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Sample records for low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid

  1. Primary pulmonary low-grade marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type with prominent hyalinosis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Masaru; Nakamura, Shigeo; Ban, Satoshi; Inagaki, Masaharu; Sugihara, Shiro; Yoshida, Katsue; Masawa, Nobuhide

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of primary pulmonary low-grade marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type with prominent sclerosis, which morphologically resembled pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma (PHG) or inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) of the lung. The patient, a 66-year-old Japanese female with a history of Sjögren's syndrome and primary biliary cirrhosis, presented with a lower left lobe mass 6.8 cm in diameter. Histologically, the lesion is characterized by dense bundles of collagen with scattered plasma cells, mature small lymphocytes, and histiocytes among the collagen bundles. Only the peripheral area of the nodule contained dense lymphoplasmacytoid and histiocytoid infiltrates. A few centrocyte-like cells were obscured by the numerous plasma cells and plasmacytoid cells. In addition, lymphoepithelial lesions and colonalized lymphoid follicles were identified by immunohistochemistry alone. Although PHG and IPT are unlikely to be confused with pulmonary MALT-type lymphomas, the present case suggests that MALT-type lymphoma should be added to the list of differential diagnoses for PHG and IPT. PMID:12498224

  2. Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the salivary gland: a spectrum of lymphoepithelial sialadenitis, low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue with transformation to high-grade lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Agale, Shubhangi Vinayak; D'Costa, Grace Francis; Hastak, Meenal Shirish; Shedge, Rakesh Tukaram

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoid infiltrates of the salivary gland can be either reactive or neoplastic. The reactive lesion, lymphoepithelial sialadenitis (LESA) may be associated with Sjogren's syndrome (SS) or may occur as an isolated salivary gland enlargement. Patients with LESA/SS have a particularly high risk of subsequently developing lymphoma, which is a low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type lymphoma of the salivary gland. We document a rare case of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the parotid gland arising in the background of LESA and with a rare example of transformation from low grade to high-grade B cell lymphoma of MALT type. PMID:20551561

  3. Indolent behaviour of low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue involved in salivary glands, renal sinus and prostate.

    PubMed

    Araki, K; Kubota, Y; Iijima, Y; Suzuki, H; Sasagawa, I; Nakada, T; Maeda, K; Arai, S

    1998-05-01

    We report a case of MALT lymphoma (malignant lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues) involved in the salivary glands, the renal sinus and the prostate. The masses have been progressing very slowly and the patient has remained alive without any treatment for 5 years from the first symptom of this disease. PMID:9689708

  4. Bilateral mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas of parotid glands: a 13-year interval.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, C H; Grosso, L E; Rodriquez, J J; Dunphy, F R

    1996-05-01

    Benign lymphoepithelial lesions of salivary gland may have a population of monoclonal B cells. There is controversy regarding the clinical significance of monoclonality in these lesions. Morphologically and clinically, benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the salivary gland with monoclonal B cells falls within the spectrum of low-grade B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. We report a case of bilateral parotid lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, separated diagnostically by a 13-year interval. Polymerase chain reaction analysis detected similar clones in the bilateral parotid glands. This finding supports the natural history of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. In addition, because mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas have an unpredictable period of localized disease, recognition of monoclonality in benign lymphoepithelial lesions of salivary glands is important for local cure and can be aided by combining histologic with immunohistochemical, flow cytometric immunophenotyping, and Southern blot and/or polymerase chain reaction analysis.

  5. Morphology of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in odontocetes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernanda M O; Guimarães, Juliana P; Vergara-Parente, Jociery E; Carvalho, Vitor L; Carolina, Ana; Meirelles, O; Marmontel, Miriam; Oliveira, Bruno S S P; Santos, Silvanise M; Becegato, Estella Z; Evangelista, Janaina S A M; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in odontocetes from the Brazilian coast and freshwater systems. Seven species were evaluated and tissue samples were analyzed by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. Laryngeal tonsil was a palpable oval mass located in the larynx, composed of a lymphoepithelial complex. Dense collections of lymphocytes were found in the skin of male fetus and calf. Clusters of lymphoid tissue were found in the uterine cervix of a reproductively active juvenile female and along the pulmonary artery of an adult female. Lymphoid tissues associated with the gastrointestinal tract were characterized by diffusely arranged or organized lymphocytes. The anal tonsil was composed of an aggregate of lymphoid tissue occurring exclusively in the anal canal, being composed of squamous epithelium branches. MALT was present in different tissues and organic systems of cetaceans, providing constant protection against mucosal pathogens present in their environment.

  6. Morphology of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in odontocetes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernanda M O; Guimarães, Juliana P; Vergara-Parente, Jociery E; Carvalho, Vitor L; Carolina, Ana; Meirelles, O; Marmontel, Miriam; Oliveira, Bruno S S P; Santos, Silvanise M; Becegato, Estella Z; Evangelista, Janaina S A M; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in odontocetes from the Brazilian coast and freshwater systems. Seven species were evaluated and tissue samples were analyzed by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. Laryngeal tonsil was a palpable oval mass located in the larynx, composed of a lymphoepithelial complex. Dense collections of lymphocytes were found in the skin of male fetus and calf. Clusters of lymphoid tissue were found in the uterine cervix of a reproductively active juvenile female and along the pulmonary artery of an adult female. Lymphoid tissues associated with the gastrointestinal tract were characterized by diffusely arranged or organized lymphocytes. The anal tonsil was composed of an aggregate of lymphoid tissue occurring exclusively in the anal canal, being composed of squamous epithelium branches. MALT was present in different tissues and organic systems of cetaceans, providing constant protection against mucosal pathogens present in their environment. PMID:27380767

  7. Gastric B-cell mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: a clinicopathological study in 56 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Castrillo, J M; Montalban, C; Obeso, G; Piris, M A; Rivas, M C

    1992-01-01

    Clinico-pathological features of 56 patients with primary gastric lymphoma were evaluated retrospectively. All cases were regraded according to a classification of Isaacson et al into high grade and low grade B-cell mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. A third group of mixed grade was recognised in 11 patients with low grade who also had occasional areas of high grade. Low grade and mixed grade patients had a 100% actuarial survival at 156 months, which was significantly better (p < 0.01) than that of 52% for patients with high grade disease. Different treatment methods--surgery, chemotherapy, or a combination of both--did not significantly affect survival. Low grade tumours occurred mainly in men with a history of several years, and who presented with non-specific gastric symptoms without remarkable exploratory or laboratory findings: most patients were in stage IE-IIE and achieved remission and cure. High grade can have a shorter history, systemic symptoms, abnormal exploratory and laboratory findings, gastric tumour masses, stage IV disease, and a worse outcome. The only significant prognostic factors for survival were the type of lymphoma and stage IV disease. These findings support the Isaacson classification system which separates two extreme groups of gastric lymphomas with different morphology, behaviour, and outcome. The presence of limited areas of high grade in a specimen showing low grade does not change the outcome but suggests that primary gastric lymphoma forms a continuum between these extreme types. PMID:1446850

  8. Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Larynx

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Liu, Bailong; Liu, Bin; Cui, Xiangyan; Yang, Shuo; Wang, Qiang; Dong, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The clinicopathological characteristics and rational treatment of primary laryngeal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma are still unclear and need to be further defined due to the paucity of this separate lymphoma. Herein, a supraglottic primary MALT lymphoma was described with detailed clinical course, intervention, and follow-up. To date, research of laryngeal MALT lymphoma has seldom been initiated. Our experience in this case will help to expand our understanding of this unique disease. A 58-year-old female presented with a history of progressive hoarseness for about 10 months. Multiple laryngoscopy examinations revealed severe hypertrophy of left ventricular band. She was admitted to our department with residual MALT lymphoma of supraglottic region after partial resection by laser. After systemic evaluation, she was staged as IEA, International Prognostic Index score 0. Irradiation of intensity modulated radiotherapy technique with a dose of 30.6 Gy/17f to the tumor and 25.5 Gy/17f to the related lymphatic drainage area achieved a complete remission. The disease-free survival has reached to 4 years. The irradiation related acute and late side effects were mild. Radiotherapy is the first option for limited-stage primary laryngeal MALT lymphoma because of excellent treatment outcome. PMID:25929928

  9. Primary Intracranial Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Sebastián, Cristina; Vela, Ana Carmen; Figueroa, Ramón; Marín, Miguel Ángel; Alfaro, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Summary Low-grade B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas typically arise from the marginal zone of the secondary lymphatic follicles. Their intracranial expression is very rare, most frequently affecting the dura mater and the choroid plexus glomi in the lateral ventricles. Their initial evaluation requires the exclusion of more common extra-axial lesions, such as meningiomas, dural metastasis, granulomatous lesions or secondary lymphoproliferative dural extension from body lymphomas. Whenever a ventricular lesion is present, the patient's age and lesion location help narrow the differential diagnosis. Dural-based lymphomas and ventricular/choroid plexus lymphomas are slow-growing lesions with imaging features similar to meningiomas, which is typically their main differential consideration. Diffusion-weighted images frequently show restricted diffusion behaviour on lymphomas, helping to differentiate them from the typical meningiomas. PMID:25196615

  10. Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue arising in the lateral ventricle.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Todd W; Prayson, Richard A; Barnett, Gene H; Stevens, Glen H J; Cook, James R; Hsi, Eric D

    2005-10-01

    Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are a well-described type of low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. They typically arise adjacent to mucosal surfaces in the gastrointestinal tract, lung and conjunctiva, and, less frequently, in the skin, salivary gland and thyroid gland. Unusual locations, such as the genitourinary tract, thymus and meninges, have also been reported. We recently encountered a case of an intracranial MALT lymphoma in a 53-year-old man who presented with persistent headaches and a seizure. The lesion developed as a mass within the lateral ventricle, appeared to be arising from the choroid plexus, and was not associated with meninges. Histologically, there was a vaguely nodular, dense lymphoid infiltrate with occasional benign follicles colonized by marginal zone lymphoma, suggesting derivation from a focus of prior inflammation. Translocations involving the MALT1 gene were not identified but karyotypic evaluation highlighted a complex cytogenetic profile with many chromosomal abnormalities. This rare case provides insight into the pathophysiology of MALT lymphomas.

  11. Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophilia complicated with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yin; Tangsun, Yinyan; Xiao, Yonglong; Zhang, Deping; Cao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Tissue eosinophilia is rarely observed in cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B cell origin. The present study describes a rare case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, which was initially misdiagnosed as eosinophilic pneumonia. The initial diagnosis was formed based on the results of chest radiography, peripheral eosinophilia tests and bronchoalveolar lavage, and the clinical course of the patient. Following administration of methylprednisolone (40 mg/day) for 4 days and oral administration of prednisolone (30 mg/day), the clinical course rapidly improved and the eosinophil count immediately decreased a to normal level. However, abnormal shadows observed on computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest did not diminish. At 6 months after the initiation of treatment, CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy was performed, and a final diagnosis of primary pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma was made based on immunohistochemical examination. Primary lung MALT lymphoma remains a rare entity, with an indolent course and a reasonably favorable prognosis, whose diagnosis may be challenging. PMID:27588128

  12. Synchronous Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Michael; Wong, John Lin Hieng; Paneesha, Shankara; Rudzki, Zbigniew; Arasaradnam, Ramesh; Nwokolo, Chuka

    2016-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma) is a subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, comprising ∼17% of all gastrointestinal (GI) tract lymphomas. It is associated with chronic inflammation and autoimmunity, for example Helicobacter pylori gastritis and Sjogren's syndrome, respectively. Approximately 50% of GI MALTomas occur in the stomach, with small bowel and colonic lesions being less frequent. Synchronous upper and lower GI MALTomas occur rarely, with few cases reported. We present the case of a 73-year-old patient who presented with change in bowel habit and was found to have synchronous multifocal upper and lower GI MALTomas, which did not respond to H. pylori cure or to rituximab therapy, but did respond to a combination of surgery and chemotherapy with rituximab and bendamustine. PMID:27462192

  13. Bulky Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated with Yttrium-90 Ibritumomab Tiuxetan

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Shinobu; Ikeda, Tokuji; Kurihara, Toshio; Kakuno, Yoshiteru; Nasu, Hideki; Nakano, Yoshio; Oshima, Koichi; Fujimoto, Tokuzo

    2013-01-01

    An 84-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with nonproductive cough and dyspnea on exertion. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed extensive consolidation in the right lung. She was diagnosed with pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma using CT-guided lung biopsy. Her pulmonary images and respiratory symptoms did not improve two months after receiving 4 cycles of rituximab weekly; therefore, yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan was chosen as salvage therapy. The abnormal shadow on her pulmonary images was significantly reduced two months later, and she had no symptoms without nonhematological toxicities. She has had no progression for 18 months. Furthermore, radiation pneumonitis has not also been observed. We herein reported bulky pulmonary MALT lymphoma treated with yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan. PMID:24371530

  14. B-cell gene rearrangement in benign and malignant lymphoid proliferations of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Torlakovic, E; Cherwitz, D L; Jessurun, J; Scholes, J; McGlennen, R

    1997-02-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to study patterns of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement (GR) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens of lymphomas and reactive conditions of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and lymph node. DNA amplification was performed directly on sections obtained from paraffin blocks. Five patterns of PCR products were observed: a single band, two or more discrete bands, smearing, a single band overlying a smear, and two or more bands over a smear. A pure polyclonal pattern (smear) was observed in all of the reactive lymph nodes but in only 15% of cases of Helicobacter pylori (HP) gastritis with lymphoid hyperplasia, 25% of cases of HP gastritis without lymphoid hyperplasia, and 37% of colonic specimens of various types. Patterns consisting of multiple bands with or without background smearing were common in gastritis, colitis, and gastric lymphomas. Single bands or dominant bands were present in all lymph node and salivary gland lymphomas, 12 of 14 cases of gastric lymphoma, and 17 of 20 cases of HP gastritis with lymphoid hyperplasia. These bands were reproducible in deeper sections from the same paraffin block or similar areas sampled in different blocks in all of the lymph node and salivary gland lymphomas, 11 of 12 gastric lymphomas, but only 1 of 17 cases of HP gastritis with lymphoid hyperplasia. Bands were also found in 3 of 20 cases of HP gastritis without lymphoid hyperplasia and 17 of 38 colonic specimens, but these were not reproducible. The complexity of patterns of IgH GR in acquired MALT compared with lymph nodes may be the result of a relative paucity of B-cell clones or preferential proliferation of B-cell clones with a limited area of distribution.

  15. Sensitive detection of PrPCWD in rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue from preclinical white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report summarizes the comparative diagnostic performance of postmortem rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) sampling in four white-tailed deer test populations: from Wisconsin, a sample of free-ranging deer and a captive herd; and from Saskatchewan, Canada, two captive herds. Th...

  16. Primary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of Thyroid with the Serial Ultrasound Findings

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Eon Ju; Shon, Ho Sang; Jung, Eui Dal

    2016-01-01

    Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of the thyroid gland is uncommon. Even though its natural history is not well defined, it is known to be indolent course. We present a case of primary MALT thyroid lymphoma with the serial sonographic findings in the patient presenting as the focal nodule. A 45-year-old woman visited our hospital for neck examination. Initially, fine-needle aspiration cytology in the focal hypoechoic lesion in the left thyroid lobe on ultrasound sonography was performed and consistent with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, the results of serial ultrasounds and core-needle biopsy revealed an extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of MALT on 4-year follow-up. Patients with a focal hypoechoic nodule with linear echogenic strands and segmental pattern in the background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis on ultrasonography should undergo careful surveillance for malignancy. Serial sonographic features in this case are meaningful in the understanding of the natural history of the extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of MALT of the thyroid. PMID:27099797

  17. Stage IV intramucosal gastric marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type.

    PubMed

    Ohtaka, Masahiko; Sato, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Shouji; Sueki, Ryouta; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Uetake, Tomoyoshi; Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki; Iwao, Noriaki; Kirito, Keita; Enomoto, Nobuyuki

    2013-04-01

    A 45-year-old woman with no symptoms underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. A discolored area was noted at the greater curvature of the gastric upper body. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated thickening of the second sonographic layer indicating that the depth of invasion was confined to the mucosa. A urea breath test and anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody test were negative. A computed tomography scan showed a consolidation at the right lung. Gastric biopsy and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) demonstrated a monotonous proliferation of atypical small lymphocytes. A diagnosis of gastric marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma) was made. The clinical stage was stage IV. A genetic analysis showed rearrangement of the joining region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene and identical clones in both lesions. An API2-MALT1 fusion gene was detected in the gastric lesion. After H. pylori eradication treatment, combination treatment with rituximab plus CHOP (R-CHOP) was performed; 6 months later an endoscopy revealed complete disappearance of the lesion. Multiple gastric biopsies showed no infiltrating atypical lymphocytes. Similarly, the lesion in the lung showed complete remission (CR) on CT and TBLB. This report shows that a gastric MALT lymphoma located in the mucosa and disseminated to the lung maintained CR by R-CHOP. PMID:26181449

  18. Clinicopathologic characteristics and treatment of marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma).

    PubMed

    Raderer, Markus; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Ferreri, Andrés J M

    2016-01-01

    Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) accounts for 7% to 8% of newly diagnosed lymphomas. Because of its association with infectious causes, such as Helicobacter pylori (HP) or Chlamydophila psittaci (CP), and autoimmune diseases, it has become the paradigm of an antigen-driven malignancy. MALT lymphoma usually displays an indolent course, and watch-and-wait strategies are justified initially in a certain percentage of patients. In patients with gastric MALT lymphoma or ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma, antibiotic therapy against HP or CP, respectively, is the first-line management of choice, resulting in lymphoma response rates from 75% to 80% after HP eradication and from 33% to 65% after antibiotic therapy for CP. In patients who have localized disease that is refractory to antibiotics, radiation is widely applied in various centers with excellent local control, whereas systemic therapies are increasingly being applied, at least in Europe, because of the potentially systemic nature of the disease. Therefore, the objective of this review is to briefly summarize the clinicopathologic characteristics of this distinct type of lymphoma along with current data on management strategies. PMID:26773441

  19. An unusual presentation of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Bikram; Kim, Bernard; Huffstetler, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma is a relatively rare disease; nevertheless, it is the third most common lymphoma type, accounting for 5–7% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Case series and retrospective analysis published in the literature have suggested that extra gastrointestinal (GI) MALT-type lymphoma can occur simultaneously with MALT-type lymphoma involving the GI tract. We report the case of a healthy, 64-year-old Caucasian male who presented with progressive fatigue, non-productive cough, and worsening exertional shortness of breath for 3 months who was subsequently diagnosed with gastric extra-nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma or MALToma with simultaneous metastasis to the lung (bronchi) based on biopsy reports. Case presentation A 64-year-old Caucasian male presented to the emergency room complaining of progressive fatigue for 3 months which had progressed to the point of hindering his usual activities of daily living (ADL). He had recently visited his primary care provider for evaluation of a non-productive cough and exertional shortness of breath. A chest radiography obtained at the time showed bilateral infiltrates. He was then treated for atypical pneumonia but his symptoms unfortunately did not improve. Initial investigations in the emergency room revealed severe anemia and a positive stool guaiac test. Imaging showed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and an irregular gastric mass. Gastric and transbronchial biopsies were suggestive of extra-nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma with simultaneous metastasis to the bronchi. He was treated symptomatically with transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBC) and intravenous iron followed by radiotherapy. Helicobacter pylori infection was ruled out eliminating the possibility of treating him with eradication therapy. Conclusion Although the stomach is the most common and most extensively studied site of involvement of MALT lymphomas, they can also emerge in many other locations. MALT

  20. Chemoimmunotherapy for Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue-Type Lymphoma: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kiesewetter, Barbara; Ferreri, Andrés J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Biological treatments, chemoimmunotherapy, and radiotherapy are associated with excellent disease control in both gastric and extragastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. Systemic treatment approaches with both oral and i.v. agents are being increasingly studied, not only for patients with disseminated MALT lymphoma, but also for those with localized disease. To date, however, recommendations for the use of available systemic modalities have not been clearly defined. Materials and Methods. The present report reviews the current data on systemic treatment options for patients with MALT lymphoma and provides recommendations for their use in everyday practice. Results. Different chemotherapeutic agents, including anthracyclines, alkylators, and purine analogs, have been successfully tested in patients with MALT lymphoma. Reducing side effects while maintaining efficacy should be the main goal in treating these indolent lymphomas. From the data from the largest trial performed to date, the combination of chlorambucil plus rituximab (R) appears to be active as first-line treatment. Similarly, R-bendamustine also seems to be highly effective, but a longer follow-up period is needed. R-monotherapy results in lower remission rates, but seems a suitable option for less fit patients. New immunotherapeutic agents such as lenalidomide (with or without rituximab) or clarithromycin show solid activity but have not yet been validated in larger collectives. Conclusion. Patients with MALT lymphoma should be treated within prospective trials to further define optimal therapeutic strategies. Systemic treatment is a reasonable option with potentially curative intent in everyday practice. Based on the efficacy and safety data from available studies, the present review provides recommendations for the use of systemic strategies. Implications for Practice: In view of the biology of MALT lymphoma with trafficking of cells within various mucosal structures

  1. [A case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with penicillin allergy successfully treated with levofloxacin, minomycin and rabeprazole].

    PubMed

    Konno, Tomoko; Motoori, Shigeatsu; Iwamoto, Nozomi; Miyazawa, Tomoe; Saito, Shigeyo; Kitagawa, Naoko; Saisho, Hiromitsu; Furuse, Junji; Itabashi, Masayuki

    2010-10-01

    A 52-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our Institute because of Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori)-positive gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue(MALT)lymphoma. Since she had a penicillin allergy, we could not eradicate H. pylori using the standard triple therapy including amoxicillin. Additionally, H. pylori was resistant to both clarithromycin and metronidazole. So she was treated with minomycin (MINO), levofloxacin (LVFX), and rabeprazole (RPZ) based on a drug sensitivity test. MINO+LVFX+RPZ appear to be a promising, appropriate, and well-tolerated eradication regimen for H. pylori demonstrating resistance to both clarithromycin and metronidazole, and for patients who are allergic to penicillin.

  2. Sjögren Syndrome Complicated by Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma and Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Fatma; Raslan, Osama; Muzaffar, Razi; Parkar, Nadeem; Marwaha, Nitin; Osman, Medhat M

    2015-01-01

    Sjögren syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease with exocrine glands dysfunction and multiorgan involvement. It is associated with increased risk of lymphoproliferative disorders, especially B-cell marginal zone lymphoma. While the role of F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) for evaluation of lymphoma has been established, its use in patients with a chronic history of SS to evaluate for possible lymphoproliferative disorders or multiorgan involvement is limited. We present a case of chronic SS in which F-18 FDG PET/CT demonstrated FDG avid intraparotid and cervical lymph nodes pathologically proven to be mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. In addition, the patient had bibasilar cystic changes consistent with lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia.

  3. Diagnosis of preclinical CWD in farmed white-tailed deer in Canada by the immunohistochemical examination of recto-anal mucosa- associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report summarizes the comparative diagnostic performance of postmortem rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) sampling in two white-tailed deer farms from Saskatchewan, Canada. The apparent prevalence of disease in these two farms was 21% and 31%. None of these deer were demonstra...

  4. Pulmonary small lymphocytic lymphoma (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type) associated with pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma.

    PubMed

    Ren, Y; Raitz, E N; Lee, K R; Pingleton, S K; Tawfik, O

    2001-09-01

    A case of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma (PHG) and concomitant low-grade, small lymphocytic lymphoma of the lung is presented. This is the first occurrence of pulmonary lymphoma in patients with PHG ever reported. The infiltrates around a left lower lobe nodule with left pleural effusion and thickening seen on chest CT were histologically proven to be lymphomatous infiltrates of the lung, pleura, and chest wall muscle. We believe that the lymphoma developed around the nodule and spread to the pleura and muscle in our patient. When infiltrates around the nodules, pleural effusion, or adenopathy are developed in a patient with proven PHG, close follow-up, biopsy, or careful cytology should be seriously considered to rule out a developing lymphoma. PMID:11555545

  5. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the thymus: a case report with no evidence of MALT1 rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Ortonne, Nicolas; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Remy, Philippe; Delfau-Larue, Marie-Hélène; Alonso, Miguel A; Mariette, Xavier; Dierlamm, Judith; Leroy, Karen; Gaulard, Philippe

    2005-02-01

    We report a case of thymic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (TML) that presented as an asymptomatic mediastinal mass in a 40-year-old woman with a past history of Sjögren syndrome. This case had the characteristic clinical and pathological features of TML, as found in most of the 24 previously reported cases, i.e., autoimmune context, especially Sjögren syndrome, IgA secretion, large epithelial cysts, lymphoepithelial lesions involving residual Hassal's corpuscles, epithelial cysts, and a marked plasmacytic differentiation with IgA expression. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for t(11;18)(q21;q21) was negative, in agreement with recently published data. In this case, investigation for t(14;18)(q32;q21) using fluorescent in situ hybridization was also performed and supplied negative results. Neoplastic cells were negative for MAL, a marker of primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma (PMBL). Altogether, these findings further support that among MALT lymphomas, TML have peculiar clinical and morphological characteristics and appear not to involve MALT1 rearrangement. They also suggest the absence of a relationship between TML and PMBL. PMID:15650839

  6. [A Case of Concurrent Primary Gastric Malignant T-Cell Lymphoma and Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Tadayoshi; Tamura, Shigeyuki; Takeno, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Ishida, Tomo; Sato, Yasufumi; Morimoto, Yoshihiro; Kusama, Hiroki; Matsushita, Katsunori; Kimura, Kei; Katsura, Yoshiteru; Nitta, Kanae; Ohmura, Yoshiaki; Kagawa, Yoshinori; Okishiro, Masatsugu; Sakisaka, Hideki; Egawa, Chiyomi; Takeda, Yutaka; Kato, Takeshi

    2015-11-01

    A 71-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for epigastric pain. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a type 2- like ulcerative lesion in the posterior wall of the upper and middle part of the stomach. Endoscopic biopsies showed malignant T-cell lymphoma histologically. A chest CT scan revealed a nodule in the apex of right lung, suggestive of primary lung cancer. A total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy and distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy was performed. Seventy-three days after surgery, the patient developed a lung abscess in the middle lobe of the right lung. A wedge-shaped resection of the upper lobe and total resection of the middle lobe of the right lung was performed. Histological examination revealed a primary pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in the upper lobe of right lung and an abscess caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the middle lobe of the right lung. Twelve months after surgery the man died of suffocation because of aspiration due to esophageal stenosis caused by progression of metastasis of the paraesophageal lymph node. PMID:26805184

  7. Comparisons of Surgery and/or Chemotherapy in the Treatment of Primary Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Chengwei; Wang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims: To investigate the clinical features, imaging characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of primary pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Methods: We retrospectively analysed the clinical, imaging, and follow-up data of 13 patients (median age, 59 years; range, 21–67 years) with primary pulmonary MALT lymphoma. Results: The main clinical manifestations were chest discomfort (six patients), cough (two), fever (two), chest pain (one), and no obvious symptoms (two). Six patients underwent surgery; three had postoperative chemotherapy; four had chemotherapy alone; and three only had symptomatic and supportive treatment. The follow-up duration was one to 11 years, with one patient lost to follow-up. Two patients died (two years and 11 years post-diagnosis). As of this report, the remaining 10 patients were alive with no disease progression. Conclusions: Pulmonary MALT lymphoma has atypical clinical manifestations and non-specific imaging changes, and the diagnosis depends on a pathological examination. For patients with confined lesions for which conventional biopsy cannot be performed, surgical excision plays an important role in clarifying the diagnosis and obtaining good therapeutic results and a good prognosis. PMID:25167928

  8. Primary Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of the Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue of the Lacrimal Sac Found with Epiphora: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kitaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Mupas-Uy, Jacqueline; Takahashi, Emiko; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a primary marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue of the lacrimal sac, which was found in a patient with epiphora without palpable mass. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated mucosal thickening of the lacrimal sac with a patent lumen, consistent with the intraoperative finding. Epiphora resolved, which was confirmed by smooth syringing, 1 month after starting the immunotherapy.

  9. Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Sigmoid Colon Discovered on Routine Screening Colonoscopy in Patient with Hepatitis C and Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bhuta, Rajiv; Bromberg, Michael; Bains, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is predominantly found in the stomach. Rarely, it is found in the proximal colon and even less so in the sigmoid colon. We present a rare case of primary sigmoid colon MALT lymphoma in a patient with concomitant Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis C infection. We also review current imaging, staging, and therapeutic modalities. To our knowledge, this is the first sigmoid colon MALT lymphoma reported in the United States.

  10. Coexistence of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in a context of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Levy-Blitchtein, Saul; Plasencia-Rebata, Stefany; Morales Luna, Domingo; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana

    2016-08-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) represents 80-85% of thyroid cancer and its prevalence has been rising in the last decades. Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) accounts for 3% of extranodal lymphomas and about 5% of thyroid malignancies, having a prevalence of one or two cases per million people. Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue lymphoma represents approximately 30% of PTL. Both entities have an indolent course and a very good prognosis. Diagnosis is made by ultrasound and fine needle aspiration (FNA) or surgery specimen pathology. They have also been associated with HT, but pathogenesis and its links remains to be known. Treatment remains controversial and surgery is generally accepted in cases of disease limited to thyroid, as the present. Patients with thyroid nodules should be observed and followed. If there is an enlargement by ultrasound or clinical symptoms, FNA should be performed promptly. Patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) deserve additional surveillance, since this condition is associated with both PTC and PTL. In this case, the management with surgery and radioactive iodine ablation therapy was effective for both entities. Patients with thyroid nodules should be properly evaluated with ultrasound and thyroid function tests. If there is an enlargement of the neck, reported by symptoms or ultrasound, it requires further investigation. HT is associated to both PTC and PTL so if the enlargement of the nodules is on this context additional tests such as FNA should be performed. In this case, the patient was managed with surgery and radioactive iodine ablation therapy and it was effective for both entities. PMID:27569894

  11. Management of Suspicious Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma in Gastric Biopsy Specimens Obtained during Screening Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It is often difficult to differentiate gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma from Helicobacter pylori-associated follicular gastritis, and thus, it becomes unclear how to manage these diseases. This study aimed to explore the management strategy for and the long-term outcomes of suspicious gastric MALT lymphoma detected by forceps biopsy during screening upper endoscopy. Between October 2003 and May 2013, consecutive subjects who were diagnosed with suspicious gastric MALT lymphomas by screening endoscopy in a health checkup program in Korea were retrospectively enrolled. Suspicious MALT lymphoma was defined as a Wotherspoon score of 3 or 4 upon pathological evaluation of the biopsy specimen. Of 105,164 subjects who underwent screening endoscopies, 49 patients with suspicious MALT lymphomas who underwent subsequent endoscopy were enrolled. Eight patients received a subsequent endoscopy without H. pylori eradication (subsequent endoscopy only group), and 41 patients received H. pylori eradication first followed by endoscopy (eradication first group). MALT lymphoma development was significantly lower in the eradication first group (2/41, 4.9%) than in the subsequent endoscopy only group (3/8, 37.5%, P = 0.026). Notably, among 35 patients with successful H. pylori eradication, there was only one MALT lymphoma patient (2.9%) in whom complete remission was achieved, and there was no recurrence during a median 45 months of endoscopic follow-up. H. pylori eradication with subsequent endoscopy would be a practical management option for suspicious MALT lymphoma detected in a forceps biopsy specimen obtained during screening upper endoscopy. PMID:27366005

  12. Management of Suspicious Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma in Gastric Biopsy Specimens Obtained during Screening Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyo-Joon; Lim, Seon Hee; Lee, Changhyun; Choi, Ji Min; Yang, Jong In; Chung, Su Jin; Choi, Seung Ho; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Sang Gyun; Kim, Joo Sung

    2016-07-01

    It is often difficult to differentiate gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma from Helicobacter pylori-associated follicular gastritis, and thus, it becomes unclear how to manage these diseases. This study aimed to explore the management strategy for and the long-term outcomes of suspicious gastric MALT lymphoma detected by forceps biopsy during screening upper endoscopy. Between October 2003 and May 2013, consecutive subjects who were diagnosed with suspicious gastric MALT lymphomas by screening endoscopy in a health checkup program in Korea were retrospectively enrolled. Suspicious MALT lymphoma was defined as a Wotherspoon score of 3 or 4 upon pathological evaluation of the biopsy specimen. Of 105,164 subjects who underwent screening endoscopies, 49 patients with suspicious MALT lymphomas who underwent subsequent endoscopy were enrolled. Eight patients received a subsequent endoscopy without H. pylori eradication (subsequent endoscopy only group), and 41 patients received H. pylori eradication first followed by endoscopy (eradication first group). MALT lymphoma development was significantly lower in the eradication first group (2/41, 4.9%) than in the subsequent endoscopy only group (3/8, 37.5%, P = 0.026). Notably, among 35 patients with successful H. pylori eradication, there was only one MALT lymphoma patient (2.9%) in whom complete remission was achieved, and there was no recurrence during a median 45 months of endoscopic follow-up. H. pylori eradication with subsequent endoscopy would be a practical management option for suspicious MALT lymphoma detected in a forceps biopsy specimen obtained during screening upper endoscopy. PMID:27366005

  13. Radiation therapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: dose-volumetric analysis and its clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Tae Hyun; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Lee, Jong Yeul; Cho, Soo Jeong; Eom, Hyeon Seok; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Dae Yong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the clinical outcomes of radiotherapy (RT) using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) for patients with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma to evaluate the effectiveness of involved field RT with moderate-dose and to evaluate the benefit of 3D-CRT comparing with 2D-RT. Materials and Methods Between July 2003 and March 2015, 33 patients with stage IE and IIE gastric MALT lymphoma received RT were analyzed. Of 33 patients, 17 patients (51.5%) were Helicobacter pylori (HP) negative and 16 patients (48.5%) were HP positive but refractory to HP eradication (HPE). The 2D-RT (n = 14) and 3D-CRT (n = 19) were performed and total dose was 30.6 Gy/17 fractions. Of 11 patients who RT planning data were available, dose-volumetric parameters between 2D-RT and 3D-CRT plans was compared. Results All patients reached complete remission (CR) eventually and median time to CR was 3 months (range, 1 to 15 months). No local relapse occurred and one patient died with second primary malignancy. Tumor response, survival, and toxicity were not significantly different between 2D-RT and 3D-CRT (p > 0.05, each). In analysis for dose-volumetric parameters, Dmax and CI for PTV were significantly lower in 3D-CRT plans than 2D-RT plans (p < 0.05, each) and Dmean and V15 for right kidney and Dmean for left kidney were significantly lower in 3D-CRT than 2D-RT (p < 0.05, each). Conclusion Our data suggested that involved field RT with moderate-dose for gastric MALT lymphoma could be promising and 3D-CRT could be considered to improve the target coverage and reduce radiation dose to the both kidneys. PMID:27730803

  14. Confirmation of immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangement by polymerase chain reaction using surgically obtained, paraffin-embedded samples to diagnose primary palate mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Shigehiro; Yokomizo, Naoko; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Kouhei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intraoral mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a rare lymphoma that has a good prognosis if diagnosed correctly and treated in time. Presentation of case A 64-year-old woman was referred to our department with asymptomatic swelling of the left hard palate. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the left hard palate. We performed a pre-surgery biopsy; however, it was difficult to differentiate MALT lymphoma from other reactive lymphoproliferative disorders via gross or microscopic examination. Although the lesion was completely excised, histological findings did not allow a definitive diagnosis due to an absence of visible monoclonality. We then performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical samples. Capillary electrophoresis showed monoclonal peaks of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement, thus facilitating a definitive diagnosis of MALT lymphoma. Discussion PCR technique is rapid, accurate, and enables a definitive diagnosis without relying on traditional histological or molecular diagnostic techniques, such as Southern blotting. Conclusion We suggest that, if histological examination is ambiguous or fresh material is insufficient, PCR can be performed using paraffin-embedded materials to definitively diagnose low-grade lymphomas, such as MALT lymphoma. PMID:25841155

  15. Primary B-Cell Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Hard Palate and Parotid Gland: Report of One Case and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yonal-Hindilerden, Ipek; Hindilerden, Fehmi; Arslan, Serkan; Turan-Guzel, Nalan; Dogan, Ibrahim Oner; Nalcaci, Meliha

    2016-01-01

    A 61-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with an ulcerated palate mass and swelling of the right parotid gland. Incisional biopsy from the hard palate revealed an extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, also called mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Final diagnosis was MALT lymphoma of the parotid gland with concomitant involvement of an extremely seldom site of involvement: the hard palate. To our knowledge, this report illustrates the first case of MALT lymphoma of the hard palate and parotid gland without an underlying autoimmune disease. Rituximab-based combination regimen (R-CHOP) provided complete remission with total regression of mass lesions at the hard palate and parotid gland. At 44-month follow-up, there is no disease relapse. We adressed the manifestations and management of MALT lymphoma patients with involvement of salivary gland and oral cavity. PMID:27738485

  16. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma transformed from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma arising in a female urethra treated with rituximab for the first time.

    PubMed

    Zahrani, A Al; Abdelsalam, M; Fiaar, A Al; Ibrahim, N; Al-Elawi, A; Muhammad, B

    2012-05-01

    A 30-year-old female patient presented to the gynecology clinic with a small (painless) swelling at the urethral orifice. She underwent surgical excision of the lesion. Pathological examination revealed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of diffuse large B-cell type and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type, stage IE. The patient refused radiotherapy. Accordingly, we started CHOP-R chemotherapy. She received a total of 6 cycles of CHOP and 8 cycles of rituximab. Patient follow-up was done 3 months later through CT scan and cytoscopy confirming the complete remission. The patient has been disease-free for 4 years. We reviewed 26 cases of this rare entity reported previously. PMID:22679430

  17. Plasmablastic lymphoma following combination treatment with fludarabine and rituximab for nongastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jia-Zhu; Min, Ke; Fan, Lei; Wang, Li; Xu, Ji; Li, Jian-Yong; Xu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an uncommon malignancy which predominantly occurs in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. Sporadic cases have been published describing PBL in immunocompetent patients as well as in immunodeficient patients following immunosuppressive therapy or transplantation. We hereby reported a case of PBL in a 69-year-old, HIV-negative male subjected to combination treatment with fludarabine and rituximab for nongastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The diagnosis of PBL was made with tumor cells of immunoblasts or plasmablasts morphology strongly positive for MUM-1, EMA and CD138, and partly positive for CD38, and negative for CD20, BCL-6, and CD56, and approximately 80% of which were positive for Ki-67. The case presented PBL after MALT, and a history of chemotherapy including fludarabine and rituximab led to the potential immunocompromised state. The patient died 5 months after the diagnosis of PBL. PMID:25120825

  18. Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and Helicobacter pylori infection: a review of current diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinglong; Zhang, Yizhuo; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Fu, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-associated gastritis is one of the most common infectious diseases in the United States, China and worldwide. Gastric mucosa-associated tissue lymphoma (MALT lymphoma) is a rare mature B-cell neoplasm associated with H. pylori infection that is curable by antibiotics therapy alone. The pathological diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma can be reached by histological examination, immunohistochemical staining and B-cell clonality analysis. H. pylori eradication is the choice of therapy for early-stage gastric MALT lymphoma. High response rates and long-term survival have been reported in refractory and localized diseases treated with low-dose radiation therapy. Systemic chemotherapy is recommended for advanced-stage gastric MALT lymphoma and cases with large B-cell lymphoma transformation. Recent advances in the pathological diagnosis and management of gastric MALT lymphoma are reviewed in this article. PMID:27468353

  19. Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue of the Salivary Glands: A Multicenter, International Experience of 248 Patients (IELSG 41)

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Amie E.; Mian, Michael; Kalpadakis, Christina; Pangalis, Gerassimos A.; Stathis, Anastasios; Porro, Elena; Conconi, Annarita; Cortelazzo, Sergio; Gaidano, Gianluca; Lopez, Armando; Guillermo; Johnson, Peter W.; Martelli, Maurizio; Martinelli, Giovanni; Thieblemont, Catherine; McPhail, Ellen D.; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Pileri, Stefano A.; Jack, Andrew; Campo, Elias; Mazzucchelli, Luca; Ristow, Kay; Habermann, Thomas M.; Cavalli, Franco; Zucca, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Background. The salivary gland is one of the most common sites involved by nongastric, extranodal marginal zone lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). A large series of patients with long-term follow-up has not been documented. This multicenter, international study sought to characterize the clinical characteristics, treatment, and natural history of salivary gland MALT lymphoma. Methods. Patients with biopsy-confirmed salivary gland MALT lymphoma were identified from multiple international sites. Risk factors, treatment, and long-term outcomes were evaluated. Results. A total of 247 patients were evaluated; 76% presented with limited-stage disease. There was a history of autoimmune disorder in 41%, with Sjögren disease being the most common (83%). Fifty-seven percent of patients were initially treated with local therapy with surgery, radiation, or both; 37 of patients were treated with systemic therapy initially, with 47% of those receiving rituximab; and 6% of patients were observed. The median overall survival (OS) was 18.3 years. The median progression-free survival (PFS) following primary therapy was 9.3 years. There was no difference in the outcomes between patients receiving local or systemic therapy in first-line management. On multivariate analysis, age <60 years and low to intermediate international prognostic index were associated with improved OS and PFS; Sjögren disease was associated with improved OS. Conclusion. Salivary gland MALT lymphoma has an excellent prognosis regardless of initial treatment, and patients with Sjögren disease have improved survival. Risks for long-term complications must be weighed when determining initial therapy. Implications for Practice: Patients with salivary gland extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) have an excellent prognosis, particularly those with associated Sjögren's disease. A wide range of available therapies may provide similar durable rates of disease

  20. Experimental Helicobacter pylori infection induces antral gastritis and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Shomer, N H; Dangler, C A; Whary, M T; Fox, J G

    1998-06-01

    Humans infected with Helicobacter pylori have abnormally low levels of the antioxidant vitamin C, which protects against the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines, in gastric juice. Guinea pigs, like humans and nonhuman primates, have a dietary requirement for vitamin C. As such, these species have gastrointestinal vitamin C transport systems not found in other animals. We have developed and characterized a guinea pig model of chronic gastric H. pylori infection with the rodent-adapted Sydney strain of H. pylori. At 4 weeks postinfection, five of six animals of the infected group and zero of two animals of the control group were positive for H. pylori as determined by culture or PCR. At 15 weeks, six of six animals of the infected group and zero of two animals of the control group were positive. H. pylori-specific seroconversion was observed among infected animals. There were no histologic abnormalities in the gastric antra or fundi of control guinea pigs. In contrast, there was multifocal, mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic antral gastritis and formation of antral lymphoid follicles in H. pylori-infected animals. The lesion distribution in the gastric antra paralleled that observed in H. pylori-infected humans. The H. pylori-infected guinea pig should prove useful in modeling the interaction of helicobacter and vitamin C in gastric carcinogenesis.

  1. Early, Isolated Duodenal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Presenting without Symptoms or Grossly Apparent Endoscopic Lesions and Diagnosed by Random Duodenal Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Makki, Issa; Khanal, Pradeep; Amin, Mitual B; Blenc, Ann Marie; Desai, Tusar; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2016-01-01

    Clinical data regarding mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma) solely involving the duodenum are sparse because of the relative rarity of the disease. A comprehensive literature review revealed only 17 cases reported until 2004, and only a moderate number of cases have been reported since. MALToma can be asymptomatic in its very early stages but frequently produces localized or nonspecific symptoms, including early satiety, abdominal pain, vomiting, and involuntary weight loss in later stages. While gastric MALToma is strongly associated with gastric Helicobactor pylori infection, duodenal MALToma is often unassociated with H. pylori infection. A 74-year-old female presented with only dysphagia (without symptoms referable to a duodenal lesion), without systemic 'B' symptoms, and with no evident duodenal lesions at esophagogastroduodenoscopy; however, she was diagnosed with duodenal MALToma by pathologic examination of random duodenal biopsies performed to exclude celiac disease. An important clinical feature of this case is that duodenal MALToma was diagnosed by pathologic analysis of duodenal biopsies despite (1) no endoscopically apparent duodenal lesions; (2) duodenal involvement without gastric involvement; (3) lack of symptoms attributable to duodenal MALToma, and (4) absence of evident H. pylori infection. This work shows that early duodenal MALToma can be difficult to diagnose because of absent symptoms, absence of gastric involvement, absence of endoscopic abnormalities, and absence of H. pylori infection; it may require random duodenal biopsies for diagnosis. PMID:27482191

  2. A Multicenter Phase II Study of Local Radiation Therapy for Stage IEA Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas: A Preliminary Report From the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG)

    SciTech Connect

    Isobe, Koichi Kagami, Yoshikazu; Higuchi, Keiko; Kodaira, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Shikama, Naoto; Nakazawa, Masanori; Fukuda, Ichiro; Nihei, Keiji; Ito, Kana; Teshima, Teruki; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Oguchi, Masahiko

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of moderate dose radiation therapy (RT) for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in a prospective multicenter phase II trial. Methods and Materials: The subjects in this study were 37 patients with MALT lymphoma between April 2002 and November 2004. There were 16 male and 21 female patients, ranging in age from 24 to 82 years, with a median of 56 years. The primary tumor originated in the orbit in 24 patients, in the thyroid and salivary gland in 4 patients each, and 5 in the others. The median tumor dose was 30.6 Gy (range, 30.6-39.6 Gy), depending on the primary site and maximal tumor diameter. The median follow-up was 37.3 months. Results: Complete remission (CR) or CR/unconfirmed was achieved in 34 patients (92%). The 3-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local control probability were 100%, 91.9%, and 97.3%, respectively. Thirteen patients experienced Grade 1 acute toxicities including dermatitis, mucositis, and conjunctivitis. One patient developed Grade 2 taste loss. Regarding late toxicities, Grade 2 reactions including hypothyroidism, and radiation pneumonitis were observed in three patients, and Grade 3 cataract was seen in three patients. Conclusions: This prospective phase II study demonstrated that moderate dose RT was highly effective in achieving local control with acceptable morbidity in 37 patients with MALT lymphoma.

  3. Early, Isolated Duodenal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Presenting without Symptoms or Grossly Apparent Endoscopic Lesions and Diagnosed by Random Duodenal Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Makki, Issa; Khanal, Pradeep; Amin, Mitual B.; Blenc, Ann Marie; Desai, Tusar; Cappell, Mitchell S.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical data regarding mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma) solely involving the duodenum are sparse because of the relative rarity of the disease. A comprehensive literature review revealed only 17 cases reported until 2004, and only a moderate number of cases have been reported since. MALToma can be asymptomatic in its very early stages but frequently produces localized or nonspecific symptoms, including early satiety, abdominal pain, vomiting, and involuntary weight loss in later stages. While gastric MALToma is strongly associated with gastric Helicobactor pylori infection, duodenal MALToma is often unassociated with H. pylori infection. A 74-year-old female presented with only dysphagia (without symptoms referable to a duodenal lesion), without systemic ‘B’ symptoms, and with no evident duodenal lesions at esophagogastroduodenoscopy; however, she was diagnosed with duodenal MALToma by pathologic examination of random duodenal biopsies performed to exclude celiac disease. An important clinical feature of this case is that duodenal MALToma was diagnosed by pathologic analysis of duodenal biopsies despite (1) no endoscopically apparent duodenal lesions; (2) duodenal involvement without gastric involvement; (3) lack of symptoms attributable to duodenal MALToma, and (4) absence of evident H. pylori infection. This work shows that early duodenal MALToma can be difficult to diagnose because of absent symptoms, absence of gastric involvement, absence of endoscopic abnormalities, and absence of H. pylori infection; it may require random duodenal biopsies for diagnosis. PMID:27482191

  4. A case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract showing extensive plasma cell differentiation with prominent Russell bodies

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Keita; Miyahara, Masaharu; Tokuda, Yasunori; Kido, Shinich; Masuda, Masanori; Takase, Yukari; Tokunaga, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    A 73-year-old Japanese woman was hospitalized for detailed examination of nausea, diarrhea and loss of appetite. Atypical erosion in the ileum was found on endoscopy. Biopsy of this erosion showed proliferation of cells containing numerous Russell bodies. Differential diagnoses considered were Russell body enteritis, crystal-storing histiocytosis, Mott cell tumor, immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (IPSID) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The cells containing prominent Russell bodies showed diffuse positivity for CD79a and CD138, but negative results for CD20, CD3, UCHL-1, CD38 and CD68. Russell bodies were diffusely positive for lambda light chain, but negative for kappa light chain, and immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA and IgM. Based on these findings, Russell body enteritis, crystal-storing histiocytosis and IPSID were ruled out. As the tumor formed no mass lesions and was restricted to the gastrointestinal tract, MALT lymphoma with extensive plasma cell differentiation was finally diagnosed. The patient showed an unexpectedly aggressive clinical course. The number of atypical lymphocytes in peripheral blood gradually increased and T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) emerged. The patient died of T-PLL 7 mo after admission. Autopsy was not permitted. PMID:24303496

  5. Helicobacter pylori Eradication Therapy Is Effective as the Initial Treatment for Patients with H. pylori-Negative and Disseminated Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Park, Hyungchul; Ko, Young Bo; Na, Hee Kyong; Jung, Kee Wook; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims We investigated the effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma regardless of the H. pylori infection status or disease stage. Methods From November 1995 to September 2014, 345 subjects who were diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma and had received eradication therapy as their first-line treatment were eligible for inclusion in this study. A retrospective review was performed using the medical records. Results Of the 345 patients, H. pylori infection was detected in 317 patients (91.9%). The complete remission (CR) rate after eradication therapy was 82.3%, which was higher in H. pylori-positive patients than in H. pylori-negative patients (84.5% vs 57.1%, p=0.001). CR rates after eradication did not present significant differences between stages, and the CR rate was 83.3% for stage IE1 and 74.4% for stage IE2 or above (p=0.167). The overall CR rate was 87.2% after additional treatment, and neither H. pylori infection status nor stage showed differences according to the treatment response. Conclusions Eradication therapy led to CR in 57.1% of H. pylori-negative patients and in 74.4% of patients with stage IE2 or above. Eradication therapy is worthwhile as an initial treatment for gastric MALT lymphoma regardless of the H. pylori infection status and stage. PMID:27114423

  6. Localized Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiation Therapy: A Long-Term Outcome in 86 Patients With 104 Treated Eyes

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Ken; Murakami, Naoya; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Yoshio, Kotaro; Inaba, Koji; Morota, Madoka; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako; Suzuki, Shigenobu; Tobinai, Kensei; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the natural history, behavior of progression, prognostic factors, and treatment-related adverse effects of primary ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (POAML). Methods and Materials: Eighty-six patients with histologically proven stage I POAML treated with radiation therapy at National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo between 1990 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The median age was 56 years (range, 18-85 years). The median dose administered was 30 Gy (range, 30-46 Gy). Seventy-seven patients (90%) were treated by radiation therapy alone. Results: The median follow-up duration was 9 years (range, 0.9-22 years). The 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 97.6% and 93.5%, respectively, and no patients died of lymphoma. Patients with tumor sizes ≥4 cm showed a greater risk of contralateral relapse (P=.012). Six patients with contralateral relapse were seen and treated by radiation therapy alone, and all the lesions were controlled well, with follow-up times of 3 to 12 years. There was 1 case of local relapse after radiation therapy alone, and 3 cases of relapse occurred in a distant site. Cataracts developed in 36 of the 65 eyes treated without lens shielding and in 12 of the 39 patients with lens shielding (P=.037). Conclusions: The majority of patients with POAML showed behavior consistent with that of localized, indolent diseases. Thirty gray of local irradiation seems to be quite effective. The initial bilateral involvement and contralateral orbital relapses can be also controlled with radiation therapy alone. Lens shielding reduces the risk of cataract.

  7. Long-Term Outcome and Patterns of Failure in Primary Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Naoki; Sasaki, Ryohei; Nishimura, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenji; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Nakayama, Masao; Uehara, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Ejima, Yasuo; Azumi, Atsushi; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term treatment outcome and disease behavior of primary ocular adnexal MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma (POAML) after treatment with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients (42 male, 36 female) diagnosed with stage I POAML between 1991 and 2010 at Kobe University Hospital were included. The median age was 60 years (range, 22-85 years). The median radiation dose administered was 30.6 Gy. Rituximab-based targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy was performed in 20 patients (25.6%). Local control (LC), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up duration was 66 months. Major tumor sites were conjunctiva in 37 patients (47.4%), orbita in 29 (37.2%), and lacrimal glands in 12 (15.4%). The 5- and 10-year OS rates were 98.1% and 95.3%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year LC rates were both 100%, and the 5- and 10-year RFS rates were 88.5% and 75.9%, respectively. Patients treated with a combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy had a trend for a better RFS compared with those treated with radiotherapy alone (p = 0.114). None developed greater than Grade 2 acute morbidity. There were 14 patients who experienced Grade 2 morbidities (cataract: 14; retinal disorders: 7; dry eye: 3), 23 patients who had Grade 3 morbidities (cataract: 23; dry eye: 1), and 1 patient who had Grade 4 glaucoma. Conclusions: Radiotherapy for POAML was shown to be highly effective and safe for LC and OS on the basis of long-term observation. The absence of systemic relapse in patients with combined-modality treatment suggests that lower doses of radiation combined with targeted therapy may be worth further study.

  8. Radiation Therapy Administration and Survival in Stage I/II Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, Adam J. Desai, Amrita

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the factors associated with the use of radiation therapy and associated survival outcomes in early-stage marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Methods and Materials: We extracted data on adult patients with stage I/II MALT lymphoma diagnoses between 1998 and 2010 recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. We studied factors associated with radiation therapy administration in a logistic regression model and described the cumulative incidence of lymphoma-related death (LRD) according to receipt of the treatment. The association of radiation therapy with survival was explored in multivariate models with adjustment for immortal time bias. Results: Of the 7774 identified patients, 36% received radiation therapy as part of the initial course of treatment. Older patients; black or Hispanic men; white, Hispanic, and black women; and socioeconomically disadvantaged and underinsured patients had a significantly lower chance of receiving radiation therapy. Radiation therapy administration was associated with a lower chance of LRD in most sites. In cutaneous, ocular, and salivary MALT lymphomas, the 5-year estimate of LRD after radiation therapy was 0%. The association of radiation therapy with overall survival in different lymphoma sites was heterogeneous, and statistically significant in cutaneous (hazard ratio 0.45, P=.009) and ocular (hazard ratio 0.47, P<.0001) locations after multivariate adjustment. Conclusions: Demographic factors are associated with the use of radiation therapy in MALT lymphoma. Clinicians should be sensitive to those disparities because the administration of radiation therapy may be associated with improved survival, particularly in cutaneous and ocular lymphomas.

  9. Validation of use of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue for immunohistochemical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Keane, Delwyn; Barr, Daniel; Osborn, Rebecca; Langenberg, Julie; O'Rourke, Katherine; Schneider, David; Bochsler, Philip

    2009-05-01

    The examination of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies has been described in sheep, elk, and small numbers of mule and white-tailed deer. Previous sample numbers have been too small to validate examination of this type of tissue as a viable antemortem diagnostic test. In this study, we examined RAMALT collected postmortem from 76 white-tailed deer removed from a farm in Wisconsin known to be affected by chronic wasting disease (CWD) and from 210 free-ranging white-tailed deer harvested from an area in Wisconsin where the overall prevalence of CWD among the deer was approximately 4 to 6%. The results of immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of the RAMALT sections were compared to the results of IHC staining of sections from the brain stem at the convergence of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, sections of the medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLNs), and sections of tonsil (sections of tonsil only from captive animals were tested). The sensitivities of the IHC staining test with RAMALT sections were 81% for the captive animals and 91% for the free-ranging animals. False-negative results were usually associated with early infection, indicated by a low intensity of immunostaining in the obex and/or a polymorphism at PRNP codon 96. While the RLN remains the tissue of choice for use for the diagnosis of CWD in white-tailed deer, the results of the present study further support the use of RAMALTs collected antemortem as an adjunct to testing of tonsil biopsy specimens and surveillance by necropsy for the screening of farmed deer which have been put at risk through environmental exposure or exposure to deer with CWD.

  10. Pathological features of lymphoid proliferations of the salivary glands: lymphoepithelial sialadenitis versus low-grade B-cell lymphoma of the malt type.

    PubMed

    Carbone, A; Gloghini, A; Ferlito, A

    2000-12-01

    Lymphoid proliferations of the salivary glands can be either reactive or neoplastic. Reactive lesions include the lymphoepithelial sialadenitis (LESA; also known as myoepithelial sialadenitis [MESA]) of Sjogren's syndrome. Lymphomas of the salivary glands are predominantly B-cell type and include extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type. The spectrum of histopathologic features of LESA/MESA includes 1) "fully benign lymphoid infiltrate," with or without an associated lymphoid follicular structure, without immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain restriction in B-cells, and without any features of aggressive behavior, and 2) "lymphoproliferative lesions," with or without areas of Ig light chain restriction in B-cells, with the usual presence of centrocyte-like cells. A more or less pronounced lymphoepithelial aggressiveness may be present without definite evidence of malignancy. B-cell clones are detected in over 50% of cases of LESA/MESA by molecular genetic methods, but this does not correlate with morphological or clinical evidence of overt lymphoma. On the other hand, "marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the MALT type" of the salivary glands produces a dense lymphoid infiltrate diffusely involving the gland, with obliteration of acini. The centrocyte-like cells form broad "halos" around the epithelial cell nests and broad strands between lymphoepithelial lesions, often linking together several lymphoepithelial lesions. Further, lymphoma cells express monotypic surface Ig, and in the majority of the cases, the plasma cells are also monoclonal. In conclusion, the diagnosis of LESA/MESA versus marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the MALT type still relies on the evaluation of morphological features. It seems that molecular genetic analysis has little or no practical role in the clinical diagnosis of salivary gland lymphoma in a setting of LESA/MESA and Sjögren's syndrome.

  11. Coincidence of different structures of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in the respiratory tract of children: no indications for enhanced mucosal immunostimulation in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

    PubMed Central

    Debertin, A S; Tschernig, T; Schürmann, A; Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B; Pabst, R

    2006-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is the principal inductive site for mucosal immune responses that are capable of T and B cell responses and antigen-specific responses. In previous independent studies different structures of MALT, e.g. bronchus-, larynx- and nose-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT, LALT, NALT) have been described separately in various frequencies in the human respiratory tract over life spans. Because upper respiratory tract infections are common in infants, dysregulations of mucosal immune responses might be seriously involved in the aetiology of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In the present study the coincidental occurrence of the three different MALT structures in the respiratory tract within the same patients were studied, and cases of SIDS and children who had died from different traumatic and natural causes of death (non-SIDS) were compared. First, the frequency of BALT and LALT in 46 children (35 SIDS, 11 non-SIDS) with or without NALT were examined. A tendency was found of a coincidence of respiratory MALT structures. In 50 additional cases of infant death (30 SIDS, 20 non-SIDS) from the multi-centric German Study on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (GeSID) where death had occurred in the first year of life, the coincidence was evaluated. A coincidental occurrence of BALT, LALT and NALT or BALT and LALT (each about 30%) was found in both groups, whereby the coincidence in SIDS and the control patients did not differ. Interestingly, the children with coincidental MALT were strikingly older, supporting the hypothesis of respiratory MALT formation via environmental stimulation over time. PMID:16968398

  12. Genetic errors of the human caspase recruitment domain-B-cell lymphoma 10-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (CBM) complex: Molecular, immunologic, and clinical heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Pérez de Diego, Rebeca; Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia; López-Collazo, Eduardo; Martínez-Barricarte, Rubén; Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Ferreira Cerdán, Antonio; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Three members of the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) family of adaptors (CARD9, CARD10, and CARD11) are known to form heterotrimers with B-cell lymphoma 10 (BCL10) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (MALT1). These 3 CARD-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) complexes activate nuclear factor κB in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. Human inherited defects of the 3 components of the CBM complex, including the 2 adaptors CARD9 and CARD11 and the 2 core components BCL10 and MALT1, have recently been reported. Biallelic loss-of-function mutant alleles underlie several different immunologic and clinical phenotypes, which can be assigned to 2 distinct categories. Isolated invasive fungal infections of unclear cellular basis are associated with CARD9 deficiency, whereas a broad range of clinical manifestations, including those characteristic of T- and B-lymphocyte defects, are associated with CARD11, MALT1, and BCL10 deficiencies. Interestingly, human subjects with these mutations have some features in common with the corresponding knockout mice, but other features are different between human subjects and mice. Moreover, germline and somatic gain-of-function mutations of MALT1, BCL10, and CARD11 have also been found in patients with other lymphoproliferative disorders. This broad range of germline and somatic CBM lesions, including loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations, highlights the contribution of each of the components of the CBM complex to human immunity.

  13. Seeded Amplification of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Nasal Brushings and Recto-anal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissues from Elk by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion.

    PubMed

    Haley, Nicholas J; Siepker, Chris; Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Mitchell, Gordon; Walter, W David; Manca, Matteo; Monello, Ryan J; Powers, Jenny G; Wild, Margaret A; Hoover, Edward A; Caughey, Byron; Richt, Jürgen A

    2016-04-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since been detected across North America and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction or prevalence studies of large or protected herds, where depopulation may be contraindicated. This study evaluated the sensitivity of the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay of recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens and nasal brushings collected antemortem. These findings were compared to results of immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of ante- and postmortem samples. RAMALT samples were collected from populations of farmed and free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni;n= 323), and nasal brush samples were collected from a subpopulation of these animals (n= 205). We hypothesized that the sensitivity of RT-QuIC would be comparable to that of IHC analysis of RAMALT and would correspond to that of IHC analysis of postmortem tissues. We found RAMALT sensitivity (77.3%) to be highly correlative between RT-QuIC and IHC analysis. Sensitivity was lower when testing nasal brushings (34%), though both RAMALT and nasal brush test sensitivities were dependent on both thePRNPgenotype and disease progression determined by the obex score. These data suggest that RT-QuIC, like IHC analysis, is a relatively sensitive assay for detection of CWD prions in RAMALT biopsy specimens and, with further investigation, has potential for large-scale and rapid automated testing of antemortem samples for CWD. PMID:26888899

  14. Seeded Amplification of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Nasal Brushings and Recto-anal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissues from Elk by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Siepker, Chris; Hoon-Hanks, Laura L.; Mitchell, Gordon; Walter, W. David; Manca, Matteo; Monello, Ryan J.; Powers, Jenny G.; Wild, Margaret A.; Hoover, Edward A.; Caughey, Byron; Richt, Jürgen A.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since been detected across North America and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction or prevalence studies of large or protected herds, where depopulation may be contraindicated. This study evaluated the sensitivity of the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay of recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens and nasal brushings collected antemortem. These findings were compared to results of immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of ante- and postmortem samples. RAMALT samples were collected from populations of farmed and free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni; n = 323), and nasal brush samples were collected from a subpopulation of these animals (n = 205). We hypothesized that the sensitivity of RT-QuIC would be comparable to that of IHC analysis of RAMALT and would correspond to that of IHC analysis of postmortem tissues. We found RAMALT sensitivity (77.3%) to be highly correlative between RT-QuIC and IHC analysis. Sensitivity was lower when testing nasal brushings (34%), though both RAMALT and nasal brush test sensitivities were dependent on both the PRNP genotype and disease progression determined by the obex score. These data suggest that RT-QuIC, like IHC analysis, is a relatively sensitive assay for detection of CWD prions in RAMALT biopsy specimens and, with further investigation, has potential for large-scale and rapid automated testing of antemortem samples for CWD. PMID:26888899

  15. Seeded Amplification of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Nasal Brushings and Recto-anal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissues from Elk by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion.

    PubMed

    Haley, Nicholas J; Siepker, Chris; Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Mitchell, Gordon; Walter, W David; Manca, Matteo; Monello, Ryan J; Powers, Jenny G; Wild, Margaret A; Hoover, Edward A; Caughey, Byron; Richt, Jürgen A

    2016-04-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since been detected across North America and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction or prevalence studies of large or protected herds, where depopulation may be contraindicated. This study evaluated the sensitivity of the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay of recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens and nasal brushings collected antemortem. These findings were compared to results of immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of ante- and postmortem samples. RAMALT samples were collected from populations of farmed and free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni;n= 323), and nasal brush samples were collected from a subpopulation of these animals (n= 205). We hypothesized that the sensitivity of RT-QuIC would be comparable to that of IHC analysis of RAMALT and would correspond to that of IHC analysis of postmortem tissues. We found RAMALT sensitivity (77.3%) to be highly correlative between RT-QuIC and IHC analysis. Sensitivity was lower when testing nasal brushings (34%), though both RAMALT and nasal brush test sensitivities were dependent on both thePRNPgenotype and disease progression determined by the obex score. These data suggest that RT-QuIC, like IHC analysis, is a relatively sensitive assay for detection of CWD prions in RAMALT biopsy specimens and, with further investigation, has potential for large-scale and rapid automated testing of antemortem samples for CWD.

  16. A case of Helicobactor pylori negative low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma in an elderly female, successfully treated with rituximab

    PubMed Central

    Mainali, Naba Raj; Aryal, Madan Raj; Khal, Ravi Shahu; Alweis, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Female, 91 Final Diagnosis: Low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma Symptoms: Recurrent epigastric and right upper quadrant dyscomfort Medication: Rituximab Clinical Procedure: esophagogastroduodenoscopy • gastric biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma can occur in any extranodal organ or tissue, stomach being the common site. Most of the gastric MALT lymphomas are related to chronic H. pylori infection. H. pylori negative gastric MALT lymphoma is relatively uncommon and usually treated with a short course of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery. Case Report: Herein, we present a case of an elderly female with H. pylori negative, low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma that was successfully treated with a short course of rituximab. Conclusions: This case report emphasizes that rituximab monotherapy can be an effective treatment for H. pylori negative low grade gastric MALT lymphoma especially in an elderly patient where surgery or radiotherapy may not be appropriate. PMID:24250832

  17. Lymphoid infiltrates of the salivary glands: pathology, biology and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    DiGiuseppe, J A; Corio, R L; Westra, W H

    1996-05-01

    Lymphoid infiltrates of the salivary glands are common to a variety of pathologic conditions including autoimmune disorders, malignant lymphomas, and immunoregulatory responses to parenchymal neoplasms. Clearly, the correct identification of these salivary gland lymphoid infiltrates has important implications regarding patient prognosis and management. Immunophenotypic and molecular analyses have demonstrated that many lesions formerly regarded as myoepithelial sialadentis or benign lymphoepithelial lesion in fact represent neoplastic lymphoid proliferations with the potential for extrasalivary dissemination. In the most recent classification scheme of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, these neoplasms fall within the spectrum of low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. In the early stages of HIV infection, patients may develop salivary gland enlargement resulting from cystic lymphoepithelial lesions. These lesions are thought to reflect a localized manifestation of persistent generalized lymphadenopathy. Although HIV-associated salivary gland disease is regarded as a benign condition, malignant lymphoma has been described in association with some of these lesions, and further work is required to define more precisely the risk of salivary gland lymphoma in HIV-infected patients. Tumor-associated lymphoid proliferation refers to a prominent lymphoid reaction accompanying certain epithelial tumors of the salivary glands. Although tumor-associated lymphoid proliferation has not received as much attention as other types of salivary lymphoid infiltrates, it is a common phenomenon that is sometimes mistaken for an intraparotid lymph node harboring metastatic carcinoma.

  18. [A case of pulmonary low-grade B cell lymphoma (MALT type) presenting seven years after gastric lymphoma resection].

    PubMed

    Tojima, Hirokazu; Shimura, Ryuhi; Nishiwaki, Tetsu; Kawabata, Yoshinori

    2003-02-01

    A 71-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of systemic edema and exertional dyspnea. Chest radiographs revealed infiltrative shadows in both lung fields, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion. Seven years before, he had undergone gastric surgery for a gastric ulcer with lymphoid hyperplasia. In the pathologic diagnosis based on the percutaneous lung biopsy, hyalinizing granuloma was suspected. For a more thorough diagnosis, the patient was subjected to an open lung biopsy, and the final diagnosis was low-grade B-cell lymphoma of the MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) type. Gallium scintigraphy showed accentuated accumulation in the left neck and hypothyroidism was present. Histologic re-examination of the resected stomach revealed infiltration of centrocyte-like cells and lymphoepithelial lesions, compatible with the pathologic features of MALT lymphoma. We considered that the gastric neoplasm and the pulmonary, pleural, and thyroid tumors of MALT lymphoma had occurred seven years apart in this case. Thyroid hormone replacement and CHOP therapy improved the symptoms and decreased the lung tumor size by 73%. MALT lymphomas tend to remain localized for a long period. The multiorgan involvement seen in this case is rather rare. PMID:12722333

  19. [Low grade sinonasal adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Sayilgan, Ayşe Tülay; Kamali, Gülçin; Ozcan, Deniz; Emre, Funda; Hatıpoğlu, Ayşe

    2012-01-01

    Sinonasal adenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm which is classified as 'intestinal' or 'nonintestinal' type, depending on its resemblance to gastrointestinal mucosa. These tumors are associated with occupational and environmental carcinogens. In this study, a fifty-year-old oil-painter male patient with a low-grade nonintestinal type sinonasal adenocarcinoma originating from the left middle concha and ethmoid sinus is presented. Microscopical examination revealed many infiltrative glandular structures, most of which were cystically dilated and some of which were smaller in diameter, arranged back to back in loose fibrous stroma as well as intraglandular papillary and micropapillary structures forming complex branches or a cribriform pattern. The glands were lined by epithelial cells that were faintly eosinophilic and relatively abundant cubical/ cylinderical cytoplasms and mildly pleomorphic round/oval nuclei, with rare mitotic figures. Intraluminal and focally intracytoplasmic mucin was demonstrated with Alcian Blue, mucicarmin and PAS stains. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were strongly and diffusely positive with CK7; focally and weakly positive with CK20 and negative with CDX2 in accordance with the nonintestinal type. S-100, Actin and p63, applied for investigating the myoepithelial and salivary glandular origins, were all negative. Prognostic markers, TTF-1 and p53 were negative; while the Ki-67 index was 2%. The fact that intestinal type sinonasal adenocarcinomas are generally high grade, while nonintestinal tumors are histologically low grade makes this morphological and immunohistochemical-based classification valuable in predicting the prognosis of the disease. In addition to the morphological and immunohistochemical findings, clinical information stands out in the differentiation of the tumor from benign or malignant primary lesions or metastatic adenocarcinoma.

  20. B-cell monoclonality, Epstein Barr virus, and t(14;18) in myoepithelial sialadenitis and low-grade B-cell MALT lymphoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Diss, T C; Wotherspoon, A C; Speight, P; Pan, L; Isaacson, P G

    1995-05-01

    Low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type B-cell lymphomas of the salivary gland arise in a background of myoepithelial sialadenitis (MESA), usually in association with Sjögren's syndrome. The distinction between benign MESA and early lymphoma has proved difficult using histological criteria alone and the significance of B-cell monoclonality in this respect is controversial. We have used immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of immunoglobulin heavy-chain VDJ regions to assess clonality in biopsies from 45 patients with lymphoid infiltration of the parotid. Sequential biopsies spanning 3-18 years were available from seven patients, three of whom had developed disseminated nodal B-cell lymphoma. In light of previous studies, each biopsy was additionally analyzed for the presence of t(14;18) and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) DNA using PCR. Monoclonality was detected in 34/45 cases. Comparison of histology with clonality confirmed earlier suggestions that the emergence of an identifiable population of centrocyte-like B cells around ducts or epithelial islands correlated with monoclonality. In six of seven patients with sequential biopsies PCR fragments of identical size were amplified from each biopsy, suggesting that demonstrable monoclonality in "lymphoepithelial" lymphoproliferative lesions of the salivary gland is indicative of lymphoma. No t(14;18) chromosome translocations were identified; EBV sequences were detected in three of 45 cases.

  1. AUY922 effectively targets against activated B cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and low-grade lymphoma cells harboring genetic alteration-associated nuclear factor-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hui-Jen; Shih, Neng-Yao; Kuo, Sung-Hsin; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Lin, Hui-You; Chen, Tsai-Yun; Chang, Kung-Chao; Lin, Sheng-Fung; Chang, Jeffrey S; Chen, Li-Tzong

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent genetic alterations that are frequently observed in some low-grade lymphomas, such as activated B cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type lymphoma (MALT lymphoma) are usually associated with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and confer resistance to therapy. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy and molecular mechanisms of AUY922, a novel Hsp90 inhibitor, in representative cell lines OCI-Ly3 (ABC-DLBCL) and MA-1 (a low-grade lymphoma cell line with t(14;18)/IgH-MALT1translocation) to explore its potential use in the treatment of refractory B-cell lymphoma. Our results showed that AUY922 effectively induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of OCI-Ly3 and MA-1 cells, which were accompanied by down-regulation of the expression levels of NF-κB and Bcl-2 family proteins, as well as molecules of multiple signaling pathways involving cell proliferation, growth and survival. The growth inhibitory effect of AUY922 was further confirmed in a mouse xenograft model. These findings indicate the potential use of AUY922 in B cell lymphomas.

  2. Elevation of serum interleukins 8, 4, and 1β levels in patients with gastrointestinal low-grade B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Miyata-Takata, Tomoko; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Toji, Tomohiro; Goto, Naoe; Kasahara, Senji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Tari, Akira; Noujima-Harada, Mai; Miyata, Takafumi; Sato, Yasuharu; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines that are produced by helper T cells (Th) regulate immune reactions, facilitate class switching of B cells, and prolong the lifespan of B and T cells. Eradication therapy using antibiotics is sometimes effective against gastrointestinal (GI) malignant lymphoma, suggesting that the tumor development or progression is affected by the inflammatory microenvironment. In the present study, serum samples from 148 patients with various subtypes of malignant lymphoma were tested for 11 proinflammatory Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the comparison by subtype or GI lesions, serum interleukin (IL)-8 (P = 6.7E-05), IL-4 (P = 7.5E-05), and IL-1β (P = 0.0043) levels showed significant differences among subtypes, being particularly elevated in follicular lymphomas (FL) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. Serum IL-8 levels were elevated in GI-FL and MALT lymphomas, and serum IL-4 and IL-1 β levels were elevated in MALT lymphomas. These findings show that GI low-grade B-cell lymphoma could develop against the background of an inflammatory microenvironment. Thus, these cytokines may be useful as diagnostic markers and could provide new insights into tumor development. PMID:26674732

  3. [A Clinical Study of a Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma of Salivary Glands].

    PubMed

    Mada, Yusuke; Koshitsuka, Keiichi; Ihara, Fumie; Ueki, Yuji; Konno, Akiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Malignant lymphoma involving the salivary glands is a rare entity that accounts for only 1 to 4% of all salivary gland tumors. We have analyzed the clinical features of MALT lymphoma of the salivary glands in 7 patients whom we have treated in the past 10 years, including data from 43 patients in the literature. The most common symptom was persistent or progressive swelling of the salivary glands without pain or facial palsy. The affected glands were the unilateral parotid in 62%, the unilateral submandibular gland in 6.8%, and the bilateral parotid or submandibular gland in 6.8%. The salivary gland swelling as evaluated by MRI or ultrasonography consisted of a localized solitary tumor in 68.9%, multiple tumors in 10.3%, and diffuse swelling of the gland in 26.1%. In 24 out of 50 patients, MALT lymphoma developed on the basis of Sjögren's syndrome. As for diagnosis, malignant lymphoma was suspected only in 4 cases out of 11 (36.7%) based on the fine needle aspiration cytology. In all patients, a definitive diagnosis was obtained based on histopathological study of the localized tumor or the biopsy specimens. When patients with Sjögren's syndrome have developed persistent swelling of the salivary glands, it is necessary to rule out malignant lymphomas, especially MALT lymphoma, by combination of ultrasonography, MRI, FNA, and biopsy or open surgery depending on image findings. The treatment of MALT lymphoma has not yet been standardized because MALT lymphoma is a rare entity. The choice of initial treatment is important because it is related to its prognosis. If MALT lymphoma remains in a local site, we should undertake an operation or radiotherapy. If MALT lymphoma has dissemineated systemically, we should choose chemotherapy. PMID:26333269

  4. Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Sievert, Angela J.; Fisher, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric low-grade gliomas encompass a heterogeneous set of tumors of different histologies. Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas occur most frequently followed by supratentorial diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas. Recent research has implicated activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK pathway in tumorigenesis of these tumors. Surgery is the mainstay of therapy. Overall survival rates for patients whose tumors are completely resected are 90% or greater, 10 years from diagnosis. Conversely, most optic pathway/hypothalamic, deep midline, and brain stem gliomas have minimal potential for resection; these tumors can be difficult to treat and deserve special attention. Combination chemotherapy is currently recommended as front-line adjuvant treatment for progressive or recurrent tumors. Second-line radiotherapy can also improve overall survival but is associated with more frequent and significant neurocognitive, endocrine, and other long-term toxicities. PMID:19841428

  5. TLR9 Agonist SD-101, Ipilimumab, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Low-Grade Recurrent B-cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-23

    Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

  6. Pembrolizumab Alone or With Idelalisib or Ibrutinib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Other Low-Grade B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-02

    Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Refractory Follicular Lymphoma; Refractory Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Refractory Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Richter Syndrome; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  7. Low-grade astrocytomas of childhood.

    PubMed

    Rekate, H L; Rakfal, S M

    1991-05-01

    Low-grade astrocytomas are the single most common form of pediatric brain tumor, representing 28% of the total. Prolonged survival and even cures can be expected in a substantial proportion of patients who present with these tumors. For a variety of reasons, the overall oncologic management of children with low-grade astrocytomas is extremely controversial. This article analyzes the available information related to the management of various forms of low-grade astrocytoma in childhood while awaiting the performance of a long-term national cooperative study on the natural history and management of this common pediatric brain tumor.

  8. Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma of the lower lip in a child.

    PubMed

    Bombeccari, Gian Paolo; Guzzi, Gianpaolo; Ruffoni, Diego; Gianatti, Andrea; Mariani, Umberto; Spadari, Francesco

    2011-12-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma of the lip in a child is a very rare clinical entity whose cause is poorly understood. We describe an 11-year-old boy who presented with a 5-month history of an asymptomatic nodule on the lower lip with the clinical appearance of a benign mucocele. After surgical excision of the lower lip lesion, lymphocyte phenotypic analysis and histologic examination of the specimen disclosed an extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue type of the buccal minor salivary glands. Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma of the lip may clinically resemble a large mucocele. To prevent a delayed detection of lip mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma, an incisional biopsy of large mucous cysts of the oral mucosa before marsupialization is recommended. PMID:22152894

  9. Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma of the lower lip in a child.

    PubMed

    Bombeccari, Gian Paolo; Guzzi, Gianpaolo; Ruffoni, Diego; Gianatti, Andrea; Mariani, Umberto; Spadari, Francesco

    2011-12-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma of the lip in a child is a very rare clinical entity whose cause is poorly understood. We describe an 11-year-old boy who presented with a 5-month history of an asymptomatic nodule on the lower lip with the clinical appearance of a benign mucocele. After surgical excision of the lower lip lesion, lymphocyte phenotypic analysis and histologic examination of the specimen disclosed an extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue type of the buccal minor salivary glands. Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma of the lip may clinically resemble a large mucocele. To prevent a delayed detection of lip mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma, an incisional biopsy of large mucous cysts of the oral mucosa before marsupialization is recommended.

  10. Salivary gland lymphoid infiltrates associated with lymphoepithelial lesions: a clinicopathologic, immunophenotypic, and genotypic study.

    PubMed

    Quintana, P G; Kapadia, S B; Bahler, D W; Johnson, J T; Swerdlow, S H

    1997-07-01

    The criteria for distinguishing benign lymphoepithelial lesions (BLEL) from low grade B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type in salivary glands and the significance of genotypically documented clonality in this setting are controversial. In addition, the clinical implications of a neoplastic diagnosis are unclear. The histopathologic features of 68 specimens from 49 patients with at least one salivary gland biopsy with LEL together with available clinical data were, therefore, reviewed. Paraffin section immunohistochemical (IHC) stains for kappa, lambda, CD3, CD20, and CD43; in situ hybridization (ISH) for kappa and lambda; and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for immunoglobulin (Ig) HC rearrangement were performed. The 61 salivary gland specimens were classified as BLEL-13, BLEL with monocytoid B-cell (MBC) halos (BLEL-halo-8), low grade B-cell lymphoma of MALT type with confluent zones of MBC or other atypical lymphocytes (ML-MALT-24), low grade B-cell lymphoma of MALT type with monoclonal plasma cells (ML-MALT-PC-12), and high grade B-cell lymphoma of MALT type (MALT-high grade-4). Soft tissue and perineural invasion was not observed in BLEL and was most common in the MALT lymphomas. Lymph node involvement was identified in six patients at the time of their salivary gland MALT lymphomas but in none with BLEL. CD43+ B cells were seen most commonly in ML-MALT but were present in all other categories except MALT-high grade. Clonal B cells were identified by PCR in 5 of 12 BLEL, 5 of 8 BLEL-halo, 17 of 22 ML-MALT, 6 of 10 ML-MALT-PC, and 3 of 3 MALT-high grade biopsies. All ML-MALT-PC were clonal by ISH or IHC. Repeat biopsies in 14 patients most commonly showed a BLEL/ML-MALT lesion in an ipsilateral or contralateral salivary gland with one transformation to a MALT-high grade. Although only a few patients are known to have received chemoradiation or radiation therapy, most patients with low-grade lesions have pursued an indolent course

  11. Low-grade gliomas in adults.

    PubMed

    Sanai, Nader; Chang, Susan; Berger, Mitchel S

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, advances in the understanding of low-grade glioma (LGG) biology have driven new paradigms in molecular markers, diagnostic imaging, operative techniques and technologies, and adjuvant therapies. Taken together, these developments are collectively pushing the envelope toward improved quality of life and survival. In this article, the authors evaluate the recent literature to synthesize a comprehensive review of LGGs in the modern neurosurgical era.

  12. Quantification and characterization of mucosa-associated and intracellular Escherichia coli in inflamatory bowel disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and aims: Mucosa-associated E. coli are abundant in Crohn’s disease (CD) but whether these bacteria gain intracellular access within the mucosa is less certain. If E. coli does gain intracellular access in CD, the contribution of bacterial pathogenicity as opposed to a defect in host inna...

  13. Review article: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma of ocular adnexa. Biology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Annibali, Ombretta; Sabatino, Francesco; Mantelli, Flavio; Olimpieri, Odoardo Maria; Bonini, Stefano; Avvisati, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades, we have witnessed an increase in the incidence of primary ocular adnexa lymphomas (POALs) probably because advances in imaging techniques have enabled precise biopsies of the tumors. The ocular tissue biopsy, before the initiation of the appropriate treatment, is mandatory and necessary for a correct diagnosis of POALs by the use of immunophenotyping and a correct molecular classification. Only in a minority of cases the ocular adnexa are secondarily affected by a systemic disease. Among the POALs, the most common is the primary extra nodal lymphoma of MALT-type (POAML). POAML is rarely symptomatic in the early phase of the disease. As a consequence, often we see a delay in ophthalmic consultations and diagnosis. The clinical manifestations are heterogeneous and its management requires a multidisciplinary approach involving ophthalmologists, hematologists and radiotherapists. PMID:26857986

  14. Benign hyperplasia of duct-associated lymphoid tissue: report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Venkatesh Vishwanath; Belur, Jagdish

    2011-01-01

    Focal lymphoid tissue is ubiquitously present in the oral mucosa and serves as a barrier for entrapment of antigens. The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue is generally dispersed and sometimes associated with the ducts of the minor salivary glands. Proliferation of the duct-associated lymphoid tissue (DALT) is rarely reported, though probably of common occurrence. We report a case of benign hyperplasia of DALT in the buccal mucosa of a 58-year-old male. The histogenesis and pathological implications of this tissue are discussed and the need for recognition of this entity is stressed.

  15. Low-grade and anaplastic oligodendroglioma.

    PubMed

    Van Den Bent, Martin J; Bromberg, Jacolien E C; Buckner, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas have long attracted interest because of their sensitivity to chemotherapy, in particular in the subset of 1p/19q co-deleted tumors. Recent molecular studies have shown that all 1p/19q co-deleted tumors have IDH mutations and most of them also have TERT mutations. Because of the presence of similar typical genetic alterations in astrocytoma and glioblastoma, the current trend is to diagnose these tumors on the basis of their molecular profile. Further long-term follow-up analysis of both EORTC and RTOG randomized studies on (neo)adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy have shown that adjuvant chemotherapy indeed improves outcome, and this is now standard of care. It is also equally clear that benefit to PCV chemotherapy is not limited to the 1p/19q co-deleted cases; potential other predictive factors are IDH mutations and MGMT promoter methylation. Moreover, a recent RTOG study on low-grade glioma also noted an improved outcome after adjuvant PCV chemotherapy, thus making (PCV) chemotherapy now standard of care for all 1p/19q co-deleted tumors regardless of grade. It remains unclear whether temozolomide provides the same survival benefit, as no data from well-designed clinical trials on adjuvant temozolomide in this tumor type are available. Another question that remains is whether one can safely leave out radiotherapy as part of initial treatment to avoid cognitive side-effects of radiotherapy. The current data suggest that delaying radiotherapy and treatment with chemotherapy only may be detrimental for overall survival.

  16. Adjuvant Activity of Naturally Occurring Monophosphoryl Lipopolysaccharide Preparations from Mucosa-Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chilton, Paula M.; Hadel, Diana M.; To, Thao T.

    2013-01-01

    Natural heterogeneity in the structure of the lipid A portion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces differential effects on the innate immune response. Gram-negative bacterial species produce LPS structures that differ from the classic endotoxic LPS structures. These differences include hypoacylation and hypophosphorylation of the diglucosamine backbone, both differences known to decrease LPS toxicity. The effect of decreased toxicity on the adjuvant properties of many of these LPS structures has not been fully explored. Here we demonstrate that two naturally produced forms of monophosphorylated LPS, from the mucosa-associated bacteria Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Prevotella intermedia, function as immunological adjuvants for antigen-specific immune responses. Each form of mucosal LPS increased vaccination-initiated antigen-specific antibody titers in both quantity and quality when given simultaneously with vaccine antigen preparations. Interestingly, adjuvant effects on initial T cell clonal expansion were selective for CD4 T cells. No significant increase in CD8 T cell expansion was detected. MyD88/Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TRIF/TLR4 signaling pathways showed equally decreased signaling with the LPS forms studied here as with endotoxic LPS or detoxified monophosphorylated lipid A (MPLA). Natural monophosphorylated LPS from mucosa-associated bacteria functions as a weak but effective adjuvant for specific immune responses, with preferential effects on antibody and CD4 T cell responses over CD8 T cell responses. PMID:23798540

  17. Neurofibromatosis type 1 associated low grade gliomas: A comparison with sporadic low grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Helfferich, Jelte; Nijmeijer, Ronald; Brouwer, Oebele F; Boon, Maartje; Fock, Annemarie; Hoving, Eelco W; Meijer, Lisethe; den Dunnen, Wilfred F A; de Bont, Eveline S J M

    2016-08-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder, associated with a variable clinical phenotype including café-au-lait spots, intertriginous freckling, Lisch nodules, neurofibromas, optic pathway gliomas and distinctive bony lesions. NF1 is caused by a mutation in the NF1 gene, which codes for neurofibromin, a large protein involved in the MAPK- and the mTOR-pathway through RAS-RAF signalling. NF1 is a known tumour predisposition syndrome, associated with different tumours of the nervous system including low grade gliomas (LGGs) in the paediatric population. The focus of this review is on grade I pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs), the most commonly observed histologic subtype of low grade gliomas in NF1. Clinically, these PAs have a better prognosis and show different localisation patterns than their sporadic counterparts, which are most commonly associated with a KIAA1549:BRAF fusion. In this review, possible mechanisms of tumourigenesis in LGGs with and without NF1 will be discussed, including the contribution of different signalling pathways and tumour microenvironment. Furthermore we will discuss how increased understanding of tumourigenesis may lead to new potential targets for treatment. PMID:27263935

  18. Exposure to a social stressor disrupts the community structure of the colonic mucosa-associated microbiota

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The microbiota of the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract consists of diverse populations of commensal bacteria that interact with host physiological function. Dysregulating these populations, through exogenous means such as antibiotics or dietary changes, can have adverse consequences on the health of the host. Studies from laboratories such as ours have demonstrated that exposure to psychological stressors disrupts the population profile of intestinal microbiota. To date, such studies have primarily focused on prolonged stressors (repeated across several days) and have assessed fecal bacterial populations. It is not known whether shorter stressors can also impact the microbiota, and whether colonic mucosa-associated populations can also be affected. The mucosa-associated microbiota exist in close proximity to elements of the host immune system and the two are tightly interrelated. Therefore, alterations in these populations should be emphasized. Additionally, stressors can induce differential responses in anxiety-like behavior and corticosterone outputs in variant strains of mice. Thus, whether stressor exposure can have contrasting effects on the colonic microbiota in inbred C57BL/6 mice and outbred CD-1 mice was also examined. Results In the present study, we used high throughput pyrosequencing to assess the effects of a single 2-hour exposure to a social stressor, called social disruption (SDR), on colonic mucosa-associated microbial profiles of C57BL/6 mice. The data indicate that exposure to the stressor significantly changed the community profile and significantly reduced the relative proportions of two genera and one family of highly abundant intestinal bacteria, including the genus Lactobacillus. This finding was confirmed using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique. The use of qPCR also identified mouse strain-specific differences in bacterial abundances. L. reuteri, an immunomodulatory species, was decreased in

  19. Targeting of Nasal Mucosa-Associated Antigen-Presenting Cells In Vivo with an Outer Membrane Protein A Derived from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Goetsch, Liliane; Gonzalez, Alexandra; Plotnicky-Gilquin, Hélène; Haeuw, Jean François; Aubry, Jean Pierre; Beck, Alain; Bonnefoy, Jean Yves; Corvaïa, Nathalie

    2001-01-01

    Administration of vaccines by the nasal route has recently proven to be one of the most efficient ways for inducing both mucosal and systemic antibody responses in experimental animals. Our results demonstrate that P40, a well-defined outer membrane protein A from Klebsiella pneumoniae, is indeed a carrier molecule suitable for nasal immunization. Using fragments from the respiratory syncytial virus subgroup A (RSV-A) G protein as antigen models, it has been shown that P40 is able to induce both systemic and mucosal immunity when fused or coupled to a protein or a peptide and administered intranasally (i.n.) to naive or K. pneumoniae-primed mice. Confocal analyses of nasal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue after i.n. instillation of P40 showed that this molecule is able to cross the nasal epithelium and target CD11c-positive cells likely to be murine dendritic cells or macrophages. More importantly, this targeting of antigen-presenting cells following i.n. immunization with a subunit of the RSV-A molecule in the absence of any mucosal adjuvant results in both upper and lower respiratory tract protection against RSV-A infection. PMID:11553588

  20. Low-grade oligodendroglioma: current treatments and future hopes.

    PubMed

    Lwin, Zarnie; Gan, Hui K; Mason, Warren P

    2009-11-01

    Current treatment modalities for low-grade gliomas include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Management of these ultimately incurable tumors remains controversial, particularly the timing and extent of surgery, and the optimal sequence of radiotherapy and chemotherapy thereafter. Two ongoing Phase III trials should provide definitive answers to some of these controversial issues in the treatment of low-grade gliomas and confirm the impact of molecular predictors of response and outcome. This review will discuss recent progress and topical issues in the treatment of low-grade gliomas.

  1. Effects of feed additives on ileal mucosa-associated microbiota composition of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, R; Peinado, M J; Aranda-Olmedo, I; Abecia, L; Suárez-Pereira, E; Ortiz Mellet, C; García Fernández, J M; Rubio, L A

    2015-07-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with 2 recently developed feed additives on the composition of the mucosa-associated microbiota of the ileum were studied in growing broiler chickens. A total of 48 male 1-d-old broiler chickens of the Cobb 500 strain were distributed in 4 treatments with 2 replicates of 6 birds each. The 2 additives tested were a di-d-fructose dianhydride–enriched caramel (FC) and the garlic derivative propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTS-O). Dietary treatments were a control (commercial diet with no additive), INU (20 g inulin/kg diet), CAR (20 g FC/kg diet), and GAR (90 mgPTS-O/kg diet). As a result of this study, inulin supplementation resulted in lower (P < 0.05) and FC feeding resulted in higher (P < 0.05) Blautia coccoides/Eubacterium rectale log10 number of copies respect to controls. Higher (P < 0.05) bifidobacteria log10 number of copies with respect to the controls was determined in the ileal mucosa of birds fed the PTS-O–supplemented diet. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and PCR analysis on Bifidobacterium spp. revealed the presence of Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum in samples from chickens fed the control and the PTS-O–supplemented diet. Bifidobacterium longum was exclusively found in poultry fed the control diet, whereas B. pseudocatenulatum was found only in poultry fed the PTS-O–supplemented diet. This study showed that both PTS-O and FC were able to modulate the composition of the ileal mucosa-associated microbiota of growing broiler chickens. Finally, in addition to B. pseudolongum, the presence of B. longum and B. pseudocatenulatum, species not previously described in intestinal samples of broilers, was also demonstrated. PMID:26440010

  2. Desalination using low grade heat sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    A new, low temperature, energy-efficient and sustainable desalination system has been developed in this research. This system operates under near-vacuum conditions created by exploiting natural means of gravity and barometric pressure head. The system can be driven by low grade heat sources such as solar energy or waste heat streams. Both theoretical and experimental studies were conducted under this research to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed process. Theoretical studies included thermodynamic analysis and process modeling to evaluate the performance of the process using the following alternate energy sources for driving the process: solar thermal energy, solar photovoltaic/thermal energy, geothermal energy, and process waste heat emissions. Experimental studies included prototype scale demonstration of the process using grid power as well as solar photovoltaic/thermal sources. Finally, the feasibility of the process in reclaiming potable-quality water from the effluent of the city wastewater treatment plant was studied. The following results have been obtained from theoretical analysis and modeling: (1) The proposed process can produce up to 8 L/d of freshwater for 1 m2 area of solar collector and evaporation chamber respectively with a specific energy requirement of 3122 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (2) Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) energy can produce up to 200 L/d of freshwater with a 25 m2 PV/T module which meets the electricity needs of 21 kWh/d of a typical household as well. This configuration requires a specific energy of 3122 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (3) 100 kg/hr of geothermal water at 60°C as heat source can produce up to 60 L/d of freshwater with a specific energy requirement of 3078 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (4) Waste heat released from an air conditioning system rated at 3.25 kW cooling, can produce up to 125 L/d of freshwater. This configuration requires an additional energy of 208 kJ/kg of

  3. The value of PCR technique in fine needle aspiration biopsy of salivary gland for diagnosis of low-grade B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ruschenburg, I; Korabiowska, M; Schlott, T; Kubitz, A; Droese, M

    1998-09-01

    In fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of salivary gland delineation of low-grade B-cell lymphoma from benign lymphoid lesions of myoepithelial sialadenitis (MESA) may be very difficult by means of cytomorphological criteria alone. To improve cytodiagnosis PCR technique was applied on routinely stained smears to determine clonal status by amplifying the third complementarity-determining region (CDR3) of the hypervariable domain of the immunoglobulin heavy chain. Twelve cases diagnosed cytologically as suspicious of low-grade B-NHL with following histology of B-NHL (n = 5) or MESA (n = 7) were analyzed. The CDR3-IgH PCR produced distinct bands in 10/12 cases. The PCR products were analyzed with Genescan software on the DNA sequencer, which demonstrated monoclonal bands in all NHLs and in one case of MESA. The results indicate that PCR technique may be helpful in improving cytodiagnostic accuracy for recognition of low-grade B-NHL of salivary gland.

  4. Prebiotic carbohydrates modify the mucosa associated microflora of the human large bowel

    PubMed Central

    Langlands, S J; Hopkins, M J; Coleman, N; Cummings, J H

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims: The mucosa associated flora of the large intestine is important in determining mucosal function although what controls its composition is unknown. This study has determined the effect of the prebiotic carbohydrates oligofructose and inulin on the mucosal flora. Methods: An in vitro chemostat model of both planktonic and surface associated bacteria was used followed by an intervention study in 29 subjects undergoing colonoscopy. Subjects: Fourteen subjects, recruited from colonoscopy waiting lists, supplemented their diet for two weeks with a mix of 7.5 g of oligofructose and 7.5 g inulin. Fifteen subjects were recruited at the time of colonoscopy and given no supplement. Multiple endoscopic biopsies were taken from the caecum, transverse and descending colon, and rectum. The mucosal flora was characterised by culture and to species level by cellular fatty acid profiles. Cell proliferation was assessed by immunohistochemical staining for minichromosome maintenance protein 2, Ki67, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Results: In vitro prebiotics increased surface counts of bifidobacteria from 6.6 to 7.3 log10 colony forming units (CFU) per slide (p<0.0006) with no significant changes in planktonic bacteria. In the feeding study, prebiotics increased mucosal bifidobacteria (log CFU/g mucosa (SEM)) in both the proximal (control 5.3 (0.4) v prebiotic 6.3 (0.3)) (p = 0.059) and distal (control 5.2 (0.3) v prebiotic 6.4 (0.3)) colon (p = 0.01). Lactobacilli were also increased (3.0 (0.1) v 3.7 (0.2) (p = 0.02) in the proximal and 3.1 (0.1) v 3.6 (0.2) (p = 0.04) in the distal colon, respectively). There were significantly more eubacteria in fed subjects but no changes in total anaerobes clostridia, bacteroides, or coliforms, nor in proliferation indices. Conclusion: Prebiotic carbohydrates can change the composition of the mucosa associated flora significantly. PMID:15479681

  5. Probiotics modify human intestinal mucosa-associated microbiota in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhiguang; Guo, Bomin; Gao, Renyuan; Zhu, Qingchao; Wu, Wen; Qin, Huanlong

    2015-10-01

    Studies using animal models have demonstrated that probiotics may have a beneficial role in the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the underlying mechanism of the beneficial effects of interventional probiotic treatment on gut microbiota has remained elusive. In the present study, pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes was conducted in order to determine the extent to which probiotics alter the microbiota. The observations of the present study indicated that the microbial structure of cancerous tissue differed significantly from that of healthy individuals and that the CRC microbiota exhibited lower diversity. It was indicated that interventional treatment with probiotics increased the density and diversity of mucosal microbes, and altered the mucosa‑associated microbiota. Pyrosequencing demonstrated that probiotics significantly reduced (5‑fold) the abundance of a bacterial taxon assigned to the genus Fusobacterium, which had been previously suggested to be a contributing factor to increase tumorigenesis. Accordingly, interventional probiotic therapy is suggested to be able to improve the composition of the mucosal microbial flora and significantly reduce the abundance of mucosa-associated pathogens in patients with CRC.

  6. Low-Grade Oligodendroglioma of the Pineal Region: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lamis, Fabricio Correa; de Paiva Neto, Manoel Antonio; Stavale, João Norberto; Cavalheiro, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Background Although germ cell tumors and pineal cell tumors account for most of the histologic tumor subtypes, > 17 different tumors can arise in this location. We report a rare case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma that arose in the pineal region. Clinical Presentation A young woman complaining of a headache underwent magnetic resonance imaging that showed a mass in the pineal region and mild hydrocephalus. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt was performed followed by a near-total tumor removal, due to tumor invasion of the tectal plate and thalamus. The histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. The patient then underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy as adjuvant therapies. Conclusion Although the pineal region is a common place for a large number of tumoral lesions, low-grade oligodendrogliomas are extremely rare in this location. This case is only the second account of a benign oligodendroglioma of the pineal region reported in the literature.

  7. Low-grade intraductal carcinoma of the lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Bursztyn, Lulu L C D; Hyrcza, Martin D; Allen, Larry H; Berean, Kenneth W; Wehrli, Bret

    2014-04-01

    Intraductal carcinoma has been described in the salivary glands as a relatively benign tumour with low-grade histopathologic features. To our knowledge, this tumour has not previously been reported in the lacrimal gland. We report the first case of low-grade intraductal carcinoma occurring in the lacrimal gland. This tumour was discovered incidentally on neuro-imaging in an asymptomatic 65-year-old patient. Incisional biopsy revealed uniform, polygonal cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and minimal nuclear atypia, arranged in solid, cribiform and micropapillary nests. The patient underwent complete surgical excision with no evidence of recurrence at 8 months of follow-up.

  8. Mucosa-associated Faecalibacterium prausnitzii phylotype richness is reduced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Siles, Mireia; Martinez-Medina, Margarita; Abellà, Carles; Busquets, David; Sabat-Mir, Miriam; Duncan, Sylvia H; Aldeguer, Xavier; Flint, Harry J; Garcia-Gil, L Jesús

    2015-11-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii depletion in intestinal diseases has been extensively reported, but little is known about intraspecies variability. This work aims to determine if subjects with gastrointestinal disease host mucosa-associated F. prausnitzii populations different from those hosted by healthy individuals. A new species-specific PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method targeting the 16S rRNA gene was developed to fingerprint F. prausnitzii populations in biopsy specimens from 31 healthy control (H) subjects and 36 Crohn's disease (CD), 23 ulcerative colitis (UC), 6 irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 22 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The richness of F. prausnitzii subtypes was lower in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients than in H subjects. The most prevalent operational taxonomic units (OTUs) consisted of four phylotypes (OTUs with a 99% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity [OTU99]), which were shared by all groups of patients. Their distribution and the presence of some disease-specific F. prausnitzii phylotypes allowed us to differentiate the populations in IBD and CRC patients from that in H subjects. At the level of a minimum similarity of 97% (OTU97), two phylogroups accounted for 98% of the sequences. Phylogroup I was found in 87% of H subjects but in under 50% of IBD patients (P = 0.003). In contrast, phylogroup II was detected in >75% of IBD patients and in only 52% of H subjects (P = 0.005). This study reveals that even though the main members of the F. prausnitzii population are present in both H subjects and individuals with gut diseases, richness is reduced in the latter and an altered phylotype distribution exists between diseases. This approach may serve as a basis for addressing the suitability of F. prausnitzii phylotypes to be quantified as a putative biomarker of disease and depicting the importance of the loss of these subtypes in disease pathogenesis. PMID:26296733

  9. Mucosa-Associated Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Phylotype Richness Is Reduced in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Siles, Mireia; Martinez-Medina, Margarita; Abellà, Carles; Busquets, David; Sabat-Mir, Miriam; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Aldeguer, Xavier; Flint, Harry J.

    2015-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii depletion in intestinal diseases has been extensively reported, but little is known about intraspecies variability. This work aims to determine if subjects with gastrointestinal disease host mucosa-associated F. prausnitzii populations different from those hosted by healthy individuals. A new species-specific PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method targeting the 16S rRNA gene was developed to fingerprint F. prausnitzii populations in biopsy specimens from 31 healthy control (H) subjects and 36 Crohn's disease (CD), 23 ulcerative colitis (UC), 6 irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 22 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The richness of F. prausnitzii subtypes was lower in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients than in H subjects. The most prevalent operational taxonomic units (OTUs) consisted of four phylotypes (OTUs with a 99% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity [OTU99]), which were shared by all groups of patients. Their distribution and the presence of some disease-specific F. prausnitzii phylotypes allowed us to differentiate the populations in IBD and CRC patients from that in H subjects. At the level of a minimum similarity of 97% (OTU97), two phylogroups accounted for 98% of the sequences. Phylogroup I was found in 87% of H subjects but in under 50% of IBD patients (P = 0.003). In contrast, phylogroup II was detected in >75% of IBD patients and in only 52% of H subjects (P = 0.005). This study reveals that even though the main members of the F. prausnitzii population are present in both H subjects and individuals with gut diseases, richness is reduced in the latter and an altered phylotype distribution exists between diseases. This approach may serve as a basis for addressing the suitability of F. prausnitzii phylotypes to be quantified as a putative biomarker of disease and depicting the importance of the loss of these subtypes in disease pathogenesis. PMID:26296733

  10. Mucosa-associated Faecalibacterium prausnitzii phylotype richness is reduced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Siles, Mireia; Martinez-Medina, Margarita; Abellà, Carles; Busquets, David; Sabat-Mir, Miriam; Duncan, Sylvia H; Aldeguer, Xavier; Flint, Harry J; Garcia-Gil, L Jesús

    2015-11-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii depletion in intestinal diseases has been extensively reported, but little is known about intraspecies variability. This work aims to determine if subjects with gastrointestinal disease host mucosa-associated F. prausnitzii populations different from those hosted by healthy individuals. A new species-specific PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method targeting the 16S rRNA gene was developed to fingerprint F. prausnitzii populations in biopsy specimens from 31 healthy control (H) subjects and 36 Crohn's disease (CD), 23 ulcerative colitis (UC), 6 irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 22 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The richness of F. prausnitzii subtypes was lower in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients than in H subjects. The most prevalent operational taxonomic units (OTUs) consisted of four phylotypes (OTUs with a 99% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity [OTU99]), which were shared by all groups of patients. Their distribution and the presence of some disease-specific F. prausnitzii phylotypes allowed us to differentiate the populations in IBD and CRC patients from that in H subjects. At the level of a minimum similarity of 97% (OTU97), two phylogroups accounted for 98% of the sequences. Phylogroup I was found in 87% of H subjects but in under 50% of IBD patients (P = 0.003). In contrast, phylogroup II was detected in >75% of IBD patients and in only 52% of H subjects (P = 0.005). This study reveals that even though the main members of the F. prausnitzii population are present in both H subjects and individuals with gut diseases, richness is reduced in the latter and an altered phylotype distribution exists between diseases. This approach may serve as a basis for addressing the suitability of F. prausnitzii phylotypes to be quantified as a putative biomarker of disease and depicting the importance of the loss of these subtypes in disease pathogenesis.

  11. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the nasal fossa.

    PubMed

    González-Lagunas, Javier; Alasà-Caparrós, Cristian; Vendrell-Escofet, Gerard; Huguet-Redecilla, Pere; Raspall-Martin, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    An unusual case of a T4N2CMx polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma located in the nasal fossae and extending to the pterygoid area is presented. The primary tumor was excised through a Lefort I maxillotomy and the neck was managed with a supraomohyoid neck dissection. Adjuntive postoperative radiotherapy was also administered to the patient.

  12. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Children with Low-Grade Gliomas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ris, M. Douglas; Beebe, Dean W.

    2008-01-01

    As a group, children with low-grade gliomas (LGGs) enjoy a high rate of long-term survival and do not require the intensity of neurotoxic treatments used with higher risk pediatric brain tumors. Because they are generally considered to have favorable neurobehavioral outcomes, they have not been studied as thoroughly as higher-grade brain tumors by…

  13. Do Low Grades Cause College Students to Give up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Robert E.

    The thesis that low grades cause college students to give up receives some support from early psychological research and from current reinforcement theories. This study investigates the effects on subsequent grades of low, average, and high first-exam grades for 192 students in a traditional grading system and 52 students in a pass-fail grading…

  14. Low-grade inflammatory polarization of monocytes impairs wound healing.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ruoxi; Geng, Shuo; Chen, Keqiang; Diao, Na; Chu, Hong Wei; Li, Liwu

    2016-03-01

    Impaired wound healing often accompanies low-grade inflammatory conditions, during which circulating levels of subclinical super-low-dose endotoxin may persist. Low-grade inflammatory monocyte polarization may occur during chronic inflammation and deter effective wound repair. However, little is understood about the potential mechanisms of monocyte polarization by sustained insult of subclinical super-low-dose endotoxin. We observed that super-low-dose endotoxin preferentially programmes a low-grade inflammatory monocyte state in vitro and in vivo, as represented by the elevated population of CD11b(+) Ly6C(high) monocytes and sustained expression of CCR5. Mechanistically, super-low-dose endotoxin caused cellular stress, altered lysosome function and increased the transcription factor IRF5. TUDCA, a potent inhibitor of cellular stress, effectively blocked monocyte polarization and improved wound healing in mice injected with super-low-dose endotoxin. Our data revealed the polarization of low-grade inflammatory monocytes by sustained endotoxin challenge, its underlying mechanisms and a potential intervention strategy. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Localized Orbital Mucosa-Associated Lymphoma Tissue Lymphoma Managed With Primary Radiation Therapy: Efficacy and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Goda, Jayant Sastri; Le, Lisa W.; Lapperriere, Normand J.; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Payne, David; Gospodarowicz, Mary K.; Wells, Woodrow; Hodgson, David C.; Sun, Alexander; Simpson, Rand; Tsang, Richard W.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes and late effects of radiation therapy (RT) in localized primary orbital mucosa-associated lymphoma tissue (MALT) lymphoma (POML). Methods and Materials: From 1989 to 2007, 89 patients with Stage IE POML received RT. The median age was 56 years old. Sites involved conjunctiva (59 patients [66%]), lacrimal gland (20 patients [23%]), and soft tissue (10 patients [11%]). Megavoltage beam(s) was used in 91%, electrons in 7%, and orthovoltage in 2% of cases. The dose given was 25 Gy in 97% and 30 Gy in 3% of patients. Lens shielding was possible in 57% of patients. Results: The median follow-up was 5.9 years. Complete response or unconfirmed complete response was seen in 88 patients (99%). Relapse occurred in 22 patients (25%). First relapse sites were local (2 patients [9%]), in the contralateral orbit (5 patients [23%]), and distant (15 patients [68%]). The 7-year overall survival (OS), cause-specific survival (CSS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and local control (LC) rates were 91%, 96%, 64%, and 97%, respectively. Radiation-related late sequelae were documented in 40 patients (45%). Cataracts were observed in 22 patients (Grade 1 in 2 patients; Grade 3 in 20 patients). The incidence of Grade 3 cataract at 7 years was 25%. Other late sequelae (n = 28) were dry eye(s) (22 patients [Grade 1 in 14 patients; Grade 2 in 2 patients; Grade 3 in 2 patients; n/s in 4 patients), keratitis (3 patients), macular degeneration/cystoid edema (2 patients), and vitreous detachment (1 patient). Five patients developed Grade 3 noncataract late effects. Lens shielding reduced the incidence of Grade 3 cataract and all Grade {>=}2 late sequelae. Seventeen patients (16 with cataracts) underwent surgery; 23 patients were treated conservatively. The outcome for managing late effects was generally successful, with 30 patients completely improved, and 9 patients with persisting late sequelae (10%). Conclusions: POML responds favorably to moderate doses

  16. High Prevalence of Mucosa-Associated E. coli Producing Cyclomodulin and Genotoxin in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sauvanet, Pierre; Raisch, Jennifer; Delmas, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Some Escherichia coli strains produce toxins designated cyclomodulins (CMs) which interfere with the eukaryotic cell cycle of host cells, suggesting a possible link between these bacteria and cancers. There are relatively few data available concerning the colonization of colon tumors by cyclomodulin- and genotoxic-producing E. coli. We did a qualitative and phylogenetic analysis of mucosa-associated E. coli harboring cyclomodulin-encoding genes from 38 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and 31 with diverticulosis. The functionality of these genes was investigated on cell cultures and the genotoxic activity of strains devoid of known CM-encoding gene was investigated. Results showed a higher prevalence of B2 phylogroup E. coli harboring the colibatin-producing genes in biopsies of patients with CRC (55.3%) than in those of patients with diverticulosis (19.3%), (p<0.01). Likewise, a higher prevalence of B2 E. coli harboring the CNF1-encoding genes in biopsies of patients with CRC (39.5%) than in those of patients with diverticulosis (12.9%), (p = 0.01). Functional analysis revealed that the majority of these genes were functional. Analysis of the ability of E. coli to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells Int-407 indicated that highly adherent E. coli strains mostly belonged to A and D phylogroups, whatever the origin of the strains (CRC or diverticulosis), and that most E. coli strains belonging to B2 phylogroup displayed very low levels of adhesion. In addition, 27.6% (n = 21/76) E. coli strains devoid of known cyclomodulin-encoding genes induced DNA damage in vitro, as assessed by the comet assay. In contrast to cyclomodulin-producing E. coli, these strains mainly belonged to A or D E. coli phylogroups, and exhibited a non significant difference in the distribution of CRC and diverticulosis specimens (22% versus 32.5%, p = 0.91). In conclusion, cyclomodulin-producing E. coli belonging mostly to B2 phylogroup colonize the colonic mucosa of patients

  17. Polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma presenting an uncommon radiographic aspect.

    PubMed

    de Magalhães, M H C G; de Magalhães, R P; de Araújo, V C; de Sousa, S O M

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to present clinical, histological and immunohistochemical aspects of a polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma occurring in the mandible. A radiolucent tumour, located in the right mandible, was removed from a 40-year-old woman. Radiographic and CT exams revealed that the lesion expanded bucco-lingual cortical plates and presented an irregular scalloping of the bone. The surrounding lining mucosa was intact. The patient underwent total surgical removal of the lesion with an intraoperative biopsy. Histological diagnosis was polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma confirmed by immunohistochemical study. One-year follow up was uneventful. The accurate diagnosis of lesions presenting unusual clinical aspects, as the one presented here, is critical for correctly handling treatment.

  18. Properties of concrete blocks prepared with low grade recycled aggregates.

    PubMed

    Poon, Chi-Sun; Kou, Shi-cong; Wan, Hui-wen; Etxeberria, Miren

    2009-08-01

    Low grade recycled aggregates obtained from a construction waste sorting facility were tested to assess the feasibility of using these in the production of concrete blocks. The characteristics of the sorted construction waste are significantly different from that of crushed concrete rubbles that are mostly derived from demolition waste streams. This is due to the presence of higher percentages of non-concrete components (e.g. >10% soil, brick, tiles etc.) in the sorted construction waste. In the study reported in this paper, three series of concrete block mixtures were prepared by using the low grade recycled aggregates to replace (i) natural coarse granite (10mm), and (ii) 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement levels of crushed stone fine (crushed natural granite <5mm) in the concrete blocks. Test results on properties such as density, compressive strength, transverse strength and drying shrinkage as well as strength reduction after exposure to 800 degrees C are presented below. The results show that the soil content in the recycled fine aggregate was an important factor in affecting the properties of the blocks produced and the mechanical strength deceased with increasing low grade recycled fine aggregate content. But the higher soil content in the recycled aggregates reduced the reduction of compressive strength of the blocks after exposure to high temperature due probably to the formation of a new crystalline phase. The results show that the low grade recycled aggregates obtained from the construction waste sorting facility has potential to be used as aggregates for making non-structural pre-cast concrete blocks.

  19. Interventricular low-grade oligodendroglioma with multiple parenchymal relapse.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Ali; Binesh, Fariba; Rakhsha, Afshin; Navabii, Hossein

    2012-06-08

    Oligodendrogliomas can be found anywhere oligodendrocytes exist; however, they mostly occur in frontal lobes. Although intra- and extra central nervous system dissemination of anaplastic oligodendroglioma is a well-known property of this tumour, low-grade oligodendroglioma with intracranial relapse is a very uncommon finding. In this case report, a 37-year-old man with grade II oligodendroglioma relapsed after 18 months with multiple parenchymal masses is presented.

  20. Diagnostic flow cytometry for low-grade myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Kiyoyuki

    2008-12-01

    It has long been considered that flow cytometry (FCM) has little role in clinical practice in the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, recent advances in the analytical method and knowledge of MDS FCM are changing this stereotype. This paper reviews the concept and current status of FCM in the diagnosis of low-grade MDS. The diagnosis of low-grade MDS in the absence of ringed sideroblasts and chromosomal aberration is not always straightforward, and a report from a recent international working conference has proposed FCM as an adjunctive diagnostic test for such cases. Currently, only a limited number of laboratories are applying FCM to the diagnosis of MDS. Furthermore, standard analytical methods in FCM for MDS have not been established, and no single FCM parameter is sufficiently sensitive and specific to make the diagnosis of MDS. To establish MDS FCM as a widely accepted, dependable diagnostic tool, prospective studies should increase flow parameters that can be analysed reproducibly and determine their sensitivity and specificity, either alone or in combination. CD34+ cell-related parameters that are applicable for diagnosing low-grade MDS in many laboratories are introduced here.

  1. Notch signaling activation in pediatric low-grade astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Brandt, William D; Schreck, Karisa C; Bar, Eli E; Taylor, Isabella; Marchionni, Luigi; Raabe, Eric; Eberhart, Charles G; Rodriguez, Fausto J

    2015-02-01

    Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common primary brain tumor in children; various signaling pathways have been implicated in its biology. The Notch signaling pathway has been found to play a role in the development, stem cell biology, and pathogenesis of several cancers, but its role in PA has not been investigated. We studied alterations in Notch signaling components in tumor tissue from 18 patients with PA and 4 with other low-grade astrocytomas to identify much needed therapeutic targets. We found that Notch pathway members were overexpressed at the mRNA (NOTCH1, NOTCH2, HEY1, HEY2) and protein (HES1) levels in PAs at various anatomic sites compared with non-neoplastic brain samples. These changes were not associated with specific BRAF alterations. Inhibiting the Notch pathway in the pediatric low-grade astrocytoma cell lines Res186 and Res259 using either RNA interference or a γ-secretase inhibitor resulted in variable, but significant, reduction in cell growth and migration. This study suggests a potential role for Notch signaling in pediatric low-grade astrocytoma tumorigenesis and that Notch signaling may be a viable pathway therapeutic target. PMID:25575134

  2. Low-Grade Oligodendroglioma of the Pineal Region: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lamis, Fabricio Correa; de Paiva Neto, Manoel Antonio; Stavale, João Norberto; Cavalheiro, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background Although germ cell tumors and pineal cell tumors account for most of the histologic tumor subtypes, > 17 different tumors can arise in this location. We report a rare case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma that arose in the pineal region. Clinical Presentation A young woman complaining of a headache underwent magnetic resonance imaging that showed a mass in the pineal region and mild hydrocephalus. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt was performed followed by a near-total tumor removal, due to tumor invasion of the tectal plate and thalamus. The histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. The patient then underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy as adjuvant therapies. Conclusion Although the pineal region is a common place for a large number of tumoral lesions, low-grade oligodendrogliomas are extremely rare in this location. This case is only the second account of a benign oligodendroglioma of the pineal region reported in the literature. PMID:26251811

  3. Innate lymphoid cells in secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Bar-Ephraïm, Yotam E; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-05-01

    The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has attracted attention in recent years as its members are important regulators of immunity, while they can also cause pathology. In both mouse and man, ILCs were initially discovered in developing lymph nodes as lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. These cells form the prototypic members of the ILC family and play a central role in the formation of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). In the absence of LTi cells, lymph nodes (LN) and Peyer's Patches (PP) fail to form in mice, although the splenic white pulp can develop normally. Besides LTi cells, the ILC family encompasses helper-like ILCs with functional distinctions as seen by T-helper cells, as well as cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells. ILCs are still present in adult SLOs where they have been shown to play a role in lymphoid tissue regeneration. Furthermore, ILCs were implicated to interact with adaptive lymphocytes and influence the adaptive immune response. Here, we review the recent literature on the role of ILCs in secondary lymphoid tissue from the formation of SLOs to mature SLOs in adults, during homeostasis and pathology.

  4. Innate lymphoid cells in secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Bar-Ephraïm, Yotam E; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-05-01

    The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has attracted attention in recent years as its members are important regulators of immunity, while they can also cause pathology. In both mouse and man, ILCs were initially discovered in developing lymph nodes as lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. These cells form the prototypic members of the ILC family and play a central role in the formation of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). In the absence of LTi cells, lymph nodes (LN) and Peyer's Patches (PP) fail to form in mice, although the splenic white pulp can develop normally. Besides LTi cells, the ILC family encompasses helper-like ILCs with functional distinctions as seen by T-helper cells, as well as cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells. ILCs are still present in adult SLOs where they have been shown to play a role in lymphoid tissue regeneration. Furthermore, ILCs were implicated to interact with adaptive lymphocytes and influence the adaptive immune response. Here, we review the recent literature on the role of ILCs in secondary lymphoid tissue from the formation of SLOs to mature SLOs in adults, during homeostasis and pathology. PMID:27088915

  5. Primary urinary bladder mucosa associated lymphoid tissue type lymphoma presenting as a close mimic for genitourinary tuberculosis: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Jitani, Ankit Kumar; Mishra, Jaya; Sailo, Stephen L; Raphael, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the urinary bladder is a rare entity. It has a distinctively different presentation than the urothelial carcinoma, which is the most common form of bladder cancer, but might mimic inflammatory lesions such as tubercular cystitis, clinically as well as radiologically. We present a case of primary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the bladder, which was a close mimicker of tuberculosis, leading to delay in diagnosis. We highlight the role of biopsy in prompt diagnosis of these cases. We emphasize on the high index of suspicion required to identify such cases at an early stage, which has pronounced prognostic implications.

  6. Validation of Use of Rectoanal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a family of fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by accumulation of abnormal prion proteins in the brain. The abnormal prion protein is the major constituent of the infectious agent and is a reliable marker for disease. The occurrence of ...

  7. Primary urinary bladder mucosa associated lymphoid tissue type lymphoma presenting as a close mimic for genitourinary tuberculosis: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Jitani, Ankit Kumar; Mishra, Jaya; Sailo, Stephen L.; Raphael, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the urinary bladder is a rare entity. It has a distinctively different presentation than the urothelial carcinoma, which is the most common form of bladder cancer, but might mimic inflammatory lesions such as tubercular cystitis, clinically as well as radiologically. We present a case of primary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the bladder, which was a close mimicker of tuberculosis, leading to delay in diagnosis. We highlight the role of biopsy in prompt diagnosis of these cases. We emphasize on the high index of suspicion required to identify such cases at an early stage, which has pronounced prognostic implications. PMID:26834416

  8. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Vaidhyanathan, Anitha; Majhi, Urmila

    2011-01-01

    Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) has been recently recognized as a distinct entity with a known predilection for minor salivary glands. We present an unusual case of recurrent PLGA arising within the right parotid gland in a 25-year-old lady. The striking histological picture is diverse architecture combined with benign cytological features. Even in the light of multiple recurrences, our tumor displayed a relatively indolent course which is commonly associated with this adenocarcinoma sub-type. Thus, unusual occurrence demonstrates that this tumor should also be considered in differentials of tumors of the major salivary glands. Long-term follow-up is essential to ensure local control.

  9. Histopathological spectrum of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Surya, Varun; Tupkari, Jagdish V; Joy, Tabita; Verma, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas (PLGA) are distinctive salivary gland neoplasms, with an almost exclusive propensity to arise from the minor salivary glands. PLGA frequently manifests as an asymptomatic, slow-growing mass within the oral cavity, which must be separated from adenoid cystic carcinoma and benign mixed tumor for therapeutic and prognostic considerations. We report a case of a 67-year-old male, who presented with a long-standing mass in the palate. This lesion was diagnosed as PLGA based on histopathological findings, which was further confirmed by the immunohistochemical marker.

  10. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vivek; Mendenhall, William M; Werning, John W

    2014-12-01

    Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas are rare tumors that can arise from many areas of the head and neck. We reviewed the pertinent literature pertaining to the incidence, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment strategies for this malignancy. Histopathologic diagnosis always involves careful analysis of tissue and especially characteristic immunohistochemical staining patterns. Common differential diagnoses include adenoid cystic carcinoma, pleomorphic adenoma, and other benign or malignant salivary gland neoplasms. Although the ideal treatment is debated, surgical resection at times combined with adjuvant radiation therapy is preferred by many physicians. Further research will be needed to delineate optimal management.

  11. Intestinal REG3 Lectins Protect against Alcoholic Steatohepatitis by Reducing Mucosa-Associated Microbiota and Preventing Bacterial Translocation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lirui; Fouts, Derrick E; Stärkel, Peter; Hartmann, Phillipp; Chen, Peng; Llorente, Cristina; DePew, Jessica; Moncera, Kelvin; Ho, Samuel B; Brenner, David A; Hooper, Lora V; Schnabl, Bernd

    2016-02-10

    Approximately half of all deaths from liver cirrhosis, the tenth leading cause of mortality in the United States, are related to alcohol use. Chronic alcohol consumption is accompanied by intestinal dysbiosis and bacterial overgrowth, yet little is known about the factors that alter the microbial composition or their contribution to liver disease. We previously associated chronic alcohol consumption with lower intestinal levels of the antimicrobial-regenerating islet-derived (REG)-3 lectins. Here, we demonstrate that intestinal deficiency in REG3B or REG3G increases numbers of mucosa-associated bacteria and enhances bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes and liver, promoting the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver disease toward steatohepatitis. Overexpression of Reg3g in intestinal epithelial cells restricts bacterial colonization of mucosal surfaces, reduces bacterial translocation, and protects mice from alcohol-induced steatohepatitis. Thus, alcohol appears to impair control of the mucosa-associated microbiota, and subsequent breach of the mucosal barrier facilitates progression of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:26867181

  12. Low-grade serous carcinoma: new concepts and emerging therapies.

    PubMed

    Romero, Ignacio; Sun, Charlotte C; Wong, Kwong K; Bast, Robert C; Gershenson, David M

    2013-09-01

    For the past several years, all women with epithelial ovarian cancer have been treated identically, whether in a clinical trial or off protocol. Over the past decade, we have come to appreciate the magnitude of the heterogeneity of ovarian cancer. The development of the binary grading system for serous carcinoma was a major advance leading to separate clinical trials for patients with this subtype originating from the Gynecologic Oncology Group's Rare Tumor Committee. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway appears to play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of this subtype. Approximately 20-40% of low-grade serous carcinomas have a KRAS mutation, while BRAF mutations are rare - about 5%. Primary treatment of low-grade serous carcinoma includes surgery+platinum-based chemotherapy (either adjuvant or neoadjuvant). Clinical behavior is characterized by young age at diagnosis, relative chemoresistance, and prolonged overall survival. Current options for treatment of relapsed disease include secondary cytoreduction in selected patients, salvage chemotherapy, or hormonal therapy. A recently completed trial of a MEK inhibitor for women with recurrent disease demonstrated promising activity. Future directions will include further investigations of the molecular biology and biomarker-driven clinical trials with targeted agent monotherapy and combinations. PMID:23707670

  13. Stereotactic radiosurgery of deeply seated low grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Barcia, J A; Barcia-Salorio, J L; Ferrer, C; Ferrer, E; Algás, R; Hernández, G

    1994-01-01

    The authors report the results of a series of 16 cases of low-grade gliomas in whom radiosurgery was performed. This series started in 1977. All the tumours received a single radiosurgical session (with a mean dose of 21.7 Gy, 5-10 mm. collimator; one patient received two sessions and in another patient two different targets were irradiated in the same session). Prior to radiosurgery, six patients received conventional external fractionated radiotherapy, with two lateral fields of up to 10 x 10 cm. and a mean dose of 55.1 Gy and another six patients with tumours less than 5 cm. in diameter, received stereotactic radiotherapy using four fields of up to 5 x 5 cm. and a mean dose of 53.1 Gy. In both cases, conventional fractionation was used, giving a dose of 1.8 to 2 Gy/day. The tumour disappeared in 8 cases (50%) and shunk or ceased its growth in 5 additional cases (31%). In 3 cases of brainstem gliomas in which the clinical condition was previously very poor there was no evolutional change and the patients eventually died. We conclude that radiosurgery is effective in the treatment of deeply seated low-grade gliomas, where it may become the treatment of choice in the absence of other more definitive choices.

  14. Polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma: review and case report.

    PubMed

    Pintor, María Fernanda; Figueroa, Liberto; Martínez, Benjamín

    2007-12-01

    Polymorphous Low-Grade Adenocarcinoma is a rare, malignant salivary gland tumor, which is found almost exclusively in minor salivary glands. It is more frequent in the age range from 30 to 70, with a clear female predilection in a 2:1 ratio. It is usually located in the hard or soft palate, although it may be found in the rest of the oral cavity too. It is rare in major salivary glands. In general it has good prognosis, with recurrence rates in the range of 17% - 24%. Although rare, metastasis to regional lymph nodes may occur in 9% of the cases. This report describes the case of a patient that consulted at the Military Odontological Center (Central Odontológica del Ejército) due to an esthetic alteration of her dental prosthesis, which had been made 8 years before. The patient was sent to the Maxillofacial Surgery Service, where the intraoral examination showed a big mass compromising the hard palate and the alveolar ridge. During examination, a dent in her prosthesis was found to correspond to the tumor mass; it was therefore concluded that the tumor had at least an eight-year-old evolution. An incisional biopsy was carried out, and once the polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma diagnosis had been stated, the patient was sent to the Head and Neck Surgery Service of the Military Hospital, where the lesion was treated by wide surgical excision followed by radiation therapy.

  15. Ethanol and other oxygenateds from low grade carbonaceous resources

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, O.S.; Jung, K.D.; Han, S.H.

    1995-12-31

    Anhydrous ethanol and other oxygenates of C2 up can be produced quite competitively from low grade carbonaceous resources in high yield via gasification, methanol synthesis, carbonylation of methanol an hydrogenation consecutively. Gas phase carbonylation of methanol to form methyl acetate is the key step for the whole process. Methyl acetate can be produced very selectively in one step gas phase reaction on a fixed bed column reactor with GHSV over 5,000. The consecutive hydrogenation of methyl or ethyl acetate produce anhydrous ethanol in high purity. It is also attempted to co-produce methanol and DME in IGCC, in which low grade carbonaceous resources are used as energy sources, and the surplus power and pre-power gas can be stored in liquid form of methanol and DME during base load time. Further integration of C2 up oxygenate production with IGCC can improve its economics. The attempt of above extensive technology integration can generate significant industrial profitability as well as reduce the environmental complication related with massive energy consumption.

  16. Stimulation of systemic low-grade inflammation by psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Rohleder, Nicolas

    2014-04-01

    Psychosocial stress is an important precursor of disease and reduced quality of life in humans. The biological pathways between stress exposure and pathophysiological processes underlying disease have received substantial scientific attention, although the roles of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system remain insufficiently understood. Recent attention has focused on chronic systemic low-grade inflammation as a promising pathway because elevated inflammation often accompanies chronic psychosocial distress. These alterations of inflammatory activity play a key role in the pathophysiology of diseases that are adversely affected by chronic distress, such as cardiovascular disease. Transient increases in systemic inflammation are observed in response to acute psychosocial stress, with larger responses among individuals reporting adverse psychosocial states or conditions such as depression, lower self-esteem, or lower self-compassion. Recent evidence shows that lower subjective social status and perceived purpose in life are associated with sensitization of inflammatory stress responses to repeated stress exposure. The aims of this selective review article are to summarize current knowledge of the role of acute and chronic psychosocial stress on low-grade inflammation in humans and to discuss potential relationships between inflammatory responses to acute psychosocial stress and long-term development of disease.

  17. Clinical and therapeutic features of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vincent, S D; Hammond, H L; Finkelstein, M W

    1994-01-01

    Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, also known as terminal duct or lobular carcinoma, was first described in two clinical case series in 1983. Before that time most of these neoplasms were diagnosed as benign salivary gland neoplasms including pleomorphic adenomas, variants of monomorphic adenomas, or salivary malignant conditions including malignant pleomorphic adenomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, and adenocarcinoma not otherwise stated. This neoplasm with few exceptions originates in minor salivary gland tissue of the posterior hard and soft palates or buccal mucosa. It is characteristically slow to enlarge; clinical reports show the neoplasm present for many years before diagnosis. We have evaluated the clinical and microscopic features of 15 cases from the archives of The University of Iowa Surgical Oral Pathology Laboratory and added these to published case reports. A total of 204 cases were evaluated with a female/male ratio of almost 2/1. Forty-nine percent originated in palatal mucosa. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas arising from pleomorphic adenomas or de novo have been reported within major salivary glands and outside the oral cavity. A 17% recurrence rate was found with a regional metastasis rate of 9%. Five cases had multiple recurrences, and 13 recurrences were at or beyond 5 years after the initial diagnosis. Regional node metastases were identified at the time of initial treatment or at the time of recurrence in 9% of cases in which follow-up data were specified.

  18. Low-grade papillary adenocarcinoma of palatal salivary gland origin.

    PubMed

    Mills, S E; Garland, T A; Allen, M S

    1984-05-01

    The clinicopathologic features of five low-grade papillary adenocarcinomas of palatal salivary gland origin are presented and seven well-documented cases from the literature are reviewed. Patients in our series ranged in age from 30 to 77 years (median 48). Symptoms were nonspecific and related to a mass present for a long duration. Histologically, these were complex cystic, papillary, focally solid tumors that were partially encapsulated. Cytologically, they were composed of bland, predominantly cuboidal cells with eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm. Four tumors were initially considered to be benign mixed tumors, but long-term follow-up indicates that these are slowly growing, malignant neoplasms. Three patients developed solitary cervical lymph node metastases from 2 to 21 years after initial presentation. One tumor underwent an anaplastic transformation to solid adenocarcinoma, and this was from the only patient in our series who died with tumor. Low-grade papillary adenocarcinoma is a clinicopathologically distinctive salivary gland neoplasm, with histologic features unlike those of other papillary salivary gland tumors.

  19. Total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  20. Low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a setting of Warthin's tumor.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Manisha; Satyanarayana, S

    2012-01-01

    Warthin's tumor also known as papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum is a common benign salivary gland neoplasm that occurs exclusively in parotid gland. Rarely, the tumor can undergo carcinomatous or lymphomatous transformation of epithelial or lymphoid component, respectively. Herein, we describe a case of 55-year-old female who had undergone parotidectomy for a rapidly growing tumor in the right parotid gland. The case was diagnosed as mucoepidermoid carcinoma developed in a setting of Warthin's tumor based on the histomorphology, special staining characters, and immunohistochemical findings. The pathogenesis and differential diagnoses of such rare malignancy has been discussed briefly.

  1. Clinical ramifications of "genomic staging" of low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vivek; Mehta, Minesh P

    2016-09-01

    "Low-grade gliomas" (LGGs), classification of which is derived from histopathological observations, exhibit significant heterogeneity in clinical behavior. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to genomic analyses of these tumors, to aid in treatment and prognostic decision-making. We discuss herein the recent genomic analysis of gliomas from two major recent publications, and also the results of seminal LGG trials in the context of molecular and genomic stratification, with respect to both prognosis and response to therapy. We also analyze implications of these "molecular classifications". We propose separating out the worst prognostic subsets, whose outcomes resemble those of glioblastoma patients. Lastly, a brief discussion is provided regarding translating this collective knowledge into the clinic and in treatment decisions; also addressed are some of the many questions that still need to be examined in light of these strong and emerging data. PMID:27401152

  2. Interaction of low-grade metamorphic coals with methanol

    SciTech Connect

    S.I. Zherebtsov

    2007-06-15

    How conditions of alkylation of low-grade metamorphic coals with methanol in the presence of benzenesulfonic acid influence the yield of extractable matter was experimentally studied and relevant regression equations were obtained. It was shown that catalytic methylation considerably increases the yield of the extractable matter, as well as reducing the thermal stability of modified samples and alters the elemental composition of the samples and their extracts. A possible mechanism of coal methylation is discussed on the basis of regression models and experimental results. The interaction of the coal matter with the alkylating agent presumably involves the formation of the carbocation and its reaction with the coal organic matter. Both depolymerization reactions and the addition reactions of a portion of extractable compounds, the alkylating agent, and the catalyst with the high-molecular mass coal matrix take place.

  3. Radiation therapy for localized duodenal low-grade follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Arisa; Oguchi, Masahiko; Terui, Yasuhito; Takeuchi, Kengo; Igarashi, Masahiro; Kozuka, Takuyo; Harada, Ken; Uno, Takashi; Hatake, Kiyohiko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the initial treatment results and toxicities of radiation therapy for patients with early stage low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) arising from the duodenum. We reviewed 21 consecutive patients with early stage duodenal FL treated with radiation therapy between January 2005 and December 2013 at the Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo. The characteristics of patients were: median age 62 years (range, 46–79 years), gender (male, 6; female, 15), clinical stage (I, 20; II1, 1), histological grade (I, 17; II, 4). All patients were treated with radiation therapy alone. The median radiation dose was 30.6 Gy (range, 30.6–39.6) in 17 fractions. The involved-site radiation therapy was delivered to the whole duodenum. The median follow-up time was 43.2 months (range 21.4–109.3). The 3-year overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS) and local control (LC) rates were 94.7%, 79.3% and 100%, respectively. There were four relapses documented outside the treated volumes: two in the gastrointestinal tract (jejunum, terminal ileum), one in an abdominal lymph node (mesenteric lymph node) and one in the bone marrow. None died of the disease; one death was due to acute myeloid leukemia. No toxicities greater than Grade 1 were observed during treatment and over the follow-up time. The 30.6 Gy of involved-site radiation therapy provided excellent local control with very low toxicities. Radiation therapy could be an effective and safe treatment option for patients with localized low grade FL arising from the duodenum. PMID:27009323

  4. Selected topics on lymphoid lesions in the head and neck regions.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Wesley O; Wang, Sa A

    2011-03-01

    Lymphoid tissue located in the head and neck region include multiple regional lymph node chains as well as mucosa associated lymphoid tissue of the conjunctiva, buccal and nasopharyngeal cavities (Waldeyer's ring), and thyroid and salivary glands. This region is a rich source of antigenic stimuli including infectious agents coming from the outside environment. Many reactive conditions that affect lymphoid tissue in this region may mimic neoplasia. In fact, distinguishing between benign and malignant lymphoid proliferations in the head and neck region is a relatively frequent diagnostic challenge and in many instances, this distinction is not straightforward. It therefore behooves the practicing pathologist to be able to recognize the benign lymphoproliferative disorders that affect this region so as to effectively guide the appropriate clinical management of such patients. Kimura disease, Epstein Barr lymphadenitis, HIV associated salivary gland disease and chronic sialadenitis are benign conditions that not infrequently affect lymphoid tissue in the head and neck region and that share certain overlapping features with malignant lymphoma. In this brief review, we discuss these conditions and highlight clinicopathological features that may help distinguish them from neoplastic lymphoproliferations that may share similar features.

  5. Rare case of sclerosing mesenteritis and low grade follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Seema; Mahy, Gillian; Roche, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    An unusual case of long standing sclerosing mesenteritis; initially presented with recurrent abdominal pain and a mesenteric mass with surrounding fat oedema and stranding with a pseudocapsule and fat ring sign were clearly visualised on the initial computed tomography scan. Laparotomy showed diffuse thickening at the root of the mesentery and histology from this specimen revealed fat necrosis and reactive lymphoid tissue consistent with sclerosing mesenteritis. Initial treatment with steroids and tamoxifen relieved the symptoms and the mass. He was maintained on tamoxifen. Three years later he developed a recurrence of his symptoms and abdominal mass that responded to a course of steroids. Two years following this, he developed a follicular Hodgkin’s lymphoma. PMID:27099861

  6. Low-grade albuminuria in children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Varlami, Vasiliki; Malakasioti, Georgia; Alexopoulos, Emmanouel I; Theologi, Vasiliki; Theophanous, Eleni; Liakos, Nikolaos; Daskalopoulou, Euphemia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Kaditis, Athanasios G

    2013-06-01

    Small urinary protein loss (low-grade albuminuria or microalbuminuria) may reflect altered permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier. In the present study, it was hypothesized that children with obstructive sleep apnea have an increased risk of microalbuminuria compared with control subjects without sleep-disordered breathing. Albumin-to-creatinine ratio was measured in morning spot urine specimens collected from consecutive children with or without snoring who were referred for polysomnography. Three groups were studied: (i) control subjects (no snoring, apnea-hypopnea index < 1 episode h(-1) ; n = 31); (ii) mild obstructive sleep apnea (snoring, apnea-hypopnea index = 1-5 episodes h(-1) ; n = 71); and (iii) moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea (snoring, apnea-hypopnea index > 5 episodes∙h(-1) ; n = 27). Indications for polysomnography in control subjects included nightmares, somnambulism and morning headaches. An albumin-to-creatinine ratio > median value in the control group (1.85 mg of albumin per g of creatinine) was defined as elevated. Logistic regression analysis revealed that children with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea, but not those with mild obstructive sleep apnea, had increased risk of elevated albumin-to-creatinine ratio relative to controls (reference) after adjustment for age, gender and presence of obesity: odds ratio 3.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1-12.6); P = 0.04 and 1.5 (0.6-3.7); P > 0.05, respectively. Oxygen desaturation of hemoglobin and respiratory arousal indices were significant predictors of albumin-to-creatinine ratio (r = 0.31, P = 0.01; and r = 0.43, P < 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, children with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea are at significantly higher risk of increased low-grade excretion of albumin in the morning urine as compared with control subjects without obstructive sleep apnea. These findings may reflect altered permeability of the glomerular

  7. Outcomes of Multidisciplinary Management in Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Kevin S.; Hung, Jonathan; Robertson, Patricia L.; Garton, Hugh J.; Muraszko, Karin M.; Sandler, Howard M.; Hamstra, Daniel A.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes in pediatric low-grade gliomas managed in a multidisciplinary setting. Methods and Materials: We conducted a single-institution retrospective study of 181 children with Grade I-II gliomas. Log-rank and stepwise Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze freedom from progression (FFP) and overall survival (OS). Results: Median follow-up was 6.4 years. Thirty-four (19%) of patients had neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) and because of their favorable prognosis were evaluated separately. In the 147 (81%) of patients without NF1, actuarial 7-year FFP and OS were 67 {+-} 4% (standard error) and 94 {+-} 2%, respectively. In this population, tumor location in the optic pathway/hypothalamus was associated with worse FFP (39% vs. 76%, p < 0.0003), but there was no difference in OS. Age {<=}5 years was associated with worse FFP (52% vs. 75%, p < 0.02) but improved OS (97% vs. 92%, p < 0.05). In those with tissue diagnosis, gross total resection (GTR) was associated with improved 7-year FFP (81% vs. 56%, p < 0.02) and OS (100% vs. 90%, p < 0.03). In a multivariate model, only location in the optic pathway/hypothalamus predicted worse FFP (p < 0.01). Fifty patients received radiation therapy (RT). For those with less than GTR, adjuvant RT improved FFP (89% vs. 49%, p < 0.003) but not OS. There was no difference in OS between patient groups given RT as adjuvant vs. salvage therapy. In NF1 patients, 94% of tumors were located in the optic pathway/hypothalamus. With a conservative treatment strategy in this population, actuarial 7-year FFP and OS were 73 {+-} 9% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: Low-grade gliomas in children {<=}5 years old with tumors in the optic pathway/hypothalamus are more likely to progress, but this does not confer worse OS because of the success of salvage therapy. When GTR is not achieved, adjuvant RT improves FFP but not OS. Routine adjuvant RT can be avoided and instead reserved as salvage.

  8. [A case of palatal polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, S; Tanaka, T; Nibu, K; Ishibashi, T; Ichimura, K; Yamada, A

    1995-07-01

    We present a 58-year-old male patient with bilateral cheek swelling and an extraorally protruding tumor who has had deaf mutism since birth. He underwent surgery of the right hard palate 11 years ago. Five years later biopsy was performed for a recurrent lesion diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma. He refused additional treatment and the size of the tumor subsequently increased slowly. As rapid tumor-growth had been observed since autumn of 1992, he was referred to Tokyo University Hospital. We took meticulous care of this deaf-mute patient, especially from the psychological aspect, which caused him to place great reliance upon us. We performed bilateral maxillectomy with partial resection of the right cheek skin and reconstructed his face and palate successfully using both latissmus dorsi and serratus anterior musculocutaneous free flaps with a rib. Histopathological diagnosis of the tumor was polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma, which was registered as a definite entity in the WHO Classification in 1991. There was no evidence of local recurrence or metastasis one year postoperatively. PMID:7562229

  9. Characterization and Beneficiation Studies of a Low Grade Bauxite Ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, D. S.; Das, B.

    2014-10-01

    A low grade bauxite sample of central India was thoroughly characterized with the help of stereomicroscope, reflected light microscope and electron microscope using QEMSCAN. A few hand picked samples were collected from different places of the mine and were subjected to geochemical characterization studies. The geochemical studies indicated that most of the samples contain high silica and low alumina, except a few which are high grade. Mineralogically the samples consist of bauxite (gibbsite and boehmite), ferruginous mineral phases (goethite and hematite), clay and silicate (quartz), and titanium bearing minerals like rutile and ilmenite. Majority of the gibbsite, boehmite and gibbsitic oolites contain clay, quartz and iron and titanium mineral phases within the sample as inclusions. The sample on an average contains 39.1 % Al2O3 and 12.3 % SiO2, and 20.08 % of Fe2O3. Beneficiation techniques like size classification, sorting, scrubbing, hydrocyclone and magnetic separation were employed to reduce the silica content suitable for Bayer process. The studies indicated that, 50 % by weight with 41 % Al2O3 containing less than 5 % SiO2 could be achieved. The finer sized sample after physical beneficiation still contains high silica due to complex mineralogical associations.

  10. Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm mimicking an adnexal mass.

    PubMed

    Cristian, Daniel Alin; Grama, Florin Andrei; Becheanu, Gabriel; Pop, Anamaria; Popa, Ileana; Şurlin, Valeriu; Stănilescu, Sorin; Bratu, Ana Magdalena; Burcoş, Traean

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of malignant epithelial neoplasm of the appendix, an uncommon disorder encountered in clinical practice, which poses a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. We report a particular case in which the appendix was abnormally located in the pelvis, mimicking an adnexal mass. Therefore, it was difficult to make the preoperative diagnosis on clinical examination, imaging studies and laboratory tests and we discovered the lesion during the diagnostic laparoscopy. No lymphadenopathy or mucinous ascites were found. The case was completely handled via the laparoscopic approach keeping the appendix intact during the operation. The frozen section, the detailed histopathology overview as well as multiple immunostaining with a complex panel of markers report diagnosed a low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN) with no invasion of the wall. No adjuvant therapy was considered needed. At a one-year follow-up oncological assessment, the patient was free of disease. In women with cystic mass in the right iliac fossa an appendiceal mucocele should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Laparoscopic appendectomy can represent an adequate operation for the appendiceal mucinous neoplasm if the histological report is clear and surgical precautionary measures are taken.

  11. Second Surgery in Insular Low-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Ius, Tamara; Pauletto, Giada; Cesselli, Daniela; Isola, Miriam; Turella, Luca; Budai, Riccardo; DeMaglio, Giovanna; Eleopra, Roberto; Fadiga, Luciano; Lettieri, Christian; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Beltrami, Carlo Alberto; Skrap, Miran

    2015-01-01

    Background. Given the technical difficulties, a limited number of works have been published on insular gliomas surgery and risk factors for tumor recurrence (TR) are poorly documented. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine TR in adult patients with initial diagnosis of insular Low-Grade Gliomas (LGGs) that subsequently underwent second surgery. Methods. A consecutive series of 53 patients with insular LGGs was retrospectively reviewed; 23 patients had two operations for TR. Results. At the time of second surgery, almost half of the patients had experienced progression into high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Univariate analysis showed that TR is influenced by the following: extent of resection (EOR) (P < 0.002), ΔVT2T1 value (P < 0.001), histological diagnosis of oligodendroglioma (P = 0.017), and mutation of IDH1 (P = 0.022). The multivariate analysis showed that EOR at first surgery was the independent predictor for TR (P < 0.001). Conclusions. In patients with insular LGG the EOR at first surgery represents the major predictive factor for TR. At time of TR, more than 50% of cases had progressed in HGG, raising the question of the oncological management after the first surgery. PMID:26539503

  12. The evolving molecular genetics of low-grade glioma

    PubMed Central

    Venneti, Sriram; Huse, Jason T.

    2015-01-01

    Low-grade gliomas (LGG) constitute grade I and grade II tumors of astrocytic and grade II tumors of oligodendroglial lineage. Although these tumors are typically slow growing, they may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to recurrence and malignant progression, even in the setting of optimal resection. LGG in pediatric and adult age groups are currently classified by morphologic criteria. Recent years have heralded a molecular revolution in understanding brain tumors, including LGG. Next generation sequencing has definitively demonstrated that pediatric and adult LGG fundamentally differ in their underlying molecular characteristics, despite being histologically similar. Pediatric LGG show alterations in FGFR1 and BRAF in pilocytic astrocytomas and FGFR1 alterations in diffuse astrocytomas, each converging on the MAP kinase-signaling pathway. Adult LGG are characterized by IDH1/2 mutations and ATRX mutations in astrocytic tumors and IDH1/2 mutations and 1p/19q codeletions in oligodendroglial tumors. TERT promoter mutations are also noted in LGG and are mainly associated with oligodendrogliomas. These findings have considerably refined approaches to classifying these tumors. Moreover, many of the molecular alterations identified in LGG directly impact on prognosis, tumor biology, and the development of novel therapies. PMID:25664944

  13. Beneficiation and hydroretorting of low grade oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Tippin, R.B.; Hanna, J.; Janka, J.C.; Rex, R.C. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    A new approach to oil recovery from low grade oil shales has been developed jointly by the Mineral Resources Institute (MRI) of The University of Alabama and the HYCRUDE Corporation. The approach is based on the HYTORT process, which utilized hydrogen gas during the retorting process to enhance oil yields from many types of oil shales. The performance of the HYTORT process is further improved by combining it with MRI's froth flotation process. Taking advantage of differences in the surface properties of the kerogen and the inorganic mineral constituents of the oil shales, the MRI process can reject up to three quarters by weight of relatively kerogen-free inorganic fractions of the oil shale before HYTORT processing. The HYTORT and MRI processes are discussed. Results of tests by each process on oil shales of low to moderate inherent kerogen content are presented. Also discussed are the results of the combined processes on an Indiana New Albany oil shale. By combining the two processes, the raw shale which yielded 12 gallons of oil per ton by Fischer Assay was upgraded by flotation to a product yielding 27 gallons of Fischer Assay oil per ton. HYTORT processing of the beneficiated product recovered 54 gallons of oil per ton, an improvement in oil yield by a factor of 4.5 over the raw shale Fischer Assay.

  14. Lymphoid microenvironments and innate lymphoid cells in the gut.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Claire; Uhlig, Holm H; Powrie, Fiona

    2012-06-01

    Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is a sensor region for luminal content and plays an important role in lymphoid maturation, activation and differentiation. It comprises isolated and aggregated lymphoid follicles, cryptopatches (CPs) and tertiary lymphoid tissue. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play a central role within GALT. Prenatal GALT development is dependent on ILC lymphoid-inducer function. Postnatally, these cells rapidly respond to commensal and pathogenic intestinal bacteria, parasites and food components by polarized cytokine production [such as interleukin (IL)-22, IL-17 or IL-13] and further contribute to GALT formation and function. Here, we discuss how ILCs shape lymphoid intestinal microenvironments and act as amplifier cells for innate and adaptive immune responses.

  15. Histologically Proven, Low-grade Brainstem Gliomas in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Laack, Nadia N.; Eckel, Laurence J.; Orme, Nicholas M.; Wetjen, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate long-term overall survival (OS), progression- free survival (PFS), and outcomes in pathologically proven brainstem low-grade gliomas (BS-LGG) in children. Methods The Mayo Clinic tumor registry identified 48 consecutive children (≤20 y, 52% female) with biopsy-proven BS-LGG treated at Mayo Clinic between January 1971 and December 2004. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. For analysis, patients were censored at the time of recurrence, death, or last follow-up. Results The median age at diagnosis was 12 years with a median follow-up of 6.0 years. The majority of tumors were grade I (69%) and pathology was consistent with an astrocytoma in the majority of patients (98%). Gross total resection was obtained in 4, subtotal in 17, and 27 patients were biopsied only. Postoperative radiotherapy (RT) was used in 29 patients. Median OS for the entire group was 14.8 years with a 1-, 5-, and 10-year OS of 85%, 67% and 59%, respectively. Median PFS for the entire group was 7.3 years. Improved survival was associated with undergoing resection versus biopsy-only with 5-year OS rates of 85% and 50% (P = 0.002), respectively. A high proportion of patients (42%) had diffuse tumors and 13 patients (27%) had diffuse pontine gliomas (DPGs). DPGs had an OS of 1.8 years with a worse median PFS than non-DPGs (1.8 vs. 11.1 y; P = 0.009). RT was used preferentially in patients with poor prognosis such as those who had a biopsy-only procedure (19/27) and DPGs (9/13). Conclusions OS in this single institution retrospective study in pathologically proven BS-LGG with extensive follow-up displayed favorable long-term outcomes. Improved outcomes were associated with nondiffuse classification. PMID:23357966

  16. PDGFRA gain in low-grade diffuse gliomas.

    PubMed

    Motomura, Kazuya; Mittelbronn, Michel; Paulus, Werner; Brokinkel, Benjamin; Keyvani, Kathy; Sure, Ulrich; Wrede, Karsten; Nakazato, Yoichi; Tanaka, Yuko; Nonoguchi, Naosuke; Pierscianek, Daniela; Kim, Young-Ho; Mariani, Luigi; Vital, Anne; Perry, Arie; Ohgaki, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastomas with a proneural expression signature are characterized by frequent IDH1 mutations (i.e. genetic hallmarks of secondary glioblastomas) and PDGFRA (platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α) amplification. Mutations in IDH1/2 are frequent and early genetic events in diffuse astrocytomas (World Health Organization grade II), precursor to secondary glioblastomas, but little is known about the role and timing of PDGFRA amplification in these tumors. We assessed PDGFRA gain in 342 low-grade diffuse gliomas by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Gain in PDGFRA was detected in 27 (16.3%) of 166 diffuse astrocytomas, significantly more frequent than in oligodendrogliomas (3 [2.6%] of 115, p < 0.0001). Analyses using previously published data from our laboratory showed an inverse correlation between PDGFRA gain and IDH1/2 mutations (p = 0.018) or 1p/19q loss (p < 0.0001). The vast majority of diffuse astrocytomas showed IDH1/2 mutations and/or PDGFRA gain (154 [93%] of 166). Mean survival of diffuse astrocytoma patients with PDGFRA gain was 8.8 ± 1.6 years, similar to that with IDH1/2 mutations (7.8 ± 0.5 years) or TP53 mutations (7.6 ± 0.6 years) but significantly longer than those with MET gain (4.4 ± 0.7 years). Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization in 6 diffuse astrocytomas with PDGFRA/MET co-gain identified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that PDGFRA and MET were typically amplified in different tumor cell populations. Tumor cells with coamplification were also focally observed, suggesting intratumoral heterogeneity, even in diffuse astrocytomas.

  17. Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 Restores Gut Barrier Permeability in Chronically Low-Grade Inflamed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Rebeca; Laval, Laure; Chain, Florian; Miquel, Sylvie; Natividad, Jane; Cherbuy, Claire; Sokol, Harry; Verdu, Elena F.; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan; Bermudez-Humaran, Luis G.; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the efficacy of many probiotic strains in the management of gastrointestinal disorders associated with deregulated intestinal barrier function and/or structure. In particular, bifidobacteria have been studied for their efficacy to both prevent and treat a broad spectrum of animal and/or human gut disorders. The aim of the current work was thus to evaluate effects on intestinal barrier function of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494, a strain used in fermented dairy products. A chronic dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced low-grade inflammation model causing gut dysfunction in mice was used in order to study markers of inflammation, intestinal permeability, and immune function in the presence of the bacterial strain. In this chronic low-grade inflammation mice model several parameters pointed out the absence of an over active inflammation process. However, gut permeability, lymphocyte populations, and colonic cytokines were found to be altered. B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 was able to protect barrier functions by restoring intestinal permeability, colonic goblet cell populations, and cytokine levels. Furthermore, tight junction (TJ) proteins levels were also measured by qRT-PCR showing the ability of this strain to specifically normalize the level of several TJ proteins, in particular for claudin-4. Finally, B. lactis strain counterbalanced CD4+ lymphocyte alterations in both spleen and mesenteric lymphoid nodes. It restores the Th1/Th2 ratio altered by the DNBS challenge (which locally augments CD4+ Th1 cells) by increasing the Th2 response as measured by the increase in the production of major representative Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10). Altogether, these data suggest that B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 may efficiently prevent disorders associated with increased barrier permeability. PMID:27199937

  18. Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 Restores Gut Barrier Permeability in Chronically Low-Grade Inflamed Mice.

    PubMed

    Martín, Rebeca; Laval, Laure; Chain, Florian; Miquel, Sylvie; Natividad, Jane; Cherbuy, Claire; Sokol, Harry; Verdu, Elena F; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan; Bermudez-Humaran, Luis G; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the efficacy of many probiotic strains in the management of gastrointestinal disorders associated with deregulated intestinal barrier function and/or structure. In particular, bifidobacteria have been studied for their efficacy to both prevent and treat a broad spectrum of animal and/or human gut disorders. The aim of the current work was thus to evaluate effects on intestinal barrier function of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494, a strain used in fermented dairy products. A chronic dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced low-grade inflammation model causing gut dysfunction in mice was used in order to study markers of inflammation, intestinal permeability, and immune function in the presence of the bacterial strain. In this chronic low-grade inflammation mice model several parameters pointed out the absence of an over active inflammation process. However, gut permeability, lymphocyte populations, and colonic cytokines were found to be altered. B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 was able to protect barrier functions by restoring intestinal permeability, colonic goblet cell populations, and cytokine levels. Furthermore, tight junction (TJ) proteins levels were also measured by qRT-PCR showing the ability of this strain to specifically normalize the level of several TJ proteins, in particular for claudin-4. Finally, B. lactis strain counterbalanced CD4(+) lymphocyte alterations in both spleen and mesenteric lymphoid nodes. It restores the Th1/Th2 ratio altered by the DNBS challenge (which locally augments CD4(+) Th1 cells) by increasing the Th2 response as measured by the increase in the production of major representative Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10). Altogether, these data suggest that B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 may efficiently prevent disorders associated with increased barrier permeability. PMID:27199937

  19. Grain-rich diets altered the colonic fermentation and mucosa-associated bacterial communities and induced mucosal injuries in goats

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Huimin; Liu, Junhua; Feng, Panfei; Zhu, Weiyun; Mao, Shengyong

    2016-01-01

    Remarkably little information is available about the impact of high-grain (HG) feeding on colonic mucosa-associated bacteria and mucosal morphology. In the present study, 12 male goats were randomly assigned to either a hay diet (n = 6) or an HG diet (65% grain; n = 6) to characterise the changes in the composition of the bacterial community in colonic mucosa and the mucosal morphology of the colon. The results showed that HG feeding decreased the colonic pH and increased the concentrations of total short chain fatty acids and lipopolysaccharides in colonic digesta. The principal coordinate analysis results showed that the HG diet altered the colonic mucosal bacterial communities, with an increase in the abundance of genus Blautia and a decrease in the abundance of genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Lactococcus. The HG-fed goats showed sloughing of the surface layer epithelium, intercellular tight junction erosion, cell mitochondrial damage, and upregulation of the relative mRNA expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ in colonic mucosa. Collectively, our data indicate that HG feeding induced changes in colonic mucosal morphology and cytokines expression that might be caused by excessive fermentation and dramatic shifts in the bacterial populations in the colon. PMID:26841945

  20. Mucosa-Associated Invariant T Cells Are Systemically Depleted in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Vinton, Carol; Wu, Fan; Rossjohn, Jamie; Matsuda, Kenta; McCluskey, James; Hirsch, Vanessa; Price, David A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells contribute to host immune protection against a wide range of potential pathogens via the recognition of bacterial metabolites presented by the major histocompatibility complex class I-related molecule MR1. Although bacterial products translocate systemically in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected Asian macaques, several studies have shown that MAIT cell frequencies actually decrease in peripheral blood during the course of HIV/SIV disease. However, the mechanisms underlying this proportional decline remain unclear. In this study, we characterized the phenotype, activation status, functionality, distribution, and clonotypic structure of MAIT cell populations in the peripheral blood, liver, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), jejunum, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of healthy and SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RMs). Low frequencies of MAIT cells were observed in the peripheral blood, MLNs, and BAL fluid of SIV-infected RMs. These numerical changes were coupled with increased proliferation and a highly public T cell receptor alpha (TCRα) repertoire in the MAIT cell compartment without redistribution to other anatomical sites. Collectively, our data show systemically decreased frequencies of MAIT cells likely attributable to enhanced turnover in SIV-infected RMs. This process may impair protective immunity against certain opportunistic infections with progression to AIDS. IMPORTANCE The data presented in this study reveal for the first time that MAIT cells are systemically depleted in an AIDS virus infection. These findings provide a new mechanistic link with our current understanding of HIV/SIV pathogenesis and implicate MAIT cell depletion in the disease process. PMID:26912615

  1. Dynamic changes of the luminal and mucosa-associated gut microbiota during and after antibiotic therapy with paromomycin.

    PubMed

    Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Knecht, Henrik; Neulinger, Sven C; Schmitz, Ruth A; Knecht, Carolin; Kühbacher, Tanja; Rosenstiel, Philip C; Schreiber, Stefan; Friedrichs, Anette K; Ott, Stephan J

    2015-07-01

    Gut microbiota play a key role in the host's health system. Broad antibiotic therapy is known to disrupt the microbial balance affecting pathogenic as well as host-associated microbes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of antibiotic paromomycin on the luminal and mucosa-associated microbiota at the DNA (abundance) and RNA (potential activity) level as well as to identify possible differences. The influence of antibiotic treatment on intestinal microbiota was investigated in 5 healthy individuals (age range: 20-22 years). All participants received the antibiotic paromomycin for 3 d. Fecal samples as well as sigmoidal biopsies were collected before and immediately after cessation of antibiotic treatment as well as after a recovery phase of 42 d. Compartment- and treatment status-specific indicator operational taxonomic units (OTUs) as well as abundance- and activity-specific patterns were identified by 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries and high-throughput pyrosequencing. Microbial composition of lumen and mucosa were significantly different at the DNA compared to the RNA level. Antibiotic treatment resulted in changes of the microbiota, affecting the luminal and mucosal bacteria in a similar way. Several OTUs were identified as compartment- and/or treatment status-specific. Abundance and activity patterns of some indicator OTUs differed considerably. The study shows fundamental changes in composition of gut microbiota under antibiotic therapy at both the potential activity and the abundance level at different treatment status. It may help to understand the complex processes of gut microbiota changes involved in resilience mechanisms and on development of antibiotic-associated clinical diseases. PMID:26178862

  2. Dynamic changes of the luminal and mucosa-associated gut microbiota during and after antibiotic therapy with paromomycin

    PubMed Central

    Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Knecht, Henrik; Neulinger, Sven C; Schmitz, Ruth A; Knecht, Carolin; Kühbacher, Tanja; Rosenstiel, Philip C; Schreiber, Stefan; Friedrichs, Anette K; Ott, Stephan J

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota play a key role in the host's health system. Broad antibiotic therapy is known to disrupt the microbial balance affecting pathogenic as well as host-associated microbes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of antibiotic paromomycin on the luminal and mucosa-associated microbiota at the DNA (abundance) and RNA (potential activity) level as well as to identify possible differences. The influence of antibiotic treatment on intestinal microbiota was investigated in 5 healthy individuals (age range: 20–22 years). All participants received the antibiotic paromomycin for 3 d. Fecal samples as well as sigmoidal biopsies were collected before and immediately after cessation of antibiotic treatment as well as after a recovery phase of 42 d. Compartment- and treatment status-specific indicator operational taxonomic units (OTUs) as well as abundance- and activity-specific patterns were identified by 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries and high-throughput pyrosequencing. Microbial composition of lumen and mucosa were significantly different at the DNA compared to the RNA level. Antibiotic treatment resulted in changes of the microbiota, affecting the luminal and mucosal bacteria in a similar way. Several OTUs were identified as compartment- and/or treatment status-specific. Abundance and activity patterns of some indicator OTUs differed considerably. The study shows fundamental changes in composition of gut microbiota under antibiotic therapy at both the potential activity and the abundance level at different treatment status. It may help to understand the complex processes of gut microbiota changes involved in resilience mechanisms and on development of antibiotic-associated clinical diseases. PMID:26178862

  3. BRAF Mutation Is Rare in Advanced-Stage Low-Grade Ovarian Serous Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Tsang, Yvonne T.M.; Deavers, Michael T.; Mok, Samuel C.; Zu, Zhifei; Sun, Charlotte; Malpica, Anais; Wolf, Judith K.; Lu, Karen H.; Gershenson, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas are believed to arise via an adenoma-serous borderline tumor-serous carcinoma sequence. In this study, we found that advanced-stage, low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas both with and without adjacent serous borderline tumor shared similar regions of loss of heterozygosity. We then analyzed 91 ovarian tumor samples for mutations in TP53, BRAF, and KRAS. TP53 mutations were not detected in any serous borderline tumors (n = 30) or low-grade serous carcinomas (n = 43) but were found in 73% of high-grade serous carcinomas (n = 18). BRAF (n = 9) or KRAS (n = 5) mutation was detected in 47% of serous borderline tumors, but among the low-grade serous carcinomas (39 stage III, 2 stage II, and 2 stage I), only one (2%) had a BRAF mutation and eight (19%) had a KRAS mutation. The low frequency of BRAF mutations in advanced-stage, low-grade serous carcinomas, which contrasts with previous findings, suggests that aggressive, low-grade serous carcinomas are more likely derived from serous borderline tumors without BRAF mutation. In addition, advanced-stage, low-grade carcinoma patients with BRAF or KRAS mutation have a better apparent clinical outcome. However, further investigation is needed. PMID:20802181

  4. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs.

    PubMed

    Nosenko, M A; Drutskaya, M S; Moisenovich, M M; Nedospasov, S A

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed.

  5. AMG 319 Lymphoid Malignancy FIH

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-20

    Cancer; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Hematologic Malignancies; Hematology; Leukemia; Low Grade Lymphoma; Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Oncology; Oncology Patients; T Cell Lymphoma; Tumors

  6. Prospects for production of synthetic liquid fuel from low-grade coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevyrev, Sergei; Bogomolov, Aleksandr; Alekssev, Maksim

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, we compare the energy costs of steam and steam-oxygen gasification technologies for production of synthetic liquid fuel. Results of mathematic simulation and experimental studies on gasification of low-grade coal are presented.

  7. The Cancer Genome Atlas expression profiles of low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Gonda, David D; Cheung, Vincent J; Muller, Karra A; Goyal, Amit; Carter, Bob S; Chen, Clark C

    2014-04-01

    Differentiating between low-grade gliomas (LGGs) of astrocytic and oligodendroglial origin remains a major challenge in neurooncology. Here the authors analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) profiles of LGGs with the goal of identifying distinct molecular characteristics that would afford accurate and reliable discrimination of astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors. They found that 1) oligodendrogliomas are more likely to exhibit the glioma-CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP), relative to low-grade astrocytomas; 2) relative to oligodendrogliomas, low-grade astrocytomas exhibit a higher expression of genes related to mitosis, replication, and inflammation; and 3) low-grade astrocytic tumors harbor microRNA profiles similar to those previously described for glioblastoma tumors. Orthogonal intersection of these molecular characteristics with existing molecular markers, such as IDH1 mutation, TP53 mutation, and 1p19q status, should facilitate accurate and reliable pathological diagnosis of LGGs.

  8. Finasteride Reduces the Risk of Low-Grade Prostate Cancer in Men 55 and Older

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Finasteride Reduces the Risk of Low-Grade Prostate Cancer ... PCPT) continue to show that regular use of finasteride (Proscar®) for up to 7 years decreased the ...

  9. Occupation and lymphoid neoplasms.

    PubMed Central

    La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; D'Avanzo, B.; Franceschi, S.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between occupation and exposure to a number of occupational agents and lymphoid neoplasms was investigated in a case-control study of 69 cases of Hodgkin's disease, 153 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 110 multiple myelomas and 396 controls admitted for acute diseases to a network of teaching and general hospitals in the greater Milan area. Among the cases, there was a significant excess of individuals ever occupied in agriculture and food processing: the multivariate relative risks (RR) were 2.1 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.0-3.8) for Hodgkin's disease, 1.9 (95% CI = 1.2-3.0) for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and 2.0 (95% CI = 1.1-3.5) for multiple myeloma. Significant trends for duration of exposure to herbicides were observed for lymphomas, but the association was stronger for overall occupation in agriculture than with the specific question of herbicide use. History of occupation in the chemical industry was more frequent among Hodgkin's disease (RR = 4.3, 95% CI = 1.4-10.2), and a significant trend in risk was observed between duration of exposure to benzene and other solvents and multiple myeloma. No significant relation was found between any of the lymphoid neoplasms considered and rubber, dye, painting, printing, tanning leather, photography, pharmaceuticals, wood, coal/gas and nuclear industries. PMID:2789947

  10. Thermoelectric energy converter for generation of electricity from low-grade heat

    DOEpatents

    Jayadev, T.S.; Benson, D.K.

    1980-05-27

    A thermoelectric energy conversion device which includes a plurality of thermoelectric elements is described. A hot liquid is supplied to one side of each element and a cold liquid is supplied to the other side of each element. The thermoelectric generator may be utilized to produce power from low-grade heat sources such as ocean thermal gradients, solar ponds, and low-grade geothermal resources. (WHK)

  11. Plasma-enhanced gasification of low-grade coals for compact power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Lee, Bong J.

    2011-10-01

    A high temperature of a steam torch ensures an efficient gasification of low-grade coals, which is comparable to that of high-grade coals. Therefore, the coal gasification system energized by microwaves can serve as a moderately sized power plant due to its compact and lightweight design. This plasma power plant of low-grade coals would be useful in rural or sparsely populated areas without access to a national power grid.

  12. Subjective Quality of Life in Persons with Low-Grade Glioma and Their Next of Kin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edvardsson, Tanja I.; Ahlstrom, Gerd I.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with low-grade glioma have a longer survival than patients with highly malignant glioma, and for this reason questions of quality of life (QoL) are of particular importance to such patients as well as to their next of kin. No studies have been found in which both adult patients with low-grade glioma and their next of kin have estimated…

  13. Low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma of the breast: imaging and histopathologic characteristics of this rare disease.

    PubMed

    Scali, Elena P; Ali, Rola H; Hayes, Malcolm; Tyldesley, Scott; Hassell, Patricia

    2013-11-01

    Low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma is a rare histologic subtype of breast carcinoma that has a variable mammographic and sonographic appearance, which overlaps with both benign and malignant neoplasms. Because of its lack of unique imaging features, a diagnosis of low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma is based on histopathology. The recognition of this entity is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of breast masses and carries implications for prognosis, which is more favorable than other types of breast carcinoma.

  14. Plasma-enhanced gasification of low-grade coals for compact power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Lee, Bong J.

    2011-10-15

    A high temperature of a steam torch ensures an efficient gasification of low-grade coals, which is comparable to that of high-grade coals. Therefore, the coal gasification system energized by microwaves can serve as a moderately sized power plant due to its compact and lightweight design. This plasma power plant of low-grade coals would be useful in rural or sparsely populated areas without access to a national power grid.

  15. Intramedullary spinal cord and leptomeningeal metastases from intracranial low-grade oligodendroglioma.

    PubMed

    Verma, Nipun; Nolan, Craig; Hirano, Miki; Young, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    We present an unusual case of a patient with an intracranial low-grade oligodendroglioma who developed recurrence with an intramedullary spinal cord metastasis and multiple spinal leptomeningeal metastases. The intramedullary spinal cord metastasis showed mild enhancement similar to the original intracranial primary, while the multiple spinal leptomeningeal metastases revealed no enhancement. This is the seventh reported case of symptomatic intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from a low-grade oligodendroglioma.

  16. Taking the temperature of low-grade and very low-grade ductile fabrics: equilibrium and disequilibrium mineral assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz; Bernroider, Manfred; Genser, Johann

    2013-04-01

    Many ductile shear zones like ductile low-angle normal faults on top of, and oblique-slip faults bordering, metamorphic core complexes exhibit a regular pattern of fabrics which usually show decreasing temperature and pressure conditions during their formation. This is because the presence of rocks with a dominant but different mineralogy results in shear concentration in the rheological weakest layer. These dominant fabric-forming minerals are with decreasing temperature: feldspar at >450 °C, quartz at >300 °C and calcite <300 °C. Fabrics and textures formed at higher temperatures are preserved in microlithons surrounded by micro-shear zones. This allows determine semiquantitively the temperature and pressure of several fabric-forming events within one rock, where generally disequilibrium is present between micro-lithon and surrounding micro-shear zones. We tested this approach using the white mica barometry and chlorite on two shear zones bordering two distinct metamorphic core complexes. The low-grade Rechnitz metamorphic core complex at the eastern termination of the Eastern Alps, which formed within an extensional setting and is surrounded by a contemporaneously formed Neogene sedimentary basin. Microstructural and textural analysis has revealed the co-existence of microstructures ranging from middle-temperatures to low-temperatures, which overprinted deformation features within the Rechnitz metamorphic core complex. Quartz displays abundant evidence for early high-temperature plastic deformation (e.g. dynamic recrystallization, polygonal grains with straight grain boundaries forming 120° triple junctions) (D2). In some cases, preferred orientations of crystallographic axes are missing and white mica was overgrowing the penetrative foliation. These features suggest annealing during subsequent metamorphism and deformation at high temperature conditions. The high-temperature microstructures and textures are in part or entirely altered by subsequent late low

  17. Protein Ubiquitination in Lymphoid Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yibin; Staudt, Louis M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Human lymphoid malignancies inherit gene expression networks from their normal B-cell counterpart and co-opt them for their own oncogenic purpose, which is usually governed by transcriptional factors and signaling pathways. These transcriptional factors and signaling pathways are precisely regulated at multiple steps, including ubiquitin modification. With a function involved in almost all cellular events, protein ubiquitination plays a role in many human diseases. In the past few years, multiple studies have expanded the role of ubiquitination in the genesis of diverse lymphoid malignancies. Here we discuss our current understanding of both proteolytic and nonproteolytic functions of the protein ubiquitination system and describe how it is involved in the pathogenesis of human lymphoid cancers. Lymphoid-restricted ubiquitination mechanisms, including ubiquitin E3 ligases and deubiquitinating enzymes, provide great opportunities for the development of targeted therapies for lymphoid cancers. PMID:25510281

  18. The Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursor.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Constantinides, Michael G; Gudjonson, Herman; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-05-20

    The discovery of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cell populations effecting different forms of type 1, 2, and 3 immunity; tissue repair; and immune regulation has transformed our understanding of mucosal immunity and allergy. The emerging complexity of these populations along with compounding issues of redundancy and plasticity raise intriguing questions about their precise lineage relationship. Here we review advances in mapping the emergence of these lineages from early lymphoid precursors. We discuss the identification of a common innate lymphoid cell precursor characterized by transient expression of the transcription factor PLZF, and the lineage relationships of innate lymphoid cells with conventional natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. We also review the rapidly growing understanding of the network of transcription factors that direct the development of these lineages.

  19. PAX2 Expression in Low Malignant Potential Ovarian Tumors and Low-Grade Ovarian Serous Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Celestine S.; Mok, Samuel C.; Tsang, Yvonne T.M.; Zu, Zhifei; Song, Huijuan; Liu, Jinsong; Deavers, Michael; Malpica, Anais; Wolf, Judith K.; Lu, Karen H.; Gershenson, David M.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian tumors of low-malignant potential and low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas are thought to represent different stages on a tumorigenic continuum and to develop along pathways distinct from high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma. We performed gene expression profiling on 3 normal human ovarian surface epithelia samples, and 10 low-grade and 10 high-grade ovarian serous carcinomas. Analysis of gene expression profiles of these samples has identified 80 genes up-regulated and 232 genes down-regulated in low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas. PAX2 was found to be one of the most up-regulated genes in low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma. The up-regulation of PAX2 was validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated a statistically significant difference in PAX2 mRNA expression (expressed as fold change in comparison to normal human ovarian surface epithelia) among ovarian tumors of low-malignant potential (1837.38, N=8), low-grade (183.12, N=17), and high-grade (3.72, N=23) carcinoma samples (p=0.015). Western blot analysis revealed strong PAX2 expression in ovarian tumors of low-malignant potential (67%, N=3) and low-grade carcinoma samples (50%, N=10) but no PAX2 protein expression in high-grade carcinomas (0%, N=10). Using immunohistochemistry, tumors of low-malignant potential (59%, N=17) and low-grade carcinoma (63%, N=16) samples expressed significantly stronger nuclear staining than high-grade ovarian carcinoma samples (9.1%, N=263). Furthermore, consistent with previous immunohistochemical findings, PAX2 expression was found to be expressed in the epithelial cells of fallopian tubes but not in normal ovarian surface epithelial cells. Our findings further support the two-tiered hypothesis that tumors of low-malignant potential and low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma are on a continuum and are distinct from high-grade ovarian carcinomas. Additionally, the absence of PAX2 expression in normal

  20. Stress Induces Endotoxemia and Low-Grade Inflammation by Increasing Barrier Permeability

    PubMed Central

    de Punder, Karin; Pruimboom, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading causes of work absence, disability, and mortality worldwide. Most of these diseases are associated with low-grade inflammation. Here, we hypothesize that stresses (defined as homeostatic disturbances) can induce low-grade inflammation by increasing the availability of water, sodium, and energy-rich substances to meet the increased metabolic demand induced by the stressor. One way of triggering low-grade inflammation is by increasing intestinal barrier permeability through activation of various components of the stress system. Although beneficial to meet the demands necessary during stress, increased intestinal barrier permeability also raises the possibility of the translocation of bacteria and their toxins across the intestinal lumen into the blood circulation. In combination with modern life-style factors, the increase in bacteria/bacterial toxin translocation arising from a more permeable intestinal wall causes a low-grade inflammatory state. We support this hypothesis with numerous studies finding associations with NCDs and markers of endotoxemia, suggesting that this process plays a pivotal and perhaps even a causal role in the development of low-grade inflammation and its related diseases. PMID:26029209

  1. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs.

    PubMed

    Nosenko, M A; Drutskaya, M S; Moisenovich, M M; Nedospasov, S A

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed. PMID:27437136

  2. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs

    PubMed Central

    Nosenko, M. A.; Drutskaya, M. S.; Moisenovich, M. M.; Nedospasov, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed. PMID:27437136

  3. Plasticity of language pathways in patients with low-grade glioma: A diffusion tensor imaging study☆

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Gang; Chen, Xiaolei; Xu, Bainan; Zhang, Jiashu; Lv, Xueming; Li, Jinjiang; Li, Fangye; Hu, Shen; Zhang, Ting; Li, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the plasticity of language pathways in patients with low-grade glioma is important for neurosurgeons to achieve maximum resection while preserving neurological function. The current study sought to investigate changes in the ventral language pathways in patients with low-grade glioma located in regions likely to affect the dorsal language pathways. The results revealed no significant difference in fractional anisotropy values in the arcuate fasciculus between groups or between hemispheres. However, fractional anisotropy and lateralization index values in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus and lateralization index values in the left inferior fronto-occpital fasciculus were higher in patients than in healthy subjects. These results indicate plasticity of language pathways in patients with low-grade glioma. The ventral language pathways may perform more functions in patients than in healthy subjects. As such, it is important to protect the ventral language pathways intraoperatively. PMID:25206710

  4. The association between low-grade inflammation, iron status and nucleic acid oxidation in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Broedbaek, Kasper; Siersma, Volkert; Andersen, Jon T.; Petersen, Morten; Afzal, Shoaib; Hjelvang, Brian; Weimann, Allan; Semba, Richard D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Poulsen, Henrik E.

    2016-01-01

    This study applied a case-control approach to investigate the association between low-grade inflammation, defined by high values within the normal range of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation. No differences in excretion of urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation between cases and controls were found and multivariable linear regression analysis showed no association between urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation and inflammatory markers. Post-hoc multivariable linear regression analysis showed significant associations between nucleic acid oxidation and various iron status markers and especially a close relationship between nucleic acid oxidation and ferritin. This study shows no association between low-grade inflammation and urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation in a population of elderly Italian people. The results suggest that low-grade inflammation only has a negligible impact on whole body nucleic acid oxidation, whereas iron status seems to be of great importance. PMID:21275071

  5. Is watch and wait still acceptable for patients with low-grade follicular lymphoma?

    PubMed

    Armitage, James O; Longo, Dan L

    2016-06-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) represents more than 20% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas worldwide and approximately 30% of the non-Hodgkin lymphomas diagnosed in the United States. Although occasionally localized at the time of diagnosis, most patients have disseminated disease. However, patients are frequently asymptomatic, and this, in combination with a long median survival, led to the initial studies of observing asymptomatic patients without initial therapy, ie, "watch and wait." Since the initial report of watch and wait as a treatment strategy for patients with low-grade FL, our understanding of the biology of the disease has advanced; multiple active new agents have been introduced into practice, and the survival of patients with low-grade FL has improved. Given these changes, is watch and wait still an acceptable treatment recommendation for a newly diagnosed patient with low-grade FL?

  6. Extraction of Copper from Malanjkhand Low-Grade Ore by Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sradhanjali; Sukla, Lala Behari; Mishra, Baroda Kanta

    2011-10-01

    Thermophilic bacteria are actively prevalent in hot water springs. Their potential to grow and sustain at higher temperatures makes them exceptional compare to other microorganism. The present study was initiated to isolate, identify and determine the feasibility of extraction of copper using thermophilic heterotrophic bacterial strain. Bacillus stearothermophilus is a thermophilic heterotrophic bacterium isolated from hot water spring, Atri, Orissa, India. This bacterium was adapted to low-grade chalcopyrite ore and its efficiency to solubilize copper from Malanjkhand low-grade ore was determined. The low-grade copper ore contains 0.27% Cu, in which the major copper-bearing mineral is chalcopyrite associated with other minerals present as minor phase. Variation in parameters such as pulp-density and temperatures were studied. After 30 days of incubation, it was found that Bacillus stearothermophilus solubilize copper up to 81.25% at pH 6.8 at 60°C. PMID:23024410

  7. Low-grade glioma: supratentorial astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and oligoastrocytoma in adults.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Lynn S; Shapiro, William R

    2004-05-01

    Low-grade glioma is not a single diagnosis but a category of biologically diverse neoplasms. They are indolent, progressive, and, following anaplastic transformation, invariably fatal. Neuro-oncologists have not established a treatment standard for these tumors. However, it is clear that "low-grade" is not synonymous with "benign," and treatment is required sometime in the course of the disease. Previously, achieving a consensus had been limited by a lack of class I evidence. Physicians treated patients based on retrospective series and personal experience. Currently, results from prospective clinical trials are becoming available. These studies have provided data that may serve as treatment guidelines. Additional results regarding the identification of prognostic variables have raised more questions to be answered. Attention is now directed to the importance of translational research to better define these neoplasms. In the future, it will be necessary to distinguish among low-grade gliomas and identify therapies that may differ between them.

  8. Intra-intestinal priming leads to antigen-specific IgA memory cells in peripheral lymphoid organs.

    PubMed Central

    Jeurissen, S H; Claassen, E; van Rooijen, N; Kraal, G

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the mechanism of IgA memory formation by testing the effects of intra-intestinal antigen priming on various booster routes. To obtain a primary immune response trinitrophenyl conjugated keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH-TNP) was injected into the lumen of the small intestines of mice. For secondary immune responses mice were boosted intra-intestinally, intravenously or subcutaneously. The distribution of antigen specific cells in situ was demonstrated by enzyme histochemistry whereas quantification of TNP-specific cells was performed with a plaque-forming cell assay. After single or repeated intra-intestinal antigen administrations both primary and secondary immune responses in terms of specific antibody containing cells were mainly located in the spleen. The anti-TNP antibody-containing cells produced predominantly IgM during the primary and IgM, IgG and IgA during the secondary response. In mesenteric lymph nodes and villi antigen-specific cells were detected sporadically. When intra-intestinal priming was followed by intravenous or subcutaneous booster injections most anti-TNP antibody-producing cells were demonstrated in the spleen and in the draining popliteal lymph nodes. In contrast to repeated intravenous or subcutaneous immunizations alone, these organs contained, besides specific IgM and IgG cells, many TNP-specific cells producing IgA antibodies. This result demonstrates that the production of IgA antibodies is not restricted to mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. IgA memory cells are induced in mucosa associated lymphoid tissues, probably in Peyer's patches, will consecutively migrate throughout the whole lymphoid system and can be triggered by renewed antigen contact to become IgA plasma cells. Images Figure 1 PMID:2416674

  9. Villous Tumor of the Urinary Bladder Resembling Low-grade Mucinous Neoplasm of the Appendix.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ayako; Sakura, Yuma; Sugimoto, Mikio; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Kuroda, Naoto

    2016-05-01

    Mucinous neoplasms of the urinary tract are very rare. We present a 63-year-old-women who had a sessile papillary villous tumor in urinary bladder. Although transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) was performed, the villous tumor repetitively recurred and gradually spread to the entire surface of bladder lumen. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination showed that the lesion was very similar to low-grade mucinous neoplasm arising in appendix vermiformis. There are no reports on appendiceal metaplasia of urinary bladder mucosa. In this case, we describe this unprecedented neoplasm as "villous tumor of the urinary bladder resembling low-grade mucinous neoplasm of the appendix."

  10. B cell clonality in gastric lymphoid tissues of patients with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ferraccioli, G F; Sorrentino, D; De Vita, S; Casatta, L; Labombarda, A; Avellini, C; Dolcetti, R; Di Luca, D; Beltrami, C A; Boiocchi, M; Bartoli, E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in the stomach and of a possible antigen driven proliferation, in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). METHODS: Twenty one patients with primary SS and 80 dyspeptic controls underwent upper endoscopy. Lymphoid tissue and Helicobacter pylori were assessed by histopathological analysis. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) genome were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA amplification. Two PCR VDJ procedures were used to detect immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement. RESULTS: Organised MALT was found in 33.3% of the patients, compared with 21.5% of the controls (NS). H pylori infection was seen in 71% of patients and 63% of controls. Genomic EBV or HHV-6 was found in a minor portion of SS gastric tissues. B cell expansion was detected in nine of the 21 patients. Infectious agents in the stomach might have contributed to B cell clonality only in 55.5% of the cases. No strict relationship was found between lymphoid follicles and clonality. CONCLUSION: Lymphoid accumulation in the gastric mucosa is common in Sjögren's syndrome, but full evidence for an antigen driven B cell expansion could not be demonstrated. Only a portion of those with clonal B cell expansion had evidence of an infectious agent. Other unknown infectious agents or factors related to the underlying disease (autoantigen) and its tissue environment may have a further role as possible causes of B clonal expansion in the gastric mucosa. Images PMID:8660105

  11. Ectopic lymphoid tissues and local immunity

    PubMed Central

    Carragher, Damian M.; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Randall, Troy D.

    2008-01-01

    Ectopic or tertiary lymphoid tissues develop at sites of inflammation or infection in peripheral, non-lymphoid organs. These tissues are architecturally similar to conventional secondary lymphoid organs, with separated B and T cell areas, specialized populations of dendritic cells, well-differentiated stromal cells and high endothelial venules. Ectopic lymphoid tissues are often associated with the local pathology that results from chronic infection or chronic inflammation. However, there are also examples in which ectopic lymphoid tissues appear to contribute to local protective immune responses. Here we review how ectopic lymphoid structures develop and function in the context of local immunity and pathology. PMID:18243731

  12. Malignant lymphomas of the skin: their differentiation from lymphoid and nonlymphoid cutaneous infiltrates that simulate lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Burke, J S

    1985-08-01

    Malignant lymphomas of the skin, excluding mycosis fungoides, are pathologically, immunologically, and clinically heterogeneous. Varying patterns and degrees of cutaneous infiltration are encountered in all histologic subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Immunologic studies have shown relatively equal numbers of cases with B and T cell phenotypes, but true histiocytic lymphomas of the skin also occur. Patients may be of any age, and they may have lymphoma in any clinical stage. A low clinical stage and a low-grade histologic subtype are significant factors for long survival. The differential diagnosis includes a variety of lymphoid infiltrates that are referred to as a group as cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia; it also includes lymphomatoid papulosis as well as nonlymphoid cutaneous infiltrates such as myeloid leukemias, histiocytosis X, malignant histiocytosis, regressing atypical histiocytosis, and neuroendocrine (Merkel) cell carcinoma. Distinction of cutaneous lymphomas from these entities requires comprehension of multiple variables, including immunologic as well as morphologic and clinical factors.

  13. Low-grade central osteosarcoma of distal femur, resembling fibrous dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliadis, Haris S; Arnaoutoglou, Christina; Plakoutsis, Sotiris; Doukas, Michalis; Batistatou, Anna; Xenakis, Theodoros A

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 32 year-old male, admitted for a lytic lesion of the distal femur. One month after the first X-ray, clinical and imaging deterioration was evident. Open biopsy revealed fibrous dysplasia. Three months later, the lytic lesion had spread to the whole distal third of the femur reaching the articular cartilage. The malignant clinical and imaging features necessitated excision of the lesion and reconstruction with a custom-made total knee arthroplasty. Intra-operatively, no obvious soft tissue infiltration was evident. Nevertheless, an excision of the distal 15.5 cm of the femur including 3.0 cm of the surrounding muscles was finally performed. The histological examination of the excised specimen revealed central low-grade osteosarcoma. Based on the morphological features of the excised tumor, allied to the clinical findings, the diagnosis of low-grade central osteosarcoma was finally made although characters of a fibrous dysplasia were apparent. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is a rare, well-differentiated sub-type of osteosarcoma, with clinical, imaging, and histological features similar to benign tumours. Thus, initial misdiagnosis is usual with the condition commonly mistaken for fibrous dysplasia. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is usually treated with surgery alone, with rare cases of distal metastases. However, regional recurrence is quite frequent after close margin excision. PMID:24147271

  14. Investigation of denitrifying microbe communities within an agricultural drainage system fitted with low-grade weirs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancing wetland characteristics in agricultural drainage ditches with the use of low-grade weirs, has been identified as a potential best management practice (BMP) to mitigate nutrient runoff from agriculture landscapes. This study examined microbe community abundance and diversity involved in den...

  15. Hotspot activating PRKD1 somatic mutations in polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Weinreb, Ilan; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Martelotto, Luciano G; Waggott, Daryl; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Harding, Nicholas J; Alfaro, Javier; Chu, Kenneth C; Viale, Agnes; Fusco, Nicola; da Cruz Paula, Arnaud; Marchio, Caterina; Sakr, Rita A; Lim, Raymond; Thompson, Lester D R; Chiosea, Simion I; Seethala, Raja R; Skalova, Alena; Stelow, Edward B; Fonseca, Isabel; Assaad, Adel; How, Christine; Wang, Jianxin; de Borja, Richard; Chan-Seng-Yue, Michelle; Howlett, Christopher J; Nichols, Anthony C; Wen, Y Hannah; Katabi, Nora; Buchner, Nicholas; Mullen, Laura; Kislinger, Thomas; Wouters, Bradly G; Liu, Fei-Fei; Norton, Larry; McPherson, John D; Rubin, Brian P; Clarke, Blaise A; Weigelt, Britta; Boutros, Paul C; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2014-11-01

    Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is the second most frequent type of malignant tumor of the minor salivary glands. We identified PRKD1 hotspot mutations encoding p.Glu710Asp in 72.9% of PLGAs but not in other salivary gland tumors. Functional studies demonstrated that this kinase-activating alteration likely constitutes a driver of PLGA.

  16. Aerobic Training Improved Low-Grade Inflammation in Obese Women with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety, M. A.; Camacho, A.; Rosety, I.; Diaz, A. J.; Fornieles, G.; Garcia, N.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major health problem in people with intellectual disabilities. It is also widely accepted that low-grade systemic inflammation associated to obesity plays a key role in the pathogenic mechanism of several disorders. Fortunately, physical activity has shown to improve inflammation in people with metabolic syndrome and type…

  17. EGFR immunolabeling pattern may discriminate low-grade gliomas from gliosis.

    PubMed

    Burel-Vandenbos, Fanny; Benchetrit, Maxime; Miquel, Catherine; Fontaine, Denys; Auvergne, Romane; Lebrun-Frenay, Christine; Cardot-Leccia, Nathalie; Michiels, Jean-François; Paquis-Flucklinger, Veronique; Virolle, Thierry

    2011-04-01

    Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is common in gliomas. Gliomas are infiltrating tumors in which neoplastic glial cells can be intermingled with reactive glial cells, particularly in diffuse low-grade gliomas. As overexpression of EGFR has also been described in gliosis, it can be difficult to evaluate EGFR immunolabeling in diffuse low-grade gliomas because of this cell mix. We compared EGFR immunolabeling between gliosis and low-grade gliomas in order to identify distinctive criteria. We studied EGFR expression in 28 cases of gliosis and 39 diffuse low-grade gliomas (23 astrocytomas and 16 oligodendrogliomas). EGFR immunohistochemistry staining was performed on paraffin-embedded sections with a mouse monoclonal antibody (clone 2-18C9; Dako). Co-expression of EGFR with Olig2, Mib-1, and p53 was assessed in seven cases of low-grade gliomas using double immunolabeling. Then, EGFR immunostaining was blindly tested on 22 small specimens of indeterminate glial lesions provided by a reference neuropathological center. Two pathologists of our local center were asked to classify the lesions into diffuse low-grade glioma or gliosis according to the pattern of EGFR expression. Weak expression of EGFR was commonly detected in gliosis (23/28 cases). Strongly-stained cells were absent. Positive cells had reactive glial cell morphology. EGFR expression in gliomas was characterized by constant strongly-stained cells (39/39 cases). All strongly-stained cells had a high nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, with minimal to moderate nuclear atypia. Most of the strongly EGFR-positive cells were Olig2-positive. All the cases displayed cells co-expressing EGFR and Mib-1. In three p53-positive tumors, many p53-positive cells were strongly EGFR-positive. On the basis of EGFR expression, 14 out of the 22 indeterminate cases were classified as gliomas and eight as gliosis by both pathologists. Concordance with the initial diagnosis established by the reference center and

  18. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Low Gestational Age Neonates with Low Grade Periventricular-Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Allison H.; Hintz, Susan R.; Hibbs, Anna Maria; Walsh, Michele C.; Vohr, Betty R.; Bann, Carla M.; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18–22 months corrected age for extremely low gestational age infants with low grade (Grade 1 or 2) periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage to infants with either no hemorrhage or severe (Grade 3 or 4) hemorrhage on cranial ultrasound. Design Longitudinal observational study Setting Sixteen centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network Participants 1472 infants born at <27 weeks gestational age between 2006–2008 with ultrasound results within the first 28 days of life and surviving to 18–22 months with complete follow-up assessments were eligible. Main Exposure Low grade periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage Outcome Measures Outcomes included cerebral palsy, gross motor functional limitation, Bayley III cognitive and language scores, and composite measures of neurodevelopmental impairment. Regression modeling evaluated the association of hemorrhage severity with adverse outcomes while controlling for potentially confounding variables and center differences. Results Low grade hemorrhage was not associated with significant differences in unadjusted or adjusted risk of any adverse neurodevelopmental outcome compared to infants without hemorrhage. Compared with low grade hemorrhage, severe hemorrhage was associated with decrease in adjusted continuous cognitive (−3.91, [95% Confidence Interval [CI]: −6.41, −1.42]) and language (−3.19 [−6.19, −0.19]) scores as well as increased odds of each adjusted categorical outcome except severe cognitive impairment (OR: 1.46 [0.74, 2.88]) and mild language impairment (OR: 1.35 [0.88, 2.06]). Conclusion At 18–22 months, the neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely low gestational age infants with low grade periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage are not significantly different from those without hemorrhage. PMID:23460139

  19. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, and mimickers: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Todd M; Kovalovsky, Andra O; Velosa, Claudia; Shi, Qiuying; Dai, Qian; Owen, Randall P; Bell, Walter C; Wei, Shi; Althof, Pamela A; Sanmann, Jennifer N; Sweeny, Larissa; Carroll, William R; Siegal, Gene P; Bullock, Martin J; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently recognized low-grade salivary carcinoma characterized by a specific ETV6 rearrangement. We describe 14 new MASCs and examine their immunophenotypic and genetic profiles in the context of look-alikes, namely, low-and high-grade salivary duct carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. ETV6 rearrangement, and robust expression of mammaglobin and S100, were demonstrated in 11/11, 14/14, and 12/14 MASCs, respectively. All low-grade salivary duct carcinomas coexpressed S100/mammaglobin (6/6); none harbored ETV6 rearrangements (0/5). Given that S100/mammaglobin coexpression and absence of zymogen granules are features of both MASC and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, these two are best distinguished histologically. The former is predominantly an extraductal neoplasm with bubbly pink cytoplasm, whereas the latter is a distinct intraductal micropapillary and cribriform process. Querying ETV6 gene status may be necessary for difficult cases. No acinic cell carcinoma expressed mammaglobin (0/13) or harbored an ETV6 rearrangement (0/7); only 1/13 acinic cell carcinomas weakly expressed S100. DOG1 expression was limited or absent among all tumor types, except acinic cell carcinoma which expressed DOG1 diffusely in a canalicular pattern. Therefore, histology and immunohistochemistry (mammaglobin, S100, DOG1) suffices in distinguishing acinic cell carcinoma from both MASC and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. HER2 (ERBB2) amplification was detected in only 1/10 acinic cell carcinomas, but none of the MASCs or low-grade salivary duct carcinomas tested. High-grade salivary duct carcinomas frequently expressed mammaglobin (11/18) and harbored HER2 amplifications (13/15); none harbored ETV6 rearrangements (0/12). High-grade salivary duct carcinomas can easily be distinguished from these other entities by histology and HER2 amplification.

  20. Expression of TYMS in lymph node metastasis from low-grade glioma

    PubMed Central

    DING, BINGQIAN; GAO, MING; LI, ZHENJIANG; XU, CHENYANG; FAN, SHAOKANG; HE, WEIYA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) in the primary foci and metastatic lymph nodes of low-grade glioma, and to analyze the function of TYMS in the lymph node metastases from low-grade glioma. The study included 93 cases of surgically resected and pathologically confirmed low-grade glioma, form patients treated at Huaihe Hospital of Henan University (Kaifeng, China). The following clinical data was obtained from each patient: Gender, age, subjective symptoms (dizziness, headache, a feeling of pressure in the head, etc.), site of disease, tumor type, pathological stage, degree of differentiation and lymph node involvement. The surgically resected gliomas and dissected cervical lymph nodes were immunohistochemically stained, and DNA was extracted from the tumor and lymph node tissues samples for polymerase chain reaction sequencing and amplification. The expression of TYMS in the primary foci and metastatic lymph nodes of low-grade glioma was examined. Additionally, the association between pathological features and the postoperative survival rate of the patients was analyzed. The primary lesions of all 93 cases exhibited positive TYMS expression and 43/157 (27.39%) lymph nodes exhibited positive TYMS expression. Factors that significantly influenced the postoperative survival rate of the patients, included the metastasis of the cervical lymph nodes (P<0.01), the number of dissected cervical lymph nodes (P<0.01) and the degree of differentiation (P<0.05). The metastasis of the cervical lymph nodes was the only independent risk factor affecting postoperative disease-free survival. The risk of recurrence in patients with metastasis of the cervical lymph nodes was 6.3-fold higher than in those without metastasis (P<0.01). Thus, the results of the present study provide a theoretical basis for accurately predicting the prognosis of patients with low-grade malignant brain glioma, reducing the conjecture involved in

  1. Mortality in Kittens Is Associated with a Shift in Ileum Mucosa-Associated Enterococci from Enterococcus hirae to Biofilm-Forming Enterococcus faecalis and Adherent Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Borst, Luke; Stauffer, Stephen H.; Suyemoto, Mitsu; Moisan, Peter; Zurek, Ludek

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 15% of foster kittens die before 8 weeks of age, with most of these kittens demonstrating clinical signs or postmortem evidence of enteritis. While a specific cause of enteritis is not determined in most cases, these kittens are often empirically administered probiotics that contain enterococci. The enterococci are members of the commensal intestinal microbiota but also can function as opportunistic pathogens. Given the complicated role of enterococci in health and disease, it would be valuable to better understand what constitutes a “healthy” enterococcal community in these kittens and how this microbiota is impacted by severe illness. In this study, we characterized the ileum mucosa-associated enterococcal community of 50 apparently healthy and 50 terminally ill foster kittens. In healthy kittens, Enterococcus hirae was the most common species of ileum mucosa-associated enterococci and was often observed to adhere extensively to the small intestinal epithelium. These E. hirae isolates generally lacked virulence traits. In contrast, non-E. hirae enterococci, notably Enterococcus faecalis, were more commonly isolated from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness. Isolates of E. faecalis had numerous virulence traits and multiple antimicrobial resistances. Moreover, the attachment of Escherichia coli to the intestinal epithelium was significantly associated with terminal illness and was not observed in any kitten with adherent E. hirae. These findings identify a significant difference in the species of enterococci cultured from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness compared to the species cultured from healthy kittens. In contrast to prior case studies that associated enteroadherent E. hirae with diarrhea in young animals, these controlled studies identified E. hirae as more often isolated from healthy kittens and adherence of E. hirae as more common and extensive in healthy kittens than in sick kittens. PMID:23966487

  2. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vallentin, Blandine; Barlogis, Vincent; Piperoglou, Christelle; Cypowyj, Sophie; Zucchini, Nicolas; Chéné, Matthieu; Navarro, Florent; Farnarier, Catherine; Vivier, Eric; Vély, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    The world of lymphocytes has recently expanded. A group of cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC), has been defined. It includes lymphoid cells that have been known for decades, such as natural killer (NK) cells and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells. NK cells recognize a vast array of tumor cells, which they help to eliminate through cytotoxicity and the production of cytokines, such as IFNγ. Advances in our understanding of NK-cell biology have led to a growing interest in the clinical manipulation of these cells in cancer. The other ILCs are found mostly in the mucosae and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues, where they rapidly initiate immune responses to pathogens without the need for specific sensitization. Here, we outline the basic features of ILCs and review the role of ILCs other than NK cells in cancer. Much of the role of these ILCs in cancer remains unknown, but several findings should lead to further efforts to dissect the contribution of different ILC subsets to the promotion, maintenance, or elimination of tumors at various anatomic sites. This will require the development of standardized reagents and protocols for monitoring the presence and function of ILCs in human blood and tissue samples.

  3. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vallentin, Blandine; Barlogis, Vincent; Piperoglou, Christelle; Cypowyj, Sophie; Zucchini, Nicolas; Chéné, Matthieu; Navarro, Florent; Farnarier, Catherine; Vivier, Eric; Vély, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    The world of lymphocytes has recently expanded. A group of cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC), has been defined. It includes lymphoid cells that have been known for decades, such as natural killer (NK) cells and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells. NK cells recognize a vast array of tumor cells, which they help to eliminate through cytotoxicity and the production of cytokines, such as IFNγ. Advances in our understanding of NK-cell biology have led to a growing interest in the clinical manipulation of these cells in cancer. The other ILCs are found mostly in the mucosae and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues, where they rapidly initiate immune responses to pathogens without the need for specific sensitization. Here, we outline the basic features of ILCs and review the role of ILCs other than NK cells in cancer. Much of the role of these ILCs in cancer remains unknown, but several findings should lead to further efforts to dissect the contribution of different ILC subsets to the promotion, maintenance, or elimination of tumors at various anatomic sites. This will require the development of standardized reagents and protocols for monitoring the presence and function of ILCs in human blood and tissue samples. PMID:26438443

  4. The Outlook for Low-Grade Fuels in Tomsk Region: Research Experience at Tomsk Polytechnic University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaustov, Sergei A.; Kazakov, Alexander V.; Cherkashina, Galina A.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    The urgency of the discussed issue is caused by the need to substitute in the regional fuel-energy balances imported energy resources with local low-grade fuels. The main aim of the study is to estimate thermal properties of local fuels in Tomsk region and evaluate its energy use viability. The methods used in the study were based standard GOST 52911-2008, 11022-95 and 6382-2001, by means of a bomb calorimeter ABK-1 and Vario micro cube analyzer. The mineral ash of researched fuels was studied agreeing with GOST 10538-87. The results state the fact that discussed low-grade fuels of Tomsk region in the unprepared form are not able to replace imported coal in regional energy balance, because of the high moisture and ash content values. A promosing direction of a low-temperature fue processing is a catalytic converter, which allows receiving hydrogen-enriched syngas from the initial solid raw.

  5. Low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Yan, Hongjiang; Luo, Yijun; Fan, Tingyong

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma is an extremely rare tumor, with only a limited number of cases reported in the literature. Some published studies have paid more attention to the clinicopathological features of nasopharyngeal adenocarcinoma, while little effort has been made to study the optimal therapeutic strategies. We report about a woman diagnosed with low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma. She received the treatment approach that combined transnasal endoscopic surgery to remove the lesion with postoperative radiotherapy for nasal cavity. There was no evidence of recurrence after 4 months of surgery, and further follow-up is being continued. Through this example, we wanted to explore the optimal therapeutic strategies for primary nasopharyngeal adenocarcinomas. PMID:27274289

  6. Low-grade inflammation and spinal cord injury: exercise as therapy?

    PubMed

    da Silva Alves, Eduardo; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; Ruiz da Silva, Francieli; Lira, Fabio Santos; Dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomathieli; Rosa, João Paulo Pereira; Caperuto, Erico; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2013-01-01

    An increase in the prevalence of obesity in people with spinal cord injury can contribute to low-grade chronic inflammation and increase the risk of infection in this population. A decrease in sympathetic activity contributes to immunosuppression due to the lower activation of immune cells in the blood. The effects of physical exercise on inflammatory parameters in individuals with spinal cord injury have not been well described. We conducted a review of the literature published from 1974 to 2012. This review explored the relationships between low-grade inflammation, spinal cord injury, and exercise to discuss a novel mechanism that might explain the beneficial effects of exercise involving an increase in catecholamines and cytokines in people with spinal cord injury.

  7. Abnormal immune regulation and low-grade inflammation in IBS: does one size fit all?

    PubMed

    Schmulson, Max; Chey, William D

    2012-02-01

    Evidences suggest that there is low-grade inflammation in the colonic mucosa and/or a state of immune activation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Results from available studies are inconsistent mainly because of differences in measures, methodologies and study populations. In this issue, Chang et al. evaluated a comprehensive set of cytokines, immune markers and immune-related cells in patients with non post infectious IBS (non PI-IBS) and controls. The main finding was a lower expression of the mRNA of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine in the colonic mucosa of women with non PI-IBS without any differences in the cell counts. These results suggest that in non PI-IBS, there is altered immune regulation/activation without evidence of low-grade mucosal inflammation. Further, PI and non PI-IBS may be associated with different alterations in immune function/activation.

  8. Low-grade osteosarcoma arising from cemento-ossifying fibroma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Bin; Kim, Nam-Kyoo; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Hyung Jun

    2015-02-01

    Cemento-ossifying fibromas are benign tumors, and, although cases of an aggressive type have been reported, no cases of cemento-ossifying fibroma transforming into osteosarcoma have been documented previously. Low-grade osteosarcoma is a rare type of primary bone tumor, representing 1%-2% of all osteosarcomas. A 45-year-old female patient was diagnosed with cemento-ossifying fibroma, treated with mass excision several times over a period of two years and eight months, and followed up. After biopsy gathered because of signs of recurrence, she was diagnosed with low-grade osteosarcoma. The patient underwent wide excision, segmental mandibulectomy, and reconstruction with fibula free flap. The aim of this report is to raise awareness of the possibility that cemento-ossifying fibroma can transform into osteosarcoma and of the consequent necessity for careful diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:25741469

  9. Low-grade fibromatosis-like spindle cell carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Jessica B; Clark, Beth Z

    2015-04-01

    Low-grade fibromatosis-like spindle cell carcinoma is a rare tumor in the breast, and represents a variant of the very heterogeneous group of metaplastic carcinomas of the breast. These tumors warrant distinction because of their resemblance to pure fibromatosis, their propensity for local recurrence, and their favorable prognosis among the metaplastic carcinomas of the breast. The diagnosis is potentially challenging, particularly on core needle biopsies, because of the morphologic overlap with other low-grade spindle cell lesions. Recognition of a proliferation of cytologically bland spindle cells with areas of epithelial differentiation in combination with immunohistochemistry using antibodies against cytokeratins and myoepithelial markers should aid in producing a definitive diagnosis. These tumors can be locally aggressive with an increased incidence of local recurrence, but the potential for lymph node or distant metastasis is low. Complete excision with adequate margins is considered curative in the majority of cases.

  10. Collection of low-grade waste heat for enhanced energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dede, Ercan M.; Schmalenberg, Paul; Wang, Chi-Ming; Zhou, Feng; Nomura, Tsuyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Enhanced energy harvesting through the collection of low-grade waste heat is experimentally demonstrated. A structural optimization technique is exploited in the design of a thermal-composite substrate to guide and gather the heat emanating from multiple sources to a predetermined location. A thermoelectric generator is then applied at the selected focusing region to convert the resulting low-grade waste heat to electrical power. The thermal characteristics of the device are experimentally verified by direct temperature measurements of the system and numerically validated via heat conduction simulations. Electrical performance under natural and forced convection is measured, and in both cases, the device with optimized heat flow control plus energy harvesting demonstrates increased power generation when compared with a baseline waste heat recovery system. Electronics applications include energy scavenging for autonomously powered sensor networks or self-actuated devices.

  11. Low-grade osteosarcoma arising from cemento-ossifying fibroma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Bin; Kim, Nam-Kyoo; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Hyung Jun

    2015-02-01

    Cemento-ossifying fibromas are benign tumors, and, although cases of an aggressive type have been reported, no cases of cemento-ossifying fibroma transforming into osteosarcoma have been documented previously. Low-grade osteosarcoma is a rare type of primary bone tumor, representing 1%-2% of all osteosarcomas. A 45-year-old female patient was diagnosed with cemento-ossifying fibroma, treated with mass excision several times over a period of two years and eight months, and followed up. After biopsy gathered because of signs of recurrence, she was diagnosed with low-grade osteosarcoma. The patient underwent wide excision, segmental mandibulectomy, and reconstruction with fibula free flap. The aim of this report is to raise awareness of the possibility that cemento-ossifying fibroma can transform into osteosarcoma and of the consequent necessity for careful diagnosis and treatment planning.

  12. Low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. A diagnostic problem in fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J C

    1994-01-01

    We report a case of low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in a pleomorphic adenoma (ex pleomorphic adenoma) in the parotid salivary gland of a 32-year-old woman. Fine needle aspiration biopsy showed the typical biphasic pattern of pleomorphic adenoma: groups of benign-appearing epithelial cells and chondromyxoid stroma. In addition, features of low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma were identified retrospectively, consisting of background mucin and rare mucin-containing cells. This case illustrates that the presence of background mucin and mucin-containing cells in an otherwise usual pleomorphic adenoma may indicate the presence of a well-differentiated mucoepidermoid carcinoma. In cases such as this, a definitive diagnosis should be postponed until the lesion is examined histologically.

  13. Recurrent polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma manifesting as a sinonasal mass: a case report.

    PubMed

    Charous, Daniel D; Cunnane, Mary F; Rosen, Marc R; Keane, William M

    2005-06-01

    Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is a malignant neoplasm that tends to follow a benign clinical course. Recurrences are uncommon. We report a case of recurrent PLGA of the paranasal sinuses that manifested as a large mass that filled the entire nasal cavity and left maxillary sinus. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a recurrent PLGA of the paranasal sinuses.

  14. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of parotid gland: a rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Arathi, N; Bage, Atul M

    2009-01-01

    Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is a rare salivary gland malignant tumor of low aggressiveness, commonly occurring in minor salivary glands. Its occurrence in major salivary gland has been documented albeit rarely. The striking histological feature is architectural diversity combined with benign cytologic features. We report a case of PLGA arising from left parotid in a 25-year-old male patient. On light microscopy, varied patterns were seen .The cells were uniform with bland nuclei. Neural invasion was noted.

  15. The insulin-like growth factor 1 pathway is a potential therapeutic target for low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    King, Erin R.; Zu, Zhifei; Tsang, Yvonne T.M.; Deavers, Michael T.; Malpica, Anais; Mok, Samuel C.; Gershenson, David M.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2011-01-01

    Objective To validate the overexpression of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its receptor (IGF-1R) in low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (SOC), and to investigate whether the IGF-1 pathway is a potential therapeutic target for low-grade SOC. Methods Gene expression profiling was performed on serous borderline ovarian tumors (SBOTs) and low-grade SOC, and overexpression of IGF-1 in low-grade SOC was validated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The effect of exogenous IGF-1 on cell proliferation was determined in cell lines by cell proliferation assays, cell migration assays, and Western blot. Signaling pathways downstream of IGF-1 and the effects of the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 were investigated by Western blot analysis and by generating IGF-1R short hairpin RNA stable knockdown cell lines. Low- and high-grade cell lines were treated with the dual IGF-1R- and insulin receptor-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitor OSI-906, and cellular proliferation was measured. Results mRNA analysis and immunostaining revealed significantly higher IGF-1 expression in low-grade SOCs than in SBOTs or high-grade SOCs. In response to exogenous treatment with IGF-1, low-grade cell lines exhibited more intense upregulation of phosphorylated AKT than did high-grade cell lines, an effect that was diminished with IGF-1R knockdown and MK-2206 treatment. Low-grade SOC cell lines were more sensitive to growth inhibition with OSI-906 than were high-grade cell lines. Conclusions IGF-1 is overexpressed in low-grade SOCs compared with SBOTs and high-grade SOCs. Additionally, low-grade SOC cell lines were more responsive to IGF-1 stimulation and IGF-1R inhibition than were high-grade lines. The IGF-1 pathway is therefore a potential therapeutic target in low-grade SOC. PMID:21726895

  16. Simulation of NOx emission in circulating fluidized beds burning low-grade fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Afsin Gungor

    2009-05-15

    Nitrogen oxides are a major environmental pollutant resulting from combustion. This paper presents a modeling study of pollutant NOx emission resulting from low-grade fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. The simulation model accounts for the axial and radial distribution of NOx emission in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The model results are compared with and validated against experimental data both for small-size and industrial-size CFBs that use different types of low-grade fuels given in the literature. The present study proves that CFB combustion demonstrated by both experimental data and model predictions produces low and acceptable levels of NOx emissions resulting from the combustion of low-grade fuels. Developed model can also investigate the effects of different operational parameters on overall NOx emission. As a result of this investigation, both experimental data and model predictions show that NOx emission increases with the bed temperature but decreases with excess air if other parameters are kept unchanged. 37 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. PET and SPECT studies in children with hemispheric low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Csaba; Bosnyák, Edit

    2016-10-01

    Molecular imaging is playing an increasing role in the pretreatment evaluation of low-grade gliomas. While glucose positron emission tomography (PET) can be helpful to differentiate low-grade from high-grade tumors, PET imaging with amino acid radiotracers has several advantages, such as better differentiation between tumors and non-tumorous lesions, optimized biopsy targeting, and improved detection of tumor recurrence. This review provides a brief overview of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies followed by a more detailed review of the clinical applications of glucose and amino acid PET imaging in low-grade hemispheric gliomas. We discuss key differences in the performance of the most commonly utilized PET radiotracers and highlight the advantage of PET/MRI fusion to obtain optimal information about tumor extent, heterogeneity, and metabolism. Recent data also suggest that simultaneous acquisition of PET/MR images and the combination of advanced MRI techniques with quantitative PET can further improve the pretreatment and post-treatment evaluation of pediatric brain tumors. PMID:27659825

  18. A 31-year-old woman with a transformed low-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Warnke, Peter C

    2010-03-10

    Low-grade gliomas in adults have an incidence of 0.8 to 1.2 per 100,000, and their causes are unknown. Despite their histological classification as low-grade, they cannot be cured by any current treatment mode, and no class I evidence exists to guide initial treatment of these tumors. Median survival ranges between 7.5 years and 10 years, with a 5-year survival probability between 55% and 86%. The prognosis depends on age, World Health Organization (WHO) tumor grade, Karnofsky performance score, cytological type (oligodendroglioma vs astrocytoma), and, potentially, the extent of resection. Oligodendrogliomas with loss of heterozygosity on chromosomes 1p and 19q have a distinctly more favorable prognosis and therapeutic response rate. Low-grade tumors progress to high-grade gliomas with aggressive biological behavior at increasing frequency with advancing age. Ms P is a young woman with a previously treated oligodendroglioma, WHO grade II, with loss of heterozygosity on chromosomes 1p and 19q, which at a third resection had transformed into an oligodendroglioma of WHO grade III. She wants to know her current and future therapeutic options.

  19. Histopathological-molecular genetic correlations in referral pathologist-diagnosed low-grade "oligodendroglioma".

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hikaru; Zlatescu, Magdalena C; Betensky, Rebecca A; Johnk, Loki B; Cutone, Andrea N; Cairncross, J Gregory; Louis, David N

    2002-01-01

    Allelic loss of chromosome 1p predicts increased chemosensitivity and better survival in oligodendroglial tumors. Clinical testing for 1p loss in oligodendroglial tumors at our hospital has allowed us to postulate that certain histological appearances are associated with 1p allelic status. Forty-four cases received for genetic testing were diagnosed by referring pathologists as pure low-grade oligodendroglioma. Central neuropathological review divided the series equally into 22 cases with classical oligodendroglioma histology and 22 with more astrocytic features. Molecular genetic analyses demonstrated 1p loss in 19 of 22 classic oligodendrogliomas (86%) and maintenance of both 1p alleles in 16 of 22 gliomas with astrocytic features (73%). No glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cell type (gliofibrillary oligodendrocyte, minigemistocyte, cellular processes) was associated with 1p allelic status. Fourteen of the 44 cases were treated with chemotherapy at tumor progression: 3 "astrocytic" gliomas with 1p loss responded to PCV chemotherapy and 2 classic oligodendrogliomas that maintained both 1p alleles included a responder and a non-responder. These results suggest that histological appearance correctly predicts genotype in approximately 80% of low-grade gliomas, but that tumor genotype more closely predicts chemosensitivity. As a result, such objective molecular genetic analyses should be incorporated into patient management and into clinical trials of low-grade diffuse gliomas.

  20. Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histological examination showed that the cystic wall consisted of tumour cells with a central nucleus a perinuclear halo and minimal pleomorphism. Immnunohistochemical analysis showed that these cells were diffusely positive for CD57, and negative for GFAP, CD10, CD99, cytokeratins, neurofilaments and synaptophysin. FISH analysis was performed in a small number of neoplastic cells, which were not exhausted after immunohistochemistry and did not reveal deletion of 1p and 19q chromosome arms. However, the diagnosis of a low grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland was assigned. Conclusion Although the spectrum of tumours arising in the pineal gland is broad, the reports of oligodendrogliomas confined to this location are exceedingly rare, and to the best of our knowledge there is no report of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. However, they should be added in the long list of tumours arising in the pineal gland. PMID:20849631

  1. Analytical Detection of Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Gene Rearrangements in Gastric Lymphoid Infiltrates by Peak Area Analysis of the Melting Curve in the LightCycler System

    PubMed Central

    Retamales, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Luis; Guzman, Leda; Aguayo, Francisco; Palma, Mariana; Backhouse, Claudia; Argandona, Jorge; Riquelme, Erick; Corvalan, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Because it is difficult to differentiate gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma from chronic gastritis in gastric lymphoid infiltrates, molecular detection of monoclonality through immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangements is commonly performed. However, heterogeneity in the performance and results obtained from IgH gene rearrangements has been reported. To improve the accuracy in the diagnosis of gastric lymphoid infiltrates, we developed an analytical approach based on one-peak area analysis of the melting curve in the LightCycler System. Using a training-testing approach, the likelihood ratio method was selected to find a discriminative function of 4.64 in the training set (10 gastric MALT lymphomas and 10 chronic gastritis cases). This discriminative function was validated in the testing set (five gastric MALT lymphomas, six abnormal lymphocytic infiltrates with subsequently demonstrated gastric MALT lymphomas, and six cases of chronic gastritis). All but one case of gastric MALT lymphoma, as well as abnormal lymphocytic infiltrates, clustered under 4.64, and all chronic gastritis cases clustered above 4.64. These results were validated by conventional electrophoreses confirming one or two sharp bands in cases of gastric MALT lymphomas and a smear of multiple bands in cases of chronic gastritis. Analytical detection of IgH gene rearrangement in gastric lymphoid infiltrates by one-peak area analysis correctly distinguishes gastric MALT lymphomas from chronic gastritis, even in cases with diagnosis of abnormal lymphocytic infiltrates. PMID:17591935

  2. Relationship between columnar cell changes and low-grade carcinoma in situ of the breast--a cytogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Go, Edna May L; Tsang, Julia Y S; Ni, Yun-Bi; Yu, Alex M; Mendoza, Paulo; Chan, Siu-Ki; Lam, Christopher C; Lui, Philip C; Tan, Puay-Hoon; Tse, Gary M

    2012-11-01

    Columnar cell lesions of the breast include columnar cell changes without atypia and columnar cell changes with atypia. The latter frequently coexist and share molecular changes with low-grade carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma, suggesting that columnar cell changes may be precursors to progression of low-grade advanced lesions. In this study, we assessed chromosomal aberrations at 16q, hallmark for low-grade lesions, in columnar cell changes with or without atypia and their adjacent carcinoma in situ by fluorescent in situ hybridization using 3 region-specific probes spanning the entire chromosomal arm. The results were correlated with the histomorphological features of the corresponding lesions. Forty-four percent of low-grade carcinoma in situ and 31% of high-grade carcinoma in situ were associated with columnar cell changes with atypia, suggesting a link between columnar cell changes with atypia and low-grade carcinoma in situ. For the genetic aberrations, heterozygous deletion of 16q was present in 56% of low-grade carcinoma in situ but only in 19% of high-grade carcinoma in situ. Conversely, aneuploidy was found mostly in high-grade carcinoma in situ (88%). Twenty percent of columnar cell changes with atypia but none of the columnar cell changes without atypia showed heterozygous deletion of 16q. Interestingly, the same changes in 16q were observed in the columnar cell changes and their associated low-grade carcinoma in situ lesions. These findings demonstrated a genetic commonality between columnar cell changes with atypia and low-grade carcinoma in situ and substantiated the precursor role of columnar cell changes with atypia for low-grade carcinoma in situ but not high-grade carcinoma in situ of the breast.

  3. Disturbance in the Mucosa-Associated Commensal Bacteria Is Associated with the Exacerbation of Chronic Colitis by Repeated Psychological Stress; Is That the New Target of Probiotics?

    PubMed

    Arase, Sohei; Watanabe, Yohei; Setoyama, Hiromi; Nagaoka, Noriko; Kawai, Mitsuhisa; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress can exacerbate inflammatory bowel disease. However, the mechanisms underlying how psychological stress affects gut inflammation remain unclear. Here, we focused on the relationship between changes in the microbial community of mucosa-associated commensal bacteria (MACB) and mucosal immune responses induced by chronic psychological stress in a murine model of ulcerative colitis. Furthermore, we examined the effect of probiotic treatment on exacerbated colitis and MACB composition changes induced by chronic psychological stress. Repeated water avoidance stress (rWAS) in B6-Tcra-/- mice severely exacerbated colitis, which was evaluated by both colorectal tissue weight and histological score of colitis. rWAS treatment increased mRNA expression of UCN2 and IFN-γ in large intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells (LI-LPMC). Interestingly, exacerbated colitis was associated with changes in the microbial community of MACB, specifically loss of bacterial species diversity and an increase in the component ratio of Clostridium, revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon analysis. Finally, the oral administration of a probiotic Lactobacillus strain was protective against the exacerbation of colitis and was associated with a change in the bacterial community of MACB in rWAS-exposed Tcra-/- mice. Taken together, these results suggested that loss of species diversity in MACB might play a key role in exacerbated colitis induced by chronic psychological stress. In addition, probiotic treatment may be used as a tool to preserve the diversity of bacterial species in MACB and alleviate gut inflammation induced by psychological stress.

  4. SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) of the intestinal nematode Strongyloides ratti is involved in mucosa-associated parasite-host interaction.

    PubMed

    Anandarajah, Emmanuela M; Ditgen, Dana; Hansmann, Jan; Erttmann, Klaus D; Liebau, Eva; Brattig, Norbert W

    2016-06-01

    The secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), found in the excretory/secretory products of Strongyloides ratti, is most strongly expressed in parasitic females. Since SPARC proteins are involved in the modulation of cell-matrix interactions, a role of the secreted S. ratti SPARC (Sr-SPARC) in the manifestation of the parasite in the host's intestine is postulated. The full-length cDNA of Sr-SPARC was identified and the protein was recombinantly expressed. The purified protein was biologically active, able to bind calcium, and to attach to mucosa-associated human cells. Addition of Sr-SPARC to an in vitro mucosal three-dimensional-cell culture model led to a time-dependent release of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-22, IL-10 and TSLP. Of importance, exposure with Sr-SPARC fostered wound closure in an intestinal epithelial cell model. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that SPARC released from the nematode is a multifunctional protein affecting the mucosal immune system. PMID:27268729

  5. Disturbance in the Mucosa-Associated Commensal Bacteria Is Associated with the Exacerbation of Chronic Colitis by Repeated Psychological Stress; Is That the New Target of Probiotics?

    PubMed Central

    Arase, Sohei; Watanabe, Yohei; Setoyama, Hiromi; Nagaoka, Noriko; Kawai, Mitsuhisa; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress can exacerbate inflammatory bowel disease. However, the mechanisms underlying how psychological stress affects gut inflammation remain unclear. Here, we focused on the relationship between changes in the microbial community of mucosa-associated commensal bacteria (MACB) and mucosal immune responses induced by chronic psychological stress in a murine model of ulcerative colitis. Furthermore, we examined the effect of probiotic treatment on exacerbated colitis and MACB composition changes induced by chronic psychological stress. Repeated water avoidance stress (rWAS) in B6-Tcra-/- mice severely exacerbated colitis, which was evaluated by both colorectal tissue weight and histological score of colitis. rWAS treatment increased mRNA expression of UCN2 and IFN-γ in large intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells (LI-LPMC). Interestingly, exacerbated colitis was associated with changes in the microbial community of MACB, specifically loss of bacterial species diversity and an increase in the component ratio of Clostridium, revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon analysis. Finally, the oral administration of a probiotic Lactobacillus strain was protective against the exacerbation of colitis and was associated with a change in the bacterial community of MACB in rWAS-exposed Tcra-/- mice. Taken together, these results suggested that loss of species diversity in MACB might play a key role in exacerbated colitis induced by chronic psychological stress. In addition, probiotic treatment may be used as a tool to preserve the diversity of bacterial species in MACB and alleviate gut inflammation induced by psychological stress. PMID:27500935

  6. The life and times of low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Gershenson, David M

    2013-01-01

    For the past several years, all women with epithelial ovarian cancer have been treated identically, whether in a clinical trial or off protocol. Over the past decade, we have come to appreciate the magnitude of the heterogeneity of ovarian cancer. The development of the binary grading system for serous carcinoma was a major advance, leading to separate clinical trials for patients with this subtype, originating from the Gynecologic Oncology Group's Rare Tumor Committee. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway appears to play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of this subtype. Approximately 20% to 40% of low-grade serous carcinomas have a KRAS mutation, while BRAF mutations are rare-approximately 5%. In genomic profiling studies, these tumors appear to cluster with serous tumors of low malignant potential. Compared with high-grade serous carcinomas, low-grade serous carcinomas are also characterized by a low frequency of p53 mutations, greater expression of ER and PR, and greater expression of PAX2 and IGF-1. Primary treatment of low-grade serous carcinoma includes surgery plus platinum-based chemotherapy (either adjuvant or neoadjuvant). Clinical behavior is characterized by young age at diagnosis, relative chemoresistance, and prolonged overall survival. Current options for treatment of relapsed disease include secondary cytoreduction in selected patients, salvage chemotherapy, or hormone therapy. A recently completed trial of a MEK inhibitor for women with recurrent disease demonstrated promising activity. Future directions will include further investigations of the molecular biology and biomarker-driven clinical trials with targeted agent monotherapy and combinations. PMID:23714500

  7. Velocity of tumor spontaneous expansion predicts long-term outcomes for diffuse low-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Pallud, Johan; Blonski, Marie; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Audureau, Etienne; Fontaine, Denys; Sanai, Nader; Bauchet, Luc; Peruzzi, Philippe; Frénay, Marc; Colin, Philippe; Guillevin, Rémy; Bernier, Valérie; Baron, Marie-Hélène; Guyotat, Jacques; Duffau, Hugues; Taillandier, Luc; Capelle, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Background Supratentorial diffuse low-grade gliomas present a slow macroscopic tumor growth that can be quantified through the measurement of their velocity of diametric expansion. We assessed whether spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion can predict long-term outcomes as a categorical variable and as a continuous predictor. Methods A total of 407 adult patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial diffuse low-grade gliomas in adults were studied. Results The mean spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion before first-line treatment was 5.8 ± 6.3 mm/year. During the follow-up (mean, 86.5 ± 59.4 months), 209 patients presented a malignant transformation, and 87 died. The malignant progression-free survival and the overall survival were significantly longer in cases of slow velocity of diametric expansion (median, 103 and 249 months, respectively) than in cases of fast velocity of diametric expansion (median, 35 and 91 months, respectively; P < .001). In multivariate analyses, spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion as a categorical variable (<4, ≥4 and <8, ≥8 and <12, ≥12 mm/year) was an independent prognostic factor for malignant progression-free survival (P < .001; hazard ratio, 3.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.67–5.52) and for overall survival (P < .001; hazard ratio, 4.62; 95% CI, 2.58–7.97). Velocity of diametric expansion was also an independent prognostic factor for overall survival as a continuous predictor, showing a linear relationship between overall survival and spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion (hazard ratio, 1.09 per one unit increase; 95% CI, 1.06–1.12; P < .001). Conclusions Independent of the molecular status, the spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion allows the identification of rapidly growing diffuse low-grade gliomas (at higher risk of worsened evolution) during the pretherapeutic period and without delaying treatment. PMID:23393207

  8. Specific Visualization of Glioma Cells in Living Low-Grade Tumor Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kantelhardt, Sven R.; Caarls, Wouter; de Vries, Anthony H. B.; Hagen, Guy M.; Jovin, Thomas M.; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter; Rohde, Veit; Giese, Alf; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The current therapy of malignant gliomas is based on surgical resection, radio-chemotherapy and chemotherapy. Recent retrospective case-series have highlighted the significance of the extent of resection as a prognostic factor predicting the course of the disease. Complete resection in low-grade gliomas that show no MRI-enhanced images are especially difficult. The aim in this study was to develop a robust, specific, new fluorescent probe for glioma cells that is easy to apply to live tumor biopsies and could identify tumor cells from normal brain cells at all levels of magnification. Methodology/Principal Findings In this investigation we employed brightly fluorescent, photostable quantum dots (QDs) to specifically target epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) that is upregulated in many gliomas. Living glioma and normal cells or tissue biopsies were incubated with QDs coupled to EGF and/or monoclonal antibodies against EGFR for 30 minutes, washed and imaged. The data include results from cell-culture, animal model and ex vivo human tumor biopsies of both low-grade and high-grade gliomas and show high probe specificity. Tumor cells could be visualized from the macroscopic to single cell level with contrast ratios as high as 1000: 1 compared to normal brain tissue. Conclusions/Significance The ability of the targeted probes to clearly distinguish tumor cells in low-grade tumor biopsies, where no enhanced MRI image was obtained, demonstrates the great potential of the method. We propose that future application of specifically targeted fluorescent particles during surgery could allow intraoperative guidance for the removal of residual tumor cells from the resection cavity and thus increase patient survival. PMID:20614029

  9. Treatment of newly diagnosed symptomatic pure low-grade oligodendrogliomas with PCV chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, C; Fontaine, D; Bourg, V; Ramaioli, A; Chanalet, S; Vandenbos, F; Lonjon, M; Fauchon, F; Paquis, P; Frenay, M

    2007-04-01

    Based on studies relating to anaplastic oligodendroglioma (OG) chemosensitivity and benefit of time to progression or overall survival, chemotherapy for pure OG has been proposed. Several studies have reported the efficacy of various chemotherapeutic agents in a small number of patients with low-grade gliomas, e.g. pure astrocytomas, OG or mixed histologies. The 5-year survival rate varies from 61% to 89% with a mean time to progression of 5 years. We report the outcome of 33 consecutive patients with pure low-grade OG diagnosed between 1990 and 2006 systematically treated for residual or non-removable tumor with PCV chemotherapy regimen as the front-line treatment after surgery. All the tumors were low grade (grade II) pure OG according to the WHO classification. All patients were symptomatic at presentation and underwent neurosurgical procedure for histological diagnosis. Response was evaluated by clinical assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-one men and 12 women with a mean age at pathological diagnosis of 46.5 years were studied. The most common first symptom was partial epileptic seizure (73.7%). Six patients (18%) had initial gadolinium enhancement, associated with methoxyisobutyl (MIBI) hypermetabolism (P < 0.001). The resection was partial in seven cases (21%), and 26 patients (79%) had biopsy only. Eleven patients (36%) had a malignant transformation during the follow-up with a median time to progression of 19 months. Favorable prognostic factors were lack of contrast enhancement (P < 0.0001), and age <40 years (P < 0.0003); 90% of patients were progression-free at 1 year. Survival rates at 2, 5 and 10 years were 85%, 75% and 50%, respectively. Up-front chemotherapy with PCV regimen is a good treatment for symptomatic pure low-grade OG, as it increases the number of progression-free patients and time to progression. These results suggest that radiotherapy could be postponed until the malignant transformation occurs to delay cognitive

  10. Low-grade infection after a total knee arthroplasty caused by Actinomyces naeslundii.

    PubMed

    Hedke, J; Skripitz, R; Ellenrieder, M; Frickmann, H; Köller, T; Podbielski, A; Mittelmeier, W

    2012-08-01

    Here, we present a case of an 85-year-old woman with a low-grade-infection caused by Actinomyces naeslundii after total-knee arthroplasty (TKA) followed by septic loosening. Actinomyces naeslundii was cultured from a tissue sample from the knee joint capsule/synovial tissue obtained after the initial TKA. A review of the literature revealed two cases of periprosthetic infection and another three cases of arthritis due to Actinomyces naeslundii. So far, no standard treatment for periprosthetic infections caused by Actinomyces species has been established.

  11. Histological and three dimensional organizations of lymphoid tubules in normal lymphoid organ of Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Duangsuwan, Pornsawan; Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Sobhon, Prasert

    2008-04-01

    The normal lymphoid organ of Penaeus monodon (which tested negative for WSSV and YHV) was composed of two parts: lymphoid tubules and interstitial spaces, which were permeated with haemal sinuses filled with large numbers of haemocytes. There were three permanent types of cells present in the wall of lymphoid tubules: endothelial, stromal and capsular cells. Haemocytes penetrated the endothelium of the lymphoid tubule's wall to reside among the fixed cells. The outermost layer of the lymphoid tubule was covered by a network of fibers embedded in a PAS-positive extracellular matrix, which corresponded to a basket-like network that covered all the lymphoid tubules as visualized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Argyrophilic reticular fibers surrounded haemal sinuses and lymphoid tubules. Together they formed the scaffold that supported the lymphoid tubule. Using vascular cast and SEM, the three dimensional structure of the subgastric artery that supplies each lobe of the lymphoid organ was reconstructed. This artery branched into highly convoluted and blind-ending terminal capillaries, each forming the lumen of a lymphoid tubule around which haemocytes and other cells aggregated to form a cuff-like wall. Stromal cells which form part of the tubular scaffold were immunostained for vimentin. Examination of the whole-mounted lymphoid organ, immunostained for vimentin, by confocal microscopy exhibited the highly branching and convoluted lymphoid tubules matching the pattern of the vascular cast observed in SEM.

  12. Neurocognitive effects of proton radiation therapy in adults with low-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Janet Cohen; Colvin, Mary K; Mancuso, Sarah M; Batchelor, Tracy T; Oh, Kevin S; Loeffler, Jay S; Yeap, Beow Y; Shih, Helen A

    2016-01-01

    To understand neurocognitive effects of proton radiation therapy (PRT) in patients with low-grade glioma, we evaluated 20 patients who received this therapy prospectively and over 5 years with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. 20 patients were evaluated at baseline and at yearly intervals for up to 5 years with a battery of neuropsychological measures that assessed intellectual, attention, executive, visuospatial and memory functions as well as mood and functional status. We evaluated change in cognitive functioning over time. We analyzed the relationship between cognitive performance and tumor location and also examined whether patients' performance differed from that reported in a study of normative practice effects. Overall, patients exhibited stability in cognitive functioning. Tumor location played a role in performance; those with tumors in the left hemisphere versus in the right hemisphere were more impaired at baseline on verbal measures (p < .05). However, we found greater improvement in verbal memory over time in patients with left than with right hemisphere tumors (p < .05). Results of our study, the first to investigate, in depth, neurocognitive effects of PRT in adults with low-grade gliomas, are promising. We hypothesize that the conformal advantage of PRT may contribute to preservation of cognitive functioning, although larger sample sizes and a longer period of study are required. Our study also highlights the need to consider normative practice effects when studying neurocognitive functioning in response to treatment over time, and the need to utilize comprehensive neuropsychological batteries given our findings that differentiate patients with left and right hemisphere tumors.

  13. Filamentous microbial fossil from low-grade metamorphosed basalt in northern Chichibu belt, central Shikoku, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakibara, M.; Sugawara, H.; Tsuji, T.; Ikehara, M.

    2014-05-01

    The past two decades have seen the reporting of microbial fossils within ancient oceanic basalts that could be identical to microbes within modern basalts. Here, we present new petrographic, mineralogical, and stable isotopic data for metabasalts containing filamentous structures in a Jurassic accretionary complex within the northern Chichibu Belt of the Yanadani area of central Shikoku, Japan. Mineralized filaments within these rocks are present in interstitial domains filled with calcite, pumpellyite, or quartz, and consist of iron oxide, phengite, and pumpellyite. δ13CPDB values for filament-bearing calcite within these metabasalts vary from -2.49‰ to 0.67‰. A biogenic origin for these filamentous structures is indicated by (1) the geological context of the Yanadani metabasalt, (2) the morphology of the filaments, (3) the carbon isotope composition of carbonates that host the filaments, and (4) the timing of formation of these filaments relative to the timing of low-grade metamorphism in a subduction zone. The putative microorganisms that formed these filaments thrived between eruption (Late Paleozoic) and accretion (Early Jurassic) of the basalt. The data presented here indicate that cryptoendolithic life was present within water-filled vesicles in pre-Jurassic intraplate basalts. The mineralogy of the filaments reflects the low-grade metamorphic recrystallization of authigenic microbial clays similar to those formed by the encrustation of prokaryotes in modern iron-rich environments. These findings suggest that a previously unusual niche for life is present within intraplate volcanic rocks in accretionary complexes.

  14. Illness-related problems and coping among persons with low-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, Tanja; Ahlström, Gerd

    2005-09-01

    The literature reveals no qualitative study concerning the consequences of low-grade glioma in adults. The aim of the present study was to describe perceived illness-related problems in persons with low-grade glioma and the coping used in everyday living. The study was cross-sectional within a well-defined population. A semi-structured qualitative interview was conducted with each of 39 persons, and the data were subjected to inductive content analysis. There was a wide range of perceived problems, mainly concerning bodily functions, memory, cognition, emotion, communication and perception. Several coping strategies emerged, the most frequent being searching for a solution, which was often related to memory and communication problems. One characteristic of communication was the creation of new words. Other common strategies were refraining from and avoiding and laughing and joking. Caring about self involved prioritizing of personal needs. A striving to feel a sense of solidarity within seeking social affinity was coping with a novel content. The study provides vivid narratives about previously unreported phenomena, conveying a deeper understanding. The variety and endurance of problems revealed verifies the need of support from several professionals, including in the form of out-patient post-medical care. PMID:15669016

  15. Scalable Production of Si Nanoparticles Directly from Low Grade Sources for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bin; Jin, Yan; Tan, Yingling; Zong, Linqi; Hu, Yue; Chen, Lei; Chen, Yanbin; Zhang, Qiao; Zhu, Jia

    2015-09-01

    Silicon, one of the most promising candidates as lithium-ion battery anode, has attracted much attention due to its high theoretical capacity, abundant existence, and mature infrastructure. Recently, Si nanostructures-based lithium-ion battery anode, with sophisticated structure designs and process development, has made significant progress. However, low cost and scalable processes to produce these Si nanostructures remained as a challenge, which limits the widespread applications. Herein, we demonstrate that Si nanoparticles with controlled size can be massively produced directly from low grade Si sources through a scalable high energy mechanical milling process. In addition, we systematically studied Si nanoparticles produced from two major low grade Si sources, metallurgical silicon (∼99 wt % Si, $1/kg) and ferrosilicon (∼83 wt % Si, $0.6/kg). It is found that nanoparticles produced from ferrosilicon sources contain FeSi2, which can serve as a buffer layer to alleviate the mechanical fractures of volume expansion, whereas nanoparticles from metallurgical Si sources have higher capacity and better kinetic properties because of higher purity and better electronic transport properties. Ferrosilicon nanoparticles and metallurgical Si nanoparticles demonstrate over 100 stable deep cycling after carbon coating with the reversible capacities of 1360 mAh g(-1) and 1205 mAh g(-1), respectively. Therefore, our approach provides a new strategy for cost-effective, energy-efficient, large scale synthesis of functional Si electrode materials.

  16. Whole-genome sequencing identifies genetic alterations in pediatric low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinghui; Wu, Gang; Miller, Claudia P; Tatevossian, Ruth G; Dalton, James D; Tang, Bo; Orisme, Wilda; Punchihewa, Chandanamali; Parker, Matthew; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Boop, Fredrick A; Lu, Charles; Kandoth, Cyriac; Ding, Li; Lee, Ryan; Huether, Robert; Chen, Xiang; Hedlund, Erin; Nagahawatte, Panduka; Rusch, Michael; Boggs, Kristy; Cheng, Jinjun; Becksfort, Jared; Ma, Jing; Song, Guangchun; Li, Yongjin; Wei, Lei; Wang, Jianmin; Shurtleff, Sheila; Easton, John; Zhao, David; Fulton, Robert S; Fulton, Lucinda L; Dooling, David J; Vadodaria, Bhavin; Mulder, Heather L; Tang, Chunlao; Ochoa, Kerri; Mullighan, Charles G; Gajjar, Amar; Kriwacki, Richard; Sheer, Denise; Gilbertson, Richard J; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Downing, James R; Baker, Suzanne J; Ellison, David W

    2013-06-01

    The most common pediatric brain tumors are low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We used whole-genome sequencing to identify multiple new genetic alterations involving BRAF, RAF1, FGFR1, MYB, MYBL1 and genes with histone-related functions, including H3F3A and ATRX, in 39 LGGs and low-grade glioneuronal tumors (LGGNTs). Only a single non-silent somatic alteration was detected in 24 of 39 (62%) tumors. Intragenic duplications of the portion of FGFR1 encoding the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) and rearrangements of MYB were recurrent and mutually exclusive in 53% of grade II diffuse LGGs. Transplantation of Trp53-null neonatal astrocytes expressing FGFR1 with the duplication involving the TKD into the brains of nude mice generated high-grade astrocytomas with short latency and 100% penetrance. FGFR1 with the duplication induced FGFR1 autophosphorylation and upregulation of the MAPK/ERK and PI3K pathways, which could be blocked by specific inhibitors. Focusing on the therapeutically challenging diffuse LGGs, our study of 151 tumors has discovered genetic alterations and potential therapeutic targets across the entire range of pediatric LGGs and LGGNTs.

  17. Charging-free electrochemical system for harvesting low-grade thermal energy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuan; Lee, Seok Woo; Ghasemi, Hadi; Loomis, James; Li, Xiaobo; Kraemer, Daniel; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Efficient and low-cost systems are needed to harvest the tremendous amount of energy stored in low-grade heat sources (<100 °C). Thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle (TREC) is an attractive approach which uses the temperature dependence of electrochemical cell voltage to construct a thermodynamic cycle for direct heat-to-electricity conversion. By varying temperature, an electrochemical cell is charged at a lower voltage than discharge, converting thermal energy to electricity. Most TREC systems still require external electricity for charging, which complicates system designs and limits their applications. Here, we demonstrate a charging-free TREC consisting of an inexpensive soluble Fe(CN)63−/4− redox pair and solid Prussian blue particles as active materials for the two electrodes. In this system, the spontaneous directions of the full-cell reaction are opposite at low and high temperatures. Therefore, the two electrochemical processes at both low and high temperatures in a cycle are discharge. Heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 2.0% can be reached for the TREC operating between 20 and 60 °C. This charging-free TREC system may have potential application for harvesting low-grade heat from the environment, especially in remote areas. PMID:25404325

  18. Low-grade inflammation disrupts structural plasticity in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Szabó, C; Kelemen, O; Kéri, S

    2014-09-01

    Increased low-grade inflammation is thought to be associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by decreased neuronal plasticity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between structural changes in the human brain during cognitive training and the intensity of low-grade peripheral inflammation in healthy individuals (n=56). A two-month training (30 min/day) with a platformer video game resulted in a significantly increased volume of the right hippocampal formation. The number of stressful life events experienced during the past year was associated with less pronounced enlargement of the hippocampus. However, the main predictor of hippocampal volume expansion was the relative peripheral expression of Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB), a transcription factor playing a central role in the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein levels were not related to hippocampal plasticity when NF-κB was taken into consideration. These results suggest that more intensive peripheral inflammation is associated with weaker neuronal plasticity during cognitive training.

  19. Low-grade inflammation, diet composition and health: current research evidence and its translation.

    PubMed

    Minihane, Anne M; Vinoy, Sophie; Russell, Wendy R; Baka, Athanasia; Roche, Helen M; Tuohy, Kieran M; Teeling, Jessica L; Blaak, Ellen E; Fenech, Michael; Vauzour, David; McArdle, Harry J; Kremer, Bas H A; Sterkman, Luc; Vafeiadou, Katerina; Benedetti, Massimo Massi; Williams, Christine M; Calder, Philip C

    2015-10-14

    The importance of chronic low-grade inflammation in the pathology of numerous age-related chronic conditions is now clear. An unresolved inflammatory response is likely to be involved from the early stages of disease development. The present position paper is the most recent in a series produced by the International Life Sciences Institute's European Branch (ILSI Europe). It is co-authored by the speakers from a 2013 workshop led by the Obesity and Diabetes Task Force entitled 'Low-grade inflammation, a high-grade challenge: biomarkers and modulation by dietary strategies'. The latest research in the areas of acute and chronic inflammation and cardiometabolic, gut and cognitive health is presented along with the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying inflammation-health/disease associations. The evidence relating diet composition and early-life nutrition to inflammatory status is reviewed. Human epidemiological and intervention data are thus far heavily reliant on the measurement of inflammatory markers in the circulation, and in particular cytokines in the fasting state, which are recognised as an insensitive and highly variable index of tissue inflammation. Potential novel kinetic and integrated approaches to capture inflammatory status in humans are discussed. Such approaches are likely to provide a more discriminating means of quantifying inflammation-health/disease associations, and the ability of diet to positively modulate inflammation and provide the much needed evidence to develop research portfolios that will inform new product development and associated health claims.

  20. Adult Supratentorial Low-Grade Glioma: Long-Term Experience at a Single Institution

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, Glenn; Fisher, Barbara; Watling, Christopher; Cairncross, J. Gregory; Macdonald, David

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To report the long-term follow-up of a cohort of adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma treated at a single institution. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 145 adult patients treated at the London Regional Cancer Program between 1979 and 1995 was reviewed. Results: With a median follow-up of 105 months, the median progression-free survival was 61 months (95% confidence interval, 53-77), and the median overall survival was 118 months (95% confidence interval, 93-129). The 10- and 20-year progression-free and overall survival rate was 18% and 0% and 48% and 22%, respectively. Cox regression analysis confirmed the importance of age, histologic type, presence of seizures, Karnofsky performance status, and initial extent of surgery as prognostic variables for overall and cause-specific survival. Function among long-term survivors without tumor progression was good to excellent for most patients. Conclusion: Low-grade glioma is a chronic disease, with most patients dying of their disease. However, long-term survival with good function is possible. Survival is determined primarily by the disease factors with selection and timing of adjuvant treatments having less influence on outcome.

  1. Enchondroma versus Low-Grade Chondrosarcoma in Appendicular Skeleton: Clinical and Radiological Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Santacreu, Eugenio M.; Ortiz-Cruz, Eduardo J.; González-López, José Manuel; Pérez Fernández, Elia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the validity of clinical and radiological features of enchondroma and low grade chondrosarcoma, and contrast the biopsy results with the clinical diagnosis based on the history and imaging. Material and Method. The study included 96 patients with cartilage type lesions suggestive of an enchondroma (E) or an low grade chondrosarcoma (LGC) according to the clinical and imaging data. The hypotheses were contrasted with the biopsy. Results. Of the 82 patients studied completely, 56 were considered E (68.29%), 8 as LGC (8.33%) and in 18 (18.75%) were doubtful cases and considered as suspected LGC. Of these, the biopsy showed 4 E (25%), 10 LGC (50%) and 4 were not definitive. On the other hand, of the 56 cases diagnosed as E, 15 were biopsied, 5 of these biopsies turned out to be LGC (33.3%). The 8 cases diagnosed as LGC, were also biopsied and only 4 biopsies (50%) confirmed the initial diagnosis. Features analyzed in the study showed no statistically significant difference. Correlation analysis between the diagnosis issued initially and the biopsy result gave a value of 0.69 (kappa coefficient), which was considered a good correlation. Conclusion. Features analyzed did not have any statistical significance. However, there was a good correlation between initial diagnosis and biopsy's result. PMID:22593766

  2. An integrative molecular and genomic analysis of pediatric hemispheric low-grade gliomas: an update.

    PubMed

    Lassaletta, Alvaro; Zapotocky, Michal; Bouffet, Eric; Hawkins, Cynthia; Tabori, Uri

    2016-10-01

    Hemispheric low-grade gliomas account for the second most common location in pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) after the cerebellum. The pathological spectrum includes gangliogliomas, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs), diffuse astrocytomas, pilocytic astrocytomas, and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXAs), among others. Clinically, hemispheric PLGGs represent a well-recognized cause of intractable epilepsy in children and adolescents. With an excellent long-term outcome, surgery remains the cornerstone and patients with gross total resection typically do not need any further therapies. The recent literature about hemispheric PLGGs was reviewed to provide an up-to-date overview of the molecular and cell biology of these tumors. Hemispheric PLGGs can harbor multiple alterations involving BRAFV600E, FGFR, NTRK, MYB/MYBL1, IDH, and BRAF-KIAA1549 fusions. However, the clinical significance of most of these alterations is still to be defined. The role of RAS/MAPK mutations and other alterations in hemispheric PLGGs is of interest from diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic perspectives. Molecular testing for these tumors should be encouraged, since the findings can have an important impact not only in prognosis but also in therapeutic strategies. PMID:27659822

  3. Harvesting low-grade heat energy using thermo-osmotic vapour transport through nanoporous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Anthony P.; Yip, Ngai Yin; Lin, Shihong; Lee, Jongho; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-07-01

    Low-grade heat from sources below 100 ∘C offers a vast quantity of energy. The ability to extract this energy, however, is limited with existing technologies as they are not well-suited to harvest energy from sources with variable heat output or with a small temperature difference between the source and the environment. Here, we present a process for extracting energy from low-grade heat sources utilizing hydrophobic, nanoporous membranes that trap air within their pores when submerged in a liquid. By driving a thermo-osmotic vapour flux across the membrane from a hot reservoir to a pressurized cold reservoir, heat energy can be converted to mechanical work. We demonstrate operation of air-trapping membranes under hydraulic pressures up to 13 bar, show that power densities as high as 3.53 ± 0.29 W m-2 are achievable with a 60 ∘C heat source and a 20 ∘C heat sink, and estimate the efficiency of a full-scale system. The results demonstrate a promising process to harvest energy from low-temperature differences (<40 ∘C) and fluctuating heat sources.

  4. Low-grade inflammation as a key mediator of the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, William H; Lepus, Christin M; Wang, Qian; Raghu, Harini; Mao, Rong; Lindstrom, Tamsin M; Sokolove, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) has long been viewed as a degenerative disease of cartilage, but accumulating evidence indicates that inflammation has a critical role in its pathogenesis. Furthermore, we now appreciate that OA pathogenesis involves not only breakdown of cartilage, but also remodelling of the underlying bone, formation of ectopic bone, hypertrophy of the joint capsule, and inflammation of the synovial lining. That is, OA is a disorder of the joint as a whole, with inflammation driving many pathologic changes. The inflammation in OA is distinct from that in rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases: it is chronic, comparatively low-grade, and mediated primarily by the innate immune system. Current treatments for OA only control the symptoms, and none has been FDA-approved for the prevention or slowing of disease progression. However, increasing insight into the inflammatory underpinnings of OA holds promise for the development of new, disease-modifying therapies. Indeed, several anti-inflammatory therapies have shown promise in animal models of OA. Further work is needed to identify effective inhibitors of the low-grade inflammation in OA, and to determine whether therapies that target this inflammation can prevent or slow the development and progression of the disease. PMID:27539668

  5. Low-grade inflammation, diet composition and health: current research evidence and its translation.

    PubMed

    Minihane, Anne M; Vinoy, Sophie; Russell, Wendy R; Baka, Athanasia; Roche, Helen M; Tuohy, Kieran M; Teeling, Jessica L; Blaak, Ellen E; Fenech, Michael; Vauzour, David; McArdle, Harry J; Kremer, Bas H A; Sterkman, Luc; Vafeiadou, Katerina; Benedetti, Massimo Massi; Williams, Christine M; Calder, Philip C

    2015-10-14

    The importance of chronic low-grade inflammation in the pathology of numerous age-related chronic conditions is now clear. An unresolved inflammatory response is likely to be involved from the early stages of disease development. The present position paper is the most recent in a series produced by the International Life Sciences Institute's European Branch (ILSI Europe). It is co-authored by the speakers from a 2013 workshop led by the Obesity and Diabetes Task Force entitled 'Low-grade inflammation, a high-grade challenge: biomarkers and modulation by dietary strategies'. The latest research in the areas of acute and chronic inflammation and cardiometabolic, gut and cognitive health is presented along with the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying inflammation-health/disease associations. The evidence relating diet composition and early-life nutrition to inflammatory status is reviewed. Human epidemiological and intervention data are thus far heavily reliant on the measurement of inflammatory markers in the circulation, and in particular cytokines in the fasting state, which are recognised as an insensitive and highly variable index of tissue inflammation. Potential novel kinetic and integrated approaches to capture inflammatory status in humans are discussed. Such approaches are likely to provide a more discriminating means of quantifying inflammation-health/disease associations, and the ability of diet to positively modulate inflammation and provide the much needed evidence to develop research portfolios that will inform new product development and associated health claims. PMID:26228057

  6. An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seok Woo; Yang, Yuan; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ghasemi, Hadi; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang; Cui, Yi

    2014-05-21

    Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low figure-of-merit and low-temperature differential. An alternative approach is to explore thermodynamic cycles. Thermogalvanic effect, the dependence of electrode potential on temperature, can construct such cycles. In one cycle, an electrochemical cell is charged at a temperature and then discharged at a different temperature with higher cell voltage, thereby converting heat to electricity. Here we report an electrochemical system using a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a Cu/Cu(2+) anode to convert heat into electricity. The electrode materials have low polarization, high charge capacity, moderate temperature coefficients and low specific heat. These features lead to a high heat-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency of 5.7% when cycled between 10 and 60 °C, opening a promising way to utilize low-grade heat.

  7. Low-grade disease activity in early life precedes childhood asthma and allergy.

    PubMed

    Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard

    2016-08-01

    for promotion of or protection against asthma and allergies. Therefore, preventive initiatives to restore immune health, such as vitamin D supplementation, should be directed to the fetus and the earliest postnatal life. The eosinophil granulocyte has a major role in the allergic inflammatory cascade and eosinophilia is considered a hallmark of many allergic phenotypes. In paper III, we examined neonatal urinary biomarkers including eosinophil protein X (u-EPX), which is contained in the eosinophil granules. Elevated u-EPX in asymptomatic neonates was associated with development of allergic sensitization and nasal eosinophilia, but not with wheezing or asthma (III). These findings suggest the presence of an ongoing low-grade disease process in early life characterized by eosinophil activation prior to appearance of allergy-related conditions. In papers IV-V, we investigated perinatal and genetic predictors of neonatal fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and the relationship between neonatal FeNO and wheezing later in child-hood. The a priori selected determinants encompassed asthma genetic risk variants, anthropometrics, demographics, socioeconomics, parental asthma and allergy, maternal smoking, paracetamol and antibiotic usage during pregnancy, and neonatal bacterial airway colonization. Among those, only the DENND1B risk allele and paternal history of asthma and allergy were associated with increased FeNO values (V) suggesting that raised FeNO in neonatal life is primarily an inherited trait. The neonatal FeNO levels were widely dispersed (1-67 ppb) and children with values in the upper quartile were at increased risk of recurrent wheezing in early childhood, but not persistent wheezing, reduced lung function or allergy-related endpoints (IV). This suggests that elevated neonatal FeNO represents an early asymptomatic low-grade disease process other than congenitally small airway calibre contributing to a transient wheezing phenotype. Reduced lung function in

  8. Risk factors for recurrence and prognosis of low-grade endometrial adenocarcinoma; vaginal versus other sites.

    PubMed

    Moschiano, Elizabeth J; Barbuto, Denise A; Walsh, Christine; Singh, Kanwaljit; Euscher, Elizabeth D; Roma, Andres A; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E; Montiel, Delia P; Kim, Insun; Djordjevic, Bojana; Malpica, Anais; Hong, Sung Ran; Silva, Elvio G

    2014-05-01

    Endometrial adenocarcinoma is the most common gynecologic cancer in the United States. The prognosis is generally favorable, however, a significant number of patients do develop local or distant recurrence. The most common site of recurrence is vaginal. Our aim was to better characterize patients with vaginal recurrence of low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma with respect to associated tumor parameters and clinical outcome. We compiled 255 cases of low-grade (FIGO Grade I or II) endometrioid adenocarcinoma on hysterectomy specimens with lymph node dissection. A total of 113 cases with positive lymph nodes or recurrent disease were included in our study group. Seventy-three cases (13 Grade 1, 60 Grade 2) developed extravaginal recurrence and 40 cases (7 Grade 1, 33 Grade 2) developed vaginal recurrence. We evaluated numerous tumor parameters including: percentage myoinvasion, presence of microcystic, elongated, and fragmented pattern of myoinvasion, lymphovascular space invasion, and cervical involvement. Clinical follow-up showed that 30% (34/113) of all patients with recurrent disease died as a result of their disease during our follow-up period, including 31 (42.5%) with extravaginal recurrence and 3 (7.5%) with primary vaginal recurrence (P=0.001). The 3 patients with vaginal recurrence developed subsequent extravaginal recurrence before death. Vaginal recurrence patients show increased cervical involvement by tumor, but lack other risk factors associated with recurrent disease at other sites. There were no deaths among patients with isolated vaginal recurrence, suggesting that vaginal recurrence is not a marker of aggressive tumor biology.

  9. Canonical Nlrp3 inflammasome links systemic low grade inflammation to functional decline in aging

    PubMed Central

    Youm, Yun-Hee; Grant, Ryan W.; McCabe, Laura R.; Albarado, Diana C.; Nguyen, Kim Yen; Ravussin, Anthony; Pistell, Paul; Newman, Susan; Carter, Renee; Laque, Amanda; Münzberg, Heike; Rosen, Clifford J.; Ingram, Donald K.; Salbaum, J. Michael; Dixit, Vishwa Deep

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite a wealth of clinical data showing an association between inflammation and degenerative disorders in elderly, the immune sensors that causally link systemic inflammation to aging remain unclear. Here we detail a mechanism that the Nlrp3 inflammasome controls systemic low grade age-related ‘sterile’ inflammation in both periphery and brain independently of the non-canonical caspase-11 inflammasome. Ablation of Nlrp3 inflammasome protected mice from age-related increases in the innate immune activation, alterations in CNS transcriptome and astrogliosis. Consistent with the hypothesis that systemic low grade inflammation promotes age-related degenerative changes, the deficient Nlrp3 inflammasome mediated caspase-1 activity improved glycemic control and attenuated bone loss and thymic demise. Notably, IL-1 mediated only Nlrp3 inflammasome dependent improvement in cognitive function and motor performance in aged mice. These studies reveal Nlrp3 inflammasome as an upstream target that controls age-related inflammation and offer innovative therapeutic strategy to lower Nlrp3 activity to delay multiple age-related chronic diseases. PMID:24093676

  10. Charging-free electrochemical system for harvesting low-grade thermal energy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan; Lee, Seok Woo; Ghasemi, Hadi; Loomis, James; Li, Xiaobo; Kraemer, Daniel; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi; Chen, Gang

    2014-12-01

    Efficient and low-cost systems are needed to harvest the tremendous amount of energy stored in low-grade heat sources (<100 °C). Thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle (TREC) is an attractive approach which uses the temperature dependence of electrochemical cell voltage to construct a thermodynamic cycle for direct heat-to-electricity conversion. By varying temperature, an electrochemical cell is charged at a lower voltage than discharge, converting thermal energy to electricity. Most TREC systems still require external electricity for charging, which complicates system designs and limits their applications. Here, we demonstrate a charging-free TREC consisting of an inexpensive soluble Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) redox pair and solid Prussian blue particles as active materials for the two electrodes. In this system, the spontaneous directions of the full-cell reaction are opposite at low and high temperatures. Therefore, the two electrochemical processes at both low and high temperatures in a cycle are discharge. Heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 2.0% can be reached for the TREC operating between 20 and 60 °C. This charging-free TREC system may have potential application for harvesting low-grade heat from the environment, especially in remote areas.

  11. Treatment of refractory low grade lymphoma with chlorambucil alternating with interferon and radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Avilés, A; Talavera, A; Guzmán, R; Cuadra, I

    1995-01-01

    We report the results of a clinical trial of chlorambucil (CB) alternating with interferon alfa 2b (IFN) in previously treated patients with low-grade lymphoma who were refractory to previous treatment. Patients received CB 10 mg/m2, po, daily, days 1-14, alternating with IFN 5.0 MU three times a week days 15-28 (six doses) by six monthly cycles. If partial response was achieved, patients received extended field radiotherapy to sites of nodal residual postchemotherapy disease. Forty-three patients were enrolled into the study, and 30 were evaluable for response and toxicity. Nineteen out of 39 (40%) achieved complete remission and 14 out of 39 (35%) had partial remission, thus the overall response was observed in 83% of the cases. Ten patients with partial response and residual nodal disease received radiotherapy and achieved complete response criteria. The median duration of response has not been achieved, yet, 23 patients remain in complete response after a median follow-up of 98.5 months. Toxicity was mild and 95% of the patients received the planned dose of CB and IFN. These results suggest that combination of CB and IFN and addition of radiotherapy to residual postchemotherapy nodal disease may be effective in patients with low-grade lymphoma without excessive toxicity and adequate quality of life. PMID:8590892

  12. Low grade endometrial stromal sarcoma of uterine: review of 17 cases.

    PubMed

    Behtash, Nadereh; Akhavan, Setareh; Gilani, Mitra Modares; Mousavi, Azamsadat; Ghaemmaghami, Fatemeh; Mazhari, Marjan Moradi

    2011-01-01

    Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS) are the second most common uterine sarcomas. Endometrial stromal sarcomas account for 0.25% of all uterine malignancies. Uterine sarcomas most often affect postmenopausal women. The aim of this retrospective study was to review the experience in the treatment and clinical outcome of low grade malignant endometrial stromal sarcoma. Seventeen patients with histologically proven low grade ESS in department of Gynecologic Oncology of the Vali-e-Asr Hospital, Tehran-Iran, between 1999 and 2008 were included in the analysis. Demographics, pathology, treatment, time to recurrence, salvage therapy and survival information was collected. The median age of our patients was 45.35 ± 6.8 (range 36-61). The median parity of the patients was 5 (range 0-8). Most patients were diagnosed at FIGO stage I. The mean survival for patients with stage I and II was 73.5 ± 35.09 and 57.6 ± 5.37 months, respectively, with mortality rate of 5.9% through a median follow-up time of 68.82 ± 30 months. Of 17 patients, seven cases (35.29%) were disease free at 6 years after hysterectomy. Radiotherapy was administered to four patients (23.53%). Only one patient recurred at 10th month after surgery. Surgeries not preserving ovarian function were helpful to decrease the risk of recurrence compared with those sparing ovarian function.

  13. Simultaneous Purification and Perforation of Low-Grade Si Sources for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Zhang, Su; Zhu, Bin; Tan, Yingling; Hu, Xiaozhen; Zong, Linqi; Zhu, Jia

    2015-11-11

    Silicon is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for lithium-ion battery anodes because of its abundance and high theoretical capacity. Various silicon nanostructures have been heavily investigated to improve electrochemical performance by addressing issues related to structure fracture and unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). However, to further enable widespread applications, scalable and cost-effective processes need to be developed to produce these nanostructures at large quantity with finely controlled structures and morphologies. In this study, we develop a scalable and low cost process to produce porous silicon directly from low grade silicon through ball-milling and modified metal-assisted chemical etching. The morphology of porous silicon can be drastically changed from porous-network to nanowire-array by adjusting the component in reaction solutions. Meanwhile, this perforation process can also effectively remove the impurities and, therefore, increase Si purity (up to 99.4%) significantly from low-grade and low-cost ferrosilicon (purity of 83.4%) sources. The electrochemical examinations indicate that these porous silicon structures with carbon treatment can deliver a stable capacity of 1287 mAh g(-1) over 100 cycles at a current density of 2 A g(-1). This type of purified porous silicon with finely controlled morphology, produced by a scalable and cost-effective fabrication process, can also serve as promising candidates for many other energy applications, such as thermoelectrics and solar energy conversion devices.

  14. Mucinous cystic neoplasm of the liver with low grade dysplasia of the liver.

    PubMed

    Pirdopska, T; Terziev, I; Taneva, I; Dimitrova, V

    2014-01-01

    Mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) with low grade dysplasia of the liver is rare. It had been previously called hepatobiliary cystadenoma and is seen almost exclusively in women without an associated invasive carcinoma. There are different theories for development of MCN of the liver. One of these is developing from endodermal immature stroma or primary yolk cells implanted during embryogenesis. Another theory refers to the prevalence of hepatic mucinous cystic neoplasm in segment IV, which may support an implant origin because hamartomatous lesions commonly develop in segment IV. The third theory concerns the expression of oestrogen receptor or progesterone receptor in ovarian-like stroma, which also supports a putative role for female hormones in the tumorogenesis. MCN of the liver is a cystic-forming epithelial neoplasm, usually showing no communication with the bile ducts, composed of cuboidal to columnar, variably mucin-producing epithelium, associated with ovarian-type subepithelial stroma. We present a case of MCN with low grade dysplasia of the liver in a young woman whose working surgical diagnosis was Echinococcus cyst. The MCN diagnosis was confirmed with Immunohistochemical study.

  15. Tectonic setting of the low-grade metamorphic rocks of the Dabie Orogen, central eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shutong; Wu, Weiping; Lu, Yiqun; Wang, Dehua

    2012-04-01

    The tectonic setting on both the northern and southern sides of the Dabie Mountains reveals that low-grade metamorphic rocks are important constituents produced by the subduction of the oceanic crust prior to collision between the Sino-Korean and Yangtze cratons. The Zhangbaling Group/Mulanshan schist is a pre-Ordovician oceanic crust. The Sujiahe and Xinyang/Foziling Groups are trench sediments of the Ordovician-Devonian age, and constitute an accretionary prism associated with subduction. The Yangshan coal measures/Meishan Group was a forearc basin sediment of Carboniferous age, and was overthrust by the accretionary prism during collision. The Susong Group is composed of passive continental margin sediments of the Yangtze craton. Backarc basin sediments are postulated to be concealed by Mesozoic-Cenozoic sediments to the north of the Dabie Mountains. High-ultrahigh pressure terrains are exotic tectonic slices exhumed from depths, located between low-grade metamorphic rocks, and disturb the integrity of the earlier subduction orogen. Subduction occurred during the Ordovician to Devonian periods, and collision initiated at the beginning of the Permian.

  16. Hibernation alters the diversity and composition of mucosa-associated bacteria while enhancing antimicrobial defence in the gut of 13-lined ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Dill-McFarland, Kimberly A; Neil, Katie L; Zeng, Austin; Sprenger, Ryan J; Kurtz, Courtney C; Suen, Garret; Carey, Hannah V

    2014-09-01

    The gut microbiota plays important roles in animal nutrition and health. This relationship is particularly dynamic in hibernating mammals where fasting drives the gut community to rely on host-derived nutrients instead of exogenous substrates. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and caecal tissue protein analysis to investigate the effects of hibernation on the mucosa-associated bacterial microbiota and host responses in 13-lined ground squirrels. The mucosal microbiota was less diverse in winter hibernators than in actively feeding spring and summer squirrels. UniFrac analysis revealed distinct summer and late winter microbiota clusters, while spring and early winter clusters overlapped slightly, consistent with their transitional structures. Communities in all seasons were dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, with lesser contributions from Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Tenericutes and Actinobacteria. Hibernators had lower relative abundances of Firmicutes, which include genera that prefer plant polysaccharides, and higher abundances of Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia, some of which can survive solely on host-derived mucins. A core mucosal assemblage of nine operational taxonomic units shared among all individuals was identified with an average total sequence abundance of 60.2%. This core community, together with moderate shifts in specific taxa, indicates that the mucosal microbiota remains relatively stable over the annual cycle yet responds to substrate changes while potentially serving as a pool for 'seeding' the microbiota once exogenous substrates return in spring. Relative to summer, hibernation reduced caecal crypt length and increased MUC2 expression in early winter and spring. Hibernation also decreased caecal TLR4 and increased TLR5 expression, suggesting a protective response that minimizes inflammation.

  17. Hibernation alters the diversity and composition of mucosa-associated bacteria while enhancing antimicrobial defence in the gut of 13-lined ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Dill-McFarland, Kimberly A; Neil, Katie L; Zeng, Austin; Sprenger, Ryan J; Kurtz, Courtney C; Suen, Garret; Carey, Hannah V

    2014-09-01

    The gut microbiota plays important roles in animal nutrition and health. This relationship is particularly dynamic in hibernating mammals where fasting drives the gut community to rely on host-derived nutrients instead of exogenous substrates. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and caecal tissue protein analysis to investigate the effects of hibernation on the mucosa-associated bacterial microbiota and host responses in 13-lined ground squirrels. The mucosal microbiota was less diverse in winter hibernators than in actively feeding spring and summer squirrels. UniFrac analysis revealed distinct summer and late winter microbiota clusters, while spring and early winter clusters overlapped slightly, consistent with their transitional structures. Communities in all seasons were dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, with lesser contributions from Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Tenericutes and Actinobacteria. Hibernators had lower relative abundances of Firmicutes, which include genera that prefer plant polysaccharides, and higher abundances of Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia, some of which can survive solely on host-derived mucins. A core mucosal assemblage of nine operational taxonomic units shared among all individuals was identified with an average total sequence abundance of 60.2%. This core community, together with moderate shifts in specific taxa, indicates that the mucosal microbiota remains relatively stable over the annual cycle yet responds to substrate changes while potentially serving as a pool for 'seeding' the microbiota once exogenous substrates return in spring. Relative to summer, hibernation reduced caecal crypt length and increased MUC2 expression in early winter and spring. Hibernation also decreased caecal TLR4 and increased TLR5 expression, suggesting a protective response that minimizes inflammation. PMID:25130694

  18. The Features of Fecal and Ileal Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Dairy Calves during Early Infection with Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Derakhshani, Hooman; De Buck, Jeroen; Mortier, Rienske; Barkema, Herman W.; Krause, Denis O.; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Current diagnostic tests for Johne's disease (JD), a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), lack the sensitivity to identify infected animals at early (asymptomatic) stages of the disease. The objective was to determine the pattern of MAP-associated dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota as a potential biomarker for early detection of infected cattle. To that end, genomic DNA was extracted from ileal mucosa and fecal samples collected from 28 MAP-positive and five control calves. High-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was used for community profiling of ileal mucosa-associated (MAM) or fecal microbiota. The PERMANOVA analysis of unweighted UniFrac distances revealed distinct clustering of ileal MAM (P = 0.049) and fecal microbiota (P = 0.068) in MAP-infected vs. control cattle. Microbiota profile of MAP-infected animals was further investigated by linear discriminant analysis effective size (LEfSe); several bacterial taxa within the phylum Proteobacteria were overrepresented in ileal MAM of control calves. Moreover, based on reconstructed metagenomes (PICRUSt) of ileal MAM, functional pathways associated with MAP infection were inferred. Enrichment of lysine and histidine metabolism pathways, and underrepresentation of glutathione metabolism and leucine and isoleucine degradation pathways in MAP-infected calves suggested potential contributions of ileal MAM in development of intestinal inflammation. Finally, simultaneous overrepresentation of families Planococcaceae and Paraprevotellaceae, as well as underrepresentation of genera Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia in the fecal microbiota of infected cattle, served as potential biomarker for identifying infected cattle during subclinical stages of JD. Collectively, based on compositional and functional shifts in intestinal microbiota of infected cattle, we inferred that

  19. Cognitive outcomes among survivors of focal low-grade brainstem tumors diagnosed in childhood.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kellie N; Ashford, Jason M; Pai Panandiker, Atmaram S; Klimo, Paul; Merchant, Thomas E; Billups, Catherine A; Conklin, Heather M

    2016-09-01

    Pediatric focal low-grade brainstem tumors are associated with excellent prognosis. Surgical resection and conformal radiation therapy are front-line treatment options; radiation therapy (RT) serves as an excellent treatment for disease progression. Given high survival rates and limited research regarding functional outcomes, the current study examined neurocognitive outcomes in a group of low-grade brainstem glioma survivors. Forty-three survivors of focal low-grade brainstem gliomas underwent neurocognitive assessment (58 % male; median = 6.9 years at diagnosis; median = 14.9 years at latest assessment). Treatment included combinations of surgery, chemotherapy, and RT with 70 % ultimately receiving RT. Neurocognitive outcomes were evaluated through retrospective chart review. Intellectual and academic performance were significantly different from normative expectations (full scale IQ = 86.5 ± 16.8; reading comprehension = 91.3 ± 16.4; math reasoning = 88.2 ± 18.9; reference group = 100 ± 15). Further, the percentage performing below average exceeded the expected 16 % in the normative sample (full scale IQ = 43 %; reading comprehension = 37 %; math reasoning = 50 %). Mean parent ratings did not reflect concerns regarding internalizing and externalizing behaviors or executive functioning (internalizing = 54.9 ± 12.7; externalizing = 51.6 ± 14.6, global executive composite = 57.1 ± 16.0; reference group = 50 ± 10); however, the proportion with clinically elevated scores was higher than the expected 16 % (internalizing = 42 %; externalizing = 26 %; global executive composite = 38 %). Mean performance fell below average for visual-motor coordination (81.8 ± 13.2) and parent ratings of adaptive functioning (73.4 ± 24.2), with 65 and 62 % falling outside the average range, respectively. There were no significant differences between

  20. Human leukocyte antigen-G overexpression predicts poor clinical outcomes in low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xing; Wang, Yinyan; Zhang, Chuanbao; Liu, Xing; Qian, Zenghui; Jiang, Tao

    2016-05-15

    Overexpression of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G), a non-classical major histocompatibility complex class-I molecule associated with immunosuppression, has been reported in various human malignancies. In the present study, we examined the role of HLA-G in gliomas. Clinical characteristics, mRNA expression microarrays and follow-up data pertaining to 293 patients with histologically confirmed gliomas were analyzed. The expression levels of HLA-G were compared between different grades of gliomas and correlated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) to evaluate its prognostic value. We found that HLA-G was overexpressed in gliomas as compared to that in normal brain tissue samples (-1.288±0.265). The highest expression levels were in glioblastomas (GBMs), anaplastic gliomas (AGs) and low-grade gliomas (LGGs), in that order (0.328±0.778, 0.176±0.881, -0.388±0.686, respectively). Significant inter-group differences were observed between low-grade and high-grade glioma tissues (p<0.001 and p<0.001, t-test, AGs and GBMs, respectively). More astrocytoma patients exhibited increased HLA-G expression as compared to other LGG patients (p=0.004, Chi-square test). Significant differences were observed with respect to PFS and OS (p=0.009 and 0.032, log-rank test, for PFS and OS, respectively) between the high- and low-expression subgroups in patients with LGGs. On Cox regression analysis, overexpression of HLA-G appeared to be an independent predictor of clinical outcomes (p=0.007 and 0.026, for PFS and OS, respectively). Our results suggest that HLA-G expression may serve as a potential biomarker for predicting aggressive tumor grades of gliomas and for histological subtype of LGGs. Elevated HLA-G expression could serve as an independent predictor of poor clinical outcomes in patients with low-grade gliomas.

  1. Distribution of lymphoid neoplasms in the Republic of Korea: analysis of 5318 cases according to the World Health Organization classification.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sun Och; Suh, Cheolwon; Lee, Dae Ho; Chi, Hyun-Sook; Park, Chan Jeoung; Jang, Seong-Soo; Shin, Hai-Rim; Park, Bong-Hee; Huh, Jooryung

    2010-10-01

    Compared with the West, the overall incidence of lymphoid neoplasms is lower, and the subtype distribution is distinct in Asia. To comprehensively investigate the subtype distribution with the age and sex factors, and temporal changes of subtype proportions, we re-assessed all patients with lymphoid neoplasms diagnosed at a large oncology service in the Republic of Korea from 1989 to 2008 using the World Health Organization classifications. Of the total 5,318 patients, 66.9% had mature B-cell neoplasms, 12.5% had mature T/natural killer (NK)-cell neoplasms, 16.4% had precursor lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ALL/LBL), and 4.1% had Hodgkin's lymphoma. The most common subtypes were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (30.5%), plasma cell myeloma (14.0%), extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma; 12.4%), B-cell ALL/LBL (11.3%), Hodgkin's lymphoma (4.1%), peripheral T-cell lymphoma unspecified (4.0%), T-cell ALL/LBL (3.9%), and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma of nasal type (3.9%). Most subtypes showed male predominance, with an average M/F ratio of 1.3. Most mature lymphoid neoplasms were diseases of adults (mean age, 53.5 yr), whereas ALL/LBLs were of young individuals (mean age, 20.3 yr). When the relative proportion of subtypes were compared between two decades (1989-1998 vs. 1999-2008), especially MALT lymphoma has increased in proportion, whereas T/NK-cell neoplasms and ALL/LBL have slightly decreased. In summary, the lymphoid neoplasms of Koreans shared some epidemiologic features similar to those of other countries, whereas some subtypes showed distinct features. Although the increase in incidence of lymphoid neoplasms is relatively modest in Korea, recent increase of MALT lymphoma and decrease of T/NK-cell neoplasms and ALL/LBL are interesting findings. PMID:20806229

  2. Study of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle for Low Grade Heat Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Vidhi, Rachana; Goswami, Yogi D.; Chen, Huijuan; Stefanakos, Elias; Kuravi, Sarada; Sabau, Adrian S

    2011-01-01

    Research on supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles has been mainly focused on high temperature applications, such as Brayton cycle in a nuclear power plant. This paper conducts a comprehensive study on the feasibility of a CO2-based supercritical power cycle for low-grade heat conversion. Energy and exergy analyses of the cycle were conducted to discuss the obstacles as well as the potentials of using supercritical carbon dioxide as the working fluid for supercritical Rankine cycle, Carbon dioxide has desirable qualities such as low critical temperature, stability, little environmental impact and low cost. However, the low critical temperature might be a disadvantage for the condensation process. Comparison between a carbon dioxide-based supercritical Rankine cycle and an organic fluid-based supercritical Rankine cycle showed that the former needs higher pressure to achieve the same efficiency and a heat recovery system is necessary to desuperheat the turbine exhaust and pre-heat the pressure charged liquid.

  3. Principles of Treatment for Borderline, Micropapillary Serous, and Low-Grade Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Kari E; Uppal, Shitanshu; Johnston, Carolyn

    2016-09-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) are less common than epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs). Low-grade EOCs (LG-EOCs) occur even less frequently than BOTs. After primary therapy, recurrence rates of BOTs and LG-EOCs are significantly lower and the stage-adjusted survival is higher than for high-grade EOCs. Thus, determining the best management in terms of traditional ovarian cancer staging and debulking procedures is more challenging and has been recently brought to question. This article reviews the particulars of BOTs and LG-EOCs, their similarities and differences, and how they are best managed and treated, and emphasizes the major role of surgery and the controversial role of chemotherapy. Because these tumors disproportionately affect younger women, this review addresses ovarian preservation in circumstances when fertility or hormonal preservation is desired.

  4. A preliminary report on the rapid fluorimetric determination of uranium in low-grade ores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; Levine, Harry

    1950-01-01

    A simple and very rapid fluorimetric procedure is described for the determination of uranium in low-grade shale and phosphate ores. The best working range is from 0.001 to about 0.04 percent U. The procedure employs batch extraction of uranium nitrate by ethyl acetate, using aluminum nitrate as the salting agent, prior to the visual fluorimetric estimation. The procedure is especially designed to save reagents; only 9.5 g of aluminum nitrate and 10 ml of ethyl acetate being used for one analysis. The solution of the sample by means of a fusion with NaOH-NaNO3 flux is rapid. After fusion the sample is immediately extracted without removing silica and other hydrolytic precipitates. Aluminum nitrate very effectively ties up fluoride and phosphate, thus eliminating steps required for their removal.

  5. A Low-Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma of the Internal Abdominal Oblique Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Masakazu; Koide, Kei; Arita, Michinori; Kawaguchi, Koji; Mikuriya, Yoshihiro; Iwata, Jun; Iwamoto, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    A low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare tumor, with a benign histologic appearance but malignant behavior. This report describes a 74-year-old man with an internal abdominal oblique muscle mass. The tumor appeared as a well-defined ovoid mass on computed tomography, with mild uptake on fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography images. Radical resection with wide safe margins was performed. Histologically, the tumor was composed of spindle-shaped cells in a whorled growth pattern, with alternating fibrous and myxoid stroma. MUC4 expression, a highly sensitive and specific immunohistochemical marker for LGFMS, was detected. Therefore, we diagnosed the tumor as LGFMS. At the 3-month follow-up, there was no sign of recurrence or metastasis. We report the first case of LGFMS arising from the internal abdominal oblique muscle. PMID:27247823

  6. Low-Grade Myofibroblastic Sarcoma in the Mandibular Canal: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yueyuan; Xiao, Jin; Wang, Lan; Yang, Guiqiang

    2016-07-01

    Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma (LGMS) represents an atypical myofibroblastic tumor characterized by a diffusely infiltrating pattern of spindle-shaped tumor cells. It was classified as a distinct soft tissue tumor by the World Health Organization in 2002. LGMS occurs mostly in adult patients and has a predilection for the head and neck region. So far, only a few cases of LGMS located in the mandible have been reported. Aggressive surgical resection with clear margins is the primary treatment for LGMS. Because of its rarity, reports of radiation therapy are limited, and the therapeutic effect is still controversial. We present the case of an 8-year-old girl with LGMS of the mandibular canal to highlight the clinical features and rarity and to improve the understanding of the therapeutic effect of radiotherapy on LGMS. PMID:27020841

  7. Principles of Treatment for Borderline, Micropapillary Serous, and Low-Grade Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Kari E; Uppal, Shitanshu; Johnston, Carolyn

    2016-09-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) are less common than epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs). Low-grade EOCs (LG-EOCs) occur even less frequently than BOTs. After primary therapy, recurrence rates of BOTs and LG-EOCs are significantly lower and the stage-adjusted survival is higher than for high-grade EOCs. Thus, determining the best management in terms of traditional ovarian cancer staging and debulking procedures is more challenging and has been recently brought to question. This article reviews the particulars of BOTs and LG-EOCs, their similarities and differences, and how they are best managed and treated, and emphasizes the major role of surgery and the controversial role of chemotherapy. Because these tumors disproportionately affect younger women, this review addresses ovarian preservation in circumstances when fertility or hormonal preservation is desired. PMID:27587627

  8. Low-Grade Adenosquamous Carcinoma of the Breast Developing Around a Localization Wire Fragment.

    PubMed

    Handa, Priyanka; Khader, Samer N; Buchbinder, Shalom S; Guelfguat, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 67-year-old white woman with a history of benign biopsy results in the previous 10 years before she developed low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma around a residual localization wire fragment. A possible theory of carcinogenesis may be related to reparative epithelium in a healing biopsy site that underwent squamous metaplasia; alternately, there may have been carcinogenesis related to long-term metal exposure at the wire placement site. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated a link between carcinogenesis and long-term exposure to various metals. This case report raises important questions regarding carcinogenesis in the setting of long-term metal exposure and the reparative response of the body at the site of injury or biopsy.

  9. Human papillomavirus infection in couples with female low-grade intraepithelial cervical lesion.

    PubMed

    Simon, Philippe; Roumeguere, Thierry; Christophe Noël, Jean

    2010-11-01

    Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are frequently found during cervical cancer screening. Usually they are associated with a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Does the high-transmission rate of HPV infection to the male partner represent a clinical risk for him? Are preventive measures to be taken to prevent the occurrence of male diseases? More than 80% of all LSIL are associated with HPV infections. The prevalence of HPV infection in males can range up to 40%, with 60% of the male partners of LSIL female patients presenting with penile flat lesions. The spontaneous cure rate for male infections is very high (90% at 5 years) but negative consequences in females (cervical high-grade lesion and cervical cancer) are frequent. Their male counterparts are far rarer but in some patients can require deleterious treatment. Transmission prevention by the use of condoms and circumcision is discussed. The effectiveness of HPV vaccination in this situation has not been validated. PMID:20646823

  10. Bilateral Serous Psammocarcinoma of Ovary: Rare Variant Low Grade Serous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Saubhagya Kumar; Mishra, Pritinanda; Mohapatra, Vandana; Singh, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Serous psammocarcinoma is a rare variant of serous carcinoma arising from either ovary or peritoneum, characterized by massive psammoma body formation, low grade cytologic features, and invasiveness. Its clinical behavior is similar to serous borderline tumors with relatively favorable prognosis. We report herein a case of a 60-year-old postmenopausal woman who presented with abdominal distension. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) revealed calcified pelvic masses with ascites. Elevated serum CA-125 (970 U/mL) suggested malignant ovarian neoplasm. Patient underwent exploratory laparotomy with primary debulking surgery. Histopathology showed bilateral serous psammocarcinoma of ovary with invasive implants on omentum. Adjuvant chemotherapy was advised in view of advanced stage disease, although its benefits are poorly defined due to rarity of the tumor. However, patient opted out of it and is now on follow-up. PMID:26557397

  11. Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma involving the mandible: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Kanad; Kasimsetty, Chatura Ramakantha; Lingappa, Ashok; Gujjar, Pramod Vittobarao

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a distinctive variant of fibrosarcoma with a high metastasizing potential and is characterized by a long interval between tumor presentation and metastasis. LGFMS involving the maxillofacial region is a very rare entity with only six cases reported till date. LGFMS is characterized by its benign histological appearance, with spindle cells in whorling pattern, and collagenized and myxoid areas. The heterogeneous histological appearance makes the diagnosis challenging. Immunohistochemical staining has been reported by a number of authors, with some conflicting results, showing positivity with vimentin, but no immunoreactivity with antibodies to keratin, desmin, actin, S100 or epithelial membrane antigen. We present a case of a 35-year-old male patient who developed a mass on the left mandibular body region. The tumor was excised along with mental nerve at the level of the mental foramen. The tumor on pathologic and immunohistochemical evaluation was diagnosed as LGFMS. PMID:27601843

  12. [Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the accessory salivary glands--a case report].

    PubMed

    Chadli-Debbiche, A; Ben Brahim, E; Dougaz, A; Mansouri, D; Fraoua-Abdelmoula, F; Mbarek, A; Mamouri, M; Mzabi-Regaya, S

    2000-10-01

    A case of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland is reported. This tumor was first described in two clinical case series in 1983. Before that time most of these neoplasms were diagnosed as benign salivary gland neoplasms (pleomorphic adenomas) or salivary malignant conditions (malignant pleomorphic adenomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, papillary adenocarcinomas and adenocarcinoma not otherwise stated). This neoplasm, with few exceptions, originates in minor salivary gland tissues of the palates or buccal mucosa. It is characteristically slow to enlarge. Clinical reports show the neoplasm present for many years before diagnosis. The tumor have a variety of morphological patterns, a cytological uniformity and an infiltration into adjacent structures. The treatment is a wide local excision. Recurrences and lymph node metastases are rare.

  13. Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Copeland, William E; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E Jane

    2014-05-27

    Bullying is a common childhood experience that involves repeated mistreatment to improve or maintain one's status. Victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences, whereas bullies display minimal ill effects. The aim of this study is to test how this adverse social experience is biologically embedded to affect short- or long-term levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation. The prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1,420), with up to nine waves of data per subject, was used, covering childhood/adolescence (ages 9-16) and young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and relevant covariates at all childhood/adolescent observations. Blood spots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. During childhood and adolescence, the number of waves at which the child was bullied predicted increasing levels of CRP. Although CRP levels rose for all participants from childhood into adulthood, being bullied predicted greater increases in CRP levels, whereas bullying others predicted lower increases in CRP compared with those uninvolved in bullying. This pattern was robust, controlling for body mass index, substance use, physical and mental health status, and exposures to other childhood psychosocial adversities. A child's role in bullying may serve as either a risk or a protective factor for adult low-grade inflammation, independent of other factors. Inflammation is a physiological response that mediates the effects of both social adversity and dominance on decreases in health.

  14. Prognostic Molecular Subtypes of Low-Grade Cancer of the Appendix

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Edward A; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I; Qasem, Shadi A; Philip, John; Cummins, Kathleen A; Chou, Jeff W; Ruiz, Jimmy; D’Agostino, Ralph; Shen, Perry; Miller, Lance D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Appendiceal cancer (AC) patients treated with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) often demonstrate an unpredictable variability in their survival outcomes. Biomarkers predictive of CRS/HIPEC efficacy could better guide treatment decisions. We hypothesized that variation in the transcriptional programming of AC tumors might distinguish molecular subtypes with differential outcomes after CRS/HIPEC. STUDY DESIGN Gene expression profiles of 2 AC cohorts were analyzed using Affymetrix whole-genome expression microarrays. Hierarchical clustering methods, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and Cox regression models were used to discover and validate prognostic molecular subtypes of AC. Gene set enrichment analysis was used to infer pathologic attributes of the molecular subtypes. RESULTS Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of tumor expression profiles revealed a 139-gene cassette that distinguished 2 molecular subtypes (based on low vs high expression of the gene cassette) with statistically significant survival differences (disease-specific survival, p = 0.0075; progression-free survival, p = 0.0072). In a second AC cohort, the 139-gene cassette reproducibly partitioned tumors into subtypes with significant survival differences. Tumors showing high relative expression of the genes comprising the cassette associated with poor survival outcomes (disease-specific survival, p = 0.047; progression-free survival, p = 0.0079), and exhibited gene expression patterns enriched for oncogenic processes and pathways. The prognostic value of the molecular subtypes was specific for low-grade appendiceal tumors (disease-specific survival, p = 0.028; progression-free survival, p = 0.0016), and remained significant in the presence of conventional prognostic markers, including grade, surgical resection score, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status, and age. CONCLUSIONS The 139-gene cassette can have actionable clinical utility for

  15. The significance of "geothermal microzonation" for the correct planning of low-grade source geothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viccaro, Marco; Pezzino, Antonino; Belfiore, Giuseppe Maria; Campisano, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the environmental-friendly energy systems are solar thermal technologies, photovoltaic and wind power, other advantageous technologies exist, although they have not found wide development in countries such as Italy. Given the almost absent environmental impact and the rather favorable cost/benefit ratio, low-enthalpy geothermal systems are, however, likely to be of strategic importance also in Italy during the next years. The importance of geology for a sustainable exploitation of the ground through geothermal systems from low-grade sources is becoming paramount. Specifically, understanding of the lithological characteristics of the subsurface along with structures and textures of rocks is essential for a correct planning of the probe/geo-exchanger field and their associated ground source heat pumps. The complex geology of Eastern Sicily (Southern Italy), which includes volcanic, sedimentary and metamorphic units over limited extension, poses the question of how thermal conductivity of rocks is variable at the scale of restricted areas (even within the same municipality). This is the innovative concept of geothermal microzonation, i.e., how variable is the geothermal potential as a function of geology at the microscale. Some pilot areas have been therefore chosen to test how the geological features of the subsurface can influence the low-enthalpy geothermal potential of an area. Our geologically based evaluation and micro-zonation of the low-grade source geothermal potential of the selected areas have been verified to be fundamental for optimization of all the main components of a low-enthalpy geothermal system. Saving realization costs and limiting the energy consumption through correct sizing of the system are main ambitions to have sustainable development of this technology with intensive utilization of the subsurface. The variegated territory of countries such as Italy implies that these goals can be only reached if, primarily, the geological features

  16. Inter-hemispheric language functional reorganization in low-grade glioma patients after tumour surgery.

    PubMed

    Kristo, Gert; Raemaekers, Mathijs; Rutten, Geert-Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Ramsey, Nick F

    2015-03-01

    Despite many claims of functional reorganization following tumour surgery, empirical studies that investigate changes in functional activation patterns are rare. This study investigates whether functional recovery following surgical treatment in patients with a low-grade glioma in the left hemisphere is linked to inter-hemispheric reorganization. Based on literature, we hypothesized that reorganization would induce changes in the spatial pattern of activation specifically in tumour homologue brain areas in the healthy right hemisphere. An experimental group (EG) of 14 patients with a glioma in the left hemisphere near language related brain areas, and a control group of 6 patients with a glioma in the right, non-language dominant hemisphere were scanned before and after resection. In addition, an age and gender matched second control group of 18 healthy volunteers was scanned twice. A verb generation task was used to map language related areas and a novel technique was used for data analysis. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that functional recovery following surgery of low-grade gliomas cannot be linked to functional reorganization in language homologue brain areas in the healthy, right hemisphere. Although elevated changes in the activation pattern were found in patients after surgery, these were largest in brain areas in proximity to the surgical resection, and were very similar to the spatial pattern of the brain shift following surgery. This suggests that the apparent perilesional functional reorganization is mostly caused by the brain shift as a consequence of surgery. Perilesional functional reorganization can however not be excluded. The study suggests that language recovery after transient post-surgical language deficits involves recovery of functioning of the presurgical language system.

  17. Cladribine with cyclophosphamide and prednisone in the management of low-grade lymphoproliferative malignancies.

    PubMed

    Laurencet, F M; Zulian, G B; Guetty-Alberto, M; Iten, P A; Betticher, D C; Alberto, P

    1999-03-01

    The feasibility of combining cladribine with cyclophosphamide and prednisone in the management of indolent lymphoid malignancies was determined. Nineteen patients [nine chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), seven non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and three macroglobulinaemia (M))] received cladribine 0.1 mg kg(-1) per day as a subcutaneous bolus injection on days 1-3 (up to 5 injections) with intravenous cyclophosphamide 500 mg m(-2) on day 1 and oral prednisone 40 mg (m-2) on days 1-5 at 4-weekly intervals up to a maximum of six courses. A total of 80 courses were given. Overall response rate was 88%, with four patients achieving a complete clinical and haematological response and 12 achieving a partial response. Neutropenia WHO grade 4 in two patients and WHO grade 3 infection in one patient were the limiting toxicities on treatment. During the follow-up, WHO grade >3 haematological complications occurred in five patients and WHO grade >3 non-haematological complications in five patients. There were no treatment-related deaths. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the cladribine/cyclophosphamide/prednisone (CCP) combination that appears highly active and safe in the management of indolent lymphoid malignancies. PMID:10098762

  18. Catalytic decomposition of tar derived from wood waste pyrolysis using Indonesian low grade iron ore as catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicakso, Doni Rahmat; Sutijan, Rochmadi, Budiman, Arief

    2016-06-01

    Low grade iron ore can be used as an alternative catalyst for bio-tar decomposition. Compared to other catalysts, such as Ni, Rd, Ru, Pd and Pt, iron ore is cheaper. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of using low grade iron ore as catalyst for tar catalytic decomposition in fixed bed reactor. Tar used in this experiment was pyrolysis product of wood waste while the catalyst was Indonesian low grade iron ore. The variables studied were temperatures between 500 - 600 °C and catalyst weight between 0 - 40 gram. The first step, tar was evaporated at 450 °C to produce tar vapor. Then, tar vapor was flowed to fixed bed reactor filled low grade iron ore. Gas and tar vapor from reactor was cooled, then the liquid and uncondensable gas were analyzed by GC/MS. The catalyst, after experiment, was weighed to calculate total carbon deposited into catalyst pores. The results showed that the tar components that were heavy and light hydrocarbon were decomposed and cracked within the iron ore pores to from gases, light hydrocarbon (bio-oil) and carbon, thus decreasing content tar in bio-oil and increasing the total gas product. In conclusion, the more low grade iron ore used as catalyst, the tar content in the liquid decrease, the H2 productivity increased and calorimetric value of bio-oil increased.

  19. Low-grade and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas: differences in tumour microvascular permeability evaluated with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhongzheng; Geng, Daoying; Liu, Ying; Chen, Xingrong; Zhang, Jun

    2013-08-01

    This study was designed to quantitatively assess the microvascular permeability of oligodendroglioma using the volume transfer constant (K(trans)) and the volume of the extravascular extracellular space per unit volume of tissue (V(e)) with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of K(trans) and V(e) in distinguishing between low-grade and anaplastic oligodendroglioma. The maximal values of K(trans) and V(e) for 65 patients with oligodendroglioma (27 grade II, 38 grade III) were obtained. Differences in K(trans) and V(e) between the two groups were analysed using the Mann-Whitney rank-sum test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to determine the cut-off values for the K(trans) and Ve that could differentiate between low-grade and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. Values for K(trans) and Ve in low-grade oligodendrogliomas were significantly lower than those in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). ROC curve analysis showed that cut-off values of the K(trans) (0.037 min(-1)) and Ve (0.079) could be used to distinguish between low-grade and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas in a statistically significant manner. Our results suggest that DCE-MRI can distinguish the differences in microvascular permeability between low-grade and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas.

  20. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy Before Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Lymphoid Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-07

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  1. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, Dexamethasone, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Lymphoid Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-11-25

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  2. Volumetric modulated arc therapy for hippocampal-sparing radiotherapy in transformed low-grade glioma: A treatment planning case report.

    PubMed

    Kazda, T; Pospisil, P; Vrzal, M; Sevela, O; Prochazka, T; Jancalek, R; Slampa, P; Laack, N N

    2015-05-01

    Timing of radiotherapy for low-grade gliomas is still controversial due to concerns of possible adverse late effects. Prevention of possible late cognitive sequelae by hippocampal avoidance has shown promise in phase II trials. A patient with progressive low-grade glioma with gradual dedifferentiation into anaplastic astrocytoma is presented along with description of radiotherapy planning process attempting to spare the hippocampus. To our knowledge, this is the first described case using volumetric modulated arc technique to spare hippocampus during transformed low-grade glioma radiotherapy. Using modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy systems it is possible to selectively spare hippocampus together with other standard organs at risk. For selected patients, an attempt to spare hippocampus can be considered as long as other dose characteristics are not significantly compromised compared to standard treatment plan created without any effort to avoid hippocampus. PMID:25835374

  3. Innate lymphoid cells involve in tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhiqiang; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C; Wu, Yuzhang; Ni, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) promptly initiate cytokine responses to pathogen exposure in the mucosa and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues. ILCs were recently categorized as being of the lymphoid lineage and have been classified into three groups. ILCs play important roles in immunity against pathogens, and an anti-tumor immune-related function was recently demonstrated. In this review we discuss whether and how ILCs involve in the tumorigenesis, providing new insights into the mechanisms underlying the particular functions of ILCs as well as the potential targets for tumor intervention.

  4. Uninephrectomy-Induced Lipolysis and Low-Grade Inflammation Are Mimicked by Unilateral Renal Denervation

    PubMed Central

    Arsenijevic, Denis; Cajot, Jean-François; Fellay, Benoit; Dulloo, Abdul G.; Van Vliet, Bruce N.; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Uninephrectomy (UniNX) in rats on a fixed food intake leads to increased lipolysis and a low-grade inflammation with an increased subset of circulating cytokines. Because UniNX ablates renal nerves on the side of the removed kidney, we tested the contribution of unilateral renal denervation in the phenotype of UniNX. We compared Sham-operated controls, left nephrectomy (UniNX) and unilateral left kidney denervation (uDNX) in rats 4 weeks after surgery. uDNX did not affect kidney weight and function. In general, the uDNX phenotype was similar to the UniNX phenotype especially for lipolysis in fat pads and increased low-grade inflammation. uDNX led to decreased fat pad weight and increased hormone sensitive lipase and adipocyte triglyceride lipase mRNA levels in epididymal and inguinal adipose tissue, as well as increased circulating lipolysis markers β-hydroxybutyrate and glycerol. Measured circulating hormones such as leptin, T3 and insulin were similar amongst the three groups. The lipolytic cytokines interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor were increased in the circulation of both uDNX and UniNX groups. These two cytokines were also elevated in the spleen of both groups, but contrastingly they were decreased in fat pads, liver, and kidneys. Both uDNX and UniNX similarly increased noradrenaline content in fat pads and spleen. Melanocortin 4 receptor mRNA levels were increased in the brains of both uDNX and UniNX compared to Sham and may contribute to increased tissue noradrenaline levels. In addition, the farnesoid x receptor (FXR) may contribute to changes in tissue metabolism and inflammation, as anti-inflammatory FXR was decreased in the spleen but increased in other tissues in uDNX and UniNX compared to Sham. In summary, both uDNX and UniNX in rats promote metabolic and immunological alterations by mechanisms that seem to implicate modification of unilateral renal nerve pathways as well as central and peripheral neural pathways

  5. Uninephrectomy-Induced Lipolysis and Low-Grade Inflammation Are Mimicked by Unilateral Renal Denervation.

    PubMed

    Arsenijevic, Denis; Cajot, Jean-François; Fellay, Benoit; Dulloo, Abdul G; Van Vliet, Bruce N; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Uninephrectomy (UniNX) in rats on a fixed food intake leads to increased lipolysis and a low-grade inflammation with an increased subset of circulating cytokines. Because UniNX ablates renal nerves on the side of the removed kidney, we tested the contribution of unilateral renal denervation in the phenotype of UniNX. We compared Sham-operated controls, left nephrectomy (UniNX) and unilateral left kidney denervation (uDNX) in rats 4 weeks after surgery. uDNX did not affect kidney weight and function. In general, the uDNX phenotype was similar to the UniNX phenotype especially for lipolysis in fat pads and increased low-grade inflammation. uDNX led to decreased fat pad weight and increased hormone sensitive lipase and adipocyte triglyceride lipase mRNA levels in epididymal and inguinal adipose tissue, as well as increased circulating lipolysis markers β-hydroxybutyrate and glycerol. Measured circulating hormones such as leptin, T3 and insulin were similar amongst the three groups. The lipolytic cytokines interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor were increased in the circulation of both uDNX and UniNX groups. These two cytokines were also elevated in the spleen of both groups, but contrastingly they were decreased in fat pads, liver, and kidneys. Both uDNX and UniNX similarly increased noradrenaline content in fat pads and spleen. Melanocortin 4 receptor mRNA levels were increased in the brains of both uDNX and UniNX compared to Sham and may contribute to increased tissue noradrenaline levels. In addition, the farnesoid x receptor (FXR) may contribute to changes in tissue metabolism and inflammation, as anti-inflammatory FXR was decreased in the spleen but increased in other tissues in uDNX and UniNX compared to Sham. In summary, both uDNX and UniNX in rats promote metabolic and immunological alterations by mechanisms that seem to implicate modification of unilateral renal nerve pathways as well as central and peripheral neural pathways

  6. Total lymphoid irradiation in alloimmunity and autoimmunity

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.

    1987-12-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation has been used as an immunosuppressive regimen in autoimmune disease and organ transplantation. The rationale for its use originated from studies of patients with Hodgkin disease, in whom this radiotherapy regimen was noted to induce profound and long-lasting immune suppression and yet was well tolerated, with few long-term side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation is a unique immunosuppressive regimen that produces a selective (and long-lasting) reduction in the number and function of helper T cells and certain subsets of B cells. Conventional immunosuppressive drugs show little selectivity, and their effects are short-lived. The most important aspect of total lymphoid irradiation is the potential for achieving transplantation tolerance and permanent remissions in autoimmune disease in laboratory animals. Attempts are being made to achieve similar goals in humans given total lymphoid irradiation, so that immunosuppressive drugs can be ultimately withdrawn from transplant recipients and patients with lupus nephritis. 28 references.

  7. Telomerase Deficiency Causes Alveolar Stem Cell Senescence-associated Low-grade Inflammation in Lungs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruping; Zhang, Kexiong; Chen, Hao; Zhao, Xiaoyin; Wang, Jianqiu; Li, Li; Cong, Yusheng; Ju, Zhenyu; Xu, Dakang; Williams, Bryan R G; Jia, Jihui; Liu, Jun-Ping

    2015-12-25

    Mutations of human telomerase RNA component (TERC) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) are associated with a subset of lung aging diseases, but the mechanisms by which TERC and TERT participate in lung diseases remain unclear. In this report, we show that knock-out (KO) of the mouse gene Terc or Tert causes pulmonary alveolar stem cell replicative senescence, epithelial impairment, formation of alveolar sacs, and characteristic inflammatory phenotype. Deficiency in TERC or TERT causes a remarkable elevation in various proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1, IL-6, CXCL15 (human IL-8 homolog), IL-10, TNF-α, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2)); decrease in TGF-β1 and TGFβRI receptor in the lungs; and spillover of IL-6 and CXCL15 into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. In addition to increased gene expressions of α-smooth muscle actin and collagen 1α1, suggesting myofibroblast differentiation, TERC deficiency also leads to marked cellular infiltrations of a mononuclear cell population positive for the leukocyte common antigen CD45, low-affinity Fc receptor CD16/CD32, and pattern recognition receptor CD11b in the lungs. Our data demonstrate for the first time that telomerase deficiency triggers alveolar stem cell replicative senescence-associated low-grade inflammation, thereby driving pulmonary premature aging, alveolar sac formation, and fibrotic lesion. PMID:26518879

  8. Inhibition of Low-Grade Inflammation by Anthocyanins after Microbial Fermentation in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kuntz, Sabine; Kunz, Clemens; Domann, Eugen; Würdemann, Nora; Unger, Franziska; Römpp, Andreas; Rudloff, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins (ACNs) on vascular functions are discussed controversially because of their low bioavailability. This study was performed to determine whether microorganism (MO)-fermented ACNs influence vascular inflammation in vitro. Therefore, MO growth media were supplemented with an ACN-rich grape/berry extract and growth responses of Escherichia coli, E. faecalis and H. alvei, as well as ACN fermentation were observed. MO supernatants were used for measuring the anti-inflammatory effect of MO-fermented ACNs in an epithelial-endothelial co-culture transwell system. After basolateral enrichment (240 min), endothelial cells were stimulated immediately or after 20 h with TNF-α. Afterwards, leukocyte adhesion, expression of adhesion molecules and cytokine release were measured. Results indicate that E. coli, E. faecalis and H. alvei utilized ACNs differentially concomitant with different anti-inflammatory effects. Whereas E. coli utilized ACNs completely, no anti-inflammatory effects of fermented ACNs were observed on activated endothelial cells. In contrast, ACN metabolites generated by E. faecalis and H. alvei significantly attenuated low-grade stimulated leukocyte adhesion, the expression of adhesion molecules E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and IL-6), as well as NF-κB mRNA expression with a more pronounced effect of E. faecalis than H. alvei. Thus, MO-fermented ACNs have the potential to reduce inflammation. PMID:27384582

  9. Low grade coal worker's pneumoconiosis. Comparison of CT and chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Gevenois, P A; Pichot, E; Dargent, F; Dedeire, S; Vande Weyer, R; De Vuyst, P

    1994-07-01

    We compared CT with chest radiography (CR) in the assessment of low grade coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) in a population of 83 subjects. All subjects had a high-voltage p.a. CR, graded according to the ILO classification between 0/0 and 1/1, a conventional CT (CCT) using contiguous 1-cm-thick sections on the entire thorax and a set of 10 high-resolution CT (HRCT) images. CR and CT were separately read by consensus by 2 teams of 2 trained readers. CR was coded 0/0 in 9 subjects; 0/1 in 31; 1/0 in 28; 1/1 in 15. Among these groups of patients, micronodules were detected by CT in respectively 2 (22%), 14 (45%), 17 (61%) and 10 (67%) patients. In all groups, micronodules were more often detected by CT when the opacities detected on CR were scored as rounded (p, q) than irregular (s, t). Among the patients graded 0/0 or 0/1, CT showed micronodules in 40%. By contrast, among the patients graded 1/0 or 1/1, CT did not show micronodules in 37%, but revealed in numerous patients that opacities detected on CR were related to bronchiectasis and/or emphysema only. Comparative analysis of HRCT and CCT showed that both techniques are complementary and proved the usefulness of CCT in the detection or confirmation of low profusion of micronodules.

  10. A dynamic model for the optimization of oscillatory low grade heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    Markides, Christos N.; Smith, Thomas C. B.

    2015-01-22

    The efficiency of a thermodynamic system is a key quantity on which its usefulness and wider application relies. This is especially true for a device that operates with marginal energy sources and close to ambient temperatures. Various definitions of efficiency are available, each of which reveals a certain performance characteristic of a device. Of these, some consider only the thermodynamic cycle undergone by the working fluid, whereas others contain additional information, including relevant internal components of the device that are not part of the thermodynamic cycle. Yet others attempt to factor out the conditions of the surroundings with which the device is interfacing thermally during operation. In this paper we present a simple approach for the modeling of complex oscillatory thermal-fluid systems capable of converting low grade heat into useful work. We apply the approach to the NIFTE, a novel low temperature difference heat utilization technology currently under development. We use the results from the model to calculate various efficiencies and comment on the usefulness of the different definitions in revealing performance characteristics. We show that the approach can be applied to make design optimization decisions, and suggest features for optimal efficiency of the NIFTE.

  11. Thyroid-like low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Naoki; Kondo, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Tadao; Mochizuki, Kunio; Kasai, Kazunari; Inoue, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Takanori; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Hatsushika, Kyousuke; Masuyama, Keisuke; Katoh, Ryohei

    2014-12-01

    Thyroid-like low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma (TL-LGNPPA) is an extremely rare neoplasm characterized by morphological analogy to papillary thyroid carcinoma and abnormal expression of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). Here we report a novel case of TL-LGNPPA with literature review. The patient was a 43-year-old woman complaining of nasal obstruction. Laryngoscopic study and computed tomography identified a pedunculated mass located on the posterior edge of the left nasal septum. Histologically, the tumor consisted of papillary growth of cuboidal or columnar epithelium. Tubular architecture and a spindle cell component were also observed focally. Some tumor cells exhibited intra-nuclear cytoplasmic inclusions. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were positive for pancytokeratin (AE1/AE3), CK7, CK19, TTF-1, vimentin and HBME1, but negative for thyroglobulin, Pax8 and CK5/6. Ki67-labeling index reached 5% in the most concentrated spot. Despite the morphological and immunohistochemical similarity to papillary thyroid carcinoma, no BRAF V600E mutation was detected by mutation-specific immunohistochemistry. The patient had neither local recurrence nor distant metastasis 19 months after removal of the tumor.

  12. Modeling and simulation of a low-grade urinary bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bunimovich-Mendrazitsky, Svetlana; Pisarev, Vladimir; Kashdan, Eugene

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we present a mathematical model of the initiation and progression of a low-grade urinary bladder carcinoma. We simulate the crucial processes affecting tumor growth, such as oxygen diffusion, carcinogen penetration, and angiogenesis, within the framework of the urothelial cell dynamics. The cell dynamics are modeled using the discrete technique of cellular automata, while the continuous processes of carcinogen penetration and oxygen diffusion are described by nonlinear diffusion-absorption equations. As the availability of oxygen is necessary for tumor progression, processes of oxygen transport to the tumor growth site seem most important. Our model yields a theoretical insight into the main stages of development and growth of urinary bladder carcinoma with emphasis on the two most common types: bladder polyps and carcinoma in situ. Analysis of histological structure of bladder tumor is important to avoid misdiagnosis and wrong treatment. We expect our model to be a valuable tool in the study of bladder cancer progression due to the exposure to carcinogens and the oxygen dependent expression of genes promoting tumor growth. Our numerical simulations have good qualitative agreement with in vivo results reported in the corresponding medical literature.

  13. Low-grade toxicity after conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer-impact of bladder volume

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkawa, Michael . E-mail: mpinkawa@ukaachen.de; Fischedick, Karin; Asadpour, Branka; Gagel, Bernd; Piroth, Marc D.; Eble, Michael J.

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of dose-volume histogram parameters on low-grade toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighty patients have been surveyed prospectively before (time A), at the last day (B), 2 months after (C), and 16 months (median) after (D) radiotherapy (70.2 Gy) using a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). Dose-volume histograms were correlated with urinary and bowel function/bother scores. Results: The initial bladder volume and the percentage of the bladder volume receiving 10%-90% of the prescription dose significantly correlated with urinary function/bother scores (significant cutoff levels found for all dose levels). Pain with urination proved to be mainly an acute problem, subsiding faster for patients with larger bladder volumes and smaller volumes inside particular isodose lines. At time D, persisting problems with smaller initial bladder volumes were a weak stream and an increased frequency of urination. Though bladder volume and planning target volume both independently have an influence on dose-volume histogram parameters for the bladder, bladder volume plays the decisive role for urinary toxicity. Conclusions: The patient's ability to fill the bladder has a major impact on the dose-volume histogram and both acute and late urinary toxicity.

  14. Low-grade, M1 metamorphism of the western metamorphic belt near Juneau, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Himmelberg, G.R. . Dept. of Geology); Brew, D.A.; Ford, A.B. )

    1993-04-01

    The western metamorphic belt is part of the Coast plutonic-metamorphic complex of western Canada and southeastern Alaska that developed as a result of tectonic overlap and/or compressional thickening of crustal rocks during collision of the Alexander terrane and Gravina assemblage on the west against the Yukon Prong and Stikine terranes to the east. Sub-greenschist to lower greenschist facies metabasalts exposed along the west end of the western metamorphic belt near Juneau, Alaska record the earliest metamorphic event (M1). These low-grade rocks are gradational with younger, higher-grade assemblages that define an inverted metamorphic gradient (metamorphic event M5). The most common metamorphic mineral assemblages are chlorite-epidote-actinolite with or without pumpellyite and stilpnomelane. There is no systematic distribution of metamorphic mineral assemblages in the study area, and all assemblages are in the pumpellyite-actinolite facies near the transition to the lower greenschist facies. Different low-variance assemblages can be attributed to minor differences in pressure, temperature, or X[sub CO[sub 2

  15. Clinical Management of Seizures in Patients With Low-Grade Glioma.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Anna F; Blakeley, Jaishri

    2015-07-01

    Seizures, transient disruptions of normal brain electrical activity, are common for patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) and significantly affect quality of life. Up to 75% of patients with a LGG will have seizures in the course of their disease (compared with 1%-2% of the general population). Depending on the type of abnormal electrical activity, the functional implications of seizure can impact any domain, including mental status, sensation or strength. In most cases, either the seizure or the medications used to treat the seizure may contribute to cognitive and psychosocial difficulties of various degrees of severity. Hence, effective management of seizures is a major priority for patients with LGG. Evidence-based guidelines suggest that levetiracetam is the best first-line agent for treatment of seizures in this population due to both its efficacy and tolerability. An important consideration in the field of neuro-oncology is that levetiracetam has very few drug interactions. Unfortunately, approximately one-third of patients with LGG have refractory epilepsy where additional agents such as valproic acid, or lacosamide, lamotrigine and nonpharmacologic therapies such as diet-based interventions, epilepsy surgery, and devices are considered.

  16. Clinical considerations and surgical approaches for low-grade gliomas in deep hemispheric locations: insular lesions.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, J; Gil-Robles, S; Pascual, B

    2016-10-01

    Insula and paralimbic region represent a common location for gliomas in adulthood. However, limbic and paralimbic tumors are rare in children. Reports of pediatric insular tumors are scarce in literature, and most of them are included in adult's series, so their management and outcome can be outlined only after extracting data from these reports. Due to their predominantly low grade, they usually have a benign course for some time, what make them ideal candidates for total resection. However, their intricate location and spread to key areas, including the temporal lobe, make them a surgical challenge. The transsylvian route, with or without resection of the frontal and/or temporal operculae, which requires exposure of part or all of the insula is commonly selected for insular tumor approaches. Intraoperative functional mapping is a standard procedure for resection of central region tumors in adults. In children and young individuals, awake craniotomy is not always possible and surgical planning usually relay on functional and anatomical preoperative studies. The main goal when approaching an insular tumor is to achieve the largest extent of resection to increase overall patient survival while preserving the functional status, minimizing postoperative morbidity and increasing the quality of life. The extent of resection seems to be correlated also with the control of associated (and usually intractable) epilepsy. PMID:27659830

  17. Enhancing low-grade thermal energy recovery in a thermally regenerative ammonia battery using elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; LaBarge, Nicole; Yang, Wulin; Liu, Jia; Logan, Bruce E

    2015-03-01

    A thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB) is a new approach for converting low-grade thermal energy into electricity by using an ammonia electrolyte and copper electrodes. TRAB operation at 72 °C produced a power density of 236 ± 8 Wm(-2), with a linear decrease in power to 95 ± 5 Wm(-2) at 23 °C. The improved power at higher temperatures was due to reduced electrode overpotentials and more favorable thermodynamics for the anode reaction (copper oxidation). The energy density varied with temperature and discharge rates, with a maximum of 650 Wh m(-3) at a discharge energy efficiency of 54% and a temperature of 37 °C. The energy efficiency calculated with chemical process simulation software indicated a Carnot-based efficiency of up to 13% and an overall thermal energy recovery of 0.5%. It should be possible to substantially improve these energy recoveries through optimization of electrolyte concentrations and by using improved ion-selective membranes and energy recovery systems such as heat exchangers. PMID:25684619

  18. Molecular features assisting in diagnosis, surgery, and treatment decision making in low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ricky; Ravindra, Vijay M; Cohen, Adam L; Jensen, Randy L; Salzman, Karen L; Prescot, Andrew P; Colman, Howard

    2015-03-01

    The preferred management of suspected low-grade gliomas (LGGs) has been disputed, and the implications of molecular changes for medical and surgical management of LGGs are important to consider. Current strategies that make use of molecular markers and imaging techniques and therapeutic considerations offer additional options for management of LGGs. Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) genes suggest a role for this abnormal metabolic pathway in the pathogenesis and progression of these primary brain tumors. Use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy can provide preoperative detection of IDH-mutated gliomas and affect surgical planning. In addition, IDH1 and IDH2 mutation status may have an effect on surgical resectability of gliomas. The IDH-mutated tumors exhibit better prognosis throughout every grade of glioma, and mutation may be an early genetic event, preceding lineage-specific secondary and tertiary alterations that transform LGGs into secondary glioblastomas. The O6-methylguanine-DNAmethyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation and 1p19q codeletion status can predict sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiation in low- and intermediate-grade gliomas. Thus, these recent advances, which have led to a better understanding of how molecular, genetic, and epigenetic alterations influence the pathogenicity of the different histological grades of gliomas, can lead to better prognostication and may lead to specific targeted surgical interventions and medical therapies. PMID:25727224

  19. Low-grade myxofibrosarcoma following a metal implantation in femur: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Myxofibrosarcoma is a myxoid variant of malignant fibrous histiocytoma that most commonly involves the extremities of elderly people. However, a primary myxofibrosarcoma with bone invasion in young adults is extremely rare. Herein, we report the case of a 31-year-old male with a gradually enlarging left thigh mass, who had a history of left femur fracture and received an open reduction and internal fixation with titanium alloy plates and screws 33 months previously. Imaging investigations revealed an irregularly shaped soft tissue mass around the left femur shaft and a partial bone defect in the middle one-third of the left femur. Pathological examination of the resected specimen showed a multi-nodular appearance, abundant myxoid matrix and elongated curvilinear capillaries. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the tumor cells was positive for VIM and MDM2, and was negative for CK, MSA, SMA, DES, S-100 and CD34. Labeling index of Ki-67 was 25%. Based on the morphological finding and immunostaining, it was diagnosed as a low-grade myxofibrosarcoma. The clinical and imaging examinations did not reveal the evidence of a primary cancer elsewhere, and the patient had no personal or family history of malignancy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a primary myxofibrosarcoma developed following a fracture and metal implantation in young adults. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1745984882113605 PMID:24444015

  20. Inhibition of Low-Grade Inflammation by Anthocyanins after Microbial Fermentation in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Sabine; Kunz, Clemens; Domann, Eugen; Würdemann, Nora; Unger, Franziska; Römpp, Andreas; Rudloff, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins (ACNs) on vascular functions are discussed controversially because of their low bioavailability. This study was performed to determine whether microorganism (MO)-fermented ACNs influence vascular inflammation in vitro. Therefore, MO growth media were supplemented with an ACN-rich grape/berry extract and growth responses of Escherichia coli, E. faecalis and H. alvei, as well as ACN fermentation were observed. MO supernatants were used for measuring the anti-inflammatory effect of MO-fermented ACNs in an epithelial-endothelial co-culture transwell system. After basolateral enrichment (240 min), endothelial cells were stimulated immediately or after 20 h with TNF-α. Afterwards, leukocyte adhesion, expression of adhesion molecules and cytokine release were measured. Results indicate that E. coli, E. faecalis and H. alvei utilized ACNs differentially concomitant with different anti-inflammatory effects. Whereas E. coli utilized ACNs completely, no anti-inflammatory effects of fermented ACNs were observed on activated endothelial cells. In contrast, ACN metabolites generated by E. faecalis and H. alvei significantly attenuated low-grade stimulated leukocyte adhesion, the expression of adhesion molecules E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and IL-6), as well as NF-κB mRNA expression with a more pronounced effect of E. faecalis than H. alvei. Thus, MO-fermented ACNs have the potential to reduce inflammation. PMID:27384582

  1. Enhancing low-grade thermal energy recovery in a thermally regenerative ammonia battery using elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; LaBarge, Nicole; Yang, Wulin; Liu, Jia; Logan, Bruce E

    2015-03-01

    A thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB) is a new approach for converting low-grade thermal energy into electricity by using an ammonia electrolyte and copper electrodes. TRAB operation at 72 °C produced a power density of 236 ± 8 Wm(-2), with a linear decrease in power to 95 ± 5 Wm(-2) at 23 °C. The improved power at higher temperatures was due to reduced electrode overpotentials and more favorable thermodynamics for the anode reaction (copper oxidation). The energy density varied with temperature and discharge rates, with a maximum of 650 Wh m(-3) at a discharge energy efficiency of 54% and a temperature of 37 °C. The energy efficiency calculated with chemical process simulation software indicated a Carnot-based efficiency of up to 13% and an overall thermal energy recovery of 0.5%. It should be possible to substantially improve these energy recoveries through optimization of electrolyte concentrations and by using improved ion-selective membranes and energy recovery systems such as heat exchangers.

  2. Optimization of reaction conditions for the electroleaching of manganese from low-grade pyrolusite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing-ran; Liu, Zuo-hua; Fan, Xing; Lian, Xin; Tao, Chang-yuan

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, a response surface methodology was used to optimize the electroleaching of Mn from low-grade pyrolusite. Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate was used in this reaction as a reducing agent in sulfuric acid solutions. The effect of six process variables, including the mass ratio of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate to pyrolusite, mass ratio of sulfuric acid to pyrolusite, liquid-to-solid ratio, current density, leaching temperature, and leaching time, as well as their binary interactions, were modeled. The results revealed that the order of these factors with respect to their effects on the leaching efficiency were mass ratio of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate to pyrolusite > leaching time > mass ratio of sulfuric acid to pyrolusite > liquid-to-solid ratio > leaching temperature > current density. The optimum conditions were as follows: 1.10:1 mass ratio of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate to pyrolusite, 0.9:1 mass ratio of sulfuric acid to pyrolusite, liquid-to-solid ratio of 0.7:1, current density of 947 A/m2, leaching time of 180 min, and leaching temperature of 73°C. Under these conditions, the predicted leaching efficiency for Mn was 94.1%; the obtained experimental result was 95.7%, which confirmed the validity of the model.

  3. Clinical Management of Seizures in Patients With Low-Grade Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowski, Anna F.; Blakeley, Jaishri

    2015-01-01

    Seizures, transient disruptions of normal brain electrical activity, are common for patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) and significantly affect quality of life. Up to 75% of patients with a LGG will have seizures in the course of their disease (compared with 1%–2% of the general population). Depending on the type of abnormal electrical activity, the functional implications of seizure can impact any domain, including mental status, sensation or strength. In most cases, either the seizure or the medications used to treat the seizure may contribute to cognitive and psychosocial difficulties of various degrees of severity. Hence, effective management of seizures is a major priority for patients with LGG. Evidence-based guidelines suggest that levetiracetam is the best first-line agent for treatment of seizures in this population due to both its efficacy and tolerability. An important consideration in the field of neuro-oncology is that levetiracetam has very few drug interactions. Unfortunately, approximately one-third of patients with LGG have refractory epilepsy where additional agents such as valproic acid, or lacosamide, lamotrigine and nonpharmacologic therapies such as diet-based interventions, epilepsy surgery, and devices are considered. PMID:26050593

  4. Bioleaching of a low-grade nickel-copper sulfide by mixture of four thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuzhen; Zhong, Hui; Hu, Yuehua; Zhao, Jiancun; He, Zhiguo; Gu, Guohua

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated thermophilic bioleaching of a low grade nickel-copper sulfide using mixture of four acidophilic thermophiles. Effects of 0.2g/L l-cysteine on the bioleaching process were further evaluated. It aimed at offering new alternatives for enhancing metal recoveries from nickel-copper sulfide. Results showed a recovery of 80.4% nickel and 68.2% copper in 16-day bioleaching without l-cysteine; while 83.7% nickel and 81.4% copper were recovered in the presence of l-cysteine. Moreover, nickel recovery was always higher than copper recovery. l-Cysteine was found contributing to lower pH value, faster microbial growth, higher Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP), higher zeta potential and absorbing on the sulfide surfaces through amino, carboxyl and sulfhydryl groups. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns of leached residues showed generation of S, jarosite and ammoniojarosite. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) results revealed that l-cysteine could have variant impacts on different microorganisms and changed the microbial community composition dramatically during nickel-copper sulfide bioleaching.

  5. Selective Removal of Iron from Low-Grade Ti Ore by Reacting with Calcium Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jungshin; Okabe, Toru H.

    2016-09-01

    Recently, titanium metal production by molten salt electrolysis using CaCl2 as molten salt and TiO2 or rutile (94 to 96 pct TiO2) as feedstock has been drawing attention. However, when a low-grade Ti ore (mainly FeTiO3) is used as feedstock, removal of iron (Fe) from the ore is indispensable. In this study, the influence of reaction temperature, reaction time, particle size of the ore, and source country for the ore on the removal of iron by selective chlorination using CaCl2 was assessed. Experimental results showed that the mass percent of iron in the ore decreased from 49.7 to 1.79 pct under certain conditions by selective removal of iron as FeCl2. As a result, high-grade CaTiO3 was produced when the ore particles smaller than 74 µm reacted with CaCl2 at 1240 K (967 °C) for 8 to 10 hours. Therefore, this study demonstrates that the removal of iron from the ore is feasible through the selective chlorination process using CaCl2 by optimizing the variables.

  6. Adipose tissue macrophages, low grade inflammation and insulin resistance in human obesity.

    PubMed

    Heilbronn, Leonie K; Campbell, Lesley V

    2008-01-01

    Obesity was first described as a low-grade inflammatory condition more than a decade ago. However, it is only relatively recently that obese individuals have been described with increased macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue, as well as an increase in the number of "M1" or "classically activated" macrophages. Furthermore, macrophages have been identified as the primary source of many of the circulating inflammatory molecules that are detected in the obese state and are postulated to be causal both in the development of insulin resistance and in the progression to type 2 diabetes. There is also novel evidence to suggest that macrophages inhibit adipocyte differentiation, potentially leading to adipocyte hypertrophy, altered secretion of adipokines and ectopic storage of lipid within liver, muscle and other non-adipose tissues. Currently, it is not clear what causes increased macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue in obese individuals. Theories include altered signalling by adipocytes, nutritional induction of metabolic endotoxemia or reduced angiogenesis and local adipose cell hypoxia. Importantly, PPAR-gamma agonists have been shown to alter macrophage phenotype to "M2" or an "alternatively activated" anti-inflammatory phenotype and may induce macrophage specific cell death. Consequently, excitement surrounds the potential for specific inhibition of macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue via pharmacotherapy for obese patients and more particularly as adjunct therapy to improve insulin sensitivity in obese individuals with insulin resistance and overt type 2 diabetes.

  7. Resetting of RbSr ages of volcanic rocks by low-grade burial metamorphism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asmeroma, Y.; Damon, P.; Shafiqullah, M.; Dickinson, W.R.; Zartman, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    We report a nine-point RbSr whole-rock isochron age of 70??3 Ma (MSWD 3.97) for Mid-Jurassic volcanic rocks. The same rocks have also been dated by the UThPb method on zircon, giving a crystallization age of 166 ?? 11 Ma, over twice as old as the RbSr age. The data demonstrate that whole-rock RbSr ages of volcanic rocks, even lava flows with SiO2 content as low as 57 wt.%, are susceptible to complete resetting. The rocks range in composition from rhyodacite tuffs to andesite lavas. The complete breakdown of all major minerals that contain Rb and Sr resulted in an alteration mineral assemblage consisting of phengite, albite, secondary quartz, and minor amounts of chlorite and epidote. Phengite is the K-bearing product of the breakdown of biotite and K-feldspar. Pressure during low-grade metamorphism of the volcanic rocks, estimated from phengite composition to have been in the range of 4 to 6 kbar, points to thrust-related burial as the main cause of resetting. Consequently, such reset isochrons may date large-scale events such as regional thrusting and metamorphism. The coherent resetting of the RbSr isochron suggests large-scale pervasive fluid movement during thrust-related burial metamorphism. ?? 1991.

  8. The association between obesity and fluid intelligence impairment is mediated by chronic low-grade inflammation.

    PubMed

    Spyridaki, Eirini C; Simos, Panagiotis; Avgoustinaki, Pavlina D; Dermitzaki, Eirini; Venihaki, Maria; Bardos, Achilles N; Margioris, Andrew N

    2014-11-28

    Published evidence suggests that obesity impairs cognition. Development of chronic low-grade inflammation (CLGI) represents the earliest consequence of obesity. The present study investigated the association between obesity and fluid intelligence impairment and assessed the potential mediating role of CLGI and psychological (depression/anxiety symptoms), lifestyle (exercise) and physiological (metabolic dysfunction indices) factors in this association. Clinically healthy participants (n 188), grouped as per BMI, underwent cognitive (General Ability Measure for Adults), psychological (Beck Depression Inventory-II and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and activity (Godin leisure-time physical activity) measurements. Biochemical parameters included the following: (a) indices of CLGI (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fibrinogen); (b) insulin resistance (Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance index); (c) adiposity (plasma adiponectin). An inverse association between elevated BMI and fluid intelligence was observed, with obese participants displaying significantly poorer performance compared with age-matched normal-weight peers. Structural equation modelling results were consistent with a negative impact of obesity on cognition that was mediated by CLGI. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that reduced general cognitive ability is associated with obesity, an adverse effect mainly mediated by obesity-associated activation of innate immunity.

  9. Low-Grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma with Intravenous and Intracardiac Extension: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Inafuku, Hitoshi; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Taira, Yusuke; Taira, Rie; Tsubakimoto, Maho; Totsuka, Yuichi; Kuniyoshi, Yukio; Tamaki, Tomoko; Aoyama, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Background. A rare case of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LG-ESS) extending to inferior vena cava (IVC) and cardiac chambers. Case Report. A 40-year-old woman had IVC tumor, which was incidentally detected by abdominal ultrasonography during a routine medical checkup. CT scan revealed a tumor in IVC, right iliac and ovarian veins, which was derived from the uterus and extended into the right atrium and ventricle. The operation was performed, the heart and IVC were exposed, and cardiopulmonary bypass was initiated. A right atriotomy was performed, and the intracardiac mass was removed. Then the tumor in IVC and the right internal iliac vein were removed after longitudinal venotomies in the suprarenal and infrarenal vena cava, the right common iliac vein. Next the pelvis was explored. Tumors were found originating from the posterior wall of the uterus and continuing into both the right uterine and ovarian vein. The patient underwent total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingooophorectomy. Complete tumor resection was achieved. Histopathological analysis confirmed a diagnosis of LG-ESS. She showed no evidence of disease for 2 years and 3 months. Conclusions. Our case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in treating this rare cardiovascular pathological condition through preoperative assessment to final operation. PMID:27239357

  10. Clinical Epidemiology of Low-Grade and Dedifferentiated Osteosarcoma in Norway during 1975 and 2009

    PubMed Central

    Berner, Kjetil; Johannesen, Tom Børge; Bruland, Øyvind S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To describe epidemiological, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of low-grade osteosarcoma (LGOS), including dedifferentiated osteosarcoma (DLGOS). Method. We analysed a nationwide cohort comprised of patients with histologically verified LGOS and DLGOS between 1975 and 2009, based on registry sources supplemented with clinical records from hospitals involved in sarcoma management. Results. Fifty-four patients were identified, 12 of whom had DLGOS. The annual incidence for all patients was 0.3 per million, with the peak incidence in the third decade of the life. Fifteen patients experienced local relapses during follow-up and ten developed metastatic diseases, including three at primary diagnosis. Patients with DLGOS dominated the metastatic relapse group. The five-year sarcoma-specific survival rate was 91%, with no documented improvement over time. Free margin following surgical resection of the primary tumour had a positive impact on survival. As expected, both local relapse and metastasis during follow-up were associated with an unfavourable outcome. Radiotherapy predicted poor survival due to the selection of high-risk patients in need of such treatment. Neither higher age nor axial tumour localisation was adverse prognostic factors. Conclusion. LGOS has an excellent prognosis when surgically resected with a free margin; however, LGOS has the potential to dedifferentiate and metastasize with a poor outcome. PMID:26412976

  11. Preparation of manganese sulfate from low-grade manganese carbonate ores by sulfuric acid leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qing-quan; Gu, Guo-hua; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Ren-feng; Liu, You-cai; Fu, Jian-gang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a method for preparing pure manganese sulfate from low-grade ores with a granule mean size of 0.47 mm by direct acid leaching was developed. The effects of the types of leaching agents, sulfuric acid concentration, reaction temperature, and agitation rate on the leaching efficiency of manganese were investigated. We observed that sulfuric acid used as a leaching agent provides a similar leaching efficiency of manganese and superior selectivity against calcium compared to hydrochloric acid. The optimal leaching conditions in sulfuric acid media were determined; under the optimal conditions, the leaching efficiencies of Mn and Ca were 92.42% and 9.61%, respectively. Moreover, the kinetics of manganese leaching indicated that the leaching follows the diffusion-controlled model with an apparent activation energy of 12.28 kJ·mol-1. The purification conditions of the leaching solution were also discussed. The results show that manganese dioxide is a suitable oxidant of ferrous ions and sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate is an effective precipitant of heavy metals. Finally, through chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis, the obtained product was determined to contain 98% of MnSO4·H2O.

  12. Microsomal membrane proteome of low grade diffuse astrocytomas: Differentially expressed proteins and candidate surveillance biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Polisetty, Ravindra Varma; Gautam, Poonam; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Sharma, Rakesh; Gowda, Harsha; Renu, Durairaj; Shivakumar, Bhadravathi Marigowda; Lakshmikantha, Akhila; Mariswamappa, Kiran; Ankathi, Praveen; Purohit, Aniruddh K.; Uppin, Megha S.; Sundaram, Challa; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse astrocytoma (DA; WHO grade II) is a low-grade, primary brain neoplasm with high potential of recurrence as higher grade malignant form. We have analyzed differentially expressed membrane proteins from these tumors, using high-resolution mass spectrometry. A total of 2803 proteins were identified, 340 of them differentially expressed with minimum of 2 fold change and based on ≥2 unique peptides. Bioinformatics analysis of this dataset also revealed important molecular networks and pathways relevant to tumorigenesis, mTOR signaling pathway being a major pathway identified. Comparison of 340 differentially expressed proteins with the transcript data from Grade II diffuse astrocytomas reported earlier, revealed about 190 of the proteins correlate in their trends in expression. Considering progressive and recurrent nature of these tumors, we have mapped the differentially expressed proteins for their secretory potential, integrated the resulting list with similar list of proteins from anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO Grade III) tumors and provide a panel of proteins along with their proteotypic peptides, as a resource that would be useful for investigation as circulatory plasma markers for post-treatment surveillance of DA patients. PMID:27246909

  13. Effect of radiotherapy on brain glucose metabolism in patients operated on for low grade astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Bruehlmeier, M; Roelcke, U; Amsler, B; Schubert, K; Hausmann, O; von Ammon, K; Radu, E; Gratzl, O; Landmann, C; Leenders, K

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the effect of postoperative radiotherapy on brain glucose metabolism (CMRGlu) of operated patients with low grade astrocytomas.
METHODS—PET and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose was used to measure absolute CMRGlu in patients with fibrillary astrocytoma (WHO II) of the frontal lobe, who did (n=7) or did not (n=12) receive radiotherapy subsequent to first debulking tumour resection. In addition, statistical parametric mapping (SPM95) was applied to assess the pattern of relative CMRGlu associated with the frontal tumour. Data were compared with 12 healthy controls.
RESULTS—A global reduction of absolute CMRGlu was found when either patients with or without radiotherapy were compared with controls (ROI analysis). Brain areas of relative CMRGlu reduction were found in the brain ipsilateral and contralateral to the tumour, comparing both patient groups with controls by SPM ("tumour diaschisis effect"). Superimposed, absolute CMRGlu in the contralateral frontal, parietal, occipital cortex as well as in the white matter was on average 17% lower in patients receiving radiotherapy than in patients who did not.
CONCLUSIONS—The data discriminate a tumour effect from a radiotherapy effect, and support the view of adverse effects of radiotherapy on brain not directly involved by tumour.

 PMID:10209180

  14. Functional recovery after surgical resection of low grade gliomas in eloquent brain: hypothesis of brain compensation

    PubMed Central

    Duffau, H; Capelle, L; Denvil, D; Sichez, N; Gatignol, P; Lopes, M; Mitchell, M; Sichez, J; Van Effenterre, R

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To describe functional recovery after surgical resection of low grade gliomas (LGG) in eloquent brain areas, and discuss the mechanisms of compensation. Methods: Seventy-seven right-handed patients without deficit were operated on for a LGG invading primary and/or secondary sensorimotor and/or language areas, as shown anatomically by pre-operative MRI and intraoperatively by electrical brain stimulation and cortico-subcortical mapping. Results: Tumours involved 31 supplementary motor areas, 28 insulas, 8 primary somatosensory areas, 4 primary motor areas, 4 Broca's areas, and 2 left temporal language areas. All patients had immediate post-operative deficits. Recovery occurred within 3 months in all except four cases (definitive morbidity: 5%). Ninety-two percent of the lesions were either totally or extensively resected on post-operative MRI. Conclusions: These findings suggest that spatio-temporal functional re-organisation is possible in peritumoural brain, and that the process is dynamic. The recruitment of compensatory areas with long term perilesional functional reshaping would explain why: before surgery, there is no clinical deficit despite the tumour growth in eloquent regions; immediately after surgery, the occurrence of a deficit, which could be due to the resection of invaded areas participating (but not essential) to the function; and why three months after surgery, almost complete recovery had occurred. This brain plasticity, which decreases the long term risk of surgical morbidity, may be used to extend the limits of surgery in eloquent areas. PMID:12810776

  15. Bioleaching of a low-grade nickel-copper sulfide by mixture of four thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuzhen; Zhong, Hui; Hu, Yuehua; Zhao, Jiancun; He, Zhiguo; Gu, Guohua

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated thermophilic bioleaching of a low grade nickel-copper sulfide using mixture of four acidophilic thermophiles. Effects of 0.2g/L l-cysteine on the bioleaching process were further evaluated. It aimed at offering new alternatives for enhancing metal recoveries from nickel-copper sulfide. Results showed a recovery of 80.4% nickel and 68.2% copper in 16-day bioleaching without l-cysteine; while 83.7% nickel and 81.4% copper were recovered in the presence of l-cysteine. Moreover, nickel recovery was always higher than copper recovery. l-Cysteine was found contributing to lower pH value, faster microbial growth, higher Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP), higher zeta potential and absorbing on the sulfide surfaces through amino, carboxyl and sulfhydryl groups. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns of leached residues showed generation of S, jarosite and ammoniojarosite. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) results revealed that l-cysteine could have variant impacts on different microorganisms and changed the microbial community composition dramatically during nickel-copper sulfide bioleaching. PMID:24374030

  16. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: flow cytometric, p53, and PCNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Kelsch, R D; Bhuiya, T; Fuchs, A; Gentile, P; Kahn, M A; Fantasia, J E

    1997-10-01

    Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of minor salivary glands (terminal duct carcinoma, lobular carcinoma) was first defined more than a decade ago. A 17% recurrence rate and a 9% metastasis rate have been reported. Fifteen formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival cases were analyzed. Ploidy and proliferative activity were evaluated with flow cytometric analysis. Demonstration of an abnormal p53 gene product and proliferative cell nuclear antigen analyses were also performed with routine immunohistochemical procedures. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate these parameters and determine if a correlation existed. Flow cytometry was performed on 10 cases; 3 showed an aneuploid cell line (mean, S-phase diploid tumor cells 5.9%; S-phase aneuploid 26.7%). Products of a mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene have been noted to accumulate in salivary gland tumors, both benign and malignant. Qualitative assessment revealed p53 positive staining in 4 of 15 tumors; positive cells comprised 5% to 10% of the tumor. The percentage of tumor cells positive for proliferative cell nuclear antigen staining ranged from 0.5% to 70%. There was no correlation between proliferative activity as determined by proliferative cell nuclear antigen when compared with results of flow cytometric analysis except for one case that exhibited p53 staining, a 26% proliferative cell nuclear antigen fraction, and a distinct aneuploid cell line.

  17. Polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland: a clinicopathologic and comparative immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C; Krutchkoff, D; Pedersen, C; Cartun, R; Berman, M

    1990-01-01

    Retrospective review of seven cases of polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) revealed that the original histologic diagnosis in five instances was mixed tumor (four benign and one malignant). Comparison of PLGA tumors with eleven representative cases of benign pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland (BPA) showed marked similarity in cytologic features. PLGA and BPA also exhibited similar mucohyaline and/or fibromyxoid stromal components. In contrast, tumor margins of the two neoplasms were quite different; margins of PLGA were consistently infiltrative, whereas those of BPA were generally well circumscribed and encapsulated. Immunophenotypic comparison confirmed the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positivity in BPA reported by others, whereas cases of PLGA were uniformly nonreactive with this antibody. Although previous reports have emphasized the histologic similarities of PLGA and adenoid cystic carcinoma, our findings indicate that differentiation of PLGA from BPA may represent a more common diagnostic problem. Awareness of comparative histologic features is important in the differential diagnosis of these minor salivary gland neoplasms. Also, monoclonal GFAP may be useful in distinguishing cases of PLGA from BPA where histologic features are otherwise similar.

  18. Total lymphoid irradiation and discordant cardiac xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, E.; Dresdale, A.R.; Diehl, J.T.; Katzen, N.A.; Aronovitz, M.J.; Konstam, M.A.; Payne, D.D.; Cleveland, R.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation can prolong concordant cardiac xenografts. The effects of total lymphoid irradiation in a discordant xenograft model (guinea pig to rat) were studied with and without adjuvant pharmacologic immunosuppression. Inbred Lewis rats were randomly allocated to one of four groups. Group 1 (n = 6) served as a control group and rats received no immunosuppression. Group 2 (n = 5) received triple-drug therapy that consisted of intraperitoneal azathioprine (2 mg/kg), cyclosporine (20 mg/kg), and methylprednisolone (1 mg/kg) for 1 week before transplantation. Group 3 animals (n = 5) received 15 Gy of total lymphoid irradiation in 12 divided doses over a 3-week period. Group 4 (n = 6) received both triple-drug therapy and total lymphoid irradiation as described for groups 2 and 3. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay was performed to determine if a correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and rejection-free interval existed. Rejection was defined as cessation of graft pulsation and was confirmed by histologic test results. Only groups 1 and 2 showed a difference in survival (group 1, 6.9 +/- 1.0 minutes; group 2, 14.2 +/- 2.7 minutes, p = 0.02). Although total lymphoid irradiation did decrease complement-dependent cytotoxicity, linear regression revealed no correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and graft survival (coefficient of correlation, 0.30). Unlike concordant cardiac xenografts, total lymphoid irradiation with or without triple-drug therapy does not prolong graft survival.

  19. Reduced cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in extremely preterm neonates with low-grade germinal matrix- intraventricular hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pei-Yi; Hagan, Katherine; Fenoglio, Angela; Grant, P. Ellen; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) is the most common complication in extremely premature neonates. The occurrence of GM-IVH is highly associated with hemodynamic instability in the premature brain, yet the long-term impact of low-grade GM-IVH on cerebral blood flow and neuronal health have not been fully investigated. We used an innovative combination of frequency-domain near infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (FDNIRS-DCS) to measure cerebral oxygen saturation (SO2) and an index of cerebral blood flow (CBFi) at the infant’s bedside and compute an index of cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2i). We enrolled twenty extremely low gestational age (ELGA) neonates (seven with low-grade GM-IVH) and monitored them weekly until they reached full-term equivalent age. During their hospital stay, we observed consistently lower CBFi and CMRO2i in ELGA neonates with low-grade GM-IVH compared to neonates without hemorrhages. Furthermore, lower CBFi and CMRO2i in the former group persists even after the resolution of the hemorrhage. In contrast, SO2 does not differ between groups. Thus, CBFi and CMRO2i may have better sensitivity than SO2 in detecting GM-IVH-related effects on infant brain development. FDNIRS-DCS methods may have clinical benefit for monitoring the evolution of GM-IVH, evaluating treatment response, and potentially predicting neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:27181339

  20. Reduced cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in extremely preterm neonates with low-grade germinal matrix- intraventricular hemorrhage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Pei-Yi; Hagan, Katherine; Fenoglio, Angela; Grant, P. Ellen; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2016-05-01

    Low-grade germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) is the most common complication in extremely premature neonates. The occurrence of GM-IVH is highly associated with hemodynamic instability in the premature brain, yet the long-term impact of low-grade GM-IVH on cerebral blood flow and neuronal health have not been fully investigated. We used an innovative combination of frequency-domain near infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (FDNIRS-DCS) to measure cerebral oxygen saturation (SO2) and an index of cerebral blood flow (CBFi) at the infant’s bedside and compute an index of cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2i). We enrolled twenty extremely low gestational age (ELGA) neonates (seven with low-grade GM-IVH) and monitored them weekly until they reached full-term equivalent age. During their hospital stay, we observed consistently lower CBFi and CMRO2i in ELGA neonates with low-grade GM-IVH compared to neonates without hemorrhages. Furthermore, lower CBFi and CMRO2i in the former group persists even after the resolution of the hemorrhage. In contrast, SO2 does not differ between groups. Thus, CBFi and CMRO2i may have better sensitivity than SO2 in detecting GM-IVH-related effects on infant brain development. FDNIRS-DCS methods may have clinical benefit for monitoring the evolution of GM-IVH, evaluating treatment response, and potentially predicting neurodevelopmental outcome.

  1. Organoselenium Small Molecules and Chromium(III) Complexes for Intervention in Chronic Low-grade Inflammation and Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Xu, Huibi; Huang, Kaixun

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence to suggest that chronic, low-grade inflammation occurs in abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and related complications, and that proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in the onset and progression of type 2 diabetes. These findings consequently provide new opportunities for the use of anti-inflammatory strategies to correct the metabolic disorders. Discovery of new synthetic bioactive small molecules to interfere with chronic, low-grade inflammation and type 2 diabetes has attracted considerable attention in medicinal chemistry. To date, a number of organoselenium small molecules and chromium(III) complexes have been shown to have the potential to alleviate chronic low-grade inflammation and type 2 diabetes, including ebselen, selenomethionine, chromium picolinate, chromium dinicocysteinate, chromium phenylalaninate, trinuclear chromium propionate, chromium histidinate, chromium nicotinate, etc. Here, we review recent advances in development of organoselenium small molecules and chromium(III) complexes to intervene in chronic low-grade inflammation and type 2 diabetes, and discuss their mode of action, potential molecular mechanisms and toxicity.

  2. Research on curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine treating low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangyun

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to explore the curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine treating low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection. Sixty children who suffered low-grade fever caused by respiratory system infection were selected and divided into treatment group and control group randomly, each with 30 cases. Control group was treated with conventional methods including oxygen uptake, nebulization and anti-infection, etc, while treatment group was given boil-free granules of traditional Chinese medicine besides the treatment which control group received. Then clinical curative effect of two groups was compared. Results showed that 28 cases (93.3%) were cured in treatment group; while 21 cases (70.0%) were cured in control group. Compared with control group, the treatment group showed up better treatment efficiency and the difference between groups was of statistical significance (P<0.05). Comparison of results of two groups suggested that, traditional Chinese medicine granules has satisfactory curative effect in the treatment of low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection; characterized by short treatment cycle and effective treatment effect, Chinese medicine granules in the combination with oxygen atomization inhalation is proved to be able to efficiently remit symptoms such as coughing, gasp and labored breathing, with outstanding curative effect in the treatment of low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection, thus it is worthy of popularization and application clinically. PMID:26431646

  3. Effects of low-grade weirs on soil microbial communities to advance agricultural best management practices for nitrate remediation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural activities throughout the Mississippi River Basin have been identified as a major source of nutrient pollution, particularly nitrogen from fertilizer application, to downstream waters including the Gulf of Mexico. Utilizing best management practices, such as low-grade weirs have been id...

  4. Distant dissemination of mixed low-grade astroblastoma-arteriovenous malformation after initial operation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Kun; Wu, Bin; Xi, Mei; Duan, Zejun; Wang, Jiqiang; Qi, Xueling

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of low-grade astroblastoma coexisting with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) underwent surgery two times in a 38-year-old man. After the first surgery, this case was reported as a mixed low-grade astroblastoma and AVM. The lesion was completely resected surgically along with AVM. The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Twenty months later, MRI showed enhanced lesions in suprasellar, pineal region and multiple small lesions in the spinal cord, whereas completely no recurrent lesion at the primary tumor site. So, the patient rationally underwent surgical removal in suprasellar and pineal region. After the second surgery, this case was diagnosed as a high-grade astroblastoma. Cells from the second surgical specimens showed high MIB-1 index and an increased olig-2 index. In addition, it is not common for low-grade astroblastoma metastasis to suprasellar, pineal region and spine with completely no recurrence at the original primary tumor site. Therefore it is difficult to predict tumor behavior and patient’s clinical outcome merely based on histologic features. The important issue is whether the AVM was thought to be the cause of poor progress of this tumor. More cases are needed to confirm this. Classification and histogenesis of this tumor is still debated. Lack of clinicopathological correlation makes the prognosis of this tumor unpredictable. Anyway, we should be very discreet to treat the astroblastoma, even for low-grade astroblastoma. PMID:26261652

  5. Research on curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine treating low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangyun

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to explore the curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine treating low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection. Sixty children who suffered low-grade fever caused by respiratory system infection were selected and divided into treatment group and control group randomly, each with 30 cases. Control group was treated with conventional methods including oxygen uptake, nebulization and anti-infection, etc, while treatment group was given boil-free granules of traditional Chinese medicine besides the treatment which control group received. Then clinical curative effect of two groups was compared. Results showed that 28 cases (93.3%) were cured in treatment group; while 21 cases (70.0%) were cured in control group. Compared with control group, the treatment group showed up better treatment efficiency and the difference between groups was of statistical significance (P<0.05). Comparison of results of two groups suggested that, traditional Chinese medicine granules has satisfactory curative effect in the treatment of low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection; characterized by short treatment cycle and effective treatment effect, Chinese medicine granules in the combination with oxygen atomization inhalation is proved to be able to efficiently remit symptoms such as coughing, gasp and labored breathing, with outstanding curative effect in the treatment of low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection, thus it is worthy of popularization and application clinically.

  6. The Continuum of Serous Tumors of Low Malignant Potential and Low-Grade Serous Carcinomas of the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Gershenson, David

    2007-01-01

    The role of serous tumors of low malignant potential (LMP) in the development of invasive epithelial cancer of the ovary is debatable. This review summarizes the current clinical, genetic, and genomic evidence for the existence of a continuum comprising both LMP serous tumors and low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. PMID:18057521

  7. Intraductal carcinoma of salivary gland (so-called low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma) arising in an intraparotid lymph node.

    PubMed

    Weinreb, Ilan

    2011-09-01

    Since the first description of an entirely intraductal epithelial proliferation of salivary gland by Chen in 1983 as an "intraductal carcinoma", there have been several dozen reported cases with the same and various additional names including "low-grade salivary duct carcinoma", "low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma" and "carcinoma in situ" of salivary gland. These refer to a combination of nests and cysts of varying size formed by a cellular proliferation resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia or ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. The lesions are generally entirely intraductal with low, intermediate or high-grade dysplasia. Occasional benign tumors of salivary gland, particularly Warthin tumor and rare salivary carcinomas may arise within an intraparotid lymph node. In addition, intraparotid lymph nodes are a routine location for metastatic disease. A case of a 59-year-old female with a parotid mass is described, which grossly had the appearance of a Warthin tumor. Microscopically, it was an entirely intranodal proliferation of cells with diffuse AE1/AE3 and S100 positivity. The nests and cysts were completely surrounded by a rim of non-neoplastic myoepithelial cells, which were positive for CK14, p63, SMA, MSA and calponin. The tumor cells were negative for these markers. The cells were only focally positive for AR and BRST-2. They showed negligible MIB-1 staining. This report describes, for the first time, an entirely intranodal location for a low-grade intraductal carcinoma (so-called low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma).

  8. Latitude gradients for lymphoid neoplasm subtypes in Australia support an association with ultraviolet radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Marina T; Turner, Jennifer J; Falster, Michael O; Meagher, Nicola S; Joske, David J; Grulich, Andrew E; Giles, Graham G; Vajdic, Claire M

    2013-08-15

    Given the uncertainty surrounding solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and risk of lymphoid neoplasms, we performed an ecological analysis of national Australian data for incident cases diagnosed between 2002 and 2006. Subtype-specific incidence was examined by latitude band (<29°S, 29-36°S, ≥37°S), a proxy for ambient UVR exposure, using multiple Poisson regression, adjusted for sex, age-group and calendar year. Incidence increased with distance from the equator for several mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, including diffuse large B-cell [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-1.61 for latitude ≥37°S relative to <29°S], lymphoplasmacytic (IRR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.12-1.61), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (IRR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.97-1.80) and mantle cell lymphoma (IRR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.05-1.58), as well as plasmacytoma (IRR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.09-2.11) and plasma cell myeloma (IRR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.03-1.27). A similar pattern was observed for several mature cutaneous T-cell neoplasms, including primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (IRR = 4.26; 95% CI: 1.85-9.84), mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome (IRR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.20-2.46), and peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (NOS) (IRR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.17-2.00). Incidence of mixed cellularity/lymphocyte-depleted (IRR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.16-2.20) and nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma (IRR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.33-1.85) also increased with distance from the equator. Many of these subtypes have a known association with infection or immune dysregulation. Our findings support a possible protective effect of UVR exposure on the risk of several lymphoid neoplasms, possibly through vitamin D-related immune modulation critical in lymphomagenesis.

  9. Novel immunotherapies in lymphoid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Batlevi, Connie Lee; Matsuki, Eri; Brentjens, Renier J.; Younes, Anas

    2016-01-01

    The success of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies provided proof-of-principle for exploiting the immune system therapeutically. Since the FDA approval of rituximab in 1997, several novel strategies that harness the ability of T cells to target cancer cells have emerged. Reflecting on the promising clinical efficacy of these novel immunotherapy approaches, the FDA has recently granted ‘breakthrough’ designation to three novel treatments with distinct mechanisms. First, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapy is promising for the treatment of adult and paediatric relapsed and/or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Second, blinatumomab, a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE®) antibody, is now approved for the treatment of adults with Philadelphia-chromosome-negative relapsed and/or refractory B-precursor ALL. Finally, the monoclonal antibody nivolumab, which targets the PD-1 immune-checkpoint receptor with high affinity, is used for the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma following treatment failure with autologous-stem-cell transplantation and brentuximab vedotin. Herein, we review the background and development of these three distinct immunotherapy platforms, address the scientific advances in understanding the mechanism of action of each therapy, and assess the current clinical knowledge of their efficacy and safety. We also discuss future strategies to improve these immunotherapies through enhanced engineering, biomarker selection, and mechanism-based combination regimens. PMID:26525683

  10. Low grade astrocytoma in children under the age of three years: a report from the Canadian pediatric brain tumour consortium.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Donna L; Keene, Daniel; Bartels, Ute; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Crooks, Bruce; Eisenstat, David D; Fryer, Chris; Lafay-Cousin, Lucie; Larouche, Valerie; Moghrabi, Albert; Wilson, Beverly; Zelcer, Shayna; Silva, Mariana; Bouffet, Eric

    2015-08-01

    In children under the age of 3 years, the most common solid tumors are brain tumors. Low grade astrocytomas represent 30-40 % of brain tumours in this age group. This study reviewed the incidence, characteristics, therapy, and outcome of children less than 36 months of age diagnosed with a low grade astrocytoma from 1990 to 2005 in Canada. A data bank was established using data collected from Canadian pediatric oncology centers on children less than age 3 diagnosed with brain tumors between 1990 and 2005. Cases of low grade astrocytoma were extracted from this data bank and their characteristics summarized. From the 579 cases in the data bank, 153 cases of low grade astrocytoma (26 %) were identified. The mean duration of symptoms prior to presentation was 13 weeks, and 53 % of patients underwent a greater than 90 % resection of their tumor, while 30 % underwent 10-90 % resection. Seventy-one percent of patients received no further therapy after surgery and of the 45 who received therapy following surgery, 43 received chemotherapy, and 5 received radiation therapy. Sixty-eight patients had recurrence or progression of their tumor. Eighty-seven percent of patients were alive at the time of the survey with a 2 year survival rate of 95.3 ± 1.8 %, 5 year survival rate of 93.1 ± 2.1 % and 10 year survival rate of 89.1 ± 2.8 %. The 5 year survival rate for Canadian children less than 36 months of age with a low grade astrocytoma was 93.0 ± 2.8 % which is similar to that for older children with this tumor.

  11. Phenotypic variations in NF1-associated low grade astrocytomas: possible role for increased mTOR activation in a subset

    PubMed Central

    Jentoft, Mark; Giannini, Caterina; Cen, Ling; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Hoesley, Bridget; Sarkaria, Jann N; Abell-Aleff, Patrice C; Rodriguez, Erika F; Li, Ying; Rodriguez, Fausto J

    2011-01-01

    Low grade astrocytomas are the most common CNS tumors in neurofibromatosis type 1(NF1) patients. While most are classic pilocytic astrocytomas (PA), some are difficult to classify, and have been termed “low grade astrocytoma subtype indeterminate” (LGSI). Some of these tumors exhibit peculiar morphologies, including plump cytoplasmic processes and macronucleoli. In the current study we performed electron microscopy, followed by gene expression, immunohistochemicai and western blot analyses in an effort to identify biological differences underlying phenotypic variation in NF1-associated low grade astrocytoma. Electron microscopy demonstrated intermediate filaments and frequent Rosenthal fiber material in both PA and LGSI. Dense core granules and/or aligned microtubules were present in the LGSI group (2 of 3 cases) and in the PA group (1 of 10 cases). Analysis of global gene expression data obtained using Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus2.0 chips (5 PA, 1 LGSI), and western blot analysis for phospho-S6 (1 LGSI, 2 PA) demonstrated a gene expression profile reflecting “neuronal differentiation” and increased phospho-S6 immunoreactivity consistent with mTOR activation in the LGSI compared with PA. These findings were confirmed by immunohistochemistry for neuronal markers, as well as combined phospho-S6/ phospho-p70S6K immunoreactivity in 4 (of 4) LGSI vs. 5 (of 13) NF1-associated PA (p=0.02), and 13 (of 39) sporadic PA. Phospho-ERK immunoreactivity was uniformly present in PA and LGSI groups, while BRAF duplication was absent by FISH in 8 NF1-associated low grade astrocytomas. In summary, differential expression of neuronal-related genes and increased mTOR activation may underlie phenotypic variations in NF1-associated low grade astrocytomas. PMID:21228927

  12. Identification of a novel, recurrent MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion in low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Dewaele, Barbara; Przybyl, Joanna; Quattrone, Anna; Finalet Ferreiro, Julio; Vanspauwen, Vanessa; Geerdens, Ellen; Gianfelici, Valentina; Kalender, Zeynep; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Moerman, Philippe; Sciot, Raf; Croce, Sabrina; Amant, Frederic; Vandenberghe, Peter; Cools, Jan; Debiec-Rychter, Maria

    2014-03-01

    Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESSs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of rare uterine neoplasms that are commonly driven by recurrent gene rearrangements. In conventional low-grade ESS, JAZF1-SUZ12, PHF1-JAZF1, EPC1-PHF1 and MEAF6-PHF1, and recently described ZC3H7-BCOR chimeric fusions have been reported in > 50% of cases. Conversely, oncogenic t(10;17)(q22;p13) translocation yields YWHAE-FAM22A/B chimeric proteins that are associated with histologically high-grade and clinically more aggressive ESS. Integrating whole-transcriptome paired-end RNA sequencing with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and banding cytogenetics, we identified MBTD1 (malignant brain tumor domain-containing 1) and CXorf67 (chromosome X open reading frame 67) as the genes involved in the novel reciprocal t(X;17)(p11.2;q21.33) translocation in two independent low-grade ESS of classical histology. The presence of the MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion transcript was validated in both cases using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by Sanger sequencing. A specific FISH assay was developed to detect the novel t(X;17) translocation in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material, and resulted in identification of an additional low-grade ESS case positive for the MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion among 25 uterine stromal tumors [14 ESS and 11 undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas (UESs)] that were negative for JAZF1 and YWHAE rearrangements. Gene expression profiles of seven ESS (including three with YWHAE and two with JAZF1 rearrangements) and four UES without specific chromosomal aberrations indicated clustering of tumors with MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion together with low-grade JAZF1-associated ESS. The chimeric MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion identifies yet another cytogenetically distinct subgroup of low-grade ESS and offers the opportunity to shed light on the functions of two poorly characterized genes. PMID:23959973

  13. Low-grade disease activity in early life precedes childhood asthma and allergy.

    PubMed

    Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard

    2016-08-01

    for promotion of or protection against asthma and allergies. Therefore, preventive initiatives to restore immune health, such as vitamin D supplementation, should be directed to the fetus and the earliest postnatal life. The eosinophil granulocyte has a major role in the allergic inflammatory cascade and eosinophilia is considered a hallmark of many allergic phenotypes. In paper III, we examined neonatal urinary biomarkers including eosinophil protein X (u-EPX), which is contained in the eosinophil granules. Elevated u-EPX in asymptomatic neonates was associated with development of allergic sensitization and nasal eosinophilia, but not with wheezing or asthma (III). These findings suggest the presence of an ongoing low-grade disease process in early life characterized by eosinophil activation prior to appearance of allergy-related conditions. In papers IV-V, we investigated perinatal and genetic predictors of neonatal fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and the relationship between neonatal FeNO and wheezing later in child-hood. The a priori selected determinants encompassed asthma genetic risk variants, anthropometrics, demographics, socioeconomics, parental asthma and allergy, maternal smoking, paracetamol and antibiotic usage during pregnancy, and neonatal bacterial airway colonization. Among those, only the DENND1B risk allele and paternal history of asthma and allergy were associated with increased FeNO values (V) suggesting that raised FeNO in neonatal life is primarily an inherited trait. The neonatal FeNO levels were widely dispersed (1-67 ppb) and children with values in the upper quartile were at increased risk of recurrent wheezing in early childhood, but not persistent wheezing, reduced lung function or allergy-related endpoints (IV). This suggests that elevated neonatal FeNO represents an early asymptomatic low-grade disease process other than congenitally small airway calibre contributing to a transient wheezing phenotype. Reduced lung function in

  14. Solidification/stabilisation of electric arc furnace waste using low grade MgO.

    PubMed

    Cubukcuoglu, B; Ouki, S K

    2012-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the potential of low grade MgO (LGMgO) for the stabilisation/solidification (S/S) of heavy metals in steel electric arc furnace wastes. Relevant characteristics such as setting time, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and leaching behaviour assessed by acid neutralisation capacity (ANC), monolithic and granular leaching tests were examined in light of the UK landfill Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for disposal. The results demonstrated that all studied mix designs with Portland cement type 1 (CEM1) and LGMgO, CEM1-LGMgO 1:2 and 1:4 at 40% and 70% waste addition met the WAC requirements by means of UCS, initial and final setting times and consistence. Most of the ANC results met the WAC limits where the threshold pH values without acid additions were stable and between 11.9 and 12.2 at 28d. Granular leaching results indicate fixation of most of the metals at all mix ratios. An optimum ratio was obtained at CEM1-LGMgO 1:4 at 40% waste additions where none of the metals leaching exceeded the WAC limits and hence may be considered for landfill disposal. The monolithic leaching test results showed that LGMgO performed satisfactorily with respect to S/S of Zn, as the metal component present at the highest concentration level in the waste exhibited very little leaching and passed the leaching test requirement at all mix ratios studied. However, its performance with respect to Pb, Cd and Cr was less effective in reducing their leaching suggesting a higher cumulative rate under those leaching regimes.

  15. Proton Therapy in Pediatric Skull Base and Cervical Canal Low-Grade Bone Malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Habrand, Jean-Louis Schneider, Ralf M.D.; Alapetite, Claire; Feuvret, Loic; Petras, Slavo; Datchary, Jean; Grill, Jacques; Noel, Georges; Helfre, Sylvie; Ferrand, Regis; Bolle, Stephanie; Sainte-Rose, Christian

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes and tolerance of high-dose photon and proton therapy in the management of skull base and cervical canal primary bony malignancies in children. Patients and Methods: Thirty children were treated postoperatively with high-dose photon-proton (29 patients) or protons-only (1 patient) radiotherapy. Twenty-six patients had chordomas (CH), 3 had low-grade chondrosarcomas (CS), and 1 had an aggressive chondroma (AC). The mean age was 12.8 years. At the time of radiation, all but 1 patient had a gross residue. The anatomic sites affected were skull base (n 16), cervical canal (n = 1), or both (n = 13). Mean total dose was 68.4 cobalt Gray equivalents, conventionally fractionated. Results: With a mean follow-up of 26.5 months, 5 of 30 children failed locally: 5 of 5 lesions were CH, 5 of 5 patients had experienced pain at presentation (p = 0.03), and 4 of 5 had cervical extension (p = 0.07). The 5-year overall survival/progression-free survival rates for CS and CH were 100%/100% and 81%/77%, respectively. Side effects were scored according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. Acute toxicity ranged between 0 and 2. Late toxicity of radiotherapy was severe in 1 patient (Grade 3 auditory) and minor or mild in the rest of the population (7 patients with Grade 2 pituitary dysfunction). Conclusions: High-dose combined fractionated photon-proton therapy is well tolerated in children and allows excellent local control with minimal long-term toxicity.

  16. An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Desheng; Zhao, Hongxin; Hu, Guoping; Qi, Tao; Yu, Hongdong; Zhang, Guozhi; Wang, Lina; Wang, Weijing

    2015-08-30

    An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite was developed. In this study, a mixed solvent system of di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (D2EHPA) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with kerosene was used for the selective extraction of vanadium from a hydrochloric acid leaching solution that contained low vanadium concentration with high concentrations of iron and impurities of Ca, Mg, and Al. In the extraction process, the initial solution pH and the phase ratio had considerable functions in the extraction of vanadium from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution. Under optimal extraction conditions (i.e., 30-40°C for 10min, 1:3 phase ratio (O/A), 20% D2EHPA concentration (v/v), and 0-0.8 initial solution pH), 99.4% vanadium and only 4.2% iron were extracted by the three-stage counter-current extraction process. In the stripping process with H2SO4 as the stripping agent and under optimal stripping conditions (i.e., 20% H2SO4 concentration, 5:1 phase ratio (O/A), 20min stripping time, and 40°C stripping temperature), 99.6% vanadium and only 5.4% iron were stripped by the three-stage counter-current stripping process. The stripping solution contained 40.16g/LV2O5,0.691g/L Fe, 0.007g/L TiO2, 0.006g/L SiO2 and 0.247g/L CaO. A V2O5 product with a purity of 99.12% V2O5 and only 0.026% Fe was obtained after the oxidation, precipitation, and calcination processes. The total vanadium recovered from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution was 85.5%. PMID:25840036

  17. Outcome of instrumented lumbar fusion for low grade spondylolisthesis; Evaluation of interbody fusion with & without cages

    PubMed Central

    Fathy, Mostafa; Fahmy, Mohamed; Fakhri, Mazen; Aref, Khaled; Abdin, Khaled; Zidan, Ihab

    2010-01-01

    Object: The aim is to evalute the outcome of posterior lumbar interbody fusion with autologous bone graft versus titanium Cages, BAK system (Bagby – Kuslich, Spine Tech, Inc. Minneapolis, MN) for low grade spondyloisthesis (Grade1,11). Interbody cages have been developed to replace tricortical Interbody grafts in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) procedures. The cages provide immediate post operative stability and facilitate bony union with cancellous bone packed in the cage itself. METHOD: We Evaluated 50 consecutive patients in whom surgery was performed between June 2000 to June 2003 in the Main Alexandria University Hospital at EGYPT. Twenty five patients were operated using autologous bone graft and 25 patients using the BAK cages. The neuro–radiologic al work up consisted of; plain X – ray lumbosacral spine including dynamic films preoperative and postoperative follow up; C.T lumbosacral spine and MRI lumbosacral spine. The surgery was performed at L4-5 level in 34 cases and at L5-S1 level in 16 cases. The median follow up was 15 months. RESULTS: Satisfactory fusion was obtained at all levels at a minimum one year follow – up. The fusion rate was 96% (24 patients) for the cage group and 80% (20 patients) for bone graft group however clinical improvement was 64% (16 patients) for those with bone graft group. CONCLUSION: A higher fusion rates and a better clinical outcome have been obtained by Instrumented PLIF with titanium cages that with bone graft. Inderbody fusion cages help to stabilize spainal segment primarily by distracting them as well as by allowing bone ingrowth and fusion. The procedure is safe and effective with 96% fusion rate and 76% overall Satisfactory rate. The use of cages help to distract the space between the vertebral bodies making the correction of the degree of spondylolisthesis easier. Long term follow up revealed better fusion rate and better realignment and less resorption with cages than with bone grafts. PMID

  18. Obesity phenotypes and resorption percentage after breast autologous fat grafting: Rule of low-grade inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Pietro; Sarlo, Francesca; De Angelis, Barbara; De Lorenzo, Antonio; Cervelli, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the main reasons why the breast fat grafting was questioned is that there may be lipofilling resorption. In the literature, the resorption rate reported over the 1st year is highly variable (20–90%). Objective: The aim of this work was to identify the biochemical and clinical parameters, which increase fat graft maintenance in breast reconstruction. Materials and Methods: A sample of 19 patients was treated with fat grafting mixed with platelet-rich plasma. A complete screening of anthropometry, body composition, and blood biochemical parameters was assessed using the standardized equipment. Pre- and post-operative evaluation was performed, which included a complete clinical examination, photographic assessment, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the soft tissue, and ultrasound. The follow-up period was 2 years. Results: The authors divided the results into two types of patients: “responder” and “not a responder.” In the “responder” group patients with normal weight, gynoid fat distribution, obese, with normal blood biochemical parameters, and atherogenic indices but with high preoperative values of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) (174.49) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (2.65) showed a greater increase of fat graft maintenance at 6 and 12 months after the last lipofilling session. In the “not responder group” patients with overweight, android fat distribution, obese, high values of atherogenic indices, but with normal preoperative NLR and PLR ratios showed a lower fat graft maintenance at 6 and 12 months. Conclusion: We assume, the problem of fat resorption may be resolved by analysis of body composition and by examine the predictive role of preoperative markers of low-grade inflammation.

  19. Longitudinal Investigation of Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Irradiation for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent-living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Methods and Materials: Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21-17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20-19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at preirradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. Five hundred eighty-eight evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Results: Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline in VABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and preirradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r=0.34; P=.01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (P<.05) at baseline on VABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline limited to VABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. Conclusions: There was relative sparing of postirradiation functional outcomes over time in this sample

  20. Learning and Memory Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Di Pinto, Marcos; Conklin, Heather M.; Li, Chenghong; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether children with low-grade glioma (LGG) or craniopharyngioma had impaired learning and memory after conformal radiation therapy (CRT). A secondary objective was to determine whether children who received chemotherapy before CRT, a treatment often used to delay radiation therapy in younger children with LGG, received any protective benefit with respect to learning. Methods and Materials: Learning and memory in 57 children with LGG and 44 children with craniopharyngioma were assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version and the Visual-Auditory Learning tests. Learning measures were administered before CRT, 6 months later, and then yearly for a total of 5 years. Results: No decline in learning scores after CRT was observed when patients were grouped by diagnosis. For children with LGG, chemotherapy before CRT did not provide a protective effect on learning. Multiple regression analyses, which accounted for age and tumor volume and location, found that children treated with chemotherapy before CRT were at greater risk of decline on learning measures than those treated with CRT alone. Variables predictive of learning and memory decline included hydrocephalus, shunt insertion, younger age at time of treatment, female gender, and pre-CRT chemotherapy. Conclusions: This study did not reveal any impairment or decline in learning after CRT in overall aggregate learning scores. However, several important variables were found to have a significant effect on neurocognitive outcome. Specifically, chemotherapy before CRT was predictive of worse outcome on verbal learning in LGG patients. In addition, hydrocephalus and shunt insertion in craniopharyngioma were found to be predictive of worse neurocognitive outcome, suggesting a more aggressive natural history for those patients.

  1. Quality of life in low-grade glioma patients receiving temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Raymond; Solheim, Karla; Polley, Mei-Yin; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Page, Margaretta; Fedoroff, Anne; Rabbitt, Jane; Butowski, Nicholas; Prados, Michael; Chang, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the quality of life (QOL) of low-grade glioma (LGG) patients at baseline prior to chemotherapy and through 12 cycles of temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. Patients with histologically confirmed LGG with only prior surgery were given TMZ for 12 cycles. QOL assessments by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Brain (FACT-Br) were obtained at baseline prior to chemotherapy and at 2-month intervals while receiving TMZ. Patients with LGG at baseline prior to chemotherapy had higher reported social well-being scores (mean difference = 5.0; p < 0.01) but had lower reported emotional well-being scores (mean difference = 2.2; p < 0.01) compared to a normal population. Compared to patients with left hemisphere tumors, patients with right hemisphere tumors reported higher physical well-being scores (p = 0.01): 44% could not drive, 26% did not feel independent, and 26% were afraid of having a seizure. Difficulty with work was noted in 24%. Mean change scores at each chemotherapy cycle compared to baseline for all QOL subscales showed either no significant change or were significantly positive (p < 0.01). Patients with LGG on TMZ at baseline prior to chemotherapy reported QOL comparable to a normal population with the exception of social and emotional well-being, and those with right hemisphere tumors reported higher physical well-being scores compared to those with left hemisphere tumors. While remaining on therapy, LGG patients were able to maintain their QOL in all realms. LGG patients’ QOL may be further improved by addressing their emotional well-being and their loss of independence in terms of driving or working. PMID:18713953

  2. Phase II TPDCV protocol for pediatric low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas: 15-year update

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Kavita K.; Squire, Sarah; Lamborn, Kathleen; Banerjee, Anuradha; Gupta, Nalin; Wara, William M.; Prados, Michael D.; Berger, Mitchel S.

    2010-01-01

    To report long-term results for children with low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas treated on a phase II chemotherapy protocol. Between 1984 and 1992, 33 children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs received TPDCV chemotherapy on a phase II prospective trial. Median age was 3.0 years (range 0.3–16.2). Twelve patients (36%) underwent STRs, 14 (42%) biopsy only, and seven (21%) no surgery. Twenty patients (61%) had pathologic JPAs, nine (27%) grade II gliomas, and four (12%) no surgical sampling. Median f/u for surviving patients was 15.2 years (range 5.3–20.7); 20 of the 23 surviving patients had 14 or more years of follow-up. Fifteen-year PFS and OS were 23.4 and 71.2%, respectively. Twenty-five patients progressed, of whom 13 are NED, two are AWD, and 10 have died. All children who died were diagnosed and first treated at age three or younger. Age at diagnosis was significantly associated with relapse and survival (P = 0.004 for PFS and P = 0.037 for OS). No PFS or OS benefit was seen with STR versus biopsy/no sampling (P = 0.58 for PFS, P = 0.59 for OS). For patients with JPAs and WHO grade II tumors, the 15-year PFS was 18.8 and 22.2% (P = 0.95) and 15-year OS was 73.7 and 55.6% (P = 0.17), respectively. Upfront TPDCV for children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs resulted in 15-year OS of 71.2% and 15-year PFS of 23.4%. No survival benefit is demonstrated for greater extent of resection. Age is a significant prognostic factor for progression and survival. PMID:20221671

  3. Evidence for low-grade metamorphism, hydrothermal alteration, and diagenesis on mars from phyllosilicate mineral assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ehlmann, B.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Clark, R.N.; Swayze, G.A.; Murchie, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    The enhanced spatial and spectral resolution provided by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has led to the discovery of numerous hydrated silicate minerals on Mars, particularly in the ancient, cratered crust comprising the southern highlands. Phases recently identified using visible/near-infrared spectra include: smectite, chlorite, prehnite, high-charge phyllosilicates (illite or muscovite), the zeolite analcime, opaline silica, and serpentine. Some mineral assemblages represent the products of aqueous alteration at elevated temperatures. Geologic occurrences of these mineral assemblages are described using examples from west of the Isidis basin near the Nili Fossae and with reference to differences in implied temperature, fluid composition, and starting materials during alteration. The alteration minerals are not distributed homogeneously. Rather, certain craters host distinctive alteration assemblages: (1) prehnite-chlorite-silica, (2) analcime-silica-Fe,Mg-smectite-chlorite, (3) chlorite-illite (muscovite), and (4) serpentine, which furthermore has been found in bedrock units. These assemblages contrast with the prevalence of solely Fe,Mg-smectites in most phyllosilicate-bearing terrains on Mars, and they represent materials altered at depth then exposed by cratering. Of the minerals found to date, prehnite provides the clearest evidence for subsurface, hydrothermal/metamorphic alteration, as it forms only under highly restricted conditions (T = 200 400??C). Multiple mechanisms exist for forming the other individual minerals; however, the most likely formation mechanisms for the characteristic mineralogic assemblages observed are, for (1) and (2), low- grade metamorphism or hydrothermal (400??C has not been found.

  4. The Mechanism on Biomass Reduction of Low-Grade Manganese Dioxide Ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Honglei; Zhu, Guocai; Yan, Hong; Li, Tiancheng; Zhao, Yuna

    2013-08-01

    The mechanism on biomass reduction of low-grade manganese dioxide ore was studied by investigating influence factors on manganese recovery degree, such as the reaction temperature, time, biomass/ore ratio, compositions of biomass, nitrogen flow rate, and particle size of raw materials, and it was further identified through analysis of gas composition in the outlet gas, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for the reduced sample. The results show that the reduction process involved mainly two steps: (1) The biomass was first pyrolyzed to release reductive volatiles and (2) manganese oxide ore was reacted with the reductive volatiles. By an analysis of gas composition in the outlet gas, it was also found that the ratio of biomass/ore had an important effect on the reduction mechanism. With a low biomass/ore ratio of 0.5:10, the reducing reaction of the reductive volatiles with manganese dioxide ore proceeded mainly in two stages: (1) The condensable volatiles (tar) released from biomass pyrolysis reacted with manganese oxide ore to produce reductive noncondensable gases such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and some light hydrocarbons; and (2) the small molecule gases further participated in the reduction. XRD pattern analysis on the reduced manganese dioxide ore revealed that the process of biomass reduction of manganese ore underwent in phases (MnO2 → Mn3O4 → MnO). The kinetics study showed the reduction process was controlled by a gas-solid reaction between biomass volatiles and manganese oxide ore with activation energy E of 53.64 kJ mol-1 and frequency factor A of 5.45 × 103 minutes-1.

  5. IDH mutation is associated with higher risk of malignant transformation in low-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Leu, Severina; von Felten, Stefanie; Frank, Stephan; Boulay, Jean-Louis; Mariani, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Acquisition of IDH1 or IDH2 mutation (IDHmut) is among the earliest genetic events that take place in the development of most low-grade glioma (LGG). IDHmut has been associated with longer overall patient survival. However, its impact on malignant transformation (MT) remains to be defined. A collection of 210 archived adult LGG previously stratified by IDHmut, MGMT methylation (MGMTmet), 1p/19q combined loss of heterozygosity (1p19qloh) and TP53 immunopositivity (TP53pos) status was analyzed. We used multistate models to assess MT-free survival, considering one initial, one transient (MT), and one absorbing state (death). Missing explanatory variables were multiply imputed. Overall, although associated with a lower risk of death (HR(DEATH) = 0.35, P = 0.0023), IDHmut had a non-significantly higher risk of MT (HR(MT) = 1.84; P = 0.1683) compared to IDH wild type (IDHwt). The double combination of IDHmut and MGMTmet and the triple combination of IDHmut, MGMTmet and 1p/19qloh, despite significantly lower hazards for death (HR(DEATH) versus IDHwt: 0.35, P = 0.0194 and 0.15, P = 0.0008, respectively), had non-significantly different hazards for MT. Conversely, the triple combination of IDHmut/MGMTmet/TP53pos, with a non-significantly different hazard for death, had a significantly higher hazard for MT than IDHwt (HR(MT) versus IDHwt: 2.83; P = 0.0452). Although IDHmut status is associated with longer overall patient survival, all IDHmut/MGMTmet subsets consistently showed higher risks of MT than of death, compared to IDHwt LGG. This supports the findings that molecular events relevant to IDH mutations impact early glioma development prior to malignant transformation. PMID:26780338

  6. An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Desheng; Zhao, Hongxin; Hu, Guoping; Qi, Tao; Yu, Hongdong; Zhang, Guozhi; Wang, Lina; Wang, Weijing

    2015-08-30

    An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite was developed. In this study, a mixed solvent system of di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (D2EHPA) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with kerosene was used for the selective extraction of vanadium from a hydrochloric acid leaching solution that contained low vanadium concentration with high concentrations of iron and impurities of Ca, Mg, and Al. In the extraction process, the initial solution pH and the phase ratio had considerable functions in the extraction of vanadium from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution. Under optimal extraction conditions (i.e., 30-40°C for 10min, 1:3 phase ratio (O/A), 20% D2EHPA concentration (v/v), and 0-0.8 initial solution pH), 99.4% vanadium and only 4.2% iron were extracted by the three-stage counter-current extraction process. In the stripping process with H2SO4 as the stripping agent and under optimal stripping conditions (i.e., 20% H2SO4 concentration, 5:1 phase ratio (O/A), 20min stripping time, and 40°C stripping temperature), 99.6% vanadium and only 5.4% iron were stripped by the three-stage counter-current stripping process. The stripping solution contained 40.16g/LV2O5,0.691g/L Fe, 0.007g/L TiO2, 0.006g/L SiO2 and 0.247g/L CaO. A V2O5 product with a purity of 99.12% V2O5 and only 0.026% Fe was obtained after the oxidation, precipitation, and calcination processes. The total vanadium recovered from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution was 85.5%.

  7. A disconnection account of subjective empathy impairments in diffuse low-grade glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Herbet, Guillaume; Lafargue, Gilles; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas; Costi, Emanuele; Bonnetblanc, François; Duffau, Hugues

    2015-04-01

    Human empathic experience is a multifaceted psychological construct which arises from functional integration of multiple neural networks. Despite accumulating knowledge about the cortical circuitry of empathy, almost nothing is known about the connectivity that may be concerned in conveying empathy-related neural information. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we studied dispositional empathy in a large-sized cohort of 107 patients who had undergone surgery for a diffuse low-grade glioma. The self-report questionnaire used enabled us to obtain a global measure of subjective empathy but also, importantly, to assess the two main components of empathy (cognitive and emotional). Data were processed by combining voxelwise and tractwise lesion-symptom analyses. Several major findings emerged from our analyses. First of all, topological voxelwise analyses were inconclusive. Conversely, tractwise multiple regression analyses, including all major associative white matter pathways as potential predictors, yielded to significant models explaining substantial part of the behavioural variance. Among the main results, we found that disconnection of the left cingulum bundle was a strong predictor of a low cognitive empathy (p<0.0005 Bonferroni-corrected). Similarly, we found that disconnection of the right uncinate fasciculus and the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus predicted, respectively, a low (p<0.05 Bonferroni-corrected) and a high (p<0.05 Bonferroni-corrected) subjective empathy. Finally, although we failed to relate emotional empathy to disruption of a specific tract, correlation analyses indicated a positive association between this component of empathy and the volumes of residual lesion infiltration in the right hemisphere (p<0.01). Taken as a whole, these findings provide key fundamental insights into the anatomical connectivity of empathy. They may help to better understand the pathophysiology of empathy impairments in pathological conditions characterized by

  8. Foliage responses of spruce trees to long-term low-grade sulfur dioxide deposition.

    PubMed

    Meng, F R; Bourque, C P; Belczewski, R F; Whitney, N J; Arp, P A

    1995-01-01

    Foliage on spruce trees (Picea rubens Sarg.) growing on dry SO(2) deposition zones (dry SO(2) deposition ranging from 0.5 and 8.5 S kg ha(-1) year(-1)) downwind from a SO(2) emission source was analyzed to assess chronic effects of long-term low-grade SO(2) deposition on net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, dark respiration, stomatal antechamber wax structures, elemental concentrations in and on foliage (bulk and surficial concentrations), and types of epiphytic fungi that reside in the phylloplane. Elemental distributions on stomatal antechambers, on fungal colonies, and on smooth surfaces between stomates and fungus colonies were determined with a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) by way of X-ray scanning. It was found that net photosynthesis of newly developed spruce foliage (current-year, and 1-year-old) was not significantly affected by the local SO(2) deposition rates. Sulfur dioxide deposition, however, may have contributed to the gradual decrease in net photosynthesis with increasing needle age. Dark respiration rates were significantly higher on foliage taken from high SO(2) deposition zones. Stomatal rod-web structures deteriorated to flakes with increasing needle age and increasing SO(2) deposition. Further inspection of the needle surfaces revealed an increasing abundance of fungal colonies with increasing needle age. Many fungal taxa were isolated and identified. It was found that black yeasts responded positively, and Xylohypha pinicola responded negatively to high rates of SO(2) deposition. Surficial concentrations of elements such as P, S, K, Cl, Ca were about 10 times higher on fungal colonies than on smooth needle surfaces. Surficial Ca contents on 4 or 5-year-old needles decreased with increasing SO(2) deposition, but surficial S concentrations remained the same. In contrast, bulk foliar Ca and S concentrations increased with increasing SO(2) deposition.

  9. Foliage responses of spruce trees to long-term low-grade sulfur dioxide deposition.

    PubMed

    Meng, F R; Bourque, C P; Belczewski, R F; Whitney, N J; Arp, P A

    1995-01-01

    Foliage on spruce trees (Picea rubens Sarg.) growing on dry SO(2) deposition zones (dry SO(2) deposition ranging from 0.5 and 8.5 S kg ha(-1) year(-1)) downwind from a SO(2) emission source was analyzed to assess chronic effects of long-term low-grade SO(2) deposition on net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, dark respiration, stomatal antechamber wax structures, elemental concentrations in and on foliage (bulk and surficial concentrations), and types of epiphytic fungi that reside in the phylloplane. Elemental distributions on stomatal antechambers, on fungal colonies, and on smooth surfaces between stomates and fungus colonies were determined with a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) by way of X-ray scanning. It was found that net photosynthesis of newly developed spruce foliage (current-year, and 1-year-old) was not significantly affected by the local SO(2) deposition rates. Sulfur dioxide deposition, however, may have contributed to the gradual decrease in net photosynthesis with increasing needle age. Dark respiration rates were significantly higher on foliage taken from high SO(2) deposition zones. Stomatal rod-web structures deteriorated to flakes with increasing needle age and increasing SO(2) deposition. Further inspection of the needle surfaces revealed an increasing abundance of fungal colonies with increasing needle age. Many fungal taxa were isolated and identified. It was found that black yeasts responded positively, and Xylohypha pinicola responded negatively to high rates of SO(2) deposition. Surficial concentrations of elements such as P, S, K, Cl, Ca were about 10 times higher on fungal colonies than on smooth needle surfaces. Surficial Ca contents on 4 or 5-year-old needles decreased with increasing SO(2) deposition, but surficial S concentrations remained the same. In contrast, bulk foliar Ca and S concentrations increased with increasing SO(2) deposition. PMID:15091479

  10. Low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma of the breast: A diagnostic and clinical challenge.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qing Ting; Chuwa, Esther Wee Lee; Chew, Sung Hock; Lim-Tan, Soo Kim; Lim, Swee Ho

    2015-07-01

    Adenosquamous carcinoma of the breast (ASBC) is a rare variant of metaplastic breast cancer with both glandular as well as squamous differentiation. Their lack of distinct imaging characteristics, sometimes subtle histological characteristics and overlapping features with other benign lesions pose a diagnostic challenge. Unlike other forms of metaplastic breast cancer, low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma (LGAC) tends to follow an indolent course with favourable prognosis. We reviewed eight cases of LGAC in our institution from June 2005 to March 2014. In six cases, LGAC was only found after excisional biopsy. In our patients, LGAC frequently co-existed with other forms of breast pathology. Two patients had incidental findings of LGAC alongside their primary malignant tumour (adenoid cystic carcinoma and invasive ductal carcinoma in one, four foci between 0.5 and 4.0 mm within a radial sclerosing lesion adjacent to a malignant phyllodes tumour in the other). A further four patients had LGAC within a complex sclerosing lesion. One patient had a focus of LGAC within a fibroadenoma. One had a focus of LGAC within a benign phyllodes tumour. None of the patients had evidence of nodal involvement. A high degree of suspicion is recommended as such lesions tend to be incidental histological findings within benign tumours or within complex sclerosing lesions. Although the risk of nodal and distant metastasis is low, the potential for local recurrence necessitates aggressive local excision with margin clearance. The role of axillary dissection has yet to be defined and routine sentinel node biopsy and axillary clearance may not be necessary in view of rarity of nodal metastasis in literature. Benefit from adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy is not clearly defined. All eight patients in our study have shown no evidence of recurrence after definitive surgery but longer periods of surveillance is required. PMID:25986061

  11. Updated therapeutic strategy for adult low-grade glioma stratified by resection and tumor subtype.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Masayuki; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Maruyama, Takashi; Iseki, Hiroshi; Ikuta, Soko; Konishi, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Taichi; Tamura, Manabu; Chernov, Michael; Watanabe, Atsushi; Okamoto, Saori; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    The importance of surgical resection for patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma (LGG) remains controversial. This retrospective study of patients (n = 153) treated between 2000 to 2010 at a single institution assessed whether increasing the extent of resection (EOR) was associated with improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Histological subtypes of World Health Organization grade II tumors were as follows: diffuse astrocytoma in 49 patients (32.0%), oligoastrocytoma in 45 patients (29.4%), and oligodendroglioma in 59 patients (38.6%). Median pre- and postoperative tumor volumes and median EOR were 29.0 cm(3) (range 0.7-162 cm(3)) and 1.7 cm(3) (range 0-135.7 cm(3)) and 95%, respectively. Five- and 10-year OS for all LGG patients were 95.1% and 85.4%, respectively. Eight-year OS for diffuse astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma were 70.7%, 91.2%, and 98.3%, respectively. Five-year PFS for diffuse astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma were 42.6%, 71.3%, and 62.7%, respectively. Patients were divided into two groups by EOR ≥90% and <90%, and OS and PFS were analyzed. Both OS and PFS were significantly longer in patients with ≥90% EOR. Increased EOR resulted in better PFS for diffuse astrocytoma but not for oligodendroglioma. Multivariate analysis identified age and EOR as parameters significantly associated with OS. The only parameter associated with PFS was EOR. Based on these findings, we established updated therapeutic strategies for LGG. If surgery resulted in EOR <90%, patients with astrocytoma will require second-look surgery, whereas patients with oligodendroglioma or oligoastrocytoma, which are sensitive to chemotherapy, will be treated with chemotherapy.

  12. Obesity phenotypes and resorption percentage after breast autologous fat grafting: Rule of low-grade inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Pietro; Sarlo, Francesca; De Angelis, Barbara; De Lorenzo, Antonio; Cervelli, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the main reasons why the breast fat grafting was questioned is that there may be lipofilling resorption. In the literature, the resorption rate reported over the 1st year is highly variable (20–90%). Objective: The aim of this work was to identify the biochemical and clinical parameters, which increase fat graft maintenance in breast reconstruction. Materials and Methods: A sample of 19 patients was treated with fat grafting mixed with platelet-rich plasma. A complete screening of anthropometry, body composition, and blood biochemical parameters was assessed using the standardized equipment. Pre- and post-operative evaluation was performed, which included a complete clinical examination, photographic assessment, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the soft tissue, and ultrasound. The follow-up period was 2 years. Results: The authors divided the results into two types of patients: “responder” and “not a responder.” In the “responder” group patients with normal weight, gynoid fat distribution, obese, with normal blood biochemical parameters, and atherogenic indices but with high preoperative values of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) (174.49) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (2.65) showed a greater increase of fat graft maintenance at 6 and 12 months after the last lipofilling session. In the “not responder group” patients with overweight, android fat distribution, obese, high values of atherogenic indices, but with normal preoperative NLR and PLR ratios showed a lower fat graft maintenance at 6 and 12 months. Conclusion: We assume, the problem of fat resorption may be resolved by analysis of body composition and by examine the predictive role of preoperative markers of low-grade inflammation. PMID:27656603

  13. Value added products with popular low grade rice varieties of Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Anitha, G; Rajyalakshmi, P

    2014-12-01

    Eight Popular Low Grade Rice Varieties (PLRVs) MTU 3626, MTU 1001, MTU 1010, MTU 4870 and NLR 145, NLR 34242, NLR 30491, NLR 34449, (developed and released by ANGR agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh) having poor cooking quality were selected for the study. ANGRAU variety BPT 5204 popularly consumed as staple rice was used as check. Eight products of traditional/commercial importance were standardized incorporating PLRVs as a major ingredient in the form of rice flour (burfi, noodles and extruded snack product and vennaundalu (butter coated balls), palathalikalu (dough rolled into strips, steamed/cooked in milk); rice semolina (instant kheer mix and instant upma mix), and flaked rice (nutritious bar). The products were evaluated for nutritional, cooking quality characteristics, consumer acceptability and shelf-life. Consumer acceptability of the PLR products was carried out with 60 farm women based on 9 point hedonic scale. Shelf-life of the products (packed in both metalized PP and PE pouches) was evaluated monthly for chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters. Energy values of control and PLR products showed no significant difference. Upon cooking, PLR Noodles showed no significant difference with water absorption and volume but more (p < 0.05) solid loss and cooked weight. Utilization of PLR flakes in nutritious bar resulted in highly crispy and crunchy texture, enhanced flavor and taste as compared to control. The percent total solids and suspended solids were more (though not significant) in PLR kheer and palathalikalu. Extruded product (control and PLR) showed no significant difference with length, diameter, weight and volume expansion ratio and water absorption index (WAI). Consumer acceptability was high for PLR products palathalikalu (95%), instant kheer mix (92%) and extruded product (88%). As per sensory scores, all the PLR products were well accepted with no observable changes in flavor or taste upon storage. PLR products showed increased

  14. Neurosurgical management of adult diffuse low grade gliomas in Canada: a multi-center survey.

    PubMed

    Khan, Osaama H; Mason, Warren; Kongkham, Paul N; Bernstein, Mark; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2016-01-01

    Adult diffuse low-grade gliomas are slow growing, World Health Organization grade II lesions with insidious onset and ultimate anaplastic transformation. The timing of surgery remains controversial with polarized practices continuing to govern patient management. As a result, the management of these patients is variable. The goal of this questionnaire was to evaluate practice patterns in Canada. An online invitation for a questionnaire including diagnostic, preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative parameters and three cases with magnetic resonance imaging data with questions to various treatment options in these patients was sent to practicing neurosurgeons and trainees. Survey was sent to 356 email addresses with 87 (24.7%) responses collected. The range of years of practice was less than 10 years 36% (n = 23), 11-20 years 28% (n = 18), over 21 years 37% (n = 24). Twenty-two neurosurgery students of various years of training completed the survey. 94% (n = 47) of surgeons and trainees (n = 20) believe that we do not know the "right treatment". 90% of surgeons do not obtain formal preoperative neurocognitive assessments. 21% (n = 13) of surgeons and 23% of trainees (n = 5) perform a biopsy upon first presentation. A gross total resection was believed to increase progression free survival (surgeons: 75%, n = 46; trainees: 95%, n = 21) and to increase overall survival (surgeons: 64%, n = 39, trainees: 68%, n = 15). Intraoperative MRI was only used by 8% of surgeons. Awake craniotomy was the procedure of choice for eloquent tumors by 80% (n = 48) of surgeons and 100% of trainees. Of those surgeons who perform awake craniotomy 93% perform cortical stimulation and 38% performed subcortical stimulation. Using the aid of three hypothetical cases with progressive complexities in tumor eloquence there was a trend for younger surgeons to operate earlier, and use awake craniotomy to obtain greater extent of resection with the aid of cortical stimulation when compared to

  15. The use of dual growing rods to correct spinal deformity secondary to a low-grade spinal cord astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Elizabeth N.; Muthigi, Akhil; Frino, John; Powers, Alexander K.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric intramedullary spinal cord astrocytomas are rare, and the majority are low grade, typically carrying a low risk of mortality, but a high risk of morbidity. Quality of life is, therefore, an important consideration in treating concomitant progressive kyphoscoliosis. Compared with fusion-based spinal stabilization, fusionless techniques may limit some complications related to early instrumentation of the developing spine. Another consideration is the timing of radiation therapy relative to both spinal maturity and spinal instrumentation. To date, there have been no reports of the use of a fusionless technique to treat spinal deformity secondary to an intramedullary spinal cord tumor. Herein, we report the use of fusionless spinal stabilization with dual growing rods in a boy with low-grade spinal cord astrocytoma after radiation therapy. PMID:26468485

  16. Ectopic Lymphoid Structures: Powerhouse of Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Corsiero, Elisa; Nerviani, Alessandra; Bombardieri, Michele; Pitzalis, Costantino

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic lymphoid structures (ELS) often develop at sites of inflammation in target tissues of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. ELS are characterized by the formation of organized T/B cells aggregates, which can acquire follicular dendritic cells network supporting an ectopic germinal center response. In this review, we shall summarize the mechanisms that regulate the formation of ELS in tertiary lymphoid organs, with particular emphasis on the role of lymphoid chemokines in both formation and maintenance of ELS, the role of emerging positive and negative regulators of ELS development and function, including T follicular helper cells and IL-27, respectively. Finally, we shall discuss the main functions of ELS in supporting the affinity maturation, clonal selection, and differentiation of autoreactive B cells contributing to the maintenance and perpetuation of humoral autoimmunity. PMID:27799933

  17. Lymphoid-specific antigen: distribution and behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Potworowski, E. F.; Nairn, R. C.

    1968-01-01

    The distribution of a lymphoid-specific antigen has been studied by immunofluorescence in the thymus and other lymphoid organs of the rat and in the thymuses of other vertebrate species. It was demonstrable in all rat lymphocytes except those of the bone marrow. The thymic lymphocytes of all warm-blooded vertebrates also reacted with the lymphoid-specific serum. Plasma cells in antigenically stimulated lymph nodes did not seem to possess the antigen but similar cells appearing in lymph nodes of rats which had been irradiated and injected with marrow cells of the same strain showed a strong reaction with the antiserum. The antigen is depleted in human and murine leukaemic lymphocytes. X-irradiation did not appear to affect the antigen significantly in cells surviving the treatment. ImagesFIG. 1-6 PMID:4871349

  18. Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals

    SciTech Connect

    Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K.

    2009-07-01

    The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

  19. Upgrading of consumer characteristics of granulated solid fuel from mixture of low-grade coal and biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmina, J. S.; Milovanov, O. Yu; Sinelshchikov, V. A.; Sytchev, G. A.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2015-11-01

    Effect of torrefaction on consumer characteristics of fuel pellets made of low-grade and agricultural waste is shown. Data on the volatile content, ash content, calorific value and hygroscopicity for initial pellets and pellets, heat-treated at various temperatures are presented. The experimental study of the combustion process of initial and heat-treated pellets showed that torrefaction of pellets leads to a decreasing of the ignition temperature and an increasing of the efficiency of boiler plant.

  20. OVARIAN LOW-GRADE AND HIGH-GRADE SEROUS CARCINOMA: Pathogenesis, Clinicopathologic and Molecular Biologic Features, and Diagnostic Problems

    PubMed Central

    Vang, Russell; Shih, Ie-Ming; Kurman, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian serous carcinomas have been graded using various systems. Recently, a 2-tier system in which tumors are subdivided into low-grade and high-grade has been proposed. This approach is simplistic, reproducible, and based on biologic evidence indicating that both tumors develop via different pathways. Low-grade serous carcinomas exhibit low-grade nuclei with infrequent mitotic figures. They evolve from adenofibromas or borderline tumors, have frequent mutations of the KRAS, BRAF, or ERBB2 genes, and lack TP53 mutations (Type I pathway). The progression to invasive carcinoma is a slow step-wise process. Low-grade tumors are indolent and have better outcome than high-grade tumors. In contrast, high-grade serous carcinomas have high-grade nuclei and numerous mitotic figures. Identification of a precursor lesion in the ovary has been elusive and therefore the origin of ovarian carcinoma has been described as de novo. More recently, studies have suggested that a proportion appear to originate from intraepithelial carcinoma in the fallopian tube. The development of these tumors is rapid (Type II pathway). The vast majority are characterized by TP53 mutations and lack mutations of KRAS, BRAF, or ERBB2. Although both types of serous carcinomas evolve along different pathways, rare high-grade serous carcinomas seem to arise through the Type I pathway. Immunohistochemical stains for p53, p16, and Ki-67 for distinction of low- from high-grade tumors are of limited value but can be helpful in selected instances. This review provides an update on the pathogenesis and clinicopathologic features of these two types of serous carcinomas and addresses some of the diagnostic problems that are encountered in routine practice. PMID:19700937

  1. Deep sequencing detects very-low-grade somatic mosaicism in the unaffected mother of siblings with nemaline myopathy.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Satoko; Koshimizu, Eriko; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Miya, Kazushi; Shiina, Masaaki; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Miyake, Noriko; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Ogata, Kazuhiro; Nishino, Ichizo; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2014-07-01

    When an expected mutation in a particular disease-causing gene is not identified in a suspected carrier, it is usually assumed to be due to germline mosaicism. We report here very-low-grade somatic mosaicism in ACTA1 in an unaffected mother of two siblings affected with a neonatal form of nemaline myopathy. The mosaicism was detected by deep resequencing using a next-generation sequencer. We identified a novel heterozygous mutation in ACTA1, c.448A>G (p.Thr150Ala), in the affected siblings. Three-dimensional structural modeling suggested that this mutation may affect polymerization and/or actin's interactions with other proteins. In this family, we expected autosomal dominant inheritance with either parent demonstrating germline or somatic mosaicism. Sanger sequencing identified no mutation. However, further deep resequencing of this mutation on a next-generation sequencer identified very-low-grade somatic mosaicism in the mother: 0.4%, 1.1%, and 8.3% in the saliva, blood leukocytes, and nails, respectively. Our study demonstrates the possibility of very-low-grade somatic mosaicism in suspected carriers, rather than germline mosaicism. PMID:24852243

  2. Interferon alpha 2b as maintenance therapy in low grade malignant lymphoma improves duration of remission and survival.

    PubMed

    Aviles, A; Duque, G; Talavera, A; Guzman, R

    1996-02-01

    We assessed the efficacy and toxicity of interferon alpha 2b (IFN) as maintenance therapy in patients with low grade malignant lymphoma. Between March 1986 and December 1989, 98 patients with low-grade malignant lymphoma in complete remission after conventional chemotherapy were randomly assigned to received IFN, 5.0 MU three times a week for one year, as maintenance therapy (n = 48), or to receive no treatment (control group, n = 50). In March 1994, the median duration of response had not yet been reached in the patients treated with IFN compared to 46 months in the control group. At 9-years 62% of the patients in the IFN arm remain in first complete remission compared to only 25% in the control group (p <.001). In addition, the median duration of survival has not yet been reached in either the IFN arm compared to 74 months in the control group (p <.001). Quality of life was excellent in both groups and severe side effects secondary to IFN treatment were not observed. All patients completed the planned dose of IFN. We conclude that IFN as maintenance therapy in low-grade malignant lymphoma is an excellent therapeutic option because it improves the duration of remission and survival without producing severe side effects or reducing the quality of life. PMID:8833409

  3. First-line nitrosourea-based chemotherapy in symptomatic non-resectable supratentorial pure low-grade astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Frenay, M P; Fontaine, D; Vandenbos, F; Lebrun, C

    2005-09-01

    At the present time, there are no proven beneficial effects of chemotherapy (CT) for the treatment of pure low-grade astrocytomas. Brain radiotherapy (RT) still remains the standard treatment in order to reduce or delay tumor progression or symptoms, despite possible long-term neurologic complications. We report 10 patients, with histologically proven pure low-grade fibrillary astrocytomas, to which we administered a first-line nitrosourea-based CT. All patients were symptomatic with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy or neurologic symptoms, and had been rejected for neurosurgical resection. All patients with epilepsy had a clinical improvement with reduction in seizure frequency and 60% became seizure-free. CT was well tolerated; all patients developed myelosuppression with 40% of grade III/IV hematotoxicity. Seven were alive at the time of writing with a mean follow-up of 6.5 years (3.5-12) from first recorded symptoms. The three deceased patients died 7.5, 7.5, and 8.5 years from first symptoms. These results demonstrate that some patients with symptomatic non-resectable fibrillary low-grade astrocytomas can be treated with up-front CT to improve their neurologic status. This report suggests that benefits of CT on symptoms, survival, and quality of life should be prospectively compared with RT. PMID:16128869

  4. Fluid composition and mineral equilibria in low grade metamorphic rocks, Bündnerschiefer, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miron, G. D.; Wagner, T.; Wälle, M.; Heinrich, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    The composition of fluid inclusions (FI) hosted in quartz veins from low-grade metamorphic rocks of the Bündnerschiefer (two locations near Thusis and Schiers that represent subgreenschist and lower greenschist facies conditions, respectively), Swiss Alps, was determined by combination of microthermometry and LA-ICPMS microanalysis. Elongate-blocky quartz and euhedral quartz crystals were sampled form two sets of veins, which are foliation-parallel and open fissure veins that crosscut the main foliation. The host rocks are organic-rich metapelites, that in places contain relatively high amounts of carbonate. Several metamorphic temperature indicators were used to determine the temperature and pressure during metamorphism of the host rocks. These included the Kübler index (Kübler & Jaboyedoff 2000), Raman spectroscopy on carbonaceous material (Beyssac et al., 2002), Na-Mg and Li-Mg fluid solute geothermometry (Giggenbach, 1988; Kharaka & Mariner, 1989) and mineral assemblages. The geothermometers point to equilibrium temperatures around 320±20 °C (Thusis) and 250±20 °C (Schiers). The results of pseudosection modeling show very close agreement with the pressure-temperature conditions that were derived from conventional geothermobarometry. The FI bulk salinity and homogenization temperatures are 4±0.2 wt% eqv. NaCl and 122-140 °C for Thusis, and 2±0.2 wt% and 82-86 °C at Schiers. Most of the important rock-forming elements have been successfully determined in individual FI, with consistent concentrations obtained for well-constrained fluid inclusion assemblages. The FI contain measurable concentrations of Na, K, Rb, Cs, Li, Ca, Mg, Al, Mn, Sr, Ba, B, As, B, Zn, Pb, Cu and S. Typical concentrations are 30-40 ppm Al, 5-7 ppm Mg, 300-400 ppm Ca, 3-5 ppm Mn, and 300-350 ppm S for FI from Thusis. Concentrations for most elements are roughly half an order of magnitude lower for FI from Schiers. The total element concentrations are lower compared with data from

  5. Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Dexin Wang

    2011-12-19

    The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer

  6. The new WHO nomenclature: lymphoid neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Leclair, Susan J; Rodak, Bernadette F

    2002-01-01

    The development of the WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms is a remarkable example of cooperation and communication between pathologists and oncologists from around the world. Joint classification committees of the major hematopathology societies will periodically review and update this classification, facilitating further progress in the understanding and treatment of hematologic malignancies.

  7. Lingonberries alter the gut microbiota and prevent low-grade inflammation in high-fat diet fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Heyman-Lindén, Lovisa; Kotowska, Dorota; Sand, Elin; Bjursell, Mikael; Plaza, Merichel; Turner, Charlotta; Holm, Cecilia; Fåk, Frida; Berger, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background The gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of obesity and obesity-associated impairments such as low-grade inflammation. Lingonberries have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity and low-grade inflammation. However, it is not known whether the effect of lingonberry supplementation is related to modifications of the gut microbiota. The aim of the present study was to describe whether consumption of different batches of lingonberries alters the composition of the gut microbiota, which could be relevant for the protective effect against high fat (HF)-induced metabolic alterations. Methods Three groups of C57BL/6J mice were fed HF diet with or without a supplement of 20% lingonberries from two different batches (Lingon1 and Lingon2) during 11 weeks. The composition and functionality of the cecal microbiota were assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing and PICRUSt. In addition, parameters related to obesity, insulin sensitivity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and gut barrier function were examined. Results HF-induced obesity was only prevented by the Lingon1 diet, whereas both batches of lingonberries reduced plasma levels of markers of inflammation and endotoxemia (SAA and LBP) as well as modified the composition and functionality of the gut microbiota, compared to the HF control group. The relative abundance of Akkermansia and Faecalibacterium, genera associated with healthy gut mucosa and anti-inflammation, was found to increase in response to lingonberry intake. Conclusions Our results show that supplementation with lingonberries to an HF diet prevents low-grade inflammation and is associated with significant changes of the microbiota composition. Notably, the anti-inflammatory properties of lingonberries seem to be independent of effects on body weight gain. PMID:27125264

  8. Differential in vivo activation of monocyte subsets during low-grade inflammation through experimental endotoxemia in humans

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, B.; Hohensinner, P. J.; Krychtiuk, K. A.; Matzneller, P.; Koller, L.; Brekalo, M.; Maurer, G.; Huber, K.; Zeitlinger, M.; Jilma, B.; Wojta, J.; Speidl, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    Human monocytes are a heterogeneous cell population, which can be divided into a classical (CD14++CD16−), a non-classical (CD14+CD16+), and an intermediate (CD14++CD16+) subset. We hypothesized that low-grade inflammation may differentially affect monocyte subsets. We used a human lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion model to mimic low-grade inflammation to identify, which monocyte subsets are preferentially activated under these conditions. Monocyte subsets were identified by staining for CD14 and CD16, activation status of monocytes was analyzed by staining for CD11b and a novel in situ mRNA hybridization approach to detect IL-6 and IL-8 specific mRNA at the single-cell level by flow cytometry. After LPS challenge, cell numbers of monocyte subsets dropped after 2 h with cell numbers recovering after 6 h. Distribution of monocyte subsets was skewed dramatically towards the intermediate subset after 24 h. Furthermore, intermediate monocytes displayed the largest increase of CD11b expression after 2 h. Finally, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA levels increased in intermediate and non-classical monocytes after 6 h whereas these mRNA levels in classical monocytes changed only marginally. In conclusion, our data indicates that the main responding subset of monocytes to standardized low-grade inflammation induced by LPS in humans is the CD14++CD16+ intermediate subset followed by the CD14+CD16+ non-classical monocyte subset. Circulating classical monocytes showed comparably less reaction to LPS challenge in vivo. PMID:27444882

  9. Surveillance of IBD Using High Definition Colonscopes Does Not Miss Adenocarcinoma in Patients with Low Grade Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Noa Krugliak; Colman, Ruben J.; Rodriquez, Dylan; Hirsch, Ayal; Cohen, Russell D.; Hanauer, Stephen B.; Hart, John; Rubin, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Historically, limits to the ability to detect dysplasia in chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated colitis resulted in the recommendation that neoplasia of any grade be treated by proctocolectomy. We hypothesized that with improved optical technologies, most neoplasia in colitis is now detectable and reassessed the prevalence of colitis-associated neoplasia. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all our patients with IBD who had pathologist-confirmed neoplasia on surveillance colonoscopy and underwent a subsequent colectomy. We included patients whose index lesions were found between 2005 and 2014 (the dates of our high definition equipment) and recorded the location and grade of these lesions. These findings were compared to the surgical specimens, and in patients with partial colectomies, included follow-up. Results Thirty-six patients with IBD (19 [53%] ulcerative colitis, 17 [47%] Crohn’s disease) were found to have neoplastic lesions on surveillance colonoscopy and underwent a subsequent partial colectomy or total proctocolectomy. Fourty-four index lesions were identified by colonoscopy (29 white light and 7 methylene blue chromoscopy): 30 low-grade dysplasia, 6 high-grade dysplasia, and 8 adenocarcinoma. None of the low-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma index lesions were associated with synchronous carcinoma at colectomy. One of the patients with high-grade dysplasia had adenocarcinoma of the appendix. Conclusions In this experience with high definition colonoscopes in chronic colitis, no synchronous adenocarcinomas were found when colectomy was performed for low grade dysplasia and only 1 adenocarcinoma in the appendix was found in the setting of high-grade dysplasia. These findings suggest that active surveillance or subtotal colectomy, may be safe options for patients with IBD and some grades of neoplasia. PMID:26658214

  10. Differential in vivo activation of monocyte subsets during low-grade inflammation through experimental endotoxemia in humans.

    PubMed

    Thaler, B; Hohensinner, P J; Krychtiuk, K A; Matzneller, P; Koller, L; Brekalo, M; Maurer, G; Huber, K; Zeitlinger, M; Jilma, B; Wojta, J; Speidl, W S

    2016-01-01

    Human monocytes are a heterogeneous cell population, which can be divided into a classical (CD14++CD16-), a non-classical (CD14+CD16+), and an intermediate (CD14++CD16+) subset. We hypothesized that low-grade inflammation may differentially affect monocyte subsets. We used a human lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion model to mimic low-grade inflammation to identify, which monocyte subsets are preferentially activated under these conditions. Monocyte subsets were identified by staining for CD14 and CD16, activation status of monocytes was analyzed by staining for CD11b and a novel in situ mRNA hybridization approach to detect IL-6 and IL-8 specific mRNA at the single-cell level by flow cytometry. After LPS challenge, cell numbers of monocyte subsets dropped after 2 h with cell numbers recovering after 6 h. Distribution of monocyte subsets was skewed dramatically towards the intermediate subset after 24 h. Furthermore, intermediate monocytes displayed the largest increase of CD11b expression after 2 h. Finally, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA levels increased in intermediate and non-classical monocytes after 6 h whereas these mRNA levels in classical monocytes changed only marginally. In conclusion, our data indicates that the main responding subset of monocytes to standardized low-grade inflammation induced by LPS in humans is the CD14++CD16+ intermediate subset followed by the CD14+CD16+ non-classical monocyte subset. Circulating classical monocytes showed comparably less reaction to LPS challenge in vivo. PMID:27444882

  11. Separation and Extraction of Bismuth and Manganese from Roasted Low-Grade Bismuthinite and Pyrolusite: Thermodynamic Analysis and Sulfur Fixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Jing; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Chuan-Fu; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Xia, Chu-Ping

    2015-05-01

    A new environmentally friendly technology with higher recovery of bismuth is proposed to extract bismuth from low-grade bismuthinite and co-production MnSO4 from low-grade pyrolusite. The effects of simultaneous roasting process parameters on the sulfur-fixing rate and MnSO4 formation rate are investigated. Based on the Pourbaix diagram of metal-sulfur-oxygen system, the behavior of bismuth, manganese, and associated metal elements such ferrous, copper, lead, and sulfur in the bismuthinite and pyrolusite during roasting process is analyzed. The experimental results show that Bi in the ores can be converted into bismuth oxide or oxygen bismuth sulfate, and most of Mn in the ores can react with SO2 from bismuthinite to form MnSO4, which agree with thermodynamic analysis. A maximum of sulfur-fixing rate of 98.14% and MnSO4 formation rate of 70.2% are obtained under the conditions of 1.4 for the molar ratio of MnO2 to total sulfur in mixing ores of bismuthinite and pyrolusite ( n(MnO2)/ n(S)), 923 K for the roasting temperature, 2 h for roasting time, 140 L/h for air rate, and less than 74 μm for particle size. The ultimate recovery rate of bismuth reaches 96.25% by selective leaching of the roasted product, purification of leaching solution, and hydrolysis, which is higher than the current applied technology for the low-grade bismuthinite.

  12. Dysfunctional adipose tissue and low-grade inflammation in the management of the metabolic syndrome: current practices and future advances

    PubMed Central

    van Greevenbroek, Marleen M. J.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Stehouwer, Coen D.A.

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing worldwide obesity epidemic makes the metabolic syndrome an increasingly important entity. In this review, we provide a short background on the metabolic syndrome, we discuss recent developments in the three main options that have been identified for intervention in the metabolic syndrome, i.e. lifestyle and surgical and pharmacological interventions, and we focus on different views in the literature and also include our own viewpoints on the metabolic syndrome. In addition, we discuss some emerging treatment targets for adipose tissue dysfunction and low-grade inflammation, i.e. activation of the inflammasome and the complement system, and consider some selected opportunities for intervention in these processes. PMID:27803798

  13. Critical evaluation of spiking of low-grade ore samples in activation analysis for gold and uranium.

    PubMed

    de Lange, P W; de Wet, W J; Venter, J H

    1968-12-01

    In applying non-destructive neutron-activation analysis for gold and uranium in spiked low-grade ore samples, the following extrapolated unspiked concentrations were measured: 0.27(8) +/- 0.01(5) ppm gold (chemical assay: 0.20(2) +/- 0.02(0) ppm gold); 25.1 +/- 1.1 ppm uranium (chemical assay value: 19.5 +/-2.0 ppm uranium). Different approaches to the fitting of results, and the influence of spiking non-uniformity, are discussed.

  14. Significantly greater expression of ER, PR, and ECAD in advanced-stage low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma as revealed by immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Lu, Karen H; Malpica, Anais; Bodurka, Diane C; Shvartsman, Hyun S; Schmandt, Rosemarie E; Thornton, Angela D; Deavers, Michael T; Silva, Elvio G; Gershenson, David M

    2007-10-01

    A 2-tier system that classifies ovarian serous carcinoma (OSC) as low grade or high grade is gaining acceptance. Women with low-grade OSC generally have higher 5-year survival rates than do women with high-grade OSC. We examined the expression of various markers to further understand the molecular differences between low-grade and high-grade OSCs: the potential therapeutic targets or prognostic markers Her-2/neu, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor (PR); the metastasis-associated markers cyclin D1 (BCL1), E-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, and MMP-9; and the cell proliferation-associated markers BCL1, Ki-67 antigen (Ki-67), and p53. For this immunohistochemical analysis, we used paraffin-embedded specimens from 47 patients with advanced-stage low-grade OSC and from 49 patients with advanced-stage high-grade OSC. Our results showed that low-grade tumors expressed significantly higher levels of estrogen receptor, PR, and E-cadherin than did high-grade tumors, suggesting the involvement of gonadal steroid hormones, especially in the pathogenesis of low-grade OSC; the PR positivity was also observed in the stromal component of these low-grade tumors. On the other hand, high-grade tumors trended toward increased expression of MMP-9, BCL1, p53, and Ki-67, and robust MMP-9 positivity was observed in the stromal component of these high-grade tumors. These differences may lead to the development of different therapeutic strategies for women with either the low-grade or the high-grade form of OSC.

  15. Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Cancer Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Ino, Yoshinori; Yamazaki-Itoh, Rie

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are induced postnatally in non-lymphoid tissues such as those affected by chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, and chronic allograft rejection, and also in cancer tissues. TLOs are thought to provide important lymphocytic functional environments for both cellular and humoral immunity, similar to lymph nodes or Peyer’s patches. TLOs have a structure similar to that of lymph nodes or Peyer’s patches, including T cell zones, B cell follicles, and high endothelial venules (HEV) without encapsulation. Here, we review recent advances in our knowledge of TLOs in human solid cancers, including their location, structure, methods of evaluation, and clinicopathological impact. We also discuss the formation and/or maintenance of TLOs in cancer tissues in association with the tumor immune microenvironment, cancer invasion, and the tissue structure of the cancer stroma. PMID:27446075

  16. Innate lymphoid cells in inflammation and immunity.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Andrew N J; Spits, Hergen; Eberl, Gerard

    2014-09-18

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were first described as playing important roles in the development of lymphoid tissues and more recently in the initiation of inflammation at barrier surfaces in response to infection or tissue damage. It has now become apparent that ILCs play more complex roles throughout the duration of immune responses, participating in the transition from innate to adaptive immunity and contributing to chronic inflammation. The proximity of ILCs to epithelial surfaces and their constitutive strategic positioning in other tissues throughout the body ensures that, in spite of their rarity, ILCs are able to regulate immune homeostasis effectively. Dysregulation of ILC function might result in chronic pathologies such as allergies, autoimmunity, and inflammation. A new role for ILCs in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis has started to emerge, underlining their importance in fundamental physiological processes beyond infection and immunity.

  17. STUDIES ON TRANSMISSIBLE LYMPHOID LEUCEMIA OF MICE.

    PubMed

    Furth, J; Strumia, M

    1931-04-30

    Lymphoid leucemia of the mouse is readily transmitted by intravenous inoculations. The majority of the mice inoculated successfully develop leucemic, a smaller number of them, aleucemic lymphadenosis. The data presented favor the view that leucemic and aleucemic lymphadenosis are essentially the same condition. Leucemia produced by transmission is preceded by an aleucemic stage, in which the lymph nodes and the spleen are uniformly enlarged, and the white blood count and the percentage of lymphocytes are within the normal range but immature lymphocytes are numerous in the circulating blood. Young as well as old mice may develop leucemia if leucotic material enters their circulation. Studies of transmissible leucemia favor the view that leucemia of mammals is a neoplastic disease. The basic problem of leucemia would seem to be determination of the factors that bring about a malignant transformation of lymphoid cells.

  18. Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Cancer Tissues.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Ino, Yoshinori; Yamazaki-Itoh, Rie

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are induced postnatally in non-lymphoid tissues such as those affected by chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, and chronic allograft rejection, and also in cancer tissues. TLOs are thought to provide important lymphocytic functional environments for both cellular and humoral immunity, similar to lymph nodes or Peyer's patches. TLOs have a structure similar to that of lymph nodes or Peyer's patches, including T cell zones, B cell follicles, and high endothelial venules (HEV) without encapsulation. Here, we review recent advances in our knowledge of TLOs in human solid cancers, including their location, structure, methods of evaluation, and clinicopathological impact. We also discuss the formation and/or maintenance of TLOs in cancer tissues in association with the tumor immune microenvironment, cancer invasion, and the tissue structure of the cancer stroma. PMID:27446075

  19. Benign lymphoid hyperplasia of the palate.

    PubMed

    Bradley, G; Main, J H; Birt, B D; From, L

    1987-01-01

    Seven patients with benign lymphoid hyperplasia of the palate are reported. Clinically, these lesions presented as painless non-ulcerated masses that were unilateral in 6 of the cases and bilateral in one. Microscopically, the lesions were characterized by a mixed lymphoid infiltrate, germinal centres and vascular channels with hyperplasia of endothelial cells. The patients were followed for 3-10 years subsequent to diagnosis. One patient had 2 sequential lesions on opposite sides of the palate. Another patient with lesions of both submandibular salivary glands in addition to the palate developed rheumatoid arthritis, xerophthalmia and serologic changes consistent with systemic autoimmune disease. To date, none of the patients developed signs and symptoms of lymphoma or leukemia. The etiology of these lesions is unknown. Their distinction from lymphoma of the palate, as well as their possible relationship to the benign lymphoepithelial lesion of palatal mucous glands, is discussed.

  20. Can proliferation biomarkers reliably predict recurrence in World Health Organization 2003 defined endometrial stromal sarcoma, low grade?

    PubMed

    Feng, Weiwei; Malpica, Anais; Skaland, Ivar; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Robboy, Stanley J; Dalen, Ingvild; Hua, Keqin; Zhou, Xianrong; Baak, Jan P A

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 1500-3000 invasive Endometrial Stromal Sarcomas (ESS) cases annually occur worldwide. Before 2003, ESS was divided as low and high grade ESS based on mitotic activity. In 2003 the WHO changed the names, excluded mitoses and made nuclear atypia and necrosis the essential diagnostic criteria to distinguish ESS, Low Grade (ESS-LG, recurrence-free survival >90%) and Undifferentiated Endometrial Sarcoma (UES, poor prognosis). We have evaluated in WHO2003 defined ESS-LG whether proliferation biomarkers predict recurrence. Using survival analysis, the prognostic value of classical mitosis counts (Mitotic Activity Index, MAI) in haematoxyllin-eosin (H&E) sections, and immunohistochemical proliferation biomarkers (Ki-67 and PhosphoHistone-3 (PPH3)) were examined in 24 invasive endometrial stromal sarcomas. Three of 24 (12.5%) ESS-LG recurred. The MAI, PPH3 and Ki-67 were all prognostic (P = 0.001, 0.002 and 0.03). MAI values were >3 in the recurrent cases, but never exceeded 10 (the classical threshold for low and high grade). Non-recurrent cases had 0 ≤ MAI ≤ 3. PPH3 and Ki67 counts can be easier to perform than MAI and therefore helpful in the diagnosis of ESS, Low Grade. In conclusion, in this small study of WHO2003 defined ESS-LG, high levels of proliferation as measured by MAI, PPH3 and Ki-67 are predictive of recurrence. Larger studies are required to confirm these results.

  1. Endocrine functions in long-term survivors of low-grade supratentorial glioma treated with radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Taphoorn, M J; Heimans, J J; van der Veen, E A; Karim, A B

    1995-01-01

    Endocrine functions were studied in long-term survivors of low-grade glioma treated with radiotherapy. Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction has recently been reported to occur more frequently than generally considered. Because endocrine dysfunction is a treatable condition, careful testing and, if necessary, supplementary treatment may enhance quality of life. Thirteen adult patients treated with radiotherapy because of supratentorial low-grade glioma at least one year before (range 1-11.5 years) were tested. Focal brain radiotherapy (45-61.2 Gy), with calculated dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary area ranging from 0 to 50 Gy (mean 36.1) had been applied to all patients. Serum levels of pituitary hormones, cortisol and thyroid hormone were determined before and after stimulation with hypothalamic hormones. In 10 out of 13 patients one or more hormonal values were out of the normal range. Most disturbances were demonstrated in the pituitary-adrenal axis (8 patients) and the GH-axis (4 patients). None of the patients had clinical symptomatology of adrenal, thyroid or gonadal dysfunction. Careful endocrine testing after cranial radiotherapy may reveal (subclinical) hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction in long-term survivors. Follow-up testing in these patients seems warranted.

  2. Harvesting low-grade heat energy using thermo-osmotic vapour transport through nanoporous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Anthony P.; Yip, Ngai Yin; Lin, Shihong; Lee, Jongho; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-07-01

    Low-grade heat from sources below 100 ∘C offers a vast quantity of energy. The ability to extract this energy, however, is limited with existing technologies as they are not well-suited to harvest energy from sources with variable heat output or with a small temperature difference between the source and the environment. Here, we present a process for extracting energy from low-grade heat sources utilizing hydrophobic, nanoporous membranes that trap air within their pores when submerged in a liquid. By driving a thermo-osmotic vapour flux across the membrane from a hot reservoir to a pressurized cold reservoir, heat energy can be converted to mechanical work. We demonstrate operation of air-trapping membranes under hydraulic pressures up to 13 bar, show that power densities as high as 3.53 ± 0.29 W m‑2 are achievable with a 60 ∘C heat source and a 20 ∘C heat sink, and estimate the efficiency of a full-scale system. The results demonstrate a promising process to harvest energy from low-temperature differences (<40 ∘C) and fluctuating heat sources.

  3. Indications for Treatment: Is Observation or Chemotherapy Alone a Reasonable Approach in the Management of Low-Grade Gliomas?

    PubMed

    Schaff, Lauren R; Lassman, Andrew B

    2015-07-01

    The treatment of newly diagnosed low-grade gliomas remains controversial. Recently published results from the long-term follow-up of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trial 9802 demonstrated medically meaningful and statistically significant survival prolongation by adding chemotherapy with procarbazine, lomustine (CCNU), and vincristine after radiotherapy (RT) vs RT alone for "high"-risk patients (median 13.3 vs 7.8 years, hazard ratio = 0.59, P = 0.03). However, in the 17 years since that trial was launched, there have been advances in the understanding of low-grade gliomas biology and patient heterogeneity, an increased recognition of late neurocognitive injury from early RT, and the emergence of temozolomide as an alternative chemotherapy to procarbazine, lomustine (CCNU), and vincristine. These and other changes in the treatment landscape make the applicability of results from RTOG 9802 to all patients less clear. Moreover, in some patients, especially those at the lowest risk for early disease progression, deferred RT in favor of active surveillance or chemotherapy alone may remain a reasonable treatment approach. PMID:26050591

  4. Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Aspect of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation (Pathophysiological ParaInflammation)

    PubMed Central

    Nita, Małgorzata; Ascaso, Francisco J.; Huerva, Valentín

    2014-01-01

    The products of oxidative stress trigger chronic low-grade inflammation (pathophysiological parainflammation) process in AMD patients. In early AMD, soft drusen contain many mediators of chronic low-grade inflammation such as C-reactive protein, adducts of the carboxyethylpyrrole protein, immunoglobulins, and acute phase molecules, as well as the complement-related proteins C3a, C5a, C5, C5b-9, CFH, CD35, and CD46. The complement system, mainly alternative pathway, mediates chronic autologous pathophysiological parainflammation in dry and exudative AMD, especially in the Y402H gene polymorphism, which causes hypofunction/lack of the protective complement factor H (CFH) and facilitates chronic inflammation mediated by C-reactive protein (CRP). Microglial activation induces photoreceptor cells injury and leads to the development of dry AMD. Many autoantibodies (antibodies against alpha beta crystallin, alpha-actinin, amyloid, C1q, chondroitin, collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, elastin, fibronectin, heparan sulfate, histone H2A, histone H2B, hyaluronic acid, laminin, proteoglycan, vimentin, vitronectin, and aldolase C and pyruvate kinase M2) and overexpression of Fcc receptors play role in immune-mediated inflammation in AMD patients and in animal model. Macrophages infiltration of retinal/choroidal interface acts as protective factor in early AMD (M2 phenotype macrophages); however it acts as proinflammatory and proangiogenic factor in advanced AMD (M1 and M2 phenotype macrophages). PMID:25214719

  5. Evaluation of an on-line ash analysis system for low-grade and inhomogeneous Greek lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinos V. Kavouridis; Francis F. Pavloudakis

    2007-08-15

    The possibility of using commercial on-line analysis systems for monitoring the ash content of low-grade lignites was investigated by carrying out numerous bench- and pilot-scale trials in the mines of Public Power Corporation SA, Greece. Pilot-scale trials were based on a dual-energy {gamma}-ray transmission analyzer, which was installed on the conveyor belt that transports lignite from the pit to the bunker of Kardia mine, Ptolemais. According to the obtained results, the accuracy of the on-line measurements was not adequate and did not allow lignite quality monitoring in real time. The deterioration of the on-line measurements' accuracy, compared to previous applications in other mining sites, was related to the intense variation of the lignite ash content and ash composition, which distorted the calibration of the analyzer. The latter is based on certain assumptions regarding the average atomic number of the organic and mineral matter contained in the lignite. Further experimental work is needed to investigate solutions for successful implementation of this method to low-grade lignites that exhibit large variation in ash content and composition. 17 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Effects of Sodium Citrate on the Ammonium Sulfate Recycled Leaching of Low-Grade Zinc Oxide Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Li, Shi-wei; Zhang, Li-bo; Peng, Jin-hui; Ma, Ai-yuan; Wang, Bao-bao

    2016-03-01

    The effects of sodium citrate on ammonium sulfate recycled leaching of low-grade zinc oxide ores were studied. By applying various kinds of detection and analysis techniques such as chemical composition analysis, chemical phase method, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrum (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transforming infrared spectrum (FT-IR), zinc raw ore, its leaching slag and the functional mechanism of sodium citrate were investigated. Based on a comprehensive analysis, it can be concluded that in contrast to hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O), amorphous smithsonite (ZnCO3) and zinc silicate (Zn2SiO4) prove to be refractory phases under ammonium sulfate leaching, while sodium citrate has a better chelating action with the refractory phases, resulting in a higher zinc leaching rate. Under conditions of [NH3]/[NH3]T molar ratio being 0.5, [NH3]T being 7.5 mol/L, [Na3C6H5O7] being 0.2 mol/L, S/L ratio being 1:5, temperature being 303 K, holding time being 1 h in each of the two stages, and stirring rate being 300 rpm, the leaching rate of zinc reached 93.4%. In this article, sulfate ammonium recycled technology also reveals its unique advantage in processing low-grade zinc oxide ores accompanied by high silicon and high alkaline gangue.

  7. Noradrenaline and cortisol changes in response to low-grade cognitive stress differ in migraine and tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Leistad, Rune Bang; Stovner, Lars Jacob; White, Linda R; Nilsen, Kristian B; Westgaard, Rolf H; Sand, Trond

    2007-06-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the relationship between indicators of sympathoneural, sympathomedullar and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) activity and stress-induced head and shoulder-neck pain in patients with migraine or tension-type headache (TTH). We measured noradrenaline, adrenaline and cortisol levels before and after low-grade cognitive stress in 21 migraineurs, 16 TTH patients and 34 controls. The stressor lasted for 60 min and was followed by 30 min of relaxation. Migraine patients had lower noradrenaline levels in blood platelets compared to controls. Pain responses correlated negatively with noradrenaline levels, and pain recovery correlated negatively with the cortisol change in migraineurs. TTH patients maintained cortisol secretion during the cognitive stress as opposed to the normal circadian decrease seen in controls and migraineurs. There may therefore be abnormal activation of the HPA axis in patients with TTH when coping with mental stress, but no association was found between pain and cortisol. A relationship between HPA activity and stress in TTH patients has to our knowledge not been reported before. In migraine, on the other hand, both sympathoneural activation and HPA activation seem to be linked to stress-induced muscle pain and recovery from pain respectively. The present study suggests that migraineurs and TTH patients cope differently with low-grade cognitive stress.

  8. Cognitive function after radiotherapy for supratentorial low-grade glioma: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Laack, Nadia N.; Brown, Paul D. . E-mail: brown.paul@mayo.edu; Ivnik, Robert J.; Furth, Alfred F. M.S.; Ballman, Karla V.; Hammack, Julie E.; Arusell, Robert M.; Shaw, Edward G.; Buckner, Jan C.

    2005-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of cranial radiotherapy (RT) on cognitive function in patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Twenty adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma were treated with 50.4 Gy (10 patients) or 64.8 Gy (10 patients) localized RT. The patients then were evaluated with an extensive battery of psychometric tests at baseline (before RT) and at approximately 18-month intervals for as long as 5 years after completing RT. To allow patients to serve as their own controls, cognitive performance was evaluated as change in scores over time. All patients underwent at least two evaluations. Results: Baseline test scores were below average compared with age-specific norms. At the second evaluation, the groups' mean test scores were higher than their initial performances on all psychometric measures, although the improvement was not statistically significant. No changes in cognitive performance were seen during the evaluation period when test scores were analyzed by age, treatment, tumor location, tumor type, or extent of resection. Conclusions: Cognitive function was stable after RT in these patients evaluated prospectively during 3 years of follow-up. Slight improvements in some cognitive areas are consistent with practice effects attributable to increased familiarity with test procedures and content.

  9. Lymphoid proliferations of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Harris, N L

    1999-01-01

    Lymphoid proliferations of the salivary glands can be either reactive or neoplastic. Reactive lesions include cystic lymphoid hyperplasia--a multicystic ductal proliferation with reactive germinal centers, seen most often in intravenous drug users infected with HIV--and the lymphoepithelial sialadenitis of Sjögren's syndrome (so-called benign lymphoepithelial lesion [BLEL] or myoepithelial sialadenitis [MESA]). This lymphoid proliferation involves infiltration of ductal epithelium by lymphocytes of marginal zone or monocytoid B-cell type, forming lymphoepithelial lesions (epimyoepithelial islands). Patients with lymphoepithelial sialadenitis have a 44-fold increased risk of developing salivary gland or extrasalivary lymphoma, of which 80% are marginal zone/MALT type. Broad strands of marginal zone or monocytoid B cells around lymphoepithelial lesions and monotypic immunoglobulin detection by immunohistochemistry are considered diagnostic of MALT lymphoma. B-cell clones are detected in over 50% of cases of MESA by molecular genetic methods, but this does not correlate with overlymphoma. "Nodal" type B-cell lymphomas of the salivary glands are either follicular lymphoma (35%), which may arise in intrasalivary gland lymph nodes and behave similarly to follicular lymphoma in other sites, or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (30%), which may arise de novo or secondary to either MALT or follicular lymphomas.

  10. Key parameters for low-grade fine-grained iron ore valorization: lower environmental impact through reduced waste.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christiane; Orberger, Beate; Tudryn, Alina; Baptiste, Benoît; Wirth, Richard; Morgan, Rachel; Miska, Serge

    2016-04-01

    In low-grade banded iron formations (BIFs), a large part of the iron is related to micro- and nano- metric iron-bearing inclusions within quartz and/or carbonates, mainly dolomite (~ 20 to 50 μm). Low-grade fine grained iron ore present two types of environmental risks: a) they are often stocked as tailings. For example, the recent disaster (5th of November 2015) in the Minas Gerais district, Brazil, was caused by the collapse of the Fundão tailings dam at an open cast mine; b) during beneficiation significant amounts of dust are generated also leading to metal loss. A laminated BIF studied from a drill core at Àguas Claras Mine, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil, contains 26.71 wt. % total iron, 0.2 wt. % SiO2, 0.32 wt.% MnO, 15.46 wt. % MgO, 22.32 wt.% CaO, 0.09 wt. % P2O5, < 0.05 wt. % Al2O3, 0.15 wt. % H2O and 34.08 wt. % CO2. Environmental hazardous elements are present as traces (As: 3-20 ppm, Cd: 0-0.7 ppm; Cr: 0.05-60 ppm, Pb: up to 55 ppm; U: up to 8 ppm). Dolomite and quartz bands alternate with hematite bands. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and FIB-TEM analyses reveal that the micro- and nano- metric inclusions in dolomite are hematite and minor goethite, partly occurring as clusters in voids. Curie Balance analyses were carried out at different heating steps and temperatures on whole rock samples and a synthetic mix of decarbonated sample and pure dolomite. X-ray diffraction on the products of the heating experiments shows that that hematite is stable and new phases: magnesioferrite (MgFe2O4), lime (CaO), periclase (MgO), portlandite (Ca(OH)2) and srebrodoskite (Ca2Fe2O5) were formed between 680 °C and 920 °C. These findings promote the economic use of low grade ores rather than their stockpiling as tailings. The presence of OH-bearing goethite reduces the sintering temperature. After having separated coarse hematite from barren dolomite and quartz, a low temperature sintering of the inclusion-bearing dolomite/quartz leads to transformations

  11. Clinical Outcomes and Late Endocrine, Neurocognitive, and Visual Profiles of Proton Radiation for Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberger, Benjamin A.; Pulsifer, Margaret B.; Ebb, David H.; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Jones, Robin M.; Butler, William E.; Huang, Mary S.; Marcus, Karen J.; Oberg, Jennifer A.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.

    2014-08-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): Primary low-grade gliomas are common brain tumors of childhood, many of which require radiation therapy (RT) as definitive treatment. Increased conformality of RT could decrease the incidence and severity of late effects. We report our experience with 32 pediatric patients treated with proton RT. Methods and Materials: Thirty-two pediatric patients with low-grade gliomas of the brain or spinal cord were treated with proton RT from 1995 to 2007. Sixteen patients received at least 1 regimen of chemotherapy before definitive RT. The median radiation dose was 52.2 Gy{sub RBE} (48.6-54 Gy{sub RBE}). Results: The median age at treatment was 11.0 years (range, 2.7-21.5 years), with a median follow-up time of 7.6 years (range, 3.2-18.2 years). The 6-year and 8-year rates of progression-free survival were 89.7% and 82.8%, respectively, with an 8-year overall survival of 100%. For the subset of patients who received serial neurocognitive testing, there were no significant declines in Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=.80), with a median neurocognitive testing interval of 4.5 years (range, 1.2-8.1 years) from baseline to follow-up, but subgroup analysis indicated some significant decline in neurocognitive outcomes for young children (<7 years) and those with significant dose to the left temporal lobe/hippocampus. The incidence of endocrinopathy correlated with a mean dose of ≥40 Gy{sub RBE} to the hypothalamus, pituitary, or optic chiasm. Stabilization or improvement of visual acuity was achieved in 83.3% of patients at risk for radiation-induced injury to the optic pathways. Conclusions: This report of late effects in children with low-grade gliomas after proton RT is encouraging. Proton RT appears to be associated with good clinical outcome, especially when the tumor location allows for increased sparing of the left temporal lobe, hippocampus, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

  12. The optimisation of stope leaching: a laboratory investigation into the extraction of uranium from a low-grade ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penman, Kristina Mary

    Nuclear power continues to make an important contribution to energy production in many countries around the world. Uranium mining is the first step in the production cycle of nuclear power. In order to enable low-grade uranium ore bodies to be developed as economically viable resources, low input mining techniques, such as stope leaching, are gaining interest. This thesis presents the results of research undertaken into the optimisation of stope leaching from a low grade uranium ore. Stope leaching was simulated in the laboratory by submitting crushed ore samples to successive saturated (flooding) and unsaturated (rest period) cycles. Experiments were carried out over a 52 week period using seven different protocols. The effects of rest period and lixiviant composition on uranium extraction rates were investigated. Rest period was varied by flooding at weekly, twice weekly, 2 weekly and 4 weekly intervals.. Four different lixiviants were investigated, tap water, Fe(III) sulfate, a nutrient solution and recycled leachate. Maximum uranium extractions over 52 weeks were: 57.7% for Fe(III) sulfate lixiviant with a 2 week rest period and 57.4% for tap water with a 4 week rest period. The introduction (via the lixiviant) or development (via oxidation of accessory pyrite) of low pH and Fe(III) and sulfate-rich interstitial water is thought to have provided conditions conducive to uranium oxidation and dissolution. The 4 week rest period is considered to have provided sufficient time for microbially assisted pyrite oxidation to develop similar conditions in the interstitial water as were provided by the addition of a Fe(III) sulfate lixiviant. All other protocols lead to less than 35% uranium extraction. Shorter rest periods did not allow time for sufficient pyrite oxidation to occur and the addition of a nutrient solution buffered pH which did not favour uranium dissolution. These findings have significant implications for low-grade uranium recovery by demonstrating that

  13. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Gondi, Vinai; Hermann, Bruce P.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients

  14. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Gondi, Vinai; Hermann, Bruce P.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients

  15. Influence of microwaves on the leaching kinetics of uraninite from a low grade ore in dilute sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Madakkaruppan, V; Pius, Anitha; T, Sreenivas; Giri, Nitai; Sarbajna, Chanchal

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a study on microwave assisted leaching of uranium from a low-grade ore of Indian origin. The host rock for uranium mineralization is chlorite-biotite-muscovite-quartzo-feldspathic schist. The dominant presence of siliceous minerals determined leaching of uranium values in sulfuric acid medium under oxidizing conditions. Process parametric studies like the effect of sulfuric acid concentration (0.12-0.50M), redox potential (400-500mV), particle size (600-300μm) and temperature (35°-95°C) indicated that microwave assisted leaching is more efficient in terms of overall uranium dissolution, kinetics and provide relatively less impurities (Si, Al, Mg and Fe) in the leach liquor compared to conventional conductive leaching. The kinetics of leaching followed shrinking core model with product layer diffusion as controlling mechanism. PMID:27045621

  16. Influence of microwaves on the leaching kinetics of uraninite from a low grade ore in dilute sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Madakkaruppan, V; Pius, Anitha; T, Sreenivas; Giri, Nitai; Sarbajna, Chanchal

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a study on microwave assisted leaching of uranium from a low-grade ore of Indian origin. The host rock for uranium mineralization is chlorite-biotite-muscovite-quartzo-feldspathic schist. The dominant presence of siliceous minerals determined leaching of uranium values in sulfuric acid medium under oxidizing conditions. Process parametric studies like the effect of sulfuric acid concentration (0.12-0.50M), redox potential (400-500mV), particle size (600-300μm) and temperature (35°-95°C) indicated that microwave assisted leaching is more efficient in terms of overall uranium dissolution, kinetics and provide relatively less impurities (Si, Al, Mg and Fe) in the leach liquor compared to conventional conductive leaching. The kinetics of leaching followed shrinking core model with product layer diffusion as controlling mechanism.

  17. Combined lowering of low grade systemic inflammation and insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome patients treated with Ginkgo biloba.

    PubMed

    Siegel, G; Ermilov, E; Knes, O; Rodríguez, M

    2014-12-01

    In a clinical pilot study with eleven metabolic syndrome patients, a simultaneous decrease in hs-CRP from 8.85 ± 4.09 to 4.92 ± 2.51 mg/L (-44.4%) (p < 0.0436) and HOMA-IR from 3.07 ± 0.63 to 2.60 ± 0.51 mU/L × mg/dL (-15.3%) (p < 0.0120) as well as a beneficial change of arteriosclerotic, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers were detected after 2-month treatment with Ginkgo biloba. Furthermore, both IL-6 (-12.9%, p < 0.0407) and nanoplaque formation (-14.3%, p < 0.0077) were additionally reduced. According to a large clinical trial elucidating the importance of insulin resistance and low-grade systemic inflammation for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality risk, these data might indicate a CVD/total mortality risk reduction.

  18. Low-grade inflammation in chronic kidney disease patients before the start of renal replacement therapy: sources and consequences.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, M I; Carrero, J J; Axelsson, J; Lindholm, B; Stenvinkel, P

    2007-07-01

    Low-grade inflammation is a common feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD) already before the start of renal replacement therapy, and evidence suggests that persistent inflammation may also be per se a risk factor for progression of CKD and vascular disease. Many factors, including retention of pro-inflammatory cytokines, advanced glycation end products, reactive oxygen species, autonomic dysfunctions and volume overload may contribute to inflammation when renal function declines. The aim of the present review is to summarize the causes and consequences of a chronic inflammatory state in the CKD population before start of renal replacement therapy, with special emphasis in polymorphnuclear leukocyte priming, which may be a key mediator in the induction of a vicious circle of oxidative stress and inflammation in CKD. A more thorough characterization of uremic retention solutes with regard to their specific pro- and anti-inflammatory properties is needed.

  19. Paresis of the L5 nerve root after reduction of low-grade lumbosacral dysplastic spondylolisthesis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lykissas, Marios G; Aichmair, Alexander; Widmann, Roger; Sama, Andrew A

    2014-09-01

    We present a unique case of a 16-year-old patient who underwent lumbar decompression surgery (L4-S1), low-grade spondylolisthesis reduction surgery at L5-S1, and posterior instrumented fusion from L4 to the pelvis. Neurologic monitoring did not show any sustained changes throughout the operation. The patient was awoken from endotracheal anesthesia with grade 0 muscle function of the left extensor hallucis longus and tibialis anterior muscles resulting in left-sided foot drop. At the last follow-up 12 months after surgery, the patient had partial recovery, with grade 4 muscle function of the left extensor hallucis longus and tibialis anterior muscles. We suggest that early identification with direct nerve root stimulation and wake-up test immediately after reduction of spondylolisthesis will allow prompt release of the reduction and further foramen exploration, and increase the possibility of good postoperative nerve root recovery. PMID:24887052

  20. Membrane-based osmotic heat engine with organic solvent for enhanced power generation from low-grade heat.

    PubMed

    Shaulsky, Evyatar; Boo, Chanhee; Lin, Shihong; Elimelech, Menachem

    2015-05-01

    We present a hybrid osmotic heat engine (OHE) system that uses draw solutions with an organic solvent for enhanced thermal separation efficiency. The hybrid OHE system produces sustainable energy by combining pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) as a power generation stage and membrane distillation (MD) utilizing low-grade heat as a separation stage. While previous OHE systems employed aqueous electrolyte draw solutions, using methanol as a solvent is advantageous because methanol is highly volatile and has a lower heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization than water. Hence, the thermal separation efficiency of a draw solution with methanol would be higher than that of an aqueous draw solution. In this study, we evaluated the performance of LiCl-methanol as a potential draw solution for a PRO-MD hybrid OHE system. The membrane transport properties as well as performance with LiCl-methanol draw solution were evaluated using thin-film composite (TFC) PRO membranes and compared to the results obtained with a LiCl-water draw solution. Experimental PRO methanol flux and maximum projected power density of 47.1 L m(-2) h(-1) and 72.1 W m(-2), respectively, were achieved with a 3 M LiCl-methanol draw solution. The overall efficiency of the hybrid OHE system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages under conditions with and without heat recovery. The modeling results demonstrate higher OHE energy efficiency with the LiCl-methanol draw solution compared to that with the LiCl-water draw solution under practical operating conditions (i.e., heat recovery<90%). We discuss the implications of the results for converting low-grade heat to power. PMID:25839239

  1. Long-Term Results of Brachytherapy With Temporary Iodine-125 Seeds in Children With Low-Grade Gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Neuburger, Daniela; Trippel, Michael; Ostertag, Christoph; Nikkhah, Guido

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively review the results of temporary I-125 brachytherapy in 94 children and adolescents with low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Treatment was performed in progressive tumors roughly spherical in shape with a diameter of up to 5 cm, including 79 astrocytomas, 5 oligodendrogliomas, 4 oligoastrocytomas, 1 ependymoma, and 5 other tumors. Location was suprasellar/chiasmal in 44, thalamic/basal ganglia in 18, hemispheric in 15, midbrain/pineal region in 13, and lower brainstem in 3. Initially, 8% of patients were free of symptoms, 47% were symptomatic but not disabled, and 30% were slightly, 6% moderately, and 3% severely disabled. Results: 5- and 10-year survival was 97% and 92%. The response to I-125 brachytherapy over the long term was estimated after a median observation period of 38.4 (range, 6.4-171.0) months. At that time, 4 patients were in complete, 27 in partial, and 18 in objective remission; 15 showed stable and 30 progressive tumors. Treatment results did not correlate with age, sex, histology, tumor size, location, or demarcation of the tumor. Secondary treatment became necessary in 36 patients, including 19 who underwent repeated I-125 brachytherapy. At final follow-up, the number of symptom-free patients had risen to 21%. Thirty-eight percent showed symptoms without functional impairment, 19% were slightly and 11% moderately disabled, and only 4% were severely disabled. Conclusions: Response rates similar to those of conventional radiotherapy or chemotherapy can be anticipated with I-125 brachytherapy in tumors of the appropriate size and shape. We believe it to be a useful contribution to the treatment of low-grade gliomas in children.

  2. Impact of 14-day bed rest on serum adipokines and low-grade inflammation in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Jurdana, Mihaela; Jenko-Pražnikar, Zala; Mohorko, Nina; Petelin, Ana; Jakus, Tadeja; Šimunič, Boštjan; Pišot, Rado

    2015-12-01

    Ageing and inactivity both contribute to systemic inflammation, but the effects of inactivity on inflammation in healthy elderly individuals have not been elucidated. We hypothesised that 14-day bed rest could affect the pro- and anti-inflammatory markers in young subjects differently than in older adults. A short-term 14-day horizontal bed rest study (BR14) has been used as a model of inactivity in two groups of healthy male volunteers: 7 aged 18-30 years (young) and 16 aged 55-65 years (older adults). The effects of inactivity on inflammation were compared. Key low-grade inflammation mediators, tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), visfatin, resistin, and anti-inflammatory adiponectin were measured in fasting serum samples, collected at baseline (BDC) and post BR14. Young responded to BR14 by increasing serum visfatin and resistin while older adults responded to BR14 by increasing IL-6 and TNF-α. In addition, serum adiponectin increased in all participants. Data from correlation analysis demonstrated positive association between Δ serum visfatin and Δ IL-6 in both groups, while Δ serum adiponectin was negatively associated with Δ TNF-α in young and positively associated with Δ resistin in the older adults. As little as 14 days of complete physical inactivity (BR14) negatively affected markers of low-grade inflammation in both groups, but the inflammation after BR14 was more pronounced in older adults. The effect of BR14 on IL-6 and resistin differed between young and older adults. Inflammatory responses to BR14 in older adults differed from those reported in the literature for obese or subjects in pathological states, suggesting potentially different mechanisms between inactivity- and obesity-induced inflammations.

  3. Adipose tissue hypoxia and low-grade inflammation: a possible mechanism for ethanol-related glucose intolerance?

    PubMed

    He, Zhen; Li, Min; Zheng, Dongmei; Chen, Qing; Liu, Wenwen; Feng, Li

    2015-05-14

    The exact mechanism of ethanol's effects on glucose tolerance has not been well determined. The present study focuses for the first time on hypoxia and low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue (AT). In the in vivo experiments, twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into control and ethanol feeding groups. Ethanol-treated rats received edible ethanol once a day at a total dosage of 5 g/kg per d, and the controls received distilled water. Ethanol volumes were adjusted every week. At the end of 8 weeks, we carried out an oral glucose tolerance test. Blood and AT were collected for measuring hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), GLUT1, TNF-α, IL-6, leptin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In the in vitro experiments, differentiated OP9 adipocytes were incubated with 100 mm of ethanol for 48 h; the media and cells were then collected for measuring HIF-1α, GLUT1, TNF-α and IL-6. The results showed that long-term ethanol consumption impaired glucose tolerance in rats. Ethanol consumption had little influence on body weight, but both epididymal and perirenal AT were markedly enlarged in the ethanol-treated rats as compared to the controls. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) had accumulated, and the protein levels of HIF-1α and GLUT1, the indicators of hypoxia in rat epididymal AT and OP9 adipocytes, were elevated. Secondary to the AT hypoxia, the levels of inflammation-related adipokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, leptin and VEGF, were increased. Based on these findings, we conclude that VAT hypoxia and low-grade inflammation might be a new mechanism in the treatment of ethanol-related diabetes.

  4. Factors Influencing Neurocognitive Outcomes in Young Patients With Benign and Low-Grade Brain Tumors Treated With Stereotactic Conformal Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jalali, Rakesh; Mallick, Indranil; Dutta, Debnarayan

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To present the effect of radiotherapy doses to different volumes of normal structures on neurocognitive outcomes in young patients with benign and low-grade brain tumors treated prospectively with stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-eight patients (median age, 13 years) with residual/progressive brain tumors (10 craniopharyngioma, 8 cerebellar astrocytoma, 6 optic pathway glioma and 4 cerebral low-grade glioma) were treated with SCRT to a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions over 6 weeks. Prospective neuropsychological assessments were done at baseline before RT and at subsequent follow-up examinations. The change in intelligence quotient (IQ) scores was correlated with various factors, including dose-volume to normal structures. Results: Although the overall mean full-scale IQ (FSIQ) at baseline before RT remained unchanged at 2-year follow-up after SCRT, one third of patients did show a >10% decline in FSIQ as compared with baseline. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that patients aged <15 years had a significantly higher chance of developing a >10% drop in FSIQ than older patients (53% vs. 10%, p = 0.03). Dosimetric comparison in patients showing a >10% decline vs. patients showing a <10% decline in IQ revealed that patients receiving >43.2 Gy to >13% of volume of the left temporal lobe were the ones to show a significant drop in FSIQ (p = 0.048). Radiotherapy doses to other normal structures, including supratentorial brain, right temporal lobe, and frontal lobes, did not reveal any significant correlation. Conclusion: Our prospectively collected dosimetric data show younger age and radiotherapy doses to left temporal lobe to be predictors of neurocognitive decline, and may well be used as possible dose constraints for high-precision radiotherapy planning.

  5. Membrane-Based Osmotic Heat Engine with Organic Solvent for Enhanced Power Generation from Low-Grade Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Shaulsky, E; Boo, C; Lin, SH; Elimelech, M

    2015-05-05

    We present a hybrid osmotic heat engine (OHE) system that uses draw solutions with an organic solvent for enhanced thermal separation efficiency. The hybrid OHE system produces sustainable energy by combining pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) as a power generation stage and membrane distillation (MD) utilizing low-grade heat as a separation stage. While previous OHE systems employed aqueous electrolyte draw solutions, using methanol as a solvent is advantageous because methanol is highly volatile and has a lower heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization than water. Hence, the thermal separation efficiency of a draw solution with methanol would be higher than that of an aqueous draw solution. In this study, we evaluated the performance of LiCl-methanol as a potential draw solution for a PRO-MD hybrid OHE system. The membrane transport properties as well as performance with LiCl methanol draw solution were evaluated using thin-film composite (TFC) PRO membranes and compared to the results obtained with a LiCl water draw solution. Experimental PRO methanol flux and maximum projected power density of 47.1 L m(-2) h(-1) and 72.1 W m(-2), respectively, were achieved with a 3 M LiCl-methanol draw solution. The overall efficiency of the hybrid OHE system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages under conditions with and without heat recovery. The modeling results demonstrate higher ORE energy efficiency with the LiCl methanol draw solution compared to that with the LiCl water draw solution under practical operating conditions (i.e., heat recovery <90%). We discuss the implications of the results for converting low-grade heat to power.

  6. Benign and low-grade fibroepithelial neoplasms of the breast have low recurrence rate after positive surgical margins.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Morgan L; Argani, Pedram; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley

    2016-03-01

    Breast phyllodes tumors are uncommon fibroepithelial neoplasms with a range of histologic features. Surgical excision is the primary management, but the need for excision to negative margins in benign and borderline phyllodes tumors is unclear. Here, we review the surgical management patterns and outcomes of 90 patients with benign and low-grade fibroepithelial lesions of the breast treated at our institution, including 19 borderline phyllodes tumors, 52 benign phyllodes tumors, and 19 representative neoplasms with overlapping features of fibroadenoma and benign phyllodes tumors, which were classified as 'fibroadenomas with phyllodal features'. In total, 52 (58%) had positive surgical margins on first excision, and of these 17 (33%) underwent re-excision to achieve negative margins. Residual tumor was identified in three (18%) re-excisions. Patients with fibroadenoma with phyllodal features were more likely to have a positive surgical margin than with benign phyllodes tumors or borderline phyllodes tumors (89 vs 49%, P=0.0015), and were less likely to undergo re-excision for positive margins (12 vs 43%, P=0.031). In total, there were three recurrences (3%), with one per fibroadenoma with phyllodal features, benign phyllodes tumor, and borderline phyllodes tumor. There was no statistically significant difference in recurrence rates between patients with positive or negative margins, or between patients with positive margin with or without re-excision. The extent of the positive margin did not predict recurrence. In conclusion, the recurrence rate of benign and low-grade fibroepithelial lesions is low and not associated with the original margin status. Patients with fibroadenomas with phyllodal features, benign phyllodes tumors, or selected borderline phyllodes tumors and positive margins on initial excision may be managed conservatively, with close follow-up and timely re-excision of any potential recurrence. PMID:26743469

  7. Solidification/stabilization of electrolytic manganese residue using phosphate resource and low-grade MgO/CaO.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jiancheng; Liu, Renlong; Liu, Zuohua; Chen, Hongliang; Du, Jun; Tao, Changyuan

    2016-11-01

    In this study, P-LGMgO (low-grade MgO and NaH2PO4·2H2O), P-CaO (CaO and NaH2PO4·2H2O), and P-MgCa (low-grade MgO, CaO and NaH2PO4·2H2O) were used for the solidification/stabilization (S/S) of electrolytic manganese residue (EMR). Relevant characteristics such as ammonia nitrogen and manganese stabilization behavior, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), probable S/S mechanisms, and EMR leaching test were investigated. The results demonstrate that using P-LGMgO had higher stabilization efficiency than P-CaO and P-MgCa for the S/S of EMR at the same stabilization agent dose. The stabilization efficiency of ammonia nitrogen and manganese in the EMR were 84.0% and 99.9%, respectively, and the UCS of EMR was 5.1MPa using P-LGMgO process after curing for 28 days when the molar ratio of Mg:P was 5:1 and dose of stabilization agent was 12wt%. In this process, ammonia nitrogen was stabilized by struvite (NH4MgPO4·6H2O), and manganese by bermanite (Mn3(PO4)2(OH)2·4H2O) and pyrochroite (Mn(OH)2). The leaching test results show that the values of all the measured metals on the 28th day were within the permitted level for the GB8978-1996 test suggested by China's environmental protection law and the concentration of ammonia nitrogen can be reduced from 504.0mgL(-1) to 76.6mgL(-1).

  8. Early integration of high copy HPV16 detectable in women with normal and low grade cervical cytology and histology

    PubMed Central

    Kulmala, S‐M A; Syrjänen, S M; Gyllensten, U B; Shabalova, I P; Petrovichev, N; Tosi, P; Syrjänen, K J; Johansson, B C

    2006-01-01

    Background Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA has been considered a late event in cervical carcinogenesis. However, integrated forms of HPV were recently detected in cancer precursor lesions using a new real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the deletions at the 3362–3443 region of HPV16 E2 Objective To study the frequency of HPV16 DNA integration in cervical lesions and compare the sensitivity of an additional upstream region of the E2 ORF (2962–3138) in detecting HPV integration. Methods Using the TaqMan based PCR, HPV16 positive DNA samples were analysed in 164 cervical scrapings from women participating in a multicentre screening trial. Biopsy confirmation was available in 62 cases. Results Primers targeting the 3362–3443 region detected the majority of E2 deletions. In only 23% of the samples was the E2 upstream region equal or better target than the 3362–3443 region. Mixed (episomal/integrated) pattern was the most prevalent physical state of HPV16, also present in PAP smears with normal morphology. Pure integrated form was most prevalent in HSIL and cancer lesions, but also detectable in low grade abnormalities (NSIL, ASC‐US, LSIL). Women with only integrated HPV16 were almost 10 years older than those with episomal HPV16. Viral load of integrated HPV16 was related to cytological abnormality (p = 0.003) but not to histology. Conclusions Integrated HPV16 is present in low grade cervical lesions, mostly mixed with the episomal form. Women with the pure integrated form of HPV16 are older than those with the other forms. PMID:16484445

  9. Membrane-based osmotic heat engine with organic solvent for enhanced power generation from low-grade heat.

    PubMed

    Shaulsky, Evyatar; Boo, Chanhee; Lin, Shihong; Elimelech, Menachem

    2015-05-01

    We present a hybrid osmotic heat engine (OHE) system that uses draw solutions with an organic solvent for enhanced thermal separation efficiency. The hybrid OHE system produces sustainable energy by combining pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) as a power generation stage and membrane distillation (MD) utilizing low-grade heat as a separation stage. While previous OHE systems employed aqueous electrolyte draw solutions, using methanol as a solvent is advantageous because methanol is highly volatile and has a lower heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization than water. Hence, the thermal separation efficiency of a draw solution with methanol would be higher than that of an aqueous draw solution. In this study, we evaluated the performance of LiCl-methanol as a potential draw solution for a PRO-MD hybrid OHE system. The membrane transport properties as well as performance with LiCl-methanol draw solution were evaluated using thin-film composite (TFC) PRO membranes and compared to the results obtained with a LiCl-water draw solution. Experimental PRO methanol flux and maximum projected power density of 47.1 L m(-2) h(-1) and 72.1 W m(-2), respectively, were achieved with a 3 M LiCl-methanol draw solution. The overall efficiency of the hybrid OHE system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages under conditions with and without heat recovery. The modeling results demonstrate higher OHE energy efficiency with the LiCl-methanol draw solution compared to that with the LiCl-water draw solution under practical operating conditions (i.e., heat recovery<90%). We discuss the implications of the results for converting low-grade heat to power.

  10. Tertiary lymphoid organs in infection and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Neyt, Katrijn; Perros, Frédéric; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H; Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2012-06-01

    The lymph nodes (LNs) and spleen have an optimal structure that allows the interaction between T cells, B cells and antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) on a matrix made up by stromal cells. Such a highly organized structure can also be formed in tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) at sites of infection or chronic immune stimulation. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of TLO formation and maintenance, the controversies surrounding the nature of the inducing events, and the functions of these structures in infection, transplantation and autoimmunity. PMID:22622061

  11. Rare synchronous association of vestibular schwannoma and indolent insular oligodendroglioma in a patient without neurofibromatosis: controversial issue of timing for surgical treatment of asymptomatic low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Di Rienzo, Alessandro; Colasanti, Roberto; Alvaro, Lorenzo; Nocchi, Niccolò; Polonara, Gabriele; Di Somma, Lucia Giovanna Maria; Zizzi, Antonio; Scarpelli, Marina; Scerrati, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of a vestibular schwannoma and a low-grade glioma is rare, and even rarer is the association with an oligodendroglioma. Although various authors have addressed the problem of treating patients with incidentally discovered indolent low-grade gliomas, an established protocol does not exist to date. The common approach is to reserve surgery until there is radiological evidence of tumor growth or high-grade transformation. However, because incidental low-grade glioma may represent the first stage of unavoidable pathological progression towards high-grade glioma, early and radical surgical resection should be advocated in order to increase the chance of a "cure" and prolonged survival. This case report supports this view, and suggests reflection on a possible change from a conservative philosophy to preventative surgical treatment.

  12. The chemokine SLC is expressed in T cell areas of lymph nodes and mucosal lymphoid tissues and attracts activated T cells via CCR7.

    PubMed

    Willimann, K; Legler, D F; Loetscher, M; Roos, R S; Delgado, M B; Clark-Lewis, I; Baggiolini, M; Moser, B

    1998-06-01

    Secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine, SLC, also known as exodus-2 and 6Ckine, is a novel CC chemokine with selectivity for T lymphocytes and preferential expression in lymphoid tissues. We have studied its production, receptor usage and biological activities. High levels of SLC mRNA were detected in lymph nodes, the gastrointestinal tract and several gland tissues, but no expression was found by Northern blot analysis in freshly isolated or stimulated blood monocytes and lymphocytes, or neutrophils and eosinophils. In situ hybridization revealed constitutive expression of SLC in the T cell areas and the marginal zone of follicles in lymph nodes and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, but not in B cell areas or sinuses. Comparison with immunocytochemical staining showed similarity between the in situ expression of SLC and the distribution of interdigitating dendritic cells but not with sinus-lining dendritic cells, macrophages or T lymphocytes. SLC induced chemotaxis of T lymphocytes and its activity increased considerably when the cells were conditioned with IL-2 or phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Under optimal conditions SLC had unusually high efficacy and induced the migration of up to 50 % of input T lymphocytes. SLC also induced Ca2+ mobilization in these cells. Similar responses were obtained with EBI1 ligand chemokine (ELC), and sequential stimulation with both chemokines led to cross-desensitization, suggesting that SLC acts via the ELC receptor, CCR7. This was confirmed using murine pre-B cells stably transfected with CCR7 which bound SLC with high affinity and showed chemotaxis and Ca2+ mobilization in response to both SLC and ELC. In T lymphocytes PHA and IL-2, which enhanced chemotactic responsiveness, also markedly enhanced CCR7 expression. In contrast to all known chemokine receptors, up-regulation of CCR7 by IL-2 was transient. A maximum was reached in 2-3 days and expression returned to initial levels within 8-10 days. The present study shows that SLC is

  13. High-dose therapy with peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation in low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Haas, R; Moos, M; Möhle, R; Döhner, H; Witt, B; Goldschmidt, H; Murea, S; Flentje, M; Wannenmacher, M; Hunstein, W

    1996-02-01

    It was the objective of our study to evaluate the efficacy of a sequential high-dose therapy with peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) support in patients with low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Since July 1991, 48 patients (23 male/25 female) with a median age of 43 years (range 26-55) were included in the study. At the time of entry, 28 patients were in first and seven in second or higher remission. Twelve patients had relapse of disease and one patient had tumor progression. PBPC were collected during granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-enhanced leukocyte recovery following treatment with high-dose cytarabine and mitoxantrone (HAM). A median of two leukaphereses (range 2-7) resulted in 6.9 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg (median, range 2.1 x 10(6)-38.8 x 10(6)). A comparison was made between the harvests obtained from patients in first remission and those from patients in second remission, in relapse or progressive disease. Patients mobilized in first remission tended to have a greater collection efficiency for CD34+ cells comprising a significantly greater proportion of more primitive CD34+/Thy-1+ progenitor cells. Conversely, leukapheresis (LP) products collected during first remission contained a significantly smaller proportion of CD34+/CD45RA+ cells and CD34+/c-kit+ cells, subsets which reflect a more differentiated progenitor cell stage. Following high-dose therapy and PBPC autografting, the median time to reach platelets > or = 20 x 10(9)/l and neutrophils > or = 0.5 x 10(9)/l and 12 and 13 days, respectively. Two patients died of treatment-related toxic organ failure. Thirty-nine patients are alive in remission after a median follow-up time of 15 months (range 1-31), while seven patients relapsed between 5 and 29 months post-transplantation. Except for one patient autografted in first remission, the patients with relapse had a history of previous relapse or progressive disease. Since the probability of disease-free survival appears to be related

  14. Organic Fluids and Passive Cooling in a Supercritical Rankine Cycle for Power Generation from Low Grade Heat Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidhi, Rachana

    Low grade heat sources have a large amount of thermal energy content. Due to low temperature, the conventional power generation technologies result in lower efficiency and hence cannot be used. In order to efficiently generate power, alternate methods need to be used. In this study, a supercritical organic Rankine cycle was used for heat source temperatures varying from 125°C to 200°C. Organic refrigerants with zero ozone depletion potential and their mixtures were selected as working fluid for this study while the cooling water temperature was changed from 10-25°C. Operating pressure of the cycle has been optimized for each fluid at every heat source temperature to obtain the highest thermal efficiency. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the thermodynamic cycle have been obtained as a function of heat source temperature. Efficiency of a thermodynamic cycle depends significantly on the sink temperature. At areas where water cooling is not available and ambient air temperature is high, efficient power generation from low grade heat sources may be a challenge. Use of passive cooling systems coupled with the condenser was studied, so that lower sink temperatures could be obtained. Underground tunnels, buried at a depth of few meters, were used as earth-air-heat-exchanger (EAHE) through which hot ambient air was passed. It was observed that the air temperature could be lowered by 5-10°C in the EAHE. Vertical pipes were used to lower the temperature of water by 5°C by passing it underground. Nocturnal cooling of stored water has been studied that can be used to cool the working fluid in the thermodynamic cycle. It was observed that the water temperature can be lowered by 10-20°C during the night when it is allowed to cool. The amount of water lost was calculated and was found to be approximately 0.1% over 10 days. The different passive cooling systems were studied separately and their effects on the efficiency of the thermodynamic cycle were investigated. They were

  15. Ixazomib Citrate and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Indolent B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-01

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Follicular Lymphoma; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Refractory Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  16. Papillary Immature Metaplasia of the Anal Canal: A Low-grade Lesion That Can Mimic a High-grade Lesion.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jennifer M; Cornall, Alyssa M; Ekman, Deborah; Law, Carmella; Poynten, I Mary; Jin, Fengyi; Hillman, Richard J; Templeton, David J; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Garland, Suzanne M; Thurloe, Julia K; Grulich, Andrew E; Farnsworth, Annabelle

    2016-03-01

    In a natural history study of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-related lesions among homosexual men in Sydney, Australia, we identified 15 examples of papillary immature metaplasia (PIM) in anal biopsy samples. PIM has previously been described in the cervix, but not in the anal canal. PIM is a form of exophytic low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (eLSIL) also known as condyloma. In contrast to the maturing keratinocytes and koilocytosis seen in conventional eLSIL, the slender papillary structures of PIM have a surface population of immature squamous cells. In our anal samples PIM was characterized by close proximity to conventional eLSIL, was negative for p16 (p16) expression, and revealed the presence of a single low-risk HPV genotype (either 6 or 11) in laser capture microdissected lesions. The clinical significance of recognizing PIM lies in preventing misdiagnosis as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, (the presumed precursor to anal cancer), due to the morphologic immaturity of the cell population. In routine practice, awareness of anal canal PIM and p16 immunostaining will prevent this. Further study of the natural history of anal canal PIM is needed. PMID:26551619

  17. The Role of Telomere Maintenance in the Spontaneous Growth Arrest of Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas1

    PubMed Central

    Tabori, Uri; Vukovic, Bisera; Zielenska, Maria; Hawkins, Cynthia; Braude, Ilan; Rutka, James; Bouffet, Eric; Squire, Jeremy; Malkin, David

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Spontaneous tumor regression is a unique feature of pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGG). We speculated that lack of telomere maintenance is responsible for this behavior. We first looked for evidence of telomerase activity and alternative-lengthening telomeres (ALT) in 56 PLGG. Telomerase activity was observed in 0 of 11 PLGG in contrast to 10 of 13 high-grade pediatric brain tumors. There was no ALT in 45 of 45 samples. We applied Q-FISH to eight patients whose indolent PLGG underwent two metachronous biopsies over a lag of several years. Telomere shortening was observed in the second biopsy in all tumors but not in a normal brain control (P < .0001), indicating that lack of telomere maintenance is associated with continuous telomere erosion. Based on these observations, we observed that younger PLGG patients who exhibit more aggressive and frequently recurrent tumors had significantly longer telomeres than older ones (P = .00014). Tumors with a terminal restriction fragment length of <7.5 did not recur, whereas the presence of longer telomeres (>8.0) conferred a high likelihood of late recurrences in PLGG. Our findings provide a plausible biological mechanism to explain the tendency of PLGG to exhibit growth arrest and spontaneous regression. Telomere maintenance may therefore represent the first known biologic prognostic marker in PLGG. PMID:16611406

  18. Considerations on the role of chemotherapy and modern radiotherapy in the treatment of childhood low grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Perilongo, Giorgio

    2005-12-01

    The treatment of childhood low grade glioma (LGG), if not amenable to complete resection, quite often is a relevant clinical challenge. LGG in many instances are indeed slow growing tumors, which, if not controlled, can cause severe morbidity and ultimately jeopardize life. Most of the time children bearing an unresectable LGG can be considered affected by a chronic disease, deserving protracted cures. The treatment philosophy, which has dictated the treatment of malignant cancers, has also inspired the therapeutic concepts for managing childhood LGG. However, it is getting more and more evident that different strategies are needed for them. LGG represent a highly heterogeneous group of neoplasm and comprehensive treatment concepts rarely meet the individual patient's needs. After more than 20 years of clinical research it can be stated with confidence that for unresectable, progressive LGG, chemotherapy (CT) represents an effective treatment modality. It delays tumor growth and postpones the use of radiotherapy (RT), thus sparing the deleterious effects of irradiation on a developing brain. However, CT rarely cures LGG and definitively obviates the need of RT or aggressive surgery. Furthermore, little is known on the actual impact of CT on patients' overall health status. Recent progresses in RT delivering techniques, which allow reducing the safety margins, are tempering the concerns related to the use of this treatment modality in children. This manuscript reviews and expands these data, trying to combine them in a coherent picture that it is hoped can help in directing future research in this field.

  19. Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption Induced by Chronic Sleep Loss: Low-Grade Inflammation May Be the Link

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-Moctezuma, J.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a vital phenomenon related to immunomodulation at the central and peripheral level. Sleep deficient in duration and/or quality is a common problem in the modern society and is considered a risk factor to develop neurodegenerative diseases. Sleep loss in rodents induces blood-brain barrier disruption and the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Several reports indicate that sleep loss induces a systemic low-grade inflammation characterized by the release of several molecules, such as cytokines, chemokines, and acute-phase proteins; all of them may promote changes in cellular components of the blood-brain barrier, particularly on brain endothelial cells. In the present review we discuss the role of inflammatory mediators that increase during sleep loss and their association with general disturbances in peripheral endothelium and epithelium and how those inflammatory mediators may alter the blood-brain barrier. Finally, this manuscript proposes a hypothetical mechanism by which sleep loss may induce blood-brain barrier disruption, emphasizing the regulatory effect of inflammatory molecules on tight junction proteins. PMID:27738642

  20. Pollution control and metal resource recovery for low grade automobile shredder residue: a mechanism, bioavailability and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-04-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) is considered as hazardous waste in Japan and European countries due to presence of heavy metals. This study was carried on the extraction characteristics of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr) from automobile shredder residue (ASR). The effects of pH, temperature, particle size, and liquid/solid ratio (L/S) on the extraction of heavy metals were investigated. The recovery rate of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr increased with increasing extraction temperature and L/S ratio. The lowest pH 2, the highest L/S ratio, and the smallest particle size showed the highest recovery of heavy metals from ASR. The highest recovery rates were in the following order: Mn > Ni > Cr > Fe. Reduction of mobility factor for the heavy metals was observed in all the size fractions after the recovery. The results of the kinetic analysis for various experimental conditions supported that the reaction rate of the recovery process followed a second order reaction model (R(2) ⩾ 0.95). The high availability of water-soluble fractions of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr from the low grade ASR could be potential hazards to the environment. Bioavailability and toxicity risk of heavy metals reduced significantly with pH 2 of distilled water. However, water is a cost-effective extracting agent for the recovery of heavy metals and it could be useful for reducing the toxicity of ASR.

  1. An Efficient Technology for Smelting Low Grade Bismuth-Lead Concentrate: Oxygen-Rich Side Blow Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Hao, Zhandong; Yang, Tianzu; Xiao, Hui; Liu, Weifeng; Zhang, Duchao; Bin, Shu; Bin, Wanda

    2015-09-01

    An efficient technology for low-grade bismuth-lead concentrate smelting is reported. In the process, two oxygen-rich side blow furnaces (OSBF) are used for oxidative smelting of the concentrate and reductive smelting of the oxidized slag from the upstream furnace, respectively. Slags are collected from the OSBFs by certain intervals during an operation period and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrum, x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Analysis for the oxidized slag revealed that spherical or oval metallic inclusions with sizes range from submicron to 40 μm in diameter are randomly embedded in the glassy matrix. On the one hand, the metal content of the inclusions is close to that of the bottom metal alloy, indicating metal inclusions are physically entrained in the oxidized slag. On the other hand, metal inclusions are not identified in the reduced slag, disclosing the strong metal-slag separation ability of the OSBF. The bismuth content of the reduced slag is about 0.05 wt.%, which is 6-10 times lower than that of the traditional pyrometallurgical processes.

  2. Cortical and Standard Trajectory Pedicle Screw Fixation Techniques in Stabilizing Multisegment Lumbar Spine with Low Grade Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    İnceoğlu, Serkan

    2015-01-01

    Background Cortical screw (CS) fixation has been recently proposed as an alternative to the standard pedicle screw (PS) fixation technique. Biomechanical studies involving individual screw pullout and single level motion segment stabilization showed comparable performance of both techniques. However, whether this new fixation technique can be applied to the stabilization of multilevel lumbar segments with significant destabilization has been unclear. Purpose To compare stability of CS fixation to the traditional PS fixation in an unstable 3 level spondylolisthesis model. Study Design This is a biomechanical study comparing cortical trajectory pedicle screw fixation to traditional trajectory pedicle screw fixation in an unstable cadaveric model using nondestructive flexibility test. Methods Eight fresh frozen cadaveric lumbar spines (T12- S1) were obtained. After intact baseline testing, a 3-level lowgrade spondylolisthesis was simulated at the L1-4. Each specimen was instrumented with the PS and CS fixation systems. Standard nondestructive flexibility test was performed. Range of motion at each level was compared between the constructs during flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Results The destabilization model significantly increased the ROM in all planes (P<0.05). Both fixation techniques provided significant reduction in the ROM (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in ROM between the PS and CS groups in any of planes (P>0.05). Conclusions Cortical trajectory pedicle screw fixation provided stabilization to multilevel lumbar segment with low-grade spondylolisthesis comparable to the standard trajectory pedicle screw construct. PMID:26484009

  3. Single agent carboplatin for pediatric low-grade glioma: A retrospective analysis shows equivalent efficacy to multiagent chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dodgshun, Andrew J; Maixner, Wirginia J; Heath, John A; Sullivan, Michael J; Hansford, Jordan R

    2016-01-15

    Pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGG) that are unresectable often require adjuvant chemotherapy such as carboplatin/vincristine. Small Phase II studies have suggested equivalent efficacy of single agent 4-weekly carboplatin. A single-institution retrospective review captured all patients aged 0 to 18 years diagnosed with LGG between 1996 and 2013 and treated with carboplatin monotherapy. The response and survival according to tumor site was compared to published results for multiagent chemotherapy. Of 268 children diagnosed with LGG diagnosed in this period, 117 received chemotherapy and 104 children received single agent carboplatin as first line chemotherapy. All patients received carboplatin at 560 mg/m(2), four-weekly for a median of 12 courses. The mean age at diagnosis was 5.8 years (range 3m-16y) and 32% had neurofibromatosis type 1. With a mean followup of 54 months, 86% of patients achieved stabilisation or better (SD/PR/CR). 3-year progression free survival (PFS) 66% (95% CI 57-76%), and 5-year PFS was 51% (95% CI 41-63%). 5-year overall survival was 97%. Multivariate analysis showed poorer PFS for those with chiasmatic/hypothalamic tumors. In this retrospective analysis single agent carboplatin shows comparable efficacy to historical multiagent chemotherapy for the treatment of patients with unresectable LGG. Equivalent outcomes are achieved with less chemotherapy, reduced side effects and fewer hospital visits. Further research is required to establish the place of this simplified regimen in the up-front treatment of unresectable LGG.

  4. Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy of low-grade metamorphic volcanic rocks of the Pilbara Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abweny, Mohammad S.; van Ruitenbeek, Frank J. A.; de Smeth, Boudewijn; Woldai, Tsehaie; van der Meer, Freek D.; Cudahy, Thomas; Zegers, Tanja; Blom, Jan-Kees; Thuss, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    This paper shows the results of Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy investigations of volcanic rocks sampled from low-grade metamorphic greenstone belts of the Archean Pilbara Craton in Western Australia. From the reflectance spectra a range of spectrally active minerals were identified, including chlorites, hornblende, actinolite, epidote and white micas. The rock samples were grouped into mineral assemblages based on their spectrally identified minerals and stratigraphic positions. The metamorphic amphibolite and greenschist facies could be identified from the SWIR spectroscopic data as well as three sub zones of the greenschist facies: 1) a zone containing Fe-chlorite; 2) a zone containing intermediate chlorite and epidote; and 3) a zone containing intermediate chlorite, actinolite and hornblende. Spectral parameters were calculated from the reflectance spectra to assess the metamorphic grade and zones. Plots of the depth parameters of the Fe-OH feature near 2250 nm versus the Mg-OH feature near 2390 nm differentiate the metamorphic amphibolite and greenschist facies and a transition zone between the two. The wavelength position parameter of the Mg-OH absorption feature near 2340 nm also serves to discriminate between the various metamorphic sub zones. The identification of the metamorphic grades of the volcanic sequences in greenstone belts with SWIR spectroscopy is useful for regional geological field studies, exploration for metamorphic mineral deposits hosted in the greenstone belts and the interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing data sets covering similar types of terranes.

  5. Is maspin immunolocalization a tool to differentiate central low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma from glandular odontogenic cyst?

    PubMed

    Vered, Marilena; Allon, Irit; Buchner, Amos; Dayan, Dan

    2010-03-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the salivary glands has a low-grade variant (LGMEC), which may be found within the jawbones. LGMEC shares a number of histopathological similarities with glandular odontogenic cysts (GOC) of the jawbones. Maspin has been identified in several benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms. We investigated the immunolocalization of maspin in LGMEC and GOC and evaluated its potential to distinguish between these two entities. Cases of LGMEC (n=6), GOC (n=8) and various odontogenic cysts with marked mucous metaplasia (OCMM, n=7), which served as controls, were immunohistochemically labeled for the binding of an antibody directed against maspin. Immunomorphometry was performed separately for maspin-immunopositive epithelial cells and epithelial-mucous cells in either their nuclear or cytoplasmic compartments. Results were presented as the volume fraction (Vv) of each element. The Vv of the maspin-immunopositive epithelial-mucous cytoplasm and nuclei was significantly higher in LGMEC than in GOC and OCMM (p<0.001 and p=0.026, respectively). In the epithelial cells, no significant differences were observed among the lesions (p>0.05). It is suggested that the high levels of maspin in the epithelial-mucous cells (in both cytoplasm and nuclei) in LGMEC may serve as a tool to distinguish it from GOC. This may be useful especially in equivocal cases and in small incisional biopsy samples.

  6. [Lymphoid myelofibrosis or hairy cell leukemia].

    PubMed

    Lovisetto, P; Pellegrino, P; Tallone, M V; Biarese, V; La Rosa, G F

    1977-05-26

    By lymphoid myelofibrosis or hairy cell leukaemia or tricholeukaemia is meant an unusual haemopathic condition known only for the past few years. It is characterized pathognomonically by the presence of lymphocyte type cells with villous extroflexions, hence the name "hairy cell". Clinically the disease presents as an involutive myelopathy associated with splenomegaly, generally without any particular lymph gland involvement. The attention of students today is concentrated on the nature of the hairy cells; while some are inclined to admit their monocyte or histiocyte derivation, others consider that they derive from B lymphocytes. Therapeutically, almost everybody agrees that splenectomy is the only valid step. A case of H.C.L., which was typical from the clinical and laboratory viewpoints is reported. It is probable that certain haemopathic pictures once classified among atypical leucoses and lymphomas, would today be more correctly classed as hairy cell leukaemia. PMID:327348

  7. Innate lymphoid cells and the MHC.

    PubMed

    Robinette, M L; Colonna, M

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a new class of immune cells that include natural killer (NK) cells and appear to be the innate counterparts to CD4(+) helper T cells and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells based on developmental and functional similarities. Like T cells, both NK cells and other ILCs also show connections to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In human and mouse, NK cells recognize and respond to classical and nonclassical MHC I molecules as well as structural homologues, whereas mouse ILCs have recently been shown to express MHC II. We describe the history of MHC I recognition by NK cells and discuss emerging roles for MHC II expression by ILC subsets, making comparisons between both mouse and human when possible.

  8. Characterization of mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse intestine by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism: Utility of sampling strategies and methods to reduce single-stranded DNA artifacts.

    PubMed

    Costa, Estela; Puhl, Nathan J; Selinger, L Brent; Inglis, G Douglas

    2009-08-01

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) is a molecular technique used for comparative analysis of microbial community structure and dynamics. We evaluated three sampling methods for recovering bacterial community DNA associated with intestinal mucosa of mice (i.e. mechanical agitation with PBS, hand washing with PBS containing Tween 80, and direct DNA extraction from mucosal plugs). In addition, the utility of two methods (i.e. Klenow fragment and mung-bean nuclease) to reduce single-stranded DNA artifacts was tested. T-RFLP analysis indicated that diverse communities of bacteria are associated with mucosa of the ileum, cecum, and descending colon of mice. Although there was no significant difference in bacterial community structure between the mechanical agitation and direct DNA extraction methods regardless of intestinal location, community diversity was reduced for the hand wash method in the colon. The use of Klenow fragment and mung-bean nuclease have been reported to eliminate single-stranded DNA artifacts (i.e. pseudo-T-restriction fragments), but neither method was beneficial for characterizing mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse cecum. Our study showed that the mechanical agitation and direct plug extraction methods yielded equivalent bacterial community DNA from the mucosa of the small and large intestines of mice, but the latter method was superior for logistical reasons. We also applied a combination of different statistical approaches to analyze T-RFLP data, including statistical detection of true peaks, analysis of variance for peak number, and group significance test, which provided a quantitative improvement for the interpretation of the T-RFLP data.

  9. A low-grade increase of serum pancreatic exocrine enzyme levels by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tokuyama, Hirotake; Kawamura, Harukiyo; Fujimoto, Masaki; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Nieda, Mie; Okazawa, Tetsuya; Takemoto, Minoru; Shimada, Fumio

    2013-06-01

    A potential adverse effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) on the pancreas remains controversial. We evaluated the DPP-4i effects on pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in patients with type 2 diabetes. These enzymes were slightly but significantly increased, suggesting DPP-4i cause a low-grade inflammatory change in the exocrine pancreas. PMID:23618553

  10. A Comparison of Brain Wave Patterns of High and Low Grade Point Average Students During Rest, Problem Solving, and Stress Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montor, Karel

    The purpose of this study was to compare brain wave patterns produced by high and low grade point average students, while they were resting, solving problems, and subjected to stress situations. The study involved senior midshipmen at the United States Naval Academy. The high group was comprised of those whose cumulative grade point average was…

  11. Benign Lymphoid Hyperplasia Presenting as Bilateral Scleral Nodules.

    PubMed

    Cumba, Ricardo J; Vazquez-Botet, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of transient lymphoid hyperplasia presenting as bilateral nodular scleral mass in a young male patient. Design. Observational case report. Methods. Chart review. Causes of scleritis were considered and excluded based on detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations. Results. Excisional biopsy of scleral lesions indicated lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a polyclonal population of T and B cells consistent with a benign reactive process. Conclusions. Chronic exposure of the ocular adnexa to many allergens and irritants may lead to activation of the inflammatory cascade. In severely allergic patients activation may be exponential and elicit an immune-mediated response resulting in a transient lymphoid reactive process.

  12. Benign Lymphoid Hyperplasia Presenting as Bilateral Scleral Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Cumba, Ricardo J.; Vazquez-Botet, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of transient lymphoid hyperplasia presenting as bilateral nodular scleral mass in a young male patient. Design. Observational case report. Methods. Chart review. Causes of scleritis were considered and excluded based on detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations. Results. Excisional biopsy of scleral lesions indicated lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a polyclonal population of T and B cells consistent with a benign reactive process. Conclusions. Chronic exposure of the ocular adnexa to many allergens and irritants may lead to activation of the inflammatory cascade. In severely allergic patients activation may be exponential and elicit an immune-mediated response resulting in a transient lymphoid reactive process. PMID:26421203

  13. Vitamin A Controls the Presence of RORγ+ Innate Lymphoid Cells and Lymphoid Tissue in the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Goverse, Gera; Labao-Almeida, Carlos; Ferreira, Manuela; Molenaar, Rosalie; Wahlen, Sigrid; Konijn, Tanja; Koning, Jasper; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-06-15

    Changes in diet and microbiota have determining effects on the function of the mucosal immune system. For example, the active metabolite of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA), has been described to maintain homeostasis in the intestine by its influence on both lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Additionally, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), important producers of cytokines necessary for intestinal homeostasis, are also influenced by vitamin A in the small intestines. In this study, we show a reduction of both NCR(-) and NCR(+) ILC3 subsets in the small intestine of mice raised on a vitamin A-deficient diet. Additionally, the percentages of IL-22-producing ILCs were reduced in the absence of dietary vitamin A. Conversely, mice receiving additional RA had a specific increase in the NCR(-) ILC3 subset, which contains the lymphoid tissue inducer cells. The dependence of lymphoid tissue inducer cells on vitamin A was furthermore illustrated by impaired development of enteric lymphoid tissues in vitamin A-deficient mice. These effects were a direct consequence of ILC-intrinsic RA signaling, because retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt-Cre × RARα-DN mice had reduced numbers of NCR(-) and NCR(+) ILC3 subsets within the small intestine. However, lymphoid tissue inducer cells were not affected in these mice nor was the formation of enteric lymphoid tissue, demonstrating that the onset of RA signaling might take place before retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt is expressed on lymphoid tissue inducer cells. Taken together, our data show an important role for vitamin A in controlling innate lymphoid cells and, consequently, postnatal formed lymphoid tissues within the small intestines.

  14. Secondary lymphoid organs: responding to genetic and environmental cues in ontogeny and the immune response.

    PubMed

    Ruddle, Nancy H; Akirav, Eitan M

    2009-08-15

    Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) include lymph nodes, spleen, Peyer's patches, and mucosal tissues such as the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue, adenoids, and tonsils. Less discretely anatomically defined cellular accumulations include the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue, cryptopatches, and isolated lymphoid follicles. All SLOs serve to generate immune responses and tolerance. SLO development depends on the precisely regulated expression of cooperating lymphoid chemokines and cytokines such as LTalpha, LTbeta, RANKL, TNF, IL-7, and perhaps IL-17. The relative importance of these factors varies between the individual lymphoid organs. Participating in the process are lymphoid tissue initiator, lymphoid tissue inducer, and lymphoid tissue organizer cells. These cells and others that produce crucial cytokines maintain SLOs in the adult. Similar signals regulate the transition from inflammation to ectopic or tertiary lymphoid tissues. PMID:19661265

  15. Hyperleptinemia is associated with parameters of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in obese human beings

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Solís-Lozano, Lourdes; Suárez-Álvarez, Karina; González-Chávez, Antonio; Béjar, Yadira L.; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo; Escobedo, Galileo

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone that has been involved in hypothalamic and systemic inflammation, altered food-intake patterns, and metabolic dysfunction in obese mice. However, it remains unclear whether leptin has a relationship with parameters of systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in humans. We thus evaluated in a cross-sectional study the circulating levels of leptin in 40 non-obese and 41 obese Mexican individuals, examining their relationship with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 12, IL-10, central obesity, serum glucose and insulin levels, and serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. Circulating levels of leptin, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-10, and insulin were measured by ELISA, while concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol were determined by enzymatic assays. As expected, serum levels of leptin exhibited a significant elevation in obese individuals as compared to non-obese subjects, showing a clear association with increased body mass index (r = 0.4173), central obesity (r = 0.4678), and body fat percentage (r = 0.3583). Furthermore, leptin also showed a strong relationship with serum TNF-α (r = 0.6989), IL-12 (r = 0.3093), and IL-10 (r = −0.5691). Interestingly, leptin was also significantly related with high concentrations of fasting glucose (r = 0.5227) and insulin (r = 0.2229), as well as elevated levels of insulin resistance (r = 0.3611) and circulating triglyceride (r = 0.4135). These results suggest that hyperleptinemia is strongly associated with the occurrence of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic alteration in obese subjects. Further clinical research is still needed to determine whether hyperleptinemia may be a potential marker for recognizing the advent of obesity-related metabolic disorders in human beings. PMID:23986664

  16. Hypertension as a low-grade systemic inflammatory condition that has its origins in the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Das, U N

    2006-02-01

    Genetics, oxidative stress: superoxide anion (O2*-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), endothelial nitric oxide (eNO), lipid peroxides, anti-oxidants, endothelin, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, angiotensinII, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), insulin, homocysteine, asymmetrical dimethyl arginine, proinflammatory cytokines: interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-alpha), C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), and activity of NAD(P)H oxidase have a role in human essential hypertension. There is a close interaction between endogenous molecules: eNO, endothelin, cytokines, and nutrients: folic acid, L-arginine, tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B), vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, and LCPUFAs. Statins mediate some, if not all, of their actions through LCPUFAs, whereas these fatty acids (especially omega-3 fatty acids) suppress cyclo-oxygenase activity and the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and activate parasympathetic nervous system, actions that reduce the risk of major vascular events. Some LCPUFAs form precursors to lipoxins and resolvins that have anti-inflammatory actions. Low-grade systemic inflammation seen in hypertension seems to have its origins in the perinatal period and availability of adequate amounts of LCPUFAs during the critical periods of brain growth prevents the development of hypertension. This indicates that preventive strategies aimed at decreasing the incidence of hypertension and its associated conditions such as atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), and cardiac failure in adulthood need to be instituted during the perinatal period if they are to be effective. PMID:16715619

  17. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation is associated with memory improvement in patients with left frontal low-grade glioma resection.

    PubMed

    Miotto, Eliane C; Balardin, Joana B; Vieira, Gilson; Sato, Joao R; Martin, Maria da Graça M; Scaff, Milberto; Teixeira, Manoel J; Junior, Edson Amaro

    2014-01-01

    Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) have been studied as a model of functional brain reorganization due to their slow-growing nature. However, there is no information regarding which brain areas are involved during verbal memory encoding after extensive left frontal LGG resection. In addition, it remains unknown whether these patients can improve their memory performance after instructions to apply efficient strategies. The neural correlates of verbal memory encoding were investigated in patients who had undergone extensive left frontal lobe (LFL) LGG resections and healthy controls using fMRI both before and after directed instructions were given for semantic organizational strategies. Participants were scanned during the encoding of word lists under three different conditions before and after a brief period of practice. The conditions included semantically unrelated (UR), related-non-structured (RNS), and related-structured words (RS), allowing for different levels of semantic organization. All participants improved on memory recall and semantic strategy application after the instructions for the RNS condition. Healthy subjects showed increased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and middle frontal gyrus (MFG) during encoding for the RNS condition after the instructions. Patients with LFL excisions demonstrated increased activation in the right IFG for the RNS condition after instructions were given for the semantic strategies. Despite extensive damage in relevant areas that support verbal memory encoding and semantic strategy applications, patients that had undergone resections for LFL tumor could recruit the right-sided contralateral homologous areas after instructions were given and semantic strategies were practiced. These results provide insights into changes in brain activation areas typically implicated in verbal memory encoding and semantic processing.

  18. Positive fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 immunoreactivity is associated with low-grade non-invasive urothelial bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    POYET, CÉDRIC; HERMANNS, THOMAS; ZHONG, QING; DRESCHER, EVA; EBERLI, DANIEL; BURGER, MAXIMILIAN; HOFSTAEDTER, FERDINAND; HARTMANN, ARNDT; STÖHR, ROBERT; ZWARTHOFF, ELLEN C.; SULSER, TULLIO; WILD, PETER J.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to conventional clinicopathological parameters, molecular markers are also required in order to predict the course of disease in patients with urothelial bladder cancer (BC). Little is known about fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) immunoreactivity and the clinical significance it may possess with regard to BC. The present study aimed to investigate the immunoreactivity of FGFR3 in primary urothelial bladder tumours, with regard to clinicopathological features and FGFR3 mutation status. Tissue microarrays were used to immunohistochemically analyse FGFR3 expression in 255 primary, unselected patients with BC. FGFR3 mutations were detected using SNaPshot analysis. Positive FGFR3 immunoreactivity was identified in 113/207 analysable cases (54.6%), and was significantly associated with FGFR3 mutation (P<0.001), low tumour stage (P<0.001), low histological grade (P<0.001) and a papillary growth pattern (P<0.001). Positive FGFR3 immunostaining (P=0.002) and FGFR3 mutation (P=0.002) were found to be significantly associated with increased disease-specific survival following univariate analysis, demonstrating a median follow-up period of 75 months. Using multivariate analyses, FGFR3 immunoreactivity was found not to be independent of classical pathological parameters. Immunohistochemical expression of FGFR3 is an early occurrence during the carcinogenesis of papillary non-invasive BC. The presence of FGFR3 immunoreactivity in non-invasive papillary urothelial carcinomas may be utilised as an indicator of tumours possessing low-grade features and good prognosis. PMID:26722237

  19. Hyperleptinemia is associated with parameters of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in obese human beings.

    PubMed

    Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Solís-Lozano, Lourdes; Suárez-Álvarez, Karina; González-Chávez, Antonio; Béjar, Yadira L; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo; Escobedo, Galileo

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone that has been involved in hypothalamic and systemic inflammation, altered food-intake patterns, and metabolic dysfunction in obese mice. However, it remains unclear whether leptin has a relationship with parameters of systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in humans. We thus evaluated in a cross-sectional study the circulating levels of leptin in 40 non-obese and 41 obese Mexican individuals, examining their relationship with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 12, IL-10, central obesity, serum glucose and insulin levels, and serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. Circulating levels of leptin, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-10, and insulin were measured by ELISA, while concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol were determined by enzymatic assays. As expected, serum levels of leptin exhibited a significant elevation in obese individuals as compared to non-obese subjects, showing a clear association with increased body mass index (r = 0.4173), central obesity (r = 0.4678), and body fat percentage (r = 0.3583). Furthermore, leptin also showed a strong relationship with serum TNF-α (r = 0.6989), IL-12 (r = 0.3093), and IL-10 (r = -0.5691). Interestingly, leptin was also significantly related with high concentrations of fasting glucose (r = 0.5227) and insulin (r = 0.2229), as well as elevated levels of insulin resistance (r = 0.3611) and circulating triglyceride (r = 0.4135). These results suggest that hyperleptinemia is strongly associated with the occurrence of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic alteration in obese subjects. Further clinical research is still needed to determine whether hyperleptinemia may be a potential marker for recognizing the advent of obesity-related metabolic disorders in human beings.

  20. p53 protein in low-grade astrocytomas: a study with long-term follow-up.

    PubMed Central

    Iuzzolino, P.; Ghimenton, C.; Nicolato, A.; Giorgiutti, F.; Fina, P.; Doglioni, C.; Barbareschi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The immunohistochemical expression of p53 protein (p53) was examined in 52 patients out of a series of 66 patients with low-grade astrocytomas with long-term follow-up. All patients were also evaluated for several clinical and histological features, among which only preoperative Karnofsky score and the extent of surgery were statistically significant parameters to predict outcome on multivariate analysis. p53 accumulation was seen in 46.1% of patients, with a wide range of percentage of positive cells. Median survival for p53-positive and p53-negative patients was 41 and 37 months respectively. The survival curves of p53-positive and -negative patients were not statistically different. However, the curves showed a trend towards a more aggressive course in p53-positive patients beginning 3-4 years after surgery. Five years after diagnosis the survival estimate with the Kaplan-Meier method was 21.2% for patients with p53-positive tumours and 45.9% for patients with p53-negative tumours. This trend is not due to different distribution of major clinical prognostic factors (age, incomplete resection or Karnofsky status). The trend could be related to the time needed by the p53-positive clone to outgrow the rest of the p53-negative neoplastic cell population. This hypothesis is further supported by the fact that the five recurrences which were surgically removed (one anaplastic astrocytoma and four glioblastomas) derived from p53-positive tumours and were themselves intensely p53 positive. Images Figure 1 PMID:8123492

  1. Semiautomatic segmentation and follow-up of multicomponent low-grade tumors in longitudinal brain MRI studies

    SciTech Connect

    Weizman, Lior; Sira, Liat Ben; Joskowicz, Leo; Rubin, Daniel L.; Yeom, Kristen W.; Constantini, Shlomi; Shofty, Ben; Bashat, Dafna Ben

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Tracking the progression of low grade tumors (LGTs) is a challenging task, due to their slow growth rate and associated complex internal tumor components, such as heterogeneous enhancement, hemorrhage, and cysts. In this paper, the authors show a semiautomatic method to reliably track the volume of LGTs and the evolution of their internal components in longitudinal MRI scans. Methods: The authors' method utilizes a spatiotemporal evolution modeling of the tumor and its internal components. Tumor components gray level parameters are estimated from the follow-up scan itself, obviating temporal normalization of gray levels. The tumor delineation procedure effectively incorporates internal classification of the baseline scan in the time-series as prior data to segment and classify a series of follow-up scans. The authors applied their method to 40 MRI scans of ten patients, acquired at two different institutions. Two types of LGTs were included: Optic pathway gliomas and thalamic astrocytomas. For each scan, a “gold standard” was obtained manually by experienced radiologists. The method is evaluated versus the gold standard with three measures: gross total volume error, total surface distance, and reliability of tracking tumor components evolution. Results: Compared to the gold standard the authors' method exhibits a mean Dice similarity volumetric measure of 86.58% and a mean surface distance error of 0.25 mm. In terms of its reliability in tracking the evolution of the internal components, the method exhibits strong positive correlation with the gold standard. Conclusions: The authors' method provides accurate and repeatable delineation of the tumor and its internal components, which is essential for therapy assessment of LGTs. Reliable tracking of internal tumor components over time is novel and potentially will be useful to streamline and improve follow-up of brain tumors, with indolent growth and behavior.

  2. Design and Numerical Simulation of a Symbiotic Thermoelectric Power Generation System Fed by a Low-Grade Heat Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraji, Amir Yadollah; Singh, Randeep; Mochizuki, Masataka; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2014-06-01

    All liquid heating systems, including solar thermal collectors and fossil-fueled heaters, are designed to convert low-temperature liquid to high-temperature liquid. In the presence of low- and high-temperature fluids, temperature differences can be created across thermoelectric devices to produce electricity so that the heat dissipated from the hot side of a thermoelectric device will be absorbed by the cold liquid and this preheated liquid enters the heating cycle and increases the efficiency of the heater. Consequently, because of the avoidance of waste heat on the thermoelectric hot side, the efficiency of heat-to-electricity conversion with this configuration is better than that of conventional thermoelectric power generation systems. This research aims to design and analyze a thermoelectric power generation system based on the concept described above and using a low-grade heat source. This system may be used to generate electricity either in direct conjunction with any renewable energy source which produces hot water (solar thermal collectors) or using waste hot water from industry. The concept of this system is designated "ELEGANT," an acronym from "Efficient Liquid-based Electricity Generation Apparatus iNside Thermoelectrics." The first design of ELEGANT comprised three rectangular aluminum channels, used to conduct warm and cold fluids over the surfaces of several commercially available thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules sandwiched between the channels. In this study, an ELEGANT with 24 TEG modules, referred to as ELEGANT-24, has been designed. Twenty-four modules was the best match to the specific geometry of the proposed ELEGANT. The thermoelectric modules in ELEGANT-24 were electrically connected in series, and the maximum output power was modeled. A numerical model has been developed, which provides steady-state forecasts of the electrical output of ELEGANT-24 for different inlet fluid temperatures.

  3. Hydrometallurgical recovery of heavy metals from low grade automobile shredder residue (ASR): An application of advanced Fenton process (AFP).

    PubMed

    Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-09-15

    To investigate the leaching and recovery of heavy metals from low-grade automobile shredder residue (ASR), the effects of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, leaching temperature and ASR particle size fractions on the heavy metal leaching rate were determined. The heavy metals were recovered by fractional precipitation and advanced Fenton process (AFP) at different pHs. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test was also performed in the residue remaining after heavy metal leaching to evaluate the potential toxicity of ASR. The heavy metal leaching efficiency was increased with increasing HNO3 and H2O2 concentrations, L/S ratio and temperature. The heavy metal leaching efficiencies were maximized in the lowest ASR size fraction at 303 K and L/S ratio of 100 mL/g. The kinetic study showed that the metal leaching was best represented by a second-order reaction model, with a value of R(2) > 0.99 for all selected heavy metals. The determined activation energy (kJ/mol) was 21.61, 17.10, 12.15, 34.50, 13.07 and 11.45 for Zn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr, respectively. In the final residue, the concentrations of Cd, Cr and Pb were under their threshold limits in all ASR size fractions. Hydrometallurgical metal recovery was greatly increased by AFP up to 99.96% for Zn, 99.97% for Fe, 95.62% for Ni, 99.62% for Pb, 94.11% for Cd and 96.79% for Cr. AFP is highly recommended for the recovery of leached metals from solution even at low concentrations. PMID:26143080

  4. KRAS (but not BRAF) mutations in ovarian serous borderline tumor are associated with recurrent low-grade serous carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Yvonne T.; Deavers, Michael T.; Sun, Charlotte C.; Kwan, Suet-Yan; Kuo, Eric; Malpica, Anais; Mok, Samuel C.; Gershenson, David M.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2014-01-01

    BRAF and KRAS mutations in ovarian serous borderline tumors (OSBTs) and ovarian low-grade serous carcinomas (LGSCs) have been previously described. However, whether those OSBTs would progress to LGSCs or those LGSCs were developed from OSBT precursors in previous studies is unknown. Therefore, we assessed KRAS and BRAF mutations in tumor samples from 23 recurrent LGSC patients with known initial diagnosis of OSBT. Paraffin blocks from both OSBT and LGSC samples were available for 5 patients, and either OSBT or LGSC were available for another 18 patients. Tumor cells from paraffin-embedded tissues were dissected out for mutation analysis by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequencing. Tumors that appeared to have wild-type KRAS by conventional PCR–Sanger sequencing were further analyzed by full COLD (coamplification at lower denaturation temperature)-PCR and deep sequencing. Full COLD-PCR was able to enrich the amplification of mutated alleles. Deep sequencing was performed with the Ion Torrent personal genome machine (PGM). By conventional PCR–Sanger sequencing, BRAF mutation was detected only in one patient and KRAS mutations were detected in 10 patients. Full COLD-PCR deep sequencing detected low-abundance KRAS mutations in eight additional patients. Three of the five patients with both OSBT and LGSC samples available had the same KRAS mutations detected in both OSBT and LGSC samples. The remaining two patients had only KRAS mutations detected in their LGSC samples. For patients with either OSBT or LGSC samples available, KRAS mutations were detected in 7 OSBT samples and 6 LGSC samples. To our surprise, patients with the KRAS G12V mutation appeared to have shorter survival times. In summary, KRAS mutations are very common in recurrent LGSC, while BRAF mutations are rare. The findings indicate that recurrent LGSC can arise from proliferation of OSBT tumor cells with or without detectable KRAS mutations. PMID:24549645

  5. Resecting diffuse low-grade gliomas to the boundaries of brain functions: a new concept in surgical neuro-oncology.

    PubMed

    Duffau, H

    2015-12-01

    The traditional dilemma making surgery for diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGGs) challenging is underlain by the need to optimize tumor resection in order to significantly increase survival versus the risk of permanent neurological morbidity. Development of neuroimaging led neurosurgeons to achieve tumorectomy according to the oncological limits provided by preoperative or intraoperative structural and metabolic imaging. However, this principle is not coherent, neither with the infiltrative nature of DLGGs nor with the limited resolution of current neuroimaging. Indeed, despite technical advances, MRI still underestimates the actual spatial extent of gliomas, since tumoral cells are present several millimeters to centimeters beyond the area of signal abnormalities. Furthermore, cortical and subcortical structures may be still crucial for brain functions despite their invasion by this diffuse tumoral disease. Finally, the lack of reliability of functional MRI has also been demonstrated. Therefore, to talk about "maximal safe resection" based upon neuroimaging is a non-sense, because oncological MRI does not show the tumor and functional MRI does not show critical neural pathways. This review proposes an original concept in neuro-oncological surgery, i.e. to resect DLGG to the boundaries of brain functions, thanks to intraoperative electrical mapping performed in awake patients. This paradigmatic shift from image-guided resection to functional mapping-guided resection, based upon an accurate study of brain connectomics and neuroplasticity in each patient throughout tumor removal has permitted to solve the classical dilemma, by increasing both survival and quality of life in DLGG patients. With this in mind, brain surgeons should also be neuroscientists.

  6. Genetic and epigenetic characterization of low-grade gliomas reveals frequent methylation of the MLH3 gene.

    PubMed

    Lhotska, Halka; Zemanova, Zuzana; Cechova, Hana; Ransdorfova, Sarka; Lizcova, Libuse; Kramar, Filip; Krejcik, Zdenek; Svobodova, Karla; Bystricka, Dagmar; Hrabal, Petr; Dohnalova, Alena; Michalova, Kyra

    2015-11-01

    Diffuse astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade II) are the most common histological subtypes of low-grade gliomas (LGGs). Several molecular and epigenetic markers have been identified that predict tumor progression. Our aim was in detail to investigate the genetic and epigenetic background of LGGs and to identify new markers that might play a role in tumor behavior. Twenty-three patients with oligodendroglioma or oligoastrocytoma (LGO) and 22 patients with diffuse astrocytoma (LGA) were investigated using several molecular-cytogenetic and molecular methods to assess their copy number variations, mutational status and level of promoter methylation. The most frequent findings were a 1p/19q codeletion in 83% of LGO and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) of 17p in 72% of LGA. Somatic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH1/IDH2) genes were detected in 96% of LGO and 91% of LGA. The O-6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter was methylated in 83% of LGO and 59% of LGA. MutL homolog 3 (MLH3) promoter methylation was observed in 61% of LGO and 27% of LGA. Methylation of the MGMT promoter, 1p/19q codeletion, mutated IDH1, and CN-LOH of 17p were the most frequent genetic aberrations in LGGs. The findings were more diverse in LGA than in LGO. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time description of methylation of the MLH3 gene promoter in LGGs. Further studies are required to determine the role of the methylated MLH3 promoter and the other aberrations detected.

  7. The role of up-front radiation therapy for incompletely resected pediatric WHO grade II low-grade gliomas1

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Kavita K.; Puri, Dev R.; Missett, Brian T.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Prados, Michael D.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Banerjee, Anuradha; Gupta, Nalin; Wara, William M.; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of early radiation therapy and extent of surgical resection on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in children with WHO grade II low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We conducted a historical cohort study of 90 patients, ages 21 or younger, diagnosed with WHO grade II LGGs between 1970 and 1995. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 9.4 years (range, 0.5–22.6 years). Tests for variables correlating with OS and PFS were conducted by using log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards models. Eleven patients underwent gross total resections (GTRs), 43 had subtotal resections, and 34 underwent biopsy only at diagnosis. Two patients underwent biopsy at time of recurrence. Of the 90 patients, 52 received radiation as part of their initial therapy following diagnosis (early-RT group). The overall five-year PFS and OS rates ± SE were 56% ± 5% and 90% ± 3%, respectively. Ten-year PFS and OS rates were 42% ± 6% and 81% ± 5%, respectively. For patients older than three years and without GTRs, administration of early radiation did not appear to influence PFS or OS (P = 0.98 and P = 0.40, respectively; log-rank test). This was confirmed by multivariate analyses (P = 0.95 and P = 0.33 for PFS and OS, respectively). Of the 11 patients with GTRs, disease progressed in only two, and all were alive with no evidence of disease at last follow-up. Patients who underwent GTRs had significantly longer PFS (P = 0.02), but did not have significantly improved OS. Excellent long-term survival rates were achieved for children with WHO grade II LGGs. We were unable to demonstrate a benefit for administering radiation as part of initial treatment. An outcome benefit was seen with greater extent of resection. PMID:16495375

  8. Surface Papillary Epithelial Hyperplasia (Rough Mucosa) is a Helpful Clue for Identification of Polymorphous Low-Grade Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chi, Angela C; Neville, Brad W

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate surface papillary epithelial hyperplasia, a microscopic finding that corresponds to the clinical finding of rough or stippled mucosa, as a predictor of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA). We conducted a retrospective review of minor salivary gland neoplasms submitted to our biopsy service from 1991 to 2013. Our review was limited to lesions involving the oral cavity/soft palate with the following diagnoses: PLGA, pleomorphic adenoma (PA), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). A total of 202 minor salivary gland neoplasms were included in the study. Among cases in which surface epithelium was present for evaluation (n = 112), surface papillary epithelial hyperplasia was evident in 30 % of PLGA and 1 % of non-PLGA (i.e., MEC, ACC, PA). The greater frequency of surface papillary epithelial hyperplasia in the PLGA versus non-PLGA cases and in the benign versus malignant cases was significant (p = .0001 and p = .041, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of papillary epithelial hyperplasia for PLGA were 30 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 11.97-54.27 %) and 99 % (95 % CI 94-99.82 %), respectively. The clinical presentation of PLGA appeared relatively nonspecific, with all analyzed tumor types exhibiting a predilection for females, middle-aged to older adults, palatal location, pink/tan/normal color, and firm consistency. In conclusion, papillary epithelial hyperplasia was evident in only a minority of PLGA. However, when present within the context of a palatal salivary gland neoplasm, it appears to indicate a high probability of PLGA. Accordingly, rough mucosa may be a useful clinical pearl for identification of PLGA.

  9. Hydrometallurgical recovery of heavy metals from low grade automobile shredder residue (ASR): An application of advanced Fenton process (AFP).

    PubMed

    Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-09-15

    To investigate the leaching and recovery of heavy metals from low-grade automobile shredder residue (ASR), the effects of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, leaching temperature and ASR particle size fractions on the heavy metal leaching rate were determined. The heavy metals were recovered by fractional precipitation and advanced Fenton process (AFP) at different pHs. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test was also performed in the residue remaining after heavy metal leaching to evaluate the potential toxicity of ASR. The heavy metal leaching efficiency was increased with increasing HNO3 and H2O2 concentrations, L/S ratio and temperature. The heavy metal leaching efficiencies were maximized in the lowest ASR size fraction at 303 K and L/S ratio of 100 mL/g. The kinetic study showed that the metal leaching was best represented by a second-order reaction model, with a value of R(2) > 0.99 for all selected heavy metals. The determined activation energy (kJ/mol) was 21.61, 17.10, 12.15, 34.50, 13.07 and 11.45 for Zn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr, respectively. In the final residue, the concentrations of Cd, Cr and Pb were under their threshold limits in all ASR size fractions. Hydrometallurgical metal recovery was greatly increased by AFP up to 99.96% for Zn, 99.97% for Fe, 95.62% for Ni, 99.62% for Pb, 94.11% for Cd and 96.79% for Cr. AFP is highly recommended for the recovery of leached metals from solution even at low concentrations.

  10. Total lymphoid irradiation for treatment of intractable cardiac allograft rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, S.A.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Stinson, E.B. )

    1991-03-01

    The ability of postoperative total lymphoid irradiation to reverse otherwise intractable cardiac allograft rejection was examined in a group of 10 patients in whom conventional rejection therapy (including pulsed steroids and monoclonal or polyclonal anti-T-cell antibody therapy) had failed to provide sustained freedom from rejection. Follow-up periods range from 73 to 1119 days since the start of total lymphoid irradiation. No patient died or sustained serious morbidity because of the irradiation. Three patients have had no further rejection (follow-up periods, 105 to 365 days). Two patients died--one in cardiogenic shock during the course of total lymphoid irradiation, the other with recurrent rejection caused by noncompliance with his medical regimen. Total lymphoid irradiation appears to be a safe and a moderately effective immunosuppressive modality for 'salvage' therapy of cardiac allograft rejection unresponsive to conventional therapy.

  11. Intestinal absorption of colostral lymphoid cells in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Tuboly, S; Bernáth, S; Glávits, R; Medveczky, I

    1988-12-01

    Intestinal absorption of colostral lymphoid cells was studied in 23 piglets of four sows (sows A, B, C and D). From the colostrum and blood of the sows the lymphoid cells were isolated with Ficoll-Paque and labelled with technetium (Na99mTcO4). In the 7th hour after birth, 5-ml volumes of the cell suspensions were injected, following laparotomy, directly into the stomach (piglets of sow A) or into the jejunum (piglets of sow B), whereas piglets of sows C and D received the suspensions through a naso-oesophageal tube. Cryostat sections of duodenum, jejunum and lymph node samples of piglets killed by bleeding 8 h after the treatment were examined by autoradiography. It was found that lymphoid cells present in the colostrum of a piglet's own mother were absorbed from the digestive tract and, via the lymphatic vessels, were transported to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Electron microscopy revealed that absorption took place intercellularly. Colostral cells of sows other than a piglet's own mother were observed only in the epithelial layer of the mucous membrane. The lymphoid cells isolated from the sows' blood and heat-treated colostral lymphoid cells were not absorbed. The results indicate that in the pig, an animal having an epitheliochorial placenta, the colostral lymphoid cells are absorbed from the digestive tract and, hence, they can confer an active cellular immunity on the newborn piglets.

  12. Therapeutic Potential of Resveratrol in Lymphoid Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Khan, Omar S; Bhat, Ajaz A; Krishnankutty, Roopesh; Mohammad, Ramzi M; Uddin, Shahab

    2016-01-01

    Natural products have always been sought as a dependable source for the cure of many fatal diseases including cancer. Resveratrol (RSV), a naturally occurring plant polyphenol, has been of recent research interest and is being investigated for its beneficial biological properties that include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, proapoptotic, and growth inhibitory activities. These effects are mainly mediated by cell cycle arrest, upregulation of proapoptotic proteins, loss of mitochondrial potential, and generation of reactive oxygen species. Among the beneficial properties of RSV, the anticancer property has been of the prime focus and extensively explored during the last few years. Although reports exist on the chemopreventive role of RSV in many solid tumors, limited information is available on the antiproliferative activity of RSV in human lymphoma cells and experimental models. Potential mechanisms for its antiproliferative effect include induction of cell differentiation, apoptosis, and inhibition of DNA synthesis. In this review, the different kinds of lymphoid malignancies and the main mechanisms of cell death induced by resveratrol are discussed. The challenges are limiting in vivo experimental studies involving resveratrol. An attempt for the translation of this compound into a clinical drug also forms a part of this review. PMID:27028800

  13. [Characteristics of the lymphoid cells of rabbits].

    PubMed

    Bondarev, I M; Selitskaia, R P; Mikhaĭlov, A B

    1978-01-01

    By means of scanning electron microscopy it has been stated that the thymus gland, spleen, paratracheal lymph node, Peyer's patches and appendix in an intact rabbit of "Shinshilla" strain have T- and B-lymphocytes in different proportion. T-lymphocytes are seen as spherical cells with rough surface, with a few microprocesses, have 3.0 +/- 0.1 mcm--4.7 +/- 0.2 mcm in diameter depending on their location. B-lymphocytes are seen as spherical cells with a considerable amount of microvilli on their surface, have 2.9 +/- 0.1 mcm--4.4 +/- 0.1 mcm in diameter depending also on their location. In the thymus gland, cells with rough surface, a few microprocesses and crater-like hollows prevail. In the spleen and lymph node, most of the cells are of similar diameter and have microvilli on the surface. Lymphoid population in the Peyer's patch and appendix is represented by large cells with microprocesses. PMID:305239

  14. Chromosome 3 anomalies investigated by genome wide SNP analysis of benign, low malignant potential and low grade ovarian serous tumours.

    PubMed

    Birch, Ashley H; Arcand, Suzanna L; Oros, Kathleen K; Rahimi, Kurosh; Watters, A Kevin; Provencher, Diane; Greenwood, Celia M; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Tonin, Patricia N

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian carcinomas exhibit extensive heterogeneity, and their etiology remains unknown. Histological and genetic evidence has led to the proposal that low grade ovarian serous carcinomas (LGOSC) have a different etiology than high grade carcinomas (HGOSC), arising from serous tumours of low malignant potential (LMP). Common regions of chromosome (chr) 3 loss have been observed in all types of serous ovarian tumours, including benign, suggesting that these regions contain genes important in the development of all ovarian serous carcinomas. A high-density genome-wide genotyping bead array technology, which assayed >600,000 markers, was applied to a panel of serous benign and LMP tumours and a small set of LGOSC, to characterize somatic events associated with the most indolent forms of ovarian disease. The genomic patterns inferred were related to TP53, KRAS and BRAF mutations. An increasing frequency of genomic anomalies was observed with pathology of disease: 3/22 (13.6%) benign cases, 40/53 (75.5%) LMP cases and 10/11 (90.9%) LGOSC cases. Low frequencies of chr3 anomalies occurred in all tumour types. Runs of homozygosity were most commonly observed on chr3, with the 3p12-p11 candidate tumour suppressor region the most frequently homozygous region in the genome. An LMP harboured a homozygous deletion on chr6 which created a GOPC-ROS1 fusion gene, previously reported as oncogenic in other cancer types. Somatic TP53, KRAS and BRAF mutations were not observed in benign tumours. KRAS-mutation positive LMP cases displayed significantly more chromosomal aberrations than BRAF-mutation positive or KRAS and BRAF mutation negative cases. Gain of 12p, which harbours the KRAS gene, was particularly evident. A pathology review reclassified all TP53-mutation positive LGOSC cases, some of which acquired a HGOSC status. Taken together, our results support the view that LGOSC could arise from serous benign and LMP tumours, but does not exclude the possibility that HGOSC may derive

  15. Clinical response to glycyrrhizinic acid in genital infection due to human papillomavirus and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Marcelino Hernández; Pacheco, Adia Carrillo; Quijano, Tomás Hernández; Girón, Antonio Vargas; López, Carlos Vargas

    2011-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) can infect any of the mucosal areas of the body and cause cervical cancer. Until recently, no specific treatments were available for this condition; therefore, any damaged tissue had to be removed or destroyed, which may have presented obstetrical repercussions for some women. Recently, new drugs have been developed that have shown to be effective for the cure of HPV infection. Glycyrrhizinic acid (GA) has shown fewer side effects and its systemic use makes it possible to reach difficult-to-treat lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of GA to eliminate the epithelial lesion and HPV. We carried out a longitudinal, descriptive study that included women of reproductive age who were diagnosed with HPV associated with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Subjects began treatment based on GA using two routes of administration - systemic (oral) and topical (spray) - with assessments every month to determine the clinical changes of the lesions through colposcopy and Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Simple statistics were used along with two-tailed Student's t-test; P<0.05 was considered statistically significant before and after treatment. There were 70 eligible patients, of whom 62 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Age of subjects was 27.8±9.5 years. At the time of the study, 100% of the patients had HPV infection, 40% were associated with LSIL, and only 16% used a barrier contraceptive (condom) method. Resolution was achieved in all patients from 4 weeks of treatment initiation and improvement was achieved in the majority of patients at 12 weeks (74%) (P<0.001). However, there was persistence of LSIL in 27.7% of patients and only one patient progressed to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II. The use of GA proved to be effective in resolving clinical HPV lesions. For cervical lesions with epithelial changes (LSIL), treatment may be required for a longer period as with other drugs used for this

  16. Progression from low-grade dysplasia to malignancy in patients with Barrett's esophagus diagnosed by two or more pathologists

    PubMed Central

    Moole, Harsha; Patel, Jaymon; Ahmed, Zohair; Duvvuri, Abhiram; Vennelaganti, Sreekar; Moole, Vishnu; Dharmapuri, Sowmya; Boddireddy, Raghuveer; Yedama, Pratyusha; Bondalapati, Naveen; Uppu, Achuta; Vennelaganti, Prashanth; Puli, Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate annual incidence of low grade dysplasia (LGD) progression to high grade dysplasia (HGD) and/or esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) when diagnosis was made by two or more expert pathologists. METHODS Studies evaluating the progression of LGD to HGD or EAC were included. The diagnosis of LGD must be made by consensus of two or more expert gastrointestinal pathologists. Articles were searched in Medline, Pubmed, and Embase. Pooled proportions were calculated using fixed and random effects model. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed using the I2 statistic. RESULTS Initial search identified 721 reference articles, of which 53 were selected and reviewed. Twelve studies (n = 971) that met the inclusion criteria were included in this analysis. Among the total original LGD diagnoses in the included studies, only 37.49% reached the consensus LGD diagnosis after review by two or more expert pathologists. Total follow up period was 1532 patient-years. In the pooled consensus LGD patients, the annual incidence rate (AIR) of progression to HGD and or EAC was 10.35% (95%CI: 7.56-13.13) and progression to EAC was 5.18% (95%CI: 3.43-6.92). Among the patients down staged from original LGD diagnosis to No-dysplasia Barrett’s esophagus, the AIR of progression to HGD and EAC was 0.65% (95%CI: 0.49-0.80). Among the patients down staged to Indefinite for dysplasia, the AIR of progression to HGD and EAC was 1.42% (95%CI: 1.19-1.65). In patients with consensus HGD diagnosis, the AIR of progression to EAC was 28.63% (95%CI: 13.98-43.27). CONCLUSION When LGD is diagnosed by consensus agreement of two or more expert pathologists, its progression towards malignancy seems to be at least three times the current estimates, however it could be up to 20 times the current estimates. Biopsies of all Barrett’s esophagus patients with LGD should be reviewed by two expert gastroenterology pathologists. Follow-up strict surveillance programs should be in place for these patients.

  17. Chromosome 3 Anomalies Investigated by Genome Wide SNP Analysis of Benign, Low Malignant Potential and Low Grade Ovarian Serous Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Ashley H.; Arcand, Suzanna L.; Oros, Kathleen K.; Rahimi, Kurosh; Watters, A. Kevin; Provencher, Diane; Greenwood, Celia M.; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Tonin, Patricia N.

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian carcinomas exhibit extensive heterogeneity, and their etiology remains unknown. Histological and genetic evidence has led to the proposal that low grade ovarian serous carcinomas (LGOSC) have a different etiology than high grade carcinomas (HGOSC), arising from serous tumours of low malignant potential (LMP). Common regions of chromosome (chr) 3 loss have been observed in all types of serous ovarian tumours, including benign, suggesting that these regions contain genes important in the development of all ovarian serous carcinomas. A high-density genome-wide genotyping bead array technology, which assayed >600,000 markers, was applied to a panel of serous benign and LMP tumours and a small set of LGOSC, to characterize somatic events associated with the most indolent forms of ovarian disease. The genomic patterns inferred were related to TP53, KRAS and BRAF mutations. An increasing frequency of genomic anomalies was observed with pathology of disease: 3/22 (13.6%) benign cases, 40/53 (75.5%) LMP cases and 10/11 (90.9%) LGOSC cases. Low frequencies of chr3 anomalies occurred in all tumour types. Runs of homozygosity were most commonly observed on chr3, with the 3p12-p11 candidate tumour suppressor region the most frequently homozygous region in the genome. An LMP harboured a homozygous deletion on chr6 which created a GOPC-ROS1 fusion gene, previously reported as oncogenic in other cancer types. Somatic TP53, KRAS and BRAF mutations were not observed in benign tumours. KRAS-mutation positive LMP cases displayed significantly more chromosomal aberrations than BRAF-mutation positive or KRAS and BRAF mutation negative cases. Gain of 12p, which harbours the KRAS gene, was particularly evident. A pathology review reclassified all TP53-mutation positive LGOSC cases, some of which acquired a HGOSC status. Taken together, our results support the view that LGOSC could arise from serous benign and LMP tumours, but does not exclude the possibility that HGOSC may derive

  18. Prognostic factors in low grade (WHO grade II) gliomas of the cerebral hemispheres: the role of surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Scerrati, M; Roselli, R; Iacoangeli, M; Pompucci, A; Rossi, G F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of surgery on survival of patients with grade II gliomas of the cerebral hemispheres. METHODS: One hundred and thirty one low grade hemispheric gliomas surgically treated (biopsied patients excluded) between 1978 and 1989 were retrospectively reviewed. Thalamic, basal ganglia, callosal, or ventricular location were not considered. All tumours were World Health Organisation (WHO) grade II gliomas: 42 fibrillary and 11 gemistocytic astrocytomas, 49 oligodendrogliomas, and 29 oligoastrocytomas. Patients' ages ranged from 14 to 63 (mean 32.9, median 34) years, Karnofsky performance from 0.50 to 0.90 (mean 80.7, median 80), and postsurgical follow up of the living patients from 24 to 190 (mean 97.02, median 93) months. Postoperative external radiotherapy was performed in 49 cases. RESULTS: The overall survival probability at five years was 97.1%, at eight years 76.1%, and at 10 years 62.7% (median survival time 144 months). The impact on survival of the following variables was analysed: age (< 20, 21-40, and > 40 years), Karnofsky score (80-100, 70 < or = 70), histology, tumour extension (T1 < 3 cm, T2 3-5 cm, T3 > 5 cm maximum diameter), extent of surgical resection (S1 radical, S2 subtotal < 10% residual tumour, S3 partial-10%-50% residual tumour), and radiotherapy (either performed or not). A significant positive association with survival at univariate analysis was found for the age group < 20 years (P = 0.003), for total and subtotal surgical resections (S1 and S2; P < 0.001) and for the non-irradiated patients (P = 0.0049), whereas a shorter survival probability was noticed for gemistocytic astrocytomas (P < 0.001) and for tumour extension > 5 cm (T3; P = 0.0193). Karnofsky performance did not show any significant association with survival. The most relevant factor affecting survival at the multivariate analysis was the extent of surgical resection, which resulted as the only variable retaining a significant value (P = 0.001, risk

  19. Comparing high-resolution microscopy techniques for potential intraoperative use in guiding low-grade glioma resections

    PubMed Central

    Meza, Daphne; Wang, Danni; Wang, Yu “Winston”; Borwege, Sabine; Sanai, Nader; Liu, Jonathan T.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Fluorescence image-guided surgery (FIGS), with contrast provided by 5-ALA-induced-PpIX, has been shown to enable a higher extent of resection of high-grade gliomas. However, conventional FIGS with low-power microscopy lacks the sensitivity to aid in low-grade glioma (LGG) resection because PpIX signal is weak and sparse in such tissues. Intraoperative high-resolution microscopy of PpIX fluorescence has been proposed as a method to guide LGG resection, where sub-cellular resolution allows for the visualization of sparse and punctate mitochondrial PpIX production in tumor cells. Here, we assess the performance of three potentially portable high-resolution microscopy techniques that may be used for the intraoperative imaging of human LGG tissue samples with PpIX contrast: high-resolution fiber-optic microscopy (HRFM), high-resolution wide-field microscopy (WFM), and dual-axis confocal (DAC) microscopy. Materials and Methods Thick unsectioned human LGG tissue samples (n = 7) with ALA-induced-PpIX contrast were imaged using three imaging techniques (HRFM, WFM, DAC). The average signal-to-background ratio (SBR) was then calculated for each imaging modality (5 images per tissue, per modality). Results HRFM provides the ease of use and portability of a flexible fiber bundle, and is simple and inexpensive to build. However, in most cases (6/7), HRFM is not capable of detecting PpIX signal from LGGs due to high autofluorescence, generated by the fiber bundle under laser illumination at 405 nm, which overwhelms the PpIX signal and impedes its visualization. WFM is a camera-based method possessing high lateral resolution but poor axial resolution, resulting in sub-optimal image contrast. Conclusions Consistent successful detection of PpIX signal throughout our human LGG tissue samples (n = 7), with an acceptable image contrast (SBR > 2), was only achieved using DAC microscopy, which offers superior image resolution and contrast that is comparable to

  20. The Pattern of Myometrial Invasion As a Predictor of Lymph Node Metastasis or Extrauterine Disease in Low Grade Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Euscher, Elizabeth; Fox, Patricia; Bassett, Roland; Al-Ghawi, Hayma; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Barbuto, Denise; Djordjevic, Bojana; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth; Kim, Insun; Hong, Sun Rang; Montiel, Delia; Moschiano, Elizabeth; Roma, Andres; Silva, Elvio; Malpica, Anais

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of lymph node metastases (LN+) or extrauterine disease (ED) in low grade (FIGO grades 1 or 2) endometrioid carcinoma (LGEC) in a multi institutional setting. For LGEC with and without LNM or ED, each of the 9 participating institutions evaluated patients age, tumor size, myometrial invasion (MI), FIGO grade, % solid component, the presence or absence of papillary architecture, microcystic elongated and fragmented glands (MELF) and single cell/cell cluster invasion (SCI), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), lower uterine segment (LUS) and cervical stromal (CX) involvement and numbers of pelvic (PLN) and para-aortic (PALN) LNs sampled.302 cases were reviewed: LN+ or ED +, 96; LN-/ED-, 208. Patients' ages ranged from 23-91 yrs (median 61). Table 1 summarizes the histopathologic variables that were noted for the LN+ or ED+ group: tumor size ≥2cm, 93/96 (97%), MI >50%, 54/96 (56%), MELF, 67/96 (70%), SCI, 33/96 (34%), LVI, 79/96 (82%), >20% solid, 65/96 (68%), papillary architecture present, 68/96 (72%), LUS involved, 64/96 (67%) and CX involved, 31/96 (32%). For the LN-/ED- group, the results were as follows: tumor size ≥2cm, 152/208 (73%), MI >50%, 56/208 (27%), MELF, 79/208 (38%), single cell invasion, 19/208 (9%) , LVI, 56/208 (27%), >20% solid, 160/208 (77%), papillary architecture present, 122/208 (59%), LUS involved, 77/208 (37%), CX involved, 31/208 (15%). There was no evidence of a difference in the number of pelvic or para-aortic LNs sampled between groups (p=0.9 and 0.1, respectively). Following multivariate analysis, depth of myometrial invasion, cervical stromal involvement, lymphovascular space invasion, and the single cell pattern of invasion emerged as significant predictors of advanced stage disease. Although univariate analysis pointed to LUS involvement, MELF pattern of invasion, and papillary architecture as possible predictors of advanced stage disease, these were not shown to be significant by

  1. Clinical response to glycyrrhizinic acid in genital infection due to human papillomavirus and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Marcelino Hernández; Pacheco, Adia Carrillo; Quijano, Tomás Hernández; Girón, Antonio Vargas; López, Carlos Vargas

    2011-09-28

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) can infect any of the mucosal areas of the body and cause cervical cancer. Until recently, no specific treatments were available for this condition; therefore, any damaged tissue had to be removed or destroyed, which may have presented obstetrical repercussions for some women. Recently, new drugs have been developed that have shown to be effective for the cure of HPV infection. Glycyrrhizinic acid (GA) has shown fewer side effects and its systemic use makes it possible to reach difficult-to-treat lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of GA to eliminate the epithelial lesion and HPV. We carried out a longitudinal, descriptive study that included women of reproductive age who were diagnosed with HPV associated with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Subjects began treatment based on GA using two routes of administration - systemic (oral) and topical (spray) - with assessments every month to determine the clinical changes of the lesions through colposcopy and Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Simple statistics were used along with two-tailed Student's t-test; P<0.05 was considered statistically significant before and after treatment. There were 70 eligible patients, of whom 62 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Age of subjects was 27.8±9.5 years. At the time of the study, 100% of the patients had HPV infection, 40% were associated with LSIL, and only 16% used a barrier contraceptive (condom) method. Resolution was achieved in all patients from 4 weeks of treatment initiation and improvement was achieved in the majority of patients at 12 weeks (74%) (P<0.001). However, there was persistence of LSIL in 27.7% of patients and only one patient progressed to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II. The use of GA proved to be effective in resolving clinical HPV lesions. For cervical lesions with epithelial changes (LSIL), treatment may be required for a longer period as with other drugs used for this

  2. Validation of EORTC Prognostic Factors for Adults With Low-Grade Glioma: A Report Using Intergroup 86-72-51

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Thomas B.; Brown, Paul D.; Felten, Sara J.; Wu, Wenting; Buckner, Jan C.; Arusell, Robert M.; Curran, Walter J.; Abrams, Ross A.; Schiff, David; Shaw, Edward G.

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: A prognostic index for survival was constructed and validated from patient data from two European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) radiation trials for low-grade glioma (LGG). We sought to independently validate this prognostic index with a separate prospectively collected data set (Intergroup 86-72-51). Methods and Materials: Two hundred three patients were treated in a North Central Cancer Treatment Group-led trial that randomized patients with supratentorial LGG to 50.4 or 64.8 Gy. Risk factors from the EORTC prognostic index were analyzed for prognostic value: histology, tumor size, neurologic deficit, age, and tumor crossing the midline. The high-risk group was defined as patients with more than two risk factors. In addition, the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score, extent of surgical resection, and 1p19q status were also analyzed for prognostic value. Results: On univariate analysis, the following were statistically significant (p < 0.05) detrimental factors for both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS): astrocytoma histology, tumor size, and less than total resection. A Mini Mental Status Examination score of more than 26 was a favorable prognostic factor. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size and MMSE score were significant predictors of OS whereas tumor size, astrocytoma histology, and MMSE score were significant predictors of PFS. Analyzing by the EORTC risk groups, we found that the low-risk group had significantly better median OS (10.8 years vs. 3.9 years, p < 0.0001) and PFS (6.2 years vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.0001) than the high-risk group. The 1p19q status was available in 66 patients. Co-deletion of 1p19q was a favorable prognostic factor for OS vs. one or no deletion (median OS, 12.6 years vs. 7.2 years; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Although the low-risk group as defined by EORTC criteria had a superior PFS and OS to the high-risk group, this is primarily because of the influence of

  3. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor and Toll-Like Receptor Gene Expression Is Associated with Low-Grade Inflammation in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Jizhong, Song; Qiaomin, Wang; Chao, Wang

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of low-grade inflammation in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is unclear; our research concentrates on the involvement of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) gene expression in the process of low-grade inflammation in IBS patients with depression. This study suggests more IBS patients are presenting with the states of depression and anxiety. IBS patients with depression have shown a lower grade inflammatory response and an imbalance of the inflammatory response. CRF1, CRF2, TLR2, and TLR4 in IBS patients with depression are significantly higher than those without depression and controls. Thus, activation of the CRF-TLR associated pathways produces an inflammatory reaction, which can concurrently affect the digestive tract and the CNS and induce the corresponding digestive and psychiatric symptoms. PMID:27478433

  4. TEM/AEM characterization of fine-grained clay minerals in very-low-grade rocks: Evaluation of contamination by EMPA involving celadonite family minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Gejing; Peacor, D.R.; Coombs, D.S.; Kawachi, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Recent advances in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) have led to many new insights into the structural and chemical characteristics of very fine-grained, optically homogeneous mineral aggregates in sedimentary and very low-grade metamorphic rocks. Chemical compositions obtained by electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) on such materials have been shown by TEM/AEM to result from beam overlap on contaminant phases on a scale below resolution of EMPA, which in turn can lead to errors in interpretation and determination of formation conditions. Here we present an in-depth analysis of the relation between AEM and EMPA data, which leads also to the definition of new mineral phases, and demonstrate the resolution power of AEM relative to EMPA in investigations of very fine-grained mineral aggregates in sedimentary and very low-grade metamorphic rocks.

  5. Two-peaked 5-ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence emission spectrum distinguishes glioblastomas from low grade gliomas and infiltrative component of glioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Montcel, Bruno; Mahieu-Williame, Laurent; Armoiry, Xavier; Meyronet, David; Guyotat, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence enables to guiding in intra-operative surgical glioma resection. However at present, it has yet to be shown that this method is able to identify infiltrative component of glioma. In extracted tumor tissues we measured a two-peaked emission in low grade gliomas and in the infiltrative component of glioblastomas due to multiple photochemical states of PpIX. The second emission peak appearing at 620 nm (shifted by 14 nm from the main peak at 634 nm) limits the sensibility of current methods to measured PpIX concentration. We propose new measured parameters, by taking into consideration the two-peaked emission, to overcome these limitations in sensitivity. These parameters clearly distinguish the solid component of glioblastomas from low grade gliomas and infiltrative component of glioblastomas. PMID:23577290

  6. Crosstalk between intestinal microbiota, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle as an early event in systemic low-grade inflammation and the development of obesity and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bleau, Christian; Karelis, Antony D; St-Pierre, David H; Lamontagne, Lucie

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is associated with a systemic chronic low-grade inflammation that contributes to the development of metabolic disorders such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. However, the etiology of this obesity-related pro-inflammatory process remains unclear. Most studies have focused on adipose tissue dysfunctions and/or insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells as well as changes in adipokine profile and macrophage recruitment as potential sources of inflammation. However, low-grade systemic inflammation probably involves a complex network of signals interconnecting several organs. Recent evidences have suggested that disturbances in the composition of the gut microbial flora and alterations in levels of gut peptides following the ingestion of a high-fat diet may be a cause of low-grade systemic inflammation that may even precede and predispose to obesity, metabolic disorders or type 2 diabetes. This hypothesis is appealing because the gastrointestinal system is first exposed to nutrients and may thereby represent the first link in the chain of events leading to the development of obesity-associated systemic inflammation. Therefore, the present review will summarize the latest advances interconnecting intestinal mucosal bacteria-mediated inflammation, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in a coordinated circuitry favouring the onset of a high-fat diet-related systemic low-grade inflammation preceding obesity and predisposing to metabolic disorders and/or type 2 diabetes. A particular emphasis will be given to high-fat diet-induced alterations of gut homeostasis as an early initiator event of mucosal inflammation and adverse consequences contributing to the promotion of extended systemic inflammation, especially in adipose and muscular tissues.

  7. Expression of 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in human lymphoid and non lymphoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, A; Piantelli, M; Musiani, P; Larocca, L M; Revoltella, R P; Ranelletti, F O

    1986-01-01

    Expression of 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20 alpha-SDH), a putative T cell marker in the murine system, has been examined in human haematopoietic cells. Higher levels of enzymatic activity were expressed by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in comparison with thymocytes. When PBMC were fractionated into T and non T cell subsets, the greatest values of 20 alpha-SDH activity were associated with the non T cell population. Cells from bone marrow exhibited lower levels of 20 alpha-SDH than PBMC and thymocytes. Both myeloid and lymphoid leukaemic cells expressed significant 20 alpha-SDH activity. In addition our data in U-937 and CM-S human cell lines indicate that cells belonging to the myelomonocytic precursor compartment constitutively expressed 20 alpha-SDH activity. Furthermore, this activity was less expressed when these cells were induced to monocyte-macrophage differentiation. In conclusion, our data in the human system indicate that 20 alpha-SDH should not be viewed as a lymphoid lineage-restricted marker enzyme. PMID:3485485

  8. Comparison of indium-labeled-leukocyte imaging with sequential technetium-gallium scanning in the diagnosis of low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis. A prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, K.D.; Brown, M.L.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Fitzgerald, R.H. Jr.

    1985-03-01

    We prospectively compared sequential technetium-gallium imaging with indium-labeled-leukocyte imaging in fifty patients with suspected low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis. Adequate images and follow-up examinations were obtained for forty-two patients. The presence or absence of low-grade sepsis was confirmed by histological and bacteriological examinations of tissue specimens taken at surgery in thirty of the forty-two patients. In these thirty patients, the sensitivity of sequential Tc-Ga imaging was 48 per cent, the specificity was 86 per cent, and the accuracy was 57 per cent, whereas the sensitivity of the indium-labeled-leukocyte technique was 83 per cent, the specificity was 86 per cent, and the accuracy was 83 per cent. When the additional twelve patients for whom surgery was deemed unnecessary were considered, the sensitivity of sequential Tc-Ga imaging was 50 per cent, the specificity was 78 per cent, and the accuracy was 62 per cent, as compared with a sensitivity of 83 per cent, a specificity of 94 per cent, and an accuracy of 88 per cent with the indium-labeled-leukocyte method. In patients with a prosthesis the indium-labeled-leukocyte image was 94 per cent accurate, compared with 75 per cent accuracy for sequential Tc-Ga imaging. Statistical analysis of these data demonstrated that the indium-labeled-leukocyte technique was superior to sequential Tc-Ga imaging in detecting areas of low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis.

  9. Close Encounters of Lymphoid Cells and Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Adalia, Aranzazu; Veiga, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    During infections, the first reaction of the host against microbial pathogens is carried out by innate immune cells, which recognize conserved structures on pathogens, called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Afterward, some of these innate cells can phagocytose and destroy the pathogens, secreting cytokines that would modulate the immune response to the challenge. This rapid response is normally followed by the adaptive immunity, more specific and essential for a complete pathogen clearance in many cases. Some innate immune cells, usually named antigen-presenting cells, such as macrophages or dendritic cells, are able to process internalized invaders and present their antigens to lymphocytes, triggering the adaptive immune response. Nevertheless, the traditional boundary of separated roles between innate and adaptive immunity has been blurred by several studies, showing that very specialized populations of lymphocytes (cells of the adaptive immunity) behave similarly to cells of the innate immunity. These “innate-like” lymphocytes include γδ T cells, invariant NKT cells, B-1 cells, mucosal-associated invariant T cells, marginal zone B cells, and innate response activator cells, and together with the newly described innate lymphoid cells are able to rapidly respond to bacterial infections. Strikingly, our recent data suggest that conventional CD4+ T cells, the paradigm of cells of the adaptive immunity, also present innate-like behavior, capturing bacteria in a process called transinfection. Transinfected CD4+ T cells digest internalized bacteria like professional phagocytes and secrete large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, protecting for further bacterial challenges. In the present review, we will focus on the data showing such innate-like behavior of lymphocytes following bacteria encounter. PMID:27774092

  10. Total lymphoid irradiation for multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Devereux, C.K.; Vidaver, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Troiano, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Although chemical immunosuppression has been shown to benefit patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), it appears that chemotherapy has an appreciable oncogenic potential in patients with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, we developed a modified total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) regimen designed to reduce toxicity and applied it to a randomized double blind trial of TLI or sham irradiation in MS. Standard TLI regimens were modified to reduce dose to 1,980 rad, lowering the superior mantle margin to midway between the thyroid cartilage and angle of the mandible (to avert xerostomia) and the lower margin of the mantle field to the inferior margin of L1 (to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity by dividing abdominal radiation between mantle and inverted Y), limiting spinal cord dose to 1,000 rad by custom-made spine blocks in the mantle and upper 2 cm of inverted Y fields, and also protecting the left kidney even if part of the spleen were shielded. Clinical efficacy was documented by the less frequent functional scale deterioration of 20 TLI treated patients with chronic progressive MS compared to to 20 sham-irradiated progressive MS patients after 12 months (16% versus 55%, p less than 0.03), 18 months (28% versus 63%, p less than 0.03), and 24 months (44% versus 74%, N.S.). Therapeutic benefit during 3 years follow-up was related to the reduction in lymphocyte count 3 months post-irradiation (p less than 0.02). Toxicity was generally mild and transient, with no instance of xerostomia, pericarditis, herpes zoster, or need to terminate treatment in TLI patients. However, menopause was induced in 2 patients and staphylococcal pneumonia in one.

  11. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2015-12-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit(+)IL-7Rα(+) (CD117(+)CD127(+)) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼ 63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼ 63%), IL-22 (∼ 36%), and TNF-α (∼ 72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4(+) T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P < 0.001). Notably, ILC3 could be induced to undergo apoptosis by microbial products through the TLR2 (lipoteichoic acid) and/or TLR4 (LPS) pathway. These findings indicated that persistent microbial translocation may result in loss of ILC3 in lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues.

  12. Inhibition of autophagy overcomes glucocorticoid resistance in lymphoid malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Xu, Lingzhi; Xie, Jiajun; Li, Sisi; Guan, Yanchun; Zhang, Yan; Hou, Zhijie; Guo, Tao; Shu, Xin; Wang, Chang; Fan, Wenjun; Si, Yang; Yang, Ya; Kang, Zhijie; Fang, Meiyun; Liu, Quentin

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) resistance remains a major obstacle to successful treatment of lymphoid malignancies. Till now, the precise mechanism of GC resistance remains unclear. In the present study, dexamethasone (Dex) inhibited cell proliferation, arrested cell cycle in G0/G1-phase, and induced apoptosis in Dex-sensitive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. However, Dex failed to cause cell death in Dex-resistant lymphoid malignant cells. Intriguingly, we found that autophagy was induced by Dex in resistant cells, as indicated by autophagosomes formation, LC3-I to LC3-II conversion, p62 degradation, and formation of acidic autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, the results showed that Dex reduced the activity of mTOR pathway, as determined by decreased phosphorylation levels of mTOR, Akt, P70S6K and 4E-BP1 in resistant cells. Inhibition of autophagy by either chloroquine (CQ) or 3-methyladenine (3-MA) overcame Dex-resistance in lymphoid malignant cells by increasing apoptotic cell death in vitro. Consistently, inhibition of autophagy by stably knockdown of Beclin1 sensitized Dex-resistant lymphoid malignant cells to induction of apoptosis in vivo. Thus, inhibition of autophagy has the potential to improve lymphoid malignancy treatment by overcoming GC resistance.

  13. Differential distribution of calpain in human lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Banik, N L

    1993-07-01

    Calpain, a calcium-activated neutral proteinase, is ubiquitously present in human tissues. To determine if lymphoid cells implicated in pathogenesis of demyelination may harbor calpain in a functionally active form, we determined both muCalpain and mCalpain activities in human lymphoid cell lines. DEAE-cellulose and phenylsepharose column chromatography were used to isolate the enzyme from the natural inhibitor, calpastatin. Lymphocytic lines (CCRF-CEM, MOLT-3, MOLT-4, M.R.) showed predominance of muCalpain (55-80%) whereas the monocytic line (U-937) showed predominance of mCalpain (77%). Proportion and subcellular distribution of both isoforms varied among cell lines. Calpains isolated from U-937 cells degraded myelin basic protein. These results indicate that human lymphoid cells harbor functionally active calpain that can degrade myelin components in vitro. The study suggests a degradative role for calpain in demyelinating diseases. PMID:7690115

  14. Changes in lymphoid populations of ageing CBA and NZB mice

    PubMed Central

    Zatz, Marion M.; Mellors, R. C.; Lance, E. M.

    1971-01-01

    Changes in subpopulations of lymphoid cells of normal (CBA) and autoimmune (NZB) mice were studied as a function of age, by observing migration patterns of 51Cr labelled lymph node, spleen and thymus cells from donors aged 8 days to 12 months. The method permits analysis of the proportions and numbers of recirculating and non-recirculating lymphocytes in lymphoid compartments. Changes in the lymphoid populations of CBA mice were found, which could be attributed to the normal processes of maturation and senescence. In NZB mice relative and absolute decreases in the recirculating cell content of lymph node and spleen were observed which coincided with the time of development of autoimmunity. The significance of these results, in relation to altered immunocompetence with age, is discussed. PMID:5576663

  15. Quantitative Image Analysis of HIV-1 Infection in Lymphoid Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, Ashley T.; Henry, Keith; Zupancic, Mary; Sedgewick, Gerald; Faust, Russell A.; Melroe, Holly; Cavert, Winston; Gebhard, Kristin; Staskus, Katherine; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Dailey, Peter J.; Balfour, Henry H., Jr.; Erice, Alejo; Perelson, Alan S.

    1996-11-01

    Tracking human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection at the cellular level in tissue reservoirs provides opportunities to better understand the pathogenesis of infection and to rationally design and monitor therapy A quantitative technique was developed to determine viral burden in two important cellular compartments in lymphoid tissues. Image analysis and in situ hybridization were combined to show that in the presymptomatic stages of infection there is a large, relatively stable pool of virions on the surfaces of follicular dendritic cells and a smaller pool of productively infected cells Despite evidence of constraints on HIV-1 replication in the infected cell population in lymphoid tissues, estimates of the numbers of these cells and the virus they could produce are consistent with the quantities of virus that have been detected in the bloodstream. The cellular sources of virus production and storage in lymphoid tissues can now be studied with this approach over the course of infection and treatment.

  16. Molecular Pathology: Predictive, Prognostic, and Diagnostic Markers in Lymphoid Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Ho, Caleb; Kluk, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    Lymphoid neoplasms show great diversity in morphology, immunophenotypic profile, and postulated cells of origin, which also reflects the variety of genetic alterations within this group of tumors. This review discusses many of the currently known genetic alterations in selected mature B-cell and T-cell lymphoid neoplasms, and their significance as diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic markers. Given the rapidly increasing number of genetic alterations that have been described in this group of tumors, and that the clinical significance of many is still being studied, this is not an entirely exhaustive review of all of the genetic alterations that have been reported. PMID:27523974

  17. [Clonality lymphoid study through rearrangement analysis of antigen receptor].

    PubMed

    Villamizar-Rivera, Nicolás; Olaya, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    As a rule, malignant lymphoid proliferations are clonal. While most of the time the biological potential can be established through routine pathologic examination and auxiliary techniques, some cases are difficult to classify. Moreover, there are situations in which there are dominant clones whose analysis are important, such as occur in autoimmune diseases and immunodeficiency. This paper presents in an understandable way the main techniques for the study of clonality in lymphoid lesions, i.e. the analysis of rearrangements of antigen receptor genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based tests.

  18. Role of group 3 innate lymphoid cells in antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Magri, Giuliana; Cerutti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) constitute a heterogeneous family of effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system that mediate lymphoid organogenesis, tissue repair, immunity and inflammation. The initial view that ILCs exert their protective functions solely during the innate phase of an immune response has been recently challenged by evidence indicating that ILCs shape adaptive immunity by establishing both contact-dependent and contact-independent interactions with multiple hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells, including B cells. Some of these interactions enhance antibody responses both systemically and at mucosal sites of entry. PMID:25621842

  19. The development of innate lymphoid cells requires TOX-dependent generation of a common innate lymphoid cell progenitor.

    PubMed

    Seehus, Corey R; Aliahmad, Parinaz; de la Torre, Brian; Iliev, Iliyan D; Spurka, Lindsay; Funari, Vincent A; Kaye, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Diverse innate lymphoid cell (ILC) subtypes have been defined on the basis of effector function and transcription factor expression. ILCs derive from common lymphoid progenitors, although the transcriptional pathways that lead to ILC-lineage specification remain poorly characterized. Here we found that the transcriptional regulator TOX was required for the in vivo differentiation of common lymphoid progenitors into ILC lineage-restricted cells. In vitro modeling demonstrated that TOX deficiency resulted in early defects in the survival or proliferation of progenitor cells, as well as ILC differentiation at a later stage. In addition, comparative transcriptome analysis of bone marrow progenitors revealed that TOX-deficient cells failed to upregulate many genes of the ILC program, including genes that are targets of Notch, which indicated that TOX is a key determinant of early specification to the ILC lineage.

  20. Single-cell analysis defines the divergence between the innate lymphoid cell lineage and lymphoid tissue-inducer cell lineage.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Chea, Sylvestre; Gudjonson, Herman; Constantinides, Michael G; Dinner, Aaron R; Bendelac, Albert; Golub, Rachel

    2016-03-01

    The precise lineage relationship between innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells is poorly understood. Using single-cell multiplex transcriptional analysis of 100 lymphoid genes and single-cell cultures of fetal liver precursor cells, we identified the common proximal precursor to these lineages and found that its bifurcation was marked by differential induction of the transcription factors PLZF and TCF1. Acquisition of individual effector programs specific to the ILC subsets ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 was initiated later, at the common ILC precursor stage, by transient expression of mixed ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 transcriptional patterns, whereas, in contrast, the development of LTi cells did not go through multilineage priming. Our findings provide insight into the divergent mechanisms of the differentiation of the ILC lineage and LTi cell lineage and establish a high-resolution 'blueprint' of their development.

  1. Extranodal marginal-zone B-cell lymphoma of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Abbondanzo, S L

    2001-08-01

    Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the salivary gland is an uncommon tumor that most often occurs in the parotid gland. The most common subtype is marginal-zone B-cell lymphoma, extranodal, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type. This subtype has recently been included in the Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms, as well as in the upcoming World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms. This low-grade lymphoma usually arises in a background of benign lymphoepithelial lesion or myoepithelial sialadenitis that is associated with the autoimmune disease Sjögren's syndrome. It occasionally develops in patients who do not have a history of autoimmune disease. When mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma occurs in the salivary gland, as in other extranodal sites such as the stomach, it is usually an indolent neoplasm that tends to remain localized for long periods of time, even without treatment. Eventually, however, the tumor may disseminate or transform to a higher grade. The histologic distinction of myoepithelial sialadenitis from low-grade B-cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma can be a difficult diagnostic challenge and many of these lesions continue to be ambiguously diagnosed as "pseudolymphoma." Immunophenotypic or flow cytometric analysis may be useful in showing an aberrant phenotype or immunoglobulin light-chain restriction, which helps to support a diagnosis of malignant lymphoma in most cases. Molecular genetic analysis for immunoglobulin gene rearrangements also may be useful in showing monoclonality, although the exact significance of this finding in some cases remains controversial.

  2. Favorable long-term outcome of low-grade oligodendrogliomas irrespective of 1p/19q status when treated without radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Iwadate, Yasuo; Matsutani, Tomoo; Hasegawa, Yuzo; Shinozaki, Natsuki; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Saeki, Naokatsu

    2011-05-01

    Despite the accumulating evidences of high chemosensitivity especially in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas with loss of chromosomes 1p and 19q, the optimal management strategy for low-grade tumors using the 1p/19q information remains controversial. We have treated all low-grade oligodendrogliomas by a chemotherapy-preceding strategy without radiotherapy, and here we analyzed the survival outcomes of 36 consecutive patients in relation to 1p/19q status. The treatment protocol was as follows: (1) simple observation after gross total resection, and (2) modified PCV chemotherapy for postoperative residual tumors or recurrence after total resection. The 1p and 19q status were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The median follow-up period was 7.5 years and no patient was lost during the follow-up periods. 1p/19q co-deletion was observed in 72% of the patients, and there was no significant association between 1p/19q co-deletion and chemotherapy response rate. The 5- and 10-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate was 75.1 and 46.9%, respectively, and the median PFS was 121 months for 1p/19q-deleted tumors and 101 months for non-deleted tumors (log-rank test: P = 0.894). Extent of surgery did not affect PFS (P = 0.685). In contrast, the elder patients (>50) had significantly shorter PFS (P = 0.0458). Recurrent tumors were well controlled by chemotherapy irrespective of 1p/19q status, and 35 out of 36 patients survived without receiving radiotherapy. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 100 and 93.8%, respectively. Two of the patients in their sixties (29%) suffered from severe cognitive dysfunctions and marked brain atrophy following chemotherapy alone. These results show that low-grade oligodendrogliomas could be successfully treated by surgical resection and nitrosourea-based chemotherapy alone without radiotherapy irrespective of 1p/19q status.

  3. Can metronomic maintenance with weekly vinblastine prevent early relapse/progression after bevacizumab-irinotecan in children with low-grade glioma?

    PubMed

    Heng, Marie Amélie; Padovani, Laetitia; Dory-Lautrec, Philippe; Gentet, Jean Claude; Verschuur, Arnaud; Pasquier, Eddy; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Scavarda, Didier; André, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    The association of bevacizumab and irinotecan has been shown to display a quick efficacy in low-grade glioma (LGG), but most patients relapse within months after cessation of therapy. From October 2012 to March 2014, four patients have been treated with irinotecan-bevacizumab followed by a metronomic maintenance with weekly vinblastine to try to prevent relapses. After a median follow-up of 23 months after the end of the bevacizumab-irinotecan induction, no patient relapsed. These observations suggest that maintenance chemotherapy with weekly vinblastine after an induction by irinotecan-bevacizumab can improve progression-free survival in children with LGG. PMID:27037940

  4. Severe Radiation Necrosis Successfully Treated With Bevacizumab in an Infant with Low-Grade Glioma and Tumor-Associated Intractable Trigeminal Neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Pillay Smiley, Natasha; Alden, Tord; Hartsell, William; Fangusaro, Jason

    2016-09-01

    We present a unique case of radiation necrosis in a child with brain stem low-grade glioma (LGG) presenting with trigeminal neuralgia. Despite extensive therapies, severe pain persisted. She received proton beam radiation with significant improvement. However, she developed radiation necrosis and hydrocephalus. Despite surgical correction of hydrocephalus, the patient remained critically ill. She was treated with dexamethasone and bevacizumab with rapid clinical improvement. Subsequent MRIs revealed almost complete resolution of the necrosis. This case illustrates the successful treatment of trigeminal neuralgia with radiation and a rare case of radiation necrosis in an LGG successfully treated with bevacizumab and dexamethasone. PMID:27187113

  5. Tyrosine-rich crystalloids in a fine needle aspirate of a polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma of a minor salivary gland. A case report.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, D B; Cosgrove, M M; Martin, S E

    1994-01-01

    Tyrosine-rich crystalloids were identified in a fine needle aspirate of a polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma of a minor salivary gland. Such crystalloids have been described previously as occurring in tissue sections of both benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms and in the fine needle aspirate of a pleomorphic adenoma. Their presence either in fine needle aspirates or tissue sections of salivary gland tumors should be interpreted only as an incidental and nonspecific finding and should not be used to support either a benign or malignant diagnosis.

  6. ID’ing Innate and Innate-like Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Verykokakis, Mihalis; Zook, Erin C.; Kee, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The immune system can be divided into innate and adaptive components that differ in their rate and mode of cellular activation, with innate immune cells being the first responders to invading pathogens. Recent advances in the identification and characterization of innate lymphoid cells have revealed reiterative developmental programs that result in cells with effector fates that parallel those of adaptive lymphoid cells and are tailored to effectively eliminate a broad spectrum of pathogenic challenges. However, activation of these cells can also be associated with pathologies such as autoimmune disease. One major distinction between innate and adaptive immune system cells is the constitutive expression of ID proteins in the former and inducible expression in the latter. ID proteins function as antagonists of the E protein transcription factors that play critical roles in lymphoid specification as well as B and T-lymphocyte development. In this review, we examine the transcriptional mechanisms controlling the development of innate lymphocytes, including natural killer cells and the recently identified innate lymphoid cells (ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3), and innate-like lymphocytes, including natural killer T cells, with an emphasis on the known requirements for the ID proteins. PMID:25123285

  7. Transgenic dissection of HIV genes involved in lymphoid depletion.

    PubMed Central

    Tinkle, B T; Ueda, H; Ngo, L; Luciw, P A; Shaw, K; Rosen, C A; Jay, G

    1997-01-01

    Transgenic mice carrying an HIV provirus, with selective deletion of all three structural genes, developed extensive lymphoid depletion which was detected not only in the spleen and lymph nodes but also in the thymus. Mice with a high level of HIV gene expression developed acute disease which resulted in premature death, and mice with a low level of viral transcripts developed chronic disease with long-term survival. Neither HIV replication nor the envelope glycoprotein (gp120) was required for T cell depletion. Despite abundant viral gene expression early in life, cell death did not become evident until about the time of full lymphoid maturation, suggesting that thymopoiesis was not affected. The more mature T cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs and in the thymic medulla were less sensitive to the apoptotic process than the immature T cells in the thymic cortex. Gradual depletion of the T cell compartment in the peripheral lymphoid organs was intimately accompanied by the reciprocal expansion of the B cell compartment, resulting in the almost complete replacement of T lymphocytes with B immunoblasts in lymph nodes. Unlike T cells, which showed abundant HIV gene expression, B cells did not. The transgenic approach may help identify the HIV nonstructural gene(s) responsible for immune deficiency and help facilitate dissection of its role in inducing apoptosis. PMID:9202054

  8. Developmental acquisition of regulomes underlies innate lymphoid cell functionality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play key roles in host defense, barrier integrity, and homeostasis, and they mirror adaptive CD4+ T helper (Th) cell subtypes in both usages of effector molecules and ·transcription factors. To better understand ILC subsets and their relationship with Th cells, we measur...

  9. Quantitative image analysis of HIV-1 infection in lymphoid tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, A.T.; Zupancic, M.; Cavert, W.

    1996-11-08

    Tracking human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection at the cellular level in tissue reservoirs provides opportunities to better understand the pathogenesis of infection and to rationally design and monitor therapy. A quantitative technique was developed to determine viral burden in two important cellular compartments in lymphoid developed to determine viral burden in two important cellular compartments in lymphoid tissues. Image analysis and in situ hybridization were combined to show that in the presymptomatic stages of infection there is a large, relatively stable pool of virions on the surfaces of follicular dendritic cells and a smaller pool of productivity infected cells. Despite evidence of constraints on HIV-1 replication in the infected cell population in lymphoid tissues, estimates of the numbers of these cells and the virus they could produce are consistent with the quantities of virus that have been detected in the bloodstream. The cellular sources of virus production and storage in lymphoid tissues can now be studied with this approach over the course of infection and treatment. 22 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. 9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 113.31 Section 113.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Plant Health Inspection Service that the agent used to inactivate the vaccine virus would also... lymphoid leukosis virus can be propagated on cell culture during the 21-day growth period. If a...

  11. 9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 113.31 Section 113.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Plant Health Inspection Service that the agent used to inactivate the vaccine virus would also... lymphoid leukosis virus can be propagated on cell culture during the 21-day growth period. If a...

  12. Avian dendritic cells: Phenotype and ontogeny in lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Nándor; Bódi, Ildikó; Oláh, Imre

    2016-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are critically important accessory cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems. Avian DCs were originally identified in primary and secondary lymphoid organs by their typical morphology, displaying long cell processes with cytoplasmic granules. Several subtypes are known. Bursal secretory dendritic cells (BSDC) are elongated cells which express vimentin intermediate filaments, MHC II molecules, macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), and produce 74.3+ secretory granules. Avian follicular dendritic cells (FDC) highly resemble BSDC, express the CD83, 74.3 and CSF1R molecules, and present antigen in germinal centers. Thymic dendritic cells (TDC), which express 74.3 and CD83, are concentrated in thymic medulla while interdigitating DC are found in T cell-rich areas of secondary lymphoid organs. Avian Langerhans cells are a specialized 74.3-/MHC II+ cell population found in stratified squamous epithelium and are capable of differentiating into 74.3+ migratory DCs. During organogenesis hematopoietic precursors of DC colonize the developing lymphoid organ primordia prior to immigration of lymphoid precursor cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the ontogeny, cytoarchitecture, and immunophenotype of avian DC, and offers an antibody panel for the in vitro and in vivo identification of these heterogeneous cell types.

  13. 'Managing' the immune system with total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.

    1981-06-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), which in the past was limited to the treatment of malignant disease, is now emerging as a practical technique in the management of unwanted immune reactions in the areas of transplant tolerance and various autoimmune diseases. Current studies are particularly promising for application of TLI in rheumatoid arthritis and lupus nephritis.

  14. Serum IL-12 Is Increased in Mexican Obese Subjects and Associated with Low-Grade Inflammation and Obesity-Related Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Álvarez, K.; Solís-Lozano, L.; Leon-Cabrera, S.; González-Chávez, A.; Gómez-Hernández, G.; Quiñones-Álvarez, M. S.; Serralde-Zúñiga, A. E.; Hernández-Ruiz, J.; Ramírez-Velásquez, J.; Galindo-González, F. J.; Zavala-Castillo, J. C.; De León-Nava, M. A.; Robles-Díaz, G.; Escobedo, G.

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-(IL-) 12 has been recently suggested to participate during development of insulin resistance in obese mice. Nevertheless, serum IL-12 levels have not been accurately determined in overweight and obese humans. We thus studied serum concentrations of IL-12 in Mexican adult individuals, examining their relationship with low-grade inflammation and obesity-related parameters. A total of 147 healthy individuals, 43 normal weight, 61 overweight, and 43 obese subjects participated in the study. Circulating levels of IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), leptin, insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured after overnight fasting in all of the study subjects. Waist circumference and body fat percentage were recorded for all the participants. Serum IL-12 was significantly higher in overweight and obese individuals than in normal weight controls. Besides being strongly related with body mass index (r = 0.5154), serum IL-12 exhibited a significant relationship with abdominal obesity (r = 0.4481), body fat percentage (r = 0.5625), serum glucose (r = 0.3158), triglyceride (r = 0.3714), and TNF-α (r = 0.4717). Thus, serum levels of IL-12 are increased in overweight and obese individuals and show a strong relationship with markers of low-grade inflammation and obesity in the Mexican adult population. Further research is needed to understand the role of IL-12 in developing obesity-associated alterations in humans. PMID:23533314

  15. Parametric and working fluid analysis of a combined organic Rankine-vapor compression refrigeration system activated by low-grade thermal energy.

    PubMed

    Saleh, B

    2016-09-01

    The potential use of many common hydrofluorocarbons and hydrocarbons as well as new hydrofluoroolefins, i.e. R1234yf and R1234ze(E) working fluids for a combined organic Rankine cycle and vapor compression refrigeration (ORC-VCR) system activated by low-grade thermal energy is evaluated. The basic ORC operates between 80 and 40 °C typical for low-grade thermal energy power plants while the basic VCR cycle operates between 5 and 40 °C. The system performance is characterized by the overall system coefficient of performance (COPS) and the total mass flow rate of the working fluid for each kW cooling capacity ([Formula: see text]). The effects of different working parameters such as the evaporator, condenser, and boiler temperatures on the system performance are examined. The results illustrate that the maximum COPS values are attained using the highest boiling candidates with overhanging T-s diagram, i.e. R245fa and R600, while R600 has the lowest [Formula: see text] under the considered operating conditions. Among the proposed candidates, R600 is the best candidate for the ORC-VCR system from the perspectives of environmental issues and system performance. Nevertheless, its flammability should attract enough attention. The maximum COPS using R600 is found to reach up to 0.718 at a condenser temperature of 30 °C and the basic values for the remaining parameters. PMID:27489732

  16. Low grade inflammation as a common pathogenetic denominator in age-related diseases: novel drug targets for anti-ageing strategies and successful ageing achievement.

    PubMed

    Candore, G; Caruso, C; Jirillo, E; Magrone, T; Vasto, S

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, people are living much longer than they used to do, however they are not free from ageing. Ageing, an inexorable intrinsic process that affects all cells, tissues, organs and individuals, is a post-maturational process that, due to a diminished homeostasis and increased organism frailty, causes a reduction of the response to environmental stimuli and, in general, is associated to an increased predisposition to illness and death. However, the high incidence of death due to infectious, cardiovascular and cancer diseases underlies a common feature in these pathologies that is represented by dysregulation of both instructive and innate immunity. Several studies show that a low-grade systemic inflammation characterizes ageing and that inflammatory markers are significant predictors of mortality in old humans. This pro-inflammatory status of the elderly underlies biological mechanisms responsible for physical function decline and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis are initiated or worsened by systemic inflammation. Understanding of the ageing process should have a prominent role in new strategies for extending the health old population. Accordingly, as extensively discussed in the review and in the accompanying related papers, investigating ageing pathophysiology, particularly disentangling age-related low grade inflammation, is likely to provide important clues about how to develop drugs that can slow or delay ageing.

  17. Optimization of staged bioleaching of low-grade chalcopyrite ore in the presence and absence of chloride in the irrigating lixiviant: ANFIS simulation.

    PubMed

    Vakylabad, Ali Behrad; Schaffie, Mahin; Naseri, Ali; Ranjbar, Mohammad; Manafi, Zahra

    2016-07-01

    In this investigation, copper was bioleached from a low-grade chalcopyrite ore using a chloride-containing lixiviant. In this regard, firstly, the composition of the bacterial culture media was designed to control the cost in commercial application. The bacterial culture used in this process was acclimated to the presence of chloride in the lixiviant. Practically speaking, the modified culture helped the bio-heap-leaching system operate in the chloridic media. Compared to the copper recovery from the low-grade chalcopyrite by bioleaching in the absence of chloride, bioleaching in the presence of chloride resulted in improved copper recovery. The composition of the lixiviant used in this study was a modification with respect to the basal salts in 9 K medium to optimize the leaching process. When leaching the ore in columns, 76.81 % Cu (based on solid residues of bioleaching operation) was recovered by staged leaching with lixiviant containing 34.22 mM NaCl. The quantitative findings were supported by SEM/EDS observations, X-ray elemental mapping, and mineralogical analysis of the ore before and after leaching. Finally, Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was used to simulate the operational parameters affecting the bioleaching operation in chloride-sulfate system. PMID:27000968

  18. Differences in the architecture of low-grade and high-grade gliomas evaluated using fiber density index and fractional anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiyong; Shi, Yonghong; Song, Zhijian

    2010-07-01

    Accurate pre-operative assessment of tumor grade is important for the selection of appropriate treatment strategies. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate whether the fiber density index (FDi) and fractional anisotropy (FA) via diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) could assist with pre-operative diagnosis of glioma grade. A total of 31 patients who had histologically confirmed gliomas underwent DTI performed using a 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance scanner. To reconstruct the white matter adjacent to the tumor, DTI fiber tracking (DTI-FT) using an FA threshold of 0.15 was implemented. Regions of interest (ROIs) were defined (i-iv) as: the tumor center (ROI i); white matter adjacent to the tumor (ROI ii); contralateral centrum semiovale (ROI iii); and the homologous fiber tracts to ROI ii in the contralateral hemisphere (ROI iv). We calculated six parameters from different ROIs and compared high-grade and low-grade gliomas: FA values and ratios; FDi values and ratios with an FA threshold of 0.15; and FDi values and ratios with an FA threshold of 0.25. The results showed that FA ratios and FDi ratios with FA thresholds of 0.25 were significantly different between patients with high-grade and low-grade gliomas. This may be useful for developing surgical strategies and appraising patient prognosis.

  19. Ubiquitous Transgenic Overexpression of C-C Chemokine Ligand 2: A Model to Assess the Combined Effect of High Energy Intake and Continuous Low-Grade Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Hernández-Aguilera, Anna; Mariné-Casadó, Roger; Rull, Anna; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Menendez, Javier A.; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Sirvent, Juan J.; Martín-Paredero, Vicente; Corbí, Angel L.; Sierra-Filardi, Elena; Aragonès, Gerard; García-Heredia, Anabel; Camps, Jordi; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Joven, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Excessive energy management leads to low-grade, chronic inflammation, which is a significant factor predicting noncommunicable diseases. In turn, inflammation, oxidation, and metabolism are associated with the course of these diseases; mitochondrial dysfunction seems to be at the crossroads of mutual relationships. The migration of immune cells during inflammation is governed by the interaction between chemokines and chemokine receptors. Chemokines, especially C-C-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), have a variety of additional functions that are involved in the maintenance of normal metabolism. It is our hypothesis that a ubiquitous and continuous secretion of CCL2 may represent an animal model of low-grade chronic inflammation that, in the presence of an energy surplus, could help to ascertain the afore-mentioned relationships and/or to search for specific therapeutic approaches. Here, we present preliminary data on a mouse model created by using targeted gene knock-in technology to integrate an additional copy of the CCl2 gene in the Gt(ROSA)26Sor locus of the mouse genome via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Short-term dietary manipulations were assessed and the findings include metabolic disturbances, premature death, and the manipulation of macrophage plasticity and autophagy. These results raise a number of mechanistic questions for future study. PMID:24453432

  20. Detection of numerical and structural alterations and fusion of chromosomes 16 and 1 in low-grade papillary breast carcinoma by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, H; Takarabe, T; Susumu, N; Inazawa, J; Okada, S; Hirohashi, S

    1997-10-01

    Intracystic papillary breast tumors, including intraductal papilloma and low-grade intracystic papillary carcinoma, constitute a group for which differential diagnosis is frequently difficult. We examined the status of chromosomes 16 and 1 by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses and the DNA ploidy patterns by flow cytometry in 26 intracystic papillary tumors. Alterations of chromosomes 16 and 1 were detected by FISH in 93 and 85%, respectively, of 14 low-grade papillary carcinomas, and the latter alterations always concurred with the former. Two-color FISH using probes for the D1Z1 (1q12) and D16Z2 (16cen) loci or the D1Z1 and D16Z3 (16q11) loci showed that fusion of chromosomes 16 and 1, mostly with breakpoints distal to 16q11.2 and proximal to 1q12, occurred in 77% of the papillary carcinomas. DNA aneuploidy was detected in 6% of these carcinomas. No papilloma showed these chromosome alterations or DNA aneuploidy. Chromosome 16 and 1 fusions appeared to occur frequently in diploid breast carcinomas and to be involved in the acquisition of a malignant phenotype by duct epithelial cells. We suggest that two-color FISH methods for detecting 1;16 fusions might be applicable as supportive methods for the differential diagnosis of intracystic papillary breast tumors. PMID:9327736

  1. Parametric and working fluid analysis of a combined organic Rankine-vapor compression refrigeration system activated by low-grade thermal energy.

    PubMed

    Saleh, B

    2016-09-01

    The potential use of many common hydrofluorocarbons and hydrocarbons as well as new hydrofluoroolefins, i.e. R1234yf and R1234ze(E) working fluids for a combined organic Rankine cycle and vapor compression refrigeration (ORC-VCR) system activated by low-grade thermal energy is evaluated. The basic ORC operates between 80 and 40 °C typical for low-grade thermal energy power plants while the basic VCR cycle operates between 5 and 40 °C. The system performance is characterized by the overall system coefficient of performance (COPS) and the total mass flow rate of the working fluid for each kW cooling capacity ([Formula: see text]). The effects of different working parameters such as the evaporator, condenser, and boiler temperatures on the system performance are examined. The results illustrate that the maximum COPS values are attained using the highest boiling candidates with overhanging T-s diagram, i.e. R245fa and R600, while R600 has the lowest [Formula: see text] under the considered operating conditions. Among the proposed candidates, R600 is the best candidate for the ORC-VCR system from the perspectives of environmental issues and system performance. Nevertheless, its flammability should attract enough attention. The maximum COPS using R600 is found to reach up to 0.718 at a condenser temperature of 30 °C and the basic values for the remaining parameters.

  2. Ubiquitous transgenic overexpression of C-C chemokine ligand 2: a model to assess the combined effect of high energy intake and continuous low-grade inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Riera-Borrull, Marta; Hernández-Aguilera, Anna; Mariné-Casadó, Roger; Rull, Anna; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Luciano-Mateo, Fedra; Menendez, Javier A; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Sirvent, Juan J; Martín-Paredero, Vicente; Corbí, Angel L; Sierra-Filardi, Elena; Aragonès, Gerard; García-Heredia, Anabel; Camps, Jordi; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Joven, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Excessive energy management leads to low-grade, chronic inflammation, which is a significant factor predicting noncommunicable diseases. In turn, inflammation, oxidation, and metabolism are associated with the course of these diseases; mitochondrial dysfunction seems to be at the crossroads of mutual relationships. The migration of immune cells during inflammation is governed by the interaction between chemokines and chemokine receptors. Chemokines, especially C-C-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), have a variety of additional functions that are involved in the maintenance of normal metabolism. It is our hypothesis that a ubiquitous and continuous secretion of CCL2 may represent an animal model of low-grade chronic inflammation that, in the presence of an energy surplus, could help to ascertain the afore-mentioned relationships and/or to search for specific therapeutic approaches. Here, we present preliminary data on a mouse model created by using targeted gene knock-in technology to integrate an additional copy of the CCl2 gene in the Gt(ROSA)26Sor locus of the mouse genome via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Short-term dietary manipulations were assessed and the findings include metabolic disturbances, premature death, and the manipulation of macrophage plasticity and autophagy. These results raise a number of mechanistic questions for future study.

  3. IDH1 mutation is prognostic for diffuse astrocytoma but not low-grade oligodendrogliomas in patients not treated with early radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Iwadate, Yasuo; Matsutani, Tomoo; Hirono, Seiichiro; Ikegami, Shiro; Shinozaki, Natsuki; Saeki, Naokatsu

    2015-09-01

    Despite accumulating knowledge regarding molecular backgrounds, the optimal management strategy for low-grade gliomas remains controversial. One reason is the marked heterogeneity in the clinical course. To establish an accurate subclassification of low-grade gliomas, we retrospectively evaluated isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) mutation in clinical specimens of diffuse astrocytomas (DA) and oligodendroglial tumors separately. No patients were treated with early radiotherapy, and modified PCV chemotherapy was used for postoperative residual tumors or recurrence in oligodendroglial tumors. Immunohistochemical evaluation of IDH status, p53 status, O(6)-methylguanine methyltransferase expression, and the MIB-1 index were performed. The 1p and 19q status was analyzed with fluorescence in situ hybridization. Ninety-four patients were followed for a median period of 8.5 years. For DAs, p53 was prognostic for progression- free survival (PFS) and IDH1 was significant for overall survival (OS) with multivariate analysis. In contrast, for oligodendroglial tumors, none of the parameters was significant for PFS or OS. Thus, the significance of IDH1 mutation is not clear in oligodendroglial tumors that are homogeneously indolent and chemosensitive. In contrast, DAs are heterogeneous tumors including some potentially malignant tumors that can be predicted by examining the IDH1 mutation status.

  4. High angiogenic potential in an in vivo rat corneal model is associated with shorter disease-free survival in low-grade oligodendrogliomas.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Abdulkadir; Guduk, Mustafa; Atabay, Kutay Deniz; Uyar, Süheyla Bozkurt; Seker, Askin; Konya, Deniz; Pamir, M Necmettin; Kilic, Turker

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between time to tumor recurrence, angiogenic potential and tumor contrast-enhancement. Tumor samples were taken from 20 patients with low-grade oligodendroglioma and examined for their angiogenic potential using an in vivo rat corneal model of angiogenesis. Patients were evaluated for tumor contrast enhancement prior to surgical excision using MRI and they were followed for tumor recurrence. Patients who had tumors without contrast enhancement had longer disease-free survival (median time to tumor recurrence, 72 months) compared to those who had tumors with contrast enhancement (median, 42 months; p=0.0068). Based on corneal angiogenesis assay results, a high angiogenic potential was associated with a significantly shorter disease-free survival. Our findings suggest that radiological contrast enhancement and a high angiogenic potential based on an in vivo corneal angiogenesis assay were related to a shorter disease-free survival. This might have important prognostic implications in patients with low-grade oligodendrogliomas.

  5. Spiradenocarcinoma with low-grade basal cell adenocarcinoma pattern: report of a case with varied morphology and wild type TP53.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Fredrik; Nga, Min En

    2012-03-01

    We present a patient with a 2-cm spiradenocarcinoma of the left arm resembling low-grade salivary gland basal cell adenocarcinoma. In addition to showing attributes of conventional spiradenoma, the benign component showed prominent areas of cystic change with focal apocrine differentiation, glands with and without mucinous differentiation, clear cell change and focal adenoid cystic carcinoma-like areas. The malignant component was composed of nodules of basaloid cells arranged in sheets with variable tendency to luminal differentiation. The nuclear atypia was low-grade, and the mitotic index was high in the malignant component (to 8/10 high power fields). Immunohistochemically, there was diffuse but variable positivity for cytokeratin 7 in both the benign and malignant components. Epithelial membrane antigen was focally positive, highlighting cells with ductal (luminal) differentiation. Expression of p63 was observed in 50 and 80% of the cells in the benign and malignant components, respectively. Calponin was negative. The proliferative index (MIB-1/Ki-67) was <3% in the benign component and up to 10% in the malignant component. Although the malignant component displayed patchy areas with nuclear p53 immunoreactivity with variable intensity, no mutation in the TP53 gene was identified.

  6. Tumor-associated lymphoid proliferation in the parotid gland. A potential diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Auclair, P L

    1994-01-01

    A substantial proportion of neoplastic and nonneoplastic parotid diseases have a prominent lymphoid component. The lymphoid element in lesions such as papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum, sebaceous lymphadenoma, and lymphoepithelial carcinoma are readily recognized as a required diagnostic element. However, when other types of benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms demonstrate tumor-associated lymphoid proliferation, the tumor may be either misclassified or misinterpreted as metastatic disease. Examples of primary benign and malignant parotid neoplasms exhibiting tumor-associated lymphoid proliferation are documented and illustrated. Other parotid lesions that may have a lymphoid element include sialadenitis, cysts with associated lymphoid tissue, parenchymal neoplasms with an expected lymphoid component or those that arise within an intraparotid lymph node, autoimmune disease, malignant lymphoma, and metastatic disease. An approach to recognition and separation of these entities is discussed.

  7. The natural history of benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the salivary gland in which there is a monoclonal population of B cells. A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Falzon, M; Isaacson, P G

    1991-01-01

    In two patients, a diagnosis of benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the salivary gland was followed by the development of extrasalivary gland lymphoma after 10- and 9-year intervals, respectively. On review, immunohistochemistry revealed immunoglobulin light-chain restriction in the initial biopsy in each case and there was both morphological and immunohistochemical evidence linking the extrasalivary gland lymphoma with the initial lesion. It is argued that in the presence of a monoclonal B-cell population, a diagnosis of benign lymphoepithelial lesion is inappropriate. These patients fulfill the criteria for a diagnosis of low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and should be treated accordingly.

  8. Neuropsychological status in children and young adults with benign and low-grade brain tumors treated prospectively with focal stereotactic conformal radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jalali, Rakesh . E-mail: rjalali@medscape.com; Goswami, Savita; Sarin, Rajiv; More, Niteen; Siddha, Manish; Kamble, Rashmi

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To present prospective neuropsychological data at baseline and follow-up in children and young adults with benign and low-grade gliomas treated with focal stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 22 patients (age 4-25 years) with residual/progressive benign and low-grade brain tumors considered suitable for SCRT underwent detailed and in-depth neuropsychological and cognitive testing at baseline before SCRT. The test battery included measurement of age-adjusted intelligence quotients (IQs) and cognitive parameters of visual, spatial, visuomotor, and attention concentrations. Anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale for patients >16 years old. Patients were treated with high-precision conformal radiotherapy under stereotactic guidance to a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions. All neuropsychological assessments were repeated at 6 and 24 months after SCRT completion and compared with the baseline values. Results: The baseline mean full-scale IQ before starting RT for patients <16 years was 82 (range, 33-105). For those >16 years, the corresponding value was 72 (range, 64-129). Of 20 evaluable patients, 14 (70%) had less than average IQs at baseline, even before starting radiotherapy. The verbal IQ, performance IQ, and full-scale IQ, as well as other cognitive scores, did not change significantly at the 6- and 24-month follow-up assessments for all patients. The memory quotient in older children and young adults was maintained at 6 and 24 months after SCRT, with a mean value of 93 and 100, respectively, compared with a mean baseline value of 81 before RT. The mean anxiety score in children measured by the C1 and C2 components of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) was 48 and 40, respectively, which improved significantly to mean values of 30 and 26, respectively, at the 24-month follow-up assessment (p = 0.005). The mean depression score in

  9. Is poor self-rated health associated with low-grade inflammation in 43 110 late adolescent men of the general population? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Warnoff, Carin; Lekander, Mats; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Melin, Bo; Andreasson, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Self-rated health is a powerful predictor of long-term health and mortality, hence the importance of a better understanding of its biological determinants. Previous studies have shown that low-grade inflammation is associated with poor self-rated health in clinical and healthy populations, but the evidence is sparse in men and completely lacking for men in late adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between low-grade inflammation and self-rated health among conscripts. It was hypothesised that high levels of inflammatory factors would be associated with poor self-rated health. Design Data from 49 321 men (18–21 years) conscripted for military service in 1969 and 1970 were used. Inflammation had been measured through erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Self-rated health had been assessed on a five-point scale, and was dichotomised into Good (‘Very good’/‘Good’/‘Fair’) versus Poor (‘Poor’/‘Very poor’). Data from 43 110 conscripts with normal levels of ESR, and who reported self-rated health remained after exclusion of those with ESR <1 and >11 mm/h. Associations were calculated using logistic regression analyses. Adjustments were made for body mass index, socioeconomic position, inflammatory disease, emotion regulation, smoking, risky use of alcohol and physical activity. Results High levels of ESR were associated with higher odds for poor self-rated health (OR: 1.077 for each unit mm/h increase in ESR, 95% CI 1.049 to 1.105). Conclusions The present study shows for the first time a significant association between a marker of inflammation and self-rated health in late adolescent men, adding to evidence of an association between low-grade inflammation and subjective health perception also in men, as previously demonstrated in women. Further support for inflammation as part of a general psychobiological process that underpins subjective health perception is hereby provided. PMID:27113233

  10. Mucinous spindle and tubular renal cell carcinoma: analysis of chromosomal aberration pattern of low-grade, high-grade, and overlapping morphologic variant with papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Peckova, Kvetoslava; Martinek, Petr; Sperga, Maris; Montiel, Delia Perez; Daum, Ondrej; Rotterova, Pavla; Kalusová, Kristýna; Hora, Milan; Pivovarcikova, Kristýna; Rychly, Boris; Vranic, Semir; Davidson, Whitney; Vodicka, Josef; Dubová, Magdaléna; Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej

    2015-08-01

    The chromosomal numerical aberration pattern in mucinous tubular and spindle renal cell carcinoma (MTSRCC) is referred to as variable with frequent gains and losses. The objectives of this study are to map the spectrum of chromosomal aberrations (extent and location) in a large cohort of the cases and relate these findings to the morphologic variants of MTSRCC. Fifty-four MTSRCCs with uniform morphologic pattern were selected (of 133 MTSRCCs available in our registry) and divided into 3 groups: classic low-grade MTSRCC (Fuhrman nucleolar International Society of Urological Pathology grade 2), high-grade MTSRCC (grade 3), and overlapping MTSRCC with papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) morphology. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis was applied to 16 cases in which DNA was well preserved. Four analyzable classic low-grade MTSRCCs showed multiple losses affecting chromosomes 1, 4, 8, 9, 14, 15, and 22. No chromosomal gains were found. Four analyzable cases of MTSRCC showing overlapping morphology with PRCC displayed a more variable pattern including normal chromosomal status; losses of chromosomes 1, 6, 8, 9, 14, 15, and 22; and gains of 3, 7, 16, and 17. The group of 4 high-grade MTSRCCs exhibited a more uniform chromosomal aberration pattern with losses of chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, and 22 and without any gains detected. (1) MTSRCC, both low-grade and high-grade, shows chromosomal losses (including 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, and 22) in all analyzable cases; this seems to be the most frequent chromosomal numerical aberration in this type of RCC. (2) Cases with overlapping morphologic features (MTSRCC and PRCC) showed a more variable pattern with multiple losses and gains, including gains of chromosomes 7 and 17 (2 cases). This result is in line with previously published morphologic and immunohistochemical studies that describe the broad morphologic spectrum of MTSRCC, with changes resembling papillary RCC. (3) The diagnosis of MTSRCC in

  11. Clinical analysis of 670 cases in two trials of the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Lymphoma Cooperative Group subtyped according to the Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms: a comparison with the Working Formulation.

    PubMed

    Pittaluga, S; Bijnens, L; Teodorovic, I; Hagenbeek, A; Meerwaldt, J H; Somers, R; Thomas, J; Noordijk, E M; De Wolf-Peeters, C

    1996-05-15

    In the Working Formulation (WF), non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are grouped according to their clinical behavior. These disorders are listed as entities defined by morphology, phenotype, and cytogenetics in the proposed Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms (REAL), the clinical relevance of which is still debated. We analyzed 670 NHL cases included in two randomized clinical trials (EORTC 20855 WF-intermediate/high-grade and 20856 WF-low-grade malignancy) with histologic material available for review. Based on hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections, 77% of cases could be subtyped. Immunophenotyping was considered to be mandatory only in diagnosing T-cell lymphoma and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Of 522 cases subtyped, 11% were mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), 5% were marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL), 46% were follicle center lymphoma, and 32% were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Statistical analysis and comparisons between classifications were made only within each trial and treatment group. MCL and MZBCL were characterized by a shorter median survival (3.4 and 4.1 years, respectively) in comparison with low- and intermediate-grade WF groups (> 9.3 and 5.8 years, respectively). In terms of progression-free survival, MCL showed a behavior similar to the low-grade group, with frequent relapses. Follicle center cell lymphomas behaved as low-grade lymphomas as defined by the WF and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas as the WF-intermediate grade group. Because several NHL entities have a clinical behavior of their own, their recognition by the REAL classification offers clinicians additional information that is not obtained when the WF is used. PMID:8639796

  12. Clinical analysis of 670 cases in two trials of the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Lymphoma Cooperative Group subtyped according to the Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms: a comparison with the Working Formulation.

    PubMed

    Pittaluga, S; Bijnens, L; Teodorovic, I; Hagenbeek, A; Meerwaldt, J H; Somers, R; Thomas, J; Noordijk, E M; De Wolf-Peeters, C

    1996-05-15

    In the Working Formulation (WF), non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are grouped according to their clinical behavior. These disorders are listed as entities defined by morphology, phenotype, and cytogenetics in the proposed Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms (REAL), the clinical relevance of which is still debated. We analyzed 670 NHL cases included in two randomized clinical trials (EORTC 20855 WF-intermediate/high-grade and 20856 WF-low-grade malignancy) with histologic material available for review. Based on hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections, 77% of cases could be subtyped. Immunophenotyping was considered to be mandatory only in diagnosing T-cell lymphoma and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Of 522 cases subtyped, 11% were mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), 5% were marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL), 46% were follicle center lymphoma, and 32% were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Statistical analysis and comparisons between classifications were made only within each trial and treatment group. MCL and MZBCL were characterized by a shorter median survival (3.4 and 4.1 years, respectively) in comparison with low- and intermediate-grade WF groups (> 9.3 and 5.8 years, respectively). In terms of progression-free survival, MCL showed a behavior similar to the low-grade group, with frequent relapses. Follicle center cell lymphomas behaved as low-grade lymphomas as defined by the WF and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas as the WF-intermediate grade group. Because several NHL entities have a clinical behavior of their own, their recognition by the REAL classification offers clinicians additional information that is not obtained when the WF is used.

  13. Immunosuppression and organ transplantation tolerance using total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Slavin, S.; Strober, S.; Fuks, Z.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1980-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is a method which delivers irradiation daily in fractionated doses (200 rads) to lymphoid organs while shielding bones, lungs, and the majority of the gastrointestinal tract. TLI is lymphocytopenic in mice, rats, dogs, and humans, and both T cells and B cells are eliminated from the circulation. TLI permits establishment of specific and long-lasting tolerance to alloantigens. Permanent acceptance of allogeneic bone marrow cells without graft-versus-host disease was achieved in rats and dogs across major histocompatibility barriers. Recipients were tolerant to allografts of skin, hearts, and kidney from animals syngeneic to marrow donors or to organs from the marrow donor. This approach may be suitable for pancreas transplantation in diabetes.

  14. Treatment of intractable rheumatoid arthritis with lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.; Kotzin, B.L.; Hoppe, R.T.; Slavin, S.; Gottlieb, M.; Calin, A.; Fuks, Z.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    Subdiaphragmatic lymphoid radiation was used as an alternative to cytotoxic drug therapy to treat six patients with progressive erosive rheumatoid arthritis. All were previously unresponsive to conventional therapy. Radiation (4,000 rad) was given to subdiaphragmatic lymphoid tissues in fractionated doses of 150 to 250 rad each. Three of the six patients demonstrated long-lasting clinical improvement with a decrease in synovitis and morning stiffness and an increase in joint function. All six patients showed a profound depression in the peripheral blood lymphocyte count which persisted for at least six months. The irradiation was well tolerated; there have been no serious complications due to radiotherapy with follow-up ranging from 13 to 36 months. The substantial efficacy in some patients and the lack of severe toxicity in all suggests that radiotherapy deserves further study as an alternative to cytotoxic drugs in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  15. Beyond NK cells: the expanding universe of innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Cella, Marina; Miller, Hannah; Song, Christina

    2014-01-01

    For a long time, natural killer (NK) cells were thought to be the only innate immune lymphoid population capable of responding to invading pathogens under the influence of changing environmental cues. In the last few years, an increasing amount of evidence has shown that a number of different innate lymphoid cell (ILC) populations found at mucosal sites rapidly respond to locally produced cytokines in order to establish or maintain