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Sample records for low-intensity training dissociates

  1. Low intensity blood flow restriction training: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Loenneke, Jeremy P; Wilson, Jacob M; Marín, Pedro J; Zourdos, Michael C; Bemben, Michael G

    2012-05-01

    The primary objective of this investigation was to quantitatively identify which training variables result in the greatest strength and hypertrophy outcomes with lower body low intensity training with blood flow restriction (LI-BFR). Searches were performed for published studies with certain criteria. First, the primary focus of the study must have compared the effects of low intensity endurance or resistance training alone to low intensity exercise with some form of blood flow restriction. Second, subject populations had to have similar baseline characteristics so that valid outcome measures could be made. Finally, outcome measures had to include at least one measure of muscle hypertrophy. All studies included in the analysis utilized MRI except for two which reported changes via ultrasound. The mean overall effect size (ES) for muscle strength for LI-BFR was 0.58 [95% CI: 0.40, 0.76], and 0.00 [95% CI: -0.18, 0.17] for low intensity training. The mean overall ES for muscle hypertrophy for LI-BFR training was 0.39 [95% CI: 0.35, 0.43], and -0.01 [95% CI: -0.05, 0.03] for low intensity training. Blood flow restriction resulted in significantly greater gains in strength and hypertrophy when performed with resistance training than with walking. In addition, performing LI-BFR 2-3 days per week resulted in the greatest ES compared to 4-5 days per week. Significant correlations were found between ES for strength development and weeks of duration, but not for muscle hypertrophy. This meta-analysis provides insight into the impact of different variables on muscular strength and hypertrophy to LI-BFR training.

  2. Endurance training for elderly women: moderate vs low intensity.

    PubMed

    Foster, V L; Hume, G J; Byrnes, W C; Dickinson, A L; Chatfield, S J

    1989-11-01

    This investigation evaluated the efficacy of training at moderate-60% Maximal Heart Rate Reserve, HRRmax, (MOD) and low-40% HRRmax (LOW) intensities in a population of older American women (N = 16, mean age = 78.4 years). Prior to and immediately following a 10-week training program consisting of exercising at the prescribed heart-rate intensity with a caloric expenditure of 100 calories, the following measurements were performed: Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), Maximal Lactate Production (HLAmax), Maximal Heart Rate (HRmax), Maximal Workstage (WSmax), Total Cholesterol (TOTC), High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDLC), and Rate Pressure Product Max (RPPmax). Significant differences, p less than .05, were noted pre- to post-training for measures of VO2max, whether expressed in 1.min-1 or ml.kg-1.min-1, and WSmax. No statistical differences existed between the groups pre- or post-training for these measures. The results suggest that the low-intensity exercise prescription provides an adequate training stimulus for older women who have been sedentary and who might be at higher risk for cardiac or musculoskeletal injury, particularly at the initiation of an exercise program.

  3. Adaptations of mouse skeletal muscle to low intensity vibration training

    PubMed Central

    McKeehen, James N.; Novotny, Susan A.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Call, Jarrod A.; Nuckley, David J.; Lowe, Dawn A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We tested the hypothesis that low intensity vibration training in mice improves contractile function of hindlimb skeletal muscles and promotes exercise-related cellular adaptations. Methods We subjected C57BL/6J mice to 6 wk, 5 d·wk−1, 15 min·d−1 of sham or low intensity vibration (45 Hz, 1.0 g) while housed in traditional cages (Sham-Active, n=8; Vibrated-Active, n=10) or in small cages to restrict physical activity (Sham-Restricted, n=8; Vibrated-Restricted, n=8). Contractile function and resistance to fatigue were tested in vivo (anterior and posterior crural muscles) and ex vivo on the soleus muscle. Tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were evaluated histologically for alterations in oxidative metabolism, capillarity, and fiber types. Epididymal fat pad and hindlimb muscle masses were measured. Two-way ANOVAs were used to determine effects of vibration and physical inactivity. Results Vibration training resulted in a 10% increase in maximal isometric torque (P=0.038) and 16% faster maximal rate of relaxation (P=0.030) of the anterior crural muscles. Posterior crural muscles were unaffected by vibration, with the exception of greater rates of contraction in Vibrated-Restricted mice compared to Vibrated-Active and Sham-Restricted mice (P=0.022). Soleus muscle maximal isometric tetanic force tended to be greater (P=0.057) and maximal relaxation was 20% faster (P=0.005) in Vibrated compared to Sham mice. Restriction of physical activity induced muscle weakness but was not required for vibration to be effective in improving strength or relaxation. Vibration training did not impact muscle fatigability or any indicator of cellular adaptation investigated (P≥0.431). Fat pad but not hindlimb muscle masses were affected by vibration training. Conclusion Vibration training in mice improved muscle contractility, specifically strength and relaxation rates, with no indication of adverse effects to muscle function or cellular adaptations. PMID:23274599

  4. Low Intensity Exercise Training Improves Skeletal Muscle Regeneration Potential

    PubMed Central

    Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Di Filippo, Ester S.; Mancinelli, Rosa; Doria, Christian; Rotini, Alessio; Fanò-Illic, Giorgio; Fulle, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether 12 days of low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude (598 m a.s.l.) improves skeletal muscle regeneration in sedentary adult women. Methods: Satellite cells were obtained from the vastus lateralis skeletal muscle of seven women before and after this exercise training at low altitude. They were investigated for differentiation aspects, superoxide anion production, antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial potential variation after a depolarizing insult, intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, and micro (mi)RNA expression (miR-1, miR-133, miR-206). Results: In these myogenic populations of adult stem cells, those obtained after exercise training, showed increased Fusion Index and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. This exercise training also generally reduced superoxide anion production in cells (by 12–67%), although not in two women, where there was an increase of ~15% along with a reduced superoxide dismutase activity. miRNA expression showed an exercise-induced epigenetic transcription profile that was specific according to the reduced or increased superoxide anion production of the cells. Conclusions: The present study shows that low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude improves the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult women. The differentiation of cells was favored by increased intracellular calcium concentration and increased the fusion index. This low-to-moderate training at low altitude also depicted the epigenetic signature of cells. PMID:26733888

  5. Low-intensity resistance training after high-intensity resistance training can prevent the increase of central arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, T; Masuhara, M; Ikuta, K

    2013-05-01

    Although high-intensity resistance training increases arterial stiffness, low-intensity resistance training reduces arterial stiffness. The present study investigates the effect of low-intensity resistance training before and after high-intensity resistance training on arterial stiffness. 30 young healthy subjects were randomly assigned to a group that performed low-intensity resistance training before high-intensity resistance training (BLRT, n=10), a group that performed low-intensity resistance training after high-intensity resistance training (ALRT, n=10) and a sedentary control group (n=10). The BLRT and ALRT groups performed resistance training at 80% and 50% of one repetition maximum twice each week for 10 wk. Arterial stiffness was measured using carotid-femoral and femoral-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV). One-repetition maximum strength in the both ALRT and BLRT significantly increased after the intervention (P<0.05 to P<0.01). Both carotid-femoral PWV and femoral-ankle PWV after combined training in the ALRT group did not change from before training. In contrast, carotid-femoral PWV after combined training in the BLRT group increased from before training (P <0.05). Femoral-ankle PWV after combined training in the both BLRT and ALRT groups did not change from before training. These results suggest that although arterial stiffness is increased by low-intensity resistance training before high-intensity resistance training, performing low-intensity resistance training thereafter can prevent the increase of arterial stiffness.

  6. Effects of high versus low-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density in young males.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuku, S; Shimokata, H; Ikegami, Y; Yabe, K; Wasnich, R D

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high-intensity and low-intensity resistance training upon bone mineral density (BMD) by comparing the BMD of young male powerlifters (n = 5), recreational trainees (n = 5), and controls (n = 5). Lumbar spine (L2-L4), proximal femur, and whole body BMDs were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The high-intensity group showed a significantly greater BMD when the whole body and trochanter regions were measured than the low-intensity and control group. The BMD of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and Ward's triangle was greater in the high-intensity group compared with the control group. There was no significant BMD difference between the low-intensity and control group except at the trochanter region. These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training is effective for increasing BMD, but low-intensity resistance training is not.

  7. Early phase interference between low-intensity running and power training in moderately trained females.

    PubMed

    Terzis, Gerasimos; Spengos, Kostas; Methenitis, Spyros; Aagaard, Per; Karandreas, Nikos; Bogdanis, Gregory

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity running performed immediately after lower-body power-training sessions on power development. Twenty young females participated in 6 weeks, 3/week, of either lower body power training (PT) or lower body power training followed by 30 min of low-intensity running (PET) eliciting 60-70 % of maximal heart rate. The following were measured before and after the training period: counter-movement jump, isometric leg press force and rate of force development (RFD), half squat 1-RM, vastus lateralis fiber type composition and cross sectional area, resting intramuscular fiber conduction velocity (MFCV), and heart rate during the modified Bruce treadmill test. Counter-movement jump height and peak power increased after PT (10.7 ± 6.2 and 12.9 ± 18.7 %, p < 0.05) but not after PET (3.4 ± 7.6 and 5.11 ± 10.94 %, p > 0.05). Maximum isometric force, RFD, and half squat 1-RM increased similarly in both groups. Muscle fiber type composition was not altered in either group. Muscle fiber cross sectional area increased only after PT (17.5 ± 17.4, 14.5 ± 10.4, 20.36 ± 11.3 %, in type I, IIA, and IIX fibers, respectively, p < 0.05). Likewise, mean MFCV increased with PT only (before: 4.53 ± 0.38 m s(-1), after: 5.09 ± 0.39 m s(-1), p = 0.027). Submaximal heart rate during the Bruce treadmill test remained unchanged after PT but decreased after PET. These results suggest that low-intensity running performed after lower-body power training impairs the exercise-induced adaptation in stretch-shortening cycle jumping performance (vertical jump height, peak power), during the first 6 weeks of training, which may be partially linked to inhibited muscle fiber hypertrophy and muscle fiber conduction velocity.

  8. Low-intensity resistance training attenuates dexamethasone-induced atrophy in the flexor hallucis longus muscle.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Anderson G; Krug, André L O; Herrera, Naiara A; Zago, Anderson S; Rush, James W E; Amaral, Sandra L

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the potential protective effect of low-intensity resistance training (RT) against dexamethasone (DEX) treatment induced muscle atrophy. Rats underwent either an 8 week period of ladder climbing RT or remained sedentary. During the last 10 days of the exercise protocol, animals were submitted to a DEX treatment or a control saline injection. Muscle weights were assessed and levels of AKT, mTOR, FOXO3a, Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 proteins were analyzed in flexor hallucis longus (FHL), tibialis anterior (TA), and soleus muscles. DEX induced blood glucose increase (+46%), body weight reduction (-19%) and atrophy in FHL (-28%) and TA (-21%) muscles, which was associated with a decrease in AKT and an increase in MuRF-1 proteins levels. Low-intensity RT prevented the blood glucose increase, attenuated the FHL atrophy effects of DEX, and was associated with increased mTOR and reductions in Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 in FHL. In contrast, TA muscle atrophy and signaling proteins were not affected by RT. These are the first data to demonstrate that low-intensity ladder-climbing RT specifically mitigates the FHL atrophy, which is the main muscle recruited during the training activity, while not preventing atrophy in other limb muscle not as heavily recruited. The recruitment-dependent prevention of atrophy by low intensity RT likely occurs by a combination of attenuated muscle protein degradation signals and enhanced muscle protein synthesis signals including mTOR, Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in Rowing Technique Over a Routine One Hour Low Intensity High Volume Training Session

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Hugh A.M.; Bull, Anthony M.J.; McGregor, Alison H.

    2008-01-01

    High volume low intensity training sessions such as one hour rowing ergometer sessions are frequently used to improve the fitness of elite rowers. Early work has suggested that technique may decline over this time period. This study sought to test the hypothesis that “elite rowers can maintain technique over a one hour rowing ergometer session”. An electromagnetic device, in conjunction with a load cell, was used to assess rowing technique in terms of force generation and spinal kinematics in six male elite sweep oarsmen (two competed internationally and the remainder at a club senior level). All subjects performed one hour of rowing on a Concept II indoor rowing ergometer using a stroke rate of 18-20 strokes per minute and a heart rate ranging between 130-150 beats per minute, following a brief 5 minute warm- up. Recordings of rowing technique and force were made every 10 minutes. The elite group of rowers were able to sustain their rowing technique and force parameters over the hour session. Subtle changes in certain parameters were observed including a fall in force output of approximately 10N after the first seven minutes of rowing, and a change in leg compression of three degrees at the end of the one hour rowing piece which corresponded with a small increase in anterior rotation of the pelvis. However, it is unclear if such changes reflect a “warm-up” effect or if they are indicative of early signs of fatigue. These findings suggest that low intensity high volume ergometer rowing sessions do not have a detrimental effect on the technique of a group of experienced and highly trained rowers. Key pointsElite rowers do not demonstrate changes in rowing kinematics over and hour rowing piece.Rowers require an adequate warm-up to establish their technique. PMID:24149955

  10. Effect of low-intensity training on transient kinetics of pulmonary oxygen uptake during moderate-intensity cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, A; Arima, S; Mitsuzono, R; Hirakoba, K

    2015-10-01

    It is unclear whether the slowed time constant of phase II in pulmonary oxygen uptake on-kinetics (V̇O2τ) in unfit and inactive men would be shortened by low exercise intensity (low-intensity) walking training. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the slowed V̇O2τ in sedentary population would speed up due to low-intensity walking training with high volume. Ten unfit and inactive male subjects (aged 26 to 50 yrs) underwent a low-intensity (30-40% of V̇O2max), long-duration (>60 min) training in the form of walking exercise 3-4 times a week for 12 weeks. We prospectively collected data on anthropometric, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), time constant of heart rate (HRτ) and V̇O2τ before training (0 wk; Pre) and every six weeks (6 wk; Mid, 12 wk; Post) from the beginning of the training. Anthropometric variables and V̇O2max showed no significant changes throughout the training program, whereas HRτ showed a tendency to be shortened with a progress of the training with no significant change. The slowed V̇O2τ at Pre (47.6±5.6 s) remained almost unchanged at Mid (48.8±4.9 s), but had a significant decrease at Post (40.5±7.9 s, P<0.05). In this study acceleration of the slowed V̇O2τ due to low-intensity walking training is thought to occur presumably owing to an improved matching of oxygen delivery to oxygen utilization at the site of gas exchange in active muscle tissue. We concluded that low-intensity walking training at beginning stage of training could contribute to the acceleration of the slowed V̇O2τ in unfit and inactive subjects.

  11. Long-term effects of low-intensity exercise training on fat metabolism in weight-reduced obese men.

    PubMed

    Van Aggel-Leijssen, Dorien P; Saris, Wim H; Hul, Gabby B; Van Baak, Marleen A

    2002-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of long-term continuation of low-intensity exercise training on weight maintenance, substrate metabolism, and beta-adrenergic-mediated fat oxidation in weight-reduced obese men. Preceding this part of the study, subjects lost 15 +/- 6 kg of body weight by energy restriction with or without low-intensity exercise training. Twenty-nine subjects (diet group, n = 15; diet + exercise group, n = 14) participated in the follow-up study of 40 weeks in which the former diet + exercise group continued their exercise training program. Pre- and postfollow-up, measurements of body weight, body composition, maximal aerobic capacity and substrate oxidation during rest, exercise, and recovery with or without infusion of the beta-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol (PRP), were performed. Over the follow-up period, body weight, fat mass, and fat free mass increased in both groups (P <.0001) without differences between groups. Attendance at exercise training sessions was negatively correlated with regain of body weight (r = -.6, P <.05). Relative fat oxidation, energy expenditure, and beta-adrenergic-mediated fat oxidation during rest, exercise, and recovery were maintained over the follow-up period in both groups. Continuation of low-intensity exercise training after weight reduction did not limit regain of body weight, unless exercise training was frequently performed. Relative (beta-adrenergic-mediated) fat oxidation and energy expenditure were maintained at postdiet level whether or not low-intensity exercise training was performed during follow-up. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  12. Supplementary Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Does Not Affect Psychomotor Performance in Professional Female Ballet Dancers

    PubMed Central

    Smol, Ewelina; Fredyk, Artur

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed as multiple choice reaction time) and number of correct responses to audio-visual stimuli was assessed at rest and immediately after cessation of maximal intensity exercise. The supplementary low-intensity exercise training increased VO2max and markedly shifted AT toward higher absolute workload. Immediately after completion of the graded exercise to volitional exhaustion, the ballerinas’ psychomotor performance remained at the pre-exercise (resting) level. Neither the resting nor the maximal multiple choice reaction time and accuracy of responses were affected by the supplementary aerobic training. The results of this study indicate that addition of low-intensity aerobic training to regular dance practice increases aerobic capacity of ballerinas with no loss of speed and accuracy of their psychomotor reaction. PMID:23485962

  13. Low intensity phonological awareness training in a preschool classroom for children with communication impairments.

    PubMed

    Laing, Sandra P; Espeland, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Phonological awareness is a term that refers to one's knowledge of the sound structure of spoken language. Children who understand that sounds in language represent the letters used in reading and writing typically learn to read more easily than children who do not. Children with language and/or speech impairments often demonstrate a lack of phonological awareness. Thus, it is important to identify problems in phonological awareness and to implement intervention programs early. The purpose of this study was to determine if a low intensity, classroom phonological awareness program improved phonological awareness skills for preschool children with language and/or speech impairments. Results suggested that children made significant gains in phonological awareness after participating in the intervention. As a result of this activity, the reader will be able to: (1) identify components of phonological awareness program; (2) evaluate effectiveness of phonological awareness intervention.

  14. Short-term low-intensity blood flow restricted interval training improves both aerobic fitness and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, M F M; Caputo, F; Corvino, R B; Denadai, B S

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to analyze and compare the effects of four different interval-training protocols on aerobic fitness and muscle strength. Thirty-seven subjects (23.8 ± 4 years; 171.7 ± 9.5 cm; 70 ± 11 kg) were assigned to one of four groups: low-intensity interval training with (BFR, n = 10) or without (LOW, n = 7) blood flow restriction, high-intensity interval training (HIT, n = 10), and combined HIT and BFR (BFR + HIT, n = 10, every session performed 50% as BFR and 50% as HIT). Before and after 4 weeks training (3 days a week), the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ), maximal power output (Pmax ), onset blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), and muscle strength were measured for all subjects. All training groups were able to improve OBLA (BFR, 16%; HIT, 25%; HIT + BFR, 22%; LOW, 6%), with no difference between groups. However, VO2max and Pmax improved only for BFR (6%, 12%), HIT (9%, 15%) and HIT + BFR (6%, 11%), with no difference between groups. Muscle strength gains were only observed after BFR training (11%). This study demonstrates the advantage of short-term low-intensity interval BFR training as the single mode of training able to simultaneously improve aerobic fitness and muscular strength. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Low-Intensity swimming training after weaning improves glucose and lipid homeostasis in MSG hypothalamic obese mice.

    PubMed

    Scomparin, Dionízia Xavier; Grassiolli, Sabrina; Gomes, Rodrigo Mello; Torrezan, Rosana; de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Gravena, Clarice; Pêra, Carolina Costa; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Low-intensity swimming training, started at an early age, was undertaken to observe glycemic control in hypothalamic obese mice produced by neonatal monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) treatment. Although swimming exercises by weaning pups inhibited hypothalamic obesity onset and recovered sympathoadrenal axis activity, this event was not observed when exercise training is applied to young adult mice. However, the mechanisms producing this improved metabolism are still not fully understood. Current work verifies whether, besides reducing fat tissue accumulation, low-intensity swimming in MSG-weaned mice also improves glycemic control. Although MSG and control mice swam for 15 min/day, 3 days a week, from the weaning stage up to 90 days old, sedentary MSG and normal mice did not exercise at all. After 14 h of fasting, animals were killed at 90 days of age. Retroperitonial fat accumulation was measured to estimate obesity. Fasting blood glucose and insulin concentrations were also measured. Mice were also submitted to ipGTT. MSG obese mice showed fasting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. However, the exercise was able to block MSG treatment effects. Higher total cholesterol and triglycerides observed in MSG mice were normalized by exercise after weaning. Exercised MSG animals had higher HDLc than the sedentary group. Data suggest that early exercise training maintains normoglycemia, insulin tissue sensitivity, and normal lipid profile in mice programmed to develop metabolic syndrome.

  16. Low-intensity exercise training improves survival in Dahl salt hypertension.

    PubMed

    Libonati, Joseph R; Gaughan, John P

    2006-05-01

    The present study examined whether exercise training could increase survival in a rodent model of salt-sensitive hypertension. Male, inbred Dahl salt-sensitive rats arriving at 8 wk of age were randomly divided into a sedentary control group (N = 5) or an exercise-trained group (N = 8). Exercise training consisted of running 20 m.min(-1), 0% incline, 60 min.d(-1), 5 d.wk(-1) on a motorized driven treadmill. On arrival, animals were fed a low-salt diet (0.12% NaCl) during a 1-wk acclimatization period. At the end of this period, all rats were then fed a high-salt diet (7.8% NaCl) for the remainder of the study. Arterial systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured via the tail-cuff method. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) measured on the low salt diet was similar between groups. After 2 wk of a high-salt diet, SBP was similarly significantly elevated in both control and exercise groups relative to the low salt diet. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that exercise training increased survival (P < 0.02) with an approximate 30% increase in the mean days survived with exercise training (P < 0.02). These data suggest that exercise training is an important intervention for salt-sensitive hypertension and that the enhanced survival observed with exercise training appears to be independent of training-induced SBP lowering effects.

  17. Low-intensity and moderate exercise training improves autonomic nervous system activity imbalanced by postnatal early overfeeding in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Postnatal early overfeeding and physical inactivity are serious risk factors for obesity. Physical activity enhances energy expenditure and consumes fat stocks, thereby decreasing body weight (bw). This study aimed to examine whether low-intensity and moderate exercise training in different post-weaning stages of life is capable of modulating the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and inhibiting perinatal overfeeding-induced obesity in rats. Methods The obesity-promoting regimen was begun two days after birth when the litter size was adjusted to 3 pups (small litter, SL) or to 9 pups (normal litter, NL). The rats were organized into exercised groups as follows: from weaning until 90-day-old, from weaning until 50-day-old, or from 60- until 90-days-old. All experimental procedures were performed just one day after the exercise training protocol. Results The SL-no-exercised (SL-N-EXE) group exhibited excess weight and increased fat accumulation. We also observed fasting hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in these rats. In addition, the SL-N-EXE group exhibited an increase in the vagus nerve firing rate, whereas the firing of the greater splanchnic nerve was not altered. Independent of the timing of exercise and the age of the rats, exercise training was able to significantly blocks obesity onset in the SL rats; even SL animals whose exercise training was stopped at the end of puberty, exhibited resistance to obesity progression. Fasting glycemia was maintained normal in all SL rats that underwent the exercise training, independent of the period. These results demonstrate that moderate exercise, regardless of the time of onset, is capable on improve the vagus nerves imbalanced tonus and blocks the onset of early overfeeding-induced obesity. Conclusions Low-intensity and moderate exercise training can promote the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, reduces the large fat pad stores associated to improvement of the ANS activity in adult rats that were

  18. Effect of very low-intensity resistance training with slow movement on muscle size and strength in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuya; Madarame, Haruhiko; Ogasawara, Riki; Nakazato, Koichi; Ishii, Naokata

    2014-11-01

    We previously reported that low-intensity [50% of one repetition maximum (1RM)] resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation (LST) causes muscle hypertrophy and strength gain in older participants. The aim of this study was to determine whether resistance training with slow movement and much more reduced intensity (30%1RM) increases muscle size and strength in older adults. Eighteen participants (60-77 years) were randomly assigned to two groups. One group performed very low-intensity (30% 1RM) knee extension exercise with continuous muscle contraction (LST: 3-s eccentric, 3-s concentric, and 1-s isometric actions with no rest between each repetition) twice a week for 12 weeks. The other group underwent intermitted muscle contraction (CON: 1-s concentric and 1-s eccentric actions with 1-s rest between each repetition) for the same time period. The 1RM, isometric and isokinetic strengths, and cross-sectional image of the mid-thigh obtained by magnetic resonance imaging were examined before and after the intervention. LST significantly increased the cross-sectional area of the quadriceps muscle (5.0%, P<0.001) and isometric and isokinetic knee extension strengths (P<0.05). CON failed to increase muscle size (1.1%, P = 0.12), but significantly improved its strength (P<0.05). These results indicate that even if the intensity is as low as 30% 1RM, LST can increase muscle size and strength in healthy older adults. The large total contraction time may be related to muscle hypertrophy and strength gain. LST would be useful for preventing sarcopenia in older individuals.

  19. Effects of high-intensity circuit training, low-intensity circuit training and endurance training on blood pressure and lipoproteins in middle-aged overweight men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the physiological effects of an high-intensity circuit training (HICT) on several cardiovascular disease risk factors in healthy, overweight middle-aged subjects, and to compare the effects of HICT to traditional endurance training (ET) and low-intensity circuit training (LICT). Methods Fifty-eight participants (ages 61±3.3 yrs, BMI 29.8±0.9) were randomly assigned to one of the three exercise treatment groups: HICT, LICT and ET. The three groups exercised three times per week, 50 min per session for 12 weeks. Baseline and after intervention anthropometric characteristics: body weight (BW), fat mass (FM); blood pressure: diastolic (DBP) and systolic (SBP), blood parameters; CHOL-t (total cholesterol), LDL-C (low density lipoprotein-cholesterol), HDL-C (high density lipoprotein-cholesterol), TG (triglycerides), ApoB and ratio ApoB/ApoA1 were measured. Results Compared to other groups, HICT showed significantly higher reductions in FM, DBP, CHOLt, LDL-C, TG, ApoB and significantly greater increases in high density HDL-C. LICT resulted in the greatest reduction in SBP. All groups showed a significant improvement of BW without any significant differences between groups. Conclusions Our findings indicate that high-intensity circuit training is more effective in improving blood pressure, lipoproteins and triglycerides than endurance training alone or lower intensity circuit training. PMID:24004639

  20. Effects of blood flow restricted low-intensity concentric or eccentric training on muscle size and strength.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S; Abe, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the acute and chronic effects of low-intensity concentric or eccentric resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscle size and strength. Ten young men performed 30% of concentric one repetition maximal dumbbell curl exercise (four sets, total 75 reps) 3 days/week for 6 weeks. One arm was randomly chosen for concentric BFR (CON-BFR) exercise only and the other arm performed eccentric BFR (ECC-BFR) exercise only at the same exercise load. During the exercise session, iEMG for biceps brachii muscles increased progressively during CON-BFR, which was greater (p<0.05) than that of the ECC-BFR. Immediately after the exercise, muscle thickness (MTH) of the elbow flexors acutely increased (p<0.01) with both CON-BFR and ECC-BFR, but was greater with CON-BFR (11.7%) (p<0.01) than ECC-BFR (3.9%) at 10-cm above the elbow joint. Following 6-weeks of training, MRI-measured muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) at 10-cm position and mid-upper arm (12.0% and 10.6%, respectively) as well as muscle volume (12.5%) of the elbow flexors were increased (p<0.01) with CON-BFR. Increases in muscle CSA and volume were lower in ECC-BFR (5.1%, 0.8% and 2.9%, respectively) than in the CON-BFR and only muscle CSA at 10-cm position increased significantly (p<0.05) after the training. Maximal voluntary isometric strength of elbow flexors was increased (p<0.05) in CON-BFR (8.6%), but not in ECC (3.8%). These results suggest that CON-BFR training leads to pronounced acute changes in muscle size, an index of muscle cell swelling, the response to which may be an important factor for promoting muscle hypertrophy with BFR resistance training.

  1. Increased Nitric Oxide Bioavailability and Decreased Sympathetic Modulation Are Involved in Vascular Adjustments Induced by Low-Intensity Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Fabrício N.; Mesquita, Thassio R. R.; Melo, Vitor U.; Mota, Marcelo M.; Silva, Tharciano L. T. B.; Santana, Michael N.; Oliveira, Larissa R.; Santos, Robervan V.; Miguel dos Santos, Rodrigo; Lauton-Santos, Sandra; Santos, Marcio R. V.; Barreto, Andre S.; Santana-Filho, Valter J.

    2016-01-01

    Resistance training is one of the most common kind of exercise used nowadays. Long-term high-intensity resistance training are associated with deleterious effects on vascular adjustments. On the other hand, is unclear whether low-intensity resistance training (LI-RT) is able to induce systemic changes in vascular tone. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic LI-RT on endothelial nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability of mesenteric artery and cardiovascular autonomic modulation in healthy rats. Wistar animals were divided into two groups: exercised (Ex) and sedentary (SED) rats submitted to the resistance (40% of 1RM) or fictitious training for 8 weeks, respectively. After LI-RT, hemodynamic measurements and cardiovascular autonomic modulation by spectral analysis were evaluated. Vascular reactivity, NO production and protein expression of endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase isoforms (eNOS and nNOS, respectively) were evaluated in mesenteric artery. In addition, cardiac superoxide anion production and ventricle morphological changes were also assessed. In vivo measurements revealed a reduction in mean arterial pressure and heart rate after 8 weeks of LI-RT. In vitro studies showed an increased acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation and greater NOS dependence in Ex than SED rats. Hence, decreased phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction was found in Ex rats. Accordingly, LI-RT increased the NO bioavailability under basal and ACh stimulation conditions, associated with upregulation of eNOS and nNOS protein expression in mesenteric artery. Regarding autonomic control, LI-RT increased spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, which was associated to reduction in both, cardiac and vascular sympathetic modulation. No changes in cardiac superoxide anion or left ventricle morphometric parameters after LI-RT were observed. In summary, these results suggest that RT promotes beneficial vascular adjustments favoring augmented endothelial NO bioavailability and

  2. Associations of Low-Intensity Resistance Training with Body Composition and Lipid Profile in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Kawashima, Yu; Tamada, Yoshiki; Furuta, Masashi; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Sako, Akahito; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Resistance training to increase muscle mass and functional capacity is an integral part of diet and exercise programs for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Low-intensity resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation (LST) may be a practical and safe regimen for elderly obese individuals but the health benefits are uncertain. This study investigated the effects of LST on body composition and metabolic parameters in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-six obese patients with type 2 diabetes engaged in LST training during hospitalization and were advised to maintain this regimen for 12 weeks after discharge. We compared lipid profile, arterial stiffness, and body composition before and after LST training. After 12 weeks of LST training, the ratio of lower extremity muscle mass to body weight increased significantly (0.176 ± 0.028 to 0.184 ± 0.023, mean ± SD), while body fat mass and body fat percentage decreased significantly (36.2 ± 10.9 kg to 34.3 ± 9.4 kg and 41.2 ± 8.6% to 40.1 ± 7.7%, respectively). Moreover, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly increased (42.2 ± 14 mg/dl to 46.3 ± 12.4 mg/dl) and both free fatty acids and lipoprotein(a) were decreased (665.2 ± 212.1 μEq/l to 525.4 ± 231.3 μEq/l and 15.4 ± 18 mg/dl to 13.8 ± 18 mg/dl, respectively). No significant change was observed in arterial stiffness. Although this study was a non-controlled investigation and some confounding factors including dietary intake, medication and compliance with training might affect the study result, a brief (12-week) LST training program may be a safe and effective strategy for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  3. Low Intensity, High Frequency Vibration Training to Improve Musculoskeletal Function in a Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Susan A.; Mader, Tara L.; Greising, Angela G.; Lin, Angela S.; Guldberg, Robert E.; Warren, Gordon L.; Lowe, Dawn A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine if low intensity, high frequency vibration training impacted the musculoskeletal system in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, relative to healthy mice. Three-week old wildtype (n = 26) and mdx mice (n = 22) were randomized to non-vibrated or vibrated (45 Hz and 0.6 g, 15 min/d, 5 d/wk) groups. In vivo and ex vivo contractile function of the anterior crural and extensor digitorum longus muscles, respectively, were assessed following 8 wks of vibration. Mdx mice were injected 5 and 1 days prior to sacrifice with Calcein and Xylenol, respectively. Muscles were prepared for histological and triglyceride analyses and subcutaneous and visceral fat pads were excised and weighed. Tibial bones were dissected and analyzed by micro-computed tomography for trabecular morphometry at the metaphysis, and cortical geometry and density at the mid-diaphysis. Three-point bending tests were used to assess cortical bone mechanical properties and a subset of tibiae was processed for dynamic histomorphometry. Vibration training for 8 wks did not alter trabecular morphometry, dynamic histomorphometry, cortical geometry, or mechanical properties (P≥0.34). Vibration did not alter any measure of muscle contractile function (P≥0.12); however the preservation of muscle function and morphology in mdx mice indicates vibration is not deleterious to muscle lacking dystrophin. Vibrated mice had smaller subcutaneous fat pads (P = 0.03) and higher intramuscular triglyceride concentrations (P = 0.03). These data suggest that vibration training at 45 Hz and 0.6 g did not significantly impact the tibial bone and the surrounding musculature, but may influence fat distribution in mice. PMID:25121503

  4. Low intensity, high frequency vibration training to improve musculoskeletal function in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Susan A; Mader, Tara L; Greising, Angela G; Lin, Angela S; Guldberg, Robert E; Warren, Gordon L; Lowe, Dawn A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine if low intensity, high frequency vibration training impacted the musculoskeletal system in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, relative to healthy mice. Three-week old wildtype (n = 26) and mdx mice (n = 22) were randomized to non-vibrated or vibrated (45 Hz and 0.6 g, 15 min/d, 5 d/wk) groups. In vivo and ex vivo contractile function of the anterior crural and extensor digitorum longus muscles, respectively, were assessed following 8 wks of vibration. Mdx mice were injected 5 and 1 days prior to sacrifice with Calcein and Xylenol, respectively. Muscles were prepared for histological and triglyceride analyses and subcutaneous and visceral fat pads were excised and weighed. Tibial bones were dissected and analyzed by micro-computed tomography for trabecular morphometry at the metaphysis, and cortical geometry and density at the mid-diaphysis. Three-point bending tests were used to assess cortical bone mechanical properties and a subset of tibiae was processed for dynamic histomorphometry. Vibration training for 8 wks did not alter trabecular morphometry, dynamic histomorphometry, cortical geometry, or mechanical properties (P ≥ 0.34). Vibration did not alter any measure of muscle contractile function (P ≥ 0.12); however the preservation of muscle function and morphology in mdx mice indicates vibration is not deleterious to muscle lacking dystrophin. Vibrated mice had smaller subcutaneous fat pads (P = 0.03) and higher intramuscular triglyceride concentrations (P = 0.03). These data suggest that vibration training at 45 Hz and 0.6 g did not significantly impact the tibial bone and the surrounding musculature, but may influence fat distribution in mice.

  5. Low Intensity Resistance Exercise Training with Blood Flow Restriction: Insight into Cardiovascular Function, and Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Yi Sub; Harveson, Andrew; Weavil, Joshua C; Seo, Kook E.

    2015-01-01

    Attenuated functional exercise capacity in elderly and diseased populations is a common problem, and stems primarily from physical inactivity. Decreased function and exercise capacity can be restored by maintaining muscular strength and mass, which are key factors in an independent and healthy life. Resistance exercise has been used to prevent muscle loss and improve muscular strength and mass. However, the intensities necessary for traditional resistance training to increase muscular strength and mass may be contraindicated for some at risk populations, such as diseased populations and the elderly. Therefore, an alternative exercise modality is required. Recently, blood flow restriction (BFR) with low intensity resistance exercise (LIRE) has been used for such special populations to improve their function and exercise capacity. Although BFR+LIRE has been intensively studied for a decade, a comprehensive review detailing the effects of BFR+LIRE on both skeletal muscle and vascular function is not available. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss previous studies documenting the effects of BFR+LIRE on hormonal and transcriptional factors in muscle hypertrophy and vascular function, including changes in hemodynamics, and endothelial function. PMID:25954122

  6. Aggravation of pulmonary diffusing capacity in highly trained athletes by 6 weeks of low-volume, low-intensity training.

    PubMed

    Galy, Olivier; Maimoun, Laurent; Coste, Olivier; Manetta, Jérôme; Boussana, Alain; Préfaut, Christian; Hue, Olivier

    2013-11-01

    Postexercise alveolar-capillary membrane-diffusing capacity (DLco) often decreases in highly trained endurance athletes and seems linked to their training status. To test the hypothesis that training status influences postexercise DLco, 13 male and 2 female triathletes (20.2 ± 4.4 y old, 175.2 ± 6.7 cm tall; weight in a range of 66.6 ± 7.4 kg to 67.4 ± 7.8 kg during the 1-y study) were randomized into experimental (n = 7) and control (n = 8) groups and performed VO(2max) cycle tests and simulated cycle-run successions (CR) of 30 min + 20 min after 3 periods in the competitive season. Both groups were tested before (pre- HTP) and after a 30-wk high-training period (HTP) with high training volume, intensity, and frequency. The experimental group was then also tested after a 6-wk low-training period (LTP) with low training volume, intensity, and frequency, while the control group continued training according to the HTP schedule for these 6 wk. Ventilatory data were collected continuously. DLco testing was performed before and 30, 60, and 120 min after the CR trials. Whatever the period or group, DLco was significantly decreased 30 min after CR, with a significantly greater decrease in the experimental group than the control group in LTP (-15.7% and -9.3% of DLco, respectively). Six weeks of low training volume and intensity were sufficient to reverse the effects of high training volume and intensity on the alveolar-capillary membrane after a CR succession in competitive triathletes.

  7. Effect of low-intensity resistance training with heat stress on the HSP72, anabolic hormones, muscle size, and strength in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sung Jin; Lee, Moon Jin; Lee, Hyo Min; Lee, Jin Seok

    2016-11-19

    Several recent studies have reported that heat stress stimulates the activation of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72), leading to an increase in muscle synthesis. Some studies suggested that low-intensity resistance training combined with heat stress could improve muscle size and strength. This study aimed to identify the effect of low-intensity resistance training with heat stress over 12 weeks on the HSP72, anabolic hormones, muscle size, and strength in elderly women. The subjects were physically healthy women of 65-75 years, who were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a low-intensity resistance training with heating sheet group (HRT group, n = 8), a moderate-intensity resistance training (RT group, n = 6), and a heating sheet group (HEAT group, n = 7). Computed tomography scans, 1-repetition maximum (1RM), and blood samples were taken pre- and post-training. The HSP72 did not vary significantly between the different groups and times. The IGF-1 and 1RM had significantly increased in all three groups after the training (respectively, p < 0.05). Moreover, the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps showed a significantly greater increase in the HRT group than in the HEAT group (p < 0.05). We found that low-intensity training with heat stress stimulated the anabolic hormones of elderly women, improving their muscle strength and hypertrophy. We believe that low-intensity training with heat stress is an effective way to prevent muscle atrophy and to improve muscle strength in elderly women.

  8. Effects of Low-Intensity Cycle Training with Restricted Leg Blood Flow on Thigh Muscle Volume and VO2MAX in Young Men.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Fujita, Satoshi; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Sakamaki, Mikako; Ozaki, Hayao; Ogasawara, Riki; Sugaya, Masato; Kudo, Maiko; Kurano, Miwa; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Sato, Yoshiaki; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishii, Naokata

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent improvements in aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in response to a single mode of training have not been reported. We examined the effects of low-intensity cycle exercise training with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscle size and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). A group of 19 young men (mean age ± SD: 23.0 ± 1.7 years) were allocated randomly into either a BFR-training group (n=9, BFR-training) or a non-BFR control training group (n=10, CON-training), both of which trained 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Training intensity and duration were 40% of VO2max and 15 min for the BFR-training group and 40% of VO2max and 45 min for the CON-training group. MRI-measured thigh and quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area and muscle volume increased by 3.4-5.1% (P < 0.01) and isometric knee extension strength tended to increase by 7.7% (p < 0.10) in the BFR-training group. There was no change in muscle size (~0.6%) and strength (~1.4%) in the CON-training group. Significant improvements in VO2max (6.4%) and exercise time until exhaustion (15.4%) were observed in the BFR-training group (p < 0.05) but not in the CON-training group (-0.1 and 3. 9%, respectively). The results suggest that low-intensity, short-duration cycling exercise combined with BFR improves both muscle hypertrophy and aerobic capacity concurrently in young men. Key pointsConcurrent improvements in aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in response to a single mode of training have not been reported.In the present study, low-intensity (40% of VO2max) cycle training with BFR can elicit concurrent improvement in muscle hypertrophy and aerobic capacity.

  9. Effects of high-intensity and blood flow-restricted low-intensity resistance training on carotid arterial compliance: role of blood pressure during training sessions.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hayao; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Ogasawara, Riki; Sakamaki-Sunaga, Mikako; Naito, Hisashi; Abe, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of high-intensity resistance training (HIT) and low-intensity blood flow-restricted (LI-BFR) resistance training on carotid arterial compliance. Nineteen young men were randomly divided into HIT (n = 9) or LI-BFR (n = 10) groups. The HIT and LI-BFR groups performed 75 and 30 %, respectively, of one-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press exercise, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. During the training sessions, the LI-BFR group wore elastic cuffs around the most proximal region of both arms. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), 1-RM strength, and carotid arterial compliance were measured before and 3 days after the final training session. Acute changes in systolic arterial pressure (SAP), plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1), nitrite/nitrate (NOx), and noradrenalin concentrations were also measured during and after a bout of training session. The training led to significant increases (P < 0.01) in bench press 1-RM and arm and chest muscle CSA in the two training groups. Carotid arterial compliance decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the HIT group, but not in the LI-BFR group. There was a significant correlation (r = -0.533, P < 0.05) between the change in carotid arterial compliance and the acute change in SAP during training sessions; however, ET-1 and NOx did not correlate with carotid arterial compliance. Our results suggest that muscle CSA and strength increased following 6 weeks of both HIT and LI-BFR training. However, carotid arterial compliance decreased in only the HIT group, and the changes were correlated with SAP elevations during exercise sessions.

  10. Comparisons between low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction and high-intensity resistance training on quadriceps muscle mass and strength in elderly.

    PubMed

    Vechin, Felipe C; Libardi, Cleiton A; Conceição, Miguel S; Damas, Felipe R; Lixandrão, Manoel E; Berton, Ricardo P B; Tricoli, Valmor A A; Roschel, Hamilton A; Cavaglieri, Claudia R; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patricia T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HRT) has been recommended to offset age-related loss in muscle strength and mass. However, part of the elderly population is often unable to exercise at high intensities. Alternatively, low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction (LRT-BFR) has emerged. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of LRT-BFR and HRT on quadriceps muscle strength and mass in elderly. Twenty-three elderly individuals, 14 men and 9 women (age, 64.04 ± 3.81 years; weight, 72.55 ± 16.52 kg; height, 163 ± 11 cm), undertook 12 weeks of training. Subjects were ranked according to their pretraining quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) values and then randomly allocated into one of the following groups: (a) control group, (b) HRT: 4 × 10 repetitions, 70-80% one repetition maximum (1RM), and (c) LRT-BFR: 4 sets (1 × 30 and 3 × 15 repetitions), 20-30% 1RM. The occlusion pressure was set at 50% of maximum tibial arterial pressure and sustained during the whole training session. Leg press 1RM and quadriceps CSA were evaluated at before and after training. A mixed-model analysis was performed, and the significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. Both training regimes were effective in increasing pre- to post-training leg press 1RM (HRT: ∼54%, p < 0.001; LRT-BFR: ∼17%, p = 0.067) and quadriceps CSA (HRT: 7.9%, p < 0.001; LRT-BFR: 6.6%, p < 0.001); however, HRT seems to induce greater strength gains. In summary, LRT-BFR constitutes an important surrogate approach to HRT as an effective training method to induce gains in muscle strength and mass in elderly.

  11. Relationship between limb and trunk muscle hypertrophy following high-intensity resistance training and blood flow-restricted low-intensity resistance training.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Ogasawara, Riki; Sakamaki, Mikako; Bemben, Michael G; Abe, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    We examined the relationship between training-induced limb and trunk muscle hypertrophy in high-intensity resistance training (HIT) or blood flow-restricted low-intensity resistance training (LI-BFR) programmes. Thirty young men were divided into three groups: HIT (n = 10), LI-BFR (n = 10) and non-training control (CON, n = 10). The HIT and LI-BFR groups performed 75% and 30%, respectively, of one-repetition maximal (1-RM) bench press exercise, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. During the training sessions, the LI-BFR group wore elastic cuffs around the most proximal region of both arms. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and 1-RM bench press strength were measured before and 3 days after the final training session. Total training volumes (lifting weight × number of repetitions) for all of the sessions were similar between the two training groups. The training led to a significant increase (P < 0·05) in bench press 1-RM in the two training groups, but not in the CON group. Triceps brachii and pectoralis major muscle CSA increased 8·8% and 15·8% (P < 0·01), respectively, in the HIT group and 4·9% (P < 0·05) and 8·3% (P < 0·01), respectively, in the LI-BFR group, but not in the CON group (-1·1% and 0·0%, respectively). There was significant correlation (r = 0·70, P < 0·05) between increases in triceps brachii and pectoralis major muscle CSA in the HIT group; however, the correlation was lower and non-significant in the LI-BFR group (r = 0·54). Our results suggest that limb and trunk muscle hypertrophy occurs simultaneously during HIT but not during LI-BFR, possibly owing to individual differences in activation of the arm and chest muscles during the training sessions. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  12. Low-intensity wheelchair training in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury: A randomized controlled trial on fitness, wheelchair skill performance and physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    van der Scheer, Jan W; de Groot, Sonja; Tepper, Marga; Faber, Willemijn; Veeger, DirkJan H; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of low-intensity wheelchair training on wheelchair-specific fitness, wheelchair skill performance and physical activity levels in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury. Randomized controlled trial. Inactive manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury for at least 10 years (n = 29), allocated to exercise (n = 14) or no exercise. The 16-week training consisted of wheelchair treadmill-propulsion at 30-40% heart rate reserve or equi-valent in terms of rate of perceived exertion, twice a week, for 30 min per session. Wheelchair-specific fitness was determined as the highest 5-s power output over 15-m overground wheelchair sprinting (P5-15m), isometric push-force, submaximal fitness and peak aerobic work capacity. Skill was determined as performance time, ability and strain scores over a wheelchair circuit. Activity was determined using a questionnaire and an odometer. Significant training effects appeared only in P5-15m (exercise vs control: mean +2.0 W vs -0.7 W, p = 0.017, ru=0.65). The low-intensity wheelchair training appeared insufficient for substantial effects in the sample of inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury, presumably in part owing to a too-low exercise frequency. Effective yet feasible and sustainable training, as well as other physical activity programmes remain to be developed for inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury.

  13. Effects of high-intensity resistance training and low-intensity resistance training with vascular restriction on bone markers in older men.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, Murat; Bemben, Debra A; Sherk, Vanessa D; Anderson, Mark A; Abe, Takashi; Bemben, Michael G

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and compare the effects of different resistance training protocols on bone marker concentrations in older men. Thirty-seven healthy older male subjects were assigned to one of three groups: high-intensity resistance training (HI-RT, age = 57.5 ± 0.8); low-intensity resistance training with vascular restriction (LI-VRT, age = 59.9 ± 1.0); and control (CON, age = 57.0 ± 1.1). Blood samples were collected before and after 6 weeks of resistance training to measure the changes in bone formation [bone alkaline phosphatase, (Bone ALP)] and resorption (C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of Type-I collagen, CTX) marker concentrations. A significant main effect for time was detected in Bone ALP to CTX ratio for the exercise groups (p < 0.05). There was a significant group effect for percentage changes in serum Bone ALP (21% for LI-VRT, 23% for HI-RT, and 4.7% for CON) and post hoc analysis identified significant increases in serum Bone ALP concentrations in LI-VRT (p = 0.03) and HI-RT (p = 0.02) when compared with CON. The exercise groups had significantly (p < 0.01) greater strength increases in all upper body and leg exercises compared with CON with no significant differences between the exercise groups except for leg extension strength (HI-RT > LI-VRT, p < 0.05). Serum concentrations of Bone ALP and Bone ALP to CTX ratio improved in both resistance training protocols, suggesting increased bone turnover with a balance favoring bone formation. Therefore, despite using low mechanical load, LI-VRT is a potentially effective training alternative to traditional HI-RT for enhancing bone health in older men.

  14. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses of osteoblasts through TLR4-MyD88 dissociation.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Juna; Fujii, Yasuyuki; Kusuyama, Joji; Bandow, Kenjiro; Kakimoto, Kyoko; Ohnishi, Tomokazu; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that osteoblasts are mechano-sensitive. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) induces osteoblast differentiation and is an established therapy for bone fracture. Here we have examined how LIPUS affects inflammatory responses of osteoblasts to LPS. LPS rapidly induced mRNA expression of several chemokines including CCL2, CXCL1, and CXCL10 in both mouse osteoblast cell line and calvaria-derived osteoblasts. Simultaneous treatment by LIPUS significantly inhibited mRNA induction of CXCL1 and CXCL10 by LPS. LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERKs, p38 kinases, MEK1/2, MKK3/6, IKKs, TBK1, and Akt was decreased in LIPUS-treated osteoblasts. Furthermore, LIPUS inhibited the transcriptional activation of NF-κB responsive element and Interferon-sensitive response element (ISRE) by LPS. In a transient transfection experiment, LIPUS significantly inhibited TLR4-MyD88 complex formation. Thus LIPUS exerts anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-stimulated osteoblasts by inhibiting TLR4 signal transduction.

  15. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: chronic low-intensity interval exercise training preserves myocardial O2 balance and diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Kurt D; Muller, Brittany N; Krenz, Maike; Hanft, Laurin M; McDonald, Kerry S; Dellsperger, Kevin C; Emter, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported chronic low-intensity interval exercise training attenuates fibrosis, impaired cardiac mitochondrial function, and coronary vascular dysfunction in miniature swine with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (Emter CA, Baines CP. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 299: H1348-H1356, 2010; Emter CA, et al. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 301: H1687-H1694, 2011). The purpose of this study was to test two hypotheses: 1) chronic low-intensity interval training preserves normal myocardial oxygen supply/demand balance; and 2) training-dependent attenuation of LV fibrotic remodeling improves diastolic function in aortic-banded sedentary, exercise-trained (HF-TR), and control sedentary male Yucatan miniature swine displaying symptoms of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Pressure-volume loops, coronary blood flow, and two-dimensional speckle tracking ultrasound were utilized in vivo under conditions of increasing peripheral mean arterial pressure and β-adrenergic stimulation 6 mo postsurgery to evaluate cardiac function. Normal diastolic function in HF-TR animals was characterized by prevention of increased time constant of isovolumic relaxation, normal LV untwisting rate, and enhanced apical circumferential and radial strain rate. Reduced fibrosis, normal matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-4 mRNA expression, and increased collagen III isoform mRNA levels (P < 0.05) accompanied improved diastolic function following chronic training. Exercise-dependent improvements in coronary blood flow for a given myocardial oxygen consumption (P < 0.05) and cardiac efficiency (stroke work to myocardial oxygen consumption, P < 0.05) were associated with preserved contractile reserve. LV hypertrophy in HF-TR animals was associated with increased activation of Akt and preservation of activated JNK/SAPK. In conclusion, chronic low-intensity interval exercise training attenuates diastolic impairment by promoting compliant

  16. Effects of whole-body low-intensity resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation on muscular size and strength in young men.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Michiya; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Kenta; Kawano, Hiroshi; Gando, Yuko; Tabata, Izumi; Ishii, Naokata; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2008-11-01

    Our previous study showed that relatively low-intensity (approximately 50% one-repetition maximum [1RM]) resistance training (knee extension) with slow movement and tonic force generation (LST) caused as significant an increase in muscular size and strength as high-intensity (approximately 80% 1RM) resistance training with normal speed (HN). However, that study examined only local effects of one type of exercise (knee extension) on knee extensor muscles. The present study was performed to examine whether a whole-body LST resistance training regimen is as effective on muscular hypertrophy and strength gain as HN resistance training. Thirty-six healthy young men without experience of regular resistance training were assigned into three groups (each n = 12) and performed whole-body resistance training regimens comprising five types of exercise (vertical squat, chest press, latissimus dorsi pull-down, abdominal bend, and back extension: three sets each) with LST (approximately 55-60% 1RM, 3 seconds for eccentric and concentric actions, and no relaxing phase); HN (approximately 80-90% 1RM, 1 second for concentric and eccentric actions, 1 second for relaxing); and a sedentary control group (CON). The mean repetition maximum was eight-repetition maximum in LST and HN. The training session was performed twice a week for 13 weeks. The LST training caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in whole-body muscle thickness (6.8 +/- 3.4% in a sum of six sites) and 1RM strength (33.0 +/- 8.8% in a sum of five exercises) comparable with those induced by HN training (9.1 +/- 4.2%, 41.2 +/- 7.6% in each measurement item). There were no such changes in the CON group. The results suggest that a whole-body LST resistance training regimen is as effective for muscular hypertrophy and strength gain as HN resistance training.

  17. Comparative Effects of Vigorous-Intensity and Low-Intensity Blood Flow Restricted Cycle Training and Detraining on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daeyeol; Singh, Harshvardhan; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S; Fahs, Christopher A; Rossow, Lindy M; Young, Kaelin; Seo, Dong-Il; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2016-05-01

    Traditional high-intensity aerobic training has been shown to improve muscle protein synthesis and aerobic capacity; however, recent research indicates that low-intensity aerobic training with blood flow restriction (BFR) may have similar effects. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of vigorous-intensity (VI) cycling vs. low-intensity cycling with BFR (LI-BFR) on muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity after training and subsequent detraining. Thirty-one physically active subjects were assigned to one of 3 groups: VI (n = 10, 60-70% heart rate reserve [HRR]), LI-BFR (n = 11, 30% HRR with BFR at 160-180 mm Hg), and no exercise control (n = 10, no exercise). Subjects in VI and LI-BFR cycled 3 times per week for 6 weeks (total 18 sessions). Body composition, muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity were measured pre, post, and after 3 weeks of detraining. A group × time interaction (p = 0.019) effect for both knee flexion and leg lean mass was found. For both VI and LI-BFR groups, knee flexion strength was significantly increased between pre and post (p = 0.024, p = 0.01) and between pre and 3 week-post (p = 0.039, p = 0.003), respectively. For the LI-BFR group, leg lean mass was significantly increased between pre and 3 week-post (p = 0.024) and between post and 3 week-post (p = 0.013). However, there were no significant differences between groups for any variables. The LI-BFR elicits an increase in the knee flexion muscle strength over time similar to the VI. An increase in the leg lean mass over time was seen in the LI-BFR, but not in VI and CON.

  18. Comparison of high and low intensity training in well controlled rheumatoid arthritis. Results of a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed Central

    van den Ende, C H; Hazes, J M; le Cessie, S; Mulder, W J; Belfor, D G; Breedveld, F C; Dijkmans, B A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the benefit of intensive dynamic exercises in comparison to range of motion (ROM) and isometric exercises in rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: 100 consecutive rheumatoid arthritis patients on stable medication were randomly assigned to (1) intensive dynamic group exercises which included full weight bearing exercises and conditioning exercises on a stationary bicycle while the heart rate was maintained at 70-85% of the age predicted maximum heart rate, (2) range of motion (ROM) exercises and isometric exercises in a group, (3) individual isometric and ROM exercises, and (4) home instructions for isometric and ROM exercises. Variables of physical condition, muscle strength, joint mobility, daily functioning (HAQ), and disease activity were assessed before and after the 12 week exercise course, and 12 weeks thereafter. An intention to treat analysis was performed. RESULTS: Increases in aerobic capacity (n = 77), muscle strength, and joint mobility in the high intensity exercise programme were respectively 17%, 17% and 16% and differed significantly from the changes in aerobic capacity, muscle strength, and joint mobility in the other exercise groups. No deterioration of disease activity was observed. Twelve weeks after discontinuation of the exercise course the gain in physical capacity had disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive dynamic training is more effective in increasing aerobic capacity, joint mobility, and muscle strength than ROM exercises and isometric training in rheumatoid arthritis patients with well controlled disease. PMID:8976635

  19. Changes in Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile after 12-Week Low- Intensity Continuous Training in Both Cigarette and Hookah Smokers: A Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of low-intensity continuous training program on antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in male cigarette or hookah smokers. Forty-three male adults participated in a 12-week continuous training program at an intensity of 40% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to anthropometric, physical and biochemical tests before and after the training program. The increase of Glutathione reductase (GR) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS) and hookah smokers (HS) groups. The Malondialdehyde (MDA) decrease and α-tocopherol increase are significant only for HS group. GPx was increased in NS, CS and HS by 2.6% (p< 0.01), 2% (p< 0.05) and 1.7% (p< 0.05) respectively. Likewise, significant improvements of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and TC / HDL-C ratio were observed in three groups. En contrast no significant changes were recorded in triglycerides (TG). Also, significant reduction of total cholesterol (TC) for CS group (p< 0.01) and HS groups (p< 0.05). This continuous training program appears to have an important role in lipid levels improving and oxidative stress attenuation. PMID:26121249

  20. Effects of detraining after blood flow-restricted low-intensity concentric or eccentric training on muscle size and strength.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S; Abe, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of 6 weeks of detraining on muscle size and strength in young men who had previously participated in 6 weeks (3 days/week) of 30 % of concentric one-repetition maximal (1-RM) dumbbell curl training [one arm: concentric blood flow restricted (BFR) exercise (CON-BFR); the other arm: eccentric BFR exercise (ECC-BFR)]. MRI-measured muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) at 10 cm above the elbow joint increased from pre to post (p < 0.01), and the muscle CSA following detraining remained greater than pre (p < 0.01) but was similar to that observed at post. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) increased from pre to post (p < 0.05), and the MVC following detraining remained greater than pre (p < 0.05) but was similar to that observed at post. The ECC-BFR did not produce any changes across time. Increased muscle strength following 6 weeks of CON-BFR was well preserved at 6 weeks of detraining, which may be primarily related to muscle hypertrophy.

  1. The Effects of High-Intensity versus Low-Intensity Resistance Training on Leg Extensor Power and Recovery of Knee Function after ACL-Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Aue Sobol, Nanna; Andersen, Lars L.; Kiel, Peter; Løfholm, Peter; Magnusson, S. Peter; Krogsgaard, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Persistent weakness is a common problem after anterior cruciate ligament- (ACL-) reconstruction. This study investigated the effects of high-intensity (HRT) versus low-intensity (LRT) resistance training on leg extensor power and recovery of knee function after ACL-reconstruction. Methods. 31 males and 19 females were randomized to HRT (n = 24) or LRT (n = 26) from week 8–20 after ACL-reconstruction. Leg extensor power, joint laxity, and self-reported knee function were measured before and 7, 14, and 20 weeks after surgery. Hop tests were assessed before and after 20 weeks. Results. Power in the injured leg was 90% (95% CI 86–94%) of the noninjured leg, decreasing to 64% (95% CI 60–69%) 7 weeks after surgery. During the resistance training phase there was a significant group by time interaction for power (P = 0.020). Power was regained more with HRT compared to LRT at week 14 (84% versus 73% of noninjured leg, resp.; P = 0.027) and at week 20 (98% versus 83% of noninjured leg, resp.; P = 0.006) without adverse effects on joint laxity. No other between-group differences were found. Conclusion. High-intensity resistance training during rehabilitation after ACL-reconstruction can improve muscle power without adverse effects on joint laxity. PMID:24877078

  2. Low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction improves vascular endothelial function and peripheral blood circulation in healthy elderly people.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ryosuke; Hotta, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Matsumoto, Takuya; Kamiya, Kentaro; Kato, Michitaka; Hamazaki, Nobuaki; Kamekawa, Daisuke; Akiyama, Ayako; Kamada, Yumi; Tanaka, Shinya; Masuda, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR resistance training) on vascular endothelial function and peripheral blood circulation. Forty healthy elderly volunteers aged 71 ± 4 years were divided into two training groups. Twenty subjects performed BFR resistance training (BFR group), and the remaining 20 performed ordinary resistance training without BFR. Resistance training was performed at 20 % of each estimated one-repetition maximum for 4 weeks. We measured lactate (Lac), norepinephrine (NE), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and growth hormone (GH) before and after the initial resistance training. The reactive hyperemia index (RHI), von Willebrand factor (vWF) and transcutaneous oxygen pressure in the foot (Foot-tcPO2) were assessed before and after the 4-week resistance training period. Lac, NE, VEGF and GH increased significantly from 8.2 ± 3.6 mg/dL, 619.5 ± 243.7 pg/mL, 43.3 ± 15.9 pg/mL and 0.9 ± 0.7 ng/mL to 49.2 ± 16.1 mg/dL, 960.2 ± 373.7 pg/mL, 61.6 ± 19.5 pg/mL and 3.1 ± 1.3 ng/mL, respectively, in the BFR group (each P < 0.01). RHI and Foot-tcPO2 increased significantly from 1.8 ± 0.2 and 62.4 ± 5.3 mmHg to 2.1 ± 0.3 and 68.9 ± 5.8 mmHg, respectively, in the BFR group (each P < 0.01). VWF decreased significantly from 175.7 ± 20.3 to 156.3 ± 38.1 % in the BFR group (P < 0.05). BFR resistance training improved vascular endothelial function and peripheral blood circulation in healthy elderly people.

  3. Intense interval training enhances human skeletal muscle oxygen uptake in the initial phase of dynamic exercise at high but not at low intensities.

    PubMed

    Krustrup, Peter; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2004-08-15

    The present study tested the hypothesis that intense interval training enhances human skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen uptake (VO2) at the onset of dynamic exercise. We also investigated whether possible training effects were dependent on exercise intensity. Six habitually active males carried out 7 weeks of intermittent-exercise one-legged knee-extensor training at an intensity corresponding to approximately 150% of peak thigh VO2 on three to five occasions per week. After the training period, cardiovascular and metabolic measurements were performed during knee-extensor exercise with the trained leg (TL) and the control leg (CL) for 10 min at intensities of 10 and 30 W, and also for 4 min at 50 W. Femoral venous blood flow was higher (P < 0.05) in TL than CL from 75 to 180 s at 30 W ( approximately 75 s: 3.43 +/- 0.20 versus 2.99 +/- 0.18 l min(-1)) and from 40 to 210 s at 50 W ( approximately 75 s: 5.03 +/- 0.41 versus 4.13 +/- 0.33 l min(-1)). Mean arterial pressure was not different between legs. Thus, thigh vascular conductance was higher (P < 0.05) in TL than CL from 35 to 270 s at 30 W and from 150 to 240 s at 50 W. Femoral arterial-venous (a-v) O2 difference was higher (P < 0.05) in TL than CL from 20 to 70 s at 30 W, but not different between TL and CL at 50 W. Thigh VO2 was higher (P < 0.05) in TL than CL from 20 to 110 s at 30 W ( approximately 45 s: 0.38 +/- 0.04 versus 0.30 +/- 0.03 l min(-1)), and from 45 to 240 s at 50 W ( approximately 45 s: 0.64 +/- 0.06 versus 0.44 +/- 0.08 l min(-1)). No differences were observed between TL and CL during exercise at 10 W. The present data demonstrate that intense interval training elevates muscle oxygen uptake, blood flow and vascular conductance in the initial phase of exercise at high, but not at low, intensities.

  4. Effects of short-term two weeks low intensity plyometrics combined with dynamic stretching training in improving vertical jump height and agility on trained basketball players.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Selvam; Pradhan, Binita

    2014-01-01

    Sport specific training in basketball players should focus on vertical jump height and agility in consistent with demands of the sport. Since plyometrics training improves vertical jump height and agility, it can be useful training strategy to improve the performance of basketball players. A convenience sample of thirty professional basketball players were recruited. Following pre-intervention assessment, interventions using plyometrics training and dynamic stretching protocol was administered on the basketball players. The outcome measures were assessed before the intervention and at the end of first and second week. Statistically significant improvements in vertical jump height (31.68 ± 11.64 to 37.57 ± 16.74; P < 0.012) and agility (16.75 ± 2.49 to 16.51 ± 2.80; P <0.00) were observed between pretest--posttest measures and no changes in muscle girth and isometric muscle strength. The study concludes that short term two weeks plyometrics training combined with dynamic stretching as a useful sport specific training strategy to improve vertical jump height and agility on trained basketball players.

  5. Low-volume high-intensity swim training is superior to high-volume low-intensity training in relation to insulin sensitivity and glucose control in inactive middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Luke J; Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Nyberg, Michael; Weihe, Pál; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that low-volume high-intensity swimming has a larger impact on insulin sensitivity and glucose control than high-volume low-intensity swimming in inactive premenopausal women with mild hypertension. Sixty-two untrained premenopausal women were randomised to an inactive control (n = 20; CON), a high-intensity low-volume (n = 21; HIT) or a low-intensity high-volume (n = 21; LIT) training group. During the 15-week intervention period, HIT performed 3 weekly 6-10 × 30-s all-out swimming intervals (average heart rate (HR) = 86 ± 3 % HRmax) interspersed by 2-min recovery periods and LIT swam continuously for 1 h at low intensity (average HR = 73 ± 3 % HRmax). Fasting blood samples were taken and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted pre- and post-intervention. After HIT, resting plasma [insulin] was lowered (17 ± 34 %; P < 0.05) but remained similar after LIT and CON. Following HIT, 60-min OGTT plasma [insulin] and [glucose] was lowered (24 ± 30 % and 10 ± 16 %; P < 0.05) but remained similar after LIT and CON. Total area under the curve for plasma [glucose] was lower (P < 0.05) after HIT than LIT (660 ± 141 vs. 860 ± 325 mmol min L(-1)). Insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR) had increased (P < 0.05) by 22 ± 34 % after HIT, with no significant change after LIT or CON, respectively. Plasma soluble intracellular cell adhesion molecule 1 was lowered (P < 0.05) by 4 ± 8 and 3 ± 9 % after HIT and CON, respectively, while plasma soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 had decreased (P < 0.05) by 8 ± 23 % after HIT only. These findings suggest that low-volume high-intensity intermittent swimming is an effective and time-efficient training strategy for improving insulin sensitivity, glucose control and biomarkers of vascular function in inactive, middle-aged mildly hypertensive women.

  6. Comparison of low-intensity blood flow-restricted training-induced muscular hypertrophy in eumenorrheic women in the follicular phase and luteal phase and age-matched men.

    PubMed

    Sakamaki, Mikako; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Abe, Takashi

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle hypertrophic response in women during both the follicular (FP) and the luteal phase (LP) of their menstrual cycles following short-term, low-intensity resistance training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR). Eight eumenorrheic women and five men, all previously untrained, performed unilateral low-intensity (30% of 1 repetition maximum) dumbbell curl training with BFR once a day for 6 days. The opposite arm served as an untrained control. This 6-day training programme was conducted during both menstrual cycle phases: the early FP and the mid LP. MRI-measured biceps muscle volume (MV) and isometric elbow flexion strength were measured in both arms before and 2 days after the final training bout. Significantly (P<0.05) greater muscle hypertrophy was observed in the LP (5·7%) than in the FP (3·7%). The absolute and relative changes in serum hormone concentrations between the two phases did not correlate (P>0.05) with the percentage change in MV between the LP and FP. There was no change in MV in the control arm for both cycle phases. Following training, isometric strength increased (P<0.01) in the LP, but not in the FP (P = 0.17). Relative strength (strength per unit MV) was similar pre- and post-training in both phases. The percentage changes in MV and strength were similar between the women (average of LP and FP) and men. Our results indicate that muscle hypertrophy and strength gain are higher in the LP than in the FP following 6 days of BFR training, although the sex difference in the training response is non-existent. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  7. Effects of 6-week specific low-intensity training on selected aerobic capacity parameters and HSPA1A, HSPB1, and LDHb gene expression in high-level rowers.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębski, Z; Żychowska, M

    2015-07-06

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of 6-week low-intensity training on changes in indicators of aerobic capacity and on HSPA1A, HSPB1, and LDHb expression in white blood cells in high level rowers. We hypothesized that the type of training would have an impact not only on the adaptation of athletes to the aerobic nature of the exercises, but also on the expression of genes, designated during exercises "until refusal". Nine Polish lightweight male rowers (21.8 ± 3.77 years of age, 74.2 ± 1.7 6 kg, 184.8 ± 4.58 cm) of high level participated in the experiment. To determine the anaerobic threshold (AnT) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) at the beginning and end of the 6-week training period, the subjects performed the test "till exhaustion", with increasing load. Directly before and after the test, blood samples were collected from the ulnar vein for isolation of RNA. Consecutively, reverse transcription and real time polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed. A significant influence of applied training on physiological parameters such as VO2max (P = 0.0001), AnT (W/AT) (P = 0.0007), and maximal acid lactate concentration (P = 0.018) as well as on HSPA1A expression (P = 0.0129) in rowers were detected. The 6-week low-intensity aerobic training significantly affected the physiological parameters and HSPA1A expression in the rowers. Therefore, we suggest that the response of leukocytes by activating HSPA1A was dependent on the type of training. The 6-week period proved sufficiently long to of adapting leukocytes in athletes to high intensity exercises.

  8. Low Intensity Conflict: Global Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motley, James Berry

    1987-01-01

    Examines the increase in low intensity conflict (LIC) such as terrorism and subversion, since World War II and discusses the United States ability to deal with it. States that LICs continue to increase, making U.S. involvement inevitable. Describes necessary preparations and actions for meeting this challenge. (GEA)

  9. Effects of low-intensity bench press training with restricted arm muscle blood flow on chest muscle hypertrophy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Fujita, Satoshi; Ogasawara, Riki; Sato, Yoshiaki; Abe, Takashi

    2010-09-01

    Single-joint resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR) results in significant increases in arm or leg muscle size and single-joint strength. However, the effect of multijoint BFR training on both blood flow restricted limb and non-restricted trunk muscles remain poorly understood. To examine the impact of BFR bench press training on hypertrophic response to non-restricted (chest) and restricted (upper-arm) muscles and multi-joint strength, 10 young men were randomly divided into either BFR training (BFR-T) or non-BFR training (CON-T) groups. They performed 30% of one repetition maximal (1-RM) bench press exercise (four sets, total 75 reps) twice daily, 6 days week(-1) for 2 weeks. During the exercise session, subjects in the BFR-T group placed elastic cuffs proximally on both arms, with incremental increases in external compression starting at 100 mmHg and ending at 160 mmHg. Before and after the training, triceps brachii and pectoralis major muscle thickness (MTH), bench press 1-RM and serum anabolic hormones were measured. Two weeks of training led to a significant increase (P<0.05) in 1-RM bench press strength in BFR-T (6%) but not in CON-T (-2%). Triceps and pectoralis major MTH increased 8% and 16% (P<0.01), respectively, in BFR-T, but not in CON-T (-1% and 2%, respectively). There were no changes in baseline concentrations of anabolic hormones in either group. These results suggest that BFR bench press training leads to significant increases in muscle size for upper arm and chest muscles and 1-RM strength.

  10. Effect of High- versus Low-Intensity Supervised Aerobic and Resistance Training on Modifiable Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes; The Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study (IDES)

    PubMed Central

    Cardelli, Patrizia; Salvi, Laura; Bazuro, Alessandra; Pugliese, Luca; Maccora, Carla; Iacobini, Carla; Conti, Francesco G.; Nicolucci, Antonio; Pugliese, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Background While current recommendations on exercise type and volume have strong experimental bases, there is no clear evidence from large-sized studies indicating whether increasing training intensity provides additional benefits to subjects with type 2 diabetes. Objective To compare the effects of moderate-to-high intensity (HI) versus low-to-moderate intensity (LI) training of equal energy cost, i.e. exercise volume, on modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. Design Pre-specified sub-analysis of the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study (IDES), a randomized multicenter prospective trial comparing a supervised exercise intervention with standard care for 12 months (2005–2006). Setting Twenty-two outpatient diabetes clinics across Italy. Patients Sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes assigned to twice-a-week supervised progressive aerobic and resistance training plus exercise counseling (n = 303). Interventions Subjects were randomized by center to LI (n = 142, 136 completed) or HI (n = 161, 152 completed) progressive aerobic and resistance training, i.e. at 55% or 70% of predicted maximal oxygen consumption and at 60% or 80% of predicted 1-Repetition Maximum, respectively, of equal volume. Main Outcome Measure(s) Hemoglobin (Hb) A1c and other cardiovascular risk factors; 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk scores. Results Volume of physical activity, both supervised and non-supervised, was similar in LI and HI participants. Compared with LI training, HI training produced only clinically marginal, though statistically significant, improvements in HbA1c (mean difference −0.17% [95% confidence interval −0.44,0.10], P = 0.03), triglycerides (−0.12 mmol/l [−0.34,0.10], P = 0.02) and total cholesterol (−0.24 mmol/l [−0.46, −0.01], P = 0.04), but not in other risk factors and CHD risk scores. However, intensity was not an independent predictor of reduction of any of these parameters. Adverse event rate was similar in HI and

  11. Low Intensity Conflict: A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    175. (Periodical) Hanke, James S., and Crerar, John H . "Shifting Threat Moves toward Lower Intensity Conflicts." SIGNAL, Vol. 45, December 1990, pp...Brassey’s, 1990. (U240 P38 1990) Pfaltzgraff, Robert L., Jr., and Shultz, Richard H ., Jr., eds. THE UNITED STATES ARMY: CHALLENGES AND MISSIONS FOR...8: "Doctrine and Forces for Low-Intensity Conflict," by Richard H . Shultz, Jr. Schroer, David J. SUCCESS IN LOW INTENSITY CONFLICT: CON- CLUSIONS

  12. Operational Art and Low Intensity Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-23

    LfSHAHY R£S£ ASCH REPGfiTS DIVJ8I0H mmEm. m.mHmh CLIC PAPERS OPERATIONAL ART IN LOW INTENSITY CONFLICT Army-Air Force Center for Low Intensity...this long-term nature. TABLE A Indo China I 1946 -54 Malaya 1948-60 Indo-China II 1962-75 - Algeria 1954-62 Cuba 1956-59 Zimbabwe 1969-79 17

  13. Evolving Medical Strategies for Low Intensity Conflicts - A Necessity.

    PubMed

    Dheer, Ajay; Jaiprakash; Sharma, H K; Singh, Jasdeep

    2003-04-01

    Military medicine is the development within the art and science which is designed to carry out a specialized, essential and a highly significant mission under the adverse conditions of war. Low Intensity Conflict (LIC) is a mode of warfare which has come to stay and the Indian Military has to confront it as such. It is a campaign of nerves, less military and more psychological, with soldiers inevitably fighting with hands behind their back. The dichotomy the soldier faces, results in high levels of frustration leading to various stress disorders. The key in casualty survival lies in correct and timely psychological first-aid for which every section and platoon commander should be trained. Post Trauma Stress Disorder caused as a result of traumatic experience can deplete unit's efficiency and therefore needs monitoring for early detection and treatment. Evolving medical strategies for Low Intensity Conflict Operations (LICO), therefore assumes significance.

  14. Low-intensity exercise, vascular occlusion, and muscular adaptations.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Masaru; Golding, Lawrence A

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of low-intensity exercise on muscular fitness when combined with vascular occlusion. Nineteen college male and female students performed two sets of a 5-min step exercise using a 12-inch bench three times per week for 5 weeks. During the step exercise, blood flow to one leg was restricted (vascular occlusion) with a blood pressure cuff, while the other leg was not occluded. Muscular strength of the occluded leg was significantly increased over the nonoccluded leg (p < 0. 05). Muscular endurance and muscle mass were improved after 5 weeks of training (p < 0.05); however, the changes between the two legs were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Exercise with vascular occlusion has the potential to be an alternative form of training to promote muscular strength.

  15. Low intensity laser treatment of nerve injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Luo, Qing-Ming

    2007-05-01

    The neural regeneration and functional recovery after nerve injuries has long been an important field in neuroscience. Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation is a novel and useful tool for the treatment of many injuries and disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the role of LIL irradiation in the treatment of peripheral and central nerve injuries. Some animal experiments and clinical investigations have shown beneficial effects of LIL irradiation on neural tissues, but its therapeutic value and efficacy are controversial. Reviewing the data of experimental and clinical studies by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation in specific parameters can promote the regeneration of injured peripheral and central nerves and LIL therapy is a safe and valuable treatment for superficial peripheral nerve injuries and spinal cord injury. The biological effects of LIL treatment depend largely on laser wavelength, power and dose per site and effective irradiation doses are location-specific.

  16. Low-Intensity Repetitive Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Tran, Mina; Hayden, Nicholas; Garcia, Brandon; Tucci, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare condition caused by the proteins of damaged muscle cells entering the bloodstream and damaging the kidneys. Common symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are muscle pain and fatigue in conjunction with dark urine; kidney damage is a common symptom among these patients. We present a case of a 23-year-old woman who displayed myalgia in the upper extremities caused by low-intensity and high-repetition exercise. She was successfully diagnosed and treated for exertional rhabdomyolysis. This patient had no significant medical history that would induce this condition. We urge the emergency medical community to observe and monitor patients that complain of myalgia to ensure they are not suffering from rhabdomyolysis even in atypical cases.

  17. Low-Intensity Repetitive Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Mina; Hayden, Nicholas; Garcia, Brandon; Tucci, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare condition caused by the proteins of damaged muscle cells entering the bloodstream and damaging the kidneys. Common symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are muscle pain and fatigue in conjunction with dark urine; kidney damage is a common symptom among these patients. We present a case of a 23-year-old woman who displayed myalgia in the upper extremities caused by low-intensity and high-repetition exercise. She was successfully diagnosed and treated for exertional rhabdomyolysis. This patient had no significant medical history that would induce this condition. We urge the emergency medical community to observe and monitor patients that complain of myalgia to ensure they are not suffering from rhabdomyolysis even in atypical cases. PMID:26693360

  18. Low intensity laser therapy: the clinical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, Fred

    2006-02-01

    Recently, there has been significant improvement in the process of research and application of Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT). Despite this positive direction, a wide discrepancy between the research component and clinical understanding of the technology remains. In our efforts to achieve better clinical results and more fully comprehend the mechanisms of interaction between light and cells, further studies are required. The clinical results presented in this paper are extrapolated from a wide range of musculoskeletal problems including degenerative osteoarthritis, repetitive motion injuries, sports injuries, etc. The paper includes three separate clinical studies comprising 151, 286 and 576 consecutive patient discharges at our clinic. Each patient studied received a specific course of treatment that was designed for that individual and was modified on a continuing basis as the healing process advanced. On each visit, clinical status correlation with the duration, dosage and other parameters was carried out. The essentials of the treatment consisted of a three stage approach. This involved a photon stream emanating from a number of specified gallium-aluminum-arsenide diodes; stage one, red light array, stage two consisting of an array of infrared diodes and stage three consisting of the application of an infrared laser diode probe. On average, each of these groups required less than 10 treatments per patient and resulted in a significant improvement / cure rate greater than 90% in all conditions treated. This report clearly demonstrates the benefits of LILT, indicating that it should be more widely adapted in all medical therapeutic settings.

  19. Dissociation of Neural Networks for Predisposition and for Training-Related Plasticity in Auditory-Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Herholz, Sibylle C.; Coffey, Emily B.J.; Pantev, Christo; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Skill learning results in changes to brain function, but at the same time individuals strongly differ in their abilities to learn specific skills. Using a 6-week piano-training protocol and pre- and post-fMRI of melody perception and imagery in adults, we dissociate learning-related patterns of neural activity from pre-training activity that predicts learning rates. Fronto-parietal and cerebellar areas related to storage of newly learned auditory-motor associations increased their response following training; in contrast, pre-training activity in areas related to stimulus encoding and motor control, including right auditory cortex, hippocampus, and caudate nuclei, was predictive of subsequent learning rate. We discuss the implications of these results for models of perceptual and of motor learning. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual predisposition in plasticity research and applications. PMID:26139842

  20. Low-intensity, stocker-based channel catfish culture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low-intensity Channel Catfish production is characterized by low stocking rates, low installed aeration capacity, and no automated dissolved oxygen monitoring. Two studies conducted in nine 0.25-acre ponds quantified production characteristics of stocker Channel Catfish stocked for low-intensity foo...

  1. Sub-10-fs control of dissociation pathways in the hydrogen molecular ion with a few-pulse attosecond pulse train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabekawa, Yasuo; Furukawa, Yusuke; Okino, Tomoya; Amani Eilanlou, A.; Takahashi, Eiji J.; Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2016-09-01

    The control of the electronic states of a hydrogen molecular ion by photoexcitation is considerably difficult because it requires multiple sub-10 fs light pulses in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) wavelength region with a sufficiently high intensity. Here, we demonstrate the control of the dissociation pathway originating from the 2pσu electronic state against that originating from the 2pπu electronic state in a hydrogen molecular ion by using a pair of attosecond pulse trains in the XUV wavelength region with a train-envelope duration of ~4 fs. The switching time from the peak to the valley in the oscillation caused by the vibrational wavepacket motion in the 1sσg ground electronic state is only 8 fs. This result can be classified as the fastest control, to the best of our knowledge, of a molecular reaction in the simplest molecule on the basis of the XUV-pump and XUV-probe scheme.

  2. The Role of Military Working Dogs in Low Intensity Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    lJji•;1 FILE COUY" ’ AD-A224 049 -7CLIC PAPERS THE ROLE OF MILITARY WORKING DOGS IN LOW INTENSITY CONFLICT*,. ’< " Army. Air Force Center for Low...Intensity Conflict Langley Air Force Base, Virginia (O I7 16 235’ REPORT DOCUMENTATIOJN PA~GE 30a’ 1 IOTSICUtiTY CLASS CAt " lb RIESTRI(TIVE VAWG o...TITLE (include Security Claw ifirctiofl) The Role of Military Working Dogs in Low Intensity Conflict 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) LTC William H. Thornton

  3. Stark Widths Of Ionized Xenon UV Lines Of Low Intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Cirisan, M.; Djurovic, S.; Pelaez, R. J.; Aparicio, J. A.; Mar, S.

    2007-04-23

    Stark width measurements of several low intensity Xe II spectral lines (5d - 4f transitions) in UV region, are presented here for the first time. These measurements were obtained from helium - xenon pulsed arc plasma.

  4. Horse-Mounted Troops in Low Intensity Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    agency. HORSE -MOUNTED TROOPS IN LOW INTENSITY CONFLICT BY Lieutenant Colonel Peter W. J. Onoszko, IN Senior Service College Fellow Tufts University...COMPLETING FORM i. REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Horse ...Mounted Troops in Low Intensity Conflict Individual Study Project An argument for the development of a horse -mounted_ capability within United States

  5. Sub-10-fs control of dissociation pathways in the hydrogen molecular ion with a few-pulse attosecond pulse train

    PubMed Central

    Nabekawa, Yasuo; Furukawa, Yusuke; Okino, Tomoya; Amani Eilanlou, A; Takahashi, Eiji J.; Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    The control of the electronic states of a hydrogen molecular ion by photoexcitation is considerably difficult because it requires multiple sub-10 fs light pulses in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) wavelength region with a sufficiently high intensity. Here, we demonstrate the control of the dissociation pathway originating from the 2pσu electronic state against that originating from the 2pπu electronic state in a hydrogen molecular ion by using a pair of attosecond pulse trains in the XUV wavelength region with a train-envelope duration of ∼4 fs. The switching time from the peak to the valley in the oscillation caused by the vibrational wavepacket motion in the 1sσg ground electronic state is only 8 fs. This result can be classified as the fastest control, to the best of our knowledge, of a molecular reaction in the simplest molecule on the basis of the XUV-pump and XUV-probe scheme. PMID:27647423

  6. Dissociative Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... last minutes, hours, or rarely, months or years. Dissociative identity disorder. Formerly known as multiple personality disorder, this disorder ... each identity is with the others. People with dissociative identity disorder typically also have dissociative amnesia and often have ...

  7. Low intensity infrared laser induces filamentation in Escherichia coli cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, A. S.; Presta, G. A.; Geller, M.; Paoli, F.

    2011-10-01

    Low intensity continuous wave and pulsed emission modes laser is used in treating many diseases and the resulting biostimulative effect on tissues has been described, yet the photobiological basis is not well understood. The aim of this wok was to evaluate, using bacterial filamentation assay, effects of laser on Escherichia coli cultures in exponential and stationary growth phase. E. coli cultures, proficient and deficient on DNA repair, in exponential and stationary growth phase, were exposed to low intensity infrared laser, aliquots were spread onto microscopic slides, stained by Gram method, visualized by optical microscopy, photographed and percentage of bacterial filamentation were determined. Low intensity infrared laser with therapeutic fluencies and different emission modes can induce bacterial filamentation in cultures of E. coli wild type, fpg/ mutM, endonuclease III and exonuclease III mutants in exponential and stationary growth phase. This study showed induction of bacterial, filamentation in E. coli cultures expose to low intensity infrared laser and attention to laser therapy protocols, which should take into account fluencies, wavelengths, tissue conditions, and genetic characteristics of cells before beginning treatment.

  8. [Low-intensity laser radiation in preventive measures].

    PubMed

    Ushkova, I N; Nal'kova, N Yu; Chernushevich, N I; Popov, A V; Kochetova, O A

    2013-01-01

    Results of preventive measures introduction in 524 PC users, 98 jewelry polishers and 64 metallic ship hull assemblers are given. The use of preventive measures, based on low-intensity laser radiation, was shown to prevent development of visual overfatigue and occupational musculoskeletal system diseases.

  9. Low-Intensity channel catfish culture re-visited

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) farmers can use a variety of management strategies to produce the larger-sized fish that processing plants increasingly seek. A low-intensity production strategy based on low stocking and aeration rates can be used to produce larger channel catfish. Stocker catf...

  10. [Mechanism of radiobiological effects of low intensity nonionizing electromagnetic radiation].

    PubMed

    Kudriashov, Iu B; Perov, Iu F; Golenitskaia, I A

    1999-01-01

    The results of the research of the biological effects of the non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation were studied from the position of "thermal" and "unthermal" mechanisms. The special attention was spared to analysing the information characterising the high sensitiveness of the human and animals organism to the very-low intensity electromagnetic fields.

  11. The Relationship between Competence and Patient Outcome with Low-Intensity Cognitive Behavioural Interventions.

    PubMed

    Branson, Amanda; Myles, Pamela; Mahdi, Mishka; Shafran, Roz

    2017-09-14

    Little is understood about the relationship between therapist competence and the outcomes of patients treated for common mental health disorders. Furthermore, the evidence is yet to extend to competence in the delivery of low-intensity cognitive behavioural interventions. Understanding this relationship is essential to the dissemination and implementation of low-intensity cognitive behavioural interventions. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between Psychological Well-being Practitioner (PWP) competence and patient outcome within the framework of the British government's Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) initiative. Forty-seven PWPs treating 3688 patients participated. Relationships between PWP scores on three observed standardized clinical examinations and reliable change in patients' symptoms of anxiety and depression were explored at two time points: during the year-long training phase, and over a 12-month follow-up. Results indicated that patients treated by qualified PWPs achieved superior outcomes than those treated by trainees. Little support was found for a general association between practitioner competence in delivering low-intensity cognitive behavioural interventions and patient outcome, either during or post-training; however, significantly more patients of the most competent PWPs demonstrated reliable improvement in their symptoms of anxiety and depression than would be expected by chance alone and fewer deteriorated compared with those treated by the least competent PWPs. Results were indicative of a complex, non-linear relationship, with patient outcome affected by PWP status (trainee or qualified) and by competence at its extremes. The implications of these results for the dissemination and implementation of low-intensity cognitive behavioural interventions are discussed.

  12. The low intensity X-ray imaging scope /Lixiscope/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, L. I.; Trombka, J. I.; Seltzer, S. M.; Webber, R. L.; Farr, M. R.; Rennie, J.

    1978-01-01

    A fully portable, small-format X-ray imaging system, Lixiscope (low intensity X-ray imaging scope) is described. In the prototype, which has been built to demonstrate the feasibility of the Lixiscope concept, only well-developed and available components have been used. Consideration is given to the principles of operation of the device, some of its performance characteristics as well as possible dental, medical and industrial applications.

  13. Low-Intensity Conflicts and the United States Marine Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-05

    POLI CY Back in 1i;:-:7 the United States Congress saw the immediate need for. policy and guidance i-, low-intensity conflicts. They directed the...s: RolIEs in Low’- Intersi ty ConiflIicts. " ilI itai-y F-.eview, Vaol - 2, 1 J anVi’.Aa -y 1990 , p.~-. Armstrong, Charles L . "The Decl1inie of Lovi

  14. Lessons Learned by Venezuela Fighting in Low Intensity Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-05

    BUILDING 122 CARLISLE, PA 17013-5050 ga. NAME OF FUNDING/SPONSORING I 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION I...Congress, 29 April 1960. 1 7Colonel Juan Biaggini Gutierrez et al., Los Cinco de Linea (Caracas: Direccion de Educaion del Ejercito, 4 August 1980), 102...Barracks, PA : U.S. Army War College, 3 August 1992. Low Intensity Conflict. Venezuela Case Study. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff

  15. The low intensity X-ray imaging scope /Lixiscope/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, L. I.; Trombka, J. I.; Seltzer, S. M.; Webber, R. L.; Farr, M. R.; Rennie, J.

    1978-01-01

    A fully portable, small-format X-ray imaging system, Lixiscope (low intensity X-ray imaging scope) is described. In the prototype, which has been built to demonstrate the feasibility of the Lixiscope concept, only well-developed and available components have been used. Consideration is given to the principles of operation of the device, some of its performance characteristics as well as possible dental, medical and industrial applications.

  16. The Air Force Role in Low-Intensity Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    Staff. A graduate of the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service (BSFS) and Florida State University (MA), Lieutenant Colonel Dean has served in...beyond. The volatility of the newly developing countries will be such that disruptions to lines of supply coupled with the vulnerability of key areas...counterinsurgency . A case study of modern low-intensity conflict, one in which air power has been playing a key role, will point out in real world

  17. Advances in endonasal low intensity laser irradiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Jian-Ling; Liu, Timon C.; Liu, Jiang; Cui, Li-Ping; Liu, Song-hao

    2005-07-01

    Endonasal low intensity laser therapy (ELILT) began in China in 1998. Now in China it is widely applied to treat hyperlipidemia and brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, insomnia, poststroke depression, intractable headache, ache in head or face, cerebral thrombosis, acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease, migraine, brain lesion and mild cognitive impairment. There are four pathways mediating EILILT, Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells. Two unhealth acupoints of Yangming channal inside nose might mediate the one as is low intensity laser acupuncture. Unbalance autonomic nervous systems might be modulated. Blood cells might mediate the one as is intravascular low intensity laser therapy. These three pathways are integrated in ELILT so that serum amyloid β protein, malformation rate of erythrocyte, CCK-8, the level of viscosity at lower shear rates and hematocrit, or serum lipid might decrease, and melanin production/SOD activity or β endorphin might increase after ELILT treatment. These results indicate ELILT might work, but it need to be verified by randomized placebo-controlled trial.

  18. Joint Low-Intensity Conflict Project Final Report. Volume 1. Analytical Review of Low-Intensity Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    findings. Whenever the masculine gender is used, both genders , where appropriate, are intended. ii JOINT LOW-INTENSITY CONFLICT PROJECT FINAL REPORT...conflicts. 2 Osgood felt this opposition resulted from a number of popular perceptions: o Such involvements are messy and tend to spill over borders...half of which included the use of combat forces, the American public refused to continue to wage a large and messy war. Ultimately, the government

  19. Dissociative Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of continuity between thoughts, memories, surroundings, actions and identity. People with dissociative disorders escape reality in ways ... at bay. Symptoms — ranging from amnesia to alternate identities — depend in part on the type of dissociative ...

  20. A Review on Brain Stimulation Using Low Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Rezayat, Ehsan; Toostani, Iman Ghodrati

    2016-01-01

    Brain stimulation techniques are important in both basic and clinical studies. Majority of well-known brain stimulating techniques have low spatial resolution or entail invasive processes. Low intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) seems to be a proper candidate for dealing with such deficiencies. This review recapitulates studies which explored the effects of LIFU on brain structures and its function, in both research and clinical areas. Although the mechanism of LIFU action is still unclear, its different effects from molecular level up to behavioral level can be explored in animal and human brain. It can also be coupled with brain imaging assessments in future research. PMID:27563411

  1. Improvement of activated sludge bacteria growth by low intensity ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Y. X.; Ding, J. Y.; Gao, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    Influence of low intensity ultrasound (US) on growth rate of bacteria separated from aerobic activated sludge was studied. In order to reveal the optimal ultrasonic conditions,specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) of activated sludge was first detected and results showed that the maximum SOUR was obtained (increased by 40%) at US intensity of 3 Wcm-2 and irradiation time of 10min. Under the optimal conditions, 2 species of bacteria isolated from activated sludge were sonicated and then cultivated for 36h, and increment of 6% and 10% of growth rate were detected for the 2 species of bacteria, respectively, indicating US irradiation of suitable parameters effectively improved activated sludge bacteria growth.

  2. Diagnostic Tools For Low Intensity Ion Micro-Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Finocchiaro, P.; Cosentino, L.; Pappalardo, A.; Vervaeke, M.; Volckaerts, B.; Vynck, P.; Hermanne, A.; Thienpont, H.

    2003-08-26

    We have developed two techniques for microscopic ion beam imaging and profiling, both based on scintillators, particularly suitable for applications in Deep Lithography with Protons (DLP) or with heavier ions. The first one employs a scintillating fiberoptic plate and a CCD camera with suitable lenses, the second makes use of a small scintillator optically coupled to a compact photomultiplier. We have proved the possibility of spanning from single beam particles counting up to several nA currents. Both devices are successfully being exploited for on-line control of low and very low intensity proton beams, down to a beam size of less than 50{mu}m.

  3. Effects of caffeine on performance of low intensity tasks.

    PubMed

    Scott, William H; Coyne, Karen M; Johnson, Monique M; Lausted, Christopher G; Sahota, Manjit; Johnson, Arthur T

    2002-04-01

    31 college age men and women who consume less than three caffeinated beverages per week agreed to participate as subjects in research on the effects of acute caffeine intake on low intensity task performance. All subjects performed two randomly administered test conditions: (1) caffeine (5 mg/kg) and (2) placebo on separate visits following an initial 1-hr. orientation visit. Subjects were administered the beverage 30 min. prior to performing 12 separate tests assessing basic mathematics, simple response, logical reasoning, hand-eye coordination, and spatial and assembly skills. The Spielberger State Anxiety test was administered immediately after consuming the test beverage and once again at posttest. Analysis showed that caffeine did not significantly affect performance on all tests with the exception of the peripheral awareness (hand-eye coordination) test on which performance was higher after ingesting caffeine. The placebo treatment produced no effect on state anxiety, which contrasted with a significant rise in anxiety after caffeine consumption. State anxiety values were significantly greater after caffeine treatment relative to the placebo at pretest, and this difference persisted at posttest. These results demonstrated that the dose of caffeine increased scores on state anxiety for individuals who consumed less than three caffeinated beverages weekly but had very little effect on performance of low intensity tasks, except for a hand-eye coordination test involving peripheral awareness. Perhaps longer continuous performance of more demanding tasks would be more sensitive.

  4. Low intensity X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, L. I. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A low intensity X-ray and gamma ray spectrometer for imaging, counting, and energy resolving of single invisible radiation particles is described. The spectrometer includes a converting device for converting single invisible radiation particles to visible light photons. Another converting device converts the visible light photons to photoelectrons. A fiber optics coupling device couples together the two converting devices. An intensifying device intensifies the photoelectrons by an average gain factor of between 10 to the 4th power and 10 to the 7th power. The tensifying device is an anti-ion feedback microchannel plate amplifier which is operated substantially below saturation. A displaying device displays the intensified photoelectrons. The displaying device 32 indicates the spatial position, number, and energy of the incoming single invisible radiation particles.

  5. Heating of blood by low-intensity laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolevich, Alexander N.; Astafyeva, Liudmila G.; Dubina, Natali S.; Vecherinski, Sergei I.; Belsley, Michael S.

    2003-10-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of the influence of low-intensity laser radiation, on the velocity of microcirculation of the erythrocytes of patients with the cardiovascular disease "in vivo" are carried out. Dynamic light scattering techniques were used to monitor the variation in the perfusion of micro capillary blood flow during irradiation under "in vivo" conditions and compared to the change in average size of aggregates of the blood effects observed "in vitro" using static scattering of light. It is shown that the process of the fragmentation of erythrocytes depends on amount of energy absorbed by biological tissues. This conclusion is supported by the good qualitative agreement with the theoretical model, based on the heat transfer theory within the dermis.

  6. A REVIEW OF LOW-INTENSITY ULTRASOUND FOR CANCER THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    WOOD, ANDREW K. W.; SEHGAL, CHANDRA M.

    2015-01-01

    The literature describing the use of low-intensity ultrasound in four major areas of cancer therapy was reviewed - sonodynamic therapy, ultrasound mediated chemotherapy, ultrasound mediated gene delivery and antivascular ultrasound therapy. Each technique consistently resulted in the death of cancer cells and the bioeffects of ultrasound were primarily attributed to thermal actions and inertial cavitation. In each therapeutic modality, theranostic contrast agents composed of microbubbles played a role in both therapy and vascular imaging. The development of these agents is important as it establishes a therapeutic-diagnostic platform which can monitor the success of anti-cancer therapy. Little attention, however, has been given to either the direct assessment of the underlying mechanisms of the observed bioeffects or to the viability of these therapies in naturally occurring cancers in larger mammals; if such investigations provided encouraging data there could be a prompt application of a therapy technique in treating cancer patients. PMID:25728459

  7. Basic studies on intravascular low-intensity laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Duan, Rui; Wang, Shuang-Xi; Liu, Jiang; Cui, Li-Ping; Jin, Hua; Liu, Song-Hao

    2006-09-01

    Intravascular low intensity laser therapy (ILILT) was originally put forward in USA in 1982, but popularized in Russia in 1980s and in China in 1990s, respectively. A randomized placebo-controlled study has shown ILILT clinical efficacy in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. As Chinese therapeutic applications of ILILT were the most widely in the world, its basic research, such as intracellular signal transduction research, blood research in vitro, animal blood research in vivo, human blood research in vivo and traditional Chinese medicine research, was also very progressive in China. Its basic studies will be reviewed in terms of the biological information model of photobiomodulation in this paper. ILILT might work in view of its basic studies, but the further randomized placebo-controlled trial and the further safety research should be done.

  8. Effectiveness of a low-intensity smoking cessation intervention for hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Bize, Raphaël; Stoianov, Rebecca; Ruffieux, Christiane; Ghali, William; Paccaud, Fred; Cornuz, Jacques

    2006-10-01

    Debate exists about how intense smoking cessation interventions for hospitalized patients should be. In this study we assessed the effectiveness of a low-intensity smoking cessation intervention for hospitalized patients, without follow-up phone calls. We designed a cohort study with a historical control group, in the Department of Medicine of an 850-bed teaching hospital. One hundred and seventeen consecutive eligible smokers received the intervention, and 113 smokers hospitalized before the implementation of the intervention constituted the historical control group. The 30-min smoking cessation intervention was performed by a trained resident without any follow-up contact. Counseling was matched to smokers' motivation to quit, and accompanied by a self-help booklet. Nicotine replacement therapy was prescribed when indicated. All patients received a questionnaire to evaluate their smoking habits 6 months after they left hospital. We counted patients lost to follow-up as continuous smokers and smoking abstinence was validated by patients' physicians. Validated smoking cessation rates were 23.9% in the intervention group and 9.7% in the control group (odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.4-6.2). After adjusting for potential confounders, intervention was still effective with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.26 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-4.95). Among those who continued to smoke 6 months after hospitalization, the likelihood of reporting any decrease of cigarette consumption was higher in the intervention cohort (70.8 vs. 42.7%, P=0.001). A low-intensity smoking cessation intervention, based on two visits without any follow-up contact, is associated with a higher quit rate at 6 months than that for historical control patients. Our findings show that a low-intensity smoking cessation intervention, based on two visits without any follow-up contact, is associated with a higher quit rate at 6 months than that for historical control patients.

  9. Dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, John F

    2005-01-01

    The dissociative disorders, including "psychogenic" or "functional" amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity disorder (DID, also known as multiple personality disorder), and depersonalization disorder, were once classified, along with conversion disorder, as forms of hysteria. The 1970s witnessed an "epidemic" of dissociative disorder, particularly DID, which may have reflected enthusiasm for the diagnosis more than its actual prevalence. Traditionally, the dissociative disorders have been attributed to trauma and other psychological stress, but the existing evidence favoring this hypothesis is plagued by poor methodology. Prospective studies of traumatized individuals reveal no convincing cases of amnesia not attributable to brain insult, injury, or disease. Treatment generally involves recovering and working through ostensibly repressed or dissociated memories of trauma; at present, there are few quantitative or controlled outcome studies. Experimental studies are few in number and have focused largely on state-dependent and implicit memory. Depersonalization disorder may be in line for the next "epidemic" of dissociation.

  10. Dissociative amnesia.

    PubMed

    Staniloiu, Angelica; Markowitsch, Hans J

    2014-08-01

    Dissociative amnesia is one of the most enigmatic and controversial psychiatric disorders. In the past two decades, interest in the understanding of its pathophysiology has surged. In this report, we review new data about the epidemiology, neurobiology, and neuroimaging of dissociative amnesia and show how advances in memory research and neurobiology of dissociation inform proposed pathogenetic models of the disorder. Dissociative amnesia is characterised by functional impairment. Additionally, preliminary data suggest that affected people have an increased and possibly underestimated suicide risk. The prevalence of dissociative amnesia differs substantially across countries and populations. Symptoms and disease course also vary, indicating a possibly heterogeneous disorder. The accompanying clinical features differ across cultural groups. Most dissociative amnesias are retrograde, with memory impairments mainly involving the episodic-autobiographical memory domain. Anterograde dissociative amnesia occurring without significant retrograde memory impairments is rare. Functional neuroimaging studies of dissociative amnesia with prevailing retrograde memory impairments show changes in the network that subserves autobiographical memory. At present, no evidence-based treatments are available for dissociative amnesia and no broad framework exists for its rehabilitation. Further research is needed into its neurobiology, course, treatment options, and strategies to improve differential diagnoses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Low intensity physical conditioning: effects on patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Franklin, B A; Besseghini, I; Golden, L H

    1978-06-01

    The effects of 12 weeks of low intensity physical conditioning on serum lipid levels, body composition, and cardiorespiratory function were studied among patients with coronary heart disease. Twenty-three men, 45 to 59 years old, volunteered to participate. Three were excluded for medical reasons, and one voluntarily discontinued exercise. The conditioning program included a 10-minute warmup, 15 to 30 minutes of walking-jogging at an individually prescribed intensity corresponding to 70% to 75% of maximum heart rate (HRmax), and a 5-minute recovery period. The conditioning resulted in a decrease (p less than 0.05) in heart rate and blood pressure during standard submaximal work (200 kg/m/min). Maximal heart rate increased (p less than 0.05) by five beats per minute. Symptom-limited maximal oxygen uptake increased 12.8% (p less than 0.001) when expressed per unit body weight. Body weight remained essentially unchanged (-0.34 kg), while fat-free weight and fat weight increased (+0.68 kg, p less than 0.05) and decreased (-1.02 kg, p less than 0.05), respectively. Serum lipid levels remained unaffected by the conditioning regimen. Low intensity exercise is effective in cardiac reconditioning and should be favored at least during the initial stages of a training regimen in view of the decreased orthopedic problems, added safety, high adherence level and tolerable working rate.

  12. Integrated Heterodyne MOEMS for detection of low intensity signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elman, Noel M.; Krylov, Slava; Sternheim, Marek; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi

    2006-01-01

    A novel MEMS-based modulation scheme is presented as a method to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of silicon photodiodes adapted for the detection of light-emitting bio-reporter signals. Photodiodes are an attractive photodetector choice because they are VLSI compatible, easily miniaturized, highly scalable, and inexpensive. Silicon photodiodes exhibit a wide response range extending from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared (IR) part of the spectrum, which in principle is appropriate for sensing low intensity optical signals. Silicon photodiodes, however, exhibit limited sensitivity to optical dc signals, as the magnitude of the low frequency noise is comparable to signal magnitude. Optical modulation prior to photodetection overcomes the inherent low frequency noise of photodetectors and system detection circuits. The enhancement scheme is based on a design of high frequency optical modulators that operate in the 1-2 kHz range in order to overcome the low frequency spectral noise. We have denominated this MEMS-based scheme Integrated Heterodyne Optical System (IHOS). The modulation efficiency of the proposed architecture can reach up to 50 percent. In order to implement the MOEMS optical modulators, a new two-mask fabrication process was developed that combines high-aspect ratio and low aspect ratio structures at the same device layer (aspect ratio is defined as a ratio between the structure height to its width). Long stroke electrostatic combdrive actuators integrated with folded flexures (high aspect-ratio) were fabricated together to drive large aperture shutters (low aspect ratio). We have denominated this process MASIS (Multiple Aspect Ratio Structural Integration). Under resonant excitation at approximately 1 kHz, MOEMS modulators demonstrated maximum displacement of about 40 microns at an actuation voltage of 15 V peak in air, and 3.5 V peak in vacuum (8 mTorr). Results of analytical solutions and finite element analysis (FEA) simulations are

  13. Low-intensity treadmill exercise promotes rat dorsal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wu; Liu, Guo-hui; Yang, Shu-hua; Mi, Bo-bin; Ye, Shu-nan

    2016-02-01

    In order to investigate the promoting effect of low-intensity treadmill exercise on rat dorsal wound healing and the mechanism, 20 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: exercise group (Ex) and non-exercise group (non-ex). The rats in Ex group were given treadmill exercise for one month, and those in non-ex group raised on the same conditions without treadmill exercise. Both groups received dorsal wound operation with free access to food and water. By two-week continuous observation and recording of the wound area, the healing rate was analyzed. The blood sample was collected at day 14 post-operation via cardiac puncture for determination of the number of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) by flow cytometry, and the concentrations of relevant cytokines such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured by ELISA. The skin tissue around the wound was dissected to observe the vascular density under the microscope after HE staining, to detect the mRNA level of VEGFR2 and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) receptor using RT-qPCR, and protein expression of a-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and type III collagen (ColIII) using Western blotting. It was found that the wound area in Ex group was smaller at the same time point than in non-ex group. The number of circulating EPCs was greater and the concentrations of vasoactive factors such as VEGF, eNOS and bFGF were higher in Ex group than in non-ex group. HE staining displayed a higher vessel density in Ex group than in non-ex group. Moreover, the mRNA expression of VEGFR2 and Ang-1 detected in the wound tissue in Ex group was higher than in non-ex group. Meanwhile, the protein expression of αSMA and ColIII was more abundant in Ex group than in non-ex group. Conclusively, the above results demonstrate Ex rats had a higher wound healing rate, suggesting low-intensity treadmill exercise accelerates wound healing. The present

  14. Immunomodulating action of low intensity millimeter waves on primed neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Safronova, Valentina G; Gabdoulkhakova, A G; Santalov, B F

    2002-12-01

    Comparative investigation of the susceptibility of intact and primed neutrophils of the NMRI strain mice to low intensity millimeter wave (mm wave) irradiation (41.95 GHz) was performed. The specific absorption rate was 0.45 W/kg. Isolated neutrophils were primed by a chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) at a subthreshold concentration of 10 nM for 20 min, and then the cells were activated by 1 microM fMLP. Production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) was estimated by the luminol dependent chemiluminescence technique. It was found that the preliminary mm wave irradiation of the resting cells at 20 degrees C did not act on the ROS production induced by the chemotactic peptide. The exposure of the primed cells results in a subsequent increase in the fMLP response. Therefore, the primed neutrophils are susceptible to the mm waves. Specific inhibitors of the protein kinases abolished the mm wave effect on the primed cells. The data indicate that protein kinases actively participate in transduction of the mm wave signal to effector molecules involved in neutrophil respiratory burst.

  15. Low-intensity calibration source for optical imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, David W.

    2017-03-01

    Laboratory optical imaging systems for fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging have become widely available for research applications. These systems use an ultra-sensitive CCD camera to produce quantitative measurements of very low light intensity, detecting signals from small-animal models labeled with optical fluorophores or luminescent emitters. Commercially available systems typically provide quantitative measurements of light output, in units of radiance (photons s-1 cm-2 SR-1) or intensity (photons s-1 cm-2). One limitation to current systems is that there is often no provision for routine quality assurance and performance evaluation. We describe such a quality assurance system, based on an LED-illuminated thin-film transistor (TFT) liquid-crystal display module. The light intensity is controlled by pulse-width modulation of the backlight, producing radiance values ranging from 1.8 x 106 photons s-1 cm-2 SR-1 to 4.2 x 1013 photons s-1 cm-2 SR-1. The lowest light intensity values are produced by very short backlight pulses (i.e. approximately 10 μs), repeated every 300 s. This very low duty cycle is appropriate for laboratory optical imaging systems, which typically operate with long-duration exposures (up to 5 minutes). The low-intensity light source provides a stable, traceable radiance standard that can be used for routine quality assurance of laboratory optical imaging systems.

  16. Low Intensity TMS Enhances Perception of Visual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Abrahamyan, Arman; Clifford, Colin W G; Arabzadeh, Ehsan; Harris, Justin A

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a popular functional mapping tool in cognitive and sensory neuroscience. While strong TMS typically degrades performance, two recent studies have demonstrated that weak TMS, delivered to visual cortex, can improve performance on simple visual tasks. The improvement was interpreted as the summation of visually-evoked and TMS-elicited neuronal activity in visual cortex, but the nature of this interaction remains unclear. The present experiments sought to determine whether these weak pulses of TMS assist subjects to see the visual stimulus itself or create a distinct "melded" percept that may not be recognizable as the visual stimulus. We measured contrast thresholds in an orientation discrimination task in which participants reported the orientation (left or right) of gratings tilted 45° from vertical. Weak TMS improved sensitivity for identifying gratings, suggesting that TMS sums with but preserves orientation information so that the subject can recognize the visual stimulus. We explain the effect using a mechanism of non-linear transduction of sensory signals in the brain. The capability of low-intensity TMS to augment the neural signal while preserving information encoded in the stimulus can be employed as a novel approach to study the neural correlates of consciousness by selectively "pushing" an unconscious stimulus into consciousness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychological effects of low intensity conflict (LIC) operations

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Suprakash; Goel, D.S.; Singh, Harcharan

    2006-01-01

    Background: A burgeoning clinical and empirical literature has provided incontrovertible evidence that combat operations exact a heavy toll in terms of human suffering not only on combatants but also military support personnel. Though the Indian army is engaged in low intensity conflict (LIC) operations for over five decades, the psychological effects of LIC deployment on soldiers have not been adequately studied. Aims: To evaluate the psychological effects of deployment in LIC operations on service personnel. Methods: Five hundred and sixty-eight servicemen engaged in LIC operations and equal number of age- and rank-matched personnel in adjoining peace areas were evaluated with a self-made questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Carroll Rating Scale for Depression (CRSD), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Impact of Events Scale (IES), Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI), Hindi PEN inventory, Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) and Locus Of Control (LOC) scale. Results: Respondents from LIC area had significantly higher scores on CRSD, MAST, GHQ, IES, and general fatigue, physical fatigue, and mental fatigue subscale of the MFI in comparison to those located in other areas. Significantly higher number of respondents from highly active LIC and with more than one-year service in LIC scored above cut-off levels on CRSD, MAST and GHQ. Conclusions: The psychological status of troops was directly related both to the duration of stay and the nature of LIC area. PMID:20703341

  18. Laser cooling at low intensity in a strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Straten, P.; Shang, S.-Q.; Sheehy, B.; Metcalf, H.; Nienhuis, G.

    1993-05-01

    We have studied theoretically and experimentally the effect of a relatively strong magnetic field on sub-Doppler laser cooling in a one-dimensional optical molasses. We used the operator description of laser cooling with the Larmor precession frequency ωZ being much higher than the optical pumping rate. We found velocity-selective resonances (VSR) in the force at velocities vr=nωZ, with n=0,+/-1,+/-2 for both the scattering and redistribution force operators. These depend on the relative direction of the magnetic field and the polarization vectors of the light beams. Analytical results for the force on the atom are obtained in two cases that illustrate the effect of the VSR on the force. These formulas are compared with numerical calculations of the force. We also discovered a redistribution mechanism that relies on the gradient of the eigenstates of the light-shift operator, with eigenvalues that are independent of position so that a ``Sisyphus cooling'' picture does not apply. The theory is compared with many experimental results and excellent agreement is found. We believe that all essential features of laser cooling at low intensity are well described by this operator theory.

  19. (abstract) PV Technology for Low Intensity, Low Temperature (LILT) Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Pool, Frederick S.; Nicolet, Marc A.; Iles, Peter A.

    1994-01-01

    As a result of the recent NASA emphasis on smaller, lower cost space missions, PV is now being considered for a number of missions operating at solar distances of 3 AU or greater. In the past, many of these missions would utilize an RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator). Historically, silicon solar cell behavior at these distances has been compromised by a number of mechanisms including shunting, nonohmic back contacts, and the 'broken knee' curve shape. The former two can usually be neglected for modern silicon cells, but the latter has not been eliminated. This problem has been identified with localized diffusion at the top contact/silicon interface which leads to structural changes at the local junction. This is believed to create a resistive metal-semiconductor-like (MSL) interface in parallel with the junction which results in the characteristic forms of the LILT (low intensity, low temperature) 'broken knee'. This paper discusses a TaSiN contact barrier that will prevent the MSL structure in the junction.

  20. PV Technology for Low Intensity, Low Temperature (LILT) Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Pool, Frederick S.; Nicolet, Marc A.; Iles, Peter A.

    1994-01-01

    As a result of the recent NASA emphasis on smaller, lower cost space missions, PV is now being considered for a number of missions operating at solar distances of 3 AU or greater. In the past, many of these missions would utilize an RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator). Historically, silicon solar cell behavior at these distances has been compromised by a number of mechanisms including shunting, nonohmic back contacts, and the 'broken knee' curve shape. The former two can usually be neglected for modern silicon cells, but the latter has not been eliminated. This problem has been identified with localized diffusion at the top contact/silicon interface which leads to structural changes at the local junction. This is believed to create a resistive metal-semiconductor-like (MSL) interface in parallel with the junction which results in the characteristic forms of the LILT (low intensity, low temperature) 'broken knee'. This paper discusses a TaSiN contact barrier that will prevent the MSL structure in the junction.

  1. Influence Of Low Intensity Laser Therapy On Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Raoof, N. A.; Elnhas, N. G.; Elsayed, I. M.

    2011-09-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a consequence of diabetes-mediated impairment of blood flow, and resultant hypoxia of nerves that may develop within 10 years of the onset of diabetes in 40-50% of people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) has been advocated for the treatment of chronic pain disorders as blood flow is an important determinant for pain relief. Comparing the effect of Helium-Neon Laser therapy versus Infrared laser therapy on blood vessels diameter and flow as well as level of sensation for neuropathy. Twenty diabetic patients suffering from neuropathy were enrolled in the study with age 45-55 years. They were assigned randomly into two equal groups in number; Group A underwent an application of He-Neon laser while Group B underwent an application of Infrared laser. Both groups received laser for 2 months. Blood flow velocity, and blood vessel diameter were investigated by using duplex Doppler ultrasound and peripheral neuropathy parameters were investigated by Semmes-Weinstein monofilament assessment. The results revealed that He-Neon laser as well as Infrared laser groups showed significant improvement in blood flow velocity, blood vessel diameter & neuropathy tested parameters after treatment but there was no significance difference between the two types of LILT. LILT is a safe, non-invasive and drug free method for improving blood flow & sensation in patients suffering from diabetic polyneuropathy in addition to preventing one of the most threatening microvascular complications of diabetes.

  2. Low Intensity Laser Therapy Applied in the Healing of Wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, Fred; Matthews, Jeffrey

    2009-06-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes of Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) on wound healing for patients presenting with pain, compromised neurological and physical function and tissue damage associated with vascular/diabetic ulcerations of the lower extremity. Methods: A retrospective case review of six patients treated with LILT (GaAlAs SLD, 660 nm, 750 mW, 3.6 J/cm2; GaAlAs SLD, 840 nm, 1,500 mW, 6.48 J/cm2; GaAlAs laser, 830 nm, 75 mW, 270 J/cm2) was conducted of clinical features including pain, measured by visual analogue scale (VAS), motor function, measured by range of motion (ROM) and visual outcome, measured by wound dimensions for six patients (n = 6; 5 males, 1 female; age = 67.83 years). Results: Significant progress with regard to alleviation of pain (ΔVAS = -5), improvements in motor function (ΔROM = +40%), epithelialization (wound closure rate = 3%/week) and complete wound closure was achieved. No recurrence of pathology at least one month post cessation of therapy was evident (x¯% reduction in wound area = 100%). Conclusions: LILT achieved consistent, effective and clear endpoints, was cost effective, created no adverse effects and ultimately led to the salvage of extremities.

  3. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in dentofacial tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Eiji; Kuroda, Shingo; Horiuchi, Shinya; Tabata, Akira; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2015-04-01

    Oral and maxillofacial diseases affect millions of people worldwide and hence tissue engineering can be considered an interesting and clinically relevant approach to regenerate orofacial tissues after being affected by different diseases. Among several innovations for tissue regeneration, low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been used extensively in medicine as a therapeutic, operative, and diagnostic tool. LIPUS is accepted to promote bone fracture repair and regeneration. Furthermore, the effect of LIPUS on soft tissues regeneration has been paid much attention, and many studies have performed to evaluate the potential use of LIPUS to tissue engineering soft tissues. The present article provides an overview about the status of LIPUS stimulation as a tool to be used to enhance regeneration/tissue engineering. This review consists of five parts. Part 1 is a brief introduction of the acoustic description of LIPUS and mechanical action. In Part 2, biological problems in dentofacial tissue engineering are proposed. Part 3 explores biologic mechanisms of LIPUS to cells and tissues in living body. In Part 4, the effectiveness of LIPUS on cell metabolism and tissue regeneration in dentistry are summarized. Finally, Part 5 relates the possibility of clinical application of LIPUS in orthodontics. The present review brings out better understanding of the bioeffect of LIPUS therapy on orofacial tissues which is essential to the successful integration of management remedies for tissue regeneration/engineering. To develop an evidence-based approach to clinical management and treatment of orofacial degenerative diseases using LIPUS, we would like to be in full pursuit of LIPUS biotherapy. Still, there are many challenges for this relatively new strategy, but the up to date achievements using it promises to go far beyond the present possibilities.

  4. Assessing Low-Intensity Relationships in Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Spitz, Andreas; Gimmler, Anna; Stoeck, Thorsten; Zweig, Katharina Anna; Horvát, Emőke-Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    Many large network data sets are noisy and contain links representing low-intensity relationships that are difficult to differentiate from random interactions. This is especially relevant for high-throughput data from systems biology, large-scale ecological data, but also for Web 2.0 data on human interactions. In these networks with missing and spurious links, it is possible to refine the data based on the principle of structural similarity, which assesses the shared neighborhood of two nodes. By using similarity measures to globally rank all possible links and choosing the top-ranked pairs, true links can be validated, missing links inferred, and spurious observations removed. While many similarity measures have been proposed to this end, there is no general consensus on which one to use. In this article, we first contribute a set of benchmarks for complex networks from three different settings (e-commerce, systems biology, and social networks) and thus enable a quantitative performance analysis of classic node similarity measures. Based on this, we then propose a new methodology for link assessment called z* that assesses the statistical significance of the number of their common neighbors by comparison with the expected value in a suitably chosen random graph model and which is a consistently top-performing algorithm for all benchmarks. In addition to a global ranking of links, we also use this method to identify the most similar neighbors of each single node in a local ranking, thereby showing the versatility of the method in two distinct scenarios and augmenting its applicability. Finally, we perform an exploratory analysis on an oceanographic plankton data set and find that the distribution of microbes follows similar biogeographic rules as those of macroorganisms, a result that rejects the global dispersal hypothesis for microbes. PMID:27096435

  5. Assessing Low-Intensity Relationships in Complex Networks.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Andreas; Gimmler, Anna; Stoeck, Thorsten; Zweig, Katharina Anna; Horvát, Emőke-Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    Many large network data sets are noisy and contain links representing low-intensity relationships that are difficult to differentiate from random interactions. This is especially relevant for high-throughput data from systems biology, large-scale ecological data, but also for Web 2.0 data on human interactions. In these networks with missing and spurious links, it is possible to refine the data based on the principle of structural similarity, which assesses the shared neighborhood of two nodes. By using similarity measures to globally rank all possible links and choosing the top-ranked pairs, true links can be validated, missing links inferred, and spurious observations removed. While many similarity measures have been proposed to this end, there is no general consensus on which one to use. In this article, we first contribute a set of benchmarks for complex networks from three different settings (e-commerce, systems biology, and social networks) and thus enable a quantitative performance analysis of classic node similarity measures. Based on this, we then propose a new methodology for link assessment called z* that assesses the statistical significance of the number of their common neighbors by comparison with the expected value in a suitably chosen random graph model and which is a consistently top-performing algorithm for all benchmarks. In addition to a global ranking of links, we also use this method to identify the most similar neighbors of each single node in a local ranking, thereby showing the versatility of the method in two distinct scenarios and augmenting its applicability. Finally, we perform an exploratory analysis on an oceanographic plankton data set and find that the distribution of microbes follows similar biogeographic rules as those of macroorganisms, a result that rejects the global dispersal hypothesis for microbes.

  6. Low-Intensity Transcranial Current Stimulation in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Philip, Noah S; Nelson, Brent G; Frohlich, Flavio; Lim, Kelvin O; Widge, Alik S; Carpenter, Linda L

    2017-02-24

    Neurostimulation is rapidly emerging as an important treatment modality for psychiatric disorders. One of the fastest-growing and least-regulated approaches to noninvasive therapeutic stimulation involves the application of weak electrical currents. Widespread enthusiasm for low-intensity transcranial electrical current stimulation (tCS) is reflected by the recent surge in direct-to-consumer device marketing, do-it-yourself enthusiasm, and an escalating number of clinical trials. In the wake of this rapid growth, clinicians may lack sufficient information about tCS to inform their clinical practices. Interpretation of tCS clinical trial data is aided by familiarity with basic neurophysiological principles, potential mechanisms of action of tCS, and the complicated regulatory history governing tCS devices. A growing literature includes randomized controlled trials of tCS for major depression, schizophrenia, cognitive disorders, and substance use disorders. The relative ease of use and abundant access to tCS may represent a broad-reaching and important advance for future mental health care. Evidence supports application of one type of tCS, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), for major depression. However, tDCS devices do not have regulatory approval for treating medical disorders, evidence is largely inconclusive for other therapeutic areas, and their use is associated with some physical and psychiatric risks. One unexpected finding to arise from this review is that the use of cranial electrotherapy stimulation devices-the only category of tCS devices cleared for use in psychiatric disorders-is supported by low-quality evidence.

  7. Dissociable effects of game elements on motivation and cognition in a task-switching training in middle childhood

    PubMed Central

    Dörrenbächer, Sandra; Müller, Philipp M.; Tröger, Johannes; Kray, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8–11 years of age). We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/single-task training vs. high-demanding/task-switching training) as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/without video-game elements vs. high-motivational/with video-game elements) separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement). However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement), the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing). Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions. PMID:25431564

  8. Dissociable effects of game elements on motivation and cognition in a task-switching training in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Dörrenbächer, Sandra; Müller, Philipp M; Tröger, Johannes; Kray, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8-11 years of age). We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/single-task training vs. high-demanding/task-switching training) as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/without video-game elements vs. high-motivational/with video-game elements) separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement). However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement), the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing). Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions.

  9. Low intensity interventions for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): a qualitative study of mental health practitioner experiences.

    PubMed

    Gellatly, Judith; Pedley, Rebecca; Molloy, Christine; Butler, Jennifer; Lovell, Karina; Bee, Penny

    2017-02-22

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating mental health disorder that can substantially impact upon quality of life and everyday functioning. Guidelines recommend pharmacological and psychological treatments, using a cognitive behaviour therapy approach (CBT) including exposure and response prevention, but access has generally been poor. Low intensity psychological interventions have been advocated. The evidence base for these interventions is emerging but there is a paucity of information regarding practitioners' perceptions and experiences of supporting individuals with OCD using this approach. Qualitative interviews were undertaken with psychological wellbeing practitioners (PWPs) (n = 20) delivering low intensity psychological interventions for adults with OCD within the context of a large pragmatic effectiveness trial. Interviews explored the feasibility and acceptability of delivering two interventions; guided self-help and supported computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT), within Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services in NHS Trusts. Interviews were recorded with consent, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. PWPs acknowledged the benefits of low intensity psychological interventions for individuals experiencing OCD symptoms on an individual and population level. Offering low intensity support provided was perceived to have the opportunity to overcome existing service barriers to access treatment, improve patient choice and flexibility. Professional and service relevant issues were also recognised including self-beliefs about supporting people with OCD and personal training needs. Challenges to implementation were recognised in relation to practitioner resistance and intervention delivery technical complications. This study has provided insight into the implementation of new low intensity approaches to the management of OCD within existing mental health services. Benefits from a practitioner, service

  10. Low-intensity treadmill exercise-related changes in the rat stellate ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Renato Albuquerque de Oliveira; da Pureza, Demilto Yamaguchi; de Melo, Mariana Pereira; de Souza, Romeu Rodrigues; Bergamaschi, Cássia T; do Amaral, Sandra Lia; Tang, Helen; Loesch, Andrzej; Ribeiro, Antonio Augusto Coppi Maciel

    2009-05-01

    Stellate ganglion (SG) represents the main sympathetic input to the heart. This study aimed at investigating physical exercise-related changes in the quantitative aspects of SG neurons in treadmill-exercised Wistar rats. By applying state-of-the-art design-based stereology, the SG volume, total number of SG neurons, mean perikaryal volume of SG neurons, and the total volume of neurons in the whole SG have been examined. Arterial pressure and heart rate were also measured at the end of the exercise period. The present study showed that a low-intensity exercise training program caused a 12% decrease in the heart rate of trained rats. In contrast, there were no effects on systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, or mean arterial pressure. As to quantitative changes related to physical exercise, the main findings were a 21% increase in the fractional volume occupied by neurons in the SG, and an 83% increase in the mean perikaryal volume of SG neurons in treadmill-trained rats, which shows a remarkable neuron hypertrophy. It seems reasonable to infer that neuron hypertrophy may have been the result of a functional overload imposed on the SG neurons by initial posttraining sympathetic activation. From the novel stereological data we provide, further investigations are needed to shed light on the mechanistic aspect of neuron hypertrophy: what role does neuron hypertrophy play? Could neuron hypertrophy be assigned to the functional overload induced by physical exercise?

  11. Low intensity laser therapy accelerates muscle regeneration in aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Vatansever, Fatma; Rodrigues, Natalia C.; Assis, Livia L.; Peviani, Sabrina S.; Durigan, Joao L.; Moreira, Fernando M.A.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Parizotto, Nivaldo A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Elderly people suffer from skeletal muscle disorders that undermine their daily activity and quality of life; some of these problems can be listed as but not limited to: sarcopenia, changes in central and peripheral nervous system, blood hypoperfusion, regenerative changes contributing to atrophy, and muscle weakness. Determination, proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in the regenerative process are regulated by specific transcription factors, known as myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). In the elderly, the activation of MRFs is inefficient which hampers the regenerative process. Recent studies found that low intensity laser therapy (LILT) has a stimulatory effect in the muscle regeneration process. However, the effects of this therapy when associated with aging are still unknown. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the effects of LILT (λ=830 nm) on the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of aged rats. Subjects and methods The total of 56 male Wistar rats formed two population sets: old and young, with 28 animals in each set. Each of these sets were randomly divided into four groups of young rats (3 months of age) with n=7 per group and four groups of aged rats (10 months of age) with n=7 per group. These groups were submitted to cryoinjury + laser irradiation, cryoinjury only, laser irradiation only and the control group (no cryoinjury/no laser irradiation). The laser treatment was performed for 5 consecutive days. The first laser application was done 24 h after the injury (on day 2) and on the seventh day, the TA muscle was dissected and removed under anesthesia. After this the animals were euthanized. Histological analyses with toluidine blue as well as hematoxylin-eosin staining (for counting the blood capillaries) were performed for the lesion areas. In addition, MyoD and VEGF mRNA was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results The results showed significant elevation (p<0.05) in MyoD and VEGF genes expression levels

  12. Intramuscular Heating Characteristics of Multihour Low-Intensity Therapeutic Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Rigby, Justin H.; Taggart, Rebecca M.; Stratton, Kelly L.; Lewis, George K.; Draper, David O.

    2015-01-01

    Context The heating characteristics of a stationary device delivering sustained acoustic medicine with low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound (LITUS) are unknown. Objective To measure intramuscular (IM) heating produced by a LITUS device developed for long-duration treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. Design Controlled laboratory study. Setting University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 26 healthy volunteers (16 men, 10 women; age = 23.0 ± 2.1 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.09 m, mass = 73.48 ± 14.65 kg). Intervention(s) Participants were assigned randomly to receive active (n = 20) or placebo (n = 6) LITUS at a frequency of 3 MHz and an energy intensity of 0.132 W/cm2 continuously for 3 hours with a single transducer or dual transducers on the triceps surae muscle. We measured IM temperature using thermocouples inserted at 1.5- and 3-cm depths into muscle. Temperatures were recorded throughout treatment and 30 minutes posttreatment. Main Outcome Measure(s) We used 2-sample t tests to determine the heating curve of the LITUS treatment and differences in final temperatures between depth and number of transducers. Results A mild IM temperature increase of 1°C was reached 10 ± 5 minutes into the treatment, and a more vigorous temperature increase of 4°C was reached 80 ± 10 minutes into the treatment. The maximal steady-state IM temperatures produced during the final 60 minutes of treatment at the 1.5-cm depth were 4.42°C ± 0.08°C and 3.92°C ± 0.06°C using 1 and 2 transducers, respectively. At the 3.0-cm depth, the maximal steady-state IM temperatures during the final 60 minutes of treatment were 3.05°C ± 0.09°C and 3.17°C ± 0.05°C using 1 and 2 transducers, respectively. We observed a difference between the temperatures measured at each depth (t78 = −2.45, P = .02), but the number of transducers used to generate heating was not different (t78 = 1.79, P = .08). Conclusions The LITUS device elicited tissue heating equivalent

  13. Increased muscle size and strength from slow-movement, low-intensity resistance exercise and tonic force generation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuya; Tanimoto, Michiya; Ohgane, Akane; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Miyachi, Motohiko; Ishii, Naokata

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of low-intensity resistance training on muscle size and strength in older men and women. Thirty-five participants (age 59-76 yr) were randomly assigned to 2 groups and performed low-intensity (50% of 1-repetition maximum) knee-extension and -flexion exercises with either slow movement and tonic force generation (LST; 3-s eccentric, 3-s concentric, and 1-s isometric actions with no rest between repetitions) or normal speed (LN; 1-s concentric and 1-s eccentric actions with 1-s rests between repetitions) twice a week for 12 wk (2-wk preparation and 10-wk intervention). The LST significantly increased thigh-muscle thickness, as well as isometric knee-extension and -flexion strength. The LN significantly improved strength, but its hypertrophic effect was limited. These results indicate that even for older individuals, the LST can be an effective method for gaining muscle mass and strength.

  14. The Light Infantry Division Regionally Focused for Low Intensity Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    207 Civil Affairs ................................ 212 Training ................................. 227 Endnotes ........................... 233 VII...able to move 66 million ton-miles/day. It presently can move only two-thirds of this amount using its assets and the Civil Reserve Airline Fleet (CRAF...maneuver. The battlefield operating systems (BOS) will support other aspects of military operations. Traditional combat multipliers such as civil affairs

  15. Cooperative effects of exercise and occlusive stimuli on muscular function in low-intensity resistance exercise with moderate vascular occlusion.

    PubMed

    Takarada, Yudai; Tsuruta, Tomomi; Ishii, Naokata

    2004-12-01

    To obtain insight into the relative contributions of exercise and occlusive stimuli to these muscular adaptations, the present study investigated the short- and long-term effects of varied combinations of low-intensity exercise and vascular occlusion. The subjects were separated into 3 groups (n = 6 for each group): low-intensity with vascular occlusion (LIO), low-intensity without vascular occlusion (LI), and vascular occlusion without exercise (VO). LIO and LI groups performed bilateral knee extension exercises in seated positions with an isotonic extension machine. In the LIO group, both sides of the thigh were pressure-occluded at the proximal end by means of a tourniquet during the entire session of exercise (approximately 10 min), whereas only the occlusion with the same pressure and duration was given in the VO group. The mean occlusion pressure was 218 +/- 8.1 mmHg (mean +/- SE). The exercise session consisted of five sets of exercise at an intensity of 10-20% 1RM and was performed twice a week for 8 wk. After the period of exercise training, isometric and isokinetic strengths at all velocities examined increased significantly in the LIO group (p < 0.05), whereas no significant change in strength was seen in the LI and VO groups. The increase in muscular strength in LIO was associated with a significant increase in the cross-sectional area of knee extensor muscles by 10.3 +/- 1.6%. The plasma growth hormone concentration measured 15 min after the session of exercise showed a marked increase only in LIO. The results showed that the low-intensity exercise and occlusive stimuli have cooperative effects in the long-term adaptation of muscle and an acute response to growth hormone.

  16. Effects of low-intensity resistance exercise with slow movement and tonic force generation on muscular function in young men.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Michiya; Ishii, Naokata

    2006-04-01

    We investigated the acute and long-term effects of low-intensity resistance exercise (knee extension) with slow movement and tonic force generation on muscular size and strength. This type of exercise was expected to enhance the intramuscular hypoxic environment that might be a factor for muscular hypertrophy. Twenty-four healthy young men without experience of regular exercise training were assigned into three groups (n = 8 for each) and performed the following resistance exercise regimens: low-intensity [ approximately 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM)] with slow movement and tonic force generation (3 s for eccentric and concentric actions, 1-s pause, and no relaxing phase; LST); high-intensity ( approximately 80% 1RM) with normal speed (1 s for concentric and eccentric actions, 1 s for relaxing; HN); low-intensity with normal speed (same intensity as for LST and same speed as for HN; LN). In LST and HN, the mean repetition maximum was 8RM. In LN, both intensity and amount of work were matched with those for LST. Each exercise session consisting of three sets was performed three times a week for 12 wk. In LST and HN, exercise training caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in cross-sectional area determined with MRI and isometric strength (maximal voluntary contraction) of the knee extensors, whereas no significant changes were seen in LN. Electromyographic and near-infrared spectroscopic analyses showed that one bout of LST causes sustained muscular activity and the largest muscle deoxygenation among the three types of exercise. The results suggest that intramuscular oxygen environment is important for exercise-induced muscular hypertrophy.

  17. Benefits of a low intensity exercise programme during haemodialysis sessions in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Esteve Simo, Vicent; Junqué Jiménez, Anna; Moreno Guzmán, Fátima; Carneiro Oliveira, José; Fulquet Nicolas, Miquel; Pou Potau, Mónica; Saurina Sole, Anna; Duarte Gallego, Verónica; Tapia Gonzalez, Irati; Ramirez de Arellano, Manel

    2015-01-01

    Elderly patients on haemodialysis (HD) are a steadily increasing group. They show a high complexity, dependency and comorbidity. Multiple benefits from exercise in HD patients have been reported; however, they have not been specifically evaluated in an elderly population. To assess the effect of an adapted low intensity intradialytic exercise programme on muscle strength, functional capacity and health-related quality of life in our elderly patients (> 80 years) on HD. HD patients were non-randomly assigned to an exercise training group (E) or a control group (C) in a 12-week single-centre prospective study. E included a combined exercise programme using balls, weights, elastic bands and cycle movements in the first 2 hours of HD sessions. C group patients received standard HD care. Endpoints were: 1) main biochemical data; 2) maximum quadriceps length strength (MQLS) and hand-grip (HG); 3) functional capacity tests: "Sit to stand to sit" (STS10) and "six-minutes walking test" (6MWT); 4) Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI); and 5) Health-related quality of life questionnaire: EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D). A total of 22 patients were included (50% men). Mean age was 83.2 years; patients had received HD for 44.1 month. Charlson index was 9.5. Main aetiology was diabetes mellitus (36.4%). Eleven patients were assigned to E group and 11 to C group. No related adverse effects were observed. At the end of the study, E group showed an overall improvement in tests (*P<.05): MQLS 10.5 ± 7.6 vs. 12.9 ± 10.1 kg, HG* 16.6 ± 8.7 vs. 18.2 ± 8.9 kg, STS10* 29.9 ± 10.6 vs. 25 ± 7.87 sec, 6MWT* 14.6%, 234.4 vs. 274.7 m, BDI* 14.4 ± 11.5 vs. 11.7 ± 10.8 and EQ-5D 49 ± 19.1 vs. 59.5 ± 20.3. No similar changes were observed in C group. Significant differences between groups were also found for HG, MQLS, STS10, 6MWT, BDI and EQ-5D. No significant changes were found in biochemical and anthropometric data, antidepressant treatment or suitable dialysis parameters at the end of the study. 1

  18. [Adaptation reactions of rat blood exposed to low intensity electromagnetic radiation].

    PubMed

    Krylov, V N; Deriugina, A V

    2010-06-01

    It is carried out research of action low-intensive electromagnetic radiations--low-intensive laser radiation and radiations of the highest frequency on normal animals and at modelling the stress-reaction, caused by introduction of adrenaline. Absence of effects of system of blood is noted at action low-intensive electromagnetic radiations on normal an organism and them correction action on alteration an organism, shown in restoration of the broken parameters--leukocyte the blood count, electrophoretic mobility of erythrocytes and phospholipide's structure of their membranes.

  19. Scapholunate Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Denise; McSwigan, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Wrist injuries are a common complaint in the emergency setting. Any disruption of the anatomy of the carpal bones can impair hand function, leading to pain, weakness, and complications. One of the most common forms of carpal bone instability is scapholunate dissociation. This injury can lead to significant morbidity including avascular necrosis, impaired healing, limited function, and arthritis. These diagnostic findings may be subtle, thus identifying high-risk mechanisms of injury, and clinical manifestations will assist the emergency practitioner with early diagnosis and treatment of this high-risk injury.

  20. Effect of low-intensity extremely high frequency radiation on reproductive function in wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Subbotina, T I; Tereshkina, O V; Khadartsev, A A; Yashin, A A

    2006-08-01

    The exposure to low-intensity extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation during spermatogenesis was accompanied by pathological changes, which resulted in degeneration and polymorphism of spermatozoa. The number of newborn rats increased in the progeny of irradiated animals.

  1. Linear alkyl benzene sulphonate (LAS) degradation by immobilized Pseudomonas aeruginosa under low intensity ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Lijun, Xiang; Bochu, Wang; Zhimin, Li; Chuanren, Duan; Qinghong, Wang; Liu, Liu

    2005-01-15

    We studied the LAS degradation of immobilized Pseudomonas aeruginosa with low-intensity ultrasonic and the influence of original LAS concentration, pH, rotary velocity and different conditions of low-intensity ultrasonic irradiation on the degradation of LAS. In our experiment, the degradation rate of LAS was the main index. We found that low-intensity ultrasonic irradiation could improve the metabolism of microorganism cells and promote the LAS biodegradation of immobilized cells. In the experiment, 50 mg/l LAS were used to simulate wastewater, and low-intensity ultrasonic was considered. We found the influence was obvious, and the optimal degradation rate was acquired when the conditions of ultrasonic were frequency 24 kHz, power 8 W, stimulation time 5 s, intermissive time 30 s, and total time 10 min. The LAS degradation rate of immobilized cells with ultrasonic were respectively 40% and 9.5% higher than that of the suspending cells and immobilized cells without irradiation.

  2. Effects of chronic caffeine intake and low-intensity exercise on skeletal muscle of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    da Costa Santos, Vanessa Batista; Ruiz, Roberto José; Vettorato, Evandro Doite; Nakamura, Fabio Yuzo; Juliani, Luiz Carlos; Polito, Marcos Doederlein; Siqueira, Claudia Patricia Cardoso Martins; de Paula Ramos, Solange

    2011-11-01

    Caffeine can affect muscle cell physiology and the inflammatory response during exercise. The purpose of this study was to analyse muscle damage markers and inflammatory cell infiltration into the soleus muscle of sedentary and exercised animals submitted to chronic caffeine intake. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into the following four groups (n = 8 per group): sedentary control (SCO); sedentary + caffeine (SCAF); trained control (TCO); and trained + caffeine (TCAF). The animals were housed in individual cages and received tap water or caffeine (1 mg ml(-1)); they were maintained at rest or submitted to swimming for up to 40 min day(-1) with a 4% load, five times per week for 30 days. Blood samples were collected for analysis of serum lactate, creatine kinase and calcium. The right soleus muscle and the epididymal fat depot were weighed, and the muscle was submitted to histological analysis. Training and caffeine did not change body or muscle weight, food and liquid intake or serum calcium levels among groups. Decreased fat tissue (P < 0.05) was observed in the SCAF (4.05 ± 1.03 g), TCO (4.14 ± 0.78 g) and TCAF groups (4.02 ± 1.02 g) compared with the SCO group (5.31 ± 1.06 g). Serum creatine kinase activity was significantly reduced in the SCAF (787.3 ± 230.3 U l(-1)), TCO (775.3 ± 232.3 U l(-1)) and TCAF groups (379.5 ± 110.5 U l(-1)) compared with the SCO group (1610.2 ± 276.5 U l(-1)). Few damaged muscle fibres (P < 0.05) were found in SCAF (16.7 ± 12.8%) and TCAF groups (17.3 ± 11.7%) compared with the SCO group (53.6 ± 13.9%). The SCAF group presented fewer fields with inflammatory cells (7.6 ± 8.7 fields) compared with the SCO group (123 ± 146 fields). The results suggest that the chronic intake of caffeine, as well as chronic low-intensity exercise, decreased muscle damage and inflammatory infiltration into skeletal muscle.

  3. Low-intensity eccentric contractions of the knee extensors and flexors protect against muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Min-Ju; Chen, Trevor Chung-Ching; Chen, Hsin-Lian; Wu, Bo-Han; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the magnitude and duration of the protective effect of low-intensity eccentric contractions (LowEC) against damage induced by maximal eccentric contractions (MaxEC) of the knee flexors (KF) and extensors (KE). Young men were assigned to 8 experimental groups and 2 control groups (n = 13/group); the experimental groups performed LowEC of KF or KE 2 days (2d), 1 week (1wk), 2 weeks (2wk), or 3 weeks (3wk) before MaxEC, while the control groups performed MaxEC of KF or KE without LowEC. The 2d, 1wk, 2wk, and 3wk groups performed 30 LowEC of KF or 60 LowEC of KE with a load of 10% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength on a resistance-training machine, and all groups performed 30 MaxEC of KF or 60 MaxEC of KE on an isokinetic dynamometer. Several muscle damage markers were measured from before to 2 days after exercise (LowEC) or from before to 5 days after exercise (MaxEC). No significant changes in any variables were evident after LowEC. The changes in all variables after MaxEC were smaller (P < 0.05) for the 2d and 1wk groups (e.g., peak creatine kinase activity: 1002 ± 501 IU/L; peak muscle soreness: 13 ± 5 mm) than for the control group (peak creatine kinase activity: 3005 ± 983 IU/L; peak muscle soreness 28 ± 6 mm) for both KE and KF. There were no significant differences between the 2d and 1wk groups or among the 2wk, 3wk, and control groups. These results show that LowEC provided 30%-66% protection against damage induced by MaxEC of KF and KE, and the protective effect lasted 1 week.

  4. Low-intensity voluntary running lowers blood pressure with simultaneous improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and insulin sensitivity in aged spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meng-Wei; Qian, Feng-Lei; Wang, Jian; Tao, Tao; Guo, Jing; Wang, Lie; Lu, Ai-Yun; Chen, Hong

    2008-03-01

    Our objective is to examine the effects of voluntary running at different intensity levels on blood pressure, endothelium-dependent vessel dysfunction and insulin resistance in aged spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with severe hypertension. Ten-month-old male and female SHR with severe hypertension were assigned to voluntary running at either low intensity (30% of maximal aerobic velocity) or moderate intensity (60% of maximal aerobic velocity) on a motor-driven treadmill for 6 weeks, 20 min per day and 7 days per week. Age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats and SHR were kept under sedentary conditions as controls. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured by the tail-cuff method. At the end of the exercise training, blood samples were collected for glucose, insulin and lipids assay, and aortae were isolated to examine their function in vitro. Low-intensity but not moderate-intensity running significantly lowered blood pressure in both male and female SHR (p<0.01). There was significant impairment in acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in SHR (p<0.01), which was improved by low-intensity training (p<0.05). Nitric oxide synthase blockade abrogated the improvement in endothelium-dependent relaxation. Hypertensive rats had elevated blood glucose and insulin levels with lowered insulin sensitivity that was ameliorated by low-intensity running. A significant increase in blood high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and a significant decrease in triglycerides were found in exercised SHR. In conclusion, low-intensity voluntary exercise lowers hypertension in aged SHR with severe hypertension. Exercise-induced simultaneous improvement in endothelium-dependent vessel relaxation and insulin sensitivity may act concomitantly in attenuating cardiovascular risk factors in aged hypertensive rats with significantly high blood pressure.

  5. Stretching Effects: High-intensity & Moderate-duration vs. Low-intensity & Long-duration.

    PubMed

    Freitas, S R; Vaz, J R; Bruno, P M; Andrade, R; Mil-Homens, P

    2016-03-01

    This study examined whether a high-intensity, moderate-duration bout of stretching would produce the same acute effects as a low-intensity, long-duration bout of stretching. 17 volunteers performed 2 knee-flexor stretching protocols: a high-intensity stretch (i. e., 100% of maximum tolerable passive torque) with a moderate duration (243.5 ± 69.5-s); and a low-intensity stretch (50% of tolerable passive torque) with a long duration (900-s). Passive torque at a given sub-maximal angle, peak passive torque, maximal range of motion (ROM), and muscle activity were assessed before and after each stretching protocol (at intervals of 1, 30 and 60 min). The maximal ROM and tolerable passive torque increased for all time points following the high-intensity stretching (p<0.05), but not after the low-intensity protocol (p>0.05). 1 min post-stretching, the passive torque decreased in both protocols, but to a greater extent in the low-intensity protocol. 30 min post-test, torque returned to baseline for the low-intensity protocol and had increased above the baseline for the high-intensity stretches. The following can be concluded: 1) High-intensity stretching increases the maximal ROM and peak passive torque compared to low-intensity stretching; 2) low-intensity, long-duration stretching is the best way to acutely decrease passive torque; and 3) high-intensity, moderate-duration stretching increases passive torque above the baseline 30 min after stretching.

  6. Effects of low-intensity resistance exercise with short interset rest period on muscular function in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Takarada, Yudai; Ishii, Naokata

    2002-02-01

    We investigated the effect of low-intensity resistance exercise training on muscular size and strength where the interset rest period was shortened so as to reduce the metabolite clearance. Female subjects (aged 45.4 +/- 9.5 years, n = 10) performed bilateral knee extension exercises in a seated position on an isotonic leg extension machine. The exercise sessions consisted of 3 sets of exercise at a mean intensity of approximately 50% 1RM with an interset rest period of 30 seconds and was performed twice a week for a period of 12 weeks. The strength and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the knee extensors and flexors were examined with an isokinetic dynamometer and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), respectively. The CSAs of the knee extensors and flexors increased by 7.1 +/- 1.6% (p < 0.01, Wilcoxon signed rank test) and 2.5 +/- 1.4% (not significant), respectively. Isometric and isokinetic strengths increased significantly (p < 0.01) at all velocities examined, whereas no significant change was observed in those of knee flexors. These results indicate that a low-intensity resistance exercise with a short interset rest period is substantially effective in inducing muscular hypertrophy and concomitant increase in strength.

  7. Recurrent exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis due to low intensity fitness exercise in a healthy young patient

    PubMed Central

    Karre, Premnath Reddy; Gujral, Jeetinder

    2011-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is an uncommon but life threatening condition that develops due to breakdown of muscle and release of intracellular components into the circulation. A 24-year-old man otherwise healthy was admitted to our hospital because of muscle aches and weakness as well as cola coloured urine developed 3 days after carrying out the low intensity exercise. Diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was made with creatine kinase (CK) levels of 214 356 U/l. He was treated for a similar condition at age 21. A muscle biopsy was done and the findings were normal. Rhabdomyolysis can develop with low intensity exercise; thus, it be considered in healthy young people. Young people with recurrent rhabdomyolysis due to low intensity exercise, in the absence of obvious medical and physical causes, should be evaluated further to rule out uncommon metabolic diseases. Our case demonstrates that complications especially renal failure in patients with rhabdomyolysis do not correspond to CK levels. PMID:22700603

  8. Recurrent exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis due to low intensity fitness exercise in a healthy young patient.

    PubMed

    Karre, Premnath Reddy; Gujral, Jeetinder

    2011-04-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is an uncommon but life threatening condition that develops due to breakdown of muscle and release of intracellular components into the circulation. A 24-year-old man otherwise healthy was admitted to our hospital because of muscle aches and weakness as well as cola coloured urine developed 3 days after carrying out the low intensity exercise. Diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was made with creatine kinase (CK) levels of 214 356 U/l. He was treated for a similar condition at age 21. A muscle biopsy was done and the findings were normal. Rhabdomyolysis can develop with low intensity exercise; thus, it be considered in healthy young people. Young people with recurrent rhabdomyolysis due to low intensity exercise, in the absence of obvious medical and physical causes, should be evaluated further to rule out uncommon metabolic diseases. Our case demonstrates that complications especially renal failure in patients with rhabdomyolysis do not correspond to CK levels.

  9. [Application of low-intensity and ultrahigh frequency electromagnetic radiation in modern pediatric practice].

    PubMed

    Azov, N A; Azova, E A

    2009-01-01

    The use of an Amfit-0,2/10-01 apparatus generating low-intensity ultrahigh frequency (UHF) electromagnetic radiation improved efficiency of therapy of sick children. This treatment allowed to reduce the frequency of intake of anesthetics in the post-operative period, correct metabolic disorders in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, reduce severity of diabetic nephropathy and polyneuropathy, prevent formation of fresh foci of lipoid necrobiosis. The results of the study indicate that the use of low-intensity UHF electromagnetic radiation may be recommended for more extensive introduction into practical clinical work of pediatric endocrinologists and surgeons.

  10. Dissociation and serenity induction.

    PubMed

    Zoellner, Lori A; Sacks, Matthew B; Foa, Edna B

    2007-09-01

    Dissociation is a common experience during or immediately after a traumatic event; yet, most of the current knowledge regarding dissociation is retrospective in nature. The aim of the present study investigated a non-pharmacological method of dissociative induction with a clinical sample. Participants with PTSD and non-trauma exposed participants were randomly assigned to receive either a dissociative induction, or a serenity induction, based on modified Velten mood induction procedures. Participants receiving the dissociative induction reported higher state-dissociation than those receiving the serenity induction. The PTSD group reported greater state dissociation than the non-trauma exposed group, regardless of induction. State dissociation was related to trait dissociation, PTSD severity, and depression. The present results provide an initial demonstration of the viability for inducing state dissociation in the laboratory with a PTSD sample.

  11. Competences required for the delivery of high and low-intensity cognitive behavioural interventions for chronic fatigue, chronic fatigue syndrome/ME and irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rimes, Katharine A; Wingrove, Janet; Moss-Morris, Rona; Chalder, Trudie

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive behavioural interventions are effective in the treatment of chronic fatigue, chronic fatigue syndrome (sometimes known as ME or CFS/ME) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Such interventions are increasingly being provided not only in specialist settings but in primary care settings such as Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services. There are no existing competences for the delivery of "low-intensity" or "high-intensity" cognitive behavioural interventions for these conditions. To develop "high-intensity" and "low-intensity" competences for cognitive behavioural interventions for chronic fatigue, CFS/ME and IBS. The initial draft drew on a variety of sources including treatment manuals and other information from randomized controlled trials. Therapists with experience in providing cognitive behavioural interventions for CF, CFS/ME and IBS in research and clinical settings were consulted on the initial draft competences and their suggestions for minor amendments were incorporated into the final versions. Feedback from experienced therapists was positive. Therapists providing low intensity interventions reported that the competences were also helpful in highlighting training needs. These sets of competences should facilitate the training and supervision of therapists providing cognitive behavioural interventions for chronic fatigue, CFS/ME and IBS. The competences are available online (see table of contents for this issue: http://journals.cambridge.org/jid_BCP) or on request from the first author.

  12. Dissociative phenomenology of dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul F

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the dissociative phenomenology of dissociative identity disorder (DID). The Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID) was administered to 34 patients with DID, 23 patients with dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS), 52 patients with mixed psychiatric disorders, and 58 normal individuals. DID patients obtained significantly higher scores than the other three groups on 27 dissociation-related variables. DDNOS patients had significantly higher scores than normals and mixed psychiatric patients on 17 and 15 dissociation-related variables, respectively. The findings of the present study are virtually identical to a large body of replicated findings about the dissociative phenomenology of DID. This broad range of dissociation-related phenomena, which routinely occurs in individuals with DID, is largely absent from the DSM-IV-TR account of DID. Factor analysis of the 11 dimensions of dissociation that are measured by the MID extracted only one factor that accounted for 85% of the variance. It was concluded that dissociation is a unifactorial taxon or natural type that has different aspects or epiphenomena (i.e., amnesia, depersonalization, voices, trance, etc.).

  13. Nucleotide excision repair pathway assessment in DNA exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, A.S.; Campos, V.M.A.; Magalhães, L.A.G.; Paoli, F.

    2015-01-01

    Low-intensity lasers are used for prevention and management of oral mucositis induced by anticancer therapy, but the effectiveness of treatment depends on the genetic characteristics of affected cells. This study evaluated the survival and induction of filamentation of Escherichia coli cells deficient in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, and the action of T4endonuclease V on plasmid DNA exposed to low-intensity red and near-infrared laser light. Cultures of wild-type (strain AB1157) E. coli and strain AB1886 (deficient in uvrA protein) were exposed to red (660 nm) and infrared (808 nm) lasers at various fluences, powers and emission modes to study bacterial survival and filamentation. Also, plasmid DNA was exposed to laser light to study DNA lesions produced in vitro by T4endonuclease V. Low-intensity lasers:i) had no effect on survival of wild-type E. coli but decreased the survival of uvrA protein-deficient cells,ii) induced bacterial filamentation, iii) did not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids in agarose gels, andiv) did not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids incubated with T4 endonuclease V. These results increase our understanding of the effects of laser light on cells with various genetic characteristics, such as xeroderma pigmentosum cells deficient in nucleotide excision pathway activity in patients with mucositis treated by low-intensity lasers. PMID:26445337

  14. On the mechanisms of interaction of low-intensity millimeter waves with biological objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betskii, O. V.

    1994-01-01

    The interaction of low-intensity millimeter-band electromagnetic waves with biological objects is examined. These waves are widely used in medical practice as a means of physiotherapy for the treatment of various human disorders. Principal attention is given to the mechanisms through which millimeter waves act on the human organism.

  15. [Preventive measures with low-intensity laser for workers exposed to physical exertion].

    PubMed

    Ushkova, I N; Mal'kova, N Iu; Chernushevich, N I

    2010-01-01

    Studies covered 168 personal computer users, 98 jewelry female polishers, 64 assemblers of metallic ship frameworks. Various doses of laser rays in accordance with work conditions appeared effective for improving upper limbs microcirculation. The suggested method is based on effects of low-intensity laser irradiation.

  16. Therapeutic low-intensity red laser for herpes labialis on plasmid survival and bacterial transformation.

    PubMed

    Sergio, Luiz Philippe da Silva; Marciano, Roberta da Silva; Teixeira, Gleica Rocha; Canuto, Keila da Silva; Polignano, Giovanni Augusto Castanheira; Guimarães, Oscar Roberto; Geller, Mauro; de Paoli, Flavia; da Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza

    2013-05-01

    A low-intensity laser is used in treating herpes labialis based on the biostimulative effect, albeit the photobiological basis is not well understood. In this work experimental models based on Escherichia coli cultures and plasmids were used to evaluate effects of low-intensity red laser on DNA at fluences for treatment of herpes labialis. To this end, survival and transformation efficiency of plasmids in E. coli AB1157 (wild type), BH20 (fpg/mutM(-)) and BW9091 (xthA(-)), content of the supercoiled form of plasmid DNA, as well as nucleic acids and protein content from bacterial cultures exposed to the laser, were evaluated. The data indicate low-intensity red laser: (i) alters the survival of plasmids in wild type, fpg/mutM(-) and xthA(-)E. coli cultures depending of growth phase, (ii) alters the content of the supercoiled form of plasmids in the wild type and fpg/mutM(-)E. coli cells, (iii) alters the content of nucleic acids and proteins in wild type E. coli cells, (iv) alters the transformation efficiency of plasmids in wild type and fpg/mutM(-)E. coli competent cells. These data could be used to understand positive effects of low-intensity lasers on herpes labialis treatment.

  17. A prototype stimulator system for noninvasive Low Intensity Focused Ultrasound delivery.

    PubMed

    Mulgaonkar, Amit P; Singh, Rahul S; Babakhanian, Meghedi; Culjat, Martin O; Grundfest, Warren S; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Lacan, Goran; De Salles, Antonio A F; Bystritsky, Alexander; Melega, William P

    2012-01-01

    A prototype Low Intensity Focused Ultrasound (LIFU) stimulator system was developed to evaluate non-invasive neuromodulation in a large animal model. We conducted a feasibility study on a Göttingen minipig, demonstrating reversible, targeted transcranial neuromodulation. The hypothalamus of the minipig was repeatedly stimulated with LIFU which evoked temporally correlated increases in both heart rate and blood pressure.

  18. Low-intensity infrared laser radiation influence on the tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheida, A. A.; Efimova, E. G.

    2005-08-01

    Infrared laser radiation of low intensity in exposition dose of 25-35 mJicm2 does not cause progress the tumor process. Moreover, disturbing the blood flow in the tumor due to changing synthesis of norepinephrine and histamine this radiation contributes to the damage of the tumor tissue accompanied by the beginning of adaptation reaction in the organism.

  19. Developmental Change in Fetal Response to Repeated Low-Intensity Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morokuma, Seiichi; Doria, Valentina; Ierullo, Antonio; Kinukawa, Naoko; Fukushima, Kotaro; Nakano, Hitoo; Arulkumaran, Sabaratnam; Papageorghiou, Aris T.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate developmental changes in heart rate response to repeated low-intensity (85 dB) sound stimulation in fetuses between 32 and 37 weeks of gestation. We measured amplitude changes in heart rate as our index of fetal response. At 35 to 37 weeks of gestation, the majority of fetuses showed a deceleratory response…

  20. Low Intensity Uniform Ultrasound Accelerates Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose Plant Matter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The work reported here is based on acceleration of enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass substrate by introduction of low intensity, uniform ultrasound field into a reaction chamber (bio-reactor). This method may serve as an improvement of rates in the hydrolysis of cellulosic materials to sugars, ...

  1. Study finds low-intensity therapy for Burkitt lymphoma highly effective

    Cancer.gov

    Adult patients with a type of cancer known as Burkitt lymphoma had excellent long-term survival rates—upwards of 90 percent—following treatment with low-intensity chemotherapy regimens, according to a new clinical trial finding. Burkitt lymphoma is the mo

  2. Photobiomodulation of breast and cervical cancer stem cells using low-intensity laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kiro, N E; Hamblin, M R; Abrahamse, H

    2017-06-01

    Breast and cervical cancers are dangerous threats with regard to the health of women. The two malignancies have reached the highest record in terms of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. Despite the use of novel strategies with the aim to treat and cure advanced stages of cancer, post-therapeutic relapse believed to be caused by cancer stem cells is one of the challenges encountered during tumor therapy. Therefore, further attention should be paid to cancer stem cells when developing novel anti-tumor therapeutic approaches. Low-intensity laser irradiation is a form of phototherapy making use of visible light in the wavelength range of 630-905 nm. Low-intensity laser irradiation has shown remarkable results in a wide range of medical applications due to its biphasic dose and wavelength effect at a cellular level. Overall, this article focuses on the cellular responses of healthy and cancer cells after treatment with low-intensity laser irradiation alone or in combination with a photosensitizer as photodynamic therapy and the influence that various wavelengths and fluencies could have on the therapeutic outcome. Attention will be paid to the biomodulative effect of low-intensity laser irradiation on cancer stem cells.

  3. Terrorism, Guerrilla Warfare/Counterinsurgency/Low-Intensity Conflict, and Revolutions 1986 - June 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    Terrorism and Other Low-Intensity Operations: The Witnesses Speak. Lexington: Lexington Books. 1986. (HV 6431 .H93 1986) Rosie. George. The Directory of...Kenya’s Abortive Coup." Political Quarterly 57 (Jamnaary/March 1986): 47-59. 42 Dale. Richard. "The Politics of Namibian Imnobilisme: Conflict. Diplomacy

  4. Herpes virus reactivation by low-intensity diode and CO₂ lasers.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Hazem Mohammad; Shaker, Ahmed Samir; Saafan, Ali Mohamed; Ibrahim, Adel Khalil

    2011-02-01

    The herpes virus enters into latency after symptomatic or asymptomatic herpetic infection. During latency, the virus has no impact on infected cells. However, internal or external stimuli, including certain lasers, can induce virus reactivation. The aim was to study the reactivation power of the low-intensity diode and CO(2) lasers on the latent herpes virus. The bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) was inoculated in either the nasal cavity or the lacrimal film of an animal model. Once the virus entered into latency, the trigeminal ganglia of animals were exposed to either a low-intensity diode or CO(2) laser. The reactivation of the virus was then explored by PCR, RT-PCR, and dot-blot hybridization on nasal or lacrimal swabs. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the aforementioned techniques were compared. The low-intensity diode laser reactivated the herpes virus less than the CO(2) laser. The nasally inoculated virus was more liable for reactivation by both lasers. PCR was considered as the standard method for the detection of the reactivated virus. Low-intensity diode and CO(2) lasers can induce herpes virus reactivation, with the diode laser less likely to reactivate the virus than the CO(2) laser.

  5. Low-intensity red and infrared laser effects at high fluences on Escherichia coli cultures

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, L.L.; Campos, V.M.A.; Magalhães, L.A.G.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Semiconductor laser devices are readily available and practical radiation sources providing wavelength tenability and high monochromaticity. Low-intensity red and near-infrared lasers are considered safe for use in clinical applications. However, adverse effects can occur via free radical generation, and the biological effects of these lasers from unusually high fluences or high doses have not yet been evaluated. Here, we evaluated the survival, filamentation induction and morphology of Escherichia coli cells deficient in repair of oxidative DNA lesions when exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers at unusually high fluences. Cultures of wild-type (AB1157), endonuclease III-deficient (JW1625-1), and endonuclease IV-deficient (JW2146-1) E. coli, in exponential and stationary growth phases, were exposed to red and infrared lasers (0, 250, 500, and 1000 J/cm2) to evaluate their survival rates, filamentation phenotype induction and cell morphologies. The results showed that low-intensity red and infrared lasers at high fluences are lethal, induce a filamentation phenotype, and alter the morphology of the E. coli cells. Low-intensity red and infrared lasers have potential to induce adverse effects on cells, whether used at unusually high fluences, or at high doses. Hence, there is a need to reinforce the importance of accurate dosimetry in therapeutic protocols. PMID:26445339

  6. Developmental Change in Fetal Response to Repeated Low-Intensity Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morokuma, Seiichi; Doria, Valentina; Ierullo, Antonio; Kinukawa, Naoko; Fukushima, Kotaro; Nakano, Hitoo; Arulkumaran, Sabaratnam; Papageorghiou, Aris T.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate developmental changes in heart rate response to repeated low-intensity (85 dB) sound stimulation in fetuses between 32 and 37 weeks of gestation. We measured amplitude changes in heart rate as our index of fetal response. At 35 to 37 weeks of gestation, the majority of fetuses showed a deceleratory response…

  7. Low-intensity red and infrared laser effects at high fluences on Escherichia coli cultures.

    PubMed

    Barboza, L L; Campos, V M A; Magalhães, L A G; Paoli, F; Fonseca, A S

    2015-07-28

    Semiconductor laser devices are readily available and practical radiation sources providing wavelength tenability and high monochromaticity. Low-intensity red and near-infrared lasers are considered safe for use in clinical applications. However, adverse effects can occur via free radical generation, and the biological effects of these lasers from unusually high fluences or high doses have not yet been evaluated. Here, we evaluated the survival, filamentation induction and morphology of Escherichia coli cells deficient in repair of oxidative DNA lesions when exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers at unusually high fluences. Cultures of wild-type (AB1157), endonuclease III-deficient (JW1625-1), and endonuclease IV-deficient (JW2146-1) E. coli, in exponential and stationary growth phases, were exposed to red and infrared lasers (0, 250, 500, and 1000 J/cm2) to evaluate their survival rates, filamentation phenotype induction and cell morphologies. The results showed that low-intensity red and infrared lasers at high fluences are lethal, induce a filamentation phenotype, and alter the morphology of the E. coli cells. Low-intensity red and infrared lasers have potential to induce adverse effects on cells, whether used at unusually high fluences, or at high doses. Hence, there is a need to reinforce the importance of accurate dosimetry in therapeutic protocols.

  8. Nucleotide excision repair pathway assessment in DNA exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, A S; Campos, V M A; Magalhães, L A G; Paoli, F

    2015-07-10

    Low-intensity lasers are used for prevention and management of oral mucositis induced by anticancer therapy, but the effectiveness of treatment depends on the genetic characteristics of affected cells. This study evaluated the survival and induction of filamentation of Escherichia coli cells deficient in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, and the action of T4 endonuclease V on plasmid DNA exposed to low-intensity red and near-infrared laser light. Cultures of wild-type (strain AB1157) E. coli and strain AB1886 (deficient in uvrA protein) were exposed to red (660 nm) and infrared (808 nm) lasers at various fluences, powers and emission modes to study bacterial survival and filamentation. Also, plasmid DNA was exposed to laser light to study DNA lesions produced in vitro by T4 endonuclease V. Low-intensity lasers: i) had no effect on survival of wild-type E. coli but decreased the survival of uvrA protein-deficient cells, ii) induced bacterial filamentation, iii) did not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids in agarose gels, and iv) did not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids incubated with T4 endonuclease V. These results increase our understanding of the effects of laser light on cells with various genetic characteristics, such as xeroderma pigmentosum cells deficient in nucleotide excision pathway activity in patients with mucositis treated by low-intensity lasers.

  9. Low-intensity red and infrared laser effects at high fluences on Escherichia coli cultures.

    PubMed

    Barboza, L L; Campos, V M A; Magalhães, L A G; Paoli, F; Fonseca, A S

    2015-10-01

    Semiconductor laser devices are readily available and practical radiation sources providing wavelength tenability and high monochromaticity. Low-intensity red and near-infrared lasers are considered safe for use in clinical applications. However, adverse effects can occur via free radical generation, and the biological effects of these lasers from unusually high fluences or high doses have not yet been evaluated. Here, we evaluated the survival, filamentation induction and morphology of Escherichia coli cells deficient in repair of oxidative DNA lesions when exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers at unusually high fluences. Cultures of wild-type (AB1157), endonuclease III-deficient (JW1625-1), and endonuclease IV-deficient (JW2146-1) E. coli, in exponential and stationary growth phases, were exposed to red and infrared lasers (0, 250, 500, and 1000 J/cm2) to evaluate their survival rates, filamentation phenotype induction and cell morphologies. The results showed that low-intensity red and infrared lasers at high fluences are lethal, induce a filamentation phenotype, and alter the morphology of the E. coli cells. Low-intensity red and infrared lasers have potential to induce adverse effects on cells, whether used at unusually high fluences, or at high doses. Hence, there is a need to reinforce the importance of accurate dosimetry in therapeutic protocols.

  10. Examining the effect of three low-intensity pediatric obesity interventions: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Looney, Shannon M; Raynor, Hollie A

    2014-12-01

    Primary care is an ideal setting to treat pediatric obesity. Effective, low-intensity (≤25 contact hours over 6 months) interventions that reduce standardized body mass index (z-BMI) and can be delivered by primary care providers are needed. This pilot randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of 3 low-intensity (≤25 contact hours over 6 months) pediatric obesity treatments on z-BMI. Twenty-two families (children 8.0 ± 1.8 years, z-BMI of 2.34 ± 0.48) were randomized into 1 of 3, 6-month, low-intensity conditions: newsletter (N), newsletter and growth monitoring (N + GM), or newsletter and growth monitoring plus family-based behavioral counseling (N + GM + BC). Anthropometrics and child eating and leisure-time behaviors were measured. Mixed-factor analyses of variance found a significant (P < .05) main effect of time for z-BMI and servings per day of sugar sweetened beverages, with both decreasing over time. Low-intensity obesity treatments can reduce z-BMI and may be more feasible in primary care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. On the mechanisms of interaction of low-intensity millimeter waves with biological objects

    SciTech Connect

    Betskii, O.V.

    1994-07-01

    The interaction of low-intensity millimeter-band electromagnetic waves with biological objects is examined. These waves are widely used in medical practice as a means of physiotherapy for the treatment of various human disorders. Principal attention is given to the mechanisms through which millimeter waves act on the human organism.

  12. Nucleotide excision repair pathway assessment in DNA exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, A S; Campos, V M A; Magalhães, L A G; Paoli, F

    2015-10-01

    Low-intensity lasers are used for prevention and management of oral mucositis induced by anticancer therapy, but the effectiveness of treatment depends on the genetic characteristics of affected cells. This study evaluated the survival and induction of filamentation of Escherichia coli cells deficient in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, and the action of T4endonuclease V on plasmid DNA exposed to low-intensity red and near-infrared laser light. Cultures of wild-type (strain AB1157) E. coli and strain AB1886 (deficient in uvrA protein) were exposed to red (660 nm) and infrared (808 nm) lasers at various fluences, powers and emission modes to study bacterial survival and filamentation. Also, plasmid DNA was exposed to laser light to study DNA lesions produced in vitro by T4endonuclease V. Low-intensity lasers:i) had no effect on survival of wild-type E. coli but decreased the survival of uvrA protein-deficient cells,ii) induced bacterial filamentation, iii) did not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids in agarose gels, andiv) did not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids incubated with T4 endonuclease V. These results increase our understanding of the effects of laser light on cells with various genetic characteristics, such as xeroderma pigmentosum cells deficient in nucleotide excision pathway activity in patients with mucositis treated by low-intensity lasers.

  13. Low-intensity internet-delivered treatment for generalized anxiety symptoms in routine care: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Richards, Derek; Timulak, Ladislav; Doherty, Gavin; Sharry, John; McLoughlin, Orla; Rashleigh, Chuck; Colla, Amy; Joyce, Ciara

    2014-04-27

    Worldwide prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is considered high; in Europe lifetime prevalence has been estimated at 4.3 to 5.9%. High levels of anxiety disorders have been reported in university students, affecting 25 to 30% of the population. Young adults are some of the most vulnerable for the onset of mental health disorders and any stressors may act as a catalyst for their onset. The absence of resources can often mean that many do not seek treatment. Other factors that impede access to resources include such things as a lack of trained professionals, personal stigma, and waiting lists. Anxiety disorders can be treated successfully; indeed brief forms of cognitive-behavior therapy have been recommended. One potential avenue for research and development is that of delivering low-intensity interventions online for students with GAD. Therefore, the current study seeks to investigate the potential effectiveness for a low-intensity online CBT-based treatment for GAD in a service-based setting; implemented as one step in a stepped-care model. The research is a service-based effectiveness study utilizing a randomized waiting-list controlled design. The active intervention consists of six weekly modules of online CBT. Participants are assigned a supporter who provides weekly post-session feedback on progress and exercises. Participants will complete the GAD-7 as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include pathological worry, depression and measures of well-being. At three-months follow-up data will be collected using the GAD-7, BDI-II, PSWQ, ED-Q5 and WSAS. Post-session data will be collected on significant in-session events in treatment (HAT). A satisfaction with treatment measure will be administered post-treatment (SAT). The study will be a contribution to the potential for a low-intensity internet-delivered program implemented in a service-based setting; implemented as one step in a stepped-care model. The study will be a contribution to

  14. Comparison of high- versus low-intensity community health worker intervention to promote newborn and child health in Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Findley, Sally E; Uwemedimo, Omolara T; Doctor, Henry V; Green, Cathy; Adamu, Fatima; Afenyadu, Godwin Y

    2013-01-01

    Background In Northern Nigeria, infant mortality rates are two to three times higher than in the southern states, and, in 2008, a partnership program to improve maternal, newborn, and child health was established to reduce infant and child mortality in three Northern Nigeria states. The program intervention zones received government-supported health services plus integrated interventions at primary health care posts and development of community-based service delivery (CBSD) with a network of community volunteers and community health workers (CHWs), who focus on educating women about danger signs for themselves and their infants and promoting appropriate responses to the observation of those danger signs, consistent with the approach of the World Health Organization Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness strategy. Before going to scale in the rest of the state, it is important to identify the relative effectiveness of the low-intensity volunteer approach versus the more intensive CBSD approach with CHWs. Methods We conducted stratified cluster sample household surveys at baseline (2009) and follow-up (2011) to assess changes in newborn and sick child care practices among women with births in the five prior years (baseline: n = 6,906; follow-up: n = 2,310). The follow-up respondents were grouped by level of intensity of the CHW interventions in their community, with “low” including group activities led only by a trained community volunteer and “high” including the community volunteer activities plus CBSD from a CHW providing one-on-one advice and assistance. t-tests were used to test for significant differences from baseline to follow-up, and F-statistics, which adjust for the stratified cluster design, were used to test for significant differences between the control, low-intensity, and high-intensity intervention groups at follow-up. These analyses focused on changes in newborn and sick child care practices. Results Anti-tetanus vaccination

  15. The Joint Staff/J-5 and A-AF CLIC (Center for Low Intensity Conflict) Planning and Policy in Low Intensity Conflict Conference held in Hampton, Virginia on 13-15 December 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-15

    THE JOINT STAFF/J-5 AND A-AF CLIC PLANNING AND POLICY IN LOW INTENSITY CONFLICT CLIC CONFERENCE REPORT Army -Air Force Center for Low Intensity...A-AF CLIC Planning and Policy in Low Intensity Conflict Conference Report (Unclassified) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) NA 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME... Planning and Policy for Low Intensity Conflict sponsored by the Joint Staff/J-5 and the A-AF CLIC drew nearly 300 participant from government and

  16. [The application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation under immobilization stress conditions (an experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Korolev, Iu N; Bobrovnitskiĭ, I P; Nikoulina, L A; Mikhaĭlik, L V; Geniatulina, M S; Bobkova, A S

    2014-01-01

    The experiments carried out on outbred male white rats with the use of optical, electron-microscopic, biochemical, and radioimmunological methods have demonstrated that the application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (LI-EMR) with a flow density of 1 mcW/cm2 and a frequency of around 1,000 MHz both in the primary prophylaxis regime and as the therapeuticpreventive modality arrested the development of post-stress disorders in the rat testicles, liver, and thymus; moreover, it promoted activation of the adaptive, preventive, and compensatory processes. The data obtained provide a rationale for the application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation to protect the organism from negative effects of stressful factors.

  17. Accurate acoustic power measurement for low-intensity focused ultrasound using focal axial vibration velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Chenyang; Guo, Gepu; Ma, Qingyu; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong; Hu, Jimin

    2017-07-01

    Low-intensity focused ultrasound is a form of therapy that can have reversible acoustothermal effects on biological tissue, depending on the exposure parameters. The acoustic power (AP) should be chosen with caution for the sake of safety. To recover the energy of counteracted radial vibrations at the focal point, an accurate AP measurement method using the focal axial vibration velocity (FAVV) is proposed in explicit formulae and is demonstrated experimentally using a laser vibrometer. The experimental APs for two transducers agree well with theoretical calculations and numerical simulations, showing that AP is proportional to the square of the FAVV, with a fixed power gain determined by the physical parameters of the transducers. The favorable results suggest that the FAVV can be used as a valuable parameter for non-contact AP measurement, providing a new strategy for accurate power control for low-intensity focused ultrasound in biomedical engineering.

  18. Cell-stimulation therapy of lateral epicondylitis with frequency-modulated low-intensity electric current.

    PubMed

    Aliyev, R M; Geiger, G

    2012-03-01

    In addition to the routine therapy, the patients with lateral epicondylitis included into experimental group were subjected to a 12-week cell-stimulation therapy with low-intensity frequency-modulated electric current. The control group received the same routine therapy and sham stimulation (the therapeutic apparatus was not energized). The efficiency of this microcurrent therapy was estimated by comparing medical indices before therapy and at the end of a 12-week therapeutic course using a 10-point pain severity numeric rating scale (NRS) and Roles-Maudsley pain score. The study revealed high therapeutic efficiency of cell-stimulation with low-intensity electric current resulting probably from up-regulation of intracellular transmitters, interleukins, and prostaglandins playing the key role in the regulation of inflammation.

  19. Application of low-intensity laser in the treatment of Herpes simplex recidivans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunov, Tzonko T.; Uzunov, T.; Grozdanova, R.

    2004-06-01

    We made our aim to investigate the effect of the low intensive laser with λ=630 nm in the visible red spectrum of light at Herpes simplex treatment. For this purpose we carried out a clinical research upon 62 persons with Herpes simplex lesions which have been divided into two groups of 31 persons. At the first group the effect of laser with power density 100 mW/cm2 +/- 5 mW/cm2 and time of exposure 3 min. on field was traced out. At the second group the low intensive laser with the same characteristics has been used but in combination with the patent medicine Granofurin H as a photosensibilizer. The clinical approbations of this method showed high therapeutical effectiveness. The obtained results showed that at both groups there is an expressed anaesthetic, anti-inflammatory and regeneration stimulating effect and at the second group with the use of Granofurin H the reconvalescent period is shorter.

  20. Ultra-low intensity UV detection using partitioned mesoporous TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadi, Mohammad; Torbatiyan, Hadis; Abdi, Yaser

    2017-08-01

    We report five orders of magnitude enhancement in the detection of ultra-low intensity UV light using a partitioned mesoporous TiO2. The device shows a responsivity of ˜ 0.1 A/W at the incident intensity of 100 μW cm-2. The responsivity is slightly dropped to ˜0.01 A/W at the ultra-low intensity of 14 μW cm-2. High responsivity of the partitioned structure is attributed to the increment of electron diffusion length due to anisotropic and directional diffusive transport. Results show that the partitioned mesoporous TiO2 behaves as a quasi-one dimensional transport media.

  1. The potential for mitochondrial fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle influences whole body fat oxidation during low-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Sahlin, K; Mogensen, M; Bagger, M; Fernström, M; Pedersen, P K

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fatty acid (FA) oxidation in isolated mitochondrial vesicles (mit) and its relation to training status, fiber type composition, and whole body FA oxidation. Trained (Vo(2 peak) 60.7 +/- 1.6, n = 8) and untrained subjects (39.5 +/- 2.0 ml.min(-1).kg(-1), n = 5) cycled at 40, 80, and 120 W, and whole body relative FA oxidation was assessed from respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Mit were isolated from muscle biopsies, and maximal ADP stimulated respiration was measured with carbohydrate-derived substrate [pyruvate + malate (Pyr)] and FA-derived substrate [palmitoyl-l-carnitine + malate (PC)]. Fiber type composition was determined from analysis of myosin heavy-chain (MHC) composition. The rate of mit oxidation was lower with PC than with Pyr, and the ratio between PC and Pyr oxidation (MFO) varied greatly between subjects (49-93%). MFO was significantly correlated to muscle fiber type distribution, i.e., %MHC I (r = 0.62, P = 0.03), but was not different between trained (62 +/- 5%) and untrained subjects (72 +/- 2%). MFO was correlated to RER during submaximal exercise at 80 (r = -0.62, P = 0.02) and 120 W (r = -0.71, P = 0.007) and interpolated 35% Vo(2 peak) (r = -0.74, P = 0.004). ADP sensitivity of mit respiration was significantly higher with PC than with Pyr. It is concluded that MFO is influenced by fiber type composition but not by training status. The inverse correlation between RER and MFO implies that intrinsic mit characteristics are of importance for whole body FA oxidation during low-intensity exercise. The higher ADP sensitivity with PC than that with Pyr may influence fuel utilization at low rate of respiration.

  2. Effects of low-intensity ultrahigh frequency electromagnetic radiation on inflammatory processes.

    PubMed

    Lushnikov, K V; Shumilina, Yu V; Yakushina, V S; Gapeev, A B; Sadovnikov, V B; Chemeris, N K

    2004-04-01

    Low-intensity ultrahigh frequency electromagnetic radiation (42 GHz, 100 microW/cm(2)) reduces the severity of inflammation and inhibits production of active oxygen forms by inflammatory exudate neutrophils only in mice with inflammatory process. These data suggest that some therapeutic effects of electromagnetic radiation can be explained by its antiinflammatory effect which is realized via modulation of functional activity of neutrophils in the focus of inflammation.

  3. Recovery of damaged skeletal muscle in mdx mice through low-intensity endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Frinchi, M; Macaluso, F; Licciardi, A; Perciavalle, V; Coco, M; Belluardo, N; Morici, G; Mudò, G

    2014-01-01

    The lack of dystrophin in mdx mice leads to cycles of muscle degeneration and regeneration processes. Various strategies have been proposed in order to reduce the muscle-wasting component of muscular dystrophy, including implementation of an exercise programme. The aim of this study was to examine how low-intensity endurance exercise affects the degeneration-regeneration process in dystrophic muscle of male mdx mice. Mice were subjected to low-intensity endurance exercise by running on a motorized Rota-Rod for 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Histomorphological analysis showed a significant reduction of measured inflammatory-necrotic areas in both gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscle of exercised mdx mice as compared to matched sedentary mdx mice. The degenerative-regenerative process was also evaluated by examining the protein levels of connexin 39 (Cx39), a specific gene expressed in injured muscles. Cx39 was not detected in sedentary wild type mice, whereas it was found markedly increased in sedentary mdx mice, revealing active muscle degeneration-regeneration process. These Cx39 protein levels were significantly reduced in muscles of mdx mice exercised for 30 and 40 days, revealing together with histomorphological analysis a strong reduction of degeneration process in mice subjected to low-intensity endurance exercise. Muscles of exercised mdx mice did not show significant changes in force and fatigue resistance as compared to sedentary mdx mice. Overall in this study we found that specific low-intensity endurance exercise induces a beneficial effect probably by reducing the degeneration of dystrophic muscle. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Application of low-intensity lasers with special regard to rheumatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazewski, Jacek B.

    1994-02-01

    A number of reports and scientific publications, especially from recent years, prove that laser irradiation from several to a few dozen milliwatts has positive both local and general influence in many diseases. It is widely regarded that irradiation by a laser of low intensity improves energetic balance of cells, tissues, and the whole system, and works through following the mechanisms: direct absorption of photons, electromagnetic influence, and phosphorylation of ADP under the influence of photostimulation.

  5. Effect of low-intensity infrared and millimeter radiation on higher plants' biopotentials.

    PubMed

    Mironova, E A; Romanovskii, Y M

    2001-01-01

    This article studies the effect of local low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on the bioelectric responses of plants. In our investigation, we used thirty-three wavelengths in the visible and infrared spectrurm regions as well as three wavelengths in the millimeter spectrum region. As a result, we obtained the bioelectric responses of plants to electromagnetic radiation not only in the absorption region of cellular pigments (such as chlorophyll, flavin, and phytochrome) but also in the absorption region of water molecules.

  6. The USAF and Low-Intensity Conflict: Evolution of a Doctrinal Void

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    arena. Lack of understanding of the Third World and LIC is identified as the primary culprit. The second part of this project evaluates USAF...130 with the Royal Air Force (RAF). In addition to maintaining a worldwide strategic airlift qualification, he also instructed and evaluated RAF...Additionally, to evaluate USAF readiness to deal with low- intensity conflict (LIC) based on assertions made in The New Battlefield. II. R. ~lem: This

  7. Low intensity red laser action on Escherichia coli cultures submitted to stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. N.; Roos, C.; Barboza, L. L.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Clinical applications of low intensity lasers are based on the biostimulation effect and considered to occur mainly at cells under stressful conditions. Also, although the cytochrome is a chromophore to red and near infrared radiations, there are doubts whether indirect effects of these radiations could occur on the DNA molecule by oxidative mechanisms. Thus, this work evaluated the survival, filamentation and morphology of Escherichia coli cultures proficient and deficient in oxidative DNA damage repair exposed to low intensity red laser under stress conditions. Wild type and endonuclease III deficient E. coli cells were exposed to laser (658 nm, 1 and 8 J cm-2) under hyposmotic stress and bacterial survival, filamentation and cell morphology were evaluated. Laser exposure: (i) does not alter the bacterial survival in 0.9% NaCl, but increases the survival of wild type and decreases the survival of endonuclease III deficient cells under hyposmotic stress; (ii) increases filamentation in 0.9% NaCl but decreases in wild type and increases in endonuclease III deficient cells under hyposmotic stress; (iii) decreases the area and perimeter of wild type, does not alter these parameters in endonuclease III deficient cells under hyposmotic stress but increases the area of these in 0.9% NaCl. Low intensity red laser exposure has different effects on survival, filamentation phenotype and morphology of wild type and endonuclease III deficient cells under hyposmotic stress. Thus, our results suggest that therapies based on low intensity red lasers could take into account physiologic conditions and genetic characteristics of cells.

  8. Efficiency of applying low-intensity laser radiation in treating patients with granuloma annulare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochetkov, M. A.; Volnukhin, Vladimir A.; Kozlov, Valentine I.

    2001-04-01

    This article considers the application of low-intensity laser therapy in treating patients with granuloma annulare. The treatment was carried out by using two different laser therapeutic techniques, namely, the local laser irradiation of pathological foci and the laser transcutaneous irradiation of blood. It was found that both techniques produced a unidirectional effect, brought about a pronounced improvement of the clinical picture of the disease, and normalized microcirculation and microvascular reactivity of the affected skin.

  9. Army Roles, Missions, and Doctrine in Low Intensity Conflict (ARMLIC). Preconflict Period

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-02-01

    recommendations are based on data gathered .. and analyses performed by the US Army Combat Developments Command Institute of Advanced Studies (now the Institute...to validate the analyses against existing and poten- tial krmy capabilities and make recommendations for formulation of con- cepts of Army roles...Requirements. Many descriptions of low intensity conflict and analyses of the situations that led to such violence have been written, but they are too

  10. Electrophysiological Source Imaging of Brain Networks Perturbed by Low-intensity Transcranial Focused Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kai; Sohrabpour, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Objective Transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) has been introduced as a noninvasive neuromodulation technique with good spatial selectivity. We report an experimental investigation to detect noninvasive electrophysiological response induced by low-intensity tFUS in an in vivo animal model, and perform electrophysiological source imaging (ESI) of tFUS-induced brain activity from noninvasive scalp EEG recordings. Methods A single ultrasound transducer was used to generate low-intensity tFUS (Ispta<1 mW/cm2) and induce brain activation at multiple selected sites in an in vivo rat model. Up to 16 scalp electrodes were used to record tFUS-induced EEG. Event related potentials (ERPs) were analyzed in time, frequency, and spatial domains. Current source distributions were estimated by ESI to reconstruct spatio-temporal distributions of brain activation induced by tFUS. Results Neuronal activation was observed following low-intensity tFUS, as correlated to tFUS intensity and sonication duration. ESI revealed initial focal activation in cortical area corresponding to tFUS stimulation site, and the activation propagating to surrounding areas over time. Conclusion The present results demonstrate the feasibility of noninvasively recording brain electrophysiological response in vivo following low-intensity tFUS stimulation, and the feasibility of imaging spatio-temporal distributions of brain activation as induced by tFUS in vivo. Significance The present approach may lead to a new means of imaging brain activity using tFUS perturbation and a closed-loop ESI-guided tFUS neuromodulation modality. PMID:27448335

  11. DNA fragmentation and nuclear phenotype in tendons exposed to low-intensity infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paoli, Flavia; Ramos Cerqueira, Larissa; Martins Ramos, Mayara; Campos, Vera M.; Ferreira-Machado, Samara C.; Geller, Mauro; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson

    2015-03-01

    Clinical protocols are recommended in device guidelines outlined for treating many diseases on empirical basis. However, effects of low-intensity infrared lasers at fluences used in clinical protocols on DNA are controversial. Excitation of endogenous chromophores in tissues and free radicals generation could be described as a consequence of laser used. DNA lesions induced by free radicals cause changes in DNA structure, chromatin organization, ploidy degrees and cell death. In this work, we investigated whether low-intensity infrared laser therapy could alter the fibroblasts nuclei characteristics and induce DNA fragmentation. Tendons of Wistar rats were exposed to low-intensity infrared laser (830 nm), at different fluences (1, 5 and 10 J/cm2), in continuous wave (power output of 10mW, power density of 79.6 mW/cm2). Different frequencies were analyzed for the higher fluence (10 J/cm2), at pulsed emission mode (2.5, 250 and 2500 Hz), with the laser source at surface of skin. Geometric, densitometric and textural parameters obtained for Feulgen-stained nuclei by image analysis were used to define nuclear phenotypes. Significant differences were observed on the nuclear phenotype of tendons after exposure to laser, as well as, high cell death percentages was observed for all fluences and frequencies analyzed here, exception 1 J/cm2 fluence. Our results indicate that low-intensity infrared laser can alter geometric, densitometric and textural parameters in tendon fibroblasts nuclei. Laser can also induce DNA fragmentation, chromatin lost and consequently cell death, using fluences, frequencies and emission modes took out from clinical protocols.

  12. Effects of Low-Intensity Continuous Ultrasound on Hematological Parameters of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpour, M.; Shakeri-Zadeh, A.; Basir, P.; Jamei, B.; Ghaheri, H.; Shiran, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low intensity ultrasound (US) has some well-known bio-effects which are of great importance to be considered. Objective: We conducted the present study to investigate the effects of low intensity continuous ultrasound on blood cells count in rat. Methods: Rats were anesthetized and blood samples were collected before US exposure. Then, they were exposed to US with nominal intensity of 0.2 W/cm2 at frequency of 3 MHz for a period of 10 minutes and this protocol was repeated for 7 days. Twenty four hours after the last US exposure, secondary blood samples were collected and the changes in blood parameters were evaluated. Results: Analysis revealed that platelets, hematocrit (HCT) and hemoglobin (HGB) were significantly different between experimental and sham groups but no difference between sham and control groups was observed. The results show that HCT and HGB of exposed rats were significantly reduced. Conclusion: This study shows that low intensity US may lead to side effects for hematological parameters such as reduction in the levels of HGB and HCT. PMID:27853727

  13. Information biology on low-intensity laser irradiation effects on red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon C.; Chen, Ying-Hua; Li, Yan; Duan, Rui

    2000-10-01

    The cytochrome absorption makes the photon act as a carrier of biological energy as the cytochrome system in the mitochondria can absorb the photon and stimulate electron transport, which generates bioenergy in the form of ATP from ADP. Many feel that the respiratory chain is at the base of any effects that laser therapy might have. However, there is a kind of effect of He-Ne laser irradiation on red blood cells (RBC) in which there is no mitochondria. In other words, the photon acts also as a carrier of biological information. Recently, Liu et al have studied the information biology on low intensity laser by use of time approach on generation of biological information, and put forward the membrane-receptor-mediated signal transduction mechanism, i.e., the biological information model of low- intensity laser (BIML) and the biological information transformation model (BITML), to explain the biomodulation function. As the frequency of the absorption light of membrane receptors is greater than the one of visible laser irradiation, the membrane absorption of visible light is non-resonant, and its transition rate is extraordinarily small, but can be amplified by the coherent state of the identical and independent membrane receptors of a pathological cell. In this paper, we apply these results to study Information biology on low intensity laser irradiation effects on RBC.

  14. Bad and worse: neural systems underlying reappraisal of high- and low-intensity negative emotions

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Jochen; Wager, Tor D.; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most effective strategies for regulating emotional responses is cognitive reappraisal. While prior work has made great strides in characterizing reappraisal’s neural mechanisms and behavioral outcomes, the key issue of how regulation varies as a function of emotional intensity remains unaddressed. We compared the behavioral and neural correlates of reappraisal of high- and low-intensity emotional responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that successful reappraisal of both high- and low-intensity emotions depends upon recruitment of dorsomedial (dmPFC) as well as left dorsolateral (dlPFC) and ventrolateral (vlPFC) prefrontal cortex. However, reappraisal of high-intensity emotions more strongly activated left dlPFC, and in addition, activated right lateral and dorsomedial PFC regions not recruited by low-intensity reappraisal. No brain regions were more strongly recruited during reappraisal of low when compared with high-intensity emotions. Taken together, these results suggest that reappraisal of high-intensity emotion requires greater cognitive resources as evidenced by quantitative and qualitative differences in prefrontal recruitment. These data have implications for understanding how and when specific PFC systems are needed to regulate different types of emotional responses. PMID:24603024

  15. Low intensity infrared laser affects expression of oxidative DNA repair genes in mitochondria and nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, A. S.; Magalhães, L. A. G.; Mencalha, A. L.; Geller, M.; Paoli, F.

    2014-11-01

    Practical properties and physical characteristics of low intensity lasers have made possible their application to treat soft tissue diseases. Excitation of intracellular chromophores by red and infrared radiation at low energy fluences with increase of mitochondrial metabolism is the basis of the biostimulation effect but free radicals can be produced. DNA lesions induced by free radicals are repaired by the base excision repair pathway. In this work, we evaluate the expression of POLγ and APEX2 genes related to repair of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, respectively. Skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats were exposed to low intensity infrared laser at different fluences. One hour and 24 hours after laser exposure, tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and evaluation of POLγ and APEX2 mRNA expression by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats exposed to laser radiation show different expression of POLγ and APEX2 mRNA depending of the fluence and time after exposure. Our study suggests that a low intensity infrared laser affects expression of genes involved in repair of oxidative lesions in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.

  16. Bad and worse: neural systems underlying reappraisal of high- and low-intensity negative emotions.

    PubMed

    Silvers, Jennifer A; Weber, Jochen; Wager, Tor D; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2015-02-01

    One of the most effective strategies for regulating emotional responses is cognitive reappraisal. While prior work has made great strides in characterizing reappraisal's neural mechanisms and behavioral outcomes, the key issue of how regulation varies as a function of emotional intensity remains unaddressed. We compared the behavioral and neural correlates of reappraisal of high- and low-intensity emotional responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that successful reappraisal of both high- and low-intensity emotions depends upon recruitment of dorsomedial (dmPFC) as well as left dorsolateral (dlPFC) and ventrolateral (vlPFC) prefrontal cortex. However, reappraisal of high-intensity emotions more strongly activated left dlPFC, and in addition, activated right lateral and dorsomedial PFC regions not recruited by low-intensity reappraisal. No brain regions were more strongly recruited during reappraisal of low when compared with high-intensity emotions. Taken together, these results suggest that reappraisal of high-intensity emotion requires greater cognitive resources as evidenced by quantitative and qualitative differences in prefrontal recruitment. These data have implications for understanding how and when specific PFC systems are needed to regulate different types of emotional responses.

  17. Effect of incorporating low intensity exercise into the recovery period after a rugby match.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Umeda, T; Nakaji, S; Shimoyama, T; Mashiko, T; Sugawara, K

    2004-08-01

    The psychological and physiological condition of athletes affect both their performance in competitions and their health. Rugby is an intense sport which appears to impose psychological and physiological stress on players. However, there have been few studies of the most appropriate resting techniques to deliver effective recovery from a match. To compare the difference in recovery after a match using resting techniques with or without exercise. Fifteen Japanese college rugby football players were studied. Seven performed only normal daily activities and eight performed additional low intensity exercise during the post-match rest period. Players were examined just before and immediately after the match and one and two days after the match. Blood biochemistry and two neutrophil functions, phagocytic activity and oxidative burst, were measured to assess physiological condition, and the profile of mood states (POMS) scores were examined to evaluate psychological condition. Immediately after the match, muscle damage, decreases in neutrophil functions, and mental fatigue were observed in both groups. Muscle damage and neutrophil functions recovered with time almost equally in the two groups, but the POMS scores were significantly decreased only in subjects in the low intensity exercise group. Rugby matches impose both physiological and psychological stress on players. The addition of low intensity exercise to the rest period did not adversely affect physiological recovery and had a significantly beneficial effect on psychological recovery by enhancing relaxation.

  18. Muscle damage after low-intensity eccentric contractions with blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Thiebaud, R S; Loenneke, J P; Fahs, C A; Kim, D; Ye, X; Abe, T; Nosaka, K; Bemben, M G

    2014-06-01

    Discrepancies exist whether blood flow restriction (BFR) exacerbates exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). This study compared low-intensity eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors with and without BFR for changes in indirect markers of muscle damage. Nine untrained young men (18-26 y) performed low-intensity (30% 1RM) eccentric contractions (2-s) of the elbow flexors with one arm assigned to BFR and the other arm without BFR. EIMD markers of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque, range of motion (ROM), upper arm circumference, muscle thickness and muscle soreness were measured before, immediately after, 1, 2, 3, and 4 days after exercise. Electromyography (EMG) amplitude of the biceps brachii and brachioradialis were recorded during exercise. EMG amplitude was not significantly different between arms and did not significantly change from set 1 to set 4 for the biceps brachii but increased for the brachioradialis (p ≤ 0.05, 12.0% to 14.5%) when the conditions were combined. No significant differences in the changes in any variables were found between arms. MVC torque decreased 7% immediately post-exercise (p ≤ 0.05), but no significant changes in ROM, circumference, muscle thickness and muscle soreness were found. These results show that BFR does not affect EIMD by low-intensity eccentric contractions.

  19. The effects of a low-intensity red laser on bacterial growth, filamentation and plasmid DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, C.; Santos, J. N.; Guimarães, O. R.; Geller, M.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2013-07-01

    Exposure of nonphotosynthesizing microorganisms to light could increase cell division in cultures, a phenomenon denominated as biostimulation. However, data concerning the importance of the genetic characteristics of cells on this effect are as yet scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of a low-intensity red laser on the growth, filamentation and plasmids in Escherichia coli cells proficient and deficient in DNA repair. E. coli cultures were exposed to a laser (658 nm, 10 mW, 1 and 8 J cm-2) to study bacterial growth and filamentation. Also, bacterial cultures hosting pBSK plasmids were exposed to the laser to study DNA topological forms from the electrophoretic profile in agarose gels. Data indicate the low-intensity red laser: (i) had no effect on the growth of E. coli wild type and exonuclease III deficient cells; (ii) induced bacterial filamentation, (iii) led to no alteration in the electrophoretic profile of plasmids from exonuclease III deficient cells, but plasmids from wild type cells were altered. A low-intensity red laser at the low fluences used in phototherapy has no effect on growth, but induces filamentation and alters the topological forms of plasmid DNA in E. coli cultures depending on the DNA repair mechanisms.

  20. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Treatment for Scaphoid Fracture Nonunions in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Erik J.; Save, Ameya V.; Slade, Joseph F.; Dodds, Seth D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment of scaphoid nonunion is challenging, leading clinicians to pursue innovation in surgical technique and adjunctive therapies to improve union rates. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound as an adjunctive treatment modality following surgical treatment of scaphoid nonunion in adolescent patients, for whom this therapy has not yet been FDA-approved. Patients and Methods We performed a retrospective review of adolescent patients with scaphoid nonunion treated surgically followed by adjunctive low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy. All patients underwent 20 minutes of daily ultrasound therapy postoperatively until there was evidence of bony healing, based on both clinical and radiographic criteria. Final healing was confirmed by > 50% bone bridging on CT scan. Results Thirteen of fourteen (93%) patients healed at a mean interval of 113 days (range 61–217 days). There were no surgical or postoperative complications. One patient developed heterotopic bone formation about the scaphoid. Conclusions Our study suggests that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy can safely be utilized as an adjunctive modality in adolescents to augment scaphoid healing following surgical intervention. Level of Evidence Level IV, Case series PMID:25945296

  1. [Suppression of visceral pain by action of the low intensity polarized light on acupuncture antinociceptive points].

    PubMed

    Lymans'kyĭ, Iu P; Tamarova, Z A; Huliar, S O

    2003-01-01

    In experiments on mice, statistically authentic weakening of visceral pain has been shown after an action of low intensity polarized light from a device Bioptron on antinociceptive acupuncture points (AP). Pain was caused by an intraperitoneal injection of 2% acetic acid (0.1 ml/10 g). The intensity of pain was judged on duration and frequency of painful behavioral reactions (writhing, licking of abdomen), as well as on duration of sleep, eating and motor activity. In animals which immediately after injections of acetic acid were exposed to polarized light of low intensity for 10 min, applied on any of antinociceptive APs (E-36, E-43, VC-8, RP-6), the duration of painful behavioral reaction was determined to be reduced, while that of non-painful one increased. The comparison of the total duration of the writhing at control and experimental mice showed that an activation of AP E-43 induced the greatest analgesic effect (76.5%), from AP VC-8 it was 76.3%, from RP-6--46.8%, and from E-36--41.4%. We have concluded that the effect of polarized light of low intensity on APs was a convenient non-pharmacological method of treating visceral pain.

  2. Low-intensity red and infrared lasers on XPA and XPC gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, A. S.; Magalhães, L. A. G.; Mencalha, A. L.; Ferreira-Machado, S. C.; Geller, M.; Paoli, F.

    2014-09-01

    Laser devices emit monochromatic, coherent, and highly collimated intense beams of light that are useful for a number of biomedical applications. However, for low-intensity lasers, possible adverse effects of laser light on DNA are still controversial. In this work, the expression of XPA and XPC genes in skin and muscle tissue exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers was evaluated. Skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats were exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers at different fluences in continuous mode emission. Skin and muscle tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and evaluation of actin gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Data obtained show that laser radiation alters the expression of XPA and XPC mRNA differently in skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats, depending on physical (fluence and wavelength) and biological (tissue) parameters. Laser light could modify expression of genes related to the nucleotide excision repair pathway at fluences and wavelengths used in clinical protocols.

  3. High-intensity versus low-intensity physical activity or exercise in people with hip or knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Regnaux, Jean-Philippe; Lefevre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Trinquart, Ludovic; Nguyen, Christelle; Boutron, Isabelle; Brosseau, Lucie; Ravaud, Philippe

    2015-10-29

    Exercise or physical activity is recommended for improving pain and functional status in people with knee or hip osteoarthritis. These are complex interventions whose effectiveness depends on one or more components that are often poorly identified. It has been suggested that health benefits may be greater with high-intensity rather than low-intensity exercise or physical activity. To determine the benefits and harms of high- versus low-intensity physical activity or exercise programs in people with hip or knee osteoarthritis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; issue 06, 2014), MEDLINE (194 8 to June 2014) , EMBASE (198 0 to June 2014), CINAHL (1982 to June 2014), PEDro (1929 to June 2014), SCOPUS (to June 2014) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Registry Platform (to June 2014) for articles, without a language restriction. We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, trials, and reference lists and contacted researchers and experts in the field to identify additional studies. We included randomized controlled trials of people with knee or hip osteoarthritis that compared high- versus low-intensity physical activity or exercise programs between the experimental and control group.High-intensity physical activity or exercise programs training had to refer to an increase in the overall amount of training time (frequency, duration, number of sessions) or the amount of work (strength, number of repetitions) or effort/energy expenditure (exertion, heart rate, effort). Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility and extracted data on trial details. We contacted authors for additional information if necessary. We assessed the quality of the body of evidence for these outcomes using the GRADE approach. We included reports for six studies of 656 participants that compared high- and low-intensity exercise programs; five studies exclusively recruited people with symptomatic knee

  4. Effects of low-intensity exercise conditioning on blood pressure, heart rate, and autonomic modulation of heart rate in men and women with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hua, Lien P T; Brown, C Ann; Hains, Sylvia J M; Godwin, Marshall; Parlow, Joel L

    2009-10-01

    Untreated hypertension increases cardiovascular risk 2-fold to 3-fold, leading to serious cardiovascular problems that include left ventricular hypertrophy, stroke, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, vascular disease, renal disease, and death. Exercise conditioning is recommended as one of the initial treatments for hypertension. The purpose of this pretest-posttest study was to quantify the effects of a 12-week home-based low-intensity exercise conditioning (walking) program in hypertensive men and women on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and autonomic modulation of heart rate. A total of 20 mildly hypertensive men and women who were assigned to a structured exercise (walking) program were compared with a control group of 20 nonexercising mildly hypertensive participants. Electrocardiographic heart rate and R-R interval data and beat-by-beat arterial blood pressure data were collected continuously for 10 min with participants in the supine and standing postures and during low-intensity steady-state exercise. The results show that systolic and diastolic blood pressure and R-R interval decreased and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity increased in the exercise group. The decline in blood pressure was significant statistically and clinically. The increase in spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity indicates that the ability of the cardiovascular system to respond rapidly to changing stimuli improved after the 12-week walking protocol. The low-intensity exercise conditioning program achieved a training effect in this population.

  5. Low intensity microwave radiation induced oxidative stress, inflammatory response and DNA damage in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Megha, Kanu; Deshmukh, Pravin Suryakantrao; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Tripathi, Ashok Kumar; Ahmed, Rafat; Abegaonkar, Mahesh Pandurang

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade people have been constantly exposed to microwave radiation mainly from wireless communication devices used in day to day life. Therefore, the concerns over potential adverse effects of microwave radiation on human health are increasing. Until now no study has been proposed to investigate the underlying causes of genotoxic effects induced by low intensity microwave exposure. Thus, the present study was undertaken to determine the influence of low intensity microwave radiation on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and DNA damage in rat brain. The study was carried out on 24 male Fischer 344 rats, randomly divided into four groups (n=6 in each group): group I consisted of sham exposed (control) rats, group II-IV consisted of rats exposed to microwave radiation at frequencies 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz, specific absorption rates (SARs) 0.59, 0.58 and 0.66 mW/kg, respectively in gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell for 60 days (2h/day, 5 days/week). Rats were sacrificed and decapitated to isolate hippocampus at the end of the exposure duration. Low intensity microwave exposure resulted in a frequency dependent significant increase in oxidative stress markers viz. malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PCO) and catalase (CAT) in microwave exposed groups in comparison to sham exposed group (p<0.05). Whereas, levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were found significantly decreased in microwave exposed groups (p<0.05). A significant increase in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) was observed in microwave exposed animal (p<0.05). Furthermore, significant DNA damage was also observed in microwave exposed groups as compared to their corresponding values in sham exposed group (p<0.05). In conclusion, the present study suggests that low intensity microwave radiation induces oxidative stress, inflammatory response and DNA damage in brain by exerting a frequency dependent effect

  6. Children, Learning and Chronic Natural Disasters: How Does the Government of Dominica Address Education during Low-Intensity Hurricanes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrant, Ted Donaldson

    2013-01-01

    By the time today's Grade K students graduate high school in the Commonwealth of Dominica, they will have experienced five major and many low-intensity hurricanes (LIH). Between August and November each year, each hurricane, major or low-intensity, represents a major threat to their safety and schooling. This mixed-method case study investigated…

  7. Children, Learning and Chronic Natural Disasters: How Does the Government of Dominica Address Education during Low-Intensity Hurricanes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrant, Ted Donaldson

    2013-01-01

    By the time today's Grade K students graduate high school in the Commonwealth of Dominica, they will have experienced five major and many low-intensity hurricanes (LIH). Between August and November each year, each hurricane, major or low-intensity, represents a major threat to their safety and schooling. This mixed-method case study investigated…

  8. The effects of low-intensity laser irradiation on the fatigue induced by dysfunction of mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-Yang; Liu, Timon C.; Duan, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Guang

    2003-12-01

    Exercise-induced fatigue has long been an important field in sports medicine. The electron leak of mitochondrial respiratory chain during the ATP synthesis integrated with proton leak and O-.2 can decrease the efficiency of ATP synthesis in mitochondria. And the exercise-induced fatigue occur followed by the decrease of performance. If the dysfunction of mitochondria can be avoided, the fatigue during the exercise may be delayed and the performance may be enhanced. Indeed there are some kind of materials can partially prevent the decrease of ATP synthesis efficiency in mitochondria. But the side effects and safety of these materials is still needed to be studied. Low intensity laser can improve the mitochondria function. It is reasonable to consider that low intensity laser therapy may become the new and more effective way to delay or elimination the fatigue induced by dysfunction of mitochondria. Because the effect of laser irradiation may not be controlled exactly when study in vivo, we use electrical stimulation of C2C12 muscle cells in culture to define the effect of low intensity laser on the dysfunction of mitochondria, and to define the optimal laser intensity to prevent the decrease of ATP synthesis efficiency. Our study use the C2C12 muscle cells in culture to define some of the mechanisms involved in the contractile-induced changes of mitochondrial function firstly in sports medicine and may suggest a useful study way to other researchers. We also give a new way to delay or eliminating the fatigue induced by dysfunction of mitochondria without side effect.

  9. Overproduction of free radical species in embryonal cells exposed to low intensity radiofrequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Burlaka, A; Tsybulin, O; Sidorik, E; Lukin, S; Polishuk, V; Tsehmistrenko, S; Yakymenko, I

    2013-09-01

    Long-term exposure of humans to low intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) leads to a statistically significant increase in tumor incidence. Mechanisms of such the effects are unclear, but features of oxidative stress in living cells under RF-EMR exposure were previously reported. Our study aims to assess a production of initial free radical species, which lead to oxidative stress in the cell. Embryos of Japanese quails were exposed in ovo to extremely low intensity RF-EMR of GSM 900 MHz (0.25 µW/cm2) during 158-360 h discontinuously (48 c - ON, 12 c - OFF) before and in the initial stages of development. The levels of superoxide (O2·-), nitrogen oxide (NO·), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) and antioxidant enzymes' activities were assessed in cells/tissues of 38-h, 5- and 10-day RF-EMR exposed and unexposed embryos. The exposure resulted in a significant persistent overproduction of superoxide and nitrogen oxide in embryo cells during all period of analyses. As a result, significantly increased levels of TBARS and 8-oxo-dG followed by significantly decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were developed in the exposed embryo cells. Exposure of developing quail embryos to extremely low intensity RF-EMR of GSM 900 MHz during at least one hundred and fifty-eight hours leads to a significant overproduction of free radicals/reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage of DNA in embryo cells. These oxidative changes may lead to pathologies up to oncogenic transformation of cells.

  10. Sex difference in substrate oxidation during low-intensity isometric exercise in young adults.

    PubMed

    Sarafian, Delphine; Schutz, Yves; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Dulloo, Abdul G; Miles-Chan, Jennifer L

    2016-09-01

    Low-intensity physical activity is increasingly promoted as an alternative to sedentary behavior. However, much research to date has focused on moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, and in particular dynamic work, with the effect of low-intensity isometric exercise (<4 METs) on substrate utilization yet to be explored. Here we investigate the effects of such exercise on respiratory quotient (RQ) and determine the extent of intra- and inter-individual variability in response. Energy expenditure, RQ, and substrate oxidation were measured by ventilated-hood indirect calorimetry at rest and in response to standardized, intermittent, low-level isometric leg-press exercises at 5 loads (+5, +10, +15, +20, +25 kg) in 26 healthy, young adults. Nine participants repeated the experiment on 3 separate days to assess within-subject, between-day variability. There was no significant difference in energy cost and heart rate responses to low-intensity isometric exercise (<2 METs) between men and women. However, a sex difference was apparent in terms of substrate oxidation - with men increasing both fat and carbohydrate oxidation, and women only increasing fat oxidation while maintaining carbohydrate oxidation at baseline, resting levels. This sex difference was repeatable and persisted when substrate oxidation was adjusted for differences in body weight or body composition. Individual variability in RQ was relatively low, with both intra- and inter-individual coefficients of variation in the range of 3%-6% in both sexes. These results suggest that women preferentially increase fat oxidation during low-level isometric exercise. Whether such physical activity could be incorporated into treatment/prevention strategies aimed at optimizing fat oxidation in women warrants further investigation.

  11. Untreated runoff quality from roof and road surfaces in a low intensity rainfall climate.

    PubMed

    Charters, Frances J; Cochrane, Thomas A; O'Sullivan, Aisling D

    2016-04-15

    Sediment and heavy metals in stormwater runoff are key pollutants of urban waterways, and their presence in stormwater is driven by climatic factors such as rainfall intensity. This study describes the total suspended solids (TSS) and heavy metal concentrations found in runoff from four different urban surfaces within a residential/institutional catchment, in a climate where rainfall is typically of low intensity (<5.1mm·h(-1)). The results were compared to untreated runoff quality from a compilation of international studies. The road runoff had the highest TSS concentrations, while copper and galvanized roof runoff had the highest copper and zinc concentrations, respectively. Pollutant concentrations were found to be significantly different between surfaces; quantification and prediction of pollutant contributions from urban surfaces should thus take account of the different surface materials, instead of being aggregated into more generalized categories such as land use. The TSS and heavy metal concentrations were found to be at the low to medium end of ranges observed internationally, except for total copper and zinc concentrations generated by dissolution of copper and galvanized roofing material respectively; these concentrations were at least as high as those reported internationally. TSS wash-off from the roofs was seen to be a source-limited process, where all available TSS is washed off during the rain event despite the low intensity rainfall, whereas both road TSS and heavy metals wash-off from roof and road surfaces appeared to all be transport-limited and therefore some carryover of pollutants occurs between rain events. A first flush effect was seen from most surfaces for TSS, but not for heavy metals. This study demonstrates that in low intensity rainfall climates, quantification of untreated runoff quality from key individual surface types in a catchment are needed to enable development of targeted and appropriately sized stormwater treatment systems

  12. Low-intensity infrared laser effects on zymosan-induced articular inflammatory response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Januária dos Anjos, Lúcia Mara; da Fonseca, Adenilson d. S.; Gameiro, Jacy; de Paoli, Flávia

    2015-03-01

    Low-level therapy laser is a phototherapy treatment that involves the application of low power light in the red or infrared wavelengths in various diseases such as arthritis. In this work, we investigated whether low-intensity infrared laser therapy could cause death by caspase-6 apoptosis or DNA damage pathways in cartilage cells after zymosaninduced articular inflammatory process. Inflammatory process was induced in C57BL/6 mouse by intra-articular injection of zymosan into rear tibio-tarsal joints. Thirty animals were divided in five groups: (I) control, (II) laser, (III) zymosan-induced, (IV) zymosan-induced + laser and (V). Laser exposure was performed after zymosan administration with low-intensity infrared laser (830 nm), power 10 mW, fluence 3.0 J/cm2 at continuous mode emission, in five doses. Twenty-four hours after last irradiation, the animals were sacrificed and the right joints fixed and demineralized. Morphological analysis was observed by hematoxylin and eosin stain, pro-apoptotic (caspase-6) was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and DNA fragmentation was performed by TUNEL assay in articular cartilage cells. Inflammatory process was observed in connective tissue near to articular cartilage, in IV and V groups, indicating zymosan effect. This process was decreased in both groups after laser treatment and dexamethasone. Although groups III and IV presented higher caspase-6 and DNA fragmentation percentages, statistical differences were not observed when compared to groups I and II. Our results suggest that therapies based on low-intensity infrared lasers could reduce inflammatory process and could not cause death by caspase-6 apoptosis or DNA damage pathways in cartilage cells after zymosan-induced articular inflammatory process.

  13. Biophysical principles of regulatory action of low-intensity laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostovnikov, Vasili A.; Mostovnikova, Galina R.; Plavski, Vitali Y.; Plavskaja, Ljudmila G.

    1996-01-01

    The investigations carried out in our group on biological systems of various organization level (enzyme molecules in solution, human and animal cell cultures), allowed us to conclude, that the light-induced changes of spatial structure of cells components form the basis of biological activity (and as a consequence therapeutic effect) of various wavelength low-intensity laser emission. Photophysical mechanism of these changes lies in the reorientation of highregulated anisotropic parts (domains) with the liquid-crystalline type of ordering of the cell components due to the interaction between the electric field and the light induced integral electric dipole of the domain. The mechanism of such reorientation is well established in physics of liquid crystals of nematic type and is known as light induced analogue of Frederix's effect. The following results enable us to draw the conclusion about the determining role of the orientations effects on the biological activity mechanism of low-intensity laser radiation: (1) the possibility of reversible modification of spatial structure and enzyme molecules functional activity under the influence of laser radiation outside the band of their own or admixture absorption; (2) the dependence of biological effect of laser radiation on the functional activity of cells vs. polarization degree of the light with the maximum photobiological effects observed for linear-polarized radiation; (3) the equivalence of a static magnetic field and low-intensity laser radiation in action on functional activity of the cells and the lowering of the laser field intensity for the achieving the definite changes of the cell functional activity in the presence of static magnetic field.

  14. Molecular mechanism of biological and therapeutical effect of low-intensity laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostovnikov, Vasili A.; Mostovnikova, Galina R.; Plavski, Vitali Y.; Plavskaja, Ljudmila G.; Morozova, Raisa P.

    1995-05-01

    The investigations carried out in our group on biological systems of various organization level (enzyme molecules in solution, human and animal cell cultures), allowed us to conclude, that the light-induced changes of spatial structure of cells components form the basis of biological activity (and as a consequence therapeutic effect) of various wavelength low-intensity laser emission. Photophysical mechanism of these changes lies in the reorientation of highregulated anisotropic parts (domains) with the liquid-crystalline type of ordering of the cell components due to the interaction between the electric field and the light induced integral electric dipole of the domain. The mechanism of such reorientation is well established in physics of liquid crystals of nematic type and is known as light induced analogue of Frederix's effect. The following results enable us to draw the conclusion about the determining role of the orientations effects on the biological activity mechanism of low-intensity laser radiation: (i) the possibility of reversible modification of spatial structure and enzyme molecules functional activity under the influence of laser radiation outside the band of their own or admixture absorption; (ii) the dependence of biological effect of laser radiation on the functional activity of cells vs. polarization degree of the light with the maximum photobiological effects observed for linear-polarized radiation; (iii) the equivalence of a static magnetic field and low-intensity laser radiation in action on functional activity of the cells and the lowering of the laser field intensity for the achieving the difinite changes of the cell functional activity in the presence of static magnetic field.

  15. Pilot Clinical Studies of Long Duration, Low Intensity Therapeutic Ultrasound for Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Langer, Matthew D; Levine, Vanessa; Taggart, Rebecca; Lewis, George K; Hernandez, Lyndon; Ortiz, Ralph

    2014-04-01

    Osteoarthritis is one of the leading causes of disability in the aging population. Long duration, low intensity therapeutic ultrasound has had promising impact in animal models to slow the progression of the disease and provide joint relief. Two pilot studies were conducted using a novel, wearable platform for delivering ultrasound to evaluate the potential clinical benefits of ultrasound therapy on knee osteoarthritis. There was a pain reduction effect from using ultrasound, as high as fifty two percent in one study. As well, initial data demonstrates that mobility may be increased for patients experiencing mild to moderate arthritis of the knee.

  16. Scintillating screens sensitivity and resolution studies for low energy, low intensity beam diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Harasimowicz, Janusz; Cosentino, Luigi; Finocchiaro, Paolo; Pappalardo, Alfio; Welsch, Carsten P

    2010-10-01

    In order to investigate the limits of scintillating screens for beam profile monitoring in the ultra-low energy, ultra-low intensity regime, CsI:Tl, YAG:Ce, and a Tb glass-based scintillating fiber optic plate (SFOP) were tested. The screens response to 200 and 50 keV proton beams with intensities ranging from a few picoampere down to the subfemtoampere region was examined. In the following paper, the sensitivity and resolution studies are presented in detail for CsI:Tl and the SFOP, the two most sensitive screens. In addition, a possible use of scintillators for ultra-low energy antiproton beam monitoring is discussed.

  17. Influence of low-intensity laser radiation on human blood microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolevich, Alexander N.; Dubina, Natali S.; Vecherinski, Sergei I.

    2000-05-01

    The paper investigated in vivo the influence of low- intensity laser radiation (He-Ne laser with wavelength 0.63 nm) on the relative value of perfusion (the product of the number of particles moving in the volume being investigated into the mean velocity of their movement) of human blood erythrocytes and the mean velocity of their movement. It is known that characteristic of cardiovascular diseases are microcirculation disturbances and disorder in rheological properties of blood. Therefore these investigations were carried out on cardiac ischemia patients.

  18. Results of using low-intensity laser radiation for plumbum intoxication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejneka, S. Y.

    1999-11-01

    We have studied the noninvasive effect of low-intensive laser impulse radiation in the infrared spectrum region on the liver projection site in experimental lead intoxication achieved by means of intragastric administration of Pb acetate to albino rats over a period of 30 days in a dose of 30 mg/kg. We determined a number of indices in laboratory animals which characterized the state of the nervous system, immune system, muscular performance efficiency. We have also investigated the hematologic indices and the blood and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid content as well as the plumbum levels in the blood, urine and the animals' inner organs.

  19. Scintillating screens sensitivity and resolution studies for low energy, low intensity beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Harasimowicz, Janusz; Welsch, Carsten P.; Cosentino, Luigi; Finocchiaro, Paolo; Pappalardo, Alfio

    2010-10-15

    In order to investigate the limits of scintillating screens for beam profile monitoring in the ultra-low energy, ultra-low intensity regime, CsI:Tl, YAG:Ce, and a Tb glass-based scintillating fiber optic plate (SFOP) were tested. The screens response to 200 and 50 keV proton beams with intensities ranging from a few picoampere down to the subfemtoampere region was examined. In the following paper, the sensitivity and resolution studies are presented in detail for CsI:Tl and the SFOP, the two most sensitive screens. In addition, a possible use of scintillators for ultra-low energy antiproton beam monitoring is discussed.

  20. [The optimization of the process of instrumental learning with a low intensity of the conditioned stimulus].

    PubMed

    Saltykov, A B; Toloknov, A V; Khitrov, N K

    1993-07-01

    The influence of the intensity of conditional stimulation on the speed of instrumental teaching of rats at different probabilities of casual fulfillment of the reaction under development (VSPR) was investigated. The VSPR value significantly affects the number of positive and negative confirmations in the early period of teaching and, finally, the informational individuum-environment interaction. Therefore, with the existing choice of VSPR values the dependence of the speed of teaching upon different unfavourable factors lessens, which may be used for optimization of the process of instrumental teaching at a low intensity of the conditional signal.

  1. Guilt by dissociation: guilt primes augment the relationship between dissociative tendencies and state dissociation.

    PubMed

    Rugens, Alex; Terhune, Devin Blair

    2013-03-30

    We examined the influence of guilt on the relationship between dissociative tendencies and state dissociation during mirror-gazing in a non-clinical sample. Dissociative tendencies correlated with state dissociation following guilt primes, but not after negative or neutral primes. This suggests that guilt augments the relationship between dissociative tendencies and state dissociation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of lightweight outdoor clothing on the prevention of hypothermia during low-intensity exercise in the cold.

    PubMed

    Burtscher, Martin; Kofler, Philipp; Gatterer, Hannes; Faulhaber, Martin; Philippe, Marc; Fischer, Kathrin; Walther, Rebekka; Herten, Anne

    2012-11-01

    To study protective effects of windbreaker jacket and pants during exercise in the cold. Randomized pilot study. Climate chamber. Nine well-trained (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 61.7 ± 6.6 mL/min/kg) sport students (6 male and 3 female participants). Subjects started walking for 1 hour in a climate chamber (0°C ambient temperature and wind speed of 10 km/h) at 70% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max wearing gloves, a T-shirt, and shorts. Then, the walking speed was reduced to 30% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for an additional 60 minutes or until core temperature dropped below 35.5°C. Subsequently, 3 groups of 3 participants continued walking without change of clothing or obtaining additionally a cap and a windbreaker jacket or windbreaker jacket and pants. Core and skin temperature, thermal comfort. The main findings of this study were that exercising at 70% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in the cold was sufficient to prevent hypothermia and that during low-intensity exercise (30% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), the combined use of a polyester cap, lightweight windbreaker jacket, and pants was necessary to increase a prehypothermic core temperature. We strongly recommend taking a cap, windbreaker jacket, and pants for the prevention of hypothermia during exhaustive walking or running in cold weather conditions.

  3. MDMA, cannabis, and cocaine produce acute dissociative symptoms.

    PubMed

    van Heugten-Van der Kloet, Dalena; Giesbrecht, Timo; van Wel, Janelle; Bosker, Wendy M; Kuypers, Kim P C; Theunissen, Eef L; Spronk, Desirée B; Jan Verkes, Robbert; Merckelbach, Harald; Ramaekers, Johannes G

    2015-08-30

    Some drugs of abuse may produce dissociative symptoms, but this aspect has been understudied. We explored the dissociative potential of three recreational drugs (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cannabis, and cocaine) during intoxication and compared their effects to literature reports of dissociative states in various samples. Two placebo-controlled studies were conducted. In Study 1 (N=16), participants received single doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg of MDMA, and placebo. In Study 2 (N=21), cannabis (THC 300 µg/kg), cocaine (HCl 300 mg), and placebo were administered. Dissociative symptoms as measured with the Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale (CADSS) significantly increased under the influence of MDMA and cannabis. To a lesser extent, this was also true for cocaine. Dissociative symptoms following MDMA and cannabis largely exceeded those observed in schizophrenia patients, were comparable with those observed in Special Forces soldiers undergoing survival training, but were lower compared with ketamine-induced dissociation. Cocaine produced dissociative symptoms that were comparable with those observed in schizophrenia patients, but markedly less than those in Special Forces soldiers and ketamine users. Thus, MDMA and cannabis can produce dissociative symptoms that resemble dissociative pathology. The study of drug induced dissociation is important, because it may shed light on the mechanisms involved in dissociative psychopathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative study of laser and LED systems of low intensity applied to tendon healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, J. L. N.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Parizotto, N. A.

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Low-intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) and Light Emitting Diode Therapy (LEDT) of low intensity on the treatment of lesioned Achilles tendon of rats. The experimental model consisted of a partial mechanical lesion on the right Achilles tendon deep portion of 90 rats. One hour after the lesion, the injured animals received applications of laser/LED (685, 830/630, 880 nm), and the same procedure was repeated at 24-h intervals, for 10 days. The healing process and deposition of collagen were evaluated based on a polarization microscopy analysis of the alignment and organization of collagen bundles, through the birefringence (optical retardation-OR). The results showed a real efficiency of treatments based on LEDT and confirmed that LILT seems to be effective on healing process. Although absence of coherence of LED light, tendon healing treatment with this feature was satisfactory and can certainly replace treatments based on laser light applications. Applications of infrared laser at 830 nm and LED 880 nm were more efficient when the aim is a good organization, aggregation, and alignment of the collagen bundles on tendon healing. However, more research is needed for a safety and more efficient determination of a protocol with LED.

  5. Low-intensity electric fields induce two distinct response components in neocortical neuronal populations

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weifeng; Wolff, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    Low-intensity alternating electric fields applied to the scalp are capable of modulating cortical activity and brain functions, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we report two distinct components of voltage-sensitive dye signals induced by low-intensity, alternating electric fields in rodent cortical slices: a “passive component,” which corresponds to membrane potential changes directly induced by the electric field; and an “active component,” which is a widespread depolarization that is dependent on excitatory synaptic transmission. The passive component is stationary, with amplitude and phase accurately reflecting the cortical cytoarchitecture. In contrast, the active component is initiated from a local “hot spot” of activity and spreads to a large population as a propagating wave with rich local dynamics. The propagation of the active component may play a role in modulating large-scale cortical activity by spreading a low level of excitation from a small initiation point to a vast neuronal population. PMID:25122710

  6. [Experimental justification of possible mechanisms of action of low intensity electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on animals' behavior].

    PubMed

    Pavlov, L N; Dubrovik, B V; Zhavoronkov, l P; Glushakova, V S

    2012-01-01

    Effects of EMR on the behavior of Wistar rats (196 males, 180-240 g of mass) under the conflict of opposed motivations: strong positive, drinking, motivation, and strong negative, pain, motivation were studied. The animals were exposed to low intensity EMR (40 microW/cm2) produced by two independent sources, 475 MHz (Albatross) with two orthogonal E vectors, and synchronization of rhythm modulation in the range of electroencephalography (EEG) frequency. The effect on behavior was observed during 10 min: 1) following the 5-minute exposure to EMR and 2) during the 10-minute exposure. Low intensity EMR of the above mentioned parameters and pulse modulation of 4, 8, 10 and 13 Hz was found to inhibit development of phobia to pain, increase the number of punishable contacts. It testifies to the existence of a weak anxiolytic effect which is similar to the effect of tranquilizers. If animals were exposed to EMR following administration of phenazepam, the radiation was shown to produce potentiation of the anxiolytic effect ofphenazepam. Effect of phenazepam is associated with activation ofbenzdiazipine receptors in the structure ofGABA-ergic receptor complex, which regulates neural membrane chloride channel conductance. We can suggest that anxiolytic and neurodepressive effects of EMR are realized to some extent at the level of ionophore and regulatory receptor complexes.

  7. [Reparative Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis in Low Intensity Electromagnetic Radiation of Ultra-High Frequency].

    PubMed

    Iryanov, Y M; Kiryanov, N A

    2015-01-01

    Non-drug correction of reparative bone tissue regeneration in different pathological states - one of the most actual problems of modern medicine. Our aim was to conduct morphological analysis of the influence of electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency and low intensity on reparative osteogenesis and angiogenesis in fracture treatment under transosseous osteosynthesis. A controlled nonrandomized study was carried out. In the experiment conducted on rats we modeled tibial fracture with reposition and fixation of the bone fragments both in control and experimental groups. In the animals of the experimental group the fracture zone was exposed to low intensity electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency. Exposure simulation was performed in the control group. The operated bones were examined using radiography, light and electronic microscopy, X-ray electronic probe microanalysis. It has been established that electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency sessions in fracture treatment stimulate secretory activity and degranulation of mast cells, produce microcirculatory bed vascular permeability increase, endotheliocyte migration phenotype expression, provide endovascular endothelial outgrowth formation, activate reparative osteogenesis and angiogenesis while fracture reparation becomes the one of the primary type. The full periosteal, intermediary and intraosteal bone union was defined in 28 days. Among the therapeutic benefits of electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency in fracture treatment we can detect mast cell secretorv activity stimulation and endovascular anziozenesis activation.

  8. Building the first step: a review of low-intensity interventions for stepped care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Within the last 30 years, a substantial number of interventions for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have received empirical support. Nevertheless, fewer than 25% of individuals with alcohol-related problems access these interventions. If several intensive psychosocial treatments are relatively effective, but most individuals in need do not access them, it seems logical to place a priority on developing more engaging interventions. Accordingly, after briefly describing findings about barriers to help-seeking, we focus on identifying an array of innovative and effective low-intensity intervention strategies, including telephone, computer-based, and Internet-based interventions, that surmount these barriers and are suitable for use within a stepped-care model. We conclude that these interventions attract individuals who would otherwise not seek help, that they can benefit individuals who misuse alcohol and those with more severe AUDs, and that they can facilitate subsequent help-seeking when needed. We note that these types of low-intensity interventions are flexible and can be tailored to address many of the perceived barriers that hinder individuals with alcohol misuse or AUDs from obtaining timely help. We also describe key areas of further research, such as identifying the mechanisms that underlie stepped-care interventions and finding out how to structure these interventions to best initiate a program of stepped care. PMID:23227807

  9. Low-intensity electric fields induce two distinct response components in neocortical neuronal populations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weifeng; Wolff, Brian S; Wu, Jian-young

    2014-11-15

    Low-intensity alternating electric fields applied to the scalp are capable of modulating cortical activity and brain functions, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we report two distinct components of voltage-sensitive dye signals induced by low-intensity, alternating electric fields in rodent cortical slices: a "passive component," which corresponds to membrane potential changes directly induced by the electric field; and an "active component," which is a widespread depolarization that is dependent on excitatory synaptic transmission. The passive component is stationary, with amplitude and phase accurately reflecting the cortical cytoarchitecture. In contrast, the active component is initiated from a local "hot spot" of activity and spreads to a large population as a propagating wave with rich local dynamics. The propagation of the active component may play a role in modulating large-scale cortical activity by spreading a low level of excitation from a small initiation point to a vast neuronal population. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Influence of Laser Irradiation Low Intensity on Reparative Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis Under Transosseous Osteosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Iryanov, Yuri Mikhailovich

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The use of non-medicinal facilities of correcting processes for various pathological conditions is one of the most urgent problems of modern medicine. The purpose of the work is to study the efficiency of low-intensive of infrared laser irradiation in promoting reparative osteogenesis and angiogenesis during fracture treatment under transosseous osteosynthesis with a qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis. Methods: A tibial fracture was modeled experimentally in rats from control and experimental groups, then repositioning and fixation of fragments performed. The fracture zone of the experimental group animals was exposed to pulsed infrared laser irradiation of low intensity. The animals from control group underwent irradiation simulation. The operated bones were investigated using x-ray, light and electron microscopy, x-ray electron probe microanalysis. Results: The sessions of laser irradiation decreased inflammatory process severity, activated fibrillogenesis and angiogenesis, accelerated the compactization of newly formed bone tissue, and enhanced its maturity degree while primary healing occurred in the fracture. Conclusion: Laser therapy of fracture zone ensures the formation of regenerated bone and fragment union within earlier periods. PMID:28144431

  11. [Low-intensity laser radiation in preoperative preparation of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Neĭmark, A I; Muzalevskaia, N I

    2000-01-01

    Low-intensity laser therapy administered in the form of intravenous blood irradiation, transrectal and transurethral prostatic irradiation and their combination as preoperative preparation and correction of immunity disturbances in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were studied. The response to the treatment was evaluated by positive changes in the immune status and bacterial contamination of the urine and prostatic tissue. Conventional preoperative preparation (uroantiseptics, antibiotics and phytotherapy) fails to correct signs of T-cell immunodeficiency, depression of phagocytic activity of neutrophils, significantly reduce bacteriurea. Laser therapy as intravenous laser blood radiation acts immunomodulatorily on cellular immunity and normalized the proportion of T-helpers of the first and second order (T-suppressors) and neutrophil phagocytosis. The antibacterial effect of this technique on urinary microflora and prostatic tissue is not very high. Local laser therapy is a potent immunostimulator of T- and B-lymphocytes, increased the index of immunoregulatory cells' proportion, activated phagocytosis of neutrophils. It has pronounced antibacterial effect against gram-negative urinary microflora and tissue of the prostate. Combined laser therapy produced the highest immunomodulating action on T-lymphocytes and immunostimulating one on B-lymphocytes, potentiated phagocytic ability of neutrophils, elevated index of the immunoregulatory cells, but was unable to correct their imbalance completely. Antibacterial effects of combined laser therapy were the highest, including the bacterial group Proteus-Providencia. Preoperative low-intensity laser therapy of BPH reduced the number of postoperative pyoinflammatory complications, hospital stay, severity of postoperative period.

  12. A constrained, total-variation minimization algorithm for low-intensity x-ray CT

    SciTech Connect

    Sidky, Emil Y.; Duchin, Yuval; Pan, Xiaochuan; Ullberg, Christer

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: The authors developed an iterative image-reconstruction algorithm for application to low-intensity computed tomography projection data, which is based on constrained, total-variation (TV) minimization. The algorithm design focuses on recovering structure on length scales comparable to a detector bin width. Methods: Recovering the resolution on the scale of a detector bin requires that pixel size be much smaller than the bin width. The resulting image array contains many more pixels than data, and this undersampling is overcome with a combination of Fourier upsampling of each projection and the use of constrained, TV minimization, as suggested by compressive sensing. The presented pseudocode for solving constrained, TV minimization is designed to yield an accurate solution to this optimization problem within 100 iterations. Results: The proposed image-reconstruction algorithm is applied to a low-intensity scan of a rabbit with a thin wire to test the resolution. The proposed algorithm is compared to filtered backprojection (FBP). Conclusions: The algorithm may have some advantage over FBP in that the resulting noise level is lowered at equivalent contrast levels of the wire.

  13. Histologic evaluation of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound effects on bone regeneration in sinus lift.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hun; Hong, Ki Seok

    2010-12-01

    Many techniques have been described for achieving vertical augmentation of the maxillary sinus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) to enhance bone regeneration after sinus floor elevation. The sinus lifting technique was performed through a lateral approach on 8 different sites of 5 patients (3 males and 2 females) and their mean age was 45.7 years old. The sites were randomly assigned to the control or test groups. The control group had 4 sites that received lateral sinus lifting procedure only, while the test group had 4 sites that received LIPUS application after the lateral sinus lifting procedure. 24-32 weeks (an average of 29 weeks) postoperatively, new bone formation in the augmented sinus sites was evaluated through histologic and histomorphometric analyses of the biopsy specimens obtained during implant placement. In the test group, the mean percentage of newly formed bone was 19.0±2.8%. In the control group, the mean percentage of newly formed bone was 15.2±3.1%. The percentage of newly formed bone was approximately 4% higher in those cases where the sinus was treated by LIPUS than the percentage in those cases where it was not used. The difference was statistically significant. Within the scope of this study, low-intensity pulsed ultrasound application after sinus lifting appeared to have a significant effect on the development of new bone formation.

  14. Enhancement of invertase production by Aspergillus niger OZ-3 using low-intensity static magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Taskin, Mesut; Esim, Nevzat; Genisel, Mucip; Ortucu, Serkan; Hasenekoglu, Ismet; Canli, Ozden; Erdal, Serkan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of low-intensity static magnetic fields (SMFs) on invertase activity and growth on different newly identified molds. The most positive effect of SMFs on invertase activity and growth was observed for Aspergillus niger OZ-3. The submerged production of invertase was performed with the spores obtained at the different exposure times (120, 144, 168, and 196 hr) and magnetic field intensities (0.45, 3, 5, 7, and 9 mT). The normal magnetic field of the laboratory was assayed as 0.45 mT (control). Optimization of magnetic field intensity and exposure time significantly increased biomass production and invertase activity compared to 0.45 mT. The maximum invertase activity (51.14 U/mL) and biomass concentration (4.36 g/L) were achieved with the spores obtained at the 144 hr exposure time and 5 mT magnetic field intensity. The effect of low-intensity static magnetic fields (SMFs) on invertase activities of molds was investigated for the first time in the present study. As an additional contribution, a new hyper-invertase-producing mold strain was isolated.

  15. Induction of Muscle Hypertrophy in Rats through Low Intensity Eccentric Contraction.

    PubMed

    Tsumiyama, Wakako; Oki, Sadaaki; Takamiya, Naomi; Umei, Namiko; Shimizu, Michele Eisemann; Ono, Takeya; Otsuka, Akira

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether a low intensity exercise using an eccentric contraction would result in skeletal muscle hypertrophy in rats. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen female Wistar rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly divided into three groups. The control group performed no exercise. The level group ran on a treadmill on a 0° incline. The downhill group ran on a treadmill on a -16° incline. The two exercise groups ran on a treadmill at 16 m/min for 90 minutes, once every three days for a total of twenty sessions. [Results] The muscle wet weights, the relative weight ratios, and the muscle fiber cross-section minor axes of the downhill group were significantly larger than those of the control and level groups. There were no differences in the muscle wet weights, the relative weight ratios, and the muscle fiber cross-section minor axes between the control group and the level group. [Conclusion] The stimulation from the low intensity eccentric contraction may have produced enough mechanical stress to induce muscle hypertrophy without the over-stressing that might have produced muscle fiber damage. These results indicate that this technique may be an effective method of inducing hypertrophy in skeletal muscle.

  16. Clinical applications of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and its potential role in urology

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Guiting; Lei, Hongen; Lue, Tom F.; Guo, Yinglu

    2016-01-01

    Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a form of ultrasound that delivered at a much lower intensity (<3 W/cm2) than traditional ultrasound energy and output in the mode of pulse wave, and it is typically used for therapeutic purpose in rehabilitation medicine. LIPUS has minimal thermal effects due to its low intensity and pulsed output mode, and its non-thermal effects which is normally claimed to induce therapeutic changes in tissues attract most researchers’ attentions. LIPUS have been demonstrated to have a rage of biological effects on tissues, including promoting bone-fracture healing, accelerating soft-tissue regeneration, inhibiting inflammatory responses and so on. Recent studies showed that biological effects of LIPUS in healing morbid body tissues may be mainly associated with the upregulation of cell proliferation through activation of integrin receptors and Rho/ROCK/Src/ERK signaling pathway, and with promoting multilineage differentiation of mesenchyme stem/progenitor cell lines through ROCK-Cot/Tpl2-MEK-ERK signaling pathway. Hopefully, LIPUS may become an effective clinical procedure for the treatment of urological diseases, such as chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), erectile dysfunction (ED), and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in the field of urology. It still needs an intense effort for basic-science and clinical investigators to explore the biomedical applications of ultrasound. PMID:27141455

  17. Low-intensity laser therapy to treat dentin hypersensitivity: comparative clinical study using different light doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizarelli, Rosane F. Z.; Mazzetto, Marcello O.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2001-04-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is the most common patient's complain related to pain. In fact, this is a challenge to treat specially if conventional techniques are used. The possibility to treat pain through a low intensity laser gives us an opportunity to solve this important clinical problem without promote a discomfort to patient. The main point here is not if this kind of treatment is anti- inflammatory to pulp and/or biostimulatory to production of irregular secondary dentin. The most important point here is to understand how much energy is necessary to reach conditions where to tooth become insensible to external stimulus. Our double-blinded study compared a group without laser (Placebo) with five other groups where different doses at 660 nm low intensity laser were employed. The final conclusion is that for 660 nm laser therapy, the doses from 0.13 to 2.0 J/cm2 were more efficiency than the others. The follow up care in this study was of 45 days.

  18. Hα line profiles for a sample of supergiant HII regions. II. Broad, low intensity components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozas, M.; Richer, M. G.; López, J. A.; Relaño, M.; Beckman, J. E.

    2006-08-01

    We analyze the broad, low intensity, high velocity components that are seen in the Hα line profiles for a sample of HII regions. These HII regions are chosen from among the brightest and most isolated in a sample of spiral galaxies for which we have photometric and spectroscopic data: NGC 157, NGC 3631, NGC 6764, NGC 3344, NGC 4321, NGC 5364, NGC 5055, NGC 5985, and NGC 7479. We confirm that the line profiles of most of these bright, giant extragalactic HII regions contain broad kinematic components of low intensity, but high velocity, that we denote as wings. We analyze these components, deriving emission measures, central velocities, and velocity dispersions of the blue and red features, which are similar. We interpret these components as expanding shells within the HII regions and produced by the stellar winds from the ionizing stars. We compare the kinetic energies of these expanding shells with the kinetic energy available from the stellar winds. If we allow for the hypothesis that the brightest HII regions are density bounded, we show that, for these HII regions, the stellar wind mechanism can explain the observed shell kinetic energies.

  19. Cognitive impairment and neurogenotoxic effects in rats exposed to low-intensity microwave radiation.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Pravin Suryakantrao; Nasare, Namita; Megha, Kanu; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Ahmed, Rafat Sultana; Singh, Digvijay; Abegaonkar, Mahesh Pandurang; Tripathi, Ashok Kumar; Mediratta, Pramod Kumari

    2015-01-01

    The health hazard of microwave radiation (MWR) has become a recent subject of interest as a result of the enormous increase in mobile phone usage. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic low-intensity microwave exposure on cognitive function, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and DNA damage in rat brain. Experiments were performed on male Fischer rats exposed to MWR for 180 days at 3 different frequencies, namely, 900, 1800 MHz, and 2450 MHz. Animals were divided into 4 groups: group I: sham exposed; group II: exposed to MWR at 900 MHz, specific absorption rate (SAR) 5.953 × 10(-4) W/kg; group III: exposed to 1800 MHz, SAR 5.835 × 10(-4) W/kg; and group IV: exposed to 2450 MHz, SAR 6.672 × 10(-4) W/kg. All the rats were tested for cognitive function at the end of the exposure period and were subsequently sacrificed to collect brain. Level of HSP70 was estimated by enzyme-linked immunotarget assay and DNA damage was assessed using alkaline comet assay in all the groups. The results showed declined cognitive function, elevated HSP70 level, and DNA damage in the brain of microwave-exposed animals. The results indicated that, chronic low-intensity microwave exposure in the frequency range of 900 to 2450 MHz may cause hazardous effects on the brain.

  20. Effectiveness of low-intensity aquatic exercise on COPD: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    de Souto Araujo, Zenia Trindade; de Miranda Silva Nogueira, Patricia Angelica; Cabral, Elis Emmanuelle Alves; de Paula Dos Santos, Lourena; da Silva, Ivanizia Soares; Ferreira, Gardenia Maria Holanda

    2012-11-01

    Despite the growing number of studies reporting therapeutic success in water environments, research involving aquatic exercise among patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is scarce. This study evaluates the impact of low-intensity water and floor exercises on COPD. Forty two individuals with moderate to very severe COPD, divided into 3 groups: Control Group (CG), Floor Group (FG) and the Aquatic Group (AG). All participants were assessed using spirometry, respiratory muscle strength (MIP and MEP), the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), Medical Research Council (MRC), BODE index and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). A difference was recorded after intervention for the 6MWT in the AG (p = 0.02); for VEF(1) in the FG (p = 0.00) and AG (p = 0.01); for MIP in the FG (p = 0.01) and AG (p = 0.02); for MEP in the FG (p = 0.02) and AG (p = 0.01); the MRC fell in the AG (p = 0.00). The FG showed improved quality of life evidenced by the total score on the SGRQ (p = 0.00). The BODE index decreased in the FG (p = 0.00) and AG (p = 0.01). Results show that both forms of low-intensity physical exercise benefit patients with moderate and very severe COPD. The AG exhibited additional benefits in physical ability, indicating a new therapeutic modality targeting patients with COPD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute response of peripheral CCr5 chemoreceptor and NK cells in individuals submitted to a single session of low-intensity strength exercise with blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Dorneles, Gilson Pires; Colato, Alana Schraiber; Galvão, Simone Lunelli; Ramis, Thiago Rozales; Ribeiro, Jerri Luiz; Romão, Pedro Roosevelt; Peres, Alessandra

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the peripheral expression of natural killers and CCR5 in a session of low-intensity strength training with vascular occlusion and in high-intensity training. Young males were randomized into session groups of a high-intensity strength training (HI) and a session group of low-intensity strength training with vascular occlusion (LI-BFR). The exercise session consisted in knee extension and bicep curl in 80% 1RM (HI) and 30% 1RM (LI-BFR) with equalized volumes. Blood collection was made before, immediately after and 24 h after each training session. Immunophenotyping was carried out through CD195+ (CCR5) e CD3-CD16+CD56+ (NK) in peripheral blood and analysed by flow cytometry and presented in frequency (%). Peripheral frequency of NK cells showed no significant difference in LI-BFR group in time effect, while a gradual reduction of NK cells was identified in HI group in before-24 h postexercise and after-24 h postexercise comparison. However, significant differences have been found in relative change of NK cells immediately after exercise between sessions. In addition, HI and LI-BFR groups showed a significant reduction in the cells expressed CCR5 during 24 h postsession compared to the postsession, but CCR5 also differed when comparing before-24 h after session in the HI group. No differences were observed amongst the groups. LIO induced CCR5 response similar to the HI session, while the NK cells remained in similar frequency during the studied moments in LI-BFR, but not in HI group, suggesting that local hypoxia created by the blood flow restriction was able to prevent a change in the frequency of peripheral cells and a possible immunosuppression.

  2. Impact of a low intensity controlled-fire in some chemical soil properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; Hueso-González, Paloma; Aranda-Gómez, Francisco; Damián Ruiz-Sinoga, José

    2014-05-01

    Some changes in chemical soil properties can be observed after fires of low intensities. pH and electric conductivity tend to increase, while C/N ratio decrease. In the case of organic matter, the content can increase due to the massive incorporation of necromass including, especially, plants and roots. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of low intensity and controlled fire in some soil properties in field conditions. El Pinarillo experimental area is located in South of Spain. Two set of closed plots were installed (24 m2: 12 m length x 2 m width). One of them was remained as control with the original vegetation cover (Mediterranean matorral: Rosmarinus officinalis, Cistus clusii, Lavandula stoechas, Chamaeropos humilis, Thymus baetica), and the other one was burnt in a controlled-fire in 2011. Weather conditions and water content of vegetation influenced in the intensity of fire (low). After the controlled-fire, soil surface sample (0-5 cm) were taken in both set of plots (B, burnt soil samples; C, control soil samples). Some soil chemical properties were analysed: organic matter content (OM), C/N ratio, pH and electrical conductivity (EC). Some changes were observed in B corroborating a controlled-fire of low intensity. pH remained equal after fire (B: pH=7.7±0.11; C: pH=7.7±0.04). An increment was obtained in the case of EC (B: EC=0.45 mScm-1±0.08 mScm-1; C: EC=0.35 mScm-1±0.07 mScm-1) and OM (B: OM=8.7%±3.8%; C: pH=7.3%±1.5%). Finally, C/N ratio decreased after fire respect to the control and initial conditions (B: C/N=39.0±14.6; C: C/N =46.5±10.2).

  3. Supraspinal fatigue impedes recovery from a low-intensity sustained contraction in old adults

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Tejin; Schlinder-Delap, Bonnie; Keller, Manda L.

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the contribution of supraspinal fatigue and contractile properties to the age difference in neuromuscular fatigue during and recovery from a low-intensity sustained contraction. Cortical stimulation was used to evoke measures of voluntary activation and muscle relaxation during and after a contraction sustained at 20% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) until task failure with elbow flexor muscles in 14 young adults (20.9 ± 3.6 yr, 7 men) and 14 old adults (71.6 ± 5.4 yr, 7 men). Old adults exhibited a longer time to task failure than the young adults (23.8 ± 9.0 vs. 11.5 ± 3.9 min, respectively, P < 0.001). The time to failure was associated with initial peak rates of relaxation of muscle fibers and pressor response (P < 0.05). Increments in torque (superimposed twitch; SIT) generated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during brief MVCs, increased during the fatiguing contraction (P < 0.001) and then decreased during recovery (P = 0.02). The increase in the SIT was greater for the old adults than the young adults during the fatiguing contraction and recovery (P < 0.05). Recovery of MVC torque was less for old than young adults at 10 min post-fatiguing contraction (75.1 ± 8.7 vs. 83.6 ± 7.8% of control MVC, respectively, P = 0.01) and was associated with the recovery of the SIT (r = −0.59, r2 = 0.35, P < 0.001). Motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and the silent period elicited during the fatiguing contraction increased less for old adults than young adults (P < 0.05). The greater fatigue resistance with age during a low-intensity sustained contraction was attributable to mechanisms located within the muscle. Recovery of maximal strength after the low-intensity fatiguing contraction however, was impeded more for old adults than young because of greater supraspinal fatigue. Recovery of strength could be an important variable to consider in exercise prescription of old populations. PMID:22174405

  4. Heterogeneity in Patient-Reported Outcomes following Low-Intensity Mental Health Interventions: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shehzad; Littlewood, Elizabeth; McMillan, Dean; Delgadillo, Jaime; Miranda, Alfonso; Croudace, Tim; Gilbody, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background Variability in patient-reported outcomes of psychological treatments has been partly attributed to therapists – a phenomenon commonly known as therapist effects. Meta-analytic reviews reveal wide variation in therapist-attributable variability in psychotherapy outcomes, with most studies reporting therapist effects in the region of 5% to 10% and some finding minimal to no therapist effects. However, all except one study to date have been conducted in high-intensity or mixed intervention groups; therefore, there is scarcity of evidence on therapist effects in brief low-intensity psychological interventions. Objective To examine therapist effects in low-intensity interventions for depression and anxiety in a naturalistic setting. Data and Analysis Session-by-session data on patient-reported outcome measures were available for a cohort of 1,376 primary care psychotherapy patients treated by 38 therapists. Outcome measures included PHQ-9 (sensitive to depression) and GAD-7 (sensitive to general anxiety disorder) measures. Three-level hierarchical linear modelling was employed to estimate therapist-attributable proportion of variance in clinical outcomes. Therapist effects were evaluated using the intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bayesian empirical predictions of therapist random effects. Three sensitivity analyses were conducted: 1) using both treatment completers and non-completers; 2) a sub-sample of cases with baseline scores above the conventional clinical thresholds for PHQ-9 and GAD-7; and 3) a two-level model (using patient-level pre- and post-treatment scores nested within therapists). Results The ICC estimates for all outcome measures were very small, ranging between 0% and 1.3%, although most were statistically significant. The Bayesian empirical predictions showed that therapist random effects were not statistically significantly different from each other. Between patient variability explained most of the variance in outcomes

  5. Supraspinal fatigue impedes recovery from a low-intensity sustained contraction in old adults.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tejin; Schlinder-Delap, Bonnie; Keller, Manda L; Hunter, Sandra K

    2012-03-01

    This study determined the contribution of supraspinal fatigue and contractile properties to the age difference in neuromuscular fatigue during and recovery from a low-intensity sustained contraction. Cortical stimulation was used to evoke measures of voluntary activation and muscle relaxation during and after a contraction sustained at 20% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) until task failure with elbow flexor muscles in 14 young adults (20.9 ± 3.6 yr, 7 men) and 14 old adults (71.6 ± 5.4 yr, 7 men). Old adults exhibited a longer time to task failure than the young adults (23.8 ± 9.0 vs. 11.5 ± 3.9 min, respectively, P < 0.001). The time to failure was associated with initial peak rates of relaxation of muscle fibers and pressor response (P < 0.05). Increments in torque (superimposed twitch; SIT) generated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during brief MVCs, increased during the fatiguing contraction (P < 0.001) and then decreased during recovery (P = 0.02). The increase in the SIT was greater for the old adults than the young adults during the fatiguing contraction and recovery (P < 0.05). Recovery of MVC torque was less for old than young adults at 10 min post-fatiguing contraction (75.1 ± 8.7 vs. 83.6 ± 7.8% of control MVC, respectively, P = 0.01) and was associated with the recovery of the SIT (r = -0.59, r(2) = 0.35, P < 0.001). Motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and the silent period elicited during the fatiguing contraction increased less for old adults than young adults (P < 0.05). The greater fatigue resistance with age during a low-intensity sustained contraction was attributable to mechanisms located within the muscle. Recovery of maximal strength after the low-intensity fatiguing contraction however, was impeded more for old adults than young because of greater supraspinal fatigue. Recovery of strength could be an important variable to consider in exercise prescription of old populations.

  6. Magnetic affinity enzyme-linked immunoassay for diagnosis of Schistosomiasis japonicum in persons with low-intensity infection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qin; Yang, Hai; Feng, Youmei; Zhu, Yanhong; Yang, Xiangliang

    2012-10-01

    Most schistosome-endemic areas in China are characterized by low-intensity infections that are independent of prevalence. To establish an effective diagnostic method, we developed a magnetic affinity enzyme-linked immunoassay based on soluble egg antigens (SEA-MEIA) for diagnosing schistosomiasis in persons with low-intensity infection with Schistosoma japonicum by comparing it with a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that the SEA-MEIA had a higher sensitivity and greater precision in the diagnosis of low-intensity S. japonicum infections than the ELISA. In addition, when we used Pearson's correlation in associating SEA-MEIA with ELISA, a significant correlation existed between the two assays (r = 0.845, P < 0.001). Our data indicated that SEA-MEIA, with a higher sensitivity and greater ease of performance, would be valuable for diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonicum in persons with low-intensity infections.

  7. Solar cell design for avoiding LILT degradation. [low intensity, low temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, P. M.; Ctorry, G. T.

    1987-01-01

    Growing concerns about radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) performance potential, cost, safety, and availability have renewed interest in utilizing photovoltaic energy conversion for future JPL interplanetary missions such as the Mariner Mark II set. Although lightweight solar array technology has advanced to the point where it would appear to provide an alternative power source, anomalous silicon cell curve shape degradation at conditions of low intensity and low temperature (LILT) severely restricts photovoltaic applications for missions beyond 3 AU solar distance. In order to extend photovoltaic applications to distances of 5 AU, ways to minimize the deleterious impact of LILT cell degradation were investigated. These investigations have ranged from consideration of individual cell selection for LILT behavior to the examination of methods for reducing or eliminating cell LILT degradation by modifying the cell processing. Use of a partial oxide barrier between the cell n+ contacts and the silicon has been shown to reduce significantly both the occurrence and magnitude of the LILT degradation.

  8. Review of studies on modulating enzyme activity by low intensity electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Vojisavljevic, Vuk; Pirogova, Elena; Cosic, Irena

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a compilation of our findings on non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at the molecular level. The outcomes of our studies revealed that that enzymes' activity can be modulated by external electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of selected frequencies. Here, we discuss the possibility of modulating protein activity using visible and infrared light based on the concepts of protein activation outlined in the resonant recognition model (RRM), and by low intensity microwaves. The theoretical basis behind the RRM model expounds a potential interaction mechanism between electromagnetic radiation and proteins as well as protein-protein interactions. Possibility of modulating protein activity by external EMR is experimentally validated by irradiation of the L-lactate Dehydrogenase enzyme.

  9. [Pain relief by low-intensity frequency-modulated millimeter waves acting on the acupuncture points].

    PubMed

    Samosiuk, I Z; Kulikovich, Iu N; Tamarova, Z A; Samosiuk, N I; Kazhanova, A K

    2000-01-01

    Analgetic effect of low-intensive frequency-modulated millimetric waves (MW) was studied in mice with formalin induced nociceptive behavior reaction (licking of defeat hindpaw). MW were applied to the acupoint E 36 of the defeat hindpaw. The following MW were used: 60 GHz (1) and 118 GHz (2) which were modulated by 4 Hz; noise MW within the range of 42-95 GHz (3) and 90-140 GHz (4) which were modulated in accidental order by frequencies 1-60 Hz; combinations of fixed frequencies with noise - 60 GHz + noise 42-95 GHz (5) and 118 GHz + noise 90-140 GHz (6). All used MW combinations suppressed licking of the defeat hindpaw and increased duration of sleep and eating. The strongest analgesia was achieved in series 1-3 (42.4-69.7%), the weakest in series 6 and 4 of the experiment (12.2-19.7%).

  10. Low-intensity laser irradiation use for oral and lip precancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Podolskaya, Elana E.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Petrov, Anatoly; Erina, Stanislava V.; Pankova, Svetlana N.

    1996-09-01

    Precancer and background diseases of the oral mucosa and lips, such as lichen planus, chronic ulcers and fissures, meteorological heilit, lupus erythematosus, after radiation heilit were treated by low-intensity laser irradiation. Laser therapy of the over-mentioned diseases was combined with medicinal treatment. All the patients were selected and treated in the limits of dispensary system. THe choice of diagnostic methods were made according to each concrete nosological form. A great attention was paid to the goal- directly sanitation of the oral cavity and treatment of attended internal diseases. The etiological factors were revealed and statistically analyzed. The results received during our researches demonstrated high effectiveness of laser irradiation combined with medicinal therapy in the treatment of oral mucosa and lips precancer diseases.

  11. Influence of low-intensity laser radiation on degree of oxygenation and speed microcirculation of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolevich, Alexander N.; Dubina, Natali S.; Vecherinski, Sergei I.

    2000-11-01

    The paper investigated in vivo the influence of low-intensity laser radiation (he-Ne laser with wavelength 0,63 nm) on the mean velocity of their movement. It is known that characteristic of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are microcirculation disturbances and disorder in rheological properties of blood. Therefore these investigations were carried out on cardiac ischemia patients. The blood perfusion valve and the mean velocity were measured by the method of photon correlation spectroscopy with the use of fiber optic cables. As the radiation source, a semiconductor laser with wavelength 780 nm (0,8 mW) was used. It has been found that, between the erythrocytes and the mean velocity of their movement there is an inverse dependence on the time of irradiation of patients.

  12. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment improved the rate of autograft peripheral nerve regeneration in rat

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenli; Wang, Yuexiang; Tang, Jie; Peng, Jiang; Wang, Yu; Guo, Quanyi; Guo, Zhiyuan; Li, Pan; Xiao, Bo; Zhang, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been widely used in clinic for the treatment of repairing pseudarthrosis, bone fractures and of healing in various soft tissues. Some reports indicated that LIPUS accelerated peripheral nerve regeneration including Schwann cells (SCs) and injured nerves. But little is known about its appropriate intensities on autograft nerves. This study was to investigate which intensity of LIPUS improved the regeneration of gold standard postsurgical nerves in experimental rat model. Sprague-Dawley rats were made into 10 mm right side sciatic nerve reversed autologous nerve transplantation and randomly treated with 250 mW/cm2, 500 mW/cm2 or 750 mW/cm2 LIPUS for 2–12 weeks after operation. Functional and pathological results showed that LIPUS of 250 mW/cm2 significantly induced faster rate of axonal regeneration. This suggested that autograft nerve regeneration was improved. PMID:27102358

  13. Triple-Junction Solar Cell Design For Low Intensity Low Temperature Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorenko, V.; Strobl, G. F. X.; Hoheisel, R.; Dimroth, F.; Campesato, R.; Casale, M.; Baur, C.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we present the results of the electrical characterisation of triple-junction solar cells especially designed for low intensity low temperature (LILT) operation conditions. We show that by applying an appropriate choice of the front contact metallisation, by an additional passivation of the cell mesa edges and without modifying the 3G28 InGaP/InGaAs/Ge epitaxial cell structure, the appearance of the flat spot effect at LILT conditions can be practically eliminated. Analysis of the temperature behaviour of the fill factor of solar cells with optimized design show that in absence of the flat spot effect, the electrical performance of solar cells at LILT conditions is nevertheless mostly limited by tunnelling assisted current flow. For these solar cells, an average fill factor above 0.9 and an average efficiency higher than 33.5 % (at 0.037xAM0 and -120°C) are demonstrated.

  14. Random spaced index modulation for a narrow linewidth tunable fiber laser with low intensity noise.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Lu, Ping; Bao, Xiaoyi; Ou, Zhonghua

    2014-04-15

    A tunable random feedback fiber laser with low intensity noise is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The random feedback is effectively achieved by multiple reflections from 100 randomly spaced refractive index modulation regions over 10 cm SMF in both longitudinal and transverse directions. A tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser with narrow linewidth of 2.4 kHz and a high side-mode suppression ratio of 59 dB is achieved over a 0.5 nm tuning range. The proposed fiber laser exhibits low relative intensity noise (<-120  dB/Hz) and low frequency fluctuation of ∼3.41×10(-11) over 5 s.

  15. Solar cell design for avoiding LILT degradation. [low intensity, low temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, P. M.; Ctorry, G. T.

    1987-01-01

    Growing concerns about radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) performance potential, cost, safety, and availability have renewed interest in utilizing photovoltaic energy conversion for future JPL interplanetary missions such as the Mariner Mark II set. Although lightweight solar array technology has advanced to the point where it would appear to provide an alternative power source, anomalous silicon cell curve shape degradation at conditions of low intensity and low temperature (LILT) severely restricts photovoltaic applications for missions beyond 3 AU solar distance. In order to extend photovoltaic applications to distances of 5 AU, ways to minimize the deleterious impact of LILT cell degradation were investigated. These investigations have ranged from consideration of individual cell selection for LILT behavior to the examination of methods for reducing or eliminating cell LILT degradation by modifying the cell processing. Use of a partial oxide barrier between the cell n+ contacts and the silicon has been shown to reduce significantly both the occurrence and magnitude of the LILT degradation.

  16. Ultrasound with low intensity assisted the synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 without calcination.

    PubMed

    Ghows, Narjes; Entezari, Mohamad H

    2010-06-01

    A novel method has been developed for the preparation of nano-sized TiO(2) with anatase phase. Nanoparticles with diameter about 6 nm were prepared at a relatively low temperature (75 degrees C) and short time. The synthesis was carried out by the hydrolysis of titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) in the presence of water, ethanol, and dispersant under ultrasonic irradiation (500 kHz) at low intensity. The results show that variables such as water/ethanol ratio, irradiation time, and temperature have a great influence on the particle size and crystalline phases of TiO(2) nanoparticles. Characterization of the product was carried out by different techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy.

  17. Low-intensity laser radiation in diagnosis and treatment of nephrotuberculosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koultchavenia, Ekaterina V.; Krasnov, Vladimir A.

    2001-05-01

    In Siberia there is a hard epidemic situation on tuberculosis. Urogenital tuberculosis (42.4%) has the first place in the incidence rate among extrapulmonary forms. Complicated and widespread lesions are prevailing. One of the main reasons that is lack of pathognomonic symptoms. So different provocation tests are used. Our investigations have proved provoking influence of a low- intensity laser radiation on a tubercular inflammation. Local transcutaneous effect by an infrared laser radiation allows to provoke an exacerbation of a latent tubercular inflammation in kidneys and to discover it by means of the urinalyses also analysis of blood. In case of an expressed initial pathology of the urinalyses previously therapy ex juvantibus carried out by assignment of brief rates of unspecific preparations, optimum among which is ofromax. This method was used for 60 patients with various urological diseases and has allowed to increase the efficiency of diagnosis on 36%.

  18. Psychiatric symptoms and dissociation in conversion, somatization and dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Espirito-Santo, Helena; Pio-Abreu, Jose Luis

    2009-03-01

    Conversion, dissociation and somatization are historically related in the long established concept of hysteria. Somewhere along the way they were separated due to the Cartesian dualistic view. The aim of the present study was to compare these pathologies and investigate whether symptoms of these pathologies overlap in their clinical appearance in a Portuguese sample. Twenty-six patients with conversion disorder, 38 with dissociative disorders, 40 with somatization disorder, and a comparison group of 46 patients having other psychiatric disorders answered questions about dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale), somatoform dissociation (Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire), and psychopathological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory). Dissociative and somatoform symptoms were significantly more frequent in dissociative and conversion disorder than in somatization disorder and controls. There were no significant differences between dissociative and conversion patients. Conversion disorder is closely related to dissociative disorders. These results support the ICD-10 categorization of conversion disorder among dissociative disorders and the hypothesis of analogous psychopathological processes in conversion and dissociative disorders versus somatization disorder.

  19. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in lower limb bone stress injuries: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gan, Thomas Y; Kuah, Donald E; Graham, Kenneth S; Markson, Gregory

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) for the improvement of lower limb bone stress injuries in a civilian population. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to compare LIPUS with placebo. Civilian private practice population in Sydney, Australia. Subjects were recruited if a grade II-IV bone stress injury was diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of either the postero-medial tibia, fibula or second, third, or fourth metatarsal. Subjects of all levels of sporting activity were included. Thirty subjects were initially recruited, and 23 subjects were included in the final analysis. Subjects were randomized into either the treatment or placebo arm and matched to the site of injury (tibia, fibula, or metatarsal). Subjects in both arms used either treatment or placebo devices for 20 minutes daily for 4 weeks. Six clinical parameters (night pain, pain at rest, pain on walking, pain with running, tenderness, and pain with single leg hop) were compared before and after intervention. The changes in MRI grade and bone marrow edema size were also compared. There were no significant differences between the treatment and placebo conditions for changes in MRI grading (2.2 vs 2.4, P = 0.776) or bone marrow edema size (3 vs 4.1, P = 0.271). There were no significant differences between the treatment and placebo conditions for the 6 clinical parameters. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound was found not to be an effective treatment for the healing of lower limb bone stress injuries in this study. However, this was measured over a relatively short duration of 4 weeks in a small, mostly female population. This double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial has shown that LIPUS is not an effective treatment for lower limb bone stress injuries.

  20. Low-intensity daily walking activity is associated with hippocampal volume in older adults.

    PubMed

    Varma, Vijay R; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Harris, Gregory C; Tan, Erwin J; Carlson, Michelle C

    2015-05-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is associated with memory impairment and dementia and serves as a key biomarker in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. Physical activity, one of the most promising behavioral interventions to prevent or delay cognitive decline, has been shown to be associated with hippocampal volume; specifically increased aerobic activity and fitness may have a positive effect on the size of the hippocampus. The majority of older adults, however, are sedentary and have difficulty initiating and maintaining exercise programs. A modestly more active lifestyle may nonetheless be beneficial. This study explored whether greater objectively measured daily walking activity was associated with larger hippocampal volume. We additionally explored whether greater low-intensity walking activity, which may be related to leisure-time physical, functional, and social activities, was associated with larger hippocampal volume independent of exercise and higher-intensity walking activity. Segmentation of hippocampal volumes was performed using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain's Software Library (FSL), and daily walking activity was assessed using a step activity monitor on 92, nondemented, older adult participants. After controlling for age, education, body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the Mini Mental State Exam, we found that a greater amount, duration, and frequency of total daily walking activity were each associated with larger hippocampal volume among older women, but not among men. These relationships were specific to hippocampal volume, compared with the thalamus, used as a control brain region, and remained significant for low-intensity walking activity, independent of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity and self-reported exercise. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to explore the relationship between objectively measured daily walking activity and hippocampal volume in an older adult population. Findings

  1. Distinct anabolic response of osteoblast to low-intensity pulsed ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Kouji; Miyauchi, Akimitsu; Itoman, Moritoshi; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko

    2003-02-01

    Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound, a form of mechanical energy transmitted as high-frequency acoustical pressure waves, provides noninvasive therapeutic treatment for accelerating fracture repair and distraction osteogenesis. Relatively young osteoblasts respond to ultrasound by transiently upregulating message levels of immediate-early genes as well as that of osteocalcin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Osteocytes derived from newborn rat tibia and calvaria responded to a lesser extent only in c-fos and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) messages. Compared with the stretched osteocytes, which use stretch-activated and parathyroid hormone (PTH)-potentiated Ca2+ influx as an entry route to the protein kinase A (PKA) signal transduction pathways, there was no evidence of Ca2+ internalization by any of the cells tested on exposure to the ultrasound. On the other hand, inhibitors of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and upstream phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) blocked COX-2 and osteocalcin upregulation by the ultrasound-exposed ST2, murine bone marrow-derived cells. This is distinct from the aforementioned osteocytic response to low-frequency stretching and implies the involvement of integrins. Our findings suggested that accelerated fracture repair and distraction osteogenesis by the low-intensity pulsed ultrasound depend, at least in part, on the stimulation of osteoblastic cells at relatively early stages of osteogenic lineage. Bone is under control of multiple regulatory mechanisms so that diverse physical forces can be reflected to the microenvironment of each cell, in turn, to the entire bone.

  2. Bio-effects and safety of low-intensity, low-frequency ultrasonic exposure.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Farzaneh; McLoughlin, Ian V; Chauhan, Sunita; ter-Haar, Gail

    2012-04-01

    Low-frequency (LF) ultrasound (20-100 kHz) has a diverse set of industrial and medical applications. In fact, high power industrial applications of ultrasound mainly occupy this frequency range. This range is also used for various therapeutic medical applications including sonophoresis (ultrasonic transdermal drug delivery), dentistry, eye surgery, body contouring, the breaking of kidney stones and eliminating blood clots. While emerging LF applications such as ultrasonic drug delivery continue to be developed and undergo translation for human use, significant gaps exist in the coverage of safety standards for this frequency range. Accordingly, the need to understand the biological effects of LF ultrasound is becoming more important. This paper presents a broad overview of bio-effects and safety of LF ultrasound as an aid to minimize and control the risk of these effects. Its particular focus is at low intensities where bio-effects are initially observed. To generate a clear perspective of hazards in LF exposure, the mechanisms of bio-effects and the main differences in action at low and high frequencies are investigated and a survey of harmful effects of LF ultrasound at low intensities is presented. Mechanical and thermal indices are widely used in high frequency diagnostic applications as a means of indicating safety of ultrasonic exposure. The direct application of these indices at low frequencies needs careful investigation. In this work, using numerical simulations based on the mathematical and physical rationale behind the indices at high frequencies, it is observed that while thermal index (TI) can be used directly in the LF range, mechanical index (MI) seems to become less reliable at lower frequencies. Accordingly, an improved formulation for the MI is proposed for frequencies below 500 kHz.

  3. Dasatinib and low-intensity chemotherapy in elderly patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL.

    PubMed

    Rousselot, Philippe; Coudé, Marie Magdelaine; Gokbuget, Nicola; Gambacorti Passerini, Carlo; Hayette, Sandrine; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Huguet, Françoise; Leguay, Thibaut; Chevallier, Patrice; Salanoubat, Celia; Bonmati, Caroline; Alexis, Magda; Hunault, Mathilde; Glaisner, Sylvie; Agape, Philippe; Berthou, Christian; Jourdan, Eric; Fernandes, José; Sutton, Laurent; Banos, Anne; Reman, Oumedaly; Lioure, Bruno; Thomas, Xavier; Ifrah, Norbert; Lafage-Pochitaloff, Marina; Bornand, Anne; Morisset, Laure; Robin, Valérie; Pfeifer, Heike; Delannoy, Andre; Ribera, Josep; Bassan, Renato; Delord, Marc; Hoelzer, Dieter; Dombret, Herve; Ottmann, Oliver G

    2016-08-11

    Prognosis of Philadelphia-positive (Ph(+)) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in the elderly has improved during the imatinib era. We investigated dasatinib, another potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in combination with low-intensity chemotherapy. Patients older than age 55 years were included in the European Working Group on Adult ALL (EWALL) study number 01 for Ph(+) ALL (EWALL-PH-01 international study) and were treated with dasatinib 140 mg/day (100 mg/day over 70 years) with intrathecal chemotherapy, vincristine, and dexamethasone during induction. Patients in complete remission continued consolidation with dasatinib, sequentially with cytarabine, asparaginase, and methotrexate for 6 months. Maintenance therapy was dasatinib and vincristine/dexamethasone reinductions for 18 months followed by dasatinib until relapse or death. Seventy-one patients with a median age of 69 years were enrolled; 77% had a high comorbidity score. Complete remission rate was 96% and 65% of patients achieved a 3-log reduction in BCR-ABL1 transcript levels during consolidation. Only 7 patients underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. At 5 years, overall survival was 36% and up to 45% taking into account deaths unrelated to disease or treatment as competitors. Thirty-six patients relapsed, 24 were tested for mutation by Sanger sequencing, and 75% were T315I-positive. BCR-ABL1(T315I) was tested by allele-specific oligonucleotide reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 43 patients and detection was associated with short-term relapses. Ten patients (23%) were positive before any therapy and 8 relapsed, all with this mutation. In conclusion, dasatinib combined with low-intensity chemotherapy was well-tolerated and gave long-term survival in 36% of elderly patients with Ph(+) ALL. Monitoring of BCR-ABL1(T315I) from diagnosis identified patients with at high risk of early relapse and may help to personalize therapy. © 2016 by The American Society

  4. Dasatinib and low-intensity chemotherapy in elderly patients with Philadelphia chromosome–positive ALL

    PubMed Central

    Coudé, Marie Magdelaine; Gokbuget, Nicola; Gambacorti Passerini, Carlo; Hayette, Sandrine; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Huguet, Françoise; Leguay, Thibaut; Chevallier, Patrice; Salanoubat, Celia; Bonmati, Caroline; Alexis, Magda; Hunault, Mathilde; Glaisner, Sylvie; Agape, Philippe; Berthou, Christian; Jourdan, Eric; Fernandes, José; Sutton, Laurent; Banos, Anne; Reman, Oumedaly; Lioure, Bruno; Thomas, Xavier; Ifrah, Norbert; Lafage-Pochitaloff, Marina; Bornand, Anne; Morisset, Laure; Robin, Valérie; Pfeifer, Heike; Delannoy, Andre; Ribera, Josep; Bassan, Renato; Delord, Marc; Hoelzer, Dieter; Dombret, Herve; Ottmann, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    Prognosis of Philadelphia-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in the elderly has improved during the imatinib era. We investigated dasatinib, another potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in combination with low-intensity chemotherapy. Patients older than age 55 years were included in the European Working Group on Adult ALL (EWALL) study number 01 for Ph+ ALL (EWALL-PH-01 international study) and were treated with dasatinib 140 mg/day (100 mg/day over 70 years) with intrathecal chemotherapy, vincristine, and dexamethasone during induction. Patients in complete remission continued consolidation with dasatinib, sequentially with cytarabine, asparaginase, and methotrexate for 6 months. Maintenance therapy was dasatinib and vincristine/dexamethasone reinductions for 18 months followed by dasatinib until relapse or death. Seventy-one patients with a median age of 69 years were enrolled; 77% had a high comorbidity score. Complete remission rate was 96% and 65% of patients achieved a 3-log reduction in BCR-ABL1 transcript levels during consolidation. Only 7 patients underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. At 5 years, overall survival was 36% and up to 45% taking into account deaths unrelated to disease or treatment as competitors. Thirty-six patients relapsed, 24 were tested for mutation by Sanger sequencing, and 75% were T315I-positive. BCR-ABL1T315I was tested by allele-specific oligonucleotide reverse transcription–quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 43 patients and detection was associated with short-term relapses. Ten patients (23%) were positive before any therapy and 8 relapsed, all with this mutation. In conclusion, dasatinib combined with low-intensity chemotherapy was well-tolerated and gave long-term survival in 36% of elderly patients with Ph+ ALL. Monitoring of BCR-ABL1T315I from diagnosis identified patients with at high risk of early relapse and may help to personalize therapy. PMID:27121472

  5. Muscle injury after low-intensity downhill running reduces running economy.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Cory W; Green, Michael S; Doyle, J Andrew; Rupp, Jeffrey C; Ingalls, Christopher P; Corona, Benjamin T

    2014-05-01

    Contraction-induced muscle injury may reduce running economy (RE) by altering motor unit recruitment, lowering contraction economy, and disturbing running mechanics, any of which may have a deleterious effect on endurance performance. The purpose of this study was to determine if RE is reduced 2 days after performing injurious, low-intensity exercise in 11 healthy active men (27.5 ± 5.7 years; 50.05 ± 1.67 VO2peak). Running economy was determined at treadmill speeds eliciting 65 and 75% of the individual's peak rate of oxygen uptake (VO2peak) 1 day before and 2 days after injury induction. Lower extremity muscle injury was induced with a 30-minute downhill treadmill run (6 × 5 minutes runs, 2 minutes rest, -12% grade, and 12.9 km·h(-1)) that elicited 55% VO2peak. Maximal quadriceps isometric torque was reduced immediately and 2 days after the downhill run by 18 and 10%, and a moderate degree of muscle soreness was present. Two days after the injury, steady-state VO2 and metabolic work (VO2 L·km(-1)) were significantly greater (4-6%) during the 65% VO2peak run. Additionally, postinjury VCO2, VE and rating of perceived exertion were greater at 65% but not at 75% VO2peak, whereas whole blood-lactate concentrations did not change pre-injury to postinjury at either intensity. In conclusion, low-intensity downhill running reduces RE at 65% but not 75% VO2peak. The results of this study and other studies indicate the magnitude to which RE is altered after downhill running is dependent on the severity of the injury and intensity of the RE test.

  6. Low Intensity Physical Exercise Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling and Myocardial Oxidative Stress and Dysfunction in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gimenes, C.; Gimenes, R.; Rosa, C. M.; Xavier, N. P.; Campos, D. H. S.; Fernandes, A. A. H.; Cezar, M. D. M.; Guirado, G. N.; Cicogna, A. C.; Takamoto, A. H. R.; Okoshi, M. P.; Okoshi, K.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of a low intensity aerobic exercise protocol on cardiac remodeling and myocardial function in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were assigned into four groups: sedentary control (C-Sed), exercised control (C-Ex), sedentary diabetes (DM-Sed), and exercised diabetes (DM-Ex). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Rats exercised for 9 weeks in treadmill at 11 m/min, 18 min/day. Myocardial function was evaluated in left ventricular (LV) papillary muscles and oxidative stress in LV tissue. Statistical analysis was given by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis. Echocardiogram showed diabetic groups with higher LV diastolic diameter-to-body weight ratio and lower posterior wall shortening velocity than controls. Left atrium diameter was lower in DM-Ex than DM-Sed (C-Sed: 5.73 ± 0.49; C-Ex: 5.67 ± 0.53; DM-Sed: 6.41 ± 0.54; DM-Ex: 5.81 ± 0.50 mm; P < 0.05 DM-Sed vs C-Sed and DM-Ex). Papillary muscle function was depressed in DM-Sed compared to C-Sed. Exercise attenuated this change in DM-Ex. Lipid hydroperoxide concentration was higher in DM-Sed than C-Sed and DM-Ex. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were lower in diabetics than controls and higher in DM-Ex than DM-Sed. Glutathione peroxidase activity was lower in DM-Sed than C-Sed and DM-Ex. Conclusion. Low intensity exercise attenuates left atrium dilation and myocardial oxidative stress and dysfunction in type 1 diabetic rats. PMID:26509175

  7. Effects of low intensity vibration on bone and muscle in rats with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bramlett, H M; Dietrich, W D; Marcillo, A; Mawhinney, L J; Furones-Alonso, O; Bregy, A; Peng, Y; Wu, Y; Pan, J; Wang, J; Guo, X E; Bauman, W A; Cardozo, C; Qin, W

    2014-09-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes rapid and marked bone loss. The present study demonstrates that low-intensity vibration (LIV) improves selected biomarkers of bone turnover and gene expression and reduces osteoclastogenesis, suggesting that LIV may be expected to benefit to bone mass, resorption, and formation after SCI. Sublesional bone is rapidly and extensively lost following spinal cord injury (SCI). Low-intensity vibration (LIV) has been suggested to reduce loss of bone in children with disabilities and osteoporotic women, but its efficacy in SCI-related bone loss has not been tested. The purpose of this study was to characterize effects of LIV on bone and bone cells in an animal model of SCI. The effects of LIV initiated 28 days after SCI and provided for 15 min twice daily 5 days each week for 35 days were examined in female rats with moderate severity contusion injury of the mid-thoracic spinal cord. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the distal femur and proximal tibia declined by 5 % and was not altered by LIV. Serum osteocalcin was reduced after SCI by 20 % and was increased by LIV to a level similar to that of control animals. The osteoclastogenic potential of bone marrow precursors was increased after SCI by twofold and associated with 30 % elevation in serum CTX. LIV reduced the osteoclastogenic potential of marrow precursors by 70 % but did not alter serum CTX. LIV completely reversed the twofold elevation in messenger RNA (mRNA) levels for SOST and the 40 % reduction in Runx2 mRNA in bone marrow stromal cells resulting from SCI. The findings demonstrate an ability of LIV to improve selected biomarkers of bone turnover and gene expression and to reduce osteoclastogenesis. The study indicates a possibility that LIV initiated earlier after SCI and/or continued for a longer duration would increase bone mass.

  8. Combined effect of coffee ingestion and repeated bouts of low-intensity exercise on fat oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kurobe, Kazumichi; Nakao, Saori; Nishiwaki, Masato; Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the effect of the combination of coffee ingestion and repeated bouts of low-intensity exercise on fat oxidation. Subjects were seven young, healthy male adults. They performed four trials: a single 30-min bout of exercise following ingestion of plain hot water (WS) or coffee (CS); a trial with three 10-min bouts of exercise separated by 10-min periods of rest following ingestion of plain hot water (WR) or coffee (CR). The coffee contained 5 mg kg(-1) of caffeine. All trials were performed on a cycle ergometer at 40% maximal oxygen uptake for each subject an hour after beverage ingestion. Oxygen uptake in the CS and CR trials was higher compared with the WS and WR trials at 90 min after exercise (P<0·05). Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in the CS and CR trials was decreased during the whole recovery period compared with baseline (P<0·05), whereas no significant decreases were observed in either the WS or WR trials. Moreover, RER was significantly lower at 30 min after exercise in the CR trial than in either the WS or WR trials (P<0·05 each). Similarly, it is notable that fat oxidation rate in the CR trial was significantly higher at 30 min after exercise compared to that in the WS and WR trials (P<0·05). These results suggest that the combination of coffee intake and repeated bouts of low-intensity exercise enhances fat oxidation in the period after exercise.

  9. Prolonged stimulation with low-intensity ultrasound induces delayed increases in spontaneous hippocampal culture spiking activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Bum; Swanberg, Kelley M; Han, Hee-Sok; Kim, Jung-Chae; Kim, Jun-Woo; Lee, Sungon; Lee, C Justin; Maeng, Sungho; Kim, Tae-Seong; Park, Ji-Ho

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound is a promising neural stimulation modality, but an incomplete understanding of its range and mechanism of effect limits its therapeutic application. We investigated the modulation of spontaneous hippocampal spike activity by ultrasound at a lower acoustic intensity and longer time scale than has been previously attempted, hypothesizing that spiking would change conditionally upon the availability of glutamate receptors. Using a 60-channel multielectrode array (MEA), we measured spontaneous spiking across organotypic rat hippocampal slice cultures (N = 28) for 3 min each before, during, and after stimulation with low-intensity unfocused pulsed or sham ultrasound (spatial-peak pulse average intensity 780 μW/cm(2) ) preperfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid, 300 μM kynurenic acid (KA), or 0.5 μM tetrodotoxin (TTX) at 3 ml/min. Spike rates were normalized and compared across stimulation type and period, subregion, threshold level, and/or perfusion condition using repeated-measures ANOVA and generalized linear mixed models. Normalized 3-min spike counts for large but not midsized, small, or total spikes increased after but not during ultrasound relative to sham stimulation. This result was recapitulated in subregions CA1 and dentate gyrus and replicated in a separate experiment for all spike size groups in slices pretreated with aCSF but not KA or TTX. Increases in normalized 18-sec total, midsized, and large spike counts peaked predominantly 1.5 min following ultrasound stimulation. Our low-intensity ultrasound setup exerted delayed glutamate receptor-dependent, amplitude- and possibly region-specific influences on spontaneous spike rates across the hippocampus, expanding the range of known parameters at which ultrasound may be used for neural activity modulation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. What does low-intensity rTMS do to the cerebellum?

    PubMed

    Morellini, N; Grehl, S; Tang, A; Rodger, J; Mariani, J; Lohof, A M; Sherrard, R M

    2015-02-01

    Non-invasive stimulation of the human cerebellum, such as by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), is increasingly used to investigate cerebellar function and identify potential treatment for cerebellar dysfunction. However, the effects of TMS on cerebellar neurons remain poorly defined. We applied low-intensity repetitive TMS (LI-rTMS) to the mouse cerebellum in vivo and in vitro and examined the cellular and molecular sequelae. In normal C57/Bl6 mice, 4 weeks of LI-rTMS using a complex biomimetic high-frequency stimulation (BHFS) alters Purkinje cell (PC) dendritic and spine morphology; the effects persist 4 weeks after the end of stimulation. We then evaluated whether LI-rTMS could induce climbing fibre (CF) reinnervation to denervated PCs. After unilateral pedunculotomy in adult mice and 2 weeks sham or BHFS stimulation, VGLUT2 immunohistochemistry was used to quantify CF reinnervation. In contrast to sham, LI-rTMS induced CF reinnervation to the denervated hemicerebellum. To examine potential mechanisms underlying the LI-rTMS effect, we verified that BHFS could induce CF reinnervation using our in vitro olivocerebellar explants in which denervated cerebellar tissue is co-cultured adjacent to intact cerebella and treated with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (as a positive control), sham or LI-rTMS for 2 weeks. Compared with sham, BDNF and BHFS LI-rTMS significantly increased CF reinnervation, without additive effect. To identify potential underlying mechanisms, we examined intracellular calcium flux during the 10-min stimulation. Complex high-frequency stimulation increased intracellular calcium by release from intracellular stores. Thus, even at low intensity, rTMS modifies PC structure and induces CF reinnervation.

  11. Low-intensity vibrations normalize adipogenesis-induced morphological and molecular changes of adult mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Baskan, Oznur; Mese, Gulistan; Ozcivici, Engin

    2017-02-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells that are committed to adipogenesis were exposed daily to high-frequency low-intensity mechanical vibrations to understand molecular, morphological and ultrastructural adaptations to mechanical signals during adipogenesis. D1-ORL-UVA mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured with either growth or adipogenic medium for 1 week. Low-intensity vibration signals (15 min/day, 90 Hz, 0.1 g) were applied to one group of adipogenic cells, while the other adipogenic group served as a sham control. Cellular viability, lipid accumulation, ultrastructure and morphology were determined with MTT, Oil-Red-O staining, phalloidin staining and atomic force microscopy. Semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed expression profile of the genes responsible for adipogenesis and ultrastructure of cells. Low-intensity vibration signals increased viability of the cells in adipogenic culture that was reduced significantly compared to quiescent controls. Low-intensity vibration signals also normalized the effects of adipogenic condition on cell morphology, including area, perimeter, circularization and actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, low-intensity vibration signals reduced the expression of some adipogenic markers significantly. Mesenchymal stem cells are sensitive and responsive to mechanical loads, but debilitating conditions such as aging or obesity may steer mesenchymal stem cells toward adipogenesis. Here, daily application of low-intensity vibration signals partially neutralized the effects of adipogenic induction on mesenchymal stem cells, suggesting that these signals may provide an alternative and/or complementary option to reduce fat deposition.

  12. Narrative, dialogue, and dissociation.

    PubMed

    Gedo, Paul M

    2014-02-01

    This paper explores dissociative phenomena as disruptions of dialogue between persons, and disruptions of internal narratives. A dissociating patient temporarily loses ability to convey his or her inner experience to the therapist. The disconnection between dialogue and internal experience can mislead both participants, or distract them from underlying connotations. Dissociation also disrupts the patient's sense of internal coherence and internal conversation. Dissociation represents a regression to an early, preverbal mode of (internal and external) communication. The challenge for the dyad is to restore dialogue and then to discern the multiply determined meanings of the dissociative communication. This therapeutic work allows the patient to achieve a more coherent sense of self and of his or her life course.

  13. The dissociative bond.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Nirit

    2013-01-01

    Dissociation leaves a psychic void and a lingering sense of psychic absence. How do 2 people bond while they are both suffering from dissociation? The author explores the notion of a dissociative bond that occurs in the aftermath of trauma--a bond that holds at its core an understanding and shared detachment from the self. Such a bond is confined to unspoken terms that are established in the relational unconscious. The author proposes understanding the dissociative bond as a transitional space that may not lead to full integration of dissociated knowledge yet offers some healing. This is exemplified by R. Prince's (2009) clinical case study. A relational perspective is adopted, focusing on the intersubjective aspects of a dyadic relationship. In the dissociative bond, recognition of the need to experience mutual dissociation can accommodate a psychic state that yearns for relationship when the psyche cannot fully confront past wounds. Such a bond speaks to the need to reestablish a sense of human relatedness and connection when both parties in the relationship suffer from disconnection. This bond is bound to a silence that becomes both a means of protection against the horror of traumatic memory and a way to convey unspoken gestures toward the other.

  14. Effects of low-intensity concentric and eccentric exercise combined with blood flow restriction on indices of exercise-induced muscle damage

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Loenneke, Jeremy P.; Abe, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Low-intensity blood-flow restriction (BFR) resistance training significantly increases strength and muscle size, but some studies report it produces exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) in the lower body after exercise to failure. Purpose: To investigate the effects of a pre-set number of repetitions of upper body concentric and eccentric exercise when combined with BFR on changes in EIMD. Methods: Ten young men had arms randomly assigned to either concentric BFR (CON-BFR) or eccentric BFR (ECC-BFR) dumbbell curl exercise (30% one-repetition maximum (1-RM), 1 set of 30 repetitions followed by 3 sets of 15 repetitions). Maximal isometric voluntary contraction force (MVC), muscle thickness (MTH), circumference, range of motion (ROM), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and muscle soreness were measured before, immediately after, and daily for 4 days post-exercise. Results: MVC decreased by 36% for CON-BFR and 12% for ECC-BFR immediately after exercise but was not changed 1–4 days post-exercise (p > 0.05). Only CON-BFR had significant changes in MTH and circumference immediately after exercise (p < 0.05). Muscle soreness was observed in the ECC-BFR arm at 1 and 2 days after exercise. Conclusions: Low-intensity ECC-BFR produces significant muscle soreness at 24 h but neither ECC-BFR nor CON-BFR exercise produces significant changes in multiple indices of EIMD. PMID:24265891

  15. Dissociative recombination in aeronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of dissociative recombination in planetary aeronomy is summarized, and two examples are discussed. The first is the role of dissociative recombination of N2(+) in the escape of nitrogen from Mars. A previous model is updated to reflect new experimental data on the electronic states of N produced in this process. Second, the intensity of the atomic oxygen green line on the nightside of Venus is modeled. Use is made of theoretical rate coefficients for production of O (1S) in dissociative recombination from different vibrational levels of O2(+).

  16. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A brief description of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder is presented, followed by a discussion of the proposed similarities and differences between dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. The phenomenon of autohypnosis in the context of early childhood sexual trauma and disordered attachment is discussed, as is the meaning of alters or alternate personalities. The author describes recent neurosciences research that may relate the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder to demonstrable disordered attention and memory processes. A clinical description of a typical patient presentation is included, plus some recommendations for approaches to treatment. PMID:19724751

  17. Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation: Safety, ethical, legal regulatory and application guidelines.

    PubMed

    Antal, A; Alekseichuk, I; Bikson, M; Brockmöller, J; Brunoni, A R; Chen, R; Cohen, L G; Dowthwaite, G; Ellrich, J; Flöel, A; Fregni, F; George, M S; Hamilton, R; Haueisen, J; Herrmann, C S; Hummel, F C; Lefaucheur, J P; Liebetanz, D; Loo, C K; McCaig, C D; Miniussi, C; Miranda, P C; Moliadze, V; Nitsche, M A; Nowak, R; Padberg, F; Pascual-Leone, A; Poppendieck, W; Priori, A; Rossi, S; Rossini, P M; Rothwell, J; Rueger, M A; Ruffini, G; Schellhorn, K; Siebner, H R; Ugawa, Y; Wexler, A; Ziemann, U; Hallett, M; Paulus, W

    2017-09-01

    Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears to be safe. No serious adverse events (SAEs) have been reported so far in over 18,000 sessions administered to healthy subjects, neurological and psychiatric patients, as summarized here. Moderate adverse events (AEs), as defined by the necessity to intervene, are rare, and include skin burns with tDCS due to suboptimal electrode-skin contact. Very rarely mania or hypomania was induced in patients with depression (11 documented cases), yet a causal relationship is difficult to prove because of the low incidence rate and limited numbers of subjects in controlled trials. Mild AEs (MAEs) include headache and fatigue following stimulation as well as prickling and burning sensations occurring during tDCS at peak-to-baseline intensities of 1-2mA and during tACS at higher peak-to-peak intensities above 2mA. The prevalence of published AEs is different in studies specifically assessing AEs vs. those not assessing them, being higher in the former. AEs are frequently reported by individuals receiving placebo stimulation. The profile of AEs in terms of frequency, magnitude and type is comparable in healthy and clinical populations, and this is also the case for more vulnerable populations, such as children, elderly persons, or pregnant women. Combined interventions (e.g., co-application of drugs, electrophysiological measurements, neuroimaging) were not associated with further safety issues. Safety is established for low-intensity 'conventional' TES defined as <4mA, up to 60min duration per day. Animal studies and modeling evidence indicate that brain injury could occur at predicted current densities in the brain of 6.3-13A/m(2) that are over an order of magnitude above those produced

  18. A case-control pilot study of low-intensity IVF in good-prognosis patients.

    PubMed

    Gleicher, Norbert; Weghofer, Andrea; Barad, David H

    2012-04-01

    Low-intensity IVF (LI-IVF) is rapidly gaining in popularity. Yet studies comparing LI-IVF to standard IVF are lacking. This is a case-control pilot study, reporting on 14 first LI-IVF and 14 standard IVF cycles in women with normal age-specific ovarian reserve under age 38, matched for age, laboratory environment, staff and time of cycle. LI-IVF cycles underwent mild ovarian stimulation, utilizing clomiphene citrate, augmented by low-dose gonadotrophin stimulation. Control patients underwent routine ovarian stimulation. LI-IVF and regular IVF patients were similar in age, body mass index, FSH and anti-Müllerian hormone. Standard IVF utilized more gonadotrophins (P<0.001), yielded more oocytes (P<0.001) and cryopreserved more embryos (P<0.001). With similar embryo numbers transferred, after ethnicity adjustments, standard IVF demonstrated better odds for pregnancy (OR 7.07; P=0.046) and higher cumulative pregnancy rates (63.3% versus 21.4%; OR 6.6; P=0.02). Adjustments for age, ethnicity and diagnosis maintained significance but oocyte adjustment did not. Cost assessments failed to reveal differences between LI-IVF and standard IVF. In this small study, LI-IVF reduced pregnancy chances without demonstrating cost advantages, raising questions about its utility. In the absence of established clinical and/or economic foundations, LI-IVF should be considered an experimental procedure. Low-intensity IVF (LI-IVF) is increasingly propagated as an alternative to standard IVF. LI-IVF has, however, never been properly assessed in comparison to standard IVF. Such a comparison is presented in the format of a small pilot study, matching LI-IVF cycles with regular IVF cycles and comparing outcomes as well as costs. The study suggests that LI-IVF, at least in this setting, is clinically inferior and economically at best similar to standard IVF. LI-IVF should, therefore, as of this point not be offered as routine IVF treatment but only as an experimental procedure.

  19. Frequent, Low-Intensity Fire Increases Tree Defense To Bark Beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, S.; Sala, A.

    2013-12-01

    Wildfire and bark beetles are the two largest disturbance agents in North American conifer forests and have interacted for millennia to drive forest composition, structure, and ecological processes. Recent widespread mortality in western coniferous forests due to bark beetle outbreaks have been attributed in part to increasing temperatures and drought associated with global climate change. In fire-dependent forests, fire exclusion has also led to uncharacteristically dense forests which are also thought to be more susceptible to bark beetle outbreaks due to increased drought stress in individual trees. These mortality events have spurred strong interest in the interaction of fire and bark beetles in driving forest dynamics under a changing climate. However, a fact that has not received adequate attention is whether fire exclusion in fire-dependent forests decreases allocation to tree defense, thereby making contemporary forests more prone to bark beetle outbreaks, regardless of climate and stand structure. Fire is known to increase constitutive resin production in many tree species, yet the impact of frequent fire on expression of better defended tree phenotypes has never been examined. We hypothesized that frequent, low-intensity fire increases tree resistance to bark beetle attack through systemic induced resistance. Using a combination of sampling in natural stands for which we had long-term fire history data and an experimental block design of four thinning and burning treatments, we examined the influence of fire and water stress on tree defense to determine if frequent fire increases tree defense and the degree to which water stress modulates this response. We used axial resin ducts as the measure of defense, as this is where resin is both stored and manufactured in Pinaceae. Resin duct production and density has also been shown to be a better indicator of mortality from bark beetle attacks than tree growth. Resin duct density increased after fire at all

  20. Dissociation of the effects of training on oxidative metabolism, glucose utilisation and GLUT4 levels in skeletal muscle of streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kainulainen, H; Komulainen, J; Joost, H G; Vihko, V

    1994-07-01

    The effects of long-term, moderate physical exercise on in vivo glucose uptake, levels of two glucose transporter proteins (GLUT1 and GLUT4) and activities of various key enzymes of energy metabolism were measured in skeletal muscle from streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Diabetes (12-16 weeks) reduced the in vivo glucose uptake (glucose metabolic index, GMI) in muscle containing mainly type I fibres by 55% but had no effect in muscles containing mainly type IIa and IIb fibres. GMI was increased in the diabetic white skeletal muscle (mainly type IIb fibres) by more than 120%. In contrast to the complex changes in GMI, GLUT4 levels were reduced in all types of skeletal muscle from diabetic rats with no change in GLUT1 levels. Exercise training had no effects on GMI or the glucose transporter levels. Streptozotocin induced diabetes significantly reduced the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle assayed as the activities of citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase. Training increased the activities of oxidative enzymes, with this increase being more prominent in the diabetic animals. The present data indicate that long-term streptozotocin-induced diabetes decreases oxidative metabolic capacity and GLUT4 protein levels in skeletal muscle, but that the changes of glucose transport largely depend on the fibre type composition. Moderate training fully reverses the effect of insulinopenia and hyperglycaemia on muscle oxidative metabolism. In contrast to the previous suggestions, the expression of GLUT4 is not correlated with the capacity of oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle of streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

  1. Design evolution enhances patient compliance for low-intensity pulsed ultrasound device usage

    PubMed Central

    Pounder, Neill M; Jones, John T; Tanis, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Poor patient compliance or nonadherence with prescribed treatments can have a significant unfavorable impact on medical costs and clinical outcomes. In the current study, voice-of-the-customer research was conducted to aid in the development of a next-generation low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) bone healing product. An opportunity to improve patient compliance reporting was identified, resulting in the incorporation into the next-generation device of a visual calendar that provides direct feedback to the patient, indicating days for which they successfully completed treatment. Further investigation was done on whether inclusion of the visual calendar improved patient adherence to the prescribed therapy (20 minutes of daily treatment) over a 6-month period. Thus, 12,984 data files were analyzed from patients prescribed either the earlier- or the next-generation LIPUS device. Over the 6-month period, overall patient compliance was 83.8% with the next-generation LIPUS device, compared with 74.2% for the previous version (p<0.0001). Incorporation of the calendar feature resulted in compliance never decreasing below 76% over the analysis period, whereas compliance with the earlier-generation product fell to 51%. A literature review on the LIPUS device shows a correlation between clinical effectiveness and compliance rates more than 70%. Incorporation of stakeholder feedback throughout the design and innovation process of a next-generation LIPUS device resulted in a measurable improvement in patient adherence, which may help to optimize clinical outcomes. PMID:27942237

  2. Low-intensity vibration improves angiogenesis and wound healing in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M; Judex, Stefan; Ennis, William J; Koh, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic wounds represent a significant health problem, especially in diabetic patients. In the current study, we investigated a novel therapeutic approach to wound healing--whole body low-intensity vibration (LIV). LIV is anabolic for bone, by stimulating the release of growth factors, and modulating stem cell proliferation and differentiation. We hypothesized that LIV improves the delayed wound healing in diabetic mice by promoting a pro-healing wound environment. Diabetic db/db mice received excisional cutaneous wounds and were subjected to LIV (0.4 g at 45 Hz) for 30 min/d or a non-vibrated sham treatment (controls). Wound tissue was collected at 7 and 15 d post-wounding and wound healing, angiogenesis, growth factor levels and wound cell phenotypes were assessed. LIV increased angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation at day 7, and accelerated wound closure and re-epithelialization over days 7 and 15. LIV also reduced neutrophil accumulation and increased macrophage accumulation. In addition, LIV increased expression of pro-healing growth factors and chemokines (insulin-like growth factor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor and monocyte chemotactic protein-1) in wounds. Despite no evidence of a change in the phenotype of CD11b+ macrophages in wounds, LIV resulted in trends towards a less inflammatory phenotype in the CD11b- cells. Our findings indicate that LIV may exert beneficial effects on wound healing by enhancing angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation, and these changes are associated with increases in pro-angiogenic growth factors.

  3. Acute Cardiovascular and Hemodynamic Responses to Low Intensity Eccentric Resistance Exercise with Blood Flow Restriction.

    PubMed

    Bazgir, Behzad; Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Mojtaba; Rajabi, Hamid; Fathi, Rouhollah; Ojaghi, Seyed Mojtaba; Emami Meybodi, Mohammad Kazem; Neto, Gabriel R; Rahimi, Mostafa; Asgari, Alireza

    2016-12-01

    Recently it has been suggested that low intensity (LI) resistance exercise (RE) alone or in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR) can be applied for cardiovascular function improvement or rehabilitation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of LI eccentric RE with and without BFR on heart rate (HR), rate pressure product (RPP), blood pressure (BP) parameters [systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure (MAP)], oxygen saturation (SpO2) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE). In a semi-experimental study 16 young adults (26.18 ± 3.67 years) volunteered and performed LI (30% maximum voluntary contraction) eccentric RE alone or combined with BFR. The results indicated that HR, RPP, and RPE increased significantly within both groups (P < 0.05); SBP and DBP increased significantly only with BFR (P < 0.05); MAP increased significantly during exercise without BFR (P < 0.05); and no change was observed in SpO2 in either groups (P > 0.05). Furthermore, studied parameters did not vary amongst different groups (P > 0.05). It is concluded that LI eccentric RE with BFR positively regulated the hemodynamic and cardiovascular responses. Therefore, the eccentric RE combined with BFR seems to be a good option for future studies with the aim of time efficacy, since it alters these parameters within normal values.

  4. Enhancement of ANAMMOX activity by low-intensity ultrasound irradiation at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-Jin; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Jue; Ji, Yu-Xin; Liu, Qi-Zhen; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2013-08-01

    This paper aims to investigate the enhancement effect of low intensity intermittent ultrasound irradiation on the efficiency of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) process at ambient temperature. With intermittently irradiated (ultrasound intensity of 0.19 w/cm(2), exposure time of 0.2 min), the reactor (RU) had a nitrogen removal rate (NRR) of 5.49 kgTN/m(3)/d at 14.8°C, while the NRR was 1.53 kgTN/m(3)/d in the control reactor (RC). At the end of operation, the contents of polysaccharide, protein, TTC-dehydrogenase and VSS were 6.82 mg/mgVSS, 26.79 mg/mgVSS, 0.58 mgTF/L/H and 10.11 gVSS/L in RU, higher than the levels in the RC. These results demonstrated that it is possible to achieve stable and highly efficient operation in an ANAMMOX reactor at low ambient temperature by implementation of ultrasonication.

  5. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy: a potential strategy to stimulate tendon-bone junction healing*

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Zhi-min; Lin, Tiao; Yan, Shi-gui

    2012-01-01

    Incorporation of a tendon graft within the bone tunnel represents a challenging clinical problem. Successful anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction requires solid healing of the tendon graft in the bone tunnel. Enhancement of graft healing to bone is important to facilitate early aggressive rehabilitation and a rapid return to pre-injury activity levels. No convenient, effective or inexpensive procedures exist to enhance tendon-bone (T-B) healing after surgery. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) improves local blood perfusion and angiogenesis, stimulates cartilage maturation, enhances differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts, and motivates osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and therefore, appears to be a potential non-invasive tool for T-B healing in early stage of rehabilitation of ACL reconstruction. It is conceivable that LIPUS could be used to stimulate T-B tunnel healing in the home, with the aim of accelerating rehabilitation and an earlier return to normal activities in the near future. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate how LIPUS stimulates T-B healing at the cellular and molecular levels, describe studies in animal models, and provide a future direction for research. PMID:23225850

  6. Pulsed low-intensity ultrasound therapy for chronic lateral epicondylitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    D'Vaz, A P; Ostor, A J K; Speed, C A; Jenner, J R; Bradley, M; Prevost, A T; Hazleman, B L

    2006-05-01

    Pulsed low-intensity ultrasound therapy (LIUS) has been found to be beneficial in accelerating fracture healing and has produced positive results in animal tendon repair. In the light of this we undertook a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of LIUS vs placebo therapy daily for 12 weeks in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis (LE). Patients with LE of at least 6 weeks' duration were recruited from general practice, physiotherapy and rheumatology clinics, and had to have failed at least one first-line treatment including non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroid injection. Participants were assigned either active LIUS or placebo. Treatment was self-administered daily for 20 min over a 12-week period. The primary end-point was a 50% improvement from baseline in elbow pain measured at 12 weeks using a patient-completed visual analogue scale. Fifty-five subjects aged 18-80 were recruited over a 9-month period. In the active group 64% (16/25) achieved at least 50% improvement from baseline in elbow pain at 12 weeks compared with 57% (13/23) in the placebo group (difference of 7%; 95% confidence interval -20 to 35%). However, this was not statistically significant (chi(2) = 0.28, P = 0.60). In this study LIUS was no more effective for a large treatment effect than placebo for recalcitrant LE. This is in keeping with other interventional studies for the condition.

  7. Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS) for the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Devante; Jones, Peter; Salgaonkar, Vasant; Adams, Matt; Ozilgen, B. Arda; Zahos, Peter; Tang, Xinyan; Liebenberg, Ellen; Coughlin, Dezba; Lotz, Jeffrey; Diederich, Chris

    2017-02-01

    Discogenic back pain presents a major public health issue, with current therapeutic interventions limited to short-term symptom relief without providing regenerative remedies for diseased intervertebral discs (IVD). Many of these interventions are invasive and can diminish the biomechanical integrity of the IVDs. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a potential treatment option that is both non-invasive and regenerative. LIPUS has been shown to be a clinically effective method for the enhancement of wound and fracture healing. Recent in vitro studies have shown that LIPUS stimulation induces an upregulation functional matrix proteins and downregulation of inflammatory factors in cultured IVD cells. However, we do not know the effects of LIPUS on an in vivo model for intervertebral disc degeneration. The objective of this study was to show technical feasibility of building a LIPUS system that can target the rat tail IVD and apply this setup to a model for acute IVD degeneration. A LIPUS exposimetry system was built using a 1.0 MHz planar transducer and custom housing. Ex vivo intensity measurements demonstrated LIPUS delivery to the center of the rat tail IVD. Using an established stab-incision model for disc degeneration, LIPUS was applied for 20 minutes daily for five days. For rats that displayed a significant injury response, LIPUS treatment caused significant upregulation of Collagen II and downregulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor - α gene expression. Our preliminary studies indicate technical feasibility of targeted delivery of ultrasound to a rat tail IVD for studies of LIPUS biological effects.

  8. Profiling of genes central to human mitochondrial energy metabolism following low intensity laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houreld, Nicolette N.; Masha, Roland; Abrahamse, Heidi

    2012-09-01

    Background: Wound healing involves three overlapping phases: inflammation, granulation and tissue remodelling. If this process is disrupted, delayed wound healing ensues, a common complication seen in diabetic patients. Low intensity laser irradiation (LILI) has been found to promote healing in such patients. However, the exact mechanisms of action are poorly understood. Purpose: This study aimed to profile the expression of key genes involved in mitochondrial respiration. Materials and Methods: Diabetic wounded fibroblast cells were exposed to a wavelength of 660 nm and a fluence of 5 J/cm2 and incubated for 30 min. Total RNA was isolated and 1 μg reverse transcribed into cDNA which was used for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array analysis. The array contained genes important for each of the mitochondrial complexes involved in the electron transport chain (ETC). Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were also determined post-irradiation by ATP luminescence. Results: Genes involved in complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase), COX6B2 and COX6C, and PPA1 which is involved in complex V (ATP synthase) were significantly up-regulated. There was a significant increase in ATP levels in diabetic wounded cells post-irradiation. Discussion and Conclusion: LILI stimulates the ETC at a transcriptional level, resulting in an increase in ATP. This study helps understand the mechanisms of LILI in diabetic wound healing, and gives information on activation of genes in response to LILI.

  9. Effect of Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Postorthognathic Surgery Healing Process

    PubMed Central

    Tehranchi, Azita; Badiee, Mohamadreza; Younessian, Farnaz; Badiei, Mohamadreza; Haddadpour, Sahar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Orthognathic surgery can cause discomforts such as pain, inflammation, and edema. One of the challenges is bone regeneration at surgery area. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) therapy on bone regeneration and pain relief after surgery. Materials and Methods: Following mandibular surgery of nine patients, LIPUS treatment was applied to the left or right side for 3 weeks and 20 min/day. The other side was treated with sham-LIPUS as the control group. Digital panoramic radiographies were obtained immediately after surgery and 3 weeks later. Bone density at surgery site was assessed using Digora version 2.8 software. The data were analyzed with one-sample Kolmogorov–Smirnov and t-paired test. Postoperation pain was evaluated by means of visual analog scale. Results: Increase in bone density at border and medulla was 23 and 28.33 for experimental group and 13 and 13.55 units in control group, respectively. The differences are statistically significant (P < 0.01). Variance analysis showed that decrease in experienced pain during 3 weeks after surgery was significantly different between groups (P < 0.01). Conclusion: LIPUS can be an effective way to increase bone modeling and decrease pain following orthognathic surgeries. PMID:28713732

  10. Low intensity ultrasound inhibits brain oedema formation in rats: potential action on AQP4 membrane localization.

    PubMed

    Karmacharya, Mrigendra Bir; Kim, Kil Hwan; Kim, See Yoon; Chung, Joonho; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Park, So Ra; Choi, Byung Hyune

    2015-06-01

    Brain oedema is a major contributing factor to the morbidity and mortality of a variety of brain disorders. Although there has been considerable progress in our understanding of pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms associated with brain oedema so far, more effective treatment is required and is still awaited. Here we intended to study the effects of low intensity ultrasound (LIUS) on brain oedema. We prepared the rat hippocampal slice in vitro and acute water intoxication in vivo models of brain oedema. We applied LIUS stimulation in these models and studied the molecular mechanisms of LIUS action on brain oedema. We found that LIUS stimulation markedly inhibited the oedema formation in both of these models. LIUS stimulation significantly reduced brain water content and intracranial pressure resulting in increased survival of the rats. Here, we showed that the AQP4 localization was increased in the astrocytic foot processes in the oedematous hippocampal slices, while it was significantly reduced in the LIUS-stimulated hippocampal slices. In the in vivo model too, AQP4 expression was markedly increased in the microvessels of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus after water intoxication but was reduced in the LIUS-stimulated rats. These data show that LIUS has an inhibitory effect on cytotoxic brain oedema and suggest its therapeutic potential to treat brain oedema. We propose that LIUS reduces the AQP4 localization around the astrocytic foot processes thereby decreasing water permeability into the brain tissue. © 2014 British Neuropathological Society.

  11. Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) Versus Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation On Microcirculation In Diabetic Neuropathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battecha, Kadria H.; Atya, Azza M.

    2011-09-01

    Reduced microcirculation is a morbid element of neuropathy and one of the most common complications of uncontrolled diabetes. Many physical modalities have gained a considerable attention for enhancing cutaneous microcirculation in diabetic patients and prevent its serious complications. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to compare between the effect of low intensity laser therapy (LILT) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on microcirculation in diabetic neuropathy. Thirty diabetic polyneuropathic patients ranged in age from 45-60 years participated in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups of equal number; patients in group (A) received LILT on plantar surface of foot with a dose of 3 J/cm2 and wavelength (904 nm), while those in group (B) received TENS on lower leg for 30 minutes with frequency (2 HZ). Treatment was conducted 3 times/week for 6 weeks. The cutaneous microcirculation was evaluated by Laser Doppler flowmetry at the baseline and at the end of treatment. Results revealed that group (A) showed statistically significant increase in the cutaneous microcirculation compared with group (B). So, it was concluded that LILT has to be more efficient than TENS in increasing cutaneous microcirculation in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

  12. Chronic exposure to pulsed low-intensity microwaves is carcinogenic and tumorogenic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2004-03-01

    To study health effects of lifetime exposure to low-intensity pulsed radiation >890 MHz, one controlled laboratory study of SPF* rats[1-3] and two of mice[4,5] were conducted, but only one[4] reported that its data showed an association between irradiation and cancer; reports of the other two studies minimized or denied such association. Critical review of these identified data evaluation errors; their correction enables a conclusion of microwave carcinogenicity from each study (the rat study also shows an association with endocrine-system primary malignancies and with a benign tumor of the adrenal medulla), enhancing the credibility of an epidemiological study[6] reporting a brain cancer risk for users of both analog and digital cellular phones. [1] J. Raloff. Science News 126(7):103(1984). [2] K. R. Foster & A. W. Guy. Sci Am 255(3):32-39(1986). [3] C.-K. Chou et al. Bioelectromagnetics 13:469-496(1992). [4] M. H. Repacholi et al. Radiat Res 147:631-640(1990)SPF\\. [5] T. D. Utteridge et al. Radiat Res 158:357-364(2002)non-SPF\\. [6] L. Hardell et al. Int J Oncol 22:399-407(2003). * SPF = specific-pathogen-free

  13. Ash production and dispersal from sustained low-intensity Mono-Inyo eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Benjamin A.; Manga, Michael; Andrews, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Recent rhyolitic volcanism has demonstrated that prolonged low-intensity ash venting may accompany effusive dome formation. We examine the possibility and some consequences of episodes of extended, weak ash venting at the rhyolitic Mono-Inyo chain in Eastern California. We describe ash-filled cracks within one of the youngest domes, Panum Crater, which provide a textural record of ash venting during dome effusion. We use synchrotron-based X-ray computed tomography to characterize the particles in these tuffisites. Particle sizes in well-sorted tuffisite layers agree well with grain size distributions observed during weak ash venting at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, and yield approximate upper and lower bounds on gas velocity and mass flux during the formation of those layers. We simulate ash dispersal with Ash3d to assess the consequences of long-lived Mono-Inyo ash venting for ash deposition and the accompanying volcanic hazards. Our results highlight the sensitivity of large-scale outcomes of volcanic eruptions to small-scale processes.

  14. Enhancement of cardiomyogenesis in stem cells by low intensity pulsed ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Ailing; Morshedi, Amir; Wang, Jen-Chieh; Lim, Mayasari; Zhou, Yufeng

    2017-03-01

    Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been shown to enhance bone and cartilage regeneration from stem cells. Gene expression of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor can be increased in LIPUS-treated osteoblasts. The AT1 receptor is a known mechanoreceptor in cardiomyocytes. It suggests that LIPUS may enhance cardiomyogenesis via mechanotransduction by increasing AT1 expression. Murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were treated daily by 10-min 1MHz LIPUS at spatial-average temporal-peak acoustic intensities of 30 mW/cm2 and 300 mW/cm2 in both continuous and pulsed wave (20% duty cycle) for 10 days. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunocytochemistry, and beating rate were used to evaluate the cardiac viability quantitatively. After the treatment of LIPUS, beating rate of contractile areas and cardiac gene expression, such as α- and β-myosin heavy chain, were improved. Furthermore, no deleterious effects to the development of cardiac proteins were observed. All results suggest that LIPUS stimulation has the capacity of enhancing cardiomyogenesis from embryonic stem cells. With the benefit and the ease in incorporating LIPUS into various culture platforms, LIPUS has the potential to produce cardiomyocytes for clinical use in the future.

  15. Position monitoring of low intensity beams using a digital frequency down converter

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, H.; Drennan, C.

    1995-05-05

    In monitoring the position of very low intensity beams a signal processing scheme similar to that used in an amplitude-comparison monopulse radar may be employed. In this scheme, an I-Q demodulator for both the sum and difference channels and a phase detector are needed to detect the beam position. It is complex and costly to implement the signal processing with discrete analog components. However, a newly available HSP50016 Digital Down Converter (DDC) chip has provided an attractive alternative. This DSP chip processes the digitized output of the IF section by first converting the signal to baseband using an in-phase/quadrature mixer and then filtering the result with a combination of a programmable high decimating filter and a fixed FIR shaping filter. The accuracy of the quadrature demodulation, nearly ideal filter shape factor and filter reject-band attenuation make the DDC a favored choice over a discrete analog design in an application dealing with very weak beam signals. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  16. Remote excitation of neuronal circuits using low-intensity, low-frequency ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Tyler, William J; Tufail, Yusuf; Finsterwald, Michael; Tauchmann, Monica L; Olson, Emily J; Majestic, Cassondra

    2008-01-01

    Possessing the ability to noninvasively elicit brain circuit activity yields immense experimental and therapeutic power. Most currently employed neurostimulation methods rely on the somewhat invasive use of stimulating electrodes or photon-emitting devices. Due to its ability to noninvasively propagate through bone and other tissues in a focused manner, the implementation of ultrasound (US) represents a compelling alternative approach to current neuromodulation strategies. Here, we investigated the influence of low-intensity, low-frequency ultrasound (LILFU) on neuronal activity. By transmitting US waveforms through hippocampal slice cultures and ex vivo mouse brains, we determined LILFU is capable of remotely and noninvasively exciting neurons and network activity. Our results illustrate that LILFU can stimulate electrical activity in neurons by activating voltage-gated sodium channels, as well as voltage-gated calcium channels. The LILFU-induced changes in neuronal activity were sufficient to trigger SNARE-mediated exocytosis and synaptic transmission in hippocampal circuits. Because LILFU can stimulate electrical activity and calcium signaling in neurons as well as central synaptic transmission we conclude US provides a powerful tool for remotely modulating brain circuit activity.

  17. Nanomaterials and synergistic low intensity direct current (LIDC) stimulation technology for orthopaedic implantable medical devices

    PubMed Central

    Samberg, Meghan E.; Cohen, Paul H.; Wysk, Richard A.; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    Nanomaterials play a significant role in biomedical research and applications due to their unique biological, mechanical, and electrical properties. In recent years, they have been utilised to improve the functionality and reliability of a wide range of implantable medical devices ranging from well-established orthopaedic residual hardware devices (e.g. hip implants) that can repair defects in skeletal systems to emerging tissue engineering scaffolds that can repair or replace organ functions. This review summarizes the applications and efficacies of these nanomaterials that include synthetic or naturally occurring metals, polymers, ceramics, and composites in orthopaedic implants, the largest market segment of implantable medical devices. The importance of synergistic engineering techniques that can augment or enhance the performance of nanomaterial applications in orthopaedic implants is also discussed,, the focus being on a low intensity direct electric current (LIDC) stimulation technology to promote the long-term antibacterial efficacy of oligodynamic metal-based surfaces by ionization, while potentially accelerating tissue growth and osseointegration. While many nanomaterials have clearly demonstrated their ability to provide more effective implantable medical surfaces, further decisive investigations are necessary before they can translate into medically safe and commercially viable clinical applications. The paper concludes with a discussion about some of the critical impending issues with the application of nanomaterials-based technologies in implantable medical devices, and potential directions to address these. PMID:23335493

  18. Human Response to Low-Intensity Sonic Booms Heard Indoors and Outdoors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.; Klos, Jacob; Buehrle, Ralph D.; McCurdy, David A.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Test subjects seated inside and outside a house were exposed to low-intensity N-wave sonic booms during a 3-week test period in June 2006- The house was instrumented to measure the booms both inside and out. F-18 aircraft were flown to achieve a variety of boom overpressures from approximately .1 to .6 psf During four test days, seventy-seven test subjects heard the booms while seated inside and outside the house. Using the Magnitude Estimation methodology and artificial reference sounds ; the subjects rated the annoyance of the booms. Since the same subjects heard similar booms both inside and outside the house, comparative ratings of indoor and outdoor annoyance were obtained. For a given metric level, indoor subjects gave higher annoyance scores than outdoor subjects. For a given boom; annoyance scores inside were on average the same as those outside. In a post-test questionnaire, the majority of subjects rated the indoor booms as more annoying than the outdoor ones. These results are discussed in this paper.

  19. Low intensity, mixed livestock grazing improves the breeding abundance of a common insectivorous passerine.

    PubMed

    Evans, Darren M; Redpath, Stephen M; Evans, Sharon A; Elston, David A; Gardner, Charles J; Dennis, Peter; Pakeman, Robin J

    2006-12-22

    Livestock grazing is a major driver of ecosystem change and has been associated with significant declines in various bird species in Britain and worldwide. However, there is little experimental evidence to show how grazing affects bird populations. We manipulated livestock densities in a replicated field experiment and found that mixed sheep and cattle grazing, at low intensity, improved the breeding abundance of a common upland passerine, the meadow pipit Anthus pratensis, after two years. Plots stocked with sheep alone (at high or low density) or not stocked at all held fewer pipit territories. Despite a year-on-year decline in pairs of meadow pipits in intensively grazed plots, we found no effect of sheep number on breeding abundance. Our results support the hypothesis that mixed species of herbivores generate greater heterogeneity in vegetation structure, which modifies prey availability, resulting in a greater abundance of birds. The results of our study should inform the management of grassland areas and enhance the abundance of some bird species, particularly in areas that have seen significant shifts from mixed livestock grazing to grazing dominated by single species of animals.

  20. Clinical and immunohistopathological aspects of venous ulcers treatment by Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS).

    PubMed

    de Ávila Santana, Luísiane; Alves, José Marcos; Andrade, Thiago Antônio Moretti; Kajiwara, João Kazuyuki; Garcia, Sérgio Britto; Gomes, Fernanda Guzzo; Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani

    2013-04-01

    The immunological mechanisms that are triggered by Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS) in wound healing are unknown. In the present study, experimental groups were used to assess the treatment of chronic venous ulcers with 30mW/cm(2) SATA peripheral LIPUS three times per week compared to a daily treatment of 1% silver sulfadiazine (SDZ). The ulcers of the SDZ group (n=7) (G1) and LIPUS group (n=9) (G2) were photographed five times three months, and the images were analyzed using ImageJ software to quantify the total area (S), fibrin/sphacel area (yellow) and granulation area (red). The healing process was evaluated by the wound healing rate (WHR), granulation tissue rate (GTR) and fibrin/sphacel tissue rate (FTR). The ulcers were biopsied on days 1 and 45 and stained for collagen fiber quantification (picrosirius) and CD68(+) protein and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) expression using HRP-streptavidin (horseradish peroxidase-streptavidin). On day 90, G2 had a mean 41% decrease in the ulcer area, while no decrease was observed in G1 (p<0.05). An increased tendency toward positive labeling of collagen fibers and VEGF (p>0.05) was observed in G2 compared to G1, and the number of CD68(+) cells was greater in G2 than in G1 (p<0.05). LIPUS presents superior activity compared to SDZ in stimulating the inflammatory and proliferative (angiogenesis and collagenesis, respectively) phases of chronic venous wound healing.

  1. Non-perturbative measurement of low-intensity charged particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, M.; Geithner, R.; Golm, J.; Neubert, R.; Schwickert, M.; Stöhlker, T.; Tan, J.; Welsch, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    Non-perturbative measurements of low-intensity charged particle beams are particularly challenging to beam diagnostics due to the low amplitude of the induced electromagnetic fields. In the low-energy antiproton decelerator (AD) and the future extra low energy antiproton rings at CERN, an absolute measurement of the beam intensity is essential to monitor the operation efficiency. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) based cryogenic current comparators (CCC) have been used for measuring slow charged beams in the nA range, showing a very good current resolution. But these were unable to measure fast bunched beams, due to the slew-rate limitation of SQUID devices and presented a strong susceptibility to external perturbations. Here, we present a CCC system developed for the AD machine, which was optimised in terms of its current resolution, system stability, ability to cope with short bunched beams, and immunity to mechanical vibrations. This paper presents the monitor design and the first results from measurements with a low energy antiproton beam obtained in the AD in 2015. These are the first CCC beam current measurements ever performed in a synchrotron machine with both coasting and short bunched beams. It is shown that the system is able to stably measure the AD beam throughout the entire cycle, with a current resolution of 30 {nA}.

  2. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy: a potential strategy to stimulate tendon-bone junction healing.

    PubMed

    Ying, Zhi-min; Lin, Tiao; Yan, Shi-gui

    2012-12-01

    Incorporation of a tendon graft within the bone tunnel represents a challenging clinical problem. Successful anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction requires solid healing of the tendon graft in the bone tunnel. Enhancement of graft healing to bone is important to facilitate early aggressive rehabilitation and a rapid return to pre-injury activity levels. No convenient, effective or inexpensive procedures exist to enhance tendon-bone (T-B) healing after surgery. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) improves local blood perfusion and angiogenesis, stimulates cartilage maturation, enhances differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts, and motivates osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and therefore, appears to be a potential non-invasive tool for T-B healing in early stage of rehabilitation of ACL reconstruction. It is conceivable that LIPUS could be used to stimulate T-B tunnel healing in the home, with the aim of accelerating rehabilitation and an earlier return to normal activities in the near future. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate how LIPUS stimulates T-B healing at the cellular and molecular levels, describe studies in animal models, and provide a future direction for research.

  3. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Improves the Functional Properties of Cardiac Mesoangioblasts.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Aurora; Pérez, Laura M; De Lucas, Beatriz; Martín, Nuria San; Kadow-Romacker, Anke; Plaza, Gustavo; Raum, Kay; Gálvez, Beatriz G

    2015-12-01

    Cell-based therapy is a promising approach for many diseases, including ischemic heart disease. Cardiac mesoangioblasts are committed vessel-associated progenitors that can restore to a significant, although partial, extent, heart structure and function in a murine model of myocardial infarction. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a non-invasive form of mechanical energy that can be delivered into biological tissues as acoustic pressure waves, and is widely used for clinical applications including bone fracture healing. We hypothesized that the positive effects of LIPUS on bone and soft tissue, such as increased cell differentiation and cytoskeleton reorganization, could be applied to increase the therapeutic potential of mesoangioblasts for heart repair. In this work, we show that LIPUS stimulation of cardiac mesoangioblasts isolated from mouse and human heart results in significant cellular modifications that provide beneficial effects to the cells, including increased malleability and improved motility. Additionally, LIPUS stimulation increased the number of binucleated cells and induced cardiac differentiation to an extent comparable with 5'-azacytidine treatment. Mechanistically, LIPUS stimulation activated the BMP-Smad signalling pathway and increased the expression of myosin light chain-2 together with upregulation of β1 integrin and RhoA, highlighting a potentially important role for cytoskeleton reorganization. Taken together, these results provide functional evidence that LIPUS might be a useful tool to explore in the field of heart cell therapy.

  4. Low-intensity cycling affects the muscle activation pattern of consequent countermovement jumps.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Gonzalo J; Mon, Javier; Acero, Rafael M; Sanchez, Jose A; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel

    2009-08-01

    Players (eg, basketball, soccer, and football) often use a static bicycle during a game to maintain warming. However, the effectiveness of this procedure has not been addressed in the literature. Thus, it remains unknown whether low-intensity cycling movement can affect explosive movement performance. In this study, 10 male subjects performed countermovement jumps before and after a 15-minutes cycling bout at 35% of their maximal power output. Three sessions were tested for 3 different cadences of cycling: freely chosen cadence, 20% lower than freely chosen cadence (FCC-20%), and 20% higher than freely chosen cadence (FCC+20%). Jump height, kinematics, and electromyogram were recorded simultaneously during the countermovement jumps. The results showed a significant decreasing in the height of countermovement jump after cycling at freely chosen cadence and FCC-20% (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively), but not for FCC+20% cadences. The electromyographic parameters suggest that changes in the countermovement jump after cycling can be attributed to alteration of the pattern of activation and may be modulated by the preceding cycling cadence. Our study indicates that to avoid a possible negative effect of the cycling in the subsequent explosive movements, a cadence 20% higher than the preferred cadence must be used.

  5. [Low-intensity helium-neon laser in the treatment of patients after endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy].

    PubMed

    Beloglazov, V G; At'kova, E L; Nurieva, S M; Khvedelidze, E P

    2004-01-01

    Described in the paper is an efficiency study of using, postoperatively, the low-intensity helium-neon laser (LIHNL) in patients with obstruction of the lacrimal tracts. Eighty patients were examined after endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy. They were shared between 2 groups with respect to a postoperative course: group 1--experimental, 40 patients, and group 2--control, 40 patients. The experimental patients received, apart from the traditional postoperative therapy, a course of LIHNL therapy. The controls received only the traditional postoperative treatment. The efficiency of postoperative treatment was evaluated by clinical, instrumental and laboratory examination methods. The study denoted that the use of LIHNL in the early postoperative period after endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy had a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect, speeded up the wound healing, prevented the growth of granulation tissues and the merging of the shaped lacrimal-sac fistula with the nasal cavity. LIHNL contributed to a complete recovery of the functional activity of the nasal mucous tunic. Thus, the LIHNL therapy essentially facilitates the postoperative management of patients, cuts the rehabilitation period and enhances the treatment results.

  6. Nanomaterials and synergistic low-intensity direct current (LIDC) stimulation technology for orthopedic implantable medical devices.

    PubMed

    Shirwaiker, Rohan A; Samberg, Meghan E; Cohen, Paul H; Wysk, Richard A; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A

    2013-01-01

    Nanomaterials play a significant role in biomedical research and applications because of their unique biological, mechanical, and electrical properties. In recent years, they have been utilized to improve the functionality and reliability of a wide range of implantable medical devices ranging from well-established orthopedic residual hardware devices (e.g., hip implants) that can repair defects in skeletal systems to emerging tissue engineering scaffolds that can repair or replace organ functions. This review summarizes the applications and efficacies of these nanomaterials that include synthetic or naturally occurring metals, polymers, ceramics, and composites in orthopedic implants, the largest market segment of implantable medical devices. The importance of synergistic engineering techniques that can augment or enhance the performance of nanomaterial applications in orthopedic implants is also discussed, the focus being on a low-intensity direct electric current (LIDC) stimulation technology to promote the long-term antibacterial efficacy of oligodynamic metal-based surfaces by ionization, while potentially accelerating tissue growth and osseointegration. While many nanomaterials have clearly demonstrated their ability to provide more effective implantable medical surfaces, further decisive investigations are necessary before they can translate into medically safe and commercially viable clinical applications. The article concludes with a discussion about some of the critical impending issues with the application of nanomaterials-based technologies in implantable medical devices, and potential directions to address these. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Role of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Cartilage Healing in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Joshua B; Jayaram, Prathap; Naqvi, Usker; Gober, Joslyn; Malanga, Gerard A

    2017-06-09

    Ultrasound (US) is a therapeutic modality that has been used in the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions for decades. In recent years, there have been technological advancements using low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) as a clinical modality. The purpose of this review was to critically examine the medical literature to determine the effects of LIPUS on the chondrogenic properties of knee osteoarthritis. A literature search of 3 major databases (PubMed, Scopus, and EMBASE) was performed. Two independent physician reviewers screened titles and abstracts, yielding a total of 18 relevant articles after the inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Results favored that LIPUS has a promising effect on the cellular elements in articular cartilage, specifically on chondrocytes in knee osteoarthritis. Although the use of LIPUS is encouraging based on basic science and preclinical data, there is a paucity of evidence with respect to humans. Consequently, there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against LIPUS in clinical OA populations. We suggest future directions for research centered on LIPUS in both human and animal models to delineate the effect on the biologic properties of cartilage in knee osteoarthritis. To be determined. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Low cost/low intensity 50 MeV proton irradiation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S.L.; Martin, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Protons have been proposed as one of the most useful particles for radiation therapy, but have found limited use due to the cost and scarcity of medium energy proton accelerators. However, the highly successful program on the Harvard Cyclotron has increased interest in expanding the number of treatment facilities. In order to demonstrate that high intensity proton accelerators are not required and to gain experience with treating patients using protons, a low cost and low intensity source of 50 MeV protons was developed at Argonne. Although the beam penetration is limited to 22 mm, the beam is capable of treating a major fraction of the ocular melanoma tumors treated at the Harvard Cyclotron. This beam operates parasitically with the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron at Argonne using a source of 50 MeV H/sup 0/ atoms which are produced by stripping in the gas of the 50 MeV H/sup -/ linear accelerator. A stripping fraction of about 3 to 5 x 10/sup -5/ is observed and yields a 0.4 namp beam of protons. Results on the properties and operation of this parasitic beam are presented. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Preliminary Study on the Efficacy of Low Intensity Pulsed ultrasound for Osteoporosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Makoto; Koji, Akiyama; Tokita, Akihumi; Ishijima, Muneaki; Nozawa, Masahiko; Kurosawa, Hisashi

    2005-03-01

    Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has recently been shown to accelerate long bone fracture healing, but its effect on osteoporosis is not clear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether bone mineral density (BMD) of distal one-third radius of older woman is influenced with LIPUS. Six Japanese women who were outpatients at our hospital were recruited in this study and ranged from seventy to seventy-four years of age. In this study LIPUS exposed unilateral distal one-third of the radius for 20 min/once, 3 times and over every week for six months. The contralateral side was not exposed. The intensity of ultrasound was 30 mW/cm2 spatial-average temporal-average. Bone status was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and 3 and 6 months later. Medication for osteoporosis were not changed. A significant increases in BMD at the treatment site were found in 3 women without alendronate and menatetrenone medication (averaged 4.5%). No significant differences were found in women on these medications. No remarkable changes were found away from the treatment site. These results suggest the possibility of effectiveness of LIPUS applied to a local area of osteoporosis and that pharmacological intervention is capable of influencing the effect of LIPUS for osteoporosis.

  10. Biophoton detection and low-intensity light therapy: a potential clinical partnership.

    PubMed

    Tafur, Joseph; Van Wijk, Eduard P A; Van Wijk, Roeland; Mills, Paul J

    2010-02-01

    Low-intensity light therapy (LILT) is showing promise in the treatment of a wide variety of medical conditions. Concurrently, our knowledge of LILT mechanisms continues to expand. We are now aware of LILT's potential to induce cellular effects through, for example, accelerated ATP production and the mitigation of oxidative stress. In clinical use, however, it is often difficult to predict patient response to LILT. It appears that cellular reduction/oxidation (redox) state may play a central role in determining sensitivity to LILT and may help explain variability in patient responsiveness. In LILT, conditions associated with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, e.g. diabetic hyperglycemia, demonstrate increased sensitivity to LILT. Consequently, assessment of tissue redox conditions in vivo may prove helpful in identifying responsive tissues. A noninvasive redox measure may be useful in advancing investigation in LILT and may one day be helpful in better identifying responsive patients. The detection of biophotons, the production of which is associated with cellular redox state and the generation of ROS, represents just such an opportunity. In this review, we will present the case for pursuing further investigation into the potential clinical partnership between biophoton detection and LILT.

  11. Biophoton Detection and Low-Intensity Light Therapy: A Potential Clinical Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Van Wijk, Eduard P.A.; Van Wijk, Roeland; Mills, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Low-intensity light therapy (LILT) is showing promise in the treatment of a wide variety of medical conditions. Concurrently, our knowledge of LILT mechanisms continues to expand. We are now aware of LILT's potential to induce cellular effects through, for example, accelerated ATP production and the mitigation of oxidative stress. In clinical use, however, it is often difficult to predict patient response to LILT. It appears that cellular reduction/oxidation (redox) state may play a central role in determining sensitivity to LILT and may help explain variability in patient responsiveness. In LILT, conditions associated with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, e.g. diabetic hyperglycemia, demonstrate increased sensitivity to LILT. Consequently, assessment of tissue redox conditions in vivo may prove helpful in identifying responsive tissues. A noninvasive redox measure may be useful in advancing investigation in LILT and may one day be helpful in better identifying responsive patients. The detection of biophotons, the production of which is associated with cellular redox state and the generation of ROS, represents just such an opportunity. In this review, we will present the case for pursuing further investigation into the potential clinical partnership between biophoton detection and LILT. PMID:19754267

  12. Spectral study of GX 339-4 in the low-intensity state observed with Ginga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ebisawa, Ken; Done, Chris

    1994-01-01

    The energy spectra of the black-hole candidate GX 339-4 in the low-intensity state were observed on four occasions through 1989 to 1991 with the Large Area Counter on board the Ginga satellite. The spectra showed significant deviations from a power-law, with an iron K(sub alpha) emission line at approximetaly 6.4 keV and a broad iron K-edge structure above approximately 7 keV. The enrgy spectra above approximately 4 keV were successfully explained with a reflection model, in which part of the incident X-rays with a power-law spectrum is Compton reflected by optically thick matter, resulting in a harder continuum component with iron K-edge absorption and an iron flourescent line. The line equivalent width with respect to the reflection component decreases as the source flux increases. This is consistent with an increase in the ionization state of the material, so that resonant absorption followed by Auger ionization depletes the line. The photon-index of the power-law component was clearly variable, and it correlated with the relative amount of the reflection component. Such a correlation may be explained in the context of the anisotropic Comptonization models of Haardt et al. (1993), or by a variation of the relative geometry of the source and disk.

  13. The effect of low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound in induced fracture of rat tibiae

    PubMed Central

    Fontes-Pereira, Aldo José; Teixeira, Renato da Costa; de Oliveira, Antônio Jorge Barbosa; Pontes, Roberto Waldesmand Farias; de Barros, Rui Sérgio Monteiro; Negrão, José Nazareno Cunha

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the possible effects of low-intensity ultrasound on induced tibia fracture of rats in a dose commonly used in physical therapy treatments. METHODS: Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups with 10 animals each. In the ultrasound group (USG), the animals were submitted to bone fracture and treatment with therapeutic ultrasound (TUS). Ultrasonic parameters are: frequency of 1.0 MHz, intensity of 0.2 W/cm2, pulsed mode at 20%, applied in stationary form during 10 minutes on the fracture region, for five weeks. The control group (CG) was submitted to bone fracture but not treated with ultrasound. RESULTS: The radiographies showed better consolidation in USG compared to CG. The statistical tests for alkaline phosphatase and serum calcium did not show significant difference between groups. CONCLUSION: According to this study, TUS, applied with these parameters (not commonly used for bone therapy) accelerates bone healing, confirmed by radiography, yet the biochemical analysis was not conclusive. One reason for this inconsistency may have been some inadequacy of the biochemical protocol, currently under investigation. Level of Evidence II, Prospective comparative study. PMID:24453637

  14. In vitro cell system for studying molecular mechanisms of action associated with low intensity focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babakhanian, Meghedi; Fan, Richard E.; Mulgaonkar, Amit P.; Singh, Rahul; Culjat, Martin O.; Danesh, Shahab M.; Toro, Ligia; Grundfest, Warren; Melega, William P.

    2012-03-01

    Low intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) is now being considered as a noninvasive brain therapy for clinical applications. We maintain that LIFU can efficiently deliver energy from outside the skull to target specific brain regions, effecting localized neuromodulation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that drive this LIFU-induced neuromodulation are not well-defined due, in part, to our lack of understanding of how particular sets of LIFU delivery parameters affect the outcome. To efficiently conduct multiple sweeps of different parameters and determine their effects, we have developed an in-vitro system to study the effects of LIFU on different types of cells grown in culture. Presently, we are evaluating how LIFU affects the ionic flux that may underlie neuronal excitation and inhibition observed in-vivo. The results of our in-vitro studies will provide a rationale for selection of optimal LIFU parameter to be used in subsequent in-vivo applications. Thus, a prototype ultrasound cell assay system has been developed to conduct these studies, and is described in this work.

  15. Inhibitory effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound sonication on the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Toshihiro; Sato, Keiji; Matsui, Takuya; Sawada, Shigeyuki; Muramatsu, Yoshitaka; Kawanami, Katsuhisa; Deie, Masataka

    2017-09-01

    To date, there is limited data on the biological effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on primary malignant bone tumors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antitumor effects of LIPUS on osteosarcoma cells. The effects of LIPUS on cell viability, induction of apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular signaling molecules in the LM8 osteosarcoma cell line were investigated. LIPUS inhibited cell viability (P=0.0022) and mitochondrial membrane potential (P=0.0019) in LM8 cells. Flow cytometry analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining revealed significantly higher numbers of apoptotic (P<0.0001) and necrotic cells (P=0.0091) compared with cells without treatment. LIPUS treatment significantly increased phosphorylated Akt (P<0.0001) and IκBα (P=0.0001) levels, and reduced phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 (P<0.0001) and phosphorylated checkpoint kinase 1 (P=0.0008) levels. These results suggest that LIPUS is a non-invasive adjuvant therapy that is able to inhibit cellular proliferation in osteosarcoma cells.

  16. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation promotes osteoblast differentiation through hedgehog signaling.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenichi; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Kurio, Naito; Okui, Tatsuo; Ibaragi, Soichiro; Kunisada, Yuki; Obata, Kyoichi; Masui, Masanori; Pai, Pang; Horikiri, Yuu; Yamanaka, Nobuyuki; Takigawa, Masaharu; Sasaki, Akira

    2017-10-05

    Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been used as an adjunct to fracture healing therapies, but the mechanisms underlying its action are not known. We reported that sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling was activated in osteoblasts at the dynamic remodeling site of a bone fracture. Mechanical stimulation is a crucial factor in bone remodeling, and it is related to the primary cilia as a sensor of hedgehog signaling. Here we observed that LIPUS promoted callus formation in accord with Gli2-positive cells after 14 days at the mouse femur fractured site compared with a control group. An immunofluorescence analysis showed that the numbers of primary cilia and cilia/osterix double-positive osteoblasts were increased at the fracture site by LIPUS. LIPUS stimulated not only the number and the length of primary cilia, but also the levels of ciliated protein, Ift88 mRNA, and SHH, Gli1 and Gli2 in MC3T3-E1 cells. Further experiments revealed that LIPUS stimulated osteogenic differentiation in the presence of smoothened agonist (SAG) treatment. These results indicate that LIPUS stimulates osteogenic differentiation and the maturation of osteoblasts by a primary cilium-mediated activation of hedgehog signaling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Stimulation for Tendon-Bone Healing: A Dose-dependent Study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongbin; Liu, Fei; Chen, Can; Wang, Zhanwen; Chen, Huabin; Qu, Jin; Zhang, Tao; Xu, Daqi; Hu, Jianzhong

    2017-10-07

    This study aimed to evaluate the dosage effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation (LIPUS) on tendon-bone (T-B) healing. Standard partial patellectomies were performed on 120 mature New Zealand rabbits randomly assigned into three groups: a control group (daily mock sonication, 20 min), a qd group (daily ultra-sonication, 20 min), and a bid group (ultra-sonication twice a day, 20 min each time). The rabbits were sacrificed 8 or 16 weeks postoperatively, and the microarchitectural, histological, and mechanical properties of the patella-patellar tendon (PPT) interface were evaluated. Micro-computed tomography analysis showed that the bid group exhibited more new bone formation and mineralization than the other groups in the T-B healing position at both 8 and 16 weeks postoperatively. Histological assessments confirmed the bid group exhibited a significantly better PPT interface than the other groups, as shown by the increased formation and remodeling of newly formed bone and a fibrocartilage layer. The biomechanical properties of the regenerated PPT interface significantly improved in the bid group. LIPUS treatment twice a day was more effective than the once-a-day treatment on tendon-bone healing.

  18. Biochemical responses of isolated lung CSCs after application of low intensity laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamse, Heidi; Crous, Anine

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that using high fluences of Low Intensity Laser Irradiation (HF-LILI) produce apoptotic effects on normal and neoplastic cells. This study aimed to determine whether HF-LILI induce cell death in lung CSCs. Lung CSCs were isolated using the stem cell marker CD 133, characterized using flow cytometry, and applied in experiments which included treatment with LILI at wavelengths of 636, 825 and 1060 nm with fluences ranging from 5 J/cm2 to 40 J/cm2. Viability and proliferation studies, using Alamar blue assay and adenosine triphosphate luminescence (ATP), indicated an increase when treating lung CSCs with low fluences of 5 - 20 J/cm2 and a decrease in viability and proliferation as well as an increase in apoptosis when applying a fluence of 40 J/cm2 indicated by flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) dyes. Results indicate that LILI, when treating lung CSCs, can induce either a bio-stimulatory or bio-inhibitory effect depending on the wavelength and fluence used. This study indicated successful apoptotic induction of lung CSCs. Future experiments should be able to conclude the exact mechanism behind HF-LILI, which can be used in the targeted treatments of CSC elimination, implementing HF-LILI in the same manner as PDT in the absence of a photosensitizer.

  19. Antibacterial efficacy and cytotoxicity of low intensity direct current activated silver-titanium implant system prototype.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhuo; Havell, Edward A; Orndorff, Paul E; Shirwaiker, Rohan A

    2017-02-01

    Silver-based devices activated by electric current are of interest in biomedicine because of their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This study investigates the in vitro antibacterial efficacy and cytotoxicity of a low intensity direct current (LIDC)-activated silver-titanium implant system prototype designed for localized generation and delivery of silver ions at the implantation site. First, the antibacterial efficacy of the system was assessed against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) over 48 h at current levels of 3 and 6 µA in Mueller-Hinton broth. The cytotoxicity of the system was then evaluated over 48 h in two phases using an in vitro model with in which the activated electrodes were suspended in growth medium in a cell-seeded tissue culture plate. In phase-1, the system was tested on human osteosarcoma (MG-63) cell line and compared to titanium controls. In phase-2, the cytotoxicity characteristics were validated with normal human diploid osteoblast cells. The LIDC-activated system demonstrated high antimicrobial efficacy against MRSA, but was also toxic to human cells immediately surrounding the electrodes. The statistical analysis showed that the cytotoxicity was a result of the presence of silver, and the electric activation did not make it worse.

  20. Measuring the Fusion Cross-Section of Light Nuclei with Low-Intensity Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbach, Tracy; Brown, Kyle; Hudan, Sylvie; Desouza, Romualdo

    2014-03-01

    Reactions between neutron-rich light nuclei have been proposed as a heat source in the crust of an accreting neutron star that triggers an X-ray superburst. To explore the probability of such fusion events as well as better understand the fusion dynamics between neutron-rich nuclei, an experimental program to measure the dependence of the fusion cross-section on neutron number has been initiated. Key to these measurements is developing an approach to measure the total fusion cross-section for beams of low-intensity light nuclei (<105 ions/s) on light targets. Fusion residues resulting from the fusion of oxygen nuclei with 12C at energies near and below the Coulomb barrier are directly measured and distinguished from unreacted beam particles on the basis of their energy and time-of-flight (TOF). The TOF is measured between a microchannel plate (MCP) detector and a segmented Si detector. Two initial problems were charge trapping in the Si detector and slit scattering in the MCP detector. These problems have both been minimized by implementing a gridless MCP detector and a new Si design making the measurement feasible. Supported by the US DOE under Grant No. DEFG02-88ER-40404

  1. Lung cancer stem cells and low-intensity laser irradiation: a potential future therapy?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is notably a significant threat when considering worldwide cancer-related deaths. Despite significant advances in treatment modalities, death rates as a result of cancer relapse remain high. Relapse can occur as a result of metastasis. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been implicated as an important contributory factor in the development of metastasis. CSCs have the same characteristics as normal stem cells; that is, they can proliferate indefinitely and are capable of both self-renewal and differentiating into specialized cells. The molecular and cellular characteristics of stem cells and CSCs are coded for by cell-specific genes, which can be analyzed by using molecular assays setting the standard to work from. Low-intensity laser irradiation (LILI) has been applied in the treatment of numerous diseases and pathological conditions. LILI has been shown to stimulate proliferation of cells, capillary growth, and cellular metabolism as observed by adenosine triphosphate activation. It has been shown, by using different dosing levels of LILI, to either stimulate or inhibit cellular functions. One treatment strategy used on cancer cells is photodynamic therapy (PDT), in which cancer cells are treated with a photosensitizer (PS) in combination with laser irradiation. PSs are non-toxic by themselves but, with light activation, cause reactive oxygen species generation, which causes cancer cell death. Cell-specific PSs are being developed for future cancer treatment. In this review, we look at the potential effects of LILI and PDT on lung CSCs. PMID:24153107

  2. Does Pulsed Low Intensity Ultrasound Allow Early Return to Normal Activities When Treating Stress Fractures?

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Jeff C; Brindle, Tim; Nyland, John; Caborn, David NM; Johnson, Darren L

    1999-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the efficacy of daily pulsed low intensity ultrasound (LIUS) with early return to activities for the treatment of lower extremity stress fractures. Eight patients (2 males, 6 females) with radiographic and bone scan confirmed tibial stress fractures participated in this study. Additionally, a case report of a tarsal navicular stress fracture is described. All patients except one were involved in athletics. Prior to the study, subjects completed a 5 question, 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS) regarding pain level (10 = extreme pain, 1 = no pain) and were assessed for functional performance. Subjects received 20-minute LIUS treatments 5 times a week for 4 weeks. Subjects maintained all functional activities during the treatment period. Seven patients with posterior-medial stress fractures participated without a brace. Subjects were re-tested after 4 weeks of treatment. Mann-Whitney U tests (VAS data) and paired t-tests (functional tests) assessed statistical significance (p<0.05). Although the intensity of practice was diminished in some instances, no time off from competitive sports was prescribed for the patients with the tibial stress fractures. The patient with the anterior tibial stress fracture underwent tibial intramedullary nailing at the conclusion of a season of play. In this uncontrolled experience, treatment of tibial stress fractures with daily pulsed LIUS was effective in pain relief and early return to vigorous activity without bracing for the patients with posterior-medial stress fractures. PMID:10847513

  3. Acute Cardiovascular and Hemodynamic Responses to Low Intensity Eccentric Resistance Exercise with Blood Flow Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Bazgir, Behzad; Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Mojtaba; Rajabi, Hamid; Fathi, Rouhollah; Ojaghi, Seyed Mojtaba; Emami Meybodi, Mohammad Kazem; Neto, Gabriel R.; Rahimi, Mostafa; Asgari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently it has been suggested that low intensity (LI) resistance exercise (RE) alone or in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR) can be applied for cardiovascular function improvement or rehabilitation. Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of LI eccentric RE with and without BFR on heart rate (HR), rate pressure product (RPP), blood pressure (BP) parameters [systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure (MAP)], oxygen saturation (SpO2) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE). Methods In a semi-experimental study 16 young adults (26.18 ± 3.67 years) volunteered and performed LI (30% maximum voluntary contraction) eccentric RE alone or combined with BFR. Results The results indicated that HR, RPP, and RPE increased significantly within both groups (P < 0.05); SBP and DBP increased significantly only with BFR (P < 0.05); MAP increased significantly during exercise without BFR (P < 0.05); and no change was observed in SpO2 in either groups (P > 0.05). Furthermore, studied parameters did not vary amongst different groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions It is concluded that LI eccentric RE with BFR positively regulated the hemodynamic and cardiovascular responses. Therefore, the eccentric RE combined with BFR seems to be a good option for future studies with the aim of time efficacy, since it alters these parameters within normal values. PMID:28144415

  4. Delayed stimulatory effect of low-intensity shockwaves on human periosteal cells.

    PubMed

    Tam, Kam-Fai; Cheung, Wing-Hoi; Lee, Kwong-Man; Qin, Ling; Leung, Kwok-Sui

    2005-09-01

    We investigated the effect of shockwaves on cells explanted from normal human periosteum to study the potential mechanisms of their responses and to determine suitable treatment settings. The cells were subjected to one shockwave treatment with systematic combinations of energy intensities (range, 0.05-0.5 mJ/mm) and number of shocks (range, 500-2000) whereas control cells received no treatment. The immediate effect on cell viability and the long-lasting effect on proliferation, viable cell number at Day 18, and mineralization at Day 35 were assessed. We observed an immediate dose-dependent destructive effect of shockwaves. Energy intensity and number of shocks contributed equally to viability. Total energy dose (intensity x number of shocks) was a better reference for determining the shockwave effect. We also found a long-term stimulatory effect on proliferation, viable cell number, and calcium deposition of human periosteal cells. At the same total energy dose, low-intensity shockwaves with more shocks (0.12 mJ/mm at 1250 shocks) were more favorable for enhancing cellular activities than high-intensity waves with fewer shocks (0.5 mJ/mm at 300 shocks). These findings document some of the biochemical changes of periosteal cells during shockwave treatments.

  5. Gab1 amplifies signaling in response to low-intensity stimulation by HGF.

    PubMed

    Aasrum, Monica; Ødegård, John; Thoresen, Gunn Hege; Brusevold, Ingvild J; Sandnes, Dagny L; Christoffersen, Thoralf

    2015-10-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinases EGFR and Met induce phosphorylation of the docking protein Gab1, and there is evidence that Gab1 may have a role in the signaling from these receptors. Studying hepatocytes, we previously found that although Gab1 mechanistically interacted in different ways with EGFR and Met, it was involved in mitogenic signaling induced by both EGF and HGF. It has been reported that in EGFR, Gab1 is required particularly at a low dose of EGF. Whether this also applies to HGF/Met signaling has not been investigated. We have studied the role of Gab1 in activation of the Akt and ERK pathways at low- and high-intensity stimulation with EGF and HGF in cultured hepatocytes. In cells where Gab1 was depleted by a specific Gab1-directed siRNA, the EGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK was lowered and HGF-induced phosphorylation of both ERK and Akt was substantially reduced. These effects were more marked at low-dose HGF stimulation. The inhibitory consequence of Gab1 depletion was particularly pronounced for HGF-induced Akt phosphorylation. The results suggest that Gab1 is an important signal amplifier for low-intensity stimulation by HGF.

  6. Effects of low intensity laser irradiation during healing of infected skin lesions in the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaum, Ethne L.; Lilge, Lothar; Mazzulli, Tony; Pritzker, Kenneth P.

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of low intensity laser therapy (LILT) on healing of infected skin wounds in the rat. Methods: Wounds on the dorsum of Sprague-Dawley rats (14 per group) were inoculated or sham-inoculated with P. aeruginosa. Wounds were irradiated or sham-irradiated three times weekly from Day 1-19 using 635nm or 808nm diode lasers at radiant exposure of 1 or 20 J/cm2 delivered in continuous wave (CW) or at an intensity modulation frequency of 3800Hz. Wound area and bacterial growth were evaluated three times weekly. Results: CW 808 nm (1 and 20 J/cm2) irradiation generally delayed healing in acute wounds. However, from Day 10 onwards CW 808 nm (1 J/cm2 and 20 J/cm2) and 808 nm 3800 Hz (1 J/cm2) irradiation improved healing in inoculated wounds. Healing in acute wounds improved using 635 nm irradiation at low radiant exposure (1 J/cm2); however, using 635 nm irradiation at high radiant exposure (20 J/cm2) delayed healing. Bacterial balance in wounds was significantly altered using 635 nm (20 J/cm2) and CW 808 nm irradiation (1 and 20 J/cm2). Conclusion: Clearing wounds of normal flora was not associated with improved healing. Proliferation of staphylococcal species in wounds was associated with delayed healing.

  7. Design evolution enhances patient compliance for low-intensity pulsed ultrasound device usage.

    PubMed

    Pounder, Neill M; Jones, John T; Tanis, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Poor patient compliance or nonadherence with prescribed treatments can have a significant unfavorable impact on medical costs and clinical outcomes. In the current study, voice-of-the-customer research was conducted to aid in the development of a next-generation low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) bone healing product. An opportunity to improve patient compliance reporting was identified, resulting in the incorporation into the next-generation device of a visual calendar that provides direct feedback to the patient, indicating days for which they successfully completed treatment. Further investigation was done on whether inclusion of the visual calendar improved patient adherence to the prescribed therapy (20 minutes of daily treatment) over a 6-month period. Thus, 12,984 data files were analyzed from patients prescribed either the earlier- or the next-generation LIPUS device. Over the 6-month period, overall patient compliance was 83.8% with the next-generation LIPUS device, compared with 74.2% for the previous version (p<0.0001). Incorporation of the calendar feature resulted in compliance never decreasing below 76% over the analysis period, whereas compliance with the earlier-generation product fell to 51%. A literature review on the LIPUS device shows a correlation between clinical effectiveness and compliance rates more than 70%. Incorporation of stakeholder feedback throughout the design and innovation process of a next-generation LIPUS device resulted in a measurable improvement in patient adherence, which may help to optimize clinical outcomes.

  8. Effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on orthodontically induced root resorption in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Al-Daghreer, Saleh; Doschak, Michael; Sloan, Alastair J; Major, Paul W; Heo, Giseon; Scurtescu, Cristian; Tsui, Ying Y; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption in vivo. Ten beagle dogs were treated with an orthodontic appliance to move the mandibular fourth premolars bodily. The orthodontic movement was carried out for 4 wk with a continuous force of 1 N/side; using a split-mouth model, LIPUS was applied daily for 20 min. Fourth premolar and surrounding periodontal tissue were evaluated with micro-computed tomography and hematoxylin and eosin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. We calculated the number, volume and distribution of root resorption lacunae and their percentage relative to total root volume, orthodontic tooth movement and periodontal ligament space. There was no significant difference in orthodontic tooth movement between the two sides. LIPUS significantly reduced the number of orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption initiation areas by 71%, reduced their total volume by 68% and reduced their volume relative to the affected root total volume by 70%. LIPUS induced the formation of a precementum layer, thicker cementum and reparative cellular cementum.

  9. Radioprotective Action of Low-Intensity Light into the Red Absorption Band of Endogenous Molecular Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Mashalov, A. A.; Zakharov, S. D.

    2016-08-01

    Application of ionizing radiation in oncology (radiation therapy) is a widespread way to eliminate malignant tumors. Normal tissues are inevitable included in any radiation field, and their reliable protection is actual till now. All attempts to solve the problem are based on search of effective radioprotectors, i.e. chemical compounds of various classes, which should be entered into the patient. To date about 50,000 compounds with some radioprotection properties had been tested, but the most effective of them have been simultaneously the most toxic. Here the preliminary results of researches devoted to development of an optical technique on basis of the light-oxygen effect for the protection of women with breast cancer from side effects of the radiation therapy are presented. A low intensity emission of the semiconductor laser in a red spectral interval was used to excite a very small quantity of endogenous molecular oxygen in O2(1Δg) state. It is shown, that application of the method at occurrence of earliest signs of radiation injury allows notably reducing dangerous breaks in radiation therapy course.

  10. Structural and permeability sensitivity of cells to low intensity ultrasound: Infrared and fluorescence evidence in vitro.

    PubMed

    Domenici, Fabio; Giliberti, Claudia; Bedini, Angelico; Palomba, Raffaele; Udroiu, Ion; Di Giambattista, Lucia; Pozzi, Deleana; Morrone, Stefania; Bordi, Federico; Congiu Castellano, Agostina

    2014-04-01

    This work is focused on the in vitro study of the effects induced by medical ultrasound (US) in murine fibroblast cells (NIH-3T3) at a low-intensity of exposure (spatial peak temporal average intensity Ita<0.1Wcm(-2)). Conventional 1MHz and 3MHz US devices of therapeutic relevance were employed with varying intensity and exposure time parameters. In this framework, upon cells exposure to US, structural changes at the molecular level were evaluated by infrared spectroscopy; alterations in plasma membrane permeability were monitored in terms of uptake efficiency of small cell-impermeable model drug molecules, as measured by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The results were related to the cell viability and combined with the statistical PCA analysis, confirming that NIH-3T3 cells are sensitive to therapeutic US, mainly at 1MHz, with time-dependent increases in both efficiency of uptake, recovery of wild-type membrane permeability, and the size of molecules entering 3T3. On the contrary, the exposures from US equipment at 3MHz show uptakes comparable with untreated samples.

  11. Reaction of cells to local, regional, and general low-intensive laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baibekov, Iskander M.; Kasymov, A. S.; Musaev, Erkin S.; Vorojeikin, V. M.; Artikov, S. N.

    1993-07-01

    Local influence of low intensive laser irradiation (LILI) of Helium-Neon (HNL), Copper vapor (CVL), Nitrogen (UVL) and Arsenic Gallium (AGL) lasers cause stimulation of processes of physiological and reparative regeneration in intact skin, and mucous membrane of stomach and duodenum, dermatome wounds and gastroduodenal ulcers. Structural bases of these effects are the acceleration of cell proliferation and differentiation and also the activation of intracellular structures and intensification of cell secretion. Regional influence of the pointed types of LILI on hepar in cirrhosis and hepatitis causes decreasing of the inflammatory and cirrhotic changes. After endo- and exo-vascular laser irradiations of blood the decreasing of the number of pathological forms of erythrocytes and the increasing of their catalase activity, are indicated. General (total) laser irradiation of the organism--laser shower, increases the bone marrow cells proliferation, especially myeloid series. It is accompanied with acceleration of their differentiation and migration in circulation. It was revealed, that HNL to a considerable extent influences the epithelial cells and CVL the connective tissue cells. UVL increases the amount of microorganisms on cell surfaces (membrane bound microorganisms). Regional irradiation of the LILI causes both direct and indirect influence of cells. Structural changes of bone marrow cells and gut mucous membrane cells indicate intersystemic interaction.

  12. Effect of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Distraction Osteogenesis Treatment Time: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Raza, Hasnain; Saltaji, Humam; Kaur, Harmanpreet; Flores-Mir, Carlos; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this systematic review with a meta-analysis were to critically analyze the available scientific literature regarding the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (US) on stimulating bone regeneration and bone maturation during distraction osteogenesis in humans and to determine whether the stimulatory effect of low-intensity pulsed US can effectively reduce the associated treatment time. Studies were considered for inclusion if they were randomized clinical trials that examined the effect of low-intensity pulsed US on distraction osteogenesis compared to conventional distraction osteogenesis. The primary outcome was reduced treatment time. Study selection, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction were performed in duplicate. A random-effects meta-analysis model was used when more than 3 trials were eligible for a quantitative analysis and considering the expected differences in interventions and measurement tools. Five randomized clinical trials, with a moderate to high risk of bias, met the eligibility criteria. Four trials examining tibial distraction osteogenesis in 118 patients were combined in a meta-analysis. A statistically significant difference for reduced treatment time between distraction osteogenesis with low-intensity pulsed US and standard distraction osteogenesis was evident (mean difference, -15.236 d/cm; random-effects 95% confidence interval, -19.902 to -10.569 d/cm; P < .0001). As for the mandible, only 1 clinical trial was available, which showed no significant effect of low-intensity pulsed US therapy on distraction osteogenesis. Current available evidence suggests that low-intensity pulsed US therapy may provide a reduction in the overall treatment time for tibial distraction osteogenesis. However, this conclusion should be considered with caution, given the moderate to high risk of bias in the included randomized clinical trials. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Dissociative disorders in medical settings.

    PubMed

    MacPhee, Edward

    2013-10-01

    Despite the challenges of conducting research on dissociation and the dissociative disorders, our understanding has grown greatly over the past three decades, including our knowledge of the often overlooked sensorimotor manifestations of dissociation, more commonly referred to as somatoform dissociation. This article will first review the definitions and presentations of dissociation in general along with recent research on the concept of somatoform dissociation. Then, each of the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder will be discussed in further detail as well as how they might present in a medical setting. Current recommendations for diagnosis and treatment will also be provided.

  14. Low Intensity Low Temperature (LILT) Measurements and Coefficients on New Photovoltaic Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheiman, David A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Brinker, David J.; Appelbaum, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Past NASA missions to Mars, Jupiter and the outer planets were powered by radioisotope thermal generators (RTGs). Although these devices proved to be reliable, their high cost and highly toxic radioactive heat source has made them far less desirable for future planetary missions. This has resulted in a renewed search for alternate energy sources, some of them being photovoltaics (PV) and thermophotovoltaics (TPV). Both of these alternate energy sources convert light/thermal energy directly into electricity. In order to create a viable PV data base for planetary mission planners and cell designers, we have compiled low intensity low temperature (LILT) I-V data on single junction and multi-junction high efficiency solar cells. The cells tested here represent the latest photovoltaic technology. Using this LILT data to calculate Short Circuit Current (I(sub sc)), Open Circuit Voltage (V(sub os)), and Fill Factor (FF) as a function of temperature and intensity, an accurate prediction of cell performance under the AM0 spectrum can be determined. When combined with QUantum efficiency at Low Temperature (QULT) data, one can further enhance the data by adding spectral variations to the measurements. This paper presents an overview of LILT measurements and is only intended to be used as a guideline for material selection and performance predictions. As single junction and multi-junction cell technologies emerge, new test data must be collected. Cell materials included are Si, GaAs/Ge, GaInP/GaAs/GaAs, InP, InGaAs/InP, InP/InGaAs/InP, and GaInP. Temperatures range down to as low as -180 C and intensities range from 1 sun down to 0.02 suns. The coefficients presented in this paper represent experimental results and are intended to provide the user with approximate numbers.

  15. Low Intensity Low Temperature (LILT) measurements and coefficients on new photovoltaic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schelman, David A.; Jenkins, Philip P.; Brinker, David J.; Appelbaum, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Past NASA missions to Mars, Jupiter, and the outer planets were powered by radioisotope thermal generators (RTG's). Although these devices proved to be reliable, their high cost and highly toxic radioactive heat source has made them far less desirable for future planetary missions. This has resulted in a renewed search for alternate energy sources, some of them being photovoltaic (PV) and thermophotovoltaic (TPV). Both of these alternate energy sources convert light/thermal energy directly into electricity. In order to create a viable PV and TPV data base for planetary mission planners and cell designers, we have compiled low temperature low intensity (LILT) I-V data on single junction and multi-junction high efficiency solar cells. The cells tested here represent the latest photovoltaic technology. Using this LILT data to calculate dI(sub SC)/dT, dV(sub OC)/dT, dFF/dT, and also as a function of intensity, an accurate prediction of cell performance under the AMO spectrum can be determined. When combined with QUantum efficiency at Low Temperature (QULT) data, one can further enhance the data by adding spectral variations to the measurements. This paper presents an overview of LILT measurements and is only intended to be used as a guideline for material selection and performance predictions. As single junction and multi-junction cell technologies emerge, new test data must be collected. Cell materials included are Si, GaAs/Ge, GainP/GaAs/Ge, InP, InGaAs/InP, InP/InGaAs/InP, and GainP. Temperatures range as low as -175 C and intensities range from 1 sun to .02 suns.

  16. Low-intensity laser radiation in complex treatment of inflammatory diseases of parodontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Irina A.; Erina, Stanislava V.

    1995-04-01

    The problem of complex treatment of inflammatory disease of parodontium has become very acute and actual at the moment. The diseases of inflammatory nature are considered to be the most vital issues of the day. The state of the local immune system of oral cavity plays the most important role in the complicated mechanism of inflammatory process development in the tissues of parodontium. Recently physical factors have become predominant in the system of complex therapy of parodontitis. The application of low-intense laser radiation (LLR) is considered to be the most important and up-to-date method in the preventive dentistry. There were 60 patients of average damage rate suffering from chronic generalizing parodontitis at the age of 25 up to 55 under observation. The major goal of examination was to get the objective results of the following methods' application: parodontium index (Russel, 1956), hygiene index (Fyodorov, Volodkina, 1971), Bacterioscopy of dental-gingival pockets content, simple and broadened stomatoscopy (Kunin, 1970), SIgA level determination in mixed saliva (Manchini et all, 1965) and R-protein level in gingival blood (Kulberg, 1990). All the patients were split into 2 groups. The first group (30 patients) has undergone the laser therapy course while the second group of 30 patients couldn't get it (LLR). Despite the kind of therapy they have undergone, all the patients have got the local anti-inflammatory medicamental therapy. The results of clinical observations have proved the fact that laser therapy application makes it possible to shorten the course of treatment in 1.5 times. The shifts of oral cavity local resistance take place in case of chronic generalizing parodontitis. The direct immunostimulating effect could be observed as a result of LLR- therapy application. The close connection of both anti-inflammatory medicamental and LLR-therapy has proved the possibility of purposeful local immune status correction in case of parodontitis.

  17. Low intensity and frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields selectively impair breast cancer cell viability.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Sara; Beyer, Christian; Schade, Grit; Egli, Marcel; Fröhlich, Jürg; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    A common drawback of many anticancer therapies is non-specificity in action of killing. We investigated the potential of ultra-low intensity and frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) to kill breast cancer cells. Our criteria to accept this technology as a potentially valid therapeutic approach were: 1) cytotoxicity to breast cancer cells and; 2) that the designed fields proved innocuous to healthy cell classes that would be exposed to the PEMFs during clinical treatment. MCF7 breast cancer cells and their normal counterparts, MCF10 cells, were exposed to PEMFs and cytotoxic indices measured in order to design PEMF paradigms that best kill breast cancer cells. The PEMF parameters tested were: 1) frequencies ranging from 20 to 50 Hz; 2) intensities ranging from 2 mT to 5 mT and; 3) exposure durations ranging from 30 to 90 minutes per day for up to three days to determine the optimum parameters for selective cancer cell killing. We observed a discrete window of vulnerability of MCF7 cells to PEMFs of 20 Hz frequency, 3 mT magnitude and exposure duration of 60 minutes per day. The cell damage accrued in response to PEMFs increased with time and gained significance after three days of consecutive daily exposure. By contrast, the PEMFs parameters determined to be most cytotoxic to breast cancer MCF-7 cells were not damaging to normal MCF-10 cells. Based on our data it appears that PEMF-based anticancer strategies may represent a new therapeutic approach to treat breast cancer without affecting normal tissues in a manner that is non-invasive and can be potentially combined with existing anti-cancer treatments.

  18. Gravel sediment routing from widespread, low-intensity landscape disturbance, Current River basin, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, R.B.; Gran, K.B.

    1999-01-01

    During the last 160 years, land-use changes in the Ozarks have had the potential to cause widespread, low-intensity delivery of excess amounts of gravel-sized sediment to stream channels. Previous studies have indicated that this excess gravel bedload is moving in wave-like forms through Ozarks drainage basins. The longitudinal, areal distribution of gravel bars along 160 km of the Current River, Missouri, was evaluated to determine the relative effects of valley-scale controls, tributary basin characteristics, and lagged sediment transport in creating areas of gravel accumulations. The longitudinal distribution of gravel-bar area shows a broad scale wave-like form with increases in gravel-bar area weakly associated with tributary junctions. Secondary peaks of gravel area with 1.8-4.1 km spacing (disturbance reaches) are superimposed on the broad form. Variations in valley width explain some, but not all, of the short-spacing variation in gravel-bar area. Among variables describing tributary drainage basin morphometry, present-day land use and geologic characteristics, only drainage area and road density relate even weakly to gravel-bar areal inventories. A simple, channel network-based sediment routing model shows that many of the features of the observed longitudinal gravel distribution can be replicated by uniform transport of sediment from widespread disturbances through a channel network. These results indicate that lagged sediment transport may have a dominant effect on the synoptic spatial distribution of gravel in Ozarks streams; present-day land uses are only weakly associated with present-day gravel inventories; and valley-scale characteristics have secondary controls on gravel accumulations in disturbance reaches.

  19. Oxidative mechanisms in toxicity of low-intensity near-UV light in Salmonella typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, G.F.; Ames, B.N.

    1987-05-01

    The exposure of Salmonella typhimurium to environmentally relevant near-UV light stress has been studied by the use of a low-intensity, broad-band light source. The exposure of cells to such a light source rapidly induced a growth delay; after continuous exposure for 3 to 4 h, cells began to die at a rapid rate. The oxidative defense regulon controlled by the oxyR gene was involved in protecting cells from being killed by near-UV light. This killing may be potentiated by the overexpression of near-UV-absorbing proteins. These result are consistent with near-UV toxicity involving the absorption of light by endogenous photosensitizers, leading to the production of active oxygen species. The authors have shown, however, that one such species, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is not a major photoproduct involved in killing by near-UV light. Strains lacking alkyl hydroperoxide reductase were more sensitive to near-UV light, indicating that such hydroperoxides may be photoproducts. Near-UV exposure induced sensitivity to high salt levels, indicating that membranes may be a target of near-UV toxicity and a possible source of alkyl hydroperoxides. The demonstration of the inactivation of the heme-containing protein catalase indicates that direct destruction of UV-absorbing macromolecules could be another factor in near-UV toxicity. Cells which have been exposed to near-UV light for long, but sublethal, periods of time (up to 4 h can recover and resume growth if the UV exposure is stopped but become progressively more sensitive to further stresses, such as H/sub 2/O/sub 2/.

  20. Low-intensity focused ultrasound mediated localized drug delivery for liver tumors in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yuping; Wang, Zhigang; Dong, Guifang; Sun, Yang; Wang, Xi; Rong, Yue; Li, Maoping; Wang, Dong; Ran, Haitao

    2016-09-01

    To explore the antitumor effects of low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) mediated localized drug delivery of adriamycin-microbubble-PLGA nanoparticle complexes on rabbits VX2 liver tumor. ADM-NMCs were prepared by covalent linking of ADM-PLGA nanoparticles (ADM-NPs) to the shell of the microbubbles. A fixed water bag filled with microbubbles was subjected to LIFU and non-focused ultrasound respectively, and the ultrasound images of which were recorded before and after ultrasonication. A total of 54 VX2 liver tumor-burdened rabbits were divided into six groups randomly, including control, ADM-NPs combined with LIFU, microbubbles combined with LIFU, ADM-NPs and microbubbles combined with LIFU, ADM-NMCs combined with LIFU and ADM-NMCs combined with Non-FUS. The tumor volume and volume inhibition rate (VIR) of tumor progression were calculated and compared. Apoptotic cells were labeled by terminal deoxyuridine nick end. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry. The median survival time of the animals were recorded and compared. ADM-NMCs were successfully prepared with an average diameter of 1721 nm. The highest VIR and apoptotic index (AI) were found in the group of ADM-NMCs combined with LIFU while the lowest proliferating index (PI) was simultaneously observed in this group. The median survival time of the rabbits in the ADM-NMCs combined with LIFU group was the longest (71days) among all groups. ADM-NMCs combined with LIFU could inhibit the rabbits VX2 liver tumor progress by delaying the tumor proliferation and accelerating apoptosis, which presents a novel process for liver tumor targeting chemotherapy.

  1. Low intensity, long term exposure to tobacco smoke inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Csabai, Dávid; Csekő, Kata; Szaiff, Lilla; Varga, Zsófia; Miseta, Attila; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Czéh, Boldizsár

    2016-04-01

    Previous data have shown that high dose of nicotine administration or tobacco smoke exposure can reduce cell formation and the survival rate of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus. Here, we subjected adult mice to low intensity cigarette smoke exposure over long time periods. We did a 2×30min/day smoke exposure with two cigarettes per occasion over 1- or 2-months. Subsequently, we carried out a systematic quantitative histopathological analysis to assess the number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus. To investigate cell proliferation, the exogenous marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered on the last experimental day and animals were sacrificed 2h later. To investigate the effect of tobacco smoke on the population of immature neurons, we quantified the number of doublecortin-positive (DCX+) neurons in the same animals. We found that exposing animals to cigarette smoke for 1- or 2-months had no influence on cell proliferation rate, but significantly reduced the number of DCX-positive immature neurons. Our tobacco smoke exposure regimen caused no substantial changes in respiratory functions, but histopathological analysis of the pulmonary tissue revealed a marked perivascular/peribronchial edema formation after 1-month and signs of chronic pulmonary inflammation after 2-months of cigarette smoke exposure. These data demonstrate that even mild exposure to cigarette smoke, without significantly affecting respiratory functions, can have a negative effect on adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus, when applied over longer time periods. Our data indicate that besides nicotine other factors, such as inflammatory mediators, may also contribute to this effect.

  2. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts through osteocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lei; Yang, Zheng; Zhang, Hai; Chen, Wenchuan; Chen, Mengshi; Zhu, Zhimin

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CM from LIPUS-stimulated osteocytes inhibits proliferation of osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CM from LIPUS-stimulated osteocytes enhances differentiation of osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIPUS stimulates MLO-Y4 cells to secrete PGE{sub 2} and NO. -- Abstract: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been used as a safe and effective modality to enhance fracture healing. As the most abundant cells in bone, osteocytes orchestrate biological activities of effector cells via direct cell-to-cell contacts and by soluble factors. In this study, we have used the osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells to study the effects of conditioned medium from LIPUS-stimulated MLO-Y4 cells on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Conditioned media from LIPUS-stimulated MLO-Y4 cells (LIPUS-Osteocyte-CM) were collected and added on MC3T3-E1 cell cultures. MC3T3-E1 cells cultured in LIPUS-Osteocyte-CM demonstrated a significant inhibition of proliferation and an increased alkaline phosphatase activity. The results of PGE{sub 2} and NO assay showed that LIPUS could enhance PGE{sub 2} and NO secretion from MLO-Y4 cells at all time points within 24 h after LIPUS stimulation. We conclude that LIPUS regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts through osteocytes in vitro. Increased secretion of PGE{sub 2} from osteocytes may play a role in this effect.

  3. Low Intensity and Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Selectively Impair Breast Cancer Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Crocetti, Sara; Beyer, Christian; Schade, Grit; Egli, Marcel; Fröhlich, Jürg; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A common drawback of many anticancer therapies is non-specificity in action of killing. We investigated the potential of ultra-low intensity and frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) to kill breast cancer cells. Our criteria to accept this technology as a potentially valid therapeutic approach were: 1) cytotoxicity to breast cancer cells and; 2) that the designed fields proved innocuous to healthy cell classes that would be exposed to the PEMFs during clinical treatment. Methods MCF7 breast cancer cells and their normal counterparts, MCF10 cells, were exposed to PEMFs and cytotoxic indices measured in order to design PEMF paradigms that best kill breast cancer cells. The PEMF parameters tested were: 1) frequencies ranging from 20 to 50 Hz; 2) intensities ranging from 2 mT to 5 mT and; 3) exposure durations ranging from 30 to 90 minutes per day for up to three days to determine the optimum parameters for selective cancer cell killing. Results We observed a discrete window of vulnerability of MCF7 cells to PEMFs of 20 Hz frequency, 3 mT magnitude and exposure duration of 60 minutes per day. The cell damage accrued in response to PEMFs increased with time and gained significance after three days of consecutive daily exposure. By contrast, the PEMFs parameters determined to be most cytotoxic to breast cancer MCF-7 cells were not damaging to normal MCF-10 cells. Conclusion Based on our data it appears that PEMF-based anticancer strategies may represent a new therapeutic approach to treat breast cancer without affecting normal tissues in a manner that is non-invasive and can be potentially combined with existing anti-cancer treatments. PMID:24039828

  4. Low-Intensity Agricultural Landscapes in Transylvania Support High Butterfly Diversity: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Loos, Jacqueline; Dorresteijn, Ine; Hanspach, Jan; Fust, Pascal; Rakosy, László; Fischer, Joern

    2014-01-01

    European farmland biodiversity is declining due to land use changes towards agricultural intensification or abandonment. Some Eastern European farming systems have sustained traditional forms of use, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. However, global markets and international policies now imply rapid and major changes to these systems. To effectively protect farmland biodiversity, understanding landscape features which underpin species diversity is crucial. Focusing on butterflies, we addressed this question for a cultural-historic landscape in Southern Transylvania, Romania. Following a natural experiment, we randomly selected 120 survey sites in farmland, 60 each in grassland and arable land. We surveyed butterfly species richness and abundance by walking transects with four repeats in summer 2012. We analysed species composition using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. We modelled species richness, richness of functional groups, and abundance of selected species in response to topography, woody vegetation cover and heterogeneity at three spatial scales, using generalised linear mixed effects models. Species composition widely overlapped in grassland and arable land. Composition changed along gradients of heterogeneity at local and context scales, and of woody vegetation cover at context and landscape scales. The effect of local heterogeneity on species richness was positive in arable land, but negative in grassland. Plant species richness, and structural and topographic conditions at multiple scales explained species richness, richness of functional groups and species abundances. Our study revealed high conservation value of both grassland and arable land in low-intensity Eastern European farmland. Besides grassland, also heterogeneous arable land provides important habitat for butterflies. While butterfly diversity in arable land benefits from heterogeneity by small-scale structures, grasslands should be protected from fragmentation to provide

  5. AXAF low intensity-low temperature (LILT) testing of the development verification test (DVT) solar panel

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.; Edge, T.; Willowby, D.

    1998-07-01

    The planned orbit of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) spacecraft will subject the spacecraft to both short (less than 30 minutes for solar and less than 2 hours for lunar) and long earth eclipses and lunar eclipses with combined conjunctive duration of up to 3 to 4 hours. Lack of proper Electrical Power System (EPS) conditioning prior to eclipse may cause loss of mission. To avoid this problem, for short eclipses, it is necessary to off-point the solar array prior to or at the beginning of the eclipse to reduce the battery state of charge. This yields less overcharge during the high charge currents at sun entry. For long lunar eclipses, solar array pointing and load scheduling must be tailored for the profile of the eclipse. The battery state of charge, loads, and solar array current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curves must be known or predictable to maintain the bus voltage within acceptable range. To address engineering concerns about the electrical performance of the AXAF solar array under penumbral Low Intensity and Low Temperature (LILT) conditions, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engineers undertook special testing of the AXAF Development Verification Test (DVT) solar panel in September-November 1997. In the test the DVT test panel was installed in a thermal vacuum chamber with a large view window with a mechanical flapper door. The DVT test panel was flash tested with a Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator (LAPSS) at various fractional sun intensities and panel (solar cell) temperatures. The testing was unique with regards to the large size of the test article and type of testing performed. The test setup and results will be presented.

  6. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound reduces periodontal atrophy in occlusal hypofunctional teeth.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Yuki; Usumi-Fujita, Risa; Hosomichi, Jun; Kaneko, Sawa; Ishida, Yuji; Shibutani, Naoki; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Okito, Asuka; Oishi, Shuji; Kuma, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Ono, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    To clarify whether low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) exposure has recovery effects on the hypofunctional periodontal ligament (PDL) and interradicular alveolar bone (IRAB). Twelve-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (n = 5 each): a normal occlusion (C) group, an occlusal hypofunction (H) group, and an occlusal hypofunction group subjected to LIPUS (HL) treatment. Hypofunctional occlusion of the maxillary first molar (M1) of the H and HL groups was induced by the bite-raising technique. Only the HL group was irradiated with LIPUS for 5 days. The IRAB and PDL of M1 were examined by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. To quantify mRNA expression of cytokines involved in PDL proliferation and development, real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed for twist family bHLH transcription factor 1 (Twist1), periostin, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the PDL samples. Micro-CT analysis showed that the PDL volume was decreased in the H group compared with that of the C and HL groups. Both bone volume per tissue volume (BV/TV) of IRAB was decreased in the H group compared with that in the C group. LIPUS exposure restored BV/TV in the IRAB of the HL group. qRT-PCR analysis showed that Twist1, periostin, and CTGF mRNA levels were decreased in the H group and increased in the HL group. LIPUS exposure reduced the atrophic changes of alveolar bone by inducing the upregulation of periostin and CTGF expression to promote PDL healing after induction of occlusal hypofunction.

  7. Hemostatic Effects of Microbubble-Enhanced Low-Intensity Ultrasound in a Liver Avulsion Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guiying; Liu, Jianhua; Zhao, Xiaochen; Wei, Jinglu; Ou, Wencai; Xiao, Shuyi; Hu, Zhiwen; Wei, Hongqin; Liu, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Microbubble-enhanced therapeutic ultrasound (MEUS) can block the blood flow in the organs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemostatic effect of microbubble-enhanced pulsed, low-intensity ultrasound in a New Zealand White rabbit model of avulsion trauma of the liver. The therapeutic ultrasound (TUS) transducer was operated with the frequency of 1.2 MHz and an acoustic pressure of 3.4 MPa. Microbubble-(MB) enhanced ultrasound (MEUS) (n = 6) was delivered to the distal part of the liver where the avulsion was created. Livers were treated by TUS only (n = 4) or MB only (n = 4) which served as controls. Bleeding rates were measured and contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) was performed to assess the hemostatic effect, and liver hemoperfusion before and after treatment. Generally, bleeding rates decreased more than 10-fold after the treatment with MEUS compared with those of the control group (P<0.05). CEUS showed significant declines in perfusion. The peak intensity value and the area under the curve also decreased after insonation compared with those of the control group (P<0.05). Histological examination showed cloudy and swollen hepatocytes, dilated hepatic sinusoids, perisinusoidal spaces with erythrocyte accumulation in small blood vessels, obvious hemorrhage around portal areas and scattered necrosis in liver tissues within the insonation area of MEUS Group. In addition, necrosis was found in liver tissue 48 h after insonation. We conclude that MEUS might provide an effective hemostatic therapy for serious organ trauma such as liver avulsion injury. PMID:24788757

  8. Effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy on a rat knee joint contracture model.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanori; Kojima, Satoshi; Hoso, Masahiro

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] Histopathological investigation of the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on joint components using a rat knee joint contracture model. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen, 9-week-old Wistar male rats were divided into a control group (n=6) and an experimental group. Rats in the experimental group underwent cast immobilization of the right rear limb for 8 weeks. They were then randomly divided into a non-treatment group (n=6), which was raised under normal conditions for 4 weeks, and a treatment group (n=7), which underwent LIPUS for 4 weeks. LIPUS irradiation was performed at a frequency of 3 MHz, an intensity of 30 mW/cm(2), and a pulse rate of 20% duty cycle. Irradiation was performed once daily for 10 min, 5 days per week. At the end of this period, tissue specimens in which the knee sagittal plane could be observed were prepared and observed using an optical microscope. [Results] The extension-limiting angle of the knee joint was significantly less in the treatment group compared with the non-treatment group. The posterior joint capsule was significantly thicker only in the non-treatment group, and the density was 53.5 ± 7.5% for the control group, 77.2 ± 5.7% for the non-treatment group, and 69.2 ± 2.9% for the treatment group, with significant differences existing across all groups. [Conclusion] LIPUS may widen the space between collagen fiber bundles of the joint capsule, thereby improving the range of motion.

  9. Low Intensity Low Temperature (LILT) Measurements and Coefficients on New Photovoltaic Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheiman, David A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Brinker, David J.; Appelbaum, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Past NASA missions to Mars, Jupiter and the outer planets were powered by radioisotope thermal generators (RTGs). Although these devices proved to be reliable, their high cost and highly toxic radioactive heat source has made them far less desirable for future planetary missions. This has resulted in a renewed search for alternate energy sources, some of them being photovoltaics (PV) and thermophotovoltaics (TPV). Both of these alternate energy sources convert light/thermal energy directly into electricity. In order to create a viable PV data base for planetary mission planners and cell designers, we have compiled low intensity low temperature (LILT) I-V data on single junction and multi-junction high efficiency solar cells. The cells tested here represent the latest photovoltaic technology. Using this LILT data to calculate Short Circuit Current (I(sub sc)), Open Circuit Voltage (V(sub os)), and Fill Factor (FF) as a function of temperature and intensity, an accurate prediction of cell performance under the AM0 spectrum can be determined. When combined with QUantum efficiency at Low Temperature (QULT) data, one can further enhance the data by adding spectral variations to the measurements. This paper presents an overview of LILT measurements and is only intended to be used as a guideline for material selection and performance predictions. As single junction and multi-junction cell technologies emerge, new test data must be collected. Cell materials included are Si, GaAs/Ge, GaInP/GaAs/GaAs, InP, InGaAs/InP, InP/InGaAs/InP, and GaInP. Temperatures range down to as low as -180 C and intensities range from 1 sun down to 0.02 suns. The coefficients presented in this paper represent experimental results and are intended to provide the user with approximate numbers.

  10. Modeling linear vibration of cell nucleus in low intensity ultrasound field.

    PubMed

    Or, Meir; Kimmel, Eitan

    2009-06-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound of low to medium intensity is known to induce alterations in structure and functioning of cells and tissues, both in vivo and in vitro. Such effects, including excitation or inhibition of action potentials, enhanced angiogenesis rate, increased membrane permeability and changes in molecular expression, cannot be attributed in many cases to rising temperatures or the presence of gas bubbles. This study attempts to find a possible alternative explanation for the cases where neither thermal effects nor cavitation mechanisms count. We focus our attention on the complex and dense structure of cell cytoplasm, looking for periodic separating forces and relative motion between intracellular elements, such as the nucleus, and the structure in which they are embedded. It is hypothesized that relative oscillatory displacements between intracellular elements of different densities might appear in cells in response to low intensity therapeutic ultrasound (LITUS). Those displacements might induce alterations in cell structure and functioning. A linear model is constructed and solved for a spherical object, representing a typical organelle such as the nucleus, within a homogenous viscoelastic medium that vibrates uniformly. The structure in which the object is embedded is described by four different rheologic models, including viscous fluid, elastic solid, and Voigt and Maxwell viscoelastic constructs. It is found that cyclic intracellular displacements comparable with and even larger than the mean thermal fluctuations may be obtained due to LITUS irradiation in conditions where the relative motion of organelles is dominated by elastic response, or where the effective viscosity of the cytoplasm is low. Resonance frequency at which intracellular vibration of maximal amplitude is obtained is found to lie within the low LITUS frequency range, i.e., tens to hundreds of kHz. Local intracellular strain on the order of 0.5% is found for 1 microm organelle in 10

  11. A Study of the Influence of Low Intensity Laser Therapy on Painful Temporomandibular Disorder Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sattayut, S.; Bradley, P.

    2012-01-01

    A double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 30 female Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) patients who had pain as a chief complaint. The patients were randomly allocated into three groups based on Low Intensity Laser (LILT) regimes namely 820 nm Gallium Aluminium Arsenide (GaAlAs) laser at energy densities of 21.4J/cm2, 107 J/cm2 and placebo laser. Each patient had three LILT treatments in a week. The pressure pain threshold (PPT) of trigger points in masticatory muscles, unassisted maximum mouth opening without pain (MOSP) and symptom severity index (SSI) were recorded as baseline data and monitored after every treatment. Jaw kinesiology, electromyography (EMG) and pain rating index from McGill pain questionnaire were also recorded as baseline and final results. The analysis of covariance and further analysis showed that the higher energy density laser group had significant increases in PPT and EMG amplitude recorded from voluntary clenching (cEMG) compared with the placebo group at P values 0.0001 and 0.022 respectively. A significantly greater number of patients recovered from myofascial pain and TMJ arthralgia as assessed clinically in the higher energy group compared with the placebo (P value = 0.02 and 0.006 respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in the other parameters of assessment among the groups at a P value 0.05. At a period of 2 to 4 weeks review after LILT, there was an average 52% reduction of pain as assessed by SSI. PMID:24511188

  12. Low-intensity agricultural landscapes in Transylvania support high butterfly diversity: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Loos, Jacqueline; Dorresteijn, Ine; Hanspach, Jan; Fust, Pascal; Rakosy, László; Fischer, Joern

    2014-01-01

    European farmland biodiversity is declining due to land use changes towards agricultural intensification or abandonment. Some Eastern European farming systems have sustained traditional forms of use, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. However, global markets and international policies now imply rapid and major changes to these systems. To effectively protect farmland biodiversity, understanding landscape features which underpin species diversity is crucial. Focusing on butterflies, we addressed this question for a cultural-historic landscape in Southern Transylvania, Romania. Following a natural experiment, we randomly selected 120 survey sites in farmland, 60 each in grassland and arable land. We surveyed butterfly species richness and abundance by walking transects with four repeats in summer 2012. We analysed species composition using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. We modelled species richness, richness of functional groups, and abundance of selected species in response to topography, woody vegetation cover and heterogeneity at three spatial scales, using generalised linear mixed effects models. Species composition widely overlapped in grassland and arable land. Composition changed along gradients of heterogeneity at local and context scales, and of woody vegetation cover at context and landscape scales. The effect of local heterogeneity on species richness was positive in arable land, but negative in grassland. Plant species richness, and structural and topographic conditions at multiple scales explained species richness, richness of functional groups and species abundances. Our study revealed high conservation value of both grassland and arable land in low-intensity Eastern European farmland. Besides grassland, also heterogeneous arable land provides important habitat for butterflies. While butterfly diversity in arable land benefits from heterogeneity by small-scale structures, grasslands should be protected from fragmentation to provide

  13. Low-intensity laser therapy efficacy evaluation in FVB mice subjected to acute and chronic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Trawitzki, Bianca Ferreira; Ervolino, Edilson; Macedo, Ana Paula; Lilge, Lothar

    2017-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune inflammation, has a high prevalence in the population, and while therapy is available, it required often injection of drugs causing discomfort to patients. This study evaluates the clinical and histological effect of low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) as an alternative treatment, in a murine model of acute and chronic inflammation. FVB mice received either a Zymosan A injection into one knee joint inducing acute inflammation, followed after 15 min or 24 h by LILT or a collagen bovine type II injection emulsified in "Freund's Complete Adjuvant" to induce chronic arthritis, followed at 4 weeks with multiple LILT sessions. LILT mediated by either 660, 808, or 905 nm and tissue response was evaluated based on clinical symptoms and histological analysis of inflammatory infiltrate and damage to the articular surfaces. LILT can be effective in elevating clinical symptoms, so Kruskal-Wallis testing indicated no significant differences between knees affected by acute arthritis and treated once with LILT and an injured knee without treatment (p > 0.05) for 660 and 808 nm with some improvements for the 905-nm LILT. Mice receiving two treatments for acute arthritis showed exacerbation of inflammation and articular resorption following therapy with a 660-nm continuous laser (p < 0.05). For chronic inflammation, differences were not noted between LILT treated and untreated injured knee joints (p > 0.05). Among the lasers, the 905 nm tends to show better results for anti-inflammatory effect in acute arthritis, and the 660 nm showed better results in chronic arthritis. In conclusion, LILT wavelength selection depends on the arthritis condition and can demonstrate anti-inflammatory effects for chronic arthritis and reduced resorption area in this murine model.

  14. Low-Intensity Vibration Improves Angiogenesis and Wound Healing in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M.; Judex, Stefan; Ennis, William J.; Koh, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic wounds represent a significant health problem, especially in diabetic patients. In the current study, we investigated a novel therapeutic approach to wound healing – whole body low-intensity vibration (LIV). LIV is anabolic for bone, by stimulating the release of growth factors, and modulating stem cell proliferation and differentiation. We hypothesized that LIV improves the delayed wound healing in diabetic mice by promoting a pro-healing wound environment. Diabetic db/db mice received excisional cutaneous wounds and were subjected to LIV (0.4 g at 45 Hz) for 30 min/d or a non-vibrated sham treatment (controls). Wound tissue was collected at 7 and 15 d post-wounding and wound healing, angiogenesis, growth factor levels and wound cell phenotypes were assessed. LIV increased angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation at day 7, and accelerated wound closure and re-epithelialization over days 7 and 15. LIV also reduced neutrophil accumulation and increased macrophage accumulation. In addition, LIV increased expression of pro-healing growth factors and chemokines (insulin-like growth factor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor and monocyte chemotactic protein-1) in wounds. Despite no evidence of a change in the phenotype of CD11b+ macrophages in wounds, LIV resulted in trends towards a less inflammatory phenotype in the CD11b− cells. Our findings indicate that LIV may exert beneficial effects on wound healing by enhancing angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation, and these changes are associated with increases in pro-angiogenic growth factors. PMID:24618702

  15. Does Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment repair articular cartilage injury? A rabbit model study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) regiment has been used to treat fractures with non-union and to promote bone union in general. The effect of LIPUS on articular cartilage metabolism has been characterized. Yet, the effect of LIPUS to repair articular cartilage injury remains unclear in vivo. Methods We designed a study to investigate the effect of LIPUS on articular cartilage repairing in a rabbit severe cartilage injury model. Eighteen rabbits were divided into three groups: Sham-operated group, operated group without-LIPUS-treatment, operated group with-LIPUS-treatment (a daily 20-minute treatment for 3 months). Full-thickness cartilage defects were surgically created on the right side distal femoral condyle without intending to penetrate into the subchondral bone, which mimicked severe chondral injury. MR images for experimental joints, morphology grading scale, and histopathological Mankin score were evaluated. Results The preliminary results showed that the operated groups with-LIPUS-treatment and without-LIPUS-treatment had significantly higher Mankin score and morphological grading scale compared with the sham-operated group. However, there was no significant difference between the with-LIPUS-treatment and without-LIPUS-treatment groups. Cartilage defects filled with proliferative tissue were observed in the with-LIPUS-treatment group grossly and under MR images, however which presented less up-take under Alcian blue stain. Furthermore, no new deposition of type II collagen or proliferation of chondrocyte was observed over the cartilage defect after LIPUS treatment. Conclusion LIPUS has no significant therapeutic potential in treating severe articular cartilage injury in our animal study. PMID:24507771

  16. Effects of low-intensity polarized visible laser radiation on skin burns: a light microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Da Silva, Daniela De Fátima Teixeira; De Araújo, Carlos Eugênio Nabuco; De Oliveira, Sérgio Ferreira; Pelegrini, Cleusa Maria Raspantini; Zorn, Telma Maria Tenório; Zezell, Denise Maria

    2004-02-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the influence of low-intensity polarized visible laser radiation on the acceleration of skin wound healing. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) at adequate wavelength, intensity, and dose can accelerate tissue repair. However, there is still unclear information about light characteristics, such as coherence and polarization. Some studies indicate that linearly polarized light can survive through long propagation distance in biological tissue. Three burns about 6 mm in diameter were created on the back of rats with liquid N(2). Lesion "L(//)" was irradiated by He-Ne laser (lambda = 632.8 nm), D= 1.0 J/cm(2), with linear polarization parallel to the spinal column of the rat. Lesion "L(inverted v)" was irradiated using the same laser and dose, but the light polarization was aligned perpendicularly to the relative orientation. Lesion "C" was not irradiated in order to be considered as control. The animals were sacrificed at day 3-17 after lesion creation. Samples were collected and prepared for histological analysis. Histological analysis showed that the healing of irradiated wounds was faster than that of non-irradiated wounds. Moreover, it was observed that skin wound repair is dependent on polarization orientation with respect to a referential axis as the animal's spinal column. Consequently, "L(//)" was completely healed after 17 days, whereas "L (perpendicular) " showed a moderate degree of healing after the same period. These results indicate that the relative direction of the laser polarization plays an important role in the wound healing process when highly coherent He-Ne laser is used.

  17. Preliminary Treatment of Achilles Tendinopathy Using Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Andrew R; Holmes, George B

    2016-02-01

    Achilles tendinopathy is a degenerative process of the tendon associated with diminished vascularity, microtrauma, and aging. Nonoperative treatments such as activity modification, immobilization, night splints, and physical therapy have good outcomes for the majority of patients. However, there are cohorts of patients that remain symptomatic despite use of all nonoperative measures that eventually require surgical intervention. The present study reports the preliminary short-term clinical outcomes of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) for treatment for Achilles tendinopathy. Fourteen patients with clinically diagnosed Achilles tendinopathy who failed previous nonoperative treatments underwent LIPUS stimulation directly over the area of maximum tendon tenderness for 20 min/d for 8 weeks total. No other treatment modalities were used during the period of LIPUS stimulation. All patients had serial clinical exams and evaluations with an average follow-up of 12 months (range, 6-50 months). Excellent clinical outcomes with complete resolution of pain and other symptoms were obtained in 7 patients (50%). Two patients (14%) had good outcomes with mild tendon irritation and stiffness not requiring further intervention. Five patients (36%) had minimal benefit with continued pain, swelling, and tenderness over the Achilles and functional deficits. No patients had worsening pain or progression of disability requiring surgery. LIPUS is an additional noninvasive treatment modality for chronic Achilles tendinopathy that may potentially help improve clinical symptoms and delay and/or prevent the need for surgical intervention. While LIPUS is easy to use, well-tolerated, and has promising early clinical results, further research is needed to determine the long-term benefits, disadvantages, and cost-effectiveness of this alternative treatment for tendinopathy. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case series. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Reserve Component Support to United States National Low Intensity Conflict Strategy: Future Issues. CLIC Papers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    the reserve components. Achieving and maintaining readiness to deter war from the low to the high end of the conflict spectrum is a key contribution...were envisioned as those with low peacetime activity levels and high wartime surge requirements.3 Accordingly, training time was kept at levels...technical positions, aircrews, etc.. receive additional training time. This permits the maintenance of a high degree of readiness that the Total Force

  19. Dissociation of diatomic gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C. F.

    1991-01-01

    The Landau-Zener theory of reactive cross sections has been applied to diatomic molecules dissociating from a ladder of rotational and vibrational states. Although the preexponential factor of the Arrhenius rate expression is shown to be a complex function of the dimensionless activation energy, the average over all states in the ladder is well represented by a single factor that varies about as T exp (-n), where the coefficient n is the order of unity. This relation agrees very well with experimental data for dissociation of O2 and N2, for example. The results validate previous empirical assignment of a single preexponential factor in the Arrhenius expression and justify the extrapolation of the expression well beyond the range of data. The theory is then used to calculate the effect of vibrational nonequilibrium on dissociation rate. For Morse oscillators the results are about the same as for harmonic oscillators, and the dissociation from a ladder of equilibrium rotational and nonequilibrium vibrational states is close to an analytic approximation provided by Hammerling, Kivel, and Teare for harmonic oscillators all dissociating from the ground rotational state.

  20. Observations of fire-induced turbulence regimes during low-intensity wildland fires in forested environments: implications for smoke dispersion

    Treesearch

    Warren E. Heilman; Craig B. Clements; Daisuke Seto; Xindi Bian; Kenneth L. Clark; Nicholas S. Skowronski; John L. Hom

    2015-01-01

    Low-intensity wildland fires occurring beneath forest canopies can result in particularly adverse local air-quality conditions. Ambient and fire-induced turbulent circulations play a substantial role in the transport and dispersion of smoke during these fire events. Recent in situ measurements of fire–atmosphere interactions during low-...

  1. Effects of low-intensity laser irradiation on the apoptosis of rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells in culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. D.; Chen, P.; Zhang, C. P.; Wen, J. X.; Liang, J.; Kang, H. X.; Gao, R. L.; Fu, X. B.

    2011-11-01

    Restenosis is a major complication after coronary intervention therapy. Excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and a decline in their apoptosis, which eventually leads to excessive neointimal thickening in coronary arteries, are the main causes of restenosis. Induction of the apoptosis of VSMCs and inhibition of excessive proliferation of VSMCs are therefore crucial for the prevention of restenosis, and low-intensity laser irradiation of coronary arteries may play a promising role in keeping this in balance. In this study, we used in vitro cultured rabbit VSMCs to investigate the effects of low-intensity laser irradiation at a wavelength of 532 nm on the apoptosis of VSMCs via morphological observation and molecular biology. The results showed that apoptotic bodies and obvious intranuclear apoptosis-positive particles formed within VSMCs 24 h after laser irradiation, suggesting that low-intensity laser irradiation at certain doses can inhibit the proliferation of VSMCs by promoting their apoptosis. This experiment provides evidences for further animal experiments and clinical trials on prevention and treatment of restenosis by intracoronary low-intensity laser irradiation at a wavelength of 532 nm.

  2. Long lifetime, low intensity light source for use in nighttime viewing of equipment maps and other writings

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Alan M.; Edwards, William R.

    1983-01-01

    A long-lifetime light source with sufficiently low intensity to be used for reading a map or other writing at nighttime, while not obscuring the user's normal night vision. This light source includes a diode electrically connected in series with a small power source and a lens properly positioned to focus at least a portion of the light produced by the diode.

  3. Mean and turbulent flow downstream of a low-intensity fire: influence of canopy and background atmospheric conditions

    Treesearch

    Michael T. Kiefer; Warren E. Heilman; Shiyuan Zhong; Joseph J. Charney; Xindi. Bian

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of mean and turbulent flow in the planetary boundary layer and roughness sublayer to a low-intensity fire and evaluates whether the sensitivity is dependent on canopy and background atmospheric properties. The ARPS-CANOPY model, a modified version of the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) model with a canopy parameterization...

  4. Fruit and Vegetable Dietary Behavior in Response to a Low-Intensity Dietary Intervention: The Rural Physician Cancer Prevention Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carcaise-Edinboro, Patricia; McClish, Donna; Kracen, Amanda C.; Bowen, Deborah; Fries, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Context: Increased fruit and vegetable intake can reduce cancer risk. Information from this study contributes to research exploring health disparities in high-risk dietary behavior. Purpose: Changes in fruit and vegetable behavior were evaluated to assess the effects of a low-intensity, physician-endorsed dietary intervention in a rural…

  5. Effects of high- and low-intensity fires on soil properties and plant growth in a Bolivian dry forest

    Treesearch

    Deborah K. Kennard; H.L. Gholz

    2001-01-01

    We compared soil nutrient availabiiity and soil physical properties among four treatments (high-intensity fire, low- intensity fire, plant removal, and harvesting gap) and a control (intact forest understory) over a period of 18 months in a tropical dry forest in Bolivia. The effect of treatments on plant growth was tested using a shade intolerant tree species (

  6. Low Intensity Behavioral Treatment Supplementing Preschool Services for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Severe to Mild Intellectual disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters-Scheffer, Nienke; Didden, Robert; Mulders, Monique; Korzilius, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment (on average 6.5h per week) supplementing preschool services in 3-6-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder and severe to mild intellectual disability. Treatment was implemented in preschools (i.e., daycare centers) and a discrete trial teaching approach was used.…

  7. Fruit and Vegetable Dietary Behavior in Response to a Low-Intensity Dietary Intervention: The Rural Physician Cancer Prevention Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carcaise-Edinboro, Patricia; McClish, Donna; Kracen, Amanda C.; Bowen, Deborah; Fries, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Context: Increased fruit and vegetable intake can reduce cancer risk. Information from this study contributes to research exploring health disparities in high-risk dietary behavior. Purpose: Changes in fruit and vegetable behavior were evaluated to assess the effects of a low-intensity, physician-endorsed dietary intervention in a rural…

  8. Assessment of complex dissociative disorder patients and simulated dissociation in forensic contexts.

    PubMed

    Brand, Bethany L; Webermann, Aliya R; Frankel, A Steven

    Few assessors receive training in assessing dissociation and complex dissociative disorders (DDs). Potential differential diagnoses include anxiety, mood, psychotic, substance use, and personality disorders, as well as exaggeration and malingering. Individuals with DDs typically elevate on many clinical and validity scales on psychological tests, yet research indicates that they can be distinguished from DD simulators. Becoming informed about the testing profiles of DD individuals and DD simulators can improve the accuracy of differential diagnoses in forensic settings. In this paper, we first review the testing profiles of individuals with complex DDs and contrast them with DD simulators on assessment measures used in forensic contexts, including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), and the Structured Inventory of Reported Symptoms (SIRS), as well as dissociation-specific measures such as the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D-R). We then provide recommendations for assessing complex trauma and dissociation through the aforementioned assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychophysiology of dissociated consciousness.

    PubMed

    Bob, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Recent study of consciousness provides an evidence that there is a limit of consciousness, which presents a barrier between conscious and unconscious processes. This barrier likely is specifically manifested as a disturbance of neural mechanisms of consciousness that through distributed brain processing, attentional mechanisms and memory processes enable to constitute integrative conscious experience. According to recent findings a level of conscious integration may change during certain conditions related to experimental cognitive manipulations, hypnosis, or stressful experiences that can lead to dissociation of consciousness. In psychopathological research the term dissociation was proposed by Pierre Janet for explanation of processes related to splitting of consciousness due to traumatic events or during hypnosis. According to several recent findings dissociation of consciousness likely is related to deficits in global distribution of information and may lead to heightened levels of "neural complexity" that reflects brain integration or differentiation based on numbers of independent neural processes in the brain that may be specifically related to various mental disorders.

  10. Effects of low intensity static electromagnetic radiofrequency fields on leiomyosarcoma and smooth muscle cell lines.

    PubMed

    Karkabounas, Spyridon; Havelas, Konstantinos; Kostoula, Olga K; Vezyraki, Patra; Avdikos, Antonios; Binolis, Jayne; Hatziavazis, George; Metsios, Apostolos; Verginadis, Ioannis; Evangelou, Angelos

    2006-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of low intensity static radiofrequency electromagnetic field (EMF) causing no thermal effects, on leiomyosarcoma cells (LSC), isolated from tumors of fifteen Wistar rats induced via a 3,4-benzopyrene injection. Electromagnetic resonance frequencies measurements and exposure of cells to static EMF were performed by a device called multi channel dynamic exciter 100 V1 (MCDE). The LSC were exposed to electromagnetic resonance radiofrequencies (ERF) between 10 kHz to 120 kHz, for 45 min. During a 24h period, after the exposure of the LSC to ERF, there was no inhibition of cells proliferation. In contrast, at the end of a 48 h incubation period, LSC proliferation dramatically decreased by more than 98% (P<0.001). At that time, the survived LSC were only 2% of the total cell population exposed to ERF, and under the same culture conditions showed significant decrease of proliferation. These cells were exposed once again to ERF for 45 min (totally 4 sessions of exposure, of 45 min duration each) and tested using a flow cytometer. Experiments as above were repeated five times. It was found that 45% of these double exposed to ERF, LSC (EMF cells) were apoptotic and only a small percentage 2%, underwent mitosis. In order to determinate their metastatic potential, these EMF cells were also counted and tested by an aggregometer for their ability to aggregate platelets and found to maintain this ability., since they showed no difference in platelet aggregation ability compared to the LSC not exposed to ERF (control cells). In conclusion, exposure of LSC to specific ERF, decreases their proliferation rate and induces cell apoptosis. Also, the LSC that survived after exposed to ERF, had a lower proliferation rate compared to the LSC controls (P<0.05) but did not loose their potential for metastases (platelet aggregation ability). The non-malignant SMC were not affected by the EMF exposure (P<0.4). The specific ERF generated from the MCDE

  11. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Stimulation Facilitates Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Periodontal Ligament Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bo; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Jie; Li, Jing; Deng, Feng; Wang, Zhibiao; Song, Jinlin

    2014-01-01

    Human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) possess stem cell properties, which play a key role in periodontal regeneration. Physical stimulation at appropriate intensities such as low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) enhances cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesechymal stem cells. However, the impacts of LIPUS on osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs in vitro and its molecular mechanism are unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of LIPUS on osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs. HPDLCs were isolated from premolars of adolescents for orthodontic reasons, and exposed to LIPUS at different intensities to determine an optimal LIPUS treatment dosage. Dynamic changes of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in the cultured cells and supernatants, and osteocalcin production in the supernatants after treatment were analyzed. Runx2 and integrin β1 mRNA levels were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis after LIPUS stimulation. Blocking antibody against integrinβ1 was used to assess the effects of integrinβ1 inhibitor on LIPUS-induced ALP activity, osteocalcin production as well as calcium deposition. Our data showed that LIPUS at the intensity of 90 mW/cm2 with 20 min/day was more effective. The ALP activities in lysates and supernatants of LIPUS-treated cells started to increase at days 3 and 7, respectively, and peaked at day 11. LIPUS treatment significantly augmented the production of osteocalcin after day 5. LIPUS caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of Runx2 and integrin β1, while a significant decline when the integrinβ1 inhibitor was used. Moreover, ALP activity, osteocalcin production as well as calcium nodules of cells treated with both daily LIPUS stimulation and integrinβ1 antibody were less than those in the LIPUS-treated group. In conclusion, LIPUS promotes osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs, which is associated with upregulation of Runx2 and integrin β1, which

  12. Efficacy of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in the prevention of osteoporosis following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Warden, S J; Bennell, K L; Matthews, B; Brown, D J; McMeeken, J M; Wark, J D

    2001-11-01

    Ultrasound (US), a high-frequency acoustic energy traveling in the form of a mechanical wave, represents a potential site-specific intervention for osteoporosis. Bone is a dynamic tissue that remodels in response to applied mechanical stimuli. As a form of mechanical stimulation, US is anticipated to produce a similar remodeling response. This theory is supported by growing in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrating an osteogenic effect of pulsed-wave US at low spatial-averaged temporal-averaged intensities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low-intensity pulsed US could prevent calcaneal osteoporosis in individuals following spinal cord injury (SCI). Fifteen patients with a 1-6 month history of SCI were recruited. Active US was introduced to one heel for 20 min/day, 5 days/week, over 6 weeks. The contralateral heel was simultaneously treated with inactive US. Patients were blind to which heel was being actively treated. Active US pulsed with a 10 microsec burst of 1.0 MHz sine waves repeating at 3.3 kHz. The spatial-averaged temporal-averaged intensity was set at 30 mW/cm(2). Bone status was assessed at baseline and following the intervention period by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and quantitative US. SCI resulted in significant bone loss. Bone mineral content decreased by 7.5 +/- 3.0% in inactive US-treated calcanei (p < 0.001). Broadband US attenuation and speed of sound decreased by 8.5 +/- 6.9% (p < 0.001) and 1.5 +/- 1.3% (p < 0.001), respectively. There were no differences between active and inactive US-treated calcanei for any skeletal measure (p > 0.05). These findings confirm the negative skeletal impact of SCI, and demonstrate that US at the dose and mode administered was not a beneficial intervention for SCI-induced osteoporosis. This latter finding may primarily relate to the inability of US to effectively penetrate the outer cortex of bone due to its acoustic properties.

  13. Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy promotes myogenesis through PERK/ATF4 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bohan; Zhou, Jun; Banie, Lia; Reed-Maldonado, Amanda B; Ning, Hongxiu; Lu, Zhihua; Ruan, Yajun; Zhou, Tie; Wang, Hsun Shuan; Oh, Byung Seok; Wang, Guifang; Qi, Stanley Lei; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F

    2017-08-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a significant health problem for women. Treatments employing muscle derived stem cells (MDSCs) may be a promising approach to this prevalent, bothersome condition, but these treatments are invasive and require collection of cells from one site for injection into another. It is also unknown whether or not these cells establish themselves and function as muscle cells in the target tissues. Alternatively, low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy (Li-ESWT) is non-invasive and has shown positive outcomes in the treatment of multiple musculoskeletal disorders, but the biological effects responsible for clinical success are not yet well understood. The aim of this study is to explore the possibility of employing Li-ESWT for activation of MDSCs in situ and to further elucidate the underlying biological effects and mechanisms of action in urethral muscle. Urethral muscle derived stem cells (uMDSCs) were harvest from Zucker Lean (ZUC-LEAN) (ZUC-Leprfa 186) rats and characterized with flow cytometry. Li-ESWT (0.02 mJ/mm(2) , 3 Hz, 200 pulses) and GSK2656157, an inhibitor of PERK pathway, were applied to L6 rat myoblast cells. To assess for myotube formation, we used immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis in uMDSCs and L6 cells. The results indicate that uMDSCs could form myotubes. Myotube formation was significantly increased by the Li-ESWT as was the expression of muscle heavy chain (MHC) and myogenic factor 5 (Myf5) in L6 cells in vitro. Li-ESWT activated protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) pathway by increasing the phosphorylation levels of PERK and eukaryotic initiation factor 2a (eIF2α) and by increasing activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). In addition, GSK2656157, an inhibitor of PERK, effectively inhibited the myotube formation in L6 rat myoblast cells. Furthermore, GSK2656157 also attenuated myotube formation induced by Li-ESWT. In conclusion, this experiment reveals that rat uMDSCs can be

  14. The effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on fresh fracture: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lou, Shenghan; Lv, Houchen; Li, Zhirui; Zhang, Licheng; Tang, Peifu

    2017-09-01

    Low-intensity pulsed ultrasonography (LIPUS) is a form of mechanical stimulation that is delivered via a special device to the fracture site for the acceleration of fracture healing. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the effect of LIPUS for fresh fractures in adults. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library searched between Jan 1980 and Nov 2016. Studies should be quasi-randomized and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing treatment with LIPUS to placebo or no treatment in adults with fresh fractures, reporting outcomes such as function; time to union; delayed union or non-union. Summary standard mean difference (SMD) and the risk ratio (RR) with their 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated with a random effects model. I statistic was used to assess the heterogeneity. Risk of bias was assessed by the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. The GRADE system was used to evaluate the evidence quality. A total of 12 trials with 1099 patients were included. The pooled results showed that LIPUS significantly reduced the time to fracture union (SMD: 0.65, 95% CI: 1.13 to 0.17), improved the quality of life (SMD: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.03-0.37) without affecting the time to full weight bearing (SMD: 0.76, 95% CI: 1.92 to 0.4), the time to return to work (SMD: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.27), or the incidence rate of delayed union and nonunion (RR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.60-1.74). Moderate-to-high quality evidence shows that LIPUS treatment reduces the time to fracture union and improves the quality of life without affecting functional recovery and incident rate of delayed union and nonunion, suggesting that LIPUS treatment may be a good treatment modality for adults with fresh fractures. However, there are some methodological limitations in the eligible trials, further studies are needed to determine the clinical circumstances under which LIPUS is truly valid and to examine the optimal approach for the use of this adjunctive therapy.

  15. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment for postoperative delayed union or nonunion of long bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Jingushi, Seiya; Mizuno, Kosaku; Matsushita, Takashi; Itoman, Moritoshi

    2007-01-01

    Postoperative delayed union and nonunion is the most common complication in fracture treatment. Recent studies have shown an accelerating effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on fracture repair. However, the indications for delayed union and nonunion are not clear. To clarify the factors which influence the effects of LIPUS, the data from a previous prospective multicenter study on LIPUS treatment for postoperative delayed union and nonunion of long bone fractures were reanalyzed. Seventy-two cases of long bone fracture, including those of the femur, tibia, humerus, radius, and ulna, were analyzed. The mean time from the most recent operation to the beginning of LIPUS treatment was 11.5 (3-68) months. The relationship between the background factors and the union rate was analyzed using a logistic regression method. In addition, long bone fractures in an upper extremity or in a lower extremity were analyzed separately. The union rate was 75% in all the cases of long bone fracture. There was a significant relationship between the union rate and the period from the most recent operation to the beginning of LIPUS treatment in all cases and in those that had long bone fracture of an upper extremity. There was also a significant relationship between the union rate and the time when a radiological improvement was first observed after the beginning of the treatment in all cases and in those with fractures in a lower extremity. When LIPUS treatment was started within 6 months of the most recent operation, 89.7% of all fractures healed. When an improvement in the radiological changes at the fracture site was observed after 4 months in those cases, then the sensitivity and specificity for union were more than 90%. LIPUS treatment should be started within 6 months of the most recent operation. Because LIPUS has been shown to be effective without causing either serious invasiveness or any undue risk to the patient, it may be considered the treatment of first choice

  16. [Fluorescence used to investigate the sensitivity of spinach chloroplast membrane to low intensity electromagnetic radiation].

    PubMed

    Xi, Gang; Yang, Yun-Jing; Lu, Hong

    2009-07-01

    A system for studying biological effect of radio frequency electromagnetic field was developed. The system can form an area where electromagnetic wave with large frequency range is well distributed. The strength of electromagnetic wave was measured easily. Electromagnetic wave in the system did not have effect on environment. The sensitivity of spinach chloroplast membrane to low intensity electromagnetic radiation of 300 MHz under power density of 5 mW x cm(-2) was studied by the spectral analysis method of fluorescence of 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonic acid (ANS) and the changes in chlorophyll a (Chla) fluorescence parameters of spinach chloroplast membrane. The result showed that the position of spectrum of ANS fluorescence of spinach chloroplast membrane did not change, but the intensity of ANS fluorescence was obviously increased under the action of electromagnetic radiation with power density of 1-5 mW x cm(-2). There was an increase in the intensity of ANS fluorescence with the increase in electromagnetic radiation. The increase of ANS fluorescence of spinach chloroplast membrane showed that low level electromagnetic field induced the decrease in fluidity of chloroplast membrane compared with control experiment. The cause of the change in the fluidity could be related to the polarization of chloroplast membrane under the electromagnetic field. The analysis of Chla fluorescence parameters of spinach chloroplast membrane indicated that low level electromagnetic field of 300 MHz made the fluorescence parameters F0 and F(VI/)F(V) decrease, and F(V)/Fo, Fv/F(m) and deltaF(V)/T increase. It was showed that low level electromagnetic field caused the change of non-active center of photosystem II of spinach chloroplast membrane to active center and the increase in potential active and photochemical efficiency of PSII, and promoted the transmit process of electron in photosynthesis of chloroplast membrane of photosynthesis cell in spinach leaf. The study confirmed

  17. In vitro Magnetic Stimulation: A Simple Stimulation Device to Deliver Defined Low Intensity Electromagnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Grehl, Stephanie; Martina, David; Goyenvalle, Catherine; Deng, Zhi-De; Rodger, Jennifer; Sherrard, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) by electromagnetic fields appears to benefit human neurological and psychiatric conditions, although the optimal stimulation parameters and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Although, in vitro studies have begun to elucidate cellular mechanisms, stimulation is delivered by a range of coils (from commercially available human stimulation coils to laboratory-built circuits) so that the electromagnetic fields induced within the tissue to produce the reported effects are ill-defined. Here, we develop a simple in vitro stimulation device with plug-and-play features that allow delivery of a range of stimulation parameters. We chose to test low intensity repetitive magnetic stimulation (LI-rMS) delivered at three frequencies to hindbrain explant cultures containing the olivocerebellar pathway. We used computational modeling to define the parameters of a stimulation circuit and coil that deliver a unidirectional homogeneous magnetic field of known intensity and direction, and therefore a predictable electric field, to the target. We built the coil to be compatible with culture requirements: stimulation within an incubator; a flat surface allowing consistent position and magnetic field direction; location outside the culture plate to maintain sterility and no heating or vibration. Measurements at the explant confirmed the induced magnetic field was homogenous and matched the simulation results. To validate our system we investigated biological effects following LI-rMS at 1 Hz, 10 Hz and biomimetic high frequency, which we have previously shown induces neural circuit reorganization. We found that gene expression was modified by LI-rMS in a frequency-related manner. Four hours after a single 10-min stimulation session, the number of c-fos positive cells increased, indicating that our stimulation activated the tissue. Also, after 14 days of LI-rMS, the expression of genes normally present in the tissue was differentially modified

  18. Low intensity vs. self-guided internet-delivered psychotherapy for major depression: a multicenter, controlled, randomized study.

    PubMed

    López-del-Hoyo, Yolanda; Olivan, Barbara; Luciano, Juan V; Mayoral, Fermín; Roca, Miquel; Gili, Margalida; Andres, Eva; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Collazo, Francisco; Araya, Ricardo; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; Magallón, Rosa; García-Campayo, Javier

    2013-01-11

    Major depression will become the second most important cause of disability in 2020. Computerized cognitive-behaviour therapy could be an efficacious and cost-effective option for its treatment. No studies on cost-effectiveness of low intensity vs self-guided psychotherapy has been carried out. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of low intensity vs self-guided psychotherapy for major depression in the Spanish health system. The study is made up of 3 phases: 1.- Development of a computerized cognitive-behaviour therapy for depression tailored to Spanish health system. 2.- Multicenter controlled, randomized study: A sample (N=450 patients) with mild/moderate depression recruited in primary care. They should have internet availability at home, not receive any previous psychological treatment, and not suffer from any other severe somatic or psychological disorder. They will be allocated to one of 3 treatments: a) Low intensity Internet-delivered psychotherapy + improved treatment as usual (ITAU) by GP, b) Self-guided Internet-delivered psychotherapy + ITAU or c) ITAU. Patients will be diagnosed with MINI psychiatric interview. Main outcome variable will be Beck Depression Inventory. It will be also administered EuroQol 5D (quality of life) and Client Service Receipt Inventory (consume of health and social services). Patients will be assessed at baseline, 3 and 12 months. An intention to treat and a per protocol analysis will be performed. The comparisons between low intensity and self-guided are infrequent, and also a comparative economic evaluation between them and compared with usual treatment in primary. The strength of the study is that it is a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of low intensity and self-guided Internet-delivered psychotherapy for depression in primary care, being the treatment completely integrated in primary care setting. Clinical Trials NCT01611818.

  19. Impact of aging and comorbidity on the efficacy of low-intensity shock wave therapy for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hisasue, Shin-ichi; China, Toshiyuki; Horiuchi, Akira; Kimura, Masaki; Saito, Keisuke; Isotani, Shuji; Ide, Hisamitsu; Muto, Satoru; Yamaguchi, Raizo; Horie, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of low-intensity shock wave therapy and to identify the predictive factors of its efficacy in Japanese patients with erectile dysfunction. The present study included 57 patients with erectile dysfunction who satisfied all the following conditions: more than 6-months history of erectile dysfunction, sexual health inventory for men score of ≤ 12 without phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, erection hardness score grade 1 or 2, mean penile circumferential change by erectometer assessing sleep related erection of < 25 mm and non-neurological pathology. Patients were treated by a low-energy shock waves generator (ED1000; Medispec, Gaithersburg, MD, USA). A total of 12 shock wave treatments were applied. Sexual health inventory for men score, erection hardness score with or without phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, and mean penile circumferential change were assessed at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months after the termination of low-intensity shock wave therapy. Of 57 patients who were assigned for the low-intensity shock wave therapy trial, 56 patients were analyzed. Patients had a median age of 64 years. The sexual health inventory for men and erection hardness score (with and without phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor) were significantly increased (P < 0.001) at each time-point. The mean penile circumferential change was also increased from 13.1 to 20.2 mm after low-intensity shock wave therapy (P < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, age and the number of concomitant comorbidities were statistically significant predictors for the efficacy. Low-intensity shock wave therapy seems to be an effective physical therapy for erectile dysfunction. Age and comorbidities are negative predictive factors of therapeutic response. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  20. Low intensity vs. self-guided Internet-delivered psychotherapy for major depression: a multicenter, controlled, randomized study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Major depression will become the second most important cause of disability in 2020. Computerized cognitive-behaviour therapy could be an efficacious and cost-effective option for its treatment. No studies on cost-effectiveness of low intensity vs self-guided psychotherapy has been carried out. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of low intensity vs self-guided psychotherapy for major depression in the Spanish health system. Methods The study is made up of 3 phases: 1.- Development of a computerized cognitive-behaviour therapy for depression tailored to Spanish health system. 2.- Multicenter controlled, randomized study: A sample (N=450 patients) with mild/moderate depression recruited in primary care. They should have internet availability at home, not receive any previous psychological treatment, and not suffer from any other severe somatic or psychological disorder. They will be allocated to one of 3 treatments: a) Low intensity Internet-delivered psychotherapy + improved treatment as usual (ITAU) by GP, b) Self-guided Internet-delivered psychotherapy + ITAU or c) ITAU. Patients will be diagnosed with MINI psychiatric interview. Main outcome variable will be Beck Depression Inventory. It will be also administered EuroQol 5D (quality of life) and Client Service Receipt Inventory (consume of health and social services). Patients will be assessed at baseline, 3 and 12 months. An intention to treat and a per protocol analysis will be performed. Discussion The comparisons between low intensity and self-guided are infrequent, and also a comparative economic evaluation between them and compared with usual treatment in primary. The strength of the study is that it is a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of low intensity and self-guided Internet-delivered psychotherapy for depression in primary care, being the treatment completely integrated in primary care setting. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT01611818 PMID:23312003

  1. Dissociative symptoms in kleptomania.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E

    2004-02-01

    Many patients with kleptomania report an altered state of consciousness during acts of theft. The purpose of this investigation was to clarify a possible link between dissociation and kleptomania, a disabling disorder whose phenomenology remains understudied. 26 adult outpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for kleptoania were administered the Dissociative Experiences Scale and compared to 22 normal controls. The patients with kleptomania had scores that differed significantly from those reported by normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences by sex. Because kleptomania patients seeking treatment with medication may differ from others with kleptomania, further studies are needed.

  2. The Role of the Marine Amphibious Unit, Special Operations Capable in Low Intensity Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-06

    of the Navy. It differs from the original amphibious strategy of General LeJuene in that it is a response to the global Soviet threat. Kelley states...secure base camps they built up supplies of arms, food and trained new recruits from the countryside. They began with an anti-U.S. propaganda

  3. Attempting to model dissociations of memory.

    PubMed

    Reber, Paul J.

    2002-05-01

    Kinder and Shanks report simulations aimed at describing a single-system model of the dissociation between declarative and non-declarative memory. This model attempts to capture both Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL) and recognition memory with a single underlying representation. However, the model fails to reflect an essential feature of recognition memory - that it occurs after a single exposure - and the simulations may instead describe a potentially interesting property of over-training non-declarative memory.

  4. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Few psychological disorders in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual have generated as much controversy as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). For the past 35 years diagnoses of DID, previously referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), have increased exponentially, causing various psychological researchers and clinicians to question the…

  5. The dissociative recombination of ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubé, S.; Lehfaoui, L.; Rowe, B. R.; Mitchell, J. B. A.

    1998-09-01

    The dissociative recombination rate coefficient for 0953-4075/31/18/016/img2 has been measured at 300 K using a flowing afterglow Langmuir probe-mass spectrometer apparatus. A value of 0953-4075/31/18/016/img3 has been found.

  6. Introduction to dissociative recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.; Mitchell, J. Brian A.

    1989-01-01

    Dissociative recombination (DR) of molecular ions with electrons has important consequences in many areas of physical science. Ab-initio calculations coupled with resonant scattering theory and multichannel quantum defect studies have produced detailed results illuminating the role of ion vibrational excitation, the quantum yields of the DR products, and the role of Rydberg states. The theoretical and experimental results are discussed.

  7. Functional (dissociative) retrograde amnesia.

    PubMed

    Markowitsch, H J; Staniloiu, A

    2017-01-01

    Retrograde amnesia is described as condition which can occur after direct brain damage, but which occurs more frequently as a result of a psychiatric illness. In order to understand the amnesic condition, content-based divisions of memory are defined. The measurement of retrograde memory is discussed and the dichotomy between "organic" and "psychogenic" retrograde amnesia is questioned. Briefly, brain damage-related etiologies of retrograde amnesia are mentioned. The major portion of the review is devoted to dissociative amnesia (also named psychogenic or functional amnesia) and to the discussion of an overlap between psychogenic and "brain organic" forms of amnesia. The "inability of access hypothesis" is proposed to account for most of both the organic and psychogenic (dissociative) patients with primarily retrograde amnesia. Questions such as why recovery from retrograde amnesia can occur in retrograde (dissociative) amnesia, and why long-term new learning of episodic-autobiographic episodes is possible, are addressed. It is concluded that research on retrograde amnesia research is still in its infancy, as the neural correlates of memory storage are still unknown. It is argued that the recollection of episodic-autobiographic episodes most likely involves frontotemporal regions of the right hemisphere, a region which appears to be hypometabolic in patients with dissociative amnesia.

  8. Dissociative Reactions to Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, J. Mark

    In contrast to Freud's later and revised view of the etiology of hysterical, or dissociative, symptoms, it is now known that real, and not fantasized, sexual experiences in childhood are experienced in disociative symptomatology. It is useful to understand that incest involves both traumatic events, that is, incidents of sexual violation per se,…

  9. Sexuality of dissocial persons.

    PubMed

    Janus, Marta; Szulc, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The development of personality disorders as well as sexual disorders is defined by the common time spectrum as well as deficits and changes in such areas as biological, environmental and mental area. Dissocial (antisocial) personality disorder is characterised by a pervasive pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others. The indices of the discussed disorder can be found in specific patterns of social inadequacy occurring during childhood and puberty. At the same time, characteristic indices of social functioning at a young age often indicate subsequent dysfunctions in the area of sexuality. The aim of this paper is to explain sexual functioning of persons with dissocial personality disorder (including the relation with sexual dysfunctions), and to ascertain issues that need further empirical studies. As a result of analysis of available literature (matched with EBSCO database search fulfilling criteria of sample size, accuracy of examination procedure, conclusions and discussion) 5 articles fulfilling criteria cited above has been found. Based on literature overview, it appeared to be impossible to determine one coherent way of sexual functioning of dissocial persons, and to establish causal relationship of sexual dysfunctions and dissocial personality disorder. However, it is possible to indicate group of most characteristic dysfunctional sexual behaviours. Noteworthy, available publication analyse only selected aspects of sexual behaviours in small, homogenous groups. There is a lack of review studies as well as multi-faceted studies.

  10. Pathological Dissociation as Measured by the Child Dissociative Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wherry, Jeffrey N.; Neil, Debra A.; Taylor, Tamara N.

    2009-01-01

    The component structure of the Child Dissociative Checklist was examined among abused children. A factor described as pathological dissociation emerged that was predicted by participants being male. There also were differences in pathological dissociation between groups of sexually abused and physically abused children. Replication of this factor…

  11. Dissociation and psychosis in dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Laddis, Andreas; Dell, Paul F

    2012-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms, first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia, and delusions were assessed in 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients with the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). Schizophrenia patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I Disorders; DID patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised. DID patients obtained significantly (a) higher dissociation scores; (b) higher passive-influence scores (first-rank symptoms); and (c) higher scores on scales that measure child voices, angry voices, persecutory voices, voices arguing, and voices commenting. Schizophrenia patients obtained significantly higher delusion scores than did DID patients. What is odd is that the dissociation scores of schizophrenia patients were unrelated to their reports of childhood maltreatment. Multiple regression analyses indicated that 81% of the variance in DID patients' dissociation scores was predicted by the MID's Ego-Alien Experiences Scale, whereas 92% of the variance in schizophrenia patients' dissociation scores was predicted by the MID's Voices Scale. We propose that schizophrenia patients' responses to the MID do not index the same pathology as do the responses of DID patients. We argue that neither phenomenological definitions of dissociation nor the current generation of dissociation instruments (which are uniformly phenomenological in nature) can distinguish between the dissociative phenomena of DID and what we suspect are just the dissociation-like phenomena of schizophrenia.

  12. Pathological Dissociation as Measured by the Child Dissociative Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wherry, Jeffrey N.; Neil, Debra A.; Taylor, Tamara N.

    2009-01-01

    The component structure of the Child Dissociative Checklist was examined among abused children. A factor described as pathological dissociation emerged that was predicted by participants being male. There also were differences in pathological dissociation between groups of sexually abused and physically abused children. Replication of this factor…

  13. Effect of ground fire of low intensity on soil organic matter decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Zhuravleva, Anna; Myakshina, Tatyana; Blagodatsky, Sergey

    2010-05-01

    Seasonal grassland fires in Russia occupy the greater area and spread quicker than peat-bog or forest fire. During short-term grassland fire of low intensity the vegetation and plant litter are usually burned down, while soil is not affected by high temperatures. Thus, the pyrogenically transformed plant material is the main factor affecting the soil microbial community after the seasonal grassland fire. Input of pyrogenic substrates to soil can alter microbial activity resulting in accelerated turnover of native soil organic matter (SOM), and in carbon losses from soil. Our study aimed to estimate the effect of seasonal grassland fires on microbial communities of soils under forest and meadow using the eco-physiological profiling (Anderson, 2003). The following variables were determined under field and laboratory conditions: 1) dynamics of CO2 evolution (basal respiration); 2) microbial biomass C by glucose-induced respiration; 3) Cmic - to- Corg ratio, 4) metabolic quotient qCO2; 4) specific growth rates of microorganisms by the kinetics of substrate induced respiration. The indirect effect of short-term ground fire on mineralization activity of soil microorganisms was studied in incubation experiments after application of pyrogenically modified plant residues to the soil. Since the values of the variables studied differed from each other in a large scale, they were generalized by the mathematical indices allowing the comparison of different variables at the base of non-dimensional scale. The eco-physiological profiles combining the biological indicators mentioned above allowed the comparison of post-fire and undisturbed soils. The acceleration of basal respiration caused by the fire was observed in soils of both biocenoses at least during two months after the fire. Cumulative increase in CO2 efflux from 5cm soil layer amounted for 5 % (meadow) and for 10 % (forest) of annual CO2 emission. Post-fire effect resulted in total mineralization of grassland floor on

  14. Combating Low Intensity Conflicts in Latin America. The Engineer’s Role

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    limited capability existing In 1947 to a very credible capability in 1983, but he cautions, Air 3 Force civil engineers must be careful not to let...past experience it appears probable that the Air Force will again be taking care of its own construction requirements in the next contingency and that AF...constrictors, from their living quarters on a nightly basis and scorpions and tarantulas crawl up and into everything. (22) Home station training just does

  15. Compilation of LIC (Low Intensity Conflict) References and Bibliography, Volume 2. CLIC Papers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Mexico . It reviews these nations’ historical and institutional settings, the characteristics of their political culture, the style of their negotiators...invitations, body language, world view, time, machismo , success, and manual labor. It explains teaching and training Latins in terms of the personal...30, Mexico , 14 31, 37 Morocco-Polisario, 15. Summers, 11, 21 Motley, 7 Swenarski, 11 Murray, 8 Taylor, 12 Nails, 13 Technological, 2, 16, 30

  16. Three dimensions of dissociative amnesia.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    Principal axis factor analysis with promax rotation extracted 3 factors from the 42 memory and amnesia items of the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID) database (N = 2,569): Discovering Dissociated Actions, Lapses of Recent Memory and Skills, and Gaps in Remote Memory. The 3 factors' shared variance ranged from 36% to 64%. Construed as scales, the 3 factor scales had Cronbach's alpha coefficients of .96, .94, and .93, respectively. The scales correlated strongly with mean Dissociative Experiences Scale scores, mean MID scores, and total scores on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised (SCID-D-R). What is interesting is that the 3 amnesia factors exhibited a range of correlations with SCID-D-R Amnesia scores (.52, .63, and .70, respectively), suggesting that the SCID-D-R Amnesia score emphasizes gaps in remote memory over amnesias related to dissociative identity disorder. The 3 amnesia factor scales exhibited a clinically meaningful pattern of significant differences among dissociative identity disorder, dissociative disorder not otherwise specified-1, dissociative amnesia, depersonalization disorder, and nonclinical participants. The 3 amnesia factors may have greater clinical utility for frontline clinicians than (a) amnesia as discussed in the context of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, nosology of the dissociative disorders or (b) P. Janet's (1893/1977 ) 4-fold classification of dissociative amnesia. The author recommends systematic study of the phenomenological differences within specific dissociative symptoms and their differential relationship to specific dissociative disorders.

  17. Low intensity dust ion-acoustic shock waves due to dust charge fluctuation in a nonextensive dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Alinejad, H.; Shahmansory, M.

    2012-08-15

    The properties of low intensity dust ion acoustic shock waves are studied in a charge varying dusty plasma with nonextensive electrons. Owing to the departure from the Maxwellian electron distribution to a nonextensive one, the modified electrostatic charging of a spherical dust particle in plasma with ion streaming speed is considered. Based on the weakly nonlinear analysis, a new relationship between the low intensity localized disturbances and nonextensive electrons is derived. It is found that both strength and steepness of shock structures arise as the electrons evolve far from their thermodynamic equilibrium in such plasma with parameter ranges corresponding to Saturn's rings. It is also shown that the ion temperature and population of electrons reduce the possibility of the formation of the shock profile.

  18. Interleukin-1β Can Reduce Manifestations of Delayed Effects of Prolonged Exposure to Low-Intensity γ-Radiation.

    PubMed

    Vorobyeva, N Yu; Grekhova, A K; Trubitsina, K Yu; Pchelka, A V; Rozhdestevenskiy, L M; Osipov, A N

    2016-02-01

    We showed that injection of IL-1β (Betaleukin) in a dose of 3 μg/kg 22 h before prolonged (21 h) exposure to low-intensity (10 mGy/min) γ-radiation in a dose of 12.6 Gy reduced the number of double-strand DNA breaks in murine spleen cells to the control level in 4 months after exposure and the number of double-strand DNA breaks induced by additional acute irradiation in a dose of 6 Gy. The results suggest that IL-1β can improve the efficiency of systems reducing the number of double-strand DNA breaks in murine spleen cells at delayed terms after exposure to prolonged low-intensity radiation.

  19. Protective action of low-intensity laser radiation relative to the toxic effect of metals (experimental study in vitro)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejneka, S. Y.

    1997-12-01

    The study of a possible cytotoxic effect of different doses of low-insensitive laser radiation and protective action of low-intensive laser radiation relative to the toxic effect of metals was carried out by means of the alternative method of investigation in vitro on cell cultura Hela. It was established that the investigated doses of low-intensive laser radiation had not produced any toxic effect on cell culture Hela, so the mentioned doses were not cytotoxic. It was revealed that laser radiation reduced the level of the cytotoxic effect of the studied metal salts on the cell culture, and possessed the protective action against the toxic effect of metals. This action has a clear-cut dose- related character.

  20. Possible molecular effect related to the reception of low-intensity IR radiation: Role of Src-kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yachnev, I. L.; Shelykh, T. N.; Podzorova, S. A.; Rogachevskii, I. V.; Krylov, B. V.; Plakhova, V. B.

    2016-06-01

    The patch-clamp technique has been used to demonstrate that low-intensity IR irradiation affects the effective charge of the activation gating system of slow sodium channels in the nociceptive neuron membrane. IR photons are absorbed by ATP molecules bound to Na+,K+-ATPase at their hydrolysis site. Na+,K+-ATPase is a transducer of signal that is further delivered to slow sodium channels and cell genome. It is demonstrated that the irradiation does not modulate the response of a sensory neuron in the presence of PP2, an inhibitor of Src-kinase. The results show that Src-kinase is a series unit involved in the intracellular cascade processes triggered by low-intensity radiation of CO2 laser.

  1. Need for "conflict version" of primary surgery: war surgery in the era of low-intensity conflicts.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Masahiro J

    2006-01-01

    The conventional wars between nations have widely been replaced by low-intensity conflicts within nations today, resulting in different patterns of injuries and practice of surgical care. A blurred front line, protracted durations of violence, indiscriminant fighting, and the emergence of specific surgical problems characterize low-intensity conflicts. In protracted conflicts with limited resources, surgical outcomes depend on many factors other than surgical skills, such as social/cultural values and economical feasibility. This paper examines how the characteristics of current conflicts affect surgical practice and will address key issues to evolve care to adapt to these changes. Key issues are (1) need for comprehensive surgical skills, (2) importance of improving local capacities, (3) long-term impact of trauma, and (4) limited access to information required to improve surgical skills.

  2. Long lifetime, low intensity light source for use in nighttime viewing of equipment maps and other writings

    DOEpatents

    Frank, A.M.; Edwards, W.R.

    1983-10-11

    A long-lifetime light source with sufficiently low intensity to be used for reading a map or other writing at nighttime, while not obscuring the user's normal night vision is disclosed. This light source includes a diode electrically connected in series with a small power source and a lens properly positioned to focus at least a portion of the light produced by the diode. 1 fig.

  3. Long lifetime, low intensity light source for use in nighttime viewing of equipment maps and other writings

    DOEpatents

    Frank, A.M.; Edwards, W.R.

    1982-03-23

    A long-lifetime light source is discussed with sufficiently low intensity to be used for reading a map or other writing at nightime, while not obscuring the user's normal night vision. This light source includes a diode electrically connected in series with a small power source and a lens properly positioned to focus at least a portion of the light produced by the diode.

  4. Pulsed low-intensity ultrasound: a new salvage procedure for delayed unions and nonunions after leg lengthening in children.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Dieter; Correll, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    From 1998 to 2001, 112 lengthening procedures with or without deformity correction were performed in 108 children by external fixation with the Ilizarov method. Of these cases, 16.9% did not lead to a solid bone consolidation. Two children were operated the second time, mainly because of the parent's decision. Seventeen delayed unions or nonunions in 13 children were treated with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound. All 17 cases healed within 3 to 12 months without any risk of surgical intervention.

  5. [Effect of low intensity pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation on activity of alkaline phosphatase in blood serum].

    PubMed

    Pashovkina, M S; Akoev, I G

    2001-01-01

    The change in alkaline phosphotase activity in vitro with frequencies modulation at low intensity of pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation was experimentally shown (EMR, 2375 MHz, intensity: 0.8, 8.0; 40.0 microW/cm2; range modulation: 30-310 Hz; time of interaction: 1-3 min). Revealed effects could be regarded as an evidence of informative character of interaction of modulated EMR.

  6. Method for Correction of Consequences of Radiation-Induced Heart Disease using Low-Intensity Electromagnetic Emission under Experimental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bavrina, A P; Monich, V A; Malinovskaya, S L; Yakovleva, E I; Bugrova, M L; Lazukin, V F

    2015-05-01

    Effects of successive exposure to ionizing irradiation and low-intensity broadband red light on electrical activity of the heart and myocardium microstructure were studied in rats. Lowintensity red light corrected some ECG parameters, in particular, it normalized QT and QTc intervals and voltage of R and T waves. Changes in ECG parameters were followed by alterations in microstructure of muscle fi laments in the myocardium of treatment group animals comparing to control group.

  7. [The effect of low-intensity pulsed sound waves delivered by the Exogen device on Staphylococcus aureus morphology and genetics].

    PubMed

    Ayan, Irfan; Aslan, Gönül; Cömelekoğlu, Ulkü; Yilmaz, Nejat; Colak, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of low-intensity pulsed sound waves delivered by the Exogen device, which is recommended for the treatment of delayed union and nonunion in orthopedic surgery, on the colony number, antimicrobial susceptibility, bacterial morphology, and genetics of Staphylococcus aureus, which is a frequent pathogen in orthopedic infections. Thirty tubes containing 0.5 McFarland suspensions of S. aureus (ATCC 25923) were used. Fifteen tubes forming the test group were subjected to low-intensity sound waves by the Exogen device for 20 minutes. The remaining 15 tubes were untreated as controls. The two groups were then compared with respect to colony number, antibiotic susceptibility, and genotypic properties. The tubes were examined histologically by electron microscopy. The test tubes treated with sound waves showed a significantly lower number of bacteria colonies compared to the control tubes (p<0.001). The two groups were similar with respect to antibiotic susceptibility and genotypic properties. Bacterial cell wall structure in the control group was of normal appearance, whereas partial destruction and break-up were observed in test samples. Bacterial cell wall thickness was significantly higher in the test group compared to the control group (41.54 nm and 24.27 nm, respectively; p<0.001). Low-intensity sound waves may be beneficial as a prophylactic measure to prevent infections in primary orthopedic operations and as an adjuvant therapy for infected nonunions.

  8. Low-intensity laser irradiation stimulates mineralization via increased BMPs in MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Keiko; Kiyosaki, Takeshi; Mitsui, Narihiro; Mayahara, Kotoe; Omasa, Saori; Suzuki, Naoto; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2010-08-01

    Previously, we reported that low-intensity laser irradiation accelerated bone formation, and that this mechanism deeply involved insulin-like growth factor I expression. However, as bone formation is supported by many local factors, the mechanism involved in laser irradiation remains incompletely understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of laser irradiation on the osteogenic response in vitro. Mouse osteoblast-like cells, MC3T3-E1, were cultured and were irradiated for 5-20 minutes (0.96-3.82 J/cm(2)) at the subconfluent stage using a low-intensity Ga-Al-As diode laser apparatus. After laser irradiation, expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), transcription factors (Runx2, Osterix, Dlx5, Msx2), and phosphorylation of Smad1 were determined, and calcium content of cell cultures was also determined. Irradiation at 1.91 J/cm(2) significantly increased the expression of BMPs and Runx2, Osterix, Dlx5, Msx2, and the phosphorylation of Smad1. Noggin, a BMP receptor blocker, inhibited the laser-induced Runx2 expression and phosphorylation of Smad1. Moreover, laser irradiation significantly increased the calcium content of cell cultures, and noggin inhibited this increase. These results suggest that low-intensity laser irradiation stimulates in vitro mineralization via increased expression of BMPs and transcription factors associated with osteoblast differentiation. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Effects of carbon-nitrogen ratio on nitrogen removal in a sequencing batch reactor enhanced with low-intensity ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ruofei; Liu, Guangfei; Li, Chunling; Xu, Rongjuan; Li, Hongyang; Zhang, Lunxiang; Zhou, Jiti

    2013-11-01

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) enhanced with low-intensity ultrasound was designed to study the removal of nitrogen under different carbon-nitrogen (C/N) ratios. The results showed that the removal efficiencies of CODCr and nitrogen were inversely proportional to C/N ratios. The CODCr of the effluent in the control reactor (CR) and the low-intensity ultrasound-enhanced reactor (UER) were lower than 40 mg L(-1). With a decrease in C/N ratio, the NH4(+)-N removal load of the CR showed little change, while the NH4(+)-N removal load of UER increased from 21.2 to 56.1mg NH4(+)-N/g mixed liquid suspended solids per day. To further understand effects of low-intensity ultrasound, the denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the similar coefficients of the community structures in the UER and CR were 86%, 52% and 29% when the C/N ratios were 15:1, 10:1, 5:1, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of low-intensity laser therapy in reducing treatment time and orthodontic pain: a clinical investigation.

    PubMed

    Doshi-Mehta, Gauri; Bhad-Patil, Wasundhara A

    2012-03-01

    The long duration of orthodontic treatment is a major concern for patients. A noninvasive method of accelerating tooth movement in a physiologic manner is needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate of the efficacy of low-intensity laser therapy in reducing orthodontic treatment duration and pain. Twenty patients requiring extraction of first premolars were selected for this study. We used a randomly assigned incomplete block split-mouth design. Individual canine retraction by a nickel-titanium closed-coil spring was studied. The experimental side received infrared radiation from a semiconductor (aluminium gallium arsenide) diode laser with a wavelength of 810 nm. The laser regimen was applied on days 0, 3, 7, and 14 in the first month, and thereafter on every 15th day until complete canine retraction was achieved on the experimental side. Tooth movement was measured on progress models. Each patient's pain response was ranked according to a visual analog scale. An average increase of 30% in the rate of tooth movement was observed with the low-intensity laser therapy. Pain scores on the experimental sides were significantly lower compared with the control sides. Low-intensity laser therapy is a good option to reduce treatment duration and pain. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Effect of low-intensity ultrasound on endothelin-1 and nitrogen monoxide in uterine tissues of SD rats following abortion].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxia; Guo, Jufang; Lin, Chuan; Lu, Lu; Li, Chengzhi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of low-intensity ultrasound on the contents of endothelin (ET-1) and nitrogen monoxide (NO) in uterine tissues of SD rats after abortion. Thirty female pregnant rats were randomly divided into treatment group and control group and received mifepristone and misoprostol to induce abortion. The rats in the treatment group were treated by low-intensity ultrasound for 30 min/day for 5 consecutive days, and those in the control group received sham treatment. The uterine tissue was then taken and homogenized for measurement of ET-1 and NO contents using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and chemical testing. ET-1 content in the uterine tissues was significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P<0.05), but NO content showed no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). Low-intensity ultrasound can promote the contraction of uterine smooth muscles by increasing the level of ET-1 to modulate the homeostasis of ET-1 and NO.

  12. Low intensity ultrasound induces apoptosis via MPT channel on mitochondrial membrane: Target for regulating cancer therapy or not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yi; Wan, Mingxi

    2017-03-01

    To discuss how the mitochondrion is involved in low intensity ultrasound induced apoptosis, HepG2 cells were irradiated by low intensity focused ultrasound (ISPTA = 3W/cm2, 1 min) and then cultured from 3-12 h post irradiation in the study. The morphological alteration was examined by light and fluorescent microscopy respectively. Cell viability and apoptosis were examined by trypan blue staining and flow cytometry with double staining of FITC-labelled Annexin-V/PI. Key proteins responded to irradiation were screened out by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and shotgun proteomic methods with Agilent 1100 HPLC-Chip-MS technology. Representative apoptotic morphological characteristics and increased percentage of apoptotic cells were achieved. Six important proteins (4 up-regulated and 2 down-regulated) were selected and analyzed. It revealed low intensity focused ultrasound could induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells and the US-induced apoptosis was mitochondria-dependent and caspases-dependent. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MPT) is related to ultrasound induced apoptosis, but VDAC may be not the main MPT channel. Understanding it could help to assist the cancer therapy by regulating the MPT as the target.

  13. Identification of genes responsive to low intensity pulsed ultrasound in a human leukemia cell line Molt-4.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Ando, Hidetaka; Takasaki, Ichiro; Feril, Loreto B; Zhao, Qing-Li; Ogawa, Ryohei; Kudo, Nobuki; Tachibana, Katsuro; Kondo, Takashi

    2007-02-08

    We examined the gene expression of human leukemia Molt-4 cells treated with non-thermal low intensity pulsed ultrasound. Six hours after 0.3W/cm(2) pulsed ultrasound treatment, apoptosis (24+/-3.3%, mean+/-SD) with minimal cell lysis was observed. Of approximately 16,600 genes analyzed, BCL2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 1 (DNAJB1), heat shock 70 kDa protein 1B (HSPA1B), and heat shock 70 kDa protein 6 (HSPA6) showed increased levels of expression while isopentenyl-diphosphate delta isomerase (IDI1) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1 (HMGCS1) showed decreased levels in the cells 3h after the ultrasound treatment. The expression levels of these six genes were confirmed by a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. To our knowledge, this is the first report of DNA microarray analysis of genes that are differentially expressed in response to apoptosis induced by non-thermal low intensity pulsed ultrasound in human leukemia cells. The present results will provide a basis for further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of effects of not only low intensity pulsed ultrasound but also that of mechanical shear stress in the cells.

  14. Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Drinking Water Academy provides online training and information to ensure that water professionals, public officials, and involved citizens have the knowledge and skills necessary to protect our drinking water supply.

  15. Dynamics of cluster dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Keesee, R.G.; Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The dynamics of dissociation of clusters induced by multiphoton ionization (MPI) is examined by time-of-flight mass spectrometry with the aid of a reflecting electric field. The systems discussed include ammonia, methanol, xenon, and p-xylene(Ar)/sub n/ clusters. Ammonia and methanol clusters undergo rapid intracluster reactions to yield protonated clusters. Much of the excess energy which leads to dissociation in ammonia, methanol, and xenon clusters results from the energy differences in the ground states of the neutral and ionic systems. On the other hand, in the case of p-xylene(Ar)/sub n/ the energetic differences are much smaller, so that the excess absorbed photon energy may be an important contribution. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Dynamics of cluster dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Keesee, R.G.; Castleman A.W. Jr.

    1987-09-25

    The dynamics of dissociation of clusters induced by multiphoton ionization (MPI) is examined by time-of-flight mass spectrometry with the aid of a reflecting electric field. The systems discussed include ammonia, methanol, xenon, and p-xylene(Ar)/sub n/ clusters. Ammonia and methanol clusters undergo rapid intracluster reactions to yield protonated clusters. Much of the excess energy which leads to dissociation in ammonia, methanol, and xenon clusters results from the energy differences in the ground states of the neutral and ionic systems. On the other hand, in the case of p-xylene(Ar)/sub n/ the energetic differences are much smaller, so that the excess absorbed photon energy may be an important contribution.

  17. Hormone responses to an acute bout of low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise in college-aged females.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eonho; Gregg, Lee D; Kim, Ldaeyeol; Sherk, Vanessa D; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the acute hormone response to exercise differed between low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise and traditional high-intensity resistance exercise in college-aged women. A total of 13 healthy women (aged 18-25 yrs), who were taking oral contraceptives, volunteered for this randomized crossover study. Subjects performed a session of low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFR) (20% of 1-RM, 1 set 30 reps, 2 sets 15 reps) and a session of traditional high intensity resistance exercise without blood flow restriction (HI) (3 sets of 10 repetitions at 80% of 1-RM) on separate days. Fasting serum cortisol and growth hormone (GH) and blood lactate responses were measured in the morning pre and post exercise sessions. GH (Change: HI: 6.34 ± 1.72; BFR: 4.22 ± 1.40 ng·mL(-1)) and cortisol (Change: HI: 4.46 ± 1.53; BFR: 8.10 ± 2.30 ug·dL(-1)) significantly (p < 0.05) increased immediately post exercise for both protocols compared to baseline and there were no significant differences between the protocols for these responses. In contrast, blood lactate levels (HI: 7.35 ± 0.45; BFR: 4.02 ± 0.33 mmol·L(-1)) and ratings of perceived exertion were significantly (p < 0.01) higher for the HI protocol. In conclusion, acute BFR restricted resistance exercise stimulated similar increases in anabolic and catabolic hormone responses in young women. Key PointsGrowth hormone and cortisol levels significantly increased after a single bout of low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise in young women.There were no significant differences in hormone responses between the low intensity blood flow restricted protocol and the traditional high intensity higher total workload protocol.Low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise provides a sufficient stimulus to elicit anabolic and catabolic hormone responses in young women.

  18. Dissociative recombination of HCl+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Åsa; Fonseca dos Santos, Samantha; E. Orel, Ann

    2017-08-01

    The dissociative recombination of HCl+, including both the direct and indirect mechanisms, is studied. For the direct process, the relevant electronic states are calculated ab initio by combining electron scattering calculations to obtain resonance positions and autoionization widths with multi-reference configuration interaction calculations of the ion and Rydberg states. The cross section for the direct dissociation along electronic resonant states is computed by solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. For the indirect process, an upper bound value for the cross section is obtained using a vibrational frame transformation of the elements of the scattering matrix at energies just above the ionization threshold. Vibrational excitations of the ionic core from the ground vibrational state, v = 0 , to the first three excited vibrational states, v = 1 , v = 2 , and v = 3 , are considered. Autoionization is neglected and the effect of the spin-orbit splitting of the ionic potential energy upon the indirect dissociative recombination cross section is considered. The calculated cross sections are compared to measurements.

  19. Dissociation: cognitive capacity or dysfunction?

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Michiel B; Elzinga, Bernet M; Phaf, R Hans

    2006-01-01

    Dissociative experiences are mostly studied as a risk factor for dissociative pathology. Nonpathological dissociation is quite common in the general population, however, and may reflect a constitutionally determined cognitive style rather than a pathological trait acquired through the experience of adverse life events. In a theoretical model, we propose that nonpathological dissociation is characterized by high levels of elaboration learning and reconstructive retrieval, for which enhanced levels of attentional and working memory abilities are a prerequisite. These characteristics, in general, seem to be representative for a higher ability to (re-)construct conscious experiences. We review some of our behavioral as well as neural (i.e., fMRI, ERPs) studies, suggesting that high dissociative individuals are characterized by heightened levels of attention, working memory and episodic memory. In nonpathological conditions a person may benefit from these dissociative abilities, although after adverse (e.g., traumatic) events the disposition may develop into dissociative pathology.

  20. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David; Loewenstein, Richard J; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Sar, Vedat; Simeon, Daphne; Vermetten, Eric; Cardeña, Etzel; Brown, Richard J; Dell, Paul F

    2011-12-21

    We present recommendations for revision of the diagnostic criteria for the Dissociative Disorders (DDs) for DSM-5. The periodic revision of the DSM provides an opportunity to revisit the assumptions underlying specific diagnoses and the empirical support, or lack of it, for the defining diagnostic criteria. This paper reviews clinical, phenomenological, epidemiological, cultural, and neurobiological data related to the DDs in order to generate an up-to-date, evidence-based set of DD diagnoses and diagnostic criteria for DSM-5. First, we review the definitions of dissociation and the differences between the definitions of dissociation and conceptualization of DDs in the DSM-IV-TR and the ICD-10, respectively. Also, we review more general conceptual issues in defining dissociation and dissociative disorders. Based on this review, we propose a revised definition of dissociation for DSM-5 and discuss the implications of this definition for understanding dissociative symptoms and disorders. We make the following recommendations for DSM-5: 1. Depersonalization Disorder (DPD) should include derealization symptoms as well. 2. Dissociative Fugue should become a subtype of Dissociative Amnesia (DA). 3. The diagnostic criteria for DID should be changed to emphasize the disruptive nature of the dissociation and amnesia for everyday as well as traumatic events. The experience of possession should be included in the definition of identity disruption. 4. Dissociative Trance Disorder should be included in the Unspecified Dissociative Disorder (UDD) category. There is a growing body of evidence linking the dissociative disorders to a trauma history, and to specific neural mechanisms. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David; Loewenstein, Richard J; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Sar, Vedat; Simeon, Daphne; Vermetten, Eric; Cardeña, Etzel; Dell, Paul F

    2011-09-01

    We present recommendations for revision of the diagnostic criteria for the Dissociative Disorders (DDs) for DSM-5. The periodic revision of the DSM provides an opportunity to revisit the assumptions underlying specific diagnoses and the empirical support, or lack of it, for the defining diagnostic criteria. This paper reviews clinical, phenomenological, epidemiological, cultural, and neurobiological data related to the DDs in order to generate an up-to-date, evidence-based set of DD diagnoses and diagnostic criteria for DSM-5. First, we review the definitions of dissociation and the differences between the definitions of dissociation and conceptualization of DDs in the DSM-IV-TR and the ICD-10, respectively. Also, we review more general conceptual issues in defining dissociation and dissociative disorders. Based on this review, we propose a revised definition of dissociation for DSM-5 and discuss the implications of this definition for understanding dissociative symptoms and disorders. We make the following recommendations for DSM-5: 1. Depersonalization Disorder (DPD) should derealization symptoms as well. 2. Dissociative Fugue should become a subtype of Dissociative Amnesia (DA). 3. The diagnostic criteria for DID should be changed to emphasize the disruptive nature of the dissociation and amnesia for everyday as well as traumatic events. The experience of possession should be included in the definition of identity disruption. 4. Should Dissociative Trance Disorder should be included in the Unspecified Dissociative Disorder (UDD) category. There is a growing body of evidence linking the dissociative disorders to a trauma history, and to specific neural mechanisms. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Design of a Thermoacoustic Sensor for Low Intensity Ultrasound Measurements Based on an Artificial Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jida; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    In therapeutic ultrasound applications, accurate ultrasound output intensities are crucial because the physiological effects of therapeutic ultrasound are very sensitive to the intensity and duration of these applications. Although radiation force balance is a benchmark technique for measuring ultrasound intensity and power, it is costly, difficult to operate, and compromised by noise vibration. To overcome these limitations, the development of a low-cost, easy to operate, and vibration-resistant alternative device is necessary for rapid ultrasound intensity measurement. Therefore, we proposed and validated a novel two-layer thermoacoustic sensor using an artificial neural network technique to accurately measure low ultrasound intensities between 30 and 120 mW/cm2. The first layer of the sensor design is a cylindrical absorber made of plexiglass, followed by a second layer composed of polyurethane rubber with a high attenuation coefficient to absorb extra ultrasound energy. The sensor determined ultrasound intensities according to a temperature elevation induced by heat converted from incident acoustic energy. Compared with our previous one-layer sensor design, the new two-layer sensor enhanced the ultrasound absorption efficiency to provide more rapid and reliable measurements. Using a three-dimensional model in the K-wave toolbox, our simulation of the ultrasound propagation process demonstrated that the two-layer design is more efficient than the single layer design. We also integrated an artificial neural network algorithm to compensate for the large measurement offset. After obtaining multiple parameters of the sensor characteristics through calibration, the artificial neural network is built to correct temperature drifts and increase the reliability of our thermoacoustic measurements through iterative training about ten seconds. The performance of the artificial neural network method was validated through a series of experiments. Compared to our previous

  3. Design of a Thermoacoustic Sensor for Low Intensity Ultrasound Measurements Based on an Artificial Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jida; Chen, Jie

    2015-06-23

    In therapeutic ultrasound applications, accurate ultrasound output intensities are crucial because the physiological effects of therapeutic ultrasound are very sensitive to the intensity and duration of these applications. Although radiation force balance is a benchmark technique for measuring ultrasound intensity and power, it is costly, difficult to operate, and compromised by noise vibration. To overcome these limitations, the development of a low-cost, easy to operate, and vibration-resistant alternative device is necessary for rapid ultrasound intensity measurement. Therefore, we proposed and validated a novel two-layer thermoacoustic sensor using an artificial neural network technique to accurately measure low ultrasound intensities between 30 and 120 mW/cm2. The first layer of the sensor design is a cylindrical absorber made of plexiglass, followed by a second layer composed of polyurethane rubber with a high attenuation coefficient to absorb extra ultrasound energy. The sensor determined ultrasound intensities according to a temperature elevation induced by heat converted from incident acoustic energy. Compared with our previous one-layer sensor design, the new two-layer sensor enhanced the ultrasound absorption efficiency to provide more rapid and reliable measurements. Using a three-dimensional model in the K-wave toolbox, our simulation of the ultrasound propagation process demonstrated that the two-layer design is more efficient than the single layer design. We also integrated an artificial neural network algorithm to compensate for the large measurement offset. After obtaining multiple parameters of the sensor characteristics through calibration, the artificial neural network is built to correct temperature drifts and increase the reliability of our thermoacoustic measurements through iterative training about ten seconds. The performance of the artificial neural network method was validated through a series of experiments. Compared to our previous

  4. Electron Transfer Dissociation of Doubly Sodiated Glycerophosphocholine Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiaorong; Liu, Jian; LeBlanc, Yves; Covey, Tom; Ptak, A. Celeste; Brenna, J. Thomas; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to generate gaseous doubly charged cations of glycerophosphocholine (GPC) lipids via electrospray ionization has made possible the evaluation of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) for their structural characterization. Doubly sodiated GPC cations have been reacted with azobenzene radical anions in a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. The ion/ion reactions proceed through sodium transfer, electron transfer, and complex formation. Electron transfer reactions are shown to give rise to cleavage at each ester linkage with the subsequent loss of a neutral quaternary nitrogen moiety. Electron transfer without dissociation produces [M+2Na]+• radical cations, which undergo collision-induced dissociation (CID) to give products that arise from bond cleavage of each fatty acid chain. The CID of the complex ions yields products similar to those produced directly from the electron transfer reactions of doubly sodiated GPC, although with different relative abundances. These findings indicate that the analysis of GPC lipids by ETD in conjunction with CID can provide some structural information, such as the number of carbons, degree of unsaturation for each fatty acid substituent, and the positions of the fatty acid substituents; some information about the location of the double bonds may be present in low intensity CID product ions. PMID:17719238

  5. The Cytotoxic Effects of Low Intensity Visible and Infrared Light on Human Breast Cancer (MCF7) cells.

    PubMed

    Peidaee, P; Almansour, N; Shukla, R; Pirogova, E

    2013-01-01

    A concept of using low intensity light therapy (LILT) as an alternative approach to cancer treatment is at early stages of development; while the therapeutic effects of LILT as a non-invasive treatment modality for localized joint and soft tissue wound healing are widely corroborated. The LEDs-based exposure system was designed and constructed to irradiate the selected cancer and normal cells and evaluate the biological effects induced by light exposures in visible and infrared light range. In this study, human breast cancer (MCF7) cells and human epidermal melanocytes (HEM) cells (control) were exposed to selected far infrared light (3400nm, 3600nm, 3800nm, 3900nm, 4100nm and 4300nm) and visible and near infrared wavelengths (466nm, 585nm, 626nm, 810nm, 850nm and 950nm). The optical intensities of LEDs used for exposures were in the range of 15µW to 30µW. Cellular morphological changes of exposed and sham-exposed cells were evaluated using light microscopy. The cytotoxic effects of these low intensity light exposures on human cancer and normal cell lines were quantitatively determined by Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxic activity and PrestoBlue™ cell viability assays. Findings reveal that far-infrared exposures were able to reduce cell viability of MCF7 cells as measured by increased LDH release activity and PrestoBlue™ assays. Further investigation of the effects of light irradiation on different types of cancer cells, study of possible signaling pathways affected by electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and in vivo experimentation are required in order to draw a firm conclusion about the efficacy of low intensity light as an alternative non-invasive cancer treatment.

  6. Efficacy of pulsed low-intensity electric neuromuscular stimulation in reducing pain and disability in patients with myofascial syndrome.

    PubMed

    Iodice, P; Lessiani, G; Franzone, G; Pezzulo, G

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is characterized by chronic pain in multiple myofascial trigger points and fascial constrictions. In recent years, the scientific literature has recognized the need to include the patient with MPS in a multidimensional rehabilitation project. At the moment, the most widely recognized therapeutic methods for the treatment of myofascial syndrome include the stretch and spray pressure massage. Microcurrent electric neuromuscular stimulation was proposed in pain management for its effects on normalizing bioelectricity of cells and for its sub-sensory application. In this study, we tested the efficacy of low-intensity pulsed electric neuromuscular stimulus (PENS) on pain in patients with MPS of cervical spine muscles. We carried out a prospective-analytic longitudinal study at an outpatient clinic during two weeks. Forty subjects (mean age 42±13 years) were divided into two groups: treatment (TrGr, n=20) and control group (CtrlGr, n=20). Visual-analog scale (VAS) values, concerning the spontaneous and movement-related pain in the cervical-dorsal region at baseline (T0) and at the end of the study (T1), showed a reduction from 7 to 3.81 (p < 0.001) in TrGr. In the CtrlGr, VAS was reduced from 8.2 to 7.2 (n.s.). Moreover, the pressure pain threshold at T0 was 2.1 vs 4.2 at T1 (p < 0.001) in TrG. In the CtrlGR we observed no significant changes. Modulated low-intensity PENS is an innovative therapy permitting to act on the transmission of pain and on the restoration of tissue homeostasis. It seems to affect the transmission of pain through the stimulation of A-beta fibers. The above results show that low-intensity PENS can be considered as an effective treatment to reduce pain and disability in patients with MPS.

  7. The Cytotoxic Effects of Low Intensity Visible and Infrared Light on Human Breast Cancer (MCF7) cells

    PubMed Central

    Peidaee, P; Almansour, N; Shukla, R; Pirogova, E

    2013-01-01

    A concept of using low intensity light therapy (LILT) as an alternative approach to cancer treatment is at early stages of development; while the therapeutic effects of LILT as a non-invasive treatment modality for localized joint and soft tissue wound healing are widely corroborated. The LEDs-based exposure system was designed and constructed to irradiate the selected cancer and normal cells and evaluate the biological effects induced by light exposures in visible and infrared light range. In this study, human breast cancer (MCF7) cells and human epidermal melanocytes (HEM) cells (control) were exposed to selected far infrared light (3400nm, 3600nm, 3800nm, 3900nm, 4100nm and 4300nm) and visible and near infrared wavelengths (466nm, 585nm, 626nm, 810nm, 850nm and 950nm). The optical intensities of LEDs used for exposures were in the range of 15µW to 30µW. Cellular morphological changes of exposed and sham-exposed cells were evaluated using light microscopy. The cytotoxic effects of these low intensity light exposures on human cancer and normal cell lines were quantitatively determined by Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxic activity and PrestoBlue™ cell viability assays. Findings reveal that far-infrared exposures were able to reduce cell viability of MCF7 cells as measured by increased LDH release activity and PrestoBlue™ assays. Further investigation of the effects of light irradiation on different types of cancer cells, study of possible signaling pathways affected by electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and in vivo experimentation are required in order to draw a firm conclusion about the efficacy of low intensity light as an alternative non-invasive cancer treatment. PMID:24688723

  8. Reflecting on Mirror Mechanisms: Motor Resonance Effects during Action Observation Only Present with Low-Intensity Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Loporto, Michela; Holmes, Paul S.; Wright, David J.; McAllister, Craig J.

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies indicate that the observation of other people's actions influences the excitability of the observer's motor system. Motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes typically increase in muscles which would be active during the execution of the observed action. This ‘motor resonance’ effect is thought to result from activity in mirror neuron regions, which enhance the excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1) via cortico-cortical pathways. The importance of TMS intensity has not yet been recognised in this area of research. Low-intensity TMS predominately activates corticospinal neurons indirectly, whereas high-intensity TMS can directly activate corticospinal axons. This indicates that motor resonance effects should be more prominent when using low-intensity TMS. A related issue is that TMS is typically applied over a single optimal scalp position (OSP) to simultaneously elicit MEPs from several muscles. Whether this confounds results, due to differences in the manner that TMS activates spatially separate cortical representations, has not yet been explored. In the current study, MEP amplitudes, resulting from single-pulse TMS applied over M1, were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles during the observation of simple finger abductions. We tested if the TMS intensity (110% vs. 130% resting motor threshold) or stimulating position (FDI-OSP vs. ADM-OSP) influenced the magnitude of the motor resonance effects. Results showed that the MEP facilitation recorded in the FDI muscle during the observation of index-finger abductions was only detected using low-intensity TMS. In contrast, changes in the OSP had a negligible effect on the presence of motor resonance effects in either the FDI or ADM muscles. These findings support the hypothesis that MN activity enhances M1 excitability via cortico-cortical pathways and highlight a methodological framework by which the neural

  9. Dynamic characteristics of T2*-weighted signal in calf muscles of peripheral artery disease during low-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijun; Muller, Matthew D; Wang, Jianli; Sica, Christopher T; Karunanayaka, Prasanna; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Yang, Qing X

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the dynamic characteristics of T2* -weighted signal change in exercising skeletal muscle of healthy subjects and peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients under a low-intensity exercise paradigm. Nine PAD patients and nine age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers underwent a low-intensity exercise paradigm while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (3.0T) was obtained. T2*-weighted signal time-courses in lateral gastrocnemius, medial gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior were acquired and analyzed. Correlations were performed between dynamic T2*-weighted signal and changes in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, leg pain, and perceived exertion. A significant signal decrease was observed during exercise in soleus and tibialis anterior of healthy participants (P = 0.0007-0.04 and 0.001-0.009, respectively). In PAD, negative signals were observed (P = 0.008-0.02 and 0.003-0.01, respectively) in soleus and lateral gastrocnemius during the early exercise stage. Then the signal gradually increased above the baseline in the lateral gastrocnemius during and after exercise in six of the eight patients who completed the study. This signal increase in patients' lateral gastrocnemius was significantly greater than in healthy subjects' during the later exercise stage (two-sample t-tests, P = 0.001-0.03). Heart rate and mean arterial pressure responses to exercise were significantly higher in PAD than healthy subjects (P = 0.036 and 0.008, respectively) and the patients experienced greater leg pain and exertion (P = 0.006 and P = 0.0014, respectively). During low-intensity exercise, there were different dynamic T2*-weighted signal behavior in the healthy and PAD exercising muscles. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:40-48. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Estimation of the warfarin dose with a pharmacogenetic refinement algorithm in Chinese patients mainly under low-intensity warfarin anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Yuxiao; Yang, Jie; Gao, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Hongjuan; Lu, Caiyi; Zhao, Yusheng; Yin, Tong

    2012-12-01

    Pharmacogenetic (PG) dosing algorithms have been confirmed to predict warfarin therapeutic dose more accurately; however, most of them are based on standard intensity of warfarin anticoagulation, and their utility outside this range is limited. This study was designed to develop and validate a PG refinement algorithm in Chinese patients mainly under low-intensity warfarin anticoagulation. Consented Chinese-Han patients (n=310) under stable warfarin treatment were randomly divided into a derivation (n=207) and a validation cohort (n=103), with 83% and 80% of the patients under low-intensity anticoagulation, respectively. In the derivation cohort, a PG algorithm was constructed on the basis of genotypes (CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1-1639A/G) and clinical data. After integrating additional covariates of international normalised ratio (INR) values (INR on day 4 of therapy and target INR) and genotype of CYP4F2 (rs2108622), a PG refinement algorithm was established and explained 54% of warfarin dose variability. In the validation cohort, warfarin dose prediction was more accurate (p < 0.01) with the PG refinement algorithm than with the PG algorithm and the fixed dose approach (3 mg/day). In the entire cohort, the PG refinement algorithm could accurately identify larger proportions of patients with lower dose requirement (≤2 mg/day) and higher dose requirement (≥4 mg/day) than did the PG algorithm. In conclusion, PG refinement algorithm integrating early INR response and three genotypes (CYP2C9*3, VKORC1-1639A/G, CYP4F2 rs2108622) improves the accuracy of warfarin dose prediction in Chinese patients mainly under low-intensity anticoagulation.

  11. A preliminary study into the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on chronic maxillary and frontal sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Farhadi, Mohammad; Jalaie, Shohreh

    2007-01-01

    Sinusitis is a very common acute or chronic illness that affects a significant percentage of individuals. Recently, therapeutic ultrasound was reported as a treatment for chronic sinusitis. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to evaluate the effectiveness of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (US) in chronic sinusitis using a pretest-posttest research design and 2) to determine the level of association between the independent variables of initial presence of symptoms, age, gender, and duration of disease and the dependent variable of improvement of symptoms. Patients with chronic sinusitis were treated with low-intensity pulsed US, 3 days per week for 15 sessions. Fifty-seven patients (18 females and 39 males; mean age, 35 years) were included in the study. The results of the McNemar test showed a significant change in proportions of post nasal drip and nasal obstruction, two common leading symptoms of patients with chronic sinusitis (p < 0.001). Most of the major and minor symptoms showed significant changes after US therapy (p < 0.05). The total improvement of symptoms was 81.3%. The greatest improvement in symptoms was observed in nasal discharge (100%), followed by facial pain (95.4%) and postnasal drip (82.7%), three major factors in sinusitis. There was a significant, low association between the initial presence of symptoms and the improvement of symptoms after US therapy (chi(2) = 30.352; df = 12; p = 0.002; phi value = 0.356). A significant, low association was also noted between the age and the improvement of symptoms after intervention (chi(2) = 17.548; df = 6; p = 0.007; phi value = 0.270). It may be concluded that low-intensity pulsed US has a significant effect on chronic sinusitis and improves patient symptoms in our study group.

  12. Dissociation of motor maturation.

    PubMed

    DiMario, Francis J

    2003-06-01

    We prospectively acquired clinical data regarding the presentation, evaluation, and developmental progress of all patients identified with dissociated motor maturation to define their clinical outcomes. Children (N = 8) referred for evaluation of suspected cerebral palsy because of delayed sitting or walking and identified to have dissociated motor maturation were followed with serial clinical examination. All displayed the characteristic "sitting on air" posture while held in vertical suspension and had otherwise normal developmental assessments. This posture is composed of the hips held in flexion and abduction with the knees extended and feet plantar or dorsiflexed. Three children were initially evaluated at 10 months of age owing to absence of sitting and five other children were evaluated at a mean of 14 months (range 12-19 months) owing to inability to stand. Follow-up evaluations were conducted over a mean of 10.5 months (range 5-34 months). Five children were born prematurely at 34 to 36 weeks gestation. Denver Developmental Screening Test and general and neurologic examinations were normal except to note hypotonia in six children and the "sitting on air" posture in all of the children. Four children have older siblings or parents who "walked late" (after 15 months). On average, the children attained sitting by 8 months (range 7-10 months). One child did not crawl prior to independent walking, two children scooted rather than crawled, and five children crawled at an average of 13.5 months (range 10-16 months). All children cruised by a mean of 18 months (range 16-21.5 months) and attained independent walking by 20.1 months (range 18-25 months). Neuroimaging and serum creatine kinase enzyme testing were normal in two children who were tested. These eight children conform to the syndrome of dissociated motor maturation. The "sitting on air" posture serves as a diagnostic sign and anticipated excellent prognosis, but follow-up is required to ensure a normal

  13. Recurrent Dissociative Fugue

    PubMed Central

    Mamarde, Abhishek; Navkhare, Praveen; Singam, Amrita; Kanoje, Akash

    2013-01-01

    Dissociative fugue is a rarely reported diagnostic entity. It is one of the least understood and yet clinically one of the most fascinating disorders in mental health. Here, we describe a case of fugue in a 32-year-old man who was brought to mental hospital with complete loss of memory for events pertaining to identity of self. This case illustrates the nature of presentation in hospital setting like mental hospital and effort taken to reintegrate his identity and reunite with his family. PMID:24379504

  14. Optimizing the position resolution of a Z-stack microchannel plate resistive anode detector for low intensity signals.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, B B; Richardson, E; Siwal, D; Hudan, S; deSouza, R T

    2015-08-01

    A method for achieving good position resolution of low-intensity electron signals using a microchannel plate resistive anode detector is demonstrated. Electron events at a rate of 7 counts s(-1) are detected using a Z-stack microchannel plate. The dependence of position resolution on both the distance and the potential difference between the microchannel plate and resistive anode is investigated. Using standard commercial electronics, a measured position resolution of 170 μm (FWHM) is obtained, which corresponds to an intrinsic resolution of 157 μm (FWHM).

  15. Optimizing the position resolution of a Z-stack microchannel plate resistive anode detector for low intensity signals

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggins, B. B.; Richardson, E.; Siwal, D.; Hudan, S.; Souza, R. T. de

    2015-08-15

    A method for achieving good position resolution of low-intensity electron signals using a microchannel plate resistive anode detector is demonstrated. Electron events at a rate of 7 counts s{sup −1} are detected using a Z-stack microchannel plate. The dependence of position resolution on both the distance and the potential difference between the microchannel plate and resistive anode is investigated. Using standard commercial electronics, a measured position resolution of 170 μm (FWHM) is obtained, which corresponds to an intrinsic resolution of 157 μm (FWHM)

  16. [Effect of infrared low-intensity laser radiation on a mutation process and proliferative corneal activity in experimental cerebral hypoxia].

    PubMed

    Shurygina, I P; Galenkina, N M; Shkurat, T P

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the impact of infrared low-intensity laser radiation (IRLILR) on a mutation process and the proliferative activity of the animal cornea during stimulation of circulatory brain hypoxia. During an experiment on laboratory albino rats, IRLILR was studied for its impact on the level of chromosomal rearrangements and the mitotic index in the corneal cells was calculated in circulatory brain hypoxia. Laser exposure during stimulation of circulatory brain hypoxia favors normalization of the level of chromosomal aberrations and a mitotic cycle in the rat corneal epithelial cells. The experimental findings suggest that IRLILR may be used in ophthalmological care for antihypoxic purposes.

  17. THE DISSOCIATIVE TURN IN PSYCHOANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Itzkowitz, Sheldon

    2015-06-01

    In his response to the Roundtable Discussions on what is effective in psychoanalytic psychotherapy, the author focuses on the renewed interest in the concept of dissociation that began to emerge toward the end of the 20th century. A contemporary psychoanalytic position informed by the impact of developmental trauma has led to an understanding of and interest in the dissociative mind. The actuality of trauma during infancy and early childhood is recognized as a key factor leading to the emergence of dissociative processes, the potential dissociative structuring of the mind, and mind being characterized by multiple, discontinuous, centers of consciousness. The therapeutic goal in the psychoanalytic work with fragmented patients is to establish communication and understanding between the dissociated self-states. The author offers two brief clinical examples of working with dissociated self-states.

  18. [Translating Hysteria: PTSD dissociative subtype].

    PubMed

    Levy Yeyati, Elena

    2016-03-01

    To address the symptoms of depersonalization and derealization a specific dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder has been included in DSM-5. Depersonalization and derealization have been defined as acute and chronic symptoms of dissociative disorders since DSM-III. Dissociative disorders with chronic features are often diagnosed in North America, Canada and other European countries, but this is not the case in Argentina. Dissociative disorders have clinical and historical features that are strongly connected with hysteria. The latter is included in ICD-10 within the guidelines for diagnoses of dissociative disorders. This would be one of the reasons for not using dissociative disorders with chronic presentations of symptoms like depersonalization and derealization in countries other than North America or Canada: instead hysteria keeps on been used. The relation between trauma, dissociation and hysteria has been explained in different ways depending on the underlying theory (i.e. Janet's or Freud's). Janet's conceptualizations have had decisive influence in DSM formulations in chronic forms of dissociative disorders. Janet's and Freud's theories lead to different consequences on psychotherapy: hypnosis or psychoanalysis. The aim of this article is to show that the authors of PTSD dissociative subtype are in search of a cross-cultural validity of the construct which might be able to exert a more global influence.

  19. [Dissociative disorders and affective disorders].

    PubMed

    Montant, J; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Pringuey, D; Da Fonseca, D; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenology of dissociative disorders may be complex and sometimes confusing. We describe here two cases who were initially misdiagnosed. The first case concerned a 61 year-old woman, who was initially diagnosed as an isolated dissociative fugue and was actually suffering from severe major depressive episode. The second case concerned a 55 year-old man, who was suffering from type I bipolar disorder and polyvascular disease, and was initially diagnosed as dissociative fugue in a mooddestabilization context, while it was finally a stroke. Yet dissociative disorders as affective disorder comorbidity are relatively unknown. We made a review on this topic. Dissociative disorders are often studied through psycho-trauma issues. Litterature is rare on affective illness comorbid with dissociative disorders, but highlight the link between bipolar and dissociative disorders. The later comorbidity often refers to an early onset subtype with also comorbid panic and depersonalization-derealization disorder. Besides, unipolar patients suffering from dissociative symptoms have more often cyclothymic affective temperament. Despite the limits of such studies dissociative symptoms-BD association seems to correspond to a clinical reality and further works on this topic may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  20. Dissociative disorders in psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Saxe, G N; van der Kolk, B A; Berkowitz, R; Chinman, G; Hall, K; Lieberg, G; Schwartz, J

    1993-07-01

    This study attempted to determine 1) the prevalence of dissociative disorders in psychiatric inpatients, 2) the degree of reported childhood trauma in patients with dissociative disorders, and 3) the degree to which dissociative experiences are recognized in psychiatric patients. A total of 110 patients consecutively admitted to a state psychiatric hospital were given the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Patients who scored above 25 were matched for age and gender with a group of patients who scored below 5 on the scale. All patients in the two groups were then interviewed in a blind manner, and the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule, the Traumatic Antecedent Questionnaire, and the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Nonpatient Version, were administered. Chart reviews were also conducted on all patients. Fifteen percent of the psychiatric patients scored above 25 on the Dissociative Experiences Scale; 100% of these patients met DSM-III criteria for a dissociative disorder. These patients had significantly higher rates of major depression, PTSD, substance abuse, and borderline personality than did the comparison patients, and they also reported significantly higher rates of childhood trauma. Chart review data revealed that dissociative symptoms were largely unrecognized. A high proportion of psychiatric inpatients have significant dissociative pathology, and these symptoms are underrecognized by clinicians. The proper diagnosis of these patients has important implications for their clinical course.

  1. DIFFRACTION DISSOCIATION - 50 YEARS LATER.

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, S.N.

    2005-04-27

    The field of Diffraction Dissociation, which is the subject of this workshop, began 50 years ago with the analysis of deuteron stripping in low energy collisions with nuclei. We return to the subject in a modern context- deuteron dissociation in {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV d-Au collisions recorded during the 2003 RHIC run in the PHENIX experiment. At RHIC energy, d {yields} n+p proceeds predominantly (90%) through Electromagnetic Dissociation and the remaining fraction via the hadronic shadowing described by Glauber. Since the dissociation cross section has a small theoretical error we adopt this process to normalize other cross sections measured in RHIC.

  2. Borderline personality organization and dissociation.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Carsten; Barnow, Sven; Armbruster, Jan; Kusserow, Stefan; Freyberger, Harald J; Grabe, Hans Joergen

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between Kernberg's psychodynamic model of personality organization (PO) and dissociation has not yet been explored. Seventy-two nonclinical subjects and 222 psychiatric patients completed the Dissociative Experiences Scale and the Inventory of Personality Organization. Its Reality Testing subscale emerged as the most important predictor for all facets of dissociation. Discussing our results in the framework of Fonagy and coworkers' model of mentalization, we suggest that dissociation may reflect the preoedipal "pretend" mode of psychic functioning while impaired reality testing and psychotic experiences might be indicative of the "psychic equivalent" mode.

  3. Dissociative state and competence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Hsieh, Ming-Hsien; Liu, Shi-Kai

    2007-10-01

    This report presents the results of forensic evaluation of the civil competence of a case of alleged dissociative identity disorder (DID) and discusses whether such dissociative states substantially jeopardize civil competence. A 40-year-old woman claimed that she had had many personalities since her college days. From the age of 37 to 40, she shopped excessively, which left her with millions of dollars of debt. She ascribed her shopping to a certain identity state, over which she had no control. (In this article, we use the term identity state to replace personality as an objective description of a mental state.) She thus raised the petition of civil incompetence. During the forensic evaluation, it was found that the identity states were relatively stable and mutually aware of each other. The switch into another identity state was sometimes under voluntary control. The subject showed consistency and continuity in behavioral patterns across the different identity states, and no matter which identity state she was in, there was no evidence of impairment in her factual knowledge of social situations and her capacity for managing personal affairs. We hence concluded that she was civilly competent despite the claimed DID. Considering that the existence and diagnosis of DID are still under dispute and a diagnosis of DID alone is not sufficient to interdict a persons civil right, important clinical and forensic issues remain to be answered.

  4. Dissociative Electron Attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arreola, Esmeralda; Esmeralda Arreola Collaboration; Leigh Hargreaves Collaboration

    Since the pioneering work of Boudiaffa et al., it has been understood that electrons, even with energies near or below the ionization threshold, are capable of initiating strand-breaks in human DNA. This discovery raised important questions for cancer treatments, since sub-ionizing electrons are known to be the most copiously produced secondary product of radiation therapy. But even to date these factors are largely excluded from dosimetry calculations. This lack of inclusion is, at least in part, certainly due to the dearth of fundamental data describing low-energy electron interactions with nucleotide molecules that form the basis of DNA. Understanding of how such slow electrons are able to damage DNA remains incomplete, but the strongly peaked nature of Boudiaffa et al.'s data gives strong hints at resonantly driven collision processes. DNA damage is therefore most likely driven by ``dissociative electron attachment'' (DEA). DEA is a rather complicated process to model due to the coupling of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in the molecule. At the California State University Fullerton, we are currently commissioning a new spectrometer to study dissociation channels, reaction rates and orientation effects in DEA collisions between slow electrons and nucleotide molecules. At the meeting we will present design parameters and commissioning data for this new apparatus.

  5. Internet-delivered treatment: its potential as a low-intensity community intervention for adults with symptoms of depression: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression is a high prevalence disorder, displaying high rates of lifetime incidence, early age onset, high chronicity, and role impairment. In Ireland 12-month prevalence of depression has been reported to be 10.3%. A large percentage of affected individuals have no medical diagnosis nor seek treatment. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) has established itself as an option for the treatment of depression. Many Irish adults with depression find it difficult to access evidence-based CBT, this is due to several factors, like stigma and costs. However, systematic factors including the shortage of trained professionals and the relative underdevelopment of services also make access difficult. Stepped-care can increase access to evidence-based CBT. One option is tailored internet-delivered treatment programs. Preliminary research from Ireland needs now to include large-scale studies on effectiveness. Thus the current study seeks to examine the potential of an internet-delivered low-intensity treatment for symptoms of depression in an Irish adult community sample. Method/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial of an online CBT (iCBT) program for the treatment of adults with depressive symptoms. The trial will include an active treatment group and a waiting-list control group. The active condition will consist of 8 weekly modules of iCBT, with post-session feedback support. Participants in the waiting list will receive access to the treatment at week 8. Participants will complete the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and eligibility criteria will also apply. Primary outcomes are depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes include quality of life indicators, significant events and satisfaction with online treatment. Data will be collected at baseline and at post-treatment, week 8, and at follow-up week 20 (3-months) and week 32 (6-months). Analysis will be conducted on the intention-to-treat basis. Discussion The study seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of

  6. Internet-delivered treatment: its potential as a low-intensity community intervention for adults with symptoms of depression: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Richards, Derek; Timulak, Ladislav; Doherty, Gavin; Sharry, John; Colla, Amy; Joyce, Ciara; Hayes, Claire

    2014-05-21

    Depression is a high prevalence disorder, displaying high rates of lifetime incidence, early age onset, high chronicity, and role impairment. In Ireland 12-month prevalence of depression has been reported to be 10.3%. A large percentage of affected individuals have no medical diagnosis nor seek treatment. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) has established itself as an option for the treatment of depression. Many Irish adults with depression find it difficult to access evidence-based CBT, this is due to several factors, like stigma and costs. However, systematic factors including the shortage of trained professionals and the relative underdevelopment of services also make access difficult.Stepped-care can increase access to evidence-based CBT. One option is tailored internet-delivered treatment programs. Preliminary research from Ireland needs now to include large-scale studies on effectiveness. Thus the current study seeks to examine the potential of an internet-delivered low-intensity treatment for symptoms of depression in an Irish adult community sample. The study is a randomized controlled trial of an online CBT (iCBT) program for the treatment of adults with depressive symptoms. The trial will include an active treatment group and a waiting-list control group. The active condition will consist of 8 weekly modules of iCBT, with post-session feedback support. Participants in the waiting list will receive access to the treatment at week 8. Participants will complete the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and eligibility criteria will also apply. Primary outcomes are depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes include quality of life indicators, significant events and satisfaction with online treatment. Data will be collected at baseline and at post-treatment, week 8, and at follow-up week 20 (3-months) and week 32 (6-months). Analysis will be conducted on the intention-to-treat basis. The study seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of an online delivered treatment for

  7. Obligatory short-day plant, Perilla frutescens var. crispa can flower in response to low-intensity light stress under long-day conditions.

    PubMed

    Wada, Kaede C; Kondo, Hiroshi; Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2010-03-01

    An obligatory short-day plant, Perilla frutescens var. crispa was induced to flower under long-day conditions when grown under low-intensity light (30 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). Plant size was smaller under lower light intensity, indicating that the low-intensity light acted as a stress factor. The phenomenon is categorized as stress-induced flowering. Low-intensity light treatment for 4 weeks induced 100% flowering. The plants responded to low-intensity light immediately after the cotyledons expanded, and the flowering response decreased with increasing plant age. The induced plants produced fertile seeds, and the progeny developed normally. The plants that flowered under low-intensity light had greener leaves. This greening was because of the decrease in anthocyanin content, and there was a negative correlation between the anthocyanin content and percent flowering. Treatment with L-2-aminooxy-3-phenylpropionic acid, an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), did not induce flowering under non-inductive light conditions and inhibited flowering under inductive low-intensity light conditions. The metabolic pathway regulated by PAL may be involved in the flowering induced by low-intensity light.

  8. Caveolin-1 Mediates Low-Intensity Ultrasound-Induced Apoptosis via Downregulation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 Phosphorylation in Laryngeal Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qingsheng; Meng, Cuida; Shen, Yannan; Ji, Jianjun; Wang, Xiaochun; Zhou, Sheng; Jia, Lili; Wang, Yanqun

    2016-09-01

    Low-intensity ultrasound therapy has been found to be a potential tool in the management of malignant tumors in recent years. However, the molecular mechanism underlying low-intensity ultrasound-induced apoptosis is still not clear. In this study, we investigated the effects of low-intensity ultrasound-induced apoptosis in HEp-2 cells. We found that low-intensity ultrasound significantly induced apoptosis, and the expression level of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) was dramatically increased after ultrasound treatment of HEp-2 cells. After inhibiting the expression level of Cav-1 using siRNA transfection, we found that the cellular apoptosis induced by low-intensity ultrasound was significantly suppressed. In addition, inhibition of Cav-1 expression promoted phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), suggesting that the STAT3 signaling pathway was involved in low-intensity ultrasound-induced apoptosis via Cav-1 regulation. Our results indicate that Cav-1/STAT3 signaling pathway may mediate low-intensity ultrasound-induced apoptosis, and this technology could potentially be used clinically for the treatment of cancers.

  9. Anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation: frequency and power dependence.

    PubMed

    Gapeyev, A B; Mikhailik, E N; Chemeris, N K

    2008-04-01

    Using a model of acute zymosan-induced footpad edema in NMRI mice, the frequency and power dependence of anti-inflammatory effect of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) was found. Single whole-body exposure of animals to EHF EMR at the intensity of 0.1 mW/cm(2) for 20 min at 1 h after zymosan injection reduced both the footpad edema and local hyperthermia on average by 20% at the frequencies of 42.2, 51.8, and 65 GHz. Some other frequencies from the frequency range of 37.5-70 GHz were less effective or not effective at all. At fixed frequency of 42.2 GHz and intensity of 0.1 mW/cm(2), the effect had bell-shaped dependence on exposure duration with a maximum at 20-40 min. Reduction of intensity to 0.01 mW/cm(2) resulted in a change of the effect dependence on exposure duration to a linear one. Combined action of cyclooxygenase inhibitor sodium diclofenac and EHF EMR exposure caused a partial additive effect of decrease in footpad edema. Combined action of antihistamine clemastine and EHF EMR exposure caused a dose-dependent abolishment of the anti-inflammatory effect of EHF EMR. The results obtained suggest that arachidonic acid metabolites and histamine are involved in realization of anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity EHF EMR.

  10. Induction of Apoptosis in U937 Cells by Using a Combination of Bortezomib and Low-Intensity Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Saliev, Timur; Feril, Loreto B.; Ogawa, Koichi; Watanabe, Akiko; Begimbetova, Dinara; Molkenov, Askhat; Alimbetov, Dauren; Tachibana, Katsuro

    2016-01-01

    Background We scrutinized the feasibility of apoptosis induction in blood cancer cells by means of low-intensity ultrasound and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade). Material/Methods Human leukemic monocyte lymphoma U937 cells were subjected to ultrasound in the presence of bortezomib and the echo contrast agent Sonazoid. Two types of acoustic intensity (0.18 W/cm2 and 0.05 W/cm2) were used for the experiments. Treated U937 cells were analyzed for viability and levels of early and late apoptosis. In addition, scanning electron microscopy analysis of treated cells was performed. Results The percentage of cells that underwent early apoptosis in the group treated with ultrasound and Sonazoid was 8.0±1.31% (intensity 0.18 W/cm2) and 7.0±1.69% (0.05 W/cm2). However, coupling of bortezomib and Sonazoid resulted in an increase in the percentage of cells in the early apoptosis phase, up to 32.50±3.59% (intensity 0.18 W/cm2) and 33.0±4.90% (0.05 W/cm2). The percentage of U937 cells in the late apoptosis stage was not significantly different from that in the group treated with bortezomib only. Conclusions Our findings indicate the feasibility of apoptosis induction in blood cancer cells by using a combination of bortezomib, ultrasound contrast agents, and low-intensity ultrasound. PMID:28003640

  11. Apoptosis induced by low-intensity ultrasound in vitro: Alteration of protein profile and potential molecular mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yi; Wan, Mingxi

    2017-03-01

    To analyze the potential mechanism related to the apoptosis induced by low intensity focused ultrasound, comparative proteomic method was introduced in the study. After ultrasound irradiation (3.0 W/cm2, 1 minute, 6 hours incubation post-irradiation), the human SMMC-7721 hepatocarcinoma cells were stained by trypan blue to detect the morphologic changes, and then the percentage of early apoptosis were tested by the flow cytometry with double staining of FITC-labelled Annexin V/Propidium iodide. Two-dimensional SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to get the protein profile and some proteins differently expressed after ultrasound irradiation were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. It's proved early apoptosis of cells were induced by low intentisy focused ultrasound. After ultrasound irradiation, the expressing characteristics of several proteins changed, in which protein p53 and heat shock proteins are associated with apoptosis initiation. It is suggested that the low-intensity ultrasound-induced apoptotic cancer therapy has the potential application via understanding its relevant molecular signaling and key proteins. Moreover, the comparative proteomic method is proved to be useful to supply information about the protein expression to analyze the metabolic processes related to bio-effects of biomedical ultrasound.

  12. Low-intensity lasers, modern filling materials, and bonding systems influence on mineral metabolism of hard dental tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Yesaulenko, I. E.; Zoibelmann, M.; Pankova, Svetlana N.; Ippolitov, Yu. A.; Oleinik, Olga I.; Popova, T. A.; Koretskaya, I. V.; Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.; Podolskaya, Elana E.

    2001-10-01

    One of the main reasons of low quality filling is breaking Ca-P balance in hard tissues. Our research was done with the purpose of studying the influence of low intensity lasers, diodic radiation, the newest filling and bonding systems on the processes of mineral metabolism in hard dental tissues while filling a tooth. 250 patients having caries and its compli-cations were examined and treated. Our complex research included: visual and instrumental examination, finding out the level of oral cavity hygiene, acid enamel biopsy, scanning electronic microscopy and X-ray spectrum microanalysis. Filling processes may produce a negative effect on mineral metabolism of hard dental tissues the latter is less pronounced when applying fluoride-containing filling materials with bonding systems. It has also been found that bonding dentin and enamel systems are designed for both a better filling adhesion (i.e. mechanical adhesion) and migration of useful microelements present in them by their sinking into hard dental tissues (i.e. chemical adhesion). Our research showed a positive influence of low intensity laser and diodic beams accompanying the use of modern filling and bonding systems on mineral metabolism of hard dental tissues.

  13. Regulatory Effect of Low-Intensity Optical Radiation on Oxygenation of Blood Irradiated In Vivo and Metabolic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Laskina, O. V.

    2016-03-01

    For three series of blood samples, we have studied the effect of therapeutic doses of low-intensity optical radiation (LOR) on oxygenation parameters of blood irradiated in vivo, and also on the levels of some metabolites: lactate, glucose, cholesterol. The quality of blood oxygenation was assessed using three parameters: the partial pressure of oxygen pVO2, the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin SVO2, and the oxygen level in arterial and venous blood, varying under the influence of low-intensity optical radiation due to photodissociation of hemoglobin/ligand complexes. We have established that during photohemotherapy (PHT), including extracorporeal, supravascular, and intravenous blood irradiation, positive changes occur in the oxygenation parameters and the metabolite levels, while after the courses of PHT have been completed, the individual changes in such parameters in individual patients were both positive and negative. The regulatory effect of PHT was apparent in the tendency toward a decrease in high initial values and an increase in low initial values both for the oxygenation parameters and for the metabolites; but at the doses recommended for use, PHT had a regulatory but still not a normalizing effect.

  14. Three-dimensional stress-induced magnetic anisotropic constitutive model for ferromagnetic material in low intensity magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Le; Liu, Xin'en; Jia, Dong; Niu, Hongpan

    2016-09-01

    Metal magnetic memory (MMM) technique is a promising tool for inspecting early damage in ferromagnetic components due to its high sensitivity to stress in weak geomagnetic field. However, the quantitative analysis methods for the MMM haven't been sufficiently studied yet for absence of a reasonable constitutive model. A three-dimensional stress-induced magnetic anisotropic constitutive model is proposed in this paper to study magneto-mechanical coupling effect of the MMM. The model is developed in principal stress space and a linear relation between magnetization and magnetic field is employed for low intensity magnetic field. As a result, stress-induced magnetic anisotropy is represented by stress dependence of magnetic permeability in different directions, which is simple and convenient for applications in the MMM technique. Based on the model, the effect of stress on magnetic permeability and surface magnetic field is computed and compared with experimental data for a tensioned ferromagnetic specimen in low intensity magnetic field. The good consistency implies the validity of the proposed model.

  15. [Suppression of nonspecific resistance of the body under the effect of extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation of low intensity].

    PubMed

    Kolomytseva, M P; Gapeev, A B; Sadovnikov, V B; Chemeris, N K

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics of leukocyte number and functional activity of peripheral blood neutrophils under whole-body exposure of healthy mice to low-intensity extremely-high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR, 42.0 GHz, 0.15 mW/cm2, 20 min daily) was studied. It was shown that the phagocytic activity of peripheral blood neutrophils was suppressed by about 50% (p < 0.01 as compared with the sham-exposed control) in 2-3 h after the single exposure to EHF EMR. The effect persisted for 1 day after the exposure, and then the phagocytic activity of neutrophils returned to the norm within 3 days. A significant modification of the leukocyte blood profile in mice exposed to EHF EMR for 5 days was observed after the cessation of exposures: the number of leukocytes increased by 44% (p < 0.05 as compared with sham-exposed animals), mostly due to an increase in the lymphocyte content. The supposition was made that EHF EMR effects can be mediated via the metabolic systems of arachidonic acid and the stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity, with subsequent increase in the intracellular cAMP level. The results indicated that the whole-body exposure of healthy mice to low-intensity EHF EMR has a profound effect on the indices of nonspecific immunity.

  16. Hyperglycemia associated dissociative fugue (organic dissociative disorder) in an elderly.

    PubMed

    Ram, Dushad; Ashoka, H G; Gowdappa, Basavnna

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate glycemic control in patients with diabetes is known to be associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorder, and cognitive impairment. However, dissociative syndrome has not been reported so far. Here we are reporting a case of repeated dissociative fugue associated with hyperglycemia, in an elderly with type II diabetes. Possible neurobiological mechanism has been discussed.

  17. Hyperglycemia associated dissociative fugue (organic dissociative disorder) in an elderly

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Dushad; Ashoka, H. G; Gowdappa, Basavnna

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate glycemic control in patients with diabetes is known to be associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorder, and cognitive impairment. However, dissociative syndrome has not been reported so far. Here we are reporting a case of repeated dissociative fugue associated with hyperglycemia, in an elderly with type II diabetes. Possible neurobiological mechanism has been discussed. PMID:26286620

  18. Is Weight Training Safe during Pregnancy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work, Janis A.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the opinions of several experts on the safety of weight training during pregnancy, noting that no definitive research on weight training alone has been done. Experts agree that low-intensity weight training probably poses no harm for mother or fetus; exercise programs should be individualized. (SM)

  19. Is Weight Training Safe during Pregnancy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work, Janis A.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the opinions of several experts on the safety of weight training during pregnancy, noting that no definitive research on weight training alone has been done. Experts agree that low-intensity weight training probably poses no harm for mother or fetus; exercise programs should be individualized. (SM)

  20. Dissociative States and Neural Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bob, Petr; Svetlak, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that neural mechanisms of consciousness are related to integration of distributed neural assemblies. This neural integration is particularly vulnerable to past stressful experiences that can lead to disintegration and dissociation of consciousness. These findings suggest that dissociation could be described as a level of…

  1. Dissociative States and Neural Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bob, Petr; Svetlak, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that neural mechanisms of consciousness are related to integration of distributed neural assemblies. This neural integration is particularly vulnerable to past stressful experiences that can lead to disintegration and dissociation of consciousness. These findings suggest that dissociation could be described as a level of…

  2. Stochastic Approaches to Understanding Dissociations in Inflectional Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plunkett, Kim; Bandelow, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    Computer modelling research has undermined the view that double dissociations in behaviour are sufficient to infer separability in the cognitive mechanisms underlying those behaviours. However, all these models employ "multi-modal" representational schemes, where functional specialisation of processing emerges from the training process.…

  3. Stochastic Approaches to Understanding Dissociations in Inflectional Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plunkett, Kim; Bandelow, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    Computer modelling research has undermined the view that double dissociations in behaviour are sufficient to infer separability in the cognitive mechanisms underlying those behaviours. However, all these models employ "multi-modal" representational schemes, where functional specialisation of processing emerges from the training process.…

  4. AV dissociation, an inevitable response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kyuhyun; Benditt, David G

    2011-07-01

    The independent activation of the atria and ventricles, AV dissociation, is a common phenomenon that occurs during a wide variety of electrophysiologic circumstances. The clinical significance of AV dissociation is often misunderstood. This article examines the basis and clinical implications of AV dissociation. AV dissociation is often an obligatory, secondary phenomenon, and should not be construed as the primary disorder; it may be due to either the AV conduction system being completely blocked (3° AV block) or the P wave and the QRS complex being generated from separate sources (usually, the AV junction or ventricle) but occurring close together during the physiologic refractory period of each other. The latter may happen in junctional or ventricular arrhythmias including escape or accelerated rhythm, tachycardia, or premature beats. The crucial clinical point is not the AV dissociation itself, but that an underlying triggering primary disorder is present and should be identified. ©2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Changes in Acceptance in a Low-Intensity, Group-Based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) Chronic Pain Intervention.

    PubMed

    Baranoff, John A; Hanrahan, Stephanie J; Burke, Anne L J; Connor, Jason P

    2016-02-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy has shown to be effective in chronic pain rehabilitation, and acceptance has been shown to be a key process of change. The influence of treatment dose on acceptance is not clear, and in particular, the effectiveness of a non-intensive treatment (<20 h) in a tertiary pain clinic is required. The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a low-intensity, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) group program for chronic pain. The study sought to compare, at both groups and individual patient levels, changes in acceptance with changes observed in previous ACT studies. Seventy-one individuals with chronic pain commenced a 9-week ACT-based group program at an outpatient chronic pain service. In addition to acceptance, outcomes included the following: pain catastrophizing, depression, anxiety, quality of life, and pain-related anxiety. To compare the current findings with previous research, effect sizes from seven studies were aggregated using the random-effects model to calculate benchmarks. Reliable change indices (RCIs) were applied to assess change on an individual patient-level. The ACT intervention achieved a statistically significant increase in acceptance and medium effect size (d = 0.54) at a group level. Change in acceptance was of a similar magnitude to that found in previous ACT studies that examined interventions with similar treatment hours (<20 h). Results across other outcome measures demonstrated small to medium effect sizes (d = 0.01 to 0.48, mean = 0.26). Reliable improvement in acceptance occurred in approximately one-third (37.2, 90% CI) of patients. Approximately three-quarters (74.3, 90% CI) demonstrated reliable change in at least one of the outcome measures. The low-intensity, group-based ACT intervention was effective at a group level and showed a similar magnitude of change in acceptance to previous ACT studies employing low-intensity interventions. Three-quarters of patients reported

  6. [The role of protein kinase SAPK/JNK in cell responses to low-intensity nonionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Cherenkov, D A; Novoselova, E G; Khrenov, M O; Glushkova, O V; Lunin, S M; Novoselova, T V; Fesenko, E E

    2009-01-01

    The effect of low-intensity lases light (0.2 mW/cm2, 632.8 nm, exposure time 1 min) or centimeter waves (8.15-18 GHz, 1 W/cm2, exposure time 1 h) on PhosphoSAPK/JNK production in mice lymphocytes was investigated. Normal isolated spleen lymphocytes or cells incubated previously with geldanamycin, an inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), were used in the experiments. A significant stimulation of PhosphoSAPK/JNK production in lymphocytes after treatment with laser light or microwaves has been shown in both cell models. It was proposed that the activation of SAPK/JNK signal pathway plays one of the central roles in cellular stress response to low-power nonionizing radiation.

  7. [Antitumor effect of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on a model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Gapeev, A B; Shved, D M; Mikhaĭlik, E N; Korystov, Iu N; Levitman, M Kh; Shaposhnikova, V V; Sadovnikov, V B; Alekhin, A I; Goncharov, N G; Chemeris, N K

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different exposure regimes of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on the growth rate of solid Ehrlich carcinoma in mice has been studied. It was shown that, at an optimum repetition factor of exposure (20 min daily for five consecutive days after the tumor inoculation), there is a clearly pronounced frequency dependence of the antitumor effect. The analysis of experimental data indicates that the mechanisms of antitumor effects of the radiation may be related to the modification of the immune status of the organism. The results obtained show that extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation at a proper selection of exposure regimes can result in distinct and stable antitumor effects.

  8. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) prevents periprosthetic inflammatory loosening through FBXL2-TRAF6 ubiquitination pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang; Zhao, Gangsheng; Shi, Zhongli; Zhou, Chenhe; Chen, Yunlin; Hu, Bin; Yan, Shigui

    2017-04-05

    Previous studies have shown that Low intensity pulsed ultrasound(LIPUS) prevents polyethylene-debris-induced periprosthetic loosening in vivo, but the details of the mechanism by which it does so remain unclear. In this article, we used polyethylene debris induced RAW 264.7 cells as the in vitro model, and tested the effect of LIPUS on this model. Changes in the level of inflammatory cytokines, cell proliferation, and apoptosis were assessed. Gene overexpression and siRNA technique were applied, and the levels of expression of FBXL2, TRAF6, ERK, and related inflammatory cytokines were also measured. Results indicated that FBXL2-mediated TRAF6 ubiquitination and degradation also plays an important role in aseptic periprosthetic loosening process, and LIPUS prevents such loosening by strengthening this pathway.

  9. In Situ Irradiation and Measurement of Triple Junction Solar Cells at Low Intensity, Low Temperature (LILT) Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R.D.; Imaizumi, M.; Walters, R.J.; Lorentzen, J.R.; Messenger, S.R.; Tischler, J.G.; Ohshima, T.; Sato, S.; Sharps, P.R.; Fatemi, N.S.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of triple junction InGaP/(In)GaAs/Ge space solar cells was studied following high energy electron irradiation at low temperature. Cell characterization was carried out in situ at the irradiation temperature while using low intensity illumination, and, as such, these conditions reflect those found for deep space, solar powered missions that are far from the sun. Cell characterization consisted of I-V measurements and quantum efficiency measurements. The low temperature irradiations caused substantial degradation that differs in some ways from that seen after room temperature irradiations. The short circuit current degrades more at low temperature while the open circuit voltage degrades more at room temperature. A room temperature anneal after the low temperature irradiation produced a substantial recovery in the degradation. Following irradiation at both temperatures and an extended room temperature anneal, quantum efficiency measurement suggests that the bulk of the remaining damage is in the (In)GaAs sub-cell

  10. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) prevents periprosthetic inflammatory loosening through FBXL2-TRAF6 ubiquitination pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiang; Zhao, Gangsheng; Shi, Zhongli; Zhou, Chenhe; Chen, Yunlin; Hu, Bin; Yan, Shigui

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Low intensity pulsed ultrasound(LIPUS) prevents polyethylene-debris-induced periprosthetic loosening in vivo, but the details of the mechanism by which it does so remain unclear. In this article, we used polyethylene debris induced RAW 264.7 cells as the in vitro model, and tested the effect of LIPUS on this model. Changes in the level of inflammatory cytokines, cell proliferation, and apoptosis were assessed. Gene overexpression and siRNA technique were applied, and the levels of expression of FBXL2, TRAF6, ERK, and related inflammatory cytokines were also measured. Results indicated that FBXL2-mediated TRAF6 ubiquitination and degradation also plays an important role in aseptic periprosthetic loosening process, and LIPUS prevents such loosening by strengthening this pathway. PMID:28378753

  11. Changes of microbic associations qualitative contents in caries and its complications with the use of low-intensity laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.

    1996-01-01

    Favorable clinical data at the absence of positive dynamics microbiological research findings in the treatment of caries and their complications give a reason to consider the treatment insufficiently effective and it is necessary to reduce the terms of an additional prophylactic observation and an antirelapse treatment of the disease. That is why researchers all over the world search for new effective methods of influence on the microflora of carious foci. Using the experience of the treatment of 40 patients with caries, 40 patients with chronic pulpitis, and 40 with chronic periodontitis high bactericidal properties of low intensive laser radiation are shown. If after the traditional treatment of foci microflora was inoculated in 62.3% of the cases, after the laser therapy session -- in 26.3% of the cases. The efficiency, ease of handling, and low expenditure of time allow us to recommend this method for a massive use in the treatment of caries and their complications.

  12. [Effect of ionizing irradiation of low intensity on the viability of Escherichia coli bacteria, cultivated in the salt buffer].

    PubMed

    Morozov, I I; Petin, V G

    2007-01-01

    The influence of 60Co gamma-ray irradiation of low intensity (0.35 Gy/min) on the viability of Escherichia coli B/r and Escherichia coli BS-1 bacteria cultivated in salt buffer in concentration of 10(8) cell/ml was investigated. It was shown that under the doses induced the cell killing about 60-75%, the irradiated bacteria, like intact cell, were killed during the incubation process, while after the doses induced the cell killing above 99% of cell population, the bacteria viability of the both strains was increased. The increase reaches a certain value on the 2-5 the days of bacterial incubation in this conditions. The nature of observed phenomenology is vague for the present.

  13. Exploring the use of Low-intensity Ultrasonics as a Tool for Assessing the Salt Content in Pork Meat Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, J. V.; de Prados, M.; Martínez-Escrivá, G.; González, R.; Mulet, A.; Benedito, J.

    Meat industry demands non-destructive techniques for the control of the salting process to achieve a homogeneous final salt content in salted meat products. The feasibility of using low-intensity ultrasound for characterizing the salting process of pork meat products was evaluated. The ultrasonic velocity (V) and time of flight (TF) were measured by through-transmission and pulse-echo methods, respectively, in salted meat products. Salting involved an increase of the V in meat muscles and a decrease of the time of flight in whole hams. Measuring the V before and after salting, the salt content could be estimated. Moreover, online monitoring of the salting process by computing the TF could be considered a reliable tool for quality control purposes.

  14. Bone regeneration by low-level laser therapy and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy in the rabbit calvarium.

    PubMed

    Acar, Ahmet Hüseyin; Yolcu, Ümit; Altındiş, Sedat; Gül, Mehmet; Alan, Hilal; Malkoç, Sıddık

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), alone and in combination, in triggering new bone formation. Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits were given two calvarial defects by using a 6-mm trephine bur, then divided into four treatment groups: control, LLLT, LIPUS, and LLLT+LIPUS. The LLLT and LIPUS groups were treated three times a week for two weeks. The LLLT+LIPUS group received each treatment on the same day, 12h apart, three days a week for two weeks. The animals were sacrificed after three weeks. LLLT and LIPUS, alone and in combination, enhanced new bone formation in comparison to the untreated controls after three weeks (P<0.05); the combined therapy did not produce an additive effect. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of LLLT or LIPUS in triggering bone regeneration. Therapeutic dose and duration requires further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects and Mechanisms of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound for Chronic Prostatitis and Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guiting; Reed-Maldonado, Amanda B; Lin, Maofan; Xin, Zhongcheng; Lue, Tom F

    2016-07-01

    Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) is one of the most common urologic diseases, and no curative treatments have been identified. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been successfully used in promoting tissue healing, inhibiting inflammation and pain, differentiating stem cells, and stimulating nerve regeneration/muscle regeneration, as well as enhancing angiogenesis. Very recently, LIPUS has been proven an effective approach for CP/CPPS. This review summarizes the possible mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic effect of LIPUS for CP/CPPS. To search publications relevant to the topics of this review, the search engine for life sciences of Entrez was used. We reviewed the available evidence from 1954 through 2015 concerning LIPUS for CP/CPPS. According to the literature, both transrectal and transperineal approaches of LIPUS are effective for CP/CPPS.

  16. Effects and Mechanisms of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound for Chronic Prostatitis and Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Guiting; Reed-Maldonado, Amanda B.; Lin, Maofan; Xin, Zhongcheng; Lue, Tom F.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) is one of the most common urologic diseases, and no curative treatments have been identified. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been successfully used in promoting tissue healing, inhibiting inflammation and pain, differentiating stem cells, and stimulating nerve regeneration/muscle regeneration, as well as enhancing angiogenesis. Very recently, LIPUS has been proven an effective approach for CP/CPPS. This review summarizes the possible mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic effect of LIPUS for CP/CPPS. To search publications relevant to the topics of this review, the search engine for life sciences of Entrez was used. We reviewed the available evidence from 1954 through 2015 concerning LIPUS for CP/CPPS. According to the literature, both transrectal and transperineal approaches of LIPUS are effective for CP/CPPS. PMID:27376284

  17. Osteogenic activity of human fracture haematoma-derived progenitor cells is stimulated by low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, T; Miwa, M; Sakai, Y; Niikura, T; Kurosaka, M; Komori, T

    2009-02-01

    The haematoma occurring at the site of a fracture is known to play an important role in bone healing. We have recently shown the presence of progenitor cells in human fracture haematoma and demonstrated that they have the capacity for multilineage mesenchymal differentiation. There have been many studies which have shown that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) stimulates the differentiation of a variety of cells, but none has investigated the effects of LIPUS on cells derived from human fracture tissue including human fracture haematoma-derived progenitor cells (HCs). In this in vitro study, we investigated the effects of LIPUS on the osteogenic activity of HCs. Alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin secretion, the expression of osteoblast-related genes and the mineralisation of HCs were shown to be significantly higher when LIPUS had been applied but without a change in the proliferation of the HCs. These findings provide evidence in favour of the use of LIPUS in the treatment of fractures.

  18. In Situ Irradiation and Measurement of Triple Junction Solar Cells at Low Intensity, Low Temperature (LILT) Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R.D.; Imaizumi, M.; Walters, R.J.; Lorentzen, J.R.; Messenger, S.R.; Tischler, J.G.; Ohshima, T.; Sato, S.; Sharps, P.R.; Fatemi, N.S.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of triple junction InGaP/(In)GaAs/Ge space solar cells was studied following high energy electron irradiation at low temperature. Cell characterization was carried out in situ at the irradiation temperature while using low intensity illumination, and, as such, these conditions reflect those found for deep space, solar powered missions that are far from the sun. Cell characterization consisted of I-V measurements and quantum efficiency measurements. The low temperature irradiations caused substantial degradation that differs in some ways from that seen after room temperature irradiations. The short circuit current degrades more at low temperature while the open circuit voltage degrades more at room temperature. A room temperature anneal after the low temperature irradiation produced a substantial recovery in the degradation. Following irradiation at both temperatures and an extended room temperature anneal, quantum efficiency measurement suggests that the bulk of the remaining damage is in the (In)GaAs sub-cell

  19. Effects of low-intensity ultrasound on the growth, cell membrane permeability and ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chunhua; Xiong, Feng; He, Ronghai; Zhang, Weiwei; Ma, Haile

    2017-05-01

    Effects of low-intensity ultrasound (at different frequency, treatment time and power) on Saccharomyces cerevisiae in different growth phase were evaluated by the biomass in the paper. In addition, the cell membrane permeability and ethanol tolerance of sonicated Saccharomyces cerevisiae were also researched. The results revealed that the biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae increased by 127.03% under the optimum ultrasonic conditions such as frequency 28kHz, power 140W/L and ultrasonic time 1h when Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultured to the latent anaphase. And the membrane permeability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in latent anaphase enhanced by ultrasound, resulting in the augment of extracellular protein, nucleic acid and fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) contents. In addition, sonication could accelerate the damage of high concentration alcohol to Saccharomyces cerevisiae although the ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was not affected significantly by ultrasound.

  20. On the cause of the flat-spot phenomenon observed in silicon solar cells at low temperatures and low intensities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, V. G.; Broder, J. D.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Forestieri, A. F.

    1982-01-01

    A model is presented that explains the "flat-spot" (FS) power loss phenomenon observed in silicon solar cells operating deep space (low temperature, low intensity) conditions. Evidence is presented suggesting that the effect is due to localized metallurgical interactions between the silicon substrate and the contact metallization. These reactions are shown to result in localized regions in which the PN junction is destroyed and replaced with a metal-semiconductor-like interface. The effects of thermal treatment, crystallographic orientation, junction depth, and metallurization are presented along with a method of preventing the effect through the suppression of vacancy formation at the free surface of the contact metallization. Preliminary data indicating the effectiveness of a TiN diffusion barrier in preventing the effect are also given.

  1. Low intensity electromagnetic irradiation with 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies affects Escherichia coli growth and changes water properties.

    PubMed

    Torgomyan, Heghine; Kalantaryan, Vitaly; Trchounian, Armen

    2011-07-01

    The low intensity electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) of the 70.6 and 73 GHz frequency is resonant for Escherichia coli but not for water. In this study, E. coli irradiation with this EMI during 1 h directly and in bi-distilled water or in the assay buffer with those frequencies resulted with noticeable changes in bacterial growth parameters. Furthermore, after EMI, 2 h rest of bacteria renewed their growth in 1.2-fold, but repeated EMI--had no significant action. Moreover, water absorbance, pH, and electric conductance were changed markedly after such irradiation. The results point out that EMI of the 70.6 and 73 GHz frequency can interact with bacteria affecting growth and in the same time with the surrounding medium (water) as well.

  2. Low intensity exercise prevents disturbances in rat cardiac insulin signaling and endothelial nitric oxide synthase induced by high fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Stanišić, Jelena; Korićanac, Goran; Ćulafić, Tijana; Romić, Snježana; Stojiljković, Mojca; Kostić, Milan; Pantelić, Marija; Tepavčević, Snežana

    2016-01-15

    Increase in fructose consumption together with decrease in physical activity contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome and consequently cardiovascular diseases. The current study examined the preventive role of exercise on defects in cardiac insulin signaling and function of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in fructose fed rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, sedentary fructose (received 10% fructose for 9 weeks) and exercise fructose (additionally exposed to low intensity exercise) groups. Concentration of triglycerides, glucose, insulin and visceral adipose tissue weight were determined to estimate metabolic syndrome development. Expression and/or phosphorylation of cardiac insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), tyrosine-specific protein phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), Akt, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and eNOS were evaluated. Fructose overload increased visceral adipose tissue, insulin concentration and homeostasis model assessment index. Exercise managed to decrease visceral adiposity and insulin level and to increase insulin sensitivity. Fructose diet increased level of cardiac PTP1B and pIRS1 (Ser307), while levels of IR and ERK1/2, as well as pIRS1 (Tyr 632), pAkt (Ser473, Thr308) and pERK1/2 were decreased. These disturbances were accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177. Exercise managed to prevent most of the disturbances in insulin signaling caused by fructose diet (except phosphorylation of IRS1 at Tyr 632 and phosphorylation and protein expression of ERK1/2) and consequently restored function of eNOS. Low intensity exercise could be considered as efficient treatment of cardiac insulin resistance induced by fructose diet.

  3. A Randomized Trial of Computer-Delivered Brief Intervention and Low-Intensity Contingency Management for Smoking During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Svikis, Dace S.; Lam, Phebe K.; Connors-Burge, Veronica S.; Ledgerwood, David M.; Hopper, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Implementation of evidence-based interventions for smoking during pregnancy is challenging. We developed 2 highly replicable interventions for smoking during pregnancy: (a) a computer-delivered 5As-based brief intervention (CD-5As) and (b) a computer-assisted, simplified, and low-intensity contingency management (CM-Lite). Methods: A sample of 110 primarily Black pregnant women reporting smoking in the past week were recruited from prenatal care clinics and randomly assigned to CD-5As (n = 26), CM-Lite (n = 28), CD-5As plus CM-Lite (n = 30), or treatment as usual (n = 26). Self-report of smoking, urine cotinine, and breath CO were measured 10 weeks following randomization. Results: Participants rated both interventions highly (e.g., 87.5% of CD-5As participants reported increases in likelihood of quitting), but most CM-Lite participants did not initiate reinforcement sessions and did not show increased abstinence. CD-5As led to increased abstinence as measured by cotinine (43.5% cotinine negative vs. 17.4%; odds ratio [OR] = 10.1, p = .02) but not for CO-confirmed 7-day point prevalence (30.4% abstinent vs. 8.7%; OR = 5.7, p = .06). Collapsing across CM-Lite status, participants receiving the CD-5As intervention were more likely to talk to a doctor or nurse about their smoking (60.5% vs. 30.8%; OR = 3.0, p = .02). Conclusions: Low-intensity participant-initiated CM did not affect smoking in this sample, but the CD-5As intervention was successful in increasing abstinence during pregnancy. Further research should seek to replicate these results in larger and more diverse samples. Should CD-5As continue to prove efficacious, it could greatly increase the proportion of pregnant smokers who receive an evidence-based brief intervention. PMID:22157229

  4. Effect of Low-Intensity Microwave Radiation on Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Their Key Regulating Enzymes in Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Megha, Kanu; Deshmukh, Pravin S; Ravi, Alok K; Tripathi, Ashok K; Abegaonkar, Mahesh P; Banerjee, Basu D

    2015-09-01

    The increasing use of wireless communication devices has raised major concerns towards deleterious effects of microwave radiation on human health. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the effect of low-intensity microwave radiation on levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and gene expression of their key regulating enzymes in brain of Fischer rats. Animals were exposed to 900 MHz and 1800 MHz microwave radiation for 30 days (2 h/day, 5 days/week) with respective specific absorption rates as 5.953 × 10(-4) and 5.835 × 10(-4) W/kg. The levels of monoamine neurotransmitters viz. dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and serotonin (5-HT) were detected using LC-MS/MS in hippocampus of all experimental animals. In addition, mRNA expression of key regulating enzymes for these neurotransmitters viz. tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (for DA, NE and E) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1 and TPH2) (for serotonin) was also estimated. Results showed significant reduction in levels of DA, NE, E and 5-HT in hippocampus of microwave-exposed animals in comparison with sham-exposed (control) animals. In addition, significant downregulation in mRNA expression of TH, TPH1 and TPH2 was also observed in microwave-exposed animals (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results indicate that low-intensity microwave radiation may cause learning and memory disturbances by altering levels of brain monoamine neurotransmitters at mRNA and protein levels.

  5. Selective changes in locomotor activity in mice due to low-intensity microwaves amplitude modulated in the EEG spectral domain.

    PubMed

    Van Eeghem, Vincent; El Arfani, Anissa; Anthoula, Arta; Walrave, Laura; Pourkazemi, Ali; Bentea, Eduard; Demuyser, Thomas; Smolders, Ilse; Stiens, Johan

    2017-09-17

    Despite the numerous benefits of microwave applications in our daily life, microwaves were associated with diverse neurological complaints such as headaches and impaired sleep patterns, and changes in the electroencephalogram (EEG). To which extent microwaves influence the brain function remains unclear. This exploratory study assessed the behavior and neurochemistry in mice immediately or 4weeks after a 6-day exposure to low-intensity 10-GHz microwaves with an amplitude modulation (AM) of 2 or 8Hz. These modulation frequencies of 2 and 8Hz are situated within the delta and theta-alpha frequency bands in the EEG spectrum and are associated with sleep and active behavior, respectively. During these experiments, the specific absorbance rate was 0.3W/kg increasing the brain temperature with 0.23°C. For the first time, exposing mice to 8-Hz AM significantly reduced locomotor activity in an open field immediately after exposure which normalized after 4weeks. This in contrast to 2-Hz AM which didn't induce significant changes in locomotor activity immediately and 4weeks after exposure. Despite this difference in motor behavior, no significant changes in striatal dopamine (DA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels and DOPAC/DA turnover nor in cortical glutamate (GLU) concentrations were detected. In all cases, no effects on motor coordination on a rotarod, spatial working memory, anxiety nor depressive-like behavior were observed. The outcome of this study indicates that exposing mice to low-intensity 8-Hz AM microwaves can alter the locomotor activity in contrast to 2-Hz AM which did not affect the tested behaviors. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of low intensity laser therapy in an experimental model of cranio-encephalic trauma in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneguzzo, Daiane T.; Okada, Cristina Y.; Koike, Márcia K.; Silva, Bomfim A., Jr.; Moreira, Maria S.; Eduardo, Carlos d. P.; Martins Marques, Marcia

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of phototherapy with low intensity laser on the inflammatory reaction after rat brain injury. Cryogenic injury was performed at the brain of 16 male Wistar rats (250-300g) using a cooper probe at -80º C. Immediately, 24 h and 48 h later, the rats received laser irradiation using a GaAlAs laser (830 nm, 100 mW). The samples were randomly divided into four groups (n= 4 per group): A: control (non- irradiated); B: energy density of 14.28 J/cm2; C: 28.57 J/cm2; D: 42.85 J/cm2. Three days later, the cerebral vascular permeability and the inflammatory cells at the trauma site were evaluated. For vascular permeability analysis, 2 h prior sacrifice an intra vascular injection of Evans blue stain was done in the rats. For inflammatory cells counting, frozen samples were sectioned and the histological slides were stained with Giemsa. The data were compared by either ANOVA or Kruskall-Wallis complemented by the Dunn's test. The irradiated groups presented higher cerebral vascular permeability than controls (A: 2.6 +/- 0.8; B:12.0 +/- 2.0; C: 13.1 +/- 4.1, and D: 12.4 +/- 1.8; p=0.016). The inflammatory cell numbers of irradiated samples were similar to controls (A: 65 +/- 6; B:85 +/- 9; C: 84 +/-14, and D: 83 +/- 3; p=0.443). The data showed that phototherapy with low intensity laser modulates the inflammatory reaction in the brain by increasing the cerebral vascular permeability after a cryogenic trauma.

  7. Physical analysis of the shielding capacity for a lightweight apron designed for shielding low intensity scattering X-rays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon Chil; Choi, Jeong Ryeol; Jeon, Byeong Kyou

    2016-07-27

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a lightweight apron that will be used for shielding low intensity radiation in medical imaging radiography room and to apply it to a custom-made effective shielding. The quality of existing aprons made for protecting our bodies from direct radiation are improved so that they are suitable for scattered X-rays. Textiles that prevent bodies from radiation are made by combining barium sulfate and liquid silicon. These materials have the function of shielding radiation in a manner like lead. Three kinds of textiles are produced. The thicknesses of each textile are 0.15 mm, 0.21 mm, and 0.29 mm and the corresponding lead equivalents are 0.039 mmPb, 0.095 mmPb, 0.22 mmPb for each. The rate of shielding space scattering rays are 80% from the distance of 0.5 m, 86% from 1.0 m, and 97% from 1.5 m. If we intend to approach with the purpose of shielding scattering X-rays and low intensity radiations, it is possible to reduce the weight of the apron to be 1/5 compared to that of the existing lead aprons whose weight is typically more than 4 kg. We confirm, therefore, that it is possible to produce lightweight aprons that are used for the purpose of shielding low dose radiations.

  8. Physical analysis of the shielding capacity for a lightweight apron designed for shielding low intensity scattering X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seon Chil; Choi, Jeong Ryeol; Jeon, Byeong Kyou

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a lightweight apron that will be used for shielding low intensity radiation in medical imaging radiography room and to apply it to a custom-made effective shielding. The quality of existing aprons made for protecting our bodies from direct radiation are improved so that they are suitable for scattered X-rays. Textiles that prevent bodies from radiation are made by combining barium sulfate and liquid silicon. These materials have the function of shielding radiation in a manner like lead. Three kinds of textiles are produced. The thicknesses of each textile are 0.15 mm, 0.21 mm, and 0.29 mm and the corresponding lead equivalents are 0.039 mmPb, 0.095 mmPb, 0.22 mmPb for each. The rate of shielding space scattering rays are 80% from the distance of 0.5 m, 86% from 1.0 m, and 97% from 1.5 m. If we intend to approach with the purpose of shielding scattering X-rays and low intensity radiations, it is possible to reduce the weight of the apron to be 1/5 compared to that of the existing lead aprons whose weight is typically more than 4 kg. We confirm, therefore, that it is possible to produce lightweight aprons that are used for the purpose of shielding low dose radiations.

  9. Physical analysis of the shielding capacity for a lightweight apron designed for shielding low intensity scattering X-rays

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seon Chil; Choi, Jeong Ryeol; Jeon, Byeong Kyou

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a lightweight apron that will be used for shielding low intensity radiation in medical imaging radiography room and to apply it to a custom-made effective shielding. The quality of existing aprons made for protecting our bodies from direct radiation are improved so that they are suitable for scattered X-rays. Textiles that prevent bodies from radiation are made by combining barium sulfate and liquid silicon. These materials have the function of shielding radiation in a manner like lead. Three kinds of textiles are produced. The thicknesses of each textile are 0.15 mm, 0.21 mm, and 0.29 mm and the corresponding lead equivalents are 0.039 mmPb, 0.095 mmPb, 0.22 mmPb for each. The rate of shielding space scattering rays are 80% from the distance of 0.5 m, 86% from 1.0 m, and 97% from 1.5 m. If we intend to approach with the purpose of shielding scattering X-rays and low intensity radiations, it is possible to reduce the weight of the apron to be 1/5 compared to that of the existing lead aprons whose weight is typically more than 4 kg. We confirm, therefore, that it is possible to produce lightweight aprons that are used for the purpose of shielding low dose radiations. PMID:27461510

  10. Suppression of skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase activity during physical inactivity: a molecular reason to maintain daily low-intensity activity

    PubMed Central

    Bey, Lionel; Hamilton, Marc T

    2003-01-01

    We have examined the regulation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in skeletal muscle during physical inactivity in comparison to low-intensity contractile activity of ambulatory controls. From studies acutely preventing ambulatory activity of one or both the hindlimbs in rats, it was shown that ≈90–95 % of the heparin-releasable (HR) LPL activity normally present in rat muscle with ambulatory activity is lost, and thus dependent on local contractile activity. Similarly, ≈95 % of the differences in LPL activity between muscles of different fibre types was dependent on ambulatory activity. The robustness of the finding that physical inactivity significantly decreases muscle LPL activity was evident from confirmatory studies with different models of inactivity, in many rats and mice, both sexes, three muscle types and during both acute and chronic (11 days) treatment. Inactivity caused a local reduction of plasma [3H]triglyceride uptake into muscle and a decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration. LPL mRNA was not differentially expressed between ambulatory controls and either the acutely or chronically inactive groups. Instead, the process involved a rapid loss of the HR-LPL protein mass (the portion of LPL largely associated with the vascular endothelium) by an actinomycin D-sensitive signalling mechanism (i.e. transcriptionally dependent process). Significant decreases of intracellular LPL protein content lagged behind the loss of HR-LPL protein. Treadmill walking raised LPL activity ≈8-fold (P < 0.01) within 4 h after inactivity. The striking sensitivity of muscle LPL to inactivity and low-intensity contractile activity may provide one piece of the puzzle for why inactivity is a risk factor for metabolic diseases and why even non-vigorous activity provides marked protection against disorders involving poor lipid metabolism. PMID:12815182

  11. Influence of constant, alternating and cyclotron low-intensity electromagnetic fields on fibroblast proliferative activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Afinogenov, Gennadi; Afinogenova, Anna; Kalinin, Andrey

    2009-12-16

    Available data allow assuming the presence of stimulation of reparative processes under influence of low-intensity electromagnetic field, commensurable with a magnetic field of the Earth. Research of effects of low-intensity electromagnetic fields on fibroblast proliferative activity in human lungs in cell culture was performed.The influence of a constant electromagnetic field, an alternating electromagnetic field by frequency of 50 Hz and cyclotron electromagnetic field with identical intensity for all kinds of fields - 80 mcTl - on value of cellular mass and a correlation of live and dead cells in culture is investigated in three series of experiments. We used the universal electromagnetic radiator generating all three kinds of fields and supplied by a magnetometer which allows measuring the intensity of accurate within 0.1 mcTl including taking into account the Earth's magnetic field intensity.The peak value for stimulation cellular proliferation in the present experiences was two-hour influence by any of the specified kinds of electromagnetic fields. The irradiation by cyclotron electromagnetic field conducts positive dynamics in growth of live cells (up to 206+/-22%) and decreases the number of dead cells (down to 31+/-6%). Application of cyclotron magnetic fields promoted creation of optimum conditions for proliferation. As a result of researches we observed the reliable 30% increase of nitro-tetrazolium index (in nitro-tetrazolium blue test) after irradiation by cyclotron electromagnetic field in experience that testifies to strengthening of the cell breathing of living cells.In our opinion, it is necessary to pay attention not only to a pure gain of cells, but also to reduction of number dead cells that can be criterion of creation of optimum conditions for their specific development and valuable functioning.

  12. Low Intensity Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    Mario Vargas Llosa’s explanalion of the ra- tionale for guerrilla warfare in Central America. The "’settling of accounts between privileged sectors...of society" referred to by Llosa alters somewhat the common view of disaffected peasants rising in revolt against the gov- ernment. At the peasant

  13. Shock induced dissociation of polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C.E.; Loughran, E.D.; Mortensen, G.F.; Gray, G.T. III; Shaw, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    To identify the physical processes occurring on the Hugoniot, shock-recovery experiments were performed. Cylindrical recovery systems were used that enabled a wide range of single-shock Hugoniot states to be examined. Mass spectroscopy was used to examine the gaseous dissociation products. X-ray and TEM measurements were made to characterize the post-shock carbon structures. A dissociation product equation of state is presented to interpret the observed results. Polyethylene (PE) samples that were multiply shocked to their final states dissociated at much higher pressures than single-shocked samples. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. PTSD, emotion dysregulation, and dissociative symptoms in a highly traumatized sample

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Abigail; Cross, Dorthie; Fani, Negar; Bradley, Bekh

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to multiple traumas has been shown to result in many negative mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Dissociation, which involves disruptions in memory, identity, and perceptions, may be a component of PTSD, particularly among individuals who have experienced childhood trauma. Emotion regulation difficulties are also strongly associated with childhood trauma and emotion dysregulation may be a particularly important factor to consider in the development and maintenance of dissociative symptoms. The goal of the present study was to determine whether emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and dissociation in a sample of 154 (80% female, 97% African-American) adults recruited from a public, urban hospital. PTSD was measured using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, emotion dysregulation was measured using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and dissociation was measured using the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory. A linear regression analysis showed that both PTSD and emotion dysregulation were statistically significant predictors of dissociation even after controlling for trauma exposure. Alexithymia and an inability to use emotion regulation strategies in particular were predictive of dissociation above and beyond other predictor variables. Using bootstrapping techniques, we found that overall emotion dyregulation partially mediated the effect of PTSD symptoms on dissociative symptoms. Our results suggest that emotion dysregulation may be important in understanding the relation between PTSD and dissociative symptoms. Treatment approaches may consider a focus on training in emotional understanding and the development of adaptive regulation strategies as a way to address dissociative symptoms in PTSD patients. PMID:25573648

  15. Are major dissociative disorders characterized by a qualitatively different kind of dissociation?

    PubMed

    Rodewald, Frauke; Dell, Paul F; Wilhelm-Gossling, Claudia; Gast, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    A total of 66 patients with a major dissociative disorder, 54 patients with nondissociative disorders, and 30 nonclinical controls were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation, and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. Dissociative patients reported significantly more dissociative and nondissociative symptoms than did nondissociative patients and nonclinical controls. When general psychopathology was controlled, the dissociation scores of dissociative patients were still significantly higher than those of both other groups, whereas the dissociation scores of nondissociative patients and nonclinical controls no longer differed. These findings appear to be congruent with a typological model of dissociation that distinguishes between 2 qualitatively different kinds of dissociation. Specifically, the results of this study suggest that the dissociation that occurs in major dissociative disorders (i.e., dissociative identity disorder [DID] and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, Type 1 [DDNOS-1]) is qualitatively different from the dissociation that occurs in persons who do not have a dissociative disorder. In contrast to previous research, the dissociation of persons who do not have a dissociative disorder is not limited to absorption; it covers a much wider range of phenomena. The authors hypothesize that different mechanisms produce the dissociation of persons with DID and DDNOS-1 as opposed to the dissociation of persons who do not have a dissociative disorder.

  16. Dissociative absorption: An empirically unique, clinically relevant, dissociative factor.

    PubMed

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Lassri, Dana; Soffer-Dudek, Nir; Shahar, Golan

    2015-11-01

    Research of dissociative absorption has raised two questions: (a) Is absorption a unique dissociative factor within a three-factor structure, or a part of one general dissociative factor? Even when three factors are found, the specificity of the absorption factor is questionable. (b) Is absorption implicated in psychopathology? Although commonly viewed as "non-clinical" dissociation, absorption was recently hypothesized to be specifically associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. To address these questions, we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on 679 undergraduates. Analyses supported the three-factor model, and a "purified" absorption scale was extracted from the original inclusive absorption factor. The purified scale predicted several psychopathology scales. As hypothesized, absorption was a stronger predictor of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than of general psychopathology. In addition, absorption was the only dissociative scale that longitudinally predicted obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We conclude that absorption is a unique and clinically relevant dissociative tendency that is particularly meaningful to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 'One man's medicine is another man's poison': a qualitative study of user perspectives on low intensity interventions for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD).

    PubMed

    Knopp-Hoffer, Jasmin; Knowles, Sarah; Bower, Peter; Lovell, Karina; Bee, Penny E

    2016-05-18

    Low intensity interventions based on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) such as computerized therapy or guided self-help can offer effective and accessible care for mild to moderate mental health problems. However, critics argue that by reducing therapist input and the level of experience of the professionals delivering therapy, low intensity interventions deprive users of critical 'active ingredients'. Thus, while demand management arguments support the use of low intensity interventions for OCD, their integration into existing mental health services remains incomplete. Studies of user views of low intensity interventions can offer valuable insights to define their role and optimize their implementation in practice. Qualitative interviews (n = 36) in adults with OCD explored user perspectives on the initiation, continuation and acceptability of two low intensity CBT interventions: guided self-help (6 h of professional support) and computerized CBT (1 h of professional support), delivered within the context of a large pragmatic effectiveness trial (ISRCTN73535163). While uptake was relatively high, continued engagement with the low intensity interventions was complex, with the perceived limitations of self-help materials impacting on users' willingness to continue therapy. The addition of professional support provided an acceptable compromise between the relative benefits of self-help and the need for professional input. However, individual differences were evident in the extent to which this compromise was considered necessary and acceptable. The need for some professional contact to manage expectations and personalize therapy materials was amplified in users with OCD, given the unique features of the disorder. However, individual differences were again evident regarding the perceived value of face-to-face support. Overall the findings demonstrate the need for flexibility in the provision of low intensity interventions for OCD, responsive to user preferences

  18. Development of a Cancer Treatment with the Concomitant Use of Low-Intensity Ultrasound: Entering the Age of Simultaneous Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Emoto, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, studies using ultrasound energy for cancer treatment have advanced, thus revealing the enhancement of drug effects by employing low-intensity ultrasound. Furthermore, anti-angiogenesis against tumors is now attracting attention as a new cancer treatment. Therefore, we focused on the biological effects and the enhancement of drug effects brought by this low-intensity ultrasound energy and reported on the efficacy against a uterine sarcoma model, by implementing the basic studies, for the first time, including the concomitant use of low-intensity ultrasound irradiation, as an expected new antiangiogenic therapy for cancer treatment. Furthermore, we have succeeded in simultaneously utilizing low-intensity ultrasound in both diagnosis and treatment, upon real time evaluation of the anti-tumor effects and anti-angiogenesis effects using color Doppler ultrasound imaging. Although the biological effects of ultrasound have not yet been completely clarified, transient stomas were formed (Sonoporation) in cancer cells irradiated by low-intensity ultrasound and it is believed that the penetration effect of drugs is enhanced due to the drug being more charged inside the cell through these stomas. Furthermore, it has become clear that the concomitant therapy of anti-angiogenesis drugs and low-intensity ultrasound blocks the angiogenic factor VEGF produced by cancer cells, inhibits the induction of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in the bone marrow, and expedites angiogenic inhibitor TSP-1. Based on research achievements in recent years, we predict that the current diagnostic device for color Doppler ultrasound imaging will be improved in the near future, bringing with it the arrival of an age of “low-intensity ultrasound treatment that simultaneously enables diagnosis and treatment of cancer in real time.” PMID:26852677

  19. Recurrent Episodes of Dissociative Fugue

    PubMed Central

    Angothu, Hareesh; Pabbathi, Lokeswar Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Dissociative fugue is rare entity to encounter with possible differentials of epilepsy and malingering. It is one of the dissociative disorders rarely seen in clinical practice more often because of the short lasting nature of this condition. This might also be because of organized travel of the individuals during the episodes and return to their families after the recovery from episodes. This is a case description of a patient who has experienced total three episodes of dissociative fugue. The patient has presented during the third episode and two prior episodes were diagnosed as fugue episodes retrospectively based on the history. Planned travel in this case by the patient to a distant location was prevented because of early diagnosis and constant vigilance till the recovery. As in this case, it may be more likely that persons with Dissociative fugue may develop similar episodes if they encounter exceptional perceived stress. However, such conclusions may require follow-up studies. PMID:27114633

  20. How Accurate Is Your Activity Tracker? A Comparative Study of Step Counts in Low-Intensity Physical Activities.

    PubMed

    Alinia, Parastoo; Cain, Chris; Fallahzadeh, Ramin; Shahrokni, Armin; Cook, Diane; Ghasemzadeh, Hassan

    2017-08-11

    As commercially available activity trackers are being utilized in clinical trials, the research community remains uncertain about reliability of the trackers, particularly in studies that involve walking aids and low-intensity activities. While these trackers have been tested for reliability during walking and running activities, there has been limited research on validating them during low-intensity activities and walking with assistive tools. The aim of this study was to (1) determine the accuracy of 3 Fitbit devices (ie, Zip, One, and Flex) at different wearing positions (ie, pants pocket, chest, and wrist) during walking at 3 different speeds, 2.5, 5, and 8 km/h, performed by healthy adults on a treadmill; (2) determine the accuracy of the mentioned trackers worn at different sites during activities of daily living; and (3) examine whether intensity of physical activity (PA) impacts the choice of optimal wearing site of the tracker. We recruited 15 healthy young adults to perform 6 PAs while wearing 3 Fitbit devices (ie, Zip, One, and Flex) on their chest, pants pocket, and wrist. The activities include walking at 2.5, 5, and 8 km/h, pushing a shopping cart, walking with aid of a walker, and eating while sitting. We compared the number of steps counted by each tracker with gold standard numbers. We performed multiple statistical analyses to compute descriptive statistics (ie, ANOVA test), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), mean absolute error rate, and correlation by comparing the tracker-recorded data with that of the gold standard. All the 3 trackers demonstrated good-to-excellent (ICC>0.75) correlation with the gold standard step counts during treadmill experiments. The correlation was poor (ICC<0.60), and the error rate was significantly higher in walker experiment compared to other activities. There was no significant difference between the trackers and the gold standard in the shopping cart experiment. The wrist worn tracker, Flex, counted several

  1. Dissociation Rates of Diatomic Molecules

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    relatively simple design that we have used extensively in earlier research; its characteristics were recently described in detail. 10 This source is by...the dominant dissociation background when observing electron- impact dissociation products. This background constitutes the single greatest impediment...a3aF) + o(3P) at 11.385 eV. Photoexcitation studies indeed find that O(1S) and CO(a) are the dominant photodissociation products. 32,33 If the energy

  2. Importance of ventricular rate after mode switching during low intensity exercise as assessed by clinical symptoms and ventilatory gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Brunner-La Rocca, H P; Rickli, H; Weilenmann, D; Duru, F; Candinas, R

    2000-01-01

    Automatic mode switching from DDD(R) to DDI(R) or VVI(R) pacing modes has improved dual chamber pacing in patients at high risk for supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. However, little is known about the effect of ventricular pacing rate adaptation after mode switching. We conducted a single-blinded, crossover study in 15 patients (58 +/- 21 years) with a DDD pacemaker who had AV block and normal sinus node function to investigate the influence of pacing rate adaptation to intrinsic heart rate during low intensity exercise. Patients performed two tests (A/B) of low intensity treadmill exercise (0.5 W/kg) in randomized order. They initially walked for 6 minutes while paced in DDD mode. The pacing mode was then switched to VVI with a pacing rate of either 70 beats/min (test A) or matched to the intrinsic heart rate (95 +/- 11 beats/min test B). Respiratory gas exchange variables were determined and patients classified the effort before and after mode switching on a Borg scale from 6 to 20. Percentage changes of respiratory gas exchange measurements were significantly larger (O2 consumption: -8.2 +/- 5.0% vs. -0.6 +/- 7.2%; ventilatory equivalent of CO2 exhalation: 5.3 +/- 4.9% vs. 1.5 +/- 4.3%; respiratory exchange ratio: 7.0 +/- 2.2% vs. 3.5 +/- 3.0%; end-tidal CO2: -5.7 +/- 2.9% vs. -1.8 +/- 2.7%; all P < 0.01) and the increase in subjective assessment of the effort tended to be higher (mean increase on Borg scale: 1.6 +/- 1.9 vs. 1.1 +/- 1.8, P = 0.07) after heart rate unadjusted than after adjusted mode switching. Mode switching from DDD to VVI pacing is better tolerated and gas exchange measurements are less influenced if ventricular pacing rate is adjusted to the level of physical activity. Thus, pacing rate adjustment should be considered as part of automatic mode switch algorithms.

  3. [Pharmacological analysis of anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation].

    PubMed

    Gapeev, A B; Lushnikov, K V; Shumilina, Iu V; Chemeris, N K

    2006-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR, 42.0 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2) was compared with the action of the known anti-inflammatory drug sodium diclofenac and the antihistamine clemastine on acute inflammatory reaction in NMRI mice. The local inflammatory reaction was induced by intraplantar injection of zymosan into the left hind paw. Sodium diclofenac in doses of 2, 3, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg or clemastine in doses of 0.02, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally 30 min after the initiation of inflammation. The animals were whole-body exposed to EHF EMR for 20 min at 1 h after the initiation of inflammation. The inflammatory reaction was assessed over 3 - 8 h after the initiation by measuring the footpad edema and hyperthermia of the inflamed paw. Sodium diclofenac in doses of 5 - 20 mg/kg reduced the exudative edema on the average by 26% as compared to the control. Hyperthermia of the inflamed paw decreased to 60% as the dose of was increased diclofenac up to 20 mg/kg. EHF EMR reduced both the footpad edema and hyperthermia by about 20%, which was comparable with the effect of a single therapeutic dose of diclofenac (3 - 5 mg/kg). The combined action of diclofenac and the exposure to the EHF EMR caused a partial additive effect. Clemastine in doses of 0.02-0.4 mg/kg it did not cause any significant effects on the exudative edema, but in a dose of 0.6 mg/kg it reduced edema by 14 - 22% by 5 - 8 h after zymosan injection. Clemastine caused a dose-dependent increase in hyperthermia of inflamed paw at doses of 0.02-0.2 mg/kg and did not affect the hyperthermia at doses of 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg. The combined action of clemastine and EHF EMR exposure caused a dose-dependent abolishment of the anti-inflammatory effect of EHF EMR. The results obtained suggest that both arachidonic acid metabolites and histamine are involved in the realization of anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity

  4. Effects of low intensity noise from aircraft or from neighbourhood on cognitive learning and electrophysiological stress responses.

    PubMed

    Trimmel, Michael; Atzlsdorfer, Jürgen; Tupy, Nina; Trimmel, Karin

    2012-11-01

    The effects of low intensity noise on cognitive learning and autonomous physiological processes are of high practical relevance but are rarely addressed in empirical investigations. This study investigated the impact of neighbourhood noise (of 45 dB[A], n=20) and of noise coming from passing aircraft (of 48 dB[A] peak amplitude presented once per minute; n=19) during computer based learning of different texts (with three types of text structure, i.e. linear text, hierarchic hypertext, and network hypertext) in relation to a control group (35 dB[A], n=20). Using a between subjects design, reproduction scores, heart rate, and spontaneous skin conductance fluctuations were compared. Results showed impairments of reproduction in both noise conditions. Additionally, whereas in the control group and the neighbourhood noise group scores were better for network hypertext structure than for hierarchic hypertext, no effect of text structure on reproduction appeared in the aircraft noise group. Compared to the control group, for most of the learning period the number of spontaneous skin conductance fluctuations was higher for the aircraft noise group. For the neighbourhood noise group, fluctuations were higher during pre- and post task periods when noise stimulation was still present. Additionally, during the last 5 min of the 15 min learning period, an increased heart rate was found in the aircraft noise group. Data indicate remarkable cognitive and physiological effects of low intensity background noise. Some aspects of reproduction were impaired in the two noise groups. Cognitive learning, as indicated by reproduction scores, was changed structurally in the aircraft noise group and was accompanied by higher sympathetic activity. An additional cardiovascular load appeared for aircraft noise when combined with time pressure as indicated by heart rate for the announced last 5 min of the learning period during aircraft noise with a peak SPL of even 48 dB(A). Attentional

  5. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Lanius, Ruth; Vermetten, Eric; Simeon, Daphne; Friedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The rationale, research literature, and proposed changes to the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are presented. Dissociative identity disorder will include reference to possession as well as identity fragmentation, to make the disorder more applicable to culturally diverse situations. Dissociative amnesia will include dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. Depersonalization disorder will include derealization as well, since the two often co-occur. A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined by the presence of depersonalization or derealization in addition to other PTSD symptoms, is being recommended, based upon new epidemiological and neuroimaging evidence linking it to an early life history of adversity and a combination of frontal activation and limbic inhibition. Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) will likely remain with the somatic symptom disorders, despite considerable dissociative comorbidity.

  6. A possible role of an anthocyanin filter in low-intensity light stress-induced flowering in Perilla frutescens var. crispa.

    PubMed

    Miki, Satomi; Wada, Kaede C; Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2015-03-01

    The red-leaved form of Perilla frutescens var. crispa was induced to flower by low-intensity light stress. The leaves of this form are normally red, but turned green under low-intensity light due to anthocyanin depletion in the epidermis. Flowering did not occur when plants were grown under light passed through a red-colored cellophane paper, which has an absorption spectrum similar to that of anthocyanins. High-concentration anthocyanins may play the role of a red-colored optical filter under normal light conditions, and this filter effect may be lost under low-intensity light, causing a change in the wavelength characteristics of the light with which the mesophyll cells are irradiated. This change may induce a photobiological effect leading to flowering. The gene expression and enzyme activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), the key enzyme for anthocyanin biosynthesis, decreased under low-intensity light. L-2-aminooxy-3-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP), which is widely used as a PAL inhibitor, inhibited low-intensity light stress-induced flowering and increased PAL activity and anthocyanin content. The inhibition of flowering by AOPP in P. frutescens may be through different mechanisms than PAL inhibition.

  7. Does dissociation further our understanding of PTSD?

    PubMed

    Bryant, Richard A

    2007-01-01

    Peritraumatic dissociation, and other dissociative reactions, refer to alterations in awareness in the context of a traumatic experience. This review provides an overview of the current conceptualization of dissociation, critiques methodological approaches to studying dissociation, and reviews the evidence for the purported relationship between dissociative reactions and posttraumatic stress disorder. The evidence challenges the notion that a linear relationship exists between dissociation and psychiatric morbidity. Future research should abandon the global construct of dissociation, and study the specific responses that involve altered awareness under experimental conditions.

  8. The role of fatty acids in anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Gapeyev, Andrew B; Kulagina, Tatiana P; Aripovsky, Alexander V; Chemeris, Nikolay K

    2011-07-01

    The effects of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR; 42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm(2) , exposure duration 20 min) on the fatty acid (FA) composition of thymic cells and blood plasma in normal mice and in mice with peritoneal inflammation were studied. It was found that the exposure of normal mice to EHF EMR increased the content of polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) (eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic) in thymic cells. Using a model of zymosan-induced peritoneal inflammation, it was shown that the exposure of mice to EHF EMR significantly increased the content of PUFAs (dihomo-γ-linolenic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic) and reduced the content of monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) (palmitoleic and oleic) in thymic cells. Changes in the FA composition in the blood plasma were less pronounced and manifested themselves as an increase in the level of saturated FAs during the inflammation. The data obtained support the notion that MUFAs are replaced by PUFAs that can enter into the thymic cells from the external media. Taking into account the fact that the metabolites of PUFAs are lipid messengers actively involved in inflammatory and immune reactions, we assume that the increase in the content of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in phospholipids of cellular membranes facilitates the realization of anti-inflammatory effects of EHF EMR.

  9. Low-Intensity Ultrasound Combined with Hematoporphyrin Monomethyl Ether in the Treatment of Experimental Periodontitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Deshu; Ji, Zongshan; Wang, Xiaochun; Zhou, Qi; Cao, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether- (HMME-) mediated sonodynamic therapy (SDT) on experimental periodontal disease in rats. Methods. Periodontal disease was induced by submerging ligatures at the first maxillary molar subgingival region in forty-eight male SD rats. After 30 days, the ligatures were removed. The rats were randomly allocated into four groups; the experimental SDT group was treated through hypodermic injection of 40 μg/mL HMME and 3 W/cm2 low-intensity ultrasound irradiation (1 MHz, 600 s). Those in control groups received 40 μg/mL HMME alone (control 1 group) or 3 W/cm2 ultrasound irradiation alone (control 2 group) or were subjected to neither HMME nor ultrasound (control 3 group). After 10 days of treatment, all rats were euthanized, the maxilla was obtained for histological examination, and the alveolar bone level was evaluated by histometric analysis. Results. The control groups showed more bone loss (P < 0.05) after 10 days of treatment than the SDT group. There is no significant difference among the control groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions. HMME mediated SDT was an effective therapy of experimental periodontal tissue in rats. PMID:27975058

  10. Improved Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenesis in 3D Bioprinted Tissue Scaffolds with Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xuan; Castro, Nathan J.; Zhu, Wei; Cui, Haitao; Aliabouzar, Mitra; Sarkar, Kausik; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    3D printing and ultrasound techniques are showing great promise in the evolution of human musculoskeletal tissue repair and regeneration medicine. The uniqueness of the present study was to combine low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and advanced 3D printing techniques to synergistically improve growth and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Specifically, polyethylene glycol diacrylate bioinks containing cell adhesive Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid-Serene (RGDS) peptide and/or nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) were used to fabricate 3D scaffolds with different geometric patterns via novel table-top stereolithography 3D printer. The resultant scaffolds provide a highly porous and interconnected 3D environment to support cell proliferation. Scaffolds with small square pores were determined to be the optimal geometric pattern for MSC attachment and growth. The optimal LIPUS working parameters were determined to be 1.5 MHz, 20% duty cycle with 150 mW/cm2 intensity. Results demonstrated that RGDS peptide and nHA containing 3D printed scaffolds under LIPUS treatment can greatly promote MSC proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition and total protein content. These results illustrate the effectiveness of the combination of LIPUS and biomimetic 3D printing scaffolds as a valuable combinatorial tool for improved MSC function, thus make them promising for future clinical and various regenerative medicine application. PMID:27597635

  11. Lipid Coated Microbubbles and Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Enhance Chondrogenesis of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in 3D Printed Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Aliabouzar, Mitra; Zhang, Lijie Grace; Sarkar, Kausik

    2016-01-01

    Lipid-coated microbubbles are used to enhance ultrasound imaging and drug delivery. Here we apply these microbubbles along with low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) for the first time to enhance proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in a 3D printed poly-(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogel scaffold. The hMSC proliferation increased up to 40% after 5 days of culture in the prese