiation from free-running and Q-switched Er:YSGG lasers (2.79-μm), pulsed CO2 lasers operating at 9.6-μm and a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 355-nm. A motion control system and a pressurized spray system incorporating a microprocessor controlled pulsed nozzle for water delivery, were used to ensure uniform treatment of the entire surface. Shear bond testing was used to evaluate the adhesive strength in order to access the suitability of laser treated surfaces for bonding. All the laser groups had significantly lower bond strengths than the positive acid etch control group. The highest bond strengths were for the short (<5-μs) Er:YSGG and CO2 groups with water. Laser groups without water had significantly reduced bond strengths.

  15. Mechanisms for uranyl reduction by ferrous iron in solution and at the oxide mineral-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, S.; Marcano, M. C.; Becker, U.; Rosso, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    results substantiate studies where the reduction of U(VI)aq by Fe(II)aq occurs via heterogeneous pathways. Further studies on this system involving the impact of Al- and Fe-oxide minerals are underway to explore heterogeneous redox pathways and the effects of semiconducting and insulating minerals on redox rates.

  16. Structure, dynamics and stability of water/scCO2/mineral interfaces from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mal-Soon; Peter McGrail, B.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The boundary layer at solid-liquid interfaces is a unique reaction environment that poses significant scientific challenges to characterize and understand by experimentation alone. Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) methods, we report on the structure and dynamics of boundary layer formation, cation mobilization and carbonation under geologic carbon sequestration scenarios (T = 323 K and P = 90 bar) on a prototypical anorthite (001) surface. At low coverage, water film formation is enthalpically favored, but entropically hindered. Simulated adsorption isotherms show that a water monolayer will form even at the low water concentrations of water-saturated scCO2. Carbonation reactions readily occur at electron-rich terminal Oxygen sites adjacent to cation vacancies that readily form in the presence of a water monolayer. These results point to a carbonation mechanism that does not require prior carbonic acid formation in the bulk liquid. This work also highlights the modern capabilities of theoretical methods to address structure and reactivity at interfaces of high chemical complexity. PMID:26456362

  17. Structure, dynamics and stability of water/scCO2/mineral interfaces from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mal-Soon; Peter McGrail, B.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra

    2015-10-01

    The boundary layer at solid-liquid interfaces is a unique reaction environment that poses significant scientific challenges to characterize and understand by experimentation alone. Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) methods, we report on the structure and dynamics of boundary layer formation, cation mobilization and carbonation under geologic carbon sequestration scenarios (T = 323 K and P = 90 bar) on a prototypical anorthite (001) surface. At low coverage, water film formation is enthalpically favored, but entropically hindered. Simulated adsorption isotherms show that a water monolayer will form even at the low water concentrations of water-saturated scCO2. Carbonation reactions readily occur at electron-rich terminal Oxygen sites adjacent to cation vacancies that readily form in the presence of a water monolayer. These results point to a carbonation mechanism that does not require prior carbonic acid formation in the bulk liquid. This work also highlights the modern capabilities of theoretical methods to address structure and reactivity at interfaces of high chemical complexity.

  18. Relevance of a Hypersaline Sodium-Rich Naturally Sparkling Mineral Water to the Protection against Metabolic Syndrome Induction in Fructose-Fed Sprague-Dawley Rats: A Biochemical, Metabolic, and Redox Approach

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Cidália Dionísio; Severo, Milton; Araújo, João Ricardo; Guimarães, João Tiago; Pestana, Diogo; Santos, Alejandro; Ferreira, Rita; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José; Azevedo, Isabel; Monteiro, Rosário; Martins, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome increases the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Increased fructose consumption and/or mineral deficiency have been associated with Metabolic Syndrome development. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 8 weeks consumption of a hypersaline sodium-rich naturally sparkling mineral water on 10% fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (Metabolic Syndrome animal model). The ingestion of the mineral water (rich in sodium bicarbonate and with higher potassium, calcium, and magnesium content than the tap water used as control) reduced/prevented not only the fructose-induced increase of heart rate, plasma triacylglycerols, insulin and leptin levels, hepatic catalase activity, and organ weight to body weight ratios (for liver and both kidneys) but also the decrease of hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and oxidized glutathione content. This mineral-rich water seems to have potential to prevent Metabolic Syndrome induction by fructose. We hypothesize that its regular intake in the context of modern diets, which have a general acidic character interfering with mineral homeostasis and are poor in micronutrients, namely potassium, calcium, and magnesium, could add surplus value and attenuate imbalances, thus contributing to metabolic and redox health and, consequently, decreasing the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:24672546

  19. Relevance of a Hypersaline Sodium-Rich Naturally Sparkling Mineral Water to the Protection against Metabolic Syndrome Induction in Fructose-Fed Sprague-Dawley Rats: A Biochemical, Metabolic, and Redox Approach.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cidália Dionísio; Severo, Milton; Araújo, João Ricardo; Guimarães, João Tiago; Pestana, Diogo; Santos, Alejandro; Ferreira, Rita; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José; Azevedo, Isabel; Monteiro, Rosário; Martins, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome increases the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Increased fructose consumption and/or mineral deficiency have been associated with Metabolic Syndrome development. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 8 weeks consumption of a hypersaline sodium-rich naturally sparkling mineral water on 10% fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (Metabolic Syndrome animal model). The ingestion of the mineral water (rich in sodium bicarbonate and with higher potassium, calcium, and magnesium content than the tap water used as control) reduced/prevented not only the fructose-induced increase of heart rate, plasma triacylglycerols, insulin and leptin levels, hepatic catalase activity, and organ weight to body weight ratios (for liver and both kidneys) but also the decrease of hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and oxidized glutathione content. This mineral-rich water seems to have potential to prevent Metabolic Syndrome induction by fructose. We hypothesize that its regular intake in the context of modern diets, which have a general acidic character interfering with mineral homeostasis and are poor in micronutrients, namely potassium, calcium, and magnesium, could add surplus value and attenuate imbalances, thus contributing to metabolic and redox health and, consequently, decreasing the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:24672546

  20. Geology and ground-water hydrology of the Heart River irrigation project and the Dickinson area, North Dakota, with a section on the mineral quality of waters of the Heart River project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tychsen, Paul C.; Swenson, Herbert A.

    1950-01-01

    The Heart River irrigation project, in southwestern North Dakota, lies in the Missouri Plateau section of the Great Plains physiographic province, which extends from the Missouri escarpment to and beyond the western border of the State. The area ranges in altitude from 1,620 to 2,275 feet and locally has strong relief. The floor of the Heart River Valley is underlain by alluvial deposits of Quaternary age. In the westernmost part of the areas the Fort Union formation of Paleocene (Tertiary) age forms the valley sides, but in a downstream direction the Cannonball and Ludlow formations, here undifferentiated, also of Paleocene age, crop out in the valley sides and underlie progressively broader areas of the upland surface. The Hell Creek formation of Upper Cretaceous age appears above stream level only in the stretch of the valley between the center of T. 136 N., R. 85 W., and the northeastern part of T.. 137 N., R. 84 W. Glacial Drift, which once covered the whole area, now has been almost entirely removed by erosion except for .scattered boulders on the uplands. The Cannonball and Ludlow unit and the Fort Union formation yield, moderate supplies of ground water, and the river alluvium yields more abundant supplies. At the present rate of withdrawal and with normal precipitation there is little danger of seriously depleting the supply. In 1946 the average depth to water in observation wells in the Heart River Valley was 19 feet, whereas the depth to water in observation wells in the upland averaged 30 feet. The Dickinson area is small and is about 45 miles upstream from the Heart River irrigation project. Ground-water levels in the Dickinson municipal well field have declined considerably within recent years, but the impounding of Heart River water is expected to insure a more adequate water supply for the town. Samples of ground water from four wells in the lower Heart River Valley were analyzed to determine the present mineral character of the waters in this

  1. Sunlight responsive WO₃/ZnO nanorods for photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of chlorinated phenoxyacetic acid herbicides in water.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sze-Mun; Sin, Jin-Chung; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2015-07-15

    Highly effective WO3/ZnO nanorods (NRs) were synthesized via a hydrothermal-deposition method for degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) under natural sunlight. The structural properties of WO3/ZnO NRs such as morphology, crystal structure, porous properties and light absorption characteristics were investigated in detail. The X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the prepared samples were two-phase photocatalysts consisted of WO3 and ZnO NRs. The UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy result showed that the addition of WO3 altered the optical properties of the photocatalysts. In contrast with the pure ZnO NRs, commercial anatase TiO2 and commercial WO3, the WO3/ZnO NRs showed excellent sunlight photocatalytic activities in degrading 2,4-D. The optimal WO3 loading and calcination temperature were also determined. Based on the band position, the synergetic effect of WO3 and ZnO NRs was the source of the enhanced photocatalytic activity as validated by PL and terephthalic acid-photoluminescence measurements. The reaction intermediates and degradation pathways of 2,4-D were elucidated by a HPLC method. In addition, the extent of mineralization during the 2,4-D degradation was also estimated using total organic carbon (TOC) and ion chromatography (IC) analyses.

  2. Fit for purpose validated method for the determination of the strontium isotopic signature in mineral water samples by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brach-Papa, Christophe; Van Bocxstaele, Marleen; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Quétel, Christophe R.

    2009-03-01

    A robust method allowing the routine determination of n( 87Sr)/ n( 86Sr) with at least five significant decimal digits for large sets of mineral water samples is described. It is based on 2 consecutive chromatographic separations of Sr associated to multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) measurements. Separations are performed using commercial pre-packed columns filled with "Sr resin" to overcome isobaric interferences affecting the determination of strontium isotope ratios. The careful method validation scheme applied is described. It included investigations on all parameters influencing both chromatographic separations and MC-ICPMS measurements, and also the test on a synthetic sample made of an aliquot of the NIST SRM 987 certified reference material dispersed in a saline matrix to mimic complex samples. Correction for mass discrimination was done internally using the n( 88Sr)/ n( 86Sr) ratio. For comparing mineral waters originating from different geological backgrounds or identifying counterfeits, calculations involved the well known consensus value (1/0.1194) ± 0 as reference. The typical uncertainty budget estimated for these results was 40 'ppm' relative ( k = 2). It increased to 150 'ppm' ( k = 2) for the establishment of stand alone results, taking into account a relative difference of about 126 'ppm' systematically observed between measured and certified values of the NIST SRM 987. In case there was suspicion of a deviation of the n( 88Sr)/ n( 86Sr) ratio (worst case scenario) our proposal was to use the NIST SRM 987 value 8.37861 ± 0.00325 ( k = 2) as reference, and assign a typical relative uncertainty budget of 300 'ppm' ( k = 2). This method is thus fit for purpose and was applied to eleven French samples.

  3. Impact of anthropogenic activities on physico-chemical parameters of water and mineral uptake in Catla catla from river Ravi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shakir, Abdullah; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Qazi, Javed Iqbal

    2013-03-01

    The river Ravi, while passing through Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan, gets highly polluted owning heavy loads of untreated municipal sewage and industrial effluents of diverse kinds. The fish, Catla catla sampled in two different seasons from three downstream polluted sites were compared with the samples of the same fish from an upstream, a less polluted site, for their physico-chemical parameters. The data were statistically analysed to study the effect of sites, seasons and their interaction on the physico-chemical parameters of waters and mineral uptake in fish muscles. Significant differences (P < 0.001) among the sampling sites and seasons were observed. The river appeared to be polluted as indicated by the high values of total suspended solids (909 mg/l) and sulphate (964 mg/l) in comparison to the respective values of 150 and 600 mg/l being suggested as the safer values of drinking water of the National Environmental Quality Standards. Most trace and macro elements in fish muscles were increased with the increasing pollution loads from the upstream to the downstream sites of this river. The remarkable increases in the levels of all the investigated minerals in fish muscles from the polluted sites raise concerns about the long-term health of the river Ravi ecosystem and consequently the fish and its consumer's health. The results contradict the opinion of the local population that the riverine fish are natural, more health-promoting and precious than the pond fish. Therefore, we strongly argue for the utilization of an effect-based monitoring approach to alleviate the detrimental effects of anthropogenic activities on fish and the fish consumers' health.

  4. Geochemical study of groundwater mineralization in the Grombalia shallow aquifer, north-eastern Tunisia: implication of irrigation and industrial waste water accounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Moussa, Amor; Zouari, Kamel; Oueslati, Naceur

    2009-08-01

    Hydrochemistry of groundwater is largely determined by both natural processes, such as dissolution, cation exchange, mixing, evaporation; and anthropogenic activities, which can affect the aquifer systems by contaminating them or by modifying their hydrological cycle. Both natural and anthropogenic processes vary in time and space; which is reflected in groundwater hydrochemistry variation. The objective of this study is the determination of the main hydrogeochemical processes that affect the quality of shallow groundwaters in the Grombalia basin, located in the Cap Bon Peninsula, north-eastern Tunisia. In this area, the chemical composition of groundwater is mostly characterized by Na-Cl-NO3-Ca water type which reveals the implication of natural and anthropogenic major factors. Natural factors are dissolution of evaporatic minerals, i.e. halite and gypsum and cation exchange with clays, while anthropogenic factors are pollution with industrial Sr-rich waste water and return flow of irrigation water, highly contaminated by MgSO4 and methyl-bromide fertilizers.

  5. Comparison of different concentration methods for the detection of hepatitis A virus and calicivirus from bottled natural mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Di Pasquale, S; Paniconi, M; Auricchio, B; Orefice, L; Schultz, A C; De Medici, D

    2010-04-01

    Viral contamination of drinking water is frequently reported as the primary source of gastroenteritis or hepatitis outbreaks. The presence of viruses at low concentration levels in most environmental water poses major analytical problems when determining their concentration. To evaluate the efficiency of different recovery methods of viral RNA from bottled water, a comparison was made of 2 positively and 2 negatively charged membranes that were used for absorbing and releasing HAV virus particles during the filtration of viral spiked bottled water. All the 4 membranes, regardless of charge and pore size, had low level viral recovery. The results show that a considerable number of the virus particles passed through the pores of the membranes instead of being trapped by the electrostatic charges. Two different procedures were then compared using 1.5L polyethylene bottles spiked with 10-fold serial dilutions of HAV and FCV. The first procedure included an ultrafiltration-based method followed by MiniMag RNA extraction, and the second an ultracentrifugation-based method followed by RNA extraction using QIAamp viral RNA mini kit. The ultracentrifugation-based method resulted in a better recovery of HAV and FCV when compared to the ultrafiltration-based method.

  6. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  7. Optical water quality model of Lake Ontario. 2: Determination of chlorophyll a and suspended mineral concentrations of natural waters from submersible and low altitude optical sensors.

    PubMed

    Bukata, R P; Bruton, J E; Jerome, J H; Jain, S C; Zwick, H H

    1981-05-01

    Spectrooptical and water quality data collected from a 1979 coordinated in situ and airborne study of western Lake Ontario are used to devise a five-component model from which subsurface chlorophyll a and suspended solids concentrations may be determined from submersible optical sensors capable of measuring spectral irradiance reflectance just beneath the free-surface layer. A water-air interface model, which incorporates the effects of surface reflection, is also presented in an attempt to extend such water quality estimations to low altitude remote sensors. Special emphasis is given to the spectral wavelength bands of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner aboard Nimbus-7.

  8. Detection of crystalline hematite mineralization on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer: evidence for near-surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, P.R.; Bandfield, J.L.; Clark, R.N.; Edgett, K.S.; Hamilton, V.E.; Hoefen, T.; Kieffer, H.H.; Kuzmin, R.O.; Lane, M.D.; Malin, M.C.; Morris, R.V.; Pearl, J.C.; Pearson, R.; Roush, T.L.; Ruff, S.W.; Smith, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission has discovered a remarkable accumulation of crystalline hematite (α-Fe2O3) that covers an area with very sharp boundaries approximately 350 by 350–750 km in size centered near 2°S latitude between 0° and 5°W longitude (Sinus Meridiani). Crystalline hematite is uniquely identified by the presence of fundamental vibrational absorption features centered near 300, 450, and >525 cm−1 and by the absence of silicate fundamentals in the 1000 cm−1 region. Spectral features resulting from atmospheric CO2, dust, and water ice were removed using a radiative transfer model. The spectral properties unique to Sinus Meridiani were emphasized by removing the average spectrum of the surrounding region. The depth and shape of the hematite fundamental bands show that the hematite is crystalline and relatively coarse grained (>5–10 μm). Diameters up to and greater than hundreds of micrometers are permitted within the instrumental noise and natural variability of hematite spectra. Hematite particles 30 μm diameter) to 40–60% (10 μm diameter). The hematite in Sinus Meridiani is thus distinct from the fine-grained (diameter <5–10 μm), red, crystalline hematite considered, on the basis of visible, near-IR data, to be a minor spectral component in Martian bright regions like Olympus-Amazonis. Sinus Meridiani hematite is closely associated with a smooth, layered, friable surface that is interpreted to be sedimentary in origin. This material may be the uppermost surface in the region, indicating that it might be a late stage sedimentary unit or a layered portion of the heavily cratered plains units. We consider five possible mechanisms for the formation of coarse-grained, crystalline hematite. These processes fall into two classes depending on whether they require a significant amount of near-surface water: the first is chemical precipitation that includes origin by (1

  9. Experimental rock-water interactions at temperatures to 300/sup 0/C: implications for fluid flow, solute transport, and silicate mineral zoning in crustal geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal reservoirs commonly occur in permeable volcanic rock (rhyolite, andesite, basalt) or sedimentary (sandstone) strata at temperatures below 300/sup 0/C. Knowledge of how these reservoirs develop chemically and physically has been based almost entirely on field studies. Four types of experiments were conducted to supplement available data on the chemistry, mineralogy, and fluid flow aspects of hydrothermal processes occurring in crustal geothermal systems: (1) agitated rock-water experiments; (2) high temperature flow through experiments; (3) low temperature permeability experiments; and (4) corrosion monitoring experiments. Initial experiments reacted rhyolite glass and holocrystalline basalt with water-NaCl solutions at 300/sup 0/C in agitated hydrothermal equipment. Concentrations of components in solution depend on initial salinity, rock type, and particle size. The secondary phases consist of zeolites, clay, and feldspar minerals and the alteration assemblage is dependent on both initial salinity, rock type, and duration of the experiment. A second set of experiments were conducted at 300/sup 0/C using the rhyolite glass in a flow through type of apparatus. Compositions of outlet fluids show a dependence of fluid flow rate and core length.

  10. Search for the OH (X(2)Pi) Meinel band emission in meteors as a tracer of mineral water in comets: detection of N(2)(+) (A-X).

    PubMed

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of the N(2)(+) A-X Meinel band in the 780-840 nm meteor emission from two Leonid meteoroids that were ejected less than 1000 years ago by comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle. Our analysis indicates that the N(2)(+) molecule is at least an order of magnitude less abundant than expected, possibly as a result of charge transfer reactions with meteoric metal atoms. This new band was found while searching for rovibrational transitions in the X(2)Pi electronic ground state of OH (the OH Meinel band), a potential tracer of water bound to minerals in cometary matter. The electronic A-X transition of OH has been identified in other Leonid meteors. We did not detect this OH Meinel band, which implies that the excited A state is not populated by thermal excitation but by a mechanism that directly produces OH in low vibrational levels of the excited A(2)Sigma state. Ultraviolet dissociation of atmospheric or meteoric water vapor is such a mechanism, as is the possible combustion of meteoric organics.

  11. Search for the OH (X(2)Pi) Meinel band emission in meteors as a tracer of mineral water in comets: detection of N(2)(+) (A-X)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O.

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of the N(2)(+) A-X Meinel band in the 780-840 nm meteor emission from two Leonid meteoroids that were ejected less than 1000 years ago by comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle. Our analysis indicates that the N(2)(+) molecule is at least an order of magnitude less abundant than expected, possibly as a result of charge transfer reactions with meteoric metal atoms. This new band was found while searching for rovibrational transitions in the X(2)Pi electronic ground state of OH (the OH Meinel band), a potential tracer of water bound to minerals in cometary matter. The electronic A-X transition of OH has been identified in other Leonid meteors. We did not detect this OH Meinel band, which implies that the excited A state is not populated by thermal excitation but by a mechanism that directly produces OH in low vibrational levels of the excited A(2)Sigma state. Ultraviolet dissociation of atmospheric or meteoric water vapor is such a mechanism, as is the possible combustion of meteoric organics.

  12. Mineral bioprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  13. Response of forest seedling/soil microcosms to elevated CO{sub 2} and soil temperature, water, and light: Carbon and nitrogen mineralization and allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Gillham, M.L.; Perry, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    Soils from 500-year-old old-growth Douglas-fir forests in the western Oregon Cascade Mtns. (945m and 1325m sites) were {open_quotes}incubated{close_quotes} for 32 weeks in controlled-environment chambers. Objectives were (1) to determine the interacting effects of soil temperature and atmospheric CO{sub 2} on N availability in soils, growth of Douglas-fir seedlings, and resulting C & N fluxes among trees, soils, and the atmosphere, and (2) to model these interactions with a version of Fregro linked with the GEM soil-decomposition model. The experiment was a split-plot with a factorial treatment combination containing two leves each of atmospheric CO{sub 2} (350/700 ppm), soil temperature (13.8/17.7{degrees}C), soil C & N (1325m soils had 2.3x more C and 1.25x more N than 945m soils), and vegetation (+/-seedlings). Each wholeplot (chamber) treatment (CO{sub 2} x temperature) was replicated three times. Photosynthetic photon flux density, soil temperature, and volume of added water were determined for each pot and analyzed as covariates. Responses measured include differences in soil C & N mineralization and total soil C & N in the presence/absence of seedlings, the extent to which subsequent seedling growth offsets potential {open_quote}system{close_quote} losses of C & N, and allocation of C & N to foliage and fine roots. Previously reported early results (ESA, 1994) suggest that (1) as hypothesized, soil temperatures is the main driver of changes in both N mineralization and biomass production in seedling microcosms, (2) allocation is primarily influenced by atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, and (3) a soil type x soil temperature x CO{sub 2} interaction influences seedling growth.

  14. The investigation of the LED-activated FeFNS-TiO2 nanocatalyst for photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of organophosphate pesticides in water.

    PubMed

    Hossaini, Hiwa; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Farrokhi, Mehrdad

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the preparation and characterization of an efficient doped TiO2 as a novel catalyst for degradation of diazinon model pesticide using LED-activated photocatalysis. TiO2 was doped using N, NS, FeNS, and FeFNS. The FeFNS-doped TiO2 showed the highest catalytic activity in LED/photocatalysis. FeFNS-doped TiO2 is a mesoporous nanocrystal powder with a mean pore diameter of 10.2 nm, a specific surface area of 104.4 m(2)/g and a crystallite size of 6.7 nm. LED/photocatalysis using FeFNS-doped TiO2 improved diazinon degradation by 52.3% over that of as-made plain TiO2 at an optimum solution pH of 7. The diazinon degradation in LED/photocatalysis using FeFNS-doped TiO2 increased from 44.8% to 96.3% when the catalyst concentration increased from 25% to 300%at a reaction time of 100 min. The degradation and mineralization of diazinon during LED/photocatalysis with FeFNS-doped TiO2 catalyst followed the pseudo-first-order reaction model with the rate constants of 0.973 h(-1) and 0.541 h(-1), respectively. The FeFNS-doped TiO2 was found to be an efficient catalyst that was photoactivated using UV-LED lamps. LED/photocatalysis with FeFNS-doped TiO2 catalyst is a promising alternative to conventional UV/TiO2photocatalysis for producing free OH radicals for use in the degradation and mineralization of water toxic contaminants.

  15. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  16. Detection of Crystalline Hematite Mineralization on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer: Evidence for Near-surface Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, P. R.; Bandfield, J. L.; Clark, R. N.; Edgett, K. S.; Hamilton, V. E.; Hoefen, T.; Kieffer, H. H.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Lane, M. D.; Malin, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission has discovered a remarkable accumulation of crystalline hematite ((alpha-Fe2O3) that covers an area with very sharp boundaries approximately 350 by 350-750 km in size centered near 2 S latitude between 0 and 5 W longitude (Sinus Meridiani). Crystalline hematite is uniquely identified by the presence of fundamental vibrational absorption features centered near 300, 450, and >525/cm, and by the absence of silicate fundamentals in the 1000/cm region. Spectral features resulting from atmospheric CO2, dust, and water ice were removed using a radiative transfer model. The spectral properties unique to Sinus Meridiani were emphasized by removing the average spectrum of the surrounding region. The depth and shape of the hematite fundamental bands show that the hematite is crystalline and relatively coarse grained (>5-10 micron). Diameters up to and greater than 100s of micrometers are permitted within the instrumental noise and natural variability of hematite spectra. Hematite particles <5-10 micron in diameter (either as an unpacked or hard-packed powders) fail to match the TES spectra. The spectrally-derived areal abundance of hematite varies with particle size from approximately 10% for particles >30 micron in diameter to 40-60% for unpacked 10 micron powders. The hematite in Sinus Meridiani is thus distinct from the fine-grained (diameter <5-10 micron), red, crystalline hematite considered, on the basis of visible, near-IR data, to be a minor spectral component in Martian bright regions like Olympus-Amazonis. Sinus Meridiani hematite is closely associated with a smooth, layered, friable surface that is interpreted to be sedimentary in origin. This material may be the uppermost surface in the region, indicating that it could be a late-stage sedimentary unit, or it could be a layered portion of the heavily cratered plains units. We consider five possible mechanisms for the

  17. A geochemical and geophysical approach to derive a conceptual circulation model of CO2-rich mineral waters: A case study of Vilarelho da Raia, northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, J. M.; Santos, Monteiro; Graça, R. C.; Castro, R.; Aires-Barros, L.; Mendes Victor, L. A.

    2001-11-01

    The Vilarelho da Raia-Chaves region, located in northern Portugal adjacent to the Spanish border, is characterized by both hot and cold CO2-rich mineral waters issuing from springs and drilled wells. The present paper updates the conceptual circulation model of the Vilarelho da Raia cold CO2-rich mineral waters. Vilarelho da Raia mineral waters, dominated by Na and HCO3 ions, have formed mainly by interaction with CO2 of deep-seated mantle origin. The δ18O, δ2H and 3H values indicate that these waters are the result of meteoric waters infiltrating into Larouco Mountain, NW of Vilarelho da Raia, circulating at shallow depths in granitic rocks and moving into Vilarelho da Raia area. The conceptual geochemical and geophysical circulation model indicates that the hot and cold CO2-rich mineral waters of Chaves (76 °C) and Vilarelho da Raia (17 °C) should be considered manifestations of similar but not the same geohydrological systems. Résumé. La région de Vilarelho da Raia - Chaves, située au Portugal près de la frontière Espagnole, est caractérisée par des eaux carbogazeuses, chaudes et froides, émergeant à des sources et dans des puits. Ce travail constitue une mise au point du modèle conceptuel de circulation des eaux minérales carbogazeuses froides de Vilarelho da Raia. Les eaux minérales de Vilarelho da Raia, dans lesquelles les ions Na and HCO3 sont dominants, résultent principalement d'interactions avec du CO2 d'origine mantellique. Les δ18O, les δ2H, et les teneurs en 3H indiquent que ces eaux proviennent de l'infiltration d'eaux météoriques dans le Mont Larouco au NW de Vilarelho da Raia, circulant à faible profondeur dans les granites en direction de la région de Vilarelho da Raia. Le modèle de circulation géochimique et géophysique conduit à penser que les eaux minérales carbogazeuses chaudes et froides de Chaves (76 °C) et de Vilarelho da Raia (17 °C) doivent être considérées comme des manifestations de systèmes hydrog

  18. Effect of humic acid on pyrene removal from water by polycation-clay mineral composites and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Radian, Adi; Mishael, Yael

    2012-06-01

    Pyrene removal by polycation-montmorillonite (MMT) composites and granulated activated carbon (GAC) in the presence of humic acid (HA) was examined. Pyrene, HA, and sorbent interactions were characterized by FTIR, fluorescence and zeta measurements, adsorption, and column filtration experiments. Pyrene binding coefficients to the macromolecules were in the order of PVPcoS (poly-4-vinylpiridine-co-styrene) > HA > PDADMAC (poly diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium-chloride), correlating to pyrene-macromolecules compatibility. Electrostatic interactions explained the high adsorption of HA to both composites (∼100%), whereas HA adsorption by GAC was low. Pyrene removal by the composites, unlike GAC, was enhanced in the presence of HA; removal by PDADMAC-MMT increased from ∼50 (k(d) = 2.2 × 10(3) kg/L) to ∼70% (k(d) = 2.4 × 10(3) kg/L) in the presence of HA. This improvement was attributed to the adsorption of pyrene-HA complexes. PVPcoS-MMT was most efficient in removing pyrene (k(d) = 1.1 × 10(4) kg/L, >95% removal) which was explained in terms of specific π donor-π acceptor interactions. Pyrene uptake by column filters of GAC reached ∼50% and decreased to ∼30% in the presence of HA. Pyrene removal by the PVPcoS-MMT filter was significantly higher (100-85% removal), exhibiting only a small decrease in the presence of HA. The utilization of HA as an enhancing agent in pollutant removal is novel and of major importance in water treatment. PMID:22545663

  19. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Vitamins and Minerals KidsHealth > For Teens > Vitamins and Minerals Print A ... of a good thing? What Are Vitamins and Minerals? Vitamins and minerals make people's bodies work properly. ...

  20. Sealing ability of white and gray mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with distilled water and 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate when used as root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Shahriar; Rahimi, Saeed; Yavari, Hamid Reza; Shakouie, Sahar; Nezafati, Saeed; Abdolrahimi, Majid

    2007-12-01

    This in vitro study used dye penetration to compare the sealing ability of white and gray mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with distilled water and 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate when used as root-end filling materials. Ninety-six single-rooted human teeth were cleaned, shaped, and obturated with gutta-percha and AH26 root canal sealer. The apical 3 mm of each root was resected, and 3-mm deep root-end cavity preparations were made. The teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups, each containing 20 teeth, and 2 negative and positive control groups, each containing 8 teeth. Root-end cavities in the experimental groups were filled with the experimental materials. After decoronation of the teeth and application of nail polish, the teeth were exposed to India ink for 72 hours and longitudinally sectioned, and the extent of dye penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis showed that there were no significant differences among the 4 experimental groups. PMID:18037052

  1. Gasification of residual materials from coal liquefaction: Type II preliminary pilot plant evaluation of SRC-I extruded Kerr McGee mineral ash residue-water slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.M.; Robin, A.M.

    1984-05-01

    A Type II preliminary pilot plant evaluation of SRC-I Kerr McGee mineral ash residue as a water slurry feed to the Texaco Coal Gasification Process was conducted at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory (MRL). The residue was obtained in the extrudate form directly from the Critical Solvent Deashing process at Wilsonville, Alabama. Approximately 16 tons of residue were gasified during three test runs which were carried out at 950 psig in MRL's High Pressure Solids Gasification Unit I. The runs lasted from 4.8 hours to 7.2 hours, and a total of 19.1 hours of on-stream time was accumulated. This work was authorized by DOE Delivery Order Number 10 under DOE contract EX-76-C-01-2247 and amendment DEAC-01-76ET-10137. It is part of a continuing effort to evaluate residual materials from various DOE sponsored coal liquefaction projects to determine their suitability for conversion to hydrogen using one of the Texaco gasification processes.

  2. Removal of Pb, Cd, and Cr in a water purification system using modified mineral waste materials and activated carbon derived from waste materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H. R.; Su, L. C.; Ruan, H. D.

    2016-08-01

    This study attempts to find out and optimize the removal efficiency of heavy metals in a water purification unit using a low-cost waste material and modified mineral waste materials (MMWM) accompanied with activated carbon (AC) derived from waste materials. The factors of the inner diameter of the purification unit (2.6-5cm), the height of the packing materials (5-20cm), the size of AC (200-20mesh), the size of MMWM (1-0.045mm), and the ratio between AC and MMWM in the packing materials (1:0 - 0:1) were examined based on a L18 (5) 3 orthogonal array design. In order to achieve an optimally maximum removal efficiency, the factors of the inner diameter of the purification unit (2.6-7.5cm), the height of the packing materials (10-30cm), and the ratio between AC and MMWM in the packing materials (1:4-4:1) were examined based on a L16 (4) 3 orthogonal array design. A height of 25cm, inner diameter of 5cm, ratio between AC and MMWM of 3:2 with size of 60-40mesh and 0.075-0.045mm, respectively, were the best conditions determined by the ICP-OES analysis to perform the adsorption of heavy metals in this study.

  3. Effect of change of diet on the mineral composition of rumen fluid, on magnesium metabolism and on water balance in sheep.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C L; Aubrey Jones, D A

    1989-05-01

    1. The effects of four diets on water intake, rumen fluid outflow-rate, rumen pH and mineral metabolism were studied in wether sheep. The diets were barley and hay, flaked maize and hay, dried grass and frozen grass. 2. Experimental periods were of 12 d duration, and plasma magnesium concentrations were lower at the end of treatment periods when the grass diets were given and were significantly different (P less than 0.05) at 11.00 and 20.45 hours. Also, the concentration was significantly lower with the dried-grass diet than with the frozen-grass diet (P less than 0.05). 3. The concentration of Mg in rumen fluid centrifuged at 30,000 g (ultracentrifuged) varied with the diet. Maximum concentrations (tmax) were reached 4 h later on the grass diets than on the hay and concentrate diets. In the latter case tmax coincided with that for calcium, potassium, chloride and ammonia. At this time sodium and phosphate were at a minimum. The concentration of Mg in ultracentrifuged rumen fluid was negatively correlated (r -0.89) with pH, which was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) at all times on the grass diets. This relation was also reflected in the apparent availability of Mg. 4. Total water intake on the frozen grass was about twice that on the barley and hay diet. The outflow rate of liquid from the rumen was higher on the frozen grass than on the other three diets. 5. The proportion of absorbed Mg excreted in urine was significantly influenced by diet.

  4. A novel non-mineral oil-based adjuvant. II. Efficacy of a synthetic sulfolipopolysaccharide in a squalane-in-water emulsion in pigs.

    PubMed

    Hilgers, L A; Platenburg, P L; Luitjens, A; Groenveld, B; Dazelle, T; Weststrate, M W

    1994-05-01

    The adjuvanticity of a sulfolipopolysaccharide (SLP) incorporated into a squalane-in-water emulsion (SLP/S/W) was compared with that of a mineral oil-in-water (O/W) adjuvant currently used in commercial porcine vaccines. Groups of pigs were immunized twice with vaccines comprising either inactivated influenza virus (iFlu3 containing strains A/Swine, MRC-11 and X-79), inactivated pseudorabies virus (iPRV), live pseudorabies virus (PRV) or inactivated porcine parvovirus (iPPV) as antigen and SLP/S/W or O/W as adjuvant. Antibody titres in serum 2 or 3 weeks after the second immunization were measured by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) or serum neutralization (SN) assays. Both adjuvants significantly augmented the antibody responses against the antigens tested. Mean factors of increase obtained by SLP/S/W and O/W were: 315 and 91, respectively, for A/Swine; 478 and 137 for MRC-11; 362 and 128 for X-79; 69 and 49 for iPRV; and 23 and 7 for live PRV. Increased humoral immunity against live PRV was affirmed by reduced levels and duration of virus excreted by pigs after challenge with virulent PRV. Immunization of pigs with iPPV plus adjuvant SLP/S/W gave 36-fold higher titres than with O/W. It was concluded that SLP/S/W is more effective than O/W in stimulating humoral immunity against the viral antigens examined and that the two constituents SLP and S/W interact synergistically. Advantages of SLP/S/W over O/W include stronger adjuvanticity, better biocompatibility and lower doses of active substances.

  5. An open-water electrical geophysical tool for mapping sub-seafloor heavy placer minerals in 3D and migrating hydrocarbon plumes in 4D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jefferey C.; Urquhart, Scott; Williamson, Mike; Fleming, John B.

    2011-01-01

    A towed-streamer technology has been developed for mapping placer heavy minerals and dispersed hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean. The approach uses induced polarization (IP), an electrical measurement that encompasses several different surface-reactive capacitive and electrochemical phenomena, and thus is ideally suited for mapping dispersed or disseminated targets. The application is operated at sea by towing active electrical geophysical streamers behind a ship; a wide area can be covered in three dimensions by folding tow-paths over each other in lawn-mower fashion. This technology has already been proven in laboratory and ocean settings to detect IP-reactive titanium- and rare-earth (REE) minerals such as ilmenite and monazite. By extension, minerals that weather and accumulate/concentrate by a similar mechanism, including gold, platinum, and diamonds, may be rapidly detected and mapped indirectly- even when dispersed and covered with thick, inert sediment. IP is also highly reactive to metal structures such as pipelines and cables. Currently, the only means for mapping an oil-spill plume is to park a large ship in the ocean and drop a sampling string over the side, requiring hours of time per sampling point. The samples must then be chemically analyzed, adding additional time and expense. We believe that an extension of the marine IP technology could also apply to rapidly mapping both seafloor- blanket and disseminated hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean, as hydrocarbon droplets in conductive seawater are topologically equivalent to a metal-plates-and-dielectric capacitor. Because the effective capacitance would be frequency-dependent on droplet size, the approach we advocate holds the potential to not only map, but also to characterize the evolution and degradation of such a plume over time. In areas where offshore oil field development has been practiced for extended periods, making IP measurements from a towed streamer may be useful for locating buried

  6. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, H.C.; Thomson, B.M.

    2009-09-15

    A review of literature published in 2008 and early 2009 on research related to the production of acid mine drainage and/or in the dissolution of minerals as a result of mining, with special emphasis on the effects of these phenomena on the water quality in the surrounding environment, is presented. This review is divided into six sections: 1) Site Characterization and Assessment, 2) Protection, Prevention, and Restoration, 3) Toxicity Assessment, 4) Environmental Fate and Transport, 5) Biological Characterization, and 6) Treatment Technologies. Because there is much overlap in research areas associated with minerals and mine drainage, many papers presented in this review can be classified into more than one category, and the six sections should not be regarded as being mutually-exclusive, nor should they be thought of as being all-inclusive.

  7. Geology, mineralization, and hydrothermal alteration and relationships to acidic and metal-bearing surface waters in the Palmetto Gulch area, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, Dana J.; Kurtz, Jeffrey P.; Wright, Winfield G.

    2002-01-01

    The Palmetto Gulch area is affected by low pH and metal-bearing drainage from abandoned mines, and perhaps, from natural weathering around vein zones. To investigate these anthropogenic and potential natural sources of acidity and metals, we mapped the geology, veins, and hydrothermally altered areas; conducted mine dump leachate studies; and collected reconnaissance water quality data. Several small abandoned mines are present in the Palmetto Gulch area that produced small amounts of relatively high-grade silver ore from fault-controlled polymetallic vein deposits. These veins are hosted in lavas, breccias, and related volcaniclastic sediments that ponded within the 28 Ma San Juan-Uncompahgre caldera complex. These rock units generally have conformable contacts and have shallow dips to the northwest. Lava flows of pyroxene andesite, which host the Roy-Pray mine, are massive near their base and typically grade upward into tightly jointed rock with 2-15 cm joint spacing. In general, most hydrothermally altered rock within the Palmetto Gulch area is restricted to envelopes surrounding the mineralized veins and faults. Composite zones of vein-related alteration vary from about 50 to 80 m wide along the high ridgelines and narrow to less than 10 to 15 m beneath an elevation of about 5,462 m. Where unaffected by surficial oxidation, these altered zones contain as much as 7 to 10 volume percent finely-disseminated pyrite. The majority of rocks in the area were affected by regional and vein-related propylitic alteration. These greenish-colored rocks have alteration products