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Sample records for low-lying vector resonances

  1. On properties of low-lying spin-1 hadron resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizhov, M. V.

    2017-03-01

    Properties of low-lying spin-1 hadron resonances are described in the review. It is shown how the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model can be extended in the chiral invariant way by new tensor interactions. New mass formulas are obtained, which are not based on unitary symmetry groups but involve particles from different multiplets even with opposite parity. They all are in good agreement with experimental data. Dynamic properties of spin-1 mesons confirmed by the calculations performed using the QCD sum rule technique and the lattice calculations are understood and explained.

  2. Low-lying dipole resonance in neutron-rich Ne isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kenichi; van Giai, Nguyen

    2008-07-01

    Microscopic structure of the low-lying isovector dipole excitation mode in neutron-rich Ne26,28,30 is investigated by performing deformed quasiparticle-random-phase-approximation (QRPA) calculations. The particle-hole residual interaction is derived from a Skyrme force through a Landau-Migdal approximation. We obtain the low-lying resonance in Ne26 at around 8.6 MeV. It is found that the isovector dipole strength at Ex<10 MeV exhausts about 6.0% of the classical Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn dipole sum rule. This excitation mode is composed of several QRPA eigenmodes, one is generated by a ν(2s1/2-12p3/2) transition dominantly and the other mostly by a ν(2s1/2-12p1/2) transition. The neutron excitations take place outside of the nuclear surface reflecting the spatially extended structure of the 2s1/2 wave function. In Ne30, the deformation splitting of the giant resonance is large, and the low-lying resonance overlaps with the giant resonance.

  3. {sup 10}Li low-lying resonances populated by one-neutron transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, M. Agodi, C.; Carbone, D.; Cunsolo, A.; De Napoli, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Bondì, M.; Davids, B.; Galinski, N.; Ruiz, C.; Davinson, T.; Sanetullaev, A.; Foti, A.; Kanungo, R.; Lenske, H.; Orrigo, S. E. A.

    2015-10-15

    The {sup 9}Li + {sup 2}H → {sup 10}Li + {sup 1}H one-neutron transfer reaction has been performed at 100 MeV incident energy at TRIUMF using a {sup 9}Li beam delivered by the ISAC-II facility. A setup based on double-sided silicon strip detectors has been used in order to detect and identify the outgoing {sup 9}Li produced by the {sup 10}Li breakup at forward angles and the recoil protons emitted at backward angles. The {sup 10}Li low-lying resonances, whose energies, widths and configurations are still unclear, have been populated with significant statistics.

  4. Low-lying even parity meson resonances and spin-flavor symmetry revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Recio, C.; Geng, L. S.; Nieves, J.; Salcedo, L. L.; Wang, En; Xie, Ju-Jun

    2013-05-01

    We review and extend the model derived in Garcia-Recio et al. [Phys. Rev. D 83, 016007 (2011)] to address the dynamics of the low-lying even-parity meson resonances. This model is based on a coupled-channels spin-flavor extension of the chiral Weinberg-Tomozawa Lagrangian. This interaction is then used to study the S-wave meson-meson scattering involving members not only of the π octet, but also of the ρ nonet. In this work, we study in detail the structure of the SU(6)-symmetry-breaking contact terms that respect (or softly break) chiral symmetry. We derive the most general local (without involving derivatives) terms consistent with the chiral-symmetry-breaking pattern of QCD. After introducing sensible simplifications to reduce the large number of possible operators, we carry out a phenomenological discussion of the effects of these terms. We show how the inclusion of these pieces leads to an improvement of the description of the JP=2+ sector, without spoiling the main features of the predictions obtained in the original model in the JP=0+ and JP=1+ sectors. In particular, we find a significantly better description of the IG(JPC)=0+(2++), 1-(2++) and the I(JP)=(1)/(2)(2+) sectors, which correspond to the f2(1270), a2(1320), and K2*(1430) quantum numbers, respectively.

  5. Effects of pairing correlation on the low-lying quasiparticle resonance in neutron drip-line nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiko; Matsuo, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the effects of pairing correlation on quasiparticle resonance. We analyze in detail how the width of the low-lying (Ex≲ 1 MeV) quasiparticle resonance is governed by the pairing correlation in the neutron drip-line nuclei. We consider the {}^{46}Si + n system to discuss the low-lying p-wave quasiparticle resonance. Solving the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equation in coordinate space with the scattering boundary condition, we calculate the phase shift, the elastic cross section, the resonance width, and the resonance energy. We find that the pairing correlation has the effect of reducing the width of the quasiparticle resonance that originates from a particle-like orbit in weakly bound nuclei.

  6. Low-lying π∗ resonances associated with cyano groups: A CAP/SAC-CI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehara, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yuki; Sommerfeld, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The complex absorbing potential (CAP)/symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method is applied to low-lying π∗ resonance states of molecules containing one or two cyano (CN) groups. Benchmark calculations are carried out comparing the non-variational and approximate variational approach of SAC-CI and studying the selection threshold of operators. Experimental resonance positions from electron transmission spectroscopy (ETS) are reproduced provided the anticipated deviations due to vibronic effects are taken into account. Moreover, the calculated positions and widths agree well with those obtained in previous electron scattering calculations for HCN, CH3CN and their isonitriles. Based on our results, we suggest a reassignment of the experimental ETS of fumaronitrile and malononitrile. Our present results demonstrate again that the CAP/SAC-CI method reliably predicts low-lying π∗ resonances, and regarding the total numbers of molecules and resonances investigated, it is fair to say that it is presently the most extensively used high-level method in the temporary anion field.

  7. Reply to ``Comment on `Three-body properties of low-lying 12Be resonances' ''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, E.; Jensen, A. S.; Fedorov, D. V.; Johansen, J. G.

    2013-09-01

    We suggested that the two resonances at 0.89 and 2.03 MeV above the two-neutron separation threshold have spins and parities of 0+ and 1-. In the Comment, Fortune claims that these states almost unambiguously must be 3- and 4+ states. We work in three-body cluster models with Jπ=0+,1-,2+ where all three-body continuum structures are included. Fortune bases his assignments on the bound-state shell-model and (t,p) calculations. Our conclusions are from three-body structure results including widths. Assignments as 0+ and 1- (or, perhaps, 3-) resonances are the most natural within the three-body cluster model.

  8. Observation of low-lying resonances in the quasicontinuum of 195,196Pt and enhanced astrophysical reaction rates

    DOE PAGES

    Giacoppo, F.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Eriksen, T. K.; ...

    2015-05-28

    An excess of strength on the low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance recently has been observed in the γ-decay from the quasicontinuum of 195,196Pt. The nature of this phenomenon is not yet fully investigated. If this feature is present also in the γ-ray strength of the neutron-rich isotopes, it can affect the neutron-capture reactions involved in the formation of heavy-elements in stellar nucleosynthesis. The experimental level density and γ-ray strength function of 195,196Pt are presented together with preliminary calculations of the corresponding neutron-capture cross sections.

  9. Toward establishing low-lying Λ and Σ hyperon resonances with the K ¯+d →π +Y +N reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamano, H.; Lee, T.-S. H.

    2016-12-01

    A model for the K ¯d →π Y N reactions with Y =Λ ,Σ is developed, aiming at establishing the low-lying Λ and Σ hyperon resonances through analyzing the forthcoming data from the J-PARC E31 experiment. The off-shell amplitudes generated from the dynamical coupled-channels (DCC) model, which was developed in Kamano et al. [Phys. Rev. C 90, 065204 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevC.90.065204], are used as input to the calculations of the elementary K ¯N →K ¯N and K ¯N →π Y subprocesses in the K ¯d →π Y N reactions. It is shown that the cross sections for the J-PARC E31 experiment with a rather high incoming-K ¯ momentum, | p⃗K ¯|=1 GeV, can be predicted reliably only when the input K ¯N →K ¯N amplitudes are generated from a K ¯N model, such as the DCC model used in this investigation, which describes the data of the K ¯N reactions at energies far beyond the K ¯N threshold. We find that the data of the threefold differential cross section d σ /(d Mπ Σd Ωp n) for the K-d →π Σ n reaction below the K ¯N threshold can be used to test the predictions of the resonance poles associated with Λ (1405 ) . We also find that the momentum dependence of the threefold differential cross sections for the K-d →π-Λ p reaction can be used to examine the existence of a low-lying JP=1 /2+ Σ resonance with a pole mass MR=1457 -i 39 MeV, which was found from analyzing the K-p reaction data within the employed DCC model.

  10. Λ and Σ resonances coupled to vector and pseudoscalar mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khemchandani, K. P.; Martínez Torres, A.; Nagahiro, H.; Hosaka, A.

    2013-09-01

    The vector and pseudoscalar meson-baryon systems have been studied in a coupled channel formalism recently, which has lead to findings of some important results. The formalism consists of obtaining a detailed vector meson-baryon interaction originating from the s-, t-, u-channel diagrams and a contact interaction, all derived from the Lagrangian invariant under the gauge of the hidden local symmetry (HLS). We find the contributions from all the diagrams (except s-channel) to be important, contrary to the systems involving light Goldstone bosons where Weinberg-Tomozawa interaction gives the dominant contribution. Further, the transitions between the pseudoscalar meson-baryon (PB) and vector meson-baryon (VB) channels is obtained consistently by extending the Kroll-Ruderman theorem by replacing the photon by a vector meson, assuming the vector meson dominance. We find that the low-lying resonances couple strongly to VB channels. This information can be very useful in studying processes like photoproduction of low-lying resonances. Further, we find dynamical generation of new states in PB-VB coupled systems which can be related to the known resonances: Λ(2000), Σ(1750), Σ(1940) and Σ(2000).

  11. The complex-scaled multiconfigurational spin-tensor electron propagator method for low-lying shape resonances in Be-, Mg- and Ca-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsogbayar, Tsednee; Yeager, Danny L.

    2017-01-01

    We further apply the complex scaled multiconfigurational spin-tensor electron propagator method (CMCSTEP) for the theoretical determination of resonance parameters with electron-atom systems including open-shell and highly correlated (non-dynamical correlation) atoms and molecules. The multiconfigurational spin-tensor electron propagator method (MCSTEP) developed and implemented by Yeager and his coworkers for real space gives very accurate and reliable ionization potentials and electron affinities. CMCSTEP uses a complex scaled multiconfigurational self-consistent field (CMCSCF) state as an initial state along with a dilated Hamiltonian where all of the electronic coordinates are scaled by a complex factor. CMCSTEP is designed for determining resonances. We apply CMCSTEP to get the lowest 2P (Be-, Mg-) and 2D (Mg-, Ca-) shape resonances using several different basis sets each with several complete active spaces. Many of these basis sets we employ have been used by others with different methods. Hence, we can directly compare results with different methods but using the same basis sets.

  12. Observation of low-lying resonances in the quasicontinuum of 195,196Pt and enhanced astrophysical reaction rates

    SciTech Connect

    Giacoppo, F.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Eriksen, T. K.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hagen, T. W.; Larsen, A. C.; Kheswa, B. V.; Klintefjord, M.; Koehler, P. E.; Moretto, L. G.; Nyhus, H. T.; Renstrøm, T.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tornyi, T. G.; Schwengner, R.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-28

    An excess of strength on the low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance recently has been observed in the γ-decay from the quasicontinuum of 195,196Pt. The nature of this phenomenon is not yet fully investigated. If this feature is present also in the γ-ray strength of the neutron-rich isotopes, it can affect the neutron-capture reactions involved in the formation of heavy-elements in stellar nucleosynthesis. The experimental level density and γ-ray strength function of 195,196Pt are presented together with preliminary calculations of the corresponding neutron-capture cross sections.

  13. Vector-Resonance-Multimode Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeyev, S. V.; Kbashi, H.; Tarasov, N.; Loiko, Yu.; Kolpakov, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    The modulation and multimode instabilities are the main mechanisms which drive spontaneous spatial and temporal pattern formation in a vast number of nonlinear systems ranging from biology to laser physics. Using an Er-doped fiber laser as a test bed, here for the first time we demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically a new type of a low-threshold vector-resonance-multimode instability which inherits features of multimode and modulation instabilities. The same as for the multimode instability, a large number of longitudinal modes can be excited without mode synchronization. To enable modulation instability, we modulate the state of polarization of the lasing signal with the period of the beat length by an adjustment of the in-cavity birefringence and the state of polarization of the pump wave. As a result, we show the regime's tunability from complex oscillatory to periodic with longitudinal mode synchronization in the case of resonance matching between the beat and cavity lengths. Apart from the interest in laser physics for unlocking the tunability and stability of dynamic regimes, the proposed mechanism of the vector-resonance-multimode instability can be of fundamental interest for the nonlinear dynamics of various distributed systems.

  14. Vector resonances and electromagnetic nucleon structure

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Williams; Siegfried Krewald; Kevin Linen

    1995-02-01

    Motivated by new, precise magnetic proton form factor data in the timelike region, a hybrid vector meson dominance (hVMD) formalism is employed to investigate the significance of excited vector meson resonances on electromagnetic nucleon structure. We find that the rho (1700), omega (1600), and two previously unobserved states are required to reproduce the local structure seen in the new LEAR data just above the pp-bar threshold. We also investigate sensitivity to the phi meson. The model dependence of our result is tested by introducing an alternative model which couples the isoscalar vector meson states to a hypothetical vector glueball resonance. We obtain nearly identical results from both models, except for GnE(q2) in the spacelike region which is very sensitive to the glueball mass and the effective phi NN coupling.

  15. Low-lying excitations in 72Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, A. I.; Benzoni, G.; Watanabe, H.; Nishimura, S.; Browne, F.; Daido, R.; Doornenbal, P.; Fang, Y.; Lorusso, G.; Patel, Z.; Rice, S.; Sinclair, L.; Söderström, P.-A.; Sumikama, T.; Wu, J.; Xu, Z. Y.; Yagi, A.; Yokoyama, R.; Baba, H.; Avigo, R.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Blasi, N.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Ceruti, S.; Crespi, F. C. L.; de Angelis, G.; Delattre, M.-C.; Dombradi, Zs.; Gottardo, A.; Isobe, T.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Kuti, I.; Matsui, K.; Melon, B.; Mengoni, D.; Miyazaki, T.; Modamio-Hoyborg, V.; Momiyama, S.; Napoli, D. R.; Niikura, M.; Orlandi, R.; Sakurai, H.; Sahin, E.; Sohler, D.; Shaffner, H.; Taniuchi, R.; Taprogge, J.; Vajta, Zs.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Wieland, O.; Yalcinkaya, M.

    2016-03-01

    Low-lying excited states in 72Ni have been investigated in an in-flight fission experiment at the RIBF facility of the RIKEN Nishina Center. The combination of the state-of-the-art BigRIPS and EURICA setups has allowed for a very accurate study of the β decay from 72Co to 72Ni, and has provided first experimental information on the decay sequence 72Fe→72Co→72Ni and on the delayed neutron-emission branch 73Co→72Ni . Accordingly, we report nearly 60 previously unobserved γ transitions which deexcite 21 new levels in 72Ni. Evidence for the location of the so-sought-after (42+) ,(62+) , and (81+) seniority states is provided. As well, the existence of a low-spin β -decaying isomer in odd-odd neutron-rich Co isotopes is confirmed for mass A =72 . The new experimental information is compared to simple shell-model calculations including only neutron excitations across the f p g shells. It is shown that, in general, the calculations reproduce well the observed states.

  16. Low-lying Gamow-Teller transitions in spherical nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Cakmak, N.; Uenlue, S.; Selam, C.

    2012-01-15

    The Pyatov Method has been used to study the low-lying Gamow-Teller transitions in the mass region of 98 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To A Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 130. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the total Hamiltonian have been solved within the framework of proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation. The low-lying {beta} decay log(ft) values have been calculated for the nuclei under consideration.

  17. On the low-lying states of TiC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Siegbahn, P. E. M.

    1984-01-01

    The ground and low-lying excited states of TiC are investigated using a CASSCF-externally contracted CI approach. The calculations yield a 3Sigma(+) ground state, but the 1Sigma(+) state is only 780/cm higher and cannot be ruled out. The low-lying states have some triple bond character. The nature of the bonding and origin of the states are discussed.

  18. The Low-Lying Electronic States of Mg2(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The low-lying doublet and quartet states of Mg+ have been studied using a multireference configuration interaction approach. The effect of inner-shell correlation has been included using the core-polarization potential method. The computed spectroscopic constants, lifetimes, and oscillator strengths should help resolve the difference between the recent experiments and previous theoretical calculations.

  19. Vector resonances and electromagnetic nucleon structure

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.A.; Krewald, S.; Linen, K. )

    1995-02-01

    Motivated by new, precise magnetic proton form factor data in the timelike reigon, a hybrid vector meson dominance (hVMD) formalism is employed to investigate the significance of excited vector meson rsonances on electromagnetic nucleon structure. We find that the [rho](1700), [omega](1600), and two previously unobserved states are required to reproduce the local structure seen in the new LEAR data just above the [ital p[bar p

  20. A theoretical study of the low-lying states of Ti2 and Zr2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Rosi, Marzio

    1991-01-01

    The low-lying states of Ti2 and the valence isoelectronic Zr2 are examined theoretically by means of a multireference configuration-interaction (MRCI) method. MRCI calculations demonstrate that two of the Zr2 states are very low-lying and that the resulting vertical excitation is consistent with the optical spectrum of Zr2. The ground state is predicted for Ti2 on the basis of valence correlation with the MRCI method and the average coupled-pair functional technique. Calculations of the inner-shell correlation effects are estimated and found to lower the 3Delta g state to a ground state, and another to a very low-lying state. The ground state of Ti2 is assigned to 3Delta g since it is lower than the other state at all levels of correlation and is derived from the same atomic asymptote. This conclusion is supported by the lack of an electron-spin resonance signal but contradicts the absence of subcomponents on the Raman spectral lines.

  1. Symptomatic lumbar disc protrusion causing progressive myelopathy in a low-lying cord.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Shreya; Shetty, Rohit; Collins, Iona

    2012-06-01

    Low-lying cord is an uncommon entity, and cord compression due lumbar disc disease is rarely encountered. We discuss our experience with a case of lumbar cord compression secondary to a large disc protrusion, which caused myelopathy in a low-lying/tethered cord. A 77-year-old woman with known spina bifida occulta presented with 6-week history of severe low back pain and progressive paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a low-lying tethered cord and a large disc prolapse at L2/3 causing cord compression with associated syringomyelia. Medical comorbidities precluded her from anterior decompression, and therefore a posterior decompression was performed. She recovered full motor power in her lower limbs and could eventually walk unaided. She had a deep wound infection, which was successfully treated with debridement, negative pressure therapy (vacuum-assisted closure pump), and antibiotics. Six months after surgery, her Oswestry Disability Index improved from 55% preoperatively to 20%. Posterior spinal cord decompression for this condition has been successful in our case, and we believe that the lumbar lordosis may have helped indirectly decompress the spinal cord by posterior decompression alone.

  2. Low-lying dipole modes in 26,28Ne in the quasiparticle relativistic random phase approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Li-Gang; Ma, Zhong-Yu

    2005-03-01

    The low-lying isovector dipole strengths in the neutron-rich nuclei 26Ne and 28Ne are investigated in the quasiparticle relativistic random phase approximation. Nuclear ground-state properties are calculated in an extended relativistic mean field theory plus Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) method where the contribution of the resonant continuum to pairing correlations is properly treated. Numerical calculations are tested in the case of isovector dipole and isoscalar quadrupole modes in the neutron-rich nucleus 22O. It is found that in the present calculation, low-lying isovector dipole strengths at Ex<10MeV in nuclei 26Ne and 26Ne exhaust about 4.9% and 5.8% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn dipole sum rule, respectively. The centroid energy of the low-lying dipole excitation is located at 8.3 MeV in 26Ne and 7.9 MeV in 28Ne.

  3. Low-lying Collective States in {sup 136}Ba

    SciTech Connect

    Scheck, M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Crider, B.; Choudry, S. N.; Elhami, E.; Peters, E. E.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Orce, J. N.; Yates, S. W.

    2009-01-28

    Low-lying collective states in {sup 136}Ba were investigated with (n,n'{gamma}) techniques, including Doppler-shift attenuation lifetime measurements. The level spins, lifetimes, branching ratios, multipole-mixing ratios and transition strengths reveal candidates for symmetric-phonon states up to third order. The 2{sub ms}{sup +} mixed-symmetry state was confirmed as unfragmented and a candidate for a [2{sub 1}{sup +} x 2{sub ms}{sup +}]{sub 3}{sup +} two-phonon mixed-symmetry state is proposed.

  4. Noncollisional excitation of low-lying states in gaseous nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    Consideration is given to the effects of processes other than electron collisional excitation on the energy level populations of species of C, N, and O. It is found that dielectronic as well as direct-radiative recombination may contribute significantly and in some cases be the major input to populating the low-lying metastable levels. It is concluded that the most pronounced changes occur when there is a large effective recombination coefficient to a level and when T(e) is low. The most dramatic change among the forbidden lines occurs for the O II forbidden lines.

  5. The low-lying electronic states of ReB.

    PubMed

    Borin, Antonio Carlos; Gobbo, João Paulo; Castro, César Augusto Milani

    2014-07-01

    The ground and low-lying electronic states of ReB were studied at the CASPT2//CASSCF level (multiconfigurational second-order perturbation theory) and quadruple-ζ ANO-RCC basis sets. Spectroscopic constants, potential energy curves, wavefunctions, and Mulliken population analysis are given. The ground state of ReB is of X(5)Σ(+) symmetry (R e  = 1.817 Å, ω e  = .909 cm(-1), and μ = 2.87 D), giving rise to a Ω = 0(+) ground state after including spin-orbit coupling.

  6. Fully vectorial laser resonator modeling by vector extrapolation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asoubar, Daniel; Kuhn, Michael; Wyrowski, Frank

    2015-02-01

    The optimization of multi-parameter resonators requires flexible simulation techniques beyond the scalar approximation. Therefore we generalize the scalar Fox and Li algorithm for the transversal eigenmode calculation to a fully vectorial model. This modified eigenvalue problem is solved by two polynomial-type vector extrapolation methods, namely the minimal polynomial extrapolation and the reduced rank extrapolation. Compared to other eigenvalue solvers these techniques can also be applied to resonators including nonlinear components. As an example we show the calculation of an azimuthally polarized eigenmode emitted by a resonator containing a discontinuous phase element and a nonlinear active medium. The simulation is verified by experiments.

  7. On the low lying singlet states of BeO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Lengsfield, B. H.; Yarkony, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    Calculations of the ground and low-lying singlet states of BeO are performed in order to gain an understanding of the techniques needed to treat the excited states of other, more complex, ionic molecules. The MCSCF and CI calculations are based on a Gaussian basis set of slightly better than double zeta plus polarization quality for single configuration descriptions of the states. The calculated X-A and X-B state separations are found to be in agreement with experimental measurements. The 1 Sigma - and 1 Delta states are predicted to lie approximately 40,000 kaysers above the ground state and are identified as the C and D states.The 2 1 Pi state is found to be approximately 15,000 kaysers and the 3 1 Sigma + state is found to be approximately 65,000 kaysers above the ground state.

  8. Instanton contributions to the low-lying hadron mass spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Samuel D.; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.

    2015-11-01

    The role of instanton-like objects in the QCD vacuum on the mass spectrum of low-lying light hadrons is explored in lattice QCD. Using overimproved stout-link smearing, tuned to preserve instanton-like objects in the QCD vacuum, the evolution of the mass spectrum under smearing is examined. The calculation is performed using a 203×40 dynamical fat-link-irrelevant-clover (FLIC) fermion action ensemble with lattice spacing 0.126 fm. Through the consideration of a range of pion masses, the effect of the vacuum instanton content is compared at a common pion mass. While the qualitative features of ground-state hadrons are preserved on instanton-dominated configurations, the excitation spectrum experiences significant changes. The underlying physics revealed shows little similarity to the direct-instanton-interaction predictions of the instanton liquid model.

  9. Vector resonances at LHC Run II in composite 2HDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Chiara, Stefano; Heikinheimo, Matti; Tuominen, Kimmo

    2017-03-01

    We consider a model where the electroweak symmetry breaking is driven by strong dynamics, resulting in an electroweak doublet scalar condensate, and transmitted to the standard model matter fields via another electroweak doublet scalar. At low energies the effective theory therefore shares features with a type-I two Higgs doublet model. However, important differences arise due to the rich composite spectrum expected to contain new vector resonances accessible at the LHC. We carry out a systematic analysis of the vector resonance signals at LHC and find that the model remains viable, but will be tightly constrained by direct searches as the projected integrated luminosity, around 200 fb-1, of the current run becomes available.

  10. Spectroscopic strengths of low-lying levels in 18Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omalley, Patrick; Allen, J. M.; Bardayan, D. W.; Becchetti, F. D.; Cizewski, J. A.; Febbraro, M.; Gryzwacz, R.; Hall, M.; Jones, K. L.; Kolata, J. J.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Smith, K.; Thornsberry, C.

    2016-09-01

    Much effort has been made to understand the origins of 18F in novae. Due to its relatively long half-life ( 2 hours), 18F can survive until the nova envelope is transparent, and therefore it can provide a sensitive diagnostic of nova nucleosynthesis. It is likely produced through the beta decay of 18Ne, which is itself produced (primarily) through the 17F(p, γ) reaction. Understanding the direct capture contribution to the 17F(p, γ) reaction is important to accurately model it. As such, the spectroscopic strengths of low-lying states in 18Ne are needed. At the University of Notre Dame a measurement of the 17F(d,n) reaction has been performed using a beam produced with TwinSol Low energy radioactive beam facility. The neutrons were detected using a combination of VANDLE and UoM deuterated scintillator arrays. Data will be shown and preliminary results discussed. Research sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the US DOE Office of Nuclear Physics, and the National Nuclear Security Administration.

  11. On the low-lying states of CuO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagus, P. S.; Nelin, C. J.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Self consistent field and correlated wave functions have been computed for the ground and for several low-lying states of CuO. The ground state is X(2)PI and the lowest excited state, at approximately 8,000/cm above X(2)PI, is a previously unidentified 2-sigma(+) state. The separation of these states is compared to that for the similar states of KO and is analysed in terms of integrals between orbitals of the separated free ions. A classification of the states of the molecule based on states of Cu(+) and O(-) which leads to a division into manifolds of states arising from Cu(+) 3d(10) and Cu(+) 3d(9) 4s(1) is considered. It is predicted that the state of the 3d(9) 4s(1) manifold are 10,000 to 30,000/cm above the ground state and assign the observed A2-sigma(+) state at 16,500/cm to this manifold.

  12. Low-lying excitations in a strongly interacting Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vale, Christopher; Hoinka, Sascha; Dyke, Paul; Lingham, Marcus

    2016-05-01

    We present measurements of the low-lying excitation spectrum of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) to Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) crossover using Bragg spectroscopy. By focussing the Bragg lasers onto the central volume of the cloud we can probe atoms at near-uniform density allowing measurement of the homogeneous density-density response function. The Bragg wavevector is set to be approximately half of the Fermi wavevector to probe the collective response. Below the superfluid transition temperature the Bragg spectra dominated by the Bogoliubov-Anderson phonon mode. Single particle excitations become visible at energies greater than twice the pairing gap. As interactions are tuned from the BCS to BEC regime the phonon and single particle modes separate apart and both the pairing gap and speed of sound can be directly read off in certain regions of the crossover. Single particle pair-breaking excitations become heavily suppressed as interactions are tuned from the BCS to BEC regimes.

  13. Vector and scalar charmonium resonances with lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, C. B.; Leskovec, Luka; Mohler, Daniel; Prelovsek, Sasa

    2015-09-15

    We perform an exploratory lattice QCD simulation of DD¯ scattering, aimed at determining the masses as well as the decay widths of charmonium resonances above open charm threshold. Neglecting coupling to other channels, the resulting phase shift for DD¯ scattering in p-wave yields the well-known vector resonance ψ(3770). For mπ = 156 MeV, the extracted resonance mass and the decay width agree with experiment within large statistical uncertainty. The scalar charmonium resonances present a puzzle, since only the ground state Χc0(1P) is well understood, while there is no commonly accepted candidate for its first excitation. We simulate DD¯ scattering in s-wave in order to shed light on this puzzle. The resulting phase shift supports the existence of a yet-unobserved narrow resonance with a mass slightly below 4 GeV. A scenario with this narrow resonance and a pole at Χc0(1P) agrees with the energy-dependence of our phase shift. In addition, further lattice QCD simulations and experimental efforts are needed to resolve the puzzle of the excited scalar charmonia.

  14. Vector and scalar charmonium resonances with lattice QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Lang, C. B.; Leskovec, Luka; Mohler, Daniel; ...

    2015-09-15

    We perform an exploratory lattice QCD simulation of DD¯ scattering, aimed at determining the masses as well as the decay widths of charmonium resonances above open charm threshold. Neglecting coupling to other channels, the resulting phase shift for DD¯ scattering in p-wave yields the well-known vector resonance ψ(3770). For mπ = 156 MeV, the extracted resonance mass and the decay width agree with experiment within large statistical uncertainty. The scalar charmonium resonances present a puzzle, since only the ground state Χc0(1P) is well understood, while there is no commonly accepted candidate for its first excitation. We simulate DD¯ scattering inmore » s-wave in order to shed light on this puzzle. The resulting phase shift supports the existence of a yet-unobserved narrow resonance with a mass slightly below 4 GeV. A scenario with this narrow resonance and a pole at Χc0(1P) agrees with the energy-dependence of our phase shift. In addition, further lattice QCD simulations and experimental efforts are needed to resolve the puzzle of the excited scalar charmonia.« less

  15. Is Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy Beneficial for Sphincter Preservation in Low-Lying Rectal Cancer Patients?

    PubMed

    Park, In Ja; Yu, Chang Sik; Lim, Seok-Byung; Lee, Jong Lyul; Kim, Chan Wook; Yoon, Yong Sik; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-05-01

    The present study explored the benefit of preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) for sphincter preservation in locally advanced low-lying rectal cancer patients who underwent stapled anastomosis, especially in those with deep and narrow pelvises determined by magnetic resonance imaging.Patients with locally advanced low-lying rectal cancer (≤5 cm from the anal verge) who underwent stapled anastomosis were included. Patients were categorized into two groups (PCRT+ vs. PCRT-) according to PCRT application. Patients in the PCRT+ group were matched to those in the PCRT- group according to potential confounding factors (age, gender, clinical stage, and body mass index) for sphincter preservation. Sphincter preservation, permanent stoma, and anastomosis-related complications were compared between the groups. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure 12 dimensions representing pelvic cavity depth and width with which deep and narrow pelvis was defined. The impact of PCRT on sphincter preservation and permanent stoma in pelvic dimensions defined as deep and narrow pelvis was evaluated, and factors associated with sphincter preservation and permanent stoma were analyzed.One hundred sixty-six patients were one-to-one matched between the PCRT+ and PCRT- groups. Overall, sphincter-saving surgery was performed in 66.3% and the rates were not different between the 2 groups. Anastomotic complications and permanent stoma occurred nonsignificantly more frequently in the PCRT+ group. PCRT was not associated with higher rate of sphincter preservation in all pelvic dimensions defined as deep and narrow pelvis, while PCRT was related to higher rate of permanent stoma in shorter transverse diameter and interspinous distance. On logistic regression analysis, PCRT was not shown to influence both sphincter preservation and permanent stoma, while longer transverse diameter and interspinous distance were associated with lower rate of permanent stoma.PCRT had no beneficial

  16. Is Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy Beneficial for Sphincter Preservation in Low-Lying Rectal Cancer Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Park, In Ja; Yu, Chang Sik; Lim, Seok-Byung; Lee, Jong Lyul; Kim, Chan Wook; Yoon, Yong Sik; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study explored the benefit of preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) for sphincter preservation in locally advanced low-lying rectal cancer patients who underwent stapled anastomosis, especially in those with deep and narrow pelvises determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with locally advanced low-lying rectal cancer (≤5 cm from the anal verge) who underwent stapled anastomosis were included. Patients were categorized into two groups (PCRT+ vs. PCRT–) according to PCRT application. Patients in the PCRT+ group were matched to those in the PCRT– group according to potential confounding factors (age, gender, clinical stage, and body mass index) for sphincter preservation. Sphincter preservation, permanent stoma, and anastomosis-related complications were compared between the groups. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure 12 dimensions representing pelvic cavity depth and width with which deep and narrow pelvis was defined. The impact of PCRT on sphincter preservation and permanent stoma in pelvic dimensions defined as deep and narrow pelvis was evaluated, and factors associated with sphincter preservation and permanent stoma were analyzed. One hundred sixty-six patients were one-to-one matched between the PCRT+ and PCRT− groups. Overall, sphincter-saving surgery was performed in 66.3% and the rates were not different between the 2 groups. Anastomotic complications and permanent stoma occurred nonsignificantly more frequently in the PCRT+ group. PCRT was not associated with higher rate of sphincter preservation in all pelvic dimensions defined as deep and narrow pelvis, while PCRT was related to higher rate of permanent stoma in shorter transverse diameter and interspinous distance. On logistic regression analysis, PCRT was not shown to influence both sphincter preservation and permanent stoma, while longer transverse diameter and interspinous distance were associated with lower rate of permanent stoma. PCRT had

  17. Resonance energy transfer: The unified theory via vector spherical harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinter, Roger; Jones, Garth A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we derive the well-established expression for the quantum amplitude associated with the resonance energy transfer (RET) process between a pair of molecules that are beyond wavefunction overlap. The novelty of this work is that the field of the mediating photon is described in terms of a spherical wave rather than a plane wave. The angular components of the field are constructed in terms of vector spherical harmonics while Hankel functions are used to define the radial component. This approach alleviates the problem of having to select physically correct solution from non-physical solutions, which seems to be inherent in plane wave derivations. The spherical coordinate system allows one to easily decompose the photon's fields into longitudinal and transverse components and offers a natural way to analyse near-, intermediate-, and far-zone RET within the context of the relative orientation of the transition dipole moments for the two molecules.

  18. Structural Optimization by Quantum Monte Carlo: Investigating the Low-Lying Excited States of Ethylene.

    PubMed

    Barborini, Matteo; Sorella, Sandro; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2012-04-10

    We present full structural optimizations of the ground state and of the low lying triplet state of the ethylene molecule by means of Quantum Monte Carlo methods. Using the efficient structural optimization method based on renormalization techniques and on adjoint differentiation algorithms recently proposed [Sorella, S.; Capriotti, L. J. Chem. Phys.2010, 133, 234111], we present the variational convergence of both wave function parameters and atomic positions. All of the calculations were done using an accurate and compact wave function based on Pauling's resonating valence bond representation: the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP). All structural and wave function parameters are optimized, including coefficients and exponents of the Gaussian primitives of the AGP and the Jastrow atomic orbitals. Bond lengths and bond angles are calculated with a statistical error of about 0.1% and are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The Variational and Diffusion Monte Carlo calculations estimate vertical and adiabatic excitation energies in the ranges 4.623(10)-4.688(5) eV and 3.001(5)-3.091(5) eV, respectively. The adiabatic gap, which is in line with other correlated quantum chemistry methods, is slightly higher than the value estimated by recent photodissociation experiments. Our results demonstrate how Quantum Monte Carlo calculations have become a promising and computationally affordable tool for the structural optimization of correlated molecular systems.

  19. Simultaneous description of low-lying positive and negative parity bands in heavy even-even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganev, H. G.

    2014-05-01

    The low-lying spectra including the first few excited positive and negative parity bands of some heavy even-even nuclei from the rare earth and actinide mass regions are investigated within the framework of the symplectic interacting vector boson model with the Sp(12,R) dynamical symmetry group. Symplectic dynamical symmetries allow the change of the number of excitation quanta or phonons building the collective states, providing for larger representation spaces and richer subalgebraic structures to incorporate more complex nuclear spectra. The theoretical predictions for the energy levels and the electromagnetic transitions between the collective states of the ground-state band and Kπ=0- band are compared with experiment and some other collective models incorporating octupole and/or dipole degrees of freedom. The energy staggering, which is a sensitive indicator of the octupole correlations in even-even nuclei, is also calculated and compared with experiment. The results obtained for the energy levels, energy staggering, and transition strengths reveal the relevance of the dynamical symmetry used in the model to simultaneously describe both positive and negative parity low-lying collective bands.

  20. Energies and Electric Dipole Transitions for Low-Lying Levels of Protactinium IV and Uranium V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ürer, Güldem; Özdemir, Leyla

    2012-02-01

    We have reported a relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) study on low-lying level structures of protactinium IV (Z =91) and uranium V (Z =92) ions. Excitation energies and electric dipole (E1) transition parameters (wavelengths, oscillator strengths, and transition rates) for these low-lying levels have been given. We have also investigated the influence of the transverse Breit and quantum electrodynamic (QED) contributions besides correlation effects on the level structure. A comparison has been made with a few available data for these ions in the literature.

  1. Quadrupole lattice resonances in plasmonic crystal excited by cylindrical vector beams

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Kyosuke; Nomura, Kensuke; Yamamoto, Takeaki; Omura, Tatsuya; Sasaki, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    We report a scheme to exploit low radiative loss plasmonic resonance by combining a dark (subradiant) mode and a lattice resonance. We theoretically demonstrate that such dark-mode lattice resonances in periodic arrays of nanodisks or plasmonic crystals can be excited by vertically incident light beams. We investigate the excitation of lattice resonances in a finite sized, square-lattice plasmonic crystal by two types of cylindrical vector beams and a linearly polarized Gaussian beam. Quadrupole lattice resonances are excited by all three beams, and the largest peak intensity is obtained by using a specific type of cylindrical vector beam. Because of their lower radiative losses with many hotspots, the quadrupole lattice resonances in plasmonic crystal may pave the way for photonic research and applications that require strong light-matter interactions. PMID:27734923

  2. Nature of low-lying electric dipole resonance excitations in 74Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negi, D.; Wiedeking, M.; Lanza, E. G.; Litvinova, E.; Vitturi, A.; Bark, R. A.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bvumbi, S.; Bucher, T. D.; Daub, B. H.; Dinoko, T. S.; Easton, J. L.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Jones, P.; Kheswa, B. V.; Khumalo, N. A.; Larsen, A. C.; Lawrie, E. A.; Lawrie, J. J.; Majola, S. N. T.; Masiteng, L. P.; Nchodu, M. R.; Ndayishimye, J.; Newman, R. T.; Noncolela, S. P.; Orce, J. N.; Papka, P.; Pellegri, L.; Renstrøm, T.; Roux, D. G.; Schwengner, R.; Shirinda, O.; Siem, S.

    2016-08-01

    Isospin properties of dipole excitations in 74Ge are investigated using the (α ,α'γ ) reaction and compared to (γ ,γ' ) data. The results indicate that the dipole excitations in the energy region of 6 to 9 MeV adhere to the scenario of the recently found splitting of the region of dipole excitations into two separated parts: one at low energy, being populated by both isoscalar and isovector probes, and the other at high energy, excited only by the electromagnetic probe. Relativistic quasiparticle time blocking approximation (RQTBA) calculations show a reduction in the isoscalar E 1 strength with an increase in excitation energy, which is consistent with the measurement.

  3. Comment on ``Three-body properties of low-lying 12Be resonances''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortune, H. T.

    2013-09-01

    A recent paper [Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.86.024310 86, 024310 (2012)] that concerned 12Be suggested Jπ of 0+ and 1- for known states at energies of 0.89 and 2.03 MeV, respectively, above the 2n threshold. I argue that their most likely assignments are 3- and 4+, respectively, and that the measured 2n transfer cross sections for the two known states are 20 to 50 times as large as those expected for the 0+ and 1- states of Garrido .

  4. New extrapolation method for low-lying states of nuclei in the sd and the pf shells

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, J. J.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.; Yoshinaga, N.

    2011-04-15

    We study extrapolation approaches to evaluate energies of low-lying states for nuclei in the sd and pf shells, by sorting the diagonal matrix elements of the nuclear shell-model Hamiltonian. We introduce an extrapolation method with perturbation and apply our new method to predict both low-lying state energies and E2 transition rates between low-lying states. Our predicted results arrive at an accuracy of the root-mean-squared deviations {approx}40-60 keV for low-lying states of these nuclei.

  5. Radiative proton capture to low-lying T =0 and T =1 states in 10B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, D. R.; Datar, V. M.; Kumar, Suresh; Mirgule, E. T.; Mishra, G.; Rout, P. C.; Ghosh, C.; Nanal, V.; Joshi, S.; Kujur, R.

    2017-01-01

    Cross sections of the radiative proton capture reaction 9Be(p ,γ ) , leading to the low-lying excited states in 10B with isospin T =0 and 1, have been measured over the proton energy range of 7 to 20 MeV. For this, the method of coincidence between the primary and the secondary γ rays has been used. These γ rays are emitted following, respectively, the proton capture to an excited state and the subsequent decay of that state. A direct-semidirect capture model calculation has been performed and compared with the experimental data. The experimental results do not show a strong isospin dependence of the GDR strength function built on the low-lying states. The derived photoproton cross sections on these states and the earlier-measured photoneutron cross sections on the ground state of 10B show a large difference.

  6. Involvement of a low-lying Rydberg state in the ultrafast relaxation dynamics of ethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Champenois, Elio G.; Shivaram, Niranjan H.; Belkacem, Ali; Wright, Travis W.; Yang, Chan-Shan; Cryan, James P.

    2016-01-07

    We present a measurement of the time-resolved photoelectron kinetic energy spectrum of ethylene using 156 nm and 260 nm laser pulses. The 156 nm pulse first excites ethylene to the {sup 1}B{sub 1u} (ππ{sup ∗}) electronic state where 260 nm light photoionizes the system to probe the relaxation dynamics with sub-30 fs resolution. Recent ab initio calculations by Mori et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 2808-2818 (2012)] have predicted an ultrafast population transfer from the initially excited state to a low-lying Rydberg state during the relaxation of photoexcited ethylene. The measured photoelectron kinetic energy spectrum reveals wave packet motion on the valence state and shows indications that the low-lying π3s Rydberg state is indeed transiently populated via internal conversion following excitation to the ππ{sup ∗} state, supporting the theoretical predictions.

  7. Doppler-shift attenuation method lifetime measurements of low-lying states in 111In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucurescu, D.; Căta-Danil, I.; Ilaş, G.; Ivaşcu, M.; Mărginean, N.; Stroe, L.; Ur, C. A.

    1996-11-01

    The lifetimes of nine low-lying excited states in 111In have been measured with the Doppler-shift attenuation method in the 111Cd(p,nγ) reaction. A comparison of experimental quantities with predictions based on the interacting boson-fermion model unravels the states due to the coupling of a g9/2 proton hole to the quadrupole vibrations of the core.

  8. Shell model description of low-lying states in Po and Rn isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashiyama, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naotaka

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear structure of the Po and Rn isotopes is theoretically studied in terms of the spherical shell model with the monopole- and quadrupole-pairing plus quadrupole-quadrupole effective interaction. The experimental energy levels of low-lying states are well reproduced. The shell model results are examined in detail in a pair-truncated shell model. The analysis reveals the alignment of two protons in the 0h9/2 orbital at spin 8.

  9. Calculations of energy levels and lifetimes of low-lying states of barium and radium

    SciTech Connect

    Dzuba, V. A.; Ginges, J. S. M.

    2006-03-15

    We use the configuration-interaction method and many-body perturbation theory to perform accurate calculations of energy levels, transition amplitudes, and lifetimes of low-lying states of barium and radium. Calculations for radium are needed for the planning of measurements of parity- and time-invariance-violating effects which are strongly enhanced in this atom. Calculations for barium are used to control the accuracy of the calculations.

  10. Spectroscopy of low-lying levels in 81Br and its nuclear-structure interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, G.; Speidel, K.-H.; Kremeyer, S.; Busch, H.; Grabowy, U.; Gohla, A.; Cub, J.; Gerber, J.; Oros, A.-M.; Heyde, K.; Rikovska, J.

    1996-02-01

    Magnetic moments of low-lying levels in 81Br have been measured using Coulomb excitation of 81Br beams and the technique of transient magnetic fields with Gd as ferromagnet. In addition, lifetimes have been redetermined for several states employing the Doppler-shift attenuation method and mixing ratios of γ-transitions were deduced from angular correlations. The data are discussed in the framework of the particle-vibrator and the particle-rotor coupling models.

  11. Spectroscopic Properties and Potential Energy Curves of Low-lying electronic States of RuC

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, K; Guo, R

    2003-12-22

    The RuC molecule has been a challenging species due to the open-shell nature of Ru resulting in a large number of low-lying electronic states. We have carried out state-of-the-art calculations using the complete active space multi-configuration self-consistent field (CASSCF) followed by multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) methods that included up 18 million configurations, in conjunction with relativistic effects. We have computed 29 low-lying electronic states of RuC with different spin multiplicities and spatial symmetries with energy separations less than 38 000 cm{sup -1}. We find two very closely low-lying electronic states for RuC, viz., {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} and {sup 3}{Delta} with the {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} being stabilized at higher levels of theory. Our computed spectroscopic constants and dipole moments are in good agreement with experiment although we have reported more electronic states than those that have been observed experimentally. Our computations reveal a strongly bound X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} state with a large dipole moment and an energetically close {sup 3}{Delta} state with a smaller dipole moment. Overall our computed spectroscopic constants of the excited states with energy separations less than 18000 cm{sup -1} agree quite well with those of the corresponding observed states.

  12. Spectroscopic properties and potential energy curves of low-lying electronic states of RuC.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Balasubramanian, K

    2004-04-22

    The RuC molecule has been a challenging species due to the open-shell nature of Ru resulting in a large number of low-lying electronic states. We have carried out state-of-the-art calculations using the complete active space multiconfiguration self-consistent field followed by multireference configuration interaction methods that included up to 18 million configurations, in conjunction with relativistic effects. We have computed 29 low-lying electronic states of RuC with different spin multiplicities and spatial symmetries with energy separations less than 38,000 cm(-1). We find two very closely low-lying electronic states for RuC, viz., 1Sigma+ and 3Delta with the 1Sigma+ being stabilized at higher levels of theory. Our computed spectroscopic constants and dipole moments are in good agreement with experiment although we have reported more electronic states than those that have been observed experimentally. Our computations reveal a strongly bound 1Sigma+ state with a large dipole moment which is most likely the experimentally observed ground state and an energetically close 3Delta state with a smaller dipole moment. Overall our computed spectroscopic constants of the excited states with energy separations less than 18,000 cm(-1) agree quite well with those of the corresponding observed states.

  13. Very Broad X(4260) and the Resonance Parameters of the ψ(3D) Vector Charmonium State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beveren, Eef; Rupp, George; Segovia, J.

    2010-09-01

    We argue that the X(4260) enhancement contains a wealth of information on 1-- cc¯ spectroscopy. We discuss the shape of the X(4260) observed in the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-forbidden process e+e-→π+π-J/ψ, in particular, at and near vector charmonium resonances as well as open-charm threshold enhancements. The resulting very broad X(4260) structure does not seem to classify itself as a 1-- cc¯ resonance, but its detailed shape allows us to identify new vector charmonium states with higher statistics than in open-charm decay. Here, we estimate the resonance parameters of the ψ(3D). Our approach also provides an explanation for the odd dip in the π+π-J/ψ data precisely at the ψ(4415) resonance.

  14. Very Broad X(4260) and the Resonance Parameters of the {psi}(3D) Vector Charmonium State

    SciTech Connect

    Beveren, Eef van; Rupp, George; Segovia, J.

    2010-09-03

    We argue that the X(4260) enhancement contains a wealth of information on 1{sup --} cc spectroscopy. We discuss the shape of the X(4260) observed in the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-forbidden process e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}J/{psi}, in particular, at and near vector charmonium resonances as well as open-charm threshold enhancements. The resulting very broad X(4260) structure does not seem to classify itself as a 1{sup --} cc resonance, but its detailed shape allows us to identify new vector charmonium states with higher statistics than in open-charm decay. Here, we estimate the resonance parameters of the {psi}(3D). Our approach also provides an explanation for the odd dip in the {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}J/{psi} data precisely at the {psi}(4415) resonance.

  15. Resonance X(5568) as an exotic axial-vector state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agaev, S. S.; Azizi, K.; Barsbay, B.; Sundu, H.

    2017-01-01

    The mass and meson-current coupling constant of the resonance X(5568), as well as the width of the decay X(5568)→ Bs^{ast}π are calculated by modeling the exotic X(5568) resonance as a diquark-antidiquark state Xb=[su][bd] with quantum numbers JP=1+. The calculations are made employing QCD two-point sum rule method, where the quark, gluon and mixed vacuum condensates up to dimension eight are taken into account. The sum rule approach on the light-cone in its soft-meson approximation is used to explore the vertex XbBs^{ast}π and extract the strong coupling g_{XbBs^{ast}π}, which is a necessary ingredient to find the width of the Xb→ Bs^{ast}π+ decay process. The obtained predictions are compared with the experimental data of the D0 Collaboration, and results of other theoretical works.

  16. Vector Analysis of W-Axicon Type Optical Resonator for a Coaxial CO2 Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Naoomi; Ohtani, Nobuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Fujioka, Tomoo

    2008-09-01

    A resonator using w-axicon and axicon mirrors for a double coaxial electrode discharge CO2 laser is analyzed using the vector field, iterative reflection method. A uniform ring-shaped output mode is expected even with struts in the electrode in the multi kW scheme.

  17. Computed potential surfaces for six low-lying states of Ni3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1987-01-01

    Selected portions of the potential surfaces for six low lying states of Ni3 are the subject of the present SCF/CCI calculations using the effective core potentials developed by Hay and Wadt (1985); the four states are studied for near-equilateral triangle geometries are within 0.04 eV of each other. Two states are studied for linear geometries, of which the first is 0.16 eV higher than the corresponding near-equilateral triangle state and the second is estimated to be nearly degenerate with the near-equilateral triangle structures.

  18. STS-31 Discovery, OV-103, is hidden in low-lying clouds after KSC liftoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-31 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is hidden in low-lying cloud cover as it rises above Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B just after its liftoff at 8:33:51.0492 am (Eastern Daylight Time (EDT)). The glow of the solid rocket booster (SRB) and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) firings appears just below the cloud cover and is reflected in the nearby waterway (foreground). An exhaust plume trails from OV-103 and its SRBs and covers the launch pad area.

  19. STS-31 Discovery, OV-103, rockets through low-lying clouds after KSC liftoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-31 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, rides above the firey glow of the solid rocket boosters (SRBs) and space shuttle main engines (SSMEs) and a long trail of exhaust as it heads toward Earth orbit. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B is covered in an exhaust cloud moments after the liftoff of OV-103 at 8:33:51.0492 am (Eastern Daylight Time (EDT)). The exhaust plume pierces the low-lying clouds as OV-103 soars into the clear skies above. A nearby waterway appears in the foreground.

  20. A numerical study of the thermal stability of low-lying coronal loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Antiochos, S. K.; Mariska, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of loops that are subjected to a variety of small but finite perturbations was studied. Only the low-lying loops are considered. The analysis was performed numerically using a one-dimensional hydrodynamical model developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. The computer codes solve the time-dependent equations for mass, momentum, and energy transport. The primary interest is the active region filaments, hence a geometry appropriate to those structures was considered. The static solutions were subjected to a moderate sized perturbation and allowed to evolve. The results suggest that both hot and cool loops of the geometry considered are thermally stable against amplitude perturbations of all kinds.

  1. New blue emissive conjugated small molecules with low lying HOMO energy levels for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trupthi Devaiah, C.; Hemavathi, B.; Ahipa, T. N.

    2017-03-01

    Versatile conjugated small molecules bearing cyanopyridone core (CP1-5), composed of various donor/acceptor moieties at position - 4 and - 6 have been designed, developed and characterized. Their solvatochromic studies were conducted and analyzed using Lippert-Mataga, Kamlet-Taft and Catalan solvent scales and interesting results were obtained. The polarizability/dipolarity of the solvent greatly influenced the spectra. The electrochemical studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry to calculate the HOMO-LUMO energy levels. The study revealed that the synthesized conjugated small molecules possess low lying HOMO energy levels which can be exploited for application in various fields of optoelectronics.

  2. A New Approach to Solve the Low-lying States of the Schroedinger Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T. D.

    2005-12-01

    We review a new iterative procedure to solve the low-lying states of the Schroedinger equation, done in collaboration with Richard Friedberg. For the groundstate energy, the nth order iterative energy is bounded by a finite limit, independent of n; thereby it avoids some of the inherent difficulties faced by the usual perturbative series expansions. For a fairly large class of problems, this new procedure can be proved to give convergent iterative solutions. These convergent solutions include the long standing difficult problem of a quartic potential with either symmetric or asymmetric minima

  3. Microscopic study of low-lying collective bands in 77 Kr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, K. C.; Sahu, R.; Mishra, S.

    2006-02-01

    The structure of the collective bands in ^{77}Kr is investigated within our deformed shell model (DSM) based on Hartree-Fock states. The different levels are classified into collective bands on the basis of their B(E2) values. The calculated K= 5/2^+ ground band agrees reasonably well with the experiment. An attempt has been made to study the structure of the 3-quasiparticle band based on large J state in this nucleus. The calculated collective bands, the B(E2), and B(M1) values are compared with available experimental data. The nature of alignments in the low-lying bands is also analyzed.

  4. K* vector meson resonance dynamics in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilner, Andrej; Cabrera, Daniel; Markert, Christina; Bratkovskaya, Elena

    2017-01-01

    We study the strange vector meson (K*,K¯* ) dynamics in relativistic heavy-ion collisions based on the microscopic parton-hadron-string dynamics (PHSD) transport approach which incorporates partonic and hadronic degrees of freedom, a phase transition from hadronic to partonic matter—quark-gluon-plasma (QGP)—and a dynamical hadronization of quarks and antiquarks as well as final hadronic interactions. We investigate the role of in-medium effects on the K*,K¯* meson dynamics by employing Breit-Wigner spectral functions for the K* with self-energies obtained from a self-consistent coupled-channel G -matrix approach. Furthermore, we confront the PHSD calculations with experimental data for p +p , Cu+Cu , and Au+Au collisions at energies up to √{sN N}=200 GeV. Our analysis shows that, at relativistic energies, most of the final K* (observed experimentally) are produced during the late hadronic phase, dominantly by the K +π →K* channel, such that the fraction of the K* from the QGP is small and can hardly be reconstructed from the final observables. The influence of the in-medium effects on the K* dynamics at energies typical of the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider is rather modest due to their dominant production at low baryon densities (but high meson densities); however, it increases with decreasing beam energy. Moreover, we find that the additional cut on the invariant-mass region of the K* further influences the shape and the height of the final spectra. This imposes severe constraints on the interpretation of the experimental results.

  5. Low-Lying Structure of 50Ar and the N =32 Subshell Closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steppenbeck, D.; Takeuchi, S.; Aoi, N.; Doornenbal, P.; Matsushita, M.; Wang, H.; Utsuno, Y.; Baba, H.; Go, S.; Lee, J.; Matsui, K.; Michimasa, S.; Motobayashi, T.; Nishimura, D.; Otsuka, T.; Sakurai, H.; Shiga, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Söderström, P.-A.; Sumikama, T.; Taniuchi, R.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Yoneda, K.

    2015-06-01

    The low-lying structure of the neutron-rich nucleus 50Ar has been investigated at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory using in-beam γ -ray spectroscopy with 9Be (54Ca, 50Ar +γ )X , 9Be (55Sc, 50Ar +γ )X , and 9Be (56Ti, 50Ar +γ )X multinucleon removal reactions at ˜220 MeV /u . A γ -ray peak at 1178(18) keV is reported and assigned as the transition from the first 2+ state to the 0+ ground state. A weaker, tentative line at 1582(38) keV is suggested as the 41+→21+ transition. The experimental results are compared to large-scale shell-model calculations performed in the s d p f model space using the SDPF-MU effective interaction with modifications based on recent experimental data for exotic calcium and potassium isotopes. The modified Hamiltonian provides a satisfactory description of the new experimental results for 50Ar and, more generally, reproduces the energy systematics of low-lying states in neutron-rich Ar isotopes rather well. The shell-model calculations indicate that the N =32 subshell gap in 50Ar is similar in magnitude to those in 52Ca and 54Ti and, notably, predict an N =34 subshell closure in 52Ar that is larger than the one recently reported in 54Ca.

  6. Ozone absorption spectroscopy in search of low-lying electronic states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. M.; Mauersberger, K.

    1995-01-01

    A spectrometer capable of detecting ozone absorption features 9 orders of magnitude weaker than the Hartley band has been employed to investigate the molecule's near-infrared absorption spectrum. At this sensitivity a wealth of information on the low-lying electronically excited states often believed to play a role in atmospheric chemistry is available in the form of vibrational and rotational structure. We have analyzed these spectra using a combination of digital filtering and isotope substitution and find evidence for three electronically excited states below 1.5 eV. The lowest of these states is metastable, bound by approximately 0.1 eV and probably the (3)A2 rather than the (3)B2 state. Its adiabatic electronic energy is 1.24 +/- 0.01 eV, slightly above the dissociation energy of the ground state. Two higher states, at 1.29 +/- 0.03 and 1.48 +/- 0.03 eV are identified as the (3)B2 and the (3)B1, respectively. Combined with other recent theoretical and experimental data on the low-lying electronic states of ozone, these results imply that these are, in fact, the lowest three excited states; that is, there are no electronically excited states of ozone lying below the energy of O(3P) + O2((3)Sigma(-), v = 0). Some of the implications for atmospheric chemistry are considered.

  7. Low-lying {Lambda} baryons with spin 1/2 in two-flavor lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Toru T.; Oka, Makoto

    2010-02-01

    Low-lying {Lambda} baryons with spin 1/2 are analyzed in full (unquenched) lattice QCD. We construct 2x2 cross correlators from flavor SU(3) octet and singlet baryon operators, and diagonalize them so as to extract information of two low-lying states for each parity. The two-flavor CP-PACS gauge configurations are used, which are generated in the renormalization-group improved gauge action and the O(a)-improved quark action. Three different {beta}'s, {beta}=1.80, 1.95, and 2.10, are employed, whose corresponding lattice spacings are a=0.2150, 0.1555, and 0.1076 fm. For each cutoff, we use four hopping parameters, ({kappa}{sub val},{kappa}{sub sea}), which correspond to the pion masses ranging about from 500 MeV to 1.1 GeV. Results indicate that there are two negative-parity {Lambda} states nearly degenerate at around 1.6 GeV, while no state as low as {Lambda}(1405) is observed. By decomposing the flavor components of each state, we find that the lowest (1st-excited) negative-parity state is dominated by flavor-singlet (flavor-octet) component. We also discuss meson-baryon components of each state, which has drawn considerable attention in the context of multiquark pictures of {Lambda}(1405).

  8. Search for a vector glueball by a scan of the {ital J}/{psi} resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, J.Z.; Bardon, O.; Blum, I.; Breakstone, A.; Burnett, T.; Chen, G.P.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, J.; Chen, S.M.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y.B.; Chen, Y.Q.; Cheng, B.S.; Cowan, R.F.; Cui, X.Z.; Ding, H.L.; Du, Z.Z.; Dunwoodie, W.; Fan, X.L.; Fang, J.; Fero, M.; Gao, C.S.; Gao, M.L.; Gao, S.Q.; Gratton, P.; Gu, J.H.; Gu, S.D.; Gu, W.X.; Gu, Y.F.; Guo, Y.N.; Han, S.W.; Han, Y.; Harris, F.A.; Hatanaka, M.; He, J.; He, M.; Hitlin, D.G.; Hu, G.Y.; Hu, T.; Hu, X.Q.; Huang, D.Q.; Huang, Y.Z.; Izen, J.M.; Jia, Q.P.; Jiang, C.H.; Jin, S.; Jin, Y.; Jones, L.; Kang, S.H.; Ke, Z.J.; Kelsey, M.H.; Kim, B.K.; Kong, D.; Lai, Y.F.; Lan, H.B.; Lang, P.F.; Lankford, A.; Li, F.; Li, J.; Li, P.Q.; Li, Q.; Li, R.B.; Li, W.; Li, W.D.; Li, W.G.; Li, X.H.; Li, X.N.; Lin, S.Z.; Liu, H.M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J.H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, R.G.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.A.; Lou, X.C.; Lowery, B.; Lu, J.G.; Luo, S.Q.; Luo, Y.; Ma, A.M.; Ma, E.C.; Ma, J.M.; Mao, H.S.; Mao, Z.P.; Malchow, R.; Mandelkern, M.; Meng, X.C.; Ni, H.L.; Nie, J.; Olsen, S.L.; Oyang, J.; Paluselli, D.; Pan, L.J.; Panetta, J.; Porter, F.; Prabhakar, E.; Qi, N.D.; Que, Y.K.; Quigley, J.; Rong, G.; Schernau, M.; Schmid, B.; Schultz, J.; Shao, Y.Y.; Shen, B.W.; Shen, D.L.; Shen, H.; Shen, X.Y.; Sheng, H.Y.; Shi, H.Z.; Shi, X.R.; Smith, A.; Soderstrom, E.; Song, X.F.; Standifird, J.; Stoker, D.; Sun, F.; Sun, H.S.; Sun, S.J.; Synodinos, J.; Tan, Y.P.; Tang, S.Q.; Toki, W.; Tong, G.L.; Torrence, E.; Wang, F.; Wang, L.S.; Wang, L.Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P.L.; Wang, S.M.; Wang, T.J.; Wang, Y.Y.; Wei, C.L.; Whittaker, S.; Wilson, R.; Wisniewski, W.J.; Xi, D.M.; Xia, X.M.; Xie, P.P.; Xiong, W.J.; Xu, D.Z.; Xu, R.S.; Xu, Z.Q.; Xue, S.T.; Yamamoto, R.; Yan, J.; Yan, W.G.; Yang, C.M.; Yang, C.Y.; Yang, J.; Yang, W.; Ye, M.H.; Ye, S.W.; Ye, S.Z.; Young, K.; Yu, C.S.; Yu, C.X.; Yu, Z.Q.; Yuan, C.Z.; Zhang, B.Y.; Zhang, C.C.; Zhang, D.H.; Zhang, H.L.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.W.; Zhang, L.S.; Zhang, S.Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.Y.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhao, H.W.; Zhao, J.W.

    1996-07-01

    The cross section for {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}}{r_arrow}{rho}{pi} has been measured by the BES detector at BEPC at center-of-mass energies covering a 40 MeV interval spanning the {ital J}/{psi} resonance. The data are used to search for the vector gluonium state hypothesized by Brodsky, Lepage, and Tuan as an explanation of the {rho}{pi} puzzle in charmonium physics. The shape of the {rho}{pi} cross section is compatible with that of the total hadronic cross section. No distortions indicating the presence of a vector glueball are seen. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  9. Multichannel calculation of excited vector ϕ resonances and the ϕ(2170)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coito, Susana; Rupp, George; van Beveren, Eef

    2009-11-01

    A multichannel calculation of excited JPC=1--ϕ states is carried out within a generalization of the resonance-spectrum expansion, which may shed light on the classification of the ϕ(2170) resonance, discovered by BABAR and originally denoted X(2175). In this framework, a complete spectrum of bare ss¯ states is coupled to those Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-allowed decay channels that should be most relevant for the considered energy range. The included S- and P-wave two-meson channels comprise the lowest pseudoscalar, vector, scalar, and axial-vector mesons, while in the qq¯ sector both the S13 and D13 states are coupled. The only two free parameters are tuned so as to reproduce mass and width of the ϕ(1020), but come out reasonably close to previously used values. Among the model’s T-matrix poles, there are good candidates for observed resonances, as well as other ones that should exist according to the quark model. Besides the expected resonances as unitarized confinement states, a dynamical resonance pole is found at (2186-i246)MeV. The huge width makes its interpretation as the ϕ(2170) somewhat dubious, but further improvements of the model may change this conclusion.

  10. Spectroscopy of low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, U.; Uusitalo, J.; Auranen, K.; Badran, H.; Cederwall, B.; Cox, D. M.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; HerzáÅ, A.; Konki, J.; Leino, M.; Mallaburn, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Partanen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J.; Scholey, C.; Sorri, J.; Stolze, S.

    2015-10-01

    Low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei have been studied by means of in-beam and delayed spectroscopy. The 13/2+ state has been observed in francium nuclei with a similar down-sloping trend as in neighbouring astatine and bismuth isotopes, as a function of decreasing neutron number. A systematic trend can also now be seen for the 1/2+ state both in astatine and francium nuclei, where the level energy decreases steeply as a function of neutron number when moving further away from the neutron shell closure. This trend is very similar between astatine nuclei and their francium isotones. Moreover, shape coexistence has been observed between the 13/2+ state and the spherical 9/2- ground state in 203Fr and 205Fr.

  11. Spectroscopy of low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobsson, U. Cederwall, B.; Uusitalo, J.; Auranen, K.; Badran, H.; Cox, D. M.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Herzáň, A.; Konki, J.; Leino, M.; Mallaburn, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Partanen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J.; and others

    2015-10-15

    Low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei have been studied by means of in-beam and delayed spectroscopy. The 13/2{sup +} state has been observed in francium nuclei with a similar down-sloping trend as in neighbouring astatine and bismuth isotopes, as a function of decreasing neutron number. A systematic trend can also now be seen for the 1/2{sup +} state both in astatine and francium nuclei, where the level energy decreases steeply as a function of neutron number when moving further away from the neutron shell closure. This trend is very similar between astatine nuclei and their francium isotones. Moreover, shape coexistence has been observed between the 13/2{sup +} state and the spherical 9/2{sup −} ground state in {sup 203}Fr and {sup 205}Fr.

  12. Microscopic structure of low-lying states in {sup 188,190,192}Os

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Iudice, N.; Sushkov, A. V.

    2008-11-15

    The phonon and quasiparticle structure of the low-lying states in {sup 188,190,192}Os is investigated within the microscopic quasiparticle-phonon model. An overall agreement with the data is obtained for energies and transitions. The properties of the 0{sup +} states are found to be correlated with the evolution of the nuclear shape toward the {gamma}-soft region. Special attention is devoted at the 4{sub 3}{sup +} state. This state is found to be composed of a large double-{gamma} phonon component coexisting with an even larger one-phonon hexadecapole piece. Such a mixed phonon structure explains the observed, apparently contradictory, properties of the 4{sub 3}{sup +} states in Os isotopes.

  13. γ -ray spectroscopy of low-lying excited states and shape competition in 194Os

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, T.; Kisyov, S.; Regan, P. H.; Marginean, N.; Podolyák, Zs.; Marginean, R.; Nomura, K.; Rudigier, M.; Mihai, R.; Werner, V.; Carroll, R. J.; Gurgi, L. A.; Oprea, A.; Berry, T.; Serban, A.; Nita, C. R.; Sotty, C.; Suvaila, R.; Turturica, A.; Costache, C.; Stan, L.; Olacel, A.; Boromiza, M.; Toma, S.

    2017-02-01

    The properties of excited states in the neutron-rich nucleus 194Os have been investigated using the 192Os(18O,16O )194Os reaction with an 80 MeV beam provided by the IFIN-HH Laboratory, Bucharest. Discrete γ -ray decays from excited states have been measured using the hybrid HPGe-LaBr3(Ce ) array RoSPHERE. The current work identifies a number of previously unreported low-lying nonyrast states in 194Os as well as the first measurement of the half-life of the yrast 2+ state of 302(50) ps. This is equivalent to a B (E 2 :2+→0+) =45 (16 ) W.u. and intrinsic quadrupole deformation of βeff=0.14 (1 ) . The experimental results are compared with Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov-interacting-boson-model calculations and are consistent with a reduction in a quadrupole collectivity in Os isotopes with increasing neutron number.

  14. Low-Lying ππ* States of Heteroaromatic Molecules: A Challenge for Excited State Methods.

    PubMed

    Prlj, Antonio; Sandoval-Salinas, María Eugenia; Casanova, David; Jacquemin, Denis; Corminboeuf, Clémence

    2016-06-14

    The description of low-lying ππ* states of linear acenes by standard electronic structure methods is known to be challenging. Here, we broaden the framework of this problem by considering a set of fused heteroaromatic rings and demonstrate that standard electronic structure methods do not provide a balanced description of the two (typically) lowest singlet state (La and Lb) excitations. While the Lb state is highly sensitive to correlation effects, La suffers from the same drawbacks as charge transfer excitations. We show that the comparison between CIS/CIS(D) can serve as a diagnostic for detecting the two problematic excited states. Standard TD-DFT and even its spin-flip variant lead to inaccurate excitation energies and interstate gaps, with only a double hybrid functional performing somewhat better. The complication inherent to a balanced description of these states is so important that even CC2 and ADC(2) do not necessarily match the ADC(3) reference.

  15. Electron delocalization and aromaticity in low-lying excited states of archetypal organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Feixas, Ferran; Vandenbussche, Jelle; Bultinck, Patrick; Matito, Eduard; Solà, Miquel

    2011-12-14

    Aromaticity is a property usually linked to the ground state of stable molecules. Although it is well-known that certain excited states are unquestionably aromatic, the aromaticity of excited states remains rather unexplored. To move one step forward in the comprehension of aromaticity in excited states, in this work we analyze the electron delocalization and aromaticity of a series of low-lying excited states of cyclobutadiene, benzene, and cyclooctatetraene with different multiplicities at the CASSCF level by means of electron delocalization measures. While our results are in agreement with Baird's rule for the aromaticity of the lowest-lying triplet excited state in annulenes having 4nπ-electrons, they do not support Soncini and Fowler's generalization of Baird's rule pointing out that the lowest-lying quintet state of benzene and septet state of cyclooctatetraene are not aromatic.

  16. RDDS lifetime measurements of low-lying superdeformed states in {sup 194}Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, R.; Dewald, A.; Kruecken, R.

    1996-12-31

    The lifetimes of three low-lying states in the superdeformed (SD) yrast band of {sup 194}Hg were measured by the recoil-distance Doppler-shift method. The deduced transition quadrupole moments, Q{sub t}, equal those extracted from a DSAM measurement for the high-lying states of the band corroborate the assumption that the decay out of SD bands does not strongly affect the structure of the corresponding states. By a simple mixing-model the decay can be described assuming a very small admixture of normal-deformed (ND) states to the decaying SD states. The deduced ND mixing amplitudes for the yrast SD bands in {sup 192,194}Hg and {sup 194}Pb are presented along with average transition quadrupole moments for the lower parts of the excited SD bands.

  17. Theoretical Study of the Low-Lying States of MgN+2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maitre, Philippe; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The structure and binding energies of the low-lying states of MgN2+ have been computed at the multireference configuration interaction level of theory. The effect of Mg inner-shell correlation have been included using the core-polarization potential method. The charge-quadrupole interaction results in a linear 2Sigma+ ground state as expected. The excited states can arise from either the interaction of the 2-P state of Mg+ with N2 or from charge transfer states with Mg(sup 2+)N2- bonding character. The lowest lying excited state, 2-B2, is mixture of these two mechanisms, which results in a C2v, geometry with Mg atoms sitting at the N2 bond midpoint. The small barrier in the bending potential exists between this state and the 2-II State which is the lowest lying linear excited state.

  18. Electron-impact excitation of the low-lying electronic states of HCN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Tanaka, H.; Srivastava, S. K.; Wicke, B. G.

    1977-01-01

    The first study of the low-energy electron-impact excitation of low-lying electronic transitions in the HCN molecule is reported. Measurements were made at incident electron energies of 11.6 and 21.6 eV in the energy-loss range of 3-10 eV, and at scattering angles of 20-130 deg. Inelastic scattering spectra were placed on the absolute cross-section scale by determining first the ratio of inelastic-to-elastic scattering cross sections, and then separately measuring the absolute elastic scattering cross section. Several new electronic transitions are observed which are intrinsically overlapped in the molecule itself. Assignments of these electronic transitions are suggested. These assignments are based on present spectroscopic and cross-sections measurements, high-energy electron scattering spectra, optical absorption spectra, and ab initio molecular orbital calculations.

  19. The fate of water deposited in the low-lying northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    Many large outflow channels terminate in the low-lying northern plains. If the outflow channels formed by running water, as appears likely, then standing bodies of water must have accumulated at the ends of the channels. Most of the observed channels, and hence the bodies of water, are post-Noachian. They formed after the period for which we have the most abundant evidence of climate change. While it has been speculated that the post-Noachian period has experienced large, episodic, climatic excursions, this paper takes the more conservative view that the climatic conditions on Mars, at least from mid-Hesperian onward, were mostly similar to the climatic conditions that prevail in the present epoch. Thus obliquity variations are taken into account, but massive climate changes induced by the floods are considered so improbable that they are ignored.

  20. "No-spin" states and low-lying structures in 130Xe and 136Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, T. J.; Peters, E. E.; Chakraborty, A.; Crider, B. P.; Kumar, A.; Liu, S. H.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Yates, S. W.

    2015-05-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering on solid 130XeF2 and 136XeF2 targets was utilized to populate excited levels in 130Xe and 136Xe. When calculating nuclear matrix elements vital to the understanding of double-beta decay, it is important to have a clear understanding of the low-lying level structure of both the parent and daughter nucleus. Of particular relevance to double-beta decay searches are the assignments of 0+ states. We show here that in the case of 130Xe there are several discrepancies in the adopted level structure. We found that one previous 0+ candidate level (1590 keV) can be ruled out and assigned two additional candidates (2223 and 2242 keV). In 136Xe we question the previous assignment of a 0+ level at 2582 keV. Excitation function and angular distribution measurements were utilized to make spin and parity assignments of levels and place new transitions.

  1. Low Lying Spin Excitation in the Spin Ice Ho2Ti2O7

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlers, Georg; Mamontov, Eugene; Zamponi, Michaela M; Gardner, Jason S

    2010-01-01

    The high flux and low background of the new backscattering spectrometer at the SNS combine to produce an excellent signal to noise ratio, allowing us to investigate a low lying weak excitation never seen before in the spin ice, Ho{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. This non-dispersive excitation has been observed at E = 26.3 {mu}eV below 100 K but is resolution limited only below {approx}65 K. It is indifferent to magnetic fields below {mu}{sub 0}H = 4.5 T, at 1.6 K. These characteristics help us to identify the excitation as due to the nuclear spin system.

  2. Low-lying singlet and triplet electronic states of RhB.

    PubMed

    Borin, Antonio Carlos; Gobbo, João Paulo

    2008-05-08

    The low-lying XSigma+, a3Delta, A1Delta, b3Sigma+, B1Pi, c3Pi, C1Phi, D1Sigma+, E1Pi, d3Phi, and e3Pi electronic states of RhB have been investigated at the ab initio level, using the multistate multiconfigurational second-order perturbation (MS-CASPT2) theory, with extended atomic basis sets and inclusion of scalar relativistic effects. Among the eleven electronic states included in this work, only three (the X1Sigma+, D1Sigma+, and E1Pi states) have been investigated experimentally. Potential energy curves, spectroscopic constants, dipole moments, binding energies, and chemical bonding aspects are presented for all electronic states.

  3. Accurate MRCI calculations of the low-lying electronic states of the NCl molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ziyue; Shi, Deheng; Sun, Jinfeng; Zhu, Zunlue

    2017-03-01

    Characterization of 22 electronic states of NCl correlating to the two lowest dissociation channels are carried out using high level CASSCF/MRCI calculations with a sextuple-ζ basis set including Davidson modification, core-valence correlation correction and scalar relativistic effects. As far as we know, this radical has never been the preference of theoretical researchers and experimental investigations only concern the ground state and the two low-lying metastable states. Accurate potential energy curves, dissociation energies as well as the equilibrium constants are determined and avoided crossings between the Π symmetry are studied. Moreover, spin-orbit splitting of several states and transition probabilities and radiative lifetimes for some allowed or forbidden transitions are presented.

  4. On the low-lying states of MgO. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Lengsfield, B. H., III; Silver, D. M.; Yarkony, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    Using a double zeta plus polarization basis set of Slater orbitals, full valence MCSCF (FVMCSCF) calculations were performed for the low-lying states of MgO. For each state the FVMCSCF calculations were used to identify the important configurations which are then used in the MCSCF calculation and subsequently as references in a single and double excitation CI calculation. This approach is found to treat all states equivalently, with the maximum error in the computed transition energies and equilibrium bond lengths of 800/cm and approximately 0.03 A, respectively. The b 3 Sigma + state which has yet to be characterized experimentally is predicted to have a transition energy of approximately 8300/cm and a bond length of 1.79 A. A spectroscopic analysis of the potential curves indicates that their shapes are in quite reasonable agreement with the range of experimental results.

  5. Precision spectroscopy with COMPASS and the observation of a new iso-vector resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Stephan

    2014-06-01

    We report on the results of a novel partial-wave analysis based on 50 ṡ 106 events from the reaction π- + p → π-π-π+ + precoil at 190 GeV/c incoming beam momentum using the COMPASS spectrometer. A separated analysis in bins of m3π and four-momentum transfer t' reveals the interference of resonant and non-resonant particle production and allows their spectral separation. Besides well known resonances we observe a new iso-vector meson a1(1420) at a mass of 1420 MeV/c2 in the f0(980)π final state only, the origin of which is unclear. We have also examined the structure of the 0++ππ-isobar in the JPC = 0-+, 1++, 2-+ three pion waves. This clearly reveals the various 0++ππ-isobar components and its correlation to the decay of light mesons.

  6. Propagation of vector solitons in a quasi-resonant medium with stark deformation of quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Sazonov, S. V.; Ustinov, N. V.

    2012-11-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of a vector two-component optical pulse propagating in quasi-resonance conditions in a medium of nonsymmetric quantum objects is investigated for Stark splitting of quantum energy levels by an external electric field. We consider the case when the ordinary component of the optical pulse induces {sigma} transitions, while the extraordinary component induces the {pi} transition and shifts the frequencies of the allowed transitions due to the dynamic Stark effect. It is found that under Zakharov-Benney resonance conditions, the propagation of the optical pulse is accompanied by generation of an electromagnetic pulse in the terahertz band and is described by the vector generalization of the nonlinear Yajima-Oikawa system. It is shown that this system (as well as its formal generalization with an arbitrary number of optical components) is integrable by the inverse scattering transformation method. The corresponding Darboux transformations are found for obtaining multisoliton solutions. The influence of transverse effects on the propagation of vector solitons is investigated. The conditions under which transverse dynamics leads to self-focusing (defocusing) of solitons are determined.

  7. Low-lying electronic states of LiF molecule with inner electrons correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Ming-jie; Huang, Duo-hui; Yang, Jun-sheng; Cao, Qi-long; Jin, Cheng-guo; Wang, Fan-hou

    2015-06-01

    The potential energy curves and dipole moments of the low-lying electronic states of LiF molecule are performed by using highly accurate multi-reference configuration interaction with Awcv5z basis sets. 1s, the inner shell of Li is considered as the closed orbit, which is used to characterise the spectroscopic properties of a manifold of singlet and triplet states. 16 electronic states correlate with two lowest dissociation channels Li(2S)+F(2P) and Li(2P)+F(2P) are investigated. Spectroscopic parameters of the ground state X1Σ+ have been evaluated and critically compared with the available experimental values and the other theoretical data. However, spectroscopic parameters of 13Π, 11Δ, 11Σ-, 11Π, 13Σ+, 23Σ+, 13Δ, 13Σ-, 23Π, 21Π, 33Π, 31Π and 33Σ+ states are studied for the first time. These 13 excited states have shallow potential wells, and the dispersion coefficients of these excited states are predicted. In additional, oscillator strengths of excited states at equilibrium distances are also predicted.

  8. A theoretical study on low-lying electronic states and spectroscopic properties of PH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yufeng; Gao, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The low-lying electronic states (X3∑-, a1Δ, b1Σ+, A3Π, c1Π and 5∑-) of the PH species correlating with the first three dissociation channels have been investigated at the MRCI + Q/aug-cc-PV5Z level of theory. Accurate adiabatic potential energy curves and spectroscopic constants (Te, Re, ωeχe, ωe, Be, De) of these electronic states have been reported. Effect of the spin-orbit coupling on the A3Π and 5∑- states of the PH has been calculated, which lead to the spin-orbit-induced predissociation of the A3Π state. Electronic transition moment, Einstein coefficients and Franck-Condon factors for the A3Π - X3∑- system have been calculated. Dipole moment functions (μe) and radiative lifetime (τv‧) for the A3Π state has also been determined. The radiative lifetime for A3Π - X3∑- transition is computed and compared with the available data.

  9. Numerical simulation of a low-lying barrier island's morphological response to Hurricane Katrina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindemer, C.A.; Plant, N.G.; Puleo, J.A.; Thompson, D.M.; Wamsley, T.V.

    2010-01-01

    Tropical cyclones that enter or form in the Gulf of Mexico generate storm surge and large waves that impact low-lying coastlines along the Gulf Coast. The Chandeleur Islands, located 161. km east of New Orleans, Louisiana, have endured numerous hurricanes that have passed nearby. Hurricane Katrina (landfall near Waveland MS, 29 Aug 2005) caused dramatic changes to the island elevation and shape. In this paper the predictability of hurricane-induced barrier island erosion and accretion is evaluated using a coupled hydrodynamic and morphodynamic model known as XBeach. Pre- and post-storm island topography was surveyed with an airborne lidar system. Numerical simulations utilized realistic surge and wave conditions determined from larger-scale hydrodynamic models. Simulations included model sensitivity tests with varying grid size and temporal resolutions. Model-predicted bathymetry/topography and post-storm survey data both showed similar patterns of island erosion, such as increased dissection by channels. However, the model under predicted the magnitude of erosion. Potential causes for under prediction include (1) errors in the initial conditions (the initial bathymetry/topography was measured three years prior to Katrina), (2) errors in the forcing conditions (a result of our omission of storms prior to Katrina and/or errors in Katrina storm conditions), and/or (3) physical processes that were omitted from the model (e.g., inclusion of sediment variations and bio-physical processes). ?? 2010.

  10. Pauli blocking in the low-lying, low-spin states of {sup 141}Pr

    SciTech Connect

    Scheck, M.; Choudry, S. N.; Elhami, E.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Orce, J. N.; Yates, S. W.

    2008-09-15

    The low-lying, low-spin levels of {sup 141}Pr were investigated using (n,n{sup '}{gamma}) techniques. Level energies, branching ratios, and tentative spin assignments for more than 100 states, linked by nearly 300 transitions, were obtained from two angular distributions (E{sub n}=2.0 and 3.0 MeV) and an excitation function measurement (E{sub n}=1.5-3.2 MeV). The application of the Doppler-shift attenuation method led to the determination of lifetimes. The obtained spectroscopic data provide insight into the wave functions of the states observed. A detailed analysis of the [2{sub 1}{sup +} x d{sub 5/2}] and [2{sub 1}{sup +} x g{sub 7/2}] multiplets provides the first quantitative evidence for Pauli blocking in a spherical odd-mass nucleus. The unpaired particle is used to probe the microscopic structure of the first 2{sup +} state of the adjacent core nuclei {sup 140}Ce and {sup 142}Nd.

  11. Low-lying electronic states of CuN calculated by MRCI method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shu-Dong; Liu, Chao

    2016-10-01

    The high accuracy ab initio calculation method of multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) is used to compute the low-lying eight electronic states of CuN. The potential energy curves (PECs) of the X3Σ-, 13Π, 23Σ-, 13Δ, 11Δ, 11Σ-, 11Π, and 5Σ- in a range of R = 0.1 nm-0.5 nm are obtained and they are goodly asymptotes to the Cu(2Sg) + N(4Su) and Cu(2Sg) + N(2Du) dissociation limits. All the possible vibrational levels, rotational constants, and spectral constants for the six bound states of X3Σ-, 13Π, 23Σ-, 11Δ, 11Σ-, and 11Π are obtained by solving the radial Schrödinger equation of nuclear motion with the Le Roy provided Level8.0 program. Also the transition dipole moments from the ground state X3Σ- to the excited states 13Π and 23Σ- are calculated and the result indicates that the 23Σ--X3Σ- transition has a much higher transition dipole moment than the 13Π-X3Σ- transition even though the 13Π state is much lower in energy than the 23Σ- state.

  12. Properties of the low-lying electronic states of phenanthrene: Exact PPP results

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, A.; Ramasesha, S.

    1996-10-05

    The authors report properties of the exact low-lying states of phenanthrene, its anion and dianion within the Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) model. The experimentally known singlet states of the neutral molecule are well reproduced by the model. The intensities for one and two photon absorption to various single states are also in good agreement with experiment. From the bond orders of these states, the authors predict the equilibrium geometries. The relaxation energies of these states, computed from charge-charge correlations and bond orders, are presented. The authors also present results of ring current calculations in the singlet ground state of phenanthrene. The authors have also reported energies, spin densities, bond orders, and relaxation energies of several triplet states and compared then with experiments as well as with other calculations, where available. The fine structure constants D and E, computed in the lowest triplet state, compare well with those obtained from experiments. These properties are also presented for the anions and the dianions. The PPP model in these cases predicts a low-energy (< 1 eV) dipole excitation. 31 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Potential energy curves for the ground and low-lying excited states of CuAg

    SciTech Connect

    Alizadeh, Davood; Shayesteh, Alireza E-mail: ashayesteh@ut.ac.ir; Jamshidi, Zahra E-mail: ashayesteh@ut.ac.ir

    2014-10-21

    The ground and low-lying excited states of heteronuclear diatomic CuAg are examined by multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) method. Relativistic effects were treated and probed in two steps. Scalar terms were considered using the spin-free DKH Hamiltonian as a priori and spin-orbit coupling was calculated perturbatively via the spin-orbit terms of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian based on MRCI wavefunctions. Potential energy curves of the spin-free states and their corresponding Ω components correlating with the separated atom limits {sup 2}S(Cu) + {sup 2}S(Ag) and {sup 2}D(Cu) + {sup 2}S(Ag) are obtained. The results are in fine agreement with the experimental measurements and tentative conclusions for the ion-pair B0{sup +} state are confirmed by our theoretical calculations. Illustrative results are presented to reveal the relative importance and magnitude of the scalar and spin-orbit effects on the spectroscopic properties of this molecule. Time dependent density functional theory calculations, using the LDA, BLYP, B3LYP, and SAOP functionals have been carried out for CuAg and the accuracy of TD-DFT has been compared with ab initio results.

  14. Impulsive thermal x-ray emission from a low-lying coronal loop

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Siming; Li, Youping; Fletcher, Lyndsay

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the relationship among different emission components plays an essential role in the study of particle acceleration and energy conversion in solar flares. In flares where gradual and impulsive emission components can be readily identified, the impulsive emission has been attributed to non-thermal particles. We carry out detailed analysis of Hα and X-ray observations of a GOES class B microflare loop on the solar disk. The impulsive hard X-ray emission, however, is found to be consistent with a hot, quasi-thermal origin, and there is little evidence of emission from chromospheric footpoints, which challenges conventional models of flares and reveals a class of microflares associated with dense loops. Hα observations indicate that the loop lies very low in the solar corona or even in the chromosphere and both emission and absorption materials evolve during the flare. The enhanced Hα emission may very well originate from the photosphere when the low-lying flare loop heats up the underlying chromosphere and reduces the corresponding Hα opacity. These observations may be compared with detailed modeling of flare loops with the internal kink instability, where the mode remains confined in space without apparent change in the global field shape, to uncover the underlying physical processes and to probe the structure of solar atmosphere.

  15. Theoretical calculation of low-lying states of NaAr and NaXe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laskowski, B. C.; Langhoff, S. R.; Stallcop, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Potential curves as well as dipole moments and linking transition moments are calculated for the ground X 2 Sigma + and low lying excited A 2 Pi, B 2 Sigma +, C 2 Sigma +, (4) 2 Sigma +, (2) 2 Pi and (1) 2 Delta states of NaAr and NaXe. Calculations are performed using a self-consistent field plus configuration-interaction procedure with the core electrons replaced by an ab initio effective core potential. The potential curves obtained are found to be considerably less repulsive than the semiempirical curves of Pascale and Vandeplanque (1974) and to agree well with existing experimental data, although the binding energies of those states having potential minima due to van der Waals interactions are underestimated. Emission bands are also calculated for the X 2 Sigma + - C 2 Sigma + excimer transitions of NaAr and NaXe using the calculated transition moments and potential curves, and shown to agree well with experiment on the short-wavelength side of the maximum.

  16. Fine and hyperfine structure in three low-lying 3S+ states of molecular hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaev, Boris; Loboda, Oleksandr; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Vahtras, Olav; Ågren, Hans

    The fine structure constant (electron spin-spin coupling) and the hyperfine structure parameters (electron-nuclear spin coupling, including spin-rotation and electron-nuclear quadrupole coupling) in the low-lying triplet states and of molecular hydrogen and deuterium are calculated using a recently developed technique with full configu-ration interaction and multiconfiguration self-consistent field wave functions. The second-order spin-orbit coupling contribution to the 3Σ+ states splitting is negligible, and the calculations therefore provide a good estimate of the zero-field splitting based only on the electron spin-spin coupling values. For the bound state a negligible zero-field splitting is found, in qualitative agreement with the e-a spectrum. The zero-field splitting parameter is considerable for the repulsive state (≃1 cm-1) and of intermediate size for the bound state. The isotropic hyperfine coupling constant is very large not only for the valence state (1580 MHz) but also for the Rydberg a and e triplet states (≃1400 MHz). The quadrupole coupling constants for the deuterium isotopes are negligible (0.04-0.07 MHz) for all studied triplet states. The electric dipole activity of the spin sublevels in the triplet-singlet transitions to the ground state is estimated by means of the quadratic response technique.

  17. Microscopic description of low-lying M1 excitations in odd-mass actinide nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabar, Emre; Yakut, Hakan; Kuliev, Ali Akbar

    2017-01-01

    A restoration method of a broken symmetry which allows self-consistent determination of the separable effective restoration forces is now adapted to odd-mass nuclei in order to restore violated rotational invariance (RI-) of the Quasiparticle Phonon Nuclear Model (QPNM) Hamiltonian. Because of the self-consistency of the method, these effective forces contain no arbitrary parameters. Within RI-QPNM, the properties of the low-lying magnetic dipole excitations in odd-mass deformed 229-233Th and 233-239U nuclei have been investigated for the first time. It has been shown that computed fragmentation of the M1 strengths below 4 MeV in these nuclei is much stronger than that in neighboring doubly even 228-232Th and 232-238U nuclei. For 235U the summed M1 strength in the energy range 1.5-2.8 MeV is in agreement with the relevant experimental data where the missing strength was extracted by means of a fluctuation analysis.

  18. Many low-lying isomers of the cationic and neutral niobium trimer and tetramer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Joseph E.; García, América; Ugalde, Jesus M.

    1999-10-01

    The experimentally interesting Nb3 and Nb4 clusters and their cations have been studied in great detail using density-functional methodology in conjunction with relativistic effective core potentials. Close attention has been paid to full optimization along the flat potential energy surfaces and numerous minima and several transition states have been characterized. The Nb3 cation is predicted to have a 3A'1 ground state with an equilibrium geometry of D3h symmetry. The ground state of the neutral is predicted to be a 2B1 state of C2v symmetry with two shorter bonds and one longer. The transition state for pseudorotation or ``peak'' atom interchange, however, lies only 0.01 kcal/mol higher in energy, implying a fluxional structure for the neutral species. The global minimum of the Nb4 cationic cluster is a C2v structure, Jahn-Teller distorted from the Td global minimum of the singlet neutral. Numerous other energetically low-lying stationary points are characterized for each species. We discuss the bonding features of these minima and relate our predictions to the existing experimental data.

  19. Process-based model predictions of hurricane induced morphodynamic change on low-lying barrier islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thompson, David M.; Elias, Edwin; Wang, Ping; Rosati, Julie D.; Roberts, Tiffany M.

    2011-01-01

    Using Delft3D, a Chandeleur Island model was constructed to examine the sediment-transport patterns and morphodynamic change caused by Hurricane Katrina and similar storm events. The model setup included a coarse Gulf of Mexico domain and a nested finer-resolution Chandeleur Island domain. The finer-resolution domain resolved morphodynamic processes driven by storms and tides. A sensitivity analysis of the simulated morphodynamic response was performed to investigate the effects of variations in surge levels. The Chandeleur morphodynamic model reproduced several important features that matched observed morphodynamic changes. A simulation of bathymetric change driven by storm surge alone (no waves) along the central portion of the Chandeleur Islands showed (1) a general landward retreat and lowering of the island chain and (2) multiple breaches that increased the degree of island dissection. The locations of many of the breaches correspond with the low-lying or narrow sections of the initial bathymetry. The major part of the morphological change occurred prior to the peak of the surge when overtopping of the islands produced a strong water-level gradient and induced significant flow velocities.

  20. CASSCF/CI calculations of low-lying states and potential energy surfaces of Au3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, K.; Liao, M. Z.

    1987-05-01

    Complete active space MCSCF (CASSCF) and second-order configuration interaction (SOCI) calculations of low-lying electronic states [2B2,2A1] of Au3 as well as the 1Σ+g state of Au2 are carried out. The bending potential energy surfaces of 2A1 and 2B2 states are also presented. A barrier is found in the potential energy surface of the 2A1 state in moving from the linear to bent structure. Two nearly-degenerate structures are found for the ground state. The 2Σ+u state arising from the linear structure with an Au-Au bond length of 2.66 Å is only 3.2 kcal/mol below the 2A1 bent state. The equilibrium geometry of the 2A1 state is an isosceles triangle with an apex angle of 54°. The Au3 cluster is found to be more stable than the gold dimer. The effect of d correlation is studied on Au2 by carrying out MRSDCI (multireference singles and doubles CI) calculations on the 1Σ+g state of Au2 which include excitations from the d orbitals.

  1. Theoretical studies of the low-lying states of ScO, ScS, VO, and VS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1986-01-01

    Bonding in the low-lying states of ScO, ScS, VO, and VS is theoretically studied. Excellent agreement is obtained with experimental spectroscopic constants for the low-lying states of ScO and VO. The results for VS and ScS show that the bonding in the oxides and sulfides is similar, but that the smaller electronegativity in S leads to a smaller ionic component in the bonding. The computed D0 of the sulfides are about 86 percent of the corresponding oxides, and the low-lying excited states are lower in the sulfides than in the corresponding oxides. The CPF method is shown to be an accurate and cost-effective method for obtaining reliable spectroscopic constants for these systems.

  2. Theoretical spectroscopic constants for the low-lying states of the oxides and sulfides of Mo and Tc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhoff, Stephen R.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Pettersson, Lars G. M.; Siegbahn, Per E. M.

    1989-01-01

    Spectroscopic results were determined for the ground and low-lying states of the oxides and sulfides of Mo and Tc, using the single-reference-based modified coupled pair functional method of Ahlrichs et al. (1985) and Chong et al. (1986) and the multireference-based state-averaged CASSCF/MRCI method. Spectroscopic constants, dipole moments, Mulliken populations, and radiative lifetimes were calculated for selected low-lying states of these molecular systems. The spectroscopy of the MoS and TcS molecules was found to be quite analogous to the corresponding oxides.

  3. Low-lying quasibound rovibrational states of H2 16O**

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szidarovszky, Tamás; Császár, Attila G.

    2013-08-01

    A complex coordinate scaling (CCS) method is described allowing the quantum chemical computation of quasibound (also called resonance or metastable) rovibrational states of strongly bound triatomic molecules. The molecule chosen to test the method is H2 16O, for which an accurate global potential energy surface, a previous computation of a few resonance states via the complex absorbing potential (CAP) method, and some Feshbach (J = 0, where J is the quantum number characterising overall rotations of the molecule) and shape (J ≠ 0) resonances measured via a state-selective, triple-resonance technique are all available. Characterisation of the computed resonance states is performed via probability density plots based on CCS rovibrational wavefunctions. Such plots provide useful details about the physical nature of the resonance states. Based on the computations and the resonance plots, the following useful facts about the resonance states investigated are obtained: (a) Feshbach resonances are formed by accumulation of a large amount of energy in either the non-dissociative bending or symmetric streching modes, excitations by more than five quanta are not uncommon; (b) there are several resonance states with low and medium bending excitation, the latter are different from the states observed somewhat below dissociation by the same triple-resonance technique; (c) several types of dissociation bahavior can be identified, varying greatly among the states; (d) several pairs of J = 0 and J = 1 Feshbach resonance states can be identified which differ by rigid-rotor type energies; and (e) the lifetimes of the assigned J = 1 rovibrational Feshbach resonances are considerably longer than the lifetimes of their J = 0 vibrational counterparts.

  4. Vector leptoquarks and the 750 GeV diphoton resonance at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Christopher W.

    2016-06-01

    The ATLAS and CMS Collaborations recently presented evidence of a resonance decaying to pairs of photons around 750 GeV. In addition, the BaBar, Belle, and LHCb Collaborations have evidence of lepton non-universality in the semileptonic decays of B mesons. In this work, we make a first step towards a unified explanation of these anomalies. Specifically, we extend the Standard Model by including vector leptoquarks and a scalar singlet that couples linearly to pairs of the leptoquarks. We find there is parameter space that gives the correct cross section for a putative 750 GeV resonance decaying to photons that is consistent with unitarity, measurements of the properties of the 125 GeV Higgs boson, and direct searches for resonances in other channels. In addition, we also show that constraints can be derived on any Beyond the Standard Model explanation of the 750 GeV resonance where the only new particles are scalars, which are strong enough to rule out certain types of models entirely.

  5. Multichannel Calculation of D*s Vector States and the D+sJ(2632) Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beveren, Eef; Rupp, George

    2004-11-01

    We study bound states below threshold and resonances above threshold in the D0K+ and D+sη systems, using a many-coupled-channel model for nonexotic meson-meson scattering applied to states with the quantum numbers of cs¯ quark-antiquark vector mesons. We fit the ground state at 2.112GeV, whence the lowest resonances in D0K+ come out at 2.61, 2.72, 3.03, and 3.08GeV. The resonance at 2.61GeV acquires a width of about 8MeV, while its partial P wave cross section is up to 6 times larger in Dsη than in D0K+, provided a mechanism accounting for Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka forbidden decays is included. The latter finding is in agreement with the observations of the SELEX Collaboration with respect to the recently reported D+sJ(2632) resonance. Therefore, we conclude that the D+sJ(2632) is probably the first recurrence of the D*s(2112) meson.

  6. Electronic and structural properties of low-lying excited states of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Lodowski, Piotr; Jaworska, Maria; Kornobis, Karina; Andruniów, Tadeusz; Kozlowski, Pawel M

    2011-11-17

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) has been applied to explore electronically excited states of vitamin B(12) (cyanocobalamin or CNCbl). To explain why the Co-C bond in CNCbl does not undergo photodissociation under conditions of simple photon excitation, electronically excited states have been computed along the Co-C(CN) stretched coordinate. It was found that the repulsive (3)(σ(Co-C) → σ*(Co-C)) triplet state drops in energy as the Co-C(CN) bond lengthens, but it does not become dissociative. Low-lying excited states were also computed as function of two axial bond lengths. Two energy minima have been located on the S(1)/CNCbl, as well as T(1)/CNCbl, surfaces. The full geometry optimization was carried out for each minimum and electronic properties associated with each optimized structure were analyzed in details. One minimum was described as excitation having mixed ππ*/MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) character, while the second as ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) transition. Neither of them, however, can be viewed as pure MLCT or LMCT transitions since additional excitation to or from σ-bonds (SB) of N-Co-C unit have also noticeable contributions. Inclusion of solvent altered the character of one of the excitations from ππ*/MLCT/SBLCT to ππ*/LMCT/LSBCT-type, and therefore, both of them gained significant contribution from LMCT/LSBCT transition. Finally, the nature of S(1) electronic state has been comparatively analyzed in CNCbl and MeCbl cobalamins.

  7. Searching for low-lying multi-particle thresholds in lattice spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mahbub, M. Selim; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.

    2014-03-15

    We explore the Euclidean-time tails of odd-parity nucleon correlation functions in a search for the S-wave pion–nucleon scattering-state threshold contribution. The analysis is performed using 2+1 flavor 32{sup 3}×64 PACS-CS gauge configurations available via the ILDG. Correlation matrices composed with various levels of fermion source/sink smearing are used to project low-lying states. The consideration of 25,600 fermion propagators reveals the presence of more than one state in what would normally be regarded as an eigenstate-projected correlation function. This observation is in accord with the scenario where the eigenstates contain a strong mixing of single and multi-particle states but only the single particle component has a strong coupling to the interpolating field. Employing a two-exponential fit to the eigenvector-projected correlation function, we are able to confirm the presence of two eigenstates. The lower-lying eigenstate is consistent with a Nπ scattering threshold and has a relatively small coupling to the three-quark interpolating field. We discuss the impact of this small scattering-state contamination in the eigenvector projected correlation function on previous results presented in the literature. -- Highlights: • Correlation-matrix projected correlators reveal more than one state contributing. • Results are associated with strong mixing of single and multi-particle states in QCD. • A two-exponential fit confirms the presence of two QCD eigenstates. •The lower-lying eigenstate is consistent with a nucleon–pion scattering threshold. •The impact of this small contamination on the higher-lying state is examined.

  8. A theoretical study of low-lying electronic states of aminonitrene, phosphinonitrene, and phosphinocarbene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Mark R.; Kuhler, Kathleen

    1991-06-01

    The recently formulated multiconfiguration-based unitary coupled electron pair approximation (UCEPA) is compared with multireference configuration interaction (MR-CISD) calculations, including all single and double excitations, for the molecules in this study. The electronic states of the molecules in this study are not only of experimental interest, but represent a challenge to any formalism to accurately predict the energy separations of the low-lying electronic states. The equilibrium geometries and fundamental vibrational frequencies of the three lowest electronic states (i.e., 1A1, 3A`, and 1A`) of aminonitrene H2N2, and phosphinonitrene, H2PN, have been determined using a split-valence basis with polarization functions on the heavy atoms and a small complete active space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) description of the active space. Both MR-CISD and UCEPA calculations have been performed at the equilibrium structures using larger basis sets to accurately determine the relative energetics of the electronic states. The equilibrium geometries and vibrational frequencies of the two lowest electronic states (i.e., 1A' and 3A`) of phosphinocarbene, H2PCH, have been determined using a larger than double zeta basis set, augmented with polarization and diffuse functions, and a CASSCF description of the active space. Both MR-CISD and UCEPA calculations were performed on the equilibrium structures and predict that the singlet lies between 10.4 and 11.8 kcal/mol lower in energy than the triplet. The use of a generalized valence bond (GVB) reference function within UCEPA is introduced and is shown to be a useful approximation.

  9. Novel triaxial structure in low-lying states of neutron-rich nuclei around A ≈100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, J.; Yao, J. M.; Fu, Y.; Wang, Z. H.; Li, Z. P.; Long, W. H.

    2016-05-01

    Background: In recent years, the study of triaxiality in the low-lying states of atomic nuclei with transition character or shape coexistence has been of great interest. Previous studies indicate that the neutron-rich nuclei in the A ˜100 mass region with Z ˜40 ,N ˜60 serve as good grounds for examining the role of triaxiality in nuclear low-lying states. Purpose: The aim of this work is to provide a microscopic study of low-lying states for nuclei in the A ˜100 mass regions and to examine in detail the role of triaxiality in the shape-coexistence phenomena and the variation of shape with the isospin and spin values at the beyond mean-field level. Method: The starting point of our method is a set of relativistic mean-field plus BCS wave functions generated with a constraint on triaxial deformations (β ,γ ) . The excitation energies and electric multipole transition strengths of low-lying states are calculated by solving a five-dimensional collective Hamiltonian (5DCH) with parameters determined by the mean-field wave functions. Results: The low-lying states of Mo isotopes and of N =60 isotones in the A ˜100 mass region are calculated. The results indicate that triaxiality is essential to reproduce the data of excitation energies and electric quadrupole transition strengths in low-lying states and plays an important role in the shape evolution as a function of nucleon number. However, the decrease of nuclear collectivity with the increase of angular momentum in neutron-rich Mo isotopes has not been reproduced. Conclusions: The evolution of nuclear collectivity in the low-lying states of neutron-rich nuclei in the A ˜100 mass region as a function of nucleon number is governed by the novel triaxial structure. However, the mechanism that governs the variation of nuclear shape with spin in Mo isotopes remains unclear and deserves further investigation by taking into account the effects other than the collective motions.

  10. Sea Level Rise Enhanced Halocarbon Production in Low-lying Coastal Ecosystem in the Southeastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, A. T.; Conner, W.; Williams, T.; Song, B.

    2010-12-01

    Saltwater tides bring high concentrations of chloride and bromide inland where it mixes with terrestrial humic substances from surrounding forested watersheds and ferric/ferrous ions from shallow groundwater. With all the essential precursors (i.e., chloride, bromide, and humic substances) and catalysts (ferric/ferrous ions with sunlight), low-lying coastal ecosystems could be a hotspot for halocarbon formation. Fluctuating water levels and salinity due to the tidal cycle alter both redox reactions and water chemistry, influencing the formation and fate of halocarbons. A controlled study was conducted to confirm the abiotic formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) by the photo-Fenton reaction and the effects of the precursors on their formation. Four THM species, including chloroform (CHCl3), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2), dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl), and bromoform (CHBr3), were examined. Sets of aqueous solutions were prepared using filtered Waccamaw River samples and synthesized NaCl / NaBr, and Fe2(SO4)3 and H2O2 solutions. Solutions were enclosed in quartz tubes and exposed for 7 days to natural sunlight. Although total THM formation increased with DOC concentration, the reactivity of C in forming THM was relatively consistent across DOC concentrations, with an average of 2.6 nmol-THM mmol-C-1. The reactivity in forming THMs through the photo-Fenton reaction was significantly lower than that in chlorinated water. Reactivity generally ranged from 3-20 mmol-THM mol-C-1. The differences in reactivity suggested that greater yield of THMs could be produced under the right reaction condition. In particular, the study showed that bromide increases the reactivity of DOC in forming THMs and enhances the formation of brominated THMs. The bromine substitution factor in the NaCl treatment ranged from 19 to 24% but increased to 43 and 46% when NaBr was added. Results suggest that increased salinity and bromide concentration in saltwater-impacted coastal ecosystems could

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging segmentation techniques using batch-type learning vector quantization algorithms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Miin-Shen; Lin, Karen Chia-Ren; Liu, Hsiu-Chih; Lirng, Jiing-Feng

    2007-02-01

    In this article, we propose batch-type learning vector quantization (LVQ) segmentation techniques for the magnetic resonance (MR) images. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation is an important technique to differentiate abnormal and normal tissues in MR image data. The proposed LVQ segmentation techniques are compared with the generalized Kohonen's competitive learning (GKCL) methods, which were proposed by Lin et al. [Magn Reson Imaging 21 (2003) 863-870]. Three MRI data sets of real cases are used in this article. The first case is from a 2-year-old girl who was diagnosed with retinoblastoma in her left eye. The second case is from a 55-year-old woman who developed complete left side oculomotor palsy immediately after a motor vehicle accident. The third case is from an 84-year-old man who was diagnosed with Alzheimer disease (AD). Our comparisons are based on sensitivity of algorithm parameters, the quality of MRI segmentation with the contrast-to-noise ratio and the accuracy of the region of interest tissue. Overall, the segmentation results from batch-type LVQ algorithms present good accuracy and quality of the segmentation images, and also flexibility of algorithm parameters in all the comparison consequences. The results support that the proposed batch-type LVQ algorithms are better than the previous GKCL algorithms. Specifically, the proposed fuzzy-soft LVQ algorithm works well in segmenting AD MRI data set to accurately measure the hippocampus volume in AD MR images.

  12. Resonant frequency of the silicon micro-structure of MEMS vector hydrophone in fluid-structure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guojun; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Wendong

    2015-04-01

    The MEMS vector hydrophone developed by the North University of China has advantages of high Signal to Noise Ratio, ease of array integration, etc. However, the resonance frequency of the MEMS device in the liquid is different from that in the air due to the fluid-structure interaction (FSI). Based on the theory of Fluid-Solid Coupling, a generalized distributed mass attached on the micro-structure has been found, which results in the resonance frequency of the microstructure in the liquid being lower than that in the air. Then, an FSI simulation was conducted by ANSYS software. Finally, the hydrophone was measured by using a shaking table and a vector hydrophone calibration system respectively. Results show that, due to the FSI, the resonance frequency of the MEMS devices of the bionic vector hydrophone in the liquid declines approximately 30% compared to the case in the air.

  13. The water budget of a coastal low-lying wetland area at the German Baltic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronstert, Axel; Graeff, Thomas; Selle, Benny; Salzmann, Thomas; Franck, Christian; Miegel, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    that despite low slope, sandy soils and forest vegetation, the catchment's hydrology is dominated by quick discharge components, for which the near-surface groundwater and the reaction for open water surfaces are the main cause. The seasonality of the area's discharge is characterized by the formation of quick discharge components mainly during the winter half-year, and by the retention effect of the lowland/fen. This retention is especially high in summer, when the surface and ground water levels have decreased due to high evaporation rates and the discharge out of the area may cease. The magnitude of the area's outflow thus generally depends on the catchment's water level. Due to the possible backlog of surface water caused by high water levels of the Baltic Sea, the direction of flow may reverse episodically. In the subareas between the trenches of the lowland, vertical exchange processes from precipitation and evaporation dominate. The lateral sub-surface interaction from/to the Baltic Sea is rather small due to the particular low local subsurface hydraulic conductivity and the very small hydraulic gradient. In summary, it can be said that this coastal low-lying wetland in the restoration phase shows rather heterogeneous hydrological processes and water balance. Characteristic are the high relevance of the subsurface processes and a strong seasonal variation, i.e. very low discharge rates in summer (except for summer convective rain storms) and considerable discharge rates in winter. The anthropogenic interventions in those coastal areas during the last two centuries have changed their water balance exceedingly. The interaction with the Baltic Sea via groundwater exchange under the dunes is very small.

  14. Low-lying excited states in armchair polyacene within Pariser-Parr-Pople model: A density matrix renormalization group study

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Mousumi

    2014-03-28

    We studied the nature of the ground state and low-lying excited states of armchair polyacene oligomers (Polyphenanthrene) within long-range Pariser-Parr-Pople model Hamiltonian with up to 14 monomers using symmetrized density matrix renormalization group technique. The ground state of all armchair polyacenes studied is found to be singlet. The results show that lowest singlet dipole allowed excited state has higher energy for armchair polyacenes as compared to linear fused polyacenes. Moreover, unlike linear fused polyacenes, the lowest singlet excited state of these oligomers is always found to lie below the lowest dipole forbidden two-photon state indicating that these armchair polyacene oligomers strongly fluoresce. The calculations of low-lying excitations on singly and triply electron doped armchair polyacene oligomers show a low energy band with strong transition dipole moment that coupled to charge conductivity. This implies armchair polyacene posses novel field-effect transistor properties.

  15. Theoretical spectroscopic parameters for the low-lying states of the second-row transition metal hydrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhoff, Stephen R.; Pettersson, Lars G. M.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry

    1987-01-01

    A systematic analysis of the low-lying states of all of the second-row transition metal (TM) hydrides except CdH is reported. The calculations included the dominant relativistic contributions through the use of the relativistic effective core potentials of Hay and Wadt (1985). Electron correlation was incorporated, using single-plus-double configuration interaction, the coupled pair functional (CPF) formalism of Ahlrichs et al. (1985), and the Chong and Langhoff (1986) modified version of the CPF method. The spectroscopic parameters D(e), r(e), and mu(e) determined for the low-lying states are compared with the available experimental data and previous theoretical results. In contrast to the first-row TM hydrides studied earlier (Chong et al., 1986), the spectroscopic constants for the second-row TM hydrides were found to be much less sensitive to the level of correlation treatment.

  16. Impact of the electron environment on the lifetime of the {sup 229}Th{sup m} low-lying isomer

    SciTech Connect

    Karpeshin, F. F.; Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.

    2007-11-15

    The question of the lifetime of the {sup 229}Th{sup m} low-lying isomer is considered in light of current experimental research. A strong effect of the electron shell on lifetime is demonstrated, depending on the energy of the isomer. Calculations are performed within the framework of the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method. The calculated lifetime ranges from around 1 min down to 10{sup -5} s. Prospects for further experimental research of the isomer are discussed.

  17. Note: Vector network analyzer-ferromagnetic resonance spectrometer using high Q-factor cavity.

    PubMed

    Lo, C K; Lai, W C; Cheng, J C

    2011-08-01

    A ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectrometer whose main components consist of an X-band resonator and a vector network analyzer (VNA) was developed. This spectrometer takes advantage of a high Q-factor (9600) cavity and state-of-the-art VNA. Accordingly, field modulation lock-in technique for signal to noise ratio (SNR) enhancement is no longer necessary, and FMR absorption can therefore be extracted directly. Its derivative for the ascertainment of full width at half maximum height of FMR peak can be found by taking the differentiation of original data. This system was characterized with different thicknesses of permalloy (Py) films and its multilayer, and found that the SNR of 5 nm Py on glass was better than 50, and did not have significant reduction even at low microwave excitation power (-20 dBm), and at low Q-factor (3000). The FMR other than X-band can also be examined in the same manner by using a suitable band cavity within the frequency range of VNA.

  18. Note: Vector network analyzer-ferromagnetic resonance spectrometer using high Q-factor cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, C. K.; Lai, W. C.; Cheng, J. C.

    2011-08-01

    A ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectrometer whose main components consist of an X-band resonator and a vector network analyzer (VNA) was developed. This spectrometer takes advantage of a high Q-factor (9600) cavity and state-of-the-art VNA. Accordingly, field modulation lock-in technique for signal to noise ratio (SNR) enhancement is no longer necessary, and FMR absorption can therefore be extracted directly. Its derivative for the ascertainment of full width at half maximum height of FMR peak can be found by taking the differentiation of original data. This system was characterized with different thicknesses of permalloy (Py) films and its multilayer, and found that the SNR of 5 nm Py on glass was better than 50, and did not have significant reduction even at low microwave excitation power (-20 dBm), and at low Q-factor (3000). The FMR other than X-band can also be examined in the same manner by using a suitable band cavity within the frequency range of VNA.

  19. Hybrid RGSA and Support Vector Machine Framework for Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Brain Tumor Classification

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh Sharma, R.; Marikkannu, P.

    2015-01-01

    A novel hybrid approach for the identification of brain regions using magnetic resonance images accountable for brain tumor is presented in this paper. Classification of medical images is substantial in both clinical and research areas. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality outperforms towards diagnosing brain abnormalities like brain tumor, multiple sclerosis, hemorrhage, and many more. The primary objective of this work is to propose a three-dimensional (3D) novel brain tumor classification model using MRI images with both micro- and macroscale textures designed to differentiate the MRI of brain under two classes of lesion, benign and malignant. The design approach was initially preprocessed using 3D Gaussian filter. Based on VOI (volume of interest) of the image, features were extracted using 3D volumetric Square Centroid Lines Gray Level Distribution Method (SCLGM) along with 3D run length and cooccurrence matrix. The optimal features are selected using the proposed refined gravitational search algorithm (RGSA). Support vector machines, over backpropagation network, and k-nearest neighbor are used to evaluate the goodness of classifier approach. The preliminary evaluation of the system is performed using 320 real-time brain MRI images. The system is trained and tested by using a leave-one-case-out method. The performance of the classifier is tested using the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.986 (±002). The experimental results demonstrate the systematic and efficient feature extraction and feature selection algorithm to the performance of state-of-the-art feature classification methods. PMID:26509188

  20. Low-Lying Isomers of the B9- Boron Cluster: The Planar Molecular Wheel Versus Three-Dimensional Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Li-Li; Li, Jun; Wang, Lai S.

    2008-07-14

    The B9- cluster was found previously to be an unprecedented molecular wheel containing an octacoordinate planar boron with D8h symmetry in a combined photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and theoretical study [H. J. Zhai et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 6004 (2003)]. However, the PES spectra of B9- exhibit minor features that cannot be explained by the global minimum D8h structure, suggesting possible contributions from low-lying isomers at finite temperatures. Here we present Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics with simulated annealing simulations to fully explore the potential energy surface of B9- and search for low-lying isomers that may account for the minor PES features. We performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations with different exchange-correlation functionals and ab initio calculations at various levels of theory with different basis sets. Two three-dimensional low-lying isomers were found, both of Cs symmetry, 6.29 (Cs-2) and 10.23 (Cs-1) kcal/mol higher in energy than the D8h structure at the highest CCSD(T) level of theory. Calculated detachment transitions from the Cs-2 isomer are in excellent agreement with the minor features observed in the PES spectra of B9-. The B9- cluster proves to be a challenge for most DFT methods and the calculated relative energies strongly depend on the exchange-correlation functionals, providing an excellent example for evaluating the accuracies of various DFT methods.

  1. Simultaneous description of low-lying positive and negative parity states in spd, sdf and spdf interacting boson model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Majarshin, A. Jalili; Fouladi, N.

    2016-11-01

    In order to investigate negative parity states, it is necessary to consider negative parity-bosons additionally to the usual s- and d-bosons. The dipole and octupole degrees of freedom are essential to describe the observed low-lying collective states with negative parity. An extended interacting boson model (IBM) that describes pairing interactions among s, p, d and f-boson based on affine SU(1, 1) Lie algebra in the quantum phase transition (QPT) field, such as spd-IBM, sdf-IBM and spdf-IBM, is composed based on algebraic structure. In this paper, a solvable extended transitional Hamiltonian based on affine SU(1, 1) Lie algebra is proposed to describe low-lying positive and negative parity states between the spherical and deformed gamma-unstable shape. Three model of new algebraic solution for even-even nuclei are introduced. Numerical extraction to low-lying energy levels and transition rates within the control parameters of this evaluated Hamiltonian are presented for various N values. We reproduced the positive and negative parity states and our calculations suggest that the results of spdf-IBM are better than spd-IBM and sdf-IBM in this literature. By reproducing the experimental results, the method based on signature of the phase transition such as level crossing in the lowest excited states is used to provide a better description of Ru isotopes in this transitional region.

  2. Stabilization calculations of the low-lying temporary anions states of Be, Mg, and Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcetta, Michael F.; Reilly, Nathan D.; Jordan, Kenneth D.

    2017-01-01

    The stabilization method is used in conjunction with the equation-of-motion electron-attachment coupled-cluster method to calculate the complex energies of the 2P temporary anion states of Be and Mg as well as of the 2D temporary anions states of Mg and Ca. The calculated resonance parameters for the 2P state of Mg- and 2D state of Ca- agree well with experiment. Experimental results are not available for the 2P anion of Be, but we note that our calculated resonance parameters of 2P Be-, while in good agreement with the CI results of McNutt and McCurdy (1983), differ significantly from the results of two other recent theoretical studies.

  3. On the ground and some low-lying excited states of ScB: A multiconfigurational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Černušák, Ivan; Dallos, Michal; Lischka, Hans; Müller, Thomas; Uhlár, Milan

    2007-06-01

    The electronic structure of a series of low-lying excited triplet and quintet states of scandium boride (ScB) was examined using multireference configuration interaction (including Davidson's correction for quadruple excitations) and single-reference coupled cluster (CC) methods with averaged natural orbital (ANO) basis sets. The CC approach was used only for the lowest quintet state. The authors have analyzed eight low-lying triplets Σ-3(2), Σ+3, Π3(3), and Δ3(2) dissociating to Sc(D2)/B(P2) atoms and eight low-lying quintet states Σ-5, Σ+5, Π5(2), Φ5, and Δ5(3) dissociating to Sc(F4)/B(P2) atoms. They report the potential energy curves and spectroscopic parameters of ScB obtained with the multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) technique including all singly and doubly excited configurations obtained with the ANO-S basis set. For the two lowest states they obtained also improved ANO-L spectroscopic constants, dipole and quadrupole moments as well as scalar relativistic effects based on the Douglas-Kroll-Hess Hamiltonian. They provide the analysis of the bonding based on Mulliken populations and occupation numbers. Since the two lowest states, Σ-3 and Σ-5, lie energetically very close, their principal goal was to resolve the nature of the ground state of ScB. Their nonrelativistic MRCI(Q) (including Davidson correction) results indicate that the quintet is more stable than the triplet by about 800cm-1. Inclusion of scalar relativistic effects reduces this difference to about 240cm-1. The dissociation energies for Σ-5 ScB range from 3.20to3.30eV while those for the Σ-3 range from 1.70to1.80eV.

  4. Spin (1/2){sup +}, spin (3/2){sup +}, and transition magnetic moments of low lying and charmed baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Neetika; Dahiya, Harleen; Chatley, P. K.; Gupta, Manmohan

    2010-04-01

    Magnetic moments of the low lying and charmed spin (1/2){sup +} and spin (3/2){sup +} baryons have been calculated in the SU(4) chiral constituent quark model ({chi}CQM) by including the contribution from cc fluctuations. Explicit calculations have been carried out for the contribution coming from the valence quarks, ''quark sea'' polarizations and their orbital angular momentum. The implications of such a model have also been studied for magnetic moments of the low lying spin (3/2){sup +{yields}}(1/2){sup +} and (1/2){sup +{yields}}(1/2){sup +} transitions as well as the transitions involving charmed baryons. The predictions of {chi}CQM not only give a satisfactory fit for the baryons where experimental data is available but also show improvement over the other models. In particular, for the case of {mu}(p), {mu}({Sigma}{sup +}), {mu}({Xi}{sup 0}), {mu}({Lambda}), Coleman-Glashow sum rule for the low lying spin (1/2){sup +} baryons and {mu}({Delta}{sup +}), {mu}({Omega}{sup -}) for the low lying spin (3/2){sup +} baryons, we are able to achieve an excellent agreement with data. For the spin (1/2){sup +} and spin (3/2){sup +} charmed baryon magnetic moments, our results are consistent with the predictions of the QCD sum rules, light cone sum rules and spectral sum rules. For the cases where light quarks dominate in the valence structure, the sea and orbital contributions are found to be fairly significant however, they cancel in the right direction to give the correct magnitude of the total magnetic moment. On the other hand, when there is an excess of heavy quarks, the contribution of the quark sea is almost negligible, for example, {mu}({Omega}{sub c}{sup 0}), {mu}({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}), {mu}({Xi}{sub c}{sup +}), {mu}({Xi}{sub c}{sup 0}), {mu}({Omega}{sub cc}{sup +}), {mu}({Omega}{sup -}), {mu}({Omega}{sub c}*{sup 0}), {mu}({Omega}{sub cc}*{sup +}), and {mu}({Omega}{sub ccc}*{sup ++}). The effects of configuration mixing and quark masses have also been

  5. Low-lying isomeric state in {sup 80}Ga from the {beta}{sup -} decay of {sup 80}Zn

    SciTech Connect

    LicA, R.; Marginean, N.; Ghita, D.G.; and others

    2012-10-20

    A new level scheme was constructed for {sup 80}Ga which is significantly different from the one previously reported. The excitation energy of a new low-lying state recently reported in [2] was identified at 22.4 keV. Properties of the level scheme suggest that the ground state has spin J = 6 and the first excited state has spin J = 3. The spin assignments are in agreement with laser spectroscopy values previously measured. Our work provides the first evidence for the J = 6 being the ground state.

  6. Primary transitions between the yrast superdeformed band and low-lying normal deformed states in {sup 194}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Hauschild, K.; Bernstein, L.A.; Becker, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    The observation of one-step `primary` gamma-ray transitions directly linking the superdeformed (SD) states to the normal deformed (ND) low-lying states of known excitation energies (E{sub x}), spins and parities (J{sup {pi}}) is crucial to determining the E{sub x} and J{sup {pi}} of the SD states. With this knowledge one can begin to address some of the outstanding problems associated with SD nuclei, such as the identical band issue, and one can also place more stringent restrictions on theoretical calculations which predict SD states and their properties. Brinkman, et al., used the early implementation of the GAMMASPHERE spectrometer array (32 detectors) and proposed a single, candidate {gamma} ray linking the {sup 194}Pb yrast SD band to the low-lying ND states in {sup 194}Pb. Using 55 detectors in the GAMMASPHERE array Khoo, et al., observed multiple links between the yrast SD band in {sup 194}Hg and the low-lying level scheme and conclusively determined E{sub x} and J of the yrast SD states. Here the authors report on an experiment in which Gammasphere with 88 detectors was used and the E{sub x} and J{sup {pi}} values of the yrast SD states in {sup 194}Pb were uniquely determined. Twelve one-step linking transitions between the yrast SD band and low-lying states in {sup 194}Pb have been identified, including the transition proposed by Brinkman. These transitions have been placed in the level scheme of {sup 194}Pb using coincidence relationships and agreements between the energies of the primary transitions and the energy differences in level spacings. Furthermore, measurements of angular asymmetries have yielded the multipolarities of the primaries which have allowed J{sup {pi}} assignments of the {sup 194}Pb SD states to be unambiguously determined for the first time without a priori assumptions about the character of SD bands. A study performed in parallel to this work using the EUROGAM-II array reports similar, but somewhat less extensive, results.

  7. On the low-lying states of WO - A comparison with CrO and MoO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelin, C. J.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The four low-lying states of WO were investigated and compared with similar states of CrO and MoO. For all these systems the ground state is 5 Pi, but the ordering of the upper states is different between WO and either CrO or MoO. The difference in the state ordering arises in part from the fact that in WO all of the states are formed from W(+) in a d4S1 configuration, whereas in both CrO and MoO some states are formed from the d5 configuration and others from the d4S1 configuration.

  8. Strong Electron-Phonon Coupling Superconductivity Induced by a Low-Lying Phonon in IrGe

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Daigorou; Ali, Mazhar N.; Cava, Robert J.

    2014-02-26

    The physical properties of the previously reported superconductor IrGe and the Rh1-xIrxGe solid solution are investigated. IrGe has an exceptionally high superconducting transition temperature (Tc=4.7 K) among the isostructural 1:1 late-metal germanides MGe (M=Rh, Pd, Ir, and Pt). Specific-heat measurements reveal that IrGe has an anomalously low Debye temperature, originating from a low-lying phonon, compared to the other MGe phases. A large jump at Tc in the specific-heat data clearly indicates that IrGe is a strong coupling superconductor. In the Rh1-xIrxGe solid solution, a relationship between an anomalous change in lattice constants and the Debye temperature is observed. We conclude that the unusually high Tc for IrGe is likely due to strong electron–phonon coupling derived from the presence of a low-lying phonon.

  9. An investigation into low-lying electronic states of HCS{sub 2} via threshold photoelectron imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Zhengbo; Cong, Ran; Liu, Zhiling; Xie, Hua; Tang, Zichao E-mail: fanhj@dicp.ac.cn; Fan, Hongjun E-mail: fanhj@dicp.ac.cn

    2014-06-07

    Low-energy photoelectron imaging spectra of HCS{sub 2}{sup −} are reported for the first time. Vibrationally resolved photodetachment transitions from the ground state of HCS{sub 2}{sup −} to the ground state and low-lying excited states of HCS{sub 2} are observed. Combined with the ab intio calculations and Franck-Condon simulations, well-resolved vibrational spectra demonstrate definitive evidence for the resolution of the ground-state and excited states of HCS{sub 2} radical in the gaseous phase. The ground state and two low-lying excited states of HCS{sub 2} radical are assigned as {sup 2}B{sub 2}, {sup 2}A{sub 2}, and {sup 2}A{sub 1} states, respectively. The adiabatic electron affinity is determined to be 2.910 ± 0.007 eV. And the term energies of the excited states, T{sub 0} = 0.451 ± 0.009 eV and 0.553 ± 0.009 eV, are directly measured from the experimental data, respectively. Angular filtering photoelectron spectra are carried out to assist in the spectral band assignment.

  10. Potential energy curves and lifetimes of low-lying excited electronic states of CSe studied by configuration interaction method.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Sun, Erping; Jin, Mingxing; Xu, Haifeng; Yan, Bing

    2014-04-10

    In this work, we performed a high level ab initio study on the low-lying electronic states of CSe, utilizing MRCI+Q (the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction, and Davidson's correction) method with scalar relativistic and spin-orbit coupling effects taken into account. The potential energy curves of 18 Λ-S states associated with the lowest dissociation limit of CSe molecule, as well as those of 50 Ω states generated from the Λ-S states were computed. The spectroscopic parameters of bound states were evaluated, which agree well with existing theoretical and experimental results. With the aid of calculated spin-orbit matrix elements and the Λ-S compositional variation of the Ω states, the spin-orbit perturbations of low-lying states to the A(1)Π and a(3)Π states are analyzed. Finally, the transition dipole moments of A(1)Π, A'(1)Σ(+), a(3)Π0+, and a(3)Π1 to the ground X(1)Σ(+) state as well as the lifetimes of the four excited states were evaluated.

  11. Low-lying excited states and nonradiative processes of 9-methyl-2-aminopurine.

    PubMed

    Trachsel, Maria A; Lobsiger, Simon; Schär, Tobias; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2014-01-28

    The UV spectrum of the adenine analogue 9-methyl-2-aminopurine (9M-2AP) is investigated with one- and two-color resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy at 0.3 and 0.05 cm(-1) resolution in a supersonic jet. The electronic origin at 32,252 cm(-1) exhibits methyl torsional subbands that originate from the 0A1'' (l = 0) and 1E(″) (l = ±1) torsional levels. These and further torsional bands that appear up to 00 (0)+230 cm(-1) allow to fit the threefold (V3) barriers of the torsional potentials as |V3''|=50 cm(-1) in the S0 and |V3'|=126 cm(-1) in the S1 state. Using the B3LYP density functional and correlated approximate second-order coupled cluster CC2 methods, the methyl orientation is calculated to be symmetric relative to the 2AP plane in both states, with barriers of V3''=20 cm(-1) and V3'=115 cm(-1). The 00 (0) rotational band contour is 75% in-plane (a/b) polarized, characteristic for a dominantly long-axis (1)ππ(*) excitation. The residual 25% c-axis polarization may indicate coupling of the (1)ππ(*) to the close-lying (1)nπ(*) state, calculated at 4.00 and 4.01 eV with the CC2 method. However, the CC2 calculated (1)nπ oscillator strength is only 6% of that of the (1)ππ(*) transition. The (1)ππ(*) vibronic spectrum is very complex, showing about 40 bands within the lowest 500 cm(-1). The methyl torsion and the low-frequency out-of-plane ν1' and ν2' vibrations are strongly coupled in the (1)ππ(*) state. This gives rise to many torsion-vibration combination bands built on out-of-plane fundamentals, which are without precedence in the (1)ππ(*) spectrum of 9H-2-aminopurine [S. Lobsiger, R. K. Sinha, M. Trachsel, and S. Leutwyler, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 114307 (2011)]. From the Lorentzian broadening needed to fit the 00 (0) contour of 9M-2AP, the (1)ππ(*) lifetime is τ ⩾ 120 ps, reflecting a rapid nonradiative transition.

  12. Low-lying excited states and nonradiative processes of 9-methyl-2-aminopurine

    SciTech Connect

    Trachsel, Maria A.; Lobsiger, Simon; Schär, Tobias; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2014-01-28

    The UV spectrum of the adenine analogue 9-methyl-2-aminopurine (9M-2AP) is investigated with one- and two-color resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy at 0.3 and 0.05 cm{sup −1} resolution in a supersonic jet. The electronic origin at 32 252 cm{sup −1} exhibits methyl torsional subbands that originate from the 0A{sub 1}{sup ′′} (l = 0) and 1E{sup ″} (l = ±1) torsional levels. These and further torsional bands that appear up to 0{sub 0}{sup 0}+230 cm{sup −1} allow to fit the threefold (V{sub 3}) barriers of the torsional potentials as |V{sub 3}{sup ′′}|=50 cm{sup −1} in the S{sub 0} and |V{sub 3}{sup ′}|=126 cm{sup −1} in the S{sub 1} state. Using the B3LYP density functional and correlated approximate second-order coupled cluster CC2 methods, the methyl orientation is calculated to be symmetric relative to the 2AP plane in both states, with barriers of V{sub 3}{sup ′′}=20 cm{sup −1} and V{sub 3}{sup ′}=115 cm{sup −1}. The 0{sub 0}{sup 0} rotational band contour is 75% in-plane (a/b) polarized, characteristic for a dominantly long-axis {sup 1}ππ{sup *} excitation. The residual 25% c-axis polarization may indicate coupling of the {sup 1}ππ{sup *} to the close-lying {sup 1}nπ{sup *} state, calculated at 4.00 and 4.01 eV with the CC2 method. However, the CC2 calculated {sup 1}nπ oscillator strength is only 6% of that of the {sup 1}ππ{sup *} transition. The {sup 1}ππ{sup *} vibronic spectrum is very complex, showing about 40 bands within the lowest 500 cm{sup −1}. The methyl torsion and the low-frequency out-of-plane ν{sub 1}{sup ′} and ν{sub 2}{sup ′} vibrations are strongly coupled in the {sup 1}ππ{sup *} state. This gives rise to many torsion-vibration combination bands built on out-of-plane fundamentals, which are without precedence in the {sup 1}ππ{sup *} spectrum of 9H-2-aminopurine [S. Lobsiger, R. K. Sinha, M. Trachsel, and S. Leutwyler, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 114307 (2011)]. From the Lorentzian

  13. Theoretical spectroscopy study of the low-lying electronic states of UX and UX+, X = F and Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bross, David H.; Peterson, Kirk A.

    2015-11-01

    Spectroscopic constants (Te, re, B0, ωe, and ωexe) have been calculated for the low-lying electronic states of UF, UF+, UCl, and UCl+ using complete active space 2nd-order perturbation theory (CASPT2), with a series of correlation consistent basis sets. The latter included those based on both pseudopotential (PP) and all-electron Douglas-Kroll-Hess Hamiltonians for the U atom. Spin orbit (SO) effects were included a posteriori using the state interacting method using both PP and Breit Pauli (BP) operators, as well as from exact two-component methods for U+ and UF+. Complete basis set (CBS) limits were obtained by extrapolation where possible and the PP and BP calculations were compared at their respective CBS limits. The PP-based method was shown to be reliable in calculating spectroscopic constants, in particular when using the state interacting method with CASPT2 energies (SO-CASPT2). The two component calculations were limited by computational resources and could not include electron correlation from the nominally closed shell 6s and 6p orbitals of U. UF and UCl were both calculated to have Ω = 9/2 ground states. The first excited state of UCl was calculated to be an Ω = 7/2 state at 78 cm-1 as opposed to the same state at 435 cm-1 in UF, and the other low-lying states of UCl showed a similar compression relative to UF. Likewise, UF+ and UCl+ both have Ω = 4 ground states and the manifold of low-lying excited Ω = 3, 2, 1, 0 states was energetically closer together in UCl+ than in UF+, ranging up to 776 cm-1 in UF+ and only 438 cm-1 in UCl+. As in previous studies, the final PP-based SO-CASPT2 results for UF+ and UF agree well with experiment and are expected to be predictive for UCl and UCl+, which are reported here for the first time.

  14. Theoretical spectroscopy study of the low-lying electronic states of UX and UX{sup +}, X = F and Cl

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, David H.; Peterson, Kirk A.

    2015-11-14

    Spectroscopic constants (T{sub e}, r{sub e}, B{sub 0}, ω{sub e}, and ω{sub e}x{sub e}) have been calculated for the low-lying electronic states of UF, UF{sup +}, UCl, and UCl{sup +} using complete active space 2nd-order perturbation theory (CASPT2), with a series of correlation consistent basis sets. The latter included those based on both pseudopotential (PP) and all-electron Douglas-Kroll-Hess Hamiltonians for the U atom. Spin orbit (SO) effects were included a posteriori using the state interacting method using both PP and Breit Pauli (BP) operators, as well as from exact two-component methods for U{sup +} and UF{sup +}. Complete basis set (CBS) limits were obtained by extrapolation where possible and the PP and BP calculations were compared at their respective CBS limits. The PP-based method was shown to be reliable in calculating spectroscopic constants, in particular when using the state interacting method with CASPT2 energies (SO-CASPT2). The two component calculations were limited by computational resources and could not include electron correlation from the nominally closed shell 6s and 6p orbitals of U. UF and UCl were both calculated to have Ω = 9/2 ground states. The first excited state of UCl was calculated to be an Ω = 7/2 state at 78 cm{sup −1} as opposed to the same state at 435 cm{sup −1} in UF, and the other low-lying states of UCl showed a similar compression relative to UF. Likewise, UF{sup +} and UCl{sup +} both have Ω = 4 ground states and the manifold of low-lying excited Ω = 3, 2, 1, 0 states was energetically closer together in UCl{sup +} than in UF{sup +}, ranging up to 776 cm{sup −1} in UF{sup +} and only 438 cm{sup −1} in UCl{sup +}. As in previous studies, the final PP-based SO-CASPT2 results for UF{sup +} and UF agree well with experiment and are expected to be predictive for UCl and UCl{sup +}, which are reported here for the first time.

  15. Theoretical spectroscopy study of the low-lying electronic states of UX and UX+, X = F and Cl

    DOE PAGES

    Bross, David H.; Peterson, Kirk A.

    2015-11-13

    Spectroscopic constants (Te, re, B0, ωe, ωexe) have been calculated for the low-lying electronic states of UF, UF+, UCl, and UCl+ using complete active space 2nd-order perturbation theory (CASPT2), with a series of correlation consistent basis sets. The latter included those based on both pseudopotential (PP) and all-electron Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DK) Hamiltonians for the U atom. Spin orbit effects were included a posteri using the state interacting method using both PP and Breit Pauli (BP) operators, as well as from exact two-component (X2C) methods for U+ and UF+. Complete basis set (CBS) limits were obtained by extrapolation where possible and themore » PP and BP calculations were compared at their respective CBS limits. The PP-based method was shown to be reliable in calculating spectroscopic constants, in particular when using the state interacting method with CASPT2 energies (SO-CASPT2). The two component calculations were limited by computational resources and could not include electron correlation from the nominally closed shell 6s and 6p orbitals of U. UF and UCl were both calculated to have Ω=9/2 ground states. The first excited state of UCl was calculated to be an Ω=7/2 state at 78 cm-1 as opposed to the same state at 435 cm-1 in UF, and the other low-lying states of UCl showed a similar compression relative to UF. Likewise UF+ and UCl+ both have Ω=4 ground states and the manifold of low-lying excited Ω = 3, 2, 1, 0 states were energetically closer together in UCl+ than in UF+, ranging up to 776 cm-1 in UF+ and only 438 cm-1 in UCl+. As in previous research, the final PP-based SO-CASPT2 results for UF+ and UF agree well with experiment, and are expected to be predictive for UCl and UCl+, which are reported here for the first time.« less

  16. Three-Dimensional Angular Momentum Projected Relativistic Point-Coupling Approach for Low-Lying Excited States in 24Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jiang-Ming; Meng, Jie; D. Pena, Arteaga; Ring, P.

    2008-10-01

    A full three-dimensional angular momentum projection on top of a triaxial relativistic mean-Geld calculation is implemented for the first time. The underlying Lagrangian is a point coupling model and pairing correlations are taken into account by a monopole force. This method is applied for the low-lying excited states in 24Mg. Good agreement with the experimental data is found for the ground state properties. A minimum in the potential energy surface for the 2+1 state, with β ≃ 0.55,γ ≃ 10°, is used as the basis to investigate the rotational energy spectrum as well as the corresponding B(E2) transition probabilities as compared to the available data.

  17. The GSAM software: A global search algorithm of minima exploration for the investigation of low lying isomers of clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Marchal, Rémi; Carbonnière, Philippe; Pouchan, Claude

    2015-01-22

    The study of atomic clusters has become an increasingly active area of research in the recent years because of the fundamental interest in studying a completely new area that can bridge the gap between atomic and solid state physics. Due to their specific properties, such compounds are of great interest in the field of nanotechnology [1,2]. Here, we would present our GSAM algorithm based on a DFT exploration of the PES to find the low lying isomers of such compounds. This algorithm includes the generation of an intial set of structure from which the most relevant are selected. Moreover, an optimization process, called raking optimization, able to discard step by step all the non physically reasonnable configurations have been implemented to reduce the computational cost of this algorithm. Structural properties of Ga{sub n}Asm clusters will be presented as an illustration of the method.

  18. Spin Tests of a Low-lying Monoplane in Flight and in the Free-spinning Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidman, Oscar; Mcavoy, William H

    1940-01-01

    Comparative full-scale and model spin tests were made with a low-lying monoplane in order to extend the available information as to the utility of the free-spinning wind tunnel as an aid in predicting full-scale spin characteristics. For a given control disposition the model indicated steeper spins than were actually obtained with the airplane, the difference being most pronounced for spins with elevators up. Recovery characteristics for the model, on the whole, agreed with those for the airplane, but a disagreement was noted for the case of recovery with elevators held full up. Free-spinning wind-tunnel tests are a useful aid in estimating spin characteristics of airplanes, but it must be appreciated that model results can give only general indications of full-scale behavior.

  19. Nuclear structure of low-lying states in 60,62,64,66Zn — A shell model description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, S.; Biswas, A.; Mukherjee, B.

    2016-11-01

    Shell model calculation has been performed for even-even 60,62,64,66Zn using NuShellX code in f5/2pg9/2 model space with two different effective Hamiltonians, viz. JUN45 and jj44b. The low-lying structure is studied up to angular momentum, I = 10ℏ by calculating level energies, reduced transition probabilities, occupation numbers, lifetimes, and quadrupole moments. The results of the calculations are compared with the available experimental data. It is observed that the inclusion of 1g9/2 orbital in the model space is essential to understand nuclear structure in these isotopes. Shell model calculation with an improved set of effective Hamiltonian parameters and inclusion of 1f7/2 orbital in the model space are necessary in order to produce finer agreement with the experimental observations.

  20. gamma-ray spectroscopic study of calcium-48,49 and scandium-50 focusing on low lying octupole vibration excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, David M.

    An inverse kinematic proton scattering experiment was performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) using the GRETINA-S800 detector system in conjunction with the Ursinus College liquid hydrogen target. gamma-ray yields from the experiment were determined using geant4 simulations, generating state population cross sections. These cross sections were used to extract the delta_3 deformation length for the low-lying octupole vibration excitations in Ca-48,49 using the coupled channels analysis code fresco. Particle-core coupling in Ca-49 was studied in comparison to Ca-48 through determination of the neutron and proton deformation lengths. The total inverse kinematic proton scattering deformation lengths were evaluated for the low-lying octupole vibration excitations in Ca-48,49 to be delta_3(Ca-48, 3. -_1) = 1.0(2)fm,delta_3(Ca-49, 9/2. +_1) = 1.2(1)fm, delta_3 (Ca-49, 9/2. +_1) = 1.5(2)fm, delta_3(Ca-49,5/2. +_1) = 1.1(1)fm. Proton and neutron deformation lengths for two of theseoctupole states were also determined to be delta_p(Ca-48, 3. -_1) = 0.9(1)fm,delta_p (Ca-49, 9/2. +_1) = 1.0(1)fm, delta_n(Ca-48, 3. -_1) = 1.1(3)fm, anddelta_n(Ca-49, 9/2. +_1) = 1.3(3)fm. Additionally, the ratios of the neutronto proton transition matrix elements were also determined for these two states to be M_n/M_p(Ca-48, 3. -_1) = 1.7(6) and M_n/M_p(Ca-49, 9/2. +_1) = 2.0(5).Statistically, the derived values for these two nuclei are nearly identical.

  1. Reduced transition strengths of low-lying yrast states in chromium isotopes in the vicinity of N =40

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunroth, Thomas; Dewald, A.; Iwasaki, H.; Lenzi, S. M.; Albers, M.; Bader, V. M.; Baugher, T.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Berryman, J. S.; Fransen, C.; Gade, A.; Ginter, T.; Gottardo, A.; Hackstein, M.; Jolie, J.; Lemasson, A.; Litzinger, J.; Lunardi, S.; Marchi, T.; Modamio, V.; Morse, C.; Napoli, D. R.; Nichols, A.; Recchia, F.; Stroberg, S. R.; Wadsworth, R.; Weisshaar, D.; Whitmore, K.; Wimmer, K.

    2015-09-01

    Background: In neutron-rich nuclei around N =40 rapid changes in nuclear structure can be observed. While 68Ni exhibits signatures of a doubly magic nucleus, experimental data along the isotopic chains in even more exotic Fe and Cr isotopes—such as excitation energies and transition strengths—suggest a sudden rise in collectivity toward N =40 . Purpose: Reduced quadrupole transition strengths for low-lying transitions in neutron-rich 58,60,62Cr are investigated. This gives quantitative new insights into the evolution of quadrupole collectivity in the neutron-rich region close to N =40 . Method: The recoil distance Doppler-shift (RDDS) technique was applied to measure lifetimes of low-lying states in 58,60,62>Cr. The experiment was carried out at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) with the SeGA array in a plunger configuration coupled to the S800 magnetic spectrograph. The states of interest were populated by means of one-proton knockout reactions. Results: Data reveal a rapid increase in quadrupole collectivity for 58,60,62>Cr toward N =40 and point to stronger quadrupole deformations compared to neighboring Fe isotopes. The experimental B (E 2 ) values are reproduced well with state-of-the-art shell-model calculations using the LNPS effective interaction. A consideration of intrinsic quadrupole moments and B42 ratios suggest an evolution toward a rotational nature of the collective structures in Cr,6260. Compared to 58Cr, experimental B42 and B62 values for 60Cr are in better agreement with the E (5 ) limit. Conclusion: Our results indicate that collective excitations in neutron-rich Cr isotopes saturate at N =38 , which is in agreement with theoretical predictions. More detailed experimental data of excited structures and interband transitions are needed for a comprehensive understanding of quadrupole collectivity close to N =40 . This calls for additional measurements in neutron-rich Cr and neighboring Ti and Fe nuclei.

  2. Dissociation potential curves of low-lying states in transition metal hydrides. 3. Hydrides of groups 6 and 7.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Shiro; Matsushita, Takeshi; Gordon, Mark S

    2006-02-23

    The dissociation curves of low-lying spin-mixed states in monohydrides of groups 6 and 7 were calculated by using an effective core potential (ECP) approach. This approach is based on the multiconfiguration self-consistent field (MCSCF) method, followed by first-order configuration interaction (FOCI) calculations, in which the method employs an ECP basis set proposed by Stevens and co-workers (SBKJC) augmented by a set of polarization functions. Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effects are estimated within the one-electron approximation by using effective nuclear charges, since SOC splittings obtained with the full Breit-Pauli Hamitonian are underestimated when ECP basis sets are used. The ground states of group 6 hydrides have Omega = (1)/(2)(X(6)Sigma(+)(1/2)), where Omega is the z component of the total angular momentum quantum number. Although the ground states of group 7 hydrides have Omega = 0(+), their main adiabatic components are different; the ground state in MnH originates from the lowest (7)Sigma(+), while in TcH and ReH the main component of the ground state is the lowest (5)Sigma(+). The present paper reports a comprehensive set of theoretical results including the dissociation energies, equilibrium distances, electronic transition energies, harmonic frequencies, anharmonicities, and rotational constants for several low-lying spin-mixed states in these hydrides. Transition dipole moments were also computed among the spin-mixed states and large peak positions of electronic transitions are suggested theoretically for these hydrides. The periodic trends of physical properties of metal hydrides are discussed, based on the results reported in this and other recent studies.

  3. Ab initio MRCI+Q study on low-lying states of CS including spin-orbit coupling.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Wei, Changli; Sun, Qixiang; Sun, Erping; Xu, Haifeng; Yan, Bing

    2013-03-21

    Carbon monosulfide (CS), which plays an important role in a variety of research fields, has long received considerable interest. Due to its transient nature and large state density, the electronic states of CS have not been well understood, especially the interactions between different states. In this paper, we performed a detail ab initio study on the low-lying electronic states of CS by means of the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction method (including Davidson correction) with scalar relativistic correction using the Douglas-Kroll-Hess Hamiltonian. We focused on the spin-orbit coupling of the states via the state interaction method with the full Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The potential energy curves (PECs) of 18 Λ-S states correlated with the lowest dissociation limit of the CS molecule were calculated, as well as those of 50 Ω states generated from the Λ-S states. The spectroscopic constants of the bound states were obtained, which are in good agreement with previous available experimental and theoretical results. The state perturbations of the a(3)Π and A(1)Π states with other low-lying electronic states are discussed in detail, based on the calculated spin-orbit matrix as well as the PECs of the Ω states. Avoided crossing in the states of CS was indicated when spin-orbit coupling was taken into account. Finally, the allowed transition dipole moments as well as the lifetimes of the five lowest vibrational states of the A(1)Π1, A'(1)Σ(+)0(+) and a(3)Πi states were obtained.

  4. Rotational Spectroscopy as a Tool to Investigate Interactions Between Vibrational Polyads in Symmetric Top Molecules: Low-Lying States v_8 ≤ 2 OF Methyl Cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Holger S. P.; Ordu, Matthias H.; Lewen, Frank; Brown, Linda; Drouin, Brian; Pearson, John; Sung, Keeyoon; Kleiner, Isabelle; Sams, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Rotational and rovibrational spectra of methyl cyanide were recorded to analyze interactions in low-lying vibrational states and to construct line lists for radio astronomical observations as well as for infrared spectroscopic investigations of planetary atmospheres. The rotational spectra cover large portions of the 36-1627~GHz region. In the infrared (IR), a spectrum was recorded for this study in the region of 2ν_8 around 717~cm-1 with assignments covering 684-765~cm-1. Additional spectra in the ν _8 region were used to validate the analysis. Using ν _8 data as well as spectroscopic parameters for v_4 = 1, v_7 = 1, and v_8 = 3 from previous studies, we analyzed rotational data involving v = 0, v_8 = 1, and v_8 = 2 up to high J and K quantum numbers. We analyzed a strong Δ v_8 = ± 1, Δ K = 0, Δ l = ±3 Fermi resonance between v_8 = 1-1 and v_8 = 2+2 at K = 14 and obtained preliminary results for two further Fermi resonances between v_8 = 2 and 3. We also found resonant Δ v_8 = ± 1, Δ K = ∓ 2, Δ l = ± 1 interactions between v_8 = 1 and 2 and present the first detailed analysis of such a resonance between v_8 = 0 and 1. We discuss the impact of this analysis on the v_8 = 1 and 2 as well as on the axial v = 0 parameters and compare selected CH_3CN parameters with those of CH_3CCH and CH_3NC. We evaluated transition dipole moments of ν _8, 2ν _8 - ν _8, and 2ν _8 for remote sensing in the IR. Part of this work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. M. Koivusaari et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc. 152 (1992) 377-388. A.-M. Tolonen et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc. 160 (1993) 554-565.

  5. A quantitative evaluation method of flood risks in low-lying areas associated with increase of heavy rainfall in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakawa, H.; Masumoto, T.

    2012-12-01

    An increase in flood risk, especially in low-lying areas, is predicted as a consequence of global climate change or other causes. Immediate measures such as strengthening of drainage capacity are needed to minimize the damage caused by more-frequent flooding. Typically, drainage pump capacities of in paddy areas are planned by using a result of drainage analysis with design rainfall (e.g. 3-day rainfall amount with a 10-year return period). However, the result depends on a hyetograph of input rainfall even if a total amount of rainfall is equal, and the flood risk may be different with rainfall patterns. Therefore, it is important to assume various patterns of heavy rainfall for flood risk assessment. On the other hand, a rainfall synthesis simulation is useful to generate many patterns of rainfall data for flood studies. We previously proposed a rainfall simulation method called diurnal rainfall pattern generator which can generate short-time step rainfall and internal pattern of them. This study discusses a quantitative evaluation method for detecting a relationship between flood damage risk and heavy rainfall scale by using the diurnal rainfall pattern generator. In addition, we also approached an estimation of flood damage which focused on rice yield. Our study area was in the Kaga three-lagoon basin in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. There are two lagoons in the study area, and the low-lying paddy areas extend over about 4,000 ha in the lower reaches of the basin. First, we developed a drainage analysis model that incorporates kinematic and diffusive runoff models for calculating water level on channels and paddies. Next, the heavy rainfall data for drainage analysis were generated. Here, the 3-day rainfalls amounts with 9 kinds of different return periods (2-, 3-, 5-, 8-, 10-, 15-, 50-, 100-, and 200-year) were derived, and three hundred hyetograph patterns were generated for each rainfall amount by using the diurnal rainfall pattern generator. Finally, all data

  6. Increasing Risks to China's Coastal Cities with Its Expansion to Low-lying Seaward under Rising Sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jing; Cheng, Xiao

    2014-05-01

    Global sea level rise has certainly accelerated through the 21st and far beyond the previous projections and will continue to rise, while the frequencies and strength of extreme events such like flood and storm will increase due to global warming. Coastal cities where always be with densely population and accumulated social wealth will be under enormous affects. Using Landsat TM/ETM+ satellite images (1990, 2010) to extract urban built-up area, 17 China's developed coastal cities, which account for only 1.2% of total land area but boast 18.3% of urban population and nearly 19.6% of GDP in 2010, are spotted a 550% increase of urban land from 1990 to 2010. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) with 90m resolution data were used to calculate average elevation of extracted urban area. Then we found that these cities are all expanding seaward, occupying the most vulnerable neighborhoods, often in low-lying areas, alongside waterways prone to flooding. 11 cities show a reducing trend of mean elevations with the total average of more than 3 meters. Particularly, Shanghai, Tianjin and Ningbo in Delta area are most serious with the mean urban elevation less than 5 meters in 2010. The rapid expansion to seawards and accumulation of population and social wealth processed in coastal cities will increase the vulnerability and exposure, which will exacerbated the existing risks of rising sea level or extreme events. Referring to Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP/OLS) city-lights data and SRTM data, we built the Urban Vulnerability Index (UVI) to do semi-quantitative assessment on vulnerabilities of coastal cities. The UVI case study in GuangZhou showed the most vulnerability region concentrated at the low-lying south area where is with the much higher relative South Sea level than other sea area of China. With relative sea level rise of 1-1.5 m by 2100 and increased frequency of extreme sea level due to cyclone propagation, and weak urban drain-off system, Chinese

  7. Nucleosynthesis of 92Nb and the relevance of the low-lying isomer at 135.5 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Background: Because of its half-life of about 35 million years, 92Nb is considered as a chronometer for nucleosynthesis events prior to the birth of our sun. The abundance of 92Nb in the early solar system can be derived from meteoritic data. It has to be compared to theoretical estimates for the production of 92Nb to determine the time between the last nucleosynthesis event before the formation of the early solar system. Purpose: The influence of a low-lying short-lived isomer on the nucleosynthesis of 92Nb is analyzed. The thermal coupling between the ground state and the isomer via so-called intermediate states affects the production and survival of 92Nb. Method: The properties of the lowest intermediate state in 92Nb are known from experiment. From the lifetime of the intermediate state and from its decay branchings, the transition rate from the ground state to the isomer and the effective half-life of 92Nb are calculated as functions of the temperature. Results: The coupling between the ground state and the isomer is strong. This leads to thermalization of ground state and isomer in the nucleosynthesis of 92Nb in any explosive production scenario and almost 100% survival of 92Nb in its ground state. However, the strong coupling leads to a temperature-dependent effective half-life of 92Nb which makes the 92Nb survival very sensitive to temperatures as low as about 8 keV, thus turning 92Nb at least partly into a thermometer. Conclusions: The low-lying isomer in 92Nb does not affect the production of 92Nb in explosive scenarios. In retrospect this validates all previous studies where the isomer was not taken into account. However, the dramatic reduction of the effective half-life at temperatures below 10 keV may affect the survival of 92Nb after its synthesis in supernovae, which are the most likely astrophysical sites for the nucleosynthesis of 92Nb.

  8. Ab initio study on the ground and low-lying excited states of cesium iodide (CsI).

    PubMed

    Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Matsuoka, Leo; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Yokoyama, Atsushi

    2008-01-14

    Potential energy curves (PECs) for the ground and low-lying excited states of the cesium iodide (CsI) molecule have been calculated using the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction calculation with single and double excitation method with the relativistic pseudopotentials. PECs for seven Lambda-S states, X 1Sigma+, 2 1Sigma+, 3Sigma+, 1Pi, and 3Pi are first calculated and then those for 13 Omega states are obtained by diagonalizing the matrix of the electronic Hamiltonian H(el) plus the effective one-electron spin-orbit (SO) Hamiltonian H(SO). Spectroscopic constants for the calculated ground X 0+-state PEC with the Davidson correction are found to agree well with the experiment. Transition dipole moments (TDMs) between X 0 and the other Omega states are also obtained and the TDM between X 0+ and A 0+ is predicted to be the largest and that between X 0+ and B 0+ is the second largest around the equilibrium internuclear distance. The TDMs between X 0+ and the Omega=1 states are estimated to be nonzero, but they are notably small as compared with those between the 0+ states. Finally, vibrational levels of the X 0+ PEC for the two isotopic analogs, (133)CsI and (135)CsI, are numerically obtained to investigate the isotope effect on the vibrational-level shift. It has been found that the maximized available isotope shift is approximately 30 cm(-1) around nu=136.

  9. Saltwater contamination in the managed low-lying farmland of the Venice coast, Italy: An assessment of vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Da Lio, Cristina; Carol, Eleonora; Kruse, Eduardo; Teatini, Pietro; Tosi, Luigi

    2015-11-15

    The original morphology and hydrogeology of many low-lying coastlands worldwide have been significantly modified over the last century through river diversion, embankment built-up, and large-scale land reclamation projects. This led to a progressive shifting of the groundwater-surficial water exchanges from naturally to anthropogenically driven. In this human-influenced hydrologic landscape, the saltwater contamination usually jeopardizes the soil productivity. In the coastland south of Venice (Italy), several well log measurements, chemical and isotope analyses have been performed over the last decade to characterize the occurrence of the salt contamination. The processing of this huge dataset highlights a permanent variously-shaped saline contamination up to 20km inland, with different conditions in relation with the various geomorphological features of the area. The results point out the important role of the land reclamation in shaping the present-day salt contamination and reveal the contribution of precipitation, river discharge, lagoon and sea water to the shallow groundwater in the various coastal sectors. Moreover, an original vulnerability map to salt contamination in relation to the farmland productivity has been developed taking into account the electrical conductivity of the upper aquifer in the worst condition, the ground elevation, and the distance from salt and fresh surface water sources. Finally, the study allows highlighting the limit of traditional investigations in monitoring saltwater contamination at the regional scale in managed Holocene coastal environments. Possible improvements are outlined.

  10. Ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of the low-lying states for the ultracold LiYb molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Tohme, Samir N.; Korek, Mahmoud E-mail: fkorek@yahoo.com; Awad, Ramadan

    2015-03-21

    Ab initio techniques have been applied to investigate the electronic structure of the LiYb molecule. The potential energy curves have been computed in the Born–Oppenheimer approximation for the ground and 29 low-lying doublet and quartet excited electronic states. Complete active space self-consistent field, multi-reference configuration interaction, and Rayleigh Schrödinger perturbation theory to second order calculations have been utilized to investigate these states. The spectroscopic constants, ω{sub e}, R{sub e}, B{sub e}, …, and the static dipole moment, μ, have been investigated by using the two different techniques of calculation with five different types of basis. The eigenvalues, E{sub v}, the rotational constant, B{sub v}, the centrifugal distortion constant, D{sub v}, and the abscissas of the turning points, R{sub min} and R{sub max}, have been calculated by using the canonical functions approach. The comparison between the values of the present work, calculated by different techniques, and those available in the literature for several electronic states shows a very good agreement. Twenty-one new electronic states have been studied here for the first time.

  11. Ultrafast electron dynamics following outer-valence ionization: The impact of low-lying relaxation satellite states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lünnemann, Siegfried; Kuleff, Alexander I.; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.

    2009-04-01

    Low-lying relaxation satellites give rise to ultrafast electron dynamics following outer-valence ionization of a molecular system. To demonstrate the impact of such satellites, the evolution of the electronic cloud after sudden removal of an electron from the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the organic unsaturated nitroso compound 2-nitroso[1,3]oxazolo[5,4-d][1,3]oxazole is traced in real time and space using ab initio methods only. Our results show that the initially created hole charge remains stationary but on top of it the system reacts by an ultrafast π-π ∗ excitation followed by a cyclic excitation-de-excitation process which leads to a redistribution of the charge. The π-π ∗ excitation following the removal of the HOMO electron takes place on a subfemtosecond time scale and the period of the excitation-de-excitation alternations is about 1.4 fs. In real space the processes of excitation and de-excitation represent ultrafast delocalization and localization of the charge. The results are analyzed by simple two- and three-state models.

  12. Operational flood control of a low-lying delta system using large time step Model Predictive Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xin; van Overloop, Peter-Jules; Negenborn, Rudy R.; van de Giesen, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The safety of low-lying deltas is threatened not only by riverine flooding but by storm-induced coastal flooding as well. For the purpose of flood control, these deltas are mostly protected in a man-made environment, where dikes, dams and other adjustable infrastructures, such as gates, barriers and pumps are widely constructed. Instead of always reinforcing and heightening these structures, it is worth considering making the most of the existing infrastructure to reduce the damage and manage the delta in an operational and overall way. In this study, an advanced real-time control approach, Model Predictive Control, is proposed to operate these structures in the Dutch delta system (the Rhine-Meuse delta). The application covers non-linearity in the dynamic behavior of the water system and the structures. To deal with the non-linearity, a linearization scheme is applied which directly uses the gate height instead of the structure flow as the control variable. Given the fact that MPC needs to compute control actions in real-time, we address issues regarding computational time. A new large time step scheme is proposed in order to save computation time, in which different control variables can have different control time steps. Simulation experiments demonstrate that Model Predictive Control with the large time step setting is able to control a delta system better and much more efficiently than the conventional operational schemes.

  13. Complementarity of resonant scalar, vector-like quark and superpartner searches in elucidating new phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biekötter, Anke; Hewett, Joanne L.; Kim, Jong Soo; Krämer, Michael; Rizzo, Thomas G.; Rolbiecki, Krzysztof; Tattersall, Jamie; Weber, Torsten

    2017-02-01

    The elucidation of the nature of new phenomena requires a multi-pronged approach to understand the essential physics that underlies it. As an example, we study the simplified model containing a new scalar singlet accompanied by vector-like quarks. To be specific, we investigate three models with SU(2)L-doublet, vector-like quarks with Yukawa couplings to a new scalar singlet and which also couple off-diagonally to corresponding Standard Model fermions of the first or third generation through the usual Higgs boson. We demonstrate that three classes of searches can play important and complementary roles in constraining this model. In particular, we find that missing energy searches designed for sparticle production, are also very sensitive to vector-like quarks.

  14. Ab initio MRSDCI study on the low-lying electronic states of the lithium chloride molecule (LiCl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Yokoyama, Keiichi

    2012-08-01

    Potential energy curves (PECs) for the low-lying states of the lithium chloride molecule (LiCl) have been calculated using the internally contracted multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) method with the aug-cc-PVnZ (AVnZ) and aug-cc-PCVnZ (ACVnZ) basis sets, where n = T, Q, and 5. First, we calculate PECs for 7 spin-orbit (SO)-free Λ-S states, X1Σ+, A1Σ+, 3Σ+, 1Π, and 3Π, and then obtain PECs for 13 SO Ω states, X0+, A0+, B0+, 0-(I), 0-(II), 1(I), 1(II), 1(III), and 2, by diagonalizing the matrix of the electronic Hamiltonian plus the Breit-Pauli SO Hamiltonian. The MRSDCI calculations not including core orbital correlation through the single and double excitations are also performed with the AV5Z and ACV5Z basis sets. The Davidson corrections (Q0) are added to both the Λ-S and Ω state energies. Vibrational eigenstates for the obtained X1Σ+ and X0+ PECs are calculated by solving the time-independent Schrödinger equation with the grid method. Thus, the effects of basis set, core orbital correlation, and the Davidson correction on the X1Σ+ and X0+ PECs of LiCl are investigated by comparing the spectroscopic constants calculated from the PECs with one another and with experiment. It is confirmed that to accurately predict the spectroscopic constants we need to include core-electron correlation in the CI expansion and use the basis sets designed to describe core-valence correlation, i.e., ACVnZ. The SO PECs presented in this paper will be of help in the future study of diatomic alkali halide dynamics.

  15. Excitation of the low lying vibrational levels of H2O by O(3P) as measured on Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyerott, R. E.; Swenson, G. R.; Schweitzer, E. L.; Koch, D. G.

    1994-01-01

    The data from the infrared telescope (IRT), which was flown on space shuttle Challenger Spacelab 2 mission (July 1985), were originally reported by Koch et al. (1987) as originating from near orbital emissions, primarily H2O. In this study, analysis of this data was extended to determine the collisional cross sections for the excitation of the low lying vibrational levels of H2O, present in the orbiter cloud, by atmospheric O(3P). The evaluation of the contribution to the measured signal from solar excitation and ram O excitation of outgassing H2O permits the determination of the H2O column density and the excitation cross section of the (101) level at an O(3P) velocity of approximately 7.75 km/s. Contributions to the radiation in the 1.7-3.0 micron band by transitions from the (100), (001), and multiquantum excited levels are discussed. The findings of the study are (1) the IRT data for the 4.5-9.5 micron and the nighttime data for the 1.7-3.0 micron sensors are consistent with being explained by collision excitation of H2O by O(3P), (2) diurnal variations of 4.5-9.5 micron intensities follow the model predicted O density for a full orbit, (3) daytime increases in the H2O cloud density were not evident, (4) the cross sections for the collisional excitation process are derived and compared to values computated by Johnson (1986) and Redmon et al. (1986), (5) theoretical investigation suggests greater than 60% of the radiation from H2O is a result of multiphoton emission resulting from collisional multiquanta excitation, and (6) the large daytime increase in the 1.7-3.0 micron intensity data suggests that O(+) may likely be instrumental in producing excited H2O(+) through charge exchange.

  16. Electronic spectra and excited state dynamics of pentafluorophenol: Effects of low-lying πσ∗ states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Shreetama; Mukhopadhyay, Deb Pratim; Chakraborty, Tapas

    2015-05-01

    Multiple fluorine atom substitution effect on photophysics of an aromatic chromophore has been investigated using phenol as the reference system. It has been noticed that the discrete vibronic structure of the S1←S0 absorption system of phenol vapor is completely washed out for pentafluorophenol (PFP), and the latter also shows very large Stokes shift in the fluorescence spectrum. For excitations beyond S1 origin, the emission yield of PFP is reduced sharply with increase in excess vibronic energy. However, in a collisional environment like liquid hydrocarbon, the underlying dynamical process that drives the non-radiative decay is hindered drastically. Electronic structure theory predicts a number of low-lying dark electronic states of πσ∗ character in the vicinity of the lowest valence ππ∗ state of this molecule. Tentatively, we have attributed the excitation energy dependent non-radiative decay of the molecule observed only in the gas phase to an interplay between the lowest ππ∗ and a nearby dissociative πσ∗ state. Measurements in different liquids reveal that some of the dark excited states light up with appreciable intensity only in protic liquids like methanol and water due to hydrogen bonding between solute and solvents. Electronic structure theory methods indeed predict that for PFP-(H2O)n clusters (n = 1-11), intensities of a number of πσ∗ states are enhanced with increase in cluster size. In contrast with emitting behavior of the molecule in the gas phase and solutions of nonpolar and polar aprotic liquids, the fluorescence is completely switched off in polar protic liquids. This behavior is a chemically significant manifestation of perfluoro effect, because a very opposite effect occurs in the case of unsubstituted phenol for which fluorescence yield undergoes a very large enhancement in protic liquids. Several dynamical mechanisms have been suggested to interpret the observed photophysical behavior.

  17. Search for global-minimum geometries of medium-sized germanium clusters. II. Motif-based low-lying clusters Ge21-Ge29

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, S.; Zeng, X. C.

    2006-05-01

    We performed a constrained search for the geometries of low-lying neutral germanium clusters GeN in the size range of 21⩽N⩽29. The basin-hopping global optimization method is employed for the search. The potential-energy surface is computed based on the plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory. A new series of low-lying clusters is found on the basis of several generic structural motifs identified previously for silicon clusters [S. Yoo and X. C. Zeng, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 054304 (2006)] as well as for smaller-sized germanium clusters [S. Bulusu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 164305 (2005)]. Among the generic motifs examined, we found that two motifs stand out in producing most low-lying clusters, namely, the six/nine motif, a puckered-hexagonal-ring Ge6 unit attached to a tricapped trigonal prism Ge9, and the six/ten motif, a puckered-hexagonal-ring Ge6 unit attached to a bicapped antiprism Ge10. The low-lying clusters obtained are all prolate in shape and their energies are appreciably lower than the near-spherical low-energy clusters. This result is consistent with the ion-mobility measurement in that medium-sized germanium clusters detected are all prolate in shape until the size N ˜65.

  18. Search for heavy resonances decaying into a vector boson and a Higgs boson in final states with charged leptons, neutrinos, and b quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2016-10-25

    A search for heavy resonances decaying to a Higgs boson and a vector boson is presented. The analysis is performed using data samples collected in 2015 by the CMS experiment at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 2.2-2.5 inverse femtobarns. The search is performed in channels in which the vector boson decays into leptonic final states ($\\mathrm{Z} \\to \

  19. Coastline evolution of Portuguese low-lying sandy coast in the last 50 years: an integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponte Lira, Cristina; Nobre Silva, Ana; Taborda, Rui; Freire de Andrade, Cesar

    2016-06-01

    Regional/national-scale information on coastline rates of change and trends is extremely valuable, but these studies are scarce. A widely accepted standardized methodology for analysing long-term coastline change has been difficult to achieve, but it is essential to conduct an integrated and holistic approach to coastline evolution and hence support coastal management actions. Additionally, databases providing knowledge on coastline evolution are of key importance to support both coastal management experts and users.The main objective of this work is to present the first systematic, national-scale and consistent long-term coastline evolution data of Portuguese mainland low-lying sandy coasts.The methodology used quantifies coastline evolution using a unique and robust coastline indicator (the foredune toe), which is independent of short-term changes.The dataset presented comprises (1) two polyline sets, mapping the 1958 and 2010 sandy beach-dune system coastline, both optimized for working at 1 : 50 000 scale or smaller; (2) one polyline set representing long-term change rates between 1958 and 2010, each estimated at 250 m; and (3) a table with minimum, maximum and mean of evolution rates for sandy beach-dune system coastline. All science data produced here are openly accessible at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.859136 and can be used in other studies.Results show beach erosion as the dominant trend, with a mean change rate of -0.24 ± 0.01 m year-1 for all mainland Portuguese beach-dune systems. Although erosion is dominant, this evolution is variable in signal and magnitude in different coastal sediment cells and also within each cell. The most relevant beach erosion issues were found in the coastal stretches of Espinho-Torreira and Costa Nova-Praia de Mira, Cova da Gala-Leirosa, and Cova do Vapor-Costa da Caparica. The coastal segments Minho River-Nazaré and Costa da Caparica

  20. Electronic spectra and excited state dynamics of pentafluorophenol: Effects of low-lying πσ{sup ∗} states

    SciTech Connect

    Karmakar, Shreetama; Mukhopadhyay, Deb Pratim; Chakraborty, Tapas

    2015-05-14

    Multiple fluorine atom substitution effect on photophysics of an aromatic chromophore has been investigated using phenol as the reference system. It has been noticed that the discrete vibronic structure of the S{sub 1}←S{sub 0} absorption system of phenol vapor is completely washed out for pentafluorophenol (PFP), and the latter also shows very large Stokes shift in the fluorescence spectrum. For excitations beyond S{sub 1} origin, the emission yield of PFP is reduced sharply with increase in excess vibronic energy. However, in a collisional environment like liquid hydrocarbon, the underlying dynamical process that drives the non-radiative decay is hindered drastically. Electronic structure theory predicts a number of low-lying dark electronic states of πσ{sup ∗} character in the vicinity of the lowest valence ππ{sup ∗} state of this molecule. Tentatively, we have attributed the excitation energy dependent non-radiative decay of the molecule observed only in the gas phase to an interplay between the lowest ππ{sup ∗} and a nearby dissociative πσ{sup ∗} state. Measurements in different liquids reveal that some of the dark excited states light up with appreciable intensity only in protic liquids like methanol and water due to hydrogen bonding between solute and solvents. Electronic structure theory methods indeed predict that for PFP-(H{sub 2}O){sub n} clusters (n = 1-11), intensities of a number of πσ{sup ∗} states are enhanced with increase in cluster size. In contrast with emitting behavior of the molecule in the gas phase and solutions of nonpolar and polar aprotic liquids, the fluorescence is completely switched off in polar protic liquids. This behavior is a chemically significant manifestation of perfluoro effect, because a very opposite effect occurs in the case of unsubstituted phenol for which fluorescence yield undergoes a very large enhancement in protic liquids. Several dynamical mechanisms have been suggested to interpret the

  1. Sub-terahertz spectroscopy of magnetic resonance in BiFeO3 using a vector network analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspers, Christian; Gandhi, Varun P.; Magrez, Arnaud; de Rijk, Emile; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Detection of sub-THz spin cycloid resonances (SCRs) of stoichiometric BiFeO3 (BFO) was demonstrated using a vector network analyzer. Continuous wave absorption spectroscopy is possible, thanks to heterodyning and electronic sweep control using frequency extenders for frequencies from 480 to 760 GHz. High frequency resolution reveals SCR absorption peaks with a frequency precision in the ppm regime. Three distinct SCR features of BFO were observed and identified as Ψ1 and Φ2 modes, which are out-of-plane and in-plane modes of the spin cycloid, respectively. A spin reorientation transition at 200 K is evident in the frequency vs temperature study. The global minimum in linewidth for both Ψ modes at 140 K is ascribed to the critical slowing down of spin fluctuations.

  2. An Approach to Assessing Flood Risk in Low-lying Paddy Areas of Japan considering Economic Damage on Rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakawa, H.; Masumoto, T.

    2013-12-01

    constructed in a rice paddy plot, which consisted of two zones, one in which the rice was cultivated as usual with normal water levels, and a flood zone, which was used for submerging rice plants. The flood zone, which was designed to reproduce actual flood disaster conditions in paddy fields, can be filled with water to a depth of 0.3, 0.6 or 0.9 m above ground level, and is divided into two plots, a clean water part and a turbid water part. Thus, the experimental conditions can vary according to 1) the development stage of rice, 2) complete or incomplete submersion, 3) clean or turbid water, and 4) duration of submergence. Finally, the reduction scales were formulated by using the resultant data and it was found that rice is most sensitive to damage during the development stage. Flood risk was evaluated by using calculated water level on each paddy. Here, the averaged duration of inundation to a depth of more than 0.3 m was used as the criteria for flood occurrence. The results indicated that the duration increased with larger heavy rainfall amounts. Furthermore, the damage to rice was predicted to increase especially in low-lying paddy fields. Mitigation measures, such as revising drainage planning and/or changing design standards for the capacity of drainage pumps may be necessary in the future.

  3. The Blackwater NWR inundation model. Rising sea level on a low-lying coast: land use planning for wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Curt; Clark, Inga; Guntenspergen, Glenn; Cahoon, Don; Caruso, Vincent; Hupp, Cliff; Yanosky, Tom

    2004-01-01

    shallow water surfaces has solved this problem. Our team has developed a detailed LIDAR map of the BNWR area at a 30 centimeter (ca. 1 ft) contour interval (figure 2). The new map allows us to identify the present marsh vegetation zones and to predict the location and area of future zones on a decade-by- decade basis over the next century at increments of sea level rise on the order of 3 cm/decade (ca. 1 inch). We have developed two scenarios for the model. The first is a steady-state model that uses the historic rate of sea level rise of 3.1 mm/yr to predict marsh areas. The second is a 'global warming' scenario utilizing a conservative IPCC model with an exponentially-increasing rate of sea level rise. Under either scenario, the BNWR is progressively inundated with an expanding core of open water. Although their positions change in the future, the areas of intertidal marsh as well as those of the critical high marsh remain fairly constant until the year 2050. Beyond that time, the low-lying land surface is overtopped by rising sea level and the area is dominated by open water. Our model suggests that wetland habitat in the Blackwater area might be maintained and sustained through a combination of public and private preservation efforts through easements in combination with judicious Federal land acquisition into the predicted areas of suitable marsh formation - but for only the next 50 years. Beyond that time much of this area will become open water.

  4. Exploring the nature of low-lying excited-states in molecular crystals from many-body perturbation theory beyond the Tamm-Dancoff Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangel, Tonatiuh; Sharifzadeh, Sahar; Rinn, Andre; da Jornada, Felipe H.; Shao, Meiyue; Witte, Gregor; Yang, Chao; Louie, Steven G.; Chatterjee, Sangaam; Kronik, Leeor; Neaton, Jeffrey B.

    Organic semiconductors have attracted attention due to their potential for optoelectronics and novel phenomena, such as singlet fission. Here, we use many-body perturbation theory to simulate neutral excitations in acene and perylene crystals. By diagonalizing the full Bethe-Salpether (BSE) Hamiltonian beyond the Tamm Dancoff approximation (TDA), we find that both low-lying excitation energies and oscillator strengths are in improved agreement with experiments relative to the TDA. We characterize the low-lying excitons, focusing in the degree of charge-transfer and spatial delocalization, connecting their relevance to singlet fission. For perylene, we find overall good agreement with absorption measurements, and we see evidence for the formation of an ``exciton-polariton'' band in β-perylene. This work is supported by the DOE.

  5. A potential-energy surface study of the 2A1 and low-lying dissociative states of the methoxy radical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackels, C. F.

    1985-01-01

    Accurate, ab initio quantum chemical techniques are applied in the present study of low lying bound and dissociative states of the methoxy radical at C3nu conformations, using a double zeta quality basis set that is augmented with polarization and diffuse functions. Excitation energy estimates are obtained for vertical excitation, vertical deexcitation, and system origin. The rate of methoxy photolysis is estimated to be too small to warrant its inclusion in atmospheric models.

  6. Direct observation of the solvent effects on the low-lying nπ* and ππ* excited triplet states of acetophenone derivatives in thermal equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Narra, Sudhakar; Shigeto, Shinsuke

    2015-03-05

    Low-lying excited triplet states of aromatic carbonyl compounds exhibit diverse photophysical and photochemical properties of fundamental importance. Despite tremendous effort in studying those triplet states, the effects of substituents and solvents on the energetics of the triplet manifold and on photoreactivity remain to be fully understood. We have recently studied the ordering of the low-lying nπ* and ππ* excited triplet states and its substituent dependence in acetophenone derivatives using nanosecond time-resolved near-IR (NIR) spectroscopy. Here we address the other important issue, the solvent effects, by directly observing the electronic bands in the NIR that originate from the lowest nπ* and ππ* states of acetophenone derivatives in four solvents of different polarity (n-heptane, benzene, acetonitrile, and methanol). The two transient NIR bands decay synchronously in all the solvents, indicating that the lowest nπ* and ππ* states are in thermal equilibrium irrespective of the solvent polarity studied here. We found that the ππ* band increases in intensity relative to the nπ* band as solvent polarity increases. These results are compared with the photoreduction rate constant for the acetophenone derivatives in the solvents to which 2-propanol was added as a hydrogen-atom donor. Based on the present findings, we present a comprehensive, solvent- and substituent-dependent energy level diagram of the low-lying nπ* and ππ* excited triplet states.

  7. Low-lying excitations of poly-fused thiophene within Pariser-Parr-Pople model: A density matrix renormalization group study.

    PubMed

    Das, Mousumi

    2010-05-21

    We studied the nature of the ground and low-lying excited states of poly-fused thiophene oligomers within long-range Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) model Hamiltonian with up to 14 monomers using symmetrized density matrix renormalization group technique. Our results show that the lowest dipole-allowed state lies below the lowest dipole forbidden two-photon state, indicating that poly-fused thiophenes are strongly fluorescent. The lowest triplet state lies below the two-photon state, which is in agreement with the general trend in conjugated polymers. The charge density and bond order calculations of three low-lying excited states, along with the ground state of fused thiophene oligomers, show a significant transfer of charge from sulfur to adjacent carbon atom in the middle of the largest system size and these excitations are localized. The charge density and bond order calculations on singly and doubly doped states show that bipolarons are not stable entity in these systems. The calculations of low-lying excitations on radical cation and anion of fused thiophene oligomers show a new energy band in the low energy region, which is strongly coupled to its hole and electron conductivity. This implies that poly-fused thiophenes posses novel field-effect transistor properties.

  8. Low-lying singlet states of carotenoids having 8-13 conjugated double bonds as determined by electronic absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Kanematsu, Yasuo; Koyama, Yasushi; Nagae, Hiroyoshi; Nishio, Tomohiro; Hashimoto, Hideki; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2005-07-01

    Electronic absorption spectra were recorded at room temperature in solutions of carotenoids having different numbers of conjugated double bonds, n = 8-13, including a spheroidene derivatives, neurosporene, spheroidene, lycopene, anhydrorhodovibrin and spirilloxanthin. The vibronic states of 1Bu+(v=0-4), 2Ag-(v=0-3), 3Ag- (0) and 1Bu- (0) were clearly identified. The arrangement of the four electronic states determined by electronic absorption spectroscopy was identical to that determined by measurement of resonance Raman excitation profiles [K. Furuichi et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 356 (2002) 547] for carotenoids in crystals.

  9. Masses of Axial-Vector Resonances in a Linear Sigma Model with N{sub f} = 3

    SciTech Connect

    Parganlija, Denis; Giacosa, Francesco; Kovacs, Peter; Wolf, Gyoergy

    2011-05-23

    We discuss an N{sub f} = 3 linear sigma model with vector and axial-vector mesons (extended Linear Sigma Model-eLSM). We present first results regarding the masses of axial-vector mesons determined from the extended model.

  10. Probing the Low-lying Electronic States of Cyclobutanetetraone (C4O4) and its Radical Anion: A Low-Temperature Anion Photoelectron Spectroscopic Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jin-Chang; Hou, Gaolei; Li, Si-Dian; Wang, Xue B.

    2012-02-02

    Despite a seemingly simple appearance, cyclobutanetetraone (C{sub 4}O{sub 4}) has four low-lying electronic states. Determining the energetic ordering of these states and the ground state of C{sub 4}O{sub 4}{sup -} theoretically has been proven to be considerably challenging and remains largely unresolved to date. Here we report a low-temperature negative ion photoelectron spectroscopic approach. A well structured spectrum with evenly spaced features was obtained at 193 nm due to excitation of the ring breathing mode of the C{sub 4}O{sub 4} neutral, whereas each 193-nm feature was observed to further split into a three-peak manifold at 266 nm assigned due to three electronic transitions from the ground state of the anion to the ground and two low-lying excited states of the neutral. Combined with recent theoretical studies and our own Franck-Condon factors simulations, the ground state of C{sub 4}O{sub 4}{sup -}, as well as the ground and two low-lying excited states of C{sub 4}O{sub 4} are determined to be {sup 2}A{sub 2u}, and {sup 3}B{sub 2u}, {sup 1}A{sub 1g} (8{pi}), {sup 1}B{sub 2u}, respectively. The frequency of the ring breathing mode (1810 {+-} 20 cm{sup -1}), the electron affinity (3.475 {+-} 0.005 eV), and the term values of {sup 1}A{sub 1g} (8{pi}) (6.27 {+-} 0.5 kJ/mol) and {sup 1}B{sub 2u} (13.50 {+-} 0.5 kJ/mol) are also directly obtained from the experiments.

  11. Californium-252 neutron intracavity brachytherapy alone for T1N0 low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma: A definitive anal sphincter-preserving radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yanli; Shan, Jinlu; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Kewei; Chen, Shu; Xu, Wenjing; Zhou, Qian; Yang, Mei; Lei, Xin

    2017-01-17

    This study evaluated the 4-year results of 32 patients with T1N0 low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma treated solely with californium-252 (Cf-252) neutron intracavity brachytherapy (ICBT). Patients were solicited into the study from January 2008 to June 2011. All the patients had refused surgery or surgery was contraindicated. The patients were treated with Cf-252 neutron ICBT using a novel 3.5-cm diameter off-axis 4-channel intrarectal applicator designed by the authors. The dose reference point was defined on the mucosa surface, with a total dose of 55-62 Gy-eq/4 f (13-16 Gy-eq/f/wk). All the patients completed the radiotherapy in accordance with our protocol. The rectal lesions regressed completely, and the acute rectal toxicity was mild (≤G2). The 4-year local control, overall survival, disease-free survival, and late complication (≥G2) rates were 96.9%, 90.6%, 87.5% and 15.6%, respectively. No severe late complication (≥G3) occurred. The mean follow-up was 56.1 ± 16.0 months. At the end of last follow-up, 29 patients remained alive. The mean survival time was 82.1 ± 2.7 months. Cf-252 neutron ICBT administered as the sole treatment (without surgery) for patients with T1N0 low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma is effective with acceptable late complications. Our study and method offers a definitive anal sphincter-preserving radiotherapy for T1N0 low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma patients.

  12. Californium-252 neutron intracavity brachytherapy alone for T1N0 low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma: A definitive anal sphincter-preserving radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yanli; Shan, Jinlu; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Kewei; Chen, Shu; Xu, Wenjing; Zhou, Qian; Yang, Mei; Lei, Xin

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the 4-year results of 32 patients with T1N0 low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma treated solely with californium-252 (Cf-252) neutron intracavity brachytherapy (ICBT). Patients were solicited into the study from January 2008 to June 2011. All the patients had refused surgery or surgery was contraindicated. The patients were treated with Cf-252 neutron ICBT using a novel 3.5-cm diameter off-axis 4-channel intrarectal applicator designed by the authors. The dose reference point was defined on the mucosa surface, with a total dose of 55–62 Gy-eq/4 f (13–16 Gy-eq/f/wk). All the patients completed the radiotherapy in accordance with our protocol. The rectal lesions regressed completely, and the acute rectal toxicity was mild (≤G2). The 4-year local control, overall survival, disease-free survival, and late complication (≥G2) rates were 96.9%, 90.6%, 87.5% and 15.6%, respectively. No severe late complication (≥G3) occurred. The mean follow-up was 56.1 ± 16.0 months. At the end of last follow-up, 29 patients remained alive. The mean survival time was 82.1 ± 2.7 months. Cf-252 neutron ICBT administered as the sole treatment (without surgery) for patients with T1N0 low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma is effective with acceptable late complications. Our study and method offers a definitive anal sphincter-preserving radiotherapy for T1N0 low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma patients. PMID:28094790

  13. Jet-cooled laser-induced dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy of NiC: Observation of low-lying Ω = 0+ state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukund, Sheo; Yarlagadda, Suresh; Bhattacharyya, Soumen; Nakhate, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Laser-induced dispersed fluorescence spectra of 58Ni12C molecules, produced in a free-jet apparatus, have been studied. A new low-lying Ω = 0+ state has been observed at Te = 5178 (6) cm-1. Based on previous ab initio calculations this state is plausibly assigned as 0+ spin-orbit component of the first excited 3 Π state. The term energies of vibrational levels up to v = 10 for X1Σ+ ground and v = 3 for Ω = 0+ states have been determined. The harmonic and anharmonic wavenumbers respectively equal to 833 (4) and 6.7 (13) cm-1 for Ω = 0+ state have been measured.

  14. One- and two-body densities of carbon isoelectronic series in their low-lying multiplet states from explicitly correlated wave functions.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, F J; Buendía, E; Sarsa, A

    2006-01-28

    The (3)P ground state and both the (1)D and (1)S excited states arising from the low-lying 1s(2)2s(2)2p(2) configuration of the carbon isoelectronic series are studied starting from explicitly correlated multiconfigurational wave functions. One- and two-body densities in position space have been calculated and different one- and two-body expectation values have been obtained. The effects of electronic correlations have been systematically studied. All the calculations have been done by means of variational Monte Carlo.

  15. A Star-Shaped Molecule with Low-Lying Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital Level, n-Type Panchromatic Electrochromism, and Long-Term Stability.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bin; Zhou, Yue; Ye, Xichong; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Jie; Wan, Xinhua

    2017-04-03

    An electron-deficient star-shaped molecule based on anthraquinone imide was synthesized and characterized. It showed high electron accommodating capacity and strong electron-withdrawing ability with a low-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of -4.10 eV. In addition, it exhibited panchromatic electrochromism attributed to the simultaneous presence of π*-π* transitions and intervalence charge transfer (IV-CT) upon one-electron reduction, and revealed long-term stability in electron gain and loss due to the proper LUMO energy level and ordered intermolecular assembly.

  16. Structure of Low-Lying Excited States of Guanine in DNA and Solution: Combined Molecular Mechanics and High-Level Coupled Cluster Studies

    DOE PAGES

    Kowalski, Karol; Valiev, Marat

    2007-01-01

    High-level ab-initio equation-of-motion coupled-cluster methods with singles, doubles, and noniterative triples are used, in conjunction with the combined quantum mechanical molecular mechanics approach, to investigate the structure of low-lying excited states of the guanine base in DNA and solvated environments. Our results indicate that while the excitation energy of the first excited state is barely changed compared to its gas-phase counterpart, the excitation energy of the second excited state is blue-shifted by 0.24 eV.

  17. Rotational spectroscopy as a tool to investigate interactions between vibrational polyads in symmetric top molecules: Low-lying states v(8) <= 2 of methyl cyanide, CH3CN

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, H. S.; Brown, Linda R.; Drouin, B. J.; Pearson, J. C.; Kleiner, Isabelle; Sams, Robert L.; Sung, Keeyoon; Ordu, Matthias H.; Lewen, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Rotational and rovibrational spectra of methyl cyanide were recorded to analyze interactions in low-lying vibrational states and to construct line lists for radio astronomical observations as well as for infrared spectroscopic investigations of planetary atmospheres. The rotational spectra cover large portions of the 36-1627 GHz region. In the infrared (IR), a spectrum was recorded for this study in the region of 2v(8) around 717 cm(-1) with assignments covering 684-765 cm-1. Additional spectra in the vs region were used to validate the analysis.

  18. Microscopic description of ground state magnetic moment and low-lying magnetic dipole excitations in heavy odd-mass 181Ta nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabar, Emre; Yakut, Hakan; Kuliev, Ali Akbar

    2016-07-01

    The ground state magnetic moments and the low-lying magnetic dipole (Ml) transitions from the ground to excited states in heavy deformed odd-mass 181Ta have been microscopically investigated on the basis of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model (QPNM). The problem of the spurious state mixing in M1 excitations is overcome by a restoration method allowing a self-consistent determination of the separable effective restoration forces. Due to the self-consistency of the method, these effective forces contain no arbitrary parameters. The results of calculations are compared with the available experimental data, the agreement being reasonably satisfactory.

  19. An SCF and MCSCF description of the low-lying states of MgO. [Configuration State Functions Multiconfiguration Self Consistent Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Silver, D. M.; Yarkony, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents the multiconfiguration-self-consistent (MCSCF) and configuration state functions (CSF) for the low-lying electronic states of MgO. It was shown that simple description of these states was possible provided the 1 Sigma(+) states are individually optimized at the MCSCF level, noting that the 1(3 Sigma)(+) and 2(1 Sigma)(+) states which nominally result from the same electron occupation are separated energetically. The molecular orbitals obtained at this level of approximation should provide a useful starting point for extended configuration interaction calculations since they have been optimized for the particular states of interest.

  20. Elastic and inelastic scattering to low-lying states of {sup 58}Ni and {sup 90}Zr using 240-MeV {sup 6}Li

    SciTech Connect

    Krishichayan; Chen, X.; Lui, Y.-W.; Tokimoto, Y.; Button, J.; Youngblood, D. H.

    2010-01-15

    Elastic and inelastic scattering of 240-MeV {sup 6}Li particles from {sup 58}Ni and {sup 90}Zr were measured with the multipole-dipole-multipole spectrometer from 4 deg. <={theta}{sub c.m.}<=43 deg. The elastic scattering data were fitted with the double-folding model using the density-dependent M3Y NN effective interaction and with a phenomenological Woods-Saxon potential. B(E2) and B(E3) values obtained for low-lying 2{sup +} and 3{sup -} states with the double-folding calculations agreed with the adopted values.

  1. Development of a Support Vector Machine - Based Image Analysis System for Focal Liver Lesions Classification in Magnetic Resonance Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatos, I.; Tsantis, S.; Karamesini, M.; Skouroliakou, A.; Kagadis, G.

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The design and implementation of a computer-based image analysis system employing the support vector machine (SVM) classifier system for the classification of Focal Liver Lesions (FLLs) on routine non-enhanced, T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 92 patients; each one of them has undergone MRI performed on a Magnetom Concerto (Siemens). Typical signs on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and biopsies were employed towards a three class categorization of the 92 cases: 40-benign FLLs, 25-Hepatocellular Carcinomas (HCC) within Cirrhotic liver parenchyma and 27-liver metastases from Non-Cirrhotic liver. Prior to FLLs classification an automated lesion segmentation algorithm based on Marcov Random Fields was employed in order to acquire each FLL Region of Interest. 42 texture features derived from the gray-level histogram, co-occurrence and run-length matrices and 12 morphological features were obtained from each lesion. Stepwise multi-linear regression analysis was utilized to avoid feature redundancy leading to a feature subset that fed the multiclass SVM classifier designed for lesion classification. SVM System evaluation was performed by means of leave-one-out method and ROC analysis. Results: Maximum accuracy for all three classes (90.0%) was obtained by means of the Radial Basis Kernel Function and three textural features (Inverse- Different-Moment, Sum-Variance and Long-Run-Emphasis) that describe lesion's contrast, variability and shape complexity. Sensitivity values for the three classes were 92.5%, 81.5% and 96.2% respectively, whereas specificity values were 94.2%, 95.3% and 95.5%. The AUC value achieved for the selected subset was 0.89 with 0.81 - 0.94 confidence interval. Conclusion: The proposed SVM system exhibit promising results that could be utilized as a second opinion tool to the radiologist in order to decrease the time/cost of diagnosis and the need for patients to undergo invasive examination.

  2. Double Higgs boson production in the 4 τ channel from resonances in longitudinal vector boson scattering at a 100 TeV collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotwal, A. V.; Chekanov, S.; Low, M.

    2015-06-01

    We discuss the sensitivity of a 100 TeV p p collider to heavy resonances produced in longitudinal vector-boson scattering and decaying to a pair of Higgs bosons. A Monte Carlo study has been performed using the H →τ τ decay channel for both Higgs bosons, comparing the kinematics of such a signal to the irreducible Standard Model backgrounds. The results are presented in the context of a phenomenological model of a resonance (η ) coupling to Goldstone modes, VLVL→η →H H , as can arise in composite Higgs models. With a fractional width of 70% (20%), the 5 σ discovery reach is 4.2 (2.9) TeV in resonance mass for 10 ab-1 of integrated luminosity. We also discuss the dependence of the mass reach on the collider energy and integrated luminosity.

  3. Low-lying excited states and nonradiative processes of the adenine analogues 7H- and 9H-2-aminopurine.

    PubMed

    Lobsiger, Simon; Sinha, Rajeev K; Trachsel, Maria; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2011-03-21

    We have investigated the UV vibronic spectra and excited-state nonradiative processes of the 7H- and 9H-tautomers of jet-cooled 2-aminopurine (2AP) and of the 9H-2AP-d(4) and -d(5) isotopomers, using two-color resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy at 0.3 and 0.045  cm(-1) resolution. The S(1) ← S(0) transition of 7H-2AP was observed for the first time. It lies ∼1600  cm(-1) below that of 9H-2AP, is ∼1000 times weaker and exhibits only in-plane vibronic excitations. In contrast, the S(1) ← S(0) spectra of 9H-2AP, 9H-2AP-d(4), and 9H-2AP-d(5) show numerous low-frequency bands that can be systematically assigned to overtone and combinations of the out-of-plane vibrations ν(1)', ν(2)', and ν(3)'. The intensity of these out-of-plane bands reflects an out-of-plane deformation in the (1)ππ∗(L(a)) state. Approximate second-order coupled-cluster theory also predicts that 2-aminopurine undergoes a "butterfly" deformation in its lowest (1)ππ∗ state. The rotational contours of the 9H-2AP, 9H-2AP-d(4), and 9H-2AP-d(5) 0(0)(0) bands and of eight vibronic bands of 9H-2AP up to 0(0)(0) + 600 cm(-1) exhibit 75%-80% in-plane (a∕b) polarization, which is characteristic for a (1)ππ∗ excitation. A 20%-25% c-axis (perpendicular) transition dipole moment component may indicate coupling of the (1)ππ∗ bright state to the close-lying (1)nπ∗ dark state. However, no (1)nπ∗ vibronic bands were detected below or up to 500  cm(-1) above the (1)ππ∗ 0(0)(0) band. Following (1)ππ∗ excitation, 9H-2AP undergoes a rapid nonradiative transition to a lower-lying long-lived state with a lifetime ≥5 μs. The ionization potential of 9H-2AP was measured via the (1)ππ∗ state (IP = 8.020 eV) and the long-lived state (IP > 9.10 eV). The difference shows that the long-lived state lies ≥1.08 eV below the (1)ππ∗ state. Time-dependent B3LYP calculations predict the (3)ππ∗ (T(1)) state 1.12 eV below the (1)ππ∗ state, but place the (1)n

  4. Theoretical spectroscopy study of the low-lying electronic states of UX and UX+, X = F and Cl

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, David H.; Peterson, Kirk A.

    2015-11-13

    Spectroscopic constants (Te, re, B0, ωe, ωexe) have been calculated for the low-lying electronic states of UF, UF+, UCl, and UCl+ using complete active space 2nd-order perturbation theory (CASPT2), with a series of correlation consistent basis sets. The latter included those based on both pseudopotential (PP) and all-electron Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DK) Hamiltonians for the U atom. Spin orbit effects were included a posteri using the state interacting method using both PP and Breit Pauli (BP) operators, as well as from exact two-component (X2C) methods for U+ and UF+. Complete basis set (CBS) limits were obtained by extrapolation where possible and the PP and BP calculations were compared at their respective CBS limits. The PP-based method was shown to be reliable in calculating spectroscopic constants, in particular when using the state interacting method with CASPT2 energies (SO-CASPT2). The two component calculations were limited by computational resources and could not include electron correlation from the nominally closed shell 6s and 6p orbitals of U. UF and UCl were both calculated to have Ω=9/2 ground states. The first excited state of UCl was calculated to be an Ω=7/2 state at 78 cm-1 as opposed to the same state at 435 cm-1 in UF, and the other low-lying states of UCl showed a similar compression relative to UF. Likewise UF+ and UCl+ both have Ω=4 ground states and the manifold of low-lying excited Ω = 3, 2, 1, 0 states were energetically closer together in UCl+ than in UF+, ranging up to 776 cm-1 in UF+ and only 438 cm-1 in UCl+. As in previous research, the final PP-based SO-CASPT2 results for UF+ and UF agree well with experiment, and are expected to be predictive for UCl and UCl+, which are reported here for the first time.

  5. Comprehensive theoretical studies on the low-lying electronic states of NiF, NiCl, NiBr, and NiI.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wenli; Liu, Wenjian

    2006-04-21

    The low-lying electronic states of the nickel monohalides, i.e., NiF, NiCl, NiBr, and NiI, are investigated by using multireference second-order perturbation theory with relativistic effects taken into account. For the energetically lowest 11 lambda-S states and 26 omega states there into, the potential energy curves and corresponding spectroscopic constants (vertical and adiabatic excitation energies, equilibrium bond lengths, vibrational frequencies, and rotational constants) are reported. The calculated results are grossly in very good agreement with those solid experimental data. In particular, the ground state of NiI is shown to be different from those of NiF, NiCl, and NiBr, being in line with the recent experimental observation. Detailed analyses are provided on those states that either have not been assigned or have been incorrectly assigned by previous experiments.

  6. Low-lying intruder and tensor-driven structures in 82As revealed by β decay at a new movable-tape-based experimental setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etilé, A.; Verney, D.; Arsenyev, N. N.; Bettane, J.; Borzov, I. N.; Cheikh Mhamed, M.; Cuong, P. V.; Delafosse, C.; Didierjean, F.; Gaulard, C.; Van Giai, Nguyen; Goasduff, A.; Ibrahim, F.; Kolos, K.; Lau, C.; Niikura, M.; Roccia, S.; Severyukhin, A. P.; Testov, D.; Tusseau-Nenez, S.; Voronov, V. V.

    2015-06-01

    The β decay of 82Ge Ge was re-investigated using the newly commissioned tape station BEDO at the electron-driven ISOL (isotope separation on line) facility ALTO operated by the Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Orsay. The original motivation of this work was focused on the sudden occurrence in the light N =49 odd-odd isotonic chain of a large number of J ≤1 states (positive or negative parity) in 80Ga by providing a reliable intermediate example, viz., 82As. The extension of the 82As level scheme towards higher energies from the present work has revealed three potential 1+ states above the already known one at 1092 keV. In addition our data allow ruling out the hypothesis that the 843 keV level could be a 1+ state. A detailed analysis of the level scheme using both an empirical core-particle coupling model and a fully microscopic treatment within a Skyrme-QRPA (quasiparticle random-phase approximation) approach using the finite-rank separable approximation was performed. From this analysis two conclusions can be drawn: (i) the presence of a large number of low-lying low-spin negative parity states is due to intruder states stemming from above the N =50 shell closure, and (ii) the sudden increase, from 82As to 80Ga, of the number of low-lying 1+ states and the corresponding Gamow-Teller fragmentation are naturally reproduced by the inclusion of tensor correlations and couplings to 2p-2h excitations.

  7. Comparison of the AVI, modified SINTACS and GALDIT vulnerability methods under future climate-change scenarios for a shallow low-lying coastal aquifer in southern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoma, Samrit; Okkonen, Jarkko; Korkka-Niemi, Kirsti

    2016-09-01

    A shallow unconfined low-lying coastal aquifer in southern Finland surrounded by the Baltic Sea is vulnerable to changes in groundwater recharge, sea-level rise and human activities. Assessment of the intrinsic vulnerability of groundwater under climate scenarios was performed for the aquifer area by utilising the results of a published study on the impacts of climate change on groundwater recharge and sea-level rise on groundwater-seawater interaction. Three intrinsic vulnerability mapping methods, the aquifer vulnerability index (AVI), a modified SINTACS and GALDIT, were applied and compared. According to the results, the degree of groundwater vulnerability is greatly impacted by seasonal variations in groundwater recharge during the year, and also varies depending on the climate-change variability in the long term. The groundwater is potentially highly vulnerable to contamination from sources on the ground surface during high groundwater recharge rates after snowmelt, while a high vulnerability to seawater intrusion could exist when there is a low groundwater recharge rate in dry season. The AVI results suggest that a change in the sea level will have an insignificant impact on groundwater vulnerability compared with the results from the modified SINTACS and GALDIT. The modified SINTACS method could be used as a guideline for the groundwater vulnerability assessment of glacial and deglacial deposits in inland aquifers, and in combination with GALDIT, it could provide a useful tool for assessing groundwater vulnerability to both contamination from sources on the ground surface and to seawater intrusion for shallow unconfined low-lying coastal aquifers under future climate-change conditions.

  8. Rotational spectroscopy as a tool to investigate interactions between vibrational polyads in symmetric top molecules: Low-lying states v8 ⩽ 2 of methyl cyanide, CH3CN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Holger S. P.; Brown, Linda R.; Drouin, Brian J.; Pearson, John C.; Kleiner, Isabelle; Sams, Robert L.; Sung, Keeyoon; Ordu, Matthias H.; Lewen, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Rotational and rovibrational spectra of methyl cyanide were recorded to analyze interactions in low-lying vibrational states and to construct line lists for radio astronomical observations as well as for infrared spectroscopic investigations of planetary atmospheres. The rotational spectra cover large portions of the 36-1627 GHz region. In the infrared (IR), a spectrum was recorded for this study in the region of 2ν8 around 717 cm-1 with assignments covering 684-765 cm-1. Additional spectra in the ν8 region were used to validate the analysis. Information on the K level structure of CH3CN is almost exclusively obtained from IR spectra, as are basics of the J level structure. The large amount and the high accuracy of the rotational data improves knowledge of the J level structure considerably. Moreover, since these data extend to much higher J and K quantum numbers, they allowed us to investigate for the first time in depth local interactions between these states which occur at high K values. In particular, we have detected several interactions between v8 = 1 and 2. Notably, there is a strong Δv8 = ± 1 , ΔK = 0 , Δl = ± 3 Fermi resonance between v8 =1-1 and v8 =2+2 at K = 14 . Pronounced effects in the spectrum are also caused by resonant Δv8 = ± 1 , ΔK = ∓ 2 , Δl = ± 1 interactions between v8 = 1 and 2 at K = 13 , l = - 1 / K = 11 , l = 0 and at K = 15 , l = + 1 / K = 13 , l = + 2 . An equivalent resonant interaction occurs between K = 14 of the ground vibrational state and K = 12 , l = + 1 of v8 = 1 for which we present the first detailed account. A preliminary account was given in an earlier study on the ground vibrational state. Similar resonances were found for CH3CCH and, more recently, for CH3NC, warranting comparison of the results. From data pertaining to v8 = 2 , we also investigated rotational interactions with v4 = 1 as well as Δv8 = ± 1 , ΔK = 0 , Δl = ± 3 Fermi interactions between v8 = 2 and 3. We have derived N2- and self

  9. First measurement of target and double spin asymmetries for e-vectorp-vector{yields}ep{pi}{sup 0} in the nucleon resonance region above the {delta}(1232)

    SciTech Connect

    Biselli, A. S.; Burkert, V. D.; Avakian, H.; Boiarinov, S.; Bosted, P.; Carman, D. S.; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Deur, A.; Egiyan, H.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Ito, M. M.; Kubarovsky, V.; Laget, J. M.; Mecking, B. A.; Mestayer, M. D.; Niczyporuk, B. B.; Nozar, M.; Sapunenko, V.

    2008-10-15

    The exclusive channel p-vectore-vector,e{sup '}p){pi}{sup 0} was studied in the first and second nucleon resonance regions in the Q{sup 2} range from 0.187 to 0.770 GeV{sup 2} at Jefferson Lab using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Longitudinal target and beam-target asymmetries were extracted over a large range of center-of-mass angles of the {pi}{sup 0} and compared to the unitary isobar model MAID, the dynamic model by Sato and Lee, and the dynamic model DMT. A strong sensitivity to individual models was observed, in particular for the target asymmetry and in the higher invariant mass region. This data set, once included in the global fits of the above models, is expected to place strong constraints on the electrocoupling amplitudes A{sub 1/2} and S{sub 1/2} for the Roper resonance N(1400)P{sub 11} and the N(1535)S{sub 11} and N(1520)D{sub 13} states.

  10. Morphological changes, beach inundation and overwash caused by an extreme storm on a low-lying embayed beach bounded by a dune system (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán, Ruth; Guillén, Jorge; Ruiz, Antonio; Jiménez, José A.; Sagristà, Enric

    2016-12-01

    The geomorphological evolution of a low-lying, micro-tidal sandy beach in the western Mediterranean, Pals beach, was characterized using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. Data were collected in prior to and six months after the impact of an extreme storm with a return period of approx. 50 years, with the aim of characterizing the beach's response to the storm. The use of repeated high-resolution topographic data to quantify beach geomorphic changes has allowed assessment of the accuracy of different proxies for estimating beach volume changes. Results revealed that changes in the shoreline position cannot accurately reproduce beach volume changes on low-lying beaches where overwash processes are significant. Observations also suggested that volume estimations from beach profiles do not accurately represent subaerial volume changes at large profile distances on beaches with significant alongshore geomorphological variability. Accordingly, the segmentation of the beach into regularly spaced bins is proposed to assess alongshore variations in the beach volume with the accuracy of the topographic data. The morphological evolution of Pals beach during the study period showed a net shoreline retreat (- 4 m) and a significant sediment gain on the subaerial beach (+ 7.5 m3/m). The net gain of sediment is mostly due to the impact of the extreme storm, driving significant overwash processes that transport sediment landwards, increasing volume on the backshore and dunes. The increase of volume on the foreshore and the presence of cuspate morphologies along the shoreline also evidence post-storm beach recovery. Observed morphological changes exhibit a high variability along the beach related to variations in beach morphology. Changes in the morphology and migration of megacusps result in a high variability in the shoreline position and foreshore volume changes. On the other hand, larger morphological changes on the backshore and larger inundation distances

  11. Investigating nuclear shell structure in the vicinity of 78Ni: Low-lying excited states in the neutron-rich isotopes Zn,8280

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiga, Y.; Yoneda, K.; Steppenbeck, D.; Aoi, N.; Doornenbal, P.; Lee, J.; Liu, H.; Matsushita, M.; Takeuchi, S.; Wang, H.; Baba, H.; Bednarczyk, P.; Dombradi, Zs.; Fulop, Zs.; Go, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Honma, M.; Ideguchi, E.; Ieki, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Kondo, Y.; Minakata, R.; Motobayashi, T.; Nishimura, D.; Otsuka, T.; Otsu, H.; Sakurai, H.; Shimizu, N.; Sohler, D.; Sun, Y.; Tamii, A.; Tanaka, R.; Tian, Z.; Tsunoda, Y.; Vajta, Zs.; Yamamoto, T.; Yang, X.; Yang, Z.; Ye, Y.; Yokoyama, R.; Zenihiro, J.

    2016-02-01

    The low-lying level structures of nuclei in the vicinity of 78Ni were investigated using in-beam γ -ray spectroscopy to clarify the nature of the nuclear magic numbers Z =28 and N =50 in systems close to the neutron drip line. Nucleon knockout reactions were employed to populate excited states in 80Zn and 82Zn. A candidate for the 41+ level in 80Zn was identified at 1979(30) keV, and the lifetime of this state was estimated to be 136-67+92 ps from a line-shape analysis. Moreover, the energy of the 21+ state in 82Zn is reported to lie at 621(11) keV. The large drop in the 21+ energy at 82Zn indicates the presence of a significant peak in the E (21+) systematics at N =50 . Furthermore, the E (41+) /E (21+) and B (E 2 ;41+→21+) /B (E 2 ;21+→0g.s . +) ratios in 80Zn were deduced to be 1.32 (3 ) and 1 .12-60+80 , respectively. These results imply that 80Zn can be described in terms of two-proton configurations with a 78Ni core and are consistent with a robust N =50 magic number along the Zn isotopic chain. These observations, therefore, indicate a persistent N =50 shell closure in nuclei far from the line of β stability, which in turn suggests a doubly magic structure for 78Ni.

  12. Theoretical and jet spectroscopic investigations of energetics and structures for the low-lying singlet states of fluorene and 9,9'-spirobifluorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boo, Bong Hyun; Choi, Young Sik; Kim, Taek-Soo; Kang, Sung Kwon; Kang, Yong Hee; Lee, Sang Yeon

    1996-03-01

    Ab initio, semiempirical and spectroscopic studies of fluorene (FR) and 9,9'-spirobifluorene (SBF) were performed to elucidate π-orbital interaction between two fluorenyl rings of SBF and to predict the energies of the low-lying singlet electronic states of the molecules. Energies and symmetries of π-orbitals of FR and SBF molecules were determined by 3-21G and 6-31G∗ calculations on the optimized structures. The INDO/S-CIS semiempirical method was applied to predict the excited state energies, the transition dipole moments and the oscillator strengths for the optical transitions. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) excitation spectra were measured for FR and SBF cooled in pulsed supersonic expansions of He in the ranges 283.7-296.7 nm and 289.1-305.6 nm, respectively. In the LIF excitation spectra of FR and SBF, highly resolved vibronic bands were observed having the band origins of 33791 and 33047 cm -1, respectively. The spectral shift of the 0-0 band of SBF to red by 744 cm -1 may be attributed to the spiroconjugation arising from the interaction of four p π orbitals in the different planes.

  13. Study of the β- decay of 116m1In: A new interpretation of low-lying 0+ states in 116Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pore, J. L.; Cross, D. S.; Andreoiu, C.; Ashley, R.; Ball, G. C.; Bender, P. C.; Chester, A. S.; Diaz Varela, A.; Demand, G. A.; Dunlop, R.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P. E.; Hackman, G.; Hadinia, B.; Jigmeddorj, B.; Laffoley, A. T.; Liblong, A.; Kanungo, R.; Noakes, B.; Petrache, C. M.; Rajabali, M. M.; Starosta, K.; Svensson, C. E.; Voss, P. J.; Wang, Z. M.; Wood, J. L.; Yates, S. W.

    2017-02-01

    The 116Sn nucleus contains a collective rotational band originating from proton π 2 p-2 h excitations across the proton Z=50 shell gap. Even though this nucleus has been extensively investigated in the past, there was still missing information on the low-energy interband transitions connecting the intruder and normal structures. The low-lying structure of 116Sn was investigated through a high-statistics study of the β- decay of 116m1In with the 8π spectrometer and its ancillary detectors at TRIUMF. These measurements are critical in order to properly characterize the π 2 p-2 h rotational band. Weak γ-decay branches are observed utilizing γ-γ coincidence spectroscopy methods, leading to the first direct observation of the 85 keV 22+→ 03+ γ ray with a transition strength of B(E2) = 99.7(84) W.u. The analysis of these results strongly suggests that the 2027 keV 03+ state should replace the previously assigned 1757 keV 02+ state as the band-head of the π 2 p-2 h rotational band.

  14. β decay of Si,4038 (Tz=+5 ,+6 ) to low-lying core excited states in odd-odd P,4038 isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Vandana; Lubna, R. S.; Abromeit, B.; Crawford, H. L.; Liddick, S. N.; Utsuno, Y.; Bender, P. C.; Crider, B. P.; Dungan, R.; Fallon, P.; Kravvaris, K.; Larson, N.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Otsuka, T.; Prokop, C. J.; Richard, A. L.; Shimizu, N.; Tabor, S. L.; Volya, A.; Yoshida, S.

    2017-02-01

    Low-lying excited states in P,4038 have been identified in the β decay of Tz=+5 ,+6 , Si,4038. Based on the allowed nature of the Gamow-Teller (GT) decay observed, these states are assigned spin and parity of 1+ and are core-excited 1p1h intruder states with a parity opposite to the ground state. The occurrence of intruder states at low energies highlights the importance of pairing and quadrupole correlation energies in lowering the intruder states despite the N =20 shell gap. Configuration interaction shell model calculations with the state-of-art SDPF-MU effective interaction were performed to understand the structure of these 1p1h states in the even-A phosphorus isotopes. States in 40P with N =25 were found to have very complex configurations involving all the f p orbitals leading to deformed states as seen in neutron-rich nuclei with N ≈28 . The calculated GT matrix elements for the β decay highlight the dominance of the decay of the core neutrons rather than the valence neutrons.

  15. Effects of low-lying excitations on ground-state energy and energy gap of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model in a transverse field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Yang Wei

    2016-04-01

    We present an extensive numerical study of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model in a transverse field. Recent numerical studies of quantum spin glasses have focused on exact diagonalization of the full Hamiltonian for small systems (≈20 spins). However, such exact numerical treatments are difficult to apply on larger systems. We propose making an approximation by using only a subspace of the full Hilbert space spanned by low-lying excitations consisting of one-spin-flipped and two-spin-flipped states. The approximation procedure is carried out within the theoretical framework of the Hartree-Fock approximation and configuration interaction. Although not exact, our approach allows us to study larger system sizes comparable to that achievable by state-of-the-art quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We calculate two quantities of interest due to recent advances in quantum annealing, the ground-state energy and the energy gap between the ground and first excited states. For the energy gap, we derive a formula that enables it to be calculated using just the ground-state wave function, thereby circumventing the need to diagonalize the Hamiltonian. We calculate the scalings of the energy gap and the leading correction to the extensive part of the ground-state energy with system size, which are difficult to obtain with current methods.

  16. Anharmonic Franck-Condon simulation of the absorption and fluorescence spectra for the low-lying S1 and S2 excited states of pyridine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Zhu, Chaoyuan; Yu, Jian-Guo; Lin, Sheng Hsien

    2009-12-31

    Anharmonic effects of the absorption and fluorescence spectra of pyridine molecule are studied and analyzed for the two-low lying singlet excited states S(1)((1)B(1)) and S(2)((1)B(2)). The complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method is utilized to compute equilibrium geometries and all 27 vibrational normal-mode frequencies for the ground state and the two excited states. The present calculations show that the frequency differences between the ground and two excited states are small for the ten totally symmetric vibrational modes so that the displaced oscillator approximation can be used for spectrum simulations. The Franck-Condon factors within harmonic approximation basically grasp the main features of molecular spectra, but simulated 0-0 transition energy position and spectrum band shapes are not satisfactorily good for S(1)((1)B(1)) absorption and fluorescence spectra in comparison with experiment observation. As the first-order anharmonic correction added to Franck-Condon factors, both spectrum positions and band shapes can be simultaneously improved for both absorption and fluorescence spectra. It is concluded that the present anharmonic correction produces a significant dynamic shifts for spectrum positions and improves spectrum band shapes as well. The detailed structures of absorption spectrum of S(2)((1)B(2)) state observed from experiment can be also reproduced with anharmonic Franck-Condon simulation, and these were not shown in the harmonic Franck-Condon simulation with either distorted or Duschinsky effects in the literature.

  17. Light scattering by a thin wire with a surface-plasmon resonance: Bifurcations of the Poynting vector field

    SciTech Connect

    Luk'yanchuk, B. S.; Ternovsky, V.

    2006-06-15

    We analyze the energy flow during the scattering of a plane wave by a small homogeneous cylinder in the vicinity of surface-plasmon resonance, where {epsilon}{sup '}=Re {epsilon}=-1 ({epsilon} stands for permittivity). For the case of small dissipation, {epsilon}{sup ''}=Im {epsilon}<<1, this scattering can strongly deviate from the classical dipole approximation (Rayleigh scattering). In certain specified cases, the Rayleigh scattering is replaced with an anomalous light scattering regardless the wire smallness. The phenomenon is based on interplay of the usual dissipative and radiative damping, where the latter is related to inverse transformation of localized resonant plasmons into scattered light. The anomalous light scattering possesses a variety of unusual features, such as an inverse hierarchy of optical resonances and a complicated near-field structure, which may include optical vortexes, optical whirlpools, and other peculiarities in nanoscale area.

  18. An ab initio investigation of the ground and low-lying singlet and triplet electronic states of XNO{sub 2} and XONO (X = Cl, Br, and I)

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Kirk A.; Francisco, Joseph S.

    2014-01-28

    A systematic ab initio treatment of the nitryl halides (XNO{sub 2}) and the cis- and trans- conformers of the halide nitrites (XONO), where X = Cl, Br, and I, have been carried out using highly correlated methods with sequences of correlation consistent basis sets. Equilibrium geometries and harmonic frequencies have been accurately calculated in all cases at the explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12b level of theory, including the effects of core-valence correlation for the former. Where experimental values are available for the equilibrium structures (ClNO{sub 2} and BrNO{sub 2}), the present calculations are in excellent agreement; however, the X-O distances are slightly too long by about 0.01 Å due to missing multireference effects. Accurate predictions for the iodine species are made for the first time. The vertical electronic excitation spectra have been calculated using equation-of-motion coupled cluster methods for the low-lying singlet states and multireference configuration interaction for both singlet and triplet states. The latter also included the effects of spin-orbit coupling to provide oscillator strengths for the ground state singlet to excited triplet transitions. While for ClNO{sub 2} the transitions to excited singlet states all occur at wavelengths shorter than 310 nm, there is one longer wavelength singlet transition in BrNO{sub 2} and two in the case of INO{sub 2}. The long wavelength tail in the XNO{sub 2} species is predicted to be dominated by transitions to triplet states. In addition to red-shifting from X = Cl to I, the triplet transitions also increase in oscillator strength, becoming comparable to many of the singlet transitions in the case of INO{sub 2}. Hence in particular, the latter species should be very photolabile. Similar trends are observed and reported for the halogen nitrites, many of which for the first time.

  19. Electron-impact excitation of Ni II. Collision strengths and effective collision strengths for low-lying fine-structure forbidden transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, C. M.; Ramsbottom, C. A.; Scott, M. P.; Burke, P. G.

    2010-04-01

    Context. Considerable demand exists for electron excitation data for ion{Ni}{ii}, since lines from this abundant ion are observed in a wide variety of laboratory and astrophysical spectra. The accurate theoretical determination of these data can present a significant challenge however, due to complications arising from the presence of an open 3d-shell in the description of the target ion. Aims: In this work we present collision strengths and Maxwellian averaged effective collision strengths for the electron-impact excitation of ion{Ni}{ii}. Attention is concentrated on the 153 forbidden fine-structure transitions between the energetically lowest 18 levels of ion{Ni}{ii}. Effective collision strengths have been evaluated at 27 individual electron temperatures ranging from 30-100 000 K. To our knowledge this is the most extensive theoretical collisional study carried out on this ion to date. Methods: The parallel R-matrix package RMATRX II has recently been extended to allow for the inclusion of relativistic effects. This suite of codes has been utilised in the present work in conjunction with PSTGF to evaluate collision strengths and effective collision strengths for all of the low-lying forbidden fine-structure transitions. The following basis configurations were included in the target model - 3d9, 3d84s, 3d84p, 3d74s2 and 3d74s4p - giving rise to a sophisticated 295 jj-level, 1930 coupled channel scattering problem. Results: Comprehensive comparisons are made between the present collisional data and those obtained from earlier theoretical evaluations. While the effective collision strengths agree well for some transitions, significant discrepancies exist for others. Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/513/A55

  20. Ab initio study on the low-lying excited states of gas-phase PH+ cation including spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xia; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yan, Bing

    2015-05-01

    Ab initio calculations have been performed on the low-lying excited and ground states of PH+. The potential energy curves (PECs) of the Λ-S states were calculated with multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) method along with the basis sets at 5-ξ level. In order to improve the PECs, the Davidson(+Q) correction and the Scalar relativistic effect are included. The corresponding spectroscopic constants were determined and good agreements with the available measurement were found. The interactions of the A2Δ-4Π and 12Σ+-4Π by the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effect were well described by the spin-orbit matrix elements. The SOC effect makes the original 8 Λ-S states split into 15 Ω states. The Ω = 1/2 state generated from the X2Π state is confirmed to the ground Ω state. And the SOC splitting for the X2Π is calculated to be 294 cm-1. The SOC effect has large effect on the PECs of the A2Δ and 12Σ+ states, leading to much more shallow potential wells as well as potential barriers. The analysis of the wavefunction for the Ω states shows that the strong spin-orbit interaction exists near the crossing points of the PECs for the Λ-S states. The transition dipole moments (TDMs) of transitions A2Δ-X2Π and 12Σ--X2Π are evaluated with the MRCI wavefunction. Based on the TDMs along with the calculated Franck-Condon factors, the radiative lifetimes for the selected vibrational levels of A2Δ and 12Σ- states are predicted at the microseconds (μs). Good agreement with the measurement shows that the lowest vibrational level for A2Δ state is almost uninfluenced by the perturbation via the SOC effect.

  1. Geo-statistical modeling to evaluate the socio-economic impacts of households in the context of low-lying areas conversion in Colombo metropolitan region-Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemakumara, GPTS; Rainis, Ruslan

    2015-02-01

    Living in Low-lying areas is a challenging task, but due to the lack of suitable land at affordable prices, thousands of householders have been establishing their own houses on Low-lying areas. Manipulation and conversion of low lying areas have led to an increase in the frequency and severity of micro disasters because the cumulative effect of these settlements is very high. Therefore, it is needed to examine how individual households have been emerging in Low-lying areas. This process is primarily influenced and controlled by Socio-economic factors. In the field survey conducted for this study, 388 householders were interviewed face to face to obtain the primary data. Collected data were applied to the Multivariate binary logistic Model. The Dependent variable of the model was set as Stable Houses and Non-Stable Houses based on the weighted values that were obtained from the field observations. Independent variables of this study are nine key aspects of the socio-economic conditions in these areas. Units of analysis of the study were taken as individual housing plots in the study area. The particular combination of Socio-Economic factors that exerted influence on each housing plot was measured using predicted probability value of logistic model and linked it with GIS land plot's map. Accuracy of Final Model is 86.9 % and probability level of influencing factors given a clear idea about household distribution and status while providing guidance about how the planning authorities should monitor and manage low lying areas, taking into consideration the present housing condition of these areas.

  2. Ab initio MRCI + Q calculations on the low-lying excited states of the MgBr radical including spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dong-lan; Tan, Bin; Wen, Yu-feng; Zeng, Xue-feng; Xie, An-dong; Yan, Bing

    2016-05-01

    Accurate theoretical calculations on the MgBr radical have been carried out by using the high-level relativistic multireference configuration interaction method with Davidson correction (MRCI + Q) using correlation-consistent Quintuple-ζ quality basis set. The potential energy curves (PECs) of the 14 Λ-S states of MgBr have been computed. In order to improve the PECs, the core-valence correlation, scalar relativistic effect, and spin-orbit coupling effect are taken into account in the computations. The spectroscopic constants of the bound states have been determined from the computed PECs. The results of the ground state X2Σ+ and the first excited state A2Π are in good agreement with those from the available experiments, while spectroscopic constants of the other electronic states are firstly reported. The low-lying ion-pair state B2Σ+ correlated to ion-pair dissociation limit Mg+ (2Sg) + Br- (1Sg) is characterized. The permanent dipole moments (PDMs) of Λ-S states and the R-dependent spin-orbit (SO) matrix elements are computed. The results indicate that the abrupt changes of PDMs and the SO matrix elements are attributed to the changes of the electronic configurations near the avoided crossing point. After taking the SOC effect into account, the 14 Λ-S states split into 30 Ω states, and the SOC splitting for the A2Π is calculated to be 102.58 cm- 1. The SOC effect, leading to the double-well potential of the Ω = (3)1/2 state, is found to be substantial for MgBr. In order to further illustrate the SOC effect and the avoided crossing phenomenon of the PECs, the Λ-S compositions in the Ω state wavefunctions are analyzed in detail. Finally, the transition dipole moments (TDMs) of several transitions from upper Ω states to the ground X2Σ+1/2 state and the corresponding radiative lifetimes have been studied. It is shown that the (1)3/2-X2Σ+1/2 and (2)3/2-X2Σ+1/2 are particularly important to the observed transitions A2Π-X2Σ+ and C2Π-X2Σ+. The

  3. Accessing a low-lying bound electronic state of the alkali oxides, LiO and NaO, using laser induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, J. V.; Shen, K. K.; Winstead, C. B.; Gole, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    The first laser based probe for the sodium and lithium monoxides is established. The Li(Na)+N 2O reactions studied in a multiple collision entrainment mode produce the LiO and NaO ground X 2Π and low-lying monoxide excited states. In contrast to the alkali halides, laser induced excitation spectroscopy confirms that the LiO and NaO B 2Π states, counter to recent predictions, are located at energies well below the ground state dissociation asymptote and, as predicted, possess significant binding energies. An assignment of the laser induced excitation spectra (LIF) for the B 2Π-X 2Π transitions of LiO in the region 3940-4300 Å is based on a direct correlation with the observed chemiluminescence (CL) from the lowest level of the LiO B 2Π state ( ˜4000-7000 Å) and high quality ab initio calculations for the ground state. The self-consistent assignment of the observed LIF and CL spectra makes use of the complimentary extended progressions in the X 2Π (CL) and B 2Π (LIF) vibrational level structure which results from the significant shift of the B 2Π excited state potential relative to that of the ground state. The experimental data are consistent with an excited state vibrational frequency separation of order 130 cm -1, and T e( B2Π) ≈ 26078 ± 800 cm-1. The latter value, in correlation with the ground state dissociation energy of LiO, suggests a B 2Π excited state dissociation energy well in excess of 2000 cm -1. The radiative lifetimes of the lowest levels of the LiO B 2Π state, isoergic with the highest levels of the LiO ground state, are determined to be in excess of 600 ns. The corresponding NaO excitation spectra in the range 6680-7250 Å also correlate well with ab initio calculations for the ground electronic state of NaO. Within this study, we provide optical signatures which one might consider to monitor LiO or NaO in process streams. In correlation with the observed chemiluminescence from B 2Π states of the higher alkali oxides KO, RbO, and

  4. Multiplexed tracking of protease activity using a single color of quantum dot vector and a time-gated Förster resonance energy transfer relay.

    PubMed

    Algar, W Russ; Malanoski, Anthony P; Susumu, Kimihiro; Stewart, Michael H; Hildebrandt, Niko; Medintz, Igor L

    2012-11-20

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are attractive probes for optical sensing and imaging due to their unique photophysical attributes and nanoscale size. In particular, the development of assays and biosensors based on QDs and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) continues to be a prominent focus of research. Here, we demonstrate the application of QDs as simultaneous donors and acceptors in a time-gated FRET relay for the multiplexed detection of protease activity. In contrast to the current state-of-the-art, which uses multiple colors of QDs, multiplexing was achieved using only a single color of QD. The other constituents of the FRET relay, a luminescent terbium complex and fluorescent dye, were assembled to QDs via peptides that were selected as substrates for the model proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin. Loss of prompt FRET between the QD and dye signaled the activity of chymotrypsin; loss of time-gated FRET between the terbium and QD signaled the activity of trypsin. We applied the FRET relay in a series of quantitative, real-time kinetic assays of increasing biochemical complexity, including multiplexed sensing, measuring inhibition in a multiplexed format, and tracking the proteolytic activation of an inactive pro-protease to its active form in a coupled, multienzyme system. These capabilities were derived from a ratiometric analysis of the two FRET pathways in the relay and permitted extraction of initial reaction rates, enzyme specificity constants, and apparent inhibition constants. This work adds to the growing body of research on multifunctional nanoparticles and introduces multiplexed sensing as a novel capability for a single nanoparticle vector. Furthermore, the ability to track both enzymes within a coupled biological system using one vector represents a significant advancement for nanoparticle-based biosensing. Prospective applications in biochemical research, applied diagnostics, and drug discovery are discussed.

  5. Low-lying electronic states of FeNC and FeCN: A theoretical journey into isomerization and quartet/sextet competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeYonker, Nathan J.; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Allen, Wesley D.; Pak, Chaeho; Schaefer, Henry F.; Peterson, Kirk A.

    2004-03-01

    With several levels of multireference and restricted open-shell single-reference electronic structure theory, optimum structures, relative energetics, and spectroscopic properties of the low-lying 6Δ, 6Π, 4Δ, 4Π, and 4Σ- states of linear FeNC and FeCN have been investigated using five contracted Gaussian basis sets ranging from Fe[10s8p3d], C/N[4s2p1d] to Fe[6s8p6d3f2g1h], C/N[6s5p4d3f2g]. Based on multireference configuration interaction (MRCISD+Q) results with a correlation-consistent polarized valence quadruple-zeta (cc-pVQZ) basis set, appended with core correlation and relativistic corrections, we propose the relative energies: Te(FeNC), 6Δ(0)<6Π (2300 cm-1)<4Δ (2700 cm-1)<4Π (4200 cm-1)<4Σ-; and Te(FeCN), 6Δ(0)<6Π (1800 cm-1)<4Δ (2500 cm-1)<4Π (2900 cm-1)<4Σ-. The 4Δ and 4Π states have massive multireference character, arising mostly from 11σ→12σ promotions, whereas the sextet states are dominated by single electronic configurations. The single-reference CCSDT-3 (coupled cluster singles and doubles with iterative partial triples) method appears to significantly overshoot the stabilization of the quartet states provided by both static and dynamical correlation. The 4,6Δ and 4,6Π states of both isomers are rather ionic, and all have dipole moments near 5 D. On the ground 6Δ surface, FeNC is predicted to lie 0.6 kcal mol-1 below FeCN, and the classical barrier for isocyanide/cyanide isomerization is about 6.5 kcal mol-1. Our data support the recent spectroscopic characterization by Lei and Dagdigian [J. Chem. Phys. 114, 2137 (2000)] of linear 6Δ FeNC as the first experimentally observed transition-metal monoisocyanide. Their assignments for the ground term symbol, isotopomeric rotational constants, and the Fe-N ω3 stretching frequency are confirmed; however, we find rather different structural parameters for 6Δ FeNC:re(Fe-N)=1.940 Å and r(N-C)=1.182 Å at the cc-pVQZ MRCISD+Q level. Our results also reveal that the observed band of Fe

  6. Low-lying {sup 3}P{sup o} and {sup 3}S{sup e} states of Rb{sup -}, Cs{sup -}, and Fr{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Bahrim, C.; Thumm, U.

    2000-02-01

    Our Dirac R-matrix calculations suggest that none of the heavy alkali-metal negative ions, Rb, Cs, and Fr, has an excited bound state. Their lowest excited state appears to be a multiplet of {sup 3}P{sub J}{sup o}-shape resonances, the J=1 component of which was recently observed in photodetachment experiments on Cs{sup -}. We analyze these {sup 3}P{sub J}{sup o} and the {sup 3}S{sup e} excited negative ion states in partial and converged total scattering cross sections for slow electrons with incident kinetic energies below 120 meV. Our results are in excellent agreement with available experimental data. We also propose a new value for the electron affinity of Fr, provide the scattering length for electronic collisions with Rb, Cs, and Fr, and discuss the nuclear charge dependence of relativistic effects in the resonance profiles. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  7. Folding model analysis of 240 MeV {sup 6}Li elastic scattering on {sup 116}Sn and inelastic scattering to low-lying states of {sup 116}Sn

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Lui, Y.-W.; Clark, H. L.; Tokimoto, Y.; Youngblood, D. H.

    2007-11-15

    Elastic scattering of 240 MeV {sup 6}Li ions from {sup 116}Sn was measured from 4 deg.{<=}{theta}{sub c.m.}{<=}32 deg. The data were fitted with a Woods-Saxon phenomenological potential and with double folding models using the M3Y NN effective interaction with and without density dependence. DWBA calculations with the fitted parameters were used to calculate cross sections for inelastic scattering to low-lying 2{sup +}and 3{sup -} states. B(E2) and B(E3) values were extracted and compared with electromagnetic values and those obtained from {alpha} inelastic scattering.

  8. The origin of unequal bond lengths in the C1B2 state of SO2: Signatures of high-lying potential energy surface crossings in the low-lying vibrational structure

    DOE PAGES

    Park, G. Barratt; Jiang, Jun; Field, Robert W.

    2016-04-14

    Here the C1B2 state of SO2 has a double-minimum potential in the antisymmetric stretch coordinate, such that the minimum energy geometry has nonequivalent SO bond lengths. The asymmetry in the potential energy surface is expressed as a staggering in the energy levels of the v'3 progression. We have recently made the first observation of low-lying levels with odd quanta of v'3, which allows us--in the current work--to characterize the origins of the level staggering. Our work demonstrates the usefulness of low-lying vibrational level structure, where the character of the wavefunctions can be relatively easily understood, to extract information about dynamicallymore » important potential energy surface crossings that occur at much higher energy. The measured staggering pattern is consistent with a vibronic coupling model for the double-minimum, which involves direct coupling to the bound 2 1A1 state and indirect coupling with the repulsive 3 1A1 state. The degree of staggering in the v'3 levels increases with quanta of bending excitation, which is consistent with the approach along the C state potential energy surface to a conical intersection with the 2 1A1 surface at a bond angle of ~145°.« less

  9. The origin of unequal bond lengths in the C̃ (1)B2 state of SO2: Signatures of high-lying potential energy surface crossings in the low-lying vibrational structure.

    PubMed

    Park, G Barratt; Jiang, Jun; Field, Robert W

    2016-04-14

    The C̃ (1)B2 state of SO2 has a double-minimum potential in the antisymmetric stretch coordinate, such that the minimum energy geometry has nonequivalent SO bond lengths. The asymmetry in the potential energy surface is expressed as a staggering in the energy levels of the ν3(') progression. We have recently made the first observation of low-lying levels with odd quanta of v3('), which allows us-in the current work-to characterize the origins of the level staggering. Our work demonstrates the usefulness of low-lying vibrational level structure, where the character of the wavefunctions can be relatively easily understood, to extract information about dynamically important potential energy surface crossings that occur at much higher energy. The measured staggering pattern is consistent with a vibronic coupling model for the double-minimum, which involves direct coupling to the bound 2 (1)A1 state and indirect coupling with the repulsive 3 (1)A1 state. The degree of staggering in the ν3(') levels increases with quanta of bending excitation, which is consistent with the approach along the C̃ state potential energy surface to a conical intersection with the 2 (1)A1 surface at a bond angle of ∼145°.

  10. An improved model electronic Hamiltonian for potential energy surfaces and spin−orbit couplings of low-lying d−d states of [Fe(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+}

    SciTech Connect

    Iuchi, Satoru Koga, Nobuaki

    2014-01-14

    With the aim of exploring excited state dynamics, a model electronic Hamiltonian for several low-lying d−d states of [Fe(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} complex [S. Iuchi, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 064519 (2012)] is refined using density-functional theory calculations of singlet, triplet, and quintet states as benchmarks. Spin−orbit coupling elements are also evaluated within the framework of the model Hamiltonian. The accuracy of the developed model Hamiltonian is determined by examining potential energies and spin−orbit couplings at surface crossing regions between different spin states. Insights into the potential energy surfaces around surface crossing regions are also provided through molecular dynamics simulations. The results demonstrate that the constructed model Hamiltonian can be used for studies on the d−d excited state dynamics of [Fe(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+}.

  11. Low-Lying Energy Isomers and Global Minima of Aqueous Nanoclusters: Structures and Spectroscopic Features of the Pentagonal Dodecahedron (H2O)20 and (H3O)+(H2O)20

    SciTech Connect

    Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2012-08-01

    We rely on a hierarchy of methods to identify the low-lying isomers for the pentagonal dodecahedron (H2O)20 and the H3O+(H2O)20 clusters. Initial screening of isomers was performed with classical potentials [TIP4P, TTM2-F, TTM2.1-F for (H2O)20 and ASP for H3O+(H2O)20] and the networks obtained with those potentials were subsequently reoptimized at the DFT (B3LYP) and MP2 levels of theory. For the pentagonal dodecahedron (H2O)20 it was found that DFT (B3LYP) and MP2 produced the same global minimum. However, this was not the case for the H3O+(H2O)20 cluster, for which MP2 produced a different network for the global minimum when compared to DFT (B3LYP). All low-lying minima of H3O+(H2O)20 correspond to hydrogen bonding networks having 9 ''free'' OH bonds and the hydronium ion on the surface of the cluster. The fact that DFT (B3LYP) and MP2 produce different results and issues related to the use of a smaller basis set, explains the discrepancy between the current results and the structure previously suggested [Science 304, 1137 (2004)] for the global minimum of the H3O+(H2O)20 cluster. Additionally, the IR spectra of the MP2 global minimum are closer to the experimentally measured ones than the spectra of the previously suggested DFT global minimum. The latter exhibit additional bands in the most red-shifted region of the OH stretching vibrations (corresponding to the ''fingerprint'' of the underlying hydrogen bonding network), which are absent from both the experimental as well as the spectra of the new structure suggested for the global minimum of this cluster.

  12. Vector analyzing power measurement of pion scattering from polarized [sup 7]Li in the region of the [Delta][sub 33] resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, R.; Boschitz, E.; Brinkmoeller, B.; Buehler, J.; Ritt, S.; Wessler, M. ); Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.; van den Brandt, B. ); Efimovykh, V.A.; Kovalev, A.I.; Prokofiev, A.N.; Polyakov, V.V. ); Chaumette, P.; Deregel, J.; Durand, G.; Fabre, J. ); Mach, R. ); Tacik, R. )

    1994-01-01

    The inclusive vector analyzing power [ital iT][sub 11] of [pi][sup +][r arrow][sup 7]Li elastic scattering and inelastic scattering to the 0.47 MeV excited state was measured at several angles for [ital T][sub [pi

  13. Seawater-overwash impacts on freshwater-lens water supplies of low-lying oceanic islands: example from Roi-Namur Island, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, C. I.; Gingerich, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Low-lying oceanic islands host thin freshwater lenses subject to long-term aquifer salinization by seawater overwash. The lens is often the sole-source water supply for inhabitants. As maximum elevation for these islands is only a few meters above sea level, overwash can occur during high tides and storm surges. Sea level rise due to climate change will make overwash events even more common. The thin freshwater lenses, a few meters thick, are underlain by seawater, so pumping must be done carefully, often with horizontal skimming wells. Even a small amount of downward seawater infiltration from an overwash event can render the water supply non-potable. Where permeability is high, seawater infiltrates quickly, but seawater that infiltrates lower-permeability zones may remain for many months causing groundwater to remain non-potable, leaving residents without a reliable freshwater source. Initial post-overwash salinization is driven by the higher density of the invading saltwater, which sinks and mixes into the fresher water in potentially-complex patterns determined by: distribution of flooding and post-flood ponding, locations of permeable paths, and the inherently complex flow fields generated when fluid of higher density overlies lower-density fluid. The flow patterns cannot generally be measured or predicted in detail. This study develops basic understanding of overwash salinization processes impacting water supply on low-level islands, using a rare example of a monitored seawater overwash event that occurred in December 2008 at Roi-Namur Island in Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, in which the salinity evolution of well water was measured. Due to typical lack of field data on such islands, a set of plausible alternative simulation-model descriptions of the hydrogeology and overwash event are created for analysis of the monitored salinization and recovery. Despite inability to know the 'true and complete' description of the event and the

  14. Assessing the impacts of sea-level rise and precipitation change on the surficial aquifer in the low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier islands, east-central Florida (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Han; Wang, Dingbao; Hagen, Scott C.; Medeiros, Stephen C.; Hall, Carlton R.

    2016-11-01

    A three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow and salinity transport model is implemented using the SEAWAT code to quantify the spatial variation of water-table depth and salinity of the surficial aquifer in Merritt Island and Cape Canaveral Island in east-central Florida (USA) under steady-state 2010 hydrologic and hydrogeologic conditions. The developed model is referred to as the `reference' model and calibrated against field-measured groundwater levels and a map of land use and land cover. Then, five prediction/projection models are developed based on modification of the boundary conditions of the calibrated `reference' model to quantify climate change impacts under various scenarios of sea-level rise and precipitation change projected to 2050. Model results indicate that west Merritt Island will encounter lowland inundation and saltwater intrusion due to its low elevation and flat topography, while climate change impacts on Cape Canaveral Island and east Merritt Island are not significant. The SEAWAT models developed for this study are useful and effective tools for water resources management, land use planning, and climate-change adaptation decision-making in these and other low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier island systems.

  15. Cloning vector

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, R.A.; Smith, L.M.

    1994-12-27

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site. 2 figures.

  16. Cloning vector

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.

  17. Narrow resonances and short-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, Boris A.

    2009-09-01

    Narrow resonances in systems with short-range interactions are discussed in an effective field theory (EFT) framework. An effective Lagrangian is formulated in the form of a combined expansion in powers of a momentum Q≪Λ—a short-distance scale—and an energy difference δɛ=|E-ɛ0|≪ɛ0—a resonance peak energy. At leading order in the combined expansion, a two-body scattering amplitude is the sum of a smooth background term of order Q0 and a Breit-Wigner term of order Q2(δɛ)-1 which becomes dominant for δɛ≲Q3. Such an EFT is applicable to systems in which short-distance dynamics generates a low-lying quasistationary state. The EFT is generalized to describe a narrow low-lying resonance in a system of charged particles. It is shown that in the case of Coulomb repulsion, a two-body scattering amplitude at leading order in a combined expansion is the sum of a Coulomb-modified background term and a Breit-Wigner amplitude with parameters renormalized by Coulomb interactions.

  18. Narrow resonances and short-range interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, Boris A.

    2009-09-15

    Narrow resonances in systems with short-range interactions are discussed in an effective field theory (EFT) framework. An effective Lagrangian is formulated in the form of a combined expansion in powers of a momentum Q<<{lambda}--a short-distance scale--and an energy difference {delta}{epsilon}=|E-{epsilon}{sub 0}|<<{epsilon}{sub 0}--a resonance peak energy. At leading order in the combined expansion, a two-body scattering amplitude is the sum of a smooth background term of order Q{sup 0} and a Breit-Wigner term of order Q{sup 2}({delta}{epsilon}){sup -1} which becomes dominant for {delta}{epsilon} < or approx. Q{sup 3}. Such an EFT is applicable to systems in which short-distance dynamics generates a low-lying quasistationary state. The EFT is generalized to describe a narrow low-lying resonance in a system of charged particles. It is shown that in the case of Coulomb repulsion, a two-body scattering amplitude at leading order in a combined expansion is the sum of a Coulomb-modified background term and a Breit-Wigner amplitude with parameters renormalized by Coulomb interactions.

  19. Hamiltonian effective field theory study of the N*(1440 ) resonance in lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhan-Wei; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Stokes, Finn M.; Thomas, Anthony W.; Wu, Jia-Jun

    2017-02-01

    We examine the phase shifts and inelasticities associated with the N*(1440 ) Roper resonance, and we connect these infinite-volume observables to the finite-volume spectrum of lattice QCD using Hamiltonian effective field theory. We explore three hypotheses for the structure of the Roper resonance. All three hypotheses are able to describe the scattering data well. In the third hypothesis the Roper resonance couples the low-lying bare basis-state component associated with the ground-state nucleon with the virtual meson-baryon contributions. Here the nontrivial superpositions of the meson-baryon scattering states are complemented by bare basis-state components, explaining their observation in contemporary lattice QCD calculations. The merit of this scenario lies in its ability to not only describe the observed nucleon energy levels in large-volume lattice QCD simulations but also explain why other low-lying states have been missed in today's lattice QCD results for the nucleon spectrum.

  20. Equivalent Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The cross-product is a mathematical operation that is performed between two 3-dimensional vectors. The result is a vector that is orthogonal or perpendicular to both of them. Learning about this for the first time while taking Calculus-III, the class was taught that if AxB = AxC, it does not necessarily follow that B = C. This seemed baffling. The…

  1. Modeled changes in extreme wave climates in the Pacific Ocean during the 21st century and implications for low-lying U.S. and U.S.-affiliated atoll islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, J. B.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Erikson, L. H.; Hegermiller, C.

    2014-12-01

    . As most atoll islets accrete during large wave events, decreasing wave heights during other seasons may inhibit atoll islet accretion such that the low-lying islets may not be able to keep up with projected sea-level rise.

  2. Lowest l=0 proton resonance in {sup 26}Si and implications for nucleosynthesis of {sup 26}Al

    SciTech Connect

    Peplowski, P. N.; Baby, L. T.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Diffenderfer, E.; Hoeflich, P.; Rojas, A.; Volya, A.; Dekat, S. E.; Gay, D. L.; Grubor-Urosevic, O.; Kaye, R. A.; Keeley, N.

    2009-03-15

    Using a beam of the radioactive isotope {sup 25}Al, produced with the new RESOLUT facility, we measured the direct (d,n) proton-transfer reaction leading to low-lying proton resonances in {sup 26}Si. We observed the lowest l=0 proton resonance, identified with the 3{sup +} state at 5.914-MeV excitation energy. This result eliminates the largest uncertainty in astrophysical reaction rates involved in the nucleosynthesis of {sup 26}Al.

  3. Vector carpets

    SciTech Connect

    Dovey, D.

    1995-03-22

    Previous papers have described a general method for visualizing vector fields that involves drawing many small ``glyphs`` to represent the field. This paper shows how to improve the speed of the algorithm by utilizing hardware support for line drawing and extends the technique from regular to unstructured grids. The new approach can be used to visualize vector fields at arbitrary surfaces within regular and unstructured grids. Applications of the algorithm include interactive visualization of transient electromagnetic fields and visualization of velocity fields in fluid flow problems.

  4. Poynting vector and wave vector directions of equatorial chorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubenschuss, Ulrich; Santolík, Ondřej; Breuillard, Hugo; Li, Wen; Le Contel, Olivier

    2016-12-01

    We present new results on wave vectors and Poynting vectors of chorus rising and falling tones on the basis of 6 years of THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) observations. The majority of wave vectors is closely aligned with the direction of the ambient magnetic field (B0). Oblique wave vectors are confined to the magnetic meridional plane, pointing away from Earth. Poynting vectors are found to be almost parallel to B0. We show, for the first time, that slightly oblique Poynting vectors are directed away from Earth for rising tones and toward Earth for falling tones. For the majority of lower band chorus elements, the mutual orientation between Poynting vectors and wave vectors can be explained by whistler mode dispersion in a homogeneous collisionless cold plasma. Upper band chorus seems to require inclusion of collisional processes or taking into account azimuthal anisotropies in the propagation medium. The latitudinal extension of the equatorial source region can be limited to ±6∘ around the B0 minimum or approximately ±5000 km along magnetic field lines. We find increasing Poynting flux and focusing of Poynting vectors on the B0 direction with increasing latitude. Also, wave vectors become most often more field aligned. A smaller group of chorus generated with very oblique wave normals tends to stay close to the whistler mode resonance cone. This suggests that close to the equatorial source region (within ˜20∘ latitude), a wave guidance mechanism is relevant, for example, in ducts of depleted or enhanced plasma density.

  5. Contemporary research with nuclear resonance fluorescence at the S-DALINAC

    SciTech Connect

    Zweidinger, M.; Beck, T.; Beller, J.; Gayer, U.; Mertes, L.; Pai, H.; Pietralla, N.; Ries, P.; Romig, C.; Werner, V.

    2015-02-24

    In the last decades many nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments aiming for low-lying dipole excitations were performed at the Darmstadt High Intensity Photon Setup at S-DALINAC facility. On the electric dipole side, quadrupole-octupole coupled states and the Pygmy Dipole Resonance are of particular interest. On the magnetic dipole side, the so-called scissors mode is in the focus of interest. Furthermore, using the method of resonant self absorption, the decay behavior of J{sup π} = 1{sup −} states was investigated in {sup 140}Ce.

  6. Effective Field Theory Description of Two-Body Resonance States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balalhabashi, Jaber

    2017-01-01

    The quantum-mechanical scattering of two particles around a resonance state appears in many areas of physics, for example in cold atoms near narrow, low-lying Feshbach resonances. We construct) an EFT that describes such scattering with contact, derivative interactions. We demonstrate that a careful choice of leading- and next-to-leading-order terms in an effective Lagrangian gives rise to a systematic expansion of the T matrix around the resonance, with controlled error estimates. We compare phase shifts and pole positions with those of a toy model. We are extending our EFT to include Coulomb interactions with the goal of describing nuclear resonances, such as those appearing in the scattering of alpha particles. This material is based upon work supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Award Number DE-FG02-04ER41338.

  7. Resonances and resonance widths

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, T.

    1986-05-01

    Two-dimensional betatron resonances are much more important than their simple one-dimensional counterparts and exhibit a strong dependence on the betatron phase advance per cell. A practical definition of ''width'' is expanded upon in order to display these relations in tables. A primarily pedagogical introduction is given to explain the tables, and also to encourage a wider capability for deriving resonance behavior and wider use of ''designer'' resonances.

  8. Resonant spectra of quadrupolar anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossez, K.; Mao, Xingze; Nazarewicz, W.; Michel, N.; Garrett, W. R.; Płoszajczak, M.

    2016-09-01

    In quadrupole-bound anions, an extra electron is attached at a sufficiently large quadrupole moment of a neutral molecule, which is lacking a permanent dipole moment. The nature of the bound states and low-lying resonances of such anions is of interest for understanding the threshold behavior of open quantum systems in general. In this work, we investigate the properties of quadrupolar anions as halo systems, the formation of rotational bands, and the transition from a subcritical to supercritical electric quadrupole moment. We solve the electron-plus-rotor problem using a nonadiabatic coupled-channel formalism by employing the Berggren ensemble, which explicitly contains bound states, narrow resonances, and the scattering continuum. The rotor is treated as a linear triad of point charges with zero monopole and dipole moments and nonzero quadrupole moment. We demonstrate that binding energies and radii of quadrupolar anions strictly follow the scaling laws for two-body halo systems. Contrary to the case of dipolar anions, ground-state band of quadrupolar anions smoothly extend into the continuum, and many rotational bands could be identified above the detachment threshold. We study the evolution of a bound state of an anion as it dives into the continuum at a critical quadrupole moment and we show that the associated critical exponent is α =2 . Everything considered, quadrupolar anions represent a perfect laboratory for the studies of marginally bound open quantum systems.

  9. Proton decay from the isoscalar giant dipole resonance in {sup 58}Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Hunyadi, M.; Hashimoto, H.; Fujimura, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Hara, K.; Itoh, M.; Nakanishi, K.; Okumura, S.; Li, T.; Garg, U.; Hoffman, J.; Nayak, B. K.; Akimune, H.; Gacsi, Z.; Harakeh, M. N.

    2009-10-15

    Proton decay from the 3({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega} isoscalar giant dipole resonance (ISGDR) in {sup 58}Ni has been measured using the ({alpha},{alpha}{sup '}p) reaction at a bombarding energy of 386 MeV to investigate its decay properties. We have extracted the ISGDR strength under the coincidence condition between inelastically scattered {alpha} particles at forward angles and decay protons emitted at backward angles. Branching ratios for proton decay to low-lying states of {sup 57}Co have been determined, and the results compared with predictions of recent continuum-RPA calculations. The final-state spectra of protons decaying to the low-lying states in {sup 57}Co were analyzed for a more detailed understanding of the structure of the ISGDR. It is found that there are differences in the structure of the ISGDR as a function of excitation energy.

  10. The origin of unequal bond lengths in the C1B2 state of SO2: Signatures of high-lying potential energy surface crossings in the low-lying vibrational structure

    SciTech Connect

    Park, G. Barratt; Jiang, Jun; Field, Robert W.

    2016-04-14

    Here the C1B2 state of SO2 has a double-minimum potential in the antisymmetric stretch coordinate, such that the minimum energy geometry has nonequivalent SO bond lengths. The asymmetry in the potential energy surface is expressed as a staggering in the energy levels of the v'3 progression. We have recently made the first observation of low-lying levels with odd quanta of v'3, which allows us--in the current work--to characterize the origins of the level staggering. Our work demonstrates the usefulness of low-lying vibrational level structure, where the character of the wavefunctions can be relatively easily understood, to extract information about dynamically important potential energy surface crossings that occur at much higher energy. The measured staggering pattern is consistent with a vibronic coupling model for the double-minimum, which involves direct coupling to the bound 2 1A1 state and indirect coupling with the repulsive 3 1A1 state. The degree of staggering in the v'3 levels increases with quanta of bending excitation, which is consistent with the approach along the C state potential energy surface to a conical intersection with the 2 1A1 surface at a bond angle of ~145°.

  11. Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, E.

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…

  12. Low-lying excited states and primary photoproducts of [Os3(CO)10(s-cis-L)] (L=cyclohexa-1,3-diene, buta-1,3-diene)] clusters studied by picosecond time-resolved UV/Vis and IR spectroscopy and by density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Vergeer, Frank W; Matousek, Pavel; Towrie, Michael; Costa, Paulo J; Calhorda, Maria J; Hartl, Frantisek

    2004-07-19

    Combined picosecond transient absorption and time-resolved infrared studies were performed, aimed at characterising low-lying excited states of the cluster [Os(3)(CO)(10)(s-cis-L)] (L=cyclohexa-1,3-diene, 1) and monitoring the formation of its photoproducts. Theoretical (DFT and TD-DFT) calculations on the closely related cluster with L=buta-1,3-diene (2') have revealed that the low-lying electronic transitions of these [Os(3)(CO)(10)(s-cis-1,3-diene)] clusters have a predominant sigma(core)pi*(CO) character. From the lowest sigmapi* excited state, cluster 1 undergoes fast Os-Os(1,3-diene) bond cleavage (tau=3.3 ps) resulting in the formation of a coordinatively unsaturated primary photoproduct (1 a) with a single CO bridge. A new insight into the structure of the transient has been obtained by DFT calculations. The cleaved Os-Os(1,3-diene) bond is bridged by the donor 1,3-diene ligand, compensating for the electron deficiency at the neighbouring Os centre. Because of the unequal distribution of the electron density in transient 1 a, a second CO bridge is formed in 20 ps in the photoproduct [Os(3)(CO)(8)(micro-CO)(2)(cyclohexa-1,3-diene)] (1 b). The latter compound, absorbing strongly around 630 nm, mainly regenerates the parent cluster with a lifetime of about 100 ns in hexane. Its structure, as suggested by the DFT calculations, again contains the 1,3-diene ligand coordinated in a bridging fashion. Photoproduct 1 b can therefore be assigned as a high-energy coordination isomer of the parent cluster with all Os-Os bonds bridged.

  13. Collider Signal I :. Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Tim M. P.

    2010-08-01

    These TASI lectures were part of the summer school in 2008 and cover the collider signal associated with resonances in models of physics beyond the Standard Model. I begin with a review of the Z boson, one of the best-studied resonances in particle physics, and review how the Breit-Wigner form of the propagator emerges in perturbation theory and discuss the narrow width approximation. I review how the LEP and SLAC experiments could use the kinematics of Z events to learn about fermion couplings to the Z. I then make a brief survey of models of physics beyond the Standard Model which predict resonances, and discuss some of the LHC observables which we can use to discover and identify the nature of the BSM physics. I finish up with a discussion of the linear moose that one can use for an effective theory description of a massive color octet vector particle.

  14. High-spin molecular resonances in 12C + 12C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uegaki, E.; Abe, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Resonances observed in the 12C + 12C collisions are studied with a molecular model. At high spins J = 10-18, a stable dinuclear configuration is found to be an equator-equator touching one. Firstly, normal modes have been solved around the equilibrium, with spin J and K-quantum number being specified for rotation of the whole system. Secondly, with respect to large centrifugal energy, Coriolis coupling has been diagonalized among low-lying 11 states of normal-mode excitations, which brings K-mixing. The analyses of decay widths and excitation functions have been done. The molecular ground state exhibits alignments of the orbital angular momentum and the 12C spins, while some of the molecular excited states exhibit disalignments with small widths. Those results are surprisingly in good agreement with the experiments, which will light up a new physical picture of the highspin 12C + 12C resonances.

  15. Light axial vector mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kan; Pang, Cheng-Qun; Liu, Xiang; Matsuki, Takayuki

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by the abundant experimental observation of axial-vector states, we study whether the observed axial-vector states can be categorized into the conventional axial-vector meson family. In this paper we carry out an analysis based on the mass spectra and two-body Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-allowed decays. Besides testing the possible axial-vector meson assignments, we also predict abundant information for their decays and the properties of some missing axial-vector mesons, which are valuable for further experimental exploration of the observed and predicted axial-vector mesons.

  16. Isomerism of low-lying states in 86Y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, C.; Bucurescu, D.; Mărginean, N.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Iordăchescu, A.; Căta-Danil, G.; Căta-Danil, I.; Deleanu, D.; Filipescu, D.; Ghiţa, D.; Glodariu, T.; Ivaşcu, M.; Mihai, C.; Mărginean, R.; Pascu, S.; Sava, T.; Stroe, L.; Suliman, G.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2010-04-01

    Low-energy isomeric states of 86Y were populated in the reaction 73Ge + 16O at 57MeV and were investigated by means of delayed n γ and γ γ coincidences. A half-life of 70(7)ns was measured for the 5- state at 208keV, yielding an exceptionally small B( M1) value of 2.0(7)×10-5 W.u. and a B( E2) value of 0.34(+24 -13) W.u. For the other three known isomeric states at 218, 243, and 302keV, the half-lives extracted from the present experimental data are in very good agreement with previous measurements. Given the newly observed isomeric character of the 5- 208keV state, the re-analysis of earlier experimental data on the 302keV isomer led to a new spin-parity assignment, 6+, for this state. In addition, this re-evaluation provided two g -factors, -0.083(3) and +0.63(2) , for the 208 and 302keV states, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of spherical-shell model calculations performed with a truncated space of configurations built on the f 5/2 , p 3/2 , p 1/2 , and g 9/2 valence orbitals. Effective spin, orbital, and “tensor” g -factors were determined empirically for protons and neutrons in the considered configuration space.

  17. Low-lying levels in /sup 148/Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, E.B.; Lesko, K.T.; Champagne, A.E.

    1988-02-01

    The /sup 149/Sm(d,/sup 3/He) reaction has been used to populate levels in /sup 148/Pm. Nineteen new excited states have been observed below 1 MeV excitation energy in /sup 148/Pm. The possible astrophysical implications of these results are discussed.

  18. Radiative Decays of Low-Lying Excited-State Hyperons

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Simon

    2000-05-01

    The quark wave-functions of the lower-lying excited-state hyperons Lambda(1405), Sigma(1385), and Lambda(1520) are not well understood. For example, the Lambda(1405) may not be a regular three-quark state but a $\\bar{K}$N molecule. Several competing models have been proposed, but none have been convincingly eliminated. Measuring radiative decays provides a means of discriminating between the models. The radiative branching of ratios are predicted to be small (~1%), but the radiative widths vary by factors of 2-10 from model to model. The existing experimental data is sparse and inconsistent; moreover, the radiative decay of the Sigma(1385) has never been observed before (except for one event). These lower-lying excited state hypersons were produced in a tagged photon-beam experiment in the CLAS detector at TJNAF in the reaction gamma p → K+ Y* for photon energies from threshold to 2.4 GeV. The radiative branching ration for the Sigma0(1385) relative to the Sigma0(1385) → Lambda pi0 channel was measured to be 0.021 ± 0.008$+0.004\\atop{-0.007}$, corresponding to a partial width of 640 ± 270$+130\\atop{-220}$ keV.

  19. The Low-Lying Electronic States of YCu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The spectroscopic constants for the singlet and triplet states of YCu below about 15 000 per centimeter are determined using an internally contracted multireference configuration-interaction approach. These calculations are calibrated by studies of fewer states using higher levels of correlation treatment and/or larger basis sets. The computed T(sub e) values and radiative lifetimes are in reasonable agreement with experiment. The calculations confirm the previous experimental assignment for all but one state, where theory helps resolve between two possible assignments.

  20. The low-lying electronic states of LiC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The spectroscopic constants for the doublet and quartet states of LiC below about 30,000/cm are determined using an internally contracted multireference configuration-interaction approach in conjunction with a [6s 5p 3d 2f] atomic natural orbital basis sets. All of the strongly bound states, X(sup 4)(SIGMA)(sup -),(1)(sup 2)(DELTA), (1)(sup 2)(SIGMA)(sup +), and (2)(sup 2) II, very ionic in character. The only bound-bound quartet transition in this energy range is (2)(sup 4)SIGMA(sup -) and Franck-Condon factors, Einstein A values, and lifetimes are reported for this transition.

  1. On the low-lying states of TiN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A series of CAS SCF and multi-reference CI calculations are used to describe the lowest states of TiN. The bonding in all states is described as a triple bond involving the Ti 3d orbitals. The system has some ionic character as seen from both population analysis and dipole moment. The origins of the excited states are discussed.

  2. Energies of low-lying excited states of linear polyenes.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Ronald L; Galinato, Mary Grace I; Chu, Emily F; Howard, Jason N; Broene, Richard D; Frank, Harry A

    2008-12-11

    Room temperature absorption and emission spectra of the all-trans isomers of decatetraene, dodecapentaene, tetradecahexaene, and hexadecaheptaene have been obtained in a series of nonpolar solvents. The resolved vibronic features in the optical spectra of these model systems allow the accurate determination of S(0) (1(1)A(g)(-)) --> S(2) (1(1)B(u)(+)) and S(1) (2(1)A(g)(-)) --> S(0) (1(1)A(g)(-)) electronic origins as a function of solvent polarizability. These data can be extrapolated to predict the transition energies in the absence of solvent perturbations. The effects of the terminal methyl substituents on the transition energies also can be estimated. Franck-Condon maxima in the absorption and emission spectra were used to estimate differences between S(0) (1(1)A(g)(-)) --> S(1) (2(1)A(g)(-)) and S(0) (1(1)A(g)(-)) --> S(2) (1(1)B(u)(+)) electronic origins and "vertical" transition energies. Experimental estimates of the vertical transition energies of unsubstituted, all-trans polyenes in vacuum as a function of conjugation length are compared with long-standing multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) treatments and with more recent ab initio calculations of the energies of the 2(1)A(g)(-) (S(1)) and 1(1)B(u)(+) (S(2)) states.

  3. The Low-Lying Electronic States of LiB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The spectroscopic constants for the triplet and singlet states of LiB below about 30 000/ cm are determined using an internally contracted multireference configuration interaction approach in conjunction with [6s 5p 3d 2f] atomic natural orbital basis sets. The ground state is (sup 3)Pi as found in previous work. No excited triplet states are found to be ideal for characterizing the ground state; the (1)(sup 3)Sigma(sup -) state has a transition energy that is too small for many experimental approaches and the (2)(sup 3)Pi and (3)(sup 3)Pi states have bond lengths that are significantly longer than the ground state, resulting in transition intensities that are spread out over many vibrational levels of the ground state.

  4. Understanding Singular Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David; Botteron, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    matrix yields a surprisingly simple, heuristical approximation to its singular vectors. There are correspondingly good approximations to the singular values. Such rules of thumb provide an intuitive interpretation of the singular vectors that helps explain why the SVD is so…

  5. Rhotrix Vector Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aminu, Abdulhadi

    2010-01-01

    By rhotrix we understand an object that lies in some way between (n x n)-dimensional matrices and (2n - 1) x (2n - 1)-dimensional matrices. Representation of vectors in rhotrices is different from the representation of vectors in matrices. A number of vector spaces in matrices and their properties are known. On the other hand, little seems to be…

  6. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors.

    PubMed

    Browning, Diana L; Collins, Casey P; Hocum, Jonah D; Leap, David J; Rae, Dustin T; Trobridge, Grant D

    2016-03-01

    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34(+) cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy.

  7. Covariantized vector Galileons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Matthew; Koyama, Kazuya; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2016-03-01

    Vector Galileons are ghost-free systems containing higher derivative interactions of vector fields. They break the vector gauge symmetry, and the dynamics of the longitudinal vector polarizations acquire a Galileon symmetry in an appropriate decoupling limit in Minkowski space. Using an Arnowitt-Deser-Misner approach, we carefully reconsider the coupling with gravity of vector Galileons, with the aim of studying the necessary conditions to avoid the propagation of ghosts. We develop arguments that put on a more solid footing the results previously obtained in the literature. Moreover, working in analogy with the scalar counterpart, we find indications for the existence of a "beyond Horndeski" theory involving vector degrees of freedom that avoids the propagation of ghosts thanks to secondary constraints. In addition, we analyze a Higgs mechanism for generating vector Galileons through spontaneous symmetry breaking, and we present its consistent covariantization.

  8. Molecular neurosurgery: vectors and vector delivery strategies.

    PubMed

    White, Edward

    2012-12-01

    Molecular neurosurgery involves the use of vector-mediated gene therapy and gene knockdown to manipulate in vivo gene expression for the treatment of neurological diseases. These techniques have the potential to revolutionise the practice of neurosurgery. However, significant challenges remain to be overcome before these techniques enter routine clinical practice. These challenges have been the subject of intensive research in recent years and include the development of strategies to facilitate effective vector delivery to the brain and the development of both viral and non-viral vectors that are capable of efficient cell transduction without excessive toxicity. This review provides an update on the practice of molecular neurosurgery with particular focus on the practical neurosurgical aspects of vector delivery to the brain. In addition, an introduction to the key vectors employed in clinical trials and a brief overview of previous gene therapy clinical trials is provided. Finally, key areas for future research aimed at increasing the likelihood of the successful translation of gene therapy into clinical trials are highlighted.

  9. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-28

    300001 1 of 16 VEHICLE-BASED VECTOR SENSOR STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor . (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating...mechanics. An acoustic vector sensor measures the particle motion via an accelerometer and combines Attorney Docket No. 300001 2 of 16 the

  10. Shape resonance spectra of uracil, 5-fluorouracil, and 5-chlorouracil

    SciTech Connect

    Kossoski, F.; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.

    2014-01-14

    We report on the shape resonance spectra of uracil, 5-fluorouracil, and 5-chlorouracil, as obtained from fixed-nuclei elastic scattering calculations performed with the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials. Our results are in good agreement with the available electron transmission spectroscopy data, and support the existence of three π* resonances in uracil and 5-fluorouracil. As expected, the anion states are more stable in the substituted molecules than in uracil. Since the stabilization is stronger in 5-chlorouracil, the lowest π* resonance in this system becomes a bound anion state. The present results also support the existence of a low-lying σ{sub CCl{sup *}} shape resonance in 5-chlorouracil. Exploratory calculations performed at selected C–Cl bond lengths suggest that the σ{sub CCl{sup *}} resonance could couple to the two lowest π* states, giving rise to a very rich dissociation dynamics. These facts would be compatible with the complex branching of the dissociative electron attachment cross sections, even though we cannot discuss any details of the vibration dynamics based only on the present fixed-nuclei results.

  11. Shape resonance spectra of uracil, 5-fluorouracil, and 5-chlorouracil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossoski, F.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Varella, M. T. do N.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the shape resonance spectra of uracil, 5-fluorouracil, and 5-chlorouracil, as obtained from fixed-nuclei elastic scattering calculations performed with the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials. Our results are in good agreement with the available electron transmission spectroscopy data, and support the existence of three π* resonances in uracil and 5-fluorouracil. As expected, the anion states are more stable in the substituted molecules than in uracil. Since the stabilization is stronger in 5-chlorouracil, the lowest π* resonance in this system becomes a bound anion state. The present results also support the existence of a low-lying σ _CCl^* shape resonance in 5-chlorouracil. Exploratory calculations performed at selected C-Cl bond lengths suggest that the σ _CCl^* resonance could couple to the two lowest π* states, giving rise to a very rich dissociation dynamics. These facts would be compatible with the complex branching of the dissociative electron attachment cross sections, even though we cannot discuss any details of the vibration dynamics based only on the present fixed-nuclei results.

  12. Optical resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Yariv, Amnon (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention discloses a semi-ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) optical resonator structure comprising a medium including an edge forming a reflective facet and a waveguide within the medium, the waveguide having opposing ends formed by the reflective facet. The performance of the SRFP resonator can be further enhanced by including a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the waveguide on one side of the gain medium. The optical resonator can be employed in a variety of optical devices. Laser structures using at least one SRFP resonator are disclosed where the resonators are disposed on opposite sides of a gain medium. Other laser structures employing one or more resonators on one side of a gain region are also disclosed.

  13. On Effective Degrees of Freedom at Chiral Restoration and the Vector Manifestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Mannque

    2003-08-01

    Recent research activities on the chiral structure of hadronic matter near the phase transition predicted by QCD and extensively looked for in terrestrial laboratories as well as in satellite observatories raise the issue of whether we have fully identified the relevant degrees of freedom involved in the transition. In this talk, I would like to discuss a recent novel approach to the issue based on the "vector manifestation" scenario discovered by Harada and Yamawaki in hidden local symmetry theory 1,2. For simplicity, I will restrict myself to two extreme scenarios: one that we shall refer to as "standard" in which pions are considered to be the only low-lying degrees of freedom and the other that could be referred to as "non-standard" in which in addition to pions, other degrees of freedom figure in the process. In particular, I shall consider the scenario that arises at one-loop order in chiral perturbation theory with hidden local symmetry Lagrangian consisting of pions as well as nearly massless vector mesons that figure importantly at the "vector manifestation (VM)" fixed point. It will be shown that if the VM is realized in nature, the chiral phase structure of hadronic matter can be much richer than that in the standard one and the chiral phase transition will be a smooth crossover: Sharp vector and scalar excitations are expected in the vicinity of the critical point. Some indirect indications that lend support to the VM scenario are discussed.

  14. R-matrix with Pseudo-States (RMPS) method: application to CH+ resonances curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Dermot; Tennyson, Jonathan; Zhang, Rui

    2011-07-01

    In a series of calculations on both electron and positron collisions with small molecules the R-Matrix with Pseudo-States (RMPS) method has been found to recover polarisation effects neglected in other close-coupling methods including the standard R-matrix procedure. The molecular R-Matrix and RMPS methods is being applied to determine low-lying resonance states of CH+ as a function of internuclear separation. Initial results are presented for both a standard R-matrix close-coupling model and for an RMPS calculation. Eigenphase sums and resonances below the 3Π threshold are presented for 2Π total symmetry. These resonances are classified by their quantum defects and compared to previous results. Prospects for these and other calculations using the RMPS method are discussed.

  15. Dipole Excitation of Soft and Giant Resonances in 132Sn and neighboring unstable nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boretzky, Konstanze

    2006-04-01

    The evolution of dipole-strength distributions above the one-neutron threshold was investigated for exotic neutron-rich nuclei in a series of experiments using the electromagnetic projectile excitation at beam energies around 500 MeV/u. For halo nuclei, the large observed dipole strength (shown here for 11Be) is explained within the direct-breakup model to be of non-collective character. For neutron-rich oxygen isotopes, the origin of the observed low-lying strength is concluded to be due to single-particle transitions on theoretical grounds. The dipole strength spectra for 130,132Sn exhibit resonance-like structures observed at energies around 10 MeV exhausting a few percent of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn (TRK) sum rule, separated clearly from the dominant Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR). The data agree with predictions for a new dipole mode related to the oscillation of excess neutrons versus the core nucleons ("pygmy resonance").

  16. Photon scattering studies of the giant dipole resonance in medium weight nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, T.J.; Holt, R.J.; Jackson, H.E.; Laszewski, R.M.; McKeown, R.D.; Nathan, A.M.; Specht, J.R.

    1981-11-01

    Quasimonochromatic photons have been used to measure elastic and inelastic photon scattering cross sections in the giant dipole resonance region of /sup 52/Cr, Fe, /sup 60/Ni, /sup 92/Mo, and /sup 96/Mo in an experiment in which the elastic and inelastic scattering are resolved. The elastic scattering cross sections show clear evidence for isospin splitting of the giant dipole resonance. The inelastic scattering to low-lying vibrational levels, which is a measure of the coupling between the giant dipole resonance and collective surface vibrations, is in qualitative agreement with the predictions of the dynamic collective model. However, when examined in detail, this model does not provide an adequate description of the scattering data.

  17. Viral Vector Production: Adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Julius W; Morshed, Ramin A; Kane, J Robert; Auffinger, Brenda; Qiao, Jian; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviral vectors have proven to be valuable resources in the development of novel therapies aimed at targeting pathological conditions of the central nervous system, including Alzheimer's disease and neoplastic brain lesions. Not only can some genetically engineered adenoviral vectors achieve remarkably efficient and specific gene delivery to target cells, but they also may act as anticancer agents by selectively replicating within cancer cells.Due to the great interest in using adenoviral vectors for various purposes, the need for a comprehensive protocol for viral vector production is especially apparent. Here, we describe the process of generating an adenoviral vector in its entirety, including the more complex process of adenoviral fiber modification to restrict viral tropism in order to achieve more efficient and specific gene delivery.

  18. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  19. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James M.; Leighton, James F.

    1990-01-01

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  20. Double resonance rotational spectroscopy of CH2D+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töpfer, Matthias; Jusko, Pavol; Schlemmer, Stephan; Asvany, Oskar

    2016-09-01

    Context. Deuterated forms of CH are thought to be responsible for deuterium enrichment in lukewarm astronomical environments. There is no unambiguous detection of CH2D+ in space to date. Aims: Four submillimetre rotational lines of CH2D+ are documented in the literature. Our aim is to present a complete dataset of highly resolved rotational lines, including millimetre (mm) lines needed for a potential detection. Methods: We used a low-temperature ion trap and applied a novel IR-mm-wave double resonance method to measure the rotational lines of CH2D+. Results: We measured 21 low-lying (J ≤ 4) rotational transitions of CH2D+ between 23 GHz and 1.1 THz with accuracies close to 2 ppb.

  1. Nonlinear resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevorkian, J.

    This report discusses research in the area of slowly varying nonlinear oscillatory systems. Some of the topics discussed are as follows: adiabatic invariants and transient resonance in very slowly varying Hamiltonian systems; sustained resonance in very slowly varying Hamiltonian systems; free-electron lasers with very slow wiggler taper; and bursting oscillators.

  2. Nonlinear resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevorkian, J.; Pernarowski, Mark; Bosley, David L.

    1990-04-01

    The subjects discussed are: transient and sustained resonance for systems with very slowly varying parameters; free electron lasers with very slow wiggler taper; and bursting oscillations in biological systems. Plans are discussed for: FEL applications; transient and sustained resonance; and bursting oscillations.

  3. Line Integral of a Vector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balabanian, Norman

    This programed booklet is designed for the engineering student who understands and can use vector and unit vector notation, components of a vector, parallel law of vector addition, and the dot product of two vectors. Content begins with work done by a force in moving a body a certain distance along some path. For each of the examples and problem…

  4. Structure of the pygmy dipole resonance in 124Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, J.; Savran, D.; Butler, P. A.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harissopulos, S.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Krücken, R.; Lagoyannis, A.; Litvinova, E.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Popescu, L.; Ring, P.; Scheck, M.; Schlüter, F.; Sonnabend, K.; Stoica, V. I.; Wörtche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2012-06-01

    Background: In atomic nuclei, a concentration of electric dipole strength around the particle threshold, commonly denoted as pygmy dipole resonance, may have a significant impact on nuclear structure properties and astrophysical scenarios. A clear identification of these states and the structure of this resonance is still under discussion.Purpose: We present an experimental and theoretical study of the isospin character of the pygmy dipole resonance and investigation of a splitting of the electric dipole strength previously observed in experiments on N=82 nuclei.Method: The pygmy dipole resonance has been studied in the semi-magic Z=50 nucleus 124Sn by means of the (α,α'γ) coincidence method at Eα=136MeV using the Big-Bite Spectrometer at the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut in Groningen, The Netherlands.Results: A splitting of the low-energy part of the electric dipole strength was identified in 124Sn by comparing the differential cross sections measured in (α,α'γ) to results stemming from (γ,γ') photon-scattering experiments. While an energetically lower-lying group of states is observed in both kinds of experiments, a higher-lying group of states is only excited in the (γ,γ') reaction. In addition, theoretical calculations using the self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation and the quasiparticle-phonon model have been performed. Both calculations show a qualitative agreement with the experimental data and predict a low-lying isoscalar component that is dominated by neutron-skin oscillations as expected for the pygmy dipole resonance. Furthermore, the states at higher energies show a pronounced isovector component and a different radial dependence of the corresponding transition densities as expected for the tail of the giant dipole resonance.Conclusions: An experimental signature of the neutron-skin oscillation of the pygmy dipole resonance has been corroborated. The combination of the presented reactions might make it

  5. Baculovirus Transfer Vectors.

    PubMed

    Possee, Robert D; King, Linda A

    2016-01-01

    The production of a recombinant baculovirus expression vector normally involves mixing infectious virus DNA with a plasmid-based transfer vector and then co-transfecting insect cells to initiate virus infection. The aim of this chapter is to provide an update on the range of baculovirus transfer vectors currently available. Some of the original transfer vectors developed are now difficult to obtain but generally have been replaced by superior reagents. We focus on those that are available commercially and should be easy to locate. These vectors permit the insertion of single or multiple genes for expression, or the production of proteins with specific peptide tags that aid subsequent protein purification. Others have signal peptide coding regions permitting protein secretion or plasma membrane localization. A table listing the transfer vectors also includes information on the parental virus that should be used with each one. Methods are described for the direct insertion of a recombinant gene into the virus genome without the requirement for a transfer vector. The information provided should enable new users of the system to choose those reagents most suitable for their purposes.

  6. Crystal ball studies of giant resonance gamma decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beene, J. R.; Bertrand, F. E.; Halbert, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    We have carried out coincidence experiments to investigate the photon and neutron emission from the giant resonance region in 208Pb and 90Zr using the ORNL Spin Spectrometer, a 72-segment NaI detector system. States in 208Pb and 90Zr were excited by inelastic scattering of 380-MeV 17O. We have determined the total gamma-decay probability, the ground-state gamma branching ratio, and the branching ratios to a number of low-lying stats as a function of excitation energy in 208Pb to ˜15 MeV. Especially interesting observations include the absence of a significant branch from the giant quadrupole resonance to the 3- state at 2.6 MeV, a strong branch from this resonance to a 3- state at 4.9 MeV, and the dominance of decays to various 1- states at 5-7 MeV from the region around 14 MeV of excitation (E0 resonances). Comparable but less complete data were also obtained on 90Zr.

  7. Surface vibrational modes in disk-shaped resonators.

    PubMed

    Dmitriev, A V; Gritsenko, D S; Mitrofanov, V P

    2014-03-01

    The natural frequencies and distributions of displacement components for the surface vibrational modes in thin isotropic elastic disks are calculated. In particular, the research is focused on even solutions for low-lying resonant vibrations with large angular wave numbers. Several families of modes are found which are interpreted as modified surface modes of an infinitely long cylinder and Lamb modes of a plate. The results of calculation are compared with the results of the experimental measurements of vibrational modes generated by means of resonant excitation in duraluminum disk with radius of ≈90 mm and thickness of 16 mm in the frequency range of 130-200 kHz. An excellent agreement between the calculated and measured frequencies is found. Measurements of the structure of the resonant peaks show splitting of some modes. About a half of the measured modes has splitting Δfsplit/fmode at the level of the order of 10(-5). The Q-factors of all modes measured in vacuum lie in the interval (2…3)×10(5). This value is typical for duraluminum mechanical resonators in the ultrasonic frequency range.

  8. Null Killing vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukács, B.; Perjés, Z.; Sebestyén, Á.

    1981-06-01

    Space-times admitting a null Killing vector are studied, using the Newman-Penrose spin coefficient formalism. The properties of the eigenrays (principal null curves of the Killing bivector) are shown to be related to the twist of the null Killing vector. Among the electrovacs, the ones containing a null Maxwell field turn out to belong to the twist-free class. An electrovac solution is obtained for which the null Killing vector is twisting and has geodesic and shear-free eigenrays. This solution is parameterless and appears to be the field of a zero-mass, spinning, and charged source.

  9. Acoustic Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2012-11-01

    Recently my collection of historical physics teaching apparatus was given a group of 19th-century tuning forks on resonant boxes. Figure 1 shows the smallest fork sitting on the largest one. The large tuning fork oscillates at 128 Hz and has a resonator that is 57.9 cm long. The small fork has a frequency 10 times higher, but its resonator has a length of 11.0 cm instead of the 5.8 cm that simple scaling would suggest. How is this possible?

  10. Vector pulsing soliton of self-induced transparency in waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamashvili, G. T.

    2015-01-01

    A theory of an optical resonance vector pulsing soliton in waveguide is developed. A thin transition layer containing semiconductor quantum dots forms the boundary between the waveguide and one of the connected media. Analytical and numerical solutions for the optical vector pulsing soliton in waveguide are obtained. The vector pulsing soliton in the presence of excitonic and bi-excitonic excitations is compared with the soliton for waveguide TM-modes with parameters that can be used in modern optical experiments. It is shown that these nonlinear waves have significantly different parameters and shapes.

  11. Interpolation of vector fields from human cardiac DT-MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, F.; Zhu, Y. M.; Rapacchi, S.; Luo, J. H.; Robini, M.; Croisille, P.

    2011-03-01

    There has recently been increased interest in developing tensor data processing methods for the new medical imaging modality referred to as diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI). This paper proposes a method for interpolating the primary vector fields from human cardiac DT-MRI, with the particularity of achieving interpolation and denoising simultaneously. The method consists of localizing the noise-corrupted vectors using the local statistical properties of vector fields, removing the noise-corrupted vectors and reconstructing them by using the thin plate spline (TPS) model, and finally applying global TPS interpolation to increase the resolution in the spatial domain. Experiments on 17 human hearts show that the proposed method allows us to obtain higher resolution while reducing noise, preserving details and improving direction coherence (DC) of vector fields as well as fiber tracking. Moreover, the proposed method perfectly reconstructs azimuth and elevation angle maps.

  12. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence off 54Cr: The Onset of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, P. C.; Beck, T.; Beller, J.; Krishichayan; Gayer, U.; Isaak, J.; Löher, B.; Mertes, L.; Pai, H.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Savran, D.; Schilling, M.; Tornow, W.; Werner, V.; Zweidinger, M.

    2016-06-01

    Low-lying electric and magnetic dipole excitations (E1 and M1) below the neutron separation threshold, particularly the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR), have drawn considerable attention in the last years. So far, mostly moderately heavy nuclei in the mass regions around A = 90 and A = 140 were examined with respect to the PDR. In the present work, the systematics of the PDR have been extended by measuring excitation strengths and parity quantum numbers of J = 1 states in lighter nuclei near A = 50 in order to gather information on the onset of the PDR. The nuclei 50,52,54Cr and 48,50Ti were examined via bremsstrahlung produced at the DArmstadt Superconducting electron Linear Accelerator (S-DALINAC) with photon energies up to 9.7 MeV with the method of nuclear resonance fluorescence. Numerous excited states were observed, many of which for the first time. The parity quantum numbers of these states have been determined at the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIγS) of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham, NC, USA. Informations to the methods and the experimental setups will be provided and the results on 54Cr achieved will be discussed with respect to the onset of the PDR.

  13. Targeted adenoviral vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Joanne T.

    The practical implementation of gene therapy in the clinical setting mandates gene delivery vehicles, or vectors, capable of efficient gene delivery selectively to the target disease cells. The utility of adenoviral vectors for gene therapy is restricted by their dependence on the native adenoviral primary cellular receptor for cell entry. Therefore, a number of strategies have been developed to allow CAR-independent infection of specific cell types, including the use of bispecific conjugates and genetic modifications to the adenoviral capsid proteins, in particular the fibre protein. These targeted adenoviral vectors have demonstrated efficient gene transfer in vitro , correlating with a therapeutic benefit in preclinical animal models. Such vectors are predicted to possess enhanced efficacy in human clinical studies, although anatomical barriers to their use must be circumvented.

  14. Vector inflation and vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.M. )

    1991-09-15

    A vector field {ital A}{sub {mu}} is coupled to the Einstein equations with a linearly perturbed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, constructed to generate first-order vector perturbations. A working classical chaotic vector inflation is demonstrated and then quantum fluctuations of the field are used to constrain the cosmological perturbations. In particular, the vector momentum flux {ital T}{sub 0{ital i}} is tracked to the epoch where radiation-dominated matter exists. Matching conditions using observational constraints of the cosmic microwave background radiation give rise to a peculiar cosmological velocity of the order of 10{sup {minus}100}{ital c}. Amplification of this number, e.g., by breaking the conformal invariance of the field, could be used to generate cosmic magnetic fields using a dynamo mechanism.

  15. The Vector Decomposition Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Maki; Mitsunari, Shigeo; Fujiwara, Toru

    This paper introduces a new computational problem on a two-dimensional vector space, called the vector decomposition problem (VDP), which is mainly defined for designing cryptosystems using pairings on elliptic curves. We first show a relation between the VDP and the computational Diffie-Hellman problem (CDH). Specifically, we present a sufficient condition for the VDP on a two-dimensional vector space to be at least as hard as the CDH on a one-dimensional subspace. We also present a sufficient condition for the VDP with a fixed basis to have a trapdoor. We then give an example of vector spaces which satisfy both sufficient conditions and on which the CDH is assumed to be hard in previous work. In this sense, the intractability of the VDP is a reasonable assumption as that of the CDH.

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Shuttle vectors.

    PubMed

    Gnügge, Robert; Rudolf, Fabian

    2017-01-10

    Yeast shuttle vectors are indispensable tools in yeast research. They enable cloning of defined DNA sequences in Escherichia coli and their direct transfer into Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. There are three types of commonly used yeast shuttle vectors: centromeric plasmids, episomal plasmids and integrating plasmids. In this review, we discuss the different plasmid systems and their characteristic features. We focus on their segregational stability and copy number and indicate how to modify these properties. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Poynting-vector filter

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Charles R.

    2011-08-02

    A determination is made of frequency components associated with a particular bearing or location resulting from sources emitting electromagnetic-wave energy for which a Poynting-Vector can be defined. The broadband frequency components associated with a specific direction or location of interest are isolated from other components in the power spectrum that are not associated with the direction or location of interest. The collection of pointing vectors can be used to characterize the source.

  18. Bloch vector projection noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Li-Jun; Bacon, A. M.; Zhao, H.-Z.; Thomas, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    In the optical measurement of the Bloch vector components describing a system of N two-level atoms, the quantum fluctuations in these components are coupled into the measuring optical field. This paper develops the quantum theory of optical measurement of Bloch vector projection noise. The preparation and probing of coherence in an effective two-level system consisting of the two ground states in an atomic three-level lambda-scheme are analyzed.

  19. Syngeneic AAV pseudo-vectors potentiates full vector transduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An excessive amount of empty capsids are generated during regular AAV vector production process. These pseudo-vectors often remain in final vectors used for animal studies or clinical trials. The potential effects of these pseudo-vectors on AAV transduction have been a major concern. In the current ...

  20. Photoproduction of exotic baryon resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karliner, Marek; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    We point out that the new exotic resonances recently reported by LHCb in the J / ψ p channel are excellent candidates for photoproduction off a proton target. This test is crucial to confirming the resonant nature of such states, as opposed to their being kinematical effects. We specialize to an interpretation of the heavier narrow state as a molecule composed of Σc and Dbar*, and estimate its production cross section using vector dominance. The relevant photon energies and fluxes are well within the capabilities of the GlueX and CLAS12 detectors at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB). A corresponding calculation is also performed for photoproduction of an analogous resonance which is predicted to exist in the ϒp channel.

  1. On a simple way to calculate electronic resonances for polyatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Horáček, J.; Paidarová, I.; Čurík, R.

    2015-11-14

    We propose a simple method for calculation of low-lying shape electronic resonances of polyatomic molecules. The method introduces a perturbation potential and requires only routine bound-state type calculations in the real domain of energies. Such a calculation is accessible by most of the free or commercial quantum chemistry software. The presented method is based on the analytical continuation in a coupling constant model, but unlike its previous variants, we experience a very stable and robust behavior for higher-order extrapolation functions. Moreover, the present approach is independent of the correlation treatment used in quantum many-electron computations and therefore we are able to apply Coupled Clusters (CCSD-T) level of the correlation model. We demonstrate these properties on determination of the resonance position and width of the {sup 2}Π{sub u} temporary negative ion state of diacetylene using CCSD-T level of theory.

  2. On a simple way to calculate electronic resonances for polyatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horáček, J.; Paidarová, I.; Čurík, R.

    2015-11-01

    We propose a simple method for calculation of low-lying shape electronic resonances of polyatomic molecules. The method introduces a perturbation potential and requires only routine bound-state type calculations in the real domain of energies. Such a calculation is accessible by most of the free or commercial quantum chemistry software. The presented method is based on the analytical continuation in a coupling constant model, but unlike its previous variants, we experience a very stable and robust behavior for higher-order extrapolation functions. Moreover, the present approach is independent of the correlation treatment used in quantum many-electron computations and therefore we are able to apply Coupled Clusters (CCSD-T) level of the correlation model. We demonstrate these properties on determination of the resonance position and width of the 2Πu temporary negative ion state of diacetylene using CCSD-T level of theory.

  3. Vector and Axial Vector Pion Form Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitz, Michael; PEN Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Radiative pion decay π+ -->e+ νγ (RPD) provides critical input to chiral perturbation theory (χPT). Aside from the uninteresting ``inner bremsstrahlung'' contribution from QED, the RPD rate contains ``structure dependent'' terms given by FV and FA, the vector and axial-vector pion form factors, respectively. The two appear in the decay rate in combinations FV -FA and FV +FA , i.e., in the so-called SD- and SD+ terms, respectively. The latter has been measured to high precision by the PIBETA collaboration. We report on the analysis of new data, measured by the PEN collaboration in runs between 2008 and 2010 at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. We particularly focus on the possibility of improvement in the determination of the SD- term. Precise determinations of FV and FA test the validity of the CVC hypothesis, provide numerical input for the l9 +l10 terms in the χPT lagrangian, and constrain potential non-(V - A) terms, such as a possible tensor term FT. NSF grants PHY-0970013, 1307328, and others.

  4. Bunyavirus-vector interactions.

    PubMed

    Beaty, B J; Bishop, D H

    1988-06-01

    Recent advances in the genetics and molecular biology of bunyaviruses have been applied to understanding bunyavirus-vector interactions. Such approaches have revealed which virus gene and gene products are important in establishing infections in vectors and in transmission of viruses. However, much more information is required to understand the molecular mechanisms of persistent infections of vectors which are lifelong but apparently exert no untoward effect. In fact, it seems remarkable that LAC viral antigen can be detected in almost every cell in an ovarian follicle, yet no untoward effect on fecundity and no teratology is seen. Similarly the lifelong infection of the vector would seem to provide ample opportunity for bunyavirus evolution by genetic drift and, under the appropriate circumstances, by segment reassortment. The potential for bunyavirus evolution by segment reassortment in vectors certainly exists. For example the Group C viruses in a small forest in Brazil seem to constitute a gene pool, with the 6 viruses related alternately by HI/NT and CF reactions, which assay respectively M RNA and S RNA gene products (Casals and Whitman, 1960; Shope and Causey, 1962). Direct evidence for naturally occurring reassortant bunyaviruses has also been obtained. Oligonucleotide fingerprint analyses of field isolates of LAC virus and members of the Patois serogroup of bunyaviruses have demonstrated that reassortment does occur in nature (El Said et al., 1979; Klimas et al., 1981; Ushijima et al., 1981). Determination of the genotypic frequencies of viruses selected by the biological interactions of viruses and vectors after dual infection and segment reassortment is an important issue. Should a virus result that efficiently interacts with alternate vector species, the virus could be expressed in different circumstances with serious epidemiologic consequences. Dual infection of vectors with different viruses is not unlikely, because many bunyaviruses are sympatric in

  5. All-optical vector atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Patton, B; Zhivun, E; Hovde, D C; Budker, D

    2014-07-04

    We demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer capable of measuring the magnitude and direction of a magnetic field using nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in cesium vapor. Vector capability is added by effective modulation of the field along orthogonal axes and subsequent demodulation of the magnetic-resonance frequency. This modulation is provided by the ac Stark shift induced by circularly polarized laser beams. The sensor exhibits a demonstrated rms noise floor of ∼65  fT/√[Hz] in measurement of the field magnitude and 0.5  mrad/√[Hz] in the field direction; elimination of technical noise would improve these sensitivities to 12  fT/√[Hz] and 10  μrad/√[Hz], respectively. Applications for this all-optical vector magnetometer would include magnetically sensitive fundamental physics experiments, such as the search for a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  6. Multiquark resonances

    DOE PAGES

    Esposito, A.; Pilloni, A.; Polosa, Antonio D.

    2016-12-02

    Multiquark resonances are undoubtedly experimentally observed. The number of states and the amount of details on their properties have been growing over the years. It is very recent the discovery of two pentaquarks and the confirmation of four tetraquarks, two of which had not been observed before. We mainly review the theoretical understanding of this sector of particle physics phenomenology and present some considerations attempting a coherent description of the so called X and Z resonances. The prominent problems plaguing theoretical models, like the absence of selection rules limiting the number of states predicted, motivate new directions in model building.more » Lastly, data are reviewed going through all of the observed resonances with particular attention to their common features and the purpose of providing a starting point to further research.« less

  7. Multiquark resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, A.; Pilloni, A.; Polosa, Antonio D.

    2016-12-02

    Multiquark resonances are undoubtedly experimentally observed. The number of states and the amount of details on their properties have been growing over the years. It is very recent the discovery of two pentaquarks and the confirmation of four tetraquarks, two of which had not been observed before. We mainly review the theoretical understanding of this sector of particle physics phenomenology and present some considerations attempting a coherent description of the so called X and Z resonances. The prominent problems plaguing theoretical models, like the absence of selection rules limiting the number of states predicted, motivate new directions in model building. Lastly, data are reviewed going through all of the observed resonances with particular attention to their common features and the purpose of providing a starting point to further research.

  8. Multiquark resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, A.; Pilloni, A.; Polosa, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Multiquark resonances are undoubtedly experimentally observed. The number of states and the amount of details on their properties have been growing over the years. It is very recent the discovery of two pentaquarks and the confirmation of four tetraquarks, two of which had not been observed before. We mainly review the theoretical understanding of this sector of particle physics phenomenology and present some considerations attempting a coherent description of the so called X and Z resonances. The prominent problems plaguing theoretical models, like the absence of selection rules limiting the number of states predicted, motivate new directions in model building. Data are reviewed going through all of the observed resonances with particular attention to their common features and the purpose of providing a starting point to further research.

  9. Laser Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, L. L. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An optical resonator cavity configuration has a unitary mirror with oppositely directed convex and concave reflective surfaces disposed into one fold and concertedly reversing both ends of a beam propagating from a laser rod disposed between two total internal reflection prisms. The optical components are rigidly positioned with perpendicularly crossed virtual rooflines by a compact optical bed. The rooflines of the internal reflection prisms, are arranged perpendicularly to the axis of the laser beam and to the optical axes of the optical resonator components.

  10. Vector financial rogue waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhenya

    2011-11-01

    The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black-Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields.

  11. Scalar-vector bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejon-Barrera, Fernando; Robbins, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We work out all of the details required for implementation of the conformal bootstrap program applied to the four-point function of two scalars and two vectors in an abstract conformal field theory in arbitrary dimension. This includes a review of which tensor structures make appearances, a construction of the projectors onto the required mixed symmetry representations, and a computation of the conformal blocks for all possible operators which can be exchanged. These blocks are presented as differential operators acting upon the previously known scalar conformal blocks. Finally, we set up the bootstrap equations which implement crossing symmetry. Special attention is given to the case of conserved vectors, where several simplifications occur.

  12. Bunyavirus-Vector Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Kate McElroy; Vanlandingham, Dana L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus-vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family. PMID:25402172

  13. Some consequences of the generalized uncertainty principle induced ultraviolet wave-vector cutoff in one-dimensional quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sailer, K.; Péli, Z.; Nagy, S.

    2013-04-01

    A projection method is proposed to treat the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation for a single particle when the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) generates an ultraviolet (UV) wave-vector cutoff. The existence of a unique coordinate representation called the naive one is derived from the one-parameter family of discrete coordinate representations. In this bandlimited quantum mechanics a continuous potential is reconstructed from discrete sampled values observed by means of a particle in maximally localized states. It is shown that bandlimitation modifies the speed of the center and the spreading time of a Gaussian wave packet moving in free space. Indication is found that GUP accompanied by bandlimitation may cause departures of the low-lying energy levels of a particle in a box from those in ordinary quantum mechanics to be much less suppressed than commonly thought when GUP without bandlimitation is at work.

  14. Autostereogram resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavey, Sean; Rae, Katherine; Murray, Adam; Courtial, Johannes

    2012-09-01

    Autostereograms, or "Magic Eye" pictures, are repeating patterns designed to give the illusion of depth. Here we discuss optical resonators that create light patterns which, when viewed from a suitable position by a monocular observer, are autostereograms of the three-dimensional shape of one of the mirror surfaces.

  15. Designing plasmid vectors.

    PubMed

    Tolmachov, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    Nonviral gene therapy vectors are commonly based on recombinant bacterial plasmids or their derivatives. The plasmids are propagated in bacteria, so, in addition to their therapeutic cargo, they necessarily contain a bacterial replication origin and a selection marker, usually a gene conferring antibiotic resistance. Structural and maintenance plasmid stability in bacteria is required for the plasmid DNA production and can be achieved by carefully choosing a combination of the therapeutic DNA sequences, replication origin, selection marker, and bacterial strain. The use of appropriate promoters, other regulatory elements, and mammalian maintenance devices ensures that the therapeutic gene or genes are adequately expressed in target human cells. Optimal immune response to the plasmid vectors can be modulated via inclusion or exclusion of DNA sequences containing immunostimulatory CpG sequence motifs. DNA fragments facilitating construction of plasmid vectors should also be considered for inclusion in the design of plasmid vectors. Techniques relying on site-specific or homologous recombination are preferred for construction of large plasmids (>15 kb), while digestion of DNA by restriction enzymes with subsequent ligation of the resulting DNA fragments continues to be the mainstream approach for generation of small- and medium-size plasmids. Rapid selection of a desired recombinant plasmid against a background of other plasmids continues to be a challenge. In this chapter, the emphasis is placed on efficient and flexible versions of DNA cloning protocols using selection of recombinant plasmids by restriction endonucleases directly in the ligation mixture.

  16. Production of lentiviral vectors

    PubMed Central

    Merten, Otto-Wilhelm; Hebben, Matthias; Bovolenta, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors (LV) have seen considerably increase in use as gene therapy vectors for the treatment of acquired and inherited diseases. This review presents the state of the art of the production of these vectors with particular emphasis on their large-scale production for clinical purposes. In contrast to oncoretroviral vectors, which are produced using stable producer cell lines, clinical-grade LV are in most of the cases produced by transient transfection of 293 or 293T cells grown in cell factories. However, more recent developments, also, tend to use hollow fiber reactor, suspension culture processes, and the implementation of stable producer cell lines. As is customary for the biotech industry, rather sophisticated downstream processing protocols have been established to remove any undesirable process-derived contaminant, such as plasmid or host cell DNA or host cell proteins. This review compares published large-scale production and purification processes of LV and presents their process performances. Furthermore, developments in the domain of stable cell lines and their way to the use of production vehicles of clinical material will be presented. PMID:27110581

  17. Vectors Point Toward Pisa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Richard A.

    1971-01-01

    The author shows that the set of all sequences in which each term is the sum of the two previous terms forms a vector space of dimension two. He uses this result to obtain the formula for the Fibonacci sequence and applies the same technique to other linear recursive relations. (MM)

  18. Support vector machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garay, Michael J.; Mazzoni, Dominic; Davies, Roger; Wagstaff, Kiri

    2004-01-01

    Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are a type of supervised learning algorith,, other examples of which are Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Decision Trees, and Naive Bayesian Classifiers. Supervised learning algorithms are used to classify objects labled by a 'supervisor' - typically a human 'expert.'.

  19. Killing vectors and anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Krisch, J. P.; Glass, E. N.

    2009-08-15

    We consider an action that can generate fluids with three unequal stresses for metrics with a spacelike Killing vector. The parameters in the action are directly related to the stress anisotropies. The field equations following from the action are applied to an anisotropic cosmological expansion and an extension of the Gott-Hiscock cosmic string.

  20. Singular Vectors' Subtle Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David; Lachance, Michael; Remski, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists use adjacency tables to discover influence networks within and among groups. Building on work by Moler and Morrison, we use ordered pairs from the components of the first and second singular vectors of adjacency matrices as tools to distinguish these groups and to identify particularly strong or weak individuals.

  1. Vector potential methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafez, M.

    1989-01-01

    Vector potential and related methods, for the simulation of both inviscid and viscous flows over aerodynamic configurations, are briefly reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of several formulations are discussed and alternate strategies are recommended. Scalar potential, modified potential, alternate formulations of Euler equations, least-squares formulation, variational principles, iterative techniques and related methods, and viscous flow simulation are discussed.

  2. Recent developments on hadron interaction and dynamically generated resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oset, E.; Albaladejo, M.; Xie, Ju-Jun; Ramos, A.

    2015-10-01

    In this talk I report on the recent developments in the subject of dynamically generated resonances. In particular I discuss the γ p to K^0 Σ ^ + and γ n to K^0 Σ ^0 reactions, with a peculiar behavior around the K*0Λ threshold, due to a 1/2- resonance around 2035 MeV. Similarly, I discuss a BES experiment, J/ψ to η K^{ * 0} overline K ^{ * 0} decay, which provides evidence for a new h1 resonance around 1830 MeV that was predicted from the vector-vector interaction. A short discussion is then made about recent advances in the charm and beauty sectors.

  3. Excitation and photon decay of giant multipole resonances - the role and future of medium-energy heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, F.E.; Beene, J.R.; Horen, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of medium energy heavy ions provides very large cross sections and peak-to-continuum ratios for excitation of giant resonances. For energies above about 50 MeV/nucleon, giant resonances are excited primarily through Coulomb excitation, which is indifferent to isospin, thus providing a good probe for the study of isovector giant resonances. The extremely large cross sections available from heavy ion excitation permit the study of rare decay modes of the photon decay of giant resonances following excitation by 22 and 84 MeV/nucleon /sup 17/O projectiles. The singles results at 84 MeV/nucleon yield peak cross sections for the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance and the isovector giant dipole resonance of approximately 0.8 and 3 barns/sr, respectively. Data on the ground state decay of the isoscalar giant quadrupole and isovector giant dipole resonances are presented and compared with calculations. Decays to low-lying excited states are also discussed. Preliminary results from an experiment to isolate the /sup 208/Pb isovector quadrupole resonance using its gamma decay are presented.

  4. 3D simulation of silicon micro-ring resonator with Comsol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degtyarev, S. A.; Podlipnov, V. V.; Verma, Payal; Khonina, S. N.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we provide 3d full-vector static electromagnetic simulation of silicon micro-ring resonator operating. We show that geometrical and scalar approaches are not sufficiently accurate for calculating resonator parameters. Quite strong dependence of ring resonator radius on waveguide width is revealed.

  5. Vector fields in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, E. A.

    2012-06-01

    Vector fields can arise in the cosmological context in different ways, and we discuss both abelian and nonabelian sector. In the abelian sector vector fields of the geometrical origin (from dimensional reduction and Einstein-Eddington modification of gravity) can provide a very non-trivial dynamics, which can be expressed in terms of the effective dilaton-scalar gravity with the specific potential. In the non-abelian sector we investigate the Yang-Mills SU(2) theory which admits isotropic and homogeneous configuration. Provided the non-linear dependence of the lagrangian on the invariant FμνF~μν, one can obtain the inflationary regime with the exponential growth of the scale factor. The effective amplitudes of the `electric' and `magnetic' components behave like slowly varying scalars at this regime, what allows the consideration of some realistic models with non-linear terms in the Yang-Mills lagrangian.

  6. Vector Magnetograph Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, Russell A.

    1996-01-01

    This report covers work performed during the period of November 1994 through March 1996 on the design of a Space-borne Solar Vector Magnetograph. This work has been performed as part of a design team under the supervision of Dr. Mona Hagyard and Dr. Alan Gary of the Space Science Laboratory. Many tasks were performed and this report documents the results from some of those tasks, each contained in the corresponding appendix. Appendices are organized in chronological order.

  7. Some experiences with Krylov vectors and Lanczos vectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roy R., Jr.; Su, Tzu-Jeng; Kim, Hyoung M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of Krylov vectors and Lanczos vectors for reduced-order modeling in structural dynamics and for control of flexible structures. Krylov vectors and Lanczos vectors are defined and illustrated, and several applications that have been under study at The University of Texas at Austin are reviewed: model reduction for undamped structural dynamics systems, component mode synthesis using Krylov vectors, model reduction of damped structural dynamics systems, and one-sided and two-sided unsymmetric block-Lanczos model-reduction algorithms.

  8. Isomap based supporting vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, W. N.

    2015-12-01

    This research presents a new isomap based supporting vector machine method. Isomap is a dimension reduction method which is able to analyze nonlinear relationship of data on manifolds. Accordingly, support vector machine is established on the isomap manifold to classify given and predict unknown data. A case study of the isomap based supporting vector machine for environmental planning problems is conducted.

  9. What is a vector?

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Eric René; Booth, Mark; Norman, Rachel; Mideo, Nicole; McCallum, Hamish; Fenton, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Many important and rapidly emerging pathogens of humans, livestock and wildlife are ‘vector-borne’. However, the term ‘vector’ has been applied to diverse agents in a broad range of epidemiological systems. In this perspective, we briefly review some common definitions, identify the strengths and weaknesses of each and consider the functional differences between vectors and other hosts from a range of ecological, evolutionary and public health perspectives. We then consider how the use of designations can afford insights into our understanding of epidemiological and evolutionary processes that are not otherwise apparent. We conclude that from a medical and veterinary perspective, a combination of the ‘haematophagous arthropod’ and ‘mobility’ definitions is most useful because it offers important insights into contact structure and control and emphasizes the opportunities for pathogen shifts among taxonomically similar species with similar feeding modes and internal environments. From a population dynamics and evolutionary perspective, we suggest that a combination of the ‘micropredator’ and ‘sequential’ definition is most appropriate because it captures the key aspects of transmission biology and fitness consequences for the pathogen and vector itself. However, we explicitly recognize that the value of a definition always depends on the research question under study. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission’. PMID:28289253

  10. Vector Helmholtz-Gauss and vector Laplace-Gauss beams.

    PubMed

    Bandres, Miguel A; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C

    2005-08-15

    We demonstrate the existence of vector Helmholtz-Gauss (vHzG) and vector Laplace-Gauss beams that constitute two general families of localized vector beam solutions of the Maxwell equations in the paraxial approximation. The electromagnetic components are determined starting from the scalar solutions of the two-dimensional Helmholtz and Laplace equations, respectively. Special cases of the vHzG beams are TE and TM Gaussian vector beams, nondiffracting vector Bessel beams, polarized Bessel-Gauss beams, modes in cylindrical waveguides and cavities, and scalar Helmholtz-Gauss beams. The general expression of the vHzG beams can be used straightforwardly to obtain vector Mathieu-Gauss and vector parabolic-Gauss beams, which to our knowledge have not yet been reported.

  11. If It's Resonance, What is Resonating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon under the name "resonance," which, is based on the mathematical analogy between mechanical resonance and the behavior of wave functions in quantum mechanical exchange phenomena was described. The resonating system does not have a structure intermediate between those involved in the resonance, but instead a structure which is further…

  12. Resonance enhanced dynamic light scattering.

    PubMed

    Plum, Markus A; Menges, Bernhard; Fytas, George; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Steffen, Werner

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel light scattering setup that enables probing of dynamics near solid surfaces. An evanescent wave generated by a surface plasmon resonance in a metal layer is the incident light field in the dynamic light scattering experiment. The combination of surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering leads to a spatiotemporal resolution extending a few hundred nanometers from the surface and from microseconds to seconds. The comparison with evanescent wave dynamic light scattering identifies the advantages of the presented technique, e.g., surface monitoring, use of metal surfaces, and biorelevant systems. For both evanescent wave geometries, we define the scattering wave vector necessary for the analysis of the experimental relaxation functions.

  13. Vector representation of tourmaline compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Donald M.

    1989-01-01

    The vector method for representing mineral compositions of amphibole and mica groups is applied to the tourmaline group. Consideration is given to the methods for drawing the relevant vector diagrams, relating the exchange vectors to one another, and contouring the diagrams for constant values of Na, Ca, Li, Fe, Mg, Al, Si, and OH. The method is used to depict a wide range of possible tourmaline end-member compositions and solid solutions, starting from a single point. In addition to vector depictions of multicomponent natural tourmalines, vectors are presented for simpler systems such as (Na,Al)-tourmalines, alkali-free tourmalines, and elbaites.

  14. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Scoles, Glen A; Ueti, Massaro W

    2015-01-07

    Equine piroplasmosis is a disease of Equidae, including horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras, caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick vectors, and although they have inherent differences they are categorized together because they cause similar pathology and have similar morphologies, life cycles, and vector relationships. To complete their life cycle, these parasites must undergo a complex series of developmental events, including sexual-stage development in their tick vectors. Consequently, ticks are the definitive hosts as well as vectors for these parasites, and the vector relationship is restricted to a few competent tick species. Because the vector relationship is critical to the epidemiology of these parasites, we highlight current knowledge of the vector ecology of these tick-borne equine pathogens, emphasizing tick transmissibility and potential control strategies to prevent their spread.

  15. Computing (Un)stable Manifolds with Validated Error Bounds: Non-resonant and Resonant Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Jan Bouwe; Mireles James, Jason D.; Reinhardt, Christian

    2016-08-01

    We develop techniques for computing the (un)stable manifold at a hyperbolic equilibrium of an analytic vector field. Our approach is based on the so-called parametrization method for invariant manifolds. A feature of this approach is that it leads to a posteriori analysis of truncation errors which, when combined with careful management of round off errors, yields a mathematically rigorous enclosure of the manifold. The main novelty of the present work is that, by conjugating the dynamics on the manifold to a polynomial rather than a linear vector field, the computer-assisted analysis is successful even in the case when the eigenvalues fail to satisfy non-resonance conditions. This generically occurs in parametrized families of vector fields. As an example, we use the method as a crucial ingredient in a computational existence proof of a connecting orbit in an amplitude equation related to a pattern formation model that features eigenvalue resonances.

  16. Plasmonic fiber-optic vector magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaochuan; Guo, Tuan; Zhang, Xuejun; Xu, Jian; Xie, Wenping; Nie, Ming; Wu, Qiang; Guan, Bai-Ou; Albert, Jacques

    2016-03-01

    A compact fiber-optic vector magnetometer based on directional scattering between polarized plasmon waves and ferro-magnetic nanoparticles is demonstrated. The sensor configuration reported in this work uses a short section of tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) coated with a nanometer scale gold film and packaged with a magnetic fluid (Fe3O4) inside a capillary. The transmission spectrum of the sensor provides a fine comb of narrowband resonances that overlap with a broader absorption of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The wavelength of the SPR attenuation in transmission shows high sensitivity to slight perturbations by magnetic fields, due to the strong directional scattering between the SPR attenuated cladding modes and the magnetic fluid near the fiber surface. Both the orientation (2 nm/deg) and the intensity (1.8 nm/mT) of magnetic fields can be determined unambiguously from the TFBG spectrum. Temperature cross sensitivity can be referenced out by monitoring the wavelength of the core mode resonance simultaneously.

  17. Vector potential photoelectron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Browning, R

    2011-10-01

    A new class of electron microscope has been developed for the chemical microanalysis of a wide range of real world samples using photoelectron spectroscopy. Highly structured, three-dimensional samples, such as fiber mats and fracture surfaces can be imaged, as well as insulators and magnetic materials. The new microscope uses the vector potential field from a solenoid magnet as a spatial reference for imaging. A prototype instrument has demonstrated imaging of uncoated silk, magnetic steel wool, and micron-sized single strand tungsten wires.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging of Arnold-Chiari type I malformation with hydromyelia

    SciTech Connect

    DeLaPaz, R.L.; Brady, T.J.; Buonanno, F.S.; New, P.F.; Kistler, J.P.; McGinnis, B.D.; Pykett, I.L.; Taveras, J.M.

    1983-02-01

    Saturation recovery nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) images and metrizamide computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained in an adult patient with a clinical history suggestive of syringomyelia. Both NMR and CT studies showed low lying cerebellar tonsils. The CT study demonstrated central cavitation of the spinal cord from the midthoracic to midcervical levels but could not exclude an intramedullary soft tissue mass at the cervico-medullary junction. The NMR images in transverse, coronal, and sagittal planes demonstrated extension of an enlarged central spinal cord cerebrospinal fluid space to the cervico-medullary junction. This was felt to be strong evidence for exclusion of an intramedullary soft tissue mass and in favor of a diagnosis of Arnold-Chiari Type I malformation with hydromyelia. The noninvasive nature of spinal cord and cervico-medullary junction evaluation with NMR is emphasized.

  19. Flavor universal resonances and warped gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Du, Peizhi; Hong, Sungwoo; Sundrum, Raman

    2017-01-01

    Warped higher-dimensional compactifications with "bulk" standard model, or their AdS/CFT dual as the purely 4D scenario of Higgs compositeness and partial compositeness, offer an elegant approach to resolving the electroweak hierarchy problem as well as the origins of flavor structure. However, low-energy electroweak/flavor/CP constraints and the absence of non-standard physics at LHC Run 1 suggest that a "little hierarchy problem" remains, and that the new physics underlying naturalness may lie out of LHC reach. Assuming this to be the case, we show that there is a simple and natural extension of the minimal warped model in the Randall-Sundrum framework, in which matter, gauge and gravitational fields propagate modestly different degrees into the IR of the warped dimension, resulting in rich and striking consequences for the LHC (and beyond). The LHC-accessible part of the new physics is AdS/CFT dual to the mechanism of "vectorlike confinement", with TeV-scale Kaluza-Klein excitations of the gauge and gravitational fields dual to spin-0,1,2 composites. Unlike the minimal warped model, these low-lying excitations have predominantly flavor-blind and flavor/CP-safe interactions with the standard model. Remarkably, this scenario also predicts small deviations from flavor-blindness originating from virtual effects of Higgs/top compositeness at ˜ O(10) TeV, with subdominant resonance decays into Higgs/top-rich final states, giving the LHC an early "preview" of the nature of the resolution of the hierarchy problem. Discoveries of this type at LHC Run 2 would thereby anticipate (and set a target for) even more explicit explorations of Higgs compositeness at a 100 TeV collider, or for next-generation flavor tests.

  20. Hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xu-Zhen; Pan, Yue; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2015-12-14

    We present and construct a new kind of orthogonal coordinate system, hyperbolic coordinate system. We present and design a new kind of local linearly polarized vector fields, which is defined as the hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields because the points with the same polarization form a series of hyperbolae. We experimentally demonstrate the generation of such a kind of hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields. In particular, we also study the modified hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields with the twofold and fourfold symmetric states of polarization when introducing the mirror symmetry. The tight focusing behaviors of these vector fields are also investigated. In addition, we also fabricate micro-structures on the K9 glass surfaces by several tightly focused (modified) hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields patterns, which demonstrate that the simulated tightly focused fields are in good agreement with the fabricated micro-structures.

  1. Extended vector-tensor theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Rampei; Naruko, Atsushi; Yoshida, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    Recently, several extensions of massive vector theory in curved space-time have been proposed in many literatures. In this paper, we consider the most general vector-tensor theories that contain up to two derivatives with respect to metric and vector field. By imposing a degeneracy condition of the Lagrangian in the context of ADM decomposition of space-time to eliminate an unwanted mode, we construct a new class of massive vector theories where five degrees of freedom can propagate, corresponding to three for massive vector modes and two for massless tensor modes. We find that the generalized Proca and the beyond generalized Proca theories up to the quartic Lagrangian, which should be included in this formulation, are degenerate theories even in curved space-time. Finally, introducing new metric and vector field transformations, we investigate the properties of thus obtained theories under such transformations.

  2. Modelling strong interactions and longitudinally polarized vector boson scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkowski, Adam; Pokorski, Stefan; Roberts, J. P.

    2007-12-01

    We study scattering of the electroweak gauge bosons in 5D warped models. Within two different models we determine the precise manner in which the Higgs boson and the vector resonances ensure the unitarity of longitudinal vector boson scattering. We identify three separate scales that determine the dynamics of the scattering process in all cases. For a quite general background geometry of 5D, these scales can be linked to a simple functional of the warp factor. The models smoothly interpolate between a `composite' Higgs limit and a Higgsless limit. By holographic arguments, these models provide an effective description of vector boson scattering in 4D models with a strongly coupled electroweak breaking sector.

  3. Safety considerations in vector development.

    PubMed

    Kappes, J C; Wu, X

    2001-11-01

    The inadvertent production of replication competent retrovirus (RCR) constitutes the principal safety concern for the use of lentiviral vectors in human clinical protocols. Because of limitations in animal models to evaluate lentiviral vectors for their potential to recombine and induce disease, the vector design itself should ensure against the emergence of RCR in vivo. Issues related to RCR generation and one approach to dealing with this problem are discussed in this chapter. To assess the risk of generating RCR, a highly sensitive biological assay was developed to specifically detect vector recombination in transduced cells. Analysis of lentiviral vector stocks has shown that recombination occurs during reverse transcription in primary target cells. Rejoining of viral protein-coding sequences of the packaging construct and cis-acting sequences of the vector was demonstrated to generate env-minus recombinants (LTR-gag-pol-LTR). Mobilization of recombinant lentiviral genomes was also demonstrated but was dependent on pseudotyping of the vector core with an exogenous envelope protein. 5' sequence analysis has demonstrated that recombinants consist of U3, R, U5, and the psi packaging signal joined with an open gag coding region. Analysis of the 3' end has mapped the point of vector recombination to the poly(A) tract of the packaging construct's mRNA. The state-of-the-art third generation packaging construct and SIN vector also have been shown to generate env-minus proviral recombinants capable of mobilizing retroviral DNA when pseudotyped with an exogenous envelope protein. A new class of HIV-based vector (trans-vector) was recently developed that splits the gag-pol component of the packaging construct into two parts: one that expresses Gag/Gag-Pro and another that expresses Pol (RT and IN) fused with Vpr. Unlike other lentiviral vectors, the trans-vector has not been shown to form recombinants capable of DNA mobilization. These results indicate the trans-vector

  4. Multistage vector (MSV) therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Joy; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2015-12-10

    One of the greatest challenges in the field of medicine is obtaining controlled distribution of systemically administered therapeutic agents within the body. Indeed, biological barriers such as physical compartmentalization, pressure gradients, and excretion pathways adversely affect localized delivery of drugs to pathological tissue. The diverse nature of these barriers requires the use of multifunctional drug delivery vehicles that can overcome a wide range of sequential obstacles. In this review, we explore the role of multifunctionality in nanomedicine by primarily focusing on multistage vectors (MSVs). The MSV is an example of a promising therapeutic platform that incorporates several components, including a microparticle, nanoparticles, and small molecules. In particular, these components are activated in a sequential manner in order to successively address transport barriers.

  5. Entangled vector vortex beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Carvacho, Gonzalo; Graffitti, Francesco; Vitelli, Chiara; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Light beams having a vectorial field structure, or polarization, that varies over the transverse profile and a central optical singularity are called vector vortex (VV) beams and may exhibit specific properties such as focusing into "light needles" or rotation invariance. VV beams have already found applications in areas ranging from microscopy to metrology, optical trapping, nano-optics, and quantum communication. Individual photons in such beams exhibit a form of single-particle quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the quantum states of two photons can be also entangled with each other. Here, we combine these two concepts and demonstrate the generation of quantum entanglement between two photons that are both in VV states: a form of entanglement between two complex vectorial fields. This result may lead to quantum-enhanced applications of VV beams as well as to quantum information protocols fully exploiting the vectorial features of light.

  6. Multistage vector (MSV) therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wolfram, Joy; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in the field of medicine is obtaining controlled distribution of systemically administered therapeutic agents within the body. Indeed, biological barriers such as physical compartmentalization, pressure gradients, and excretion pathways adversely affect localized delivery of drugs to pathological tissue. The diverse nature of these barriers requires the use of multifunctional drug delivery vehicles that can overcome a wide range of sequential obstacles. In this review, we explore the role of multifunctionality in nanomedicine by primarily focusing on multistage vectors (MSVs). The MSV is an example of a promising therapeutic platform that incorporates several components, including a microparticle, nanoparticles, and small molecules. In particular, these components are activated in a sequential manner in order to successively address transport barriers. PMID:26264836

  7. Solar imaging vector magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an instrument which has been constructed at the University of Hawaii to make observations of the magnetic field in solar active regions. Detailed knowledge of active region magnetic structures is crucial to understanding many solar phenomena, because the magnetic field both defines the morphology of structures seen in the solar atmosphere and is the apparent energy source for solar flares. The new vector magnetograph was conceived in response to a perceived discrepancy between the capabilities of X ray imaging telescopes to be operating during the current solar maximum and those of existing magnetographs. There were no space-based magnetographs planned for this period; the existing ground-based instruments variously suffered from lack of sensitivity, poor time resolution, inadequate spatial resolution or unreliable sites. Yet the studies of flares and their relationship to the solar corona planned for the 1991-1994 maximum absolutely required high quality vector magnetic field measurements. By 'vector' measurements we mean that the observation attempts to deduce the complete strength and direction of the field at the measurement site, rather than just the line of sight component as obtained by a traditional longitudinal magnetograph. Knowledge of the vector field permits one to calculate photospheric electric currents, which might play a part in heating the corona, and to calculate energy stored in coronal magnetic fields as the result of such currents. Information about the strength and direction of magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere can be obtained in a number of ways, but quantitative data is best obtained by observing Zeeman-effect polarization in solar spectral lines. The technique requires measuring the complete state of polarization at one or more wavelengths within a magnetically sensitive line of the solar spectrum. This measurement must be done for each independent spatial point for which one wants magnetic field data. All the

  8. Chameleon vector bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Ann E.

    2008-05-01

    We show that for a force mediated by a vector particle coupled to a conserved U(1) charge, the apparent range and strength can depend on the size and density of the source, and the proximity to other sources. This chameleon effect is due to screening from a light charged scalar. Such screening can weaken astrophysical constraints on new gauge bosons. As an example we consider the constraints on chameleonic gauged B-L. We show that although Casimir measurements greatly constrain any B-L force much stronger than gravity with range longer than 0.1 {mu}m, there remains an experimental window for a long-range chameleonic B-L force. Such a force could be much stronger than gravity, and long or infinite range in vacuum, but have an effective range near the surface of the earth which is less than a micron.

  9. Round Randomized Learning Vector Quantization for Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) classification into normal and abnormal is a critical and challenging task. Owing to that, several medical imaging classification techniques have been devised in which Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) is amongst the potential. The main goal of this paper is to enhance the performance of LVQ technique in order to gain higher accuracy detection for brain tumor in MRIs. The classical way of selecting the winner code vector in LVQ is to measure the distance between the input vector and the codebook vectors using Euclidean distance function. In order to improve the winner selection technique, round off function is employed along with the Euclidean distance function. Moreover, in competitive learning classifiers, the fitting model is highly dependent on the class distribution. Therefore this paper proposed a multiresampling technique for which better class distribution can be achieved. This multiresampling is executed by using random selection via preclassification. The test data sample used are the brain tumor magnetic resonance images collected from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center and UCI benchmark data sets. Comparative studies showed that the proposed methods with promising results are LVQ1, Multipass LVQ, Hierarchical LVQ, Multilayer Perceptron, and Radial Basis Function. PMID:27516807

  10. Experiments with Helmholtz Resonators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments that use Helmholtz resonators and have been designed for a sophomore-level course in oscillations and waves. Discusses the theory of the Helmholtz resonator and resonance curves. (JRH)

  11. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Procedures Medical Imaging MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... usually given through an IV in the arm. MRI Research Programs at FDA Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ...

  12. A delta configured auxiliary resonant snubber inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, J.S.; Young, R.W.; Ott, G.W. Jr.; McKeever, J.W.; Peng, F.Z. |

    1995-09-01

    A delta ({Delta}) configured auxiliary resonant snubber inverter is developed to overcome the voltage floating problem in a wye (Y) configured resonant snubber inverter. The proposed inverter is to connect auxiliary resonant branches between phase outputs to avoid a floating point voltage which may cause over-voltage failure of the auxiliary switches. Each auxiliary branch consists of a resonant inductor and a reverse blocking auxiliary switch. Instead of using an anti-paralleled diode to allow resonant current to flow in the reverse direction, as in the Y-configured version, the resonant branch in the {Delta}-configured version must block the negative voltage, typically done by a series diode. This paper shows single-phase and three-phase versions of {Delta}-configured resonant snubber inverters and describes in detail the operating principle of a single-phase version. The extended three-phase version is proposed with non-adjacent state space vector modulation. For hardware implementation, a single-phase 1-kW unit and a three-phase 100-kW unit were built to prove the concept. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed topology.

  13. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    DOEpatents

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  14. New Insight into the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in Stable Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann-Cosel, P. von

    2008-11-11

    Two examples of recent work on the structure of low-energy electric dipole modes are presented. The first part discusses the systematics of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in stable tin isotopes deduced from high-resolution ({gamma},{gamma}') experiments. These help to distinguish between microscopic QRPA calculations based on either a relativistic or a nonrelativistic mean-field description, predicting significantly different properties of the PDR. The second part presents attempts to unravel the structure of dipoles modes at energies below the giant dipole resonance (GDR) in {sup 208}Pb with a high-resolution measurement of the (p-vector,p-vector') reaction under 0 deg.

  15. Sparse Elimination on Vector Multiprocessors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    vector registers . Several reports have been prepared recently under this effort, and a paper entitled "Task Granularity Studies in a Many-Processor Cray X...measures this effect. To reduce this ratio, it has been shown * possible to assembly-code the X-MP so that accesses are pre-fetched into vector registers

  16. GPU Accelerated Vector Median Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    Noise reduction is an important step for most image processing tasks. For three channel color images, a widely used technique is vector median filter in which color values of pixels are treated as 3-component vectors. Vector median filters are computationally expensive; for a window size of n x n, each of the n(sup 2) vectors has to be compared with other n(sup 2) - 1 vectors in distances. General purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPUs) is the paradigm of utilizing high-performance many-core GPU architectures for computation tasks that are normally handled by CPUs. In this work. NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) paradigm is used to accelerate vector median filtering. which has to the best of our knowledge never been done before. The performance of GPU accelerated vector median filter is compared to that of the CPU and MPI-based versions for different image and window sizes, Initial findings of the study showed 100x improvement of performance of vector median filter implementation on GPUs over CPU implementations and further speed-up is expected after more extensive optimizations of the GPU algorithm .

  17. Vectors on the Basketball Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    An Idea Bank published in the April/May 2009 issue of "The Science Teacher" describes an experiential physics lesson on vectors and vector addition (Brown 2009). Like its football predecessor, the basketball-based investigation presented in this Idea Bank addresses National Science Education Standards Content B, Physical Science, 9-12 (NRC 1996)…

  18. Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Mary Ellen

    1990-01-01

    The advanced launch system (ALS), is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost-effective, highly reliable, and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. An electromechanical actuation (EMA) system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link power management and distribution (PMAD) technology and pulse population modulation (PPM) techniques to implement field-oriented vector control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a built-in test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance, and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA thrust vector control (TVC) system. The EMA system and work proposed for the future are discussed.

  19. Relativistic resonance and decay phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Hai V.

    2015-04-01

    The exact relation τ = ℏ/Γ between the width Γ of a resonance and the lifetime τ for the decay of this resonance could not be obtained in standard quantum theory based on the Hilbert space or Schwartz space axiom in non-relativistic physics as well as in the relativistic regime. In order to obtain the exact relation, one has to modify the Hilbert space axiom or the Schwartz space axiom and choose new boundary conditions based on the Hardy space axioms in which the space of the states and the space of the observables are described by two different Hardy spaces. As consequences of the new Hardy space axioms, one obtains, instead of the symmetric time evolution for the states and the observables, asymmetrical time evolutions for the states and observables which are described by two semi-groups. A relativistic resonance obeying the exponential time evolution can be described by a relativistic Gamow vector, which is defined as superposition of the exact out-plane wave states with a Breit-Wigner energy distribution of the width Γ.

  20. Resonance beyond frequency-matching: multidimensional resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Mingzhe; Wang, Ruifang

    2017-03-01

    Resonance, conventionally defined as the oscillation of a system when the temporal frequency of an external stimulus matches a natural frequency of the system, is important in both fundamental physics and applied disciplines. However, the spatial character of oscillation is not considered in this definition. We reveal the creation of spatial resonance when the stimulus matches the space pattern of a normal mode in an oscillating system. The complete resonance, which we call multidimensional resonance, should be a combination of both the temporal and the spatial resonance. We further elucidate that the spin wave produced by multidimensional resonance drives considerably faster reversal of the vortex core in a magnetic nanodisc. Multidimensional resonance provides insight into the nature of wave dynamics and opens the door to novel applications.

  1. Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Lark L.; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Weaver, Scott C.

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed. PMID:25421891

  2. Vector fields in multidimensional cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierovich, Boris E.

    2011-09-01

    Vector fields in the expanding Universe are considered within the multidimensional theory of general relativity. Vector fields in general relativity form a three-parametric variety. Our consideration includes the fields with a nonzero covariant divergence. Depending on the relations between the particular parameters and the symmetry of a problem, the vector fields can be longitudinal and/or transverse, ultrarelativistic (i.e. massless) or nonrelativistic (massive), and so on. The longitudinal and transverse vector fields are considered separately in detail in the background of the de Sitter cosmological metric. In most cases the field equations reduce to Bessel equations, and their temporal evolution is analyzed analytically. The energy-momentum tensor of the most simple zero-mass longitudinal vector fields enters the Einstein equations as an additive to the cosmological constant. In this case the de Sitter metric is the exact solution of the Einstein equations. Hence, the most simple zero-mass longitudinal vector field pretends to be an adequate tool for macroscopic description of dark energy as a source of the expansion of the Universe at a constant rate. The zero-mass vector field does not vanish in the process of expansion. On the contrary, massive fields vanish with time. Though their amplitude is falling down, the massive fields make the expansion accelerated.

  3. Cavity- and waveguide-resonators in electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Webb, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Cavity resonators are widely used in electron paramagnetic resonance, very high field magnetic resonance microimaging and also in high field human imaging. The basic principles and designs of different forms of cavity resonators including rectangular, cylindrical, re-entrant, cavity magnetrons, toroidal cavities and dielectric resonators are reviewed. Applications in EPR and MRI are summarized, and finally the topic of traveling wave MRI using the magnet bore as a waveguide is discussed.

  4. Insecticide resistance and vector control.

    PubMed Central

    Brogdon, W. G.; McAllister, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    Insecticide resistance has been a problem in all insect groups that serve as vectors of emerging diseases. Although mechanisms by which insecticides become less effective are similar across all vector taxa, each resistance problem is potentially unique and may involve a complex pattern of resistance foci. The main defense against resistance is close surveillance of the susceptibility of vector populations. We describe the mechanisms of insecticide resistance, as well as specific instances of resistance emergence worldwide, and discuss prospects for resistance management and priorities for detection and surveillance. PMID:9866736

  5. Vector statistics of LANDSAT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R. R., Jr.; Underwood, D.

    1977-01-01

    A digitized multispectral image, such as LANDSAT data, is composed of numerous four dimensional vectors, which quantitatively describe the ground scene from which the data are acquired. The statistics of unique vectors that occur in LANDSAT imagery are studied to determine if that information can provide some guidance on reducing image processing costs. A second purpose of this report is to investigate how the vector statistics are changed by various types of image processing techniques and determine if that information can be useful in choosing one processing approach over another.

  6. Are Bred Vectors The Same As Lyapunov Vectors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnay, E.; Corazza, M.; Cai, M.

    Regional loss of predictability is an indication of the instability of the underlying flow, where small errors in the initial conditions (or imperfections in the model) grow to large amplitudes in finite times. The stability properties of evolving flows have been studied using Lyapunov vectors (e.g., Alligood et al, 1996, Ott, 1993, Kalnay, 2002), singular vectors (e.g., Lorenz, 1965, Farrell, 1988, Molteni and Palmer, 1993), and, more recently, with bred vectors (e.g., Szunyogh et al, 1997, Cai et al, 2001). Bred vectors (BVs) are, by construction, closely related to Lyapunov vectors (LVs). In fact, after an infinitely long breeding time, and with the use of infinitesimal ampli- tudes, bred vectors are identical to leading Lyapunov vectors. In practical applications, however, bred vectors are different from Lyapunov vectors in two important ways: a) bred vectors are never globally orthogonalized and are intrinsically local in space and time, and b) they are finite-amplitude, finite-time vectors. These two differences are very significant in a dynamical system whose size is very large. For example, the at- mosphere is large enough to have "room" for several synoptic scale instabilities (e.g., storms) to develop independently in different regions (say, North America and Aus- tralia), and it is complex enough to have several different possible types of instabilities (such as barotropic, baroclinic, convective, and even Brownian motion). Bred vectors share some of their properties with leading LVs (Corazza et al, 2001a, 2001b, Toth and Kalnay, 1993, 1997, Cai et al, 2001). For example, 1) Bred vectors are independent of the norm used to define the size of the perturba- tion. Corazza et al. (2001) showed that bred vectors obtained using a potential enstro- phy norm were indistinguishable from bred vectors obtained using a streamfunction squared norm, in contrast with singular vectors. 2) Bred vectors are independent of the length of the rescaling period as long as the

  7. Vector independent transmission of the vector-borne bluetongue virus.

    PubMed

    van der Sluijs, Mirjam Tineke Willemijn; de Smit, Abraham J; Moormann, Rob J M

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue is an economically important disease of ruminants. The causative agent, Bluetongue virus (BTV), is mainly transmitted by insect vectors. This review focuses on vector-free BTV transmission, and its epizootic and economic consequences. Vector-free transmission can either be vertical, from dam to fetus, or horizontal via direct contract. For several BTV-serotypes, vertical (transplacental) transmission has been described, resulting in severe congenital malformations. Transplacental transmission had been mainly associated with live vaccine strains. Yet, the European BTV-8 strain demonstrated a high incidence of transplacental transmission in natural circumstances. The relevance of transplacental transmission for the epizootiology is considered limited, especially in enzootic areas. However, transplacental transmission can have a substantial economic impact due to the loss of progeny. Inactivated vaccines have demonstrated to prevent transplacental transmission. Vector-free horizontal transmission has also been demonstrated. Since direct horizontal transmission requires close contact of animals, it is considered only relevant for within-farm spreading of BTV. The genetic determinants which enable vector-free transmission are present in virus strains circulating in the field. More research into the genetic changes which enable vector-free transmission is essential to better evaluate the risks associated with outbreaks of new BTV serotypes and to design more appropriate control measures.

  8. Integrated Thrust Vectored Engine Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    erformances operationnelles des aeronefs militaires, des vehicules terrestres et des vehicules maritimes] To order the complete compilation report...throttling "* Autonomous Engine Configuration Side forces demand to define nozzle vectoring "* Simple Interface FADEC -> FCS " Minimum Interaction FCS

  9. Contingency Pest and Vector Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    names are used in this TG to provide specific information or photo credits and do not imply endorsement of the products named or criticism of similar...ones not mentioned. Mention of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the products by the author, the AFPMB, the Military...VectorMap (http://www.vectormap.org/), a product of the Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit (WRBU). VectorMap provides disease maps, and mapped collection

  10. Rate determination from vector observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Jerold L.

    1993-01-01

    Vector observations are a common class of attitude data provided by a wide variety of attitude sensors. Attitude determination from vector observations is a well-understood process and numerous algorithms such as the TRIAD algorithm exist. These algorithms require measurement of the line of site (LOS) vector to reference objects and knowledge of the LOS directions in some predetermined reference frame. Once attitude is determined, it is a simple matter to synthesize vehicle rate using some form of lead-lag filter, and then, use it for vehicle stabilization. Many situations arise, however, in which rate knowledge is required but knowledge of the nominal LOS directions are not available. This paper presents two methods for determining spacecraft angular rates from vector observations without a priori knowledge of the vector directions. The first approach uses an extended Kalman filter with a spacecraft dynamic model and a kinematic model representing the motion of the observed LOS vectors. The second approach uses a 'differential' TRIAD algorithm to compute the incremental direction cosine matrix, from which vehicle rate is then derived.

  11. Axisymmetric Coanda-assisted vectoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Dustin; Smith, Barton L.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental demonstration of a jet vectoring technique used in our novel spray method called Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation (CSM) is presented. CSM makes use of the Coanda effect on axisymmetric geometries through the interaction of two jets: a primary jet and a control jet. The primary jet has larger volume flow rate but generally a smaller momentum flux than the control jet. The primary jet flows through the center of a rounded collar. The control jet is parallel to the primary and is adjacent to the convex collar. The Reynolds number range for the primary jet at the exit plane was between 20,000 and 80,000. The flow was in the incompressible Mach number range (Mach < 0.3). The control jet attaches to the convex wall and vectors according to known Coanda effect principles, entraining and vectoring the primary jet, resulting in controllable r - θ directional spraying. Several annular control slots and collar radii were tested over a range of momentum flux ratios to determine the effects of these variables on the vectored jet angle and spreading. Two and Three-component Particle Image Velocimetry systems were used to determine the vectoring angle and the profile of the combined jet in each experiment. The experiments show that the control slot and expansion radius, along with the momentum ratios of the two jets predominantly affected the vectoring angle and profile of the combined jets.

  12. Vector control after malaria eradication

    PubMed Central

    Micks, D. W.

    1963-01-01

    In considerable areas now in or near the consolidation phase of malaria eradication, other vector-borne diseases present serious public health problems, even though not susceptible to control on the same world-wide scale as malaria. Several of these areas are already making plans for converting their malaria eradication services to vector control services. While it is possible to use essentially the same personnel and equipment, the methods must be adapted to the biology and habits of the vector. For a smooth and rapid transition, considerable advance planning is therefore needed—preferably well ahead of the consolidation phase. The author gives several examples of the need for flexibility in effecting the changeover and of the problems likely to arise after the completion of malaria eradication programmes. He recommends that epidemiological studies should be extended to vector-borne diseases other than malaria while eradication programmes are still in progress and that vector control programmes should be integrated into the basic health services of the country as soon as possible. He also underlines the importance of water management and other aspects of environmental sanitation in vector control programmes. PMID:20604169

  13. Handling S/MAR vectors.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Claudia; Baiker, Armin; Postberg, Jan; Ehrhardt, Anja; Lipps, Hans J

    2012-06-01

    Nonviral episomal vectors represent attractive alternatives to currently used virus-based expression systems. In the late 1990s, it was shown that a plasmid containing an expression cassette linked to a scaffold/matrix attached region (S/MAR) replicates as a low copy number episome in all cell lines tested, as well as primary cells, and can be used for the genetic modification of higher animals. Once established in the cell, the S/MAR vector replicates early during S-phase and, in the absence of selection, is stably retained in the cells for an unlimited period of time. This vector can therefore be regarded as a minimal model system for studying the epigenetic regulation of replication and functional nuclear architecture. In theory, this construct represents an almost "ideal" expression system for gene therapy. In practice, S/MAR-based vectors stably modify mammalian cells with efficiencies far below those of virus-based constructs. Consequently, they have not yet found application in gene therapy trials. Furthermore, S/MAR vector systems are not trivial to handle and several critical technical issues have to be considered when modifying these vectors for various applications.

  14. Sustained expression from DNA vectors.

    PubMed

    Wong, Suet Ping; Argyros, Orestis; Harbottle, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    DNA vectors have the potential to become powerful medical tools for treatment of human disease. The human body has, however, developed a range of defensive strategies to detect and silence foreign or misplaced DNA, which is more typically encountered during infection or chromosomal damage. A clinically relevant human gene therapy vector must overcome or avoid these protections whilst delivering sustained levels of therapeutic gene product without compromising the vitality of the recipient host. Many non-viral DNA vectors trigger these defense mechanisms and are subsequently destroyed or rendered silent. Thus, without modification or considered design, the clinical utility of a typical DNA vector is fundamentally limited due to the transient nature of its transgene expression. The development of safe and persistently expressing DNA vectors is a crucial prerequisite for its successful clinical application and subsequently remains, therefore, one of the main strategic tasks of non-viral gene therapy research. In this chapter we will describe our current understanding of the mechanisms that can destroy or silence DNA vectors and discuss strategies, which have been utilized to improve their sustenance and the level and duration of their transgene expression.

  15. Acoustic resonance spectroscopy for the advanced undergraduate laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco-Villafañe, J. A.; Flores-Olmedo, E.; Báez, G.; Gandarilla-Carrillo, O.; Méndez-Sánchez, R. A.

    2012-11-01

    We present a simple experiment that allows advanced undergraduates to learn the principles and applications of spectroscopy. The technique, known as acoustic resonance spectroscopy, is applied to study a vibrating rod. The setup includes electromagnetic-acoustic transducers, an audio amplifier and a vector network analyzer. Typical results of compressional, torsional and bending waves are analyzed and compared with analytical results.

  16. Integral resonator gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean V. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention discloses an inertial sensor having an integral resonator. A typical sensor comprises a planar mechanical resonator for sensing motion of the inertial sensor and a case for housing the resonator. The resonator and a wall of the case are defined through an etching process. A typical method of producing the resonator includes etching a baseplate, bonding a wafer to the etched baseplate, through etching the wafer to form a planar mechanical resonator and the wall of the case and bonding an end cap wafer to the wall to complete the case.

  17. Resonances and circuit theory for the interaction of metallic disks and annuli with an electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, S. T.; Du, J. J.; Yau, S. T.

    2014-11-01

    To understand the nature of the electromagnetic resonances of finite metallic surfaces, we formulate a rigorous and rapidly convergent circuit theory for the interaction of a metallic disk and a metallic annulus with an electromagnetic field. Expressions for the current induced and the resonance condition are derived. A new understanding of the nature of the resonances is obtained. For half of the resonances we find a divergent electric field at the edge of the disk, even though it is smooth in shape. For the disk, we compare with previous results using vector spheroidal wave functions and found good agreement for the resonance condition. Our approach can be generalized to other finite surfaces.

  18. Partially orthogonal resonators for magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Malzacher, Matthias; Schad, Lothar R.

    2017-01-01

    Resonators for signal reception in magnetic resonance are traditionally planar to restrict coil material and avoid coil losses. Here, we present a novel concept to model resonators partially in a plane with maximum sensitivity to the magnetic resonance signal and partially in an orthogonal plane with reduced signal sensitivity. Thus, properties of individual elements in coil arrays can be modified to optimize physical planar space and increase the sensitivity of the overall array. A particular case of the concept is implemented to decrease H-field destructive interferences in planar concentric in-phase arrays. An increase in signal to noise ratio of approximately 20% was achieved with two resonators placed over approximately the same planar area compared to common approaches at a target depth of 10 cm at 3 Tesla. Improved parallel imaging performance of this configuration is also demonstrated. The concept can be further used to increase coil density. PMID:28186135

  19. Partially orthogonal resonators for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Malzacher, Matthias; Schad, Lothar R.

    2017-02-01

    Resonators for signal reception in magnetic resonance are traditionally planar to restrict coil material and avoid coil losses. Here, we present a novel concept to model resonators partially in a plane with maximum sensitivity to the magnetic resonance signal and partially in an orthogonal plane with reduced signal sensitivity. Thus, properties of individual elements in coil arrays can be modified to optimize physical planar space and increase the sensitivity of the overall array. A particular case of the concept is implemented to decrease H-field destructive interferences in planar concentric in-phase arrays. An increase in signal to noise ratio of approximately 20% was achieved with two resonators placed over approximately the same planar area compared to common approaches at a target depth of 10 cm at 3 Tesla. Improved parallel imaging performance of this configuration is also demonstrated. The concept can be further used to increase coil density.

  20. Black holes with vector hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhong-Ying

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we consider Einstein gravity coupled to a vector field, either minimally or non-minimally, together with a vector potential of the type V = 2{Λ}_0+1/2{m}^2{A}^2 + {γ}_4{A}^4 . For a simpler non-minimally coupled theory with Λ0 = m = γ4 = 0, we obtain both extremal and non-extremal black hole solutions that are asymptotic to Minkowski space-times. We study the global properties of the solutions and derive the first law of thermodynamics using Wald formalism. We find that the thermodynamical first law of the extremal black holes is modified by a one form associated with the vector field. In particular, due to the existence of the non-minimal coupling, the vector forms thermodynamic conjugates with the graviton mode and partly contributes to the one form modifying the first law. For a minimally coupled theory with Λ0 ≠ 0, we also obtain one class of asymptotically flat extremal black hole solutions in general dimensions. This is possible because the parameters ( m 2 , γ4) take certain values such that V = 0. In particular, we find that the vector also forms thermodynamic conjugates with the graviton mode and contributes to the corresponding first law, although the non-minimal coupling has been turned off. Thus all the extremal black hole solutions that we obtain provide highly non-trivial examples how the first law of thermodynamics can be modified by a either minimally or non-minimally coupled vector field. We also study Gauss-Bonnet gravity non-minimally coupled to a vector and obtain asymptotically flat black holes and Lifshitz black holes.

  1. Resonance of relativistic electrons with electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    DOE PAGES

    Denton, R. E.; Jordanova, V. K.; Bortnik, J.

    2015-06-29

    Relativistic electrons have been thought to more easily resonate with electromagnetic ion cyclotron EMIC waves if the total density is large. We show that, for a particular EMIC mode, this dependence is weak due to the dependence of the wave frequency and wave vector on the density. A significant increase in relativistic electron minimum resonant energy might occur for the H band EMIC mode only for small density, but no changes in parameters significantly decrease the minimum resonant energy from a nominal value. The minimum resonant energy depends most strongly on the thermal velocity associated with the field line motionmore » of the hot ring current protons that drive the instability. High density due to a plasmasphere or plasmaspheric plume could possibly lead to lower minimum resonance energy by causing the He band EMIC mode to be dominant. We demonstrate these points using parameters from a ring current simulation.« less

  2. Resonance of relativistic electrons with electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, R. E.; Jordanova, V. K.; Bortnik, J.

    2015-06-29

    Relativistic electrons have been thought to more easily resonate with electromagnetic ion cyclotron EMIC waves if the total density is large. We show that, for a particular EMIC mode, this dependence is weak due to the dependence of the wave frequency and wave vector on the density. A significant increase in relativistic electron minimum resonant energy might occur for the H band EMIC mode only for small density, but no changes in parameters significantly decrease the minimum resonant energy from a nominal value. The minimum resonant energy depends most strongly on the thermal velocity associated with the field line motion of the hot ring current protons that drive the instability. High density due to a plasmasphere or plasmaspheric plume could possibly lead to lower minimum resonance energy by causing the He band EMIC mode to be dominant. We demonstrate these points using parameters from a ring current simulation.

  3. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  4. Nanomechanical resonance detector

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Jeffrey C; Zettl, Alexander K

    2013-10-29

    An embodiment of a nanomechanical frequency detector includes a support structure and a plurality of elongated nanostructures coupled to the support structure. Each of the elongated nanostructures has a particular resonant frequency. The plurality of elongated nanostructures has a range of resonant frequencies. An embodiment of a method of identifying an object includes introducing the object to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the object. An embodiment of a method of identifying a molecular species of the present invention includes introducing the molecular species to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the molecular species.

  5. Learning with LOGO: Logo and Vectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lough, Tom; Tipps, Steve

    1986-01-01

    This is the first of a two-part series on the general concept of vector space. Provides tool procedures to allow investigation of vector properties, vector addition and subtraction, and X and Y components. Lists several sources of additional vector ideas. (JM)

  6. Dilepton production in heavy-ion collisions with in-medium spectral functions of vector mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, E.; Faessler, Amand; Fuchs, C.; Cozma, M. D.; Krivoruchenko, M. I.; Martemyanov, B.

    2008-09-15

    The in-medium spectral functions of {rho} and {omega} mesons and the broadening of nucleon resonances at finite baryon density are calculated self-consistently by combining a resonance dominance model for the vector meson production with an extended vector meson dominance model. The influence of the in-medium modifications of the vector meson properties on the dilepton spectrum in heavy-ion collisions is investigated. The dilepton spectrum is generated for the C+C reaction at 2.0A GeV and compared with recent HADES Collaboration data. The collision dynamics is then described by the Tuebingen relativistic quantum molecular dynamics transport model. We find that an iterative calculation of the vector meson spectral functions that takes into account the broadening of the nucleon resonances due to their increased in-medium decay branchings is convergent and provides a reasonable description of the experimental data in the mass region 0.45{<=}M{<=}0.75 GeV. On the other side, the theoretical calculations slightly underestimate the region m{sub {pi}}{<=}M{<=}0.4 GeV. Popular in-medium scenarios such as a schematic collisional broadening and dropping vector mesons masses are discussed as well.

  7. Analysis and calibration techniques for superconducting resonators.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Wollack, Edward J; Barrentine, Emily M; Brown, Ari D; Moseley, S Harvey; U-Yen, Kongpop

    2015-01-01

    A method is proposed and experimentally explored for in-situ calibration of complex transmission data for superconducting microwave resonators. This cryogenic calibration method accounts for the instrumental transmission response between the vector network analyzer reference plane and the device calibration plane. Once calibrated, the observed resonator response is analyzed in detail by two approaches. The first, a phenomenological model based on physically realizable rational functions, enables the extraction of multiple resonance frequencies and widths for coupled resonators without explicit specification of the circuit network. In the second, an ABCD-matrix representation for the distributed transmission line circuit is used to model the observed response from the characteristic impedance and propagation constant. When used in conjunction with electromagnetic simulations, the kinetic inductance fraction can be determined with this method with an accuracy of 2%. Datasets for superconducting microstrip and coplanar-waveguide resonator devices were investigated and a recovery within 1% of the observed complex transmission amplitude was achieved with both analysis approaches. The experimental configuration used in microwave characterization of the devices and self-consistent constraints for the electromagnetic constitutive relations for parameter extraction are also presented.

  8. Recent developments on hadron interaction and dynamically generated resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oset, E.; Albaladejo, M.; Xie, Ju-Jun; Ramos, A.

    2014-07-01

    In this talk I report on the recent developments in the subject of dynamically generated resonances. In particular I discuss the γp → K0Σ+ and γn → K0Σ0 reactions, with a peculiar behavior around the K*0Λ threshold, due to a 1/2- resonance around 2035 MeV. Similarly, I discuss a BES experiment, J/ψ -> η K*0 {\\bar K}*0 decay, which provides evidence for a new h1 resonance around 1830 MeV that was predicted from the vector-vector interaction. A short discussion is then made about recent advances in the charm and beauty sectors.

  9. A generalized nonlocal vector calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max

    2015-10-01

    A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A formulation is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal integration by parts formula and Green's identities. The nonlocal vector calculus introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) is shown to be recoverable from the general formulation as a special example. This special nonlocal vector calculus is used to reformulate the peridynamics equation of motion in terms of the nonlocal gradient operator and its adjoint. A new example of nonlocal vector calculus operators is introduced, which shows the potential use of the general formulation for general nonlocal models.

  10. Episomal vectors for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Anja; Haase, Rudolf; Schepers, Aloys; Deutsch, Manuel J; Lipps, Hans Joachim; Baiker, Armin

    2008-06-01

    The increasing knowledge of the molecular and genetic background of many different human diseases has led to the vision that genetic engineering might be used one day for their phenotypic correction. The main goal of gene therapy is to treat loss-of-function genetic disorders by delivering correcting therapeutic DNA sequences into the nucleus of a cell, allowing its long-term expression at physiologically relevant levels. Manifold different vector systems for the therapeutic gene delivery have been described over the recent years. They all have their individual advantages but also their individual limitations and must be judged on a careful risk/benefit analysis. Integrating vector systems can deliver genetic material to a target cell with high efficiency enabling long-term expression of an encoded transgene. The main disadvantage of integrating vector systems, however, is their potential risk of causing insertional mutagenesis. Episomal vector systems have the potential to avoid these undesired side effects, since they behave as separate extrachromosomal elements in the nucleus of a target cell. Within this article we present a comprehensive survey of currently available episomal vector systems for the genetic modification of mammalian cells. We will discuss their advantages and disadvantages and their applications in the context of basic research, biotechnology and gene therapy.

  11. Vectors for cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Russell, S J

    1996-09-01

    Many viral and non-viral vector systems have now been developed for gene therapy applications. In this article, the pros and cons of these vector systems are discussed in relation to the different cancer gene therapy strategies. The protocols used in cancer gene therapy can be broadly divided into six categories including gene transfer to explanted cells for use as cell-based cancer vaccines; gene transfer to a small number of tumour cells in situ to achieve a vaccine effect; gene transfer to vascular endothelial cells (VECs) lining the blood vessels of the tumour to interfere with tumour angiogenesis; gene transfer to T lymphocytes to enhance their antitumour effector capability; gene transfer to haemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to enhance their resistance to cytotoxic drugs and gene transfer to a large number of tumour cells in situ to achieve nonimmune tumour reduction with or without bystander effect. Each of the six strategies makes unique demands on the vector system and these are discussed with reference to currently available vectors. Aspects of vector biology that are in need of further development are discussed in some detail. The final section points to the potential use of replicating viruses as delivery vehicles for efficient in vivo gene transfer to disseminated cancers.

  12. The Electric Giant Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Woude, A.

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Experimental Methods to Study Giant Resonances * Introduction * The Tools * Introduction * Tools for Isoscalar Scattering * INELASTIC α-SCATTERING * INELASTIC PROTON SCATTERING * Tools for Isovector Excitations * γ-ABSORPTION AND PARTICLE CAPTURE REACTIONS * CHARGE EXCHANGE REACTIONS - THE (π+, π0) REACTION * Tools For Isoscalar And Isovector Excitations * INELASTIC ELECTRON SCATTERING * GIANT RESONANCE EXCITATION BY FAST HEAVY IONS * From Multipole Cross Section To Multipole Strength * The Electric Isoscalar Resonances * The Isoscalar Giant Monopole Resonance * Systematics on the GMR * Compressibility and the Giant Monopole Resonance * Introduction * The Compressibility of nuclear matter from the GMR energies * Discussion * The Isoscalar Giant Quadrupole Resonance * General Trends In Medium-Heavy and Heavy Nuclei * The GQR In Light Nuclei * The Isoscalar 3- Strength, LEOR and HEOR * Isoscalar 4+ Strength * Miscellaneous; Isoscalar 1- and L > 4-Strength * The Electric Isovector Giant Resonances * The Isovector Giant Dipole Resonance: GDR * The Isovector Giant Monopole Resonances: IVGMR * The Isovector Quadrupole Resonance: IVGQR * The Effect of Ground State Deformation on the Shape of Giant Resonance: Microscopic Picture * Giant Resonances Built on Excited States * Introduction * Capture Reactions on Light Nuclei * Statistical decay of GDR γ Emission in Heavy Compound Systems * Introduction * Theoretical Predictions * Some Experimental Results * Summary and Outlook * Acknowledgements * General References * References

  13. Chiral bag with vector mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, A.; Toki, H.; Weise, W.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate nucleon structure in a (non-linear) chiral bag model with vector mesons. The model incorporates two different degrees of freedom: mesons outside the bag at long and intermediate ranges, and quarks inside the bag at short distances. The ρ, a 1 and ω mesons outside the bag are included in a chiral effective lagrangian based on the non-linear sigma model. The classical solution is obtained using the hedgehog ansatz, and the cranking method is applied to construct the physical nucleon states. Static properties of the nucleon such as its mass, axial vector coupling constant, magnetic moments and charge radii are studied in detail as functions of the bag radius. Quark and meson contributions to these quantities are calculated separately. In particular, we discuss the extent to which the vector-meson dominance picture holds in the chiral bag.

  14. Vector insects and their control.

    PubMed

    Lehane, M J

    1996-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the huge influence that vector-transmitted disease has on humans using plague, epidemic typhus and nagana as examples. The continuing need for vector control in campaigns against insect-transmitted disease is shown by reference to current control programmes mounted against Chagas' disease, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis and nagana. These successful campaigns have not been reliant on new breakthroughs but on the forging of available tools into effective strategies widely and efficiently used by the control authorities, and the long-lasting political commitment to the success of the schemes in question. A brief mention is made of current fashions in vector control research and that great care needs to be taken by policy-makers to achieve a balance between long-term research aiming at the production of fundamentally new control technologies and operational research aiming to forge the often highly effective tools we already have into sound control strategies.

  15. Targeting retroviral and lentiviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Sandrin, V; Russell, S J; Cosset, F L

    2003-01-01

    Retroviral vectors capable of efficient in vivo gene delivery to specific target cell types or to specific locations of disease pathology would greatly facilitate many gene therapy applications. The surface glycoproteins of membrane-enveloped viruses stand among the choice candidates to control the target cell receptor recognition and host range of retroviral vectors onto which they are incorporated. This can be achieved in many ways, such as the exchange of glycoprotein by pseudotyping, their biochemical modifications, their conjugation with virus-cell bridging agents or their structural modifications. Understanding the fundamental properties of the viral glycoproteins and the molecular mechanism of virus entry into cells has been instrumental in the functional alteration of their tropism. Here we briefly review the current state of our understanding of the structure and function of viral envelope glycoproteins and we discuss the emerging targeting strategies based on retroviral and lentiviral vector systems.

  16. Extrapolation methods for vector sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David A.; Ford, William F.; Sidi, Avram

    1987-01-01

    This paper derives, describes, and compares five extrapolation methods for accelerating convergence of vector sequences or transforming divergent vector sequences to convergent ones. These methods are the scalar epsilon algorithm (SEA), vector epsilon algorithm (VEA), topological epsilon algorithm (TEA), minimal polynomial extrapolation (MPE), and reduced rank extrapolation (RRE). MPE and RRE are first derived and proven to give the exact solution for the right 'essential degree' k. Then, Brezinski's (1975) generalization of the Shanks-Schmidt transform is presented; the generalized form leads from systems of equations to TEA. The necessary connections are then made with SEA and VEA. The algorithms are extended to the nonlinear case by cycling, the error analysis for MPE and VEA is sketched, and the theoretical support for quadratic convergence is discussed. Strategies for practical implementation of the methods are considered.

  17. Gauge Theories of Vector Particles

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Glashow, S. L.; Gell-Mann, M.

    1961-04-24

    The possibility of generalizing the Yang-Mills trick is examined. Thus we seek theories of vector bosons invariant under continuous groups of coordinate-dependent linear transformations. All such theories may be expressed as superpositions of certain "simple" theories; we show that each "simple theory is associated with a simple Lie algebra. We may introduce mass terms for the vector bosons at the price of destroying the gauge-invariance for coordinate-dependent gauge functions. The theories corresponding to three particular simple Lie algebras - those which admit precisely two commuting quantum numbers - are examined in some detail as examples. One of them might play a role in the physics of the strong interactions if there is an underlying super-symmetry, transcending charge independence, that is badly broken. The intermediate vector boson theory of weak interactions is discussed also. The so-called "schizon" model cannot be made to conform to the requirements of partial gauge-invariance.

  18. The spherical birdcage resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpen, Michael D.

    A description of the operation of a spherical resonator capable of producing a uniform magnetic induction throughout a spherical volume is presented. Simple closed-form expressions for the spectrum of resonant frequencies are derived for both the low-pass and the high-pass configuration of the resonator and are shown to compare favorably with observation in an experimental coil system. It is shown that the spherical resonator produces a uniform spherical field of view when used as a magnetic resonance imaging radiofrequency coil.

  19. Ovenized microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, Roy H; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kim, Bongsang

    2014-03-11

    An ovenized micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonator including: a substantially thermally isolated mechanical resonator cavity; a mechanical oscillator coupled to the mechanical resonator cavity; and a heating element formed on the mechanical resonator cavity.

  20. Vector plotting as an indication of the approach to flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broadbent, E. G.

    1975-01-01

    A binary flexure-torsion analysis was made to check theoretically a method for predicting flutter which depends on plotting vectorially the amplitudes of response relative to the exciting force and extracting the relevant damping rate. The results of this calculation are given in graphs both of the vector plots themselves and of the estimated damping rate against forward speed. The estimated damping rates are compared with calculated values. The method has the advantage that in a flight flutter test damping can be estimated from continuous excitation records: the method is an extension of the Kennedy and Pancu technique used in ground resonance testing.

  1. Requirements for airborne vector gravimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, K. P.; Colombo, O.; Hein, G.; Knickmeyer, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of airborne vector gravimetry is the determination of the full gravity disturbance vector along the aircraft trajectory. The paper briefly outlines the concept of this method using a combination of inertial and GPS-satellite data. The accuracy requirements for users in geodesy and solid earth geophysics, oceanography and exploration geophysics are then specified. Using these requirements, accuracy specifications for the GPS subsystem and the INS subsystem are developed. The integration of the subsystems and the problems connected with it are briefly discussed and operational methods are indicated that might reduce some of the stringent accuracy requirements.

  2. Anisotropic inflation from vector impurity

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Sugumi; Kimura, Masashi; Soda, Jiro; Yokoyama, Shuichiro E-mail: mkimura@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp E-mail: shu@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2008-08-15

    We study an inflationary scenario with a vector impurity. We show that the universe undergoes anisotropic inflationary expansion due to a preferred direction determined by the vector. Using the slow roll approximation, we find a formula for determining the anisotropy of the inflationary universe. We discuss possible observable predictions of this scenario. In particular, it is stressed that primordial gravitational waves can be induced from curvature perturbations. Hence, even in low scale inflation, a sizable amount of primordial gravitational waves may be produced during inflation.

  3. Thrust-vectored differential turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, H. J.; Cliff, E. M.; Lefton, L.

    1980-01-01

    Barrier surface construction in the joint space of the differential turning game for thrust-vectored vs. conventional aircraft is discussed. Differential-turn studies are based on modifications of existing computer programs including an energy-turn program, and one which generates hodograph data. Optimal turning flight in energy approximation is discussed for the conventional aircraft configurations. It is concluded that any advantages realized from thrust-vectoring are minor, unless hover is possible, where advantages would be major at low energies, and affect tactics at high energies as well.

  4. Coexistence and interaction of vector and bound vector solitons in a dispersion-managed fiber laser mode locked by graphene.

    PubMed

    Song, Y F; Zhang, H; Zhao, L M; Shen, D Y; Tang, D Y

    2016-01-25

    We report on the experimental observation of vector and bound vector solitons in a fiber laser passively mode locked by graphene. Localized interactions between vector solitons, vector soliton with bound vector solitons, and vector soliton with a bunch of vector solitons are experimentally investigated. We show that depending on the soliton interactions, various stable and dynamic multiple vector soliton states could be formed.

  5. Optical Helmholtz resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, Paul; Bouchon, Patrick; Haïdar, Riad; Pardo, Fabrice

    2014-08-01

    Helmholtz resonators are widely used acoustic components able to select a single frequency. Here, based on an analogy between acoustics and electromagnetism wave equations, we present an electromagnetic 2D Helmholtz resonator made of a metallic slit-box structure. At the resonance, the light is funneled in the λ/800 apertures, and is subsequently absorbed in the cavity. As in acoustics, there is no higher order of resonance, which is an appealing feature for applications such as photodetection or thermal emission. Eventually, we demonstrate that the slit is of capacitive nature while the box behaves inductively. We derive an analytical formula for the resonance wavelength, which does not rely on wave propagation and therefore does not depend on the permittivity of the material filling the box. Besides, in contrast with half-wavelength resonators, the resonance wavelength can be engineered by both the slit aspect ratio and the box area.

  6. Resonance splitting in gyrotropic ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Jalas, Dirk; Petrov, Alexander; Krause, Michael; Hampe, Jan; Eich, Manfred

    2010-10-15

    We present the theoretical concept of an optical isolator based on resonance splitting in a silicon ring resonator covered with a magneto-optical polymer cladding. For this task, a perturbation method is derived for the modes in the cylindrical coordinate system. A polymer magneto-optical cladding causing a 0.01 amplitude of the off-diagonal element of the dielectric tensor is assumed. It is shown that the derived resonance splitting of the clockwise and counterclockwise modes increases for smaller ring radii. For the ring with a radius of approximately 1.5μm, a 29GHz splitting is demonstrated. An integrated optical isolator with a 10μm geometrical footprint is proposed based on a critically coupled ring resonator.

  7. Portfolio Analysis for Vector Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    Classic stock portfolio analysis provides an applied context for Lagrange multipliers that undergraduate students appreciate. Although modern methods of portfolio analysis are beyond the scope of vector calculus, classic methods reinforce the utility of this material. This paper discusses how to introduce classic stock portfolio analysis in a…

  8. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a disease of equidae including horses, donkeys, mules and zebras caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick-vectors and although they have inherent differences, they ...

  9. Phlebotomine Vectors of Human Disease.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-30

    different. We refrain from naming this specimen until more material becomes available. 12. Lutzomyia olmeca bicolor Fairchild and Theodor 1971...Castillo (1958) and Arzube (1960). Lutzomyia olmeca bicolor is the suspected vector of Leishmania mexicana aristedesi among rodents and marsupials in

  10. Primer vector theory and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezewski, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A method developed to compute two-body, optimal, N-impulse trajectories was presented. The necessary conditions established define the gradient structure of the primer vector and its derivative for any set of boundary conditions and any number of impulses. Inequality constraints, a conjugate gradient iterator technique, and the use of a penalty function were also discussed.

  11. Paleomagnetic vectors and tilted dikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borradaile, G. J.

    2001-04-01

    Where tectonic deformation reorients rocks without penetrative strain, their paleomagnetic vectors may be restored to their original attitudes by untilting. For strata, paleomagnetic inclination is readily restored but the tilt axis must be precisely known if paleodeclination is required. For dikes, without the knowledge of the rotation(s), neither declination nor inclination of the paleomagnetic vector can be uniquely defined. Furthermore, back-rotating dike orientations to an upright attitude assumes primary verticality whereas primary dike dips are bimodal across the spreading axes (e.g. Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus). In the Cyprus ophiolite, the dikes of the Limassol Forest Transform Zone are tilted due to uplift of the mantle-sequence rocks and deflected against the Arakapas Fault. Their paleomagnetic vectors may be restored rotating about the two axes defined by the strike and the vertical, or about a net axis that is possibly the actual tectonic rotation axis. This net axis is determined from the tectonic regional dispersion of the dike orientations. In this test case, the results of the restorations differ slightly but underline the difficulty in selecting the best restoration procedure and the greater difficulty of restoring the paleomagnetic data from dikes vis à vis strata. For dikes, it is recommended that the paleomagnetic vectors are restored using average dike orientations to minimize the inaccuracies due to the large primary variation in dike orientation.

  12. Byzantine Vector Consensus in Complete Graphs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-11

    pi, where 1 ≤ i ≤ d, is a vector whose i-th element is 1, and the remaining elements are 0. The input vector at process pd +1 is the all-0 vector (i.e...the vector with all elements 0). Note that the d input vectors at p1, · · · , pd form the standard basis for the d-dimensional vector space. Also...in all executions in which process pd +2 does not take any steps. Suppose that all the processes are non-faulty, but process pd +2 does not take any

  13. Structural and dynamical properties of chlorinated hydrocarbons studied with resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Bohinc, R; Žitnik, M; Bučar, K; Kavčič, M; Carniato, S; Journel, L; Guillemin, R; Marchenko, T; Kawerk, E; Simon, M; Cao, W

    2016-04-07

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering on a large group of chlorinated hydrocarbons: CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl4, CH3CH2Cl, ClCH2CH2Cl, CH3CHCl2, CH3CCl3, C2H2Cl2-iso, C2H2Cl2-cis, C2H2Cl2-trans, and C6H5Cl. Differences in structural and dynamical properties of the molecules generated by diverse chemical environments are observed in the measured Cl(K(α)) spectral maps as well as in the Cl(K) total fluorescence yield spectra. The energy position, relative intensity, and the width of the Franck-Condon distribution of low-lying σ* and π* resonances are extracted by a fitting procedure taking into account the experimental broadening. The theoretical values obtained with the transition potential and Δ Kohn-Sham methods are in good agreement with the experimental parameters indicating subtle differences due to variations in the molecular structure.

  14. Direct proton decay from the Gamow-Teller resonance in {sup 208}Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Akimune, H.; Daito, I.; Fujita, Y.; Fujiwara, M.; Greenfield, M.B.; Harakeh, M.N.; Inomata, T.; Jaenecke, J.; Katori, K.; Nakayama, S.; Sakai, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Yosoi, M. ||||||||

    1995-08-01

    Spin-isospin excitations in {sup 208}Bi have been investigated using the {sup 208}Pb ({sup 3}He,{ital t}){sup 208}Bi reaction at near {theta}{approx}0{degree} at {ital E}({sup 3}He)=450 MeV. The microscopic structure of the Gamow-Teller resonance (GTR), the isobaric analog state (IAS), and the spin-flip dipole ({Delta}{ital L}=1) resonance (SDR) in {sup 208}Bi has been studied by observing their direct proton decays to the low-lying neutron-hole states in {sup 207}Pb. Decay protons were measured at backward angles in coincidence with tritons detected at and near 0{degree}. The total branching ratio for proton decay from the GTR is determined to be only 4.9{plus_minus}1.3%. The total branching ratio for proton decay from the SDR amounts to 14.1{plus_minus}4.2%. The deduced total widths as well as the total and partial proton escape widths of the GRR and IAS are found to be in reasonable agreement with recent theoretical estimates obtained in the framework of the continuum Tamm-Dancoff approximation.

  15. Structural and dynamical properties of chlorinated hydrocarbons studied with resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohinc, R.; Žitnik, M.; Bučar, K.; Kavčič, M.; Carniato, S.; Journel, L.; Guillemin, R.; Marchenko, T.; Kawerk, E.; Simon, M.; Cao, W.

    2016-04-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering on a large group of chlorinated hydrocarbons: CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl4, CH3CH2Cl, ClCH2CH2Cl, CH3CHCl2, CH3CCl3, C2H2Cl2-iso, C2H2Cl2-cis, C2H2Cl2-trans, and C6H5Cl. Differences in structural and dynamical properties of the molecules generated by diverse chemical environments are observed in the measured Cl(Kα) spectral maps as well as in the Cl(K) total fluorescence yield spectra. The energy position, relative intensity, and the width of the Franck-Condon distribution of low-lying σ∗ and π∗ resonances are extracted by a fitting procedure taking into account the experimental broadening. The theoretical values obtained with the transition potential and Δ Kohn-Sham methods are in good agreement with the experimental parameters indicating subtle differences due to variations in the molecular structure.

  16. Theoretical study of the low-lying electronic states of the RbCs+ molecular ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korek, M.; Allouche, A. R.

    2001-09-01

    The potential energy has been calculated over a wide range of internuclear distance for the 64 lowest molecular states of symmetry 2Σ+, 2Π, 2Δ, and Ω = ½, 3/2, 3/2 of the molecular ion RbCs+. This calculation has been done by using an ab initio method based on non-empirical pseudopotentials and parametrized l-dependent polarization potentials. We used Gaussian basis sets for both atoms and the spin-orbit effect has been taken into account through a non-empirical spin-orbit pseudopotential. For the four bound states (1) 2Σ+, (1) 2Π, (1) Ω = ½ and (1) Ω = 3/2 the main spectroscopic constants ωe, Be, and De have been derived. By replacing the rovibrational differential Schrödinger equation by a Volterra integral equation the wavefunction is given by Ψ = ∑i = 01{aifi}, where the coefficients ai are obtained from the boundary conditions of the wavefunction and fi are two well defined canonical functions. Using these functions the eigenvalues Ev, the rotational constants Bv and the centrifugal distortion constants Dv have been calculated for the four considered bound states up to v = 121 as well as the dipole moment functions and oscillator strengths for transitions between (1) 2Σ+ and (1) 2Π. No comparison of these values with other results is yet possible because they are given here for the first time. Extensive tables of energy values versus internuclear distance and the values of Ev, Bv and Dv are displayed at the following address: http://lasim.univ-lyon1.fr/allouche/rbcsplus

  17. State of Texas - Highlighting Low-Lying Areas Derived from USGS Digital Elevation Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kosovich, John J.

    2008-01-01

    In support of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) disaster preparedness efforts, this map depicts a color shaded relief representation of Texas and a grayscale relief of the surrounding areas. The first 30 feet of relief above mean sea level are displayed as brightly colored 5-foot elevation bands, which highlight low-elevation areas at a coarse spatial resolution. Standard USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) 1 arc-second (nominally 30-meter) digital elevation model (DEM) data are the basis for the map, which is designed to be used at a broad scale and for informational purposes only. The NED data were derived from the original 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic map bare-earth contours, which were converted into gridded quadrangle-based DEM tiles at a constant post spacing (grid cell size) of either 30 meters (data before the mid-1990s) or 10 meters (mid-1990s and later data). These individual-quadrangle DEMs were then converted to spherical coordinates (latitude/longitude decimal degrees) and edge-matched to ensure seamlessness. The NED source data for this map consists of a mixture of 30-meter- and 10-meter-resolution DEMs. State and county boundary, hydrography, city, and road layers were modified from USGS National Atlas data downloaded in 2003. The NED data were downloaded in 2002. Shaded relief over Mexico was obtained from the USGS National Atlas.

  18. Gulf of Mexico Region - Highlighting Low-Lying Areas Derived from USGS Digital Elevation Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kosovich, John J.

    2008-01-01

    In support of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) disaster preparedness efforts, this map depicts a color shaded relief representation of the area surrounding the Gulf of Mexico. The first 30 feet of relief above mean sea level are displayed as brightly colored 5-foot elevation bands, which highlight low-elevation areas at a coarse spatial resolution. Standard USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) 1 arc-second (nominally 30-meter) digital elevation model (DEM) data are the basis for the map, which is designed to be used at a broad scale and for informational purposes only. The NED data were derived from the original 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic map bare-earth contours, which were converted into gridded quadrangle-based DEM tiles at a constant post spacing (grid cell size) of either 30 meters (data before the mid-1990s data) or 10 meters (mid-1990s and later data). These individual-quadrangle DEMs were then converted to spherical coordinates (latitude/longitude decimal degrees) and edge-matched to ensure seamlessness. Approximately one-half of the area shown on this map has DEM source data at a 30-meter resolution, with the remaining half consisting of 10-meter contour-derived DEM data or higher-resolution LIDAR data. Areas below sea level typically are surrounded by levees or some other type of flood-control structures. State and county boundary, hydrography, city, and road layers were modified from USGS National Atlas data downloaded in 2003. The NED data were downloaded in 2005.

  19. Probing ground and low-lying excited states for HIO2 isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Gabriel L. C.; Brown, Alex

    2014-12-01

    We present a computational study on HIO2 molecules. Ground state properties such as equilibrium structures, relative energetics, vibrational frequencies, and infrared intensities were obtained for all the isomers at the coupled-cluster with single and double excitations as well as perturbative inclusion of triples (CCSD(T)) level of theory with the aug-cc-pVTZ-PP basis set and ECP-28-PP effective core potential for iodine and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set for hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The HOIO structure is confirmed as the lowest energy isomer. The relative energies are shown to be HOIO < HOOI < HI(O)O. The HO(O)I isomer is only stable at the density functional theory (DFT) level of theory. The transition states determined show interconversion of the isomers is possible. In order to facilitate future experimental identification, vibrational frequencies are also determined for all corresponding deuterated species. Vertical excitation energies for the three lowest-lying singlet and triplet excited states were determined using the configuration interaction singles, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT)/B3LYP, TD-DFT/G96PW91, and equation of motion-CCSD approaches with the LANL2DZ basis set plus effective core potential for iodine and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set for hydrogen and oxygen atoms. It is shown that HOIO and HOOI isomers have excited states accessible at solar wavelengths (<4.0 eV) but these states have very small oscillator strengths (<2 × 10-3).

  20. MRCI calculations of the low-lying electronic states of CuC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Zhang, S. D.

    2015-06-01

    The four electronic states (2Σ-, 2Π, 4Σ-, and 4Π) of CuC corresponding to the lowest dissociation limits Cu(2 S g ) + C(3 P g ) are calculated by using multi-reference configuration interaction method with Davidson correction (MRCI + Q) approach in combination with the effective core potentials (ECPs) basis sets LANLTZ for the Cu atom and 6-311+g( d) basis sets for the C atom. The calculation covers the internuclear distance ranging from 0.04 to 0.54 nm, and the equilibrium bond length R e and the vertical excited energy T e are determined directly. The potential energy curves (PECs) show that the lowest two states are the 4Σ- and 2Π, and 4Σ- is the ground state where the 2Π state is higher than 4Σ- about 0.28 eV. With the potentials, all of the vibrational levels and rotational constants are predicted by numerically solving the radial Schröbinger equation of nuclear motion. Then the spectroscopic data of ωe, ωe x e, B e, and αe are obtained after data fitting which are compared with theoretical results currently available.

  1. On the nature of the low lying singlet states of anthracene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bree, A.; Leyderman, A.; Taliani, C.

    1986-03-01

    An analysis of the two-photon fluorescence excitation spectrum (TPES) of anthracene-h 10 and anthracene-d 10 in mixed crystal in the spectral range of 26000-31000 cm -1 at 4.2 K is presented. The two photon forbidden pure electronic origin of anthracene is particularly intense in fluorene mixed crystals because of the perturbation of the host matrix. In addition, a number of b lu vibrations give rise to a vibronic coupling with a second excited electronic state of total symmetry A g at about 29400 cm -1. The nature of this second excited state is discussed.

  2. Configuration mixing calculation for complete low-lying spectra with a mean-field Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Shinohara, Satoshi; Ohta, Hirofumi; Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2006-11-15

    We propose a new theoretical approach to ground and low-energy excited states of nuclei extending the nuclear mean-field theory. It consists of three steps: stochastic preparation of many Slater determinants, the parity and angular-momentum projection, and diagonalization of the generalized eigenvalue problems. The Slater determinants are constructed in the three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate representation capable of describing arbitrary shape of nuclei. We examine feasibility and usefulness of the method by applying the method with the Bonche-Koonin-Negele interaction to light 4N nuclei, {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, and {sup 20}Ne. We discuss difficulties of keeping linear independence for basis states projected on good parity and angular momentum and present a possible prescription.

  3. Low-lying bands with different quadrupole deformation in 155Dy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkov, P.; Yavahchova, M. S.; Möller, O.; Dewald, A.; Saha, B.; Fitzler, A.; Jessen, K.; Tonev, D.; Klug, T.; Heinze, S.; Jolie, J.; von Brentano, P.; Goutev, N.; Bazzacco, D.; Ur, C. A.; Farnea, C. A.; Axiotis, M.; Lunardi, S.; de Angelis, G.; Napoli, D. R.; Marginean, N.; Martinez, T.; Caprio, M. A.

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the interplay between collective and single particle degrees of freedom in odd nuclei, Recoil distance Doppler-shift and Doppler-shift attenuation lifetime measurements were carried out for levels in 155Dy in coincidence detection of gamma-rays. 26 lifetimes were determined using the Differential decay curve method. Particle plus triaxial rotor model (PTRM) calculations were performed to compare the experimental level scheme and transition strengths with theoretical ones in order to get information on the quadrupole deformation (є,γ) of the bands. As a result, different quadrupole deformations for the one-quasineutron bands at low and medium spins are deduced.

  4. Low-lying quasiparticle states and hidden collective charge instabilities in parent cobaltate superconductors.

    PubMed

    Qian, D; Hsieh, D; Wray, L; Chuang, Y-D; Fedorov, A; Wu, D; Luo, J L; Wang, N L; Viciu, L; Cava, R J; Hasan, M Z

    2006-06-02

    We report a state-of-the-art photoemission (angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy) study of high quality single crystals of NaxCoO2 the series focusing on the fine details of the low-energy states. The Fermi velocity is found to be small (<0.5 eV A) and only weakly anisotropic over the Fermi surface at all dopings, setting the size of the pair wave function to be on the order of 10-20 nm. In the low-doping regime, the exchange interlayer splitting vanishes and two-dimensional collective instabilities such as 120 degrees -type fluctuations become kinematically allowed. Our results suggest that the unusually small Fermi velocity and the unique symmetry of kinematic instabilities distinguish cobaltates from most other oxide superconductors.

  5. Probing ground and low-lying excited states for HIO2 isomers.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Gabriel L C; Brown, Alex

    2014-12-21

    We present a computational study on HIO2 molecules. Ground state properties such as equilibrium structures, relative energetics, vibrational frequencies, and infrared intensities were obtained for all the isomers at the coupled-cluster with single and double excitations as well as perturbative inclusion of triples (CCSD(T)) level of theory with the aug-cc-pVTZ-PP basis set and ECP-28-PP effective core potential for iodine and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set for hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The HOIO structure is confirmed as the lowest energy isomer. The relative energies are shown to be HOIO < HOOI < HI(O)O. The HO(O)I isomer is only stable at the density functional theory (DFT) level of theory. The transition states determined show interconversion of the isomers is possible. In order to facilitate future experimental identification, vibrational frequencies are also determined for all corresponding deuterated species. Vertical excitation energies for the three lowest-lying singlet and triplet excited states were determined using the configuration interaction singles, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT)/B3LYP, TD-DFT/G96PW91, and equation of motion-CCSD approaches with the LANL2DZ basis set plus effective core potential for iodine and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set for hydrogen and oxygen atoms. It is shown that HOIO and HOOI isomers have excited states accessible at solar wavelengths (<4.0 eV) but these states have very small oscillator strengths (<2 × 10(-3)).

  6. Ab initio calculations of low-lying electronic states of vinyl chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jia-Lin; Chen, Yit-Tsong

    2002-05-01

    The equilibrium geometries, vibrational frequencies, excitation energies, and oscillator strengths of vinyl chloride in the ground and five lowest-lying excited singlet states have been calculated using MP2, CIS, CASSCF, and MRCI methods with the 6-311++G** basis set. The geometries and vibrational frequencies of the ground and excited states are utilized to compute Franck-Condon factors. Calculated vibronic spectra for the transitions from the ground state to these five excited states are in agreement with experiment at 52 500-60 000 cm-1, with major contributions from the Ã(1 1A″)←X˜(1A') and C˜(2 1A')←X˜(11A') transitions. In this study, two spin-forbidden transitions of b˜(1 3A″)←X˜(11A') and c˜(2 3A&')←X˜(11A') are calculated to locate in 45 000-54 000 cm-1, and could be responsible for the observed one-photon absorption spectrum due to an intensity borrowing caused by the spin-orbit coupling of the Cl atom. Based on calculation, we speculate that upon the excitation of vinyl chloride at 193 nm the b˜(1 3A″) or c˜(2 3A″) excited state, instead of the (π,π*), is initially prepared prior to the subsequent photodissociation processes.

  7. Third-order many-body perturbation theory calculations for low-lying states in beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Hung-Cheuk

    2005-05-01

    A detailed breakdown of many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) contributions through third order is presented for energies of the ten (2l ,l') states of beryllium. A total of 84 one-body and 578 two-body terms contribute to the third-order energy. Third-order MBPT calculations for monovalent atoms were carried out fifteen years ago by Blundell et al.[1] Second-order calculations for ions of the berylliumlike isoelectronic sequence were also reported six years later[2]. In that paper, only 4 one-body and 20 two-body terms contribute to the second-order energy of neutral Be. The agreement with experimental energies was at 5% level. Our study aims to present complete third-order MBPT formulas, and apply them to the simplest two-valence particles system beryllium to improve the agreement with experiment.^1 S.A. Blundell, W.R. Johnson and J. Sapirstein, Phys. Rev. A 42, 3751 (1990).^2 M.S. Safronova, W.R. Johnson and U.I. Safronova, Phys. Rev. A 53, 4036 (1996).

  8. Spectroscopic and theoretical studies of the low-lying states of BaO{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Joshua H.; VanGundy, Robert A.; Heaven, Michael C.

    2015-07-28

    The BaO{sup +} cation is of interest from the perspectives of electronic structure and the potential for cooling to ultra-cold temperatures. Spectroscopic data for the ion have been obtained using a two-color photoionization technique. The ionization energy for BaO was found to be 6.8123(3) eV. The ground state of BaO{sup +} was identified as X{sup 2}Σ{sup +}, and both vibrational and rotational constants were determined. Vibrationally resolved spectra were recorded for A{sup 2}Π, the first electronically excited state. These data yielded the term energy, vibrational frequency, and the spin-orbit interaction constant. Relativistic electronic structure calculations were carried out using multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI), coupled cluster and density functional theory methods. Transition moments for the pure vibrational and A{sup 2}Π-X{sup 2}Σ{sup +} transitions were predicted using the MRCI method.

  9. On the low lying spectrum of the magnetic Schrödinger operator with kagome periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerdelhué, Philippe; Royo-Letelier, Jimena

    2014-12-01

    In a semi-classical regime, we study a periodic magnetic Schrödinger operator in ℝ2. This is inspired by recent experiments on artificial magnetism with ultra cold atoms in optical lattices, and by the new interest for the operator on the hexagonal lattice describing the behavior of an electron in a graphene sheet. We first review some results for the square (Harper), triangular and hexagonal lattices. Then, we study the case when the periodicity is given by the kagome lattice considered by Hou. Following the techniques introduced by Helffer-Sjöstrand and Carlsson, we reduce this problem to the study of a discrete operator on ℓ2(ℤ2;ℂ3) and a pseudo-differential operator on L2(ℝ;ℂ3), which keep the symmetries of the kagome lattice. We estimate the coefficients of these operators in the case of a weak constant magnetic field. Plotting the spectrum for rational values of the magnetic flux divided by 2πh where h is the semi-classical parameter, we obtain a picture similar to Hofstadter's butterfly. We study the properties of this picture and prove the symmetries of the spectrum and the existence of flat bands, which do not occur in the case of the three previous models.

  10. Electron impact excitation and assignment of the low-lying electronic states of CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, R. I.; Trajmar, S.

    1973-01-01

    Electron scattering spectra of CO2 are reported in the 7 to 10 eV energy-loss range, at energies of 0.2, 0.35, 0.6, 0.7, and 7.0 eV above threshold, and at a scattering angle of 90 deg. Several new distinct overlapping continua with weak, diffuse bands superimposed are observed to lie in this energy-loss range. The experimental spectra are discussed in the light of recent ab initio configuration-interaction calculations of the vertical transition energies of CO2. The experimental spectra are shown to be consistent with the excitation states of CO2.

  11. Electron-impact excitation of the low-lying electronic states of formaldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.

    1974-01-01

    Electron-impact excitation has been observed at incident electron energies of 10.1 and 20.1 eV to the first five excited electronic states of formaldehyde lying at and below the 1B2 state at 7.10 eV. These excitations include two new transitions in the energy-loss range 5.6-6.2 eV and 6.7-7.0 eV which have been detected for the first time, either through electron-impact excitation or photon absorption. The differential cross sections of these new excitations are given at scattering angles between 15 and 135 deg. These cross-section ratios peak at large scattering angles - a characteristic of triplet - singlet excitations. The design and performance of the electron-impact spectrometer used in the above observations is outlined and discussed.

  12. Some aspects of the stalling of modern low-lying monoplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soule, Hartley A; GOUGH MELVIN N

    1938-01-01

    The factors affecting the stalling characteristics of modern airplanes are briefly discussed. The effect of present-day design trends is shown and means for improving the stalling characteristics of future airplanes are indicated.

  13. Electron impact excitation and assignment of the low-lying electronic states of N2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, R. I.; Chutjian, A.; Trajmar, S.

    1973-01-01

    Electron scattering spectra of nitrous oxide are reported in the 5- to 10-eV energy-loss range at scattering angles of 20, 30, 90, and 130 deg at a residual energy of 7.0 eV; and at residual energies of 10.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.6, and 0.2 eV at a scattering angle of 90 deg. Several new distinct and overlapping continua are observed to lie in this energy-loss range. The experimental spectra are discussed in the light of semiempirical INDO calculations of Chutjian and Segal (1972) of the vertical transition energies of N2O. An assignment of the symmetries of the observed excitations consistent with the experimental and theoretical data is suggested.

  14. The Low-Lying States of AlCu and AlAg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry

    1994-01-01

    The singlet and triplet states of AlCu and AlAg below about 32 000/cm are studied using the internally contracted multireference configuration-interaction method. A more elaborate study of the X(sup 1)Sum(sup +) ground state of AlCu is undertaken using extended Gaussian basis sets, including the effect of inner-shell correlation and including a perturbational estimate of relativistic effects. Our best estimate of the spectroscopic constants (r(sub 0), DeltaG(sub 1/2), and D(sub 0)) for the X(sup 1)Sum(sup+) state with the experimental values in parentheses are: 4.416(4.420) a(sub 0), 295 (294) /cm, and 2.318 (2.315) eV. The calculations definitively assign the upper state in the observed transition at 14 892/cm to the lowest (sup 1)Prod state. The calculated spectroscopic constants and radiative lifetime for the (sup 1)Prod state are in good agreement with experiment. The calculations support the tentative assignments of Behm et al. for three band systems observed in the visible region between 25 000 and 28 000 / cm. However, the computed spectroscopic constants are in very poor agreement with those deduced from an analysis of the spectra. Analogous theoretical results for AlAg suggest that the (2)(sup 3)Prod, (3)(sup 3)Prod, and (3)(sup 1)Sum(sup +) states account for the bands observed, but not assigned, by Duncan and co-workers.

  15. The low-lying 2-sigma-minus states of OH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dishoeck, E. F.; Langhoff, S. R.; Dalgarno, A.

    1983-01-01

    The configuration-interaction method is used to determine the electronic wave functions of the two lowest 2-sigma-minus states of OH using four different atomic orbital basis sets. Potential energy curves, transition moments, oscillator strengths, and photodissociation cross sections are obtained. Electronic transition dipole moments connecting the excited 1 2-sigma-minus and 2(D)2-sigma-minus states with each other and with the ground chi-2-pi state are presented as functions of internuclear distance. The theoretical absorption oscillator strengths for the D-2-sigma-minus(v prime = 0) from chi-2-pi(v double prime = 0) transition are in good agreement with the empirical value derived from astronomical measurement. The photodissociation cross sections for absorption from the v prime = 0, 1, and 2 levels of the ground state into the continuum of the 1 2-sigma-minus state are calculated, and the interstellar and cometary photodissociation rates are derived.

  16. Theoretical study of the low-lying bound states of O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1991-01-01

    It is demonstrated that a complete-active-space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) (2p)/MRCI + Q (multireference configuration interaction with a Davidson correction) description in a (13s8p6d 4f2g)/((5s4p3d 2f1g) atomic natural orbits (ANO) basis set supplemented with diffuse functions provides a quantitative description of the six lowest states of O2. The calculated potentials are within 0.05 eV (1.2 kilocal/mol) of accurate experimental results. The importance of substantially expanding the primitive basis set has been investigated, and it is demonstrated that such expansions yield insignificant improvement in the spectroscopic constants. Potential energy curves have also been reported for the weakly bound states of O2. The 5Pi(g) state is estimated to have a D(e) of 0.16 +/- 0.03 eV. The upper bound of D(e) is found to be sufficiently large that the importance of this state as a precursor for the formation of O2 (b 1Sigma(t)(+)) and O(1S) should be reconsidered.

  17. Microflaring in Low-Lying Core Fields and Extended Coronal Heating in the Quiet Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, Jason G.; Falconer, D. A.; Moore, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    We have previously reported analyses of Yohkoh SXT data examining the relationship between the heating of extended coronal loops (both within and stemming from active regions) and microflaring in core fields lying along neutral lines near their footpoints (J. G. Porter, D. A. Falconer, and R. L. Moore 1998, in Solar Jets and Coronal Plumes, ed. T. Guyenne, ESA SP-421, and references therein). We found a surprisingly poor correlation of intensity variations in the extended loops with individual microflares in the compact heated areas at their feet, despite considerable circumstancial evidence linking the heating processes in these regions. Now, a study of Fe XII image sequences from SOHO EIT show that similar associations of core field structures with the footpoints of very extended coronal features can be found in the quiet Sun. The morphology is consistent with the finding of Wang et al. (1997, ApJ 484, L75) that polar plumes are rooted at sites of mixed polarity in the magnetic network. We find that the upstairs/downstairs intensity variations often follow the trend, identified in the active region observations, of a weak correspondence. Apparently much of the coronal heating in the extended loops is driven by a type of core field magnetic activity that is "cooler" than the events having the coronal signature of microflares, i.e., activity that results in little heating within the core fields themselves. This work was funded by the Solar Physics Branch of NASA's Office of Space Science through the SR&T Program and the SEC Guest Investigator Program.

  18. Robust correlations between quadrupole moments of low-lying 2+ states within random-interaction ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Y.

    2016-02-01

    In random-interaction ensembles, three proportional correlations between quadrupole moments of the first two Iπ=2+ states robustly emerge, including Q (21+) =±Q (22+) correlations previously remarked by a realistic nuclear survey, and the Q (22+) =-3/7 Q (21+) correlation, which is only observed in the s d -boson space. These correlations can be microscopically characterized by the rotational SU(3) symmetry and quadrupole vibrational U(5) limit, respectively, according to the Elliott model and the s d -boson mean-field theory. The anharmonic vibration may be another phenomenological interpretation for the Q (21+) =-Q (22+) correlation, whose spectral evidence, however, is insufficient.

  19. Lifetimes and collectivity of low-lying states in 115Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobach, Yu. N.; Käubler, L.; Schwengner, R.; Pasternak, A. A.

    1999-04-01

    The lifetimes of excited states in 115Sn have been measured using the Doppler shift attenuation method in the reaction 113Cd(α,2nγ) at Eα=27.2 MeV. Lifetimes were obtained for 18 states and lifetime limits for 6 states with Ex<=4 MeV and J<=23/2. The experimentally obtained B(σL) values for transitions deexciting positive-parity states are compared with calculations in the framework of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer quasiparticle model and the interacting boson fermion model, whereas the values for transitions between negative-parity states are discussed qualitatively within a core-particle coupling picture. The value of B(E2)=3.5(11) Weisskopf units (W.u.) for the transition linking the 19/2- state of the intruder νh11/2π2p2h band to the 15/2- state of the νh11/2⊗2+1 multiplet strongly supports the configuration νh11/2π(g-29/2g27/2) ascribed to this band.

  20. Large fluctuations of shallow seas in low-lying Southeast Asia driven by mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahirovic, Sabin; Flament, Nicolas; Dietmar Müller, R.; Seton, Maria; Gurnis, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The Sundaland continental promontory, as the core of Southeast Asia, is one of the lowest lying continental regions, with half of the continental area presently inundated by a shallow sea. The role of mantle convection in driving long-wavelength topography and vertical motion of the lithosphere in this region has often been ignored when interpreting regional stratigraphy, including a widespread Late Cretaceous-Eocene unconformity, despite a consensus that Southeast Asia is presently situated over a large-amplitude dynamic topography low resulting from long-term post-Pangea subduction. We use forward numerical models to link mantle flow with surface tectonics and compare predicted trends of dynamic topography with eustasy and regional paleogeography to determine the influence of mantle convection on regional basin histories. A Late Cretaceous collision of Gondwana-derived terranes with Sundaland choked the active margin, leading to slab breakoff and a ˜10-15 Myr-long subduction hiatus. A subduction hiatus likely resulted in several hundred meters of dynamic uplift and emergence of Sundaland between ˜80 and 60 Ma and may explain the absence of a Late Cretaceous-Eocene sedimentary record. Renewed subduction from ˜60 Ma reinitiated dynamic subsidence of Sundaland, leading to submergence from ˜40 Ma despite falling long-term global sea levels. Our results highlight a complete "down-up-down" dynamic topography cycle experienced by Sundaland, with transient dynamic topography manifesting as a major regional unconformity in sedimentary basins.

  1. Hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field. II. Relativistic corrections for low-lying excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poszwa, A.; Rutkowski, A.

    2004-02-01

    The highly accurate solution of the Schrödinger equation in the form of common Landau exponential factor multiplied by a power series in two variables, the sine of the cone angle and radial variable is completed by the first-order relativistic correction calculated within the framework of the relativistic direct perturbation theory (DPT). It is found that in contrast to behavior of relativistic corrections for the ground state and 2p-1(ms=-1/2) excited state, which change sign from negative to positive near B≈1011 G and B≈1010 G, respectively [Z. Chen and S. P. Goldman, Phys. Rev A 45, 1722 (1992)], the relativistic corrections for 2s0(ms=-1/2) and 2p0(ms=-1/2) excited states are negative for the magnetic field varying in range 0

  2. Spectroscopy of low lying transitions of He confined in a fullerene cage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Supriya K.; Mukherjee, Prasanta K.; Fricke, Burkhard

    2016-09-01

    Using time dependent coupled Hartree-Fock(TDCHF) theory, we estimate structural properties such as total energy, ionisation potential, static and dynamic polarizabilities, oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for the first three dipolar excitations 1s2:1Se → 1snp:1Po (n = 2,3,4) and quadrupolar excitations 1s2:1Se → 1snd:1De (n = 3,4,5) of a helium atom placed at the centre of a fullerene cage. We estimate these structural properties using the fullerene cage potential based on experimental findings, including both neutral and charged fullerene potentials. Systematics have been observed with respect to the nature of the charge on fullerene compared to neutral species. We highlight interesting behavior of the excited state wavefunctions for the central atom, leading to altered behavioral patterns of the relevant properties.

  3. Ab initio calculations of low lying states of the BH + and AlH + ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, R.; Rosmus, P.; Werner, H. J.

    1982-10-01

    For the X 2Σ+, A 2Π, and B' 2Σ+ states of the BH+ and AlH+ ions potential energy, electric dipole and transition dipole moment functions have been calculated from MC-SCF wave functions. For the X and A states the MC-SCF results are compared with those obtained from highly correlated PNO-CEPA wave functions. All emission processes in the X, A, and B' states have been investigated. The absolute emission intensities for the most intense bandheads of the A→X and B→X transitions have been calculated, and the band shapes are compared with the experimental emission spectrum of BH+ obtained in the reaction B+ (1-10 eV/cm)+H→BH++H. A so far unobserved part of the B'-X emission system is predicted between 2000 and 2500 Å. The Franck-Condon factors and the energies for the ionizations of the AH molecules into the AH+ ions are given.

  4. State of Louisiana - Highlighting Low-Lying Areas Derived from USGS Digital Elevation Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kosovich, John J.

    2008-01-01

    In support of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) disaster preparedness efforts, this map depicts a color shaded relief representation highlighting the State of Louisiana and depicts the surrounding areas using muted elevation colors. The first 30 feet of relief above mean sea level are displayed as brightly colored 5-foot elevation bands, which highlight low-elevation areas at a coarse spatial resolution. Areas below sea level typically are surrounded by levees or some other type of flood-control structures. Standard USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) 1 arc-second (nominally 30-meter) digital elevation model (DEM) data are the basis for the map, which is designed to be used at a broad scale and for informational purposes only. The NED data are a mixture of data and were derived from the original 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic map bare-earth contours, which were converted into gridded quadrangle-based DEM tiles at a constant post spacing (grid cell size) of either 30 meters (data before the mid-1990s) or 10 meters (mid-1990s and later data). These individual-quadrangle DEMs were then converted to spherical coordinates (latitude/longitude decimal degrees) and edge-matched to ensure seamlessness. Approximately one-half of the area shown on this map has DEM source data at a 30-meter resolution, with the remaining half consisting of mostly 10-meter contour-derived DEM data and some small areas of higher-resolution LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) data along parts of the coastline. Areas below sea level typically are surrounded by levees or some other type of flood-control structures. State and parish boundary, hydrography, city, and road layers were modified from USGS National Atlas data downloaded in 2003. The NED data were downloaded in 2007.

  5. Repetitive ERTS-1 observations of surface water variability along rivers and low-lying areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.; Salomonson, V. V.

    1973-01-01

    The Earth Resources Technology Satellite, ERTS-1, provides an 18 day repetitive coverage capability and observations in the 0.8-1.1 micron spectral region where the contrast between water and adjacent surfaces is relatively large. Using these capabilities, observations in Virginia, Iowa, Missouri, and California have been acquired showing distinct patterns of flooding. Repetitive views of these areas before and after flooding have been examined, and flood mapping was performed. Sloughs in California can be seen to expand in terms of the area covered by standing water as time extends from summer to autumn. The results indicate that ERTS-1 imagery can be a valuable adjunct to conventional and aircraft survey methods for ascertaining the amount of area covered by water or affected by flooding.

  6. Probing ground and low-lying excited states for HIO{sub 2} isomers

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, Gabriel L. C. de; Brown, Alex

    2014-12-21

    We present a computational study on HIO{sub 2} molecules. Ground state properties such as equilibrium structures, relative energetics, vibrational frequencies, and infrared intensities were obtained for all the isomers at the coupled-cluster with single and double excitations as well as perturbative inclusion of triples (CCSD(T)) level of theory with the aug-cc-pVTZ-PP basis set and ECP-28-PP effective core potential for iodine and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set for hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The HOIO structure is confirmed as the lowest energy isomer. The relative energies are shown to be HOIO < HOOI < HI(O)O. The HO(O)I isomer is only stable at the density functional theory (DFT) level of theory. The transition states determined show interconversion of the isomers is possible. In order to facilitate future experimental identification, vibrational frequencies are also determined for all corresponding deuterated species. Vertical excitation energies for the three lowest-lying singlet and triplet excited states were determined using the configuration interaction singles, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT)/B3LYP, TD-DFT/G96PW91, and equation of motion-CCSD approaches with the LANL2DZ basis set plus effective core potential for iodine and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set for hydrogen and oxygen atoms. It is shown that HOIO and HOOI isomers have excited states accessible at solar wavelengths (<4.0 eV) but these states have very small oscillator strengths (<2 × 10{sup −3})

  7. A MRCI study of the low-lying electronic states of the BeAl molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, Vladir W.; Ueno, Leonardo T.; Roberto-Neto, Orlando; Machado, Francisco B. C.

    2006-11-01

    In this work is presented, for the first time, an accurate spectroscopic characterization of the lowest-lying doublet and quartet states of BeAl molecule. We used a high level CASSCF/MRCI correlation methodology and the aug-cc-pVQZ basis set. The behavior of the dipole moment and the transition dipole moment functions are described, and transition probabilities and radiative lifetimes are also predicted using the Einstein coefficients.

  8. Static Dipole Polarizabilities for Low-Lying Rovibrational States of HD+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Quan-Long; Tang, Li-Yan; Yan, Zong-Chao; Shi, Ting-Yun

    2015-08-01

    Not Available Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 11474319 and 11274348, the National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No 2012CB821305, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and the CAS/SAFEA International Partnership Program for Creative Research Teams.

  9. Low lying electric dipole excitations in nuclei of the rare earth region

    SciTech Connect

    von Brentano, P.; Zilges, A.; Herzberg, R.D.; Zamfir, N.V.; Kneissl, U.; Heil, R.D.; Pitz, H.H.; Wesselborg, C.

    1992-10-01

    From many experiments with low energy photon scattering on deformed rare earth nuclei we have obtained detailed information about the distribution of electric dipole strength below 4 MeV. Apart from some weaker transitions between 2 and 4 MeV we observed one, and sometimes two, very strong El-groundstate transitions around 1.5 MeV in all examined nuclei. They arise from the de-excitation of the bandheads of the (J{sup {pi}},K)=(l{sup {minus}},0) and (J{sup {pi}},K)=(l{sup {minus}},1) octupole vibrational bands. It is shown that the decay branching ratios and the absolute transition strengths of these states can be reproduced rather well with an improved T(El)-operator in the sdf-Interacting Boson Model. Another class of octupole states has been investigated in the region of the semimagic nucleus {sup 142}Nd. Here a quintuplet of collective excitations around 3.5 MeV is expected due to the coupling of the 3{minus}-octupole vibration with the 2+-quadrupole vibration. We performed photon scattering experiments on the odd A neighboring nucleus {sup 141}Pr and found first evidence for the existence of 3{sup {minus}}{circle_times}2+{circle_times}particle-states.

  10. Low lying electric dipole excitations in nuclei of the rare earth region

    SciTech Connect

    von Brentano, P.; Zilges, A.; Herzberg, R.D. . Inst. fuer Kernphysik); Zamfir, N.V. ); Kneissl, U.; Heil, R.D.; Pitz, H.H. . Inst. fuer Strahlenphysik); Wesselborg, C. . Inst. fuer Kernphysik)

    1992-01-01

    From many experiments with low energy photon scattering on deformed rare earth nuclei we have obtained detailed information about the distribution of electric dipole strength below 4 MeV. Apart from some weaker transitions between 2 and 4 MeV we observed one, and sometimes two, very strong El-groundstate transitions around 1.5 MeV in all examined nuclei. They arise from the de-excitation of the bandheads of the (J[sup [pi

  11. From Low-Lying Roofs to Towering Spires: Toward a Heideggerian Understanding of Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ream, Todd C.; Ream, Tyler W.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the significance that environments play in terms of the learning process. In the United States, the legacy of John Dewey's intellectual efforts left a theoretical understanding that views the architectural composition of learning environments as instrumental mediums which house the educational process. This understanding of…

  12. Low-lying states of Li 3H: Is there an ion-pair minimum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbi, Dahbia; Saxon, Roberta P.

    1989-05-01

    The 1 1A', 1 1A″, 1 3A', and 1 3A″ states of Li 3H have been investigated at the MCSCF/SOCI level. The global minimum is a planar conformation of 1A' symmetry. A local minimum on the same potential surface at a C 3v pyramidal geometry, of mixed ion-pair and covalent character, is found at a relative energy of 20.30 kcal/mol. The barrier height for isomerization is predicted to be 1.3 kcal/mol. The correlation diagram linking states of Li 3H to those of Li 3 + H, LiH + Li 2 and Li 2H + Li is presented.

  13. [Intercross cascaded dual-layer resonant sub-wavelength gratings].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-li; Zhao, Da-zun

    2009-04-01

    A security grating structure, intercross cascaded dual-layer resonant sub-wavelength grating structure, is presented. It can broaden the resonant wavelength width of resonant sub-wavelength gratings and obtain the better optical variable effect. The full-width-at half-maximum (FWHM) broadening mechanism of security grating structures is analyzed. The FWHM is dependent on the energy coupled into the grating waveguide layer. The grating structure parameters are optimized and designed. The resonance performance and grating fabrication tolerances are also studied numerically using the vector diffraction theory (the rigorous coupled wave theory). Simulation results indicate that the value of the spectral resonant peak for the security grating structure is not decreased as the incident angle increases or decreases and the maximum FWHM of different depth of grating grooves is about seven times that of the basic resonant grating structure. The resonant dual grating waveguide structure is a kind of security grating configuration with the potential to achieve higher industry application value and its resonance performance is not sensitive to manufacture errors.

  14. Large mode radius resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Michael R.

    1987-01-01

    Resonator configurations permitting operation with large mode radius while maintaining good transverse mode discrimination are considered. Stable resonators incorporating an intracavity telescope and unstable resonator geometries utilizing an output coupler with a Gaussian reflectivity profile are shown to enable large radius single mode laser operation. Results of heterodyne studies of pulsed CO2 lasers with large (11mm e sup-2 radius) fundamental mode sizes are presented demonstrating minimal frequency sweeping in accordance with the theory of laser-induced medium perturbations.

  15. Context vector approach to image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Clara Z.; Means, Robert W.

    1998-04-01

    HNC developed a unique context vector approach to image retrieval in Image Contrast Addressable Retrieval System. The basis for this approach is the context vector approach to image representation. A context vector is a high dimensional vector of real numbers, derived from a set of features that are useful in discriminating between images in a particular domain. The image features are trained based upon the constrained 2D self-organizing learning law. The image context vector encodes both intra-image features and inter-image relationship. The similarity in the directions of the context vectors of a pair of images indicates their similarity of content. The context vector approach to image representation simplifies the image and retrieval indexing problem because simple Euclidean distance measurements between sets of context vectors are used as a measure of similarity.

  16. On third order integrable vector Hamiltonian equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkov, A. G.; Sokolov, V. V.

    2017-03-01

    A complete list of third order vector Hamiltonian equations with the Hamiltonian operator Dx having an infinite series of higher conservation laws is presented. A new vector integrable equation on the sphere is found.

  17. Doubly charged vector leptons and the Higgs portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen Jun; Ng, J. N.

    2016-11-01

    Using a bottom up phenomenological approach we constructed a simple doubly charged vector lepton E±± model for the possible 750 GeV diphoton resonance Φ at the LHC assuming it to be a scalar particle. Since no stable doubly charged leptons are seen, to facilitate their decays we complete the model by adding a charged standard model (SM) electroweak scalar S± . Φ is a SM singlet and can be either an inert scalar or a Higgs field. In the inert case more than one vector lepton is required to account for the photon fusion production of the resonance if the model is to remain perturbative. For a Higgs boson case S± can assist the production mechanism without using more than one such lepton. We also found that precision measurements constrain the couplings of E±± and S± to SM particles to be small. This raises the possibility that they can be fairly long lived and can give rise to displaced vertices if produced at the LHC.

  18. On-wafer magnetic resonance of magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles A. E.; Russek, Stephen E.; Booth, James C.; Kabos, Pavel; Usselman, Robert J.

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic resonance measurements of ferumoxytol and TEMPO were made using an on-wafer transmission line technique with a vector network analyzer, allowing for broadband measurements of small sample volumes (4 nL) and small numbers of spins (1 nmol). On-wafer resonance measurements were compared with standard single-frequency cavity-based electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements using a new power conservation approach and the results show similar line shape. On-wafer magnetic resonance measurements using integrated microfluidics and microwave technology can significantly reduce the cost and sample volumes required for EPR spectral analysis and allow for integration of EPR with existing lab-on-a-chip processing and characterization techniques for point-of-care medical diagnostic applications.

  19. Properties of wideband resonant reflectors under fully conical light incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Niraula, Manoj; Lee, Kyu Jin; Magnusson, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Applying numerical modeling coupled with experiments, we investigate the properties of wideband resonant reflectors under fully conical light incidence. We show that the wave vectors pertinent to resonant first-order diffraction under fully conical mounting vary less with incident angle than those associated with reflectors in classical mounting. Therefore, as the evanescent diffracted waves drive the leaky modes responsible for the resonance effects, fully-conical mounting imbues reflectors with larger angular tolerance than their classical counterparts. We quantify the angular-spectral performance of representative resonant wideband reflectors in conic and classic mounts by numerical calculations with improved spectra found for fully conic incidence. Moreover, these predictions are verified experimentally for wideband reflectors fashioned in crystalline and amorphous silicon in distinct spectral regions spanning the 1200-1600-nm and 1600-2400-nm spectral bands. These results will be useful in various applications demanding wideband reflectors that are efficient and materially sparse.

  20. On open electromagnetic resonators: relation between interferometers and resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Manenkov, Aleksandr A; Bykov, Vladimir P; Kuleshov, N V

    2010-05-26

    The physical difference between the concepts 'Fabry-Perot interferometer' and 'open resonator' is discussed. It is shown that the use of the term 'Fabry-Perot resonator' for open laser resonators is incorrect both from the historical viewpoint and from the viewpoint of the physical meaning of the processes occurring in these resonators. (laser beams and resonators)

  1. Lentiviral vectors in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Oldham, Robyn Aa; Berinstein, Elliot M; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Basic science advances in cancer immunotherapy have resulted in various treatments that have recently shown success in the clinic. Many of these therapies require the insertion of genes into cells to directly kill them or to redirect the host's cells to induce potent immune responses. Other analogous therapies work by modifying effector cells for improved targeting and enhanced killing of tumor cells. Initial studies done using γ-retroviruses were promising, but safety concerns centered on the potential for insertional mutagenesis have highlighted the desire to develop other options for gene delivery. Lentiviral vectors (LVs) have been identified as potentially more effective and safer alternative delivery vehicles. LVs are now in use in clinical trials for many different types of inherited and acquired disorders, including cancer. This review will discuss current knowledge of LVs and the applications of this viral vector-based delivery vehicle to cancer immunotherapy.

  2. Clinical applications of power vectors.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph M

    2009-06-01

    The study of infant vision is closely coupled to the study of the refraction, change in refraction over time, and the effect of spectacle correction on visual development. Frequently, reports are limited to descriptions of spherical equivalent or cylinder power without regard to axis, as data are frequently collected in the clinical format of sphere, cylinder, and axis (S, C, A). Conversion from clinical notation to a power vector representation of refraction allows unambiguous description of how refractions change over time and differ between repeated measurements. This article presents a series of examples of Microsoft Excel spreadsheet formulas that make the conversion from clinical notation to power vector format, and provides examples of useful applications of these methods.

  3. Vector computer memory bank contention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    A number of vector supercomputers feature very large memories. Unfortunately the large capacity memory chips that are used in these computers are much slower than the fast central processing unit (CPU) circuitry. As a result, memory bank reservation times (in CPU ticks) are much longer than on previous generations of computers. A consequence of these long reservation times is that memory bank contention is sharply increased, resulting in significantly lowered performance rates. The phenomenon of memory bank contention in vector computers is analyzed using both a Markov chain model and a Monte Carlo simulation program. The results of this analysis indicate that future generations of supercomputers must either employ much faster memory chips or else feature very large numbers of independent memory banks.

  4. Vector computer memory bank contention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.

    1987-01-01

    A number of vector supercomputers feature very large memories. Unfortunately the large capacity memory chips that are used in these computers are much slower than the fast central processing unit (CPU) circuitry. As a result, memory bank reservation times (in CPU ticks) are much longer than on previous generations of computers. A consequence of these long reservation times is that memory bank contention is sharply increased, resulting in significantly lowered performance rates. The phenomenon of memory bank contention in vector computers is analyzed using both a Markov chain model and a Monte Carlo simulation program. The results of this analysis indicate that future generations of supercomputers must either employ much faster memory chips or else feature very large numbers of independent memory banks.

  5. Medium Modification of Vector Mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Chaden Djalali, Michael Paolone, Dennis Weygand, Michael H. Wood, Rakhsha Nasseripour

    2011-03-01

    The theory of the strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), has been remarkably successful in describing high-energy and short-distance-scale experiments involving quarks and gluons. However, applying QCD to low energy and large-distance scale experiments has been a major challenge. Various QCD-inspired models predict a partial restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclear matter with modifications of the properties of hadrons from their free-space values. Measurable changes such as a shift in mass and/or a change of width are predicted at normal nuclear density. Photoproduction of vector mesons off nuclei have been performed at different laboratories. The properties of the ρ, ω and φ mesons are investigated either directly by measuring their mass spectra or indirectly through transparency ratios. The latest results regarding medium modifications of the vector mesons in the nuclear medium will be discussed.

  6. Thrust-Vector-Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Jonathan

    1992-01-01

    Control gains computed via matrix Riccati equation. Software-based system controlling aim of gimbaled rocket motor on spacecraft adaptive and optimal in sense it adjusts control gains in response to feedback, according to optimizing algorithm based on cost function. Underlying control concept also applicable, with modifications, to thrust-vector control on vertical-takeoff-and-landing airplanes, control of orientations of scientific instruments, and robotic control systems.

  7. GAPS IN SUPPORT VECTOR OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    STEINWART, INGO; HUSH, DON; SCOVEL, CLINT; LIST, NICOLAS

    2007-01-29

    We show that the stopping criteria used in many support vector machine (SVM) algorithms working on the dual can be interpreted as primal optimality bounds which in turn are known to be important for the statistical analysis of SVMs. To this end we revisit the duality theory underlying the derivation of the dual and show that in many interesting cases primal optimality bounds are the same as known dual optimality bounds.

  8. Quantum electrodynamics for vector mesons.

    PubMed

    Djukanovic, Dalibor; Schindler, Matthias R; Gegelia, Jambul; Scherer, Stefan

    2005-07-01

    Quantum electrodynamics for rho mesons is considered. It is shown that, at the tree level, the value of the gyromagnetic ratio of the rho+ is fixed to 2 in a self-consistent effective quantum field theory. Further, the mixing parameter of the photon and the neutral vector meson is equal to the ratio of electromagnetic and strong couplings, leading to the mass difference M(rho0)-M(rho+/-) approximately 1 MeV at tree order.

  9. Multichannel study on the fragmentation of the 1g9/2 isobaric analog resonance in 53Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sziklai, J.; Cameron, J. A.; Szöghy, I. M.; Vass, T.

    1994-02-01

    Fragments of the 1g9/2 isobaric analog resonance in 53Mn corresponding to the 3.715 MeV state (Sn=0.57) in 53Cr were located using the 52Cr(p,p0), 52Cr(p,p1), 52Cr(p,p1γ), 52Cr(p,p2γ), and 52Cr(p,γ)53Mn reactions. Differential cross sections were measured in the 4.06-4.28 MeV, and the γ-excitation curves in the 4.04-4.35 MeV proton energy region. Spins, parities, and partial widths were determined with the aid of R-matrix analysis for all resonances observed in the region. The spins of the 1g9/2 resonance fragments were found independently from (p,p1γ), (p,p2γ), and (p,γ) angular distribution measurements and their analyses. Nineteen fragments were identified and their γ-branching ratios to low lying levels of 53Mn were also deduced. Partial widths for each fragment in all four channels were derived. Channel-channel correlations were calculated. Fine structure analyses were carried out in all open channels. Inelastic spectroscopic factors and Coulomb displacement energy for the 1g9/2 state were also derived.

  10. Visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helman, James L.; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1991-01-01

    Methods of automating the analysis and display of vector field topology in general and flow topology in particular are discussed. Two-dimensional vector field topology is reviewed as the basis for the examination of topology in three-dimensional separated flows. The use of tangent surfaces and clipping in visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows is addressed.

  11. Transmission parameters of vector-borne infections.

    PubMed

    Desenclos, J-C

    2011-11-01

    Vector-borne infections are those for which the agent (virus, bacteria, or parasite) is transmitted from an infected host (animal or human) to another by a hematophagous arthropod (mosquito, tick, lice, and flea). Two parameters quantify the dynamics of a vector-borne infection: (1) the basic reproductive number (R(0)) that is the mean number of secondary infections transmitted from an infectious host by the bite of the vector and (2) the generation interval that explores the speed of occurrence of secondary cases transmitted by the vector from an infectious case. In a population in which some individuals are immune, the parameter of interest is the net reproduction number (R) function of R(0) and the proportion of those immune. For vector-borne infectious agents, R(0) is determined by the number of vectors in contact with a given individual (m), the number of a given vector bites/day on individuals (a), the daily survival rate of the vector (p), the duration of the pathogenic agent's development cycle in the vector (n), the proportion of infected vectors that are really infectious (vector competence) (b), the probability of agent transmission from a viremic individual to the vector for one bite (c) and the host's infectiousness clearance rate (r) with R(0)=(m. a(2). p(n)/-lnp). b. c/r. These parameters are related to geographic and climatic conditions and cannot, therefore, be extrapolated from one situation to another.

  12. Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Mary Ellen

    1990-01-01

    At present, actuation systems for the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) for launch vehicles are hydraulic systems. The Advanced Launch System (ALS), a joint initiative between NASA and the Air Force, is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost effective, highly reliable and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. As part of this initiative, an electromechanical actuation system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems used today. NASA-Lewis is developing and demonstrating an Induction Motor Controller Actuation System with a 40 hp peak rating. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) technology and Pulse Population Modulation (PPM) techniques to implement Field Oriented Vector Control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. Through PPM, multiphase variable frequency, variable voltage waveforms can be synthesized from the 20 kHz source. FOVC shows that varying both the voltage and frequency and their ratio (V/F), permits independent control of both torque and speed while operating at maximum efficiency at any point on the torque-speed curve. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a Built-in Test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA TVC system. The design and fabrication of the motor controller is being done by General Dynamics Space Systems Division. The University of Wisconsin-Madison will assist in the design of the advanced induction motor and in the implementation of the FOVC theory. A 75 hp electronically controlled dynamometer will be used to test the motor controller in all four quadrants of operation using flight type

  13. The resonator handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jerry D.; Zhou, Shiliang

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to extend resonator theory into the region in which the planar mirror is quite small. Results of the theoretical description are then extended to resonator design and experimental arrangements as discussed in further sections of this work. Finally, a discussion of dielectric measurements for small samples is included as a specific application of this work.

  14. The Concept of Resonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truhlar, Donald G.

    2007-01-01

    A general example of a delocalization system associated with a higher energy than the localized one, which suggests that it is wrong to consider delocalization as equivalent to resonance stabilization, is presented. The meaning of resonance energy as it appears in valence bond theory is described as the lowering of the calculated ground-state…

  15. Gaussian statistics for palaeomagnetic vectors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.J.; Constable, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    With the aim of treating the statistics of palaeomagnetic directions and intensities jointly and consistently, we represent the mean and the variance of palaeomagnetic vectors, at a particular site and of a particular polarity, by a probability density function in a Cartesian three-space of orthogonal magnetic-field components consisting of a single (unimoda) non-zero mean, spherically-symmetrical (isotropic) Gaussian function. For palaeomagnetic data of mixed polarities, we consider a bimodal distribution consisting of a pair of such symmetrical Gaussian functions, with equal, but opposite, means and equal variances. For both the Gaussian and bi-Gaussian distributions, and in the spherical three-space of intensity, inclination, and declination, we obtain analytical expressions for the marginal density functions, the cumulative distributions, and the expected values and variances for each spherical coordinate (including the angle with respect to the axis of symmetry of the distributions). The mathematical expressions for the intensity and off-axis angle are closed-form and especially manageable, with the intensity distribution being Rayleigh-Rician. In the limit of small relative vectorial dispersion, the Gaussian (bi-Gaussian) directional distribution approaches a Fisher (Bingham) distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a normal distribution. In the opposite limit of large relative vectorial dispersion, the directional distributions approach a spherically-uniform distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a Maxwell distribution. We quantify biases in estimating the properties of the vector field resulting from the use of simple arithmetic averages, such as estimates of the intensity or the inclination of the mean vector, or the variances of these quantities. With the statistical framework developed here and using the maximum-likelihood method, which gives unbiased estimates in the limit of large data numbers, we demonstrate how to

  16. Resonant snubber inverter

    DOEpatents

    Lai, J.S.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Chen, D.; Scudiere, M.B.; Ott, G.W. Jr.; White, C.P.; McKeever, J.W.

    1997-06-24

    A resonant, snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the main inverter switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter. 14 figs.

  17. Monolithic MACS micro resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann-Horn, J. A.; Jacquinot, J.-F.; Ginefri, J. C.; Bonhomme, C.; Sakellariou, D.

    2016-10-01

    Magic Angle Coil Spinning (MACS) aids improving the intrinsically low NMR sensitivity of heterogeneous microscopic samples. We report on the design and testing of a new type of monolithic 2D MACS resonators to overcome known limitations of conventional micro coils. The resonators' conductors were printed on dielectric substrate and tuned without utilizing lumped element capacitors. Self-resonance conditions have been computed by a hybrid FEM-MoM technique. Preliminary results reported here indicate robust mechanical stability, reduced eddy currents heating and negligible susceptibility effects. The gain in B1 /√{ P } is in agreement with the NMR sensitivity enhancement according to the principle of reciprocity. A sensitivity enhancement larger than 3 has been achieved in a monolithic micro resonator inside a standard 4 mm rotor at 500 MHz. These 2D resonators could offer higher performance micro-detection and ease of use of heterogeneous microscopic substances such as biomedical samples, microscopic specimens and thin film materials.

  18. Resonant snubber inverter

    DOEpatents

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Young, Sr., Robert W.; Chen, Daoshen; Scudiere, Matthew B.; Ott, Jr., George W.; White, Clifford P.; McKeever, John W.

    1997-01-01

    A resonant, snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the main inverter switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter.

  19. Note on the newly observed Y (4220 ) resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccini, R.; Filaci, G.; Guerrieri, A. L.; Pilloni, A.; Polosa, A. D.

    2015-06-01

    The BES III Collaboration has recently observed a vector resonance in the χc 0ω channel, at a mass of about 4220 MeV, named Y (4220 ). Hints of a similar structure appear in the hcπ+π- channel. We find that the two observations are likely due to the same state, which we identify with one of the expected diquark-antidiquark resonances with orbital quantum number L =1 . This assignment fulfills heavy quark spin conservation. The measured branching ratio of the Y (4220 ) into χc 0ω and hcπ+π- is compatible with the prediction for such a tetraquark state.

  20. Scalar mesons in a linear sigma model with (axial-)vector mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Parganlija, D.; Kovacs, P.; Wolf, Gy.; Giacosa, F.; Rischke, D. H.

    2013-03-25

    The structure of the scalar mesons has been a subject of debate for many decades. In this work we look for qq states among the physical resonances using an extended Linear Sigma Model that contains scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, and axial-vector mesons both in the non-strange and strange sectors. We perform global fits of meson masses, decay widths and amplitudes in order to ascertain whether the scalar qq states are below or above 1 GeV. We find the scalar states above 1 GeV to be preferred as qq states.

  1. Scalar mesons in a linear sigma model with (axial-)vector mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parganlija, D.; Kovács, P.; Wolf, Gy.; Giacosa, F.; Rischke, D. H.

    2013-03-01

    The structure of the scalar mesons has been a subject of debate for many decades. In this work we look for qq states among the physical resonances using an extended Linear Sigma Model that contains scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, and axial-vector mesons both in the non-strange and strange sectors. We perform global fits of meson masses, decay widths and amplitudes in order to ascertain whether the scalar qq states are below or above 1 GeV. We find the scalar states above 1 GeV to be preferred as qq states.

  2. Vectors derived from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV).

    PubMed

    Nègre, Didier; Cosset, François-Loïc

    2002-11-01

    In contrast to other retroviruses, lentiviruses have the unique property of infecting non-proliferating cells. Thus vectors derived from lentiviruses are promising tools for in vivo gene delivery applications. Vectors derived from human primate and non-primate lentiviruses have recently been described and, unlike retroviral vectors derived from murine leukemia viruses, lead to stable integration of the transgene into quiescent cells in various organs. Despite all the safety safeguards that have been progressively introduced in lentiviral vectors, the clinical acceptance of vectors derived from pathogenic lentiviruses is subject to debate. It is therefore essential to design vectors derived from a wide range of lentivirus types and to comparatively examine their properties in terms of transduction efficiency and bio-safety. Here, we review the properties of lentiviral vectors derived from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV).

  3. Vaccine Design: Replication-Defective Adenovirus Vectors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Xiang, Zhiquan; Ertl, Hildegund C J

    2016-01-01

    Replication-defective adenovirus (Ad) vectors were initially developed for gene transfer for correction of genetic diseases. Although Ad vectors achieved high levels of transgene product expression in a variety of target cells, expression of therapeutic proteins was found to be transient as vigorous T cell responses directed to components of the vector as well as the transgene product rapidly eliminate Ad vector-transduced cells. This opened the use of Ad vectors as vaccine carriers and by now a multitude of preclinical as well as clinical studies has shown that Ad vectors induce very potent and sustained transgene product-specific T and B cell responses. This chapter provides guidance on developing E1-deleted Ad vectors based on available viral molecular clones. Specifically, it describes methods for cloning, viral rescue and purification as well as quality control studies.

  4. Multiscale vector fields for image pattern recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, Kah-Chan; Coggins, James M.

    1990-01-01

    A uniform processing framework for low-level vision computing in which a bank of spatial filters maps the image intensity structure at each pixel into an abstract feature space is proposed. Some properties of the filters and the feature space are described. Local orientation is measured by a vector sum in the feature space as follows: each filter's preferred orientation along with the strength of the filter's output determine the orientation and the length of a vector in the feature space; the vectors for all filters are summed to yield a resultant vector for a particular pixel and scale. The orientation of the resultant vector indicates the local orientation, and the magnitude of the vector indicates the strength of the local orientation preference. Limitations of the vector sum method are discussed. Investigations show that the processing framework provides a useful, redundant representation of image structure across orientation and scale.

  5. Hadronic decays of the tau lepton : {tau}- {yields} ({pi}{pi}{pi})- {nu}{tau} within Resonance Chiral Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez Dumm, D.; Pich, A.; Portoles, J.

    2006-01-12

    {tau} decays into hadrons foresee the study of the hadronization of vector and axial-vector QCD currents, yielding relevant information on the dynamics of the resonances entering into the processes. We analyse {tau} {yields} {pi}{pi}{pi}{nu}{tau} decays within the framework of the Resonance Chiral Theory, comparing this theoretical scheme with the experimental data, namely ALEPH spectral function and branching ratio. Hence we get values for the mass and on-shell width of the a 1 (1260) resonance, and provide the structure functions that have been measured by OPAL and CLEO-II.

  6. Initial cooperative decay rate and cooperative Lamb shift of resonant atoms in an infinite cylindrical geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Friedberg, Richard; Manassah, Jamal T.

    2011-08-15

    We obtain in both the scalar and vector photon models the analytical expressions for the initial cooperative decay rate and the cooperative Lamb shift for an ensemble of resonant atoms distributed uniformly in an infinite cylindrical geometry for the case that the initial state of the system is prepared in a phased state modulated in the direction of the cylindrical axis. We find that qualitatively the scalar and vector theories give different results.

  7. Scattering resonances in the extreme quantum limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersch, Jesse Shines

    This thesis addresses topics in low energy scattering in quantum mechanics, in particular, resonance phenomena. Hence the title: the phrase ``extreme quantum limit'' refers to the situation when the wavelengths of the particles in the system are larger than every other scale, so that the behavior is far into the quantum regime. A powerful tool in the problems of low energy scattering is the point scatterer model, and will be used extensively throughout the thesis. Therefore, we begin with a thorough introduction to this model in Chapter 2. As a first application of the point scatterer model, we will investigate the phenomenon of the proximity resonance, which is one example of strange quantum behavior appearing at low energy. Proximity resonances will be addressed theoretically in Chapter 3, and experimentally in Chapter 4. Threshold resonances, another type of low energy scattering resonance, are considered in Chapter 5, along with their connection to the Efimov and Thomas effects, and scattering in the presence of an external confining potential. Although the point scatterer model will serve us well in the work presented here, it does have its limitations. These limitations will be removed in Chapter 6, where we describe how to extend the model to include higher partial waves. In Chapter 7, we extend the model one step further, and illustrate how to treat vector wave scattering with the model. Finally, in Chapter 8 we will depart from the topic of low energy scattering and investigate the influence of diffraction on an open quantum mechanical system, again both experimentally and theoretically.

  8. LABCOM resonator Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Keres, L.J.

    1990-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop quartz crystal resonator designs, production processes, and test capabilities for 5-MHz, 6.2-MHz, and 10-MHz resonators for Tactical Miniature Crystal Oscillator (TMXO) applications. GE Neutron Devices (GEND) established and demonstrated the capability to produce and test quartz crystal resonators for use in the TMXO developed by the US Army ERADCOM (now LABCOM). The goals in this project were based on the ERADCOM statement of work. The scope of work indicated that the resonator production facilities for this project would not be completely independent, but that they would be supported in part by equipment and processes in place at GEND used in US Department of Energy (DOE) work. In addition, provisions for production test equipment or or eventual technology transfer costs to a commercial supplier were clearly excluded from the scope of work. The demonstrated technical capability of the deep-etched blank design is feasible and practical. It can be manufactured in quantity with reasonable yield, and its performance is readily predictable. The ceramic flatpack is a very strong package with excellent hermeticity. The four-point mount supports the crystal to reasonable shock levels and does not perturb the resonator's natural frequency-temperature behavior. The package can be sealed with excellent yields. The high-temperature, high-vacuum processing developed for the TMXO resonator, including bonding the piezoid to its mount with conductive polyimide adhesive, is consistent with precision resonator fabrication. 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  9. Vector meson electroproduction in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Juan; Cai, Xian-Hao; Zhou, Li-Juan

    2012-08-01

    Based on the generalized QCD vector meson dominance model, we study the electroproduction of a vector meson off a proton in the QCD inspired eikonalized model. Numerical calculations for the total cross section σtot and differential cross section dσ/dt are performed for ρ, ω and varphi meson electroproduction in this paper. Since gluons interact among themselves (self-interaction), two gluons can form a glueball with quantum numbers IG, JPC = 0+,2++, decay width Γt ≈ 100 MeV, and mass of mG = 2.23 GeV. The three gluons can form a three-gluon colorless bound state with charge conjugation quantum number C = -1, called the Odderon. The mediators of interactions between projectiles (the quark and antiquark pair fluctuated from the virtual photon) and the proton target (a three-quark system) are the tensor glueball and the Odderon. Our calculated results in the tensor glueball and Odderon exchange model fit to the existing data successfully, which evidently shows that our present QCD mechanism is a good description of meson electroproduction off a proton. It should be emphasized that our mechanism is different from the theoretical framework of Block et al. We also believe that the present study and its success are important for the investigation of other vector meson electro- and photoproduction at high energies, as well as for searching for new particles such as tensor glueballs and Odderons, which have been predicted by QCD and the color glass condensate model (CGC). Therefore, in return, it can test the validity of QCD and the CGC model.

  10. Rotating-frame gradient fields for magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance in low fields

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Louis-Serge; Pines, Alexander; Demas, Vasiliki

    2014-01-21

    A system and method for Fourier encoding a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal is disclosed. A static magnetic field B.sub.0 is provided along a first direction. An NMR signal from the sample is Fourier encoded by applying a rotating-frame gradient field B.sub.G superimposed on the B.sub.0, where the B.sub.G comprises a vector component rotating in a plane perpendicular to the first direction at an angular frequency .omega.in a laboratory frame. The Fourier-encoded NMR signal is detected.

  11. Vector quantization for volume rendering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ning, Paul; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1992-01-01

    Volume rendering techniques typically process volumetric data in raw, uncompressed form. As algorithmic and architectural advances improve rendering speeds, however, larger data sets will be evaluated requiring consideration of data storage and transmission issues. In this paper, we analyze the data compression requirements for volume rendering applications and present a solution based on vector quantization. The proposed system compresses volumetric data and then renders images directly from the new data format. Tests on a fluid flow data set demonstrate that good image quality may be achieved at a compression ratio of 17:1 with only a 5 percent cost in additional rendering time.

  12. Jet vectoring through nozzle asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Chris; Rosakis, Alexandros; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    Previously, we explored the functionality of a tri-leaflet anal valve of a dragonfly larva. We saw that the dragonfly larva is capable of controlling the three leaflets independently to asymmetrically open the nozzle. Such control resulted in vectoring of the jet in various directions. To further understand the effect of asymmetric nozzle orifice, we tested jet flow through circular asymmetric nozzles. We report the relationship between nozzle asymmetry and redirecting of the jet at various Reynolds numbers. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1511414; additional support by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469.

  13. Properties of Vector Preisach Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, Gary R.; Patel, Umesh D.; Torre, Edward Della

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses rotational anisotropy and rotational accommodation of magnetic particle tape. These effects have a performance impact during the reading and writing of the recording process. We introduce the reduced vector model as the basis for the computations. Rotational magnetization models must accurately compute the anisotropic characteristics of ellipsoidally magnetizable media. An ellipticity factor is derived for these media that computes the two-dimensional magnetization trajectory for all applied fields. An orientation correction must be applied to the computed rotational magnetization. For isotropic materials, an orientation correction has been developed and presented. For anisotropic materials, an orientation correction is introduced.

  14. Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baoum, Abdulgader Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The development of nonviral vectors for safe and efficient gene delivery has been gaining considerable attention recently. An ideal nonviral vector must protect the gene against degradation by nuclease in the extracellular matrix, internalize the plasma membrane, escape from the endosomal compartment, unpackage the gene at some point and have no detrimental effects. In comparison to viruses, nonviral vectors are relatively easy to synthesize, less immunogenic, low in cost, and have no limitation in the size of a gene that can be delivered. Significant progress has been made in the basic science and applications of various nonviral gene delivery vectors; however, the majority of nonviral approaches are still inefficient and often toxic. To this end, two nonviral gene delivery systems using either biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide- co-glycolide) (PLG) nanoparticles or cell penetrating peptide (CPP) complexes have been designed and studied using A549 human lung epithelial cells. PLG nanoparticles were optimized for gene delivery by varying particle surface chemistry using different coating materials that adsorb to the particle surface during formation. A variety of cationic coating materials were studied and compared to more conventional surfactants used for PLG nanoparticle fabrication. Nanoparticles (˜200 nm) efficiently encapsulated plasmids encoding for luciferase (80-90%) and slowly released the same for two weeks. After a delay, moderate levels of gene expression appeared at day 5 for certain positively charged PLG particles and gene expression was maintained for at least two weeks. In contrast, gene expression mediated by polyethyleneimine (PEI) ended at day 5. PLG particles were also significantly less cytotoxic than PEI suggesting the use of these vehicles for localized, sustained gene delivery to the pulmonary epithelium. On the other hand, a more simple method to synthesize 50-200 nm complexes capable of high transfection efficiency or high gene knockdown was

  15. Conformal vectors and stellar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjonjo, A. M.; Maharaj, S. D.; Moopanar, S.

    2017-02-01

    The relationship between conformal symmetries and relativistic spheres in astrophysics is studied. We use the nonvanishing components of the Weyl tensor to classify the conformal symmetries in static spherical spacetimes. It is possible to find an explicit connection between the two gravitational potentials for both conformally flat and nonconformally flat cases. We show that the conformal Killing vector admits time dependence in terms of quadratic, trigonometric and hyperbolic functions. The Einstein and Einstein-Maxwell field equations can be written in terms of a single potential, any choice of which leads to an exact solution. Previous results of conformally invariant static spheres are contained in our treatment.

  16. Spin Resonance Strength Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courant, E. D.

    2009-08-01

    In calculating the strengths of depolarizing resonances it may be convenient to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a coordinate system based on the actual trajectory of the particle, as introduced by Kondratenko, rather than the conventional one based on a reference orbit. It is shown that resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.

  17. Resonances in UH

    SciTech Connect

    Badalyan, A.M.; Belova, T.I.; Konyukhova, N.B.; Efros, V.D.

    1985-06-01

    Resonances in UH are calculated using a microscopic approach with only central NN potentials. It is shown that there are broad resonances in the channels with S=1 and 0. P-wave resonances in UH are found at E/sub R/A 4.7-i2.7 MeV (S=1) and E/sub R/approx. = 6.4-i3.7 MeV (S=0) where the energy E is measured from the two-particle t + n threshold.

  18. Tunable multiwalled nanotube resonator

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Kenneth J; Girit, Caglar O; Mickelson, William E; Zettl, Alexander K; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2013-11-05

    A tunable nanoscale resonator has potential applications in precise mass, force, position, and frequency measurement. One embodiment of this device consists of a specially prepared multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) suspended between a metal electrode and a mobile, piezoelectrically controlled contact. By harnessing a unique telescoping ability of MWNTs, one may controllably slide an inner nanotube core from its outer nanotube casing, effectively changing its length and thereby changing the tuning of its resonance frequency. Resonant energy transfer may be used with a nanoresonator to detect molecules at a specific target oscillation frequency, without the use of a chemical label, to provide label-free chemical species detection.

  19. Tunable multiwalled nanotube resonator

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alex K [Kensington, CA; Jensen, Kenneth J [Berkeley, CA; Girit, Caglar [Albany, CA; Mickelson, William E [San Francisco, CA; Grossman, Jeffrey C [Berkeley, CA

    2011-03-29

    A tunable nanoscale resonator has potential applications in precise mass, force, position, and frequency measurement. One embodiment of this device consists of a specially prepared multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) suspended between a metal electrode and a mobile, piezoelectrically controlled contact. By harnessing a unique telescoping ability of MWNTs, one may controllably slide an inner nanotube core from its outer nanotube casing, effectively changing its length and thereby changing the tuning of its resonance frequency. Resonant energy transfer may be used with a nanoresonator to detect molecules at a specific target oscillation frequency, without the use of a chemical label, to provide label-free chemical species detection.

  20. Vector Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer for high-order acoustic modes.

    PubMed

    Dossou, Michel; Bacquet, Denis; Szriftgiser, Pascal

    2010-11-15

    Thanks to a double-frequency phase modulation scheme, we report a vector Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer (BOTDA). This BOTDA has a high immunity level to noise, and it features a phase spectrogram capability. It is well suited for complex situations involving several acoustic resonances, such as high-order longitudinal modes. It has notably been used to characterize a dispersion-shifted fiber, allowing us to report spectrograms with multiple acoustic resonances. A very high 57 dB dynamic range is also reported for 100-ns-long pulses simultaneously with a 16 cm numerical resolution.

  1. Progress in the Calculation of Nucleon Transition form Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichmann, Gernot

    2016-10-01

    We give a brief account of the Dyson-Schwinger and Faddeev-equation approach and its application to nucleon resonances and their transition form factors. We compare the three-body with the quark-diquark approach and present a quark-diquark calculation for the low-lying nucleon resonances including scalar, axialvector, pseudoscalar and vector diquarks. We also discuss the timelike structure of transition form factors and highlight the advantages of form factors over helicity amplitudes.

  2. Vector-tensor and vector-vector decay amplitude analysis of B0-->phiK*0.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Pegna, D Lopes; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Sanchez, P del Amo; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Vetere, M Lo; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Lee, C L; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Vazquez, W Panduro; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Diberder, F Le; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Clarke, C K; Lodovico, F Di; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Nardo, G De; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Buono, L Del; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; del Re, D; Marco, E Di; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Ricca, G Della; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2007-02-02

    We perform an amplitude analysis of the decays B(0)-->phiK*(2)(1430)(0), phiK*(892)(0), and phi(Kpi)(0)(S-wave) with a sample of about 384x10(6) BB[over ] pairs recorded with the BABAR detector. The fractions of longitudinal polarization f(L) of the vector-tensor and vector-vector decay modes are measured to be 0.853(-0.069+0.061)+/-0.036 and 0.506+/-0.040+/-0.015, respectively. Overall, twelve parameters are measured for the vector-vector decay and seven parameters for the vector-tensor decay, including the branching fractions and parameters sensitive to CP violation.

  3. Vector-Tensor and Vector-Vector Decay AmplitudeAnalysis of B0 to phi K*0

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2006-10-31

    We perform an amplitude analysis of the decays B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K*{sub 2}(1430){sup 0}, {phi}K*(892){sup 0}, and {phi}(K{pi}){sub S-wave}{sup 0} with a sample of about 384 million B{bar B} pairs recorded with the BABAR detector. The fractions of longitudinal polarization f{sub L} of the vector-tensor and vector-vector decay modes are measured to be 0.853{sub -0.069}{sup +0.061} {+-} 0.036 and 0.506 {+-} 0.040 {+-} 0.015, respectively. Overall, twelve parameters are measured for the vector-vector decay and seven parameters for the vector-tensor decay, including the branching fractions and parameters sensitive to CP-violation.

  4. Dengue Vectors and their Spatial Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Yukiko

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of dengue vectors, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, is affected by climatic factors. In addition, since their life cycles are well adapted to the human environment, environmental changes resulting from human activity such as urbanization exert a great impact on vector distribution. The different responses of Ae. aegypti and Ae albopictus to various environments result in a difference in spatial distribution along north-south and urban-rural gradients, and between the indoors and outdoors. In the north-south gradient, climate associated with survival is an important factor in spatial distribution. In the urban-rural gradient, different distribution reflects a difference in adult niches and is modified by geographic and human factors. The direct response of the two species to the environment around houses is related to different spatial distribution indoors and outdoors. Dengue viruses circulate mainly between human and vector mosquitoes, and the vector presence is a limiting factor of transmission. Therefore, spatial distribution of dengue vectors is a significant concern in the epidemiology of the disease. Current technologies such as GIS, satellite imagery and statistical models allow researchers to predict the spatial distribution of vectors in the changing environment. Although it is difficult to confirm the actual effect of environmental and climate changes on vector abundance and vector-borne diseases, environmental changes caused by humans and human behavioral changes due to climate change can be expected to exert an impact on dengue vectors. Longitudinal monitoring of dengue vectors and viruses is therefore necessary. PMID:22500133

  5. Viral Vectors: The Road to Reducing Genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    David, Rhiannon M; Doherty, Ann T

    2017-02-01

    Viral vector use in gene therapy has highlighted several safety concerns, including genotoxic events. Generally, vector-mediated genotoxicity results from upregulation of cellular proto-oncogenes via promoter insertion, promoter activation, or gene transcript truncation, with enhancer-mediated activation of nearby genes the primary mechanism reported in gene therapy trials. Vector-mediated genotoxicity can be influenced by virus type, integration target site, and target cell type; different vectors have distinct integration profiles which are cell-specific. Non-viral factors, including patient age, disease, and dose can also influence genotoxic potential, thus the choice of test models and clinical trial populations is important to ensure they are indicative of efficacy and safety. Efforts have been made to develop viral vectors with less risk of insertional mutagenesis, including self-inactivating (SIN) vectors, enhancer-blocking insulators, and microRNA targeting of vectors, although insertional mutagenesis is not completely abrogated. Here we provide an overview of the current understanding of viral vector-mediated genotoxicity risk from factors contributing to viral vector-mediated genotoxicity to efforts made to reduce genotoxicity, and testing strategies required to adequately assess the risk of insertional mutagenesis. It is clear that there is not a 'one size fits all' approach to vector modification for reducing genotoxicity, and addressing these challenges will be a key step in the development of therapies such as CRISPR-Cas9 and delivery of future gene-editing technologies.

  6. Therapeutic and prophylactic applications of alphavirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Gregory J; Fleeton, Marina N; Sheahan, Brian J

    2008-11-11

    Alphavirus vectors are high-level, transient expression vectors for therapeutic and prophylactic use. These positive-stranded RNA vectors, derived from Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, multiply and are expressed in the cytoplasm of most vertebrate cells, including human cells. Part of the genome encoding the structural protein genes, which is amplified during a normal infection, is replaced by a transgene. Three types of vector have been developed: virus-like particles, layered DNA-RNA vectors and replication-competent vectors. Virus-like particles contain replicon RNA that is defective since it contains a cloned gene in place of the structural protein genes, and thus are able to undergo only one cycle of expression. They are produced by transfection of vector RNA, and helper RNAs encoding the structural proteins. Layered DNA-RNA vectors express the Semliki Forest virus replicon from a cDNA copy via a cytomegalovirus promoter. Replication-competent vectors contain a transgene in addition to the structural protein genes. Alphavirus vectors are used for three main applications: vaccine construction, therapy of central nervous system disease, and cancer therapy.

  7. [Individual protection against insect vectors].

    PubMed

    Carnevale, P; Mouchet, J

    1997-01-01

    Many diseases for which no vaccine is available are transmitted by insect and arthropod vectors, the main exceptions being yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis B. Treatment is less and less effective due to the development of chemoresistance to therapeutic and prophylactic drugs as is well-illustrated by malaria. One of the best methods of preventing these diseases is personal protection against insect bites. Personal protection measures can be divided into three categories which can be used separately or in combination : application of repellents to the skin, wearing clothes impregnated with insecticides, and use of bed nets and other barriers impregnated with insecticides. The choice of method depends on the type of insect vector involved. For insects that are active during the day or at dusk, application of repellents to the skin gives good short-term protection and wearing impregnated clothes is useful. Bed nets that have been properly impregnated with pyrethroids are highly effective for night-time protection. Since personal protection methods are not 100% effective, they must be used in association with chemoprophylaxis according to medical guidelines. Medical advice should be sought if fever should occur especially after returning from a trip in the tropics.

  8. Volumetric Acoustic Vector Intensity Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klos, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    A new measurement tool capable of imaging the acoustic intensity vector throughout a large volume is discussed. This tool consists of an array of fifty microphones that form a spherical surface of radius 0.2m. A simultaneous measurement of the pressure field across all the microphones provides time-domain near-field holograms. Near-field acoustical holography is used to convert the measured pressure into a volumetric vector intensity field as a function of frequency on a grid of points ranging from the center of the spherical surface to a radius of 0.4m. The volumetric intensity is displayed on three-dimensional plots that are used to locate noise sources outside the volume. There is no restriction on the type of noise source that can be studied. The sphere is mobile and can be moved from location to location to hunt for unidentified noise sources. An experiment inside a Boeing 757 aircraft in flight successfully tested the ability of the array to locate low-noise-excited sources on the fuselage. Reference transducers located on suspected noise source locations can also be used to increase the ability of this device to separate and identify multiple noise sources at a given frequency by using the theory of partial field decomposition. The frequency range of operation is 0 to 1400Hz. This device is ideal for the study of noise sources in commercial and military transportation vehicles in air, on land and underwater.

  9. Retarded long-range interaction in split-ring-resonator square arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Manuel; Feth, Nils; Soukoulis, Costas M.; Linden, Stefan; Wegener, Martin

    2011-08-01

    We systematically investigate the optical extinction spectra of planar gold split-ring-resonator square arrays operating at ˜200-THz frequency versus the lattice constant and versus angle of incidence. We find a strong dependence of the resonance damping on the in-plane wave vector, namely, the resonance damping increases (decreases) versus the in-plane wave vector for small lattice constants (large lattice constants). By comparison with two simple one-dimensional models as well as with more complete numerical calculations, this behavior is interpreted in terms of a long-range retarded interaction among the split-ring resonators. In contrast, the assumptions of only nearest-neighbor interaction and/or of an instantaneous interaction lead to a striking disagreement with the overall experimental facts.

  10. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert

    1991-01-01

    A resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method provides a unique characterization of an object for use in distinguishing similar objects having physical differences greater than a predetermined tolerance. A resonant response spectrum is obtained for a reference object by placing excitation and detection transducers at any accessible location on the object. The spectrum is analyzed to determine the number of resonant response peaks in a predetermined frequency interval. The distribution of the resonance frequencies is then characterized in a manner effective to form a unique signature of the object. In one characterization, a small frequency interval is defined and stepped though the spectrum frequency range. Subsequent objects are similarly characterized where the characterizations serve as signatures effective to distinguish objects that differ from the reference object by more than the predetermined tolerance.

  11. Electrically detected ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Goennenwein, S. T. B.; Schink, S. W.; Brandlmaier, A.; Boger, A.; Opel, M.; Gross, R.; Keizer, R. S.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Gupta, A.; Huebl, H.; Bihler, C.; Brandt, M. S.

    2007-04-16

    We study the magnetoresistance properties of thin ferromagnetic CrO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films under microwave irradiation. Both the sheet resistance {rho} and the Hall voltage V{sub Hall} characteristically change when a ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) occurs in the film. The electrically detected ferromagnetic resonance (EDFMR) signals closely match the conventional FMR, measured simultaneously, in both resonance fields and line shapes. The sign and the magnitude of the resonant changes {delta}{rho}/{rho} and {delta}V{sub Hall}/V{sub Hall} can be consistently described in terms of a Joule heating effect. Bolometric EDFMR thus is a powerful tool for the investigation of magnetic anisotropy and magnetoresistive phenomena in ferromagnetic micro- or nanostructures.

  12. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, N.A.; Koehler, D.R.; Liang, A.Y.; Smith, B.K.

    1993-03-30

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  13. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, Ned A.; Koehler, Dale R.; Liang, Alan Y.; Smith, Bradley K.

    1993-01-01

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  14. Resonances in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, Matthias F. M.; Lange, Jens Sören; Pennington, Michael; Bettoni, Diego; Brambilla, Nora; Crede, Volker; Eidelman, Simon; Gillitzer, Albrecht; Gradl, Wolfgang; Lang, Christian B.; Metag, Volker; Nakano, Takashi; Nieves, Juan; Neubert, Sebastian; Oka, Makoto; Olsen, Stephen L.; Pappagallo, Marco; Paul, Stephan; Pelizäus, Marc; Pilloni, Alessandro; Prencipe, Elisabetta; Ritman, Jim; Ryan, Sinead; Thoma, Ulrike; Uwer, Ulrich; Weise, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    We report on the EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force meeting 'Resonances in QCD', which took place at GSI October 12-14, 2015 (Fig.~1). A group of 26 people met to discuss the physics of resonances in QCD. The aim of the meeting was defined by the following three key questions; what is needed to understand the physics of resonances in QCD?; where does QCD lead us to expect resonances with exotic quantum numbers?; and what experimental efforts are required to arrive at a coherent picture? For light mesons and baryons only those with up, down and strange quark content were considered. For heavy-light and heavy-heavy meson systems, those with charm quarks were the focus.This document summarizes the discussions by the participants, which in turn led to the coherent conclusions we present here.

  15. Triple-resonant transducers.

    PubMed

    Butler, Stephen C

    2012-06-01

    A detailed analysis is presented of two novel multiple-resonant transducers which produce a wider transmit response than that of a conventional Tonpilz-type transducer. These multi-resonant transducers are Tonpilz-type longitudinal vibrators that produce three coupled resonances and are referred to as triple-resonant transducers (TRTs). One of these designs is a mechanical series arrangement of a tail mass, piezoelectric ceramic stack, central mass, compliant spring, second central mass, second compliant spring, and a piston-radiating head mass. The other TRT design is a mechanical series arrangement of a tail mass, piezoelectric ceramic stack, central mass, compliant spring, and head mass with a quarter-wave matching layer of poly(methyl methacrylate) on the head mass. Several prototype transducer element designs were fabricated that demonstrated proof-of-concept.

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, B.C.

    1984-02-07

    A nuclear magnetic resonance gyro using two nuclear magnetic resonance gases, preferably xenon 129 and xenon 131, together with two alkaline metal vapors, preferably rubidium, potassium or cesium, one of the two alkaline metal vapors being pumped by light which has the wavelength of that alkaline metal vapor, and the other alkaline vapor being illuminated by light which has the wavelength of that other alkaline vapor.

  17. Hexagonal quartz resonator

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Roswell D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A generally flat, relatively thin AT-cut piezoelectric resonator element structured to minimize the force-frequency effect when mounted and energized in a housing. The resonator is in the form of an equilateral hexagon with the X crystallographic axis of the crystal passing through one set of opposing corners with mounting being effected at an adjacent set of corners respectively .+-.60.degree. away from the X axis which thereby results in a substantially zero frequency shift of the operating frequency.

  18. Injector with integrated resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; York, William David; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2014-07-29

    The system may include a turbine engine. The turbine engine may include a fuel nozzle. The fuel nozzle may include an air path. The fuel nozzle may also include a fuel path such that the fuel nozzle is in communication with a combustion zone of the turbine engine. Furthermore, the fuel nozzle may include a resonator. The resonator may be disposed in the fuel nozzle directly adjacent to the combustion zone.

  19. Resonant dielectric metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Loui, Hung; Carroll, James; Clem, Paul G; Sinclair, Michael B

    2014-12-02

    A resonant dielectric metamaterial comprises a first and a second set of dielectric scattering particles (e.g., spheres) having different permittivities arranged in a cubic array. The array can be an ordered or randomized array of particles. The resonant dielectric metamaterials are low-loss 3D isotropic materials with negative permittivity and permeability. Such isotropic double negative materials offer polarization and direction independent electromagnetic wave propagation.

  20. Cylindrical laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Casperson, Lee W.

    1976-02-24

    The properties of an improved class of lasers is presented. In one configuration of these lasers the radiation propagates radially within the amplifying medium, resulting in high fields and symmetric illumination at the resonator axis. Thus there is a strong focusing of energy at the axis of the resonator. In a second configuration the radiation propagates back and forth in a tubular region of space.