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Sample records for low-income setting making

  1. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Hashmi, Iram Ejaz; Schellenberg, Joanna; Avan, Bilal Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Health management information systems (HMIS) produce large amounts of data about health service provision and population health, and provide opportunities for data-based decision-making in decentralized health systems. Yet the data are little-used locally. A well-defined approach to district-level decision-making using health data would help better meet the needs of the local population. In this second of four papers on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, our aim was to explore ways in which district administrators and health managers in low- and lower-middle-income countries use health data to make decisions, to describe the decision-making tools they used and identify challenges encountered when using these tools. A systematic literature review, following PRISMA guidelines, was undertaken. Experts were consulted about key sources of information. A search strategy was developed for 14 online databases of peer reviewed and grey literature. The resources were screened independently by two reviewers using pre-defined inclusion criteria. The 14 papers included were assessed for the quality of reported evidence and a descriptive evidence synthesis of the review findings was undertaken. We found 12 examples of tools to assist district-level decision-making, all of which included two key stages-identification of priorities, and development of an action plan to address them. Of those tools with more steps, four included steps to review or monitor the action plan agreed, suggesting the use of HMIS data. In eight papers HMIS data were used for prioritization. Challenges to decision-making processes fell into three main categories: the availability and quality of health and health facility data; human dynamics and financial constraints. Our findings suggest that evidence is available about a limited range of processes that include the use of data for decision-making at district level. Standardization and pre-testing in diverse settings would increase

  2. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Hashmi, Iram Ejaz; Schellenberg, Joanna; Avan, Bilal Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Health management information systems (HMIS) produce large amounts of data about health service provision and population health, and provide opportunities for data-based decision-making in decentralized health systems. Yet the data are little-used locally. A well-defined approach to district-level decision-making using health data would help better meet the needs of the local population. In this second of four papers on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, our aim was to explore ways in which district administrators and health managers in low- and lower-middle-income countries use health data to make decisions, to describe the decision-making tools they used and identify challenges encountered when using these tools. A systematic literature review, following PRISMA guidelines, was undertaken. Experts were consulted about key sources of information. A search strategy was developed for 14 online databases of peer reviewed and grey literature. The resources were screened independently by two reviewers using pre-defined inclusion criteria. The 14 papers included were assessed for the quality of reported evidence and a descriptive evidence synthesis of the review findings was undertaken. We found 12 examples of tools to assist district-level decision-making, all of which included two key stages-identification of priorities, and development of an action plan to address them. Of those tools with more steps, four included steps to review or monitor the action plan agreed, suggesting the use of HMIS data. In eight papers HMIS data were used for prioritization. Challenges to decision-making processes fell into three main categories: the availability and quality of health and health facility data; human dynamics and financial constraints. Our findings suggest that evidence is available about a limited range of processes that include the use of data for decision-making at district level. Standardization and pre-testing in diverse settings would increase

  3. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Avan, Bilal Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Health management information systems (HMIS) produce large amounts of data about health service provision and population health, and provide opportunities for data-based decision-making in decentralized health systems. Yet the data are little-used locally. A well-defined approach to district-level decision-making using health data would help better meet the needs of the local population. In this second of four papers on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, our aim was to explore ways in which district administrators and health managers in low- and lower-middle-income countries use health data to make decisions, to describe the decision-making tools they used and identify challenges encountered when using these tools. A systematic literature review, following PRISMA guidelines, was undertaken. Experts were consulted about key sources of information. A search strategy was developed for 14 online databases of peer reviewed and grey literature. The resources were screened independently by two reviewers using pre-defined inclusion criteria. The 14 papers included were assessed for the quality of reported evidence and a descriptive evidence synthesis of the review findings was undertaken. We found 12 examples of tools to assist district-level decision-making, all of which included two key stages—identification of priorities, and development of an action plan to address them. Of those tools with more steps, four included steps to review or monitor the action plan agreed, suggesting the use of HMIS data. In eight papers HMIS data were used for prioritization. Challenges to decision-making processes fell into three main categories: the availability and quality of health and health facility data; human dynamics and financial constraints. Our findings suggest that evidence is available about a limited range of processes that include the use of data for decision-making at district level. Standardization and pre-testing in diverse settings would

  4. Making a difference: using the safe surgery checklist to initiate continuing education for perioperative nurses in low-income settings.

    PubMed

    Leifso, Genelle

    2014-03-01

    The WHO Safe Surgery Checklist (2008) patient safety focus and communication prompts are widely accepted. In many low-income regions (as defined by the World Bank and accepted by the World Health Organization) perioperative nurses have little or no formal training; continuing and in-service education are virtually unknown; nor does an articulated "culture of safety" exist. In 2009 the Canadian Network for International Surgery (CNIS) piloted a two-day perioperative nursing course, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, using lectures, case studies, skills sessions, and role-play exercises based on the SSSL Checklist outline and protocols. Canadian instructors (who are certified after taking the Canadian Network for International Surgery-sponsored Instructor's Course) have since returned and taught at additional sites in Ethiopia and Uganda. Course participants now include perioperative nurses, anaesthetists, and junior surgical residents--mirroring the interdisciplinary teamwork that is crucial to safe perioperative patient care. The course's facilitated discussions focus on workplace and practice issues in order to allow for appropriate evaluation and planning of future educational initiatives. Participants complete pre- and post-course questionnaires, which evaluate baseline and post-course knowledge, and further follow-up is completed four months after course completion. This article explains the need for aiding in the expansion of perioperative nursing knowledge and skill in low-income settings and provides the author's personal perspective and experience in responding to this need. Her experience as facilitator in a pilot project and subsequent course development described. The objective is to discuss ways that other perioperative nurses can work to make a positive difference on professional practice and patient care in low-income regions. PMID:24791444

  5. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a case study of the potential of public and private sector data in India and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Berhanu, Della; Taddesse, Nolawi; Srivastava, Aradhana; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna; Iqbal Avan, Bilal

    2016-09-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries have pluralistic health systems where private for-profit and not-for-profit sectors complement the public sector: data shared across sectors can provide information for local decision-making. The third article in a series of four on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, this study shows the untapped potential of existing data through documenting the nature and type of data collected by the public and private health systems, data flow and sharing, use and inter-sectoral linkages in India and Ethiopia. In two districts in each country, semi-structured interviews were conducted with administrators and data managers to understand the type of data maintained and linkages with other sectors in terms of data sharing, flow and use. We created a database of all data elements maintained at district level, categorized by form and according to the six World Health Organization health system blocks. We used content analysis to capture the type of data available for different health system levels. Data flow in the public health sectors of both counties is sequential, formal and systematic. Although multiple sources of data exist outside the public health system, there is little formal sharing of data between sectors. Though not fully operational, Ethiopia has better developed formal structures for data sharing than India. In the private and public sectors, health data in both countries are collected in all six health system categories, with greatest focus on service delivery data and limited focus on supplies, health workforce, governance and contextual information. In the Indian private sector, there is a better balance than in the public sector of data across the six categories. In both India and Ethiopia the majority of data collected relate to maternal and child health. Both countries have huge potential for increased use of health data to guide district decision-making.

  6. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a case study of the potential of public and private sector data in India and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Berhanu, Della; Taddesse, Nolawi; Srivastava, Aradhana; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna; Iqbal Avan, Bilal

    2016-09-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries have pluralistic health systems where private for-profit and not-for-profit sectors complement the public sector: data shared across sectors can provide information for local decision-making. The third article in a series of four on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, this study shows the untapped potential of existing data through documenting the nature and type of data collected by the public and private health systems, data flow and sharing, use and inter-sectoral linkages in India and Ethiopia. In two districts in each country, semi-structured interviews were conducted with administrators and data managers to understand the type of data maintained and linkages with other sectors in terms of data sharing, flow and use. We created a database of all data elements maintained at district level, categorized by form and according to the six World Health Organization health system blocks. We used content analysis to capture the type of data available for different health system levels. Data flow in the public health sectors of both counties is sequential, formal and systematic. Although multiple sources of data exist outside the public health system, there is little formal sharing of data between sectors. Though not fully operational, Ethiopia has better developed formal structures for data sharing than India. In the private and public sectors, health data in both countries are collected in all six health system categories, with greatest focus on service delivery data and limited focus on supplies, health workforce, governance and contextual information. In the Indian private sector, there is a better balance than in the public sector of data across the six categories. In both India and Ethiopia the majority of data collected relate to maternal and child health. Both countries have huge potential for increased use of health data to guide district decision-making. PMID:27591203

  7. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a case study of the potential of public and private sector data in India and Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Berhanu, Della; Taddesse, Nolawi; Srivastava, Aradhana; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries have pluralistic health systems where private for-profit and not-for-profit sectors complement the public sector: data shared across sectors can provide information for local decision-making. The third article in a series of four on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, this study shows the untapped potential of existing data through documenting the nature and type of data collected by the public and private health systems, data flow and sharing, use and inter-sectoral linkages in India and Ethiopia. In two districts in each country, semi-structured interviews were conducted with administrators and data managers to understand the type of data maintained and linkages with other sectors in terms of data sharing, flow and use. We created a database of all data elements maintained at district level, categorized by form and according to the six World Health Organization health system blocks. We used content analysis to capture the type of data available for different health system levels. Data flow in the public health sectors of both counties is sequential, formal and systematic. Although multiple sources of data exist outside the public health system, there is little formal sharing of data between sectors. Though not fully operational, Ethiopia has better developed formal structures for data sharing than India. In the private and public sectors, health data in both countries are collected in all six health system categories, with greatest focus on service delivery data and limited focus on supplies, health workforce, governance and contextual information. In the Indian private sector, there is a better balance than in the public sector of data across the six categories. In both India and Ethiopia the majority of data collected relate to maternal and child health. Both countries have huge potential for increased use of health data to guide district decision-making. PMID:27591203

  8. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a feasibility study of a data-informed platform for health in India, Nigeria and Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Berhanu, Della; Umar, Nasir; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Low-resource settings often have limited use of local data for health system planning and decision-making. To promote local data use for decision-making and priority setting, we propose an adapted framework: a data-informed platform for health (DIPH) aimed at guiding coordination, bringing together key data from the public and private sectors on inputs and processes. In working to transform this framework from a concept to a health systems initiative, we undertook a series of implementation research activities including background assessment, testing and scaling up of the intervention. This first paper of four reports the feasibility of the approach in a district health systems context in five districts of India, Nigeria and Ethiopia. We selected five districts using predefined criteria and in collaboration with governments. After scoping visits, an in-depth field visit included interviews with key health stakeholders, focus group discussions with service-delivery staff and record review. For analysis, we used five dimensions of feasibility research based on the TELOS framework: technology and systems, economic, legal and political, operational and scheduling feasibility. We found no standardized process for data-based district level decision-making, and substantial obstacles in all three countries. Compared with study areas in Ethiopia and Nigeria, the health system in Uttar Pradesh is relatively amenable to the DIPH, having relative strengths in infrastructure, technological and technical expertise, and financial resources, as well as a district-level stakeholder forum. However, a key challenge is the absence of an effective legal framework for engagement with India’s extensive private health sector. While priority-setting may depend on factors beyond better use of local data, we conclude that a formative phase of intervention development and pilot-testing is warranted as a next step. PMID:27591204

  9. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a feasibility study of a data-informed platform for health in India, Nigeria and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Berhanu, Della; Umar, Nasir; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Low-resource settings often have limited use of local data for health system planning and decision-making. To promote local data use for decision-making and priority setting, we propose an adapted framework: a data-informed platform for health (DIPH) aimed at guiding coordination, bringing together key data from the public and private sectors on inputs and processes. In working to transform this framework from a concept to a health systems initiative, we undertook a series of implementation research activities including background assessment, testing and scaling up of the intervention. This first paper of four reports the feasibility of the approach in a district health systems context in five districts of India, Nigeria and Ethiopia. We selected five districts using predefined criteria and in collaboration with governments. After scoping visits, an in-depth field visit included interviews with key health stakeholders, focus group discussions with service-delivery staff and record review. For analysis, we used five dimensions of feasibility research based on the TELOS framework: technology and systems, economic, legal and political, operational and scheduling feasibility. We found no standardized process for data-based district level decision-making, and substantial obstacles in all three countries. Compared with study areas in Ethiopia and Nigeria, the health system in Uttar Pradesh is relatively amenable to the DIPH, having relative strengths in infrastructure, technological and technical expertise, and financial resources, as well as a district-level stakeholder forum. However, a key challenge is the absence of an effective legal framework for engagement with India's extensive private health sector. While priority-setting may depend on factors beyond better use of local data, we conclude that a formative phase of intervention development and pilot-testing is warranted as a next step. PMID:27591204

  10. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a feasibility study of a data-informed platform for health in India, Nigeria and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Berhanu, Della; Umar, Nasir; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Low-resource settings often have limited use of local data for health system planning and decision-making. To promote local data use for decision-making and priority setting, we propose an adapted framework: a data-informed platform for health (DIPH) aimed at guiding coordination, bringing together key data from the public and private sectors on inputs and processes. In working to transform this framework from a concept to a health systems initiative, we undertook a series of implementation research activities including background assessment, testing and scaling up of the intervention. This first paper of four reports the feasibility of the approach in a district health systems context in five districts of India, Nigeria and Ethiopia. We selected five districts using predefined criteria and in collaboration with governments. After scoping visits, an in-depth field visit included interviews with key health stakeholders, focus group discussions with service-delivery staff and record review. For analysis, we used five dimensions of feasibility research based on the TELOS framework: technology and systems, economic, legal and political, operational and scheduling feasibility. We found no standardized process for data-based district level decision-making, and substantial obstacles in all three countries. Compared with study areas in Ethiopia and Nigeria, the health system in Uttar Pradesh is relatively amenable to the DIPH, having relative strengths in infrastructure, technological and technical expertise, and financial resources, as well as a district-level stakeholder forum. However, a key challenge is the absence of an effective legal framework for engagement with India's extensive private health sector. While priority-setting may depend on factors beyond better use of local data, we conclude that a formative phase of intervention development and pilot-testing is warranted as a next step.

  11. Newborn resuscitation: defining best practice for low-income settings.

    PubMed

    Newton, Opiyo; English, Mike

    2006-10-01

    Current resuscitation practices are often poor in low-income settings. The purpose of this review was to summarise recent evidence, relevant to developing countries, on best practice in the provision of newborn resuscitation. Potential studies for inclusion were identified using structured searches of MEDLINE via PubMed. Two reviewers independently evaluated retrieved studies for inclusion. The methodological quality of the selected articles was assessed using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) levels of evidence, whilst the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) grading system was used for subsequent recommendations. Based on available evidence, where there is meconium-stained liquor, routine perineal suction of all babies and endotracheal suction of active babies do not prevent meconium aspiration syndrome and have potential risks. Adequate ventilation is possible with a bag-valve-mask device and room air is just as efficient as oxygen for initial resuscitation. This review supports the view that effective resuscitation is possible with basic equipment and minimal skills. Thus, where resources are limited, it should be possible to improve neonatal outcomes through promotion of the effective use of a bag-valve-mask alone, without access to more sophisticated and expensive technologies. Basic, effective resuscitation should therefore be available at all health facilities and potentially in the community.

  12. Child Care Decision Making: Understanding Priorities and Processes Used by Low-Income Families in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forry, Nicole; Isner, Tabitha K.; Daneri, Maria P.; Tout, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Few studies have described parents' child care decision-making process, yet understanding how parents make child care choices is fundamental to developing effective services to promote the selection of high-quality care. This study used latent profile analysis to distinguish subgroups of low-income parents identified as…

  13. Consent and assent in paediatric research in low-income settings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to involve children in the decision-making process about participation in medical research it is widely recommended that the child’s assent be sought in addition to parental consent. However, the concept of assent is fraught with difficulties, resulting in confusion among researchers and ethics committees alike. Discussion In this paper, we outline the current international debate surrounding pediatric consent and assent, and its unique challenges arising in low-income settings. We go on to propose some key requirements for a fit-for-purpose assent model in these difficult settings. The paper recommends that children who are competent, that is, children who are judged to be able to understand and retain relevant information, weigh this information in making a mature judgment, come to a decision and communicate the decision, should be able to consent for themselves. Our proposal is that where the decision about whether to participate in a study is of comparable complexity to the decisions the child is used to making in other aspects of his or her life, it should be made by the child him or herself. The relevant level of complexity should be judged by local standards rather than standards of the developed world. In the paper we explore some of the practical challenges and counter arguments of implementing this proposal. As in high-income settings, we argue that in the case of children who are judged to lack this level of competence both parental consent and assent from the child should be sought and go on to define assent as involving the child to the extent compatible to his or her maturity and with cultural norms and not as obtaining the child’s permission to proceed. Summary The concept of assent in the current guidelines is confusing. There is an urgent need for clearer guidelines that can be adapted for all types of paediatric research wherever it is to be carried out and an evidence-base concerning good assent/consent practice. This

  14. Sexual abuse of children in low-income settings: time for action.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, Elizabeth M; Kennedy, Neil; Dano, Asefa; Mulambia, Yabwile

    2013-11-01

    In this article, child sexual abuse in low-income settings is reviewed, including the extent of the problem, the way children present, and how they should be managed. Liaising with other agencies, training in all aspects of sexual abuse and creating an environment that is conducive to good care by all groups involved is essential. Technical details of medical examination are not covered as appropriate guidelines are accessible.

  15. Reviewing the application of the balanced scorecard with implications for low-income health settings.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Fauziah; Jafri, S M Wasin; Abbas, Farhat; Pappas, Gregory; Brommels, Mats; Tomson, Goran

    2007-01-01

    High-income countries (HICs) are increasingly making use of the balanced scorecard (BSC) in healthcare. Evidence about BSC usage in low-income countries (LICs) is deficient. This study assessed feasibility of BSC use in LICs. Systematic review of electronic databases shows that the BSC improved patient, staff, clinical, and financial outcomes in HICs. To translate the experience of BSC use in HICs to their use in LICs, the applicability parameters of the National Committee for Quality Assurance were applied. Despite contextual challenges, pilot testing of BSC use can be undertaken in selected LICs. Committed leadership, cultural readiness, quality information systems, viable strategic plans, and optimum resources are required.

  16. Reviewing the application of the balanced scorecard with implications for low-income health settings.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Fauziah; Jafri, S M Wasin; Abbas, Farhat; Pappas, Gregory; Brommels, Mats; Tomson, Goran

    2007-01-01

    High-income countries (HICs) are increasingly making use of the balanced scorecard (BSC) in healthcare. Evidence about BSC usage in low-income countries (LICs) is deficient. This study assessed feasibility of BSC use in LICs. Systematic review of electronic databases shows that the BSC improved patient, staff, clinical, and financial outcomes in HICs. To translate the experience of BSC use in HICs to their use in LICs, the applicability parameters of the National Committee for Quality Assurance were applied. Despite contextual challenges, pilot testing of BSC use can be undertaken in selected LICs. Committed leadership, cultural readiness, quality information systems, viable strategic plans, and optimum resources are required. PMID:17892079

  17. The Impact of a Program for Control of Asthma in a Low-Income Setting

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Franco, Rosana; Souza-Machado, Carolina; Ponte, Eduardo V.; Moura Santos, Pablo; Barreto, Maurício L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The prevalence of asthma is increasing in developing countries and the burden of uncontrolled asthma affects patients, families, and the health system. This is to summarize, evaluate, and discuss previous reports on the impact of a targeted and comprehensive approach to the most severe cases of asthma in a low-income setting. A Program for Control of Asthma (ProAR) was developed in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, prioritizing the control of severe asthma. By facilitating referrals from the public health system and providing proper multidisciplinary but simple management including education and medication, for free, the Program enrolled 2385 patients in 4 reference clinics. They are offered regular follow up and discharged back to primary health care only when asthma control can be maintained without requirement of a combination of an inhaled corticosteroid and a long-acting β2 agonist. ProAR has markedly reduced health resource utilization and decreased the rate of hospital admissions because of asthma in the entire City (2.8 million inhabitants) by 74%. Moderate to severe rhinitis was associated with lack of control of asthma. The average income of the families in the ProAR was US$2955 a year, and they spent 29% of all their income attempting to control the severe asthma of one member, a unbearable expenditure for a low-income family. The ProAR was shown to be cost-effective, reducing costs to the public health system (US$387 patient/year) and the families (US$789 patient/year). In a low-income setting of Brazil, an intervention prioritizing the control of severe asthma was feasible, effective, and reduced costs. PMID:23268428

  18. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a qualitative study in Uttar Pradesh, India, on engaging the private health sector in sharing health-related data.

    PubMed

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Spicer, Neil; Subharwal, Manish; Gupta, Sanjay; Srivastava, Aradhana; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Health information systems are an important planning and monitoring tool for public health services, but may lack information from the private health sector. In this fourth article in a series on district decision-making for health, we assessed the extent of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH)-related data sharing between the private and public sectors in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, India; analysed barriers to data sharing; and identified key inputs required for data sharing. Between March 2013 and August 2014, we conducted 74 key informant interviews at national, state and district levels. Respondents were stakeholders from national, state and district health departments, professional associations, non-governmental programmes and private commercial health facilities with 3-200 beds. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework based on a priori and emerging themes. Private facilities registered for ultrasounds and abortions submitted standardized records on these services, which is compulsory under Indian laws. Data sharing for other services was weak, but most facilities maintained basic records related to institutional deliveries and newborns. Public health facilities in blocks collected these data from a few private facilities using different methods. The major barriers to data sharing included the public sector's non-standardized data collection and utilization systems for MNCH and lack of communication and follow up with private facilities. Private facilities feared information disclosure and the additional burden of reporting, but were willing to share data if asked officially, provided the process was simple and they were assured of confidentiality. Unregistered facilities, managed by providers without a biomedical qualification, also conducted institutional deliveries, but were outside any reporting loops. Our findings suggest that even without legislation, the public sector could set up an effective MNCH data sharing strategy with private

  19. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a qualitative study in Uttar Pradesh, India, on engaging the private health sector in sharing health-related data

    PubMed Central

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Spicer, Neil; Subharwal, Manish; Gupta, Sanjay; Srivastava, Aradhana; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Health information systems are an important planning and monitoring tool for public health services, but may lack information from the private health sector. In this fourth article in a series on district decision-making for health, we assessed the extent of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH)-related data sharing between the private and public sectors in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, India; analysed barriers to data sharing; and identified key inputs required for data sharing. Between March 2013 and August 2014, we conducted 74 key informant interviews at national, state and district levels. Respondents were stakeholders from national, state and district health departments, professional associations, non-governmental programmes and private commercial health facilities with 3–200 beds. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework based on a priori and emerging themes. Private facilities registered for ultrasounds and abortions submitted standardized records on these services, which is compulsory under Indian laws. Data sharing for other services was weak, but most facilities maintained basic records related to institutional deliveries and newborns. Public health facilities in blocks collected these data from a few private facilities using different methods. The major barriers to data sharing included the public sector’s non-standardized data collection and utilization systems for MNCH and lack of communication and follow up with private facilities. Private facilities feared information disclosure and the additional burden of reporting, but were willing to share data if asked officially, provided the process was simple and they were assured of confidentiality. Unregistered facilities, managed by providers without a biomedical qualification, also conducted institutional deliveries, but were outside any reporting loops. Our findings suggest that even without legislation, the public sector could set up an effective MNCH data sharing strategy with

  20. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a qualitative study in Uttar Pradesh, India, on engaging the private health sector in sharing health-related data.

    PubMed

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Spicer, Neil; Subharwal, Manish; Gupta, Sanjay; Srivastava, Aradhana; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Health information systems are an important planning and monitoring tool for public health services, but may lack information from the private health sector. In this fourth article in a series on district decision-making for health, we assessed the extent of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH)-related data sharing between the private and public sectors in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, India; analysed barriers to data sharing; and identified key inputs required for data sharing. Between March 2013 and August 2014, we conducted 74 key informant interviews at national, state and district levels. Respondents were stakeholders from national, state and district health departments, professional associations, non-governmental programmes and private commercial health facilities with 3-200 beds. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework based on a priori and emerging themes. Private facilities registered for ultrasounds and abortions submitted standardized records on these services, which is compulsory under Indian laws. Data sharing for other services was weak, but most facilities maintained basic records related to institutional deliveries and newborns. Public health facilities in blocks collected these data from a few private facilities using different methods. The major barriers to data sharing included the public sector's non-standardized data collection and utilization systems for MNCH and lack of communication and follow up with private facilities. Private facilities feared information disclosure and the additional burden of reporting, but were willing to share data if asked officially, provided the process was simple and they were assured of confidentiality. Unregistered facilities, managed by providers without a biomedical qualification, also conducted institutional deliveries, but were outside any reporting loops. Our findings suggest that even without legislation, the public sector could set up an effective MNCH data sharing strategy with private

  1. Childhood Nutrition: Perceptions of Caretakers in a Low-Income Urban Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Lynn E.; Patterson, Barbara J.

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of overweight and obese children, especially those from low-income and minority backgrounds, continues to rise. Multiple factors contribute to the rising rates. In order to gain an understanding of factors contributing to obesity in low-income families, a qualitative study was conducted with the purpose of gaining knowledge of…

  2. Victory at Buffalo Creek: What Makes a School Serving Low-Income Hispanic Children Successful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Buffalo Creek Elementary School in Houston, Texas, has been recognized for its success in serving its students--approximately 600 low-income Hispanic children in grades preK-5. A study of the school, which sought to develop a detailed picture of school effectiveness, identified 33 indicators of success. Each of these indicators is briefly…

  3. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children

    PubMed Central

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which children spent a majority of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings combined with relatively low amounts of teacher-directed activity, and a Structured-Balanced pattern in which children spent relatively equal proportions of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings and teacher-directed small- and whole-group activities. Daily routine profiles were associated with program type and curriculum use but not with measures of process quality. Children in Structured-Balanced classrooms had more opportunities to engage in language and literacy and math activities, whereas children in High Free-Choice classrooms had more opportunities for gross motor and fantasy play. Being in a Structured-Balanced classroom was associated with children’s language scores but profiles were not associated with measures of children’s math reasoning or socio-emotional behavior. Consideration of teachers’ structuring of daily routines represents a valuable way to understand nuances in the provision of learning experiences for young children in the context of current views about developmentally appropriate practice and school readiness. PMID:22665945

  4. Promoting health and advancing development through improved housing in low-income settings.

    PubMed

    Haines, Andy; Bruce, Nigel; Cairncross, Sandy; Davies, Michael; Greenland, Katie; Hiscox, Alexandra; Lindsay, Steve; Lindsay, Tom; Satterthwaite, David; Wilkinson, Paul

    2013-10-01

    There is major untapped potential to improve health in low-income communities through improved housing design, fittings, materials and construction. Adverse effects on health from inadequate housing can occur through a range of mechanisms, both direct and indirect, including as a result of extreme weather, household air pollution, injuries or burns, the ingress of disease vectors and lack of clean water and sanitation. Collaborative action between public health professionals and those involved in developing formal and informal housing could advance both health and development by addressing risk factors for a range of adverse health outcomes. Potential trade-offs between design features which may reduce the risk of some adverse outcomes whilst increasing the risk of others must be explicitly considered.

  5. Promoting health and advancing development through improved housing in low-income settings.

    PubMed

    Haines, Andy; Bruce, Nigel; Cairncross, Sandy; Davies, Michael; Greenland, Katie; Hiscox, Alexandra; Lindsay, Steve; Lindsay, Tom; Satterthwaite, David; Wilkinson, Paul

    2013-10-01

    There is major untapped potential to improve health in low-income communities through improved housing design, fittings, materials and construction. Adverse effects on health from inadequate housing can occur through a range of mechanisms, both direct and indirect, including as a result of extreme weather, household air pollution, injuries or burns, the ingress of disease vectors and lack of clean water and sanitation. Collaborative action between public health professionals and those involved in developing formal and informal housing could advance both health and development by addressing risk factors for a range of adverse health outcomes. Potential trade-offs between design features which may reduce the risk of some adverse outcomes whilst increasing the risk of others must be explicitly considered. PMID:23271143

  6. Making 'good girls': sexual agency in the sexuality education of low-income black girls.

    PubMed

    Froyum, Carissa M

    2010-01-01

    Critics argue that abstinence-only programmes reinforce gender inequality when they contain discourses that equate being a 'good girl' with sexual restraint. Yet they too often overlook how racial and class inequalities shape discourses about girls' sexual agency. This ethnography extends gender scholarship by analysing the racialised, classed and gendered dynamics of an abstinence-only programme for low-income black girls. It finds that black adults viewed the girls as sexually vulnerable because of racism and class inequality. They tried to mediate this vulnerability by transforming girls into sexual agents. They did so, though, by exaggerating the gendered discourses of the official sexuality education curricula that framed girls as victims and their sexual restraint as a matter of morality. Thus, the programme reinforced gender inequality while trying to disrupt race and class inequalities.

  7. Psychological Symptoms and Social Functioning Following Repair of Obstetric Fistula in a Low-Income Setting.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah M; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Masenga, Gileard G; Mosha, Mary V

    2016-05-01

    Objectives Obstetric fistula is a maternal injury that causes uncontrollable leaking of urine or stool, and most women who develop it live in poverty in low-income countries. Obstetric fistula is associated with high rates of stigma and psychological morbidity, but there is uncertainty about the impact of surgical treatment on psychological outcomes. The objective of this exploratory study was to examine changes in psychological symptoms following surgical fistula repair, discharge and reintegration home. Methods Women admitted for surgical repair of obstetric fistula were recruited from a Tanzanian hospital serving a rural catchment area. Psychological symptoms and social functioning were assessed prior to surgery. Approximately 3 months after discharge, a data collector visited the patients' homes to repeat psychosocial measures and assess self-reported incontinence. Baseline to follow-up differences were measured with paired t tests controlling for multiple comparisons. Associations between psychological outcomes and leaking were assessed with t tests and Pearson correlations. Results Participants (N = 28) had been living with fistula for an average of 11 years. Baseline psychological distress was high, and decreased significantly at follow-up. Participants who self-reported continued incontinence at follow-up endorsed significantly higher PTSD and depression symptoms than those who reported being cured, and severity of leaking was associated with psychological distress. Conclusions Fistula patients experience improvements in mental health at 3 months after discharge, but these improvements are curtailed when women experience residual leaking. Given the rate of stress incontinence following surgery, it is important to prepare fistula patients for the possibility of incomplete cure and help them develop appropriate coping strategies. PMID:27010550

  8. Breastfeeding among low income, African-American women: power, beliefs and decision making.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Margaret E; Dee, Deborah L; Jensen, Joan L

    2003-01-01

    Breastfeeding rates among African-American women lag behind all other ethnic groups. National data show that only 45% of African-American women reported ever breastfeeding compared to 66 and 68% of Hispanic and white women, respectively. Of African-American women who do choose to breastfeed, duration is short, with many discontinuing in the first days after birth. This report applies a social ecological framework to breastfeeding to investigate macrolevel-microlevel linkages. We posit that macrolevel factors, such as the media, aggressive marketing of breastmilk substitutes, welfare reform, hospital policy and breastfeeding legislation, interact with microlevel factors to influence a woman's decision to breastfeed. These microlevel factors include features of the community, neighborhoods, workplaces that support or discourage breastfeeding, social and personal networks and cultural norms and individual beliefs about breastfeeding. The report discusses how power operates at each level to influence women's choices and also emphasizes the value of ethnographic data in breastfeeding studies. Through a case study of a sample of low income, African-American women living in Baltimore, MD, where breastfeeding role models are few, beliefs that discourage breastfeeding are many, and where everyday life is full of danger and fear, it is understandable that breastfeeding is not considered practical. The narrative data provide important information that can be used to enhance intervention efforts. To reach the Surgeon General's Healthy People 2010 breastfeeding goals requires a shift in cultural norms and structures at all levels that will support breastfeeding for all women. PMID:12514315

  9. Hyponatremia in patients hospitalized with heart failure: a condition often overlooked in low-income settings

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Khalid; Workicho, Abdulhalik; Gudina, Esayas Kebede

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte abnormality in patients with heart failure (HF). It is independently associated with increased short-term and long-term morbidity and mortality. The main objective of this study was to assess patterns of hyponatremia and its association with discharge outcomes in patients with HF admitted to a teaching hospital in Ethiopia. Patients and methods This is a descriptive, prospective, hospital-based cohort study of patients with HF admitted to Jimma University Hospital, Ethiopia, between November 1, 2013 and July 31, 2014. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, clinical profile at admission, and outcomes at discharge. Plasma sodium concentration was analyzed at admission for all patients. The relationship between hyponatremia at admission and in-hospital mortality, as well as length of hospital stay, was assessed using both bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regressions. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results Of 152 participants admitted with HF, 44 (28.9%) had hyponatremia, which is defined as serum sodium level <135 mmol/L. Patients on salt restriction, on chronic diuretic treatment (furosemide and spironolactone), and with impaired renal function at admission were found to be highly affected. Hyponatremia was found to be associated with increased in-hospital mortality (P=0.008) and longer hospital stay (16.6 vs 12 days, P<0.001). Patients with hyponatremia also had lower blood pressure and poor functional status at discharge. Conclusion This study demonstrates that hyponatremia is highly prevalent in patients hospitalized with HF and is associated with increased in-hospital mortality and longer hospital stay. Thus, great emphasis should be given to identify high-risk patients, and prevention and early detection of hyponatremia to prevent its deleterious effects. Large-scale national studies are also needed to complement our

  10. Making recording and analysis of chief complaint a priority for global emergency care research in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Mowafi, Hani; Dworkis, Daniel; Bisanzo, Mark; Hansoti, Bhakti; Seidenberg, Phil; Obermeyer, Ziad; Hauswald, Mark; Reynolds, Teri A

    2013-12-01

    The chief complaint is a patient's self-reported primary reason for presenting for medical care. The clinical utility and analytical importance of recording chief complaints have been widely accepted in highly developed emergency care systems, but this practice is far from universal in global emergency care, especially in limited-resource areas. It is precisely in these settings, however, that the use of chief complaints may have particular benefit. Chief complaints may be used to quantify, analyze, and plan for emergency care and provide valuable information on acute care needs where there are crucial data gaps. Globally, much work has been done to establish local practices around chief complaint collection and use, but no standards have been established and little work has been done to identify minimum effective sets of chief complaints that may be used in limited-resource settings. As part of the Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, "Global Health and Emergency Care: A Research Agenda," the breakout group on data management identified the lack of research on emergency chief complaints globally-especially in low-income countries where the highest proportion of the world's population resides-as a major gap in global emergency care research. This article reviews global research on emergency chief complaints in high-income countries with developed emergency care systems and sets forth an agenda for future research on chief complaints in limited-resource settings.

  11. Understanding pregnancy planning in a low-income country setting: validation of the London measure of unplanned pregnancy in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    tool in a low-income country, helping to demonstrate that the concept of pregnancy planning is applicable in such a setting. Use of the Chichewa LMUP can enhance our understanding of pregnancy intention in Malawi, giving insight into the family planning services that are required to better meet women’s needs and save lives. PMID:24188251

  12. Lessons Learned from the Development and Implementation of a Parent Nutrition Education Program with Low-Income Latina Mothers in an Urban School District Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thai, Chan Le; Prelip, Michael; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Slusser, Wendelin

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the steps involved in the development and implementation of a parent nutrition education workshop series for a low-income, primarily Spanish-speaking population in an urban school district setting. Overall, those parents who participated in the nutrition education workshops showed positive changes in their knowledge,…

  13. Outcome of a Food Observational Study among Low-Income Preschool Children Participating in a Family-Style Meal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treviño, Roberto P.; Vasquez, Liset; Shaw-Ridley, Mary; Mosley, Desiree; Jechow, Katherine; Piña, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the United States, one out of every seven low-income children between the ages of 2 and 5 years is at risk for overweight and obesity. Formative research was conducted to determine if preschool children participating in family-style meals consumed the minimum food servings according to U.S. Department of Agriculture dietary…

  14. Helping Low-Income Urban Youth Make the Transition to Early Adulthood: A Retrospective Study of the YMCA Youth Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Julie; Kirkner, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Low-income urban youth of color often face challenges in their transition to early adulthood. High school out-of-school time (OST) programs that promote positive youth development may help youth to better negotiate this period. However, little research exists on the long-term impact of such programs on young adults. The authors conducted a pilot…

  15. Distinct Salmonella Enteritidis lineages associated with enterocolitis in high-income settings and invasive disease in low-income settings.

    PubMed

    Feasey, Nicholas A; Hadfield, James; Keddy, Karen H; Dallman, Timothy J; Jacobs, Jan; Deng, Xiangyu; Wigley, Paul; Barquist Barquist, Lars; Langridge, Gemma C; Feltwell, Theresa; Harris, Simon R; Mather, Alison E; Fookes, Maria; Aslett, Martin; Msefula, Chisomo; Kariuki, Samuel; Maclennan, Calman A; Onsare, Robert S; Weill, François-Xavier; Le Hello, Simon; Smith, Anthony M; McClelland, Michael; Desai, Prerak; Parry, Christopher M; Cheesbrough, John; French, Neil; Campos, Josefina; Chabalgoity, Jose A; Betancor, Laura; Hopkins, Katie L; Nair, Satheesh; Humphrey, Tom J; Lunguya, Octavie; Cogan, Tristan A; Tapia, Milagritos D; Sow, Samba O; Tennant, Sharon M; Bornstein, Kristin; Levine, Myron M; Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Everett, Dean B; Kingsley, Robert A; Parkhill, Julian; Heyderman, Robert S; Dougan, Gordon; Gordon, Melita A; Thomson, Nicholas R

    2016-10-01

    An epidemiological paradox surrounds Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. In high-income settings, it has been responsible for an epidemic of poultry-associated, self-limiting enterocolitis, whereas in sub-Saharan Africa it is a major cause of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease, associated with high case fatality. By whole-genome sequence analysis of 675 isolates of S. Enteritidis from 45 countries, we show the existence of a global epidemic clade and two new clades of S. Enteritidis that are geographically restricted to distinct regions of Africa. The African isolates display genomic degradation, a novel prophage repertoire, and an expanded multidrug resistance plasmid. S. Enteritidis is a further example of a Salmonella serotype that displays niche plasticity, with distinct clades that enable it to become a prominent cause of gastroenteritis in association with the industrial production of eggs and of multidrug-resistant, bloodstream-invasive infection in Africa.

  16. Distinct Salmonella Enteritidis lineages associated with enterocolitis in high-income settings and invasive disease in low-income settings.

    PubMed

    Feasey, Nicholas A; Hadfield, James; Keddy, Karen H; Dallman, Timothy J; Jacobs, Jan; Deng, Xiangyu; Wigley, Paul; Barquist Barquist, Lars; Langridge, Gemma C; Feltwell, Theresa; Harris, Simon R; Mather, Alison E; Fookes, Maria; Aslett, Martin; Msefula, Chisomo; Kariuki, Samuel; Maclennan, Calman A; Onsare, Robert S; Weill, François-Xavier; Le Hello, Simon; Smith, Anthony M; McClelland, Michael; Desai, Prerak; Parry, Christopher M; Cheesbrough, John; French, Neil; Campos, Josefina; Chabalgoity, Jose A; Betancor, Laura; Hopkins, Katie L; Nair, Satheesh; Humphrey, Tom J; Lunguya, Octavie; Cogan, Tristan A; Tapia, Milagritos D; Sow, Samba O; Tennant, Sharon M; Bornstein, Kristin; Levine, Myron M; Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Everett, Dean B; Kingsley, Robert A; Parkhill, Julian; Heyderman, Robert S; Dougan, Gordon; Gordon, Melita A; Thomson, Nicholas R

    2016-10-01

    An epidemiological paradox surrounds Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. In high-income settings, it has been responsible for an epidemic of poultry-associated, self-limiting enterocolitis, whereas in sub-Saharan Africa it is a major cause of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease, associated with high case fatality. By whole-genome sequence analysis of 675 isolates of S. Enteritidis from 45 countries, we show the existence of a global epidemic clade and two new clades of S. Enteritidis that are geographically restricted to distinct regions of Africa. The African isolates display genomic degradation, a novel prophage repertoire, and an expanded multidrug resistance plasmid. S. Enteritidis is a further example of a Salmonella serotype that displays niche plasticity, with distinct clades that enable it to become a prominent cause of gastroenteritis in association with the industrial production of eggs and of multidrug-resistant, bloodstream-invasive infection in Africa. PMID:27548315

  17. Integrated Strategies to Address Maternal and Child Health and Survival in Low-Income Settings: Implications for Haiti.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals for improving maternal and child health globally were agreed on in 2000, and several monitoring and evaluation strategies were put in place, including "Countdown to 2015" for monitoring progress and intervention coverage to reach the goals. However, progress in achieving the goals has been slow, with only 13 of the 75 participating Countdown countries on track to reach the targets for reducing child mortality.An overview of child mortality rates in low-income countries is presented, followed by a discussion of evidenced-based interventions that can bridge the equity gaps in global health. Finally, comments are included on the companion article in this issue, "Addressing the Child and Maternal Mortality Crisis in Haiti through a Central Referral Hospital Providing Countrywide Care" (page 59), and what is needed for that new project to succeed. PMID:27065474

  18. Integrated Strategies to Address Maternal and Child Health and Survival in Low-Income Settings: Implications for Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals for improving maternal and child health globally were agreed on in 2000, and several monitoring and evaluation strategies were put in place, including “Countdown to 2015” for monitoring progress and intervention coverage to reach the goals. However, progress in achieving the goals has been slow, with only 13 of the 75 participating Countdown countries on track to reach the targets for reducing child mortality. An overview of child mortality rates in low-income countries is presented, followed by a discussion of evidenced-based interventions that can bridge the equity gaps in global health. Finally, comments are included on the companion article in this issue, “Addressing the Child and Maternal Mortality Crisis in Haiti through a Central Referral Hospital Providing Countrywide Care” (page 59), and what is needed for that new project to succeed. PMID:27065474

  19. Women with Low Incomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Females who were poor outnumbered males by more than four million in 1975. The 15 million females living in poverty accounted for three out of five persons (fifty-eight percent) who were poor in the United States. Advance data for 1976 indicate that more than ten million women aged sixteen and over had low incomes, and that these women accounted…

  20. First look: a cluster-randomized trial of ultrasound to improve pregnancy outcomes in low income country settings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In high-resource settings, obstetric ultrasound is a standard component of prenatal care used to identify pregnancy complications and to establish an accurate gestational age in order to improve obstetric care. Whether or not ultrasound use will improve care and ultimately pregnancy outcomes in low-resource settings is unknown. Methods/Design This multi-country cluster randomized trial will assess the impact of antenatal ultrasound screening performed by health care staff on a composite outcome consisting of maternal mortality and maternal near-miss, stillbirth and neonatal mortality in low-resource community settings. The trial will utilize an existing research infrastructure, the Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research with sites in Pakistan, Kenya, Zambia, Democratic Republic of Congo and Guatemala. A maternal and newborn health registry in defined geographic areas which documents all pregnancies and their outcomes to 6 weeks post-delivery will provide population-based rates of maternal mortality and morbidity, stillbirth, neonatal mortality and morbidity, and health care utilization for study clusters. A total of 58 study clusters each with a health center and about 500 births per year will be randomized (29 intervention and 29 control). The intervention includes training of health workers (e.g., nurses, midwives, clinical officers) to perform ultrasound examinations during antenatal care, generally at 18–22 and at 32–36 weeks for each subject. Women who are identified as having a complication of pregnancy will be referred to a hospital for appropriate care. Finally, the intervention includes community sensitization activities to inform women and their families of the availability of ultrasound at the antenatal care clinic and training in emergency obstetric and neonatal care at referral facilities. Discussion In summary, our trial will evaluate whether introduction of ultrasound during antenatal care improves pregnancy

  1. Assessing the Health Impact of Water Quality Interventions in Low-Income Settings: Concerns Associated with Blinded Trials and the Need for Objective Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Clasen, Thomas; Boisson, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Background: A dramatic disparity between the results of blinded versus open trial designs has raised questions about the effectiveness of water quality interventions and other environmental interventions to prevent diarrhea, a leading killer of young children in low-income countries. Objectives: We summarize the results of blinded versus open trials of water quality interventions, describe evidence from a recent placebo-controlled trial in India suggesting that control households were put at risk from their participation, and suggest alternatives to blinded trials that could resolve continued uncertainty about the magnitude of the protective effect of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions without presenting ethical questions. Discussion: Concerns about reporting bias in open trial designs continue to cause uncertainty about the effectiveness of WASH interventions. However, evidence suggests that despite instructions to the contrary, placebos may encourage control group participants in blinded trials to cease practicing traditional water treatment practices in the mistaken belief that they are protected by an active intervention. Although objective outcomes such as pathogen incrimination, seroconversion, biomarkers, and anthropometry can be helpful, these are often costly, nonspecific, and unsuitable for evaluating programmatic interventions. Conclusions: Unless researchers can be assured that a placebo will not cause those in a control group to change their behavior in a manner that increases their risk, it is incumbent on researchers to use alternatives. Validated objective measures are needed for assessing the health impact of WASH interventions that are reliable, affordable, and suitable both for research and program evaluation. Citation: Clasen T, Boisson S. 2016. Assessing the health impact of water quality interventions in low-income settings: concerns associated with blinded trials and the need for objective outcomes. Environ Health Perspect

  2. Vaccine Induced Herd Immunity for Control of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease in a Low-Income Country Setting

    PubMed Central

    Kinyanjui, Timothy M.; House, Thomas A.; Kiti, Moses C.; Cane, Patricia A.; Nokes, David J.; Medley, Graham F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is globally ubiquitous, and infection during the first six months of life is a major risk for severe disease and hospital admission; consequently RSV is the most important viral cause of respiratory morbidity and mortality in young children. Development of vaccines for young infants is complicated by the presence of maternal antibodies and immunological immaturity, but vaccines targeted at older children avoid these problems. Vaccine development for young infants has been unsuccessful, but this is not the case for older children (> 6m). Would vaccinating older children have a significant public health impact? We developed a mathematical model to explore the benefits of a vaccine against RSV. Methods and Findings We have used a deterministic age structured model capturing the key epidemiological characteristics of RSV and performed a statistical maximum-likelihood fit to age-specific hospitalization data from a developing country setting. To explore the effects of vaccination under different mixing assumptions, we included two versions of contact matrices: one from a social contact diary study, and the second a synthesised construction based on demographic data. Vaccination is assumed to elicit an immune response equivalent to primary infection. Our results show that immunisation of young children (5–10m) is likely to be a highly effective method of protection of infants (<6m) against hospitalisation. The majority benefit is derived from indirect protection (herd immunity). A full sensitivity and uncertainty analysis using Latin Hypercube Sampling of the parameter space shows that our results are robust to model structure and model parameters. Conclusions This result suggests that vaccinating older infants and children against RSV can have a major public health benefit. PMID:26390032

  3. Using Economic Evidence to Set Healthcare Priorities in Low-Income and Lower-Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of Methodological Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Virginia; Mitton, Craig; Doyle-Waters, Mary M; Drake, Tom; Conteh, Lesong; Newall, Anthony T; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Jan, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    Policy makers in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) are increasingly looking to develop 'evidence-based' frameworks for identifying priority health interventions. This paper synthesises and appraises the literature on methodological frameworks--which incorporate economic evaluation evidence--for the purpose of setting healthcare priorities in LMICs. A systematic search of Embase, MEDLINE, Econlit and PubMed identified 3968 articles with a further 21 articles identified through manual searching. A total of 36 papers were eligible for inclusion. These covered a wide range of health interventions with only two studies including health systems strengthening interventions related to financing, governance and human resources. A little under half of the studies (39%) included multiple criteria for priority setting, most commonly equity, feasibility and disease severity. Most studies (91%) specified a measure of 'efficiency' defined as cost per disability-adjusted life year averted. Ranking of health interventions using multi-criteria decision analysis and generalised cost-effectiveness were the most common frameworks for identifying priority health interventions. Approximately a third of studies discussed the affordability of priority interventions. Only one study identified priority areas for the release or redeployment of resources. The paper concludes by highlighting the need for local capacity to conduct evaluations (including economic analysis) and empowerment of local decision-makers to act on this evidence.

  4. Low income, inequality and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, C

    Drawing on reports and statistics that demonstrate the link between health and low income, this article explains how low income can act as a key health hazard and set off a domino effect involving other health hazards such as substandard housing, pollution and poor social support systems. The author argues that we have still some way to go to put a poverty perspective on strategies to promote positive health.

  5. Experiences with food insecurity and risky sex among low-income people living with HIV/AIDS in a resource-rich setting

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Henry J; Palar, Kartika; Napoles, Tessa; Hufstedler, Lee Lemus; Ching, Irene; Hecht, Frederick M; Frongillo, Edward A; Weiser, Sheri D

    2015-01-01

    Background Forty-nine million individuals are food insecure in the United States, where food insecurity and HIV/AIDS are prevalent among the urban poor. Food insecurity is associated with risky sexual behaviours among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). No qualitative studies, however, have investigated the mechanisms underlying this relationship either in a resource-rich setting or among populations that include men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 low-income PLHIV receiving food assistance in the San Francisco Bay Area. The interviews explored experiences with food insecurity and perceived associations with sexual risk behaviours. Interviews were conducted in English, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed according to content analysis methods using an inductive-deductive approach. Results Food insecurity was reported to be a strong contributor to risky sexual practices among MSM and female participants. Individuals described engaging in transactional sex for food or money to buy food, often during times of destitution. Participants also explained how food insecurity could lead to condomless sex despite knowledge of and desire to use safe sexual practices, largely because the need to obtain food in the short term was prioritized over the desire to use barrier protection. Conclusions Our data extend previous research by demonstrating that food insecurity contributes to transactional and unprotected sex among urban poor individuals in a resource-rich setting, including among MSM. These findings underscore the importance of public health and social intervention efforts focused on structural inequalities. PMID:26546789

  6. Local Wellness Policy 5 Years Later: Is It Making a Difference for Students in Low-Income, Rural Colorado Elementary Schools?

    PubMed Central

    Cutforth, Nick; Gilbert, Lynn; Litt, Jill; Reed, Hannah; Scarbro, Sharon; Marshall, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The federally mandated Local Wellness Policy (LWP) was intended to promote student health in schools. This study assesses the 5-year effects of the LWP on the health practices of rural elementary schools in Colorado. Methods One year before and 5 years after the LWP mandate, a survey was administered to a random sample of principals, physical education (PE) teachers, and food-service managers in 45 rural, low-income elementary schools in Colorado. Response rates were 71% in 2005 and 89% in 2011. Results Minutes for PE and recess did not increase, nor did offerings of fresh fruits and vegetables. More schools adopted policies prohibiting teachers from taking recess away as punishment (9.7% in 2005 vs 38.5% in 2011, P = .02) or for making up missed instructional time, class work, or tests in other subjects (3.2% in 2005 vs 28.2% in 2011, P = .03). More schools scheduled recess before lunch (22.6% in 2005 vs 46.2% in 2011, P = .04) and developed policies for vending machines (42.9% in 2005 vs 85.7% in 2011, P = .01) and parties (21.4% in 2005 vs 57.9% in 2011, P = .004). Conclusion Changes in school practices are modest, and arguably the important school practices such as increased PE and recess time and increased offerings of fruits and vegetables in the lunch line have not changed in the 5 years since the mandate went into effect. Further investigation is needed to identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes as well as financial and physical resources required for school administrators to make changes in school practices. PMID:24199737

  7. 'Faking til you make it': social capital accumulation of individuals on low incomes living in contrasting socio-economic neighbourhoods and its implications for health and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran

    2013-05-01

    People on low-income living in low socio-economic neighbourhoods have poorer health in comparison with those living in advantaged neighbourhoods. To explore neighbourhood effects on health and social capital creation, the experiences of low-income people living in contrasting socio-economic neighbourhoods were compared, in order to examine how low-income status and differing levels of neighbourhood resources contributed to perceived health and wellbeing. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed: survey data from 601 individuals living in contrasting socio-economic areas and in-depth interviews with a new sample of 24 individuals on low-incomes. The study was guided by Bourdieu's theory of practice, which examines how social inequalities are created and reproduced through the relationship between individuals' varying resources of economic, social and cultural capital. This included an examination of individual life histories, cultural distinction and how social positions are reproduced. Participants' accounts of their early life experience showed how parental socio-economic position and socially patterned events taking place across the life course, created different opportunities for social network creation, choice of neighbourhood and levels of resources available throughout life, all of which can influence health and wellbeing. A definition of poverty by whether an individual or household has sufficient income at a particular point in time was an inadequate measure of disadvantage. This static measure of 'low income' as a category disguised a number of different ways in which disadvantage was experienced or, conversely, how life course events could mitigate the impact of low-income. This study found that the resources necessary to create social capital such as cultural capital and the ability to socially network, differed according to the socio-economic status of the neighbourhood, and that living in an advantaged area does not automatically guarantee

  8. 'Faking til you make it': social capital accumulation of individuals on low incomes living in contrasting socio-economic neighbourhoods and its implications for health and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran

    2013-05-01

    People on low-income living in low socio-economic neighbourhoods have poorer health in comparison with those living in advantaged neighbourhoods. To explore neighbourhood effects on health and social capital creation, the experiences of low-income people living in contrasting socio-economic neighbourhoods were compared, in order to examine how low-income status and differing levels of neighbourhood resources contributed to perceived health and wellbeing. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed: survey data from 601 individuals living in contrasting socio-economic areas and in-depth interviews with a new sample of 24 individuals on low-incomes. The study was guided by Bourdieu's theory of practice, which examines how social inequalities are created and reproduced through the relationship between individuals' varying resources of economic, social and cultural capital. This included an examination of individual life histories, cultural distinction and how social positions are reproduced. Participants' accounts of their early life experience showed how parental socio-economic position and socially patterned events taking place across the life course, created different opportunities for social network creation, choice of neighbourhood and levels of resources available throughout life, all of which can influence health and wellbeing. A definition of poverty by whether an individual or household has sufficient income at a particular point in time was an inadequate measure of disadvantage. This static measure of 'low income' as a category disguised a number of different ways in which disadvantage was experienced or, conversely, how life course events could mitigate the impact of low-income. This study found that the resources necessary to create social capital such as cultural capital and the ability to socially network, differed according to the socio-economic status of the neighbourhood, and that living in an advantaged area does not automatically guarantee

  9. Making Pre-Kindergarten Work for Low-Income Working Families. CLASP Child Care and Early Education Series. Policy Paper No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Rachel; Hamm, Katie; Ewen, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of state leaders believe that it is essential to expand high-quality early learning and development opportunities for all young children before they reach kindergarten. A key component of this strategy is providing access to voluntary, high-quality pre-kindergarten programs, especially for low-income children. Over the last few…

  10. Getting into the Black Box: How Do Low-Income Parents Make Choices about Early Care and Education in Maryland? Publication #2012-42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forry, Nicole; Wessel, Julia; Simkin, Shana; Rodrigues, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Existing literature highlights the positive influence of high-quality early care and education on the development of young children, and particularly young children in impoverished or low-income families. Reflecting the promising influence of high-quality early care and education on children's developmental outcomes, policy makers and state…

  11. Medicine prices in urban Mozambique: a public health and economic study of pharmaceutical markets and price determinants in low-income settings.

    PubMed

    Russo, Giuliano; McPake, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that medicines are unaffordable in low-income countries and that world manufacturing and trade policies are responsible for high prices. This research investigates medicine prices in urban Mozambique with the objective of understanding how prices are formed and with what public health implications. The study adopts an economic framework and uses a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse local pharmaceutical prices and markets. The research findings suggest that: (a) local mark-ups are responsible for up to two-thirds of drugs' final prices in private pharmacies; (b) statutory profit and cost ceilings are applied unevenly, due to lack of government control and collusion among suppliers; and (c) the local market appears to respond effectively to the urban population's diverse needs through its low-cost and high-cost segments, although uncertainty around the quality of generics may be inducing consumers to purchase less affordable drugs. We conclude that local markets play a larger than expected role in the determination of prices in Mozambique, and that more research is needed to address the complex issue of affordability of medicines in low-income countries. We also argue that price controls may not be the most effective way to influence access to medicines in low-income countries, and managing demand and supply towards cheaper effective drugs appears a more suitable policy option.

  12. Launching Low-Income Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laney, Kahliah

    2013-01-01

    With middle-income jobs in decline, entrepreneurship offers an increasingly promising pathway out of poverty; but few low-income New Yorkers are currently taking this route to economic self-sufficiency. This report provides the most comprehensive examination of low-income entrepreneurship in New York. The report documents current self-employment…

  13. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  14. Effectiveness of an Alternative Dental Workforce Model on the Oral Health of Low-Income Children in a School-Based Setting

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Mary; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia; Liu, Ying; Kelly, Patricia; Branson, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effect of an alternative dental workforce program—Kansas’s Extended Care Permit (ECP) program—as a function of changes in oral health. Methods. We examined data from the 2008 to 2012 electronic medical records of children (n = 295) in a Midwestern US suburb who participated in a school-based oral health program in which preventive oral health care was delivered by ECP dental hygienists. We examined changes in oral health status as a function of sealants, caries, restorations, and treatment urgency with descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis of variance, Kruskal–Wallis test, and Pearson correlations. Results. The number of encounters with the ECP dental hygienist had a statistically significant effect on changes in decay (P = .014), restorations (P = .002), and treatment urgency (P = .038). Based on Pearson correlations, as encounters increased, there was a significant decrease in decay (–0.12), increase in restorations (0.21), and decrease in treatment urgency (–0.15). Conclusions. Increasing numbers of encounters with alternative providers (ECP dental hygienists), such as with school-based oral health programs, can improve the oral health status of low-income children who would not otherwise have received oral health services. PMID:26180957

  15. Perceptions and impact of plain packaging of tobacco products in low and middle income countries, middle to upper income countries and low-income settings in high-income countries: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Nicole; Arora, Monika; Grills, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review the current literature around the potential impact, effectiveness and perceptions of plain packaging in low income settings. Method A systematic review of the literature. Data sources 9 databases (PubMed, Global Health, Social Policy and Practice, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), CINAHL, PsycINFO, British Library for Development Studies (BLDS), Global Health Library and Scopus) were searched. The terms used for searching combined terms for smoking and tobacco use with terms for plain packaging. Study selection Studies investigating the impact of plain packaging on the determinants of tobacco use, such as smoking behaviour, appeal, prominence, effectiveness of health warnings, response to plain packs, attitudes towards quitting or likelihood of smoking in low-income settings, were identified. Studies must have been published in English and be original research of any level of rigour. Data extraction Two independent reviewers assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. Data synthesis The results were synthesised qualitatively, with themes grouped under four key headings: appeal and attractiveness; salience of health warnings and perceptions of harm; enjoyment and perceived taste ratings; and perceptions of the impact on tobacco usage behaviour. Results This review has identified four articles that met the inclusion criteria. Studies identified that tobacco products in plain packaging had less appeal than in branded packaging in low-income settings. Conclusions This review indicates that plain packaging appears to be successful in reducing appeal of smoking and packets, and supports the call for plain packaging to be widely implemented in conjunction with other tobacco control policies. However, there are considerable gaps in the amount of research conducted outside high-income countries. PMID:27000787

  16. "When One Person Makes It, We All Make It": A Study of "Beyond Welfare", a Women-Centered Community-Based Organization that Helps Low-Income Mothers Achieve Personal and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Leslie Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Access to post-secondary education for welfare recipients has been profoundly curtailed by social and welfare policies. However, many low-income mothers know that post-secondary education is the best means to escape poverty. This article focuses on five "student mothers" who have persisted in fulfilling their dreams of a college education with the…

  17. Shopping Behaviors of Low-income Families during a 1-Month Period of Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darko, Janice; Eggett, Dennis L.; Richards, Rickelle

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore food shopping behaviors among low-income families over the course of the month. Design: Two researchers conducted 13 90-minute focus groups. Setting: Two community organizations serving low-income populations and a university campus. Participants: Low-income adults (n = 72) who were the primary household food shoppers and who…

  18. California's “Bridge to Reform”: Identifying Challenges and Defining Strategies for Providers and Policymakers Implementing the Affordable Care Act in Low-Income HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment Settings

    PubMed Central

    Hazelton, Patrick T.; Steward, Wayne T.; Collins, Shane P.; Gaffney, Stuart; Morin, Stephen F.; Arnold, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In preparation for full Affordable Care Act implementation, California has instituted two healthcare initiatives that provide comprehensive coverage for previously uninsured or underinsured individuals. For many people living with HIV, this has required transition either from the HIV-specific coverage of the Ryan White program to the more comprehensive coverage provided by the county-run Low-Income Health Programs or from Medicaid fee-for-service to Medicaid managed care. Patient advocates have expressed concern that these transitions may present implementation challenges that will need to be addressed if ambitious HIV prevention and treatment goals are to be achieved. Methods 30 semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted between October, 2012, and February, 2013, with policymakers and providers in 10 urban, suburban, and rural California counties. Interview topics included: continuity of patient care, capacity to handle payer source transitions, and preparations for healthcare reform implementation. Study team members reviewed interview transcripts to produce emergent themes, develop a codebook, build inter-rater reliability, and conduct analyses. Results Respondents supported the goals of the ACA, but reported clinic and policy-level challenges to maintaining patient continuity of care during the payer source transitions. They also identified strategies for addressing these challenges. Areas of focus included: gaps in communication to reach patients and develop partnerships between providers and policymakers, perceived inadequacy in new provider networks for delivering quality HIV care, the potential for clinics to become financially insolvent due to lower reimbursement rates, and increased administrative burdens for clinic staff and patients. Conclusions California's new healthcare initiatives represent ambitious attempts to expand and improve health coverage for low-income individuals. The state's challenges in maintaining quality care and

  19. Engaging communities to strengthen research ethics in low-income settings: selection and perceptions of members of a network of representatives in coastal Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kamuya, Dorcas M; Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis K; Geissler, P Wenzel; Molyneux, Sassy C

    2013-04-01

    There is wide agreement that community engagement is important for many research types and settings, often including interaction with 'representatives' of communities. There is relatively little published experience of community engagement in international research settings, with available information focusing on Community Advisory Boards or Groups (CAB/CAGs), or variants of these, where CAB/G members often advise researchers on behalf of the communities they represent. In this paper we describe a network of community members ('KEMRI Community Representatives', or 'KCRs') linked to a large multi-disciplinary research programme on the Kenyan Coast. Unlike many CAB/Gs, the intention with the KCR network has evolved to be for members to represent the geographical areas in which a diverse range of health studies are conducted through being typical of those communities. We draw on routine reports, self-administered questionnaires and interviews to: 1) document how typical KCR members are of the local communities in terms of basic characteristics, and 2) explore KCR's perceptions of their roles, and of the benefits and challenges of undertaking these roles. We conclude that this evolving network is a potentially valuable way of strengthening interactions between a research institution and a local geographic community, through contributing to meeting intrinsic ethical values such as showing respect, and instrumental values such as improving consent processes. However, there are numerous challenges involved. Other ways of interacting with members of local communities, including community leaders, and the most vulnerable groups least likely to be vocal in representative groups, have always been, and remain, essential. PMID:23433404

  20. ENGAGING COMMUNITIES TO STRENGTHEN RESEARCH ETHICS IN LOW-INCOME SETTINGS: SELECTION AND PERCEPTIONS OF MEMBERS OF A NETWORK OF REPRESENTATIVES IN COASTAL KENYA

    PubMed Central

    Kamuya, Dorcas M; Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis K; Geissler, P Wenzel; Molyneux, Sassy C

    2013-01-01

    There is wide agreement that community engagement is important for many research types and settings, often including interaction with ‘representatives’ of communities. There is relatively little published experience of community engagement in international research settings, with available information focusing on Community Advisory Boards or Groups (CAB/CAGs), or variants of these, where CAB/G members often advise researchers on behalf of the communities they represent. In this paper we describe a network of community members (‘KEMRI Community Representatives’, or ‘KCRs’) linked to a large multi-disciplinary research programme on the Kenyan Coast. Unlike many CAB/Gs, the intention with the KCR network has evolved to be for members to represent the geographical areas in which a diverse range of health studies are conducted through being typical of those communities. We draw on routine reports, self-administered questionnaires and interviews to: 1) document how typical KCR members are of the local communities in terms of basic characteristics, and 2) explore KCR's perceptions of their roles, and of the benefits and challenges of undertaking these roles. We conclude that this evolving network is a potentially valuable way of strengthening interactions between a research institution and a local geographic community, through contributing to meeting intrinsic ethical values such as showing respect, and instrumental values such as improving consent processes. However, there are numerous challenges involved. Other ways of interacting with members of local communities, including community leaders, and the most vulnerable groups least likely to be vocal in representative groups, have always been, and remain, essential. PMID:23433404

  1. Engaging communities to strengthen research ethics in low-income settings: selection and perceptions of members of a network of representatives in coastal Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kamuya, Dorcas M; Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis K; Geissler, P Wenzel; Molyneux, Sassy C

    2013-04-01

    There is wide agreement that community engagement is important for many research types and settings, often including interaction with 'representatives' of communities. There is relatively little published experience of community engagement in international research settings, with available information focusing on Community Advisory Boards or Groups (CAB/CAGs), or variants of these, where CAB/G members often advise researchers on behalf of the communities they represent. In this paper we describe a network of community members ('KEMRI Community Representatives', or 'KCRs') linked to a large multi-disciplinary research programme on the Kenyan Coast. Unlike many CAB/Gs, the intention with the KCR network has evolved to be for members to represent the geographical areas in which a diverse range of health studies are conducted through being typical of those communities. We draw on routine reports, self-administered questionnaires and interviews to: 1) document how typical KCR members are of the local communities in terms of basic characteristics, and 2) explore KCR's perceptions of their roles, and of the benefits and challenges of undertaking these roles. We conclude that this evolving network is a potentially valuable way of strengthening interactions between a research institution and a local geographic community, through contributing to meeting intrinsic ethical values such as showing respect, and instrumental values such as improving consent processes. However, there are numerous challenges involved. Other ways of interacting with members of local communities, including community leaders, and the most vulnerable groups least likely to be vocal in representative groups, have always been, and remain, essential.

  2. High Mortality Risk in Hypoglycemic and Dysglycemic Children Admitted at a Referral Hospital in a Non Malaria Tropical Setting of a Low Income Country

    PubMed Central

    Barennes, Hubert; Sayavong, Eng; Pussard, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hypoglycemia is a recognized feature of severe malaria but its diagnosis and management remain problematic in resource-limited settings. There is limited data on the burden and prognosis associated with glycemia dysregulation in non-neonate children in non-malaria areas. We prospectively assessed the abnormal blood glucose prevalence and the outcome and risk factors of deaths in critically ill children admitted to a national referral hospital in Laos. Methods Consecutive children (1 month-15 years) admitted to the pediatric ward of Mahosot hospital, were categorized using the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI). Blood glucose was assessed once on admission through a finger prick using a bedside glucometer. Glycemia levels: hypoglycemia: < 2.2 mmol/L (< 40 mg⁄ dl), low glycemia: 2.2–4.4 mmol/L (40–79 mg⁄ dl), euglycemia: 4.4–8.3 mmol/L (80–149 mg⁄ dl), and hyperglycemia: > 8.3 mmol/L (≥150 mg⁄ dl), were related to the IMCI algorithm and case fatality using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Of 350 children, 62.2% (n = 218) were severely ill and 49.1% (n = 172) had at least one IMCI danger sign. A total of 15 (4.2%, 95%CI: 2.4–6.9) had hypoglycemia, 99 (28.2%, 95%CI: 23.6–33.3) low glycemia, 201 (57.4%, 95% CI: 52.0–62.6) euglycemia and 35 (10.0%, 95% CI: 7.0–13.6) hyperglycemia. Hypoglycemia was associated with longer fasting (p = 0.001) and limited treatment before admission (p = 0.09). Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia were associated with hypoxemia (SaO2) (p = 0.001). A total of 21 (6.0%) of the children died: 66.6% with hypoglycemic, 6.0% with low glycemic, 5.7% with hyperglycemic and 1.4% with euglycemic groups. A total of 9 (2.5%) deaths occurred during the first 24 hours of admission and 5 (1.7%) within 3 days of hospital discharge. Compared to euglycemic children, hypoglycemic and low glycemic children had a higher rate of early death (20%, p<0.001 and 5%, p = 0.008; respectively). They also had a

  3. How participatory is parental consent in low literacy rural settings in low income countries? Lessons learned from a community based study of infants in South India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A requisite for ethical human subjects research is that participation should be informed and voluntary. Participation during the informed consent process by way of asking questions is an indicator of the extent to which consent is informed. Aims The aims of this study were to assess the extent to which parents providing consent for children's participation in an observational tuberculosis (TB) research study in India actively participated during the informed consent discussion, and to identify correlates of that participation. Methods In an observational cohort study of tuberculosis in infants in South India, field supervisors who were responsible for obtaining informed consent noted down questions asked during the informed consent discussions for 4,382 infants who were enrolled in the study. These questions were post-coded by topic. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted to examine factors associated with asking at least one question during the informed consent process. Results In total, 590 out of 4,382 (13.4%) parents/guardians asked any question during the informed consent process. We found that the likelihood of parents asking questions during the informed consent process was significantly associated with education level of either parent both parents being present, and location. Conclusions The findings have implications for planning the informed consent process in a largely rural setting with low levels of literacy. Greater effort needs to be directed towards developing simple participatory communication materials for the informed consent process. Furthermore, including both parents in a discussion about a child's participation in a research study may increase the extent to which consent is truly informed. Finally, continuing efforts need to be made to improve the communication skills of research workers with regard to explaining research processes and putting potential research participants at ease. PMID:21324120

  4. A mixed-methods study on perceptions towards use of Rapid Ethical Assessment to improve informed consent processes for health research in a low-income setting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid Ethical Assessment (REA) is a form of rapid ethnographic assessment conducted at the beginning of research project to guide the consent process with the objective of reconciling universal ethical guidance with specific research contexts. The current study is conducted to assess the perceived relevance of introducing REA as a mainstream tool in Ethiopia. Methods Mixed methods research using a sequential explanatory approach was conducted from July to September 2012, including 241 cross-sectional, self-administered and 19 qualitative, in-depth interviews among health researchers and regulators including ethics committee members in Ethiopian health research institutions and universities. Results In their evaluation of the consent process, only 40.2% thought that the consent process and information given were adequately understood by study participants; 84.6% claimed they were not satisfied with the current consent process and 85.5% thought the best interests of study participants were not adequately considered. Commonly mentioned consent-related problems included lack of clarity (48.1%), inadequate information (34%), language barriers (28.2%), cultural differences (27.4%), undue expectations (26.6%) and power imbalances (20.7%). About 95.4% believed that consent should be contextualized to the study setting and 39.4% thought REA would be an appropriate approach to improve the perceived problems. Qualitative findings helped to further explore the gaps identified in the quantitative findings and to map-out concerns related to the current research consent process in Ethiopia. Suggestions included, conducting REA during the pre-test (pilot) phase of studies when applicable. The need for clear guidance for researchers on issues such as when and how to apply the REA tools was stressed. Conclusion The study findings clearly indicated that there are perceived to be correctable gaps in the consent process of medical research in Ethiopia. REA is considered

  5. Exploring the Feasibility of Service Integration in a Low-Income Setting: A Mixed Methods Investigation into Different Models of Reproductive Health and HIV Care in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Church, Kathryn; Wringe, Alison; Lewin, Simon; Ploubidis, George B; Fakudze, Phelele; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2015-01-01

    Integrating reproductive health (RH) with HIV care is a policy priority in high HIV prevalence settings, despite doubts surrounding its feasibility and varying evidence of effects on health outcomes. The process and outcomes of integrated RH-HIV care were investigated in Swaziland, through a comparative case study of four service models, ranging from fully integrated to fully stand-alone HIV services, selected purposively within one town. A client exit survey (n=602) measured integrated care received and unmet family planning (FP) needs. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the degree of integration per clinic and client demand for services. Logistic regression modelling was used to test the hypothesis that clients at more integrated sites had lower unmet FP needs than clients in a stand-alone site. Qualitative methods included in-depth interviews with clients and providers to explore contextual factors influencing the feasibility of integrated RH-HIV care delivery; data were analysed thematically, combining deductive and inductive approaches. Results demonstrated that clinic models were not as integrated in practice as had been claimed. Fragmentation of HIV care was common. Services accessed per provider were no higher at the more integrated clinics compared to stand-alone models (p>0.05), despite reported demand. While women at more integrated sites received more FP and pregnancy counselling than stand-alone models, they received condoms (a method of choice) less often, and there was no statistical evidence of difference in unmet FP needs by model of care. Multiple contextual factors influenced integration practices, including provider de-skilling within sub-specialist roles; norms of task-oriented routinised HIV care; perceptions of heavy client loads; imbalanced client-provider interactions hindering articulation of RH needs; and provider motivation challenges. Thus, despite institutional support, factors related to the social context of care inhibited

  6. A Model for the Roll-Out of Comprehensive Adult Male Circumcision Services in African Low-Income Settings of High HIV Incidence: The ANRS 12126 Bophelo Pele Project

    PubMed Central

    Lissouba, Pascale; Taljaard, Dirk; Rech, Dino; Doyle, Sean; Shabangu, Daniel; Nhlapo, Cynthia; Otchere-Darko, Josephine; Mashigo, Thabo; Matson, Caitlin; Lewis, David; Billy, Scott; Auvert, Bertran

    2010-01-01

    Background World Health Organization (WHO)/Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS) has recommended adult male circumcision (AMC) for the prevention of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men from communities where HIV is hyperendemic and AMC prevalence is low. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the roll-out of medicalized AMC according to UNAIDS/WHO operational guidelines in a targeted African setting. Methods and Findings The ANRS 12126 “Bophelo Pele” project was implemented in 2008 in the township of Orange Farm (South Africa). It became functional in 5 mo once local and ethical authorizations were obtained. Project activities involved community mobilization and outreach, as well as communication approaches aimed at both men and women incorporating broader HIV prevention strategies and promoting sexual health. Free medicalized AMC was offered to male residents aged 15 y and over at the project's main center, which had been designed for low-income settings. Through the establishment of an innovative surgical organization, up to 150 AMCs under local anesthesia, with sterilized circumcision disposable kits and electrocautery, could be performed per day by three task-sharing teams of one medical circumciser and five nurses. Community support for the project was high. As of November 2009, 14,011 men had been circumcised, averaging 740 per month in the past 12 mo, and 27.5% of project participants agreed to be tested for HIV. The rate of adverse events, none of which resulted in permanent damage or death, was 1.8%. Most of the men surveyed (92%) rated the services provided positively. An estimated 39.1% of adult uncircumcised male residents have undergone surgery and uptake is steadily increasing. Conclusion This study demonstrates that a quality AMC roll-out adapted to African low-income settings is feasible and can be implemented quickly and safely according to international guidelines. The project can be a model for

  7. Measuring indirect effects of rotavirus vaccine in low income countries.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Aisleen; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Cunliffe, Nigel A

    2016-08-17

    Widespread introduction of rotavirus vaccines has led to major reductions in the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis worldwide. Vaccine effectiveness is diminished, however, in low income countries, that harbour the greatest burden of rotavirus attributed morbidity and mortality. Indirect effects of rotavirus vaccine (herd immunity and herd protection) could increase population level impact and improve vaccine cost effectiveness in such settings. While rotavirus vaccine indirect effects have been demonstrated in high and middle income countries, there are very little data from low income countries where force of infection, population structures and vaccine schedules differ. Targeted efforts to evaluate indirect effects of rotavirus vaccine in low income countries are required to understand the total impact of rotavirus vaccine on the global burden of rotavirus disease. PMID:27443593

  8. Utility investments in low-income-energy-efficiency programs

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Beyer, M.A.; Eisenberg, J.; Power, M.; Lapsa, E.J.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the energy-efficiency programs being operated by utilities for low-income customers. The study focuses, in particular, on programs that install major residential weatherization measures free-of-charge to low-income households. A survey was mailed to a targeted list of 600 utility program managers. Follow-up telephone calls were made to key non- respondents, and a random sample of other non-respondents also was contacted. Completed surveys were received from 180 utilities, 95 of which provided information on one or more of their 1992 low-income energy-efficiency programs for a total of 132 individual programs. These 132 utility programs spent a total of $140.6 million in 1992. This represents 27% of the total program resources available to weatherize the dwellings of low-income households in that year. Both the total funding and the number of programs has grown by 29% since 1989. A majority of the 132 programs are concentrated in a few regions of the country (California, the Pacific Northwest, the Upper Midwest, and the Northeast). Although a majority of the programs are funded by electric utilities, gas utilities have a significantly greater average expenditure per participant ($864 vs. $307 per participant). The most common primary goal of low-income energy-efficiency programs operating in 1992 was {open_quotes}to make energy services more affordable to low-income customers{close_quotes}. Only 44% of the programs were operated primarily to provide a cost-effective energy resource. Based on a review of household and measure selection criteria, equity and not the efficiency of resource acquisition appears to dominate the design of these programs.

  9. Concepts of Healthful Food among Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane; Keim, Kathryn; Koneman, Sylvia A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Describe beliefs about what makes foods healthful among low-income African American women. Methods: In one-on-one interviews, 28 low-income African American mothers viewed 30 pairs of familiar foods and explained which food in the pair was more healthful and why. Responses were grouped into codes describing concepts of food…

  10. Life satisfaction among low-income rural youth from Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S M; Henry, C S; Peterson, G W

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relative strength of objective, subjective, and congruency variables as predictors of life satisfaction among low-income youth from rural areas. A 10-year longitudinal survey of low-income, rural youth from Appalachia (n = 322) was conducted to explore these issues. Although support was provided for variables representing all three types of life satisfaction predictors, the strongest of these were subjective variables such as self-perceptions about goal attainment in jobs, overall goal attainment in life, and self-esteem. Another set of consistent predictors of life satisfaction, congruence variables, were concerned with the extent to which low-income you believed that they had fulfilled their own aspirations in terms of formal education, proximity to their childhood homes, and number of children, Finally, some of the objective variables consisting of family of origin's SES, community size, and marital status also were predictive of life satisfaction. In general, the life satisfaction of low-income, rural youth seemed to be influenced more extensively by personal meanings shaped within a particular cultural context rather than by traditional objective measures of life circumstances. PMID:9268418

  11. Toddler Feeding: Expectations and Experiences of Low-Income African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horodynski, Mildred A.; Brophy-Herb, Holly; Henry, Michelle; Smith, Katharine A.; Weatherspoon, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain maternal expectations and experiences with mealtimes and feeding of toddlers among low-income African American mothers in two mid- to large-size cities in the United States. Design: Qualitative focus group study. Setting: Two Early Head Start programme sites in a Midwestern state which serve low income families. Method:…

  12. Low Income African Americans' Parental Involvement in Intermediate Schools: Perceptions, Practices, and Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine how the parental involvement perceptions, practices, and influences of low-income African Americans in an intermediate school setting are affected by low-incomes. Although involving African American parents in the educational process is a difficult task for educators (Alldred & Edwards, 2000;…

  13. Longitudinal Roles of Precollege Contexts in Low-Income Youths' Postsecondary Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Li, Cheng-Hsien

    2012-01-01

    Low-income youths enroll at postsecondary institutions less frequently, drop out more often, are less likely to return after dropping out, and are less likely to attain a postsecondary degree than their more affluent peers. It is therefore important to understand how low-income youths develop the capacity to persist in the postsecondary setting.…

  14. Tax Reform; A Minimalist Approach for Assisting the Low-Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burbridge, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    The 1986 Tax Reform Act is a positive step toward improving the plight of low-income families; however, it will not produce dramatic effects. The tax burden will be more equitable and low-income housing may increase, but a better way to help the poor is to develop a comprehensive set of assistance policies. (VM)

  15. Recruitment and Retention Strategies in Longitudinal Clinical Studies with Low-Income Populations

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Lisa; Schwirian, Patricia M.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Skybo, Theresa; Murray-Johnson, Lisa; Eneli, Ihuoma; Boettner, Bethany; French, Gina; Groner, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Conducting longitudinal research studies with low-income and/or minority participants present a unique set of challenges and opportunities. Purpose To outline the specific strategies employed to successfully recruit and retain participants in a longitudinal study of nutritional anticipatory guidance during early childhood, conducted with a low-income, ethnically diverse, urban population of mothers. Methods We describe recruitment and retention efforts made by the research team for the ‘MOMS’ Study (Making Our Mealtimes Special). The ‘multilayered’ approach for recruitment and retention included commitment of research leadership, piloting procedures, frequent team reporting, emphasis on participant convenience, incentives, frequent contact with participants, expanded budget, clinical staff buy-in, a dedicated phone line, and the use of research project branding and logos. Results Barriers to enrollment were not encountered in this project, despite recruiting from a low-income population with a large proportion of African-American families. Process evaluation with clinic staff demonstrated the perception of the MOMS staff was very positive Participant retention rate was 75% and 64% at 6 months and 12 months post-recruitment, respectively. We attribute retention success largely to a coordinated effort between the research team and the infrastructure support at the clinical sites, as well as project branding and a dedicated phone line. Conclusions Successful participant recruitment and retention approaches need to be specific and consistent with clinical staff buy in throughout the project. PMID:21276876

  16. Initial validation of the Argentinean Spanish version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in children and adolescents with chronic diseases: acceptability and comprehensibility in low-income settings

    PubMed Central

    Roizen, Mariana; Rodríguez, Susana; Bauer, Gabriela; Medin, Gabriela; Bevilacqua, Silvina; Varni, James W; Dussel, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    .72 and 66.87, for healthy and ill children, respectively, p = 0.01), between different chronic health conditions, and children from lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion Results suggest that the Argentinean Spanish PedsQL™ 4.0 is suitable for research purposes in the public health setting for children over 8 years old and parents of children over 5 years old. People with low income and low literacy need help to complete the instrument. Steps to expand the use of the Argentinean Spanish PedsQL™ 4.0 include an alternative approach to scoring for the 2–4 year-olds, further understanding of how to increase reliability for the 5–7 year-olds self-report, and confirmation of other aspects of validity. PMID:18687134

  17. Upward Mobility of Low-Income Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Edward

    The purpose of the study is to help fill the present gap in our knowledge of the internal labor market, and particularly of the internal mobility patterns of low income workers. Through the analysis of data from two samples, one drawn from New York City and the other from the entire nation, the document explores the determinants of worker…

  18. Female Bonding among Low Income Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nancy L.

    There has been much work on social networks and interpersonal worlds, but until recently little discussion of the unique aspects of women's networks. To examine the factors that constrain or facilitate such female bonding, 43 low-income urban mothers were interviewed. For these respondents, female bonding was a significant aspect of their lives.…

  19. Low-income aged: eligibility ad participation in SSI.

    PubMed

    Drazga, L; Upp, M; Reno, V; Staren, M

    1982-05-01

    This article reports on a study undertaken to evaluate the Social Security Administration's (SSA) methods for estimating the number of persons eligible for Federal Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments. SSA estimates that 65-70 percent of the aged eligible for SSI actually participate in the program. It has been argued that the actual participation rate may be either higher or lower than SSA estimates because SSA misestimates the size of the eligible population. SSA bases its estimates of the number of persons eligible on data in the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS). In this study, a sample of 2,000 low-income aged persons was interviewed in 1979, and two sets of information were collected: One duplicated the data used by SSA to make its estimates; the other duplicated the type of information collected when a person actually applies for SSI. When the two sets were compared, it was found that the methodology that SSA uses to estimate the size of the eligible population and the information collected from SSI applicants produced estimates that were quite similar. The study also evaluated theories to explain why some persons eligible for SSI do not claim benefits. The study found that the elderly are more likely to participate in SSI if they live in States that supplement Federal SSI payments and that do not have a history of imposing liens on the property of welfare recipients. Participants also tend to have somewhat lower incomes (excluding SSI) than nonparticipants. No evidence was found that variations in practices among Social Security district offices could account for differences in SSI participation rates.

  20. National School Lunch Program Participation and Gender Differences in Low-income Children’s BMI Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Daphne C.; Francis, Lori A.; Doyle, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate participation patterns in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) among low-income children from kindergarten to fifth grade and to examine the ways in which participation influences gender differences in BMI trajectories through the eighth grade. Design Longitudinal, secondary data analysis Setting Sample of low-income US children who entered kindergarten in 1998. Participants Low-income girls (n = 574) and boys (n = 566) who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort. Main Exposure Participation in the NSLP Main Outcome Measures Temporary and persistent patterns of NSLP participation. Age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) raw scores were calculated at five data points. Results Among low-income children who attended schools that participated in the NLSP, children who persistently and temporarily participated in the NSLP displayed similar, economically-disadvantaged factors. Non-linear mixed models indicated a larger rate of change in BMI growth among low-income participating girls compared to low-income non-participating girls; however, average levels of BMI did not significantly differ between low-income participating and non-participating girls. No significant differences were observed among low-income boys. Conclusions Results suggest participation in the NSLP is associated with rapid weight gain for low-income girls but not for low-income boys. PMID:21135318

  1. 47 CFR 54.420 - Low income program audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.420 Low income program audits. (a... telecommunications carriers. After a company is designated for the first time in any state or territory the... Universal Service Fund support....

  2. Food consumption of parents on low incomes.

    PubMed

    Buchhorn, D

    1995-08-01

    In the Redfern area in metropolitan Sydney, there are many people on low incomes living in public housing. To investigate their nutritional status, a sample of 60 parents in this area was interviewed; 51 participants completed a food frequency questionnaire. Participants also completed weighed food records. The weighed food records showed energy intakes lower than expenditure calculated as necessary to maintain body weight (as estimated by the Schofield equation and activity factor). Therefore, the data are unlikely to be accurate and are not reported here. The food-frequency questionnaire indicated energy intakes close to those required to maintain body weight. Recorded nutrient intakes were similar to those recorded in other Australian studies. Fat supplied 35.6 per cent of the energy in the diets of the sample, compared to 37.3 per cent in the National Dietary Survey. Although the results were obtained by convenience sampling and may not be representative, the results do suggest that some parents on low incomes are able to maintain nutrient intake similar to that of the wider community.

  3. 77 FR 65139 - Designation of Low-Income Status; Acceptance of Secondary Capital Accounts by Low-Income...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... Capital Accounts by Low-Income Designated Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA...; Acceptance of secondary capital accounts by low-income designated credit unions. (a) Designation of...

  4. 78 FR 4030 - Designation of Low-Income Status; Acceptance of Secondary Capital Accounts by Low-Income...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 701 and 741 RIN 3133-AE09 Designation of Low-Income Status; Acceptance of Secondary Capital Accounts by Low-Income Designated Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The NCUA Board (Board) is amending its low-income credit unions...

  5. Feeding Practices and Styles Used by a Diverse Sample of Low-Income Parents of Preschool-age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Alison K.; Gromis, Judy C.; Lohse, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the feeding practices and styles used by a diverse sample of low-income parents of preschool-age children. Design: Thirty- to 60-minute meetings involving a semistructured interview and 2 questionnaires administered by the interviewer. Setting: Low-income communities in Philadelphia, PA. Participants: Thirty-two parents of…

  6. A Qualitative Analysis of Mexican-Immigrant Mothers' Involvement in a High-Performing Low-Income Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Isela

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how low-income first- and second-generation Mexican-immigrant mothers, the largest sub-group of the Latino population, support the academic success of their children who are in a low-income successful elementary school. The specific setting was Roosevelt Elementary located in North Texas. Participants were selected…

  7. The Effect of Lactation Educators Implementing a Telephone-Based Intervention among Low-Income Hispanics: A Randomised Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efrat, Merav W.; Esparza, Salvador; Mendelson, Sherri G.; Lane, Christianne J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether a telephone-based breastfeeding intervention delivered by lactation educators influenced exclusive breastfeeding rates among low-income Hispanic women in the USA. Design: Randomised two-group design. Setting: Pregnant low-income Hispanic women (298) were recruited from community health clinics in Los Angeles County…

  8. Reducing stillbirths in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Robert L; Saleem, Sarah; Pasha, Omrana; Harrison, Margo S; Mcclure, Elizabeth M

    2016-02-01

    Worldwide, 98% of stillbirths occur in low-income countries (LIC), where stillbirth rates are ten-fold higher than in high-income countries (HIC). Although most HIC stillbirths occur prenatally, in LIC most stillbirths occur at term and during labor/delivery. Conditions causing stillbirths include those of maternal origin (obstructed labor, trauma, antepartum hemorrhage, preeclampsia/eclampsia, infection, diabetes, other maternal diseases), and fetal origin (fetal growth restriction, fetal distress, cord prolapse, multiples, malpresentations, congenital anomalies). In LIC, aside from infectious origins, most stillbirths are caused by fetal asphyxia. Stillbirth prevention requires recognition of maternal conditions, and care in a facility where fetal monitoring and expeditious delivery are possible, usually by cesarean section (CS). Of major causes, only syphilis and malaria can be managed prenatally. Targeting single conditions or interventions is unlikely to substantially reduce stillbirth. To reduce stillbirth rates, LIC must implement effective modern antepartum and intrapartum care, including fetal monitoring and CS. PMID:26577070

  9. Interconnected microbiomes and resistomes in low-income human habitats.

    PubMed

    Pehrsson, Erica C; Tsukayama, Pablo; Patel, Sanket; Mejía-Bautista, Melissa; Sosa-Soto, Giordano; Navarrete, Karla M; Calderon, Maritza; Cabrera, Lilia; Hoyos-Arango, William; Bertoli, M Teresita; Berg, Douglas E; Gilman, Robert H; Dantas, Gautam

    2016-05-12

    Antibiotic-resistant infections annually claim hundreds of thousands of lives worldwide. This problem is exacerbated by exchange of resistance genes between pathogens and benign microbes from diverse habitats. Mapping resistance gene dissemination between humans and their environment is a public health priority. Here we characterized the bacterial community structure and resistance exchange networks of hundreds of interconnected human faecal and environmental samples from two low-income Latin American communities. We found that resistomes across habitats are generally structured by bacterial phylogeny along ecological gradients, but identified key resistance genes that cross habitat boundaries and determined their association with mobile genetic elements. We also assessed the effectiveness of widely used excreta management strategies in reducing faecal bacteria and resistance genes in these settings representative of low- and middle-income countries. Our results lay the foundation for quantitative risk assessment and surveillance of resistance gene dissemination across interconnected habitats in settings representing over two-thirds of the world's population. PMID:27172044

  10. Maximising access to achieve appropriate human antimicrobial use in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Marc; Røttingen, John-Arne; Gopinathan, Unni; Hamer, Davidson H; Wertheim, Heiman; Basnyat, Buddha; Butler, Christopher; Tomson, Göran; Balasegaram, Manica

    2016-01-01

    Access to quality-assured antimicrobials is regarded as part of the human right to health, yet universal access is often undermined in low-income and middle-income countries. Lack of access to the instruments necessary to make the correct diagnosis and prescribe antimicrobials appropriately, in addition to weak health systems, heightens the challenge faced by prescribers. Evidence-based interventions in community and health-care settings can increase access to appropriately prescribed antimicrobials. The key global enablers of sustainable financing, governance, and leadership will be necessary to achieve access while preventing excess antimicrobial use. PMID:26603919

  11. Maximising access to achieve appropriate human antimicrobial use in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Marc; Røttingen, John-Arne; Gopinathan, Unni; Hamer, Davidson H; Wertheim, Heiman; Basnyat, Buddha; Butler, Christopher; Tomson, Göran; Balasegaram, Manica

    2016-01-01

    Access to quality-assured antimicrobials is regarded as part of the human right to health, yet universal access is often undermined in low-income and middle-income countries. Lack of access to the instruments necessary to make the correct diagnosis and prescribe antimicrobials appropriately, in addition to weak health systems, heightens the challenge faced by prescribers. Evidence-based interventions in community and health-care settings can increase access to appropriately prescribed antimicrobials. The key global enablers of sustainable financing, governance, and leadership will be necessary to achieve access while preventing excess antimicrobial use.

  12. Using conjoint analysis to assess depression treatment preferences among low-income Latinos.

    PubMed

    Dwight-Johnson, Megan; Lagomasino, Isabel T; Aisenberg, Eugene; Hay, Joel

    2004-08-01

    The authors examined the feasibility of conjoint analysis for measuring the depression treatment preferences of low-income, low-literacy Latino primary care patients. Forty-two patients with depression (58 percent of those eligible for the study) completed a survey about preferences for treatment and strategies to reduce barriers to care. They preferred combined counseling and medication to either approach alone and preferred individual over group treatment but did not show a significant preference for treatment setting. The odds of treatment acceptance were increased by the availability of telephone appointments, bus passes, and help with making appointments. Although further validation is required, conjoint analysis appears to be feasible for assessing preferences regarding depression treatment in this underserved population.

  13. Food Choices of Minority and Low-Income Employees

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Douglas E.; Riis, Jason; Sonnenberg, Lillian M.; Barraclough, Susan J.; Thorndike, Anne N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Effective strategies are needed to address obesity, particularly among minority and low-income individuals. Purpose To test whether a two-phase point-of-purchase intervention improved food choices across racial, socioeconomic (job type) groups. Design A 9-month longitudinal study from 2009 to 2010 assessing person-level changes in purchases of healthy and unhealthy foods following sequentially introduced interventions. Data were analyzed in 2011. Setting/participants Participants were 4642 employees of a large hospital in Boston MA who were regular cafeteria patrons. Interventions The first intervention was a traffic light–style color-coded labeling system encouraging patrons to purchase healthy items (labeled green) and avoid unhealthy items (labeled red). The second intervention manipulated “choice architecture” by physically rearranging certain cafeteria items, making green-labeled items more accessible, red-labeled items less accessible. Main outcome measures Proportion of green- (or red-) labeled items purchased by an employee. Subanalyses tracked beverage purchases, including calories and price per beverage. Results Employees self-identified as white (73%), black (10%), Latino (7%), and Asian (10%). Compared to white employees, Latino and black employees purchased a higher proportion of red items at baseline (18%, 28%, and 33%, respectively, p<0.001) and a lower proportion of green (48%, 38%, and 33%, p<0.001). Labeling decreased all employees’ red item purchases (−11.2% [95% CI= −13.6%, −8.9%]) and increased green purchases (6.6% [95% CI=5.2%, 7.9%]). Red beverage purchases decreased most (−23.8% [95% CI= −28.1%, −19.6%]). The choice architecture intervention further decreased red purchases after the labeling. Intervention effects were similar across all race/ethnicity and job types (p>0.05 for interaction between race or job type and intervention). Mean calories per beverage decreased similarly over the study period for all

  14. Low-Income First-Time Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Jean; Brooten, Dorothy; Page, Timothy; Galindo, Ali; Torres, Maritza

    2016-01-01

    Background. Low-income mothers have greater challenges in accessing health care services due changes in the health care system and budget cuts. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to test a nurse practitioner (NP) intervention using cell phone and texting on maternal/infant outcomes. Methods. The sample included 129 mother-infant pairs. Intervention group mothers received NP 2-way cell phone follow-up intervention post–hospital discharge for 6 months. Results. Intervention mothers’ perceived social support was significantly higher. Intervention infants received their first newborn follow-up visit significantly earlier (6 vs 9 days); significantly more infants were immunized at recommended times (2, 4, and 6 months of age); and there were fewer infant morbidities compared to controls. The intervention saved between $51 030 and $104 277 in health care costs averted. Conclusion. This easy-to-use, safe intervention is an effective way to reach a wide range of populations and demonstrated improved maternal/infant outcomes and decreased cost. PMID:27508211

  15. Children's Birthday Celebrations from the Lived Experiences of Low-Income Rural Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaerim; Katras, Mary Jo; Bauer, Jean W.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates how low-income rural families celebrate children's birthdays, using interview data from 128 mothers residing in five states. Findings from a qualitative content analysis show that the mothers make special efforts to have birthday celebrations as other families do despite their financial constraints. Making the…

  16. Problem Behavior and Urban, Low-Income Youth

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Schure, Marc B.; Bavarian, Niloofar; DuBois, David L.; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Silverthorn, Naida; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Flay, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Youth problem behaviors remain a public health issue. Youth in low-income, urban areas are particularly at risk for engaging in aggressive, violent, and disruptive behaviors. Purpose To evaluate the effects of a school-based social–emotional learning and health promotion program on problem behaviors and related attitudes among low-income, urban youth. Design A matched-pair, cluster RCT. Setting/participants Participants were drawn from 14 Chicago Public Schools over a 6-year period of program delivery with outcomes assessed for a cohort of youth followed from Grades 3 to 8. Data were collected from Fall 2004 to Spring 2010, and analyzed in Spring 2012. Intervention The Positive Action program includes a scoped and sequenced K–12 classroom curriculum with six components: self-concept, social and emotional positive actions for managing oneself responsibly, and positive actions directed toward physical and mental health, honesty, getting along with others, and continually improving oneself. The program also includes teacher, counselor, family, and community training as well as activities directed toward schoolwide climate development. Main outcome measures Youth reported on their normative beliefs in support of aggression and on their bullying, disruptive and violent behaviors; parents rated youths’ bullying behaviors and conduct problems; schoolwide data on disciplinary referrals and suspensions were obtained from school records. Results Multilevel growth-curve modeling analyses conducted on completion of the trial indicated that Positive Action mitigated increases over time in (1) youth reports of normative beliefs supporting aggressive behaviors and of engaging in disruptive behavior and bullying (girls only); and (2) parent reports of youth bullying behaviors (boys only). At study end-point, students in Positive Action schools also reported a lower rate of violence-related behavior than students in control schools. Schoolwide findings indicated

  17. Decision Making in Educational Settings. Fastback 211.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Charles S.

    This booklet reviews decision-making, an important part of administrative processes, from the perspective of school teachers and other educators. The two most commonly used processes are the rational decision-making process (identify the problem, evaluate the problem, collect information, identify alternative solutions, select and implement…

  18. Identification of Workplace Dress by Low-Income Job Seekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiki, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The author examined how low-income job seekers participating in a workplace dress program identified traditional business and business casual dress. Seventy low-income job seekers identified clothing items as traditional business (e.g., suits, ties), similar to identifications made by professionals and image consultants in previous literature.…

  19. Low Income Women and Physician Breastfeeding Advice: A Regional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolzer, J; Zeece, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of the pilot study presented here were to determine whether low income women were receiving compendious breastfeeding advice from their attending physicians. Design: This study assessed low income women's reports of physician breastfeeding advice using a newly designed Likert scaled survey based on the American Surgeon…

  20. POVERTY AND THE BEHAVIOR OF LOW-INCOME FAMILIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JEFFERS, CAMILLE; LEWIS, HYLAN

    THE PURPOSE WAS TO DRAW SOME RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POVERTY AND BEHAVIOR, SPECIFICALLY ANALYZING THE DIRECT AND INDIRECT EFFECTS OF INADEQUATE INCOME ON LOW-INCOME MOTHERS' CHILD-REARING PRIORITIES AND ON RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PARENTS. LOW-INCOME MOTHERS SHOW CONSIDERABLE SATISFACTION WITH THE CHILD-REARING ROLE, BUT FEEL THEMSELVES LEAST ADEQUATE…

  1. Initial College Attendance of Low-Income Young Adults. Portraits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    More than 2.3 million low-income young adults began postsecondary education in 2008. Where these students initially enroll is of greater consequence than it is to their economically better-off peers because the likelihood of completing college for students from low-income backgrounds depends strongly on where they start their studies. This brief…

  2. 42 CFR 457.310 - Targeted low-income child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Targeted low-income child. 457.310 Section 457.310... (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES State Plan Requirements: Eligibility, Screening, Applications, and Enrollment § 457.310 Targeted low-income child....

  3. 42 CFR 457.310 - Targeted low-income child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Targeted low-income child. 457.310 Section 457.310... (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES State Plan Requirements: Eligibility, Screening, Applications, and Enrollment § 457.310 Targeted low-income child....

  4. 42 CFR 457.310 - Targeted low-income child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Targeted low-income child. 457.310 Section 457.310... (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES State Plan Requirements: Eligibility, Screening, Applications, and Enrollment § 457.310 Targeted low-income child....

  5. 42 CFR 457.310 - Targeted low-income child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Targeted low-income child. 457.310 Section 457.310... (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES State Plan Requirements: Eligibility, Screening, Applications, and Enrollment § 457.310 Targeted low-income child....

  6. 42 CFR 457.310 - Targeted low-income child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Targeted low-income child. 457.310 Section 457.310... (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES State Plan Requirements: Eligibility, Screening, Applications, and Enrollment § 457.310 Targeted low-income child....

  7. Supporting Low Income Neighborhood Organizations. A Guide for Community Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Steven E.; Scheie, David M.

    Community foundations can be effective vehicles for channeling support to low income neighborhood organizations. This document comprises a guide for community foundations to help them develop their grantmaking and programming skills and to connect with other elements of community leadership. Chapter 1, "Why Support Low Income Neighborhood…

  8. Federal Income Tax Cuts and Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammartino, Frank J.

    This report identifies overall tax burdens faced by low income families, explaining how those burdens would change if certain types of federal income tax cuts were enacted. Using detailed household-level data on incomes and taxes, the report shows how federal income and payroll taxes differ for low income families and how these families benefit…

  9. Conceptualizing Parent Involvement: Low-Income Mexican Immigrant Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) investigate the conceptualization of low-income Mexican immigrant parents about their parental involvement and the family-school connection, (b) identify the influences on low-income Mexican immigrant parents' approach to parent involvement, and (c) identify the ways that Mexican immigrant parents…

  10. A New Safety Net for Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedlewski, Sheila; Chaudry, Ajay; Simms, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, the federal government promised low-income families that work would pay. Parents moved into jobs in response to new welfare rules requiring work, tax credits and other work supports that boosted take-home pay. Unfortunately, the record shows that low-income families have not progressed much. Many do not bring home enough to cover…

  11. 75 FR 8392 - Low Income Housing Tax Credit Tenant Database

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Low Income Housing Tax Credit Tenant Database AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information... Economic Recovery Act (HERA) of 2008 requires each state agency administering low-income housing tax... Income Housing Tax Credit Tenant Database. Omb Approval Number: 2528-0165. Form Numbers:...

  12. Improving Strategies for Low-Income Family Children's Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Haiyan; Washington, Rodney; Yin, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    This article discussed the significance of improving low-income family children's information literacy, which could improve educational quality, enhance children's self-esteem, adapt children to the future competitive world market, as well as the problems in improving low-income family children's information literacy, such as no home computer and…

  13. Policies Affecting New York City's Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Hugh; Garcia, Kathryn; Amerlynck, Virginie; Blum, Barbara

    This report describes policy and program changes affecting New York's low-income families, issues related to these changes, and ways that city, state, and federal governments might further enhance the well-being of low-income families. Part 1 reviews major new policies enacted by the federal and state governments since the mid-1990s, noting how…

  14. Siblings, Language, and False Belief in Low-Income Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Guo, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between number of siblings and false belief understanding (FBU) in 94 low-income 4-5-year-olds. Previous research with middle-income children has shown a positive association between number of siblings and FBU. However, it is unclear whether having multiple siblings in low-income families is related to better…

  15. Low-Income Students' Access to Selective Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eunkyoung

    2013-01-01

    The undermatch between low-income students' academic achievement and college destinations has become increasingly important in discussions of higher education access and equity. This study investigates whether low-income students are undermatched in their college choice, and if so, what factors are related to the undermatching. Specifically, this…

  16. Initiation of and barriers to prenatal care use among low-income women in San Antonio, Texas.

    PubMed

    Sunil, T S; Spears, William D; Hook, Linda; Castillo, Josephine; Torres, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 goals set a target of 90% of mothers starting prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. While there are questions about the value of prenatal care (PNC), there is much observational evidence of the benefits of PNC including reduction in maternal, fetal, perinatal, and infant deaths. The objective of this study was to understand barriers to PNC as well as factors that impact early initiation of care among low-income women in San Antonio, Texas. A survey study was conducted among low-income women seeking care at selected public health clinics in San Antonio. Interviews were conducted with 444 women. Study results show that women with social barriers, those who were less educated, who were living alone (i.e. without an adult partner or spouse), or who had not planned their pregnancies were more likely to initiate PNC late in their pregnancies. It was also observed that women who enrolled in the WIC program were more likely to initiate PNC early in their pregnancies. Women who initiated PNC late in pregnancy had the highest odds of reporting service-related barriers to receiving care. However, financial and personal barriers created no significant obstacles to women initiating PNC. The majority of women in this study reported that they were aware of the importance of PNC, knew where to go for care during pregnancy, and were able to pay for care through financial assistance, yet some did not initiate early prenatal care. This clearly establishes that the decision making process regarding PNC is complex. It is important that programs consider the complexity of the decision-making process and the priorities women set during pregnancy in planning interventions, particularly those that target low-income women. This could increase the likelihood that these women will seek PNC early in their pregnancies.

  17. Juggling the five dimensions of food access: Perceptions of rural low income residents.

    PubMed

    Andress, Lauri; Fitch, Cindy

    2016-10-01

    Using focus groups (n = 6) from six West Virginia counties we assessed how low income, rural women (n = 30) enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) program perceived the food environment and the ability to access healthy food. For WIC clients who are at risk for nutrition problems and live at or below 185% of poverty, challenges with food access threaten the positive aspects and impacts of the WIC program. We undertook a qualitative analysis by coding the focus group data on rural food access, into three themes. Our analysis demonstrated how the three major themes interact with five dimensions of food access and underscores the issues with food access that decrease the effectiveness of the food packages and nutrition education that low income WIC participants receive. To increase food access we recommend creating a formal structure where vendors and low income clients may discuss concerns; encouraging greater investment in rural communities through state issued incentives to build full service grocery stores or informal transportation networks; and additional research on the status of low income clients as social change agents capable of addressing issues that act as barriers to their shopping experiences. However, even with the data and prior literature, the pathways by which these environmental factors shape nutrition remain unclear-entangled - much like the issues that low income, rural residents must juggle when they make grocery shopping and nutrition decisions. PMID:27208595

  18. The time has come to make cervical cancer prevention an essential part of comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services for HIV-positive women in low-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Huchko, Megan J; Maloba, May; Nakalembe, Miriam; Cohen, Craig R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV and cervical cancer are intersecting epidemics that disproportionately affect one of the most vulnerable populations in the world: women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Historically, the disparity in cervical cancer risk for women in LMICs has been due to the lack of organized screening and prevention programmes. In recent years, this risk has been augmented by the severity of the HIV epidemic in LMICs. HIV-positive women are at increased risk for developing cervical precancer and cancer, and while the introduction of antiretroviral therapy has dramatically improved life expectancies among HIV-positive women it has not been shown to improve cancer-related outcomes. Therefore, an increasing number of HIV-positive women are living in LMICs with limited or no access to cervical cancer screening programmes. In this commentary, we describe the gaps in cervical cancer prevention, the state of evidence for integrating cervical cancer prevention into HIV programmes and future directions for programme implementation and research. Discussion Despite the biologic, behavioural and demographic overlap between HIV and cervical cancer, cervical cancer prevention has for the most part been left out of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for HIV-positive women. Lower cost primary and secondary prevention strategies for cervical cancer are becoming more widely available in LMICs, with increasing evidence for their efficacy and cost-effectiveness. Going forward, cervical cancer prevention must be considered a part of the essential package of SRH services for HIV-positive women. Effective cervical cancer prevention programmes will require a coordinated response from international policymakers and funders, national governments and community leaders. Leveraging the improvements in healthcare infrastructure created by the response to the global HIV epidemic through integration of services may be an effective way to make an impact to prevent

  19. Developing a Culture of Resilience for Low-Income Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrero, Noah; Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores a story of success at a school where low-income, English language learners (ELLs) comprise a majority of its students. In this paper, we examine Bay Academy's teaching and organizational practices that make it a place where youth feel they belong and can succeed. Central to this description is its culture of college, community-…

  20. The Knowledgeable Tenant. Teaching Low-Income Consumers a Logical Approach to Renting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurtz, Mary Ann; LeFlore, Ann Becker

    This module, one of six on teaching consumer matters to low-income groups, focuses on helping clients make wise choices about housing. It reviews factors to consider in selecting an apartment and discusses the laws in Virginia which relate to housing. Methods for helping clients learn more about housing and housing regulations are also discussed.…

  1. Not Poor in Spirit: Hope for Kentucky's Low-Income Families and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall-Clayton, Nancy; Chandler, Betsy, Ed.

    This report tells the stories of dozens of low-income families from all parts of Kentucky. It is a personal report, compiled after 4 months of travel and interviews. The report also makes recommendations for improvements in programs designed to serve impoverished families. The introduction discusses the seeming paradoxes of poverty and generosity,…

  2. Running in Place: Low-Income Students and the Dynamics of Higher Education Stratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastedo, Michael N.; Jaquette, Ozan

    2011-01-01

    The increasing concentration of wealthy students at highly selective colleges is widely perceived, but few analyses examine the underlying dynamics of higher education stratification over time. To examine these dynamics, the authors build an analysis data set of four cohorts from 1972 to 2004. They find that low-income students have made…

  3. Low-Income, African American Adolescent Mothers and Their Toddlers Exhibit Similar Dietary Variety Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papas, Mia A.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Quigg, Anna M.; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Black, Maureen M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal and toddler dietary variety. Design: Longitudinal; maternal and toddler dietary data were collected at 13 months; anthropometry was collected at 13 and 24 months. Setting: Data were collected in homes. Participants: 109 primiparous, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and…

  4. Predictors of Low-income, Obese Mothers' Use of Healthful Weight Management Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Nitzke, Susan; Brown, Roger; Baumann, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the influence of personal and environmental factors on healthful weight management behaviors mediated through self-efficacy among low-income obese mothers. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in Wisconsin. Participants: Two hundred eighty-four obese…

  5. Social Justice, Capabilities and the Quality of Education in Low Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikly, Leon; Barrett, Angeline M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper sets out a theoretical approach for understanding the quality of education in low income countries from a social justice perspective. The paper outlines and critiques the two dominant approaches that currently frame the debate about education quality, namely, the human capital and human rights approaches. Drawing principally on the ideas…

  6. Interactions into Opportunities: Career Management for Low-Income, First-Generation African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks-Yancy, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how low-income, African American college students obtain social capital resources from university contacts to set and achieve career goals. Students knew little about career options available to future college graduates beyond jobs that were related to their current jobs. Few students utilized the information, influence, and…

  7. A Phenomenological Inquiry into the Financial Education Experiences of Young, Low-Income Credit Union Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santangelo, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study engaged 20 young, low-income credit union members who participated in financial education classes at Denver Community Credit Union. The study explored learning experiences that generated changes in money management behaviors and sought evidence of transformational learning in a nonformal education setting.…

  8. Household Food Security and Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Low-Income Fourth-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grutzmacher, Stephanie; Gross, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between household food security and children's and parents' fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption and fruit and vegetable availability. Design: Cross-sectional study using matched parent-child surveys. Setting: Title I elementary schools in Maryland. Participants: Ninety-two low-income parent-child…

  9. Reading and Comprehension Levels in a Sample of Urban, Low-Income Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Cheryl; Weitzel, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because health literacy is related to healthcare outcomes, this study looked at reading and comprehension levels in a sample of urban, low-income persons. Design: This was a descriptive exploration of reading comprehension levels, controlled for medical problems that could impact on vision and therefore ability to read. Setting: Ninety…

  10. Welfare and the family size decision of low-income, two-parent families.

    PubMed

    Gensler, H

    1997-10-01

    This study determines the increase in family size given an increase in the per child welfare benefit for a family with children in the US. The family size decision was modeled as a discrete choice decision. Data were obtained from the 1980-91 March Current Population Surveys of the US Census Bureau on 13,516 low-income, nonmilitary, non-farm, two-parent families with at least one dependent child. Low income was any amount under twice the official poverty level. Parents were limited to ages 18-40 years. Alaska and Hawaii were excluded. The data sets for 1979-90 were pooled. The sample included 10% Blacks and 27% receiving some amount of welfare. Average ages were 28.9 years for mothers and 30.8 years for fathers. The average number of children was 2.43. Findings from the ordered probit model indicate that education had a negative impact on family size, and age and race had positive impacts. Wages did not have a significant effect. The state unemployment rate and the average state income had negative effects. Unearned income had a small but significant effect on family size. The marginal welfare benefit had a positive impact. Findings reinforce the wealth hypothesis, that wealthier societies have smaller family sizes. Family size declines with increases in wages and education, which reflect increases in opportunity costs for time. Family size increases with age, as rearing children is labor-intensive. Family size increases with unearned income and welfare benefits that make childbearing affordable. It is argued that poor people in developed societies behave more consistently like poor people in developing countries. A 100% increase in the per child welfare benefit resulted in a 2% increase in the number of children. The policy implication is that a considerable increase in welfare benefits will have only trivial behavioral impacts for the poor on family size decisions. PMID:12321292

  11. Antiretrovirals for low income countries: an analysis of the commercial viability of a highly competitive market

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The price of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in low income countries declined steadily in recent years. This raises concerns about the commercial viability of the market of ARVs in low income countries. Methods Using 2 costing scenarios, we modeled the production cost of the most commonly used ARVs in low income countries in 2010 and 2012, and assessed whether, at the median price paid by low income countries, their manufacturers would still make profits. By interviews we consulted 11 generic manufacturers on the current state of the ARV market, and on what would be required to ensure their continued commitment to supply ARVs to low income countries. Results Using the lowest prices for active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) quoted to WHO, and applying published assumptions about the production cost of ARVs, our baseline estimate was that Indian generic manufacturers would have made profits on only 1 out of 13 formulations of ARVs in both 2010 and 2012, and publicly owned manufacturers would have made profits on 5 and 3 out of 13 formulations in 2010 and 2012, respectively. We needed to assume a 20% and a 40% lower API cost for our model to predict that publicly owned and Indian manufacturers, respectively, would make profits on the sale of the majority of their ARVs. Between 2010 and 2012, we estimate that - across the ARV portfolio - the gross profit on sales of ARVs to low income countries decreased with between 6% and 7% of their sales price. Generic manufacturers consider that current prices are unsustainable. They suggested amendments to the tender procedures, simplified regulatory procedures, improved forecasting, and simplification of the ARV guidelines as critical improvements to maintain a viable ARV market. Conclusions While recent price decreases indicate that there is still space for price reduction, our estimate that gross profit margin on sales decreased by 6 to 7% between 2010 and 2012 lends credibility to assertions by generic manufacturers

  12. Environment and air pollution like gun and bullet for low-income countries: war for better health and wealth.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiang; Azam, Muhammad; Islam, Talat; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of environmental indicators and air pollution on "health" and "wealth" for the low-income countries. The study used a number of promising variables including arable land, fossil fuel energy consumption, population density, and carbon dioxide emissions that simultaneously affect the health (i.e., health expenditures per capita) and wealth (i.e., GDP per capita) of the low-income countries. The general representation for low-income countries has shown by aggregate data that consist of 39 observations from the period of 1975-2013. The study decomposes the data set from different econometric tests for managing robust inferences. The study uses temporal forecasting for the health and wealth model by a vector error correction model (VECM) and an innovation accounting technique. The results show that environment and air pollution is the menace for low-income countries' health and wealth. Among environmental indicators, arable land has the largest variance to affect health and wealth for the next 10-year period, while air pollution exerts the least contribution to change health and wealth of low-income countries. These results indicate the prevalence of war situation, where environment and air pollution become visible like "gun" and "bullet" for low-income countries. There are required sound and effective macroeconomic policies to combat with the environmental evils that affect the health and wealth of the low-income countries.

  13. Environment and air pollution like gun and bullet for low-income countries: war for better health and wealth.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiang; Azam, Muhammad; Islam, Talat; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of environmental indicators and air pollution on "health" and "wealth" for the low-income countries. The study used a number of promising variables including arable land, fossil fuel energy consumption, population density, and carbon dioxide emissions that simultaneously affect the health (i.e., health expenditures per capita) and wealth (i.e., GDP per capita) of the low-income countries. The general representation for low-income countries has shown by aggregate data that consist of 39 observations from the period of 1975-2013. The study decomposes the data set from different econometric tests for managing robust inferences. The study uses temporal forecasting for the health and wealth model by a vector error correction model (VECM) and an innovation accounting technique. The results show that environment and air pollution is the menace for low-income countries' health and wealth. Among environmental indicators, arable land has the largest variance to affect health and wealth for the next 10-year period, while air pollution exerts the least contribution to change health and wealth of low-income countries. These results indicate the prevalence of war situation, where environment and air pollution become visible like "gun" and "bullet" for low-income countries. There are required sound and effective macroeconomic policies to combat with the environmental evils that affect the health and wealth of the low-income countries. PMID:26493298

  14. Promoting Integrated Approaches to Reducing Health Inequities among Low-Income Workers: Applying a Social Ecological Framework

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Sherry L; Beard, Sharon; Davis, Letitia K.; Delp, Linda; Forst, Linda; Kidd-Taylor, Andrea; Liebman, Amy K.; Linnan, Laura; Punnett, Laura; Welch, Laura S.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly one of every three workers in the United States is low-income. Low-income populations have a lower life expectancy and greater rates of chronic diseases compared to those with higher incomes. Low- income workers face hazards in their workplaces as well as in their communities. Developing integrated public health programs that address these combined health hazards, especially the interaction of occupational and non-occupational risk factors, can promote greater health equity. We apply a social-ecological perspective in considering ways to improve the health of the low-income working population through integrated health protection and health promotion programs initiated in four different settings: the worksite, state and local health departments, community health centers, and community-based organizations. An example of successful approaches to developing integrated programs in each of these settings is described. Recommendations for improved research, training, and coordination among health departments, health practitioners, worksites and community organizations are proposed. PMID:23532780

  15. DataCite - Making data sets citable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brase, J.

    2013-12-01

    The scientific and information communities have largely mastered the presentation of, and linkages between, text-based electronic information by assigning persistent identifiers to give scientific literature unique identities and accessibility. Knowledge, as published through scientific literature, is however often the last step in a process originating from scientific research data. Today scientists are using simulation, observational, and experimentation techniques that yield massive quantities of research data. These data are analysed, synthesised, interpreted, and the outcome of this process is generally published as a scientific article. Access to the original data as the foundation of knowledge has become an important issue throughout the world and different projects have started to find solutions. Global collaboration and scientific advances could be accelerated through broader access to scientific research data. In other words, data access could be revolutionized through the same technologies used to make textual literature accessible. The most obvious opportunity to broaden visibility of and access to research data is to integrate its access into the medium where it is most often cited: electronic textual information. Besides this opportunity, it is important, irrespective of where they are cited, for research data to have an internet identity. Since 2005, the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) has offered a successful Digital Object Identifier (DOI) registration service for persistent identification of research data. Since 2010 these services are offered by the global consortium DataCite, carried by 17 member organisations from 12 different countries: The German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB), the German National Library of Medicine (ZB MED), the German National Library of Economics (ZBW) and the German GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences. Additional European members are: The Library of the ETH Z

  16. Most Low-Income Dads Stay Involved with Their Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Contradicting a widely held stereotype, most low-income fathers are at least somewhat ... not reflect the views of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, the ...

  17. Resource handbook for low-income residential retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.W.; Brenchley, D.L.; Davis, L.J.; Ivey, D.L.; Smith, S.A.; Westergard, E.J.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of the handbook is to provide technical assistance to state grantees participating in the Partnerships in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program. PILIRR is a demonstration program aimed at identifying innovative, successful approaches to developing public and private support for weatherization of low-income households. The program reflects the basic concept that responsibility for financial support for conservation activities such as low-income residential retrofitting is likely to gradually shift from the DOE to the states and the private sector. In preparing the handbook, PNL staff surveyed over 50 programs that provide assistance to low-income residents. The survey provided information on factors that contribute to successful programs. PNL also studied the winning PILIRR proposals (from the states of Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Oklahoma and Washington) and identified the approaches proposed and the type of information that would be most helpful in implementing these approaches.

  18. The management of adult psychiatric emergencies in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Abhijit; Hanlon, Charlotte; Bhatia, Urvita; Fuhr, Daniela; Ragoni, Celina; de Azevedo Perocco, Sérgio Luiz; Fortes, Sandra; Shidhaye, Rahul; Kinyanda, Eugene; Rangaswamy, Thara; Patel, Vikram

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this Review is to identify effective interventions and treatment guidelines to manage common types of psychiatric emergencies in non-specialist settings in low-income and middle-income countries. Mental health specialist services in low-income and middle-income countries are scarce. We did a systematic review of interventions for psychiatric emergencies and a literature search for low-income and middle-income-specific treatment guidelines for psychiatric emergencies. A dearth of high-quality guidelines and contextualised primary evidence for management of psychiatric emergencies in low-income and middle-income countries exists. Filling these gaps in present guidelines needs to be an urgent research priority in view of the adverse health and social consequences of such presentations and the present drive to scale up mental health care.

  19. Disability in low-income countries: issues and implications.

    PubMed

    Parnes, Penny; Cameron, Debra; Christie, Nancy; Cockburn, Lynn; Hashemi, Goli; Yoshida, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted for the Canadian International Development Agency by The International Centre for Disability and Rehabilitation at the University of Toronto. We critically examined the broad literature in the area of disability and development and in this article we identify the key issues which emerged. Most of the data were collected from existing literature in the academic and practice settings and from the publications of key NGOs and governments. We first, examine disability in the context of low-income countries, and then discuss key critical issues: disability and poverty, disability and health, disability and education, disability and gender, disability and children/youth, disability and conflict/natural disasters and disability and human rights. In all these areas we find reports of discrimination, stigmatisation and marginalisation. We conclude that, as we address issues of multi-cultural disability services in developed countries, it is important to bear in mind the various issues that many people with disabilities and their families bring with them as the result of immigrating from a developing country. Although we address these issues within our own countries, we must bear in mind the changes that are occurring due to globalisation. PMID:19802932

  20. Cold times for conservation. [Cuts in low income weatherization program

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, F.

    1982-02-01

    There are about a million families living at or below poverty level, who have cut down their energy use in the last few years through the help of the federal low income weatherization program. One of several energy conservation programs launched in the early days of the energy crisis, it was set up to reach the poor and elderly, since they're the ones most keenly affected by high energy prices. Weatherization was considered a better way of helping than doling out fuel assistance checks, which simply carry the poor from one winter's crisis to another and end up in the pockets of utility companies. The program has made great strides since it was started as a pilot project in 1975. But, like other energy conservation programs, its days may be numbered. Weatherization efforts have slowed down as a result of budget cuts and increased costs, and the program could be phased out completely by fiscal year 1983. With President Reagan's plan to dismantle the Department of Energy (DOE), a whole slew of energy conservation and research programs are likely to be wiped out next year unless Congress mounts significant opposition. (JMT)

  1. Disability in low-income countries: issues and implications.

    PubMed

    Parnes, Penny; Cameron, Debra; Christie, Nancy; Cockburn, Lynn; Hashemi, Goli; Yoshida, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted for the Canadian International Development Agency by The International Centre for Disability and Rehabilitation at the University of Toronto. We critically examined the broad literature in the area of disability and development and in this article we identify the key issues which emerged. Most of the data were collected from existing literature in the academic and practice settings and from the publications of key NGOs and governments. We first, examine disability in the context of low-income countries, and then discuss key critical issues: disability and poverty, disability and health, disability and education, disability and gender, disability and children/youth, disability and conflict/natural disasters and disability and human rights. In all these areas we find reports of discrimination, stigmatisation and marginalisation. We conclude that, as we address issues of multi-cultural disability services in developed countries, it is important to bear in mind the various issues that many people with disabilities and their families bring with them as the result of immigrating from a developing country. Although we address these issues within our own countries, we must bear in mind the changes that are occurring due to globalisation.

  2. Synthesis of Findings from Southern Regional Cooperative Research Project S-44: Factors in the Adjustment of Families and Individuals in Low-Income Rural Areas of the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Virlyn A.; Morgan, Carolyn A.

    A group of rural sociologists initiated this 1958-1965 research project for the purpose of increasing knowledge about social and economic adjustments of low-income people in the rural areas of the South. Factors found to be associated with the adjustment of low-income families and individuals were anomia, level-of-living, joint decision making,…

  3. Low-income individuals’ perceptions about fruit and vegetable access programs: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Auvergne, Lauriane; Mark, Barbara; Ammerman, Alice; Weiner, Bryan J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine how fruit and vegetable (F&V) programs address barriers to F&V access and consumption as perceived by low-income individuals. Design From 2011–2012 thirteen focus groups were used to better understand low-income individuals’ perceptions about F&V programs. Setting Five North Carolina counties at community-serving organizations. Participants Low-income participants ages 18 or older were included in the study. A majority were African American females with a high school education or less and received government assistance. Phenomenon of Interest Low-income individuals’ perceptions about how F&V access programs can reduce barriers and increase consumption. Analysis A socioecological framework guided data analysis, and 2 trained researchers coded transcripts, identified major themes, and summarized findings. Results A total of 105 participants discussed that mobile markets could overcome barriers such as availability, convenience, transportation, and quality/variety. Some were worried about safety in higher crime communities. Participants’ opinions about how successful food assistance programs were at overcoming cost barriers were mixed. Participants agreed that community gardens could increase access to affordable, conveniently located produce, but worried about feasibility/implementation issues. Implications for Research and Practice Addressing access barriers through F&V programs could improve consumption. Programs have the potential to be successful if they address multiple access barriers. (200 words). PMID:25910929

  4. Food-Related Attitudes and Behaviors at Home, School, and Restaurants: Perspectives from Racially Diverse, Urban, Low-Income 9- to 13-Year-Old Children in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammann, Kristen; Smith, Chery

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This qualitative study explored low-income children's food-related attitudes and behaviors, and current weight status. Design: Two researchers conducted 14 audiotaped, 60-minute focus groups. Height and weight were measured. Setting: Libraries, homeless shelters, and a community center. Participants: Ninety-two low-income children aged…

  5. Expanding Coverage to Low-Income Childless Adults in Massachusetts: Implications for National Health Reform

    PubMed Central

    Long, Sharon K; Dahlen, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Objective To draw on the experiences under Massachusetts's 2006 reform, the template for the Affordable Care Act (ACA), to provide insights into the potential impacts of the ACA Medicaid expansion for low-income childless adults in other states. Data Sources/Study Setting The study takes advantage of the natural experiment in Massachusetts and combined data from two surveys—the Massachusetts Health Reform Survey (MHRS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)—to estimate the impacts of reform on low-income adults. Study Design Difference-in-differences models of the impacts of health reform, using propensity-score reweighting to improve the match between Massachusetts and the comparison states. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Data for low-income adults are obtained by combining data from the MHRS and the NHIS, where the MHRS provides a relatively large Massachusetts sample and the NHIS provides data for samples in other states to support the difference-in-differences model. Supplemental data on county economic and health care market characteristics are obtained from the Area Health Resource File. Principal Findings There are strong increases in coverage and access to health care for low-income adults under health reform in Massachusetts, with the greatest gains observed for childless adults, who were not eligible for public coverage prior to reform. Conclusions In the states that implement the Medicaid provisions of the ACA, we would expect to see large increases in coverage rates and commensurate gains in access to care for low-income childless adults. Linking state and federal surveys offers a strategy for leveraging the value of state-specific survey data for stronger policy evaluations. PMID:24834813

  6. Healthy eating for rural low-income toddlers: caregivers' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Omar, M A; Coleman, G; Hoerr, S

    2001-01-01

    Caregivers exert a powerful influence on young children's eating habits. This qualitative study used focus groups to assess nutritional needs and barriers in establishing healthy eating habits in toddlers. Three focus groups were conducted with rural, low-income caregivers, 2 with men and 1 with women, in 3 rural Michigan counties. Four major themes emerged: (a) barriers to providing healthy meals, (b) division of responsibility, (c) mealtime behavior, and (d) desired nutrition education. The major barriers identified were work schedules; cost of food; inadequate time to shop, plan, and prepare nutritious meals; or a combination thereof. Caregivers expressed concern for the nutritional well-being of their toddlers. The perceived needs and perceptions of low-income caregivers need to be considered when providing nutrition education. Findings from this study provided the basis for developing a nutrition education intervention for low-income parents of young children.

  7. Staffing remote rural areas in middle- and low-income countries: A literature review of attraction and retention

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Uta; Dieleman, Marjolein; Martineau, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Background Many countries in middle- and low-income countries today suffer from severe staff shortages and/or maldistribution of health personnel which has been aggravated more recently by the disintegration of health systems in low-income countries and by the global policy environment. One of the most damaging effects of severely weakened and under-resourced health systems is the difficulty they face in producing, recruiting, and retaining health professionals, particularly in remote areas. Low wages, poor working conditions, lack of supervision, lack of equipment and infrastructure as well as HIV and AIDS, all contribute to the flight of health care personnel from remote areas. In this global context of accelerating inequities health service policy makers and managers are searching for ways to improve the attraction and retention of staff in remote areas. But the development of appropriate strategies first requires an understanding of the factors which influence decisions to accept and/or stay in a remote post, particularly in the context of mid and low income countries (MLICS), and which strategies to improve attraction and retention are therefore likely to be successful. It is the aim of this review article to explore the links between attraction and retention factors and strategies, with a particular focus on the organisational diversity and location of decision-making. Methods This is a narrative literature review which took an iterative approach to finding relevant literature. It focused on English-language material published between 1997 and 2007. The authors conducted Pubmed searches using a range of different search terms relating to attraction and retention of staff in remote areas. Furthermore, a number of relevant journals as well as unpublished literature were systematically searched. While the initial search included articles from high- middle- and low-income countries, the review focuses on middle- and low-income countries. About 600 papers were

  8. Global Health Equity: Cancer Care Outcome Disparities in High-, Middle-, and Low-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Jonas A; Hunt, Bijou; Asirwa, Fredrick Chite; Adebamowo, Clement; Lopes, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Breakthroughs in our global fight against cancer have been achieved. However, this progress has been unequal. In low- and middle-income countries and for specific populations in high-income settings, many of these advancements are but an aspiration and hope for the future. This review will focus on health disparities in cancer within and across countries, drawing from examples in Kenya, Brazil, and the United States. Placed in context with these examples, the authors also draw basic recommendations from several initiatives and groups that are working on the issue of global cancer disparities, including the US Institute of Medicine, the Global Task Force on Expanded Access to Cancer Care and Control in Developing Countries, and the Union for International Cancer Control. From increasing initiatives in basic resources in low-income countries to rapid learning systems in high-income countries, the authors argue that beyond ethics and equity issues, it makes economic sense to invest in global cancer control, especially in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:26578608

  9. Three models of community mental health services In low-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare and contrast three models of community mental health services in low-income settings. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary and secondary data collected before, during, and after site visits to mental health programs in Nigeria, the Philippines, and India. Study Design Qualitative case study methodology. Data Collection Data were collected through interviews and observations during site visits to the programs, as well as from reviews of documentary evidence. Principal Findings A set of narrative topics and program indicators were used to compare and contrast three community mental health programs in low-income countries. This allowed us to identify a diversity of service delivery models, common challenges, and the strengths and weaknesses of each program. More definitive evaluations will require the establishment of data collection methods and information systems that provide data about the clinical and social outcomes of clients, as well as their use of services. Conclusions Community mental health programs in low-income countries face a number of challenges. Using a case study methodology developed for this purpose, it is possible to compare programs and begin to assess the effectiveness of diverse service delivery models. PMID:21266051

  10. Investigating the Decision-Making Process of Standard Setting Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing interest of the language testing community in standard setting, primarily due to the use of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR-Council of Europe, 2001), the participants' decision-making process in the CEFR standard setting context remains unexplored. This study attempts to fill in this gap by analyzing these…

  11. Teaching Low-Income Mothers to Teach Their Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of the Avance Parent-Child Education Program in teaching low-income, Mexican American mothers of infants to teach their own children. Found significant program effects on Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scores, on view of self as teacher, and on videotaped mother-child interactions. Found results…

  12. Teaching Low-Income Mothers To Teach Their Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale L.; And Others

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Avance Parent-Child Education Program, a 9-month center-based program, with an in-home component, designed to provide low-income, Mexican-American mothers of infants with parenting education and family support services. A total of 524 mother-infant diads took part in the Avance program or served in a…

  13. Camouflage: The Experiences of Low-Income Business College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponton de Dutton, Scarlett

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study shares the complex stories of two low-income business students who attend a flagship, public university as out-of-state students with the purpose of understanding, describing, giving voice to, and discovering insight from their experiences. Throughout U.S. Higher Education history, there is a pattern of limited participation…

  14. Underprotected, Undersupported: Low-Income Children at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apollon, Dominique; Corral, Victor; Kurland, Shannah

    2009-01-01

    The major purpose of this report is to study the effects of unlicensed care on the quality and safety of childcare available to low-income families. Although this is a national study, the investigations and analyses focused on three states in particular: Alabama, California, and Maryland. Dozens of advocates, providers and administrators were…

  15. Predictors of Depression Among Low-Income, Nonresidential Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elaine A.; Kohler, Julie K.; Letiecq, Bethany L.

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates the life conditions that contribute to low-income fathers' depression and that may jeopardize their relationships with their children. This work is based on a cultural-ecological framework that emphasizes the need to understand these fathers within their larger familial and social contexts. The sample consisted of 127…

  16. Diamonds in the Rough: Identifying and Serving Low Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Donna Y.; Grantham, Tarek C.; Frazier-Trotman, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Children who live in poverty are frequently at risk for underachievement. This is not to say that poverty automatically causes lack of achievement, but being poor can certainly take its toll. Gifted low income students can be compared to diamonds, which can only be formed under conditions of extreme heat and pressure. Both diamonds and…

  17. Creation Vacation Brings Low-Income Families to Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Ann; Hulbert, Ted; Pierson, Paul; Waldorf, Jennifer; Calhoun, Annie

    2002-01-01

    A study examining outcomes of a free camp for low-income families in Oregon surveyed 19 participant families. Enjoying the outdoors, spending time together as a family, and meeting new people from their communities were significant outcomes. A 5-month follow-up survey found positive program outcomes that continued after the experience. (TD)

  18. Child Care Choices, Consumer Education, and Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Anne; And Others

    In 1991, the National Center for Children in Poverty undertook a study of low-income parents as child care consumers. The study involved a review of current research findings, interviews with staff of child resource and referral agencies, and an examination of child care consumer education provided in the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS)…

  19. Smoking among Low-Income Pregnant Women: An Ethnographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Muramoto, Myra; Adrian, Shelly; Goldade, Kate; Tesler, Laura; Thompson, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative study of 53 low-income women who were smokers at the onset of pregnancy. Study participants were interviewed during pregnancy to document smoking trajectories and factors contributing to, or undermining, harm reduction and quit attempts. Thirty percent of women quit smoking completely, 43% engaged…

  20. Stress and Somatic Complaints in Low-Income Urban Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Linda K.; O'Koon, Jeffrey H.; Papademetriou, Eros; Szczygiel, Sylvia; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2001-01-01

    Studied rates of somatic complaints and the association between stress and somatic complaints for 1,030 low-income urban adolescents in grades 6 through 8. For both boys and girls, somatization was the most commonly reported internalizing symptom, and heightened rates of urban stress predicted heightened rates of somatic complaints. (SLD)

  1. Targeting Interventions for Ethnic Minority and Low-Income Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumanyika, Shiriki; Grier, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Although rates of childhood obesity among the general population are alarmingly high, they are higher still in ethnic minority and low-income communities. The disparities pose a major challenge for policymakers and practitioners planning strategies for obesity prevention. In this article Shiriki Kumanyika and Sonya Grier summarize differences in…

  2. Using Banks: Teaching Banking Skills to Low-Income Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurtz, Mary Ann; LeFlore, Ann Becker

    This module, one of six on teaching consumer matters to low-income adults, discusses banking skills. Topics include banking services (savings accounts, safety deposit boxes, Christmas clubs, loans, etc.), checking accounts (deposits, checkwriting, check registers, opening an account), how to use the check register (cancelled checks, deposits),…

  3. Financial Arrangements and Relationship Quality in Low-Income Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addo, Fenaba R.; Sassler, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the association between household financial arrangements and relationship quality using a representative sample of low-income couples with children. We detailed the banking arrangements couples utilize, assessed which factors relate to holding a joint account versus joint and separate, only separate, or no account, and analyzed…

  4. The New Reductions in Low Income Programs in FY 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Washington, DC.

    An analysis of fiscal year 1988 funding levels shows that there will be many cuts in programs for the poor. The programs which will be affected the most are those which pay heating bills for poor households, those which provide emergency food and shelter for the homeless, and those which provide housing assistance for low income elderly and…

  5. An Insurance Planner. Teaching Low-Income Consumers about Insurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurtz, Mary Ann; LeFlore, Ann Becker

    This module, one of six on teaching consumer matters to low-income groups, focuses on buying insurance. Topics include life insurance (language, types, settlement options), auto insurance, health insurance (standard, health maintenance organizations, medicaid, medicare), tenant's insurance (property damage, liability), what to do in case of loss,…

  6. The Rural Low-Income Student and the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Don A., Ed.

    Topics discussed at this conference concerned with education for the rural poor were: (1) "The Community College and the Rural Poor," (2) "The Rural Low Income Student--What a Small College Can Do to Get Them Into School and Keep Them There," (3) "The New Iron Ore Industry Worker Needs New Schools and New Programs to Keep Marketable," (4) "The…

  7. Parent Education: A Model for Low-Income Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Rodney K.; Rubovits, James J.

    1982-01-01

    Provides a metamodel with which counselors can design programs for all populations of parents, particularly low-income. Suggests that education programs can provide training in interpersonal skills and family management skills. Describes development and application of the model and how components might be sequenced for training a particular parent…

  8. How Low-Income Children Use the Internet at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Linda A.; von Eye, Alexander; Biocca, Frank; Barbatsis, Gretchen; Zhao, Yong; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2005-01-01

    HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine home Internet use by low-income families in the United States. Participants were 140 children, mostly African American, whose Internet use was continuously and automatically recorded for one year. This article focuses on relationships between children's main computer activities, academic…

  9. Is Maternal Marriage Beneficial for Low-Income Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Heather J.; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the association of mothers' marriage and changes in young adolescents' cognitive and socioemotional development and changes in family processes. Analyses employed longitudinal data from the "Three-City Study" to track maternal partnerships for 860 low-income adolescents (10-14 years-old in Wave 1) across a 16 month…

  10. What's (Not) Wrong with Low-Income Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trail, Thomas E.; Karney, Benjamin R.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, low marriage rates and high divorce rates among the poor have led policymakers to target this group for skills- and values-based interventions. The current research evaluated the assumptions underlying these interventions; specifically, the authors examined whether low-income respondents held less traditional values toward…

  11. Assessing the Eating Behaviors of Low-Income, Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Garn, Alex C.; Shen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a need for instruments that can accurately determine the effectiveness of nutrition interventions targeting low-income, inner-city adolescents. Purpose: To examine the development of a valid and reliable eating behavior scale (EBS) for use in school-based nutrition interventions in urban, inner-city communities dominated by…

  12. Paraprofessionals in Home Economics Programs for Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leidenfrost, Nancy B.; And Others

    This booklet was developed as a guide for home economists who are responsible for teaching paraprofessionals (individuals who usually have no college degree and are trained and supervised by county home economists) how to teach low-income families. The content is in seven short sections: (1) Planning the Program discusses available resources,…

  13. Gender Differences in Caregiver Emotion Socialization of Low-Income Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Casey, James; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    Low-income children are at elevated risk for emotion-related problems; however, little research has examined gender and emotion socialization in low-income families. The authors describe the ways in which emotion socialization may differ for low-income versus middle-income families. They also present empirical data on low-income caregivers'…

  14. 24 CFR 248.153 - Incentives to extend low income use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentives to extend low income use... AUTHORITIES PREPAYMENT OF LOW INCOME HOUSING MORTGAGES Prepayments and Plans of Action Under the Low Income Housing Preservation and Resident Homeownership Act of 1990 § 248.153 Incentives to extend low income...

  15. Characteristics of Low-income Racial/Ethnic Minority Pregnant Women Screening Positive for Alcohol Risk.

    PubMed

    Washio, Yukiko; Mericle, Amy A; Cassey, Heather; Daubert, Angela M; Kirby, Kimberly C

    2016-08-01

    The current study examined the prevalence and characteristics associated with alcohol risk among low-income, predominantly racial/ethnic minority pregnant women in an urban area. We surveyed 225 pregnant women receiving nutritional care. Twenty-six percent screened positive for alcohol risk. Current smoking status (AOR 2.9, p = 0.018, 95 % CI [1.2, 7.0]) and a history of marijuana use (AOR 3.1, p = 0.001, 95 % CI [1.6, 6.2]) were the strongest predictors of alcohol risk status. This study underscores the need for screening for alcohol risk, smoking, and illicit drug use among low-income, racial/ethnic minority pregnant women and highlights the usefulness of the TWEAK in identifying alcohol risk in WIC settings. PMID:26187172

  16. A number sense intervention for low-income kindergartners at risk for mathematics difficulties.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Nancy I; Jordan, Nancy C; Glutting, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Early number sense is a strong predictor of later success in school mathematics. A disproportionate number of children from low-income families come to first grade with weak number competencies, leaving them at risk for a cycle of failure. The present study examined the effects of an 8-week number sense intervention to develop number competencies of low-income kindergartners (N = 121). The intervention purposefully targeted whole number concepts related to counting, comparing, and manipulating sets. Children were randomly assigned to either a number sense intervention or a business as usual contrast group. The intervention was carried out in small-group, 30-min sessions, 3 days per week, for a total of 24 sessions. Controlling for number sense at pretest, the intervention group made meaningful gains relative to the control group at immediate as well delayed posttest on a measure of early numeracy. Intervention children also performed better than controls on a standardized test of mathematics calculation at immediate posttest.

  17. Overweight and Obesity among Low-Income Muslim Uyghur Women in Far Western China: Correlations of Body Mass Index with Blood Lipids and Implications in Preventive Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Li; Zhan, Jin Qiong; Yang, Lan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Shu Gang; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Hong Yan; Ma, Zhi Ping; Hao, Xiao Ling; Simayi, Dilixia; Tao, Lin; Zhao, Jin; Amanguli, A.; Mohemaiti, Meiliguli; Jing, Ming Xia; Wang, Wei; Saimaiti, Abudukeyoumu; Zou, Xiao Guang; Gu, Yan; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Background The pandemic of obesity is a global public health concern. Most studies on obesity are skewed toward high-income and urban settings and few covers low-income populations. This study focused on the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their correlations with blood lipids/metabolites/enzymes (bio-indicators) in a rural community typical of low-income in remote western China. Methods This study was performed in a Muslim ethnic Uyghur rural community in Kashi Prefecture of Xinjiang, about 4,407 km (2,739 miles) away from Beijing. Body mass index (BMI) and major blood bio-indicators (25 total items) were measured and demographic information was collected from 1,733 eligible healthy women aged 21 to 71 yrs, of whom 1,452 had complete data for analysis. More than 92% of the women lived on US$1.00/day or less. According to the Chinese criteria, overweight and obesity were defined as BMI at 24 to <28 kg/m2 and at ≥28 kg/m2, respectively. Results The average BMI among these low-income women was 24.0±4.0 (95% CI, 17.5–33.7) kg/m2. The prevalence of obesity and overweight was high at 15.1% and 28.9%, respectively. Among 25 bio-indicators, BMI correlated positively with the levels of 11 bio-indicators including triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TCHOL), glucose (GLU), and uric acid (UA); but negatively with the levels of 5 bio-indicators including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A/B (APO A/B). Conclusions This is the first investigation reporting overweight and obesity being common in low-income Muslim Uyghur women, whose BMI correlates with several important blood bio-indicators which are risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. These findings may help make preventive public health policies in Uyghur communities. To prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in low-income settings, we therefore propose a cost-effective, two-step strategy first to screen for

  18. Making family planning accessible in resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Prata, Ndola

    2009-10-27

    It is imperative to make family planning more accessible in low resource settings. The poorest couples have the highest fertility, the lowest contraceptive use and the highest unmet need for contraception. It is also in the low resource settings where maternal and child mortality is the highest. Family planning can contribute to improvements in maternal and child health, especially in low resource settings where overall access to health services is limited. Four critical steps should be taken to increase access to family planning in resource-poor settings: (i) increase knowledge about the safety of family planning methods; (ii) ensure contraception is genuinely affordable to the poorest families; (iii) ensure supply of contraceptives by making family planning a permanent line item in healthcare system's budgets and (iv) take immediate action to remove barriers hindering access to family planning methods. In Africa, there are more women with an unmet need for family planning than women currently using modern methods. Making family planning accessible in low resource settings will help decrease the existing inequities in achieving desired fertility at individual and country level. In addition, it could help slow population growth within a human rights framework. The United Nations Population Division projections for the year 2050 vary between a high of 10.6 and a low of 7.4 billion. Given that most of the growth is expected to come from today's resource-poor settings, easy access to family planning could make a difference of billions in the world in 2050. PMID:19770158

  19. 12 CFR 701.34 - Designation of low income status; Acceptance of secondary capital accounts by low-income...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-income members” also includes those members enrolled as students in a college, university, high school..., federal credit unions may provide actual member income from loan applications or surveys to demonstrate a... do not have a low-income designation. The designation will remain in effect during the...

  20. Energy-microfinance intervention for low income households in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, P. Sharath Chandra

    In India, limited energy access and energy inequity hamper the lives of low income households. Traditional fuels such as firewood and dung cake account for 84 percent and 32 percent of the rural and urban household cooking energy (NSSO, 2007). With 412 million people without access to electricity in 2005, India hosts the world's largest such population (IEA, 2007). But, low income households still spend 9 - 11.7 percent1 of their incomes on inefficient forms of energy while wealthy households spend less than 5 percent on better energy products (Saghir, 2005). Renewable energy technologies coupled with innovative financial products can address the energy access problem facing the low income households in India (MacLean & Siegel, 2007; REEEP, 2009). Nevertheless, the low income households continue to face low access to mainstream finance for purchasing renewable energy technology at terms that meet their monthly energy related expenditure (ESMAP, 2004a; SEEP, 2008a) and low or no access to energy services (Ailawadi & Bhattacharyya, 2006; Modi et. al., 2006). The lack of energy-finance options has left the marginalized population with little means to break the dependence on traditional fuels. This dissertation proposes an energy microfinance intervention to address the present situation. It designed a loan product dedicated to the purchase of renewable energy technologies while taking into account the low and irregular cash flows of the low income households. The arguments presented in this dissertation are based on a six-month pilot project using this product designed and developed by the author in conjunction with a microfinance institution and its low income clients and Energy Service Companies in the state of Karnataka. Finding the right stakeholders and establishing a joint agreement, obtaining grant money for conducting the technology dissemination workshops and forming a clear procedure for commissioning the project, are the key lessons learnt from this study

  1. Pediatric clinical drug trials in low-income countries: key ethical issues.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, S M; Knoppert, D C; Stanton-Jean, M; Avard, D

    2015-02-01

    Potential child participants in clinical research trials in low-income countries are often vulnerable because of poverty, high morbidity and mortality, inadequate education, and varied local cultural norms. However, vulnerability by itself must not be accepted as an obstacle blocking children from the health benefits that may accrue as an outcome of sound clinical research. As greater emphasis is placed on evidence-based treatment of children, it should be anticipated that there will be a growing call for agreement on principles to guide clinical investigations in low-income countries. There is now general acceptance of the view that children must be protected from non-evidence-based interventions and from substandard treatments. The questions remaining relate to how best to stimulate clinical research activity that will serve the needs of infants, children, and youth in developing countries and how best to assign priority to ethically sound research that will meet their clinical requirements. In low-income countries, 39 % of citizens are 13 years of age or younger, and consequently it is certain that clinical investigations of some new therapeutic products will be conducted there more frequently. This review offers some suggestions for approaches that will help to achieve more effective ethical consideration, including (1) improving the quality of research ethics boards; (2) fostering collaborative partnerships among important stakeholders; (3) making concerted efforts to build capacity; (4) improving the quality of the consent and waiver process; and (5) developing improved governance for harmonized ethics platforms. Continuing support by international organizations is required to sustain the establishment and maintenance of stronger research ethics boards to protect children enrolled in clinical trials. This review underscores the importance of developing a culture of solidarity and true partnership between developed and low-income country organizations, which

  2. Pica during pregnancy in low-income women born in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Ellen; Mull, J Dennis; Longley, Erin; East, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Objective To describe pica behavior (ingestion of nonfood items) in pregnant low-income Mexicon-born women in Mexico and the United States.Design A convenience sample of informants was interviewed with a questionnaire containing open-ended and closed-ended questions. SettingA low-income community on the outskirts of Ensenada, Mexico, and clinics serving low-income people in southern California (Santa Ana, Bakersfield, andLos Angeles). Participants Of a total of 225 Mexican-born women, 75(33%) were interviewed in Ensenada, and 150 (67%) were interviewed in southernCalifornia. Results The prevalence of pica during pregnancy was 44% (n= 33) in the Ensenada group and 31% (n = 46) in the southern California group.Those who reported pica behavior more commonly had a relative who also practiced pica. Conclusion The high reported rate of pica in this sample indicates that pregnant Mexican-born women should be screened for pica and educated about the potentially serious effects on the fetus and mother. PMID:10903283

  3. The impact of patient cost-sharing on low-income populations: evidence from Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amitabh; Gruber, Jonathan; McKnight, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Greater patient cost-sharing could help reduce the fiscal pressures associated with insurance expansion by reducing the scope for moral hazard. But it is possible that low-income recipients are unable to cut back on utilization wisely and that, as a result, higher cost-sharing will lead to worse health and higher downstream costs through increased use of inpatient and outpatient care. We use exogenous variation in the copayments faced by low-income enrollees in the Massachusetts Commonwealth Care program to study these effects. We estimate separate price elasticities of demand by type of service. Overall, we find price elasticities of about -0.16 for this low-income population - similar to elasticities calculated for higher-income populations in other settings. These elasticities are somewhat smaller for the chronically sick, especially for those with asthma, diabetes, and high cholesterol. These lower elasticities are attributable to lower responsiveness to prices across all categories of service, and to some statistically insignificant increases in inpatient care.

  4. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans

    PubMed Central

    Winham, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States. Methods A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70%) low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing “bean health benefits” and “food behaviors.” Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA. Results The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471). Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65%) and were satiating (62%). Over 50% answered ‘neutral’ to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%), control blood glucose (56%) or reduce cancer risk (56%), indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation. Conclusions Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition. PMID:26820889

  5. Health promotion behavior in low income black and Latino women.

    PubMed

    Sanders-Phillips, K

    1994-01-01

    Health promotion behaviors were examined in a sample of low-income, Black and Latino women. Latino women were more likely than Black women to eat a daily breakfast; sleep 7-8 hours per night and abstain from alcohol and tobacco use. Black women were more likely to be eating vegetables on a regular basis and exercising at least once per week. The results suggest that low-income Latino women may need to increase their consumption of vegetables and frequency of exercise. Among Black women, a wider range of healthy lifestyle behaviors such as sleeping eight hours per night, eating a daily breakfast and decreasing alcohol and tobacco consumption may need to be emphasized.

  6. Cohabitation and Repartnering among Low-Income Black Mothers

    PubMed Central

    GOLUB, ANDREW; REID, MEGAN

    2015-01-01

    Serial cohabitation has increased dramatically in the U.S., especially in the low-income Black population. The purpose of the study is to understand cohabiting and co-parenting relationships among unmarried cohabiting low-income urban Black families on their own terms, identifying the strengths, challenges, and unique needs of these families. Though cohabitation patterns varied widely, most participants had extensive periods living without a partner. This finding provides more support for the unbalanced marriage markets explanation than the serial cohabitation explanation. Indeed, most participants’ children (83%) had none or only one resident father prior to the current cohabitation. Implications for having a new resident father and child development are discussed. PMID:26161432

  7. Successful Schools and Risky Behaviors Among Low-Income Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Coller, Karen M.; Dudovitz, Rebecca N.; Kennedy, David P.; Buddin, Richard; Shapiro, Martin F.; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Brown, Arleen F.; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Bergman, Peter; Chung, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined whether exposure to high-performing schools reduces the rates of risky health behaviors among low-income minority adolescents and whether this is due to better academic performance, peer influence, or other factors. METHODS: By using a natural experimental study design, we used the random admissions lottery into high-performing public charter high schools in low-income Los Angeles neighborhoods to determine whether exposure to successful school environments leads to fewer risky (eg, alcohol, tobacco, drug use, unprotected sex) and very risky health behaviors (eg, binge drinking, substance use at school, risky sex, gang participation). We surveyed 521 ninth- through twelfth-grade students who were offered admission through a random lottery (intervention group) and 409 students who were not offered admission (control group) about their health behaviors and obtained their state-standardized test scores. RESULTS: The intervention and control groups had similar demographic characteristics and eighth-grade test scores. Being offered admission to a high-performing school (intervention effect) led to improved math (P < .001) and English (P = .04) standard test scores, greater school retention (91% vs 76%; P < .001), and lower rates of engaging in ≥1 very risky behaviors (odds ratio = 0.73, P < .05) but no difference in risky behaviors, such as any recent use of alcohol, tobacco, or drugs. School retention and test scores explained 58.0% and 16.2% of the intervention effect on engagement in very risky behaviors, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing performance of public schools in low-income communities may be a powerful mechanism to decrease very risky health behaviors among low-income adolescents and to decrease health disparities across the life span. PMID:25049339

  8. Low Income Consumer Utility Issues: A National Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, J

    2001-03-26

    This report has been prepared to provide low-income advocates and other stakeholders information on the energy burden faced by low-income customers and programs designed to alleviate that burden in various states. The report describes programs designed to lower payments, manage arrearages, weatherize and provide other energy efficiency measures, educate consumers, increase outreach to the target It discusses the costs and benefits of the population, and evaluate the programs. various options--to the degree this information is available--and describes attempts to quantify benefits that have heretofore not been quantified. The purpose of this report is to enable the low-income advocates and others to assess the options and design program most suitable for the citizens of their states or jurisdictions. It is not the authors' intent to recommend a particular course of action but, based on our broad experience in the field, to provide the information necessary for others to do so. We would be happy to answer any questions or provide further documentation on any of the material presented herein. The original edition of this report was prepared for the Utah Committee on Consumer Services, pursuant to a contract with the National Consumer Law Center (NCLC), to provide information to the Utah Low-Income Task Force established by the Utah Public Service, Commission. Attachment 1 is drawn from NCLC's 1998 Supplement to its Access to Utility Services; NCLC plans to update this list in 2001, and it will be available then from NCLC. This report has been updated by the authors for this edition.

  9. Connecting low-income smokers to tobacco treatment services.

    PubMed

    Slater, Jonathan S; Nelson, Christina L; Parks, Michael J; Ebbert, Jon O

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act calls for using population-level incentive-based interventions, and cigarette smoking is one of the most significant health behaviors driving costs and adverse health in low-income populations. Telehealth offers an opportunity to facilitate delivery of evidence-based smoking cessation services as well as incentive-based interventions to low-income populations. However, research is needed on effective strategies for linking smokers to services, how to couple financial incentives with telehealth, and on how to scale this to population-level practice. The current paper evaluates primary implementation and follow-up results of two strategies for connecting low-income, predominantly female smokers to a telephone tobacco quitline (QL). The population-based program consisted of participant-initiated phone contact and two recruitment strategies: (1) direct mail (DM) and (2) opportunistic telephone referrals with connection (ORC). Both strategies offered financial incentives for being connected to the QL, and all QL connections were made by trained patient navigators through a central call center. QL connections occurred for 97% of DM callers (N=870) and 33% of ORC callers (N=4550). Self-reported continuous smoking abstinence (i.e., 30 smoke-free days at seven-month follow-up) was 20% for the DM group and 16% for ORC. These differences between intervention groups remained in ordered logistic regressions adjusting for smoking history and demographic characteristics. Each recruitment strategy had distinct advantages; both successfully connected low-income smokers to cessation services and encouraged quit attempts and continuous smoking abstinence. Future research and population-based programs can utilize financial incentives and both recruitment strategies, building on their relative strengths. PMID:26489597

  10. Implementing Digital Reference Services: Setting Standards and Making It Real.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankes, R. David, Ed.; McClure, Charles R., Ed.; Gross, Melissa, Ed.; Pomerantz, Jeffrey, Ed.

    The chapters in this volume, originally presented at the Third Annual Virtual Reference Desk (VRD) conference, "Setting Standards and Making It Real," (Orlando, Florida, November 2001), were organized, revised, and updated to reflect current technology and practice. The VRD conference and the ideas in this book represent the cutting edge of work,…

  11. Child Care Use by Low-Income Families: Variations across States. Research Brief. Publication #2008-23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Laura; Vandivere, Sharon; Keith, Julie; Atienza, Astrid

    2008-01-01

    For many low-income and single parents, employment depends on securing reliable, affordable child care. Yet these parents may face greater challenges than do higher-income and two-parent families in making affordable, appropriate child care arrangements that complement their work schedules. Indeed, the cost, availability, stability, and quality of…

  12. Impact of fatty acid status on immune function of children in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Andrew M; van der Merwe, Liandré

    2011-04-01

    In vitro and animal studies point to numerous mechanisms by which fatty acids, especially long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), can modulate the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. These data strongly suggest that improving the fatty acid supply of young children in low-income countries might have immune benefits. Unfortunately, there have been virtually no studies of fatty acid/immune interactions in such settings. Clinical trial registers list over 150 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving PUFAs, only one in a low-income setting (the Gambia). We summarize those results here. There was evidence for improved growth and nutritional status, but the primary end point of chronic environmental enteropathy showed no benefit, possibly because the infants were still substantially breastfed. In high-income settings, there have been RCTs with fatty acids (usually LCPUFAs) in relation to 18 disease end points, for some of which there have been numerous trials (asthma, inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis). For these diseases, the evidence is judged reasonable for risk reduction for childhood asthma (but not in adults), as yielding possible benefit in Crohn's disease (insufficient evidence in ulcerative colitis) and for convincing evidence for rheumatoid arthritis at sufficient dose levels, though formal meta-analyses are not yet available. This analysis suggests that fatty acid interventions could yield immune benefits in children in poor settings, especially in non-breastfed children and in relation to inflammatory conditions such as persistent enteropathy. Benefits might include improved responses to enteric vaccines, which frequently perform poorly in low-income settings, and these questions merit randomized trials.

  13. Relationship between Academic Resilience and College Success: Cross-National Experiences of Low-Income/First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbindyo, Margaret N.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between academic resilience (defined as the ability to effectively deal with setbacks, stress, or pressure in an academic setting) and the experiences of US students served by TRIO intervention programs (federally funded programs) that serve low-income/first-generation students. Based on a sample of 106,…

  14. Achieving College Access Goals: The Relevance of New Media in Reaching First-Generation and Low-Income Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krywosa, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    With so much interest around the use of new media, many people concerned with improving college access are striving to master this emerging set of resources in order to better reach students, who without encouragement, are unlikely to pursue higher education. But, how much do individuals understand about the way low-income, first-generation, and…

  15. Family Ties: Improving Paternity Establishment Practices and Procedures for Low-Income Mothers, Fathers and Children. Reaching Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Nancy Duff; Entmacher, Joan; Boggess, Jacquelyn; Pate, David

    Low-income mothers and fathers often share a desire to support their children, but current government policies may pit parents against each other, often to the detriment of their children. This report sets out a shared public policy agenda for newly elected leaders at all levels of U.S. government as part of the Common Ground Project, designed to…

  16. The Feasibility of Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to Collect Dietary Intake Data in Low-Income Pregnant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowles, Eileen R.; Gentry, Breine

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the feasibility of using personal digital assistant (PDA)-based technology for tracking and analysis of food intake in low-income pregnant women. Design: Descriptive. Participants provided an initial 24-hour dietary recall and recorded their food intake using a PDA-based software program for 2 days. Setting: Recruitment…

  17. An Exploratory Mixed Method Assessment of Low Income, Pregnant Hispanic Women's Understanding of Gestational Diabetes and Dietary Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads-Baeza, Maria Elena; Reis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe and assess low income, healthy, pregnant Hispanic women's understanding of gestational diabetes (GDM) and willingness to change aspects of their diet. Design: One-on-one, in-person interviews conducted in Spanish with 94 women (primarily Mexican). Setting: Federal Qualified Community Health Center's prenatal clinic. Method:…

  18. The Impact of WIC Food Package Changes on Access to Healthful Food in 2 Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Amy; McLaughlin, Jacqueline; Cannuscio, Carolyn C.; Chilton, Mariana; Krasny, Sarah; Karpyn, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of the 2009 food package changes for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on the availability of healthful food. Design: Survey of all food stores in the study area before and after the changes were implemented. Setting: Two low-income neighborhoods in Philadelphia, 1…

  19. Use of Qualitative Research to Inform Development of Nutrition Messages for Low-Income Mothers of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Alicie H.; Wilson, Judy F.; Burns, Adam; Blum-Kemelor, Donna; Singh, Anita; Race, Patricia O.; Soto, Valery; Lockett, Alice F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test nutrition messages and supporting content with low-income mothers for use with theory-based interventions addressing fruit and vegetable consumption and child-feeding practices. Design: Six formative and 6 evaluative focus groups explored message concepts and tested messages, respectively. Setting: Research…

  20. Impact of a Community-Based Intervention on Serving and Intake of Vegetables among Low-Income, Rural Appalachian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenrich, Tionni R.; Brown, J. Lynne; Wilson, Robin Taylor; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based intervention promoting the serving and eating of deep-orange, cruciferous, and dark-green leafy vegetables. Design: Randomized, parallel-group, community-based intervention with a baseline/postintervention/3-month follow-up design. Setting and Participants: Low-income food preparers (n…

  1. Are the current recommendations for the use of aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease applicable in low-income countries?

    PubMed

    Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N

    2015-01-01

    Although evidence has accumulated that long-term aspirin therapy is beneficial in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), a lot of controversies persist regarding the benefit of aspirin use in primary prevention of CVD. In low-income countries (LIC) specifically, the decision to prescribe aspirin for primary CVD prevention is more problematic, as there is a dearth of evidence in this regard. Aspirin has been shown to have relative beneficial effects in preventing a first myocardial infarction, but not stroke. However, as stroke is the prevailing CVD in many LIC, especially in Africa, the benefit of aspirin in these settings is therefore questionable. Indeed, there is no published trial that has evaluated the benefits and risks of continuous aspirin therapy in populations of LIC. Furthermore, though cardiovascular risk assessment is crucial in decision-making for the use of aspirin in primary prevention of CVD, there are no risk assessment tools that have been validated in African populations. Studies are urgently warranted, to determine the usefulness of aspirin in primary prevention of CVD in low-income settings where the drug is highly available and affordable, as CVD is becoming the leading cause of deaths in LIC. PMID:26345154

  2. Are the current recommendations for the use of aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease applicable in low-income countries?

    PubMed

    Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N

    2015-01-01

    Although evidence has accumulated that long-term aspirin therapy is beneficial in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), a lot of controversies persist regarding the benefit of aspirin use in primary prevention of CVD. In low-income countries (LIC) specifically, the decision to prescribe aspirin for primary CVD prevention is more problematic, as there is a dearth of evidence in this regard. Aspirin has been shown to have relative beneficial effects in preventing a first myocardial infarction, but not stroke. However, as stroke is the prevailing CVD in many LIC, especially in Africa, the benefit of aspirin in these settings is therefore questionable. Indeed, there is no published trial that has evaluated the benefits and risks of continuous aspirin therapy in populations of LIC. Furthermore, though cardiovascular risk assessment is crucial in decision-making for the use of aspirin in primary prevention of CVD, there are no risk assessment tools that have been validated in African populations. Studies are urgently warranted, to determine the usefulness of aspirin in primary prevention of CVD in low-income settings where the drug is highly available and affordable, as CVD is becoming the leading cause of deaths in LIC.

  3. 42 CFR 435.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 435.229... Coverage of Families and Children § 435.229 Optional targeted low-income children. The agency may provide Medicaid to— (a) All individuals under age 19 who are optional targeted low-income children as defined...

  4. 42 CFR 435.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 435.229... Children § 435.229 Optional targeted low-income children. The agency may provide Medicaid to— (a) All individuals under age 19 who are optional targeted low-income children as defined in § 435.4; or...

  5. 42 CFR 435.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 435.229... Children § 435.229 Optional targeted low-income children. The agency may provide Medicaid to— (a) All individuals under age 19 who are optional targeted low-income children as defined in § 435.4; or...

  6. 42 CFR 435.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 435.229... Coverage of Families and Children § 435.229 Optional targeted low-income children. The agency may provide Medicaid to— (a) All individuals under age 19 who are optional targeted low-income children as defined...

  7. 42 CFR 435.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 435.229... Coverage of Families and Children § 435.229 Optional targeted low-income children. The agency may provide Medicaid to— (a) All individuals under age 19 who are optional targeted low-income children as defined...

  8. 45 CFR 96.48 - Low-income home energy assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Low-income home energy assistance. 96.48 Section... Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.48 Low-income home energy assistance. (a) This section applies to direct funding of Indian tribes under the low-income home energy...

  9. 45 CFR 96.48 - Low-income home energy assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Low-income home energy assistance. 96.48 Section... Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.48 Low-income home energy assistance. (a) This section applies to direct funding of Indian tribes under the low-income home energy...

  10. 45 CFR 96.48 - Low-income home energy assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Low-income home energy assistance. 96.48 Section... Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.48 Low-income home energy assistance. (a) This section applies to direct funding of Indian tribes under the low-income home energy...

  11. 45 CFR 96.48 - Low-income home energy assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Low-income home energy assistance. 96.48 Section... Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.48 Low-income home energy assistance. (a) This section applies to direct funding of Indian tribes under the low-income home energy...

  12. 45 CFR 96.48 - Low-income home energy assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Low-income home energy assistance. 96.48 Section... Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.48 Low-income home energy assistance. (a) This section applies to direct funding of Indian tribes under the low-income home energy...

  13. 24 CFR 791.402 - Determination of low-income housing needs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of low-income housing... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.402 Determination of low-income housing needs. (a... determine the relative need for low-income housing assistance in each HUD field office jurisdiction....

  14. 24 CFR 248.111 - Appraisal and preservation value of eligible low income housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... eligible low income housing. 248.111 Section 248.111 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES PREPAYMENT OF LOW INCOME HOUSING MORTGAGES Prepayments and Plans of Action Under the Low Income Housing Preservation and Resident Homeownership Act of 1990 §...

  15. 24 CFR 791.402 - Determination of low-income housing needs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of low-income housing... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.402 Determination of low-income housing needs. (a... determine the relative need for low-income housing assistance in each HUD field office jurisdiction....

  16. Involving Low-Income Parents in the Schools: Communitycentric Strategies for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Velsor, Patricia; Orozco, Graciela L.

    2007-01-01

    Low-income parents participate less in schools than higher-income parents despite the benefits of parent involvement. Barriers that low-income parents face suggest that schools must develop a new approach to engaging these parents. School counselors can play a leadership role in strengthening the relationship between schools and low-income parents…

  17. Designing prenatal care messages for low-income Mexican women.

    PubMed Central

    Alcalay, R; Ghee, A; Scrimshaw, S

    1993-01-01

    Communication theories and research data were used to design cross-cultural health education messages. A University of California Los Angeles-Universidad Autonoma in Tijuana, Mexico, research team used the methods of ethnographic and survey research to study behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge concerning prenatal care of a sample of pregnant low-income women living in Tijuana. This audience provided information that served as a framework for a series of messages to increase awareness and change prenatal care behaviors. The message design process was guided by persuasion theories that included Petty and Caccioppo's elaboration likelihood model, McGuire's persuasion matrix, and Bandura's social learning theory. The results from the research showed that poor women in Tijuana tend to delay or not seek prenatal care. They were not aware of symptoms that could warn of pregnancy complications. Their responses also revealed pregnant women's culturally specific beliefs and behaviors regarding pregnancy. After examination of these and other results from the study, prenatal care messages about four topics were identified as the most relevant to communicate to this audience: health services use, the mother's weight gain, nutrition and anemia, and symptoms of high-risk complications during pregnancy. A poster, a calendar, a brochure, and two radio songs were produced and pretested in focus groups with low-income women in Tijuana. Each medium included one or more messages addressing informational, attitudinal, or behavioral needs, or all three, of the target population. PMID:8497574

  18. Chronic pain management strategies used by low income overweight Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Rutledge, Dana N; Cantero, Patricia J; Ruiz, Jeanette E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In group interviews, we examined strategies used to manage chronic pain from the perspective of the individual. Methods Sixteen low income overweight Latino adults participated in two group interviews facilitated by a trained moderator who inquired about the type of chronic pain suffered by participants, followed by more specific questions about pain management. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim (Spanish), back-translated into English, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Participants’ pain varied in type, location, and intensity. Participants discussed pain-related changes in activities and social life, and difficulties with health care providers, and as a result, we discovered five major themes: Pain-related Life Alterations, Enduring the Pain, Trying Different Strategies, Emotional Suffering, and Encounters with Health Care System/Providers. Discussion Findings indicated that there are opportunities for providers to improve care for low income overweight Latinos with chronic pain by listening respectfully to how pain alters their daily lives and assisting them in feasible self management strategies. PMID:23129787

  19. Research, empiricism and clinical practice in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Mohan; Chand, Prabhat; Murthy, Pratima

    2007-10-01

    Mental health problems are relevant for every country. They are particularly important for low-income countries which face a high burden of illness due to infectious disease, greater socio-economic disparities, and have limited resources for mental health care. There is a great mismatch in the areas of mental health research, practice, policy and services in comparison to developed countries. There have been a few studies that have investigated major mental health problems prevailing in these countries but missed out significant health problems. Studies have tended to be more donor driven and conducted in tertiary centres. The low priority accorded to mental health by the policy makers, scarcity of human resources, lack of culture-specific study instruments, lack of support from scientific journals have been some of the impediments to mental health research in these countries. In addition, lack of community participation and absence of sound mental health policies have deprived the vast majority of the benefit of modern psychiatric treatments. Recently, with increase in collaboration in research, availability of treatment including low-priced psychotropics, and a growing emphasis on the need for mental health policy in some low-income countries, the bleak scenario is expected to change.

  20. Satisfaction with Care among Low-Income Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hoq, Lalima; Diamant, Allison; Maly, Rose C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background: Patient satisfaction is an important outcome measure in determining quality of care. There are few data evaluating patient satisfaction in nonwhite, low-income populations. The objective of this study was to identify the structure, process, and outcome factors that impact patient satisfaction with care in a low-income population of women with breast cancer. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey of low-income women newly diagnosed with breast cancer, eligible women enrolled in the California Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Program (BCCTP) from February 2003 through September 2005 were interviewed by phone 6 months after their enrollment. This was a population-based sample of women aged ≥18 years (n = 924) with a definitive diagnosis of breast cancer and enrolled in the BCCTP. The main outcome measure was satisfaction with care received. Results: Random effects logistic regression revealed that less acculturated Latinas were more likely (odds ratio, [OR] = 5.36, p < 0.000) to be extremely satisfied with their care compared with non-Hispanic white women. Women who believed they could have been diagnosed sooner were less likely to be extremely satisfied (OR = 0.61, p < 0.000). Women who had received or were receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy had nearly twice the odds of being extremely satisfied (OR = 2.02, p < 0.000, and OR = 2.13, p < 0.000, respectively). Greater information giving was associated with greater satisfaction (OR = 1.17, p < 0.000). Women reporting greater physician emotional support were more likely to report being extremely satisfied (OR = 1.26, p < 0.000). A higher participatory treatment decision-making score was associated with greater satisfaction (OR = 1.78, p < 0.000). Conclusions: In a low-income population, satisfaction is also reported at high levels. In addition to age, ethnicity/acculturation, receipt of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, physician

  1. Increasing access to healthful foods: a qualitative study with residents of low-income communities

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Inadequate access to healthful foods has been identified as a significant barrier to healthful dietary behaviors among individuals who live in low-income communities. The purpose of this study was to gather low-income community members’ opinions about their food purchasing choices and their perceptions of the most effective ways to increase access to healthful foods in their communities. Methods Spanish and English focus groups were conducted in low-income, ethnically-diverse communities. Participants were asked about their knowledge, factors influencing their food purchasing decisions, and their perceptions regarding solutions to increase access to healthful foods. Results A total of 148 people participated in 13 focus groups. The majority of participants were female and ethnically diverse (63% Hispanic, 17% African American, 16% Caucasian, and 4% “other”). More than 75% of the participants reported making less than $1999 USD per month. Participants reported high levels of knowledge and preference for healthful foods. The most important barriers influencing healthful shopping behaviors included high price of healthful food, inadequate geographical access to healthful food, poor quality of available healthful food, and lack of overall quality of the proximate retail stores. Suggested solutions to inadequate access included placement of new chain supermarkets in their communities. Strategies implemented in convenience stores were not seen as effective. Farmers’ markets, with specific stipulations, and community gardens were regarded as beneficial supplementary solutions. Conclusion The results from the focus groups provide important input from a needs assessment perspective from the community, identify gaps in access, and offer potential effective solutions to provide direction for the future. PMID:26222910

  2. Set-based corral control in stochastic dynamical systems: Making almost invariant sets more invariant

    PubMed Central

    Forgoston, Eric; Billings, Lora; Yecko, Philip; Schwartz, Ira B.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of stochastic prediction and control in a time-dependent stochastic environment, such as the ocean, where escape from an almost invariant region occurs due to random fluctuations. We determine high-probability control-actuation sets by computing regions of uncertainty, almost invariant sets, and Lagrangian coherent structures. The combination of geometric and probabilistic methods allows us to design regions of control, which provide an increase in loitering time while minimizing the amount of control actuation. We show how the loitering time in almost invariant sets scales exponentially with respect to the control actuation, causing an exponential increase in loitering times with only small changes in actuation force. The result is that the control actuation makes almost invariant sets more invariant. PMID:21456830

  3. Health systems performance assessment in low-income countries: learning from international experiences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The study aimed at developing a set of attributes for a ‘good’ health system performance assessment (HSPA) framework from literature and experiences in different contexts and using the attributes for a structured approach to lesson learning for low-income countries (LICs). Methods Literature review to identify relevant attributes for a HSPA framework; attribute validation for LICs in general, and for Uganda in particular, via a high-level Ugandan expert group; and, finally, review of a selection of existing HSPA frameworks using these attributes. Results Literature review yielded six key attributes for a HSPA framework: an inclusive development process; its embedding in the health system’s conceptual model; its relation to the prevailing policy and organizational set-up and societal context; the presence of a concrete purpose, constitutive dimensions and indicators; an adequate institutional set-up; and, its capacity to provide mechanisms for eliciting change in the health system. The expert group contextualized these attributes and added one on the adaptability of the framework. Lessons learnt from the review of a selection of HSPA frameworks using the attributes include: it is possible and beneficial to involve a range of stakeholders during the process of development of a framework; it is important to make HSPA frameworks explicit; policy context can be effectively reflected in the framework; there are marked differences between the structure and content of frameworks in high-income countries, and low- and middle-income countries; champions can contribute to put HSPA high on the agenda; and mechanisms for eliciting change in the health system should be developed alongside the framework. Conclusion It is possible for LICs to learn from literature and the experience of HSPA in other contexts, including HICs. In this study a structured approach to lesson learning included the development of a list of attributes for a ‘good’ HSPA framework. The

  4. 26 CFR 1.42-1T - Limitation on low-income housing credit allowed with respect to qualified low-income buildings...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Limitation on low-income housing credit allowed with respect to qualified low-income buildings receiving housing credit allocations from a State or local housing credit agency (temporary). 1.42-1T Section 1.42-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME...

  5. A "contract for change" increases produce consumption in low-income women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Heneman, Karrie; Block-Joy, Amy; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri; Donohue, Susan; Garcia, Linda; Martin, Anna; Metz, Diane; Smith, Dorothy; West, Estella; Steinberg, Francene M

    2005-11-01

    This study determined whether a "Contract for Change" goal-setting exercise enhanced the effectiveness of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education/Food Stamp Nutrition Education programs to increase produce consumption in low-income (<130% of poverty) women after 4 weeks. Thirty-eight participants were randomized in this three-group parallel arm study: (a) control group participants received life-skills lessons, (b) the education group received the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education/Food Stamp Nutrition Education "Food Guide Pyramid" lessons, and (c) the contract group also received the "Food Guide Pyramid" series and completed a "Contract for Change." It was hypothesized that the contract group would have the greatest increases in advancement toward dietary change and produce consumption. Compared with controls, the contract group significantly moved toward acceptance of vegetable consumption (P < or = .05). Compared with the education group, the contract group significantly increased fruit consumption. Results suggest that nutrition professionals can effectively use goal-setting to assist low-income populations with dietary change. PMID:16256766

  6. A "contract for change" increases produce consumption in low-income women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Heneman, Karrie; Block-Joy, Amy; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri; Donohue, Susan; Garcia, Linda; Martin, Anna; Metz, Diane; Smith, Dorothy; West, Estella; Steinberg, Francene M

    2005-11-01

    This study determined whether a "Contract for Change" goal-setting exercise enhanced the effectiveness of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education/Food Stamp Nutrition Education programs to increase produce consumption in low-income (<130% of poverty) women after 4 weeks. Thirty-eight participants were randomized in this three-group parallel arm study: (a) control group participants received life-skills lessons, (b) the education group received the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education/Food Stamp Nutrition Education "Food Guide Pyramid" lessons, and (c) the contract group also received the "Food Guide Pyramid" series and completed a "Contract for Change." It was hypothesized that the contract group would have the greatest increases in advancement toward dietary change and produce consumption. Compared with controls, the contract group significantly moved toward acceptance of vegetable consumption (P < or = .05). Compared with the education group, the contract group significantly increased fruit consumption. Results suggest that nutrition professionals can effectively use goal-setting to assist low-income populations with dietary change.

  7. Health literacy and nutrition behaviors among low-income adults.

    PubMed

    Speirs, Katherine E; Messina, Lauren A; Munger, Ashley L; Grutzmacher, Stephanie K

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between health literacy and nutrition behaviors using a low-income sample. Face-to-face surveys at 11 social services offices generated a convenience sample of 154 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-eligible adults. We assessed health literacy, fruit and vegetable intake, food label use, consumption of healthy foods, and demographic characteristics. Thirty seven percent of the sample had adequate health literacy as measured by the Newest Vital Sign (NVS). Race and parenthood were significantly related to health literacy scores. Adequate health literacy, as measured by the NVS, was associated with frying chicken less often and eating the peels of fresh fruit more often. The findings suggest that health practitioners should ensure nutrition-related messages are accessible to all of their clients, especially those with the lowest health literacy levels. PMID:24212161

  8. Digital expression among urban, low-income African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baker, Christina M; Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2011-01-01

    Digital production is a means through which African American adolescents communicate and express their experiences with peers. This study examined the content and the form of the digital productions of 24 urban, low-income African American adolescents who attended a summer academic program. The content of student digital productions focused on academic experiences and friendships. Their production styles revealed that youth used perceptually salient production features, such as rapid scene changes and loud rap music. The results suggest that when placed in a supportive, academic environment and provided with digital production resources, students who traditionally face barriers due to cultural and economic inequalities digitally express to their peers an interest in academics and positive peer relationships, and that these youth communicate their experiences through a shared production style that reflects their broader cultural experiences.

  9. Digital expression among urban, low-income African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baker, Christina M; Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2011-01-01

    Digital production is a means through which African American adolescents communicate and express their experiences with peers. This study examined the content and the form of the digital productions of 24 urban, low-income African American adolescents who attended a summer academic program. The content of student digital productions focused on academic experiences and friendships. Their production styles revealed that youth used perceptually salient production features, such as rapid scene changes and loud rap music. The results suggest that when placed in a supportive, academic environment and provided with digital production resources, students who traditionally face barriers due to cultural and economic inequalities digitally express to their peers an interest in academics and positive peer relationships, and that these youth communicate their experiences through a shared production style that reflects their broader cultural experiences. PMID:21910270

  10. Nursing care of low-income battered Hispanic pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Torres, S

    1993-01-01

    Nurses working with pregnant Hispanic women can create barriers in the health care system by not understanding or accepting the variety of ways in which the Hispanic culture perceives and treats pregnancy. This article describes nursing care of low-income, battered Hispanic pregnant women within the context of the Hispanic culture and discusses clinical and nursing implications for interventions. To deliver effective culturally competent care to battered Hispanic pregnant women, nurses need to have a thorough understanding of the variables that influence the health care of Hispanics in the United States, such as the scope of wife abuse in the Hispanic population, sociodemographic characteristics of the Hispanic population in the United States, Hispanic women's access to health care, pregnancy in the Hispanic population, and health care practices of Hispanics in the United States. This will facilitate screening, education, and guidance without upsetting the often precarious security of this period.

  11. Interviews with low-income Pennsylvanians verify a need to enhance eating competence.

    PubMed

    Stotts Krall, Jodi; Lohse, Barbara

    2009-03-01

    Continuation of unhealthful dietary patterns and poor diet-related health outcomes among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations underscores the need to improve diet quality for this group. Enhancing eating competence, based on the Satter model of eating competence (ecSatter), may be one effective method to reach this goal, but requires substantiation in a low-income audience. This study utilized a qualitative approach to examine the congruence of the ecSatter model with the cognitive eating behaviors of a low-income audience. Structured interviews were conducted during summer of 2006 with 70 low-income adults in Pennsylvania. Themes about decisional factors that guide food selection, nutrition/health interests, and cognitive and affective responses to eating experiences were generated through content analysis. Thematic differences among eating competence levels and food security categories were examined. Nutrition information access preferences were also obtained. Eating competence, measured with the ecSatter Inventory, was low for this sample (mean 28.8+/-8.3). Convenience, mood, family, and availability of food at home, but not nutrition, were salient factors guiding meal and snack planning for both eating competent and noneating competent participants. Nearly equal proportions of persons with eating competence and without eating competence reported that they would make changes to their food purchases if they had more money to spend on food. Interestingly, for participants without eating competence, but not for those with eating competence, weight management played an important role in meal/snack planning, food purchases, and nutrition/health interests. ecSatter provided a tenable framework for rationalizing participants' cognitive and affective responses to eating experiences. Participants without eating competence were more likely to express negative thoughts and feelings associated with eating, regardless of food security status. The Internet, which was

  12. Early infant feeding decisions in low-income Latinas.

    PubMed

    Bunik, Maya; Clark, Lauren; Zimmer, Lorena Marquez; Jimenez, Luz M; O'Connor, Mary E; Crane, Lori A; Kempe, Allison

    2006-01-01

    Breastfeeding rates remain low, especially among low-income minority women. The objective of this qualitative study was to assess barriers to breastfeeding and reasons for combination feeding among low-income Latina women and their families. Meetings were held with key informants to inform the sampling plan and develop questions for focus groups. Data were collected from eight qualitative focus groups with primiparous mothers postpartum, mothers breastfeeding at 4 to 6 months, mothers formula feeding at 4 to 6 months, grandmothers and fathers, and 29 individual interviews with formula- and combination-feeding mothers. Transcripts of focus groups and interviews were content coded and analyzed for thematic domains and then compared for concurrence and differences. Four main domains with 15 categories were identified: (a) Best of both: Mothers desire to ensure their babies get both the healthy aspects of breast milk and "vitamins" in formula. (b) Breastfeeding can be a struggle: Breastfeeding is natural but can be painful, embarrassing, and associated with breast changes and diet restrictions. (c) Not in Mother's Control: Mothers want to breastfeed, but things happen that cause them to discontinue breastfeeding. (d) Family and cultural beliefs: Relatives give messages about supplementation for babies who are crying or not chubby. Negative emotions are to be avoided so as to not affect mother's milk. Those counseling Latina mothers about infant feeding should discourage and/or limit early supplementation with formula, discuss the myth of "best of both," understand the fatalism involved in problem-solving breastfeeding issues, and enlist the altruism embedded in the family unit for support of the mother-infant pair. PMID:17661603

  13. Medicines coverage and community-based health insurance in low-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Vialle-Valentin, Catherine E; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Ntaganira, Joseph; Wagner, Anita K

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The 2004 International Conference on Improving Use of Medicines recommended that emerging and expanding health insurances in low-income countries focus on improving access to and use of medicines. In recent years, Community-based Health Insurance (CHI) schemes have multiplied, with mounting evidence of their positive effects on financial protection and resource mobilization for healthcare in poor settings. Using literature review and qualitative interviews, this paper investigates whether and how CHI expands access to medicines in low-income countries. Methods We used three complementary data collection approaches: (1) analysis of WHO National Health Accounts (NHA) and available results from the World Health Survey (WHS); (2) review of peer-reviewed articles published since 2002 and documents posted online by national insurance programs and international organizations; (3) structured interviews of CHI managers about key issues related to medicines benefit packages in Lao PDR and Rwanda. Results In low-income countries, only two percent of WHS respondents with voluntary insurance belong to the lowest income quintile, suggesting very low CHI penetration among the poor. Yet according to the WHS, medicines are the largest reported component of out-of-pocket payments for healthcare in these countries (median 41.7%) and this proportion is inversely associated with income quintile. Publications have mentioned over a thousand CHI schemes in 19 low-income countries, usually without in-depth description of the type, extent, or adequacy of medicines coverage. Evidence from the literature is scarce about how coverage affects medicines utilization or how schemes use cost-containment tools like co-payments and formularies. On the other hand, interviews found that medicines may represent up to 80% of CHI expenditures. Conclusion This paper highlights the paucity of evidence about medicines coverage in CHI. Given the policy commitment to expand CHI in several countries

  14. A critical analysis of UK public health policies in relation to diet and nutrition in low-income households.

    PubMed

    Attree, Pamela

    2006-04-01

    Diet and nutrition, particularly among low-income groups, is a key public health concern in the UK. Low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption, and obesity, especially among children, have potentially severe consequences for the future health of the nation. From a public health perspective, the UK government's role is to help poorer families make informed choices within healthy frameworks for living. However, the question is - to what extent are such policies in accordance with lay experiences of managing diet and nutrition on a low-income? This paper critically examines contemporary public health policies aimed at improving diet and nutrition, identifying the underlying theories about the influences on healthy eating in poor families, and exploring the extent to which these assumptions are based on experiential accounts. It draws on two qualitative systematic reviews - one prioritizing low-income mothers' accounts of 'managing' in poverty; and the other focusing on children's perspectives. The paper finds some common ground between policies and lay experiences, but also key divergencies. Arguably, the emphasis of public health policy on individual behaviour, coupled with an ethos of empowered consumerism, underplays material limitations on 'healthy eating' for low-income mothers and children. Health policies fail to take into account the full impact of structural influences on food choices, or recognize the social and emotional factors that influence diet and nutrition. In conclusion, it is argued that while health promotion campaigns to improve low-income families' diets do have advantages, these are insufficient to outweigh the negative effects of poverty on nutrition.

  15. Adolescents from low-income sectors: the challenge of studying in a time of digital environments.

    PubMed

    Linne, Joaquín

    2014-10-01

    This paper is about practices and perceptions regarding the study of adolescents from low-income sectors in the City of Buenos Aires. The methodology consisted of 26 in-depth interviews with low-income adolescents and participant observations in twenty cybercafés of the South Area of the City of Buenos Aires. Among the findings, these students highlight that ICTs allow them to handle information in a more agile and entertaining way, more consistent with their daily uses. However, doing research on school content is what students do the least, since adolescents use technology mainly for communicative, social and recreational ends. These adolescents recognise some disadvantages in using ICTs to study: the unreliable information, the difficulty to distinguish which topics related to school content are more appropriate and the disruptive and continuous use of social networks. In this sense, these adolescents tend to have more problems in benefitting from ICTs for academic purposes than other adolescents. While communication and recreational skills tend to be similar, the evaluation of different sources of information and the skill to make complex searches online are usually more strongly developed in adolescents of middle and high-income households. In conclusion, we think it is necessary to take these problems into consideration in the social sciences research of the area and besides when implementing digital literacy programs. PMID:25364088

  16. Understanding low-income, minority older adult self-perceptions of HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Ward, Elijah G; Disch, William B; Schensul, Jean J; Levy, Judith A

    2011-01-01

    The number of people ages 50 or older living with HIV in the United States is increasing. Yet, few older adults see themselves at risk of infection. This study examines the heuristic reasoning that low income, minority adults, ages 50 or older use in calculating the likelihood of infection. The data are drawn from face-to-face interviews with a sample of 134 African American and Latino residents, ages 50 to 86, living in low-income housing in Chicago, Illinois, and Hartford, Connecticut. Results show that nearly half of the study's participants thought themselves to be at some level of risk for HIV. In self-assessing their risk, they relied on seven heuristic categories: self-imperilment, social imperilment, fate, incidental contact, situational safety, medical iatrogenesis, and self-protection. These findings extend our understanding of how individuals make sense of their likelihood of experiencing a major health threat and provide insight into more effective HIV prevention programming for older adults.

  17. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Treatment Burden Among Low-Income Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Linda S.; Vest, Bonnie M.; Madurai, Nethra; Singh, Ranjit; York, Trevor R.M.; Cipparone, Charlotte W.; Reilly, Sarah; Malik, Khalid S.; Fox, Chester H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study explored the self-management strategies and treatment burden experienced by low income US primary care patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 patients from two primary care practices on Buffalo’s East Side, a low-income community. Qualitative analysis was undertaken using an inductive thematic content analysis approach. We applied Normalization Process Theory (NPT) to the concept of treatment burden to interpret and categorize our findings. Results The sample was predominantly African-American (79%) and female (59%). Most patients (79%) had a diagnosis of Stage 3 CKD. Four major themes were identified corresponding to NPT and treatment burden: (1) Coherence – making sense of CKD; (2) Cognitive participation – enlisting support and organizing personal resources; (3) Collective action – self-management work; and (4) Reflexive monitoring – further refining chronic illness self-care in the context of CKD. For each component we identified barriers hindering patients’ ability to accomplish the necessary tasks. Conclusions Our findings highlight the substantial treatment burden faced by inner-city primary care patients self-managing CKD in combination with other chronic illnesses. Health care providers’ awareness of treatment burden can inform the development of person-centered care plans that can help patients to better manage their chronic illnesses. PMID:25416418

  18. Adolescents from low-income sectors: the challenge of studying in a time of digital environments

    PubMed Central

    Linne, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    This paper is about practices and perceptions regarding the study of adolescents from low-income sectors in the City of Buenos Aires. The methodology consisted of 26 in-depth interviews with low-income adolescents and participant observations in twenty cybercafés of the South Area of the City of Buenos Aires. Among the findings, these students highlight that ICTs allow them to handle information in a more agile and entertaining way, more consistent with their daily uses. However, doing research on school content is what students do the least, since adolescents use technology mainly for communicative, social and recreational ends. These adolescents recognise some disadvantages in using ICTs to study: the unreliable information, the difficulty to distinguish which topics related to school content are more appropriate and the disruptive and continuous use of social networks. In this sense, these adolescents tend to have more problems in benefitting from ICTs for academic purposes than other adolescents. While communication and recreational skills tend to be similar, the evaluation of different sources of information and the skill to make complex searches online are usually more strongly developed in adolescents of middle and high-income households. In conclusion, we think it is necessary to take these problems into consideration in the social sciences research of the area and besides when implementing digital literacy programs. PMID:25364088

  19. Adolescents from low-income sectors: the challenge of studying in a time of digital environments.

    PubMed

    Linne, Joaquín

    2014-10-01

    This paper is about practices and perceptions regarding the study of adolescents from low-income sectors in the City of Buenos Aires. The methodology consisted of 26 in-depth interviews with low-income adolescents and participant observations in twenty cybercafés of the South Area of the City of Buenos Aires. Among the findings, these students highlight that ICTs allow them to handle information in a more agile and entertaining way, more consistent with their daily uses. However, doing research on school content is what students do the least, since adolescents use technology mainly for communicative, social and recreational ends. These adolescents recognise some disadvantages in using ICTs to study: the unreliable information, the difficulty to distinguish which topics related to school content are more appropriate and the disruptive and continuous use of social networks. In this sense, these adolescents tend to have more problems in benefitting from ICTs for academic purposes than other adolescents. While communication and recreational skills tend to be similar, the evaluation of different sources of information and the skill to make complex searches online are usually more strongly developed in adolescents of middle and high-income households. In conclusion, we think it is necessary to take these problems into consideration in the social sciences research of the area and besides when implementing digital literacy programs.

  20. Effects of Social Injustice on Breast Health–Seeking Behaviors of Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Shelly-Ann; Williams, Edith M.; Stoneberg-Cooper, Chayah M.; Glover, Saundra H.; Williams, Michelle S.; Byrd, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The study uses qualitative research to gain a better understanding of what occurs after low-income women receive an abnormal breast screening and the factors that influence their decisions and behavior. A heuristic model is presented for understanding this complexity. Design Qualitative research methods used to elicited social and cultural themes related to breast cancer screening follow-up. Setting Individual telephone interviews were conducted with 16 women with confirmed breast anomaly. Participants Low-income women screened through a national breast cancer early detection program. Method Grounded theory using selective coding was employed to elicit factors that influenced the understanding and follow-up of an abnormal breast screening result. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and uploaded into NVivo 8, a qualitative management and analysis software package. Results For women (16, or 72% of case management referrals) below 250% of the poverty level, the impact of social and economic inequities creates a psychosocial context underlined by structural and cultural barriers to treatment that forecasts the mechanism that generates differences in health outcomes. The absence of insurance due to underemployment and unemployment and inadequate public infrastructure intensified emotional stress impacting participants’ health decisions. Conclusion The findings that emerged offer explanations of how consistent patterns of social injustice impact treatment decisions in a high-risk vulnerable population that have implications for health promotion research and systems-level program improvement and development. PMID:23448411

  1. The development of health knowledge in low-income Mexican-American children.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Ezzell, N; Power, T G; Cousins, J H; Guerra, A M; Trujillo, M

    1994-04-01

    Children growing up in poverty are at risk for various health problems. For low-income, Mexican-American children, these risks include obesity, diabetes, and accidental injuries, 3 conditions that can largely be prevented by healthy life-styles. Despite the potential for prevention through education leading to health-promoting behaviors, very little is known about the development of health knowledge in this population. The present study examined low-income, Mexican-American children's understanding of the relation between health behavior and health status in 3 areas: nutrition, hygiene, and safety. 79 children (41 boys, 38 girls) ages 4 to 8 years participated. Children's knowledge was assessed in a structured play situation conducted in a laboratory setting. Results revealed that children knew the least about the relation between food consumption and their health, and knew the most about beneficial and harmful practices in the areas of safety and hygiene. Age and gender differences were also significant, with girls and older children more likely to provide elaborate and complex rationales for their responses. Implications of the findings for understanding the role of cognitive development and experience in the development of health knowledge are considered.

  2. The Effects of Expanding Public Insurance to Rural Low-Income Childless Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Marguerite E; Dague, Laura; DeLeire, Thomas; Dorsch, Mary; Friedsam, Donna; Leininger, Lindsey Jeanne; Palmucci, Gaston; Schmelzer, John; Voskuil, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study measures the change in health care use after enrollment into a new public insurance program for low-income childless adults. Data Sources/Study Setting The data sources include claims from a large integrated health system in rural Wisconsin and Medicaid enrollment files, January 2007–September 2012. Study Design We employ a regression discontinuity design to measure the causal effect of public insurance enrollment on counts of outpatient, emergency department, and inpatient events for 2 years following enrollment for a sample of previously uninsured low-income adults in rural Wisconsin. Principal Findings Public insurance enrollment led to substantial increases in outpatient visits including preventive visits, but not mental health visits. Public insurance enrollment also led to increases in inpatient stays, but the study is inconclusive on whether it led to an increase in ED visits. Conclusions Public insurance expansions to childless adults have the potential to impact the use of health care. The large increase in Medicaid coverage and reduction in rates of uninsurance anticipated to result from the Affordable Care Act should increase the use of inpatient and outpatient services, but they will have an uncertain impact on the use of ED among rural populations. PMID:25262774

  3. Patterns of Violence Exposure and Sexual Risk in Low-Income, Urban African American Girls

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Helen W.; Woods, Briana A.; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the relationship between violence exposure and sexual risk-taking among low-income, urban African American (AA) adolescent girls, considering overlap among different types and characteristics of violence. Methods AA adolescent girls were originally recruited from outpatient mental health clinics serving urban, mostly low-SES communities in Chicago, IL as part of a two-year longitudinal investigation of HIV-risk behavior. A subsequent follow-up was completed to assess lifetime history of trauma and violence exposure. The current study (N=177) included violence exposure and sexual risk behavior reported at the most recent interview (ages 14-22). Multiple regression was used to examine combined and unique contributions of different types, ages, settings, and perpetrators or victims of violence to variance in sexual risk. Results More extensive violence exposure and cumulative exposure to different kinds of violence were associated with overall unsafe sex, more partners, and inconsistent condom use. The most significant unique predictors, accounting for overlap among different forms of violence, were physical victimization, adolescent exposure, neighborhood violence, and violence involving dating partners. Conclusions These findings put sexual risk in the context of broad traumatic experiences but also suggest that the type and characteristics of violence exposure matter in terms of sexual health outcomes. Violence exposure should be addressed in efforts to reduce STIs among low-income, urban African American girls. PMID:24563808

  4. What determines satisfaction with surgeon treatment in low income women with breast cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Thind, Amardeep; Diamant, Allison; Liu, Yihang; Maly, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship of overall patient satisfaction with the treatment provided by the surgeon and the consultation process and skills, in low income women undergoing surgical treatment for breast cancer. Design Cross sectional survey. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between satisfaction with surgeon treatment and four consultation skills and processes (time spent, listens carefully, explains things in a way you could understand, and shows respect for what you had to say), controlling for a range of patient, surgeon, and treatment characteristics. Setting & Patients A statewide sample of 789 low income women in California receiving treatment for breast cancer under the state’s Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Program (BCCTP). Main outcome measures Satisfaction with surgeon treatment. Results Three out of every four women reported being extremely satisfied with the treatment they received from their surgeon. African-American women and those with arm swelling were less likely to be satisfied, while those reporting that the surgeon always spent enough time and explained things in a way they could understand were more likely to report greater satisfaction. Conclusions Our findings highlight the importance of two relatively simple behaviors that surgeons can easily implement to increase patient satisfaction, which can be of potential benefit in today’s litigious world. PMID:19917945

  5. [Experience with treatment of high blood pressure in low-income families].

    PubMed

    Trad, Leny Alves Bonfim; Tavares, Jeane Saskya Campos; Soares, Carla Silva; Ripardo, Rachel Coelho

    2010-04-01

    In order to properly understand high blood pressure (HBP), or arterial hypertension, it is important to examine the influence of knowledge and beliefs associated with the condition, as well as the resources available for its treatment. This study analyzes the treatment experiences of three low-income extended families that include members with HBP. The study investigated the various alternatives that were adopted, determinants of choices, evaluation of the services used, and the impact of interaction with health services on care in the home. An ethnographic study was performed in a low-income neighborhood in Salvador, Bahia State, using direct observation and semi-structured interviews with key informants in home and institutional settings. The study found that the treatment experiences of the participating families did not follow a rigid pattern, but were influenced by prior experiences with hypertension and other diseases, available social support, and conditions in the formal health care system available in the neighborhood. The study also detected a grasp and adaptation of technical health knowledge by families.

  6. Introduction of farm stands in low-income communities increases fruit and vegetable among community residents.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alexandra E; Jennings, Rose; Smiley, Andrew W; Medina, Jose L; Sharma, Shreela V; Rutledge, Ronda; Stigler, Melissa H; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal pilot study was to measure the impact of introducing farm stands in low-income communities with limited access to fresh and quality fruits and vegetables (F&V) on residents' F&V consumption. Two farm stands were placed outside two local community sites one day a week for 12 weeks. A variety of locally grown, culturally appropriate produce was sold at the stands. Data on F&V intake, awareness and usage of farmers' markets, family behaviors, and importance of eating F&V were collected from individuals (n=61) before and after farm stands were placed in the two communities. Paired sample t-tests, chi-square and McNemar tests were used to evaluate the impact of the intervention on the outcome variables. Significance level was set at p<.05. Significant increases were found for participants' consumption of fruit, fruit juice, tomatoes, green salad, and other vegetables (P<.05). Additionally, participants also reported increases in mediating variables of F&V consumption. This study underscores the potential of farmers' markets to increase F&V consumption through increasing F&V access in low-income communities.

  7. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Management. Module III-F-3: Marketing Practices in Relation to Low Income Clientele.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Fresno. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on marketing practices in relation to low income clientele is the third in a set of three modules on management in economically depressed areas (EDAs). (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking…

  8. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Housing. Module III-B-1: Low-Income Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennings, Patricia

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on low income housing is the first in a set of three modules on housing in economically depressed areas. (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education [MATCHE]--see CE 019 901-967.) Following…

  9. Federal child care funding for low-income families: how much is needed?

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Jane

    2002-07-22

    Setting a dollar amount for government spending on child care is a major issue in reauthorizing the 1996 welfare reform law. Two key components in pending Congressional proposals involve the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families block grant and the Child Care and Development Fund, which together provide the bulk of government child care funding for low income working families, whether or not these families are directly involved in the welfare system. The choices for Congress involved in setting an appropriate child care funding level are complex and fraught with questions about quality and cost tradeoffs. This issue brief provides background on current child care use, arrangements, and cost, as well as research findings on the measurement of quality in child care programs.

  10. Knowledge translation: a case study on pneumonia research and clinical guidelines in a low- income country

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The process and effectiveness of knowledge translation (KT) interventions targeting policymakers are rarely reported. In Cambodia, a low-income country (LIC), an intervention aiming to provide evidence-based knowledge on pneumonia to health authorities was developed to help update pediatric and adult national clinical guidelines. Through a case study, we assessed the effectiveness of this KT intervention, with the goal of identifying the barriers to KT and suggest strategies to facilitate KT in similar settings. Methods An extensive search for all relevant sources of data documenting the processes of updating adult and pediatric pneumonia guidelines was done. Documents included among others, reports, meeting minutes, and email correspondences. The study was conducted in successive phases: an appraisal of the content of both adult and pediatric pneumonia guidelines; an appraisal of the quality of guidelines by independent experts, using the AGREE-II instrument; a description and modeling of the KT process within the guidelines updating system, using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) tools 2.2; and the listing of the barriers and facilitators to KT we identified during the study. Results The first appraisal showed that the integration of the KT key messages in pediatric and adult guidelines varied with a better efficiency in the pediatric guidelines. The overall AGREE-II quality assessments scored 37% and 44% for adult and pediatric guidelines, respectively. Scores were lowest for the domains of ‘rigor of development’ and ‘editorial independence.’ The UML analysis highlighted that time frames and constraints of the involved stakeholders greatly differed and that there were several missed opportunities to translate on evidence into the adult pneumonia guideline. Seventeen facilitating factors and 18 potential barriers to KT were identified. Main barriers were related to the absence of a clear mandate from the Ministry of Health for the researchers

  11. Priced out: How the Wrong Financial-Aid Policies Hurt Low-Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mamie; Engle, Jennifer; Cruz, Jose L.

    2011-01-01

    This report demonstrates how much low-income students must stretch to pay for college, even after grant aid is taken into account. This report finds that just five of the nation's nearly 1,200 four-year colleges and universities have student bodies that are at least 30 percent low-income and offer low-income students a reasonable chance at a…

  12. Pesticide sales in low-income, minority neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Elizabeth J; Moats, Harmon L; Feinberg, Marian; Shepard, Peggy; Garfinkel, Robin; Whyatt, Robin; Evans, David

    2004-06-01

    The US EPA has phased-out residential use of two organophosphate pesticides commonly used to control cockroaches-retail sales of chlorpyrifos were scheduled to end on 12/31/01, and diazinon on 12/31/02. In light of recent findings highlighting the associations between pests, pesticides and health, we surveyed stores in low-income, minority neighborhoods in New York City to determine whether the phase-outs have been effective and to assess the availability of alternatives to spray pesticides. In summer 2002, when sales of chlorpyrifos were illegal and diazinon still legal, we surveyed 106 stores selling pesticides. Four percent sold products containing chlorpyrifos and 40 percent sold products containing diazinon. One year later, when sales of both pesticides were to have ended, we surveyed 109 stores selling pesticides in the same neighborhoods and found chlorpyrifos in only one store and diazinon in 18 percent of stores, including 80 percent of supermarkets surveyed. At least one form of lower toxicity pesticides, including gels, bait stations and boric acid was available in 69 percent of stores in 2002. However sprays were most widely available, found in 94 percent of stores in 2002 and less expensive than lower toxicity baits and gels. In a separate survey of storekeeper recommendations conducted in 2002, storekeepers recommended lower toxicity pesticides as the best way to control cockroaches 79% of the time. The EPA's phase-outs have nearly eliminated sales of chlorpyrifos, but the diazinon phase-out appears to be less effective.

  13. Homes of low-income minority families with asthmatic children have increased condition issues

    PubMed Central

    Ciaccio, Christina E.; Nazir, Niaman; Daley, Christine M.; DiDonna, Anita; Choi, Won S.; Barnes, Charles S.; Rosenwasser, Lanny J.

    2014-01-01

    The home is increasingly associated with asthma. It acts both as a reservoir of asthma triggers and as a refuge from seasonal outdoor allergen exposure. Racial/ethnic minority families with low incomes tend to reside in neighborhoods with low housing quality. These families also have higher rates of asthma. This study explores the hypothesis that black and Latino urban households with asthmatic children experienced more home mechanical, structural condition–related areas of concern than white households with asthmatic children. Participant families (n = 140) took part in the Kansas City Safe and Healthy Homes Program, had at least one asthmatic child, and met income qualifications of no more than 80% of local median income; many were below 50%. Families self-identified their race. Homes were assessed by environmental health professionals using a standard set of criteria and a specific set of on-site and laboratory sampling and analyses. Homes were given a score for areas of concern between 0 (best) and 53 (worst). The study population self-identified as black (46%), non-Latino white (26%), Latino (14.3%), and other (12.9%). Mean number of areas of concern were 18.7 in Latino homes, 17.8 in black homes, 13.3 in other homes, and 13.2 in white homes. Latino and black homes had significantly more areas of concern. White families were also more likely to be in the upper portion of the income. In this set of 140 low-income homes with an asthmatic child, households of minority individuals had more areas of condition concerns and generally lower income than other families. PMID:25584914

  14. Homes of low-income minority families with asthmatic children have increased condition issues.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Christina M; Ciaccio, Christina E; Nazir, Niaman; Daley, Christine M; DiDonna, Anita; Choi, Won S; Barnes, Charles S; Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2014-01-01

    The home is increasingly associated with asthma. It acts both as a reservoir of asthma triggers and as a refuge from seasonal outdoor allergen exposure. Racial/ethnic minority families with low incomes tend to reside in neighborhoods with low housing quality. These families also have higher rates of asthma. This study explores the hypothesis that black and Latino urban households with asthmatic children experienced more home mechanical, structural condition-related areas of concern than white households with asthmatic children. Participant families (n = 140) took part in the Kansas City Safe and Healthy Homes Program, had at least one asthmatic child, and met income qualifications of no more than 80% of local median income; many were below 50%. Families self-identified their race. Homes were assessed by environmental health professionals using a standard set of criteria and a specific set of on-site and laboratory sampling and analyses. Homes were given a score for areas of concern between 0 (best) and 53 (worst). The study population self-identified as black (46%), non-Latino white (26%), Latino (14.3%), and other (12.9%). Mean number of areas of concern were 18.7 in Latino homes, 17.8 in black homes, 13.3 in other homes, and 13.2 in white homes. Latino and black homes had significantly more areas of concern. White families were also more likely to be in the upper portion of the income. In this set of 140 low-income homes with an asthmatic child, households of minority individuals had more areas of condition concerns and generally lower income than other families. PMID:25584914

  15. Goal Setting and Decision Making by At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galotti, Kathleen M.; Kozberg, Steven F.; Gustafon, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Typically, adolescence is a time when individuals begin to make consequential, life-framing decisions. However, much of the decision-making literature focuses on high-risk decisions, such as the use of drugs and alcohol, while much less is known about how adolescents make positive decisions, for example, regarding their educational or career…

  16. Measuring self-reported health in low-income countries: piloting three instruments in semi-rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Yulia; Souares, Aurélia; Niamba, Louis; Sie, Ali; Weinehall, Lars; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Background National surveys in low-income countries increasingly rely on self-reported measures of health. The ease, speed, and economy of collecting self-reports of health make such collection attractive for rapid appraisals. However, the interpretation of these measures is complicated since different cultures understand and respond to the same question in different ways. Objective The aim of this pilot study was to develop a culturally sensitive tool to study the self-reported health (SRH) of the local adult population in Burkina Faso. Design The study was carried out in the 2009 rainy season. The sample included 27 men and 25 women aged 18 or older who live in semi-urban Nouna, Burkina Faso. Three culturally adapted instruments were tested: a SRH question, a wooden visual analogue scale (VAS), and a drawn VAS. Respondents were asked to explain their answers to each instrument. The narratives were analyzed with the content analysis technique, and the prevalence of poor SRH was estimated from the quantitative data by stratification for respondent background variables (sex, age, literacy, education, marital status, ethnicity, chronic diseases). The correlation between the instruments was tested with Spearman’s correlation test. Results The SRH question showed a 38.5% prevalence of poor SRH and 44.2% prevalence with both VAS. The correlation between the VAS was 0.89, whereas the correlation between the VAS and the SRH question was 0.60–0.64. Nevertheless, the question used as the basis of each instrument was culturally sensitive and clear to all respondents. Analysis of the narratives shows that respondents clearly differentiated between the various health statuses. Conclusion In this pilot, we developed and tested a new version of the SRH question that may be more culturally sensitive than its non-adapted equivalents. Additional insight into this population’s understanding and reporting of health was also obtained. A larger sample is needed to further study

  17. Retaining Low-Income Minority Cancer Patients in a Depression Treatment Intervention Trial: Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Wells, Anjanette A; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Williams, Sha-Lai L; Ell, Kathleen

    2015-08-01

    Previously published work finds significant benefit from medical and behavioral health team care among safety-net patients with major depression. This qualitative study assessed clinical social worker, psychiatrist and patient navigator strategies to increase depression treatment among low-income minority cancer patients participating in the ADAPt-C clinical depression trial. Patient care retention strategies were elicited through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with nine behavioral health providers. Using grounded theory, concepts from the literature and dropout barriers identified by patients, guided interview prompts. Retention strategies clustered around five dropout barriers: (1) informational, (2) instrumental, (3) provider-patient therapeutic alliance, (4) clinic setting, and (5) depression treatment. All strategies emphasized the importance of communication between providers and patients. Findings suggest that strong therapeutic alliance and telephone facilitates collaborative team provider communication and depression treatment retention among patients in safety-net oncology care systems.

  18. Low-income cancer patients in depression treatment: dropouts and completers.

    PubMed

    Wells, Anjanette A; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Shon, En-Jung; Ell, Kathleen

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to explore reasons for depression treatment dropout among low-income, minority women with depression and cancer. Semi-structured telephone interviews are conducted with 20, predominately Latina, patients who dropped out of depression treatment and 10 who completed. Transcripts analyzed using techniques rooted in grounded theory. Treatment completion barriers cluster according to Meichenbaum and Turk's (Facilitating treatment adherence: A practitioner's guidebook, Plenum Press, New York, 1987) five adherence dimensions: (a) Barriers to Treatment (informational, instrumental, cultural [language, discrimination]); (b) Disease Features (emotional burden of cancer/depression); (c) Cancer/Depression Treatment Regimens; (d) Provider-Patient Relationship (depression treatment dissatisfaction); and (e) Clinical Setting (hospital organizational issues). Although both groups describe multiple overlapping dimensions of barriers, completers seem more motivated and satisfied with treatment, possibly due to completers experiencing the positive treatment effects after the first several sessions. More research should be conducted to determine the most effective clinical treatment methods for this population. PMID:23868016

  19. Family orientation, language, and anxiety among low-income Latino youth.

    PubMed

    Martinez, William; Polo, Antonio J; Carter, Jocelyn Smith

    2012-05-01

    There is emerging evidence that Latino youth report higher levels of anxiety symptoms than children from other ethnic groups. Although often implicated, cultural variables have not been systematically evaluated to determine their relationship to anxiety symptoms in Latino youth. The present study examined family orientation values, as measured by family obligation and affiliative obedience, and their relationship to youth anxiety symptoms. The sample consisted of 133 Latino students (grades 5th through 7th) of low-income backgrounds in an urban public school setting. Structural equation models revealed that higher family orientation was associated with separation anxiety/panic (β=.32) and harm avoidance (β=.51). Models employing language proficiency and use mirrored those employing family orientation, suggesting that language fluency captures, in part, family socialization values. The results provide support for the impact of culture in the assessment and specific needs of Latino youth with anxiety problems.

  20. Design Considerations for Patient Portal Adoption by Low-Income, Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Latulipe, Celine; Gatto, Amy; Nguyen, Ha T.; Miller, David P.; Quandt, Sara A.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Smith, Alden; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an interview study investigating facilitators and barriers to adoption of patient portals among low-income, older adults in rural and urban populations in the southeastern United States. We describe attitudes of this population of older adults and their current level of technology use and patient portal use. From qualitative analysis of 36 patient interviews and 16 caregiver interviews within these communities, we derive themes related to benefits of portals, barriers to use, concerns and desired features. Based on our initial findings, we present a set of considerations for designing the patient portal user experience, aimed at helping healthcare clinics to meet U.S. federally-mandated ‘meaningful use’ requirements. PMID:27077140

  1. Home Safety and Low-Income Urban Housing Quality

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Wendy; McDonald, Eileen; Frattaroli, Shannon; Bishai, David; Ma, Xia

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Living in substandard housing may be one factor that increases the risk of fire and burn injuries in low-income urban environments. The purposes of this study are to (1) describe the frequency and characteristics of substandard housing in urban homes with young children and (2) explore the hypothesis that better housing quality is associated with a greater likelihood of having working smoke alarms and safe hot water temperatures. METHODS: A total 246 caregivers of children ages 0 to 7 years were recruited from a pediatric emergency department and a well-child clinic. In-home observations were completed by using 46 items from the Housing and Urban Development’s Housing Quality Standards. RESULTS: Virtually all homes (99%) failed the housing quality measure. Items with the highest failure rates were those related to heating and cooling; walls, ceilings, and floors; and sanitation and safety domains. One working smoke alarm was observed in 82% of the homes, 42% had 1 on every level, and 62% had safe hot water temperatures. For every increase of 1 item in the number of housing quality items passed, the odds of having any working smoke alarm increased by 10%, the odds of having 1 on every level by 18%, and the odds of having safe hot water temperatures by 8%. CONCLUSIONS: Many children may be at heightened risk for fire and scald burns by virtue of their home environment. Stronger collaboration between housing, health care, and injury prevention professionals is urgently needed to maximize opportunities to improve home safety. PMID:23147973

  2. Sustainable sanitation systems for low income urban areas - A case of the city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinyama, A.; Chipato, P. T.; Mangore, E.

    Lack of basic sanitation systems threaten environmental and human health in low income urban communities. In 2005, the Government of Zimbabwe carried out a cleanup exercise in urban areas involving the destruction of illegal structures which left many people homeless. As a solution to this problem, the government embarked on an extensive housing construction exercise on unserviced land; the ‘Garikai/Hlalani Kuhle’ development programme. The objective of this paper was to investigate the sanitation status in one such area (Cowdray Park Extension, Bulawayo) and determine a sustainable sanitation system for the improved collection of wastewater from the unserviced low income urban area. The study was carried out between October 2010 and February 2011. The sanitation status as well as the residents’ preferences for improved sanitation and the economic set up of the community for the study area was determined through use of questionnaires to the residents. The local authority was then consulted to recommend sanitation facilities and system for the area that met regulatory requirements. A literature study identified sanitation options that were applicable to low income and high density urban areas. The baseline survey found that 61% of the people in the study area lacked sanitation facilities and practiced open defecation. The majority of the residents (70%) preferred ‘flush and discharge’ system sanitation facilities, which was in line with the local council’s requirements. On-site sanitation options were found not to be feasible as per the council regulations and the findings of the literature study, for areas with a high density of houses. Therefore a sewerage system was designed using the conventional sewerage design approach as well as the simplified sewerage design approach in order to determine the collection system that would best meet the needs of the community. In conclusion, the community was in dire need of a sanitation system and a waterborne

  3. Predicting Mortality in Low-Income Country ICUs: The Rwanda Mortality Probability Model (R-MPM)

    PubMed Central

    Kiviri, Willy; Fowler, Robert A.; Mueller, Ariel; Novack, Victor; Banner-Goodspeed, Valerie M.; Weinkauf, Julia L.; Talmor, Daniel S.; Twagirumugabe, Theogene

    2016-01-01

    -MPM is an alternative risk prediction model with fewer variables and better predictive power. If validated in other critically ill patients in a broad range of settings, the model has the potential to improve the reliability of comparisons used for critical care research and quality improvement initiatives in low-income countries. PMID:27196252

  4. Access to dental care for low-income adults: perceptions of affordability, availability and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Bruce B; Macentee, Michael I

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to explore access to dental care for low-income communities from the perspectives of low-income people, dentists and related health and social service-providers. The case study included 60 interviews involving, low-income adults (N = 41), dentists (N = 6) and health and social service-providers (N = 13). The analysis explores perceptions of need, evidence of unmet needs, and three dimensions of access--affordability, availability and acceptability. The study describes the sometimes poor fit between private dental practice and the public oral health needs of low-income individuals. Dentists and low-income patients alike explained how the current model of private dental practice and fee-for-service payments do not work well because of patients' concerns about the cost of dentistry, dentists' reluctance to treat this population, and the cultural incompatibility of most private practices to the needs of low-income communities. There is a poor fit between private practice dentistry, public dental benefits and the oral health needs of low-income communities, and other responses are needed to address the multiple dimensions of access to dentistry, including community dental clinics sensitive to the special needs of low-income people. PMID:21590434

  5. The Voice of Low-Income Adolescent Mothers on Infant Feeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horodynski, Mildred A.; Mills, Kristen J.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent mothers' feeding practices impact infant weight gain. Infant obesity, especially in low-income families, is rapidly increasing. The aim of the exploratory study reported here was to identify factors affecting low-income African American and non-Hispanic White adolescent mothers' infant feeding practices and useful learning…

  6. Effects of Tuition Price, Grant Aid, and Institutional Revenue on Low-Income Student Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassila, Nathan E.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence of greater economic stratification brings challenges to higher education's enrollment of low-income students. With a growing proportion of potential college students coming from low-income households, increasing their post-secondary participation rate is vital in developing and growing the pool of educated individuals for the labor force…

  7. Interpersonal Identity and Social Capital: The Importance of Commitment for Low Income, Rural, African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Jennifer; White, Lloyd

    2006-01-01

    Social capital may be particularly important for the well-being and future opportunities of African American adolescents living in low income families. In this study, linkages between interpersonal identity formation and adolescents' perceptions of social capital quality were examined in a cross-sectional study of 374 low income, rural, African…

  8. Arts Enrichment and Preschool Emotions for Low-Income Children at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Sax, Kacey L.

    2013-01-01

    No studies to date examine the impact of arts-integrated preschool programming on the emotional functioning of low-income children at risk for school problems. The present study examines observed emotion expression and teacher-rated emotion regulation for low-income children attending Settlement Music School's Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts…

  9. Differential Calculation Abilities in Young Children from Middle- and Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Nancy. C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined the performance of kindergartners from middle- and low-income families on arithmetic calculations presented in a nonverbal format and in three verbal formats. Children from middle-income families performed better than those from low-income families on verbal calculation tasks but not on the nonverbal task. (BC)

  10. 13 CFR 108.710 - Requirement to finance Low-Income Enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Financing of Small Businesses by NMVC Companies Determining the... of your Portfolio Concerns must be Low-Income Enterprises in which you have an Equity Capital... total dollars) in Equity Capital Investments in Low-Income Enterprises. (b) Non-compliance with...

  11. Low-Income African American Youth. Vulnerable Youth and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehn, Daniel; McDaniel, Marla

    2009-01-01

    The transition to adulthood could present challenges for African American youth from low-income families. This fact sheet uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to explore racial differences in adolescent risk behavior, education, employment, and earnings among low income youth age 18 to 24. Differences discussed herein are…

  12. Increasing Work Opportunities for Low-Income Workers through TANF and Economic Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Pamela

    2002-01-01

    The numerous layoffs of low-income workers that occurred when the nation's economy slowed in 2001 have created numerous challenges for local Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) programs. By increasing collaboration between community economic development and workforce development efforts to serve low-income residents, states and…

  13. EITC Participation and Association with Financial Distress among Rural Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudmunson, Clinton G.; Son, Seohee; Lee, Jaerim; Bauer, Jean W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) participation among rural, low-income families, by income level, and investigated whether nonparticipation corresponds with increased financial distress. Rates of EITC participation among 314 rural low-income mothers were lower than national averages, especially among the lowest earners. There…

  14. Child Care for Low-Income Children with Disabilities: Access, Quality, and Parental Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Shavaun; Kisker, Ellen E.; Peterson, Carla A.; Carta, Judith J.; Jeon, Hyun-Joo

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project, this study analyzed the similarities and differences of variables associated with child care services for low-income families with young children with disabilities and low-income families with typically developing children. Four major variables were analyzed: access to child…

  15. Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge from Age 4 to 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R.; Hofer, Kerry G.; Farran, Dale C.

    2016-01-01

    Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An Early Math Trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from age 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math…

  16. 13 CFR 108.710 - Requirement to finance Low-Income Enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirement to finance Low-Income Enterprises. 108.710 Section 108.710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS... Eligibility of A Small Business for Nmvc Financing § 108.710 Requirement to finance Low-Income Enterprises....

  17. A New Majority: Low Income Students Now a Majority in the Nation's Public Schools. Research Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Education Foundation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For the first time in recent history, a majority of the schoolchildren attending the nation's public schools come from low income families. The latest data collected from the states by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), evidence that 51 percent of the students across the nation's public schools were low income in 2013. The…

  18. Promising Practices Supporting Low-Income, First-Generation Students at DeVry University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Abby; Taylor Smith, Chandra; Nichols, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers a comprehensive description of the academic and social support systems for low-income, first-generation students attending a major four-year, for-profit, multi-campus university. College retention and success research has determined that effective support services succeed in retaining and graduating low-income, first-generation…

  19. Child Disinhibition, Parent Restriction, and Child Body Mass Index in Low-Income Preschool Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Martha A.; Radnitz, Cynthia L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine both unique and interactive effects of parent restrictive feeding and child disinhibited eating behavior on child body mass index (BMI) in low-income Latino and African American preschoolers. Methods: The sample included 229 parent-child pairs, the majority of whom were low-income and Latino (57%) or African American (25%).…

  20. Borrowing and Working of Low-Income Students: The Impact of a Summer Transition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Rosa, Mari Luna

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on how low-income students determine employment and student loan borrowing options before they begin college, as part of the final stages of their college choice process. More specifically, this study asks, "during a six-week summer transition program, what choices are made by low-income students with employment or borrowing…

  1. 42 CFR 436.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 436.229... Options for Coverage as Categorically Needy Options for Coverage of Families and Children and Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals, Including Pregnant Women § 436.229 Optional targeted low-income...

  2. 42 CFR 436.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 436.229... Options for Coverage as Categorically Needy Options for Coverage of Families and Children and Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals, Including Pregnant Women § 436.229 Optional targeted low-income...

  3. 42 CFR 436.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 436.229... Options for Coverage as Categorically Needy Options for Coverage of Families and Children and Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals, Including Pregnant Women § 436.229 Optional targeted low-income...

  4. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 18 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Being a child in a low-income or poor family does not happen by chance. Parental education and…

  5. 42 CFR 436.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 436.229... Options for Coverage as Categorically Needy Options for Coverage of Families and Children and Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals, Including Pregnant Women § 436.229 Optional targeted low-income...

  6. 42 CFR 436.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 436.229... Options for Coverage as Categorically Needy Options for Coverage of Families and Children and Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals, Including Pregnant Women § 436.229 Optional targeted low-income...

  7. LOW INCOME FAMILY, TRAINING NEEDS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION EXTENSION AGENTS, HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION, EDUCATION 685.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANN, OPAL H.

    A STUDY WAS MADE OF THE NEED FOR EXTENSION WORK WITH LOW INCOME FAMILIES IN EASTERN KENTUCKY (APPALACHIA) AND OF THE PROBLEMS AND TRAINING NEEDS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION EXTENSION AGENTS WHO WORK WITH THESE FAMILIES. THE AGENTS FELT THEY HAD A RESPONSIBILITY TO HELP LOW INCOME FAMILIES IN BUDGETING TIME, EFFORT, AND RESOURCES TO MEET MINIMUM…

  8. Utilization of Selected Vitality Staple Foods by Low Income Households in Ebonyi State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igba, Chimezie Elizabeth; Okoro, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on the utilization of selected vitality foods among low income household in Ebonyi State. Specifically the study aimed at identifying vitality foods that are available, accessible and utilized by low income household in state. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study is 2,173,501 households…

  9. Do No-Loan Policies Change the Matriculation Patterns of Low-Income Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Glen R.; Singell, Larry D., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether there is discernable variation in the matriculation patterns of low-income students at public flagship institutions around changes in institutional financial-aid policies that target resident, low-income students with need-based aid. Overall, our results suggests that need is not being met on the extensive margin and that…

  10. How Do You Rate? Teaching Low-Income Consumers the Appropriate Uses of Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurtz, Mary Ann; LeFlore, Ann Becker

    This module, one of six on teaching consumer matters to low-income groups, focuses on the appropriate uses of credit. It provides basic information about credit, particularly as it applies to low-income people, and offers some techniques which help the instructor present the information to these clients. Topics include a definition of credit, why…

  11. A Money Planner. Teaching Budgeting Skills to Low-Income Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurtz, Mary Ann; LeFlore, Ann Becker

    This module, one of six on teaching consumer matters to low-income groups, focuses on budgeting and managing money. Budgeting is examined in two contexts: skills which apply to everyone at every income level and skills which specifically apply to low-income people. Topics include how to write a budget (starting a group workshop, small group work,…

  12. Increasing Support for Novice Teachers Working in Urban, Low-Income Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Thor I.

    2010-01-01

    Teacher attrition is a growing problem in the United States, especially in urban, low-income schools. Research indicates that up to 55% of new teachers working in urban, low-income schools quit within five years; 17% before the end of the first year. Unfortunately, a teacher's potential is not fully known until the teacher's fifth or sixth year of…

  13. Promoting Fathers' Engagement with Children: Preventive Interventions for Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Philip A.; Cowan, Carolyn Pape; Pruett, Marsha Kline; Pruett, Kyle; Wong, Jessie J.

    2009-01-01

    Few programs to enhance fathers' engagement with children have been systematically evaluated, especially for low-income minority populations. In this study, 289 couples from primarily low-income Mexican American and European American families were randomly assigned to one of three conditions and followed for 18 months: 16-week groups for fathers,…

  14. Feeding practices of low-income mothers: How do they compare to current recommendations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite a growing consensus on the feeding practices associated with healthy eating patterns, few observational studies of maternal feeding practices with young children have been conducted, especially in low-income populations. The aim of this study was to provide such data on a low income sample t...

  15. Critical Components of a Summer Enrichment Program for Urban Low-Income Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaul, Corina R.; Johnsen, Susan K.; Witte, Mary M.; Saxon, Terrill F.

    2015-01-01

    Effective program models are needed for low-income youth. This article describes one successful summer enrichment program, University for Young People's Project Promise, and outlines three key components of a Partnership for Promoting Potential in Low-Income Gifted Students (Partnership Model), which is based on Lee, Olszewski-Kubilius, and…

  16. Dialogues of Contradiction: Low-Income Students and the Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colyar, Julia E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I explore the experiences of low-income students in their first semester of college. While much of the literature relating to low-income students focuses on attainment measures, this study uses qualitative tools to better understand students' subjective experiences related to relationships with family, academic self-confidence,…

  17. Assessment of Low-Income Adults' Access to Technology: Implications for Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuenschwander, Lauren M.; Abbott, Angela; Mobley, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate access and use of technologies such as the Internet among Indiana's low-income population. The secondary objective was to determine whether access and use of computers significantly differed by age, race, and/or education level. Methods: Data were collected from low-income adult…

  18. Federally Funded Education and Job Training Programs for Low-Income Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworsky, Amy

    2011-01-01

    With the growing demand for highly skilled workers and declining wages for those who are less skilled, low-income youth with limited education and no work experience have few opportunities for gainful employment. Since the Great Depression, the federal government has been funding programs that provide low-income, out-of-school, and unemployed…

  19. 26 CFR 1.1039-1 - Certain sales of low-income housing projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... as to rate of return on his investment in the project, and (ii) Limited as to rentals or occupancy... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain sales of low-income housing projects. 1... sales of low-income housing projects. (a) Nonrecognition of gain. Section 1039 provides rules...

  20. Relations between Housing Characteristics and the Well-Being of Low-Income Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Leventhal, Tama; Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Kull, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Extant research has highlighted the importance of multiple characteristics of housing but has not comprehensively assessed a broad range of housing characteristics and their relative contributions to children's well-being. Using a representative, longitudinal sample of low-income children and adolescents from low-income urban neighborhoods (N…

  1. 13 CFR 108.710 - Requirement to finance Low-Income Enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Enterprises. 108.710 Section 108.710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS... Eligibility of A Small Business for Nmvc Financing § 108.710 Requirement to finance Low-Income Enterprises. (a) Low-Income Enterprise Financings. At the close of each of your fiscal years— (1) At least 80...

  2. 13 CFR 108.710 - Requirement to finance Low-Income Enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Enterprises. 108.710 Section 108.710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS... Eligibility of A Small Business for Nmvc Financing § 108.710 Requirement to finance Low-Income Enterprises. (a) Low-Income Enterprise Financings. At the close of each of your fiscal years— (1) At least 80...

  3. 13 CFR 108.710 - Requirement to finance Low-Income Enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Enterprises. 108.710 Section 108.710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS... Eligibility of A Small Business for Nmvc Financing § 108.710 Requirement to finance Low-Income Enterprises. (a) Low-Income Enterprise Financings. At the close of each of your fiscal years— (1) At least 80...

  4. Developmental Trends in Self-Regulation among Low-Income Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raikes, H. Abigail; Robinson, JoAnn L.; Bradley, Robert H.; Raikes, Helen H.; Ayoub, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    The attainment of self-regulatory skills during the toddler years is an understudied issue, especially among low-income children. The present study used growth modeling to examine the change over time and the final status in children's abilities to self-regulate, in a sample of 2,441 low-income children aged 14 to 36 months. Positive growth in…

  5. 26 CFR 1.42-5 - Monitoring compliance with low-income housing credit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monitoring compliance with low-income housing credit requirements. 1.42-5 Section 1.42-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.42-5 Monitoring compliance with low-income housing credit requirements. (a)...

  6. Health Care, Health and Illness Behavior of Low Income Families in the State of Maine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolaria, Bhopinder S.

    This study on health care and health and illness of low income families is based on findings from interviews with 301 low-income families in the state of Maine. The findings show that a majority of the families have various health or medical problems which need immediate attention. These problems range from dental care and chronic medical…

  7. Improving Readability of an Evaluation Tool for Low-Income Clients Using Visual Information Processing Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Marilyn S.; Sylva, Kathryn; Martin, Anna; Metz, Diane; Wooten-Swanson, Patti

    2008-01-01

    Literacy is an issue for many low-income audiences. Using visual information processing theories, the goal was improving readability of a food behavior checklist and ultimately improving its ability to accurately capture existing changes in dietary behaviors. Using group interviews, low-income clients (n = 18) evaluated 4 visual styles. The text…

  8. Religious Involvement and Attitudes toward Parenting among Low-Income Urban Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Terrence D.; Burdette, Amy M.; Regnerus, Mark; Angel, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors employ data from the Welfare, Children, and Families project, a probability sample of 2,402 low-income women with children living in low-income neighborhoods in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio, to test whether religious attendance is associated with parental satisfaction, perceived parental demands, and parental distress over 2 years.…

  9. Role of Service Learning Activities: Assessing and Enhancing Food Security in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerr, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Many low-income families are at risk for food insecurity. In addition, with the aging of America, multigenerational families are becoming more prevalent, resulting in excessive strain and burden on the resources of low-income families. Family and consumer sciences educators need to teach their students about factors that contribute to food…

  10. 26 CFR 1.1039-1 - Certain sales of low-income housing projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain sales of low-income housing projects. 1.1039-1 Section 1.1039-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1039-1 Certain sales of low-income housing projects....

  11. ASSESSING EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN MINORITY AND LOW INCOME COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that minority and low income communities are often at greater risk of impact from environmental hazards. Many studies use surrogate measures of exposure for minority and low income populations due the lack of actual data on exposures in these communities. T...

  12. Persistent Low-Income Counties in Nonmetro America. Rural Development Research Report No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Thomas F.

    In the period from 1950 to 1970, there were 298 persistent low-income (PLI) counties in the United States, but between 1970 and 1975, 43 counties left the persistent low-income status (LPLI) due to private sector influence and earnings from mining and agriculture. LPLI counties were largely located in Georgia, Arkansas, and Kentucky. Most PLI…

  13. Clinical decision making of nurses working in hospital settings.

    PubMed

    Bjørk, Ida Torunn; Hamilton, Glenys A

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed nurses' perceptions of clinical decision making (CDM) in their clinical practice and compared differences in decision making related to nurse demographic and contextual variables. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 2095 nurses in four hospitals in Norway. A 24-item Nursing Decision Making Instrument based on cognitive continuum theory was used to explore how nurses perceived their CDM when meeting an elective patient for the first time. Data were analyzed with descriptive frequencies, t-tests, Chi-Square test, and linear regression. Nurses' decision making was categorized into analytic-systematic, intuitive-interpretive, and quasi-rational models of CDM. Most nurses reported the use of quasi-rational models during CDM thereby supporting the tenet that cognition most often includes properties of both analysis and intuition. Increased use of intuitive-interpretive models of CDM was associated with years in present job, further education, male gender, higher age, and working in predominantly surgical units.

  14. Race, homelessness, and other environmental factors associated with the food-purchasing behavior of low-income women.

    PubMed

    Dammann, Kristen Wiig; Smith, Chery

    2010-09-01

    Observance of the hunger-obesity paradox in urban Minnesota has ignited interest in the quality of low-income households' food purchases. This cross-sectional study investigated low-income, urban Minnesotan women's past-month food purchases and their associations with race, homelessness, and aspects of the food system, including food shelf (ie, food pantry) and food store usage, factors believed to influence food choice and grocery shopping behavior. The survey included demographics, the US Department of Agriculture's 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module, and grocery shopping questions related to food purchases and food stores visited in the past month. Participants were a convenience sample of 448 low-income, urban Minnesotan women, and data were collected from February through May 2008. The sample was 44% African American, 35% American Indian, 10% white, and 11% other/mixed race; 37% were homeless. Rates of "less healthy" food group purchases were higher compared to "healthy" food group purchases. Significant racial differences were found with respect to purchasing healthy protein food groups (P<0.05 to P<0.01) but not fruits, vegetables, or whole grains. Homelessness reduced the odds of purchasing most food groups, regardless of nutrient density (P<0.05 to P<0.001). Food shelf and food store usage mainly increased the odds of purchasing "less healthy" food groups (P<0.05 to P<0.01). These findings may help registered dietitians strategize with low-income, urban women how to make best use of food resources within their local food system. PMID:20800128

  15. Race, homelessness, and other environmental factors associated with the food-purchasing behavior of low-income women.

    PubMed

    Dammann, Kristen Wiig; Smith, Chery

    2010-09-01

    Observance of the hunger-obesity paradox in urban Minnesota has ignited interest in the quality of low-income households' food purchases. This cross-sectional study investigated low-income, urban Minnesotan women's past-month food purchases and their associations with race, homelessness, and aspects of the food system, including food shelf (ie, food pantry) and food store usage, factors believed to influence food choice and grocery shopping behavior. The survey included demographics, the US Department of Agriculture's 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module, and grocery shopping questions related to food purchases and food stores visited in the past month. Participants were a convenience sample of 448 low-income, urban Minnesotan women, and data were collected from February through May 2008. The sample was 44% African American, 35% American Indian, 10% white, and 11% other/mixed race; 37% were homeless. Rates of "less healthy" food group purchases were higher compared to "healthy" food group purchases. Significant racial differences were found with respect to purchasing healthy protein food groups (P<0.05 to P<0.01) but not fruits, vegetables, or whole grains. Homelessness reduced the odds of purchasing most food groups, regardless of nutrient density (P<0.05 to P<0.001). Food shelf and food store usage mainly increased the odds of purchasing "less healthy" food groups (P<0.05 to P<0.01). These findings may help registered dietitians strategize with low-income, urban women how to make best use of food resources within their local food system.

  16. Community Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Barriers to Childhood Obesity Prevention in Low-Income Families, Massachusetts 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Emmeline; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Blaine, Rachel E.; Giannetti, Mary; Land, Thomas; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The etiology of childhood obesity is multidimensional and includes individual, familial, organizational, and societal factors. Policymakers and researchers are promoting social–ecological approaches to obesity prevention that encompass multiple community sectors. Programs that successfully engage low-income families in making healthy choices are greatly needed, yet little is known about the extent to which stakeholders understand the complexity of barriers encountered by families. The objective of this study was to contextually frame barriers faced by low-income families reported by community stakeholders by using the Family Ecological Model (FEM). Methods From 2012 through 2013, we conducted semistructured interviews with 39 stakeholders from 2 communities in Massachusetts that were participating in a multisector intervention for childhood obesity prevention. Stakeholders represented schools; afterschool programs; health care; the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children; and early care and education. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and summarized. Results Stakeholder reports of the barriers experienced by low-income families had a strong degree of overlap with FEM and reflected awareness of the broader contextual factors (eg, availability of community resources, family culture, education) and social and emotional dynamics within families (eg, parent knowledge, social norms, distrust of health care providers, chronic life stressors) that could affect family adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors. Furthermore, results illustrated a level of consistency in stakeholder awareness across multiple community sectors. Conclusion The congruity of stakeholder perspectives with those of low-income parents as summarized in FEM and across community sectors illustrates potential for synergizing the efforts necessary for multisector, multilevel community interventions for the prevention of childhood obesity. PMID

  17. The Impact of Carbon Control on Low-Income Household Electricity and Gasoline Expenditures

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, Joel Fred

    2008-06-01

    In July of 2007 The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA) released its impact analysis of 'The Climate Stewardship And Innovation Act of 2007,' known as S.280. This legislation, cosponsored by Senators Joseph Lieberman and John McCain, was designed to significantly cut U.S. greenhouse gas emissions over time through a 'cap-and-trade' system, briefly described below, that would gradually but extensively reduce such emissions over many decades. S.280 is one of several proposals that have emerged in recent years to come to grips with the nation's role in causing human-induced global climate change. EIA produced an analysis of this proposal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to generate price projections for electricity and gasoline under the proposed cap-and-trade system. Oak Ridge National Laboratory integrated those price projections into a data base derived from the EIA Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 and the EIA public use files from the National Household Transportation Survey (NHTS) for 2001 to develop a preliminary assessment of impact of these types of policies on low-income consumers. ORNL will analyze the impacts of other specific proposals as EIA makes its projections for them available. The EIA price projections for electricity and gasoline under the S.280 climate change proposal, integrated with RECS and NHTS for 2001, help identify the potential effects on household electric bills and gasoline expenditures, which represent S.280's two largest direct impacts on low-income household budgets in the proposed legislation. The analysis may prove useful in understanding the needs and remedies for the distributive impacts of such policies and how these may vary based on patterns of location, housing and vehicle stock, and energy usage.

  18. Gender Differences in Caregiver Emotion Socialization of Low-Income Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Casey, James; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    Low-income children are at elevated risk for emotion-related problems; however, little research has examined gender and emotion socialization in low-income families. The authors describe the ways in which emotion socialization may differ for low-income versus middle-income families. They also present empirical data on low-income caregivers’ responses to their toddlers’ emotion displays, with findings indicating more supportive and fewer punitive responses to boys’ anger than to girls’, but few gender differences for sadness/ anxiety. Finally, they present two models (the emotion competence model and differential emotions model) for understanding relations between emotion socialization and the development of psychopathology, particularly in low-income children. PMID:20552657

  19. Low-income Renewable Energy Programs: Case Studies of State Policy in California and Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Kaitlin

    Energy policies aimed at reducing the burden of monthly utility costs on low-income families have been established since the 1970s. Energy use impacts low-income families and organizations through housing specific costs, health and wellness, and opportunity costs. States have begun to run renewable energy installation programs aimed at reducing costs for low-income communities. This thesis examines two of these programs, the solar photovoltaic policies in California as part of the Single Family Affordable Solar Housing and Multi-family Affordable Solar Housing programs, and the Low-income Solar Housing program in Massachusetts. Lessons learned from reviewing these programs are that renewable energy programs are an effective strategy for reducing utility costs for low-income communities, but that the total effectiveness of the program is dependent on removing cost barriers, implementing energy efficiency improvements, and increasing consumer education through established community networks and relationships.

  20. Gender differences in caregiver emotion socialization of low-income toddlers.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Tara M; Casey, James; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C

    2010-01-01

    Low-income children are at elevated risk for emotion-related problems; however, little research has examined gender and emotion socialization in low-income families. The authors describe the ways in which emotion socialization may differ for low-income versus middle-income families. They also present empirical data on low-income caregivers' responses to their toddlers' emotion displays, with findings indicating more supportive and fewer punitive responses to boys' anger than to girls', but few gender differences for sadness/anxiety. Finally, they present two models (the emotion competence model and differential emotions model) for understanding relations between emotion socialization and the development of psychopathology, particularly in low-income children.

  1. Piloting Health Text Messages for Rural Low-Income Mothers: Effects of Source Similarity and Simple Action Steps.

    PubMed

    Aldoory, Linda; Yaros, Ronald A; Prado, Antonio A; Roberts, Erica; Briones, Rowena L

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 85% of people living in rural settings own a cell phone, and of those, 76% send or receive text messages. Thus, text messaging may be an effective way to reach rural low-income mothers with important information and resources that will improve their health and well-being. This exploratory study examined the utility of using text messaging for disseminating health information to rural low-income mothers. Researchers tested messages that were personalized and sent from a source similar to participants, a mom named Ms. Peg. Ms. Peg sent text messages about physical activity, oral health, nutrition, and health insurance-facts and tips that addressed barriers and lifestyles in rural low-income contexts-over a 4-week period. Participants completed a prequestionnaire assessing healthy behaviors, text message use and preference, and demographic information. Participants then received two text messages for 4 weeks. Findings indicated that participants were satisfied receiving information through text messages, with half finding it "easy" and "convenient." The majority reported being highly motivated by the messages, and for 41% the messages were associated with self-efficacy and intention to act. Close to half of the participants found the use of personalization effective and perceived the messages as "relatable." PMID:26921364

  2. Patterns and Predictors of Health Behaviors Among Racially/ Ethnically Diverse Residents of Low-Income Housing Developments

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Amy E.; Yang, May; Stoddard, Anne M.; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Walker, Renee; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D.; Allen, Jennifer D.; Sorensen, Glorian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine behavioral patterns and sociodemographic predictors of diet, inactivity and tobacco use among a diverse sample of residents from low-income housing developments. Design Cross-sectional survey study. Households and residents were randomly selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. Setting Twenty low-income housing developments in the Boston metropolitan area. Participants 828 residents completed the survey (response rate=49.3%). Forty-one percent of participants were Hispanic and 38% were non-Hispanic Black. Measures Outcomes measured were diet, inactivity, and tobacco use. Predictors measured were age, race/ethnicity, gender, education, country born, language spoken, and financial hardship. Analysis Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of three health behaviors with sociodemographic factors. Results Age, gender, language spoken, and financial hardship showed significant relationships with all three behaviors. For example, those who reported less financial hardship (OR=1.75) were more likely to eat healthier. Residents who spoke no English, or at least one language in addition to English, were significantly more likely to report healthier eating (OR=2.78 and 3.30 respectively) than those who spoke English only. Men were significantly more likely to report less healthy eating (OR=0.65) than women. Similar trends emerged for inactivity and tobacco use. Conclusion Effective health promotion interventions in low-income housing developments that leverage protective factors while addressing risk factors have the potential to reduce income-related health disparities in these concentrated resource-deprived neighborhoods. PMID:24359221

  3. The Role of Mental Health on Maternal-Fetal Attachment in Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Gross, Deborah; Hayat, Matthew J.; Rose, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine and describe the influence of maternal depressive symptoms on maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) in predominantly low-income women. Design Mixed method. Setting Three urban obstetric/gynecologic (OB/GYN) clinics serving predominantly low-income women. Participants A convenience sample of 166 women participated in the quantitative component and a purposeful sub-sample of 12 women participated in the qualitative component; all women were between 24–28 weeks gestation at the time of data collection. Methods Linear regression models were used to examine the influence of depressive symptoms and social support on MFA. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted among a sub-sample of women to explore the influence of maternal depressive symptoms on MFA. Results Fifty-nine percent (n=98) of participants had scores that were clinically significant for depressive symptoms. In the final model of social support and depressive symptoms regressed on MFA, social support (b = 0.23, 95% CI [0.09, .37], p = .002) and depressive symptoms (b = −1.02, 95% CI [−1.32, −.73], p < 0.001) were significant predictors. This multivariate linear regression model with two variables accounted for 65.2% of the total variance in overall MFA. Qualitative participants discussed the importance of social support in contributing to their mood state and MFA. Conclusions Findings from this study highlight the importance of assessing for depressive symptoms during pregnancy given its influence on MFA. By understanding how important it was for these women to have a supportive person to experience their pregnancies with, nurses can improve the pregnancy experience for vulnerable populations. PMID:22788921

  4. Extracurricular Participation and Course Performance in the Middle Grades: A Study of Low-Income, Urban Youth.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Kate; Cappella, Elise; Seidman, Edward

    2015-12-01

    The transition to middle/junior high school is associated with declines in students' academic performance, especially among low-income, urban youth. Developmental psychologists posit such declines are due to a poor fit between the needs of early adolescents-industry, identity, and autonomy-and the environment of their new schools. Extracurricular participation during these years may act as a buffer for youth, providing a setting for development outside the classroom. The current study examines participation within and across activity settings among low-income, urban youth in New York City over this transition. Using the Adolescent Pathways Project data, this study explores how such participation relates to course performance. We find that a large percentage of youth are minimally or uninvolved in extracurricular activities during these years; that participation varies within youth across time; and that the association between participation and course performance varies by activity setting. Youth who participate frequently in community or athletic settings or have high participation in two or more settings are found to have higher GPAs in the year in which they participate and youth who participate frequently in the religious setting are found to have lower GPAs. High participation in more than two settings may be detrimental.

  5. Learning in Global Settings: Developing Transitions for Meaning-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norden, Birgitta; Avery, Helen; Anderberg, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    Global teaching and learning for sustainable development reaches from the classroom to the world outside, and is therefore a particularly interesting setting for practising transition skills. The article suggests a number of features perceived as crucial in developing young people's capability to act in a changing world and under circumstances…

  6. Make More Time for Laughter in a Preschool Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Barbara B.

    Based on the idea that laughter and humor are basic components of a healthy childhood, this practicum paper emphasizes the concern that preschool programs have become too academic and are creating stress for children. Similarly, adults in preschool settings, pressured by parents and public school academic expectations, have become too serious in…

  7. Narrative Assessment: Making Mathematics Learning Visible in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Glenda; McLachlan, Claire; Lim Fock Poh, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Narratives that capture children's learning as they go about their day-to-day activities are promoted as a powerful assessment tool within early childhood settings. However, in the New Zealand context, there is increasing concern that learning stories--the preferred form of narrative assessment--currently downplay domain knowledge. In this paper,…

  8. Physical, consumer, and social aspects of measuring the food environment among diverse low-income populations.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Sharma, Sangita

    2009-04-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are directly related to the food environment. We describe how to better assess the food environment in specific ethnic minority settings for designing and implementing interventions, based on a review of our previous work on the food environment in American Indian reservations, Canadian First Nations reserves, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and inner-city Baltimore. The types of food stores available within each setting and the range of healthy foods available varied greatly across these geographic regions. In all settings, proximity to food stores/supermarkets, cost, and limited availability of healthful foods were common features, which limited access to health-promoting food options. Features specific to each population should be considered in an assessment of the food environment, including physical (e.g., openness of stores, mix of types of food sources); consumer (e.g., adequacy of the food supply, seasonal factors); and social (e.g., inter-household food sharing, perceptions of food quality, language differences) aspects. The food environments common in low-income ethnic subpopulations require special focus and consideration due to the vulnerability of the populations and to specific and unique aspects of each setting. PMID:19285208

  9. Measurement of park and recreation environments that support physical activity in low-income communities of color: highlights of challenges and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Myron F; Taylor, Wendell C; Whitt-Glover, Melicia

    2009-04-01

    The capacity of public parks and recreation environments to promote physical activity for low-income communities of color is receiving increased attention from researchers and policymakers. As a result, several systems to measure park and recreation environments have been recently developed. Developing measures is important because they are critical to establishing key correlates and determinants that drive physical activity and inform intervention strategies. This paper briefly reviews recently developed approaches for measuring physical environments within public parks and recreation areas. It critiques the capacity of these approaches to advance an understanding of how parks and recreation settings contribute to physical activity in low-income communities of color. Residents of low-income communities of color are usually found to have lower physical activity, and this may be due partly to a disparity in access to parks and other recreation environments. Three primary recommendations are presented. First, future measurement tools should explicitly reflect inequality in the built environment in terms of availability and quality of parks and recreation areas. Second, measurement strategies should incorporate research on recreation activity and setting preferences important in low-income communities of color. Finally, the perceptions of residents of low-income communities of color should be reflected in measurement approaches. One strategy for incorporating the perceptions is community-based participatory research. The rapid development of high-quality tools for measuring parks and recreation environments is encouraging. However, existing measures should be tested and refined in varying social-ecologic conditions, and new tools should be developed specifically for nuances associated with low-income minority communities.

  10. Expert systems. Assisting formulary decision making in the ambulatory setting.

    PubMed

    Nash, D; Windt, P E; Peterson, A M

    1994-11-01

    In this article, the author reviews the application of a computer-assisted decision support system to their formulary decision-making process. Basic information is presented describing expert systems, which are a type of computer-assisted decision support system, and their advantages and disadvantages. A specific example of an expert system, 'RXPERT', is described. 'RXPERT' is a prototype expert system that models the decision-making process for an ambulatory (nonhospital) formulary. This formulary is the underpinning of the prescription drug benefit programme for the nearly 1 million residents of Saskatchewan, Canada. In the current formulary decision process, each drug product is evaluated by 2 separate committees, with the third and final decision resting with the Ministry of Health. The first committee, the Drug Quality Assessment Committee (DQAC), comprises members with expertise in medicine, pharmacology, clinical pharmacy, pharmaceutics, statistics, and regulatory processes. The DQAC evaluates information from the drug manufacturer and other independent sources, and makes an initial assessment with respect to clinical aspects of alternative therapies and generic interchangeability. The committee then makes its recommendation to the Saskatchewan Formulary Committee (SFC). The SFC reviews the recommendation of the DQAC and considers the administrative and economic implications of accepting the product for the patient, the programme, and healthcare professionals' practice. The SFC either reaffirms the recommendation of the DQAC or modifies it based on further review, and forwards its recommendation to the Ministry of Health. Finally, the Ministry of Health reviews the evaluation and determines the drug's formulary status.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10155275

  11. Assessing Self-Regulation in the Classroom: Validation of the BIS-11 and the BRIEF in Low-Income, Ethnic Minority School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles McCoy, Dana L.; Raver, C. Cybele; Lowenstein, Amy E.; Tirado-Strayer, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: At present, few resources are available to researchers, teachers, and practitioners who wish to quickly and reliably assess children's self-regulation within the classroom context, and particularly within settings serving low-income and ethnic minority children. This paper explores the psychometric properties of a teacher-report…

  12. Empowering Latino Families: Effects of a Culturally Responsive Intervention for Low-Income Immigrant Latino Parents on Children's Behaviors and Parental Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceballos, Peggy L.; Bratton, Sue C.

    2010-01-01

    This randomized, controlled study examined the effectiveness of Child Parent Relationship Therapy (CPRT) in school settings with 48 low-income Latino immigrant parents whose children were identified with behavioral concerns. Results from a 2 (group) x 2 (measures) split plot analysis of variance indicated that parents who participated in 11 weeks…

  13. Narrative assessment: making mathematics learning visible in early childhood settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Glenda; McLachlan, Claire; Lim Fock Poh, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    Narratives that capture children's learning as they go about their day-to-day activities are promoted as a powerful assessment tool within early childhood settings. However, in the New Zealand context, there is increasing concern that learning stories—the preferred form of narrative assessment—currently downplay domain knowledge. In this paper, we draw on data from 13 teacher interviews and samples of 18 children's learning stories to examine how mathematics is made visible within learning stories. Despite appreciating that mathematics is embedded in a range of everyday activities within the centres, we found that the nature of a particular activity appeared to influence `how' and `what' the teachers chose to document as mathematics learning. Many of the teachers expressed a preference to document and analyse mathematics learning that occurred within explicit mathematics activities rather than within play that involves mathematics. Our concern is that this restricted documentation of mathematical activity could potentially limit opportunities for mathematics learning both in the centre and home settings.

  14. Developmental delays and dental caries in low-income preschoolers in the USA: a pilot cross-sectional study and preliminary explanatory model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anecdotal evidence suggests that low-income preschoolers with developmental delays are at increased risk for dental caries and poor oral health, but there are no published studies based on empirical data. The purpose of this pilot study was two-fold: to examine the relationship between developmental delays and dental caries in low-income preschoolers and to present a preliminary explanatory model on the determinants of caries for enrollees in Head Start, a U.S. school readiness program for low-income preschool-aged children. Methods Data were collected on preschoolers ages 3–5 years at two Head Start centers in Washington, USA (N = 115). The predictor variable was developmental delay status (no/yes). The outcome variable was the prevalence of decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (dmfs) on primary teeth. We used multiple variable Poisson regression models to test the hypothesis that within a population of low-income preschoolers, those with developmental delays would have increased dmfs prevalence than those without developmental delays. Results Seventeen percent of preschoolers had a developmental delay and 51.3% of preschoolers had ≥1 dmfs. Preschoolers with developmental delays had a dmfs prevalence ratio that was 1.26 times as high as preschoolers without developmental delays (95% CI: 1.01, 1.58; P < .04). Other factors associated with increased dmfs prevalence ratios included: not having a dental home (P = .01); low caregiver education (P < .001); and living in a non-fluoridated community (P < .001). Conclusions Our pilot data suggest that developmental delays among low-income preschoolers are associated with increased primary tooth dmfs. Additional research is needed to further examine this relationship. Future interventions and policies should focus on caries prevention strategies within settings like Head Start classrooms that serve low-income preschool-aged children with additional targeted home- and community

  15. Achievement Values and Anomie Among Women in a Low-Income Housing Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Larry D.

    1970-01-01

    An analysis of the results of an administration of Rosen's Achievement Values Scale and Srole's Anomie Scale to adult women residents of a low-income housing project indicated no intrinsic relationship between anomie and achievement values. (JM)

  16. 26 CFR 1.42-1T - Limitation on low-income housing credit allowed with respect to qualified low-income buildings...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Limitation on low-income housing credit allowed... to $1.25 multiplied by the State's population. A State's population for any calendar year is... the Bureau of the Census publication, “Current Population Reports, Series P-25: Population...

  17. 13 CFR 108.130 - Identified Low Income Geographic Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Organizing A Nmvc Company § 108.130... intends to make Developmental Venture Capital investments and provide Operational Assistance under...

  18. National Study of Child Care for Low-Income Families. State and Community Substudy Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Ann M.; Layzer, Jean I.; Kreader, J. Lee; Werner, Alan; Glantz, Fred B.

    The National Study of Child Care for Low-Income Families, conducted for the Administration for Children and Families in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is a 5-year research effort in 17 states and 25 communities that will provide information on the response of states and communities to the child care needs of low-income families,…

  19. Individual Variation among Preschoolers in a Cognitive Intervention Program in Low Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    The range of cognitive gains made by low-income preschool children in the home-based Mother-Child Home Program is discussed as to the causes of the wide variability found. At the end of one year (October 1967 to May 1968) in the program, 33 low-income preschoolers made an average Stanford-Binet IQ gain of 17 points. The varibility within this…

  20. Quick-setting concrete and a method for making quick-setting concrete

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Singh, Dileep; Pullockaran, Jose D.; Knox, Lerry

    1997-01-01

    A method for producing quick setting concrete is provided comprising hydrng a concrete dry mixture with carbonate solution to create a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a quick setting concrete having a predetermined proportion of CaCO.sub.3 of between 5 and 23 weight percent of the entire concrete mixture, and whereby the concrete has a compression strength of approximately 4,000 pounds per square inch (psi) within 24 hours after pouring.

  1. Exploring the Self/Group Initiated and On-the-Job Learning Activities of Low Income Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterwick, Shauna

    The self- and group-initiated and on-the-job learning activities of low-income women were explored in a study of a small group of low-income mothers living in the greater Vancouver area of British Columbia, Canada. During the study, the low-income women attended meetings during which a participating researcher documented the women's experiences.…

  2. At Issue: The Relationship between Student Loans and Low-Income Students' Baccalaureate Attainment: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    The study conducts a review on the linkage between student loans and low-income students' baccalaureate degree achievement. Specifically, this study synthesizes literature on low-income students' borrowing patterns, low-income students' baccalaureate degree achievement, as well as the relationship between these two topics. Future research should…

  3. Full Financial Aid in the Ivy League: How High-Achieving, Low-Income Undergraduates Negotiate the Elite College Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Paul J., II.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, there are nearly a million high-achieving, low-income students in the United States. In the nation's most selective institutions of higher education, students from low-income families have been persistently under-represented. Elite colleges, in particular, have only recently begun admitting low-income students in large numbers, a result…

  4. A qualitative study of the aspirations and challenges of low-income mothers in feeding their preschool-aged children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity among preschool-aged children has increased, especially among those in low-income households. Two promising behavioral targets for preventing obesity include limiting children’s portion sizes and their intake of foods high in solid fats and/or added sugars, but these approaches have not been studied in low-income preschoolers in the home setting. The purpose of this study was to understand the contextual factors that might influence how low-income mothers felt about addressing these behavioral targets and mothers’ aspirations in feeding their children. Methods We recruited 32 English-speaking women in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania who were eligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and who were the biologic mothers of children 36 to 66 months of age. Each mother participated in 1 of 7 focus groups and completed a brief socio-demographic questionnaire. Focus group questions centered on eating occasions, foods and drinks consumed in the home, and portion sizes. Each focus group lasted 90 minutes and was digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three authors independently identified key themes and supporting quotations. Themes were condensed and modified through discussion among all authors. Results Thirty-one mothers identified themselves as black, 15 had a high school education or less, and 22 lived with another adult. Six themes emerged, with three about aspirations mothers held in feeding their children and three about challenges to achieving these aspirations. Mothers’ aspirations were to: 1) prevent hyperactivity and tooth decay by limiting children’s sugar intake, 2) use feeding to teach their children life lessons about limit setting and structure, and 3) be responsive to children during mealtimes to guide decisions about portions. Especially around setting limits with sweets and snacks, mothers faced the challenges of: 1) being nagged by children’s food requests, 2) being undermined by other

  5. Certain and possible rules for decision making using rough set theory extended to fuzzy sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekorvin, Andre; Shipley, Margaret F.

    1993-01-01

    Uncertainty may be caused by the ambiguity in the terms used to describe a specific situation. It may also be caused by skepticism of rules used to describe a course of action or by missing and/or erroneous data. To deal with uncertainty, techniques other than classical logic need to be developed. Although, statistics may be the best tool available for handling likelihood, it is not always adequate for dealing with knowledge acquisition under uncertainty. Inadequacies caused by estimating probabilities in statistical processes can be alleviated through use of the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence. Fuzzy set theory is another tool used to deal with uncertainty where ambiguous terms are present. Other methods include rough sets, the theory of endorsements and nonmonotonic logic. J. Grzymala-Busse has defined the concept of lower and upper approximation of a (crisp) set and has used that concept to extract rules from a set of examples. We will define the fuzzy analogs of lower and upper approximations and use these to obtain certain and possible rules from a set of examples where the data is fuzzy. Central to these concepts will be the idea of the degree to which a fuzzy set A is contained in another fuzzy set B, and the degree of intersection of a set A with set B. These concepts will also give meaning to the statement; A implies B. The two meanings will be: (1) if x is certainly in A then it is certainly in B, and (2) if x is possibly in A then it is possibly in B. Next, classification will be looked at and it will be shown that if a classification will be looked at and it will be shown that if a classification is well externally definable then it is well internally definable, and if it is poorly externally definable then it is poorly internally definable, thus generalizing a result of Grzymala-Busse. Finally, some ideas of how to define consensus and group options to form clusters of rules will be given.

  6. Quick-setting concrete and a method for making quick-setting concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Pullockaran, J.D.; Knox, L.

    1995-12-31

    This invention relates to a method for producing concrete, and more specifically, this invention relates to a method for producing quick-setting concrete while simultaneously minimizing the release of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, said release of carbon dioxide inherent in cement production. A method for producing quick setting concrete comprises hydrating a concrete dry mixture with carbonate solution to create a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a quick setting concrete having a predetermined proportion of CaCO{sub 3} of between 5 and 23 weight percent of the entire concrete mixture, and whereby the concrete has a compression strength of approximately 4,000 pounds per square inch (psi) within 24 hours after pouring.

  7. Low-Income Students and School Meal Programs in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    School nutrition programs help improve nutrition among vulnerable children. In so doing, they help build a better future for these children and the state. Now that California is implementing the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF), there is additional reason to make sure all students who are eligible for free or low-cost meals enroll in these…

  8. Quick-setting concrete and a method for making quick-setting concrete

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Pullockaran, J.D.; Knox, L.

    1997-04-29

    A method for producing quick setting concrete is provided comprising mixing a concrete dry mixture with carbonate solution to create a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a quick setting concrete having a predetermined proportion of CaCO{sub 3} of between 5 and 23 weight percent of the entire concrete mixture, and whereby the concrete has a compression strength of approximately 4,000 pounds per square inch (psi) within 24 hours after pouring. 2 figs.

  9. Exposing and addressing tobacco industry conduct in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Anna B; Fooks, Gary; Drope, Jeffrey; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Jackson, Rachel Rose

    2015-03-14

    The tobacco industry's future depends on increasing tobacco use in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), which face a growing burden of tobacco-related disease, yet have potential to prevent full-scale escalation of this epidemic. To drive up sales the industry markets its products heavily, deliberately targeting non-smokers and keeps prices low until smoking and local economies are sufficiently established to drive prices and profits up. The industry systematically flaunts existing tobacco control legislation and works aggressively to prevent future policies using its resource advantage to present highly misleading economic arguments, rebrand political activities as corporate social responsibility, and establish and use third parties to make its arguments more palatable. Increasingly it is using domestic litigation and international arbitration to bully LMICs from implementing effective policies and hijacking the problem of tobacco smuggling for policy gain, attempting to put itself in control of an illegal trade in which there is overwhelming historical evidence of its complicity. Progress will not be realised until tobacco industry interference is actively addressed as outlined in Article 5.3 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Exemplar LMICs show this action can be achieved and indicate that exposing tobacco industry misconduct is an essential first step. PMID:25784350

  10. Exposing and addressing tobacco industry conduct in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Anna B; Fooks, Gary; Drope, Jeffrey; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Jackson, Rachel Rose

    2015-03-14

    The tobacco industry's future depends on increasing tobacco use in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), which face a growing burden of tobacco-related disease, yet have potential to prevent full-scale escalation of this epidemic. To drive up sales the industry markets its products heavily, deliberately targeting non-smokers and keeps prices low until smoking and local economies are sufficiently established to drive prices and profits up. The industry systematically flaunts existing tobacco control legislation and works aggressively to prevent future policies using its resource advantage to present highly misleading economic arguments, rebrand political activities as corporate social responsibility, and establish and use third parties to make its arguments more palatable. Increasingly it is using domestic litigation and international arbitration to bully LMICs from implementing effective policies and hijacking the problem of tobacco smuggling for policy gain, attempting to put itself in control of an illegal trade in which there is overwhelming historical evidence of its complicity. Progress will not be realised until tobacco industry interference is actively addressed as outlined in Article 5.3 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Exemplar LMICs show this action can be achieved and indicate that exposing tobacco industry misconduct is an essential first step.

  11. Schools' capacity to help low-income, minority children to manage asthma.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Elizabeth W; Valerio, Melissa; Liu, Manlan; Benet, Dana Jones; Joseph, Christine; Brown, Randall; Clark, Noreen M

    2005-08-01

    This article describes the challenges and strengths of asthma management in 14 low-income, predominantly African American urban elementary schools serving more than 5,000 students. Asthma prevalence was 24.5%. Teachers, school principals, parents, and children described how asthma was managed at school. Data from classmates of students with asthma showed that they had moderate to high levels of information about the disease. Data from teachers indicated the great need for practical instruction on how they might effectively support a child with asthma in the classroom and on the playground. Principals raised concerns about expectations for the functioning of school staff and implementation of school policies especially related to asthma emergencies. Parents reported a range of problems their children face at school. Data from children with asthma showed that 75% believed asthma affected their school work. Findings from this study should be useful to school personnel, health providers, and others who assist children and their families to manage asthma at school. Data suggest that making school nursing services available is warranted, given the impact of asthma on the school community.

  12. The feasibility of a Paleolithic diet for low-income consumers.

    PubMed

    Metzgar, Matthew; Rideout, Todd C; Fontes-Villalba, Maelan; Kuipers, Remko S

    2011-06-01

    Many low-income consumers face a limited budget for food purchases. The United States Department of Agriculture developed the Thrifty Food Plan to address this problem of consuming a healthy diet given a budget constraint. This dietary optimization program uses common food choices to build a suitable diet. In this article, the United States Department of Agriculture data sets are used to test the feasibility of consuming a Paleolithic diet given a limited budget. The Paleolithic diet is described as the diet that humans are genetically adapted to, containing only the preagricultural food groups of meat, seafood, fruits, vegetables, and nuts. Constraints were applied to the diet optimization model to restrict grains, dairy, and certain other food categories. Constraints were also applied for macronutrients, micronutrients, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results show that it is possible to consume a Paleolithic diet given the constraints. However, the diet does fall short of meeting the daily recommended intakes for certain micronutrients. A 9.3% increase in income is needed to consume a Paleolithic diet that meets all daily recommended intakes except for calcium. PMID:21745626

  13. Needs of low-income african american cancer survivors: multifaceted and practical.

    PubMed

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Sanders, Kimberley

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the needs of low-income, African American cancer survivors in an urban setting. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews conducted with cancer survivors (n = 12), caregivers (n = 10), professionals (n = 10), and surveys from town hall meetings (n = 80). The major needs identified, across all groups, included a diverse array of practical needs including transportation, financial and job assistance, childcare, self-care assistance, more education and lifestyle information when diagnosed as well as after diagnosis, better post treatment plan, and more need for social support. They identified the ideal resource center as being located within the survivor's neighborhood and would provide a range of medically specific support as well as recreational services. Being of limited economic means has a host of implications for those diagnosed with cancer and for their family members. Participants suggested that needs for cancer survivors have to take into account a complexity of factors including culture, family, and especially economic implications. PMID:21706193

  14. Spirituality, hope, and self-sufficiency among low-income job seekers.

    PubMed

    2015-04-01

    Self-sufficiency (SS) is an important social welfare policy goal in the United States, yet little is known about the process that leads to SS. To address this gap in the literature, this study examined the relationship between spirituality, hope, and SS among a sample of low-income job seekers (N = 116). It was hypothesized that spirituality would be related to hope, and that hope, in turn, would be related to SS. Using survey data from two workforce development agencies, this hypothesis was confirmed-hope fully mediated the relationship between spirituality and SS. Of the two factors through which hope is commonly operationalized-agency and pathways-supplemental analysis suggested that spirituality only affects SS through the agency channel. To help foster hope in direct practice settings, it is suggested that social workers might employ spiritually modified cognitive-behavioral therapy protocols. Macrostructural interventions that block the pathway component of hope are also suggested to help reverse exclusion from labor market entry. As such, hope needs to be addressed comprehensively-intrapsychically and macrostructurally-to effect bottom-up change for SS. Engendering hope may assist clients overcome some of the many challenges they encounter on the journey to SS. PMID:25929013

  15. Perceptions of Obesity Treatment Options Among Healthcare Providers and Low-Income Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Betty M.; Kennedy, Kathleen B.; Sarpong, Daniel F.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary care is a key component of medical care delivery and has a role to play in reducing obesity in the United States. The purpose of this study was to explore attitudes and perceptions about obesity in low-income primary care patients and to identify preferences for weight management interventions from the patient and healthcare provider perspectives. Methods: A convenience sample of 28 patients and 6 healthcare providers from across the state of Louisiana participated in 1 of 5 structured focus groups. Demographic information was collected from both the patients and healthcare providers using survey instruments. Results: Patients and healthcare providers were more similar than dissimilar in their perceptions of obesity in that both groups selected referral to a nutritionist, use of medication, and prescribed exercise as the top 3 strategies that would have the greatest impact on losing weight. Referral to a nutritionist was selected as the easiest strategy to implement. Conclusion: Receiving feedback from both patients and healthcare providers gives researchers the opportunity to acquire useful knowledge that may be beneficial in designing and conducting interventions suitable for patients desiring to lose weight, especially those in primary care settings. PMID:27303227

  16. Commentary: critical reflections on subspecialty fellowships in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Paola; Arora, Brijesh; Kurkure, Purna; Bouffet, Eric; Punnett, Angela

    2012-02-01

    Interest in international health is growing, and international electives have become increasingly popular among medical students and residents. Subspecialty fellowships have so far been excluded from this growing popularity, but as health care indicators improve in low-income countries (LIC), a role in global health initiatives for subspecialty fellows is imminent. Improvements in patient care made in one subspecialty can carry over to other areas of health care or can represent models for the development of the health care system. In this commentary, the authors argue that global health training during subspecialty fellowships, including international electives, both represents a moral imperative and matches the goals defined by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Although international electives pose complex ethical, personal, financial, organizational, and cultural issues, to mention a few, subspecialty fellows can significantly contribute to clinical activity, provide education to colleagues and other allied health care professionals, conduct research, and help establish collaborations in LIC settings. At the same time, they gain a diverse clinical experience as well as a better understanding of cultural diversity, which will be applicable in their local practice and community. Global health training in subspecialty fellowships represents a valuable learning opportunity for both sides of international partnerships.

  17. Excess gestational weight gain in low-income overweight and obese women: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Cynthie K.; Walch, Tanis J.; Lindberg, Sara M.; Smith, Aubrey M.; Lindheim, Steven R.; Whigham, Leah D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Examine factors implicated in gestational weight gain (GWG) in low-income overweight and obese women. Design Qualitative study. Setting Community-based perinatal center. Participants 8 focus groups with women (Black=48%, White non-Hispanic=41%, Hispanic=10%) in the first half of (n=12) and last half of pregnancy (n=10), or post-partum (n=7); 2 with obstetrician-gynecologists (OB-GYNs) (n=9). Phenomenon of Interest Barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and GWG within different levels of the Social Ecological Model (SEM), e.g. intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, etc. Analysis Coding guide was based on the SEM. Transcripts were coded by 3 researchers for common themes. Thematic saturation was reached. Results At an intrapersonal level, knowledge/skills and cravings were the most common barriers. At an interpersonal level, family and friends were most influential. At an organizational level, the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program and clinics were influential. At the community level, lack of transportation was most frequently discussed. At a policy level, complex policies and social stigma surrounding WIC were barriers. There was consensus that ideal intervention approaches would include peer-facilitated support groups with information from experts. OB-GYNs felt uncomfortable counseling patients about GWG due to time constraints, other priorities, and lack of training. Conclusions and Implications There are multi-level public health opportunities to promote healthy GWG. Better communication between nutrition specialists and OB-GYNs is needed. PMID:26187348

  18. Commentary: critical reflections on subspecialty fellowships in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Paola; Arora, Brijesh; Kurkure, Purna; Bouffet, Eric; Punnett, Angela

    2012-02-01

    Interest in international health is growing, and international electives have become increasingly popular among medical students and residents. Subspecialty fellowships have so far been excluded from this growing popularity, but as health care indicators improve in low-income countries (LIC), a role in global health initiatives for subspecialty fellows is imminent. Improvements in patient care made in one subspecialty can carry over to other areas of health care or can represent models for the development of the health care system. In this commentary, the authors argue that global health training during subspecialty fellowships, including international electives, both represents a moral imperative and matches the goals defined by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Although international electives pose complex ethical, personal, financial, organizational, and cultural issues, to mention a few, subspecialty fellows can significantly contribute to clinical activity, provide education to colleagues and other allied health care professionals, conduct research, and help establish collaborations in LIC settings. At the same time, they gain a diverse clinical experience as well as a better understanding of cultural diversity, which will be applicable in their local practice and community. Global health training in subspecialty fellowships represents a valuable learning opportunity for both sides of international partnerships. PMID:22273612

  19. The effect of lactation educators implementing a telephone-based intervention among low-income Hispanics: A randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Efrat, Merav W; Esparza, Salvador; Mendelson, Sherri G; Lane, Christianne J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether a phone-based breastfeeding intervention delivered by lactation educators influenced exclusive breastfeeding rates amongst low-income Hispanic women in the USA. Design Randomised two-group design Setting Pregnant low-income Hispanic women (298) were recruited from community health clinics in Los Angeles County (USA) and randomly assigned to either a control or an intervention group. Methods Data relating to the factors associated with breastfeeding were collected during the third trimester. Breastfeeding outcome data was collected at 72 hours, one month, three months, and six months postpartum. Results There were no differences between the groups in rates of breastfeeding initiation. There was a significant difference in the duration of exclusive breastfeeding among participants during the infant's first week of life. While not significant, after controlling for covariates and intent to breastfeed at third trimester, the duration of exclusive breastfeeding amongst all participants was, on average, longer for intervention group mothers than control group mothers. Additionally, , the intervention group mothers were more likely to report exclusive and only breastfeeding at all data points compared to the control group, and less likely to discontinue breastfeeding. Conclusion Findings from this study suggest that telephone-based breastfeeding interventions delivered by a lactation educator show promise as a cost-effective strategy for improving both the quantity and duration of breastfeeding among low-income Hispanic women in the USA. Intervention group mothers not only sustained breastfeeding for a longer durations, but also provided their infants with greater amounts of breast milk over these longer durations. PMID:26941454

  20. Air Quality, Energy Budget, and Offset Policy in South Africa's Low-Income Settlements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersey, S. P.; Piketh, S.; Burger, R.

    2014-12-01

    Urban and exurban residential populations in South Africa reside primarily in low-income settlements, including many townships remaining from Apartheid. Over 3 million free government homes have been built in the last 20 years, but the number of people living in informal settlements is the same as at the end of Apartheid in 1994 - a consequence of rapid urbanization. Despite availability of electricity to the vast majority of South Africans, ~80% of electrified homes in low-income areas also burn coal and/or wood as supplementary fuels for cooking and heating. These domestic burning activities represent 70-85% of total PM10mass during winter in South Africa's low-income settlements. Here we analyze data from observations of human-atmosphere systems in: 1) 19 ground monitoring sites in Gauteng Province (Johannesburg and Pretoria), and 2) an intensive sampling campaign in a township in Mpumalanga Province (Industrial Highveld). From ground monitoring, we quantitatively describe seasonal and diurnal trends in PM10 and PM2.5 typical in low-income settlements as compared with industrial and developed suburban areas, and demonstrate the impact of low-income settlements on regional air quality. We also explore the implications of economic development in townships (increased household income, expanded commercialization and widespread electricity usage) on local and regional air quality. Data from the intensive township sampling study provides a seasonal energy budget for domestic burning in low-income settlements and suggests that indoor and ambient air quality are independent systems requiring unique interventions. We conclude with a preview of innovative strategies being developed by industry, government, and academic stakeholders for a not-like-for-like emissions offset policy in South Africa, focused on investments directly into low-income settlements that are aimed at reducing PM exposure.

  1. Brucellosis in low-income and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Rubach, Matthew P.; Halliday, Jo E.B.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crump, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Human brucellosis is a neglected, underrecognized infection of widespread geographic distribution. It causes acute febrile illness and a potentially debilitating chronic infection in humans, and livestock infection has substantial socioeconomic impact. This review describes new information regarding the epidemiology of brucellosis in the developing world and advances in diagnosis and treatment. Recent findings The highest recorded incidence of human brucellosis occurs in the Middle East and Central Asia. Fever etiology studies demonstrate brucellosis as a cause of undifferentiated febrile illness in the developing world. Brucellosis is a rare cause of fever among returning travelers, but is more common among travelers returning from the Middle East and North Africa. Sensitive and specific rapid diagnostic tests appropriate for resource-limited settings have been validated. Randomized controlled trials demonstrate that optimal treatment for human brucellosis consists of doxycycline and an aminoglycoside. Decreasing the burden of human brucellosis requires control of animal brucellosis, but evidence to inform the design of control programs in the developing world is needed. Summary Brucellosis causes substantial morbidity in human and animal populations. While improvements in diagnostic options for resource-limited settings and stronger evidence for optimal therapy should enhance identification and treatment of human brucellosis, prevention of human disease through control in animals remains paramount. PMID:23963260

  2. 12 CFR 701.34 - Designation of low income status; Acceptance of secondary capital accounts by low-income...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... __ years. 2. Redemption prior to maturity. Subject to the conditions set forth in 12 CFR 701.34, the funds... private entity. 4. Prepayment risk. Redemption of U.S.C. prior to the account's original maturity date may... not requalify and has secondary capital or nonmember deposit accounts with a maturity beyond the...

  3. 12 CFR 701.34 - Designation of low income status; Acceptance of secondary capital accounts by low-income...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Redemption prior to maturity. Subject to the conditions set forth in 12 CFR 701.34, the funds committed to... worth classifications (see 12 CFR 702.204(b)(11), 702.304(b) and 702.305(b), as the case may be), the... capital account.” (2) Schedule for recognizing net worth value. The LICU's reflection of the net...

  4. 77 FR 42365 - Price for the Making American History Coin and Currency Set

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the Making American History Coin and Currency Set AGENCY: United States Mint... for the Making American History Coin and Currency Set. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: B.B....

  5. WRAP program evaluation. Task 10, Evaluation of the low-income screening methodology; Task 11, Evaluation of the low-income program collaborative planning approach: [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrey, S.

    1990-12-31

    The ``Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership,`` or WRAP program, is a fuel-blind conservation program designed to assist Northeast Utilities` low-income customers to use energy safely and efficiently. Innovative with respect to its collaborative approach and its focus on utilizing and strengthening the existing low-income weatherization service delivery network, the WRAP program offers an interesting model to other utilities which traditionally have relied on for-profit energy service contractors and highly centralized program implementation structures. This evaluation of the WRAP program is designed to: (1) Review the continuing relevance of the demand-side management option screening methodology for determining program configuration for services delivery, including rural populations; (2) locate and analyze recent additions to the energy conservation literature, data and information that bear on design of the WRAP program; and (3) through interviews assess participant impressions of the collaborative process used to plan, develop and implement the WRAP process.

  6. Pediatric Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Low-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Donowitz, Jeffrey R.; Petri, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) occurs when colonic quantities of commensal bacteria are present in the small bowel. SIBO is associated with conditions of disrupted GI motility leading to stasis of luminal contents. Recent data show that SIBO is also found in children living in unsanitary conditions that do not have access to clean water. SIBO leads to impaired micronutrient absorption and increased GI permeability, both of which may contribute to growth stunting in children. SIBO also disrupts mucosal immunity and has been implicated in oral vaccination underperformance and the development of celiac disease. SIBO in the setting of the impoverished human habitat may be an under recognized cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality in the developing world. PMID:25486880

  7. Pediatric small intestine bacterial overgrowth in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Donowitz, Jeffrey R; Petri, William A

    2015-01-01

    Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) occurs when colonic quantities of commensal bacteria are present in the small bowel. SIBO is associated with conditions of disrupted gastrointestinal (GI) motility leading to stasis of luminal contents. Recent data show that SIBO is also found in children living in unsanitary conditions who do not have access to clean water. SIBO leads to impaired micronutrient absorption and increased GI permeability, both of which may contribute to growth stunting in children. SIBO also disrupts mucosal immunity and has been implicated in oral vaccination underperformance and the development of celiac disease. SIBO in the setting of the impoverished human habitats may be an under-recognized cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality in the developing world.

  8. Pediatric small intestine bacterial overgrowth in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Donowitz, Jeffrey R; Petri, William A

    2015-01-01

    Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) occurs when colonic quantities of commensal bacteria are present in the small bowel. SIBO is associated with conditions of disrupted gastrointestinal (GI) motility leading to stasis of luminal contents. Recent data show that SIBO is also found in children living in unsanitary conditions who do not have access to clean water. SIBO leads to impaired micronutrient absorption and increased GI permeability, both of which may contribute to growth stunting in children. SIBO also disrupts mucosal immunity and has been implicated in oral vaccination underperformance and the development of celiac disease. SIBO in the setting of the impoverished human habitats may be an under-recognized cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality in the developing world. PMID:25486880

  9. Method of Detection of Breast Cancer in Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Diamant, Allison; Hoq, Lalima; Maly, Rose

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women, and its timely diagnosis and treatment are of paramount importance, especially for vulnerable groups, such as low-income and uninsured women. Recent literature confirms that the method of breast cancer detection may be an important prognostic factor, but there are no studies that examine the method of breast cancer detection in low-income populations. We sought to analyze the determinants of method of detection (medical vs. self) in a cohort of low-income women with breast cancer receiving care through California's Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Program. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey analysis of 921 low-income women interviewed within 6 months of definitive surgical treatment. The outcome analyzed was self vs. medical detection of breast cancer. Results: The mean age of the women was 53 years, with nearly 88% reporting an income of <$30,000 per year; 64% of women self-detected their breast cancer. Logistic regression analyses revealed that older women, Latinas, and women having any health insurance before diagnosis had lower odds of self-detecting their lesions. Conclusions: Patient age, ethnicity, and regular source of care were associated with method of breast cancer detection in a low-income underserved population. The rate of self-detection in our population correlates with the literature, but we need to improve efforts to increase mammography screening to ensure early detection of disease in this vulnerable group. PMID:19951215

  10. Food Stress in Adelaide: The Relationship between Low Income and the Affordability of Healthy Food

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Paul R.; Verity, Fiona; Carter, Patricia; Tsourtos, George; Coveney, John; Wong, Kwan Chui

    2013-01-01

    Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a “Healthy Food Basket” methodology, this study costed a week's supply of healthy food for a range of family types. It found that low-income families would have to spend approximately 30% of household income on eating healthily, whereas high-income households needed to spend about 10%. The differential is explained by the cost of the food basket relative to household income (i.e., affordability). It is argued that families that spend more than 30% of household income on food could be experiencing “food stress.” Moreover the high cost of healthy foods leaves low-income households vulnerable to diet-related health problems because they often have to rely on cheaper foods which are high in fat, sugar, and salt. PMID:23431321

  11. Exploring Low-Income Families' Financial Barriers to Food Allergy Management and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Minaker, Leia M.; Elliott, Susan J.; Clarke, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Low-income families may face financial barriers to management and treatment of chronic illnesses. No studies have explored how low-income individuals and families with anaphylactic food allergies cope with financial barriers to anaphylaxis management and/or treatment. This study explores qualitatively assessed direct, indirect, and intangible costs of anaphylaxis management and treatment faced by low-income families. Methods. In-depth, semistructured interviews with 23 participants were conducted to gain insight into income-related barriers to managing and treating anaphylactic food allergies. Results. Perceived direct costs included the cost of allergen-free foods and allergy medication and costs incurred as a result of misinformation about social support programs. Perceived indirect costs included those associated with lack of continuity of health care. Perceived intangible costs included the stress related to the difficulty of obtaining allergen-free foods at the food bank and feeling unsafe at discount grocery stores. These perceived costs represented barriers that were perceived as especially salient for the working poor, immigrants, youth living in poverty, and food bank users. Discussion. Low-income families report significant financial barriers to food allergy management and anaphylaxis preparedness. Clinicians, advocacy groups, and EAI manufacturers all have a role to play in ensuring equitable access to medication for low-income individuals with allergies. PMID:24693292

  12. Low-Income Employees’ Choices Regarding Employment Benefits Aimed at Improving the Socioeconomic Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Danis, Marion; Lovett, Francis; Sabik, Lindsay; Adikes, Katherin; Cheng, Glen; Aomo, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. Socioeconomic factors are associated with reduced health status in low-income populations. We sought to identify affordable employment benefit packages that might ameliorate these socioeconomic factors and would be consonant with employees’ priorities. Methods. Working in groups (n = 53), low-income employees (n = 408; 62% women, 65% Black) from the Washington, DC, and Baltimore, Md, metropolitan area, participated in a computerized exercise in which they expressed their preference for employment benefit packages intended to address socioeconomic determinants of health. The hypothetical costs of these benefits reflected those of the average US benefit package available to low-income employees. Questionnaires ascertained sociodemographic information and attitudes. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used to examine benefit choices. Results. Groups chose offered benefits in the following descending rank order: health care, retirement, vacation, disability pay, training, job flexibility, family time, dependent care, monetary advice, anxiety assistance, wellness, housing assistance, and nutrition programs. Participants varied in their personal choices, but 78% expressed willingness to abide by their groups’ choices. Conclusions. It is possible to design employment benefits that ameliorate socioeconomic determinants of health and are acceptable to low-income employees. These benefit packages can be provided at the cost of benefit packages currently available to some low-income employees. PMID:17666702

  13. Opportunities for Prevention: Assessing Where Low-Income Patients Seek Care for Preventable Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Klaiman, Tamar A; Valdmanis, Vivian G; Bernet, Patrick; Moises, James

    2015-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act has many aspects that are aimed at improving health care for all Americans, including mandated insurance coverage for individuals, as well as required community health needs assessments (CHNAs), and reporting of investments in community benefit by nonprofit hospitals in order to maintain tax exemptions. Although millions of Americans have gained access to health insurance, many--often the most vulnerable--remain uninsured, and will continue to depend on hospital community benefits for care. Understanding where patients go for care can assist hospitals and communities to develop their CHNA and implementation plans in order to focus resources where the need for prevention is greatest. This study evaluated patient care-seeking behavior among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in Florida in 2008--analyzed in 2013--to assess whether low-income patients accessed specific safety net hospitals for treatment or received care from hospitals that were geographically closer to their residence. This study found evidence that low-income patients went to hospitals that treated more low-income patients, regardless of where they lived. The findings demonstrate that hospitals-especially public safety net hospitals with a tradition of treating low-income patients suffering from CAD-should focus prevention activities where low-income patients reside. PMID:25856375

  14. Electric Industry Restructuring in Ohio: Residential and Low Income Customer Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, J

    2001-03-26

    Throughout the country the long standing administratively based regulatory structure for determining the cost and service parameters for electric utilities is changing. More and more market elements are coming into the structure. There is a push by many players to eliminate much of the current regulation. For the production side of electricity at least, these players argue that a market approach will do a better n job of pricing power and making it available to customers. However, the electricity industry currently has a large base of investment in power production equipment, some of which may have difficulty competing in a market-based system. What to do about this potentially uneconomic existing investment is an important question receiving a great deal of attention at the policy discussion level. Some argue that if the investment in existing facilities is uneconomic in a new market based system, that is too bad for the owners of the above-market cost facilities, and customers should bear no responsibility to help make those owners whole. Others argue that the owners of above-market cost facilities invested in those facilities in good faith and should not be made to bear the cost of a changing underlying industry structure. The arguments on both sides are long and involved, and this paper is not the place to explore them. However, it is clear that the result of the debate is uncertain, and both approaches must be explored. The purpose of this report is to analyze the current electric utility cost structure in Ohio, estimate the expected changes in that structure and cost levels under various restructuring proposals, and determine the likely impact on low income and other residential customers. The report analyzes the likely cost impacts of a variety of approaches to the above-market cost facility problem. The range of potential outcomes is very wide.

  15. How Did They Grow: An Intervention to Reduce Stunted Growth in Low-Income Mexican-American Children.

    PubMed

    Reifsnider, Elizabeth; Shin, Cha-Nam; Todd, Michael; Jeong, Mihyun; Gallagher, Martina; Moramarco, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Growth stunting is a complex phenomenon related to undernutrition that can contribute to developmental delay, cognitive deficits, and small size and obesity in adulthood. Stunted growth, defined as height for age below the 5th percentile, is primarily caused by chronic malnutrition. In this study, a community-based intervention to reduce undernutrition was tested in a quasi-experimental design with 174 low-income, Mexican-American mothers and children recruited from a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic in a major southwestern city. The intervention was based on the public health nursing practice of collaborating with mothers of young children on appropriate nutrition and parenting, and was tailored by the author and community informants for mothers of children with stunted growth. Data were collected on child height and weight, dietary intake, maternal acculturation, maternal perceived stress as measured by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), home environment as measured by the home screening questionnaire (HSQ), and maternal-child interaction as measured by the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS). Intervention children had higher growth velocity than the children in the comparison group. These findings were especially prominent for children of women who were older and less acculturated. Results suggest that a nursing intervention delivered in collaboration with WIC can make a significant improvement in growth of low-income children with growth stunting. PMID:26915468

  16. My child at mealtime: A visually enhanced self-assessment of feeding styles for low-income parents of preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Ontai, Lenna L; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shilts, Mical K; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2016-04-01

    The importance of caregiver feeding styles on children's dietary outcomes is well documented. However, the instruments used to assess feeding style are limited by high literacy demands, making selfassessment with low-income audiences challenging. The purpose of the current study is to report on the development of My Child at Mealtime (MCMT), a self-assessment tool with reduced literacy demands, designed to measure feeding styles with parents of preschool-aged children. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 44 Head Start parents of 2-5 year old children to develop question wording and identify appropriate visuals. The resulting tool was administered to 119 ethnically diverse, low-income parents of 2-5 year old children. Factor analysis resulted in a two-factor structure that reflects responsiveness and demandingness in a manner consistent with existing assessment tools. Results indicate the final visually enhanced MCMT self-assessment tool provides a measure of parenting style consistent with existing measures, while reducing the literacy demand. PMID:26743352

  17. State-by-state analysis of the employment impacts of low-income weatherization programs

    SciTech Connect

    Rodberg, L.S.

    1983-01-01

    The report analyzes the state-by-state employment impact of spending the entire amount of each state's grant on weatherizing the homes of low-income families through the DOE Low-Income Weatherization Program. It estimates the potential number of work years on employment in support industries and the conventional energy sector. It also estimates the multiplier effect of the savings achieved and the multi-year employment impact of energy conservation measures. The report finds that the states could create over 710,000 work-years of employment by devoting the entire share of the $1.5 billion Exxon distribution to low-income weatherization during the 20-year life of the investments. The responding of energy savings over the 20-year period will generate five new jobs for every job created in the initial year of direct and indirect spending. 6 references, 4 tables.

  18. Visceral Adiposity and Anthropometric Indicators as Screening Tools of Metabolic Syndrome among Low Income Rural Adults in Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shu-xia; Zhang, Xiang-hui; Zhang, Jing-yu; He, Jia; Yan, Yi-zhong; Ma, Jiao-long; Ma, Ru-lin; Guo, Heng; Mu, La-ti; Li, Shu-gang; Niu, Qiang; Rui, Dong-sheng; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jia-ming; Wang, Kui; Xu, Shang-zhi; Gao, Xiang; Ding, Yu-song

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies on metabolic syndrome (MetS) examined urban and high income settings. We thus investigated the prevalence of MetS among a multi-ethnic population living in a low income rural area and explored the use of visceral adiposity and anthropometric indicators to identify men and women with MetS. We recruited 10,029 individuals of nomadic Kazakhs, rural Uyghur and Han residents in Xinjiang, China. MetS was defined by the Joint Interim Statement criteria. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to compare the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of each index. The age-adjusted prevalence of MetS was 21.8%. The visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), body adiposity index (BAI) and the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were significantly associated with MetS, independent of ethnic, age, and other covariates. The AUC of VAI, LAP and WHtR were all greater than 0.7, and the LAP was the index that most accurately identified MetS status in men (AUC = 0.853) and women (AUC = 0.817), with the optimal cut-offs of 34.7 and 27.3, respectively. In conclusion, the prevalence of MetS in low income rural adults of Xinjiang was high and the LAP was an effective indicator for the screening of MetS. PMID:27782221

  19. Pediatric Teleradiology in Low-Income Settings and the Areas for Future Research in Teleradiology

    PubMed Central

    Andronikou, Savvas

    2014-01-01

    Teleradiology is an established mechanism to overcome the lack of on-site radiologists and can benefit children in developing countries. In this “perspective” on teleradiology for pediatric care in underdeveloped countries, three low-cost teleradiology programs are discussed from experiences of one teleradiologist, in relation to previous publications on this subject. Key issues discussed include mechanisms for sustainability, cost-effectiveness, resources, and barriers to success. Reliance on each link of a telereading chain is highlighted as a constant source for concern. PMID:25191651

  20. No Excuses: Seven Principals of Low-Income Schools Who Set the Standard for High Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Samuel Casey

    The Salvatori Prize for American Citizenship is given annually by The Heritage Foundation to recognize extraordinary efforts by American citizens who are helping their communities solve problems the government has been unable to solve. The 1999 Salvatori Prize has been awarded to seven principals who prove that there is no excuse for the failure…

  1. Innovating healthcare delivery to address noncommunicable diseases in low-income settings: the example of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Piot, Peter; Aerts, Ann; Wood, David A; Lamptey, Peter; Oti, Samuel; Connell, Kenneth; Dorairaj, Prabhakaran; Boufford, Jo I; Caldwell, Aya; Perel, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    London Dialogue event, The Hospital Club, 24 Endell St, London, WC2H 9HQ, London, UK, 1 December 2015 Hypertension is a global health issue causing almost 10 million deaths annually, with a disproportionate number occurring in low- and middle-income countries. The condition can be managed effectively, but there is a need for innovation in healthcare delivery to alleviate its burden. This paper presents a number of innovative delivery models from a number of different countries, including Kenya, Ghana, Barbados and India. These models were presented at the London Dialogue event, which was cohosted by the Novartis Foundation and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Centre for Global Noncommunicable Diseases on 1 December 2015. It is argued that these models are applicable not only to hypertension, but provide valuable lessons to address other noncommunicable diseases. PMID:27291058

  2. The built environment and obesity among low-income preschool children.

    PubMed

    Salois, Matthew J

    2012-05-01

    In spite of the evidence that adult obesity is influenced by environmental factors, the influence of the environment on childhood obesity remains under-investigated. This paper examines the association of the built environment with the prevalence of obesity in low-income preschool children. Built environment indicators include measures relating to food choice and physical activity. The relationship of the environment with childhood obesity is further stratified by urban-rural location. Overall, the built environment is associated with the prevalence of obesity in low-income preschool children, although the impact of the environment is affected by urban-rural status. Results imply broad-scope for community-level interventions.

  3. Inclusion or exclusion? Exploring barriers to employment for low-income older adults.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Keith A; Richardson, Virginia E; Fields, Noelle L; Harootyan, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Faced with economic uncertainty and declining retirement security, older adults have increasingly tried to remain in, or return to, the workforce in recent years. Unfortunately, a host of factors, such as ageism and changing skill requirements, present challenges for older adults seeking employment. Low-income older adults, in particular, may lack necessary education and skills and have limited access to job opportunities and training. In this review, we examine factors that inhibit and support employment for low-income older adults and explore the role of social work in facilitating their inclusion in the workforce.

  4. The importance of Leadership towards universal health coverage in Low Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Gonani, A; Muula, A S

    2015-03-01

    Universal health coverage--defined as access to the full range of the most appropriate health care and technology for all people at the lowest possible price or with social health protection--was the goal of the 1978 Alma-Ata Conference on Primary Health Care in Kazakhstan. Many low-income (developing) countries are currently unable to reach this goal despite having articulated the same in their health-related documents. In this paper we argue that, over 30 years on, inadequate political and technical leadership has prevented the realization of universal health coverage in low-income countries. PMID:26137197

  5. Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers in a Changing Regulatory Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Brockway, N.

    2001-05-21

    As the electric industry goes through a transformation to a more market-driven model, traditional grounds for utility energy efficiency have come under fire, undermining the existing mechanisms to fund and deliver such services. The challenge, then, is to understand why the electric industry should sustain investments in helping low-income Americans use electricity efficiently, how such investments should be made, and how these policies can become part of the new electric industry structure. This report analyzes the opportunities and barriers to leveraging electric utility energy efficiency assistance to low-income customers during the transition of the electric industry to greater competition.

  6. Pregnancy and Intimate Partner Violence: How do Rural, Low-Income Women Cope?

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F.; Anderson, Kim M.; Danis, Fran S.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted thirty-two in-depth interviews with 20 rural, low-income, women residing in the United States, who were pregnant (n =12) or three months postpartum (n =8) and had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Using purposive sampling and the grounded theory method, the authors generated a conceptual model of coping. The urge to protect the unborn baby was the primary influence for participants’ decisions about separating from or permanently leaving an abusive relationship. Implications include universal screening for IPV in child-bearing women, inquiry into maternal identity development during pregnancy, and improved resource access for rural, low-income women. PMID:21834721

  7. Low-income energy policy in a restructuring electricity industry: an assessment of federal options

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.W.

    1997-07-01

    This report identifies both the low-income energy services historically provided in the electricity industry and those services that may be affected by industry restructuring. It identifies policies that are being proposed or could be developed to address low- income electricity services in a restructured industry. It discusses potential federal policy options and identifies key policy and implementation issues that arise when considering these potential federal initiatives. To understand recent policy development at the state level, we reviewed restructuring proposals from eight states and the accompanying testimony and comments filed in restructuring proceedings in these states.

  8. The importance of Leadership towards universal health coverage in Low Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Gonani, A; Muula, A S

    2015-03-01

    Universal health coverage--defined as access to the full range of the most appropriate health care and technology for all people at the lowest possible price or with social health protection--was the goal of the 1978 Alma-Ata Conference on Primary Health Care in Kazakhstan. Many low-income (developing) countries are currently unable to reach this goal despite having articulated the same in their health-related documents. In this paper we argue that, over 30 years on, inadequate political and technical leadership has prevented the realization of universal health coverage in low-income countries.

  9. A toolkit for e-health partnerships in low-income nations.

    PubMed

    Tierney, William M; Kanter, Andrew S; Fraser, Hamish S F; Bailey, Christopher

    2010-02-01

    Collecting, managing, and communicating information is a critical part of delivering high-quality, efficient health care. Low-income countries often lack the information technology that is taking root in developed countries to manage health data and work toward evidence-based practice and culture. Partnerships between academic and government institutions in high- and low-income countries can help establish health informatics programs. These programs, in turn, can capture and manage data that are useful to all parties. Several partnerships among academic institutions and public and private organizations, in areas such as sub-Saharan Africa, Haiti, and Peru, are leading the way.

  10. Failure to Apply for Ethical Approval for Health Studies in Low-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Simkhada, Padam

    2015-01-01

    On too many occasions researchers conduct public health and/or epidemiological studies in low-income countries without the appropriate in-country ethical approval. This article reflects on some of the underlying reasons for not applying for ethical approval. The piece concludes that we need to start by educating our (junior) researchers and research students about the importance of research ethics. We conclude with a number of recommendations for researchers, scientific journal editors and reviewers and ethical committees in high-income countries to bring the message home to researchers that ethical approval should be sought in low-income countries if and when required! PMID:26913212

  11. Risky business: managing the health care of urban low-income families.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, K K

    1995-07-01

    The article examines the managed care movement and its threat of neglecting the public health needs of particular populations. Case studies and service parameters of an urban perinatal home visiting program exemplify the health and illness needs of low-income families and the urgent need for nursing representation at managed care planning forums. Client, provider, planner, and environmental characteristics that will contribute to the financial risks or health successes of managed care organizations are discussed. One potential risky design for low-income urban populations is described. Nursing input into the design and implementation of managed care programs is advocated. PMID:7601883

  12. Patients' understanding of shared decision making in a mental health setting.

    PubMed

    Eliacin, Johanne; Salyers, Michelle P; Kukla, Marina; Matthias, Marianne S

    2015-05-01

    Shared decision making is a fundamental component of patient-centered care and has been linked to positive health outcomes. Increasingly, researchers are turning their attention to shared decision making in mental health; however, few studies have explored decision making in these settings from patients' perspectives. We examined patients' accounts and understanding of shared decision making. We analyzed interviews from 54 veterans receiving outpatient mental health care at a Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center in the United States. Although patients' understanding of shared decision making was consistent with accounts published in the literature, participants reported that shared decision making goes well beyond these components. They identified the patient-provider relationship as the bedrock of shared decision making and highlighted several factors that interfere with shared decision making. Our findings highlight the importance of the patient-provider relationship as a fundamental element of shared decision making and point to areas for potential improvement.

  13. How low-income mothers with overweight preschool children make sense of obesity.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Cayce C; Sherman, Susan N; Whitaker, Robert C

    2010-04-01

    Epidemiologic and qualitative studies have found that most mothers with overweight preschool children do not think their children are overweight. This might present a challenge for clinicians who wish to address obesity in young children. To understand mothers' perceptions of their overweight children's weight, we conducted semistructured interviews with 21 mothers of overweight preschool children enrolled in Kentucky's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Although these mothers did not label their children as overweight, they were worried about children's weight, particularly as it related to their emotional well-being. These worries about obesity were reflected in three central tensions that shaped the way mothers perceived their children's weight and informed maternal feeding strategies: (a) nature vs. nurture, (b) medical authority vs. lived experience, and (c) relieving immediate stress vs. preventing long-term consequences. Acknowledging mothers' concerns and tensions might help clinicians communicate more effectively with them about obesity.

  14. Making College Possible for Low-Income Students: Grant and Scholarship Aid in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Improving college access and completion is vital to California's economic well-being. Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC) projections show that the state will need one million more college graduates with a bachelor's degree by 2025 in order to satisfy labor force demand. As the costs of attending college have grown, grant and scholarship…

  15. How low-income mothers with overweight preschool children make sense of obesity.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Cayce C; Sherman, Susan N; Whitaker, Robert C

    2010-04-01

    Epidemiologic and qualitative studies have found that most mothers with overweight preschool children do not think their children are overweight. This might present a challenge for clinicians who wish to address obesity in young children. To understand mothers' perceptions of their overweight children's weight, we conducted semistructured interviews with 21 mothers of overweight preschool children enrolled in Kentucky's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Although these mothers did not label their children as overweight, they were worried about children's weight, particularly as it related to their emotional well-being. These worries about obesity were reflected in three central tensions that shaped the way mothers perceived their children's weight and informed maternal feeding strategies: (a) nature vs. nurture, (b) medical authority vs. lived experience, and (c) relieving immediate stress vs. preventing long-term consequences. Acknowledging mothers' concerns and tensions might help clinicians communicate more effectively with them about obesity. PMID:20147505

  16. Education Tax Credits: Refundability Critical to Making Credits Helpful to Low-Income Students and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Katherine; Lower-Basch, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Half of all non-loan federal student aid is now offered as tax benefits for educational costs in the form of credits, deductions, and college savings accounts. These benefits help students and families offset the costs of their postsecondary education with tax savings. Yet, as explained in the 2013 report, "Reforming Student Aid: How to…

  17. Effectiveness of the Engagement and Counseling for Latinos (ECLA) Intervention in Low-Income Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Ludman, Evette; Kafali, Nilay; Lapatin, Sheri; Vila, Doriliz; Shrout, Patrick E.; Keefe, Kristen; Cook, Benjamin; Ault, Andrea; Li, Xinliang; Bauer, Amy; Epelbaum, Claudia; Alcantara, Carmela; Pineda, Tulia Inés Guerra; Tejera, Gloria Gonzalez; Suarez, Gloria; Leon, Karla; Lessios, Anna S.; Ramirez, Rafael R; Canino, Glorisa

    2014-01-01

    Background Persistent disparities in access and quality of mental health care for Latinos indicate a need for evidence-based, culturally adapted and outside-the-clinic-walls treatments. Objective Evaluate treatment effectiveness of telephone (ECLA –T) or face-to-face (ECLA-F) delivery of a 6–8 session cognitive behavioral therapy and care-management intervention for low-income Latinos, as compared to usual care for depression. Design Multi-site randomized controlled trial. Setting Eight community health clinics in Boston, Massachusetts and San Juan, Puerto Rico. Participants 257 Latino patients recruited from primary care between May 2011 and September 2012. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was severity of depression, assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-20 (HSCL-20). The secondary outcome was functioning over the previous 30 days, measured using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS 2.0). Results Both telephone and face-to-face versions of the ECLA were more effective than usual care. The effect sizes of both intervention conditions on PHQ-9 were moderate when combined data from both sites are analyzed (.56 and .64 for face-to-face and telephone, respectively). Similarly, effect sizes of ECLA-F and ECLA-T on the HSCL were quite large in the Boston site (.64 and .73. respectively) but not in Puerto Rico (.10 and .03). Conclusions and Relevance The intervention appears to help Latino patients reduce depressive symptoms and improve functioning. Of particular importance is the higher treatment initiation for the telephone vs. face-to-face intervention (89.7% vs. 78.8%), which suggests that telephone-based care may improve access and quality of care. PMID:25310525

  18. Low-Income Adolescent Fathers: Risk for Parenthood and Risky Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2005-01-01

    The authors report findings from the Father Involvement with Toddlers Study (FITS) of low-income fathers. The study sought to learn about biological fathers and father figures of children eligible for Early Head Start (EHS). FITS data suggest that, compared to older fathers, teen fathers are more highly invested in their children, enjoy…

  19. Talking about Corporal Punishment: Nine Low-Income African American Mothers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ispa, J.M.; Halgunseth, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative interviews conducted over the course of 5 years with nine young low-income African American mothers were analyzed in order to gain understanding of their perspectives on corporal punishment. All used corporal punishment with their children. Results pertain to the vocabulary mothers used to describe corporal punishment (pop, tap, whup,…

  20. Parenting and Preschool Child Development: Examination of Three Low-Income U.S. Cultural Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    We examined the impact of parenting behaviors on preschool children's social development in low-income families from three cultural groups: European American (n = 286), African American (n = 399), and Hispanic American (n = 164) using Spanish as the primary language in the home. Observed parenting behaviors of stimulation, responsivity, and…

  1. Transitions to Engagement among Low-Income Cohabiting African American Couples: A Family Perspective for Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Cassandra; Monroe, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    With passage of the Welfare Reform Law of 1996, various national, state, and local programs were created to encourage marriage, particularly among low-income African American cohabiting couples with children. However, policy makers know little about the deterrents to marriage for members of this group. More specifically, there is a lack of data…

  2. A Mobile Farmers' Market Brings Nutrition Education to Low-Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, Devin; Ernst, Jenny; Snelling, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of a nutrition-education intervention delivered at low-income middle schools in Washington, DC in the USA, using a mobile farmers' market to bring hands-on lessons to schools. The program was a partnership between a local farm and university and was funded by the United States Department…

  3. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Expanding College Opportunities for High-Achieving, Low Income Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of providing low-income, high-achieving high school seniors with college application guidance and information about the costs of college. The "application guidance" included information about deadlines and requirements for college applications at nearby institutions, at the state's flagship institution, and at in-…

  4. Home Literacy Beliefs and Practices among Low-Income Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Heather S.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn; Saenz, Laura M.; Soares, Denise A.; Resendez, Nora; Zhu, Leina; Hagan-Burke, Shanna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore within-group patterns of variability in the home literacy environments (HLEs) of low-income Latino families using latent profile analysis. Participants were (N = 193) families of Latino preschoolers enrolled in a larger study. In the fall of 2012, mothers filled out a family literacy practices inventory, a…

  5. Dual-Language Education for Low-Income Children: Preliminary Evidence of Benefits for Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Alena G.; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    This investigation is an initial examination of possible enhancement of executive function through a dual-language (50:50) education model. The ethnically diverse, low-income sample of 120 children from Grades K, 2, and 4 consisted of approximately equal numbers of children enrolled in dual-language and traditional classrooms. Dual-language…

  6. Prediction of cardiovascular disease risk among low-income urban dwellers in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Bulgiba, Awang; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to predict the ten-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among low-income urban dwellers of metropolitan Malaysia. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kuala Lumpur. To assess the 10-year CVD risk, we employed the Framingham risk scoring (FRS) models. Significant determinants of the ten-year CVD risk were identified using General Linear Model (GLM). Altogether 882 adults (≥30 years old with no CVD history) were randomly selected. The classic FRS model (figures in parentheses are from the modified model) revealed that 20.5% (21.8%) and 38.46% (38.9%) of respondents were at high and moderate risk of CVD. The GLM models identified the importance of education, occupation, and marital status in predicting the future CVD risk. Our study indicated that one out of five low-income urban dwellers has high chance of having CVD within ten years. Health care expenditure, other illness related costs and loss of productivity due to CVD would worsen the current situation of low-income urban population. As such, the public health professionals and policy makers should establish substantial effort to formulate the public health policy and community-based intervention to minimize the upcoming possible high mortality and morbidity due to CVD among the low-income urban dwellers. PMID:25821810

  7. Influence of a Supervised Mentoring Program on the Achievement of Low-Income South Korean Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sumi; Lemberger, Matthew E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a supervised mentoring program designed to improve the academic achievement of 834 low-income elementary and secondary school students in Seoul, South Korea. When compared to the control group, both elementary and middle school students exposed to the mentoring program improved in mathematic and reading…

  8. Are College Faculty and First-Generation, Low-Income Students Ready for Each Other?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schademan, Alfred R.; Thompson, Maris R.

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing current research on college readiness as well as the role of cultural agents as a conceptual framework, this qualitative study investigates student and faculty beliefs about readiness and the pedagogical practices that allow instructors to effectively serve as cultural agents for first-generation, low-income students. Three major…

  9. The Role of Smoking in the Lives of Low-Income Pregnant Adolescents: A Field Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Erma Jean

    1994-01-01

    Examined role of cigarette smoking in lives of low-income, pregnant adolescents (n=20). Findings indicated that subjects smoked to cope with increased weight gain; to deliver smaller infants which in turn would decrease duration of labor and reduce pain of delivery; and to establish identity separate from their parents' and peers' drug abuse.…

  10. A Phenomenological Study to Discover Low-Income Adults' Perceptions and Expectations Regarding Financial Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Brigid Ann

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the perceptions and expectations of low income adults regarding financial literacy to discover ways to increase attendance in financial literacy programs designs for this cohort. The study utilized interviews with closed-ended questions to establish the participants' backgrounds, then opened-ended questions to…

  11. The Newsletter as a Communication Medium in Teaching Low-Income Homemakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Efionayi, Joseph Aibangbee

    The objectives of this study were to determine the sources from which low-income families generally receive information about nutrition, to determine the extent to which the participants acquired knowledge of nutrition principles as taught through a newsletter, and also to find out their attitude towards the publication as a medium of nutritional…

  12. Uncontrolled Destinies: Improving Opportunity for Low-Income Students in American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engberg, Mark E.; Allen, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing the current administration's focus on improving postsecondary access, this study examines resource allocation patterns and the predictive power of these resources in increasing the likelihood of 2- and 4-year college enrollment among low-income students. Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study, college choice decision-making…

  13. "Becoming" Effective: Lessons from One State's Reform Initiative in Schools Serving Low-Income Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Karen Johannesen; Groth, Cori

    2003-01-01

    Examined the change process in 54 schools serving diverse, low-income students over four years as they strove to become more effective. Case study data highlighted distinct differences in the approach to reform among schools. Schools in which adults perceived a real opportunity to improve students' academic circumstances were able to transform…

  14. Does Maternal Employment Following Childbirth Support or Inhibit Low-Income Children's Long-Term Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed whether previous findings linking early maternal employment to lower cognitive and behavioral skills among middle-class and White children generalized to other groups. Using a representative sample of urban, low-income, predominantly African American and Hispanic families ("n" = 444), ordinary least squares regression and…

  15. Low-Income Immigrant Pupils Learning Vocabulary through Digital Picture Storybooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhallen, Marian J. A. J.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2010-01-01

    Children from immigrant, low-income families in the Netherlands start school with a limited vocabulary in the language of instruction; therefore, this places them at risk for developing reading difficulties. Exposure to books is assumed to reduce their 2nd language (L2) vocabulary disadvantage. In this experiment, we examined the effects of video…

  16. Individual and Contextual Predictors of Perceived Friendship Quality among Ethnic Minority, Low-Income Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Niobe; Pahl, Kerstin

    2001-01-01

    This study examined contributions of demographic, individual-level, and contextual factors on changes in perceived quality of general and closest same-sex friendships among 114 Asian American, Black, and Latino adolescents from low-income families. Findings suggested a compensatory model of relationships and drew attention to the importance of…

  17. The Persistence Pyramid: Factors Related to Persistence for Low-Income Students in Baccalaureate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opatz, Leslie Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Low-income students earn bachelor's degrees at significantly lower rates than their high-income peers. This qualitative study interviewed 21 Fall 2008 full-time first-year Pell Grant recipients in May 2012 when almost all were near the point of baccalaureate degree completion at a large urban doctoral-granting institution with very high research…

  18. Establishing Independence in Low-Income Urban Areas: The Relationship to Adolescent Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Kathleen M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Chilcoat, Howard; Storr, Carla

    2003-01-01

    Examines the association between independent roles occurring within different contexts (e.g. family, peer, work) and aggressive behavior among 516 low-income, urban middle school students. Overall, adolescent employment is related to increases in aggressive behavior. Greater engagement in familial independent roles is associated with decreased…

  19. Nutrient contribution of the dinner meal consumed by low-income minority preschool children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to examine the energy and nutrient intake of dinner of low-income preschool minority groups, African-Americans and Mexican-Americans, attending Head Start. A cross-sectional study of intake at dinner using digital photography was undertaken. Pictorial records were converte...

  20. Suicide and poverty in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Iemmi, Valentina; Bantjes, Jason; Coast, Ernestina; Channer, Kerrie; Leone, Tiziana; McDaid, David; Palfreyman, Alexis; Stephens, Bevan; Lund, Crick

    2016-08-01

    Suicide is the 15th leading cause of death worldwide, with over 75% of suicides occurring in low-income and middle-income countries. Nonetheless, evidence on the association between suicide and poverty in low-income and middle-income countries is scarce. We did a systematic review to understand the association between suicidal ideations and behaviours and economic poverty in low-income and middle-income countries. We included studies testing the association between suicidal ideations and behaviours and economic poverty in low-income and middle-income countries using bivariate or multivariate analysis and published in English between January, 2004, and April, 2014. We identified 37 studies meeting these inclusion criteria. In 18 studies reporting the association between completed suicide and poverty, 31 associations were explored. The majority reported a positive association. Of the 20 studies reporting on the relationship between non-fatal suicidal ideations and behaviours and poverty, 36 associations were explored. Again, almost all studies reported a positive association. However, when considering each poverty dimension separately, we found substantial variations. These findings show a consistent trend at the individual level indicating that poverty, particularly in the form of worse economic status, diminished wealth, and unemployment is associated with suicidal ideations and behaviours. At the country level, there are insufficient data to draw clear conclusions. Available data show a potential benefit in addressing economic poverty within suicide prevention strategies, with particular attention to both chronic poverty and acute economic events. PMID:27475770

  1. Can Low-income Americans Afford to Satisfy MyPyramid Fruit and Vegetable Guidelines?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Hayden; Hyman, Jeffrey; Frazao, Elizabeth; Buzby, Jean C.; Carlson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the costs of satisfying MyPyramid fruit and vegetable guidelines, with a focus on whether low-income households can bear these costs. Design: Descriptive analysis of the 2008 National Consumer Panel with information on the food purchases of 64,440 households across the contiguous United States was used to analyze the cost of…

  2. Effects of Employment on Persistence of Low-Income, First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamiseishvili, Ketevan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of employment on first-to-second-year persistence of low-income, first-generation college students. Using the data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/06), the analysis indicated that the role orientation to academics versus to work was the strongest predictor of…

  3. Asthma Management among Low-Income Latino and African American Families of Infants and Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Karel; Chesla, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    To discover the underlying understandings that organize how low-income Latino and African American parents of infants and toddlers with severe persistent asthma manage symptoms in their children, 11 families with children 12-48 months old and recently hospitalized with asthma were interviewed over 3-6 months. Interpretive phenomenology was used to…

  4. Nonstandard Schedules and Young Children's Behavioral Outcomes among Working Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Pamela; Bogen, Karen

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on how maternal employment in nonstandard schedules at night, on the weekends, or that rotate on a weekly basis influence preschoolers' behavioral outcomes. Examining low-income working mothers and their children aged 2-4 years from the Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study (N = 206), we find that maternal…

  5. Modeling exposures to organophosphates and pyrethroids for children living in an urban low-income environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticide exposure in urban low-income residential environments may be elevated as a result of persistent application due to severe pest infestation. Children living in this environment may be a sensitive subpopulation for these non-dietary exposures, due to their physiological a...

  6. Reaching Out to Help Low Income Parents Foster Their Young Children's Literacy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Derek

    A study examined the effectiveness of the West Heidelberg (Australia) Early Literacy Project (WHELP), which helps low income and working class parents develop the literacy skills of their 4-year-old children by, among other things, reading regularly to them. The project developed through three phases with three different methods of delivering…

  7. Low-Income Mothers' Food Practices with Young Children: A Qualitative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Jeni; Dickson, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Young children living in socioeconomically deprived areas of Scotland have an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese. To enhance understanding of the wider contexts within which family food practices are developed, this study examined the experiences of low-income mothers with young children. Design: Qualitative longitudinal…

  8. 42 CFR 423.34 - Enrollment of low-income subsidy eligible individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BENEFIT Eligibility and Enrollment § 423.34 Enrollment of low-income subsidy eligible individuals. (a... who fail to enroll in a Part D plan. (b) Definitions—Full-benefit dual-eligible individual. For purposes of this section, a full-benefit dual eligible individual means an individual who is—...

  9. Patient and Clinical Site Factors Associated with Rescreening Behavior Among Older Multiethnic, Low-Income Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Patrick; Arnsberger, Pamela; Owens, Desi; Nussey, Brenda; Zhang, Xiluan; Golding, Jacqueline M.; Tabnak, Farzaneh; Otero-Sabogal, Regina

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Our goal was to identify factors predictive of mammography rescreening within 18 months of baseline screening in multiethnic, low-income older women. Design and Methods: We interviewed a cross-sectional survey of staff of 102 randomly selected clinics that provided screening and diagnostic services. We also surveyed a random sample of 391…

  10. Early College Can Boost College Success Rates for Low-Income, First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndiaye, Mamadou; Wolfe, Rebecca E.

    2016-01-01

    Early college high school models are designed to encourage and assist traditionally underrepresented groups of students- low income, Latino, and African-American- to persist in and graduate from high school while earning college credit. Some of the models target high school dropouts, with the aim of helping them acquire the education and training…

  11. Intensive College Counseling and the College Enrollment Choices of Low Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleman, Benjamin L.; Goodman, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    While college enrollment among low-income students has increased steadily over the last decade, the share of students from the lowest-income families that enroll in college continues to lag considerably behind college entry rates among the highest income students. Furthermore, gaps in college completion by family income have only widened over…

  12. School Readiness among Low-Income Black Children: Family Characteristics, Parenting, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bono, Katherine E.; Sy, Susan R.; Kopp, Claire B.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the associations between family variables and academic and social school readiness in low-income Black children. Analyses drew from the National Institute for Child Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development dataset. The participants included 122 children and their mothers. Data collection occurred…

  13. Dual Utilization of Medical Services by Low Income Latino Families: An Exploratory Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Merilyn

    1985-01-01

    Interviews with 50 low income family members who used two health care providers--Kaiser Health Maintenance Organization and La Clinica de La Raza--were used to study how cost, need, access, services, and culture affected choice of provider. Cultural affinity seemed to influence decisions to use and pay for La Clinica's services. (JHZ)

  14. Low-Income Children, Their Families and the Great Recession: What Next in Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aber, Lawrence; Chaudry, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Children and youth vary in their developmental health due to differences in family economic security and exposure to toxic stress. The economic downturn has increased the challenges facing low-income children. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) and the President's first budget made significant down-payments on investments in…

  15. Battered Agency Syndrome: The Challenge to Agencies Serving Low-Income Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Diane; Lally, J. Ronald; Quiett, Douglas

    Community-based social service agencies working in low-income communities increasingly function with inadequate support and encounter numerous oppressive external and internal conditions that compromise organizational and staff well-being. Working with many such agencies, WestEd identified stressors that included funding problems, unrealistic…

  16. Validation of the Employment Hope Scale: Measuring Psychological Self-Sufficiency among Low-Income Jobseekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Philip Young P.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The Employment Hope scale (EHS) was designed to measure the empowerment-based self-sufficiency (SS) outcome among low-income job-seeking clients. This measure captures the psychological SS dimension as opposed to the more commonly used economic SS in workforce development and employment support practice. The study validates the EHS and…

  17. Ecocultural Patterns of Family Engagement among Low-Income Latino Families of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWayne, Christine M.; Melzi, Gigliana; Limlingan, Maria Cristina; Schick, Adina

    2016-01-01

    For the 5 million low-income Latino children in the United States who are disproportionately impacted by the numerous risk factors associated with poverty, it is essential to identify proximal protective factors that mitigate these risks and bolster the academic and social skills that are foundational to a successful transition into formal…

  18. The Rhetoric of College Application Essays: Removing Obstacles for Low Income and Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, James

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on the college application essay has shown that essay prompts are misleading, and that the expectations of admissions officers remain largely implicit. These studies have not, however, examined how essays written by low-income, ethnic minority students are scored by admissions officers. For this study, forty-two seniors at a…

  19. Need Analysis and Tuition Discounting: Do Institutional Grants Still Help Low-Income Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2001-01-01

    The Director of Research of the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators examines how tuition discounting is affecting the neediest students. Results suggest that a large share of institutional aid dollars are still being distributed to low-income undergraduates, despite the rise in merit- and other non-need-based grants. (EV)

  20. Feminist Relational Advocacy: Processes and Outcomes from the Perspective of Low-Income Women with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Lisa A.; Glenn, Catherine; Bohlig, Amanda; Banyard, Victoria; Borges, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study of how low-income women who are struggling with symptoms of depression experience feminist relational advocacy, a new model that is informed by feminist, multicultural, and community psychology theories. Using qualitative content analysis of participant interviews, the authors describe the processes and…

  1. Prediction of cardiovascular disease risk among low-income urban dwellers in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Bulgiba, Awang; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to predict the ten-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among low-income urban dwellers of metropolitan Malaysia. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kuala Lumpur. To assess the 10-year CVD risk, we employed the Framingham risk scoring (FRS) models. Significant determinants of the ten-year CVD risk were identified using General Linear Model (GLM). Altogether 882 adults (≥30 years old with no CVD history) were randomly selected. The classic FRS model (figures in parentheses are from the modified model) revealed that 20.5% (21.8%) and 38.46% (38.9%) of respondents were at high and moderate risk of CVD. The GLM models identified the importance of education, occupation, and marital status in predicting the future CVD risk. Our study indicated that one out of five low-income urban dwellers has high chance of having CVD within ten years. Health care expenditure, other illness related costs and loss of productivity due to CVD would worsen the current situation of low-income urban population. As such, the public health professionals and policy makers should establish substantial effort to formulate the public health policy and community-based intervention to minimize the upcoming possible high mortality and morbidity due to CVD among the low-income urban dwellers.

  2. Peer Social Networks among Low-Income Students at an Elite College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines peer social networks among low-income students at an elite college. A qualitative case study used semistructured individual interviews to consider how peer social networks are constructed and developed, the importance of these networks, and which institutional facilitators promote and inhibit same- and cross-class peer social…

  3. Assessing the Productive Vocabulary of Spanish-English Bilingual Toddlers from Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Pan, Barbara Alexander; Vagh, Shaher Banu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the utility and validity of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) for use with low-income parents and their 24- to 36-month-old Spanish-English bilingual children (n = 79). Issues in the interpretation of the integrated CDI/Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (IDHC) score to index…

  4. Factors Influencing the General Well-Being of Low-Income Korean Immigrant Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Yoon, Dong Pil

    2011-01-01

    This study explores factors that influence the general well-being (anxiety, depression, positive well-being, self-control, vitality, and general health) of low-income Korean immigrant elders by interviewing 206 older adults living in Los Angeles County and Orange County, California. Ordinary least squares regression results reveal that lack of…

  5. Living alongside more affluent neighbors predicts greater involvement in antisocial behavior among low-income boys

    PubMed Central

    Odgers, Candice L.; Donley, Sachiko; Caspi, Avshalom; Bates, Christopher J.; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The creation of economically mixed communities has been proposed as one way to improve the life outcomes of children growing up in poverty. However, whether low-income children benefit from living alongside more affluent neighbors is unknown. Method Prospectively gathered data on over 1,600 children from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study living in urban environments is used to test whether living alongside more affluent neighbors (measured via high-resolution geo-spatial indices) predicts low-income children’s antisocial behavior (reported by mothers and teachers at the ages of 5, 7, 10, and 12). Results Results indicated that low-income boys (but not girls) surrounded by more affluent neighbors had higher levels of antisocial behavior than their peers embedded in concentrated poverty. The negative effect of growing up alongside more affluent neighbors on low-income boys’ antisocial behavior held across childhood and after controlling for key neighborhood and family-level factors. Conclusions Findings suggest that efforts to create more economically mixed communities for children, if not properly supported, may have iatrogenic effects on boys’ antisocial behavior. PMID:25611118

  6. SOME PERSPECTIVES ON CHILD REARING PRACTICES AMONG URBAN LOW INCOME FAMILIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JEFFERS, CAMILLE

    BASED ON THE RESEARCH OF A PARTICIPANT-OBSERVER, THIS PAPER DESCRIBES THE CHILD REARING PRACTICES OF SOME LOW INCOME FAMILIES IN WASHINGTON, D.C. IT WAS FOUND THAT IN GENERAL BASIC PRIORITIES IN THE FAMILY WERE GIVEN TO FOOD, CLOTHING, AND RENT, AND THESE PRIORITIES AFFECTED THE MOTHER'S PERCEPTION OF HER CHILD'S NEEDS. THE MOTHERS SAW THEMSELVES…

  7. Improving the Transition Outcomes of Low-Income Minority Youth with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balcazar, Fabricio E.; Taylor-Ritzler, Tina; Dimpfl, Shawn; Portillo-Pena, Nelson; Guzman, Alberto; Schiff, Rachel; Murvay, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the results of a program developed to improve the transition outcomes of low-income minority youth with disabilities. The program relies on case management support to facilitate interagency collaboration. The participants included 164 graduates from special education and 26 youth from an equivalent comparison group. Two case…

  8. Motivations for Sex among Low-Income African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S.; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J. Barry; Eyre, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing ("n" = 20),…

  9. Playing Linear Numerical Board Games Promotes Low-Income Children's Numerical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.; Ramani, Geetha B.

    2008-01-01

    The numerical knowledge of children from low-income backgrounds trails behind that of peers from middle-income backgrounds even before the children enter school. This gap may reflect differing prior experience with informal numerical activities, such as numerical board games. Experiment 1 indicated that the numerical magnitude knowledge of…

  10. Improving Low-Income Parents' Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Their Potential to Impact Children's Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelip, Michael; Thai, Chan Le; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Slusser, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to test a comprehensive nutrition program developed specifically to target low-income parents of young school-aged children and determine whether the programme-resulted in changes in parents' knowledge, attitude, self-confidence, and behaviours related to both their and their child's nutrition in relation…

  11. Energy Conservation for Low-Income Households: The Evaporative Cooler Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge, Richard S.

    1988-01-01

    An econometric analysis, using a research design based on the nonequivalent control group (NECG), assessed the effectiveness of a program offering free evaporative coolers to low-income families owning air conditioners. The NECG controls for serious threats to internal validity, except for self-selection. The program successfully reduced energy…

  12. Math Matters: MDRC's Projects in Math for Low-Income Students, from Preschool to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDRC, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In an increasingly technological world, developing basic math skills is crucial. Headlines regularly be-moan the international ranking of American students on math proficiency, and students from low-income families do worse in math than their more affluent peers. The federal Bureau of Labor Statistics projects that employment in occupations…

  13. Enhancing Quality of Life in Low-Income Neighborhoods: Developing Equity-Oriented Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Janet C.

    1996-01-01

    Future physical activity practitioners need to be educated to be sensitive to the problem of socioeconomic inequality and motivated to contribute to social change. Direct community development experiences in low-income urban neighborhoods and rural areas can help raise consciousness, encourage reflection, and promote action for social change. (SM)

  14. Unlocking Emergent Talent: Supporting High Achievement of Low-Income, High Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Clarenbach, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This report takes a comprehensive look at achievement for low-income promising learners--past, present, and future. At its core, it challenges the nation to move beyond its near-singular focus of achieving minimum performance for all students, to identifying and developing the talent of all students who are capable of high achievement, including…

  15. Escaping Poverty: Rural Low-Income Mothers' Opportunity to Pursue Post-Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodford, Michelle; Mammen, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    Using human capital theory, this paper identifies the factors that may affect the opportunity for rural low-income mothers to pursue post-secondary education or training in order to escape poverty. Dependent variables used in the logistic regression model included micro-level household variables as well as the effects of state-wide welfare…

  16. Nutrition Education among Low-Income Older Adults: A Randomized Intervention Trial in Congregate Nutrition Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Roger E.; Ash, Sarah L.; McClelland, Jacquelyn W.

    2006-01-01

    Nutritional well-being among older adults is critical for maintaining health, increasing longevity, and decreasing the impact of chronic illness. However, few well-controlled studies have examined nutritional behavior change among low-income older adults. A prospective, controlled, randomized design examined a five session nutrition education…

  17. Dietary intake patterns of low-income urban African-American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Improper dietary intake pattern is a risk factor for chronic disease. Few studies have examined the multifaceted aspects of dietary intake of low-income, urban African American adolescents. Objective: This study aimed to describe dietary intake patterns including energy, nutrient, food g...

  18. Promoting Access to Postsecondary Education for Low-Income Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madaus, Joseph W.; Grigal, Meg; Hughes, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Few students with disabilities from high-poverty backgrounds attend college. We discuss the effects of disability and growing up in poverty on expectations for postsecondary education attendance. We describe the limiting effects of attending high-poverty high schools on student achievement followed by challenges faced by low-income students with…

  19. An integrated approach to low-income energy affordability for a restructured world

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, B.; Carroll, D.; Adams, B.; Ringhof, S.

    1998-07-01

    In the context of retail electric competition, various mechanisms have been proposed to address threats to low-income energy affordability. Most proposals include the use of ratepayer for (a) low-income bill payment support (e.g., rate discounts) and/or (b) energy efficiency programs specifically designated for low-income customers. An integrated approach to both energy efficiency and low-income bill payment is being tested in New Jersey. The program specifically targets payment-troubled customers and those with the lowest incomes. It combines a three-part approach to energy affordability: (1) deep and comprehensive gas and electric efficiency measures; (2) extensive customer energy education, with the goals of both (a) empowering participants with the skills and knowledge to gain control of their energy situation and (b) securing action commitment that the customer carries out as a partner to save energy and lower their utility bills; and (3) an affordable payment plan which includes extended payment of arrearages, partial arrearage forgiveness, and a bill discount for those in the lowest income tier who maintain their partnership obligations. This paper describes the E-Team Partners program design, presents preliminary impact evaluation results for the first 7,000 participants, and discusses the attributes of this model in a restructured environment.

  20. School-Based Management Committees in Low-Income Countries: Can They Improve Service Delivery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abadzi, Helen

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of school-based management, citizen committees in low-income countries or areas are often expected to oversee the functioning of schools, health centres, and other community resources. However, studies of their effectiveness show mixed results. Though members of such committees may be able to repair buildings, they often cannot…

  1. Educator Perceptions of Low-Income Elementary Students and Their Effects on Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenske, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    The correlation between income level and achievement has led some educators to believe that low-income students cannot learn at the same level as can middle-class and affluent peers. This problem is significant because as more families become impoverished, more students may be at risk for failure. Many studies have identified challenges facing…

  2. Early Maternal Language Use during Book Sharing in Families from Low-Income Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Linzy M.; Crais, Elizabeth; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha; Blair, Clancy; Burchinal, Peg; Crnic, Keith; Crouter, Ann; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Greenberg, Mark; Lanza, Stephanie; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Werner, Emily; Willoughby, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the language used by mothers from low-income and rural environments with their infants at ages 6 and 15 months to identify predictors of maternal language use at the 15-month time point. Method: Maternal language use by 82 mothers with their children was documented during book-sharing interactions within the home in a…

  3. Maternal Correlates of Growth in Toddler Vocabulary Production in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Barbara Alexander; Rowe, Meredith L.; Singer, Judith D.; Snow, Catherine E.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of growth in toddlers' vocabulary production between the ages of 1 and 3 years by analyzing mother-child communication in 108 low-income families. Individual growth modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in children's observed vocabulary production and predictors of initial status and between-person…

  4. Career Advancement for Low-Income Workers through Community College and Community-Based Organization Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Brandon

    An increasing number of community colleges (CCs) and community-based organizations (CBOs) are now working in partnership to develop education and training programs enabling low-income workers to gain the education and skills necessary to obtain higher-wage jobs and develop a foundation for lifelong learning and career advancement. The following…

  5. Reducing Situational Violence in Low-Income Couples by Fostering Healthy Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary Bradley, Renay P.; Gottman, John M.

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluated a psycho-educational intervention designed to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV) in low-income situationally violent couples. The primary objective was to evaluate the mechanism through which violence was reduced. It was hypothesized that IPV would be reduced via use of therapeutic skills taught during the intervention…

  6. Day Care Hopping: Stabilizing Day Care Options for Low-Income Mothers through Subsidies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drentea, Patricia; Durham, Suzanne; Mwaria, Mercie; Norman, Emily; Xi, Juan

    2004-01-01

    We examined how to allocate a subsidy to low-income women that would stabilize children in day care at a Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA). The subsidy is to alleviate day care hopping (i.e. when parents move from day care to day care) leaving unpaid tuitions at each place. Day care hopping is really a survival strategy for the working…

  7. Literacy Discussions in Low-Income Families: The Effect of Parent Questions on Fourth Graders' Retellings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capotosto, Lauren; Kim, James S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effects of four types of reading comprehension questions--immediate, non-immediate, summary, and unanswerable questions--that linguistically diverse and predominantly low-income parents asked their fourth graders on children's text retellings. One-hundred-twenty (N = 120) parent and child dyads participated in a home visit…

  8. Supporting Students beyond Financial Aid: Low-Income Students Need Support That Goes Beyond Tuition Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Low-income students face a number of obstacles that go beyond the cost of tuition and fees. For instance, their schooling often requires expenses that aren't covered by financial aid, such as books and commuting costs. What's more, education is often competing for their time with other responsibilities, such as the need to work or take care of…

  9. Empowering Instructional Practices of Technology Using Teachers of Low-Income African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuby Richardson, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to investigate the empowering instructional practices of three technology-using teachers in an elementary school populated by low-income African American students. The participants, from Ladson ES, had been teaching a variety of grade levels and had between six and ten years of experience. Over the course of six…

  10. The Impact of GEAR UP on College Readiness for Students in Low Income Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausmith, Jennifer Merriman; France, Megan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Program (GEAR UP) on college readiness outcomes using a quasi-experimental design. GEAR UP is designed to increase the number of low-income students who are prepared to enter and succeed in postsecondary education by providing 6-year…

  11. Management of severe acute malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kwashiorkor and marasmus, collectively termed severe acute malnutrition (SAM), account for at least 10% of all deaths among children under 5 years of age worldwide, virtually all of them in low-income and middle-income countries. A number of risk factors, including seasonal food insecurity, environm...

  12. The Summer Flood: The Invisible Gap among Low-Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Karen; Fleming, Shezwae; DeAnda, Mario; Castleman, Benjamin; Wartman, Katherine Lynk

    2009-01-01

    Despite national calls to conceptualize education as a continuous P-16 system, most high schools cease to serve their students at the point of graduation. For their part, colleges provide relatively few students with formal bridge programs during the summer transition between secondary and postsecondary education. Even among low-income students…

  13. Pathways to Boosting the Earnings of Low-Income Students by Increasing Their Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Louis; Mokher, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Attaining a post-secondary credential has become increasingly important for securing opportunities to get high-return jobs in the United States in the 21st century. Students from low-income families are underrepresented at every milestone in the educational pipeline, limiting their ability to attain post-secondary credentials and break the…

  14. A Number Sense Intervention for Low-Income Kindergartners at Risk for Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Nancy I.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Glutting, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Early number sense is a strong predictor of later success in school mathematics. A disproportionate number of children from low-income families come to first grade with weak number competencies, leaving them at risk for a cycle of failure. The present study examined the effects of an 8-week number sense intervention to develop number competencies…

  15. Maternal Age and Depressive Symptoms in a Low-Income Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, depressive symptoms of 2,011 European-American, African-American, and Latina low-income mothers at approximately 14 months after birth of the child were examined. Maternal age was used as a predictor of depressive symptoms. Overall, 31.9% of mothers were classified as depressed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression…

  16. Training Home Economics Program Assistants to Work with Low Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouls, Janalyce; And Others

    These materials are designed to present ideas for developing a program for training nonprofessional workers to help low income families to raise their aspirations, develop pride in homemaking, improve homemaking skills, have a more satisfying home and family life, improve the health of family members, gain knowledge to help children develop, and…

  17. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 6 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Young children under age 6 years appear to be particularly vulnerable, with 48 percent living in…

  18. How Low-Income Women Find Jobs and Its Effects on Earnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Data from a stratified random sample of 953 low-income urban women were analyzed to determine how they find jobs and the effect it has on subsequent earnings. Results show that although most find jobs through informal contacts, this has no effect on earnings. Those who recently left welfare were more likely to find jobs through formal sources.…

  19. Housing Dependence and Intimate Relationships in the Lives of Low-Income Puerto Rican Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sherri Lawson; Burton, Linda M.; Flippen, Chenoa A.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal ethnographic data from the Three-City Study, the authors examined the relationship between 16 low-income Puerto Rican mothers' housing dependencies and their intimate partner relations. This study traced mothers' dependent housing arrangements and entree to marital or cohabiting relationships from their teens through their…

  20. Relationship Education for Low Income Couples and Individuals: New Research Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einhorn, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    The current study implemented and evaluated an adapted version of the Within Our Reach program called FRAME. Participants were 173 low-income couples in committed relationships and caring for at least one child together. Participating couples were randomly assigned to one of the four study conditions (couples group, female group, male group, or…

  1. Expanding Federal Funding to Community Health Centers Slows Decline in Access for Low-Income Adults

    PubMed Central

    McMorrow, Stacey; Zuckerman, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the impact of the Health Center Growth Initiative on access to care for low-income adults. Data Sources Data on federal funding for health centers are from the Bureau of Primary Health Care's Uniform Data System (2000–2007), and individual-level measures of access and use are derived from the National Health Interview Survey (2001–2008). Study Design We estimate person-level models of access and use as a function of individual- and market-level characteristics. By using market-level fixed effects, we identify the effects of health center funding on access using changes within markets over time. We explore effects on low-income adults and further examine how those effects vary by insurance coverage. Data Collection We calculate health center funding per poor person in a health care market and attach this information to individual observations on the National Health Interview Survey. Health care markets are defined as hospital referral regions. Principal Findings Low-income adults in markets with larger funding increases were more likely to have an office visit and to have a general doctor visit. These results were stronger for uninsured and publicly insured adults. Conclusions Expansions in federal health center funding had some mitigating effects on the access declines that were generally experienced by low-income adults over this time period. PMID:24344818

  2. Smoking Attitudes and Practices among Low-Income African Americans: Qualitative Assessment of Contributing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beech, Bettina M.; Scarinci, Isabel C.

    2003-01-01

    Qualitatively examined sociocultural factors associated with smoking attitudes and practices among low-income, African American young adults smokers and nonsmokers. Focus group data indicated that specific contextual and familial factors contributed to smoking initiation, maintenance, and cessation (e.g., strong parental discipline, limited…

  3. Determinants of Physical Activity in Low-income, Overweight African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lown, Debbie A.; Braunschweig, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between puberty, sedentary behaviors, and psychosocial influences with intention for physical activity (PA) and PA. Methods: Low-income, overweight African American girls (n=72) completed 5 questionnaires that assessed PA, sedentary behaviors, and psychosocial influences. Puberty was assessed using Tanner…

  4. Collected Papers on Poverty Issues. Volume 2: Aspects of Low Income in America. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokelson, Doris, Ed.

    Part 1 of the second volume in a four volume collection, this document includes sections on housing, health, crime, and energy and focuses on such topics as: federal policies for low income housing; the future supply of housing; nonaffluent behavior and attitudes related to health and well being; costs, coverage, and issues in medicaid; the…

  5. First Year Experiences of Low-Income Students at a Public Flagship University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, James Louis

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the academic and cultural transition of low income, disadvantaged, first-generation, and working-class students at a public flagship institution, the purpose of this qualitative study is to listen as these students, with increasingly diverse background experiences, narrate their first-year experiences, including the summer…

  6. The Early Academic Success of Children Born to Low-Income Teenage Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casady, Angela; Luster, Tom; Bates, Laura; Vandenbelt, Marcia

    This study focused on family influences on the academic success of first-grade children born to low-income, adolescent mothers. The families in this study were participants in a family support program for teen mothers called Family TIES (Trust, Information, Encouragement, and Support). Families were eligible for services provided by…

  7. Does Early Paternal Parenting Promote Low-Income Children's Long-Term Cognitive Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lewin-Bizan, Selva; Carrano, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Although scholars and policy makers herald the promotive influence of fathers' parenting involvement, limited research has carefully delineated effects of fathers' parenting on low-income children's development and whether early contributions from fathers confer long-term protective effects. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 261), analyses…

  8. A Message from Home: A Home-Based Intervention Method for Low-Income Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    Described in this report is a home-based, cognitive-affective intervention program involving 93 mothers and their children. This demonstration program sought to show that the principal cognitive element missing from the experience of low-income children in preparation for schooling is a sufficient amount of concept-building verbal interaction in…

  9. Diabetes-Related Health Beliefs Explored in Low-Income Latinos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Lucia L.; Klenk, Marciel A.; Martin, Anna C.; Olivares, Anna; Joy, Amy B.; Quinonez-Melgar, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    A study examined low-income Latinos' attitudes concerning diabetes. Focus groups and surveys of 160 California Latinos, primarily of Mexican descent, found that many at risk of developing diabetes were unaware of risk factors, had never been screened, and did not know where to get advice. Most believed that stress or strong emotion caused the…

  10. The Changing Rural Appalachian Community and Low-Income Family: Implications for Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Photiadis, John D.

    Pressures on rural Appalachian families to function as an integral part of the larger American society have led to internal discord and a "Culture of Poverty"; consequently, a new vehicle for rural community reorganization is needed, particularly for low-income rural Appalachian communities. An alternative for non-conventional development should…

  11. The Effectiveness of Three Media in Disseminating Basic Information to Low Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Curtis; Kinlaw, Rachel

    In order to measure the effectiveness of information leaflets, circular letters, and cartoon booklets in disseminating basic foods and nutrition information to low-income homemakers, a sample of 700 North Carolina homemakers involved in the Expanded Foods and Nutrition Education Program sponsored by the Agricultural Extension Service was divided…

  12. Unique Contributions of Fathering to Emerging Self-Regulation in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Hurst, Jamie R.; Amos, Melissa; Hasanizadeh, Nazly; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulation ability is an important component of school readiness and predictor of academic success, but few studies of self-regulation examine contributions of fathering to the emergence of self-regulation in low-income ethnic minority preschoolers. Associations were examined between parental child-oriented parenting support and preschoolers'…

  13. Low-Income Minority Seniors' Enrollment in a Cybercafe: Psychological Barriers to Crossing the Digital Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Younbo; Peng, Wei; Moran, Meghan; Jin, Seung-A Annie; McLaughlin, Margaret; Cody, Michael; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Albright, Julie; Silverstein, Merril

    2010-01-01

    Investigated were why some low income, predominantly immigrant seniors (n = 91) choose to enroll in free training and start to use computers and the Internet while others choose not to enroll. The study was conducted in collaboration with a senior center in downtown Los Angeles that provides free Internet access and training to its seniors. The…

  14. HELPING LOW-INCOME FAMILIES THROUGH PARENT EDUCATION, A SURVEY OF RESEARCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHILMAN, CATHERINE S.; KRAFT, IVOR

    THE CHILD LIFE STUDIES BRANCH OF THE CHILDREN'S BUREAU MADE AN INFORMAL SURVEY OF PARENT EDUCATION FOR LOW-INCOME FAMILIES IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1961 TO 1963. PARENT EDUCATION IS DESIGNED TO IMPROVE HOUSEKEEPING, STRENGTHEN INTERFAMILY RELATIONSHIPS, REINFORCE FAMILY-SCHOOL UNDERSTANDING, AND IMPROVE PERSONAL SKILLS. PRACTITIONERS RECOMMEND A…

  15. Does Preschool Enrichment of Precursors to Arithmetic Influence Intuitive Knowledge of Number in Low Income Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagani, Linda S.; Jalbert, Julie; Girard, Alain

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examine whether preventive enrichment of pre-math skills has an influence on number knowledge in preschool children from low income families. Our data analyses use two methods to examine the influence of two independent programs implemented during junior kindergarten and kindergarten. The first implies the traditional approach…

  16. Reading and Math Achievement among Low-Income Urban Latino Youth: The Role of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmannova, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a household-based, stratified random sample of youth and their caregivers from low-income inner-city neighborhoods, this study examined the variability in the academic achievement of Latino youth. The results indicate a significant advantage in reading achievement for first- and second-generation immigrant youth, as compared to the…

  17. Attention Skills and Looking to Television in Children from Low Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Danielle D.; Weatherholt, Tara N.; Burns, Barbara M.

    2010-01-01

    Attentional skills and home environment were examined as predictors of looking patterns during television viewing by 70 48- to 91-month-old children from low income families. Looking to the television was assessed in conditions without distractors and with continuous distractors. Looking patterns during television viewing reflected attentional…

  18. The Meaning of Respect in Romantic Relationships among Low-Income African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, L. Kris; Catania, Joseph A.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Although interpersonal respect is considered an important quality in successful romantic relationships, limited attention has been paid to this concept. We examined the meaning of respect in romantic relationships as conceptualized by low-income, sexually active, heterosexually identified, African American adolescents aged 15 to 17 (N = 50).…

  19. Language-in-Education Policy in Low-Income, Postcolonial Contexts: Towards a Social Justice Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikly, Leon

    2016-01-01

    The article considers how language-in-education policy in low-income, postcolonial countries may be better understood from a social justice perspective and some of the implications for policy, practice and research that arise from this. The article starts with a critical overview of the two dominant approaches towards conceptualising…

  20. Rural Food Deserts: Low-Income Perspectives on Food Access in Minnesota and Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chery; Morton, Lois W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate how low-income rural residents living in food deserts access the normal food system and food safety net services within their communities, and explore how social, personal, and environment drives food access and food choice. Design: Seven focus groups (90 minutes each) were conducted with 2 moderators present and were…