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Sample records for low-molecular-weight organic acids

  1. Characterization of low molecular weight organic acids from beech wood treated in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kei; Kusaki, Junko; Ehara, Katsunobu; Saka, Shiro

    2005-01-01

    Japanese beech (Fagus crenata Blume), its cell wall components, and model compounds were treated by supercritical water (380 degrees C, 100 MPa) for 5 s using a batch-type reactor to investigate the production behavior of low molecular weight organic acids. It was found that cellulose and hemicellulose were decomposed to formic acid, pyruvic acid, glycolic acid, acetic acid, and lactic acid, whereas lignin was barely decomposed to such organic acids under the given conditions. However, after prolonged treatment (380 degrees C, 100 MPa, 4 min) of lignin, some organic acids were recovered owing perhaps to the decomposition of the propyl side chain of lignin. It was additionally revealed that the predominant organic acid recovered was acetic acid, which might be derived from the acetyl group of hemicellulose in Japanese beech.

  2. Aluminium speciation in forest soil solution--modelling the contribution of low molecular weight organic acids.

    PubMed

    van Hees, P A; Tipping, E; Lundström, U S

    2001-10-20

    The concentrations of Al bound to identified low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), phosphate and humic compounds in soil solutions (O1, O2, E, B1 and B2 horizons) from Fennoscandinavian coniferous forest soils were calculated. Two models were evaluated: WHAM (Winderemere Humic Aqueous Model) and a model treating the natural organic acids as monoprotic. The WHAM model was calibrated to find an average charge balance of unity, and then used for Al speciation. This was achieved considering approximately 80% of the natural fulvic acid to be 'active'. For the monoprotic model, constants obtained from previous fitting of soil solution data were used and the model was calibrated using acid/base titrations. The modelling confirms that the low molecular weight acids are important complex formers, binding on average 11-42% (O), 19-20% (E), and 0-30% (B) of the total Al in solution depending on the model used. The monoprotic model yielded higher concentrations than WHAM. Both models predicted that the major part of Al in solution was organically complexed to humic substances and LMWOAs, which was consistent with analytical values of 'quickly reacting' Al (monomenc inorganic forms; 12-14% of Al(tot) on average in the E and B1 solutions). Both models could predict the magnitude of the analytical values (RMSD = 4-5 microM). On average the WHAM model showed a better fit for the E horizon solutions and the monoprotic model for the upper B horizon. The pH dependence of the low molecular weight fraction of Al was modelled in the pH range 3-5.5 for a 'typical' O1 and E solution assuming no other changes in soil solution composition. The extrapolation showed that the models had a different pH dependence. The concentration of Al bound to LMWOAs in WHAM decreased with higher pH while the opposite was seen for the monoprotic model. Also the influence of the concentration of total Al in solution was modelled. The models showed similar trends but for the 'typical' O1 horizon sample

  3. [Effects of low molecular weight organic acids on redox reactions of mercury].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shi-Bo; Sun, Rong-Guo; Wang, Ding-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Cheng

    2014-06-01

    To study the effects of the main component of vegetation root exudates-low molecular weight organic acids on the redox reactions of mercury, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the roles of tartaric, citric, and succinic acid in the redox reactions of mercury, and to analyze their interaction mechanism. The results indicated that tartaric acid significantly stimulated the mercury reduction reaction, while citric acid had inhibitory effect. Succinic acid improved the reduction rate at low concentration, and inhibited the reaction at high concentration. The mercury reduction rate by tartaric acid treatment was second-order with respect to Hg2+ concentration, ranging from 0.0014 L x (ng x min)(-1) to 0.005 6 L x (ng x min)(-1). All three organic acids showed a capacity for oxidating Hg(0) in the early stage, but the oxidized Hg(0) was subsequently reduced. The oxidation capacity of the three organic acids was in the order of citric acid > tartaric acid > succinic acid.

  4. Abnormal Characteristics of Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids in Surface Water of the Jiaozhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, H.; Liu, Z.; Yang, G.; Sun, L.

    2012-12-01

    Organic acids are important components of dissolved organic matter in sea water. Generally, in oxic sea water, the concentrations of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), such as formate, acetate and lactate are too low to be analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) directly. Our recent study of Jiaozhou Bay, Shandong, China showed that the concentrations of LMWOAs in the surface sea water were high enough to be quantified by HPLC. In the surface sea water of the bay, three typical LMWOAs----formate, acetate and lactate were identified. Concentrations of formate, lactate and acetate ranged from 1.97 to 5.29μmol/L, 5.79 to 12.77μmol/L and 1.97 to 7.23 μmol/L, respectively. The concentrations of all three organic acids varied dramatically in different areas of the bay. Low concentrations usually occurred in the central region and high concentrations usually occurred along coastal area. The contribution of LMWOAs to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was significantly higher than published data. On average, total organic acid (TOA, considered as total concentration of the three identified organic acids) accounted for more than 20% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the surface water of the Bay. The high concentrations of LMWOAs and their unusual high contribution to DOC were attributed to human activities such as sewage discharge, aquaculture and etc. along the coastal area.

  5. Effect of low-molecular-weight organic acids on hematite dissolution promoted by desferrioxamine B.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qingqi; Wang, Yingli; Yang, Xiuhong; Ruan, Dishen; Wang, Shizhong; Wei, Xiange; Qiu, Rongliang

    2017-04-28

    Siderophores, as strong chelators specific to iron, have been intensively studied in relation to the facilitation of biological iron acquisition from iron oxides. In this study, the dissolution of hematite in the presence of the siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFOB) and three low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs, i.e., oxalic, citric, or malic acid) was investigated at three pH conditions (3.0, 5.5, and 9.0). Hematite dissolution was pH-dependent and LMWOA-specific. The adsorption of DFOB on hematite was significantly higher at pH 9.0 than at the other pH values. The adsorption of oxalic acid on hematite, however, showed a descending trend as pH was increased, and adsorption of citric and malic acids was not significantly affected by pH. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results also indicated the occurrence of these ligands' adsorption. After acidification, dissolved iron was detected only in suspensions of hematite pre-adsorbed with oxalic acid at pH 5.5 and 9.0 or pre-adsorbed with citric acid at pH 5.5, indicating that these LMWOAs promoted the formation of labile iron on the hematite surface. Based on previous research and the results of this study, a hypothetical model is proposed. These results provide insight into the effect of LMWOAs on the dissolution of hematite promoted by DFOB.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulations on the interactions of low molecular weight natural organic acids with C60.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Xie, Hong-Bin; Chen, Jingwen; Li, Xuehua; Wang, Zhuang; Sheng, Lianxi

    2013-07-01

    As an important part of dissolved organic matter (DOM), low molecular weight organic acids (LOAs) may play a key role in the process for DOM stabilizing carbon nanomaterials (e.g. C60) suspensions in aquatic environment. In addition, both LOAs and C60 have been detected in the troposphere and therefore have a chance to interact with each other in the gaseous phase. However, the mechanism for LOAs-C60 interactions and their environmental implications need further investigations. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was employed to investigate the interactions between both neutral and ionic LOAs with C60 in vacuum and water. The results showed that the adsorptions of all LOAs on C60 in energy are favorable, and the aromatic acids have stronger interactions with C60 than the aliphatic acids in vacuum and water. The interaction energies (Eint) of the LOA anions with C60 were weaker than those of their corresponding neutral LOA molecules. The models were also developed to predict and interpret Eint based on the results from MD simulations. Dispersion, induction and hydrophobic interactions were found to be the dominating factor in Eint. These findings indicate that cost-efficient MD simulation can be employed as an important tool to predict the adsorption behavior of LOAs on carbon nanomaterials.

  7. Impact of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on biochar micropores and sorption properties for sulfamethoxazole.

    PubMed

    Sun, Binbin; Lian, Fei; Bao, Qiongli; Liu, Zhongqi; Song, Zhengguo; Zhu, Lingyan

    2016-07-01

    The interaction between biochar (BC) and antibiotics with the presence of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) is largely unknown, although it is crucial for understanding the role of BC in reducing the bioavailability of antibiotics in rhizosphere. The impacts of two typical LMWOAs (citric and malic acids) on sorption of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) by crop-straw BCs produced at 300 °C (BCs300) and 600 °C (BCs600), respectively, were examined. The sorption of SMX on BCs increased more than 5 times with the concentration of LMWOAs increasing from 0 to 100 mmol/L, which was mainly attributed to the elevated microporosity of BCs (measured by CO2) after treated by LMWOAs. The pore development of BCs was mainly derived from the release of dissolved organic residues from BC by LMWOA washing. For H2O2-oxidized BCs, however, LMWOAs had little effect on SMX sorption by BCs300 but greatly increased that by BCs600, which can be explained by the distinct sorption mechanisms of SMX on BCs300 and BCs600. These results indicate that the impact of LMWOAs on SMX sorption is highly dependent on the properties of BCs and LMWOAs, as well as their interaction mechanisms.

  8. Ancient low-molecular-weight organic acids in permafrost fuel rapid carbon dioxide production upon thaw.

    PubMed

    Drake, Travis W; Wickland, Kimberly P; Spencer, Robert G M; McKnight, Diane M; Striegl, Robert G

    2015-11-10

    Northern permafrost soils store a vast reservoir of carbon, nearly twice that of the present atmosphere. Current and projected climate warming threatens widespread thaw of these frozen, organic carbon (OC)-rich soils. Upon thaw, mobilized permafrost OC in dissolved and particulate forms can enter streams and rivers, which are important processors of OC and conduits for carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Here, we demonstrate that ancient dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leached from 35,800 y B.P. permafrost soils is rapidly mineralized to CO2. During 200-h experiments in a novel high-temporal-resolution bioreactor, DOC concentration decreased by an average of 53%, fueling a more than sevenfold increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration. Eighty-seven percent of the DOC loss to microbial uptake was derived from the low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids acetate and butyrate. To our knowledge, our study is the first to directly quantify high CO2 production rates from permafrost-derived LMW DOC mineralization. The observed DOC loss rates are among the highest reported for permafrost carbon and demonstrate the potential importance of LMW DOC in driving the rapid metabolism of Pleistocene-age permafrost carbon upon thaw and the outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere by soils and nearby inland waters.

  9. [Effect of wheat and faba bean intercropping on root exudation of low molecular weight organic acids].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jing-Xiu; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li

    2014-06-01

    Pot experiment of wheat and faba bean intercropping was conducted and exudates from wheat and faba bean roots were collected at different growth stages. Low molecular weight organic acids (OA) in root exudates were examined by HPLC. The results showed that wheat and faba bean intercropping significantly increased the total amounts of OA exuded by roots. At tillering (57 d), booting (120 d) and filling stages (142 d), intercropping increased the total amounts of OA in wheat root exudates by 155%, 35.6% and 92.6% respectively, in comparison with that of monoculture wheat (MW). At branching (57 d) and filling stages (142 d), intercropping increased the total amounts of OA in faba bean root exudates by 87.4% and 38.7%, respectively, in comparison with that of monoculture faba bean (MF). Wheat and faba bean intercropping changed the types of OA exuded by roots. At tillering stage, lactic acid was identified in root exudates of intercropping wheat (IW), but not in that of MW. At jointing stage (98 d), citric acid was identified in root exudates of IW, but not in that of MW, and acetic acid was vice versa. At branching stage, acetic acid was identified in root exudates of intercropping faba bean (IF), but not in that of MF, and lactic acid was vice versa. At filling stage, lactic acid was identified in root exudates of IF, but not in that of MF. Wheat and faba bean intercropping increased the OA exudation rate of wheat. At booting stage, the exudation rates of citric and fumaric acid from IW were 179 and 184-times as that of from MW, respectively. At filling stage, the exudation rate of lactic acid from IW was 2.53-times as that from MW. In conclusion, wheat and faba bean intercropping increased the rate and total amount, and changed the types of OA exuded by roots.

  10. Marsh plant response to metals: Exudation of aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2016-03-01

    Metal exposure is known to induce the production and secretion of substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere by plant roots. Knowledge on this matter is extensive for soil plants but still considerably scarce regarding marsh plants roots adapted to high salinity media. Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides, two marsh plants commonly distributed in European estuarine salt marshes, were used to assess the response of roots of both species, in terms of ALMWOAs exudation, to Cu, Ni and Cd exposure (isolated and in mixture since in natural environment, they are exposed to mixture of metals). As previous studies were carried out in unrealistic and synthetic media, here a more natural medium was selected. Therefore, in vitro experiments were carried out, with specimens of both marsh plants, and in freshwater contaminated with two different Cu, Ni and Cd concentrations (individual metal and in mixture). Both marsh plants were capable of liberating ALMWOAs into the surrounding medium. Oxalic, citric and maleic acids were found in P. australis root exudate solutions and oxalic and maleic acids in H. portulacoides root exudate solutions. ALMWOA liberation by both plants was plant species and metal-dependent. For instance, Cu affected the exudation of oxalic acid by H. portulacoides and of oxalic and citric acids by P. australis roots. In contrast, Ni and Cd did not stimulate any specific response. Regarding the combination of all metals, H. portulacoides showed a similar response to that observed for Cu individually. However, in the P. australis case, at high metal concentration mixture, a synergetic effect led to the increase of oxalic acid levels in root exudate solution and to a decrease of citric acid liberation. A correlation between ALMWOAs exudation and metal accumulation could not be established. P. australis and H. portulacoides are considered suitable metal phytoremediators of estuarine impacted areas

  11. [Effects of low molecular weight organic acids on speciation of exogenous Cu in an acid soil].

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Yong; Fu, Qing-Ling; Zhu, Jun; Wan, Tian-Ying; Hu, Hong-Qing

    2014-08-01

    In order to ascertain the effect of LMWOA (citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid) on Cu-contaminated soils and to investigate the change of Cu species, a red soil derived from quartz sandstone deposit was added by Cu (copper) in the form of CuSO4 x 5H2O so as to simulate soil Cu pollution, keeping the additional Cu concentrations were 0, 100, 200, 400 mg x kg(-1) respectively. After 9 months, different LMWOA was also added into the simulated soil, keeping the additional LMWOAs in soil were 0, 5, 10, 20 mmol x kg(-1) respectively. After 2 weeks incubation, the modified sequential extraction method on BCR (European Communities Bureau of Reference) was used to evaluate the effects of these LMWOAs on the changes of copper forms in soil. The result showed that the percentage of weak acid dissolved Cu, the most effective form in the soil increased with three organic acids increase in quantity in the simulated polluted soil. And there was a good activation effect on Cu in the soil when organic acid added. Activation effects on Cu increased with concentration of citric acid increasing, but it showed a rise trend before they are basically remained unchanged in the case of tartaric acid and oxalic acid added in the soil. On the contrary, the state of the reduction of copper which was regarded as a complement for effective state decreased with the increased concentration of organic acid in the soil, especially with citric acid. When 20 mmol x kg(-1) oxalic acid and citric acid were added into the soil, the activation effect was the best; whereas for tartaric, the concentration was 10 mmol x kg(-1). In general, the effect on the changes of Cu forms in the soil is citric acid > tartaric acid > oxalic acid.

  12. The geochemical evolution of low-molecular-weight organic acids derived from the degradation of petroleum contaminants in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Baedecker, Mary Jo; Eganhouse, Robert P.; Goerlitz, Donald F.

    1994-01-01

    The geochemical evolution of low-molecular-weight organic acids in groundwater downgradient from a crude-oil spill near Bemidji, Minnesota, was studied over a five year period (1986-1990). The organic acids are metabolic intermediates of the degradation of components of the crude oil and are structurally related to hydrocarbon precursors. The concentrations of organic acids, particularly aliphatic acids, increase as the microbial alteration of hydrocarbons progresses. The organic-acid pool changes in composition and concentration over time and in space as the degradation processes shift from Fe(III) reduction to methanogenesis. Over time, the aquifer system evolves into one in which the groundwater contains more oxidized products of hydrocarbon degradation and the reduced forms of iron, manganese, and nitrogen. Laboratory microcosm experiments with aquifer material support the hypothesis that organic acids observed in the groundwater originate from the microbial degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions. The geochemistry of two other shallow aquifers in coastal plain sediments, one contaminated with creosote waste and the other with gasoline, were compared to the Bemidji site. The geochemical evolution of the low-molecular-weight organic acid pool in these systems is controlled, in part, by the presence of electron acceptors available for microbially mediated electron-transfer reactions. The depletion of electron acceptors in aquifers leads to the accumulation of aliphatic organic acids in anoxic groundwater.

  13. The geochemical evolution of low-molecular-weight organic acids derived from the degradation of petroleum contaminants in groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cozzarelli, I.M.; Baedecker, M.J.; Eganhouse, R.P.; Goerlitz, D.F.

    1994-01-01

    The geochemical evolution of low-molecular-weight organic acids in groundwater downgradient from a crude-oil spill near Bemidji, Minnesota, was studied over a five year period (1986-1990). The organic acids are metabolic intermediates of the degradation of components of the crude oil and are structurally related to hydrocarbon precursors. The concentrations of organic acids, particularly aliphatic acids, increase as the microbial alteration of hydrocarbons progresses. The organic-acid pool changes in composition and concentration over time and in space as the degradation processes shift from Fe(III) reduction to methanogenesis. Over time, the aquifer system evolves into one in which the groundwater contains more oxidized products of hydrocarbon degradation and the reduced forms of iron, manganese, and nitrogen. Laboratory microcosm experiments with aquifer material support the hypothesis that organic acids observed in the groundwater originate from the microbial degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions. The geochemistry of two other shallow aquifers in coastal plain sediments, one contaminated with creosote waste and the other with gasoline, were compared to the Bemidji site. The geochemical evolution of the low-molecular-weight organic acid pool in these systems is controlled, in part, by the presence of electron acceptors available for microbially mediated electron-transfer reactions. The depletion of electron acceptors in aquifers leads to the accumulation of aliphatic organic acids in anoxic groundwater. ?? 1994.

  14. [Influence of Three Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids on the Adsorption of Phenanthrene in Purple Soil].

    PubMed

    Xie, Li; Chen, Ben-shou; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Lu, Song; Jiang, Tao

    2016-03-15

    The effects of three low-molecular-weight organic acids (citric acid, malic acid and oxalic acid) on the adsorption of phenanthrene in purple soil were studied by static adsorption experiment. The results showed that the adsorption kinetic process of phenanthrene in purple soil could be described by the second-order kinetic model, and the adsorption rate constant would significantly decrease in the presence of the three low-molecular-weight organic acids ( LMWOAs). The adsorption thermodynamic process could be well described by linear adsorption model, which was dominated by distribution role. The three LMWOAs could promote the adsorption of phenantherene in purple soil when their concentrations were less than 5 mmol · L⁻¹, whereas inhibit the adsorption when their concentrations were more than 10 mmol · L⁻¹, and the inhibition would increase with increasing concentrations. Moreover, the inhibitory ability displayed a decreasing order of citric acid, oxalic acid, and malic acid when their concentrations were 20 mmol · L⁻¹, which is related to the molecular structure and acidity of the three LMWOAs. Compared with the control, the content of dissolved organic matter (DOM) released from purple soil showed a trend of first decrease and then increase with increasing LMWOAs concentration, and the adsorption capacity of phenanthrene in purple soil was negatively related to DOM content.

  15. Mineral Dissolution and Metal Mobility From Rhizosphere and Non-rhizosphere Soils by Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, D. A.; Field, J. B.; Welch, S. A.

    2005-12-01

    This research is part of an ongoing investigation of micro-biogeochemistry in the rhizosphere of co-occurring Eucalyptus mannifera and Acacia falciformis on the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. While there is still considerable controversy in the literature regarding the roles of low molecular weight organic acids in soil processes there is growing evidence suggesting low molecular weight compounds, especially di-carboxylic acids, have large impacts on mineral dissolution and metal mobility in the rhizosphere. Rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere samples from adjacent E. mannifera and A. falciformis trees were subjected to four separate treatments in sets of 3 replicates; +oxalic acid, +malic acid, +citric acid or +NaCl control solution. These three acids were chosen because they are produced by rhizosphere species and they form stable complexes with nutrient elements such as Phosphorus (P), Iron (Fe), and Calcium (Ca). Solution samples were collected at day 1, day 8 and day 15 for pH measurement and analysed for major and trace elements by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. The results of the preliminary dissolution experiments show that milli-molar concentrations of individual organic acids, malate and oxalate, and in particular citrate, greatly increase the release of major and trace metals to solution compared to inorganic controls. Concentrations of Al and Fe in organic acid solutions were up to 10 times greater than in the inorganic controls. Si concentrations were a factor of 2-5 greater in the organic acid solutions, suggesting preferential weathering of Fe and Al oxyhydroxide phases rather than primary silicate minerals. Dissolution of elements such as Si, Al and Fe from rhizosphere soils were about twice that observed from non-rhizosphere soils, further supporting this. Interestingly Ti and Zr, which are usually considered to be immobile during chemical weathering and are not usually taken up by plants, were also mobilised from the rhizosphere soils

  16. [Low-molecular-weight organic acids in precipitation in Zunyi City, Guizhou province].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Lee, Xin-qing; Zeng, Yong; Huang, Rong-sheng; Tan, Ling; Xu, Gang; Wang, Bing

    2008-09-01

    Formic (HCOOH) and acetic (CH3COOH) acids are ubiquitous in troposphere. Studies on the low-molecular carboxylic acids help shed light on the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, as well as on the formation of acid precipitation. As a city with severe acid precipitation, the city Zunyi in north Guizhou province, provide a typical background for gaining insight into the organic geochemistry in the heavily polluted atmospheric environment. We collected the precipitation in the downtown city for a whole year on the event basis, and measured inorganic and organic anions with ion chromatograph and cations with atomic absorption spectroscopy. The data demonstrate an annual average pH of 4.11, a clear indication of the acid atmosphere. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of [HCOO-]T and [CH3COO-]T were 9.29 micromol x L(-1) (ranged from 0.15 micromol x L(-1) to 46.14 micromol x L(-1)) and 6.47 micromol x L(-1) (ranged from 0.02 micromol x L(-1) to 19.11 micromol x L(-1)) respectively, accounting for 4.10% of the total anions. With a coefficient of 0.86, formic is significantly correlated with acetic acid, suggesting that both acids share common sources. The acids often decrease with time in a precipitation event, with occasional increases in the middle and last stages, indicating that the organic acids are primarily scavenged from blow cloud, with limited amount from the long distance transportation. The close range provenance of organic acids is facilitated by the local environmental condition, which is characterized by the mountain-enclosed valley with high humidity, low wind speed, and high atmospheric dust content. Based on the Henry's Law, we proposed the ratio of formic and acetic acids in the precipitation (F/A)aq as the indicator of the sources, and thus found that the anthropogenic sources are responsible for the organic compounds in the Spring and Winter, while vegetation emissions claim the sources in the Summer and Autumn.

  17. Understanding the effect low molecular weight organic acids on the desorption and availability of soil phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, Daniel; Zhang, Hao; Stutter, Marc; Giles, Courtney; George, Timothy; Shand, Charles; Lumsdon, David; Cooper, Pat; Wendler, Renate; Brown, Lawrie; Blackwell, Martin; Darch, Tegan; Wearing, Catherine; Haygarth, Philip

    2016-04-01

    The mobility and resupply of inorganic phosphorus (P) from the soil solid phase after equilibration with increasing doses of citric acid (CA) and oxalic acid (OA) were studied in 2 soils with contrasting P status. The combined methods of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), diffusive equilibration in thin films (DET) and the DGT-induced fluxes in sediments model (DIFS) were used as tools to evaluate the changes in solid-to-solution interchange kinetics. A significant effect of CA and OA in soil solution P was observed only for doses over 1 mMol kg-1. Curiously, low organic acid doses (0.5-1 mMol kg-1) were associated with a steep increase in microbial biomass P, which was not seen for doses over 2 mMol kg-1. The trivalent CA was able to promote a higher increase in soil solution P than the bivalent OA for both soils. Organic phosphorus was only significantly mobilized by organic acids in the low P soil, possibly because in the high P soil these P forms were less labile than inorganic P. Both CA and OA promoted a decrease in the adsorbed-to-solution distribution coefficient, desorption rate constants and an increase in the response time of solution P equilibration. The extent of this effect was shown to be both soil specific and organic acid specific. Since both organic acids negatively affected the kinetics of P interchange between the soil matrix and the soil solution, their net effect on P bioavailability is expected to be much lower than the observed increase in solution concentration.

  18. Effect of low molecular weight organic acids on phosphorus adsorption by ferric-alum water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Wang, Ziyuan; Lin, Lu; Tian, Binghui; Pei, Yuansheng

    2012-02-15

    Effects of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs; citric acid, oxalic acid and tartaric acid) on phosphorus (P) adsorption by ferric-alum water treatment residuals (FARs) were studied. Both batch and column experiments indicated that the effects of LMWOAs on P adsorption were closely related to adsorption time. Initially, all acids presented inhibitory function on P adsorption. The inhibition became weaker with time, eventually promoting P adsorption for citric acid and tartaric acid. In the column experiment with a 61-day duration, high P adsorption rates (>55%) were observed for the test groups containing citric acid and tartaric acid. Interestingly, higher pH likely enhanced P adsorption with the effects of LMWOAs and a distinct relationship between LMWOAs' effects on P adsorption and their concentrations was not observed. Moreover, fractionation of the adsorbed P from the FARs demonstrated that oxalic acid reduced P adsorption capacity, while citric acid and tartaric acid increased. Based on the forms of Fe and Al existing in the FARs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses, LMWOAs can promote P adsorption through activating crystalline Fe/Al and preventing crystallization of amorphous Fe/Al to increase P adsorption sites, and can also inhibit P adsorption by competition with adsorption sites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of surfactants on low-molecular-weight organic acids to wash soil zinc.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Zhang, Shirong; Xu, Xiaoxun; Yao, Ping; Li, Ting; Wang, Guiyin; Gong, Guoshu; Li, Yun; Deng, Ouping

    2016-03-01

    Soil washing is an effective approach to the removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of the surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, and non-ionic polyacrylamide (NPAM) on oxalic acid, tartaric acid, and citric acid used to remove zinc from contaminated soils were investigated. The Zn removal efficiencies of all washing solutions showed a logarithmic increase with acid concentrations from 0.5 to 10.0 g/L, while they decreased as pH increased from 4 to 9. Increasing the reaction time enhanced the effects of surfactants on Zn removal efficiencies by the acids during washing and significantly (P < 0.05) improved the removal under some mixed cases. Oxalic acid suffered antagonistic effects from the three surfactants and seriously damaged soil nutrients during the removal of soil Zn. Notably, the three surfactants caused synergistic effects on tartaric and citric acid during washing, with NPAM leading to an increase in Zn removal by 5.0 g/L citric acid of 10.60 % (P < 0.05) within 2 h. NPAM also alleviated the loss of cation exchange capacity of washed soils and obviously improved soil nitrogen concentrations. Overall, combining citric acid with NPAM offers a promising approach to the removal of zinc from contaminated soil.

  20. Combined effects of low-molecular-weight organic acids on mobilization of arsenic and lead from multi-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Onireti, Olaronke O; Lin, Chuxia; Qin, Junhao

    2017-03-01

    A batch experiment was conducted to examine the combined effects of three common low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on the mobilization of arsenic and lead in different types of multi-contaminated soils. The capacity of individual LMWOAs (at a same molar concentration) to mobilize soil-borne As and Pb varied significantly. The combination of the organic acids did not make a marked "additive" effect on the mobilization of the investigated three elements. An "antagonistic" effect on element mobilization was clear in the treatments involving oxalic acid for some soils. The acid strength of a LMWOA did not play an important role in controlling the mobilization of elements. While the mobilization of As and Pb was closely associated with the dissolution of soil-borne Fe, soil properties such as original soil pH, organic matter contents and the total amount of the element relative to the total Fe markedly complicated the mobility of that element. Aging led to continual consumption of proton introduced from addition of LMWOAs and consequently caused dramatic changes in solution-borne Fe, which in turn resulted in change in As and Pb in the soil solution though different elements behaved differently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of low-molecular-weight organic acids on the adsorption of norfloxacin in typical variable charge soils of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-qiang; Dong, Yuan-hua

    2008-03-01

    Batch equilibrium experiments were used to study the adsorption of norfloxacin (NOR) onto three kinds of variable charge soils in China, namely Rho-Udic Ferralisols collected from Yunnan, Ali-Perudic Ferrisols collected from Jiangxi and Typ-Hap-Udic Ferralisols collected from Guangdong. Results show that NOR is strongly adsorbed by the soils, with lg Kd-values (linear model) of 4.41+/-0.01, 4.50+/-0.02, 4.44+/-0.01 and lg Kf-values (Freundlich model) of 4.32, 4.45, 3.08 for the three tested soils, respectively. Both curves of the Freundlich equation and Langmuir equation for the three soils were in excellent linear correlation. Low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids, including citric acid, malic acid and salicylic acid were added in the presence of acetate buffer (pH 4.5) to test their effects on NOR adsorption. It was observed that the addition of LMW organic acids inhibited the NOR adsorption process. It was assumed that several effects, including soil pH, solid surface charge and competitive adsorption of co-existing cations, dominated the NOR sorption processes onto variable charge soils. Further studies should be performed to reveal the mechanism of the adsorption.

  2. The role of low molecular weight organic acids on controlling pH in coastal sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, H.

    2015-12-01

    Series investigation of the Jiaozhou Bay, China, observed existences of three low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), including lactic acid, acetic acid and formic acid, with high concentration in the sea water. Generally, their amount accounted for about 20% of DOC in the sea water of the bay. Human activities around the bay were considered as the major source of the LMWOAs. Also, long term detection showed that the pH value in the Jiaozhou Bay was lower than that in the adjacent Yellow Sea. On average, the difference of pH values between the bay and the Yellow was about 0.2. Due to higher concentrations of the LMWOAs, their contribution to lower pH value of the bay should not be ignored. To validate the effect of LMWOAs on the pH value of the bay, a new software was developed to calculate the pH value in the sea water samples based on alkalinity by adding three items of the three organic acids in the expression. Compared to the traditional pH calculating software, the new software could improve the calculating results significantly. Our results confirmed that LMWOAs was an important control factor to adjust pH values in coastal area.

  3. Spatiotemporal distribution and source apportionment of low molecular weight organic acids in wet precipitation at a coastal city, China.

    PubMed

    Du, Wenjiao; Hong, Zhenyu; Chen, Yanting; Deng, Junjun; Chen, Jinsheng; Xu, Lingling; Hong, Youwei; Xiao, Hang

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the characteristics and sources of low molecular weight (LMW) organic acids in wet precipitation at a coastal city, Xiamen, a total of 313 rainwater samples were collected at seven different functional areas from September 2012 to August 2013. Spatiotemporal characteristics of LMW organic acids as well as pH and electrical conductivity were analyzed. Meanwhile, air mass clusters in different seasons and the positive matrix factorization (PMF) source apportion model were comprehensively used to identify the sources of organic acids. In conclusion, the volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of formic (3.20 μmol/L), acetic (1.84 μmol/L), lactic (0.44 μmol/L), and oxalic acid (0.53 μmol/L) were obtained, which jointly contributed to 4.33% of the total free acidity (TFA). At the same time, the highest wet deposition flux of LMW organic acids and contribution of that to TFA were achieved at the forest protection area during growing season in Xiamen. In addition, biogenic emissions (77.12%), sea salts (13.77%), regional agriculture activities (3.92%), soil emissions (2.56%), biomass burning (1.47%), and secondary aerosols (1.15%) were determined as the source of LMW organic acids. Besides, the dominancy of biomass burning via long-range transport in non-growing season (NGS) and the contribution of biogenic emission in growing season (GS) were recognized. Finally, the considerable influence of sea salts on the LMW organic acids (13.77%) in Xiamen was quantified, especially for oxalic acid.

  4. Physicochemical properties and ecotoxicological effects of yttrium oxide nanoparticles in aquatic media: Role of low molecular weight natural organic acids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Zhuang; Wang, Se; Fang, Hao; Chen, Mindong; Xu, Defu; Tang, Lili; Wang, Degao

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) interact with natural organic acids is important to ecological risk assessment of ENPs, but this interaction remains poorly studied. Here, we investigate the dispersion stability, ion release, and toxicity of yttrium oxide nanoparticles (nY2O3) suspensions after exposure to two low molecular weight natural organic acids (LOAs), namely benzoic acid and gallic acid. We find that in the presence of LOAs the nY2O3 suspensions become more stable with surface zeta potential more positive or negative, accompanied by small agglomerated size. LOA interaction with nY2O3 is shown to promote the release of dissolved yttrium from the nanoparticles, depending on the concentrations of LOAs. Toxic effects of the nY2O3 suspensions incubated with LOAs on Scenedesmus obliquus as a function of their mixture levels show three types of signs: stimulation, inhibition, and alleviation. The mechanism of the effects of LOAs on the nY2O3 toxicity may be mainly associated with the degree of agglomeration, particle-induced oxidative stress, and dissolved yttrium. Our results stressed the importance of LOA impacts on the fate and toxicity of ENPs in the aquatic environment.

  5. The effect of low-molecular-weight organic acids on copper toxicity in E. fetida in an acute exposure system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuifan; Huang, Meiying; Yu, Jiaoda; Li, Ying; Liu, Aiqin

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, the effects of low-molecular-weight organic acids (OAs) on the toxicity of copper (Cu) to the earthworm Eisenia fetida (E. fetida) were investigated in a simulated soil solution. We exposed E. fetida to soil solution containing Cu and a variety of OAs (acetic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid, and EDTA). We found that the addition of OAs reduced the toxicity of Cu to E. fetida, where the reduction was strongest in EDTA and weakest in acetic acid. These compounds decreased the mortality rate of E. fetida that were exposed to Cu and reduced levels of antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde to unexposed control levels. E. fetida were exposed to Cu with OAs had reduced Cu(2+), which were likely caused by Cu forming complexes with the OAs, reducing the availability of Cu. The presence of OAs also reduced Cu-induced damage on earthworm cellular ultrastructures and changed the subcellular distribution of Cu. These results demonstrated that OAs could reduce the toxicity, as well as the bioavailability, of heavy metals in soil solutions where both OAs and heavy metals often coexist.

  6. Stability of Chloropyromorphite in Ryegrass Rhizosphere as Affected by Root-Secreted Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Yu; Wang, Zheng; Han, Ruiming; Li, Shiyin; Wei, Zhenggui; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the stability of chloropyromorphite (CPY) is of considerable benefit for improving risk assessment and remediation strategies in contaminated water and soil. The stability of CPY in the rhizosphere of phosphorus-deficient ryegrass was evaluated to elucidate the role of root-secreted low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on the dissolution of CPY. Results showed that CPY treatments significantly reduced the ryegrass biomass and rhizosphere pH. The presence of calcium nitrate extractable lead (Pb) and phosphorus (P) suggested that CPY in the rhizosphere could be bioavailable, because P and Pb uptake by ryegrass potentially provided a significant concentration gradient that would promote CPY dissolution. Pb accumulation and translocation in ryegrass was found to be significantly higher in P-sufficient conditions than in P-deficient conditions. CPY treatments significantly enhanced root exudation of LMWOAs irrigated with P-nutrient solution or P-free nutrient solution. Oxalic acid was the dominant species in root-secreted LMWOAs of ryegrass under P-free nutrient solution treatments, suggesting that root-secreted oxalic acid may be the driving force of root-induced dissolution of CPY. Hence, our work, provides clarifying hints on the role of LMWOAs in controlling the stability of CPY in the rhizosphere. PMID:27494023

  7. Stability of Chloropyromorphite in Ryegrass Rhizosphere as Affected by Root-Secreted Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Yu; Wang, Zheng; Han, Ruiming; Li, Shiyin; Wei, Zhenggui; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the stability of chloropyromorphite (CPY) is of considerable benefit for improving risk assessment and remediation strategies in contaminated water and soil. The stability of CPY in the rhizosphere of phosphorus-deficient ryegrass was evaluated to elucidate the role of root-secreted low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on the dissolution of CPY. Results showed that CPY treatments significantly reduced the ryegrass biomass and rhizosphere pH. The presence of calcium nitrate extractable lead (Pb) and phosphorus (P) suggested that CPY in the rhizosphere could be bioavailable, because P and Pb uptake by ryegrass potentially provided a significant concentration gradient that would promote CPY dissolution. Pb accumulation and translocation in ryegrass was found to be significantly higher in P-sufficient conditions than in P-deficient conditions. CPY treatments significantly enhanced root exudation of LMWOAs irrigated with P-nutrient solution or P-free nutrient solution. Oxalic acid was the dominant species in root-secreted LMWOAs of ryegrass under P-free nutrient solution treatments, suggesting that root-secreted oxalic acid may be the driving force of root-induced dissolution of CPY. Hence, our work, provides clarifying hints on the role of LMWOAs in controlling the stability of CPY in the rhizosphere.

  8. Investigation of low-molecular weight organic acids and their spatiotemporal variation characteristics in Hongfeng Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Min; Wu, Fengchang; Wang, Liying; Li, Xinqing; Huang, Rongsheng

    2013-02-01

    The identities and concentrations of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) were determined by ion chromatography throughout a 20-m water column in Hongfeng Lake, China. The spatiotemporal variations of LMWOAs and their contributions to dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a research period of 24 hr were also investigated. The results demonstrated that five LMWOAs (lactic, acetic, pyruvic, sorbic, oxalic acid) were detected, and their total concentration and proportion in DOC were 6.55 micromol/L and 7.47%. Their average levels were 2.50, 0.65, 2.35, 0.96 and 0.09 micromol/L, respectively. LMWOAs were higher during daytime (10:00-18:00 on Jun 13, 2008) than nighttime (21:00-6:00 the next morning), in particular 4.99 micromol/L high in the epilimnion (< or = 1 m water depth), reflecting the fact that direct import from terrigenous sources and photochemical production from humic materials were dominant during LMWOAs' origin and accumulation. The same factors caused LMWOAs to be 0.63 micromol/L in the epilimnion higher than in the hypolimnion. The rapid decrease of total organic acid (TOA) up until 18:00 mainly resulted from bio-uptake and mineralization in the hypolimnion (>1 m water depth). Pyruvic acid increased with time in the epilimnion and decreased in the hypolimnion, largely related to the two contrary processes of continuous degradation and synthesis of macromolecular organic matter during life materials' cycle mediated by organisms. Simultaneously, plankton behavior and thermal stratification played a pivotal role in LMWOAs' behavior in the water column, causing decreasing and increasing profiles. The distribution of LMWOAs represents an interesting resource for biogeochemical research of DOM in aquatic ecosystems.

  9. Efficiency of nanoscale zero-valent iron on the enhanced low molecular weight organic acid removal Pb from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiyin; Zhang, Shirong; Xu, Xiaoxun; Li, Ting; Li, Yun; Deng, Ouping; Gong, Guoshu

    2014-12-01

    The Pb removal efficiencies from contaminated soils by low molecular weight organic acid (LMWOA) and nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) were investigated through batch soil washing experiments. Results showed that significant promotion on Pb-removal with the mixed solutions of LMWOA and nZVI (p < 0.05). The Pb removal efficiencies reached 64% and 83% for mine and farmland soil by addition of 0.2 M citric acid and 2.0 g L−1 nZVI, respectively. They decreased with increasing pH from 3 to 9. The mixed solutions of LMWOA and nZVI induced Pb(II) releases processes including a rapid desorption within 4 h and a slow desorption in the following hours. The second-order model was the most appropriate for describing the kinetic processes of Pb(II) desorption. The main fractions of Pb removal were exchangeable and reducible. Compared with LMWOA, the loss rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium decreased after washing with the mixed solutions. Our study suggests that combining of LMWOA and nZVI would be a promising alternative approach for remediation Pb-contaminated soils.

  10. A review of environmental characteristics and effects of low-molecular weight organic acids in the surface ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Min; Wu, Fengchang

    2014-05-01

    Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) are prevalent on the earth's surface. They are vital intermediate products during metabolic pathways of organic matter and participate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle during life activities. Photochemical reactions are pivotal for LMWOAs' origination and play a large role in determining their diversity and their ultimate fate. Within the long time that organic matter is preserved in sediments, it can be decomposed and converted to release organic and inorganic pollutants as well as C, N, and P nutrients, which are of potential ecological risk in causing secondary pollution to lake water. The sediment pool is a comprehensive and complex compartment closely associated with overlying water by various biochemical processes, during which LMWOAs play critical roles to transport and transform elements. This article elucidates geochemical behaviors of LMWOAs in the surface environment in details, taking natural water, soil, and aerosol as examples, focusing on reviewing research developments on sources and characteristics, migration and mineralization of LMWOAs and relevant environmental effects. Simultaneously, this review article depicts the categories and contents of LMWOAs or their contribution to DOC in environmental media, and evaluates their importance during organic matter early diagenesis. Through concluding and discussing the conversion mechanisms and influencing factors, the next research orientations on LMWOAs in lake ecosystems are determined, mainly concerning relationships with hydrochemical parameters and microorganisms, and interactions with pollutants. This will enrich the knowledge on organic matter degradation and related environmental effects, and help reconstruct a theoretical framework for organic compound succession and influencing factors, providing basic data for lake eutrophication and ecological risk assessment, conducive to better control over water pollution and proper management of water quality

  11. Phragmites australis response to Cu in terms of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) exudation: Influence of the physiological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2014-06-01

    Plant roots have the ability to produce and secrete substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere for several purposes, including in response to metal contamination. Despite this, little is yet known about the exudation of such substances from marsh plants roots in response to metal exposure. This work aimed at assessing the influence of the physiological cycle of marsh plants on the exudation of ALMWOAs in response to Cu contamination. In vitro experiments were carried out with Phragmites australis specimens, collected in different seasons. Plant roots were exposed to freshwater contaminated with two different Cu concentrations (67 μg/L and 6.9 mg/L), being the ALMWOAs released by the roots measured. Significant differences (both qualitative and quantitative) were observed during the Phragmites australis life cycle. At growing stage, Cu stimulated the exudation of oxalic and formic acids but no significant stimulation was observed for citric acid. At developing stage, exposure to Cu caused inhibition of oxalic acid exudation whereas citric acid liberation was stimulated but only in the media spiked with the lowest Cu concentration tested. At the decaying stage, no significant variation on oxalic acid was observed, whereas the citric and formic acids release increased as a consequence of the plant exposure to Cu. The physiological cycle of Phragmites australis, and probably also of other marsh plants, is therefore an important feature conditioning plants response to Cu contamination, in terms of ALMWOAs exudation. Hence this aspect should be considered when conducting studies on rhizodeposition involving marsh plants exposed to metals and in the event of using marsh plants for phytoremediation purposes in contaminated estuarine areas.

  12. LMWOA (low molecular weight organic acid) exudation by salt marsh plants: Natural variation and response to Cu contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2010-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate, in vitro, the capability of roots of two salt marsh plants to release low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and to ascertain whether Cu contamination would stimulate or not organic acids exudation. The sea rush Juncus maritimus and the sea-club rush Scirpus maritimus, both from the lower Douro river estuary (NW Portugal), were used. Plants were collected seasonally, four times a year in 2004, during low tide. After sampling, plant roots were washed for removal of adherent particles and immersed for 2 h in a solution that matched salinity (3) and pH (7.5) of the pore water from the same location to obtain plant exudates. In one of the seasons, similar experiments were carried out but spiking the solution with different amounts of Cu in order to embrace the range between 0 and 1600 nM. In the final solutions as well as in sediment pore water LMWOAs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Plants were able to release, in a short period of time, relatively high amounts of LMWOAs (oxalate, citrate, malate, malonate, and succinate). In the sediment pore water oxalate, succinate and acetate were also detected. Therefore, plant roots probably contributed to the presence of some of these organic compounds in pore water. Exudation differed between the plant species and also showed some seasonally variation, particularly for S. maritimus. The release of oxalate by J. maritimus increased with Cu increase in the media. However, exudation of the other LMWOAs did not seem to be stimulated by Cu contamination in the media. This fact is compatible with the existence of alternative internal mechanisms for Cu detoxification, as denoted by the fact that in media contaminated with Cu both plant species accumulated relatively high amounts (29-83%) of the initially dissolved Cu. This study expands our knowledge on the contribution of globally dominant salt marsh plants to the release of LMWOAs into the environment.

  13. [Effects of several low-molecular-weight organic acids on the release kinetic of endosulfan from red soil].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhen-hua; Wu, Yu; Jiang, Xin; Xia, Li-ling; Ni, Li-xiao

    2009-10-15

    The kinetic release behaviors of a-endosulfan from red soil with three kinds of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOA: oxalate, tartrate and citrate) solution and water leaching were investigated by kinetic device designed by ourselves and batch method. The results show that: the release percentage of endosulfan from red soil by tartrate and citrate solution (10 mmol/L) can increase by 7%-18% more than that by distilled water and oxalate solution, especially for tartrate solution. There is no significant difference between distilled water and oxalate solution for the release percentage of endosulfan (p > 0.05). There are two stages of quick and slow for the release of endosulfan from red soil, and the leaching speed is quicker especially for the initial 200 mL leaching solution. When using distilled water or oxalate solution as leaching solution, the best equations that described the kinetic release behavior of endosulfan from red soil were parabola diffuse equation and double constant equation, and weren't the apparent first dynamics equation that represented the simple surface diffusion mechanism. The kinetic release behavior of endosulfan in tartrate or citrate leaching system can be described by Elovich equation (R2 > 0.99, p < 0.0001), it implied that the simple surface diffusion mechanism is not the primary factor that effected the release of endosulfan, which three-dimensional molecule structure is complex, from red soil in aqueous phase leaching systems, and it maybe related to the outward diffuse mechanism from soil particle, activation and deactivation function of soil particles surface, the dissolution of soil mineral surface and structure change of inherent organic matter that coating onto the soil mineral surface induced by LMW organic acid. It suggested that the tartrate and citrate induced the complication of the release mechanisms of the pesticides from red soil.

  14. Do soil Fe transformation and secretion of low-molecular-weight organic acids affect the availability of Cd to rice?

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Yang, Yazhou; Liu, Danqing; Zhang, Chunhua; Ge, Ying

    2015-12-01

    The bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) to rice may be complicated by chemical and biological factors in the rhizosphere. The aim of this work is to investigate how soil iron (Fe) redox transformations and low-molecular-weight organic acid (LMWOA) exudation from root affect Cd accumulation in rice. Two soils (a paddy soil and a saline soil) with different physicochemical properties were used in this study. Soil redox conditions were changed by flooding and addition of organic matter (OM). Two days after the soil treatments, rice seedlings were transplanted in a vermiculite-soil system and grown for 10 days. We measured pH and Eh, LMWOA, Fe and Cd contents in rice, and their fractions in the soils and vermiculite. Cadmium accumulation in rice declined in both soils upon the flooding and OM treatment. Iron dissolution in the paddy soil and its deposition in the rhizosphere significantly increased upon the OM addition, but the concentration of Fe plaque on the rice root significantly declined. Conversely, although Fe transformed into less active fractions in the saline soil, Fe accumulation on the surface and in the tissue of root was considerably enhanced. The secretion of LMWOA was remarkably induced when the OM was amended in the saline soil, but the same effect was not observed in the paddy soil. Reduction of Cd uptake by rice could be attributed to different factors in the two soils. For the paddy soil, the lowered Cd bioavailability was likely due to the competition of Fe and Cd for the binding sites on the vermiculite surface. For the saline soil, however, rice responded to the low Fe mobility through more LMWOA exudation and Fe plaque formation, and their increases could explain the decrease of rice Cd.

  15. [Effect of low molecular weight organic acids on inorganic phosphorus transformation in red soil and its acidity].

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongqing; Liao, Lixia; Wang, Xinglin

    2002-07-01

    Red soil samples collected from southern Hubei province and northern Jiangxi province were tested to analyze their inorganic phosphorus fractions, pH and active aluminum after incubated with added various organic acids. The results indicated that application of organic acids increased the content of Ca2-P in both red soils, in the order of citric acid > malic acid > succinic acid > acetic acid, did not affect the contents of Ca8-P and Ca10-P, but usually reduced Fe-P, Al-P and O-P. The pH values of the soils treated by organic acids, except for acetic acid, were reduced by 0.65-1.96, compared with the control. Soil active Al extracted with 0.02 mol.L-1 CaCl2 in treatments with citric, malic and succinic acid was 5.7-51.3 times as the control, and Al extracted with 1 mol.L-1 KCl also increased 4.0-67.3 times. However, acetic acid had little influence on active soil Al. It was concluded that in red soils, organic acid could improve phosphorus availability, but enhance the soil toxicity caused by active Al.

  16. Effects of low-molecular-weight organic acids on the acute lethality, accumulation, and enzyme activity of cadmium in Eisenia fetida in a simulated soil solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Long; Wang, Yu-Jun; Xuan, Liang; Dang, Fei; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, the effects of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on the toxicity of cadmium (Cd) to Eisenia fetida were investigated in a simulated soil solution. The LMWOAs protected E. fetida from Cd toxicity, as indicated by the increased median lethal concentration (LC50) values and the increased activity of superoxide dismutase. In addition, Cd concentrations in E. fetida decreased dramatically in the presence of LMWOAs. These results were likely because of the complexation between Cd and LMWOAs, which decreased the bioavailability and consequential toxicity of Cd to E. fetida. Notably, LMWOAs reduced Cd toxicity in decreasing order (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid [EDTA] > citric acid > oxalic acid > malic acid > acetic acid), which was consistent with the decreasing complexation constants between LMWOAs and Cd. These results advance our understanding of the interactions between Cd and LMWOAs in soil. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1005-1011. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  17. Method for characterization of low molecular weight organic acids in atmospheric aerosols using ion chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Brent, Lacey C; Reiner, Jessica L; Dickerson, Russell R; Sander, Lane C

    2014-08-05

    The structural composition of PM2.5 monitored in the atmosphere is usually divided by the analysis of organic carbon, black (also called elemental) carbon, and inorganic salts. The characterization of the chemical composition of aerosols represents a significant challenge to analysts, and studies are frequently limited to determination of aerosol bulk properties. To better understand the potential health effects and combined interactions of components in aerosols, a variety of measurement techniques for individual analytes in PM2.5 need to be implemented. The method developed here for the measurement of organic acids achieves class separation of aliphatic monoacids, aliphatic diacids, aromatic acids, and polyacids. The selective ion monitoring capability of a triple quadropole mass analyzer was frequently capable of overcoming instances of incomplete separations. Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649b Urban Dust was characterized; 34 organic acids were qualitatively identified, and 6 organic acids were quantified.

  18. Role of low molecular weight organic acids on pyrite dissolution in aqueous systems: implications for catalytic chromium (VI) treatment.

    PubMed

    Kantar, Cetin

    2016-01-01

    A systematic study combining batch experiments with spectroscopic analyses was carried out to better understand the effects of various organic acids on pyrite dissolution and subsequent Cr(VI) removal in aqueous systems. Our results suggest that organic acids had no effect on total Fe dissolution from pyrite relative to systems containing no acid. However, while nearly 100% of total Fe dissolved from pyrite was in Fe(II) form in the absence of ligands, the addition of organic acids led to significant oxidation of Fe(II) species to Fe(III). The degree and extent of Fe(II) oxidation increased in the order: tartrate < salicylate < oxalate ≈ citrate < EDTA. Except for salicylate (an aromatic compound), this stimulatory effect observed in Fe(II) oxidation was well correlated with the strength of Fe-ligand complexes. In systems containing Cr(VI), the amount of Fe dissolved increased significantly relative to non-Cr(VI) containing system, and the ligands enhanced the dissolution of surface oxidation products from pyrite. Overall, it is clear that the dissolution of pyrite with organic acids had very little effect on solution phase Cr(VI) removal, but significantly stimulated surface phase Cr(VI) reduction by removing surface oxidation products, and thus creating new surface sites for extended Cr(VI) removal.

  19. Interactions of low molecular weight aromatic acids and amino acids with goethite, kaolinite and bentonite with or without organic matter coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jiajia; Jansen, Boris; Cerli, Chiara; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Interaction of organic matter molecules with the soil's solid phase is a key factor influencing the stabilization of carbon in soils and thus forms a crucial aspect of the global carbon cycle. While subject of much research attention so far, we still have much to learn about such interactions at the molecular level; in particular in the light of competition between different classes of organic molecules and in the presence of previously adsorbed soil organic matter. We studied the interaction of a group of low molecular weight (LMW) aromatic acids (salicylic, syringic, vanillic and ferulic acid) and amino acids (lysine, glutamic, leucine and phenylalanine) on goethite, kaolinite and bentonite with and without previously adsorbed dissolved organic matter (DOM). For this we used batch experiments at pH = 6.0 where some of the organic compounds were positively charged (i.e. lysine) or negatively charged (i.e. glutamic and salicylic acid) while the minerals also displayed positively (i.e. goethite) or negatively charged surfaces (i.e. bentonite). We found much higher sorption of salicylic acid and lysine than other compounds. On the bare minerals we found a great variety of sorption strength, with salicylic acid strongly adsorbed, while syringic, vanillic and ferulic acid showed little or no adsorption. For the amino acids, protonated lysine showed a stronger affinity to negatively charged kaolinite and bentonite than other amino acids. While deprotonated glutamic acid showed the strongest adsorption on goethite. Leucine and phenylalanine showed hardly any adsorption on any of the minerals. When present concurrently, amino acids decreased the sorption of salicylic acid on the three types of mineral, while the presence of LMW aromatic acids increased the sorption of lysine on kaolinite and bentonite and the sorption of glutamic acid on goethite. The presence of previously adsorbed DOM reduced the sorption of salicylic acid and lysine. The results confirm that

  20. [Effects of Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids on the Speciation of Pb in Purple Soil and Soil Solution].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Jiang, Tao; Huang, Rong; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Chen, Hong

    2016-04-15

    Lead (Pb) in purple soil was selected as the research target, using one-step extraction method with 0.01 mol · L⁻¹ sodium nitrate as the background electrolyte to study the release effect of citric acid (CA), tartaric acid (TA) and acetic acid (AC) with different concentrations. Sequential extraction and geochemical model (Visual Minteq v3.0) were applied to analyze and predict the speciation of Pb in soil solid phase and soil solution phase. Then the ebvironmental implications and risks of low-molecule weight organic acid (LMWOA) on soil Pb were analyzed. The results indicated that all three types of LMWOA increased the desorption capacity of Pb in purple soil, and the effect followed the descending order of CA > TA > AC. After the action of LMWOAs, the exchangeable Pb increased; the carbonate-bound Pb and Fe-Mn oxide bound Pb dropped in soil solid phase. Organic bound Pb was the main speciation in soil solution phase, accounting for 45.16%-75.05%. The following speciation of Pb in soil solution was free Pb, accounting for 22.71%-50.25%. For CA and TA treatments, free Pb ions and inorganic bound Pb in soil solution increased with increasing LMWOAs concentration, while organic bound Pb suffered a decrease in this process. An opposite trend for AC treatment was observed compared with CA and TA treatments. Overall, LMWOAs boosted the bioavailability of Pb in purple soil and had a potential risk to contaminate underground water. Among the three LMWOAs in this study, CA had the largest potential to activate soil Pb.

  1. Effect of low-molecular-weight organic acids on kinetics release and fractionation of phosphorus in some calcareous soils of western Iran.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, M; Jalali, M

    2013-07-01

    Organic acid has been related to nutrient mobilization, mainly in phosphorus (P) insoluble utilization, and therefore enhances P bioavailability. In this study, we examined the effect of low-molecular-weight organic acids (malic, citric, and oxalic acids) on P release of some calcareous soils from western Iran. Fractionation and speciation of P in the soil solution were studied at the initial and final P release. Significantly different quantities of P were extracted by the organic acids. On average the maximum (1,554.9 mg kg(-1)) and the minimum (1,260.5 mg kg(-1)) P were extracted by 10 mM oxalic and malic acid, respectively. Power equation described well P release. In the initial stage of P release, the solution samples in soils were supersaturated with respect to hydroxyapatite and β-TCP. At the end of P release, all solutions were undersaturated with phosphate minerals. The percentage of Fe-Al oxide fraction generally increased after P release, while carbonate and residual P fractions were decreased in all organic acids. Compared with the native soils, adding malic and citric acids had no effect on Fe-Al oxide fraction, but oxalic acid significantly reduced this fraction.

  2. Effect of low-molecular-weight organic acids on photo-degradation of phenanthrene catalyzed by Fe(III)-smectite under visible light.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hanzhong; Chen, Hongxia; Nulaji, Gulimire; Li, Xiyou; Wang, Chuanyi

    2015-11-01

    The photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is potentially an important process for its transformation and fate on contaminated soil surfaces. In this study, phenanthrene is employed as a model to explore PAH photodegradation with the assistance of Fe(III)-smectite under visible-light while focusing on roles played by five low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs), i.e., malic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and nitrilotriacetic acid. Our results show that oxalic acid is most effective in promoting the photodegradation of phenanthrene, while only a slight increase in the rate of phenanthrene photodegradation is observed in the presence of malic acid. Electron paramagnetic resonance experiments confirm the formation of CO2(-) radicals in the presence of malic and oxalic acid, which provides strong evidence for generating OH and subsequent photoreaction pathways. The presence of EDTA or nitrilotriacetic acid significantly inhibits both Fe(II) formation and phenanthrene photodegradation because these organic anions tend to chelate with Fe(III), leading to decreases in the electron-accepting potential of Fe(III)-smectite and a weakened interaction between phenanthrene and Fe(III)-smectite. These observations provide valuable insights into the transformation and fate of PAHs in the natural soil environment and demonstrate the potential for using some LMWOAs as additives for the remediation of contaminated soil.

  3. The short-term effect of cadmium on low molecular weight organic acid and amino acid exudation from mangrove (Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong) roots.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiangyu; Weiss, Dominik J; Weng, Bosen; Liu, Jingchun; Lu, Haoliang; Yan, Chongling

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate short-term concentration and time effects of cadmium on Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong root exudation, thereby evaluating and predicting the ecophysiological effects of mangrove to heavy metals at the root level. Mature K. obovata propagules were cultivated in a sandy medium for 3 months, and then six concentrations of Cd (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg L(-1)) were applied. After exposure time of 24 h and 7 days, respectively, the root exudates of K. obovata were collected and low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and amino acids of which were analyzed. In addition, we measured glutathione, soluble protein content, and Cd concentration in the plant. We found 10 and 15 types of LMWOAs and amino acids in root exudates of K. obovata with total concentrations ranging from 29.54 to 43.08 mg g(-1) dry weight (DW) roots and from 737.35 to 1,452.46 ng g(-1) DW roots, respectively. Both of them varied in quality and quantity under different Cd treatment strengths and exposure times. Oxalic, acetic, L-malic, tartaric acid, tyrosine, methionine, cysteine, isoleucine, and arginine were dominant. Both LMWOAs and amino acids excreted from K. obovata roots play a key role in Cd toxicity resistance. The responsiveness of amino acids was less than that of LMWOAs. We suggest that the ecological effect of root-excreted free amino acids in the rhizosphere is mainly based on the role of nutrients, supplemented with detoxification to heavy metals.

  4. Content of selected elements and low-molecular-weight organic acids in fruiting bodies of edible mushroom Boletus badius (Fr.) Fr. from unpolluted and polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Magdziak, Zuzanna; Gąsecka, Monika; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Kalač, Pavel; Siwulski, Marek; Rzymski, Piotr; Zalicka, Sylwia; Sobieralski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to (i) investigate the potential of edible mushroom Boletus badius (Fr.) Fr. to accumulate 53 elements from unpolluted acidic sandy soil and polluted alkaline flotation tailing sites in Poland, (ii) to estimate the low-molecular-weight organic acid (LMWOA) profile and contents in fruit bodies, and finally (iii) to explore the possible relationship between elements and LMWOA content in mushrooms. The content of most elements in fruiting bodies collected from the flotation tailings was significantly higher than in mushrooms from the unpolluted soils. The occurrence of elements determined in fruiting bodies of B. badius has been varied (from 0.01 mg kg(-1) for Eu, Lu, and Te up to 18,932 mg kg(-1) for K). The results established the high importance of element contents in substrate. Among ten organic acids, nine have been found in wide range: from below 0.01 mg kg(-1) for fumaric acid to 14.8 mg g(-1) for lactic acid. Lactic and succinic acids were dominant in both areas, and citric acid was also in high content in polluted area. The correlation between element contents and the individual and total content of LMWOAs was confirmed.

  5. Identification of low molecular weight organic acids by ion chromatography/hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry during Uniblu-A ozonation.

    PubMed

    Amorisco, Apollonia; Locaputo, Vito; Pastore, Carlo; Mascolo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-15

    The balance of organic nitrogen and sulfur during ozonation of organic pollutants often shows a lack of complete mineralization. It follows that polar and ionic by-products are likely to be present that are difficult to identify by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The structural elucidation of low molecular weight organic acids arising from Uniblu-OH ozonation has been investigated by ion chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (IC/ESI-MS/MS) employing a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Unequivocal elemental composition of the by-products was determined by a combination of mass accuracy and high spectral accuracy. The employed identification strategy was demonstrated to be a powerful method of unequivocally assigning a single chemical composition to each identified compound. The exact mass measurements of [M-H](-) ions allowed the elemental formulae and related structures of eighteen by-products to be determined confidently. The main degradation pathways were found to be decarboxylation and oxidation. The experimental procedure allowed the identification of both nitrogen- and sulfur-containing organic acid by-products arising from Uniblu-OH ozonation. The obtained results are of environmental relevance for the balance of organic nitrogen and sulfur during the ozonation of organic pollutants due to the lack of complete mineralization of the compounds containing these atoms. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Permeability of low molecular weight organics through nanofiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Meylan, Sébastien; Hammes, Frederik; Traber, Jacqueline; Salhi, Elisabeth; von Gunten, Urs; Pronk, Wouter

    2007-09-01

    The removal of natural organic matter (NOM) using nanofiltration (NF) is increasingly becoming an option for drinking water treatment. Low molecular weight (LMW) organic compounds are nevertheless only partially retained by such membranes. Bacterial regrowth and biofilm formation in the drinking water distribution system is favoured by the presence of such compounds, which in this context are considered as the assimilable organic carbon (AOC). In this study, the question of whether NF produces microbiologically stable water was addressed. Two NF membranes (cut-off of about 300Da) were tested with different natural and synthetic water samples in a cross-flow filtration unit. NOM was characterised by liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) using a size-exclusion column in addition to specific organic acid measurements, while AOC was measured in a batch growth bioassay. Similarly to high molecular weight organic compounds like polysaccharides or humic substances that have a permeability lower than 1%, charged LMW organic compounds were efficiently retained by the NF membranes tested and showed a permeability lower than 3%. However, LMW neutrals and hydrophobic organic compounds permeate to a higher extent through the membranes and have a permeability of up to 6% and 12%, respectively. Furthermore, AOC was poorly retained by NF and the apparent AOC concentration measured in the permeated water was above the proposed limit for microbiologically stable water. This indicates that the drinking water produced by NF might be biologically unstable in the distribution system. Nevertheless, in comparison with the raw water, NF significantly reduced the AOC concentration.

  7. Determination of low-molecular-weight organic acids in non-small cell lung cancer with a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Klupczynska, Agnieszka; Plewa, Szymon; Dyszkiewicz, Wojciech; Kasprzyk, Mariusz; Sytek, Natalia; Kokot, Zenon J

    2016-09-10

    As compared to other classes of metabolites, determination of organic acids is an underrepresented field in cancer research and till now there has been a lack of appropriate analytical procedure for determination of serum levels of organic acids potentially associated with cancer development. The aim of the study was to develop a new rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of six low-molecular-weight organic acids in human serum and to apply this method in an analysis of samples collected from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and a matched control group. The samples were prepared by solid phase extraction (Clean-up CUQAX, UCT). Chromatography was conducted on a Synergi Hydro-RP column (Phenomenex) and a gradient run of 15min. Detection was performed using a negative multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration ranges were as follows: 0.24-38.42μmol/L for 2-hydroxybutyric acid, 0.09-17.23μmol/L for fumaric acid, 0.08-15.13μmol/L for glutaric acid, 0.11-2.22mmol/L for lactic acid, 0.39-30.98μmol/L for pyroglutamic acid, and 0.08-16.93μmol/L for succinic acid. Mean relative recovery range was 85.99-114.42% and the determined intra- and inter day coefficients of variation were ≤14%. Among the studied acids, pyroglutamic acid showed the best discriminating potential and enabled to identify accurately NSCLC patients and control subjects regardless of the cancer stage. Further investigations of serum organic acids may allow us to better understand the underlying mechanisms involved in NSCLC and develop novel means of its detection and treatment. The developed method may be also a valuable tool to study metabolic changes associated with other types of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of low molecular-weight organic acids and dehydrogenase activity in rhizosphere sediments of mangrove plants on phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Fang, Ling; Lin, Li; Luan, Tiangang; Tam, Nora F Y

    2014-03-01

    This work evaluated the roles of the low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) from root exudates and the dehydrogenase activity in the rhizosphere sediments of three mangrove plant species on the removal of mixed PAHs. The results showed that the concentrations of LMWOAs and dehydrogenase activity changed species-specifically with the levels of PAH contamination. In all plant species, the concentration of citric acid was the highest, followed by succinic acid. For these acids, succinic acid was positively related to the removal of all the PAHs except Chr. Positive correlations were also found between the removal percentages of 4-and 5-ring PAHs and all LMWOAs, except citric acid. LMWOAs enhanced dehydrogenase activity, which positively related to PAH removal percentages. These findings suggested that LMWOAs and dehydrogenase activity promoted the removal of PAHs. Among three mangrove plants, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, the plant with the highest root biomass, dehydrogenase activity and concentrations of LMWOAs, was most efficient in removing PAHs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Improving the mining soil quality for a vegetation cover after addition of sewage sludges: inorganic ions and low-molecular-weight organic acids in the soil solution.

    PubMed

    Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, Ma Dolores; Guzmán-Carrizosa, Ignacio; Fernández-Espinosa, Antonio J

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the effects of applying stabilized sewage sludge (SSL) and composted sewage sludge (CLV), at 5 and 10% to an acid mining soil. Limed soil (NCL) amended or not with SSL and CLV was incubated for 47 days. We studied the cations and organic and inorganic anions in the soil solution by means of ion chromatography. Liming led to big increases in Ca(2+) and SO4(2-) and to significant decreases in K(+), Mg(2+), NH4(+) and NO3(-). Addition of both organic amendments increased some cations (NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Na(+)) and anions (Cl(-), NO3(-) only with CLV and PO4(3-) only with SSL) and provided a greater amount of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) (SSL more than CLV). Incubation led to decreases in all cations, particularly remarkable for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in SSL-10. A decrease in NH4(+) was associated with variations in NO2(-) and NO3(-) resulting from nitrification reactions. During incubation the LMWOAs content tended to decrease similarly to the cations, especially in SSL-10. Chemometric tools revealed a clear discrimination between SSL, CLV and NCL. Furthermore, treatment effects depended upon dose, mainly in SSL. Amendment nature and dose affect the quality of a mining soil and improve conditions for plant establishment.

  10. Impacts of low-molecular-weight organic acids on aquatic behavior of graphene nanoplatelets and their induced algal toxicity and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuang; Gao, Yucheng; Wang, Se; Fang, Hao; Xu, Defu; Zhang, Fan

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the interaction between graphene-based materials and low-molecular-weight organic acids (LOAs) is essential to understand fate and effects of graphene-based materials in the aquatic environment, but this interaction remains poorly elucidated. In this study, the effects of LOAs on the physicochemical properties of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) in an aqueous medium and on the GNP toxicity to algae were studied. The unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was exposed to GNP suspensions in the presence of benzoic acid or gallic acid at various concentrations. The GNPs had smaller hydrodynamic sizes and the GNP suspensions were more stable and had higher or lower surface zeta potentials in the presence of LOAs than when LOAs were not present. The toxic effects in S. obliquus cultures incubated with GNP suspensions containing LOAs were related to the LOA concentration, and the presence of LOAs caused three effects: stimulation, alleviation, and synergistic inhibition. The intensities of the effects mainly correlated with the LOA concentration, the extent of agglomeration, and particle-induced oxidative stress. The results indicate that the environmental fates and toxicities of GNPs are strongly affected by the binding of GNPs to LOAs.

  11. Effects of pH and low molecular weight organic acids on competitive adsorption and desorption of cadmium and lead in paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Li, Tingqiang; Han, Xuan; Yang, Xiaoe; He, Zhenli

    2012-10-01

    The bioavailability and ultimate fate of heavy metals in the environment are controlled by adsorption-desorption process. Batch equilibrium experiments were performed to assess the effects of pH and low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on competitive adsorption and desorption of cadmium and lead in paddy soils from China. The results indicated that both soils exhibited greater sorption capacity for lead (Pb) (1.37-1.61-fold) than cadmium (Cd) as estimated by the maximum sorption parameter (Q) from the Langmuir equation. The Langmuir bonding energy coefficient (b) and distribution coefficient (K (d)) were greater for Pb than for Cd, furthermore, b (binary) and K (d) (single) were greater than b (single) and K (d binary), indicating that competition for sorption sites promote the retention of both metals on more specific sorption sites. Both Cd and Pb desorption as a function of solution pH was characteristic of "S" pattern. The presence of LMWOAs inhibited Cd or Pb desorption at the low concentrations (≤0.1 mmol L(-1)) but promoted Cd and Pb desorption at higher concentrations (≥0.5 mmol L(-1) for citric acid and ≥1 mmol L(-1) for malic and oxalic acid). The two paddy soils had a greater d (Cd) than d (Pb) in the presence of LMWOAs, indicating that Cd desorption was more affected by the presence of LMWOAs in binary metal system.

  12. Effects of low molecular weight organic acids on the immobilization of aqueous Pb(II) using phosphate rock and different crystallized hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Cui, Jing; Wei, Zhenggui

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the effects of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on the transformation of Pb(II) to geochemically stable pyromorphite (PY) by apatite materials (AMs), has considerable benefits for risk assessment and remediation strategies for contaminated water and soil. In this study, we systematically investigated the immobilization of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by natural phosphate rock (PR) and different crystallized hydroxyapatite (HAp) in the absence and presence of LMWOAs (oxalic, malic and citric acids). The results indicated that the effectiveness of PR and HAp in immobilizing Pb(II) followed in descending order by HAp2 (the poorly crystallized HAp), HAp1 (the well crystallized HAp) and PR, regardlessof the presence of LMWOAs. The presence of malic and citric acids significantly decreased the immobilizationefficiency of Pb(II) by HAp1 and PR, clarifying the lower adsorption affinities of Pb(II)-organic acid complexes on HAp1 and PR rather than Pb(II) ion. On thecontrary, oxalic acid could markedly enhance the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by HAp1 and PR through the formation of lead oxalate, which was confirmed by FT-IR and XRDanalysis. Results also showed that LMWOAs had little promoting or inhibiting effect on the immobilization of Pb(II) by HAp2. This study suggested that the ubiquity of LMWOAs in natural environments could retard the transformation efficiency of Pb(II) to PY by AMs, especiallyin thepresenceof oxalic acid, and the poorly crystallized HAp2 had great potential to remediate Pb(II)-contaminated water and soil due to its insusceptibility to LMWOAs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of season and salinity on the exudation of aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs) by Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots have the ability to produce and secrete substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere. This phenomenon occurs for several purposes, for instance, the detoxification of pollutants. Nevertheless, knowledge about the exudation of such substances from marsh plants roots is still scarce. This work aimed at studying: 1) the ability of marsh plants, freshly collected in estuarine marshes, to liberate ALMWOAs into the surrounding medium and 2) the influence of the physiological cycle of these plants on the exudation of those substances. In vitro experiments were carried out, in different seasons, with Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides (two marsh plants widely distributed in Europe). Root exudates were collected in freshwater to which plant specimens, in different physiological stages, were exposed. Both marsh plants were capable of liberating oxalic and citric acids into the surrounding medium. Formic acid was also released by P. australis roots and acetic acid by H. portulacoides. There was a seasonal effect on the liberation of ALMWOAs by both plant roots. Marked changes were registered in the nature and levels of the ALMWOAs liberated and such changes depended upon the season in which the specimens were collected. In growing season, a significantly higher liberation of oxalic and citric acids (and acetic acid but only in H. portulacoides case) was observed. For P. australis, formic acid was only found in the decaying stage (autumn and winter). The nature of the medium (in particular, salinity) was a feature conditioning the exudation of ALMWOAs. Both plants were shown to contribute for the presence of ALMWOAs in marsh rhizosediments (some ALMWOAs were found in pore waters extracted). The nature and extent of this contribution will be however dependent upon plants' physiological stage, in addition to plant species. Therefore, these features should be taken into consideration in the event of

  14. Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on methane emission in a paddy field and rice root exudation of low-molecular-weight organic acids.

    PubMed

    He, Yongmei; Zhan, Fangdong; Li, Yuan; Xu, Weiwei; Zu, Yanqun; Yue, Ming

    2016-06-08

    A local rice variety, "Baijiaolaojing", was grown in a paddy field in the Yuanyang rice terraces under ambient and supplemental levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-315 nm) radiation. The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation (5 and 10 kJ m(-2) d(-1)) on methane emissions in the paddy field were evaluated using a closed-chamber gas chromatography-based system, and the contents of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) in root exudates were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Peaks in methane emissions in the paddy field were detected at 60, 80 and 100 days after rice transplantation. The highest level of cumulative methane emissions occurred at the tillering stage, followed by the jointing-booting and maturity stages. The lowest level was found at the flowering stage. The enhanced UV-B radiation did not change the seasonal variation in methane emissions in the paddy field; however, it induced a significant increase in the flux of methane emissions at the jointing-booting and maturity stages, as well as a significant increase in the cumulative flux of methane emissions throughout the growth period. In addition, the enhanced UV-B radiation caused an increase in the contents of oxalic acid and succinic acid and a decrease in the contents of tartaric acid and malic acid in rice root exudates. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation (r = 0.725, p < 0.01) was found between the content of oxalic acid and the methane emissions in the paddy field. The results indicated that enhanced UV-B radiation promoted methane emissions in the paddy field, which was closely associated with its impact on the exudation of LMWOAs by rice roots.

  15. Low molecular weight (C1-C10) monocarboxylic acids, dissolved organic carbon and major inorganic ions in alpine snow pit sequence from a high mountain site, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kimitaka; Matsumoto, Kohei; Tachibana, Eri; Aoki, Kazuma

    2012-12-01

    Snowpack samples were collected from a snow pit sequence (6 m in depth) at the Murodo-Daira site near the summit of Mt. Tateyama, central Japan, an outflow region of Asian dusts. The snow samples were analyzed for a homologous series of low molecular weight normal (C1-C10) and branched (iC4-iC6) monocarboxylic acids as well as aromatic (benzoic) and hydroxy (glycolic and lactic) acids, together with major inorganic ions and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The molecular distributions of organic acids were characterized by a predominance of acetic (range 7.8-76.4 ng g-1-snow, av. 34.8 ng g-1) or formic acid (2.6-48.1 ng g-1, 27.7 ng g-1), followed by propionic acid (0.6-5.2 ng g-1, 2.8 ng g-1). Concentrations of normal organic acids generally decreased with an increase in carbon chain length, although nonanoic acid (C9) showed a maximum in the range of C5-C10. Higher concentrations were found in the snowpack samples containing dust layer. Benzoic acid (0.18-4.1 ng g-1, 1.4 ng g-1) showed positive correlation with nitrate (r = 0.70), sulfate (0.67), Na+ (0.78), Ca2+ (0.86) and Mg+ (0.75), suggesting that this aromatic acid is involved with anthropogenic sources and Asian dusts. Higher concentrations of Ca2+ and SO42- were found in the dusty snow samples. We found a weak positive correlation (r = 0.43) between formic acid and Ca2+, suggesting that gaseous formic acid may react with Asian dusts in the atmosphere during long-range transport. However, acetic acid did not show any positive correlations with major inorganic ions. Hydroxyacids (0.03-5.7 ng g-1, 1.5 ng g-1) were more abundant in the granular and dusty snow. Total monocarboxylic acids (16-130 ng g-1, 74 ng g-1) were found to account for 1-6% of DOC (270-1500 ng g-1, 630 ng g-1) in the snow samples.

  16. Effects of Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids on the Dissolution of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles in Batch and Column Experiments: A Perspective from Phosphate Oxygen Isotope Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Jaisi, D. P.; Jin, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) are increasingly being advocated as an efficient and environment-friendly "green" phosphorus nanofertilizer attributed to their nanoscale dimension, large reactive surface area, and low leaching potential. However, knowledge of how naturally occurring low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) that are secreted by plant roots mediate the dissolution of HANPs (releasing PO43- ion for plant growth) is nonexistent. Here three most commonly encountered LMWOAs (acetic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid) at environmentally relevant concentration (1 mM) were evaluated for their effects on HANPs' dissolution in static batch and dynamic column systems. Particularly, phosphate oxygen isotope fractionation of HANPs during dissolution was examined to disentangle mechanisms controlling the evolution of O-isotopic composition of dissolved PO43- ion. Our results reveal that in batch experiments the dissolution of HANPs was fast but the overall dissolution efficiency of HANPs was limited (≤30%). In contrast, ~100% HANPs were dissolved in columns where LMWOAs were continuously injected. The limited dissolution of HANPs in static batch systems was due primarily to pH buffer effect (pH increased sharply when LMWOA was added in HANPs suspension), whereas in dynamic column systems the HANPs were continuously dissolved by low pH LMWOAs and leached away. Regardless of LMWOA type and experimental system, the isotopically light phosphate (P16O4) was preferentially released during dissolution and the O-isotopic composition of dissolved PO43- ion increased gradually with increasing dissolution due to equilibrium isotope effect between dissolved PO43- ion and HANPs. However, the overall magnitude of O-isotopic fractionation of dissolved PO43- ion was less in batch than in column systems, due to less mass transfer between dissolved PO43- ions and HANPs in batch relative to column experiments. Our findings provide new insights into bioavailability

  17. Polar organic marker compounds in atmospheric aerosol in the Po Valley during the Supersito campaigns - Part 1: Low molecular weight carboxylic acids in cold seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara; Bacco, Dimitri; Visentin, Marco; Ferrari, Silvia; Poluzzi, Vanes

    2014-04-01

    In the framework of the “Supersito” project, three intensive experimental campaigns were conducted in the Po Valley (Northern Italy) in cold seasons, such as late autumn, pre-winter and deep-winter, over three years from 2011 to 2013. As a part of a study on polar marker compounds, including carboxylic acids, sugar derivatives and lignin phenols, the present study reports a detailed discussion on the atmospheric concentrations of 14 low molecular weight carboxylic acids, mainly dicarboxylic and oxo-hydroxy carboxylic acids, as relevant markers of primary and secondary organic aerosols. PM2.5 samples were collected in two monitoring sites, representing urban and rural background stations. The total quantities of carboxylic acids were 262, 167 and 249 ng m-3 at the urban site and 308, 115, 248 ng m-3 at the rural site in pre-winter, fall and deep-winter, respectively. These high concentrations can be explained by the large human emission sources in the urbanized region, combined with the stagnant atmospheric conditions during the cold seasons that accumulate the organic precursors and accelerate the secondary atmospheric reactions. The distribution profiles of the investigated markers suggest the dominant contributions of primary anthropogenic sources, such as traffic, domestic heating and biomass burning. These results are confirmed by comparison with additional emission tracers, such as anhydro-saccharides for biomass burning and fatty acids originated from different anthropogenic sources. In addition, some secondary constituents were detected in both sites, as produced by in situ photo-chemical reactions from both biogenic (e.g. pinonic acid) and anthropogenic precursors (e.g. phthalic and adipic acids). The impact of different sources from human activities was elucidated by investigating the week pattern of carboxylic and fatty acid concentrations. The weekly trends of analytes during the warmer campaign (fall 2012; mean temperature: 12 °C) may be related to

  18. Relationship between lead uptake by lettuce and water-soluble low-molecular-weight organic acids in rhizosphere as influenced by transpiration.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yuan Chung; Chang Chien, Shui-Wen; Wang, Min-Chao; Shen, Yuan; Seshaiah, Kalluru

    2007-10-17

    The relationship between Pb uptake by leaf lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) and water-soluble low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) in rhizosphere, as influenced by transpiration (high and low), has been studied. Studies were carried out by culturing lettuce plants grown for 2 weeks in pots filled with quartz sand mixed with anion-exchange resin and then for 30 days in a greenhouse. The potted lettuce plants were subjected to stress by the addition of Pb(NO 3) 2 solutions (100, 200, and 300 mg of Pb L (-1)) and by high and low transpiration treatments for another 10-day period. Blank experiments (without addition of Pb(NO 3) 2 solutions to the pots) were also run. There were no significant differences in the growth of the plants with the addition of Pb(NO 3) 2 solutions in either of the transpirations studies. Uptake of Pb by the shoots and roots of the plants was found to be proportional to the concentration of Pb solutions added, and more accumulation was observed in the roots than in the shoots at the end of days 3 and 10. High transpiration caused more Pb uptake than did low transpiration. One volatile acid (propionic acid) and nine nonvolatile acids (lactic, glycolic, oxalic, succinic, fumaric, oxalacetic, d-tartaric, trans-aconitic, and citric acids) in rhizosphere quartz sand or anion-exchange resin were identified and quantified by gas chromatography analysis with a flame ionization detector. The amount of LMWOAs in rhizosphere quartz sand or anion-exchange resin increased with higher amounts of Pb in quartz sand solution and also with longer duration of the study. The total quantities of the LMWOAs in the rhizosphere quartz sand or anion-exchange resin were significantly higher under high and low transpiration with a 300 mg of Pb L (-1) solution addition at the end of day 10. Compared with our previous related studies (published work), the present study shows that the presence of LMWOAs in rhizosphere does not significantly affect Pb uptake by lettuce

  19. Immunostimulatory and antiangiogenic activities of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Ke, Chunlin; Wang, Di; Sun, Yi; Qiao, Deliang; Ye, Hong; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2013-08-01

    The immunostimulatory activities of two low molecular weight hyaluronic acids (LMWHA-1 and LMWHA-2 with MW of 1.45×10(5) and 4.52×10(4) Da, respectively) and HA (MW, 1.05×10(6) Da) were evaluated by using in vitro cell models and in vivo animal models, and their effects on angiogenesis were measured in vivo by using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. The results demonstrated that LMWHA-1, LMWHA-2 and HA could promote the splenocyte proliferation, increase the activity of acid phosphatase in peritoneal macrophages and strengthen peritoneal macrophages to devour neutral red in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, LMWHA-1 and LMWHA-2 exhibited much stronger immunostimulatory activity than HA. For assay in vivo, LMWHA-1 and LMWHA-2 significantly increased the indices of spleen and thymus, the activity of lysozyme in serum and the swelling rate of earlap in delayed-type hypersensitivity in a dose-dependent manner. In the CAM model, the results showed that LMWHA-1, LMWHA-2 and HA suppressed angiogenesis in chicken embryos. Moreover, LMWHA-1 exhibited higher antiangiogenesis activity than LMWHA-2 and HA. All these results suggested that LMWHA might be a potential natural immunomodulator and a potential candidate compound for antiangiogenic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between cationic liposomes and low molecular weight hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Gasperini, Antonio A M; Puentes-Martinez, Ximena E; Balbino, Tiago Albertini; Rigoletto, Thais de Paula; Corrêa, Gabriela de Sá Cavalcanti; Cassago, Alexandre; Portugal, Rodrigo Villares; de La Torre, Lucimara Gaziola; Cavalcanti, Leide P

    2015-03-24

    This work presents a study of the association between low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (16 kDa HA) and cationic liposomes composed of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC), 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE), and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP). The cationic liposome/HA complexes were evaluated to determine their mesoscopic structure, average size, zeta potential, and morphology as a function of the amount of HA in the system. Small angle X-ray scattering results revealed that neighboring cationic liposomes either stick together after a partial coating of low concentration HA or disperse completely in excess of HA, but they never assemble as multilamellar vesicles. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy images confirm the existence of unilamellar vesicles and large aggregates of unilamellar vesicles for HA fractions up to 80% (w/w). High concentrations of HA (> 20% w/w) proved to be efficient for coating extruded liposomes, leading to particle complexes with sizes in the nanoscale range and a negative zeta potential.

  1. Use of an exchange method to estimate the association and dissociation rate constants of cadmium complexes formed with low-molecular-weight organic acids commonly exuded by plant roots.

    PubMed

    Schneider, André; Nguyen, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Organic acids released from plant roots can form complexes with cadmium (Cd) in the soil solution and influence metal bioavailability not only due to the nature and concentration of the complexes but also due to their lability. The lability of a complex influences its ability to buffer changes in the concentration of free ions (Cd); it depends on the association (, m mol s) and dissociation (, s) rate constants. A resin exchange method was used to estimate and (m mol s), which is the conditional estimate of depending on the calcium (Ca) concentration in solution. The constants were estimated for oxalate, citrate, and malate, three low-molecular-weight organic acids commonly exuded by plant roots and expected to strongly influence Cd uptake by plants. For all three organic acids, the and estimates were around 2.5 10 m mol s and 1.3 × 10 s, respectively. Based on the literature, these values indicate that the Cd- low-molecular-weight organic acids complexes formed between Cd and low-molecular-weight organic acids may be less labile than complexes formed with soil soluble organic matter but more labile than those formed with aminopolycarboxylic chelates. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: Implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Cao, Fang; Lee, Meehye

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls, and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C values of particle phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly larger than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors. The values are consistently less negative in oxalic acid (C2, average -14.1‰), glyoxylic acid (-13.8‰), pyruvic acid (-19.4‰), glyoxal (-13.5‰), and methylglyoxal (-18.6‰) compared to other organic species (e.g., palmitic acid, -26.3‰), which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during atmospheric oxidation of pre-aged precursors (e.g., isoprene) and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after the evaporation of clouds or wet aerosols. The δ13C values of C2 is positively correlated with C2 to organic carbon ratio, indicating that photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation during long-range atmospheric transport. The isotopic results also suggest that aqueous phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is a major formation process of oxalic acid via the intermediates such as glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photochemically aged in the western North Pacific rim.

  3. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Cao, F.; Lee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C of particle-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly higher than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors, associated with isotope fractionation during atmospheric oxidation. 13C is consistently more enriched for oxalic acid (C2), glyoxylic acid, pyruvic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal compared to other organic compounds identified, which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during aqueous-phase processing and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after clouds or wet aerosols evaporation δ13C of C2 is positively correlated with C2 and organic carbon ratio, indicating that a photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation process during long-range transport. The 13C results also suggest that aqueous-phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is major formation process of oxalic acid production via the major intermediates glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photo-chemically aged in this region.

  4. Preparation of low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid by ozone treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue

    2012-06-20

    Recently, low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid has been reported to have novel features, such as free radical scavenging activities, antioxidant activities, promotion of excisional wound healing, etc. In the present work, degradation of native hyaluronic acid by ozone treatment was performed for preparation of low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid. The molecular weight of native hyaluronic acid was reduced from 1535 to 87 kDa for 120 min at 40°C. The rate of reduction of molecular weight was 94.33%. The FT-IR, 13C NMR, and UV-vis spectra suggested that there was no obvious modification of chemical structure of low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid. The use of degradation of native hyaluronic acid by ozone treatment can be a useful alternative for production of low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid.

  5. Effects of several low-molecular weight organic acids and phosphate on the adsorption of acid phosphatase by soil colloids and minerals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiaoyun; Zhao, Zhenhua; Chen, Wenli

    2003-07-01

    Adsorption of acid phosphatase on goethite, kaolinite and two colloids from the soils in central and south China in the presence of organic acids and phosphate was studied. With the increase of anion concentration, the ability in decreasing enzyme adsorption followed the sequence: phosphate>tartrate>oxalate>acetate. Acetate showed promotive effect on enzyme adsorption at lower anion concentrations whereas oxalate, tartrate and phosphate compete effectively with enzyme in a broad range of anion concentration. The adsorption isotherms of enzyme in most of the anionic systems studied conformed to the Langmuir equation. Phosphate reduced the affinity of enzyme on goethite more significantly than the other anions. However, tartrate decreased the affinity of enzyme on soil colloids and kaolinite to a greater extent than phosphate, oxalate and acetate. This observation suggested that the impact of anions on enzyme adsorption varies with anionic type and the surface characteristics of soil components. The influence of the addition order of ligand on enzyme adsorption was found greater in tartrate and phosphate systems. In general, simultaneous introduction of ligand and enzyme into the system had the lowest enzyme adsorption, showing more competition between ligand and enzyme molecules in this system. Data from this work indicated that the status and activity of enzyme in certain soil microenvironments especially the rhizosphere where various organic and inorganic ligands are active can be altered and may be completely different from the bulk soil.

  6. Aluminium Uptake and Translocation in Al Hyperaccumulator Rumex obtusifolius Is Affected by Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids Content and Soil pH

    PubMed Central

    Vondráčková, Stanislava; Száková, Jiřina; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Hejcman, Michal; Müllerová, Vladimíra; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims High Al resistance of Rumex obtusifolius together with its ability to accumulate Al has never been studied in weakly acidic conditions (pH > 5.8) and is not sufficiently described in real soil conditions. The potential elucidation of the role of organic acids in plant can explain the Al tolerance mechanism. Methods We established a pot experiment with R. obtusifolius planted in slightly acidic and alkaline soils. For the manipulation of Al availability, both soils were untreated and treated by lime and superphosphate. We determined mobile Al concentrations in soils and concentrations of Al and organic acids in organs. Results Al availability correlated positively to the extraction of organic acids (citric acid < oxalic acid) in soils. Monovalent Al cations were the most abundant mobile Al forms with positive charge in soils. Liming and superphosphate application were ambiguous measures for changing Al mobility in soils. Elevated transport of total Al from belowground organs into leaves was recorded in both lime-treated soils and in superphosphate-treated alkaline soil as a result of sufficient amount of Ca available from soil solution as well as from superphosphate that can probably modify distribution of total Al in R. obtusifolius as a representative of “oxalate plants.” The highest concentrations of Al and organic acids were recorded in the leaves, followed by the stem and belowground organ infusions. Conclusions In alkaline soil, R. obtusifolius is an Al-hyperaccumulator with the highest concentrations of oxalate in leaves, of malate in stems, and of citrate in belowground organs. These organic acids form strong complexes with Al that can play a key role in internal Al tolerance but the used methods did not allow us to distinguish the proportion of total Al-organic complexes to the free organic acids. PMID:25880431

  7. Aluminium uptake and translocation in Al hyperaccumulator Rumex obtusifolius is affected by low-molecular-weight organic acids content and soil pH.

    PubMed

    Vondráčková, Stanislava; Száková, Jiřina; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Hejcman, Michal; Müllerová, Vladimíra; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    High Al resistance of Rumex obtusifolius together with its ability to accumulate Al has never been studied in weakly acidic conditions (pH > 5.8) and is not sufficiently described in real soil conditions. The potential elucidation of the role of organic acids in plant can explain the Al tolerance mechanism. We established a pot experiment with R. obtusifolius planted in slightly acidic and alkaline soils. For the manipulation of Al availability, both soils were untreated and treated by lime and superphosphate. We determined mobile Al concentrations in soils and concentrations of Al and organic acids in organs. Al availability correlated positively to the extraction of organic acids (citric acid < oxalic acid) in soils. Monovalent Al cations were the most abundant mobile Al forms with positive charge in soils. Liming and superphosphate application were ambiguous measures for changing Al mobility in soils. Elevated transport of total Al from belowground organs into leaves was recorded in both lime-treated soils and in superphosphate-treated alkaline soil as a result of sufficient amount of Ca available from soil solution as well as from superphosphate that can probably modify distribution of total Al in R. obtusifolius as a representative of "oxalate plants." The highest concentrations of Al and organic acids were recorded in the leaves, followed by the stem and belowground organ infusions. In alkaline soil, R. obtusifolius is an Al-hyperaccumulator with the highest concentrations of oxalate in leaves, of malate in stems, and of citrate in belowground organs. These organic acids form strong complexes with Al that can play a key role in internal Al tolerance but the used methods did not allow us to distinguish the proportion of total Al-organic complexes to the free organic acids.

  8. Low-molecular-weight organic acids in the Tibetan Plateau: Results from one-year of precipitation samples at the SET station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Kang, Shichang; Sun, Jimin; Wan, Xin; Wang, Yongjie; Gao, Shaopeng; Cong, Zhiyuan

    2014-04-01

    Background atmospheric organic acids: formic (F), acetic (A), oxalic (O), and methanesulfonic (MSA, abbreviated to M) acids in the southern Tibetan Plateau (TP), were determined in one-year of precipitation measurements at a remote alpine station. These organic acids were dominated by oxalic (volume-weighted mean of 0.51 μmol l-1)/formic acid (0.38 μmol l-1), followed by acetic acid (0.20 μmol l-1) and MSA (0.10 μmol l-1). Their levels were comparable with those from other remote sites, while they were lower than those found in populated areas. The South Asian monsoon is responsible for the seasonal variation of organic acid concentration: a relative abundance of MSA and lower concentrations of other organic acids (by the dilution effect) in the monsoon season, while opposite in the non-monsoon season. Diverse sources were identified by principal component analysis combined with the corresponding tracers. These were anthropogenic disturbances (which explain 41% of the variance), marine emission (24%), and biogenic emission (16%). Moreover, the variances of F/A, M/(F + A), and O/(F + A) in monsoonal versus non-monsoonal samples, were involved with the changes of sources. Furthermore, these chemical indexes suggest that active photochemistry over the TP was significant for the production of organic acids and consequently enhanced the ratios of M/(F + A) and O/(F + A) in monsoonal rainfalls. The elevated organic compounds within the ascending tropical moisture imply potential significances for the secondary formation of organic acids in the high-altitude and the changes of the Asian monsoon.

  9. [Effect of Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids on the Chemical Speciation and Activity of Mercury in the Soils of the Water-Level-Fluctuating Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    You, Rui; Liang, Li; Qin, Cai-qing; Deng, Han; Wang, Ding-yong

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the effect of low molecular weight organic acids ( LMWOA) on the ability of migration and the species of mercury in the soil of the Water-Level-Fluctuating Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, citric acid, tartaric acid and oxalic acid were dded into the soil to conduct simulation experiments. The results showed that the percentage of exchangeable mercury increased with the increase of the concentration of citric acid, but the value declined slightly as the concentration of tartaric acid and oxalic acid increased. While all three acids elevated the bioavailability of mercury, which increased with the increase of the concentration of acids. Vhen the concentration of citric acid reached 15 mmol x L(-1), the activation effect was the best. But for oxalic acid and citric acid, 10 mmol x L(-1) was the optimal concentration. In general, the effect of three organic acids on the activation of mercury in the soil followed the trend of citric acid > tartaric acid > oxalic acid. In the soil supplemented with 15 mmol x L(-1) citric acid, the change of mercury pecies was more and more striking with the prolonged incubation, and the conversion did not stop until 14 d, at that time the stomach cid dissolved mercury increased obviously, which was mainly converted from elemental mercury.

  10. Effect of heavy metals and organic matter on root exudates (low molecular weight organic acids) of herbaceous species: An assessment in sand and soil conditions under different levels of contamination.

    PubMed

    Montiel-Rozas, M M; Madejón, E; Madejón, P

    2016-09-01

    Bioavailability of heavy metals can be modified by different root exudates. Among them, low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) play an important role in this process. Three plant species (Poa annua, Medicago polymorpha and Malva sylvestris), potentially used for phytoremediation, have been assessed for both metal uptake and LMWOAs excretion in contaminated environments with different concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn. The experiments have been carried out in washed sand and in three contaminated soils where two organic amendments were added (biosolid compost and alperujo compost). The most abundant LMWOAs excreted by all studied plants were oxalic and malic acids, although citric and fumaric acids were also detected. The general tendency was that plants responded to an increase of heavy metal stress releasing higher amounts of LMWOAs. This is an efficient exclusion mechanism reducing the metal uptake and allowing the plant growth at high levels of contamination. In the experiment using wash sand as substrate, the organic acids composition and quantity depended mainly on plant species and metal contamination. M. polymorpha was the species that released the highest concentrations of LMWOAs, both in sand and in soils with no amendment addition, whereas a decrease of these acids was observed with the addition of amendments. Our results established a clear effect of organic matter on the composition and total amount of LMWOAs released. The increase of organic matter and nutrients, through amendments, improved the soil quality reducing phytotoxicity. As a result, organic acids exudates decreased and were solely composed of oxalic acid (except for M. polymorpha). The release of LMWOAs has proved to be an important mechanism against heavy metal stress, unique to each species and modifiable by means of organic amendment addition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium

  12. Effects of three low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and pH on the mobilization of arsenic and heavy metals (Cu, Pb, and Zn) from mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Suiling; Mulligan, Catherine N

    2013-02-01

    Natural organic acids may play an important role in influencing the mobility of toxic contaminants in the environment. The mobilization of arsenic (As) and heavy metals from an oxidized Pb-Zn mine tailings sample in the presence of three low-molecular-weight organic acids, aspartic acid, cysteine, and succinic acid, was investigated at a mass ratio of 10 mg organic additive/g mine tailings in this study. The effect of pH was also evaluated. The mine tailings sample, containing elevated levels of As (2,180 mg/kg), copper (Cu, 1,100 mg/kg), lead (Pb, 12,860 mg/kg), and zinc (Zn, 5,075 mg/kg), was collected from Bathurst, New Brunswick, Canada. It was found that the organic additives inhibited As and heavy metal mobilization under acidic conditions (at pH 3 or 5), but enhanced it under neutral to alkaline conditions (at pH above 7) through forming aqueous organic complexes. At pH 11, As, Cu, Pb, and Zn were mobilized mostly by the organic additives, 45, 46, 1,660, and 128 mg/kg by aspartic acid, 31, 28, 1,040, and 112 mg/kg by succinic acid, and 53, 38, 2,020, and 150 mg/kg by cysteine, respectively, whereas those by distilled water were 6, 16, 260, and 52 mg/kg, respectively. It was also found that the mobilization of As and the heavy metals was closely correlated, and both were closely correlated to Fe mobilization. Arsenic mobilization by the three LMWOAs was found to be consistent with the order of the stability of Fe-, Cu-, Pb-, and Zn-organic ligand complexes. The organic acids might be used potentially in the natural attenuation and remediation of As and heavy metal-contaminated sites.

  13. Mercury Photolytic Transformation Affected by Low-Molecular-Weight Natural Organics in Water

    SciTech Connect

    He, Feng; Zheng, Wang; Gu, Baohua; Liang, Liyuan

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms by which dissolved organic matter (DOM) mediates the photochemical reduction of Hg(II) in aquatic ecosystems are not fully understood, owing to the heterogeneous nature and complex structural properties of DOM. In this work, naturally occurring aromatic compounds including salicylic, 4-hydrobenzoic, anthranilic, 4-aminobenzoic, and phthalic acid were systematically studied as surrogates for DOM in order to gain an improved mechanistic understanding of these compounds in the photoreduction of Hg(II) in water. We show that the photoreduction rates of Hg(II) are influenced not only by the substituent functional groups such as OH, NH2 and COOH on the benzene ring, but also the positioning of these functional groups on the ring structure. The Hg(II) photoreduction rate decreases in the order anthranilic acid > salicylic acid > phthalic acid according to the presence of the NH2, OH, COOH functional groups on benzoic acid. The substitution position of the functional groups affects reduction rates in the order anthranilic acid > 4-aminobenzoic acid and salicylic acid > 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Reduction rates correlate strongly with ultraviolet (UV) absorption of these compounds and their concentrations, suggesting that the formation of organic free radicals during photolysis of these compounds is responsible for Hg(II) photoreduction. These results provide insight into the role of low-molecular-weight organic compounds and possibly DOM in Hg photoredox transformation and may thus have important implications for understanding Hg geochemical cycling in the environment.

  14. Low molecular weight hyaluronic acid prevents oxygen free radical damage to granulation tissue during wound healing.

    PubMed

    Trabucchi, E; Pallotta, S; Morini, M; Corsi, F; Franceschini, R; Casiraghi, A; Pravettoni, A; Foschi, D; Minghetti, P

    2002-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid protects granulation tissue from oxygen free radical damage and stimulates wound healing, but its molecular weight prevents it from permeating the epidermal barrier A low molecular weight hyaluronic acid preparation is able to permeate the skin, but it is unknown whether or not it retains the scavenging effects of oxygen free radicals in granulation tissue. Our experiments were conducted in rats with excisional or incisional wounds. Wound contraction over 11 days and breaking strength on the fifth day were measured. Oxygen free radical production was induced by intraperitoneal administration of two different xenobiotics: phenazine methosulfate and zymosan. The wounds were treated topically with low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (0.2%) cream or placebo. In the incisional wound group, the effects of superoxide dismutase were also determined. Absolute controls received wounds and placebo but no xenobiotics. Wound healing was significantly slower in the xenobiotic group than in the control groups. These effects were strongly reduced by topical administration of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (0.2%) cream and in incisional wounds by topically injected superoxide dismutase. Low molecular weight hyaluronic acid is effective as the native compound against oxygen free radicals. Its pharmacological effects through transdermal administration should be tested in appropriate models.

  15. Coordination nature of aluminum (oxy)hydroxides formed under the influence of low molecular weight organic acids and a soil humic acid studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, R. K.; Hu, Y. F.; Dynes, J. J.; Zhao, A. Z.; Blyth, R. I. R.; Kozak, L. M.; Huang, P. M.

    2010-11-01

    Organic ligands in the environment hinder the formation of crystalline Al precipitation products by perturbing the hydrolytic and polymeric reactions of Al resulting in the formation of short-range ordered (SRO) mineral colloids with varying degrees of crystallinity. However, the effect of these ligands on the mechanisms of their formation and nature of the transformation products of Al (oxy)hydroxides at the atomic and molecular levels is not well understood. In this study, the coordination structure of Al in Al (oxy)hydroxides formed under the influence of varying concentrations of low molecular weight (LMW) organic acids such as citric, malic, salicylic and acetic acids and a humic acid (HA) was investigated with X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The Al K- and L-edge XANES spectra showed that with increasing LMW organic acid concentration the coordination number of Al changed from 6-fold to a mixture of 4- and 6-fold, except for acetate as acetate was unable to perturb the formation of Al (oxy)hydroxides at the acetate/Al molar ratio (MR) = 0.1. The proportion of 4-fold to 6-fold coordinated Al in the Al precipitation products depended on the structure and functionality of the LMW organic acids. The incorporation of the LMW organic acid into the network structure of Al (oxy)hydroxides prevented the formation of sheets/inter-layer H-bonding that was required for the formation of crystalline Al (oxy)hydroxides. The HA used in this study only slightly perturbed the crystallization of the Al (oxy)hydroxides at the concentrations used. The Al K-edge data showed that Al coordination number had not been altered in the presence of HA. The findings obtained in the present study are of fundamental significance in understanding the physicochemical behavior of soils and sediments, and their relation to the accumulation and transport of nutrients and pollutants in the

  16. Novel Ion-Exchange Coagulants Remove More Low Molecular Weight Organics than Traditional Coagulants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huazhang; Wang, Lei; Hanigan, David; Westerhoff, Paul; Ni, Jinren

    2016-04-05

    Low molecular weight (MW) charged organic matter is poorly removed by conventional coagulants but contributes to disinfection byproduct formation during chlorination of drinking waters. We hypothesized that CIEX, a new Al-based hybrid coagulant with ion-exchange functional groups, would be new mechanistic approach to remove low MW organic matter during coagulation and would perform better than polyaluminum chloride (PACl) or metal-salt based coagulants. We measured coagulation performance using dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in a high hardness surface water. CIEX achieved excellent turbidity removal and removed 20% to 46% more DOC than FeCl3, Al2(SO4)3, or PACl, depending on dose. The improved DOC removal was attributable to better removal of low MW organic matter (<2 kDa). We further studied removal mechanisms in a model water containing a low MW organic acid (salicylic acid (SA)). CIEX achieved high removal of organic acids (>90% of SA) independent of pH, whereas removal by metal salts was lower (<15%) and was strongly pH dependent. CIEX ion-exchange capability is facilitated by its covalently bound quaternary ammonium group, which conventional coagulants lack. Plus, unlike other cationic polymers that react with chloramines to form N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), CIEX has a low molar yield (9.3 × 10(-7) mol NDMA per mol CIEX-N).

  17. [Adsorption of aflatoxin on montmorillonite modified by low-molecular-weight humic acids].

    PubMed

    Yao, Jia-Jia; Kang, Fu-Xing; Gao, Yan-Zheng

    2012-03-01

    The adsorption of a typical biogenic toxin aflatoxin B1 on montmorillonite modified by low-molecular-weight humic acids (M(r) < 3 500) was investigated. The montmorillonite rapidly adsorbed the aflatoxin B1 until amounting to the maximal capacity, and then the adsorbed aflatoxin B1 slowly released into solution and reached the sorption equilibrium state after 12 h. The sorption isotherm of aflatoxin B1 by montmorillonite could be well described by Langmiur model, while the sorption isotherm by humic acid-modified montmorillonite was well fitted by using the Freundlich model. The modification of the montmorillonite with humic acids obviously enhanced its adsorption capacity for aflatoxin B1, and the amounts of aflatoxin adsorbed by modified montmorillonite were obviously higher than those by montmorillonite. The sorption enhancement by humic acid modification was attributed to (1) the enlarged adsorption sites which owed to the surface collapse of crystal layers induced by organic acids, and (2) the binding of aflatoxin with the humic acid sorbed on mineral surface. In addition, the adsorption amounts of aflatoxin by montmorillonite and modified montmorillonite increased with the increase of pH values in solution, and more significant enhancement was observed for the latter than the former, which attributed to the release of humic acids from the modified montmorillonite with the high pH values in solution. This indicates that increasing the pH values resulted in the enhanced hydrophilic property and the release of the organic acids presented in modified montmorillonite, and more sorption sites were available for aflatoxin on the modified montmorillonite. Results of this work would strengthen our understanding of the behavior and fate of biological contaminants in the environment.

  18. Isotope fractionation of mercury during its photochemical reduction by low-molecular-weight organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wang; Hintelmann, Holger

    2010-04-01

    Photochemical reduction of Hg(II) by various low-molecular-weight organic compounds (LMWOC) was investigated to evaluate the effect of specific functional groups that are typically encountered in natural dissolved organic matters (DOM) on the photoreactivity and isotope fractionation of Hg. LMWOC with reduced sulfur functional groups (e.g., cysteine, glutathione) resulted in slower photochemical reduction of Hg(II) than those without reduced sulfur groups (e.g., serine, oxalic acid). Reduction rate constants were specifically determined for two contrasting LMWOC: dl-serine (0.640 h(-1)) and l-cysteine (0.047 h(-1)). Different mass independent isotope effects of Hg were induced by the two types of LMWOC. S-containing ligands specifically enriched magnetic isotopes ((199)Hg and (201)Hg) in the product (Hg(0)) while sulfurless ligands enriched (199)Hg and (201)Hg in the reactant (Hg(II)), suggesting that opposite magnetic isotope effects were produced by different types of ligands. The nuclear field shift effect was also observed in the photochemical reduction by serine. These isotope effects are related to specific functional groups and reduction mechanisms, and may be used to distinguish between primary and secondary photochemical reduction mechanisms of Hg(II) and to explain isotope fractionation during the photochemical reduction of Hg(II) by natural DOM, which provides mixed bonding conditions.

  19. Organic chemistry of basal ice - presence of labile, low molecular weight compounds available for microbial metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lis, Grzegorz P.; Wadham, Jemma L.; Lawson, Emily; Stibal, Marek; Telling, Jon

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies show that subglacial environments previously thought to be devoid of life contain a host of active microbial organisms. Presence of liquid water due to overburden pressure, the release of nutrients from chemical erosion of bedrock, and the potential carbon sources in overridden sediments facilitate life in this extreme environment. However, little is still known of concentrations and diversity of labile organic compounds essential for sustaining microbial metabolism in subglacial environments. Three subglacial ecosystems that considerably differ in range and amount of available organic compounds were selected for this study 1-Engabreen, northern Norway, overlying high-grade metamorphic rocks with low organic carbon content; 2-Finsterwalderbreen, Svalbard, overriding ancient black shales with a relatively high carbon content yet recalcitrant to microbiological consumption; and 3-Russell Glacier in western Greenland with recently overridden quaternary organic rich paleosols. Basal and pressure ridge ice samples were collected and subsequently analysed for low molecular weight organic compounds, with the emphasis on volatile fatty acids, carbohydrates and amino acids. The highest concentration of labile organic compounds in Greenland basal ice suggest that recently overridden paleosols have the greatest potential for sustaining microbial populations present within and underneath basal ice. The high concentration of "ancient" organic carbon in basal ice from Finsterwalderbreen, Svalbard, doesn't correlate with the presence of labile organic compounds. This indicates the inability of microbes to digest recalcitrant kerogen carbon in cold temperatures. In all three investigated environments, concentrations of labile organic compounds are elevated in basal ice with a high debris content. Until recently, most models of the global carbon cycle tend to neglect the pool of subglacial organic carbon as little is known about the range and concentrations of

  20. Relationship between chemical structure and the occupational asthma hazard of low molecular weight organic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, J; Seed, M; Elton, R; Sawyer, L; Agius, R

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate quantitatively, relationships between chemical structure and reported occupational asthma hazard for low molecular weight (LMW) organic compounds; to develop and validate a model linking asthma hazard with chemical substructure; and to generate mechanistic hypotheses that might explain the relationships. Methods: A learning dataset used 78 LMW chemical asthmagens reported in the literature before 1995, and 301 control compounds with recognised occupational exposures and hazards other than respiratory sensitisation. The chemical structures of the asthmagens and control compounds were characterised by the presence of chemical substructure fragments. Odds ratios were calculated for these fragments to determine which were associated with a likelihood of being reported as an occupational asthmagen. Logistic regression modelling was used to identify the independent contribution of these substructures. A post-1995 set of 21 asthmagens and 77 controls were selected to externally validate the model. Results: Nitrogen or oxygen containing functional groups such as isocyanate, amine, acid anhydride, and carbonyl were associated with an occupational asthma hazard, particularly when the functional group was present twice or more in the same molecule. A logistic regression model using only statistically significant independent variables for occupational asthma hazard correctly assigned 90% of the model development set. The external validation showed a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 99%. Conclusions: Although a wide variety of chemical structures are associated with occupational asthma, bifunctional reactivity is strongly associated with occupational asthma hazard across a range of chemical substructures. This suggests that chemical cross-linking is an important molecular mechanism leading to the development of occupational asthma. The logistic regression model is freely available on the internet and may offer a useful but inexpensive adjunct to the

  1. High and low molecular weight hyaluronic acid differentially influence macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Rayahin, Jamie E; Buhrman, Jason S; Zhang, Yu; Koh, Timothy J; Gemeinhart, Richard A

    2015-07-13

    Macrophages exhibit phenotypic diversity permitting wide-ranging roles in maintaining physiologic homeostasis. Hyaluronic acid, a major glycosaminoglycan of the extracellular matrix, has been shown to have differential signaling based on its molecular weight. With this in mind, the main objective of this study was to elucidate the role of hyaluronic acid molecular weight on macrophage activation and reprogramming. Changes in macrophage activation were assessed by activation state selective marker measurement, specifically quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction, and cytokine enzyme-linked immunoassays, after macrophage treatment with differing molecular weights of hyaluronic acid under four conditions: the resting state, concurrent with classical activation, and following inflammation involving either classically or alternatively activated macrophages. Regardless of initial polarization state, low molecular weight hyaluronic acid induced a classically activated-like state, confirmed by up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes, including nos2, tnf, il12b, and cd80, and enhanced secretion of nitric oxide and TNF-α. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid promoted an alternatively activated-like state, confirmed by up regulation of pro-resolving gene transcription, including arg1, il10, and mrc1, and enhanced arginase activity. Overall, our observations suggest that macrophages undergo phenotypic changes dependent on molecular weight of hyaluronan that correspond to either (1) pro-inflammatory response for low molecular weight HA or (2) pro-resolving response for high molecular weight HA. These observations bring significant further understanding of the influence of extracellular matrix polymers, hyaluronic acid in particular, on regulating the inflammatory response of macrophages. This knowledge can be used to guide the design of HA-containing biomaterials to better utilize the natural response to HAs.

  2. High and low molecular weight hyaluronic acid differentially influence macrophage activation

    PubMed Central

    Rayahin, Jamie E.; Buhrman, Jason S.; Zhang, Yu; Koh, Timothy J.; Gemeinhart, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages exhibit phenotypic diversity permitting wide-ranging roles in maintaining physiologic homeostasis. Hyaluronic acid, a major glycosaminoglycan of the extracellular matrix, has been shown to have differential signaling based on its molecular weight. With this in mind, the main objective of this study was to elucidate the role of hyaluronic acid molecular weight on macrophage activation and reprogramming. Changes in macrophage activation were assessed by activation state selective marker measurement, specifically quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction, and cytokine enzyme-linked immunoassays, after macrophage treatment with differing molecular weights of hyaluronic acid under four conditions: the resting state, concurrent with classical activation, and following inflammation involving either classically or alternatively activated macrophages. Regardless of initial polarization state, low molecular weight hyaluronic acid induced a classically activated-like state, confirmed by up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes, including nos2, tnf, il12b, and cd80, and enhanced secretion of nitric oxide and TNF-α. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid promoted an alternatively activated-like state, confirmed by up regulation of pro-resolving gene transcription, including arg1, il10, and mrc1, and enhanced arginase activity. Overall, our observations suggest that macrophages undergo phenotypic changes dependent on molecular weight of hyaluronan that correspond to either (1) pro-inflammatory response for low molecular weight HA or (2) pro-resolving response for high molecular weight HA. These observations bring significant further understanding of the influence of extracellular matrix polymers, hyaluronic acid in particular, on regulating the inflammatory response of macrophages. This knowledge can be used to guide the design of HA-containing biomaterials to better utilize the natural response to HAs. PMID:26280020

  3. Azobenzene Containing Low-Molecular Weight Organic Glasses for Optical Recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksejeva, J.; Teteris, J.; Tokmakovs, A.

    In this work photoinduced processes and holographic surface relief formation in azobenzene containing low- molecular weight organic glasses were studied. The molecular glasses due to trans-cis isomerisation and photo- orientation of molecules possess high sensitivity to the light irradiation and therefore they are promising media for holographic recording. Electric field of linearly polarized light causes an alignment of molecule dipoles perpendicularly to the electric field vector and this process is accompanied by an appearance of photoinduced optical anisotropy in organic glasses. The photoinduced birefringence and dichroism induced by 532 nm light was studied. Holographic recording in organic molecular glasses was performed with 532 nm solid-state diode-pumped laser Verdi-6. Very rapid holographic grating recording and surface relief formation at small recording beam intensities was observed. The dependence of recorded grating diffraction efficiency and surface relief depth on recording beams polarization state and intensities was studied. The surface relief was studied with AFM.

  4. Characterization of fatty acid liposome coated with low-molecular-weight chitosan.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hsiao Wei; Misran, Misni

    2012-12-01

    Preparation of chitosan-coated fatty acid liposomes is often restricted by the solubility of chitosan under basic conditions. In this experiment, the preparation of chitosan-coated oleic acid (OA) liposomes using low molecular weight (LMW) chitosan (10 and 25 kDA) was demonstrated. These selected LMW chitosans are water soluble. The coating of the chitosan layer on OA liposomes was confirmed by its microscope images and physicochemical properties, such as zeta potential and the size of the liposomes. The "peeling off" effect on the surface of chitosan-coated OA liposomes was observed in the atomic force microscope images and showed the occurrence of the chitosan layer on the surface of OA liposomes. The size of the chitosan-coated liposomes was at least 20 nm smaller than the OA liposomes, and the increase of zeta potential with the increasing amount of LMW chitosan further confirmed the presence of the surface modification of OA liposomes.

  5. Microbial utilization of low molecular weight organic substrates in soil depends on their carbon oxidation state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunina, Anna; Smith, Andrew; Jones, Davey; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Removal of low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS), originating from plants and microorganisms, from soil solution is regulated by microbial uptake. In addition to the concentration of LMWOS in soil solution, the chemical properties of each substance (e.g. C oxidation state, number of C atoms, number of -COOH groups) can affect their uptake and subsequent partitioning of C within the soil microbial community. The aim of this study was to trace the initial fate of three dominant classes of LMWOS in soil (sugars, carboxylic and amino acids), including their removal from solution and utilization by microorganisms, and to reveal the effect of substance chemical properties on these processes. Soil solution, spiked at natural abundance levels with 14C-labelled glucose, fructose, malate, succinate, formate, alanine or glycine, was added to the soil and 14C was traced in the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), CO2, cytosol and soil organic carbon (SOC) over 24 hours. The half-life time of all LMWOS in the DOC (T1 /2-solution) varied between 0.6-5.0 min showing extremely fast initial uptake of LMWOS. The T1 /2-solution of substances was dependent on C oxidation state, indicating that less oxidized organic substances (with C oxidation state "0") were retained longer in soil solution than oxidized substances. The LMWOS-C T1 /2-fast, characterizing the half-life time of 14C in the fast mineralization pool, ranged between 30 and 80 min, with the T1 /2-fast of carboxylic acids (malic acid) being the fastest and the T1 /2-fast of amino acids (glycine) being the slowest. An absence of correlation between T1 /2-fast and either C oxidation state, number of C atoms, or number of -COOH groups suggests that intercellular metabolic pathways are more important for LMWOS transformation in soil than their basic chemical properties. The CO2 release during LMWOS mineralization accounted for 20-90% of 14C applied. Mineralization of LMWOS was the least for sugars and the greatest for

  6. Microbial utilization of low molecular weight organics in soil depends on the substances properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunina, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Utilization of low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS) in soil is regulated by microbial uptake from solution and following incorporation of into specific cell cycles. Various chemical properties of LMWOS, namely oxidation state, number of carbon (C) atoms, number of carboxylic (-COOH) groups, can affect their uptake from soil solution and further microbial utilization. The aim of the study was to trace the initial fate (including the uptake from soil solution and utilization by microorganisms) of three main classes of LMWOS, having contrast properties - sugars, carboxylic and amino acids. Top 10 cm of mineral soil were collected under Silver birch stands within the Bangor DIVERSE experiment, UK. Soil solution was extracted by centrifugation at 4000 rpm during 15 min. Soil was spiked with 14C glucose or fructose; malic, succinic or formic acids; alanine or glycine. No additional non-labeled LMWOS were added. 14C was traced in the dissolved organic matter (DOM), CO2, cytosol and soil organic matter (SOM) during one day. To estimate half-life times (T1 /2)of LMWOS in soil solution and in SOM pools, the single and double first order kinetic equations were fitted to the uptake and mineralization dynamics, respectively. The LMWOS T1 /2in DOM pool varied between 0.6-5 min, with the highest T1 /2for sugars (3.7 min) and the lowest for carboxylic acids (0.6-1.4 min). Thus, initial uptake of LMWOS is not a limiting step of microbial utilization. The T1 /2 of carboxylic and amino acids in DOM were closely related with oxidation state, showing that reduced substances remain in soil solution longer, than oxidized. The initial T1 /2 of LMWOS in SOM ranged between 30-80 min, with the longest T1 /2 for amino acids (50-80 min) and the shortest for carboxylic acids (30-48 min). These T1 /2values were in one-two orders of magnitude higher than LMWOS T1 /2 in soil solution, pointing that LMWOS mineralization occur with a delay after the uptake. Absence of correlations between

  7. Oligomeric bile acid-mediated oral delivery of low molecular weight heparin.

    PubMed

    Al-Hilal, Taslim A; Park, Jooho; Alam, Farzana; Chung, Seung Woo; Park, Jin Woo; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, In-San; Kim, Sang Yoon; Byun, Youngro

    2014-02-10

    Intestinal transporters are limited to the transport of small molecular substrates. Here, we describe the development of apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT)-targeted high-affinity oligomeric bile acid substrates that mediate the transmembrane transport of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Several oligomers of deoxycholic acid (oligoDOCA) were synthesized to investigate the substrate specificity of ASBT. To see the binding of oligoDOCA on the substrate-binding pocket of ASBT, molecular docking was used and the dissociation rate constants (KD) were measured using surface plasmon resonance. The KD for tetrameric DOCA (tetraDOCA) was 50-fold lower than that for monomeric DOCA, because tetraDOCA interacted with several hydrophobic grooves in the substrate-binding pocket of ASBT. The synthesized oligoDOCA compounds were subsequently chemically conjugated to macromolecular LMWH. In vitro, tetraDOCA-conjugated LMWH (LHe-tetraD) had highest selectivity for ASBT during its transport. Orally administered LHe-tetraD showed remarkable systemic anticoagulation activity and high oral bioavailability of 33.5±3.2% and 19.9±2.5% in rats and monkeys, respectively. Notably, LHe-tetraD successfully prevented thrombosis in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis. These results represent a major advancement in ASBT-mediated LMWH delivery and may facilitate administration of many important therapeutic macromolecules through a non-invasive oral route.

  8. Membrane Disruption by Antimicrobial Fatty Acids Releases Low-Molecular-Weight Proteins from Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Joshua B.; Yao, Jiangwei; Frank, Matthew W.; Jackson, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    The skin represents an important barrier for pathogens and is known to produce fatty acids that are toxic toward Gram-positive bacteria. A screen of fatty acids as growth inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus revealed structure-specific antibacterial activity. Fatty acids like oleate (18:1Δ9) were nontoxic, whereas palmitoleate (16:1Δ9) was a potent growth inhibitor. Cells treated with 16:1Δ9 exhibited rapid membrane depolarization, the disruption of all major branches of macromolecular synthesis, and the release of solutes and low-molecular-weight proteins into the medium. Other cytotoxic lipids, such as glycerol ethers, sphingosine, and acyl-amines blocked growth by the same mechanisms. Nontoxic 18:1Δ9 was used for phospholipid synthesis, whereas toxic 16:1Δ9 was not and required elongation to 18:1Δ11 prior to incorporation. However, blocking fatty acid metabolism using inhibitors to prevent acyl-acyl carrier protein formation or glycerol-phosphate acyltransferase activity did not increase the toxicity of 18:1Δ9, indicating that inefficient metabolism did not play a determinant role in fatty acid toxicity. Nontoxic 18:1Δ9 was as toxic as 16:1Δ9 in a strain lacking wall teichoic acids and led to growth arrest and enhanced release of intracellular contents. Thus, wall teichoic acids contribute to the structure-specific antimicrobial effects of unsaturated fatty acids. The ability of poorly metabolized 16:1 isomers to penetrate the cell wall defenses is a weakness that has been exploited by the innate immune system to combat S. aureus. PMID:22843840

  9. Citric acid mediates the iron absorption from low molecular weight human milk fractions.

    PubMed

    Palika, Ravindranadh; Mashurabad, Purna Chandra; Kilari, Sreenivasulu; Kasula, Sunanda; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Raghu, Pullakhandam

    2013-11-20

    Previously, we have demonstrated increased iron absorption from low molecular weight (LMW) human milk whey fractions. In the present study, we investigated the effect of heat denaturation, zinc (a competitor of iron), duodenal cytochrome b (DcytB) antibody neutralization and citrate lyase treatment on LMW human milk fraction (>5 kDa referred as 5kF) induced ferric iron reduction, solubilization, and uptake in Caco-2 cells. Heat denaturation and zinc inhibited the 5kF fraction induced ferric iron reduction. In contrast, zinc but not heat denaturation abrogated the ferric iron solubilization activity. Despite inhibition of ferric iron reduction, iron uptake in Caco-2 cells was similar from both native and heat denatured 5kF fractions. However, iron uptake was higher from native compared to heat denatured 5kF fractions in the cells preincubated with the DcytB antibody. Citrate lyase treatment inhibited the ferric iron reduction, solubilization, and uptake in Caco-2 cells. These findings demonstrate that citric acid present in human milk solubilizes the ferric iron which could be reduced by other heat labile components leading to increased uptake in intestinal cells.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of low molecular weight polysialic acid on human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Shahraz, Anahita; Kopatz, Jens; Mathy, Rene; Kappler, Joachim; Winter, Dominic; Kapoor, Shoba; Schütza, Vlad; Scheper, Thomas; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Neumann, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Oligosialic and polysialic acid (oligoSia and polySia) of the glycocalyx of neural and immune cells are linear chains, in which the sialic acid monomers are α2.8-glycosidically linked. Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-11 (SIGLEC-11) is a primate-lineage specific receptor of human tissue macrophages and microglia that binds to α2.8-linked oligoSia. Here, we show that soluble low molecular weight polySia with an average degree of polymerization 20 (avDP20) interacts with SIGLEC-11 and acts anti-inflammatory on human THP1 macrophages involving the SIGLEC-11 receptor. Soluble polySia avDP20 inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene transcription and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily Member 2, TNFSF2). In addition, polySia avDP20 neutralized the LPS-triggered increase in macrophage phagocytosis, but did not affect basal phagocytosis or endocytosis. Moreover, polySia avDP20 prevented the oxidative burst of human macrophages triggered by neural debris or fibrillary amyloid-β1–42. In a human macrophage-neuron co-culture system, polySia avDP20 also reduced loss of neurites triggered by fibrillary amyloid-β1–42. Thus, treatment with polySia avDP20 might be a new anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategy that also prevents the oxidative burst of macrophages. PMID:26582367

  11. Factors influencing the transfection efficiency of ultra low molecular weight chitosan/hyaluronic acid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Duceppe, Nicolas; Tabrizian, Maryam

    2009-05-01

    The present work describes nanoparticles made of ultra low molecular weight chitosan (ULMWCh)/hyaluronic acid (HA) as novel potential carriers for gene delivery. Small and monodispersed nanoparticles with high in vitro transfection capabilities have been obtained by the complexation of these two polyelectrolytes. ULMWCh (<10 kDa) presents more advantageous characteristics over the higher molecular weight chitosan for clinical applications, namely increased solubility at physiological pH and improved DNA release. The ULMWCh:HA ratio and the HA molecular weights were varied with the aim of obtaining particles in the 100 nm range. Using chitosan (Ch) with a molecular weight of 5 kDa, HA with a molecular weight of 64 kDa, and a weight ratio of 4:1, nanoparticles with a Z-average size of 146+/-1 nm and narrow size distribution (polydispersity index: 0.073+/-0.030) were obtained. Nanoparticle images taken in dry conditions by SEM and AFM showed spherical particles. The optimal pH for transfection ranged from 6.4 to 6.8 for 0.25 microg of EGFP plasmid per well, with an incubation time of 4 h. Using these optimized parameters, DNA/ULMWCh:HA nanoparticles successfully transfected 25+/-1% of the 293T cells with pEGFP, compared to 0.7% obtained for DNA/ULMWCh under the same conditions. This high transfection efficiency of our non-viral gene delivery system could be attributed to the synergic effect of ULMWCh and low charge density of the HA chain for easy release of DNA which makes the system suitable for targeted gene delivery.

  12. Mechanistic investigation of Fe(III) oxide reduction by low molecular weight organic sulfur species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eitel, Eryn M.; Taillefert, Martial

    2017-10-01

    Low molecular weight organic sulfur species, often referred to as thiols, are known to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments and represent important chemical reductants of Fe(III) oxides. Thiols are excellent electron shuttles used during dissimilatory iron reduction, and in this capacity could indirectly affect the redox state of sediments, release adsorbed contaminants via reductive dissolution, and influence the carbon cycle through alteration of bacterial respiration processes. Interestingly, the reduction of Fe(III) oxides by thiols has not been previously investigated in environmentally relevant conditions, likely due to analytical limitations associated with the detection of thiols and their oxidized products. In this study, a novel electrochemical method was developed to simultaneously determine thiol/disulfide pair concentrations in situ during the reduction of ferrihydrite in batch reactors. First order rate laws with respect to initial thiol concentration were confirmed for Fe(III) oxyhydroxide reduction by four common thiols: cysteine, homocysteine, cysteamine, and glutathione. Zero order was determined for both Fe(III) oxyhydroxide and proton concentration at circumneutral pH. A kinetic model detailing the molecular mechanism of the reaction was optimized with proposed intermediate surface structures. Although metal oxide overall reduction rate constants were inversely proportional to the complexity of the thiol structure, the extent of metal reduction increased with structure complexity, indicating that surface complexes play a significant role in the ability of these thiols to reduce iron. Taken together, these results demonstrate the importance of considering the molecular reaction mechanism at the iron oxide surface when investigating the potential for thiols to act as electron shuttles during dissimilatory iron reduction in natural environments.

  13. [Low molecular weight carboxylic acids in precipitation during the rainy season in the rural area of Anshun, West Guizhou Province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Lee, Xin-Qing; Huang, Dai-Kuan; Huang, Rong-Sheng; Jiang, Wei

    2009-03-15

    40 rainwater samples were collected at Anshun from June 2007 to October 2007 and analysed in terms of pH values, electrical conductivity, major inorganic anions and soluble low molecular weight carboxylic acids. The results showed that pH of individual precipitation events ranged from 3.57-7.09 and the volume weight mean pH value was 4.57. The most abundant carboxylic acids were acetic (volume weight mean concentration 6.75 micromol x L(-1)) and formic (4.61 micromol x L(-1)) followed by oxalic (2.05 micromol x L(-1)). The concentration levels for these three species during summer especially June and July were comparatively high; it implied that organic acids in Anshun may came primarily from emissions from growing vegetations or products of the photochemical reactions of unsaturated hydrocarbons. Carboxylic acids were estimated to account for 32.2% to the free acidity in precipitation. The contribution was higher than in Guiyang rainwater, which indicated contamination by industry in Guiyang was more than in Anshun. The remarkable correlation(p = 0.01) between formic acid and acetic acid suggest that they have similar sources or similar intensity but different sources. And the remarkable correlation (p = 0.01) between and formic acid and oxalic acid showed that the precursors of oxalic acid and formic acid had similar sources. During this period, the overall wet deposition of carboxylic acids were 2.10 mmol/m2. And it appeared mainly in the summer, during which both concentration and contribution to free acidity were also relatively high. Consequently, it was necessary to control emission of organic acids in the summer to reduce frequence of acid rain in Anshun.

  14. An innovative method for preparation of acid-free-water-soluble low-molecular-weight chitosan (AFWSLMWC).

    PubMed

    Yue, Wu; Yao, Pingjia; Wei, Yuanan; Li, Shiqian; Lai, Fang; Liu, Xiongmin

    2008-06-01

    The ozone generated from compressed oxygen by a laboratory-scale corona discharge generator was used for the preparation of acid-free-water-soluble low-molecular-weight chitosan (AFWSLMWC). Factors affecting the percent yield of AFWSLMWC were studied in batch experiments. AFWSLMWC with a molecular weight of 4.3-13.1kDa was obtained. IR spectra demonstrated that the chemical structures of AFWSLMWC were not modified during the depolymerisation process. There was no significant change of the total degree of deacetylation (DD) of AFWSLMWC, compared with the initial chitosan. The method is promisingly suitable for scale-up manufacture of acid-free-water-soluble low-molecular-weight chitosan.

  15. Analysis of low molecular weight acids by negative mode matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shroff, Rohit; Muck, Alexander; Svatos, Ales

    2007-01-01

    Free 9-aminoacridine base is demonstrated to be a suitable matrix for negative mode matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric (MALDI-TOFMS) analysis of a wide range of low molecular weight organic acids including aliphatic (from acetic to palmitic acid), aromatic acids, phytohormones (e.g. jasmonic and salicylic acids), and amino acids. Low limits of quantitation in the femtomolar range (jasmonic - 250 fmol; caffeic - 160 fmol and salicylic - 12.5 fmol) and linear detector response over two concentration orders in the pico- and femtomolar range are extremely encouraging for the direct study of such acids in complex biological matrices.

  16. The role of root exuded low molecular weight organic anions in facilitating petroleum hydrocarbon degradation: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Martin, Belinda C; George, Suman J; Price, Charles A; Ryan, Megan H; Tibbett, Mark

    2014-02-15

    Rhizoremediation is a bioremediation technique whereby enhanced microbial degradation of organic contaminants occurs within the plant root zone (rhizosphere). It is considered an effective and affordable 'green technology' for remediating soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). This paper critically reviews the potential role of root exuded compounds in rhizoremediation, with emphasis on commonly exuded low molecular weight aliphatic organic acid anions (carboxylates). The extent to which remediation is achieved shows wide disparity among plant species. Therefore, plant selection is crucial for the advancement and widespread adoption of this technology. Root exudation is speculated to be one of the predominant factors leading to microbial changes in the rhizosphere and thus the potential driver behind enhanced petroleum biodegradation. Carboxylates can form a significant component of the root exudate mixture and are hypothesised to enhance petroleum biodegradation by: i) providing an easily degradable energy source; ii) increasing phosphorus supply; and/or iii) enhancing the contaminant bioavailability. These differing hypotheses, which are not mutually exclusive, require further investigation to progress our understanding of plant-microbe interactions with the aim to improve plant species selection and the efficacy of rhizoremediation.

  17. Microbial production of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid by adding hydrogen peroxide and ascorbate in batch culture of Streptococcus zooepidemicus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Zhu, Yang; Wang, Miao; Sun, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Microbial production of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) by the addition of hydrogen peroxide and ascorbate during the batch culture of Streptococcus zooepidemicus was investigated. Hydrogen peroxide (1.0 mmol/g HA) and ascorbate (0.5 mmol/g HA) were added at 8h and 12h to degrade HA. With the redox depolymerization of HA, the HA molecular weight decreased from 1,300 kDa for the control to 80 kDa, and the average broth viscosity during 8-16 h decreased from 360 mPa s for the control to 290 mPa s. The average oxygen mass transfer coefficient K(L)a increased from 10h(-1) for the control to 35 h(-1) and the average dissolved oxygen level increased from 1% of air saturation in the control to 10%. HA production increased from 5.0 g/L for the control to 6.5 g/L, and contributed to the increased redox potential and energy charge. This novel process not only significantly enhanced production of low molecular weight HA, but also improved purification efficiency due to a decreased broth viscosity. Low molecular weight HA finds applications in biomedical and healthcare fields.

  18. Effect of low molecular weight organic acids on the uptake of (226)Ra by corn (Zea mays L.) in a region of high natural radioactivity in Ramsar-Iran.

    PubMed

    Nezami, Sareh; Malakouti, Mohammad Jafar; Bahrami Samani, Ali; Ghannadi Maragheh, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    To study the benefit of including citric and oxalic acid treatments for phytoremediation of (226)Ra contaminated soils a greenhouse experiment with corn was conducted. A soil was sampled from a region of high natural (226)Ra radioactivity in Ramsar, Iran. After cultivation of corn seed and using organic acid treatments at 1, 10 and 100 mM concentrations, plants (shoots and roots) were harvested, digested and prepared to measure (226)Ra activity. Simultaneously, sequential selective extraction were performed to estimate the partitioning of (226)Ra among geochemical extraction. Results showed that the maximum uptake of (226)Ra in plants was observed in citric acid (6.3%) and then oxalic acid (6%) at 100 mM concentration. These treatments increased radium uptake by a factor of 1.5 than the control. Enhancement of radium uptake by plants was related to soil pH reduction of organic acids in comparison to control. Also, the maximum uptake of this radionuclide in all treatments was obtained in roots compared to shoots. (226)Ra fractionations results revealed that 91.8% of radium was in the residual phase of the soil and the available fractions were less than 2%. As the main percent of (226)Ra was in the residual phase of the soil in this region, it seems that organic acids had not significant effect on the uptake of (226)Ra for phytoremediation by corn in this condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy and Safety of a Low-Molecular Weight Hyaluronic Acid Topical Gel in the Treatment of Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rowland Powell, Callie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Hyaluronic acid sodium salt gel 0.2% is a topical device effective in reducing skin inflammation. Facial seborrheic dermatitis, characterized by erythema and or flaking/scaling in areas of high sebaceous activity, affects up to five percent of the United States population. Despite ongoing studies, the cause of the condition is yet unknown, but has been associated with yeast colonization and resultant immune-derived inflammation. First-line management typically is with topical steroids as well as the immunosuppressant agents pimecrolimus and tacrolimus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a topical anti-inflammatory containing low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid. Design and setting: Prospective, observational, non-blinded safety and efficacy study in an outpatient setting. Participants: Individuals 18 to 75 years of age with facial seborrheic dermatitis. Measurements: Outcome measures included scale, erythema, pruritus, and the provider global assessment, which were all measured on a five-point scale. Subjects were assessed at Baseline, Week 2, Week 4, and Week 8. Results: Interim data for 7 of 15 subjects are presented. Hyaluronic acid sodium salt gel 0.2% was shown through visual grading assessments to improve the provider global assessment by 47.62 percent from Baseline to Week 4. Reductions in scale, erythema, and pruritus were 66.67, 50, and 60 percent, respectively at Week 4. At Week 8, the provider global assessment was improved from baseline in 100 percent of subjects. Conclusion: Treatment with topical low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid resulted in improvement in the measured endpoints. Topical low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid is another option that may be considered for the treatment of facial seborrheic dermatitis in the adult population. Compliance and tolerance were excellent. PMID:23125886

  20. Purification and characterization of a low-molecular-weight acid phosphatase--a phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase from bovine heart.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z Y; Van Etten, R L

    1990-10-01

    A low-molecular-weight acid phosphatase that is representative of a group recently shown to be phosphotyrosyl protein phosphatases was purified to homogeneity from bovine heart. The enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 18 kDa and had an isoelectric point of 7.0. The absorption coefficient, E1% 1cm was 9.65 at 280 nm. The enzyme had pH optima of 5.3 and 6.0 with the substrates p-nitrophenyl phosphate and tyrosine phosphate, respectively. When measured at pH 5 and 37 degrees C, the enzyme had specific activities of 114 and 86 mumol min-1 mg-1 for p-nitrophenyl phosphate and tyrosine O-phosphate, respectively, while the Km values were 0.38 and 14 mM. The enzyme was highly specific for aryl monophosphate esters and showed little or no activity toward aliphatic phosphate esters, with the remarkable exception of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and certain of its structural analogs. As shown by 31P NMR data, the activity toward FMN was due to the hydrolysis of one of the eight components present in the (commercial) sample. Both molybdate and vanadate were potent inhibitors, with inhibition constants of 37 and 29 microM, respectively; tartrate and fluoride had little effect on enzymatic activity. A two-stage reversible denaturation of the enzyme by guanidine HCl was observed with midpoints of 0.25 and 1.75 M, respectively. The amino acid composition was homologous to the low-molecular-weight acid phosphatases from other tissue. The enzyme showed immunological cross-reactivity against low-molecular-weight human liver acid phosphatase. There were 7 or 8 accessible cysteines on the monomeric protein and at least one was essential for enzyme activity. The enzyme also had phosphotransferase activity, for example transferring phosphate from p-nitrophenyl phosphate to a wide variety of alcohol acceptors.

  1. Identification and analysis of low molecular weight dissolved organic carbon in subglacial basal ice ecosystems by ion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, E. C.; Wadham, J. L.; Lis, G. P.; Tranter, M.; Pickard, A. E.; Stibal, M.; Dewsbury, P.; Fitzsimons, S.

    2015-08-01

    Glacial runoff is an important source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for downstream heterotrophic activity, despite the low overall DOC concentrations. This is because of the abundance of bioavailable, low molecular weight (LMW) DOC species. However, the provenance and character of LMW-DOC is not fully understood. We investigated the abundance and composition of DOC in subglacial environments via a molecular level DOC analysis of basal ice, which forms by water/sediment freeze-on to the glacier sole. Spectrofluorometry and a novel ion chromatographic method, which has been little utilised in glacial science for LMW-DOC determinations, were employed to identify and quantify the major LMW fractions (free amino acids, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids) in basal ice from four glaciers, each with a different basal debris type. Basal ice from Joyce Glacier (Antarctica) was unique in that 98 % of the LMW-DOC was derived from the extremely diverse FAA pool, comprising 14 FAAs. LMW-DOC concentrations in basal ice were dependent on the bioavailability of the overridden organic carbon (OC), which in turn, was influenced by the type of overridden material. Mean LMW-DOC concentrations in basal ice from Russell Glacier (Greenland), Finsterwalderbreen (Svalbard) and Engabreen (Norway) were low (0-417 nM C), attributed to the relatively refractory nature of the OC in the overridden paleosols and bedrock. In contrast, mean LMW-DOC concentrations were an order of magnitude higher (4430 nM C) in basal ice from Joyce Glacier, a reflection of the high bioavailability of the overridden lacustrine material (>17 % of the sediment OC comprised extractable carbohydrates, a proxy for bioavailable OC). We find that the overridden material may act as a direct (via abiotic leaching) and indirect (via microbial cycling) source of DOC to the subglacial environment and provides a range of LMW-DOC compounds that may stimulate microbial activity in wet sediments in current subglacial

  2. A nanostructural investigation of glassy gelatin oligomers: molecular organization and interactions with low molecular weight diluents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussenova, M.; Enrione, J.; Diaz-Calderon, P.; Taylor, A. J.; Ubbink, J.; Alam, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effects of low molecular weight diluents (namely water and glycerol) on the nanostructure and thermodynamic state of low water content gelatin matrices are explored systematically by combining positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) with calorimetric measurements. Bovine gelatin matrices with a variation in the glycerol content (0-10 wt.%) are equilibrated in a range of water activities (aw = 0.11-0.68, T = 298 K). Both water and glycerol reduce the glass transition temperature, Tg, and the temperature of dissociation of the ordered triple helical segments, Tm, while having no significant effect on the level of re-naturation of the gelatin matrices. Our PALS measurements show that over the concentration range studied, glycerol acts as a packing enhancer and in the glassy state it causes a nonlinear decrease in the average hole size, vh, of the gelatin matrices. Finally, we report complex changes in vh for the gelatin matrices as a function of the increasing level of hydration. At low water contents (Qw ˜ 0.01-0.10), water acts as a plasticizer, causing a systematic increase in vh. Conversely, for water contents higher than Qw ˜ 0.10, vh is found to decrease, as small clusters of water begin to form between the polypeptide chains.

  3. Evolutionary Design of Low Molecular Weight Organic Anolyte Materials for Applications in Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sevov, Christo S; Brooner, Rachel E M; Chénard, Etienne; Assary, Rajeev S; Moore, Jeffrey S; Rodríguez-López, Joaquín; Sanford, Melanie S

    2015-11-18

    The integration of renewable energy sources into the electric grid requires low-cost energy storage systems that mediate the variable and intermittent flux of energy associated with most renewables. Nonaqueous redox-flow batteries have emerged as a promising technology for grid-scale energy storage applications. Because the cost of the system scales with mass, the electroactive materials must have a low equivalent weight (ideally 150 g/(mol·e(-)) or less), and must function with low molecular weight supporting electrolytes such as LiBF4. However, soluble anolyte materials that undergo reversible redox processes in the presence of Li-ion supports are rare. We report the evolutionary design of a series of pyridine-based anolyte materials that exhibit up to two reversible redox couples at low potentials in the presence of Li-ion supporting electrolytes. A combination of cyclic voltammetry of anolyte candidates and independent synthesis of their corresponding charged-states was performed to rapidly screen for the most promising candidates. Results of this workflow provided evidence for possible decomposition pathways of first-generation materials and guided synthetic modifications to improve the stability of anolyte materials under the targeted conditions. This iterative process led to the identification of a promising anolyte material, N-methyl 4-acetylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate. This compound is soluble in nonaqueous solvents, is prepared in a single synthetic step, has a low equivalent weight of 111 g/(mol·e(-)), and undergoes two reversible 1e(-) reductions in the presence of LiBF4 to form reduced products that are stable over days in solution.

  4. Characterization of the organic component of low-molecular-weight chromium-binding substance and its binding of chromium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Watson, Heather M; Gao, Junjie; Sinha, Sarmistha Halder; Cassady, Carolyn J; Vincent, John B

    2011-07-01

    Chromium was proposed to be an essential element over 50 y ago and was shown to have therapeutic potential in treating the symptoms of type 2 diabetes; however, its mechanism of action at a molecular level is unknown. One chromium-binding biomolecule, low-molecular weight chromium-binding substance (LMWCr or chromodulin), has been found to be biologically active in in vitro assays and proposed as a potential candidate for the in vivo biologically active form of chromium. Characterization of the organic component of LMWCr has proven difficult. Treating bovine LMWCr with trifluoroacetic acid followed by purification on a graphite powder micro-column generates a heptapeptide fragment of LMWCr. The peptide sequence of the fragment was analyzed by MS and tandem MS (MS/MS and MS/MS/MS) using collision-induced dissociation and post-source decay. Two candidate sequences, pEEEEGDD and pEEEGEDD (where pE is pyroglutamate), were identified from the MS/MS experiments; additional tandem MS suggests the sequence is pEEEEGDD. The N-terminal glutamate residues explain the inability to sequence LMWCr by the Edman method. Langmuir isotherms and Hill plots were used to analyze the binding constants of chromic ions to synthetic peptides similar in composition to apoLMWCr. The sequence pEEEEGDD was found to bind 4 chromic ions per peptide with nearly identical cooperativity and binding constants to those of apoLMWCr. This work should lead to further studies elucidating or eliminating a potential role for LMWCr in treating the symptoms of type 2 diabetes and other conditions resulting from improper carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

  5. Characterization of the Organic Component of Low-Molecular-Weight Chromium-Binding Substance and Its Binding of Chromium123

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan; Watson, Heather M.; Gao, Junjie; Sinha, Sarmistha Halder; Cassady, Carolyn J.; Vincent, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Chromium was proposed to be an essential element over 50 y ago and was shown to have therapeutic potential in treating the symptoms of type 2 diabetes; however, its mechanism of action at a molecular level is unknown. One chromium-binding biomolecule, low-molecular weight chromium-binding substance (LMWCr or chromodulin), has been found to be biologically active in in vitro assays and proposed as a potential candidate for the in vivo biologically active form of chromium. Characterization of the organic component of LMWCr has proven difficult. Treating bovine LMWCr with trifluoroacetic acid followed by purification on a graphite powder micro-column generates a heptapeptide fragment of LMWCr. The peptide sequence of the fragment was analyzed by MS and tandem MS (MS/MS and MS/MS/MS) using collision-induced dissociation and post-source decay. Two candidate sequences, pEEEEGDD and pEEEGEDD (where pE is pyroglutamate), were identified from the MS/MS experiments; additional tandem MS suggests the sequence is pEEEEGDD. The N-terminal glutamate residues explain the inability to sequence LMWCr by the Edman method. Langmuir isotherms and Hill plots were used to analyze the binding constants of chromic ions to synthetic peptides similar in composition to apoLMWCr. The sequence pEEEEGDD was found to bind 4 chromic ions per peptide with nearly identical cooperativity and binding constants to those of apoLMWCr. This work should lead to further studies elucidating or eliminating a potential role for LMWCr in treating the symptoms of type 2 diabetes and other conditions resulting from improper carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. PMID:21593351

  6. Identification and analysis of low-molecular-weight dissolved organic carbon in subglacial basal ice ecosystems by ion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Emily C.; Wadham, Jemma L.; Lis, Grzegorz P.; Tranter, Martyn; Pickard, Amy E.; Stibal, Marek; Dewsbury, Paul; Fitzsimons, Sean

    2016-07-01

    Determining the concentration and composition of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in glacial ecosystems is important for assessments of in situ microbial activity and contributions to wider biogeochemical cycles. Nonetheless, there is limited knowledge of the abundance and character of DOC in basal ice and the subglacial environment and a lack of quantitative data on low-molecular-weight (LMW) DOC components, which are believed to be highly bioavailable to microorganisms. We investigated the abundance and composition of DOC in basal ice via a molecular-level DOC analysis. Spectrofluorometry and a novel ion chromatographic method, which has been little utilized in glacial science for LMW-DOC determinations, were employed to identify and quantify the major LMW fractions (free amino acids, carbohydrates, and carboxylic acids) in basal ice from four glaciers, each with a different type of overridden material (i.e. the pre-entrainment sedimentary type such as lacustrine material or palaeosols). Basal ice from Joyce Glacier (Antarctica) was unique in that 98 % of the LMW-DOC was derived from the extremely diverse free amino acid (FAA) pool, comprising 14 FAAs. LMW-DOC concentrations in basal ice were dependent on the bioavailability of the overridden organic carbon (OC), which in turn was influenced by the type of overridden material. Mean LMW-DOC concentrations in basal ice from Russell Glacier (Greenland), Finsterwalderbreen (Svalbard), and Engabreen (Norway) were low (0-417 nM C), attributed to the relatively refractory nature of the OC in the overridden palaeosols and bedrock. In contrast, mean LMW-DOC concentrations were an order of magnitude higher (4430 nM C) in basal ice from Joyce Glacier, a reflection of the high bioavailability of the overridden lacustrine material (> 17 % of the sediment OC comprised extractable carbohydrates, a proxy for bioavailable OC). We find that the overridden material may act as a direct (via abiotic leaching) and indirect (via

  7. Investigation of Changes in the Microscopic Structure of Anionic Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-Acrylic acid) Microgels in the Presence of Cationic Organic Dyes toward Precisely Controlled Uptake/Release of Low-Molecular-Weight Chemical Compound.

    PubMed

    Kureha, Takuma; Shibamoto, Takahisa; Matsui, Shusuke; Sato, Takaaki; Suzuki, Daisuke

    2016-05-10

    Changes in a microscopic structure of an anionic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) microgel were investigated using small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS). The scattering profiles of the microgels were analyzed in a wide scattering vector (q) range of 0.07 ≤ q/nm(-1) ≤ 20. In particular, the microscopic structure of the microgel in the presence of a cationic dye rhodamine 6G (R6G) was characterized in terms of its correlation length (ξ), which represents the length scale of the spatial correlation of the network density fluctuations, and characteristic distance (d*), which originated from the local packing of isopropyl groups of two neighboring chains. In the presence of cationic R6G, ξ exhibited a divergent-like behavior, which was not seen in the absence of R6G, and d* was decreased with decreasing the volume of the microgel upon increasing temperature. At the same time, the amount of R6G adsorbed per unit mass of the microgel increased upon heating. These results suggested that a coil-to-globule transition of the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) chains in the present anionic microgel occurred because of efficiently screened, thus, short ranged electrostatic repulsion between the charged groups, and hydrophobic interaction between the isopropyl groups in the presence of cationic R6G. The combination of hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the cationic dye and the microgel affected the separation and volume transition behavior of the microgel.

  8. Fluorescent properties of low-molecular-weight fractions from chernozem humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trubetskoi, O. A.; Demin, D. V.; Trubetskaya, O. E.

    2013-10-01

    The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of chernozem humic acids (HAs) followed by ultraviolet detection (λ = 312 nm) has revealed a new highly fluorescent fraction that has the highest electrophoretic mobility and the lowest nominal molecular weight (NMW). The preparative isolation of the fraction has been performed using the multiple microfiltration of the same HA sample in a 7 M carbamide solution on a membrane with a nominal pore size of 5 kDa. Thirty ultrafiltrates with NMW < 5 kDa and different fluorescence maximums in the region of 475-505 nm have been prepared, as well as a nonfluorescent concentrate with NMW > 5 kDa. Fluorescence maximums at and below 490 nm have been noted only in the first four ultrafiltrates. All the ultrafiltrates have been combined into the fraction with NMW < 5 kDa, which has been successively passed through membranes of 3 and 1 kDa. Solutions of subfractions F 3-5 kDa, F 1-3 kDa, and F < 1 kDa with fluorescence maximums at 505, 488, and 465 nm, respectively, have been prepared. The F < 1 kDa subfraction with the lowest NMW had the highest fluorescence intensity. The distribution of the fluorescence maximums in the ultrafiltrates has indicated the presence of at least two groups of fluorophores and has confirmed the supramolecular organization of the extracted soil HAs.

  9. Low-Molecular Weight Carboxylic Acids in Gas Phase in a Developing Megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khwaja, H. A.; Saied, S.; Hussain, M. M.; Siddique, A.; Butts, C.; Kamran, S. S.; Khan, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    Carboxylic acids are amongst the plethora of pollutants that are currently ubiquitous in the environment. Molecular distributions of carboxylic acids have been studied in the atmosphere of the developing mega city Karachi, Pakistan. As a region the city is experiencing industrial and population growth at an unparallel rate. Karachi served as a great focal point to observe the effects of industrial development on a growing city and how it contributes to the progression of environmental pollution. Results indicate that acetic and formic acids are important components of the Karachi atmosphere. The most abundant acids, by a substantial margin, were acetic acid and formic acid, with concentrations of 0.70 - 14.2 ppb and 0.82 - 11.0 ppb, respectively. On the average acetic acid levels exceeded those of formic acid. Concentrations of propionic acid, pyruvic acid, and glyoxalic acid ranged 0.03 - 1.41, 0.01 - 0.28, and 0.02 - 0.14 ppb, respectively. The gaseous acids showed diurnal cycles, with higher mixing ratios during nighttime. Compared with other metropolitans in the world, the level of acetic and formic acid concentration of Karachi is much higher. The ratio of formic to acetic acid was used to distinguish primary sources from secondary sources. A mean ratio of 0.85 was found. A positive correlation (r = 0.65 - 0.94) was observed between the acid concentrations suggesting that they have similar sources. Carboxylic acid concentrations appear to arise both from direct emissions and from atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons.

  10. Utilization of low molecular weight organics by soil microorganisms: combination of 13C-labelling with PLFA analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunina, Anna; Dippold, Michaela; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Microbial metabolisation is the main transformation pathway of low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS), but detailed knowledge concerning the fate of LMWOS in soils is strongly limited. Considering that various LMWOS classes enter biochemical cycles at different steps, we hypothesise that the percentage of their LMWOS-Carbon (C) used for microbial biomass (MB) production and consequently medium-term stabilisation in soil is different. We traced the three main groups of LMWOS: amino acids, sugars and carboxylic acids, by uniformly labelled 13C-alanine, -glutamate, -glucose, -ribose, -acetate and -palmitate. Incorporation of 13C from these LMWOS into MB (fumigation-extraction method) and into phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) (Bligh-Dyer extraction, purification and GC-C-IRMS measurement) was investigated under field conditions 3 d and 10 d after LMWOS application. The activity of microbial utilization of LMWOS for cell membrane construction was estimated by replacement of PLFA-C with 13C. Decomposition of LMWOS-C comprised 20-65% of the total label, whereas incorporation of 13C into MB amounted to 20-50% of initially applied 13C on day three and was reduced to 5-30% on day 10. Incorporation of 13C-labelled LMWOS into MB followed the trend sugars > carboxylic acids > amino acids. Differences in microbial utilisation between LMWOS were observed mainly at day 10. Thus, instead of initial rapid uptake, further metabolism within microbial cells accounts for the individual fate of C from different LMWOS in soils. Incorporation of 13C from each LMWOS into each PLFA occurred, which reflects the ubiquitous ability of all functional microbial groups for LMWOS utilization. The preferential incorporation of palmitate can be attributed to its role as a direct precursor for many fatty acids (FAs) and PLFA formation. Higher incorporation of alanine and glucose compared to glutamate, ribose and acetate reflect the preferential use of glycolysis-derived substances in the FAs

  11. Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) of low molecular weight organic compounds and synthetic polymers using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takehiro; Kawasaki, Hideya; Yonezawa, Tetsu; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2008-08-01

    We have developed surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with anisotropic shapes (ZnO-SALDI-MS). The mass spectra showed low background noises in the low m/z, i.e. less than 500 u region. Thus, we succeeded in SALDI ionization on low molecular weight organic compounds, such as verapamil hydrochloride, testosterone, and polypropylene glycol (PPG) (average molecular weight 400) without using a liquid matrix or buffers such as citric acids. In addition, we found that ZnO-SALDI has advantages in post-source decay (PSD) analysis and produced a simple mass spectrum for phospholipids. The ZnO-SALDI spectra for synthetic polymers of polyethylene glycol (PEG), polystyrene (PS) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) showed the sensitivity and molecular weight distribution to be comparable to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) spectra with a 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) matrix. ZnO-SALDI shows good performance for synthetic polymers as well as low molecular weight organic compounds. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. THE MECHANISM OF OXIDATION OF LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AT PLATINUM ELECTRODES IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Cyclic voltammetry , chronopot iometry, potential decay, and controlled potential oxidation were used. A new method for studying the kinetic order of electrode reactions was used. At low organic-compound concentrations, the rate of electrolytic oxidation of the organic compound is first order with respect to the concentration of the organic compound and first order with respect to the surface area of the electrode; at higher concentrations, an equilibrium reaction is observed. It w s concluded that his equilibrium reaction is adsorption of the organic molecules on the

  13. Low molecular weight chemicals, hypersensitivity, and direct toxicity: the acid anhydrides.

    PubMed Central

    Venables, K M

    1989-01-01

    The acid anhydrides are a group of reactive chemicals used widely in alkyd and epoxy resins. The major hazards to health are mucosal and skin irritation and sensitisation of the respiratory tract. Most occupational asthma caused by acid anhydrides appears to be immunologically mediated. Immunological mechanisms have been proposed to explain an influenza-like syndrome and pulmonary haemorrhage, but direct toxicity may also be important in the aetiology of these conditions. PMID:2653411

  14. Characterising low molecular weight dissolved organic carbon compounds in subglacial systems; implications for subglacial metabolic activity and potential downstream export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Emily; Wadham, Jemma; Lis, Grzegorz; Telling, Jon

    2010-05-01

    Glaciers and ice sheets represent ~10% of the contemporary global surface coverage, yet remain one of the least explored sectors of the Earth's biosphere. The basal regions of these ice masses, known as subglacial environments, are capable of harbouring a diverse range of microorganisms that are often metabolically active despite the lack of sunlight, the cold temperatures and nutrient scarcity. Here, we consider the potential for such environments to be active components of the Earth's biogeochemical cycles. Subglacial environments have traditionally been excluded from global carbon budgets because they were assumed to be predominantly abiotic. Organic carbon (OC) reservoirs and transformations were also believed to be limited. However, significant stores of bioavailable carbon are thought to be present in glacially-overridden material, providing a potential substrate for in situ microbial metabolism. We examine the molecular characteristics of dissolved OC in basal ice and subglacial runoff from two glacier/ice-sheet systems with contrasting organic carbon substrates; Russell/Leverett Glacier, Greenland ice sheet, and Engabreen, Norway, to determine the range of dissolved low molecular weight OC (LMWOC) compounds and their relative bioavailability. Overridden material beneath the Greenland ice sheet is relatively young and organic-rich, contrasting with the older crystalline bedrock/continental shield that was overridden during glaciation at Engabreen. We first utilise a combination of fluorescence spectroscopy and ion chromatography to identify and quantify volatile fatty acids, carbohydrates and amino acids in basal ice. Volatile fatty acids are key metabolic substrates and their provision is thought to be a primary control on subglacial metabolic activity. We then provide a temporal record of amino acids and carbohydrates in subglacial runoff from Leverett Glacier (June 23rd - August 18th 2009), and compare this with subglacial runoff from Engabreen (2008 melt

  15. Carbon isotope composition of low molecular weight hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, G.; Blair, N.; Des Marais, D. J.; Chang, S.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon isotopic compositions have been measured for individual hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from the Murchison meteorite, a C2 carbonaceous chondrite which fell in Australia in 1969. With few exceptions, notably benzene, the volatile products are substantially isotopically heavier than their terrestrial counterparts, signifying their extraterrestrial origin. For both classes of compounds, the ratio of C-13 to C-12 decreases with increasing carbon number in a roughly parallel manner, and each carboxylic acid exhibits a higher isotopic ratio than the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms. These trends are consistent with the kinetically controlled synthesis of higher homologues from lower ones. The results suggest the possibility that the production mechanisms for hydrocarbons and carboxylic acids may be similar, and impose constraints on the identity of the reactant species.

  16. Chitosan grafted low molecular weight polylactic acid for protein encapsulation and burst effect reduction.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Antonio; Kucharczyk, Pavel; Zednik, Jiri; Sedlarik, Vladimir

    2015-12-30

    Chitosan and chitosan-grafted polylactic acid as a matrix for BSA encapsulation in a nanoparticle structure were prepared through a polyelectrolyte complexation method with dextran sulfate. Polylactic acid was synthetized via a polycondensation reaction using the non-metal-based initiator methanesulfonic acid and grafted to the chitosan backbone by a coupling reaction, with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide as the condensing agent. The effect of concentration of the polymer matrix utilized herein on particle diameter, ζ-potential, encapsulation efficiency, and the release kinetic of the model protein bovine serum albumin at differing pH levels was investigated. The influence of pH and ionic strength on the behavior of the nanoparticles prepared was also researched. Results showed that grafting polylactic acid to chitosan chains reduced the initial burst effect in the kinetics of BSA release from the structure of the nanoparticles. Furthermore, a rise in encapsulation efficiency of the bovine serum albumin and diminishment in nanoparticle diameter were observed due to chitosan modification. The results suggest that both polymers actually show appreciable encapsulation efficiency; and release rate of BSA. CS-g-PLA is more suitable than unmodified CS as a carrier for controlled protein delivery.

  17. Low Molecular Weight Carboxylic Acids in the Sea. Photooxidative Production and Biological Cycling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-25

    scientist) were conducted on the R/V Iselin (cruise # CI-8ain and CI- 8703) in the central Sargasso Sea. SOLARS 1 (R. Zika , chieforh hi scientist) was also...photochemical experiments with Rod Zika can be carried out. 6. We have begun to determine action spectra (wavelength dependence of the apparent...quantum yield) for the photoproduction of alpha keto acids in seawater. This work is being done cooperatively with Rod Zika . 14 7. Using C-labelled

  18. Organic molecules in the atmosphere of Jupiter. [low molecular weight hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponnamperuma, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    Organic synthesis in the primitive solar system was simulated by Fischer Tropsch type experiments. Particular attention was given to the formation of lower molecular weight hydrocarbons. In a gas flow experiment, a gas mixture of H2 and CO was introduced into a heated reaction tube at a constant flow rate and passed through a catalyst (powdered Canyon Diablo). The products that emerged were directly analyzed by gas chromatography. The results of 21 runs under various gas mixing rations, reaction temperatures, and gas-catalyst contact times showed the predominance of the saturated hydrocarbon formation at C sub 4 and C sub 5 over the unsaturated ones. Saturate/unsaturate ratios were mostly less than 0.4 and none showed over 0.7.

  19. Lipoic acid modified low molecular weight polyethylenimine mediates nontoxic and highly potent in vitro gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Meng; Zhong, Yinan; Meng, Fenghua; Peng, Rui; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2011-12-05

    The clinical success of gene therapy intimately relies on the development of safe and efficient gene carrier systems. We found here that 1.8 kDa polyethylenimine (PEI) following hydrophobic modification with lipoic acid (LA) mediated nontoxic and highly potent in vitro gene transfection in both HeLa and 293T cells. 1.8 kDa PEI-LA conjugates were prepared with controlled degree of substitution (DS) by coupling LA to PEI using carbodiimide chemistry. Gel electrophoresis measurements showed that the DNA binding ability of 1.8 kDa PEI was impaired by lipoylation, in which an N/P ratio of 2/1 and 4-6/1 was required for 1.8 kDa PEI and 1.8 kDa PEI-LA conjugates, respectively, to completely inhibit DNA migration. Interestingly, dynamic light scattering measurements (DLS) revealed that PEI-LA conjugates condensed DNA into much smaller sizes (183-84 nm) than unmodified 1.8 kDa PEI (444-139 nm) at N/P ratios ranging from 20/1 to 60/1. These polyplexes revealed similar surface charges of ca. +22 to +30 mV. 1.8 kDa PEI-LA(2) polyplexes formed at an N/P ratio of 10/1 were stable against exchange with 12-fold excess of negatively charged dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) relative to DNA phosphate groups while 1.8 kDa PEI controls dissociated at 6-fold excess of DSS, indicating that lipoylation of 1.8 kDa PEI resulted in stronger binding with DNA. Importantly, DNA was released from 1.8 kDa PEI-LA(2) polyplexes upon addition of 10 mM dithiothreitol (DTT). Reduction-triggered unpacking of 1.8 kDa PEI-LA(2) polyplexes was also confirmed by DLS. MTT assays demonstrated that all PEI-LA conjugates and polyplexes were essentially nontoxic to HeLa and 293T cells up to a tested concentration of 50 μg/mL and an N/P ratio of 80/1, respectively. The in vitro gene transfection studies in HeLa and 293T cells showed that lipoylation of 1.8 kDa PEI markedly boosted its transfection activity. For example, 1.8 kDa PEI-LA(2) polyplexes displayed 400-fold and 500-fold higher levels of gene expression

  20. Low Molecular Weight PEI-Based Vectors via Acid-Labile Ortho Ester Linkage for Improved Gene Delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Yu, Min; Wang, Jun; Tang, Rupei; Yan, Guoqing; Yao, Weijing; Wang, Xin

    2016-08-01

    A series of novel pH-sensitive gene delivery vectors (POEI 1, 2, and 3) are synthesized through Michael addition from low molecular weight PEI (LMW PEI) via acid-labile ortho ester linkage with terminal acrylates (OEAc) by various feed molar ratios. The obtained POEI 1 and POEI 2 can efficiently condense plasmid DNA into nanoparticles with size range of 200-300 nm and zeta-potentials of about +15 mV while protecting DNA from enzymatic digestion compared with POEI 3. Significantly, ortho ester groups of POEI main-chains can make an instantaneous degradation-response to acidic endosomal pH (≈5.0), resulting in accelerated disruption of polyplexes and intracellular DNA release. MTT assay reveals that all POEIs exhibit much lower cytotoxicity in different cells than branched PEI (25 KDa). As expected, POEI 1 and POEI 2 perform improved gene transfection in vitro, suggesting that such polycations might be promising gene vectors based on overcoming toxicity-efficiency contradiction.

  1. Analysis of low molecular weight acids by monolithic immobilized pH gradient-based capillary isoelectric focusing coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Fekete, Agnes; Gaspar, Andras; Ma, Junfeng; Liang, Zhen; Yuan, Huiming; Zhang, Lihua; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Zhang, Yukui

    2011-02-01

    A novel method for the separation and detection of low molecular weight (LMW) acids was developed using monolithic immobilized pH gradient-based capillary isoelectric focusing coupled with mass spectrometry. Two main parameters, focusing conditions and delivery buffer conditions, which might affect separation efficiency, were optimized with the focusing time of 7 min at 350 V/cm and the delivery buffer of 50% (v/v) acetonitrile in 10 mmol/L ammonium formate (pH 3.0). Under these conditions, the linear correlation between the volume of delivery solvent and the pK(a) of the model components was observed. In addition, the separation mechanism of LMW acids was proposed as well. We suppose that this method may provide a useful tool for the characterization of LMW components (e.g. natural organic matter of different origins). Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Anti-angiogenic activity and antitumor efficacy of amphiphilic twin drug from ursolic acid and low molecular weight heparin.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wenming; Dahmani, Fatima Zohra; Zhang, Juan; Xiong, Hui; Wu, Yuanyuan; Yin, Lifang; Zhou, Jianping; Yao, Jing

    2017-02-17

    Heparin, a potential blood anti-coagulant, is also known for its binding ability to several angiogenic factors through electrostatic interactions due to its polyanionic character. However, the clinical application of heparin for cancer treatment is limited by several drawbacks, such as unsatisfactory therapeutic effects and severe anticoagulant activity that could induce hemorrhaging. Herein, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) was conjugated to ursolic acid (UA), which is also an angiogenesis inhibitor, by binding the amine group of aminoethyl-UA (UA-NH2) with the carboxylic groups of LMWH. The resulting LMWH-UA conjugate as an amphiphilic twin drug showed reduced anticoagulant activity and could also self-assemble into nanomicelles with a mean particle size ranging from 200-250 nm. An in vitro endothelial tubular formation assay and an in vivo Matrigel plug assay were performed to verify the anti-angiogenic potential of LMWH-UA. Meanwhile, the in vivo antitumor effect of LMWH-UA was also evaluated using a B16F10 mouse melanoma model. LMWH-UA nanomicelles were shown to inhibit angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the i.v. administration of LMWH-UA to the B16F10 tumor-bearing mice resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth as compared to the free drug solutions. These findings demonstrate the therapeutic potential of LMWH-UA as a new therapeutic remedy for cancer therapy.

  3. A Delicate Balance When Substituting a Small Hydrophobe onto Low Molecular Weight Polyethylenimine to Improve Its Nucleic Acid Delivery Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Meneksedag-Erol, Deniz; KC, Remant Bahadur; Tang, Tian; Uludağ, Hasan

    2015-11-11

    High molecular weight (HMW) polyethylenimine (PEI) is one of the most versatile nonviral gene vectors that was extensively investigated over the past two decades. The cytotoxic profile of HMW PEI, however, encouraged a search for safer alternatives. Because of lack of cytotoxicity of low molecular weight (LMW) PEI, enhancing its performance via hydrophobic modifications has been pursued to this end. Since the performance of modified PEIs depends on the nature and extent of substituents, we systematically investigated the effect of hydrophobic modification of LMW (1.2 kDa) PEI with a short propionic acid (PrA). Moderate enhancements in PEI hydrophobicity resulted in enhanced cellular uptake of polyplexes and siRNA-induced silencing efficacy, whereas further increase in PrA substitution abolished the uptake as well as the silencing. We performed all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the mechanistic details behind these observations. A new assembly mechanism was observed by the presence of hydrophobic PrA moieties, where PrA migrated to core of the polyplex. This phenomenon caused higher surface hydrophobicity and surface charge density at low substitutions, and it caused deleterious effects on surface hydrophobicity and cationic charge at higher substitutions. It is evident that an optimal balance of hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity is needed to achieve the desired polyplex properties for an efficient siRNA delivery, and our mechanistic findings should provide valuable insights for the design of improved substituents on nonviral carriers.

  4. Anti-angiogenic activity and antitumor efficacy of amphiphilic twin drug from ursolic acid and low molecular weight heparin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wenming; Zohra Dahmani, Fatima; Zhang, Juan; Xiong, Hui; Wu, Yuanyuan; Yin, Lifang; Zhou, Jianping; Yao, Jing

    2017-02-01

    Heparin, a potential blood anti-coagulant, is also known for its binding ability to several angiogenic factors through electrostatic interactions due to its polyanionic character. However, the clinical application of heparin for cancer treatment is limited by several drawbacks, such as unsatisfactory therapeutic effects and severe anticoagulant activity that could induce hemorrhaging. Herein, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) was conjugated to ursolic acid (UA), which is also an angiogenesis inhibitor, by binding the amine group of aminoethyl-UA (UA-NH2) with the carboxylic groups of LMWH. The resulting LMWH-UA conjugate as an amphiphilic twin drug showed reduced anticoagulant activity and could also self-assemble into nanomicelles with a mean particle size ranging from 200-250 nm. An in vitro endothelial tubular formation assay and an in vivo Matrigel plug assay were performed to verify the anti-angiogenic potential of LMWH-UA. Meanwhile, the in vivo antitumor effect of LMWH-UA was also evaluated using a B16F10 mouse melanoma model. LMWH-UA nanomicelles were shown to inhibit angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the i.v. administration of LMWH-UA to the B16F10 tumor-bearing mice resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth as compared to the free drug solutions. These findings demonstrate the therapeutic potential of LMWH-UA as a new therapeutic remedy for cancer therapy.

  5. Lake secondary production fueled by rapid transfer of low molecular weight organic carbon from terrestrial sources to aquatic consumers.

    PubMed

    Berggren, M; Ström, L; Laudon, H; Karlsson, J; Jonsson, A; Giesler, R; Bergström, A-K; Jansson, M

    2010-07-01

    Carbon of terrestrial origin often makes up a significant share of consumer biomass in unproductive lake ecosystems. However, the mechanisms for terrestrial support of lake secondary production are largely unclear. By using a modelling approach, we show that terrestrial export of dissolved labile low molecular weight carbon (LMWC) compounds supported 80% (34-95%), 54% (19-90%) and 23% (7-45%) of the secondary production by bacteria, protozoa and metazoa, respectively, in a 7-km(2) boreal lake (conservative to liberal estimates in brackets). Bacterial growth on LMWC was of similar magnitude as that of primary production (PP), and grazing on bacteria effectively channelled the LMWC carbon to higher trophic levels. We suggest that rapid turnover of forest LMWC pools enables continuous export of fresh photosynthates and other labile metabolites to aquatic systems, and that substantial transfer of LMWC from terrestrial sources to lake consumers can occur within a few days. Sequestration of LMWC of terrestrial origin, thus, helps explain high shares of terrestrial carbon in lake organisms and implies that lake food webs can be closely dependent on recent terrestrial PP.

  6. Molecular characterization of low molecular weight dissolved organic matter in water reclamation processes using Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Phungsai, Phanwatt; Kurisu, Futoshi; Kasuga, Ikuro; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    Reclaimed water has recently become an important water source for urban use, but the composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in reclaimed water has rarely been characterized at the compound level because of its complexity. In this study, the transformation and changes in composition of low molecular weight DOM in water reclamation processes, where secondary effluent of the municipal wastewater treatment plant was further treated by biofiltration, ozonation and chlorination, were investigated by "unknown" screening analysis using Orbitrap mass spectrometry (Orbitrap MS). The intense ions were detected over an m/z range from 100 to 450. In total, 2412 formulae with various heteroatoms were assigned, and formulae with carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) only and C, H, O and sulfur (S) were the most abundant species. During biofiltration, CHO-only compounds with relatively high hydrogen to carbon (H/C) ratio or with saturated structure were preferentially removed, while CHOS compounds were mostly removed. Ozonation induced the greatest changes in DOM composition. CHOS compounds were mostly decreased after ozonation while ozone selectively removed CHO compounds with relatively unsaturated structure and produced compounds that were more saturated and with a higher degree of oxidation. After chlorination, 168 chlorine-containing formulae, chlorinated disinfection by-products (DBPs), were additionally detected. Candidate DBP precursors were determined by tracking chlorinated DBPs formed via electrophilic substitution, half of which were generated during the ozonation.

  7. Proton play in the formation of low molecular weight chitosan (LWCS) by hydrolyzing chitosan with a carbon based solid acid.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, R Akhil; Deshmukh, Pranjal; Agarwal, Siddharth; Purohit, Poorvi; Dhoble, Deepa; Waske, Prashant; Khandekar, Dileep; Jain, Ratnesh; Dandekar, Prajakta

    2016-10-20

    Low molecular weight chitosan (LWCS) constitute a special class of value added chemicals that are primarily obtained from crustacean shells, which are the main water pollutants from crabs and shrimp processing centers. Unlike chitin and chitosan, LWCS possess improved solubility in water and aqueous solutions, making them widely applicable in numerous fields ranging from drug delivery to waste water treatment. Among the methods employed for their production, chemical breakdown by strong liquid acids has yielded good success. However, this method is met with severe concerns arising from the harsh nature of liquid acids, which may corrode the reactors for commercial synthesis, and their limited reusability. The physical methods like ultrasound and microwave are energy intensive in nature, while the enzymatic methods are expensive and offers limited scope for reuse. We have attempted to overcome these problems by employing carbon based solid acid (CSA) for hydrolyzing chitosan to LWCS. CSA can be easily produced using activated carbon, a cost-effective and easily available raw material. Reactions were carried out between chitosan and CSA in a hydrothermal glass reactor and the products, separated by cold centrifugation, were purified and dried. The dried products were characterized for their molecular weight and solubility. Results indicated more than ten-fold decrease in the molecular weight of chitosan and the product exhibited water solubility. The CSA could be used upto four times, without regeneration, to give a consistent quality product. The aqueous solution of resulting LWCS exhibited a pH of 6.03±0.11, as against the acidic pH range of solutions of commercially available LWCS, indicating its suitability for biomedical applications. Our investigation facilitates a 'green approach' that may be employed for commercial production of value added chemicals from waste products of marine industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. New Insights into the Organization, Recombination, Expression and Functional Mechanism of Low Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit Genes in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Huajie; Sun, Jiazhu; Zhang, Zhongjuan; Qin, Huanju; Li, Bin; Hao, Shanting; Li, Zhensheng; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Aimin; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2010-01-01

    The bread-making quality of wheat is strongly influenced by multiple low molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) proteins expressed in the seeds. However, the organization, recombination and expression of LMW-GS genes and their functional mechanism in bread-making are not well understood. Here we report a systematic molecular analysis of LMW-GS genes located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci (Glu-A3, B3 and D3) of bread wheat using complementary approaches (genome wide characterization of gene members, expression profiling, proteomic analysis). Fourteen unique LMW-GS genes were identified for Xiaoyan 54 (with superior bread-making quality). Molecular mapping and recombination analyses revealed that the three Glu-3 loci of Xiaoyan 54 harbored dissimilar numbers of LMW-GS genes and covered different genetic distances. The number of expressed LMW-GS in the seeds was higher in Xiaoyan 54 than in Jing 411 (with relatively poor bread-making quality). This correlated with the finding of higher numbers of active LMW-GS genes at the A3 and D3 loci in Xiaoyan 54. Association analysis using recombinant inbred lines suggested that positive interactions, conferred by genetic combinations of the Glu-3 locus alleles with more numerous active LMW-GS genes, were generally important for the recombinant progenies to attain high Zeleny sedimentation value (ZSV), an important indicator of bread-making quality. A higher number of active LMW-GS genes tended to lead to a more elevated ZSV, although this tendency was influenced by genetic background. This work provides substantial new insights into the genomic organization and expression of LMW-GS genes, and molecular genetic evidence suggesting that these genes contribute quantitatively to bread-making quality in hexaploid wheat. Our analysis also indicates that selection for high numbers of active LMW-GS genes can be used for improvement of bread-making quality in wheat breeding. PMID:20975830

  9. The anthropogenic contribution to the organic load of the Lippe River (Germany). Part I: Qualitative characterisation of low-molecular weight organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Kronimus, Alexander; Littke, Ralf

    2004-12-01

    GC/MS-screening analyses of water samples from the Lippe River, Germany, revealed the presence of a wide spectrum of low-molecular weight organic compounds ranging from non-polar constituents like aliphatic hydrocarbons to polar constituents like n-carboxylic acids and phenols. Most of the identified compounds could be attributed to anthropogenic input and are used as plasticizers, flame retardants, pharmaceutical drugs or fragrances. Some of them had rarely been noticed as organic pollutants of aquatic environments before. These are, among others, 9-methylacridine, the plasticizer 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentandioldiisobutyrate (TXIB), the surfactant 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (TMDD), triphenylphosphinoxide and the flame retardant tris(chloropropyl)phosphate. On the other hand, most of the identified trialkyl phosphates, pharmaceutical drugs and synthetic fragrances have been reported in surface waters by several authors so far. Input pathways of the detected compounds were traced back by sampling various input sources of organic matter such as discharges of wastewater and Lippe River tributaries. Several contaminants were ubiquitous in Lippe River water and also occurred in sewage effluent from a municipal sewage treatment plant and in samples from the tributaries. This observation suggests that they are typical sewage derived contaminants and have the potential to be used as anthropogenic molecular markers.

  10. Influence of mineral characteristics on the retention of low molecular weight organic compounds: a batch sorption-desorption and ATR-FTIR study.

    PubMed

    Yeasmin, Sabina; Singh, Balwant; Kookana, Rai S; Farrell, Mark; Sparks, Donald L; Johnston, Cliff T

    2014-10-15

    Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the sorption-desorption behaviour of (14)C-labelled carboxylic acids (citric and oxalic) and amino acids (glutamic, alanine, phenylalanine and lysine) on pure minerals (kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, ferrihydrite and goethite). The sorption experiments were complemented by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to gain possible mechanistic insight into the organic acids-mineral interactions. In terms of charge, the organic solutes ranged from strongly negative (i.e., citric) to positively charged solutes (i.e., lysine); similarly the mineral phases also ranged from positively to negatively charged surfaces. In general, sorption of anionic carboxylic and glutamic acids was higher compared to the other compounds (except lysine). Cationic lysine showed a stronger affinity to permanently charged phyllosilicates than Fe oxides. The sorption of alanine and phenylalanine was consistently low for all minerals, with relatively higher sorption and lower desorption of phenylalanine than alanine. Overall, the role of carboxylic functional groups for the sorption and retention of these carboxylic and amino acids on Fe oxides (and kaolinite) and of amino group on 2:1 phyllosilicates was noticeable. Mineral properties (surface chemistry, specific surface area), chemistry of the organic compounds (pKa value, functional groups) and the equilibrium pH of the system together controlled the differences in sorption-desorption patterns. The results of this study aid to understand the effects of mineralogical and chemical factors that affect naturally occurring low molecular weight organic compounds sorption under field conditions.

  11. Influence of acetylsalicylic acid and low-molecular weight heparins on the formation of renal hematoma after shock wave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Schregel, Christoph; John, Hubert; Randazzo, Marco; Keller, Isabelle

    2017-07-12

    To investigate the risk of renal hematoma (RHT) after shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) among patients on acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). Retrospective analysis of 434 patients treated with SWL for nephrolithiasis and ureterolithiasis of the proximal ureter. Primary endpoint was detection of RHT by ultrasound the day after SWL. Secondary outcome variables included transfusion of erythrocyte concentrate(s), interventions, hospital readmission or death due to RHT within 30 days of SWL. Binary logistic regression analysis was used including a post hoc one-way analysis. Of 434 patients, 33 (7.6%) and 67 (15.4%) patients were medicated with ASA and LMWH, respectively. RHT was detected in 20 of 434 (4.6%) patients. Of those, 3 (20%) were on ASA, 6 (35%) were on LMWH, 1 (5%) was on ASA and LMWH, and 10 (50%) had no anticoagulation. Univariate analysis showed a statistically significant higher risk for RHT among patients on ASA (p = 0.04) and LWMH (p = 0.02) with an untreated urinary tract infection (UTI) (p = 0.008) and history of cardiovascular disease (p = 0.028). On multivariate analysis, ASA medication, untreated UTI (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.31-14.75, p = 0.016 and OR 5.79, 95% CI 1.65-20.32, p = 0.03) and a therapeutic dose of LMWH (OR 10.4, 95% CI 1.74-62.27, p = 0.01) were independent predictors for RHT. Before SWL, a patient risk profile should be evaluated. If feasible, LMWH in therapeutic dosing should be avoided, and ASA should be discontinued. UTI should be treated before SWL in any case. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov ; Identifier NCT02875717.

  12. [Activation of lymphocytes under the influence of an influenza vaccine combined with a low molecular weight germanium organic compound].

    PubMed

    Liashenko, V A; Akhmatova, N K; Ambrosov, I V; Matelo, S K; Akhmatov, É A; Sukhno, A S; Khomenkov, V G

    2012-01-01

    Confirmation of immunostimulating effect of an original low molecular weight germanium organic compound (LMW-GOC) during immunization of mice with Vaxigrip vaccine. The experiments were carried out in CBA mice divided into 4 groups: control, those that received Vaxigrip influenza vaccine intraperitoneally, those that received LMW-GOC intraperitoneally and those that received both preparations at once. Effect of the preparations administered was evaluated by flow cytofluorometry based on changes of CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD19, CD25, Foxp3, NK1.1, gammadelta T, MHC II, TLR2, TLR4, TLR9 expressing cell content in mice spleens. The content of the colored cells was determined at normal, 24 hours and 7 days after the administration of the preparations. Statistical treatment of the data was carried out by using Win MD 128 program package. LMW-GOC can enhance the effect of Vaxigrip vaccine that is expressed by an increase of content in spleen of some lymphocyte subpopulations 24 hours and 7 days after the intraperitoneal administration. In some cases LMW-GOC increases the content of some lymphocyte subpopulations in mice spleen after administration as a monopreparation, i.e. without the vaccine. LMW-GOC suppressed stimulating effect of the vaccine on the spleen content of various lymphocyte subpopulations in none of the observations. By using cytofluorometry method it is possible to form an understanding of an elevated role of various types of cells in the development of immune response to the vaccine as well as regarding additional enhancement of this response during administration of LMW-GOC to mice. The effect of the preparation is manifested for a few days after its administration. The preparation manifests adjuvant properties and after further studies may be suggested for use as an adjuvant.

  13. Hylan G-F 20 Versus Low Molecular Weight Hyaluronic Acids for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongmou; Liu, Hongliang; Liang, Xiaojun; Li, Yi; Wang, Junhu; Liu, Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Hyaluronic acid injection has been reported to decrease pain compared with baseline levels in knee joint osteoarthritis. Hylan G-F 20 is distinguished from the other products by its chemical structure and relatively higher molecular weight. Many trials have compared hylan G-F 20 and low molecular weight hyaluronic acids (LMWHAs); however, their relative efficacy and safety are still debated. The aim was to compare the effectiveness and safety of intra-articular injection of hylan G-F 20 and LMWHA in the treatment of knee joint osteoarthritis. A comprehensive search of the literature up to February 2016 was performed; multiple databases were searched with 'Synvisc' or 'hylan' or 'hyaluronan' as free word terms. The pain-related outcomes and treatment-related adverse events from intent-to-treat analyzed studies were pooled for meta-analysis; other functional outcomes were included in the qualitative analysis. Twenty trials with a total of 3034 patients and 3153 knees were included, with a pooled dropout rate of 7.2 %. The pooled pain-related outcomes at 2 to 3 months reached a statistically significant difference in favor of hylan G-F 20 (I (2) = 88 %; random effects; P = 0.02), and the significance still existed with exclusion (in order to eliminate heterogeneity) of the three studies that most favored hylan G-F 20 (I (2) = 51 %; fixed effect; P = 0.03). No significant difference was reached for other group and subgroup analyses. No significant difference was reached in comparing the patients with treatment-related adverse events (seven trials; 2025 patients; P = 0.13) or the treatment-related adverse events (six trials; 1633 patients; P = 0.14). According to the current results, limited evidence showed a superior effect favoring hylan G-F 20 over LMWHA in the period from 2 to 3 months post-injection for pain-related outcomes. There was no evidence of increased risk of treatment-related adverse events for hylan G-F 20 injections.

  14. Photo-induced cold vapor generation with low molecular weight alcohol, aldehyde, or carboxylic acid for atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of mercury.

    PubMed

    Han, Chunfang; Zheng, Chengbin; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Guanglei; Lv, Yi; Hou, Xiandeng

    2007-06-01

    With UV irradiation, Hg(2+) in aqueous solution can be converted into Hg(0) cold vapor by low molecular weight alcohols, aldehydes, or carboxylic acids, e.g., methanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, glycol, 1,2-propanediol, glycerol, acetic acid, oxalic acid, or malonic acid. It was found that the presence of nano-TiO(2) more or less improved the efficiency of the photo-induced chemical/cold vapor generation (photo-CVG) with most of the organic reductants. The nano-TiO(2)-enhanced photo-CVG systems can be coupled to various analytical atomic spectrometric techniques for the determination of ultratrace mercury. In this work, we evaluated the application of this method to the atomic fluorescence spectrometric (AFS) determination of mercury in cold vapor mode. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the instrumental limits of detection (based on three times the standard deviation of 11 measurements of a blank solution) were around 0.02-0.04 microg L(-1), with linear dynamic ranges up to 15 microg L(-1). The interference of transition metals and the mechanism of the photo-CVG are briefly discussed. Real sample analysis using the photo-CVG-AFS method revealed that it was promising for water and geological analysis of ultralow levels of mercury.

  15. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation over Coastal Ocean: Inferences from Atmospheric Water-Soluble Low Molecular Weight Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Bikkina, Srinivas; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Sarin, Manmohan

    2017-04-07

    A lack of consensus on the distributions and formation pathways of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) over oceanic regions downwind of pollution sources limits our ability to assess their climate impact globally. As a case study, we report here on water-soluble SOA components such as dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, and α-dicarbonyls in the continental outflows from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and Southeast Asia (SEA) to the Bay of Bengal. Oxalic acid (C2) is the dominant species followed by succinic (C4) and glyoxylic acids (ωC2) in the outflow. Nonsea-salt SO4(2-) also dominates (∼70%) total water-soluble inorganic constituents and correlates well with aerosol liquid water content (LWC) and C2, indicating their production through aqueous phase photochemical reactions. Furthermore, mass ratios of dicarboxylic acids (C2/C4, C2/ωC2), and their relative abundances in water-soluble organic carbon and total organic carbon are quite similar between the two continental (IGP and SEA) outflows, indicating the formation of SOA through aqueous phase photochemical reactions in LWC-enriched aerosols, largely controlled by anthropogenic SO4(2-).

  16. Solubility of crystalline organic compounds in high and low molecular weight amorphous matrices above and below the glass transition by zero enthalpy extrapolation.

    PubMed

    Amharar, Youness; Curtin, Vincent; Gallagher, Kieran H; Healy, Anne Marie

    2014-09-10

    Pharmaceutical applications which require knowledge of the solubility of a crystalline compound in an amorphous matrix are abundant in the literature. Several methods that allow the determination of such data have been reported, but so far have only been applicable to amorphous polymers above the glass transition of the resulting composites. The current work presents, for the first time, a reliable method for the determination of the solubility of crystalline pharmaceutical compounds in high and low molecular weight amorphous matrices at the glass transition and at room temperature (i.e. below the glass transition temperature), respectively. The solubilities of mannitol and indomethacin in polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) K15 and PVP K25, respectively were measured at different temperatures. Mixtures of undissolved crystalline solute and saturated amorphous phase were obtained by annealing at a given temperature. The solubility at this temperature was then obtained by measuring the melting enthalpy of the crystalline phase, plotting it as a function of composition and extrapolating to zero enthalpy. This new method yielded results in accordance with the predictions reported in the literature. The method was also adapted for the measurement of the solubility of crystalline low molecular weight excipients in amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). The solubility of mannitol, glutaric acid and adipic acid in both indomethacin and sulfadimidine was experimentally determined and successfully compared with the difference between their respective calculated Hildebrand solubility parameters. As expected from the calculations, the dicarboxylic acids exhibited a high solubility in both amorphous indomethacin and sulfadimidine, whereas mannitol was almost insoluble in the same amorphous phases at room temperature. This work constitutes the first report of the methodology for determining an experimentally measured solubility for a low molecular weight crystalline solute

  17. Effect of warming on the degradation and production of low-molecular-weight labile organic carbon in an Arctic tundra soil

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ziming; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Liang, Liyuan; Graham, David E.; Gu, Baohua

    2016-01-16

    The fate of soil organic carbon (SOC) stored in the Arctic permafrost is a key concern as temperatures continue to rise in the northern hemisphere. Studies and conceptual models suggest that SOC degradation is affected by the composition of SOC, but it is unclear exactly what portions of SOC are vulnerable to rapid breakdown and what mechanisms may be controlling SOC degradation upon permafrost thaw. Here, we examine the dynamic consumption and production of labile SOC in an anoxic incubation experiment using soil samples from the active layer at the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, Alaska, USA. Free-reducing sugars, alcohols, and low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids were analyzed during incubation at either –2 or 8 °C for up to 240 days. Results show that simple sugar and alcohol SOC largely account for the initial rapid release of CO2 and CH4 through anaerobic fermentation, whereas the fermentation products, acetate and formate, are subsequently utilized as primary substrates for methanogenesis. Iron(III) reduction is correlated to acetate production and methanogenesis, suggesting its important role as an electron acceptor in tundra SOC respiration. These observations are further supported in a glucose addition experiment, in which rapid CO2 and CH4 production occurred concurrently with rapid production and consumption of labile organics such as acetate. However, addition of tannic acid, as a more complex organic substrate, showed little influence on the overall production of CO2 and CH4 and organic acids. Together our study shows that LMW labile organics in SOC control the initial rapid release of green-house gases upon warming. We thus present a conceptual framework for the labile SOC transformations and their relations to fermentation, iron reduction and methanogenesis, thereby providing the basis for improved model prediction of climate feedbacks in the Arctic.

  18. Effect of warming on the degradation and production of low-molecular-weight labile organic carbon in an Arctic tundra soil

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Ziming; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Liang, Liyuan; ...

    2016-01-16

    The fate of soil organic carbon (SOC) stored in the Arctic permafrost is a key concern as temperatures continue to rise in the northern hemisphere. Studies and conceptual models suggest that SOC degradation is affected by the composition of SOC, but it is unclear exactly what portions of SOC are vulnerable to rapid breakdown and what mechanisms may be controlling SOC degradation upon permafrost thaw. Here, we examine the dynamic consumption and production of labile SOC in an anoxic incubation experiment using soil samples from the active layer at the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, Alaska, USA. Free-reducing sugars, alcohols, andmore » low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids were analyzed during incubation at either –2 or 8 °C for up to 240 days. Results show that simple sugar and alcohol SOC largely account for the initial rapid release of CO2 and CH4 through anaerobic fermentation, whereas the fermentation products, acetate and formate, are subsequently utilized as primary substrates for methanogenesis. Iron(III) reduction is correlated to acetate production and methanogenesis, suggesting its important role as an electron acceptor in tundra SOC respiration. These observations are further supported in a glucose addition experiment, in which rapid CO2 and CH4 production occurred concurrently with rapid production and consumption of labile organics such as acetate. However, addition of tannic acid, as a more complex organic substrate, showed little influence on the overall production of CO2 and CH4 and organic acids. Together our study shows that LMW labile organics in SOC control the initial rapid release of green-house gases upon warming. We thus present a conceptual framework for the labile SOC transformations and their relations to fermentation, iron reduction and methanogenesis, thereby providing the basis for improved model prediction of climate feedbacks in the Arctic.« less

  19. Efficacy and Safety of a Low Molecular Weight Hyaluronic Acid Topical Gel in the Treatment of Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis Final Report

    PubMed Central

    Rowland Powell, Callie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hyaluronic acid sodium salt gel 0.2% is a topical device effective in reducing skin inflammation. Facial seborrheic dermatitis, characterized by erythema and or flaking/scaling in areas of high sebaceous activity, affects up to five percent of the United States population. Despite ongoing study, the cause of the condition is yet unknown, but has been associated with yeast colonization and resultant immune derived inflammation. First-line management typically is with keratolytics, topical steroids, and topical antifungals as well as the targeted immunosuppressant agents pimecrolimus and tacrolimus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel topical antiinflammatory containing low molecular weight hyaluronic acid. Design and setting: Prospective, observational, non-blinded safety and efficacy study in an outpatient setting. Participants: Individuals 18 to 75 years of age with facial seborrheic dermatitis. Measurements: Outcome measures included scale, erythema, pruritus, and the provider global assessment, all measured on a five-point scale. Subjects were assessed at baseline, Week 2, Week 4, and Week 8. Results: Final data with 13 of 17 subjects are presented. Hyaluronic acid sodium salt gel 0.2% was shown through visual grading assessments to improve the provider global assessment by 65.48 percent from baseline to Week 4. Reductions in scale, erythema, and pruritus were 76.9, 64.3, and 50 percent, respectively, at Week 4. At Week 8, the provider global assessment was improved from baseline in 92.3 percent of subjects. Conclusion: Treatment with topical low molecular weight hyaluronic acid resulted in improvement in the measured endpoints. Final data reveal continued improvement from that seen in the interim data shown previously. Topical low molecular weight hyaluronic acid is another option that may be considered for the treatment of facial seborrheic dermatitis in the adult population. Compliance and tolerance were

  20. Lack of correlation between turnover of low-molecular-weight dissolved organic carbon and differences in microbial community composition or growth across a soil pH gradient.

    PubMed

    Rousk, Johannes; Brookes, Philip C; Glanville, Helen C; Jones, David L

    2011-04-01

    We studied how soil pH (pHs 4 to 8) influenced the mineralization of low-molecular-weight (LMW)-dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compounds, and how this compared with differences in microbial community structure. The mineralization of LMW-DOC compounds was not systematically connected to differences in soil pH, consistent with soil respiration. In contrast, the microbial community compositions differed dramatically. This suggests that microbial community composition data will be of limited use in improving the predictive power of soil C models.

  1. Characterization of low molecular weight dissolved natural organic matter along the treatment trait of a waterworks using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Yahe; Shi, Quan; Ren, Shuoyi; Yu, Jianwei; Ji, Feng; Luo, Wenbin; Yang, Min

    2012-10-15

    Dissolved natural organic matter (DOM), particularly the low molecular weight DOM, can affect the performance of water treatment processes and serve as a main precursor of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during chlorination. In this study, electrospray ionization coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) was used to characterize the low molecular weight DOM along the treatment trait of a conventional drinking water treatment plant. The ESI FT-ICR MS data showed that various C, H, O-only class species were the major components in the source water. According to the van Krevelen diagram analysis, lignin- and tannin-like compounds were the most abundant components. Within an isobaric group, the DOM molecules with a high degree of oxidation (high O/C value) were preferentially removed during coagulation, while those with low degree of oxidation were found to be more reactive toward chlorine. In addition, 357 one-chlorine containing products and 199 two-chlorine containing products formed during chlorination were detected in the chlorination effluent sample at a high confidence level. The chlorinated products can be arranged into series, suggesting that they were originated from C, H, O-only precursor compounds, which were in series related by the replacement of CH(4) against oxygen. For the first time, this study explored the behavior of low molecular weight DOM along a drinking water treatment trait on the molecular level, and revealed the presence of abundant unknown chlorinated products, which are probably rich in carboxylic and phenolic groups, in drinking water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A First Look at the Turnover Dynamics of Low Molecular Weight Organic Carbon in Shallow and Deep Soils of Coastal Prairie Grassland Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcfarland, J. W.; Lawrence, C. R.; Haw, M.; Waldrop, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    The functional importance of low molecular weight organic compounds (LMWOC) is in disproportion to their abundance within soil organic carbon (SOC) pools. They are critical in driving microbial metabolism, though microbial utilization of LMWOC is likely dependent on C chemistry. Studies of C turnover in soils tend to focus in shallower horizons despite that for many ecosystems a substantial fraction of SOC resides below 1 m. In this study, we examined the fate of two important components of soluble SOC, sugars and carboxylic acids, through a soil profile extending to 150 cm. Our objective was to evaluate the turnover of LMWOC under varying physical, biological, and chemical conditions through the soil column. Our study area is part of a soil chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. From the side wall of a soil pit we installed intact soil collars and injected 13C-labeled glucose (GLU), 13C-labeled oxalic acid (OA), or deionized water (control) into the A, B (argillic) , and B/C (mottled) horizons at depths of 25, 75, and 125 cm, respectively. We sampled soil gas for 13CO2 intensively at graduated sampling intervals (6 hours to 2 weeks). The entire experiment was also replicated in the laboratory. We measured dissolved organic C (DOC) and microbial biomass C (MBC), and calculated total recovery of 13C in atmospheric and soil pools. Measures of DOC indicated a significant priming effect in the deepest (mottled) horizon and an increase in MBC in the argillic and mottled horizons. In all instances residence time was significantly lower for GLU than OA and increased with depth for both substrates. Mass balance calculations from the laboratory component indicated stronger retention for GLU than OA for the upper soils; however, this trend reversed below the argillic horizon. We hypothesize the greater retention of OA in the deepest (mottled) soil horizon may result from enhanced organo-metal complexation (e.g., between OA and dissolved Fe or Al). This hypothesis is consistent

  3. A first look at the turnover dynamics of low molecular weight organic carbon in shallow and deep soils of coastal prairie grassland ecosystem.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcfarland, J. W.; Lawrence, C. R.; Creamer, C.; Conaway, C. H.; Haw, M.; Waldrop, M. P.

    2016-12-01

    The functional importance of low molecular weight organic compounds (LMWOC) is in disproportion to their abundance within soil organic carbon (SOC) pools. LMWOC are critical in driving microbial metabolism, though microbial utilization is likely dependent on C chemistry. In this study, we examined the fate of two important, often plant-derived, components of soluble SOC: sugars and carboxylic acids, through an extended soil profile. Our objective was to evaluate the short-term (9 d) and long-term (16 mo) turnover dynamics of LMWOC under varying physical, biological, and chemical conditions through the soil column. Our study area is a coastal prairie near Santa Cruz, CA; soils are classified as fine-loamy, mixed thermic typic Argixerolls. The long-term component of this study was conducted in situ and replicated in the laboratory to quantify the short-term dynamics. We injected 13C-labeled glucose (GLU), 13C-labeled oxalic acid (OA), or deionized water into the A, B (argillic), and B/C (mottled) horizons at depths of 25, 75, and 125 cm, respectively. We sampled soil gas for 13CO2 intensively in the lab and at increasingly graduated intervals in the field. At the conclusion of each experiment, soils were harvested to assess total recovery of 13C in soil pools. Measures of extractable C indicated a significant priming effect in the A horizon, and an increase in microbial biomass C (MBC) in the argillic horizon in response to GLU and OA. In all instances, residence time was lower for GLU than OA and increased with depth for both substrates. In the short-term OA- C was mineralized to a greater degree than GLU- C in the A and argillic horizons, but in the deepest (mottled) soil horizon recovery of OA- C was substantially higher, and likely resulted from enhanced organo-metal complexation. Dissolved Al3+, which forms strong aqueous complexes with OA, may limit the availability of OA at depth compared to shallower soils. Long-term recovery favored GLU- C, which increased

  4. Organic solvent and temperature-enhanced ion chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry for the determination of low molecular weight organic and inorganic anions.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Elizabeth S; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Smith, Norman W; Barron, Leon P

    2015-03-20

    There has recently been increased interest in coupling ion chromatography (IC) to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) to enable highly sensitive and selective analysis. Herein, the first comprehensive study focusing on the direct coupling of suppressed IC to HRMS without the need for post-suppressor organic solvent modification is presented. Chromatographic selectivity and added HRMS sensitivity offered by organic solvent-modified IC eluents on a modern hyper-crosslinked polymeric anion-exchange resin (IonPac AS18) are shown using isocratic eluents containing 5-50 mM hydroxide with 0-80% methanol or acetonitrile for a range of low molecular weight anions (<165 Da). Comprehensive experiments on IC thermodynamics over a temperature range between 20-45 °C with the eluent containing up to 60% of acetonitrile or methanol revealed markedly different retention behaviour and selectivity for the selected analytes on the same polymer based ion-exchange resin. Optimised sensitivity with HRMS was achieved with as low as 30-40% organic eluent content. Analytical performance characteristics are presented and compared with other IC-MS based works. This study also presents the first application of IC-HRMS to forensic detection of trace low-order anionic explosive residues in latent human fingermarks.

  5. Characterizing Low Molecular Weight Organic Matter in Arctic Polygonal Tundra Soils to Identify Biogeochemical Hotspots Using a Dual-Separation, High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, M.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Iversen, C. M.; Hettich, R.

    2016-12-01

    Reliably modeling biogeochemical processes (e.g. decomposition, plant-microbial competition for nutrients) across spatial or temporal scales requires elucidating the chemical composition of low molecular weight (LMW) dissolved soil organic matter (DOM). Our understanding is limited, however, by the wide-ranging physicochemical properties and high fluxes of these compounds, posing major challenges in detection, isolation, and quantification. Here, we developed and evaluated a sensitive, non-targeted approach to characterize LMW DOM in the Arctic, a unique system that is warming at a rate twice that of the global average and may have significant feedbacks to global C and N cycles. Soil cores were collected from a continuous permafrost, polygonal tundra landscape near Barrow, Alaska (71° 16' N) and sectioned into 5 cm increments. Water and salt extracts from each section were filtered and injected onto C18 reversed-phase or zwitterionic-type hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ZIC-pHILIC) columns for separation. LMW DOM profiles were obtained using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and unique features, known and unknown, were characterized by LC retention time, accurate mass (m/z), and molecular fragmentation pattern. Coupling two orthogonal chromatographic separations with HRMS enabled the characterization of hundreds of analytes in a single measurement providing enhanced, high-throughput coverage of LMW DOM from soil extracts. The complexity and relative/absolute intensities of LMW DOM features (e.g. organic acids, amino sugars, peptides) varied across polygon type (high- or low-centered), extract condition, and with depth, providing an information-rich, molecular signal of LMW DOM availability across scales. Comprehensively profiling this complex mixture of small molecules of both biotic and abiotic origin provides a chemical signature of biological function, allowing for more reliable predictions of how discrete, molecular-scale processes may control

  6. Cyclodextrin-supported organic matrix for application of MALDI-MS for forensics. Soft-ionization to obtain protonated molecules of low molecular weight compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonezawa, Tetsu; Asano, Takashi; Fujino, Tatsuya; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    A mass measurement technique for detecting low-molecular-weight drugs with a cyclodextrin-supported organic matrix was investigated. By using cyclodextrin-supported 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP), the matrix-related peaks of drugs were suppressed. The peaks of protonated molecules of the sample and THAP were mainly observed, and small fragments were detected in a few cases. Despite the Na+ and K+ peaks were observed in the spectrum, Na+ or K+ adduct sample molecules were undetected, owing to the sugar units of cyclodextrin. The advantages of MALDI-MS with cyclodextrin-supported matrices as an analytical tool for forensic samples are discussed. The suppression of alkali adducted molecules and desorption process are also discussed.

  7. Enhancing the intestinal absorption of low molecular weight chondroitin sulfate by conjugation with α-linolenic acid and the transport mechanism of the conjugates.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yuliang; Li, Pingli; Cheng, Yanna; Zhang, Xinke; Sheng, Juzheng; Wang, Decai; Li, Juan; Zhang, Qian; Zhong, Chuanqing; Cao, Rui; Wang, Fengshan

    2014-04-25

    The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the effect of amphiphilic polysaccharides-based self-assembling micelles on enhancing the oral absorption of low molecular weight chondroitin sulfate (LMCS) in vitro and in vivo, and identify the transepithelial transport mechanism of LMCS micelles across the intestinal barrier. α-Linolenic acid-low molecular weight chondroitin sulfate polymers(α-LNA-LMCS) were successfully synthesized, and characterized by FTIR, (1)HNMR, TGA/DSC, TEM, laser light scattering and zeta potential. The significant oral absorption enhancement and elimination half-life (t₁/₂) extension of LNA-LMCS2 in rats were evidenced by intragastric administration in comparison with CS and LMCS. Caco-2 transport studies demonstrated that the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of LNA-LMCS2 was significantly higher than that of CS and LMCS (p<0.001), and no significant effects on the overall integrity of the monolayer were observed during the transport process. In addition, α-LNA-LMCS micelles accumulated around the cell membrane and intercellular space observed by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Furthermore, evident alterations in the F-actin cytoskeleton were detected by CLSM observation following the treatment of the cell monolayers with α-LNA-LMCS micelles, which further certified the capacity of α-LNA-LMCS micelles to open the intercellular tight junctions rather than disrupt the overall integrity of the monolayer. Therefore, LNA-LMCS2 with low cytotoxicity and high bioavailability might be a promising substitute for CS in clinical use, such as treating osteoarthritis, atherosclerosis, etc.

  8. Elucidation of insulin assembly at acidic and neutral pH: Characterization of low molecular weight oligomers.

    PubMed

    Mawhinney, Matthew T; Williams, Thomas L; Hart, James L; Taheri, Mitra L; Urbanc, Brigita

    2017-08-10

    Deficiency in insulin secretion and function that characterize type 2 diabetes often requires administration of extraneous insulin, leading to injection-site amyloidosis. Insulin aggregation at neutral pH is not well understood. Although oligomer formation is believed to play an important role, insulin oligomers have not been fully characterized yet. Here, we elucidate similarities and differences between in vitro insulin aggregation at acidic and neutral pH for a range of insulin concentrations (2.5-100 μM) by using kinetic thioflavin T fluorescence, circular dichroism, atomic force and electron microscopy imaging. Importantly, we characterize the size distribution of insulin oligomers at different assembly stages by the application of covalent cross-linking and gel electrophoresis. Our results show that at the earliest assembly stage, oligomers comprise up to 40% and 70% of soluble insulin at acidic and neutral pH, respectively. While the highest oligomer order increases with insulin concentration at acidic pH, the opposite tendency is observed at neutral pH, where oligomers up to heptamers are formed in 10 μM insulin. These findings suggest that oligomers may be on- and off-pathway assemblies for insulin at acidic and neutral pH, respectively. Agitation, which is required to induce insulin aggregation at neutral pH, is shown to increase fibril formation rate and fibrillar mass both by an order of magnitude. Insulin incubated under agitated conditions at neutral pH rapidly aggregates into large micrometer-sized aggregates, which may be of physiological relevance and provides insight into injection-site amyloidosis and toxic pulmonary aggregates induced by administration of extraneous insulin. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. In vitro bile-acid binding and fermentation of high, medium, and low molecular weight beta-glucan.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jung; White, Pamela J

    2010-01-13

    The impact of beta-glucan molecular weight (MW) on in vitro bile-acid binding and in vitro fermentation with human fecal flora was evaluated. beta-Glucan extracted from oat line 'N979-5-4' was treated with lichenase (1,3-1,4-beta-D-glucanase) to yield high (6.87x10(5) g/mol), medium (3.71x10(5) g/mol), and low (1.56x10(5) g/mol) MW fractions. The low MW beta-glucan bound more bile acid than did the high MW beta-glucan (p<0.05). If the positive control, cholestyramine, was considered to bind bile acid at 100%, the relative bile-acid binding of the original oat flour and the extracted beta-glucan with high, medium, and low MW was 15, 27, 24, and 21%, respectively. Significant effects of high, medium, and low MW beta-glucans on total SCFA were observed compared to the blank without substrate (p<0.05). There were no differences in pH changes and total gas production among high, medium, and low MW beta-glucans, and lactulose. The low MW beta-glucan produced greater amounts of SCFA than the high MW after 24 h of fermentation. Among the major SCFA, more propionate was produced from all MW fractions of extracted beta-glucans than from lactulose. In vitro fermentation of extracted beta-glucan fractions with different MW lowered pH and produced SCFA, providing potential biological function.

  10. Effects of low-molecular-weight organic ligands and phosphate on DNA adsorption by soil colloids and minerals.

    PubMed

    Cai, Peng; Huang, Qiaoyun; Zhu, Jun; Jiang, Daihua; Zhou, Xueyong; Rong, Xingmin; Liang, Wei

    2007-01-15

    Adsorption of DNA on montmorillonite, kaolinite, goethite and soil clays from an Alfisol in the presence of citrate, tartrate and phosphate was studied. A marked decrease in DNA adsorption was observed on montmorillonite and kaolinite with increasing anion concentrations from 0 to 5 mM. However, the amount of DNA adsorbed by montmorillonite and kaolinite was enhanced when ligand concentration was higher than 5 mM. In the system of soil colloids and goethite, with the increase of anion concentrations, a steady decrease was found and the ability of ligands in depressing DNA adsorption followed the sequence: phosphate > citrate > tartrate. Compared to H2O2-treated clays (inorganic clays), a sharp decrease in DNA adsorption was observed on goethite and organo-mineral complexes (organic clays) with increasing ligand concentrations. The results suggest that the influence of anions on DNA adsorption varies with the type and concentration of anion as well as the surface properties of soil components. Introduction of DNA into the system before the addition of ligands had the greatest amount of DNA adsorption on soil colloids and goethite. Organic and inorganic ligands promoted DNA adsorption on montmorillonite and kaolinite when ligands were introduced into the system before the addition of DNA. The results obtained in this study have important implications for the understanding of the persistence and fate of DNA in soil environments especially rhizosphere soil where various organic and inorganic ligands are active.

  11. A Prevention of Pre-eclampsia with the Use of Acetylsalicylic Acid and Low-molecular Weight Heparin - Molecular Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Darmochwal-Kolarz, Dorota; Kolarz, Bogdan; Korzeniewski, Michal; Kimber-Trojnar, Zaneta; Patro-Malysza, Jolanta; Mierzynski, Radzisław; Przegalinska-Kałamucka, Monika; Oleszczuk, Jan

    Pre-eclampsia appears to be the main cause for the maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Pregnant women with pre-eclampsia are more likely to be threatened with conditions which potentially may be lethal, such as: disseminated intravascular coagulation, cerebral hemorrhage, liver and renal failure. Pregnancy complicated with pre-eclampsia is also associated with a greater risk for iatrogenic prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, premature abruption of placenta, and even intrauterine fetal death. In the majority of cases the reasons for arterial hypertension among pregnant women remain obscure. For the past decades, there were many abortive attempts in the use of some microelements, vitamins or specific diets, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, for the prophylaxis of pre-eclampsia. Recently, it has been shown that a prevention of pre-eclampsia with the use of a lowmolecular- weight heparins (LMWHs) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) could considerably reduce the frequency of preeclampsia. In this review, we present the studies concerning the applications of LMWHs and aspirin in the prophylaxis of pre-eclampsia and some important data about the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory actions of LMWHs and ASA.

  12. The improved efficiency of low molecular weight organic solar cells doped with a Cu(I) triplet material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Bin; Gao, Lin; Li, Xiuying; Che, Guangbo; Zhu, Enwei; Wang, Bo; Yan, Yongsheng

    2016-08-01

    We developed a method to improve the performance of the copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/fullerene (C60) organic solar cells (OSCs) by doping CuPc with a long triplet lifetime material. By doping [Cu(bis[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl]ether)(benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine)]BF4 (CuDB) into CuPc, the enhanced short-circuit current density ( J SC) of 6.213 mA/cm2, open-circuit voltage ( V OC) of 0.39 V and a peak power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.92% compared to 0.79% of the standard CuPc/C60 OSCs are achieved under 1 sun AM 1.5 G illumination at an intensity of 100 mW/cm2. The performance improvement is mainly attributed to the long triplet lifetime of CuDB (τ = 70.05 μs) which leads to more effective exciton dissociation.

  13. Induction of a germination specific, low molecular weight, acid phosphatase isozyme with specific phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity in lentil (Lens esculenta) seeds.

    PubMed

    Bose, S K; Taneja, V

    1998-09-29

    A germination specific isozyme of acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) hydrolysing O-phospho-L-Tyrosine, pH optima 5.5 is induced in lentil seeds. When seeds at 0 h, 24 h and 36 h of germination are electrophorezed, native PAGE on specific enzyme staining shows several constitutive isozymes of acid phosphatases. At 48 h, an isozyme is induced which gradually decreases and then disappears at 108 h of germination. The short lived, induced isozyme is present in the embryo and seed-coat but not in the plumule and the radical. Induction of this isozyme is inhibited by cycloheximide and actinomycin-D and increased by plant growth regulators such as heteroauxin and gibbrellic acid treatment during germination. The induced isozyme is a single 30 kD polypeptide, with subunit molecular mass of 25 kD, shows activity for O-phospho-L-Tyrosine. It is strongly inhibited by vanadate (microM), molybdate, tungustate as also by iodoacetate, p-chloromercuribenzoate and diethylpyrocarbonate. This study shows for the first time that the germination induced low molecular weight Acid phosphatase is a Tyrosine phosphatase super family class IV enzyme, having a role in cellular differentiation and development during seed germination. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  14. Determination of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids in atmospheric aerosols by injection-port derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ching-Lin; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2009-12-15

    A rapid and environmental-friendly injection-port derivatization with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed to determine selected low-molecular weight (LMW) dicarboxylic acids (from C2 to C10) in atmospheric aerosol samples. The parameters related to the derivatization process (i.e., type of ion-pair reagent, injection-port temperature and concentration of ion-pair reagent) were optimized. Tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBA-OH) 20 mM in methanol gave excellent yield for di-butyl ester dicarboxylate derivatives at injection-port temperature at 300 degrees C. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) method instead of rotary evaporation was used to concentrate analytes from filter extracts. The recovery from filter extracts ranged from 78 to 95% with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 12%. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 25 to 250 pg/m(3). The concentrations of di-carboxylated C2-C5 and total C6-C10 in particles of atmospheric aerosols ranged from 91.9 to 240, 11.3 to 56.7, 9.2 to 49.2, 8.7 to 35.3 and n.d. to 37.8 ng/m(3), respectively. Oxalic acid (C2) was the dominant LMW-dicarboxylic acids detected in aerosol samples. The quantitative results were comparable to the results obtained by the off-line derivatization.

  15. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry method for basic building block analysis of low molecular weight heparins prepared through nitrous acid depolymerization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaojun; Guo, Zhimou; Yu, Mengqi; Lin, Chao; Sheng, Anran; Wang, Zhiyu; Linhardt, Robert J; Chi, Lianli

    2017-01-06

    Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are important anticoagulant drugs that are prepared through depolymerization of unfractionated heparin. Based on the types of processing reactions and the structures of the products, LMWHs can be divided into different classifications. Enoxaparin is prepared by benzyl esterification and alkaline depolymerization, while dalteparin and nadroparin are prepared through nitrous acid depolymerization followed by borohydride reduction. Compositional analysis of their basic building blocks is an effective way to provide structural information on heparin and LMWHs. However, most current compositional analysis methods have been limited to heparin and enoxaparin. A sensitive and comprehensive approach is needed for detailed investigation of the structure of LMWHs prepared through nitrous acid depolymerization, especially their characteristic saturated non-reducing end (NRE) and 2,5-anhydro-d-mannitol reducing end (RE). A maltose modified hydrophilic interaction column offers improved separation of complicated mixtures of acidic disaccharides and oligosaccharides. A total of 36 basic building blocks were unambiguously identified by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS). Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS/MS quantification was developed and validated in the analysis of dalteparin and nadroparin samples. Each group of building blocks revealed different aspects of the properties of LMWHs, such as functional motifs required for anticoagulant activity, the structure of heparin starting materials, cleavage sites in the depolymerization reaction, and undesired structural modifications resulting from side reactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of a paclitaxel-loaded low molecular weight heparin-all-trans-retinoid acid conjugate ternary nanoparticulate drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lin; Yao, Jing; Zhou, Jianping; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-07-01

    Amphiphilic low molecular weight heparin-all-trans-retinoid acid (LHR) conjugate, as a drug carrier for cancer therapy, was found to have markedly low toxicity and to form self-assembled nanoparticles for simultaneous delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) and all-trans-retinoid acid (ATRA) in our previous study. In the present study, PTX-loaded LHR nanoparticles were prepared and demonstrated a spherical shape with particle size of 108.9 nm. Cellular uptake analysis suggested rapid internalization and nuclear transport of LHR nanoparticles. In order to investigate the dynamic behaviors and targeting ability of LHR nanoparticles on tumor-bearing mice, near-infrared fluorescent (NIFR) dye DiR was encapsulated into the nanoparticles for ex vivo optical imaging. The results indicated that LHR nanoparticles could enhance the targeting and residence time in tumor site. Furthermore, in vivo biodistribution study also showed that the area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC (0→inf)) values of PTX and ATRA for PTX-loaded LHR nanoparticles in tumor were 1.56 and 1.62-fold higher than those for PTX plus ATRA solution. Finally, PTX-loaded LHR nanoparticles demonstrated greater tumor growth inhibition effect in vivo without unexpected side effects, compared to PTX solution and PTX plus ATRA solution. These results suggest that PTX-loaded LHR nanoparticles can be considered as promising targeted delivery system for combination cancer chemotherapy to improve therapeutic efficacy and minimize adverse effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of immobilizing of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid within gelatin-based hydrogel through enzymatic reaction on behavior of enclosed endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Khanmohammadi, Mehdi; Sakai, Shinji; Taya, Masahito

    2017-04-01

    The hydrogels having the ability to promote migration and morphogenesis of endothelial cells (ECs) are useful for fabricating vascularized dense tissues in vitro. The present study explores the immobilization of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (LMWHA) derivative within gelatin-based hydrogel to stimulate migration of ECs. The LMWHA derivative possessing phenolic hydroxyl moieties (LMWHA-Ph) was bound to gelatin-based derivative hydrogel through the horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed reaction. The motility of ECs was analyzed by scratch migration assay and microparticle-based cell migration assay. The incorporated LMWHA-Ph molecules within hydrogel was found to be preserved stably through covalent bonds during incubation. The free and immobilized LMWHA-Ph did not lose an inherent stimulatory effect on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The immobilized LMWHA-Ph within gelatin-based hydrogel induced the high motility of HUVECs, accompanied by robust cytoskeleton extension, and cell subpopulation expressing CD44 cell receptor. In the presence of immobilized LMWHA-Ph, the migration distance and the number of existing HUVECs were demonstrated to be encouraged in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners. Based on the results obtained in this work, it was concluded that the enzymatic immobilization of LMWHA-Ph within gelatin-based hydrogel represents a promising approach to promote ECs' motility and further exploitation for vascular tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Different types of degradable vectors from low-molecular-weight polycation-functionalized poly(aspartic acid) for efficient gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Dou, X B; Hu, Y; Zhao, N N; Xu, F J

    2014-03-01

    Poly(aspartic acid) (PAsp) has been employed as the potential backbone for the preparation of efficient gene carriers, due to its low cytotoxicity, good biodegradability and excellent biocompatibility. In this work, the degradable linear or star-shaped PBLA was first prepared via ring-opining polymerization of β-benzyl-L-aspartate N-carboxy anhydride (BLA-NCA) initiated by ethylenediamine (ED) or ED-functionalized cyclodextrin cores. Then, PBLA was functionalized via aminolysis reaction with low-molecular-weight poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) with one terminal primary amine group (PDMAEMA-NH2), followed by addition of excess ED or ethanolamine (EA) to complete the aminolysis process. The obtained different types of cationic PAsp-based vectors including linear or star PAsp-PDM-NH2 and PAsp-PDM-OH exhibited good condensation capability and degradability, benefiting gene delivery process. In comparison with gold standard polyethylenimine (PEI, ∼ 25 kDa), the cationic PAsp-based vectors, particularly star-shaped ones, exhibited much better transfection performances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gd complexes of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid conjugates of low-molecular-weight chitosan oligosaccharide as a new liver-specific MRI contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Cao, Bennan; Yang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Qi; Han, Xiangjun; Guo, Ziyi

    2013-05-01

    This study was to describe the synthesis of complexes of gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid conjugates of low-molecular-weight chitosan oligosaccharide Gd-DTPA-CSn (n=6, 8, 11) as a new class of contrast agent as well as its magnetic property in a pilot magnetic resonance imaging. The efficacy of the contrast agent was assessed by measuring the longitudinal relaxivity (r1), FLASH imaging in phantoms in vitro and signal intensity in vivo of the rat abdominal axial imaging. The r1 of Gd-DTPA-CS11 was up to 11.65 mM(-1)·s(-1), which was 3 times higher than that of the analogous MRI contrast agent Gd-DTPA in commercial use. In vivo MR images of rat obtained with Gd-DTPA-CS11 showed strong signal enhancement in liver and the vessels of the liver parenchyma during the extended period of time. The present study suggests that the new synthesized gadolinium complexes can be used as a new class of practical liver-specific MRI contrast agent because of its superior performance compared with Gd-DTPA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Formation of Low-Molecular-Weight Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in Predenitrification Biological Nutrient Removal Systems and Its Impact on Eutrophication in Coastal Waters.

    PubMed

    Eom, Heonseop; Borgatti, Douglas; Paerl, Hans W; Park, Chul

    2017-04-04

    To alleviate eutrophication in coastal waters, reducing nitrogen (N) discharge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) by upgrading conventional activated sludge (CAS) to biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes is commonplace. However, despite numerous upgrades and successful reduction of N discharge from WWTPs, eutrophication problems persist. These unexpected observations raise the possibility that some aspects of BNR yield environmental responses as yet overlooked. Here, we report that one of the most common BNR processes, predenitrification, is prone to the production of low-molecular-weight dissolved organic N (LMW-DON), which is highly bioavailable and stimulates phytoplankton blooms. We found that in predenitrification BNR, LMW-DON is released during the post-aerobic step following the preanoxic step, which does not occur in CAS. Consequently, predenitrification systems produced larger amount of LMW-DON than CAS. In estuarine bioassays, predenitrification BNR effluents produced more phytoplankton biomass than CAS effluents despite lower N concentrations. This was also supported by stronger correlations found between phytoplankton biomass and LMW-DON than other N forms. These findings suggest that WWTPs upgraded to predenitrification BNR reduce inorganic N discharge but introduce larger quantities of potent LMW-DON into coastal systems. We suggest reassessing the N-removal strategy for WWTPs to minimize the eutrophication effects of effluents.

  1. Non-esterified fatty acids generate distinct low-molecular weight amyloid-β (Aβ42) oligomers along pathway different from fibril formation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Bullard, Rebekah L; Patel, Pritesh; Paslay, Lea C; Singh, Dipti; Bienkiewicz, Ewa A; Morgan, Sarah E; Rangachari, Vijayaraghavan

    2011-04-19

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide aggregation is known to play a central role in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among various aggregates, low-molecular weight soluble oligomers of Aβ are increasingly believed to be the primary neurotoxic agents responsible for memory impairment. Anionic interfaces are known to influence the Aβ aggregation process significantly. Here, we report the effects of interfaces formed by medium-chain (C9-C12), saturated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) on Aβ42 aggregation. NEFAs uniquely affected Aβ42 aggregation rates that depended on both the ratio of Aβ:NEFA as well the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the NEFAs. More importantly, irrespective of the kind of NEFA used, we observed that two distinct oligomers, 12-18 mers and 4-5 mers were formed via different pathway of aggregation under specific experimental conditions: (i) 12-18 mers were generated near the CMC in which NEFAs augment the rate of Aβ42 aggregation towards fibril formation, and, (ii) 4-5 mers were formed above the CMC, where NEFAs inhibit fibril formation. The data indicated that both 12-18 mers and 4-5 mers are formed along an alternate pathway called 'off-pathway' that did not result in fibril formation and yet have subtle structural and morphological differences that distinguish their bulk molecular behavior. These observations, (i) reflect the possible mechanism of Aβ aggregation in physiological lipid-rich environments, and (ii) reiterate the fact that all oligomeric forms of Aβ need not be obligatory intermediates of the fibril formation pathway.

  2. Effects of cadmium alone and in combination with low molecular weight chitosan on metallothionein, glutathione-S-transferase, acid phosphatase, and ATPase of freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruijin; Zhou, Yanying; Wang, Lan; Ren, Guorui; Zou, Enmin

    2014-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental contaminant showing a variety of deleterious effects, including the potential threat for the ecological environment and human health via food chains. Low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) has been demonstrated to be an effective antioxidant. Metallothionein (MT) mRNA levels and activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), acid phosphatase (ACP), Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, and Ca(2+)-ATPase as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the gills of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense were analyzed in vivo in order to determine the injury of Cd exposure on the gill tissues as well as the protective effect of LMWC against this injury. The results showed that there was an apparent accumulation of Cd in the gills, which was lessened by the presence of LMWC. Moreover, Cd(2+) significantly increased the gill MT mRNA levels, ACP activity and MDA content while decreasing the activities of SOD, GST, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, and Ca(2+)-ATPase in the crabs relative to the control. Cotreatment with LMWC reduced the levels of MT mRNA and ACP but raised the activities of GST, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, and Ca(2+)-ATPase in gill tissues compared with the crabs exposed to Cd(2+) alone. These results suggest that LMWC may exert its protective effect through chelating Cd(2+) to form LMWC-Cd(2+) complex, elevating the antioxidative activities of GST, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, and Ca(2+)-ATPase as well as alleviating the stress pressure on MT and ACP, consequently protecting the cell from the adverse effects of Cd. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Role of receptor for hyaluronic acid-mediated motility (RHAMM) in low molecular weight hyaluronan (LMWHA)-mediated fibrosarcoma cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Kouvidi, Katerina; Berdiaki, Aikaterini; Nikitovic, Dragana; Katonis, Pavlos; Afratis, Nikos; Hascall, Vincent C; Karamanos, Nikos K; Tzanakakis, George N

    2011-11-04

    Hyaluronan (HA) modulates key cancer cell functions through interaction with its CD44 and receptor for hyaluronic acid-mediated motility (RHAMM) receptors. HA was recently found to regulate the migration of fibrosarcoma cells in a manner specifically dependent on its size. Here, we investigated the effect of HA/RHAMM signaling on the ability of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells to adhere onto fibronectin. Low molecular weight HA (LMWHA) significantly increased (p ≤ 0.01) the adhesion capacity of HT1080 cells, which high molecular weight HA inhibited. The ability of HT1080 RHAMM-deficient cells, but not of CD44-deficient ones, to adhere was significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.001) as compared with control cells. Importantly, the effect of LMWHA on HT1080 cell adhesion was completely attenuated in RHAMM-deficient cells. In contrast, adhesion of RHAMM-deficient cells was not sensitive to high molecular weight HA treatment, which identifies RHAMM as a specific conduit of the LMWHA effect. Western blot and real time-PCR analyses indicated that LMWHA significantly increased RHAMM transcript (p ≤ 0.05) and protein isoform levels (53%, 95 kDa; 37%, 73 kDa) in fibrosarcoma cells. Moreover, Western blot analyses showed that LMWHA in a RHAMM-dependent manner enhanced basal and adhesion-dependent ERK1/2 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation in HT1080 cells. Utilization of a specific ERK1/2 inhibitor completely inhibited (p ≤ 0.001) LMWHA-dependent adhesion, suggesting that ERK1/2 is a downstream effector of LMWHA/RHAMM signaling. Likewise, the utilization of the specific ERK1 inhibitor resulted in a strong down-regulation of FAK activation in HT1080 cells, which identifies ERK1/2 as a FAK upstream activator. In conclusion, our results suggest that RHAMM/HA interaction regulates fibrosarcoma cell adhesion via the activation of FAK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

  4. Combination chemotherapy of doxorubicin, all-trans retinoic acid and low molecular weight heparin based on self-assembled multi-functional polymeric nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Xiong, Hui; Zohra Dahmani, Fatima; Sun, Li; Li, Yuanke; Yao, Li; Zhou, Jianping; Yao, Jing

    2015-04-01

    Based on the complementary effects of doxorubicin (DOX), all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), the combination therapy of DOX, ATRA and LMWH was expected to exert the enhanced anti-tumor effects and reduce the side effects. In this study, amphiphilic LMWH-ATRA conjugate was synthesized for encapsulating the DOX. In this way, DOX, ATRA and LMWH were assembled into a single nano-system by both chemical and physical modes to obtain a novel anti-tumor targeting drug delivery system that can realize the simultaneous delivery of multiple drugs with different properties to the tumor. LMWH-ATRA nanoparticles exhibited good loading capacities for DOX with excellent physico-chemical properties, good biocompatibility, and good differentiation-inducing activity and antiangiogenic activity. The drug-loading capacity was up to 18.7% with an entrapment efficiency of 78.8%. It was also found that DOX-loaded LMWH-ATRA nanoparticles (DHR nanoparticles) could be efficiently taken up by tumor cells via endocytic pathway, and mainly distributed in cytoplasm at first, then transferred into cell nucleus. Cell viability assays suggested that DHR nanoparticles maintained the cytotoxicity effect of DOX on MCF-7 cells. Moreover, the in vivo imaging analysis indicated that DiR-loaded LMWH-ATRA nanoparticles could target the tumor more effectively as compared to free DiR. Furthermore, DHR nanoparticles possessed much higher anticancer activity and reduced side effects compared to free drugs solution. These results suggested that DHR nanoparticles could be considered as a promising targeted delivery system for combination cancer chemotherapy with lower adverse effects.

  5. Role of Receptor for Hyaluronic Acid-mediated Motility (RHAMM) in Low Molecular Weight Hyaluronan (LMWHA)-mediated Fibrosarcoma Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Kouvidi, Katerina; Berdiaki, Aikaterini; Nikitovic, Dragana; Katonis, Pavlos; Afratis, Nikos; Hascall, Vincent C.; Karamanos, Nikos K.; Tzanakakis, George N.

    2011-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) modulates key cancer cell functions through interaction with its CD44 and receptor for hyaluronic acid-mediated motility (RHAMM) receptors. HA was recently found to regulate the migration of fibrosarcoma cells in a manner specifically dependent on its size. Here, we investigated the effect of HA/RHAMM signaling on the ability of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells to adhere onto fibronectin. Low molecular weight HA (LMWHA) significantly increased (p ≤ 0.01) the adhesion capacity of HT1080 cells, which high molecular weight HA inhibited. The ability of HT1080 RHAMM-deficient cells, but not of CD44-deficient ones, to adhere was significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.001) as compared with control cells. Importantly, the effect of LMWHA on HT1080 cell adhesion was completely attenuated in RHAMM-deficient cells. In contrast, adhesion of RHAMM-deficient cells was not sensitive to high molecular weight HA treatment, which identifies RHAMM as a specific conduit of the LMWHA effect. Western blot and real time-PCR analyses indicated that LMWHA significantly increased RHAMM transcript (p ≤ 0.05) and protein isoform levels (53%, 95 kDa; 37%, 73 kDa) in fibrosarcoma cells. Moreover, Western blot analyses showed that LMWHA in a RHAMM-dependent manner enhanced basal and adhesion-dependent ERK1/2 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation in HT1080 cells. Utilization of a specific ERK1/2 inhibitor completely inhibited (p ≤ 0.001) LMWHA-dependent adhesion, suggesting that ERK1/2 is a downstream effector of LMWHA/RHAMM signaling. Likewise, the utilization of the specific ERK1 inhibitor resulted in a strong down-regulation of FAK activation in HT1080 cells, which identifies ERK1/2 as a FAK upstream activator. In conclusion, our results suggest that RHAMM/HA interaction regulates fibrosarcoma cell adhesion via the activation of FAK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. PMID:21914806

  6. Dissolved organic matter degradation by sunlight coagulates organo-mineral colloids and produces low-molecular weight fraction of metals in boreal humic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleinikova, Olga V.; Drozdova, Olga Yu.; Lapitskiy, Sergey A.; Demin, Vladimir V.; Bychkov, Andrey Yu.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.

    2017-08-01

    Photochemical degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is recognized as the major driver of CO2 emission to the atmosphere from the inland waters of high latitudes. In contrast to numerous studies of photo-induced DOM transformation, the behavior of trace element (TE) during photodegradation of boreal DOM remains virtually unknown. Towards a better understanding of concentration, size fractionation and speciation change of DOM and TE in boreal waters subjected to solar radiation, we conducted on-site photo-degradation experiments in stream and bog water collected from a pristine zone of the Northern Karelia (Russian subarctic). The removal of Fe and Al occurred only in the bog water (90% and 50% respectively, over 5 days of reaction), whereas no detectable decrease of dissolved (<0.22 μm) Al and Fe concentration was observed in the boreal stream. A number of low-soluble TE linked to Fe-rich organo-mineral colloids followed the behavior of Fe during bog water exposure to sunlight: Al, P, Ti, V, Cr, As, Y, Zr, REEs, Hf, Th, Pb and U. The second group of elements (Li, B, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Na, K, Rb, Si, Mn, Ni, Cu, Co, Cd, Sb) was indifferent to photodegradation of DOM and exhibited a non-systematic variation (±10-15% from the control) of <0.22 μm fraction in the course of sunlight exposure. The bog water insolation yielded a factor of 3 ± 1 increase of low molecular weight (LMW < 1 kDa) fraction of organic carbon, Al, Fe, U, Mg, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni, Sr, Cd and Ba after 200 h of sunlight exposure compared to the dark control. The LMW< 1 kDa fraction was preferentially enriched in Fe, Al, Ca, Mg and other divalent metals relative to Corg. The climate warming leading to water temperature rise in the boreal zone will intensify the Fe and Al hydroxide coagulation while increasing the production of LMW organic ligands and free metals and metal - organic complexes.

  7. Homologous series of low molecular weight (C1-C10) monocarboxylic acids, benzoic acid and hydroxyacids in fine-mode (PM2.5) aerosols over the Bay of Bengal: Influence of heterogeneity in air masses and formation pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreddy, Suresh K. R.; Mochizuki, Tomoki; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Bikkina, Srinivas; Sarin, M. M.

    2017-10-01

    Low molecular weight monocarboxylic acids (LMW monoacids) are most abundant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere and often act as important contributors to the acidity of precipitation in addition to inorganic acids. However, there is a large uncertainty in the sources and secondary formations of these acids in the atmosphere. This study reports homologous series of LMW monoacids, including normal (C1-C10), branched chain (iC4-iC6), aromatic (benzoic acid) and hydroxyacids (lactic and glycolic acids) in the fine-mode (PM2.5) aerosols collected over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) during a winter cruise (December 2008 to January 2009). The samples were associated with two distinct continental air masses arriving from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP-outflow) and Southeast Asia (SEA-outflow). The molecular distributions of organic acids are characterized by the dominance of formic acid (C1) followed by acetic acid (C2) and nonanoic acid (C9) in the IGP-outflow, whereas dominance of C1 or C9 was observed in the SEA-outflow followed by C2. Formic-to-acetic acid (C1/C2) ratios were higher than unity (mean: 1.3 ± 0.3) in the IGP-outflow, whereas they were less than unity (0.9 ± 0.5) in the SEA-outflow. These results suggest that secondary formation of organic acids is largely important in the IGP-outflow whereas primary emission is a major source of organic acids in the SEA-outflow. Based on the correlation coefficient matrix analysis and C1/C2 and C4/C3 ratios, we consider that the sources of C1 are probably associated with the secondary formation via the oxidation of biogenic VOCs, while C2 has both primary and secondary formations associated with anthropogenic sources in the IGP-outflow. On the other hand, C1 and C2 have similar sources (both primary and secondary) originated from biomass burning and bacterial activities via long-range atmospheric transport in the SEA-outflow, as inferred from the MODIS fire spot data, significant concentrations of isovaleric

  8. Low molecular weight melanoidins in coffee brew.

    PubMed

    Bekedam, E Koen; Roos, Ellen; Schols, Henk A; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Smit, Gerrit

    2008-06-11

    Analysis of low molecular weight (LMw) coffee brew melanoidins is challenging due to the presence of many non-melanoidin components that complicate analysis. This study focused on the isolation of LMw coffee brew melanoidins by separation of melanoidins from non-melanoidin components that are present in LMw coffee brew material. LMw coffee fractions differing in polarity were obtained by reversed-phase solid phase extraction and their melanoidin, sugar, nitrogen, caffeine, trigonelline, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, quinic acid, caffeic acid, and phenolic groups contents were determined. The sugar composition, the charge properties, and the absorbance at various wavelengths were investigated as well. The majority of the LMw melanoidins were found to have an apolar character, whereas most non-melanoidins have a polar character. The three isolated melanoidin-rich fractions represented 56% of the LMw coffee melanoidins and were free from non-melanoidin components. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that the melanoidins isolated showed similar features as high molecular weight coffee melanoidins. All three melanoidin fractions contained approximately 3% nitrogen, indicating the presence of incorporated amino acids or proteins. Surprisingly, glucose was the main sugar present in these melanoidins, and it was reasoned that sucrose is the most likely source for this glucose within the melanoidin structure. It was also found that LMw melanoidins exposed a negative charge, and this negative charge was inversely proportional to the apolar character of the melanoidins. Phenolic group levels as high as 47% were found, which could be explained by the incorporation of chlorogenic acids in these melanoidins.

  9. Stable carbon isotope ratios of low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and glyoxal in marine aerosols from the western North Pacific: Long-term trends in Chichijima Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.

    2012-12-01

    Dicarboxylic acids such as oxalic, malonic and succinic acids are the most abundant water-soluble organic compound class in aerosols. To better understand the source and photochemical processes of water-soluble organic aerosols in the remote marine aerosols, we measured stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds using a GC/IR/MS technique. The aerosol samples were collected in 2001-2011 at a remote island, Chichijima (27°04'E; 142°13'N) in the western North Pacific. Here we present decadal variations of the isotopic composition of dicarboxylic acids (C2-C9), ketoacids (C2-C8) and glyoxal in summertime aerosols (June, July and August). The molecular distributions of diacids were characterized by the predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. Oxalic acid showed higher δ13C values than other species ranging from -18‰ to -2‰ with no clear decadal trend. In contrast, C3 and C4 diacids showed δ13C values of -24 to -5‰ and -40 to -12‰ with a decadal decline. Glyoxal (-60 to -10‰) and ωC7 acid (-34 to -12‰) also showed lower values toward 2011. However, azelaic acid (C9) (-32 to -24‰) stayed relatively constant throughout the observation period. We will discuss the detailed isotopic compositions of these organic species in terms of the photochemical aging and processing in the western North Pacific and the changes in the sources and source regions.

  10. Novel insights into the composition, variation, organization, and expression of the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene family in common wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Jianghua; Jiang, Wei; Luo, Guangbin; Yang, Wenlong; Sun, Jiazhu; Tong, Yiping; Cui, Dangqun; Zhang, Aimin

    2013-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS), encoded by a complex multigene family, play an important role in the processing quality of wheat flour. Although members of this gene family have been identified in several wheat varieties, the allelic variation and composition of LMW-GS genes in common wheat are not well understood. In the present study, using the LMW-GS gene molecular marker system and the full-length gene cloning method, a comprehensive molecular analysis of LMW-GS genes was conducted in a representative population, the micro-core collections (MCC) of Chinese wheat germplasm. Generally, >15 LMW-GS genes were identified from individual MCC accessions, of which 4–6 were located at the Glu-A3 locus, 3–5 at the Glu-B3 locus, and eight at the Glu-D3 locus. LMW-GS genes at the Glu-A3 locus showed the highest allelic diversity, followed by the Glu-B3 genes, while the Glu-D3 genes were extremely conserved among MCC accessions. Expression and sequence analysis showed that 9–13 active LMW-GS genes were present in each accession. Sequence identity analysis showed that all i-type genes present at the Glu-A3 locus formed a single group, the s-type genes located at Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 loci comprised a unique group, while high-diversity m-type genes were classified into four groups and detected in all Glu-3 loci. These results contribute to the functional analysis of LMW-GS genes and facilitate improvement of bread-making quality by wheat molecular breeding programmes. PMID:23536608

  11. Distributions of low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls in the marine aerosols collected over the Arctic Ocean during late summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Ono, K.; Tachibana, E.; Charriére, B.; Sempéré, R.

    2012-11-01

    Oxalic and other small dicarboxylic acids have been reported as important water-soluble organic constituents of atmospheric aerosols from different environments. Their molecular distributions are generally characterized by the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic (C3) and/or succinic (C4) acids. In this study, we collected marine aerosols from the Arctic Ocean during late summer in 2009 when sea ice was retreating. The marine aerosols were analyzed for the molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids as well as ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls to better understand the source of water-soluble organics and their photochemical processes in the high Arctic marine atmosphere. We found that diacids are more abundant than ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls, but their concentrations are generally low (< 30 ng m-3), except for one sample (up to 70 ng m-3) that was collected near the mouth of Mackenzie River during clear sky condition. Although the molecular compositions of diacids are in general characterized by the predominance of oxalic acid, a depletion of C2 was found in two samples in which C4 became the most abundant. Similar depletion of oxalic acid has previously been reported in the Arctic aerosols collected at Alert after polar sunrise and in the summer aerosols from the coast of Antarctica. Because the marine aerosols that showed a depletion of C2 were collected under the overcast and/or foggy conditions, we suggest that a photochemical decomposition of oxalic acid may have occurred in aqueous phase of aerosols over the Arctic Ocean via the photo dissociation of oxalate-Fe (III) complex. We also determined stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) of bulk aerosol carbon and individual diacids. The δ13C of bulk aerosols showed -26.5‰ (range: -29.7 to -24.7‰, suggesting that marine aerosol carbon is derived from both terrestrial and marine organic materials. In contrast, oxalic acid showed much larger δ13C values (average: -20.9‰, range

  12. Distributions of low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls in the marine aerosols collected over the Arctic Ocean during late summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Ono, K.; Tachibana, E.; Charriére, B.; Sempéré, R.

    2012-08-01

    Oxalic and other small dicarboxylic acids have been reported as important water-soluble organic constituents of atmospheric aerosols from different environments. Their molecular distributions are generally characterized by the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic (C3) and/or succinic (C4) acids. In this study, we collected marine aerosols from the Arctic Ocean during late summer in 2009 when sea ice is retreated. The marine aerosols were analyzed for the molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids as well as ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls to better understand the source of water-soluble organics and their photochemical processes in the high Arctic marine atmosphere. We found that diacids are more abundant than ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls, but their concentrations are generally low (< 30 ng m-3), except for one sample (up to 70 ng m-3) that was collected near the mouth of Mackenzie River during clear sky condition. Although the molecular compositions of diacids are in general characterized by the predominance of oxalic acid, a depletion of C2 was found in two samples in which C4 became the most abundant. Similar depletion of oxalic acid has previously been reported in the Arctic aerosols collected at Alert after polar sunrise and in the summer aerosols from the coastal Antarctica. Because the marine aerosols that showed a depletion of C2 were observed under the overcast and/or foggy conditions, we suggest that a photochemical decomposition of oxalic acid may have occurred in aqueous phase of aerosols over the Arctic Ocean via the photo dissociation of oxalate-Fe (III) complex. We also determined stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) of bulk aerosol carbon and individual diacids. The δ13C of bulk aerosols showed -26.5‰ (range: -29.7‰ to -24.7‰), suggesting that marine aerosol carbon is derived from both terrestrial and marine organic materials. In contrast, oxalic acid showed much larger δ13C values (average: -20.9‰, range

  13. Stereocomplexation of low molecular weight poly(L-lactic acid) and high molecular weight poly(D-lactic acid), radiation crosslinking PLLA/PDLA stereocomplexes and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quynh, Tran Minh; Mai, Hoang Hoa; Lan, Pham Ngoc

    2013-02-01

    Poly(L-lactic acid)s (PLLAx) were synthesized from L-lactic acid by polycondensation. Different stereocomplexes were also obtained with equimolar mixtures of synthesized PLLAx and a commercial PDLA. The stereocomplexes were crosslinked with triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) by gamma irradiation. Crosslinking density increased with radiation doses, the heavier the crosslinking network, the lower its swelling degree. The crosslinking structures were introduced in the stereocomplexes inhibiting the mobility for crystallization of PLLA molecules. Thermal and mechanical properties of PLA stereocomplexes were remarkably enhanced by radiation induced crosslinking. PLA stereocomplex does not seem to be degraded by PLLA degrading microorganisms existing in compost at room temperature, but the synthesized PLLA was significantly degraded.

  14. Effects of low-molecular-weight organic ligands and phosphate on adsorption of Pseudomonas putida by clay minerals and iron oxide.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huayong; Jiang, Daihua; Cai, Peng; Rong, Xingmin; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption of Pseudomonas putida on kaolinite, montmorillonite and goethite was studied in the presence of organic ligands and phosphate. Citrate, tartrate, oxalate and phosphate showed inhibitive effect on P. putida adsorption by three minerals in a broad range of anion concentrations. The highest efficiencies of the four ligands in blocking the adsorption of P. putida on goethite, kaolinite and montmorillonite were 58-90%, 35-76% and 20-48%, respectively. The ability of organic ligands in prohibiting the binding of P. putida cells to the minerals followed the sequence of citrate>tartrate>oxalate>acetate. The significant suppressive effects on P. putida adsorption were ascribed to the increased negative charges by adsorbed ligands and the competition of ligands with bacterial surface groups for binding sites. The inhibitive effects on P. putida adsorption by organic ligands were also dependent on the steric hindrance of the molecules. Acetate presented promotive effect on P. putida adsorption by kaolinite and goethite at low anion concentrations. The results obtained in this study suggested that the adsorption of bacteria in soils especially in the rhizosphere can significantly be impacted by various organic and inorganic anions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Spectral characterization and surface complexation modeling of low molecular weight organics on hematite nanoparticles: Role of electrolytes in the binding mechanism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Given the ubiquity of organic-metal oxide interfaces in environmental and medical systems, it is incumbent to obtain mechanistic details at the molecular level from experimental procedures that mimic real systems and conditions. We report herein the adsorption pH envelopes (range 9-5) and isotherms...

  16. Analysis of low molecular weight compounds by MALDI-FTICR-MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao-Yang; Chu, Xu; Zhao, Zhi-Xiong; He, Xiao-Shuang; Guo, Yin-Long

    2011-05-15

    This review focuses on recent applications of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTICR-MS) in qualitative and quantitative analysis of low molecular weight compounds. The scope of the work includes amino acids, small peptides, mono and oligosaccharides, lipids, metabolic compounds, small molecule phytochemicals from medicinal herbs and even the volatile organic compounds from tobacco. We discuss both direct analysis and analysis following derivatization. In addition we review sample preparation strategies to reduce interferences in the low m/z range and to improve sensitivities by derivatization with charge tags. We also present coupling of head space techniques with MALDI-FTICR-MS. Furthermore, omics analyses based on MALDI-FTICR-MS were also discussed, including proteomics, metabolomics and lipidomics, as well as the relative MS imaging for bio-active low molecular weight compounds. Finally, we discussed the investigations on dissociation/rearrangement processes of low molecular weight compounds by MALDI-FTICR-MS.

  17. Crosslinked self-assemblies of lipoid acid-substituted low molecular weight (1800 Da) polyethylenimine as reductive-sensitive non-viral gene vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaojiao; Yuan, Zhefan; Yi, Xiaoqing; Zhuo, Renxi; Li, Feng

    2012-10-01

    In this study, amphiphilic polyethylenimine-graft-thioctic acid (PEI-TA) and polyethylenimine-graft-lauric acid (PEI-LA) were synthesized. Both PEI-TA and PEI-LA could self-assemble into micelles. Due to the existence of disulfide-linked rings at the end of hydrophobic moieties, PEI-TA could form stable micelles with disulfide crosslinked cores (PEI-TA-SS). In comparison with the PEI-LA micelle, PEI-TA-SS possessed higher DNA binding ability according to the gel retardation assay and heparin replacement assay. In vitro transfection experiments indicated that PEI-TA-SS showed comparably high transfection efficiency as compared to 25 kDa PEI. More interestingly, the luciferase expression of PEI-TA-SS was superior to that of PEI-LA at low N/P ratio, which might be ascribed to the stronger binding capacity of PEI-TA-SS facilitating the entering of PEI-TA-SS/pDNA complexes into cells.

  18. Development and Modification of a GC-IRMS System for Ambient Atmospheric Studies of Low-Molecular Weight Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebel, B. M.; Riemer, D. D.; Swart, P. K.

    2008-12-01

    Determining δ13C values for reduced hydrocarbons in atmospheric samples is emerging as an important area of interest in isotopic analytical chemistry. The importance of stable isotopic data stems from its usefulness to differentiate between multiple sources and allows for an assessment of changing source structure and source strength in a constantly changing environment. Though much stable isotopic work is available on CH4 and other VOCs, particularly NMHCs, few studies have focused on oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) such as methanol, ethanol, acetone, and propanal. Both anthropogenic and biogenic sources exist for these OVOCs and their role in atmospheric chemistry is important. The OVOCs of interest here are found in very low concentrations in ambient air (low ppbv to high pptv) and thus provide unique challenges for analysis by GC-C-IRMS. To address the challenges of measuring OVOCs, a Hewlett Packard 6890 gas chromatograph interfaced with a Europa Scientific Geo 20-20 IRMS was modified to accept ambient atmospheric samples. To sharpen peak shape all dead volume within the system was minimized; starting with the addition of a fused silica combustion tube (0.25 mm i.d.) containing Cu, Pt, or Ni wires (0.1 mm dia.). To assist water removal from the sample stream before delivery to the IRMS a small volume nafion dryer (0.20 mm i.d.) and a water-trap submersed in a dry-ice / acetone slurry were tested individually. Deactivated fused silica (0.1 mm i.d.) joins the custom designed open split to the ion source and effectively decreases dead volume while maintaining chromatographic separation and desired source pressure. To decrease the variability of the instrumentation, and to increase the total amount of carbon at the ion source, total carrier gas flow is reduced to 0.7 mL/min. Reference gas addition is manually facilitated by a six port rotary valve upstream of the open split and delivers diluted CO2 reference gas (0.1% CO2 in He) directly to the ion

  19. Low molecular weight heparins and heparinoids.

    PubMed

    Eikelboom, John W; Hankey, Graeme J

    2002-10-07

    Several low molecular weight (LMW) heparin preparations, including dalteparin, enoxaparin and nadroparin, as well as the heparinoid danaparoid sodium, are approved for use in Australia. LMW heparins are replacing unfractionated heparin for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and the treatment of non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndromes. The advantages of LMW heparins over unfractionated heparin include a longer half-life (allowing once-daily or twice-daily subcutaneous dosing), high bioavailability and predictable anticoagulant response (avoiding the need for dose adjustment or laboratory monitoring in most patients), and a low risk of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and osteoporosis. Laboratory monitoring of LMW heparin therapy should be considered in newborns and children, patients with renal impairment, those who are pregnant, and those at the extremes of bodyweight (eg, < 40 kg or > 100 kg). LMW heparins should: be avoided or used with caution in patients undergoing neuraxial anaesthesia, owing to the potential for epidural haematoma formation; not be used (ie, are contraindicated) in patients with immune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, as they may cross-react with anti-heparin antibodies. Conventional unfractionated heparin retains a role in the management of patients at high risk of bleeding, undergoing invasive procedures, and patients with renal failure owing to its shorter half-life, reversibility with protamine sulfate, and extrarenal metabolism. The heparinoid danaparoid sodium is effective for the treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

  20. Development of C60-based labeling reagents for the determination of low-molecular-weight compounds by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass (I): Determination of amino acids in microliter biofluids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pin; Xiao, Hua-Ming; Ding, Jun; Deng, Qian-Yun; Zheng, Fang; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2017-04-01

    Quantification of low molecular weight compounds (<800 Da) using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) is challenging due to the matrix signal interference at low m/z region and poor reproducibility of MS responses. In this study, a C60 labeling-MALDI MS strategy was proposed for the fast, sensitive and reliable determination of amino acids (AAs) in biofluids. An N-hydroxysuccinimide functionalized C60 was synthesized as the labeling reagent and added as an 880 Da tag to AAs; a carboxyl acid containing C60 was employed as the internal standards to normalize MS variations. This solved the inherent problems of MALDI MS for small molecule analysis. The entire analytical procedure-which consisted of simple protein precipitation and 10 min of derivatization in a microwave prior to the MALDI MS analysis-could be accomplished within 20 min with high throughput and great sample matrix tolerance. AA quantification showed good linearity from 0.7 to 70.0 μM with correlation coefficients (R) larger than 0.9954. The limits of detection were 70.0-300.0 fmol. Good reproducibility and reliability of the method were demonstrated by intra-day and inter-day precision with relative standard deviations less than 13.8%, and the recovery in biofluid ranged from 80.4% to 106.8%. This approach could be used in 1 μL of urine, serum, plasma, whole blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. Most importantly, the C60 labeling strategy is a universal approach for MALDI MS analysis of various LMW compounds because functionalized C60 is now available on demand.

  1. Isolation of low-molecular-weight heparin/heparan sulfate from marine sources.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan (heparin and heparan sulfate) are polyanionic sulfated polysaccharides mostly recognized for its anticoagulant activity. In many countries, low-molecular-weight heparins have replaced the unfractionated heparin, owing to its high bioavailability, half-life, and less adverse effect. The low-molecular-weight heparins differ in mode of preparation (chemical or enzymatic synthesis and chromatography fractionations) and as a consequence in molecular weight distribution, chemical structure, and pharmacological activities. Bovine and porcine body parts are at present used for manufacturing of commercial heparins, and the appearance of mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans has limited the use of bovine heparin. Consequently, marine organisms come across the new resource for the production of low-molecular-weight heparin and heparan sulfate. The importance of this chapter suggests that the low-molecular-weight heparin and heparan sulfate from marine species could be alternative sources for commercial heparin. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adsorption of low-molecular-weight sodium polyacrylate on hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Misra, D N

    1993-10-01

    Adsorption of low-molecular-weight sodium polyacrylate from aqueous solution onto synthetic hydroxyapatite was studied at room temperature so that the mechanism of adhesion of polyacrylate cements to tooth mineral could be elucidated. The adsorption isotherm of sodium polyacrylate was Langmuirian in shape and was thus qualitatively different from that of polyacrylic acid (Misra, 1991), which exhibited an adsorption maximum. The self-association of the molecules that probably causes the maximum to occur with polyacrylic acid was effectively absent for the relatively well-ionized, electrostatically repelling polyacrylate ions of the salt. With the adsorption of acrylate ions, the concentration of phosphate ions increased monotonically, while the concentration of calcium ions showed a minimum. The adsorption of sodium polyacrylate was irreversible, as it was for polyacrylic acid.

  3. Efficacy and tolerance of an injectable medical device containing stable hybrid cooperative complexes of high- and low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid: a monocentric 16 weeks open-label evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Sparavigna, Adele; Tenconi, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Background An injectable medical device containing stable hybrid cooperative complexes of high- and low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA) has been developed with characteristics suited for a global improvement of facial esthetics. Objective To evaluate the HA product performance in improving some key facial esthetic features. The study employed clinical scales, subjective evaluations, and facial skin objective measurements. Methods A single Italian site treated 64 female subjects aged 38–60 years, with injections at five predetermined points, on each side of the face, with a 4-week time lapse between the first and the second product administration. Subjects were evaluated after 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, using validated clinical scales, subjective evaluation, and objective quantitative outcome measures. Assessment of esthetic results included photographic documentation. Results Both the clinical and subjective assessments, and the majority of objective instrumental parameters indicated an improvement throughout the study and were already significant at week 4 or 8 and were still significant at week 16 (3 months after the second treatment). Minor and temporary local skin reactions were observed in 23% of subjects at the site of the injections, and the global judgment on tolerability was good or excellent, both in the investigators’ opinion and volunteers’ self-evaluation. Conclusion Both subjective and objective improvement of the facial parameters was consistent with the bio-remodeling purpose, and persistent and still statistically significant at the end of the study. The tolerability and safety profile of the product were judged good or excellent both by investigators and volunteers. This study supports the claim for bio-remodeling of these stable hybrid cooperative complexes of low- and high-molecular-weight HA. PMID:27713647

  4. Bleeding following coronary surgery after preoperative low-molecular-weight heparin.

    PubMed

    Myhre, Ulf; Stenseth, Roar; Karevold, Asbjørn; Bjella, Lise; Lingaas, Per Snorre; Olsen, Per Olav; Haaverstad, Rune; Kirkeby-Garstad, Idar; Levang, Olaf Walle

    2004-03-01

    Low-molecular-weight heparin and acetyl salicylic acid have become an established treatment for unstable angina. A retrospective study on our database of one year was carried out to see what impact preoperative low-molecular-weight heparin versus none had on the postoperative course of 473 patients having coronary surgery exclusively. Apart from the fact that the low-molecular-weight heparin patients had a higher New York Heart Association classification and marginally more grafts, longer bypass and cross-clamp time, the preoperative characteristics and surgery of the two groups were similar. The low-molecular-weight heparin group had twice as many (9.7% versus 4.7%) re-operations for bleeding, 46% versus 26% had blood transfusion and 22.3% versus 12.6% plasma transfusion. The postoperative outcome was otherwise similar. Preoperative treatment of unstable angina with low-molecular-weight heparin carries a definite risk of postoperative bleeding. Although this study did not reveal any serious consequences, bleeding, transfusions and re-operations are associated with infections, wound healing problems and death. The indications and length of treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin in unstable angina patients have to be appropriate and the perioperative management of these patients has to address the bleeding tendency.

  5. Preparation of low molecular weight fucoidan by gamma-irradiation and its anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2013-09-12

    Fucoidan is a marine sulfated polysaccharide with a wide variety of biological activities. Recently, it has been reported that low molecular weight fucoidan has the enhanced antioxidant and anticoagulative activities. However, degradation techniques such as enzymolysis and acid hydrolysis for obtaining low molecular weight fucoidan, have the disadvantages such as narrow substrate specificity and unfavorable hydrolysis of side groups, respectively. In this study, low molecular weight fucoidan was prepared by gamma-irradiation. When fucoidan was gamma-irradiated, the molecular weight rapidly dropped to 38 kDa when the sample was irradiated at 10 kGy, then gradually dropped to 7 kDa without the significant elimination of the sulfate groups. Low molecular weight fucoidan had higher cytotoxicity than native fucoidan in cancer cells, such as AGS, MCF-7, and HepG-2. In addition, low molecular weight fucoidan showed higher inhibitory activity of cell transformation, which resulted in higher anticarcinogenicity. This result suggests that low molecular weight fucoidan with enhanced biological activities can be produced by a simple irradiation method without changing the functional groups.

  6. Low-molecular-weight hydroxyacids in marine atmospheric aerosol: evidence of a marine microbial origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Y.; Sawano, M.; Kawamura, K.

    2014-04-01

    Lactic acid (LA) and glycolic acid (GA), which are low-molecular-weight hydroxyacids, were identified in the particle and gas phases within the marine atmospheric boundary layer over the western subarctic North Pacific. Major portion of LA (81%) and GA (57%) were present in the particulate phase, which is consistent with the presence of a hydroxyl group in these molecules leading to the low volatility of the compounds. The average concentration of LA in more biologically influenced marine aerosols (average 33 ± 58 ng m-3) was substantially higher than that in less biologically influenced aerosols (average 11 ± 12 ng m-3). Over the oceacnic region of phytoplankton blooms, the concentration of aerosol LA was comparable to that of oxalic acid, which was the most abundant diacid during the study period. A positive correlation was found between the LA concentrations in more biologically influenced aerosols and chlorophyll a in seawater (r2 = 0.56), suggesting an important production of aerosol LA possibly associated with microbial (e.g., lactobacillus) activity in seawater and/or aerosols. Our finding provides a new insight into the poorly quantified microbial sources of marine organic aerosols (OA) because such low-molecular-weight hydroxyacids are key intermediates for OA formation.

  7. Low-molecular-weight hydroxyacids in marine atmospheric aerosol: evidence of a marine microbial origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Y.; Sawano, M.; Kawamura, K.

    2014-08-01

    Lactic acid (LA) and glycolic acid (GA), which are low-molecular-weight hydroxyacids, were identified in the particle and gas phases within the marine atmospheric boundary layer over the western subarctic North Pacific. A major portion of LA (81%) and GA (57%) was present in the particulate phase, which is consistent with the presence of a hydroxyl group in these molecules leading to the low volatility of the compounds. The average concentration (±SD) of LA in more biologically influenced marine aerosols (33 ± 58 ng m-3) was substantially higher than that in less biologically influenced aerosols (11 ± 12 ng m-3). Over the oceanic region of phytoplankton blooms, the concentration of aerosol LA was comparable to that of oxalic acid, which was the most abundant diacid during the study period. A positive correlation was found between the LA concentrations in more biologically influenced aerosols and chlorophyll a in seawater (r2 = 0.56), suggesting an important production of aerosol LA possibly associated with microbial (e.g., lactobacillus) activity in seawater and/or aerosols. Our finding provides a new insight into the poorly quantified microbial sources of marine organic aerosols (OAs) because such low-molecular-weight hydroxyacids are key intermediates for OA formation.

  8. New cyanopeptide-derived low molecular weight thrombin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Radau, Gregor; Gebel, Jana; Rauh, Daniel

    2003-08-01

    Thrombosis is the result of defective regulation of the hemostasis system. This cardiovascular disorder may lead to deep vein thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke. The majority of current drug research is focused on finding inhibitors of thrombin - the global player in hemostasis. In our work, we emphasize investigation of the marine environment to yield new lead structures from marine organisms like blue-green algae (cyanobacteria). This article deals with the design, syntheses, and inhibition tests of new low molecular weight thrombin inhibitors utilizing cyanopeptides, the secondary metabolites of cyanobacteria with interesting biological activities, as new lead structures. Starting with aeruginosin 98-B (2) as a lead structure, we have developed and synthesized new, selective acting inhibitors of thrombin (RA-1001 and RA-1002), which are suitable targets for further structure-activity studies.

  9. Anticoagulant mechanism and platelet deaggregation property of a non-cytotoxic, acidic phospholipase A2 purified from Indian cobra (Naja naja) venom: inhibition of anticoagulant activity by low molecular weight heparin.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sumita; Gogoi, Debananda; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, anticoagulant and platelet modulating activities of an acidic phospholipase A2 (NnPLA2-I) purified from Indian cobra Naja naja venom was investigated. The NnPLA2-I displayed a mass of 15.2 kDa and 14,186.0 Da when analyzed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS, respectively. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis of the NnPLA2-I showed its significant similarity with phospholipase A2 enzymes purified from cobra venom. BLAST analysis of one tryptic peptide sequence of NnPLA2-I demonstrated putative conserved domains of the PLA2-like superfamily. The Km and Vmax values of NnPLA2-I toward hydrolysis of its most preferred substrate-phosphotidylcholine (PC)-were determined to be 0.72 mM and 29.3 μmol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. The anticoagulant activity of NnPLA2-I was found to be higher than the anticoagulant activity of heparin/AT-III or warfarin. The histidine modifying reagent, monovalent and polyvalent antivenom differentially inhibited the catalytic and anticoagulant activities of NnPLA2-I. Low molecular weight heparin did not inhibit the catalytic and platelet deaggregation activity of NnPLA2-I, albeit its anticoagulant activity was significantly reduced. The NnPLA2-I showed a non-enzymatic, mixed inhibition of thrombin with a Ki value of 9.3 nM. Heparin significantly decreased, with an IC50 value of 15.23 mIU, the thrombin inhibitory activity of NnPLA2-I. The NnPLA2-I uniquely increased the amidolytic activity of FXa without influencing its prothrombin activating property. NnPLA2-I showed dose-dependent deaggregation of platelet rich plasma (PRP) and inhibited the collagen and thrombin-induced aggregation of PRP. However, deaggregation of washed platelets by NnPLA2-I demonstrated in presence of PC or platelet poor plasma. Alkylation of histidine residue of NnPLA2-I resulted in 95% and 21% reduction of its platelet deaggregation and platelet binding properties, respectively. NnPLA2-I did not show cytotoxicity against human glioblastoma U87MG cells

  10. Low-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol improves survival in experimental sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ackland, Gareth L; Gutierrez Del Arroyo, Ana; Yao, Song T; Stephens, Robert C; Dyson, Alexander; Klein, Nigel J; Singer, Mervyn; Gourine, Alexander V

    2010-02-01

    For several chronic inflammatory disease states, therapy is enhanced by improving the pharmacokinetic properties of anti-inflammatory drugs through conjugation with polyethylene glycol. We hypothesized that part of the beneficial action of PEGylated drugs may be derived from the anti-inflammatory properties of polyethylene glycol (PEG) itself. Randomized, double-blinded, controlled ex vivo and in vivo laboratory studies. University research laboratories. Human neutrophils and mononuclear cells, macrophage cell line, and adult rats and mice. The effect of PEG (either low-molecular-weight [200-400] or high-molecular-weight [>4000]) was assessed on survival after systemic inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide or zymosan. The effects of PEG on zymosan, lipopolysaccharide, or streptolysin-induced inflammatory and bioenergetic responses of immune cells were also assessed. Low-molecular-weight PEG reduced inflammatory cytokine expression, pyrexia, and mortality by >50% in both lipopolysaccharide and zymosan models of sepsis. Low-molecular-weight PEG reduced cytokine expression both in vivo and in vitro, and attenuated activation of human neutrophils in response to lipopolysaccharide or zymosan. By contrast, high-molecular-weight PEG conferred less significant survival effects after lipopolysaccharide and zymosan, and it did not exhibit such profound anti-inflammatory effects. Low-molecular-weight PEG attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of pro-apoptotic pathways (lysophosphatidic acid receptor and caspase-domain signaling) in the livers of endotoxemic rats. Streptolysin-induced necrosis of human neutrophils was reduced by low-molecular-weight PEG, indicating a mechanism that involves coating and/or stabilizing the cellular membrane. Low-molecular-weight PEG preserved human neutrophil responses to septic serum and bioenergetic function in macrophages and neutrophils. PEG is a commonly used, safe, nonimmunogenic molecule possessing hitherto unappreciated

  11. Effect of soil sieving on respiration induced by low-molecular-weight substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Rahul; Vranová, Valerie; Pavelka, Marian; Rejšek, Klement; Formánek, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    The mesh size of sieves has a significant impact upon soil disturbance, affecting pore structure, fungal hyphae, proportion of fungi to bacteria, and organic matter fractions. The effects are dependent upon soil type and plant coverage. Sieving through a 2 mm mesh increases mineralization of exogenously supplied carbohydrates and phenolics compared to a 5 mm mesh and the effect is significant (p<0.05), especially in organic horizons, due to increased microbial metabolism and alteration of other soil properties. Finer mesh size particularly increases arabinose, mannose, galactose, ferulic and pthalic acid metabolism, whereas maltose mineralization is less affected. Sieving through a 5 mm mesh size is suggested for all type of experiments where enhanced mineralization of low-molecular-weight organic compounds needs to be minimalized.

  12. Sorption of carboxylic acid from carboxylic salt solutions at pHs close to or above the pK[sub a] of the acid, with regeneration with an aqueous solution of ammonia or low-molecular-weight alkylamine

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Tung, L.A.

    1992-07-21

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks at pHs close to or above the acids' pH[sub a] into a strongly basic organic liquid phase or onto a basic solid adsorbent or moderately basic ion exchange resin. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine or ammonia thus forming an alkylammonium or ammonium carboxylate which dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine or ammonia. 8 figs.

  13. Sorption of carboxylic acid from carboxylic salt solutions at PHS close to or above the pK.sub.a of the acid, with regeneration with an aqueous solution of ammonia or low-molecular-weight alkylamine

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; Tung, Lisa A.

    1992-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks at pHs close to or above the acids' pH.sub.a into a strongly basic organic liquid phase or onto a basic solid adsorbent or moderately basic ion exchange resin. the acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine or ammonia thus forming an alkylammonium or ammonium carobxylate which dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine or ammonia.

  14. Low molecular-weight phenols in Tannat wines made by alternative winemaking procedures.

    PubMed

    Favre, Guzmán; Peña-Neira, Álvaro; Baldi, Cecilia; Hernández, Natalia; Traverso, Sofía; Gil, Graciela; González-Neves, Gustavo

    2014-09-01

    Low molecular weight phenols of Tannat red wines produced by Traditional Maceration (TM), Prefermentative Cold Maceration (PCM), Maceration Enzyme (ENZ) and grape-Seed Tannins additions (ST), were performed and discussed. Alternatives to TM increased wine phenolic contents but unequally, ST increased mainly smaller flavans-3-ol, PCM anthocyanins and ENZ proanthocyanidins (up to 2250 mg/L). However low molecular weight flavan-3-ols remained below 9 mg/L in all wines, showing that there is not necessarily a correspondence between wine richness in total tannins and flavan-3-ols contents at low molecular weight. PCM wines had particularly high concentrations of tyrosol and tryptophol, yeast metabolism derived compounds. The use of grape-seed enological tannins did not increase grape seed derived phenolic compounds such as gallic acid. Caftaric acid was found in concentrations much higher than those reported in other grape varieties. Wine phenolic content and composition was considerably affected by the winemaking procedures tested.

  15. Rapid analysis of acylglycerols in low molecular weight milk fat fractions.

    PubMed

    Craven, R J; Lencki, R W

    2007-05-01

    A suitable analytical method was required to facilitate development of an industrial-scale short-path distillation (SPD) process. Short-path distillation produces milk fat distillates (MFD) enriched in low molecular weight milk fat components-viz. free fatty acids, monoacylglycerols, diacylglycerols, cholesterol and low molecular weight triacylglycerols. In this case, solid-phase extraction (SPE) was considered a better alternative than thin-layer chromatography for separating polar and apolar lipid components in MFD samples due to its speed and near-complete recoveries. Solid-phase extraction of MFDs yielded two fractions, both of which are sufficiently pure for subsequent analysis by gas chromatography. This procedure provided rapid and complete chemical characterization (including mass balances) of low-molecular weight milk-fat fractions.

  16. Microbial detection with low molecular weight RNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourentzi, K. D.; Fox, G. E.; Willson, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    The need to monitor microorganisms in the environment has increased interest in assays based on hybridization probes that target nucleic acids (e.g., rRNA). We report the development of liquid-phase assays for specific bacterial 5S rRNA sequences or similarly sized artificial RNAs (aRNAs) using molecular beacon technology. These beacons fluoresce only in the presence of specific target sequences, rendering as much as a 27-fold fluorescence enhancement. The assays can be used with both crude cell lysates and purified total RNA preparations. Minimal sample preparation (e.g., heating to promote leakage from cells) is sufficient to detect many Gram-negative bacteria. Using this approach it was possible to detect an aRNA-labeled Escherichia coli strain in the presence of a large background of an otherwise identical E. coli strain. Finally, by using a longer wavelength carboxytetramethylrhodamine beacon it was possible to reduce the fraction of the signal due to cellular autofluorescence to below 0.5%.

  17. Microbial detection with low molecular weight RNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourentzi, K. D.; Fox, G. E.; Willson, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    The need to monitor microorganisms in the environment has increased interest in assays based on hybridization probes that target nucleic acids (e.g., rRNA). We report the development of liquid-phase assays for specific bacterial 5S rRNA sequences or similarly sized artificial RNAs (aRNAs) using molecular beacon technology. These beacons fluoresce only in the presence of specific target sequences, rendering as much as a 27-fold fluorescence enhancement. The assays can be used with both crude cell lysates and purified total RNA preparations. Minimal sample preparation (e.g., heating to promote leakage from cells) is sufficient to detect many Gram-negative bacteria. Using this approach it was possible to detect an aRNA-labeled Escherichia coli strain in the presence of a large background of an otherwise identical E. coli strain. Finally, by using a longer wavelength carboxytetramethylrhodamine beacon it was possible to reduce the fraction of the signal due to cellular autofluorescence to below 0.5%.

  18. Photochemical Preparation of a Novel Low Molecular Weight Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Kyohei; Hosoyama, Saori; Ohno, Asami; Masuko, Sayaka; Yang, Bo; Sterner, Eric; Wang, Zhenyu; Linhardt, Robert J.; Toida, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Commercial low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are prepared by several methods including peroxidative cleavage, nitrous acid cleavage, chemical ß-elimination, and enzymatic β-elimination. The disadvantages of these methods are that strong reaction conditions or harsh chemicals are used and these can result in decomposition or modification of saccharide units within the polysaccharide backbone. These side-reactions reduce product quality and yield. Here we show the partial photolysis of unfractionated heparin can be performed in distillated water using titanium dioxide (TiO2). TiO2 is a catalyst that can be easily removed by centrifugation or filtration after the photochemical reaction takes place, resulting in highly pure products. The anticoagulant activity of photodegraded LMWH (pLMWH) is comparable to the most common commercially available LMWHs (i.e., Enoxaparin and Dalteparin). 1H NMR spectra obtained show that pLMWH maintains the same core structure as unfractionated heparin. This photochemical reaction was investigated using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and unlike other processes commonly used to prepare LMWHs, photochemically preparation affords polysaccharide chains of reduced length having both odd and even of saccharide residues. PMID:22205826

  19. Low-molecular weight plasma proteome analysis using centrifugal ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Greening, David W; Simpson, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    The low-molecular weight fraction (LMF) of the human plasma proteome is an invaluable source of biological information, especially in the context of identifying plasma-based biomarkers of disease. This protocol outlines a standardized procedure for the rapid/reproducible LMF profiling of human plasma samples using centrifugal ultrafiltration fractionation, followed by 1D-SDS-PAGE separation and nano-LC-MS/MS. Ultrafiltration is a convective process that uses anisotropic semipermeable membranes to separate macromolecular species on the basis of size. We have optimized centrifugal ultrafiltration for plasma fractionation with respect to buffer and solvent composition, centrifugal force, duration and temperature to facilitate >95% recovery, and enrichment of low-M (r) components from human plasma. Using this protocol, >260 unique peptides can be identified from a single plasma profiling experiment using 100 μL of plasma (Greening and Simpson, J Proteomics 73:637-648, 2010). The efficacy of this method is demonstrated by the identification, for the first time, of several plasma proteins (e.g., protein KIAA0649 (Q9Y4D3), rheumatoid factor D5, serine protease inhibitor A3, and transmembrane adapter protein PAG) previously not reported in extant high-confidence Human Proteome Organization Plasma Proteome Project datasets.

  20. [Low molecular weight heparins. Implications in anesthesia and resuscitation].

    PubMed

    Llau, J V; Hoyas, L; Ezpeleta, J; García-Polit, J; Barberá, M; Santes, M J

    1997-02-01

    Low molecular weight heparins are a group of drugs that have only recently been introduced in clinical practice. The are widely used for prophylaxis in thromboembolic disease and are being employed increasingly to treat established venous thrombosis. One way in which these drugs are often used is for prophylaxis in the perioperative period for patients at high risk of developing venous thromboembolism, and the anesthesiologist must therefore be familiar with the main aspects of this application. We review pharmacological characteristics of these drugs as well as the literature on low molecular weight heparins, stressing points of main interest to the anesthesiologist and intensive care recovery unit specialist, namely adverse effects (mainly bleeding) and the implications that use of low molecular weight heparin will have on choice of anesthetic (in particular the dilemma of whether to use local/regional anesthesia).

  1. Low molecular weight species in humic and fulvic fractions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Collin, P.J.; Malcolm, R.L.; Perdue, E. Michael; Cresswell, P.

    1988-01-01

    Fourier transform solution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry with homogated water peak irradiation is a useful method for detecting low molecular weight substances in humic extracts. Succinate, acetate, methanol, formate, lactate and some aryl methoxyl compounds have been detected in extracts from a wide range of sources. In view of the controversy over whether low molecular weight substances are contaminants in humic extracts introduced by the concentration procedure, we report that some of these materials are not contaminants since 1H-NMR can be used to follow their formation from higher molecular weight species. ?? 1988.

  2. Reorganization of low-molecular-weight fraction of plasma proteins in the annual cycle of cyprinidae.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, A M; Lamas, N E; Serebryakova, M V; Ryabtseva, I P; Bolshakov, V V

    2015-02-01

    Reorganization of the low-molecular-weight fraction of cyprinid plasma was analyzed using various electrophoretic techniques (disc electrophoresis, electrophoresis in polyacrylamide concentration gradient, in polyacrylamide with urea, and in SDS-polyacrylamide). The study revealed coordinated changes in the low-molecular-weight protein fractions with seasonal dynamics and related reproductive rhythms of fishes. We used cultured species of the Cyprinidae family with sequenced genomes for the detection of these interrelations in fresh-water and anadromous cyprinid species. The common features of organization of fish low-molecular-weight plasma protein fractions made it possible to make reliable identification of their proteins. MALDI mass-spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of the same proteins (hemopexin, apolipoproteins, and serpins) in the low-molecular-weight plasma fraction in wild species and cultured species with sequenced genomes (carp, zebrafish). It is found that the proteins of the first two classes are organized as complexes made of protein oligomers. Stoichiometry of these complexes changes in concordance with the seasonal and reproductive rhythms.

  3. Low-molecular-weight heparins in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Calvo Romero, J M

    2016-10-27

    In clinical practice, low-molecular-weight heparins are used relatively frequently in patients with atrial fibrillation to prevent embolic events. In this article, it is revised the available evidence in the following clinical situations: rapid onset of anticoagulation, bridging therapy (replacing long-term oral anticoagulant therapy around an invasive procedure) and transesophageal echocardiography-guided cardioversion.

  4. Major rectus abdominis hematoma complicating low molecular weight heparin therapy.

    PubMed

    Di Ascenzo, Leonardo; Cassin, Matteo; Driussi, Mauro; Moretti, Michele; Pecoraro, Rosa; Nicolosi, Gian Luigi

    2008-07-01

    The use of low molecular weight heparin sometimes leads to major life threatening complications, such as acute abdominal haemorrhages. We report two cases of major haematoma of rectus abdominis. Computed tomography was very helpful to confirm the diagnosis in these cases.

  5. Oral delivery of low molecular weight heparin by polyaminomethacrylate coacervates.

    PubMed

    Viehof, Angela; Lamprecht, Alf

    2013-08-01

    Oral bioavailability of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) can be achieved by several advanced drug delivery approaches. Here, a new preparation method for coacervates (CAs) using non-toxic polyethylene glycol derivates was developed. LMWH were coacervated with polyaminomethacrylates (Eudragit® RL or RS) using polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives as non-toxic solvents. CAs were analyzed for their physicochemical properties and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for different formulations in rabbits. CAs from both polymer types using various PEGs were of irregular shape and had particle sizes of around 40 μm, encapsulation efficiencies of >90%, and complete LMWH in vitro release was obtained within 2 h. In vivo, oral Absorption at doses of 300 IU/kg was rather low (F < 2.5%) while dose increase resulted in a maximum at 600 IU/kg (FRL: 6.0 ± 1.2%; FRS: 5.8 ± 2.5%) and 1,200 IU/kg did not result in higher bioavailability (FRL: 4.6 ± 0.4%; FRS: 4.1 ± 0.8%). CAs were applicable to various LMWH types where the oral availability decreased in the order fondaparinux>enoxaparin>nadroparin>certoparin depending mainly on the molecular weight. CAs prepared by an organic solvent-free method allowed the oral delivery of LMWHs. The therapeutic efficiency and the simple and solvent-free manufacturing process underlines the high potential of this new preparation method.

  6. Carbon nanodots as a matrix for the analysis of low-molecular-weight molecules in both positive- and negative-ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and quantification of glucose and uric acid in real samples.

    PubMed

    Chen, Suming; Zheng, Huzhi; Wang, Jianing; Hou, Jian; He, Qing; Liu, Huihui; Xiong, Caiqiao; Kong, Xianglei; Nie, Zongxiu

    2013-07-16

    Carbon nanodots were applied for the first time as a new matrix for the analysis of low-molecular-weight compounds by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in both positive- and negative-ion modes. A wide range of small molecules including amino acids, peptides, fatty acids, as well as β-agonists and neutral oligosaccharides were analyzed by MALDI MS with carbon nanodots as the matrix, and the lowest 0.2 fmol limits-of-detection were obtained for octadecanoic acid. Clear sodium and potassium adducts and deprotonated signals were produced in positive- and negative-ion modes. Furthermore, the glucose and uric acid in real samples were quantitatively determined by the internal standard method with the linear range of 0.5-9 mM and 0.1-1.8 mM (R(2) > 0.999), respectively. This work gives new insight into the application of carbon nanodots and provides a general approach for rapid analysis of low-molecular-weight compounds.

  7. Contribution of low molecular weight phenols to bitter taste and mouthfeel properties in red wines.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo-Diago, Ana; Dizy, Marta; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between low molecular weight compounds present in wines and their sensory contribution. Six young red wines were fractionated by gel permeation chromatography and subsequently each fraction obtained was separated from sugars and acids by solid phase extraction. Wines and both fractions were in-mouth evaluated by a trained sensory panel and UPLC-MS analyses were performed. The lack of ethanol and proanthocyanidins greatly increased the acidity perceived. The elimination of organic acids enabled the description of the samples, which were evaluated as bitter, persistent and slightly astringent. Coutaric acid and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside appear to be relevant astringent compounds in the absence of proanthocyanidins. Bitter taste was highly correlated with the in-mouth persistence. A significant predictive model for bitter taste was built by means of PLSR. Further research must be carried out to validate the sensory contribution of the compounds involved in bitterness and astringency and to verify the sensory interactions observed.

  8. Low molecular weight salts combined with fluorinated solvents for electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Lei, Norman; Guerrero-Zavala, Guillermo; Kwong, Kristie W.

    2015-11-10

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. An electrolyte includes at least one salt having a molecular weight less than about 250. Such salts allow forming electrolytes with higher salt concentrations and ensure high conductivity and ion transport in these electrolytes. The low molecular weight salt may have a concentration of at least about 0.5M and may be combined with one or more other salts, such as linear and cyclic imide salts and/or methide salts. The concentration of these additional salts may be less than that of the low molecular weight salt, in some embodiments, twice less. The additional salts may have a molecular weight greater than about 250. The electrolyte may also include one or more fluorinated solvents and may be capable of maintaining single phase solutions at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C.

  9. Isolation and function of a low molecular weight protein of mung bean embryonic axes.

    PubMed

    Manickam, A; Carlier, A R

    1980-08-01

    A low molecular weight protein from dry mung bean (Vigna radiata) embryonic axes has been purified to near homogeneity by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and hydroxylapatite. It shows a molecular weight of about 12,000 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and a sedimentation coefficient of about 2 S in sucrose gradients. This protein occurs in greater amounts in dry axes than in dry cotyledons, and it dramatically disappears during early germination of the seed. Affinity chromatography tests do not indicate it as a trypsin inhibitor or as a glycoprotein. It is a water-soluble cytoplasmic protein exhibiting an amino acid composition characteristic of storage proteins with a high content of glutamic acid/glutamine. We suggest that it is a low molecular weight storage albumin.

  10. Effects of low molecular weight chitosan (LMC-1) on shrimp preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guang-Li; Wang, Yuan-Hong; Liu, Shu-Qing; Tian, Xue-Lin

    1996-06-01

    This study on the effects of low molecular weight chitosan (LMC-1) and shrimp preserving agents such as phytic acid (PA), sodium bisulfite (SB), and crustacean preservative (CP) on the preservation of shrimp ( Trachypenaeus curvirostris) and the bacteriostasis of LMC-1 showed that: (1) Different LMC-1 concentration has different bacteriostasis on E. coli, B. subtilis and S. aureau; (2) LMC-1 and CP are better than PA and SB for preserving the freshness of shrimp stored at 4 °C.

  11. Low molecular weight components in an aquatic humic substance as characterized by membrane dialysis and orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Remucal, Christina K; Cory, Rose M; Sander, Michael; McNeill, Kristopher

    2012-09-04

    Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) was dialyzed through a 100-500 molecular weight cutoff dialysis membrane, and the dialysate and retentate were analyzed by UV-visible absorption and high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS). A significant fraction (36% based on dissolved organic carbon) of SRFA passed through the dialysis membrane. The fraction of SRFA in the dialysate had a different UV-visible absorption spectrum and was enriched in low molecular weight molecules with a more aliphatic composition relative to the initial SRFA solution. Comparison of the SRFA spectra collected by Orbitrap MS and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance MS (FT-ICR MS) demonstrated that the mass accuracy of the Orbitrap MS is sufficient for determination of unique molecular formulas of compounds with masses <600 Da in a complex mixture, such as SRFA. The most intense masses detected by Orbitrap MS were found in the 100-200 Da mass range. Many of these low molecular masses corresponded to molecular formulas of previously identified compounds in organic matter, lignin, and plants, and the use of the standard addition method provided an upper concentration estimate of selected target compounds in SRFA. Collectively, these results provide evidence that SRFA contains low molecular weight components that are present individually or in loosely bound assemblies.

  12. Low molecular weight protamine (LMWP) as nontoxic heparin/low molecular weight heparin antidote (I): preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Chang, L C; Lee, H F; Yang, Z; Yang, V C

    2001-01-01

    Low molecular weight protamine (LMWP) appears to be a promising solution for heparin neutralization without the protamine-associated catastrophic toxic effects. The feasibility of this hypothesis was proven previously by using a peptide mixture produced from proteolytic digestion of protamine. To further examine the utility of this compound as an ultimate nontoxic protamine substitute, detailed studies on the purification and characterization of LMWP including the precise amino acid sequence, structure-function relationship, and possible mechanism were conducted. A number of LWMP fragments, composed of highly cationic peptides with molecular weights ranging from 700 to 1900 d, were prepared by digestion of native protamine with the protease thermolysin. These fragments were fractionated using a heparin affinity chromatography, and their relative binding strengths toward heparin were elucidated. Five distinct fractions were eluted at NaCl concentration ranging from 0.4 to 1.0 M and were denoted as TDSP1 to TDSP5, in increasing order of eluting ionic strength. Among these 5 fractions, TDSP4 and TDSP5 contained 3 LMWP peptide fragments, and they were found to retain the complete heparin-neutralizing function of protamine. By using a peptide mass spectrometry (MS) fingerprint mapping technique, the amino acid sequences of the microheterogeneous LMWP fragments in all these 5 elution fractions were readily identified. A typical structural scaffold made by arginine clusters in the middle and nonarginine residues at the N-terminal of the peptide sequence was observed for all these LMWP fragments. By aligning the sequences with the potency in heparin neutralization of these LMWP fragments, it was found that retention of potency similar to that of protamine required the presence of at least 2 arginine clusters in the LMWP fragments; such as the sequence of VSRRRRRRGGRRRR seen in the most potent LMWP fraction-TDSP5. The above finding was further validated by using a synthetic

  13. Surfactant-aided electrospraying of low molecular weight carbohydrate polymers from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Masiá, Rocío; Lagaron, Jose M; López-Rubio, Amparo

    2014-01-30

    In this work it is demonstrated, for the first time, that it is feasible to develop, using the electrospraying technique, low molecular weight carbohydrate-based capsule morphologies from aqueous solutions through the rational use of surfactants. Two different low molecular weight carbohydrate polymers were used, a maltodextrin and a commercial resistant starch. The solution properties and subsequent high voltage sprayability was evaluated upon addition of non-ionic (Tween20, and Span20) and zwitterionic (lecithin) surfactants. The morphology and molecular organization of the structures obtained was characterized and related to the solution properties. Results showed that, while unstable jetting and dropping occurred from the pure carbohydrate solutions without surfactant, the addition of some surface active molecules above their critical micelle concentration facilitated capsule formation. Higher surfactant concentrations led to smaller and more homogeneous capsule morphologies, related to lower surface tension and higher conductivity of the solutions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Low molecular weight fluorescent organogel for fluoride ion detection.

    PubMed

    Rajamalli, P; Prasad, Edamana

    2011-07-15

    The design, synthesis, and the photophysical properties of a Low Molecular Weight Gel (LMWG) based on AB(3) and AB(2) type poly(aryl ether) dendrons with an anthracene chromophore attached through an acylhydrazone linkage are described. The gel is utilized for an efficient 'naked eye' detection of fluoride ions (as low as 0.1 equiv with respect to the gelator concentration), through a reversible gel-sol transition, which is associated with a color change from deep yellow to bright red. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Development of generic low molecular weight heparins: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Fareed, Jawed; Leong, Wendy; Hoppensteadt, Debra A; Jeske, Walter P; Walenga, Jeanine; Bick, Rodger L

    2005-02-01

    It is clear that the introduction of generic versions of low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) is inevitable; however, it is important that the generic products are manufactured in strict compliance with the manufacturing specification of the branded product. Furthermore, regulatory agencies should require additional data on the chemical biologic, pharmacologic/toxicologic, and dose-response relationship in specific settings. Although there is strong opposition to stop the introduction of these drugs, their development will reduce cost and permit availability to all patients who need them. Some objective guidelines for the proper development of these drugs are needed. Only expert groups and advisory panels to the regulatory bodies can develop these guidelines.

  16. Low molecular weight DNA replication intermediates in Escherichia coli: mechanism of formation and strand specificity

    PubMed Central

    Amado, Luciana; Kuzminov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal DNA replication intermediates, revealed in ligase-deficient conditions in vivo, are of low molecular weight independently of the organism, suggesting discontinuous replication of both the leading and the lagging DNA strands. Yet, in vitro experiments with purified enzymes replicating sigma-structured substrates show continuous synthesis of the leading DNA strand in complete absence of ligase, supporting the textbook model of semi-discontinuous DNA replication. The discrepancy between the in vivo and in vitro results is rationalized by proposing that various excision repair events nick continuously-synthesized leading strands after synthesis, producing the observed low molecular weight intermediates. Here we show that, in an E. coli ligase-deficient strain with all known excision repair pathways inactivated, new DNA is still synthesized discontinuously. Furthermore, hybridization to strand-specific targets demonstrates that the low molecular weight replication intermediates come from both the lagging and the leading strands. These results support the model of discontinuous leading strand synthesis in E. coli. PMID:23876705

  17. Low-molecular-weight thiols in plants: functional and analytical implications.

    PubMed

    Pivato, Micaela; Fabrega-Prats, Marta; Masi, Antonio

    2014-10-15

    Low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiols are a class of highly reactive compounds massively involved in the maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis. They are implicated in plant responses to almost all stress factors, as well as in the regulation of cellular metabolism. The most studied LMW thiols are glutathione and its biosynthetically related compounds (cysteine, γ-glutamylcysteine, cysteinylglycine, and phytochelatins). Other LMW thiols are described in the literature, such as thiocysteine, cysteamine, homocysteine, lipoic acid, and many species-specific volatile thiols. Here, we review the known LMW thiols in plants, briefly describing their physico-chemical properties, their relevance in post-translational protein modification, and recently-developed thiol detection methods. Current research points to a huge thiol biodiversity in plants and many species-specific and organ-specific thiols remain to be identified. Recent advances in technology should help researchers in this very challenging task, helping us to decipher the roles of thiols in plant metabolism. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Dipeptide-based low-molecular-weight efficient organogelators and their application in water purification.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Sisir; Shome, Anshupriya; Dutta, Sounak; Das, Prasanta Kumar

    2008-01-01

    The development of new low-molecular-weight gelators for organic solvents is motivated by several potential applications of gels as advanced functional materials. In the present study, we developed simple dipeptide-based organogelators with a minimum gelation concentration (MGC) of 6-0.15 %, w/v in aromatic solvents. The organogelators were synthesized using different L-amino acids with nonpolar aliphatic/aromatic residues and by varying alkyl-chain length (C-12 to C-16). The self-aggregation behavior of these thermoreversible organogels was investigated through several spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. A balanced participation of the hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions is crucial for efficient organogelation, which can be largely modulated by the structural modification at the hydrogen-bonding unit as well as by varying the alkyl-chain length in both sides of the hydrophilic residue. Interestingly, these organogelators could selectively gelate aromatic solvents from their mixtures with water. Furthermore, the xerogels prepared from the organogels showed a striking property of adsorbing dyes such as crystal violet, rhodamine 6G from water. This dye-adsorption ability of gelators can be utilized in water purification by removing toxic dyes from wastewater.

  19. Low molecular weight heparin-loaded polymeric nanoparticles: formulation, characterization, and release characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hoffart, V; Ubrich, N; Simonin, C; Babak, V; Vigneron, C; Hoffman, M; Lecompte, T; Maincent, P

    2002-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the preparation of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) nanoparticles (NP) as potential oral heparin carriers. The NP were formulated using an ultrasound probe by water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsification and solvent evaporation with two biodegradable polymers [poly-epsilon-caprolactone, PCL and poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) 50/50, PLGA] and two non-biodegradable positively charged polymers (Eudragit RS and RL) used alone or in combination. The mean diameter of LMWH-loaded NP ranged from 240 to 490 nm and was dependent on the reduced viscosity of the polymeric organic solution. The surface potential of LMWH NP prepared with Eudragit polymers used alone or blended with PCL and PLGA was changed dramatically from strong positive values obtained with unloaded NP to negative values. The highest encapsulation efficiencies were observed when Eudragit polymers took part in the composition of the polymeric matrix, compared with PCL and PLGA NP exhibiting low LMWH entrapment. The in vitro LMWH release in phosphate buffer from all formulations ranged from 10 to 25% and was more important (two- to threefold) when esterase was added into the dissolution medium. The in vitro biological activity of released LMWH, determined by the anti-factor Xa activity with a chromogenic substrate, was preserved after the encapsulation process, making these NP good candidates for oral administration.

  20. Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds in Low-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Glycol.

    PubMed

    Kozlowska, Mariana; Goclon, Jakub; Rodziewicz, Pawel

    2016-04-18

    We used static DFT calculations to analyze, in detail, the intramolecular hydrogen bonds formed in low-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) with two to five repeat subunits. Both red-shifted O-H⋅⋅⋅O and blue-shifting C-H⋅⋅⋅O hydrogen bonds, which control the structural flexibility of PEG, were detected. To estimate the strength of these hydrogen bonds, the quantum theory of atoms in molecules was used. Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations were used to mimic the structural rearrangements and hydrogen-bond breaking/formation in the PEG molecule at 300 K. The time evolution of the H⋅⋅⋅O bond length and valence angles of the formed hydrogen bonds were fully analyzed. The characteristic hydrogen-bonding patterns of low-molecular-weight PEG were described with an estimation of their lifetime. The theoretical results obtained, in particular the presence of weak C-H⋅⋅⋅O hydrogen bonds, could serve as an explanation of the PEG structural stability in the experimental investigation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Low molecular weight Abeta induces collapse of endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Lai, Cora Sau-Wan; Preisler, Julie; Baum, Larry; Lee, Daniel Hong-Seng; Ng, Ho-Keung; Hugon, Jacques; So, Kwok-Fai; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

    2009-05-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a dynamic multifunction organelle that is responsible for Ca(2+) homeostasis, protein folding, post-translational modification, protein degradation, and transportation of nascent proteins. Disruption of ER architecture might affect the normal physiology of the cell. In yeast, expansion of the ER is observed under unfolded protein response (UPR) and subsequently induces autophagy initiated from the ER. Here, we found that soluble low molecular weight of Abeta disrupted the anchoring between ER and microtubules (MT) and induced collapse of ER. In addition, it decreased the stability of MT. Subsequently, low molecular weight Abeta triggered autophagy and enhanced lysosomal degradation, as shown by electron microscopy and live-cell imaging. Dysfunction of ER can be further proved in postmortem AD brain and transgenic mice bearing APP Swedish mutation by immunohistochemical analysis of calreticulin. Treatment with Taxol, a MT-stabilizing agent, could partially inhibit collapse of the ER and induction of autophagy. The results show that Abeta-induced disruption of MT can affect the architecture of the ER. Collapse/aggregation of the ER may play an important role in Abeta peptide-triggered neurodegenerative processes.

  2. Generic low-molecular-weight heparins: some practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Fareed, Jawed; Leong, Wendy L; Hoppensteadt, Debra A; Jeske, Walter P; Walenga, Jeanine; Wahi, Raisesh; Bick, Rodger L

    2004-12-01

    It is now widely accepted that various low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) exhibit specific molecular and structural attributes that are determined by the type of manufacturing process used. For example, enoxaparin, which is prepared by benzylation followed by alkaline hydrolysis of unfractionated heparin (UFH), exhibits a double bond at the nonreducing end and the presence of a unique bicyclic structure namely 1,6 anhydromanno glucose or mannose, or both, at the reducing end. Similarly, the other LMWHs, such as dalteparin, nadroparin, tinzaparin, and parnaparin, exhibit specific structural characteristics that may contribute to their own unique biochemical and pharmacological profiles. These unique features may not exhibit any major influence on the routinely determined anti-Xa and anti-IIa activities. However, these may have an impact on the pharmacokinetics and other biological actions such as the interactions with growth factors, blood components, and vascular cells. This is the reason for the initial caution for the noninterchangeability of the anti-Xa adjusted dosing of the different LMWHs. Although the nonanticoagulant biological effects of these drugs are poorly understood at this time, they are now recognized as contributing significantly to the overall therapeutic effects of these drugs. Because some of these drugs have proved to be effective in the management of cancer-associated thrombosis and exhibit improvements in mortality outcome, these LMWHs may also produce several other effects by modulating inflammatory processes, apoptosis, and other regulatory functions related to cellular functions at different levels. Thus, the interactions of these LMWHs with antithrombin and heparin cofactor II are not the only determinants of their biological actions. Release of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), regulation of cytokines, nitric oxide, and eicosanoids contribute to their individuality. Such properties are not only dependent on the oligosaccharide

  3. Silver nanoparticles on zeolite surface for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of low molecular weight compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mengrui; Fujino, Tatsuya

    2013-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles loaded on NH4+-type zeolite, AgNPs-NH4ZSM5, was developed as an inorganic matrix for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of low molecular weight compounds. It was found that AgNPs-NH4ZSM5 could work as an efficient Ag+ donor to ionize analytes and that zeolite worked as a heat bath to prevent the destruction of AgNPs after the photoexcitation. The AgNPs-NH4ZSM5 was applied to laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of biologically active substances with low molecular weights including acetylsalicylic acid, L-histidine, glucose, urea, cholesterol, and those in human serum.

  4. Dairy Wastewater Treatment Using Low Molecular Weight Crab Shell Chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geetha Devi, M.; Dumaran, Joefel Jessica; Feroz, S.

    2012-08-01

    The investigation of possible use of low molecular weight crab shell chitosan (MW 20 kDa) in the treatment of dairy waste water was studied. Various experiments have been carried out using batch adsorption technique to study the effects of the process variables, which include contact time, stirring speed, pH and adsorbent dosage. Treated effluent characteristics at optimum condition showed that chitosan can be effectively used as adsorbent in the treatment of dairy wastewater. The optimum conditions for this study were at 150 mg/l of chitosan, pH 5 and 50 min of mixing time with 50 rpm of mixing speed. Chitosan showed the highest performance under these conditions with 79 % COD, 93 % turbidity and 73 % TSS reduction. The result showed that chitosan is an effective coagulant, which can reduce the level of COD, TSS and turbidity in dairy industry wastewater.

  5. Conformations of Low-Molecular-Weight Lignin Polymers in Water.

    PubMed

    Petridis, Loukas; Smith, Jeremy C

    2016-02-08

    Low-molecular-weight lignin binds to cellulose during the thermochemical pretreatment of biomass for biofuel production, which prevents the efficient hydrolysis of the cellulose to sugars. The binding properties of lignin are influenced strongly by the conformations it adopts. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations in aqueous solution to investigate the dependence of the shape of lignin polymers on chain length and temperature. Lignin is found to adopt collapsed conformations in water at 300 and 500 K. However, at 300 K, a discontinuous transition is found in the shape of the polymer as a function of the chain length. Below a critical degree of polymerization, Nc =15, the polymer adopts less spherical conformations than above Nc. The transition disappears at high temperatures (500 K) at which only spherical shapes are adopted. An implication relevant to cellulosic biofuel production is that lignin will self-aggregate even at high pretreatment temperatures.

  6. The versatile low-molecular-weight thiols: Beyond cell protection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Zhao, Qunfei; Liu, Wen

    2015-12-01

    Low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiols are extensively involved in the maintenance of cellular redox potentials and the protection of cells from a variety of reactive chemical and electrophilic species. However, we recently found that the metabolic coupling of two LMW thiols - mycothiol (MSH) and ergothioneine (EGT) - programs the biosynthesis of the anti-infective agent lincomycin A. Remarkably, such a constructive role of the thiols in the biosynthesis of natural products has so far received relatively little attention. We speculate that the unusual thiol EGT might function as a chiral thiolation carrier (for modification) and a novel activator (for glycosylation) of sugar. Additionally, we examine recent evidence for LMW thiols (MSH and others) as sulfur donors of sulfur-containing natural products. Clearly, the LMW thiols have more diverse activities beyond cell protection, and more attention should be paid to the correlation of their functions with thiol-dependent enzymes.

  7. Conformations of low-molecular-weight lignin polymers in water

    DOE PAGES

    Petridis, Loukas; Smith, Jeremy C.

    2016-01-13

    Low-molecular-weight lignin binds to cellulose during the thermochemical pretreatment of biomass for biofuel production, which prevents the efficient hydrolysis of the cellulose to sugars. The binding properties of lignin are influenced strongly by the conformations it adopts. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations in aqueous solution to investigate the dependence of the shape of lignin polymers on chain length and temperature. Lignin is found to adopt collapsed conformations in water at 300 and 500 K. However, at 300 K, a discontinuous transition is found in the shape of the polymer as a function of the chain length. Below a criticalmore » degree of polymerization, Nc=15, the polymer adopts less spherical conformations than above Nc. The transition disappears at high temperatures (500 K) at which only spherical shapes are adopted. As a result, an implication relevant to cellulosic biofuel production is that lignin will self-aggregate even at high pretreatment temperatures.« less

  8. Conformations of low-molecular-weight lignin polymers in water

    SciTech Connect

    Petridis, Loukas; Smith, Jeremy C.

    2016-01-13

    Low-molecular-weight lignin binds to cellulose during the thermochemical pretreatment of biomass for biofuel production, which prevents the efficient hydrolysis of the cellulose to sugars. The binding properties of lignin are influenced strongly by the conformations it adopts. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations in aqueous solution to investigate the dependence of the shape of lignin polymers on chain length and temperature. Lignin is found to adopt collapsed conformations in water at 300 and 500 K. However, at 300 K, a discontinuous transition is found in the shape of the polymer as a function of the chain length. Below a critical degree of polymerization, Nc=15, the polymer adopts less spherical conformations than above Nc. The transition disappears at high temperatures (500 K) at which only spherical shapes are adopted. As a result, an implication relevant to cellulosic biofuel production is that lignin will self-aggregate even at high pretreatment temperatures.

  9. The low molecular weight proteome of Halobacterium salinarum.

    PubMed

    Klein, Christian; Aivaliotis, Michalis; Olsen, Jesper V; Falb, Michaela; Besir, Hüseyin; Scheffer, Beatrix; Bisle, Birgit; Tebbe, Andreas; Konstantinidis, Kosta; Siedler, Frank; Pfeiffer, Friedhelm; Mann, Matthias; Oesterhelt, Dieter

    2007-04-01

    Systematic investigation of low molecular weight proteins (LMW, below 20 kDa) in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum resulted in a 6-fold enhancement of the identification rate, reaching 35% of the theoretical proteome in that size range. This was achieved by optimization of common protocols for protein analysis with general applicability. LMW proteins were rapidly and effectively enriched by filter membrane centrifugation followed by tricine SDS-PAGE. Without staining and with significantly shortened digestion protocols, LMW proteins were identified using an FT-ICR mass spectrometer which allows reliable protein identification by MS3 of a single peptide. In addition to a series of technical challenges, small proteins may show low gene expression levels as suggested by their low average codon adaptation index. Twenty functionally uncharacterized proteins contain a characteristic DNA/RNA binding zinc finger motif which underlines the biological relevance of the small proteome and the necessity of their analysis for systems biology.

  10. Receptor mediated cellular uptake of low molecular weight dendritic polyglycerols.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Marcelo; Reichert, Stephanie; Welker, Pia; Licha, Kai; Kratz, Felix; Haag, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The development of effective polymer-based nanocarriers which are able to target diseased tissues still remains a great challenge in current research. Dendritic polyglycerols have emerged as novel polymeric scaffolds that have demonstrated a great potential for diverse biomedical applications. These architectures have already proven their usefulness in therapeutic approaches related to multivalency, given by the synergy between the nanosized dimensions combined with the high density of functional groups. However, a continuous effort is necessary to modify and tailor polyglycerol architectures to fit the future demands of biomedical applications. The present work deals with the development of a general synthetic strategy that allows the linkage of low molecular weight dendritic polyglycerols to fluorescent dyes and cell targeting ligands. The receptor mediated cellular uptake of the polyglycerol conjugates highlight their potential to acts as new targeted nanocarriers that should be able to decrease non-specific cellular uptake.

  11. Low molecular weight phenols from the bioactive aqueous fraction of Cestrum parqui.

    PubMed

    D'Abrosca, Brigida; DellaGreca, Marina; Fiorentino, Antonio; Monaco, Pietro; Zarrelli, Armando

    2004-06-30

    The aqueous fraction of fresh leaves of Cestrum parqui and its organic fractions have been assayed for their phytotoxicity on Lactuca sativa, Lycopersicon esculentum, and Allium cepa. The tests showed that the bioactivity was retained in the organic fractions. Chromatographic processes led to isolation and characterization of the N-(p-carboxymethylphenyl)-p-hydroxybenzamide together with 17 low molecular weight phenols and 2 flavones. The phytotoxicity tests showed a good activity of these compounds on the target species. Comparison of some metabolites with commercial herbicides revealed a major activity of the natural compounds at lower concentrations.

  12. Influence of low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit haplotypes on dough rheology and baking quality in elite common wheat varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) are a class of wheat seed storage proteins directly involved in the formation of gluten. Depending on the first amino acid residue of the mature proteins, the LMW-GSs are divided into methionine, serine or isoleucine type. These proteins are encod...

  13. Short-term effect of ultrasound-guided low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid injection on clinical outcomes and imaging changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis of the ankle and foot joints. A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chien-Chih; Lee, Si-Huei; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Liu, Fu-Wei; Chiou, Hong-Jen; Chan, Rai-Chi; Chou, Chen-Liang

    2017-01-06

    To determine whether hyaluronic acid (HA) injection into rheumatoid arthritis ankles and feet can achieve improvement in foot function and reduce synovial hyper-vascularization. Forty-four patients with RA having unilateral or bilateral painful ankle and foot involvement (N = 75) were studied. All the patients were randomized to receive HA (N = 40) or lidocaine (LI) (N = 35) injection at 2-week intervals; Clinical assessments were performed using a visual analog scale (VAS) and foot function index (FFItotal) including subscales of pain (FFIpain) before injection at baseline, 4 weeks (first evaluation) and 12 weeks (secondary evaluation). Imaging evaluation based on color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) and synovitis scores was performed simultaneously. HA injection improved the VAS score (p = .009), FFIpain (p = .041), and FFItotal (p = .032) considerably more than LI injections did at the first evaluation. The CDUS values at first evaluation (p = .005) and secondary evaluation (p < .001) decreased significantly compared with the base line values. HA injections reduced the CDUS values of more than half of the joints (54%, p = .042) while the control group exhibited no change (20%, p = .56). However, HA injection did not reduce the CDUS values more than LI injection did. Regarding the evaluation of synovial hypertrophy, no significant difference was observed between or within the groups in the synovitis scores. HA injection improved short-term foot function and pain reduction. HA injection may have a modest effect in reducing synovial hyper-vascularization. Further large-scale study is warranted to confirm this result.

  14. Biocompatibility of low molecular weight polymers for two-phase partitioning bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jesse; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Two phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs) improve the efficiency of fermentative processes by limiting the exposure of microorganisms to toxic solutes by sequestering them into a non-aqueous phase (NAP). A potential limitation of this technology, when using immiscible organic solvents as the NAP, is the cytoxicity that these materials may exert on the microbes. An improved TPPB configuration is one in which polymeric NAPs are used to replace organic solvents in order to take advantage of their low cost, improved handling qualities, and biocompatibility. A recent study has shown that low molecular weight polymers may confer improved solute uptake relative to high molecular weight polymers (i.e., have higher partition coefficients), but it is unknown whether sufficiently low molecular weight polymers may inhibit cell growth. This study has investigated the biocompatibility of a range of low molecular weight polymers, and compared trends in biocompatibility to the well-established "critical log P" concept. This was achieved by determining the biocompatibility of polypropylene glycol polymers over a molecular weight (MW) range of 425-4,000 to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas putida, two organisms which have been previously used in TPPB systems. The lower MW polymers were shown to have lower average log P values, and showed more cytotoxicity than polymers of the same structure but with higher molecular weight. Since polymers are generally polydisperse (i.e., polymer samples contain a distribution of MWs), removal of the lower MW fractions via water washing was found to result in improved polymer biocompatibility. These results suggest that the critical log P concept remains useful for describing the toxicity of polymeric substances of different MWs, although it is complicated by the presence of the low MW fractions in the polymers arising from polydispersity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. In situ reinforced polymers using low molecular weight compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yordem, Onur Sinan

    2011-12-01

    The primary objective of this research is to generate reinforcing domains in situ during the processing of polymers by using phase separation techniques. Low molecular weight compounds were mixed with polymers where the process viscosity is reduced at process temperatures and mechanical properties are improved once the material system is cooled or reacted. Thermally induced phase separation and thermotropic phase transformation of low molar mass compounds were used in isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) resins. Reaction induced phase separation was utilized in thermosets to generate anisotropic reinforcements. A new strategy to increase fracture toughness of materials was introduced. Simultaneously, enhancement in stiffness and reduction in process viscosity were also attained. Materials with improved rheological and mechanical properties were prepared by using thermotropic phase transformations of metal soaps in polymers (calcium stearate/iPP). Morphology and thermal properties were studied using WAXS, DSC and SEM. Mechanical and rheological investigation showed significant reduction in process viscosity and substantial improvement in fracture toughness were attained. Effects of molecular architecture of metal soaps were investigated in PEEK (calcium stearate/PEEK and sodium stearate/PEEK). The selected compounds reduced the process viscosity due to the high temperature co-continuous morphology of metal soaps. Unlike the iPP system that incorporates spherical particles, interaction between PEEK and metal soaps resulted in two discrete and co-continuous phases of PEEK and the metal stearates. DMA and melt rheology exhibited that sodium stearate/PEEK composites are stiffer. Effective moduli of secondary metal stearate phase were calculated using different composite theories, which suggested bicontinuous morphology to the metal soaps in PEEK. Use of low molecular weight crystallizable solvents was investigated in reactive systems

  16. Low-molecular-weight heparin in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Sutor, Anton Heinz; Chan, Anthony K C; Massicotte, Patricia

    2004-02-01

    The incidence of thromboembolic events (TEs) in childhood is greatly underestimated. Two age groups account for approximately 70% of TEs in childhood: infants and teenagers. There are several predisposing risk factors for newborns such as small vessels, high hematocrit, and a unique neonatal hemostatic system. Central venous lines contribute to 80% of deep vein thrombosis in newborns. Other risk factors for all children are shock syndromes, trauma, surgery, heart and kidney disease, and acquired or hereditary thrombophilias. The best prophylaxis is to recognize, avoid, and remove risk factors if possible. This is particularly relevant in childhood, where risk factors can be found in the majority of TEs. The serious sequelae of TEs (mortality, and short- and long-term morbidity) require therapeutic intervention. Unfractionated heparin (UFH) has the following disadvantages: age-dependent unpredictable pharmacokinetics, the need for intravenous access for therapy and monitoring, delays in achieving therapeutic ranges, bleeding risk, the risk of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and osteoporosis with long-term use. Oral anticoagulants, in addition to some of these disadvantages, show considerable variation by diet (especially if there is a change from breast to bottle feeding), medication, and intercurrent illness. Review of case reports and cohort studies on 728 children treated with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) indicate the following advantages over UFH: minimal monitoring, ease of administration (subcutaneous), and possibly equivalent efficacy and safety. Dose recommendations for pediatric patients cannot be directly extrapolated from those for adult patients. If dosages are calculated according to body weight, infants < 3 months (or < 5 kg) need approximately 50% more LMWH than older children or adults to reach prophylactic or therapeutic anti-factor Xa levels. Further studies are necessary to address the following: the importance of risk factors, the

  17. Alkyl cross-linked low molecular weight polypropyleneimine dendrimers as efficient gene delivery vectors

    PubMed Central

    Ariaee, Faezeh Moghadam; Hashemi, Maryam; Farzad, Sara Amel; Abnous, Khalil; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In recent years, polypropyleneimine (PPI) dendrimers have attracted great interest as non-viral gene delivery systems because of their attractive features including highly branched architecture with number of reactive end groups. However, without being structurally modified, they are not efficient gene carriers. In the present study, generation 2 and 3 (G2 and G3) of PPI dendrimers were conjugated with alkylcarboxylate groups as linker to enhance the transfection efficiency while maintaining their low cell toxicity. Materials and Methods: First, 10-bromodecanoic acid was covalently attached to all available surface primary amines of PPI G2 and G3 to increase their lipophilicity. In the subsequent step, PPIs were conjugated to the alkylcarboxylate groups of alkylcarboxylate-PPI derivatives to increase the number of surface primary amines. Physicochemical properties of modified PPIs were determined. Transfection experiments (using both luciferase and green fluorescent protein (GFP)- expressing plasmids) and cytotoxicity assay were performed to evaluate the efficiency of the final derivatives. Results: Fabricated vectors condensed DNA effectively so that polyplexes with appropriate size (below 155 nm) and positive surface charge were constructed. Cross-linked low molecular weight PPIs (G2 or G3) with decanoate linkage increased transfection efficiency significantly while maintaining the low cytotoxicity. PPI G2 derivative exhibited increased buffering capacity which is believed to be responsible for better proton sponge mechanism leading to higher transfection efficiency. Conclusion: Our results indicated that oligomerization of low molecular weight PPI (PPI G2-alkyl-PPI G2 conjugate) could be an approach to increase the transfection efficiency and to lower the cytotoxicity of low molecular weight polycations. PMID:27872706

  18. Protamine reversal of low molecular weight heparin: clinically effective?

    PubMed

    van Veen, Joost J; Maclean, Rhona M; Hampton, Kingsley K; Laidlaw, Stuart; Kitchen, Steve; Toth, Peter; Makris, Mike

    2011-10-01

    Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are frequently used in the prophylaxis or treatment of venous thrombosis, acute coronary syndromes and peri-operative bridging. Major bleeding occurs in 1-4% depending on dose and underlying condition. Protamine is recommended for reversal but only partially reverses the anti-Xa activity and there are very limited data on clinical effectiveness. We retrospectively studied the effect of emergency reversal of LMWH with protamine in actively bleeding patients and patients requiring emergency surgery in our institution. Eighteen patients were identified through haematology referral/pharmacy records of protamine prescriptions between 1998 and 2009. Case notes were checked for the reversal indication, type/dose of LMWH, dose and clinical response to protamine, timing in relation to the last dose of LMWH and anti-Xa levels before and after protamine. All but one patient received enoxaparin. Fourteen were actively bleeding, three required emergency surgery without active bleeding and one had an accidental overdose without bleeding. The three patients requiring surgery had an uneventful procedure. In 12 of 14 patients with active bleeding, protamine could be evaluated. Bleeding stopped in eight. In the four with continuing bleeding, one had an additional coagulopathy. Protamine only partially affected anti-Xa levels. Protamine may be of use in reversing bleeding associated with LMWH but not in all patients. Anti-Xa levels were useful to assess the amount of anticoagulation before protamine administration but unhelpful in assessing its effect. Better reversal agents and methods to monitor LMWH therapy are required.

  19. Using low molecular weight heparin in special patient populations.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wendy

    2010-02-01

    Clinical trials evaluating low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and acute coronary syndromes have led to their regulatory approval for these indications in the general population. However, certain patient populations have been excluded from these landmark clinical trials, including patients with renal insufficiency, obese patients and pregnant women. In these special populations, data on safety and efficacy is limited and typically based on pharmacokinetic studies often performed in healthy subjects, or small cohort studies which are generally not powered to evaluate clinical outcomes such as bleeding or recurrent thrombosis. Because LMWH is mainly cleared renally, patients with severe renal insufficiency are at risk of LMWH accumulation and increased bleeding risks. In obese patients, there is concern regarding possible overdosing of therapeutic dose LMWH, since LMWH does not distribute in fat tissue. There are also concerns about possible underdosing of prophylactic dose LMWH in obese individuals using the standard fixed doses, particularly in the extremely obese individuals undergoing bariatric surgery. Last, pregnancy poses challenges with regards to the safety of LMWH during pregnancy and use of LMWH around delivery. This review summarizes the existing data in these special populations and proposes general recommendations for practice.

  20. Preparation and hemostatic property of low molecular weight silk fibroin.

    PubMed

    Lei, Caihong; Zhu, Hailin; Li, Jingjing; Feng, Xinxing; Chen, Jianyong

    2016-01-01

    Effective hemorrhage control becomes increasingly significant in today's military and civilian trauma, while the topical hemostats currently available in market still have various disadvantages. In this study, three low molecular weight silk fibroins (LMSF) were prepared through hydrolysis of silk fibroin in a ternary solvent system of CaCl2/H2O/EtOH solution at different hydrolysis temperatures. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the content of β sheet structure in the LMSF decreased with the increase in hydrolysis temperature. The results of thromboelastographic and activated partial thromboplastin time methods showed that the LMSF hydrolyzed at 50 °C can significantly strengthen the coagulation in blood and activate the intrinsic pathway of coagulation cascade. In the murine hepatic injury model, the LMSF hydrolyzed at 50 °C can promote the blood clotting and decrease the blood loss and bleeding time. Based on these results, it can be suggested that the developed LMSF has the excellent hemostatic effect and may be a promising material in clinical hemostatic application.

  1. The Effect of Low Molecular Weight Heparins on Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Nastoulis, Evangelos; Demesticha, Theano; Demetriou, Thespis

    2015-01-01

    Venous Thromboembolism is a serious complication in the trauma patient. The most commonly studied and used anticoagulant treatment in prophylaxis of thrombosis is heparin. The prolonged use of unfractionated heparin has been connected with increased incidence of osteoporotic fractures. Low molecular-weight-heparins (LMWHs) have been the golden rule in antithrombotic therapy during the previous two decades as a way to overcome the major drawbacks of unfractioned heparin. However there are few studies reporting the effects of LMWHs on bone repair after fractures. This review presents the studies about the effects of LMWHs on bone biology (bone cells and bone metabolism) and underlying the mechanisms by which LMWHs may impair fracture healing process. The authors’ research based on literature concluded that there are no facts and statistics for the role of LMWHs on fracture healing process in humans and the main body of evidence of their role comes from in vitro and animal studies. Further large clinical studies designed to compare different types of LMWHs, in different dosages and in different patient or animal models are needed for exploring the effects of LMWHs on fracture healing process. PMID:26161162

  2. Can we differentiate the low-molecular-weight heparins?

    PubMed

    Turpie, A G

    2000-01-01

    The low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) have a number of therapeutic advantages, relative to standard unfractionated heparin (UFH). They are readily bioavailable when injected subcutaneously and can be given in fixed doses, allowing for far simpler administration. Several LMWHs are now commercially available, each demonstrating different physical and chemical properties and different activities in animal models of anticoagulation or hemorrhage. In clinical comparisons with placebo in the treatment of unstable coronary artery disease (UCAD), the LMWHs dalteparin sodium and nadroparin calcium have demonstrated good anticoagulant efficacy. In comparisons with UFH, on the other hand, only enoxaparin has shown superior anticoagulant activity, as reported in the results of the Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Enoxaparin in Non-Q-wave Coronary Events (ESSENCE) and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 11B trials. However, close scrutiny of the methodology of the clinical trials in UCAD reveals considerable differences in study designs, dosage regimens, duration of administration of active treatments, and the timing and definition of endpoints. Therefore, it would not be scientifically sound to compare results with the different LMWHs based on the current available studies. It is also not possible to draw any conclusions with regard to the relative efficacy of the different LMWHs, since there are no properly-sized comparative data between dalteparin sodium, enoxaparin sodium, and nadroparin calcium.

  3. Low molecular weight heparin use in unexplained recurrent miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Halide; Kayatas, Semra; Boza, Aysen Telce; Api, Murat; Ertekin, A. Aktug; Cam, Cetin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate whether the use of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) improve live birth rates when compared with control group in patients with unexplained recurrent miscarriages (URM). Methods: In this prospective observational study 150 women with a history of two or more previous unexplained first trimester pregnancy loss who received LMWH; either enoxaparin (n=50), tinzaparin (n=50) or nothing (n=50) were followed for the pregnancy outcome measures. Only the patients who have used standardized dosage of LMWH (4000 IU/day enoxaparin or 3500 IU/day tinzaparin ) were included to the study. The primary end point was the live birth rate and secondary end points were the side effects, late pregnancy complications and neonatal outcome in the study cohorts. Results: Live birth was achieved 85% of the LMWH group and 66% of the control group (p=0.007). According to the subgroup analysis; live birth rates did not differ significantly between the enoxaparin and tinzaparin group (84% and 86%, respectively). Maternal and neonatal side effects were not statistically significant among the study participants. Conclusion: Thromboprophylaxis with LMWH resulted in a improved live-birth rate in patient with 2 or more consecutive unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss. Nevertheless these findings need to be confirmed in larger randomized trials. PMID:25674114

  4. Adsorption of low molecular weight halocarbons by montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect

    Estes, T.J.; Shah, R.V.; Vilker, V.L. )

    1988-04-01

    Montmorillonite clay from Clay Spur, WY, was found to adsorb several low molecular weight, hydrophobic halocarbons from aqueous solution at sub-parts-per-million levels. The halocarbons studied were trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, hexachloroethane, and dibromochloropropane. When the montmorillonite was treated with sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (CBD), it adsorbed higher levels of halocarbons than the untreated clay. In addition, the CBD-treated clay exhibited a maximum in halocarbon adsorption around pH 4, while untreated clay showed little variation in adsorption over the pH range 2-10. Adsorption of trichloroethylene was inhibited by low concentrations of sodium chloride (0.01 M or greater) in solution. Aging the CBD-treated clay in water decreased its capacity to adsorb trichloroethylene. Desorption studies showed that the sorption of tetrachloroethylene to CBD-treated clay is an irreversible process when compared to sorption by fumed silica. The ability of montmorillonite to adsorb halocarbons and the instability of the clay in water are postulated to involve changes in the oxide surface coating on the clay.

  5. Antiaging activity of low molecular weight peptide from Paphia undulate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Pan, Jianyu; Chen, Deke; Sun, Huili

    2013-05-01

    Low molecular weight peptide (LMWP) was prepared from clam Paphia undulate and its antiaging effect on D-galactose-induced acute aging in rats, aged Kunming mice, ultraviolet-exposed rats, and thermally injured rats was investigated. P. undulate flesh was homogenized and digested using papain under optimal conditions, then subjected to Sephadex G-25 chromatography to isolate the LMWP. Administration of LMWP significantly reversed D-galactose-induced oxidative stress by increasing the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT), and by decreasing the level of malondialdehyde (MDA). This process was accompanied by increased collagen synthesis. The LMWP prevented photoaging and promoted dermis recovery and remission of elastic fiber hyperplasia. Furthermore, treatment with the LMWP helped to regenerate elastic fibers and the collagen network, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the serum and significantly decreased MDA. Thermal scald-induced inflammation and edema were also relieved by the LWMP, while wound healing in skin was promoted. These results suggest that the LMWP from P. undulate could serve as a new antiaging substance in cosmetics.

  6. A low molecular weight proteinase inhibitor produced by T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ganea, D; Teodorescu, M; Dray, S

    1986-01-01

    A low molecular weight (MW) proteinase inhibitor, between 6500 and 21,500 MW, appeared in the supernatant of rabbit spleen cells cultured at high density for 24 hr. The inhibitor inhibited the enzymatic activity of trypsin for both a high MW natural substrate, fibrinogen, and for a low MW artificial substrate, Chromozym TRY. The low MW proteinase inhibitor is protein in nature and is different, in terms of specificity for enzymes, MW and sensitivity to different physical or chemical treatments, from aprotinin, a low MW proteinase inhibitor (6500 MW) of bovine origin, and from the soybean trypsin inhibitor, a relatively high MW proteinase inhibitor (21,500 MW). The inhibitor was found in the supernatant of purified T cells but not B cells, and its production was increased in the presence of an optimal concentration of Con A. The possibility that this proteinase inhibitor has a role in the regulation of trypsin-like proteinases involved to the immune response remains to be investigated. Images Figure 4 PMID:2417942

  7. Trans-scleral iontophoretic delivery of low molecular weight therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Güngör, Sevgi; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña; Ruiz-Perez, Begoña; Schubert, William; Isom, Phil; Moslemy, Peyman; Patane, Michael A; Guy, Richard H

    2010-10-15

    The fundamental understanding of ocular drug delivery using iontophoresis is not at the same level as that for transdermal electrotransport. Research has therefore been undertaken to characterise the electrical properties of the sclera (charge, permselectivity, and isoelectric point (pI)) and to determine the basics of iontophoretic transport of model neutral, cationic, and anionic species (respectively, mannitol, timolol, and dexamethasone phosphate). Like the skin, the sclera supports a net negative charge under physiological pH conditions and has a pI between 3.5 and 4. Equally, the principles of trans-scleral iontophoretic transport of low molecular weight compounds are consistent with those observed for skin. Iontophoretic delivery of timolol and dexamethasone phosphate was proportional to applied current and drug concentration, and trans-scleral iontophoresis in rabbits led to enhanced intraocular levels of these compounds compared to passive delivery. The behaviour of higher molecular weight species such as peptide drugs and other biopharmaceuticals (e.g., proteins and oligonucleotides) has not been fully characterised. Further work has been undertaken, therefore, to examine the trans-scleral iontophoresis of vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic with a relatively high molecular weight of 1448 Da. It was indeed possible to deliver vancomycin by iontophoresis but trans-scleral transport did not increase linearly with either increasing current density or peptide concentration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Regulatory considerations for generic or biosimilar low molecular weight heparins.

    PubMed

    García-Arieta, Alfredo; Blázquez, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present paper is to address the legal aspects, technical requirements and possible conditions of use associated to low molecular weight heparin generics and biosimilars that are arriving to the market in United States and the European Union, respectively. To this end the concept of "similar biological medicinal product" that was coined in 2003 by the pharmaceutical legislation of the European Union is compared to the concept of generic in the United States and the concept of generic in the European Union. This different legal basis determines directly the technical requirements to obtain a marketing authorisation. Therefore, the chemical/biological, non-clinical and clinical requirements to demonstrate therapeutic equivalence are different in these two Regulatory Authorities, FDA and EMA. Consequently, the possible conditions of use are different. In the United States the products approved as generics by the FDA are considered interchangeable to the Reference Listed Drug. In contrast, the EMA legislation only deals with the approvability or prescribability of the medicines and it is a national / regional decision of the member States to consider these biosimilar products as interchangeable or not.

  9. The association of low-molecular-weight hydrophobic compounds with native casein micelles in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Cheema, M; Mohan, M S; Campagna, S R; Jurat-Fuentes, J L; Harte, F M

    2015-08-01

    The agreed biological function of the casein micelles in milk is to carry minerals (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) from mother to young along with amino acids for growth and development. Recently, native and modified casein micelles were used as encapsulating and delivery agents for various hydrophobic low-molecular-weight probes. The ability of modified casein micelles to bind certain probes may derive from the binding affinity of native casein micelles. Hence, a study with milk from single cows was conducted to further elucidate the association of hydrophobic molecules into native casein micelles and further understand their biological function. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic extraction followed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry analysis were performed over protein fractions obtained from size exclusion fractionation of raw skim milk. Hydrophobic compounds, including phosphatidylcholine, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin, showed strong association exclusively to casein micelles as compared with whey proteins, whereas hydrophilic compounds did not display any preference for their association among milk proteins. Further analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected 42 compounds associated solely with the casein-micelles fraction. Mass fragments in tandem mass spectrometry identified 4 of these compounds as phosphatidylcholine with fatty acid composition of 16:0/18:1, 14:0/16:0, 16:0/16:0, and 18:1/18:0. These results support that transporting low-molecular-weight hydrophobic molecules is also a biological function of the casein micelles in milk.

  10. The association of low-molecular-weight hydrophobic compounds with native casein micelles in bovine milk

    PubMed Central

    Cheema, M.; Mohan, M. S.; Campagna, S. R.; Jurat-Fuentes, J. L.; Harte, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    The agreed biological function of the casein micelles in milk is to carry minerals (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) from mother to young along with amino acids for growth and development. Recently, native and modified casein micelles were used as encapsulating and delivery agents for various hydrophobic low-molecular-weight probes. The ability of modified casein micelles to bind certain probes may derive from the binding affinity of native casein micelles. Hence, a study with milk from single cows was conducted to further elucidate the association of hydrophobic molecules into native casein micelles and further understand their biological function. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic extraction followed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry analysis were performed over protein fractions obtained from size exclusion fractionation of raw skim milk. Hydrophobic compounds, including phosphatidylcholine, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin, showed strong association exclusively to casein micelles as compared with whey proteins, whereas hydrophilic compounds did not display any preference for their association among milk proteins. Further analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected 42 compounds associated solely with the casein-micelles fraction. Mass fragments in tandem mass spectrometry identified 4 of these compounds as phosphatidylcholine with fatty acid composition of 16:0/18:1, 14:0/16:0, 16:0/16:0, and 18:1/18:0. These results support that transporting low-molecular-weight hydrophobic molecules is also a biological function of the casein micelles in milk. PMID:26074238

  11. Identification of multiple low molecular weight placental prolactin-like proteins produced by rat trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Soares, M J; De, S K; Foster, B A; Julian, J A; Glasser, S R

    1988-01-01

    Rat trophoblast tissue was found to synthesize a number of low molecular weight proteins possessing prolactin-like characteristics. There appear to be at least three proteins that cross-react with antisera to pituitary prolactin. Two of the proteins had a molecular weight of 25,000, similar to ovine pituitary prolactin, and isoelectric points of 6.8 and 7.0. The third immunoreactive protein had a lower molecular weight (23,500), similar in size to human placental lactogen, and a slightly more acidic isoelectric point of 6.75. The molecular weight variants cross-reacted with an antipeptide serum that was generated to a synthetic peptide representing amino acids 150 to 164 of rat placental lactogen-2 (PL-2). Based on this analysis, we consider these proteins to be related to PL-2. Analysis of trophoblast proteins by gel-filtration chromatography resulted in the identification of another trophoblast prolactin. This material eluted earlier than PL-2-related proteins on a gel-filtration column, possessed prolactin-like activity (determined by competition with ovine pituitary prolactin for rabbit mammary gland or rat liver prolactin receptors) but showed limited cross-reactivity with either the antiserum to pituitary prolactin or the antiserum to the PL-2 peptide. We have thus identified multiple low molecular weight trophoblast prolactins, possessing different biochemical and immunological characteristics.

  12. Low molecular weight heparin loaded pH-sensitive microparticles.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Yvette; Ubrich, Nathalie; El Ghazouani, Fatima; Maincent, Philippe; Lamprecht, Alf

    2007-04-20

    Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) have shown efficacy in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease after parenteral administration however risking severe hemorrhagic adverse effects. Therefore, an oral colonic targeted heparin dosage form allowing the release of LMWH directly in the inflamed tissue would be of major interest. Enoxaparin was entrapped into pH-sensitive microspheres using Eudragit P4135F that dissolves at pH>7.2. Particle preparation was based on a double emulsion technique with either solvent extraction or evaporation. In order to increase the entrapment efficacy several preparation parameters were optimized, such as inner phase volume, polymer concentration, stabilization of the internal interface by surfactants. Solvent evaporation led to higher entrapment rates (evaporation: 70.1+/-9.9%; extraction: 46.5+/-6.4%). When increasing the volume of the inner aqueous heparin phase, lower encapsulation rates and larger microspheres ( approximately 100-400 microm) were obtained. Sorbitan monostearate (1.75-28% of the total particle mass) had a stabilizing effect on the primary water/oil emulsion. Indeed, higher encapsulation rates (7%: 78.2+/-3.5%; 14%: 76.4+/-10.1%) and smaller particles ( approximately 120-160 microm) were obtained whereas hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide destabilized the primary emulsion. Interfacial tension studies at a simulated internal water/oil interface confirmed these results. As expected, in vitro drug release was found to be strongly pH-dependent; LMWH was retained in microspheres at pH<6 (<20% release within 4h) whereas a fast drug release was obtained at pH 7.4. The developed microspheres exhibited a particle size adapted to the needs of inflammatory bowel disease therapy, an efficient LMWH encapsulation, and a pH-controlled drug release. These microspheres represent a promising tool for the selective oral delivery of heparin to the colon, especially interesting in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  13. [Low molecular weight heparin and non valvular atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Ederhy, S; Di Angelantonio, E; Meuleman, C; Janower, S; Boccara, F; Cohen, A

    2006-12-01

    Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) are obtained through chemical or enzyme depolymerisation of unfractioned heparins (UFH). LMWHs present several advantages over UFH: they exhibit a smaller interindividual variability of the anticoagulant effect, they have a greater bioavailability, a longer plasma half-life and do not require monitoring of the anticoagulant effect. LMWH have restrictive indications in AF patients, cardioversion (II level C and TEE for ACC/AHA/ESC and 2C for ACCP guidelines) or use as a bridge therapy (IIB, level C for ACC/AHA/ESC). The ACE study (Anticoagulation for cardioversion using enoxaparin), showed a reduction, though not statistically significant, of 42% of the composite end point (embolic event, major bleeding and death) 2.8% under enoxaparin vs. 4.8 % under conventional treatment, relative risk 0.58, CI 95% 0.23-1.46). Other studies, using dalteparin, confirmed that an anticoagulant treatment using LMWH followed by warfarin was at least as good as conventional management. ACUTE II (Assessment of cardioversion using transesophageal echochardiography), a randomized multicenter trial, compared the efficacy and tolerance of enoxaparin (1 mg/kg every 12 hours) and UFH in 155 patients eligible for a TEE-guided cardioversion. These patients were administered LMWH or UFH for 24 hours before TEE or cardioversion. There were no significative differences regarding the incidence of the study end points, in particular stroke and bleeding, and no death occurred. HAEST (Heparin in acute embolic stroke trial), a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind trial failed to show the LMWH superiority over aspirin in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation. Finally, LMWH have been proposed as a bridge therapy in patients under chronic VKA prior to surgery or invasive procedures. This strategy resulted in a low rate of thromboembolic events and major bleedings.

  14. [Anaphylactic reactions to low-molecular weight chemicals].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Daria; Panaszek, Bernard

    2015-02-06

    Low-molecular weight chemicals (haptens) include a large group of chemical compounds occurring in work environment, items of everyday use (cleaning products, clothing, footwear, gloves, furniture), jewelry (earrings, bracelets), drugs, especially in cosmetics. They cause type IV hypersensitive reactions. During the induction phase of delayed-type hypersensitivity, haptens form complexes with skin proteins. After internalization through antigen presenting cells, they are bound to MHC class II molecules. Next, they are exposed against specific T-lymphocytes, what triggers activation of Th1 cells mainly. After repeating exposition to that hapten, during effector phase, Th1 induce production of cytokines affecting non-specific inflammatory cells. Usually, it causes contact dermatitis. However, occasionally incidence of immediate generalized reactions after contact with some kinds of haptens is noticed. A question arises, how the hapten does induce symptoms which are typical for anaphylaxis, and what contributes to amplification of this mechanism. It seems that this phenomenon arises from pathomechanism occurring in contact urticaria syndrome in which an anaphylactic reaction may be caused either by contact of sensitized skin with protein antigens, high-molecular weight allergens, or haptens. One of the hypotheses indicates the leading role of basophiles in this process. Their contact with haptens, may cause to release mediators of immediate allergic reaction (histamine, eicosanoids) and to produce cytokines corresponding to Th2 cells profile. Furthermore, Th17 lymphocytes secreting pro-inflammatory interleukin-17 might be engaged into amplifying hypersensitivity into immediate reactions and regulatory T-cells may play role in the process, due to insufficient control of the activity of effector cells.

  15. Low molecular weight silicones particularly facilitate human serum albumin denaturation.

    PubMed

    Nayef, Lamees M; Khan, Madiha F; Brook, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    There is a market trend towards the administration of therapeutic proteins using sterilized, pre-filled glass syringes lubricated with silicone oil. It has been widely reported that initially clear solutions of proteins can become turbid during transport and storage, with unclear outcomes with respect to bioefficacy. While the basic processes of interactions of proteins with hydrophobic entities, leading to denaturation and aggregation, are increasingly well understood, the apparently random occurrence of such processes in syringes is not. To better understand the parameters that may be responsible for this change, we report the systematic examination of a series of factors that can affect the behavior of the protein human serum albumin (HSA) when in contact with silicone oil in water. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed that greater mixing times and greater concentrations of silicones (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)), especially lower molecular weight hydrophobic silicones like octamethyltetracyclosiloxane (D4), were associated with increased protein denaturation. The turbidity of HSA solutions, due to the formation both of silicone oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions and protein aggregates, was also facilitated by the presence of D4. A series of mixtures of silicone oils, all of which exhibited a viscosity of 1000 cSt but which were comprised of different silicone constituents, clearly showed a correlation between the presence of lower molecular silicones and enhanced solution turbidity. While the addition of a non-ionic silicone-polyether surfactant led to greater turbidity by increasing the number of stabilized oil droplets, it was not accompanied by protein denaturation. These results are consistent with HSA denaturation and subsequent aggregation as a consequence of contact particularly with low molecular weight, hydrophobic silicones that are more mobile, leading to more efficient protein/silicone contact.

  16. Aqueous geochemistry of low molecular weight hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures and pressures: constraints from mineral buffered laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seewald, Jeffrey S.

    2001-05-01

    Organic matter, water, and minerals coexist at elevated temperatures and pressures in sedimentary basins and participate in a wide range of geochemical processes that includes the generation of oil and natural gas. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted at 300 to 350°C and 350 bars to examine chemical interactions involving low molecular weight aqueous hydrocarbons with water and Fe-bearing minerals under hydrothermal conditions. Mineral buffers composed of hematite-magnetite-pyrite, hematite-magnetite, and pyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite were added to each experiment to fix the redox state of the fluid and the activity of reduced sulfur species. During each experiment the chemical system was externally modified by addition of ethene, ethane, propene, 1-butene, or n-heptane, and variations in the abundance of aqueous organic species were monitored as a function of time and temperature. Results of the experiments indicate that decomposition of aqueous n-alkanes proceeds through a series of oxidation and hydration reactions that sequentially produce alkenes, alcohols, ketones, and organic acids as reaction intermediaries. Organic acids subsequently undergo decarboxylation and/or oxidation reactions to form carbon dioxide and shorter chain saturated hydrocarbons. This alteration assemblage is compositionally distinct from that produced by thermal cracking under anhydrous conditions, indicating that the presence of water and minerals provide alternative reaction pathways for the decomposition of hydrocarbons. The rate of hydrocarbon oxidation decreases substantially under reducing conditions and in the absence of catalytically active aqueous sulfur species. These results represent compelling evidence that the stability of aqueous hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures in natural environments is not a simple function of time and temperature alone. Under the appropriate geochemical conditions, stepwise oxidation represents a mechanism for the decomposition of low

  17. Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Heparin Oligosaccharides and Low Molecular Weight Heparin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaojun; Lin, Lei; Liu, Xinyue; Zhang, Fuming; Chi, Lianli; Xia, Qiangwei; Linhardt, Robert J

    2016-02-02

    Heparins, highly sulfated, linear polysaccharides also known as glycosaminoglycans, are among the most challenging biopolymers to analyze. Hyphenated techniques in conjunction with mass spectrometry (MS) offer rapid analysis of complex glycosaminoglycan mixtures, providing detailed structural and quantitative data. Previous analytical approaches have often relied on liquid chromatography (LC)-MS, and some have limitations including long separation times, low resolution of oligosaccharide mixtures, incompatibility of eluents, and often require oligosaccharide derivatization. This study examines the analysis of glycosaminoglycan oligosaccharides using a novel electrokinetic pump-based capillary electrophoresis (CE)-MS interface. CE separation and electrospray were optimized using a volatile ammonium bicarbonate electrolyte and a methanol-formic acid sheath fluid. The online analyses of highly sulfated heparin oligosaccharides, ranging from disaccharides to low molecular weight heparins, were performed within a 10 min time frame, offering an opportunity for higher-throughput analysis. Disaccharide compositional analysis as well as top-down analysis of low molecular weight heparin was demonstrated. Using normal polarity CE separation and positive-ion electrospray ionization MS, excellent run-to-run reproducibility (relative standard deviation of 3.6-5.1% for peak area and 0.2-0.4% for peak migration time) and sensitivity (limit of quantification of 2.0-5.9 ng/mL and limit of detection of 0.6-1.8 ng/mL) could be achieved.

  18. Optimization of parameters for coverage of low molecular weight proteins

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Stephan A.; Kohajda, Tibor; Findeiß, Sven; Stadler, Peter F.; Washietl, Stefan; Kellis, Manolis; von Bergen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Proteins with molecular weights of <25 kDa are involved in major biological processes such as ribosome formation, stress adaption (e.g., temperature reduction) and cell cycle control. Despite their importance, the coverage of smaller proteins in standard proteome studies is rather sparse. Here we investigated biochemical and mass spectrometric parameters that influence coverage and validity of identification. The underrepresentation of low molecular weight (LMW) proteins may be attributed to the low numbers of proteolytic peptides formed by tryptic digestion as well as their tendency to be lost in protein separation and concentration/desalting procedures. In a systematic investigation of the LMW proteome of Escherichia coli, a total of 455 LMW proteins (27% of the 1672 listed in the SwissProt protein database) were identified, corresponding to a coverage of 62% of the known cytosolic LMW proteins. Of these proteins, 93 had not yet been functionally classified, and five had not previously been confirmed at the protein level. In this study, the influences of protein extraction (either urea or TFA), proteolytic digestion (solely, and the combined usage of trypsin and AspN as endoproteases) and protein separation (gel- or non-gel-based) were investigated. Compared to the standard procedure based solely on the use of urea lysis buffer, in-gel separation and tryptic digestion, the complementary use of TFA for extraction or endoprotease AspN for proteolysis permits the identification of an extra 72 (32%) and 51 proteins (23%), respectively. Regarding mass spectrometry analysis with an LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer, collision-induced fragmentation (CID and HCD) and electron transfer dissociation using the linear ion trap (IT) or the Orbitrap as the analyzer were compared. IT-CID was found to yield the best identification rate, whereas IT-ETD provided almost comparable results in terms of LMW proteome coverage. The high overlap between the proteins identified with IT

  19. Optimization of parameters for coverage of low molecular weight proteins.

    PubMed

    Müller, Stephan A; Kohajda, Tibor; Findeiss, Sven; Stadler, Peter F; Washietl, Stefan; Kellis, Manolis; von Bergen, Martin; Kalkhof, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    Proteins with molecular weights of <25 kDa are involved in major biological processes such as ribosome formation, stress adaption (e.g., temperature reduction) and cell cycle control. Despite their importance, the coverage of smaller proteins in standard proteome studies is rather sparse. Here we investigated biochemical and mass spectrometric parameters that influence coverage and validity of identification. The underrepresentation of low molecular weight (LMW) proteins may be attributed to the low numbers of proteolytic peptides formed by tryptic digestion as well as their tendency to be lost in protein separation and concentration/desalting procedures. In a systematic investigation of the LMW proteome of Escherichia coli, a total of 455 LMW proteins (27% of the 1672 listed in the SwissProt protein database) were identified, corresponding to a coverage of 62% of the known cytosolic LMW proteins. Of these proteins, 93 had not yet been functionally classified, and five had not previously been confirmed at the protein level. In this study, the influences of protein extraction (either urea or TFA), proteolytic digestion (solely, and the combined usage of trypsin and AspN as endoproteases) and protein separation (gel- or non-gel-based) were investigated. Compared to the standard procedure based solely on the use of urea lysis buffer, in-gel separation and tryptic digestion, the complementary use of TFA for extraction or endoprotease AspN for proteolysis permits the identification of an extra 72 (32%) and 51 proteins (23%), respectively. Regarding mass spectrometry analysis with an LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer, collision-induced fragmentation (CID and HCD) and electron transfer dissociation using the linear ion trap (IT) or the Orbitrap as the analyzer were compared. IT-CID was found to yield the best identification rate, whereas IT-ETD provided almost comparable results in terms of LMW proteome coverage. The high overlap between the proteins identified with IT

  20. Expression of low molecular weight proteins in patients with leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, N; Abid, R; Qureshi, A W; Basheer, T

    2012-06-01

    The current study is conducted to observe the differences in the level of low molecular weight proteins in the sera of patients with leukaemia in comparison to healthy subjects (control group). The sera of patients with leukaemia showed 15 peaks in the densitometric curve in comparison to the seven peaks of the controls. The peaks in the experimental samples that coincide with those in the control were of 134.14, 113.15, 76.06, 63.25, 48.07, 22.85 and 16.47 kDa molecular weights, respectively. Most of the new peaks appeared between the proteins of molecular weight 36-29 kDa in the experimental groups. Mean density of the 134.14 kDa protein band showed an increase in the protein in experimental groups I and II only whereas 113.15 and 22.85 kDa protein were increased in all experimental groups of patients with leukaemia. The expression of 76.06 and 63.25 kDa protein fraction was downregulated in the patients with leukaemia. A decline in the level of the protein of 48.07 kDa was observed in patients with leukaemia except in group I. Unlike the other protein fractions, the level of the protein of 16.47 kDa was significantly (p < 0.05) increased with a maximum density in group II. Intergroup experimental) comparison revealed an increasing pattern of 95.44 and 89.21 kDa with maximum level in group III sera. However the protein fractions of 38.07 and 34.94 kDa varied in the serum with maximum density in Group IV Protein fractions of 32.92 and 31.24 kDa were expressed in all age groups of patients with leukaemia with a maximum density in group III whereas the percentage densities of 14.42 and 13.56 kDa protein were quite different. This preliminary study will provide a basis to study the role of different proteins in patients with leukaemia.

  1. Determination of free inositols and other low molecular weight carbohydrates in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, Oswaldo; Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; Sanz, María Luz; Martínez-Castro, Isabel

    2011-03-23

    Different low molecular weight carbohydrates including saccharides, polyalcohols, sugar acids, and glycosides have been identified and quantified in different edible vegetables from Asteraceae, Amarantaceae, Amarylidaceae, Brassicaceae, Dioscoreaceae, and Solanaceae families by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Apart from glucose, fructose, and sucrose, other saccharides such as sedoheptulose in chicory, spinach, cabbage, purple yam, eggplant, radish, and oak leaf lettuce, rutinose in eggplant skin, and a glycosyl-inositol in spinach have been identified. chiro-Inositol was found in all vegetables of the Asteraceae family (3.1-32.6 mg 100 g(-1)), whereas scyllo-inositol was detected in those of purple yam, eggplant, artichoke, chicory, escarole, and endive (traces-23.2 mg 100 g(-1)). α-Galactosides, kestose, glucaric acid, and glycosyl-glycerols were also identified and quantified in some of the analyzed vegetables. Considering the bioactivity of most of these compounds, mainly chicory leaves, artichokes, lettuces, and purple yam could constitute beneficial sources for human health.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of sugar based low molecular weight gelators and the preparation of chiral sulfinamides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangunuru, Hari Prasad Reddy

    Low molecular weight gelators (LMWGs) have received considerable attention in the field of chemistry from last few decades. These compounds form self-assembled fibrous networks like micelles, cylindrical, sheets, fibers, layers and so on. The fibrous network entraps the solvent and forms gel, because of the self-assembly phenomenon and their demonstrated potential uses in a variety of areas, ranging from environmental to medicinal applications. Sugars are good starting materials to synthesize the new class of LMWG's, because these are different from some expensive materials, these are natural products. We have synthesized and characterized the LMGS's based on D-glucose and D-glucosamine. D-glucosamine is the versatile starting material to make different peptoids and triazoles. Several series of compounds were synthesized using compounds 1-3 as starting material and studied the gelation behavior all the compounds. We have studied the self-assembling properties of a new class of tripeptoids, synthesized by one-pot Ugi reaction from simple starting materials. Among the focused library of tripeptoids synthesized, we found that several efficient low molecular weight organogelators were obtained for aqueous DMSO and ethanol mixtures. We have also synthesized and characterized a series of monosaccharide triazole derivatives. These compounds were synthesized from N-acetyl glucosamine and D-glucose via a Cu(I) catalyzed azide/alkyne cycloaddition reaction (CuAAc). The compounds have been screened for their gelation properties and several efficient low molecular weight organo/hydro gelators were obtained, among these compounds, five per-acetyl glucosamine derivatives and one peracetyl glucose derivative were able to form gels in water. These new molecules are expected to be useful in drug delivery and tissue engineering.*. Asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines is a challenging in synthetic organic chemistry. The development of new catalysts for asymmetric organic

  3. Synthesis and self-assembly of 1-deoxyglucose derivatives as low molecular weight organogelators

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low molecular weight gelators are an important class of molecules. The supramolecular gels formed by carbohydrate derived low molecular weight gelators, are interesting soft materials that show great potential for many applications. Previously, we synthesized a series of methyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-a-D...

  4. Viscoelastic Behavior of Low Molecular Weight Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongying

    Ionomers are those hydrophobic polymers having small amounts of bonded ionic groups. The introduction of the ionic groups into polymer chain produces large changes in the physical, mechanical and rheological properties of the parent polymer. Characterization of the effect of the ionic interactions on the rheology is complicated by the difficulty in separating effects due to molecular entanglements and the ionic interactions. In this study, low molecular weight (Mw=4000) sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) was used to study the dynamic and steady shear rheology of SPS ionomers. The polymer chain length used was far below the entanglement molecular weight of polystyrene and effects of molecular entanglements will be absent. Any polymer chain entanglements or lengthening behavior on the melt rheology should be due to the ionic interactions. Random SPS ionomers with two sulfonation levels were examined, 2.5 and 4.8 mol%, which corresponded, respectively, to one and two sulfonate groups per chain on average. The metal counterions was varied across the alkali metal series of the periodic table. Morphology of the ionomer was characterized by using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis, and dynamic and steady shear measurements were performed to investigate rheological behavior of the ionomers. Glass transition temperatures of the ionomers increased with increasing ion concentration but were insensitive to cation used. The scattering peak in SAXS indicates the existence of the nanophase separated ionic clusters. The strong ionic nanophase persist up to very high temperatures and is not sensitive to the external stress. Time-temperature superposition (TTS) of G' worked reasonably well while TTS of G" failed for most ionomers. Ionic interactions increased the terminal relaxation time of the melts as much as seven orders of magnitude greater than the unentangled PS melt. The zero shear viscosity and first normal stress coefficients scaled with cq/a, where c was the

  5. Bio-Based Bisfuran: Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Low Molecular Weight Amorphous Polyester.

    PubMed

    Gaitonde, Vishwanath; Lee, Kyunghee; Kirschbaum, Kristin; Sucheck, Steven J

    2014-07-23

    Discovery of renewable monomer feedstocks for fabrication of polymeric demand is critical in achieving sustainable materials. In the present work we have synthesized bisfuran diol (BFD) monomer from furfural, over four steps. BFD was examined via X-ray crystallography to understand the molecular arrangement in space, hydrogen bonding and packing of the molecules. This data was further used to compare BFD with structurally related Bisphenol A (BPA), and its known derivatives to predict the potential estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activities in BFD. Further, BFD was reacted with succinic acid to generate polyester material, bisfuran polyester (BFPE-1). MALDI characterization of BFPE-1 indicates low molecular weight polyester and thermal analysis reveals amorphous nature of the material.

  6. Ultra-low-molecular-weight heparins: precise structural features impacting specific anticoagulant activities.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcelo A; Viskov, Christian; Herman, Frederic; Gray, Angel L; de Farias, Eduardo H C; Cavalheiro, Renan P; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Fareed, Jawed; Nader, Helena B

    2013-03-01

    Ultra-low-molecular-weight heparins (ULMWHs) with better efficacy and safety ratios are under development; however, there are few structural data available. The main structural features and molecular weight of ULMWHs were studied and compared to enoxaparin. Their monosaccharide composition and average molecular weights were determined and preparations studied by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, scanning ultraviolet spectroscopy, circular dichroism and gel permeation chromatography. In general, ULMWHs presented higher 3-O-sulphated glucosamine and unsaturated uronic acid residues, the latter being comparable with their higher degree of depolymerisation. The analysis showed that ULMWHs are structurally related to LMWHs; however, their monosaccharide/oligosaccharide compositions and average molecular weights differed considerably explaining their different anticoagulant activities. The results relate structural features to activity, assisting the development of new and improved therapeutic agents, based on depolymerised heparin, for the prophylaxis and treatment of thrombotic disorders.

  7. Increased production of low molecular weight recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Belagaje, R. M.; Reams, S. G.; Ly, S. C.; Prouty, W. F.

    1997-01-01

    A general method for obtaining high-level production of low molecular weight proteins in Escherichia coli is described. This method is based on the use of a novel Met-Xaa-protein construction which is formed by insertion of a single amino acid residue (preferably Arginine or Lysine) between the N-terminal methionine and the protein of interest. The utility of this method is illustrated by examples for achieving high-level production of human insulin-like growth factor-1, human proinsulin, and their analogs. Furthermore, highly produced insulin-like growth factor-1 derivatives and human proinsulin analogs are converted to their natural sequences by removal of dipeptides with cathepsin C. PMID:9300495

  8. A novel glucose/pH responsive low-molecular-weight organogel of easy recycling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Gao, Wenxia; Yang, Kaiwen; Xu, Long; Ding, Jinchang; Chen, Jiuxi; Liu, Miaochang; Huang, Xiaobo; Wang, Shun; Wu, Huayue

    2013-11-05

    A new phenylboronic acid based gelator was developed to prepare low-molecular-weight organogel (LMOG), which could interact with several solvents to assemble into a three-dimensional nanofiber network. (1)H NMR spectroscopy study suggests that the driving force for the gelation includes hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking. Evaluated by UV-spectroscopy, the gel showed a prompt initial response to glucose at low concentration of 0.012 mmol/mL, which is a critical concentration of venous plasma glucose for diabetes. Significantly, this organogel exhibits excellent sensitivity to glucose among seven sugars tested (i.e., mannitol, galactose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, and fructose). The proposed formation of hydrogen-bonded complexes during the glucose sensing was supported by our energy calculation. Meanwhile, this organogel exhibits pH-response. Importantly, this LMOG could be conveniently recycled and thus be reused.

  9. Characterization and Immunological Evaluation of Low-Molecular- Weight Alginate Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Bi, Decheng; Wan, Min

    2016-01-01

    Alginate is a naturally occurring acidic linear polysaccharide obtained from marine brown seaweed. Low molecular weight structurally diverse derivatives and oligosaccharides derived from alginate have shown various tremendous biological and pharmacological activities. It has been demonstrated that immuno-inflammation is involved in many prevalent human diseases, such as cancer, severe infection and neurodegeneration. Given the activities of marine natural products in the regulation of immune responses, increasing efforts are being made toward the development of lowmolecular- weight natural compounds that aid in the prevention and treatment of immune- and inflammatory-related diseases. In this review, we describe the development of chemical modification and molecular depolymerization methods that modify the physicochemical and biological characteristics of alginate. Additionally, current progress in research on immuno-inflammatory, anti-neurodegenerative and anti-tumor activities of alginate derivatives is highlighted.

  10. Low-molecular-weight heparin as a multipurpose anticoagulant for laboratory testing.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, T; Hiino, M; Takubo, T; Tatsumi, N

    2000-06-01

    The availability of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for use as an anti-coagulant for laboratory testing was studied. Hematology and chemistry tests were performed with an automated hematology analyzer and an automated chemistry analyzer, respectively. The results of hematology tests of LMWH-treated blood were similar to those obtained for blood treated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-2K, except for platelet count. The platelet count of LMWH-treated blood was lower than that of EDTA-treated blood, and the decrease in platelet count in the former was due to platelet aggregation. Prothrombin time tests could be performed with plasma prepared from LMWH-treated blood, although with such blood the prothrombin time was prolonged. Chemistry tests could be performed for all 18 parameters. These results suggest that LMWH is a candidate for use for hematology testing (with the exception of platelet count), coagulation testing, and chemistry tests.

  11. Purification of a low molecular weight fucoidan for SPECT molecular imaging of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Saboural, Pierre; Chaubet, Frédéric; Rouzet, Francois; Al-Shoukr, Faisal; Azzouna, Rana Ben; Bouchemal, Nadia; Picton, Luc; Louedec, Liliane; Maire, Murielle; Rolland, Lydia; Potier, Guy; Guludec, Dominique Le; Letourneur, Didier; Chauvierre, Cédric

    2014-09-23

    Fucoidans constitute a large family of sulfated polysaccharides with several biochemical properties. A commercial fucoidan from brown algae, containing low molecular weight polysaccharidic species constituted of l-fucose, uronic acids and sulfate groups, was simply treated here with calcium acetate solution. This treatment led to a purified fraction with a yield of 45%. The physicochemical characterizations of the purified fucoidan using colorimetric assay, MALLS, dRI, FT-IR, NMR, exhibited molecular weight distributions and chemical profiles similar for both fucoidans whereas the sulfate and l-fucose contents increased by 16% and 71%, respectively. The biodistribution study in rat of both compounds labeled with 99mTc evidenced a predominant renal elimination of the purified fucoidan, but the crude fucoidan was mainly retained in liver and spleen. In rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion, we then demonstrated the better efficiency of the purified fucoidan. This purified sulfated polysaccharide appears promising for the development of molecular imaging in acute coronary syndrome.

  12. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of low molecular weight compounds by ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using ionic liquid matrices.

    PubMed

    Zabet-Moghaddam, Masoud; Heinzle, Elmar; Tholey, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    A major problem hampering the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry for quantitative measurements is the inhomogeneous distribution of analytes and matrices in solid sample preparations. The use of ionic liquids as matrices for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of low molecular weight compounds like amino acids, sugars and vitamins was investigated. The ionic liquid matrices are composed of equimolar combinations of classical MALDI matrices (sinapinic acid, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid or 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid) with organic bases. These matrix systems allow a homogenous sample preparation with a thin ionic liquid layer having negligible vapour pressure. This leads to a facilitated qualitative and quantitative measurement of the analytes compared with classical solid matrices. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Analysis of the potency of various low molecular weight chemical chaperones to prevent protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Upagupta, Chandak; Carlisle, Rachel E; Dickhout, Jeffrey G

    2017-04-22

    Newly translated proteins must undergo proper folding to ensure their function. To enter a low energy state, misfolded proteins form aggregates, which are associated with many degenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent studies have shown the use of low molecular weight chemical chaperones to be an effective method of reducing protein aggregation in various cell types. This study demonstrates a novel non-biased assay to assess the molecular efficacy of these compounds at preventing protein misfolding and/or aggregation. This assay utilizes a thioflavin T fluorescent stain to provide a qualitative and quantitative measure of protein misfolding within cells. The functionality of this method was first assessed in renal proximal tubule epithelial cells treated with various endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducers. Once established in the renal model system, we analyzed the ability of some known chemical chaperones to reduce ER stress. A total of five different compounds were selected: 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), tauroursodeoxycholic acid, trehalose, and glycerol. The dose-dependent effects of these compounds at reducing thapsigargin-induced ER stress was then analyzed, and used to determine their EC50 values. Of the chaperones, 4-PBA and DHA provided the greatest reduction of ER stress and did so at relatively low concentrations. Upon analyzing the efficiency of these compounds and their corresponding structures, it was determined that chaperones with a localized hydrophilic, polar end followed by a long hydrophobic chain, such as 4-PBA and DHA, were most effective at reducing ER stress. This study provides some insight into the use of low molecular weight chemical chaperones and may serve as the first step towards developing new chaperones of greater potency thereby providing potential treatments for diseases caused by protein aggregation.

  14. Participation of Low Molecular Weight Electron Carriers in Oxidative Protein Folding

    PubMed Central

    Margittai, Éva; Csala, Miklós; Mandl, József; Bánhegyi, Gábor

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative protein folding is mediated by a proteinaceous electron relay system, in which the concerted action of protein disulfide isomerase and Ero1 delivers the electrons from thiol groups to the final acceptor. Oxygen appears to be the final oxidant in aerobic living organisms, although the existence of alternative electron acceptors, e.g. fumarate or nitrate, cannot be excluded. Whilst the protein components of the system are well-known, less attention has been turned to the role of low molecular weight electron carriers in the process. The function of ascorbate, tocopherol and vitamin K has been raised recently. In vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that these redox-active compounds can contribute to the functioning of oxidative folding. This review focuses on the participation of small molecular weight redox compounds in oxidative protein folding. PMID:19399252

  15. Degradation rates of low molecular weight PAH correlate with sediment TOC in marine subtidal sediments.

    PubMed

    Hinga, K R

    2003-04-01

    The degradation rate of low molecular weight (LMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in subtidal marine sediments was found to correlate with sediment total organic carbon (TOC) in stations sampled two or more times after the North Cape No. 2 fuel oil spill. With 2.5-5 months between samplings, stations with lower sediment TOC had lower fractions of LMW PAH remaining at the time of the second sampling. Apparent first-order degradation rate constants calculated for each station varied by nearly an order of magnitude between stations with a range of TOC from 0.4% to 7.3%. The correlation of degradation rate with sediment TOC can be used to provide improved and site-specific predictions of the initial time-course of LMW PAH concentrations in sediments after oil spills.

  16. Development of C3-Symmetric Tris-Urea Low-Molecular-Weight Gelators.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Masamichi

    2016-04-01

    This article describes recent developments in C3 -symmetric tris-urea low-molecular-weight gelators and their applications. The C3 -symmetric tris-ureas are excellent frameworks to form supramolecular polymers through noncovalent interactions. In organic solvents, hydrophobic tris-ureas form supramolecular gels. Amphiphilic tris-ureas form supramolecular gels in aqueous media. Functional supramolecular gels were prepared by introducing appropriate functional groups into the outer sphere of tris-ureas. Supramolecular hydrogels obtained from amphiphilic tris-ureas were used in the electrophoresis of proteins. These electrophoreses results showed several unique characteristics compared to typical electrophoreses results obtained using polyacrylamide matrices. © 2016 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Low-molecular-weight DNA replication intermediates in Escherichia coli: mechanism of formation and strand specificity.

    PubMed

    Amado, Luciana; Kuzminov, Andrei

    2013-11-15

    Chromosomal DNA replication intermediates, revealed in ligase-deficient conditions in vivo, are of low molecular weight (LMW) independently of the organism, suggesting discontinuous replication of both the leading and the lagging DNA strands. Yet, in vitro experiments with purified enzymes replicating sigma-structured substrates show continuous synthesis of the leading DNA strand in complete absence of ligase, supporting the textbook model of semi-discontinuous DNA replication. The discrepancy between the in vivo and in vitro results is rationalized by proposing that various excision repair events nick continuously synthesized leading strands after synthesis, producing the observed LMW intermediates. Here, we show that, in an Escherichia coli ligase-deficient strain with all known excision repair pathways inactivated, new DNA is still synthesized discontinuously. Furthermore, hybridization to strand-specific targets demonstrates that the LMW replication intermediates come from both the lagging and the leading strands. These results support the model of discontinuous leading strand synthesis in E. coli.

  18. Study of the UV protective and antibacterial properties of aqueous polyurethane dispersions extended with low molecular weight chitosan.

    PubMed

    Muzaffar, Shazia; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Zuber, Mohammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Shahid, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    A series of aqueous dispersions of polyurethane (PU) and low molecular weight chitosan (CS(LMW)) has been prepared in two steps synthetic process. In first step PU prepolymer, with NCO termini were prepared by reacting isophrone diisocyanate (IPDI), poly (caprolactone) diol (CAPA, Mn 1000), and 2,2-dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), followed by neutralization of PU prepolymer with triethylamine (TEA). In second step PU prepolymer chain was extended by low molecular weight chitosan followed by dispersion formation by adding calculated volume of water. Molecular characterization of CS(LMW)-PU finishes was done by FTIR and application on poly-cotton blended fabric samples was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Antimicrobial and UV protective performance of treated fabrics was performed by AATCC 100 and AATCC TM183 methods respectively. Furthermore, it shows that the addition of chitosan remarkably increases antimicrobial and UV protective properties of PUs.

  19. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of low Molecular Weight Compounds in Garlic (Allium sativum L.) with Gold Nanoparticle Enhanced Target.

    PubMed

    Misiorek, Maria; Sekuła, Justyna; Ruman, Tomasz

    2017-06-13

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is the subject of many studies due to its numerous beneficial properties. Although compounds of garlic have been studied by various analytical methods, their tissue distributions are still unclear. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) appears to be a very powerful tool for the identification of the localisation of compounds within a garlic clove. Visualisation of the spatial distribution of garlic low-molecular weight compounds with nanoparticle-based MSI. Compounds occurring on the cross-section of sprouted garlic has been transferred to gold-nanoparticle enhanced target (AuNPET) by imprinting. The imprint was then subjected to MSI analysis. The results suggest that low molecular weight compounds, such as amino acids, dipeptides, fatty acids, organosulphur and organoselenium compounds are distributed within the garlic clove in a characteristic manner. It can be connected with their biological functions and metabolic properties in the plant. New methodology for the visualisation of low molecular weight compounds allowed a correlation to be made between their spatial distribution within a sprouted garlic clove and their biological function. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The impact of low molecular weight heparin on obstetric outcomes among unexplained recurrent miscarriages complicated with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Orkun; Karaman, Erbil; Cim, Numan; Dirik, Deniz; Sahin, Hanim Guler; Kara, Erdal; Esen, Ramazan

    2017-01-01

    The association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms and unexplained recurrent miscarriage is elusive. The recommendations for improving pregnancy outcomes in these patients keep changing based on the available evidence. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of low molecular weight heparin on obstetric outcomes of recurrent miscarriage patients complicated with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism. We reviewed medical records of 121 patients with a history of recurrent miscarriage complicated by methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms, retrospectively. From among them, 68 patients were treated only with folic acid and iron. The remaining 53 patients were treated with folic acid, iron and prophylactic doses of low molecular weight heparin. The subsequent pregnancy outcomes of these patients were noted. The live birth rate was higher in patients with anticoagulant therapy than in patients without anticoagulant therapy (48.5% vs. 69.8%, respectively, p: 0.015) and the congenital anomaly rate was lower in anticoagulant therapy group (17.6% vs. 3.8%, respectively, p: 0.022). The other obstetric outcomes were found to be similar between the two groups. The current study demonstrated that low molecular weight heparin improved the live birth rates among unex-plained recurrent miscarriage patients complicated with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms. How-ever, the routine use of low molecular weight heparin did not improve the late pregnancy complications in these selected patients in the eastern region of our country. Further studies are needed to discriminate the effect of anticoagulation on the live birth rate of each of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism type.

  1. Nanostructured solid substrates for efficient laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) of low molecular weight compounds.

    PubMed

    Silina, Yuliya E; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2013-12-07

    Analytical applications often require rapid measurement of compounds from complex sample mixtures. High-speed mass spectrometry approaches frequently utilize techniques based on direct ionization of the sample by laser irradiation, mostly by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). Compounds of low molecular weight are difficult to analyze by MALDI, however, because of severe interferences in the low m/z range from the organic matrix used for desorption/ionization. In recent years, surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) techniques have shown promise for small molecule analysis, due to the unique properties of nanostructured surfaces, in particular, the lack of a chemical background in the low m/z range and enhanced production of analyte ions by SALDI. This short review article presents a summary of the most promising recent developments in SALDI materials for MS analysis of low molecular weight analytes, with emphasis on nanostructured materials based on metals and semiconductors.

  2. Colonic Absorption of Low-Molecular-Weight Metabolites Influenced by the Intestinal Microbiome: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Ooga, Takushi; Kibe, Ryoko; Aiba, Yuji; Koga, Yasuhiro; Benno, Yoshimi

    2017-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight metabolites produced by the intestinal microbiome play a direct role in health and disease. However, little is known about the ability of the colon to absorb these metabolites. It is also unclear whether these metabolites are bioavailable. Here, metabolomics techniques (capillary electrophoresis with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, CE-TOFMS), germ-free (GF) mice, and colonized (Ex-GF) mice were used to identify the colonic luminal metabolites transported to colonic tissue and/or blood. We focused on the differences in each metabolite between GF and Ex-GF mice to determine the identities of metabolites that are transported to the colon and/or blood. CE-TOFMS identified 170, 246, 166, and 193 metabolites in the colonic feces, colonic tissue, portal plasma, and cardiac plasma, respectively. We classified the metabolites according to the following influencing factors: (i) the membrane transport system of the colonocytes, (ii) metabolism during transcellular transport, and (iii) hepatic metabolism based on the similarity in the ratio of each metabolite between GF and Ex-GF mice and found 62 and 22 metabolites that appeared to be absorbed from the colonic lumen to colonocytes and blood, respectively. For example, 11 basic amino acids were transported to the systemic circulation from the colonic lumen. Furthermore, many low-molecular-weight metabolites influenced by the intestinal microbiome are bioavailable. The present study is the first to report the transportation of metabolites from the colonic lumen to colonocytes and somatic blood in vivo, and the present findings are critical for clarifying host-intestinal bacterial interactions.

  3. Colonic Absorption of Low-Molecular-Weight Metabolites Influenced by the Intestinal Microbiome: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Ooga, Takushi; Kibe, Ryoko; Aiba, Yuji; Koga, Yasuhiro; Benno, Yoshimi

    2017-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight metabolites produced by the intestinal microbiome play a direct role in health and disease. However, little is known about the ability of the colon to absorb these metabolites. It is also unclear whether these metabolites are bioavailable. Here, metabolomics techniques (capillary electrophoresis with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, CE-TOFMS), germ-free (GF) mice, and colonized (Ex-GF) mice were used to identify the colonic luminal metabolites transported to colonic tissue and/or blood. We focused on the differences in each metabolite between GF and Ex-GF mice to determine the identities of metabolites that are transported to the colon and/or blood. CE-TOFMS identified 170, 246, 166, and 193 metabolites in the colonic feces, colonic tissue, portal plasma, and cardiac plasma, respectively. We classified the metabolites according to the following influencing factors: (i) the membrane transport system of the colonocytes, (ii) metabolism during transcellular transport, and (iii) hepatic metabolism based on the similarity in the ratio of each metabolite between GF and Ex-GF mice and found 62 and 22 metabolites that appeared to be absorbed from the colonic lumen to colonocytes and blood, respectively. For example, 11 basic amino acids were transported to the systemic circulation from the colonic lumen. Furthermore, many low-molecular-weight metabolites influenced by the intestinal microbiome are bioavailable. The present study is the first to report the transportation of metabolites from the colonic lumen to colonocytes and somatic blood in vivo, and the present findings are critical for clarifying host-intestinal bacterial interactions. PMID:28121990

  4. Low-Molecular-Weight Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Predicts Prostate Cancer Outcome by Increasing the Metastatic Potential.

    PubMed

    Ruela-de-Sousa, Roberta R; Hoekstra, Elmer; Hoogland, A Marije; Queiroz, Karla C Souza; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Stubbs, Andrew P; Pelizzaro-Rocha, Karin; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Jenster, Guido; Aoyama, Hiroshi; Ferreira, Carmen V; Fuhler, Gwenny M

    2016-04-01

    Low-risk patients suffering from prostate cancer (PCa) are currently placed under active surveillance rather than undergoing radical prostatectomy. However, clear parameters for selecting the right patient for each strategy are not available, and new biomarkers and treatment modalities are needed. Low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMWPTP) could present such a target. To correlate expression levels of LMWPTP in primary PCa to clinical outcome, and determine the role of LMWPTP in prostate tumor cell biology. Acid phosphatase 1, soluble (ACP1) expression was analyzed on microarray data sets, which were subsequently used in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Immunohistochemistry was performed on a tissue microarray containing material of 481 PCa patients whose clinicopathologic data were recorded. PCa cell line models were used to investigate the role of LMWPTP in cell proliferation, migration, adhesion, and anoikis resistance. The association between LMWPTP expression and clinical and pathologic outcomes was calculated using chi-square correlations and multivariable Cox regression analysis. Functional consequences of LMWPTP overexpression or downregulation were determined using migration and adhesion assays, confocal microscopy, Western blotting, and proliferation assays. LMWPTP expression was significantly increased in human PCa and correlated with earlier recurrence of disease (hazard ratio [HR]:1.99; p<0.001) and reduced patient survival (HR: 1.53; p=0.04). Unbiased Ingenuity analysis comparing cancer and normal prostate suggests migratory propensities in PCa. Indeed, overexpression of LMWPTP increases PCa cell migration, anoikis resistance, and reduces activation of focal adhesion kinase/paxillin, corresponding to decreased adherence. Overexpression of LMWPTP in PCa confers a malignant phenotype with worse clinical outcome. Prospective follow-up should determine the clinical potential of LMWPTP overexpression. These findings implicate low-molecular-weight

  5. Influence of low molecular weight fractions of humic substances on reducing capacities and distribution of redox functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhen; Jiang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Humic substances (HS) are redox-active organic compounds and their reducing capacities depend on their molecule structure and distribution of redox functional groups (RFG). During dialysis experiments, bulk humic acids (HA) were separated into low molecular weight fractions (LMWF) and retentate. LMWF account for only 2% of the total organic carbon content of HA molecules, however, their reducing capacities are up to 33 times greater than either those of the bulk HA or retentate. Furthermore, the total reducing capacity of the bulk HA accounts for less than 15% of the total reducing capacity of bulk HA, retentate and LMWF combined, suggesting that releasing of LMWF cannot reduce the number of RFG. RFG are neither in fixed amounts nor in uniformly distributed in bulk HA. LWMF have great fluorescence intensities for humic-like fluorophores (quinone-like functional groups), where quinonoid π-π* transition is responsible for the great reducing capacities of LMWF, and protein-like fluorophores. The 3,500 Da molecules (1.25 nm diameter) of HS could stimulate transformation of redox-active metals or potential pollutants trapped in soil micropores (< 2 nm diameter). A development of relationship between reducing capacity and Ex/Em position provides a possibility to predicate relative reducing capacities of HS in environmental samples.

  6. Deproteinization assessment using isotopically enriched compounds to trace the coprecipitation of low-molecular-weight selenium species with proteins.

    PubMed

    Godin, Simon; Bouzas-Ramos, Diego; Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Bouyssière, Brice; Bueno, Maïté

    2017-08-01

    Studies have shown that information related to the presence of low-molecular-weight metabolites is frequently lost after deproteinization of complex matrices, such as blood and plasma, during sample preparation. Therefore, the effect of several deproteinization reagents on low-molecular-weight selenium species has been compared by species-specific isotope labeling. Two isotopically enriched selenium tracers were used to mimic models of small inorganic anionic ((77)Se-selenite) and organic zwitterionic ((76)Se-selenomethionine) species. The results presented here show that the use of a methanol-acetonitrile-acetone (1:1:1 v/v/v) mixture provided approximately two times less tracer loss from plasma samples in comparison with the classic procedure using acetonitrile, which may not be optimal as it leads to important losses of low-molecular-weight selenium species. In addition, the possible interactions between selenium tracers and proteins were investigated, revealing that both coprecipitation phenomena and association with proteins were potentially responsible for selenite tracer losses during protein precipitation in blood samples. However, coprecipitation phenomena were found to be fully responsible for losses of both tracers observed in plasma samples and of the selenomethionine tracer in blood samples. This successfully applied strategy is anticipated to be useful for more extensive future studies in selenometabolomics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermally annealed gold nanoparticles for surface-assisted laser desorption ionisation-mass spectrometry of low molecular weight analytes.

    PubMed

    Pilolli, Rosa; Ditaranto, Nicoletta; Di Franco, Cinzia; Palmisano, Francesco; Cioffi, Nicola

    2012-10-01

    Metal nanomaterials have an emerging role in surface-assisted laser desorption ionisation-mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) providing a useful tool to overcome some limitations intrinsically related to the use of conventional organic matrices in matrix-assisted LDI-MS. In this contribution, the possibility to use a stainless-steel-supported gold nanoparticle (AuNP) film as a versatile platform for SALDI-MS was assessed. A sacrificial anode electrosynthetic route was chosen in order to obtain morphologically controlled core-shell AuNPs; the colloidal AuNPs were, thereafter, drop cast onto a stainless-steel sample plate and the resulting AuNP film was thermally annealed in order to improve its effectiveness as LDI-MS promoter. Spectroscopic characterization of the nanostructured film by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was crucial for understanding how annealing induced changes in the surface chemistry and influenced the performance of AuNPs as desorption/ionisation promoter. In particular, it was demonstrated that the post-deposition treatments were essential to enhance the AuNP core/analyte interaction, thus resulting in SALDI-MS spectra of significantly improved quality. The AuNP films were applied to the detection of three different classes of low molecular weight (LMW) analytes, i.e. amino acids, peptides and LMW polymers, in order to demonstrate the versatility of this nanostructured material.

  8. Influence of Low Molecular Weight Fractions of Humic Substances on Their Reducing Capacities and Distribution of Redox Functional Groups.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Jiang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Humic substances (HS) are redox-active organic compounds and their reducing capacities depend on molecule structure and distribution of redox functional groups (RFG). During dialysis experiments, initial HS were separated into low molecular weight fractions (LMWF, molecular weight <3,500 Da or <14,000 Da) and retentate. LMWF accounts for only 2% in TOC contents of HS molecules, while their reducing capacities are up to 33 times greater than those of initial HA. However, great amount of reducing capacities of LMWF does not cause decreasing reducing capacities of retentate relative to those of initial HA. Total reducing capacities of whole dialysis device were calculated for initial HA, retentate and LMWF in native and reduced state, and result suggests that releasing of LMWF leads to production and explosion of RFG. LWMF have great fluorescence intensities for protein-like fluorophores and humic acids-like fluorophores (quinone-like functional groups), where quinonoid π-π* transition is responsible for the great reducing capacities of LMWF. The 3,500 Da molecules (0.25 nm diameter) of HS are capable of stimulating transformation of redox-active metals or potential pollutants trapped in soil micropores (< 2 nm diameter). A development of relationship between reducing capacity and Ex / Em position provides a possibility to predicate relative reducing capacities of HS in treated raw water sample.

  9. Nanowires formed by the co-assembly of a negatively charged low-molecular weight gelator and a zwitterionic polythiophene.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Palaniswamy, Ganesan; de Jong, Menno R; Aslund, Andreas; Konradsson, Peter; Marcelis, Antonius T M; Sudhölter, Ernst J R; Stuart, Martien A Cohen; Leermakers, Frans A M

    2010-06-21

    Conjugated organic nanowires have been prepared by co-assembling a carboxylate containing low-molecular weight gelator (LMWG) and an amino acid substituted polythiophene derivative (PTT). Upon introducing the zwitterionic polyelectrolyte PTT to a basic molecular solution of the organogelator, the negative charges on the LMWG are compensated by the positive charges of the PTT. As a result, nanowires form through co-assembly. These nanowires are visualized by both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Depending on the concentration and ratio of the components these nanowires can be micrometers long. These measurements further suggest that the aggregates adopt a helical conformation. The morphology of these nanowires are studied with fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The interactions between LMWG and PTT are characterized by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy studies. The steady-state spectra indicate that the backbone of the PTT adopts a more planar and more aggregated conformation when interacting with LMWG. The time- resolved fluorescence decay studies confirm this interpretation.

  10. Separation and determination of heavy metals associated with low molecular weight chelators in xylem saps of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) by size exclusion chromatography and atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhenggui G; Wong, Jonathan Woonchung C; Zhao, Haiyan Y; Zhang, Huijuan J; Li, Huixin X; Hu, Feng

    2007-08-01

    To elucidate the role of low molecular weight chelators in long-distance root-to-shoot transport of heavy metals in Indian mustard, an "off-line" size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography-graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was developed to investigate heavy metals associated with low molecular weight chelators in xylem saps of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). The size exclusion chromatogram presented only the peaks with molecular weight for all xylem saps and directly indicated the long-distance transport of phytochelatins (PCs) of Indian mustard under Cd stress. In the absence of Cd stress, only organic acids and inorganic anions participated in the long-distance transport of Cd, but organic acids, inorganic anions, glutathione (GSH), and cysteine might relate to the long-distance transport of Cu or Zn. In the presence of Cd stress, PCs were induced, and Cd ions in xylem saps were associated with the induced PCs. As the Cd levels in nutrient solution increased, more Cd in xylem saps adopted the form of PC-Cd. Although PCs might participate in the long-distance transport of Cd under Cd stress, the majority of Cd was still transported by organic acids and inorganic anions in xylem vessels. Moreover, results indicated the existence of complexation competition for GSH and cysteine between Cd and Cu (or Zn) and complexation competition for Cd between PCs and GSH (or cysteine) in xylem vessels. Our work might be very useful for understanding the mechanism of long-distance transport of heavy metals in hyperaccumulator.

  11. Antioxidative low molecular weight compounds in marinated herring (Clupea harengus) salt brine.

    PubMed

    Gringer, Nina; Safafar, Hamed; du Mesnildot, Axelle; Nielsen, Henrik H; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Undeland, Ingrid; Baron, Caroline P

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed at unravelling the antioxidative capacity of low molecular weight compounds (LMWC) (peptides, amino acids and phenolic acids) present in salt brines from the marinated herring production. Brines were fractionated into <10kDa fractions using dialysis and further into 94 fractions using size exclusion chromatography. All samples were analysed for protein, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities. Protein-enriched samples were pooled (P1, P2 and P3) and analysed for phenolic acids, total amino acids and peptide/protein sequence using advanced mass spectrometry. All salt brines contain LMWC holding ABTS-radical scavenging activity, reducing power and iron chelating activity. Generally, a strong correlation between TPC and ABTS-radical scavenging was found. In contrast, reducing power and iron chelating activity seemed to be caused by peptides. Protein/peptide sequencing revealed 1kDa peptides with the presence of HDF-motif which could be responsible for some of the antioxidant capacity observed in marinated herring salt brine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A low molecular weight folate receptor targeted contrast agent for magnetic resonance tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Kalber, Tammy L; Kamaly, Nazila; So, Po-Wah; Pugh, John A; Bunch, Josephine; McLeod, Cameron W; Jorgensen, Michael R; Miller, Andrew D; Bell, Jimmy D

    2011-08-01

    This study aims to develop a low molecular weight folate receptor (FR) contrast agent for MR tumor imaging. Gadolinium-tetraazacyclododecane tetraacetic acid (Gd.DOTA) was conjugated to folic acid to create Gd.DOTA.Folate. The efficacy of Gd.DOTA.Folate to bind FR was evaluated in vitro by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tumor enhancement over 14 h, utilizing an overexpressing α-FR cell line (IGROV-1), compared to an α-FR-negative cell line (OVCAR-3). Gd.DOTA.Folate localization ex vivo was verified by laser ablation ICP-MS. ICP-MS confirmed Gd.DOTA.Folate uptake by IGROV-1 cells and competitive binding with free folic acid inhibited binding. IGROV-1 tumors showed an increase in R (1) at 2 h, which increased significantly over 14 h post-Gd.DOTA.Folate with clear enhancement on MR images. This was not observed in controls. These data support the use of FR-targeted small molecular weight MRI contrast agents for tumor imaging in vivo.

  13. Analytical development for low molecular weight xenobiotic compounds.

    PubMed

    Maurer, H H; Arlt, J W; Kraemer, T; Schmitt, C J; Weber, A A

    1997-01-01

    Specific and sensitive detection or precise quantification of xenobiotics in biosamples (e.g. blood, urine, saliva, sweat, hair) are great challenges in analytical toxicology. GC-MS is the most sensitive, specific and universal analytical method for low mass xenobiotics. Precise quantification can be performed using the selected ion mode (SIM) and stable isotopes as internal standards. Negative chemical ionization (NCI) can improve severalfold the sensitivity for the determination of compounds with electronegative sites (e.g. halogens). For screening and identification of most of the basic and neutral drugs (e.g. drugs of abuse, psychotropics, hypnotics, analgesics, cardiacs) in urine, a systematic toxicological analysis procedure (STA) was developed using GC-MS after acid hydrolysis, extraction and acetylation. for detection of acidic xenobiotics (e.g. anticoagulants, ACE inhibitors, diuretics, antirheumatics) in urine, a further GC-MS procedure was developed using extractive alkylation. For the detection of non-volatile xenobiotics (e.g. toxic peptides like alpha- and beta-amanitin or phase II metabolites) electrospray LC-MS procedures were developed. The procedures and examples show that in analytical toxicology GC-MS is the method of choice for low mass xenobiotics while LC-MS is that for non-volatiles.

  14. Gold nanoparticle-enhanced target (AuNPET) as universal solution for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis and imaging of low molecular weight compounds.

    PubMed

    Sekuła, Justyna; Nizioł, Joanna; Rode, Wojciech; Ruman, Tomasz

    2015-05-22

    Preparation is described of a durable surface of cationic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), covering commercial and custom-made MALDI targets, along with characterization of the nanoparticle surface properties and examples of the use in MS analyses and MS imaging (IMS) of low molecular weight (LMW) organic compounds. Tested compounds include nucleosides, saccharides, amino acids, glycosides, and nucleic bases for MS measurements, as well as over one hundred endogenous compounds in imaging experiment. The nanoparticles covering target plate were enriched in sodium in order to promote sodium-adduct formation. The new surface allows fast analysis, high sensitivity of detection and high mass determination accuracy. Example of application of new Au nanoparticle-enhanced target for fast and simple MS imaging of a fingerprint is also presented.

  15. Low molecular weight compounds with transition metals as free radical scavengers and novel therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Bencini, Andrea; Failli, Paola; Valtancoli, Barbara; Bani, Daniele

    2010-07-01

    Molecules able to modulate the levels of endogenous free radicals, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), are of pivotal interest for pharmacological and pharmaceutical sciences because of their potential therapeutic relevance. In fact, ROS and NO, which are normal products of cell metabolism, may play a dual beneficial/deleterious role, depending on local concentration and mode of generation. As such, they have been identified as key pathogenic factors for many inflammatory, vascular dysfunctional and degenerative disorders, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and ageing. Therefore, the identification and characterization of novel antioxidant/free radical scavenger molecules may expand the current therapeutic implements for the treatment and prevention of the above diseases. In this perspective, low molecular weight complexes of transition metals with organic scaffolds are viewed and investigated as promising pharmaceutical agents. These complexes take advantage of the known principles of inorganic chemistry, i.e. the ability of transition metals, Fe(II), Co(II), Mn(II) and Ru(II), to bind to and react with NO and/or ROS, to counterbalance excessive endogenous free radical generation in biological systems. Among NO scavengers, representative examples are iron complexes with dithiocarbamates or ruthenium compounds with polyamine-polycarboxylate scaffolds; on the other hand, manganese-based molecules appear effective as ROS scavengers. Of note, Mn(II)-containing molecules, currently under study as ROS scavengers, have major functional similarities to Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), a Mn-containing enzyme acting as potent endogenous anti-oxidant. In this article, we briefly summarize the state-of-the-art concerning the chemical and biological properties of transition metal ion complexes with low molecular weight synthetic ligands as ROS/NO scavengers provided with

  16. Preparation and inhibition on α-d-glucosidase of low molecular weight polysaccharide from Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Guo, Ming-Zhu; Liu, Fei; Luo, You; Chen, Lu; Meng, Meng; Wang, Xiao-Ting; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2016-12-01

    The structural properties and the inhibition on α-d-glucosidase activity of the low molecular weight (LCMPs-II) obtained from the optimized acid hydrolysis of the Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides (CMPs) were investigated in this paper. The LCMPs-II with a molecular weight of 28 KDa mainly composed of rhamnose, xylose and glucose with the molar ratio of 1: 2.19: 6.73 was separated from LCMPs-I which was the acid hydrolysis product of CMPs by chromatography on Sephadex G-100 column. The solubility of LCMPs-II was tested to be 32.12±1.05g in 100mL distilled water under 25°C. Its solubility was almost as twice as that of CMPs. Afterward, the structural features of LCMPs-II was investigated by a combination of chemical and instrumental analysis such as the specific rotation determination, FT-IR, periodate oxidation-Smith degradation, Congo-red, GC, scanning electron microscope and NMR. The results showed that the optical rotation of LCMPs-II was +25° and it was 1,3-branched-rhamnoxyloglucan which had a linear backbone of (1→4)-linked α-d-glucopyranose (α-d-Glcp units).

  17. Occurrence of low molecular weight thiols in biological systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, Robert C.; Newton, Gerald L.

    1983-01-01

    Bromobimane labeling and high performance chromatography analysis were applied to various species of bacteria, plant tissues, and animal tissues. The reaction between thiols and monobromobimane is studied. Chromatograms revealing peaks produced by nonthiols and thiols are analyzed and compared. It is observed that all the bacteria species contain hydrogen sulfide, and glutathione is contained in facultative and aerobic gram-negative bacteria. For the plant tissues, the data reveal that mung bean sprouts contain homoglutathione and no glutathione; alfalfa sprouts contain homoglutathione and glutathione; the pea seed, nonlegumes, and fungi contain glutathione and no homoglutathione. It is detected that the main thiol in the animal tissues is glutathione. Based on the data, it is suggested that glutathione has an essential function in higher organisms.

  18. Occurrence of low molecular weight thiols in biological systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, Robert C.; Newton, Gerald L.

    1983-01-01

    Bromobimane labeling and high performance chromatography analysis were applied to various species of bacteria, plant tissues, and animal tissues. The reaction between thiols and monobromobimane is studied. Chromatograms revealing peaks produced by nonthiols and thiols are analyzed and compared. It is observed that all the bacteria species contain hydrogen sulfide, and glutathione is contained in facultative and aerobic gram-negative bacteria. For the plant tissues, the data reveal that mung bean sprouts contain homoglutathione and no glutathione; alfalfa sprouts contain homoglutathione and glutathione; the pea seed, nonlegumes, and fungi contain glutathione and no homoglutathione. It is detected that the main thiol in the animal tissues is glutathione. Based on the data, it is suggested that glutathione has an essential function in higher organisms.

  19. Low molecular weight squash trypsin inhibitors from Sechium edule seeds.

    PubMed

    Laure, Hélen J; Faça, Vítor M; Izumi, Clarice; Padovan, Júlio C; Greene, Lewis J

    2006-02-01

    Nine chromatographic components containing trypsin inhibitor activity were isolated from Sechium edule seeds by acetone fractionation, gel filtration, affinity chromatography and RP-HPLC in an overall yield of 46% of activity and 0.05% of protein. The components obtained with highest yield of total activity and highest specific activity were sequenced by Edman degradation and their molecular masses determined by mass spectrometry. The inhibitors contained 31, 32 and 27 residues per molecule and their sequences were: SETI-IIa, EDRKCPKILMRCKRDSDCLAKCTCQESGYCG; SETI-IIb, EEDRKCPKILMRCKRDSDCLAKCTCQESGYCG and SETI-V, CPRILMKCKLDTDCFPTCTCRPSGFCG. SETI-IIa and SETI-IIb, which differed by an amino-terminal E in the IIb form, were not separable under the conditions employed. The sequences are consistent with consensus sequences obtained from 37 other inhibitors: CPriI1meCk_DSDCla_C_C_G_CG, where capital letters are invariant amino acid residues and lower case letters are the most preserved in this position. SETI-II and SETI-V form complexes with trypsin with a 1:1 stoichiometry and have dissociation constants of 5.4x10(-11)M and 1.1x10(-9)M, respectively.

  20. STUDIES OF HYPERSENSITIVITY TO LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT SUBSTANCES

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Herman N.; Belman, Sidney

    1953-01-01

    2,4-dinitrophenylsulfenyl chloride (DSCl) and 2,4-dinitrophenylthiocyanate (DSCN) elicited allergic reactions of the delayed type when applied to the skin of guinea pigs and of human beings who had been sensitized by prior exposure to 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DF). DSCl and DSCN, together with 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonate (DSO3), constitute a clearly defined group of allergenic dinitrophenyl compounds in that they all combined with skin protein in vivo through reaction with cysteine or cystine. In vitro, these compounds combine with free SH groups, and with —S—S— groups of hair and epidermis, but not with —S—S— groups of oxidized glutathione or of bovine gamma globulins. DSO3, DSCl, and DSCN did not react with amino groups in vivo, but did react with protein amino groups in vitro at pH values of about 10. Another group of dinitrophenyl compounds (DF, DCl, and DBr) previously had been shown to combine with lysine ε-NH2 groups of epidermal proteins. In the present work it was found that these compounds do not react with the disulfide groups of these proteins, either in vivo or in vitro. Moreover, they did not seem to react with SH groups of viable skin, although they are highly reactive with sulfhydryl in vitro. This apparent discrepancy between reactivity with SH groups in vitro and in vivo may be due to the fact that the chromatographic technique employed was relatively insensitive for the sulfhydryl derivative. When a compound of either group was applied to the skin surface, dinitrophenyl-amino acids were recovered from the epidermis but not from the dermis. The results are discussed from the viewpoint of the epidermal localization of dinitrophenyl-protein conjugates. PMID:13109108

  1. Study of low molecular weight phenolic compounds during the aging of sparkling wines manufactured with red and white grape varieties.

    PubMed

    Pozo-Bayón, M Angeles; Hernández, M Teresa; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Polo, M Carmen

    2003-03-26

    Thirty-two phenolic compounds of low molecular weight were identified in 36 white, blanc de noir, and rosé sparkling wines by using HPLC with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detection. Some of the identified compounds, such as cis- and trans-ethylcaftaric, cis- and trans-ethylcaffeic, and cis- or trans-ethyl-p-coumaric acids, 2R,3R-dihydroquercetin, 2R,3R-dihydrokaempferol 3-O-beta-d-glucoside, and a lignan derivative are described for the first time in sparkling wines manufactured with grapes of red varieties. This is also the first time that cis- or trans-diethylfertaric acids have been identified in wines. When cluster analysis was applied to the data of 19 of the 32 identified compounds, the greatest differences found in the low molecular weight phenolic compounds in sparkling wines were due to the grape variety from which they were manufactured, whereas aging time did not significantly influence phenolic composition. Nine phenolic compounds, that is, trans-p-coumaric and trans-caftaric acids, trans-resveratrol glucoside, cis-coutaric, trans-coutaric, cis-p-coumaric, and cis-caftaric acids, tryptophol, and syringic acid, permit the wines to be classified correctly in accordance with the grape variety from which they were manufactured.

  2. Tricaprylin microemulsion for oral delivery of low molecular weight heparin conjugates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Kyoon; Lee, Eun Hye; Vaishali, Bagalkot; Lee, Seulki; Lee, Yong-kyu; Kim, Choong-Yong; Moon, Hyun Tae; Byun, Youngro

    2005-06-20

    Heparin is available to patients only by parenteral administrations due to its low oral bioavailability. For the oral delivery of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), LMWH-DOCA was synthesized by chemical conjugation of LMWH and deoxycholic acid (DOCA) and this conjugate was formulated in a microemulsion system. The coupling ratios of DOCA to LMWH for LD1 and LD2 were 1.33 and 2.37, respectively. The microemulsion was composed of tricaprylin, surfactant mixture (Tween 80 and Span 20) and LMWH-DOCA in water, and their volume ratio was 5:3:1:1. Pharmacokinetic parameters of LMWH were not significantly changed by conjugation with DOCA; however, when LMWH-DOCA in tricaprylin microemulsion was orally administered in mice, its bioavailability was increased up to 1.5%. Furthermore, the enhancing effect of the conjugated DOCA in the tricaprylin microemulsion on the absorption of LMWH in the intestine was more significantly increased in monkey than in mice. Since the tricaprylin microemulsion could dissolve LMWH-DOCA, this formulation could maximize the enhancing effect of the conjugated DOCA on the absorption of LMWH in the intestine. Finally, it was expected that 20 mg/kg of LMWH-DOCA in the tricaprylin microemulsion was enough to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE).

  3. Digging into the low molecular weight peptidome with the OligoNet web server.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youzhong; Forcisi, Sara; Lucio, Marianna; Harir, Mourad; Bahut, Florian; Deleris-Bou, Magali; Krieger-Weber, Sibylle; Gougeon, Régis D; Alexandre, Hervé; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2017-09-15

    Bioactive peptides play critical roles in regulating many biological processes. Recently, natural short peptides biomarkers are drawing significant attention and are considered as "hidden treasure" of drug candidates. High resolution and high mass accuracy provided by mass spectrometry (MS)-based untargeted metabolomics would enable the rapid detection and wide coverage of the low-molecular-weight peptidome. However, translating unknown masses (<1 500 Da) into putative peptides is often limited due to the lack of automatic data processing tools and to the limit of peptide databases. The web server OligoNet responds to this challenge by attempting to decompose each individual mass into a combination of amino acids out of metabolomics datasets. It provides an additional network-based data interpretation named "Peptide degradation network" (PDN), which unravels interesting relations between annotated peptides and generates potential functional patterns. The ab initio PDN built from yeast metabolic profiling data shows a great similarity with well-known metabolic networks, and could aid biological interpretation. OligoNet allows also an easy evaluation and interpretation of annotated peptides in systems biology, and is freely accessible at https://daniellyz200608105.shinyapps.io/OligoNet/ .

  4. Hybrid complexes of high and low molecular weight: evaluation using an in vitro model of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Stellavato, A; De Novellis, F; Reale, S; De Rosa, M; Schiraldi, C

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is central in joint and cartilage functions and to restore synovial fluid viscosity. In patients with osteoarthritis (OA), molecular weight (MW) and concentration of hyaluronic acid (HA) are reduced, diminishing joint lubrication. IL-1β treatment was used to mimic osteoarthritis in a chondrocytes based in vitro model. The aim of our research, using this model and human chondrocytes was to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of H/L-HA hybrid complexes (SINOVIAL-HL®) in comparison with HA at high (H-HA) and low molecular weight (L-HA) separately used, through the evaluation of specific biomarkers involved in cartilage degradation and correlated to osteoarthritis. Specifically, TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA were evaluated by qRT-PCR. Cytokines levels were measured using Bio-plex assays and COMP-2 through immunofluorescence staining and western blot. H/L-HA significantly reduced inflammation biomarkers respect to both L-HA or H-HA separately considered at transcriptional and protein level.

  5. Comprehensive Identification and Quantitation of Basic Building Blocks for Low-Molecular Weight Heparin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaojun; Sheng, Anran; Liu, Xinyue; Shi, Feng; Jin, Lan; Xie, Shaoshuai; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Chi, Lianli

    2016-08-02

    Low-molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are widely used anticoagulant drugs. They inherit the heterogeneous backbone sequences of the parent heparin, while the chemical depolymerization process modifies the nonreducing end (NRE) and reducing end (RE) of their sugar chains. Some side reactions may also occur and increase the structural complexity of LMWHs. It is important to precisely characterize the structures of LMWHs, especially their chemical modifications, to ensure drug quality and safety. Compositional analysis provides a powerful approach to reveal the building blocks that make up the LMWHs, which are the mutual consequence of the heparin starting materials and the manufacturing process. Here, we introduce a comprehensive analytical method to recover the most basic building blocks of LMWHs. A strategy of combining both enzymatic digestion and oxidative degradation of LMWH was used to make the NRE, RE, and backbone structures differentiable from one another. Satisfactory separation, identification, and quantitation were achieved by coupling hydrophilic interaction chromatography with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating under the multiple reaction monitoring mode. After enzymatic digestion, over 30 species were detected, with both natural and chemically modified heparin basic building blocks. Two novel structures, including a trisaccharide containing two glucosamine residues and a tetrasaccharide containing a 3-O-sulfated uronic acid residue, were discovered. Reduced and oxidatively degraded samples were analyzed to provide the complementary information on both termini of LMWHs. The reproducibility of this method was evaluated, and enoxaparin injections were analyzed to demonstrate the application of this method for evaluating the sameness of LMWH products.

  6. Low-Molecular-Weight Plasma Proteome Analysis Using Top-Down Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Dong Huey; Yang, Eun Gyeong; Lee, Cheolju; Lee, Ji Eun

    2017-01-01

    While human plasma has a wealth of diagnostic information regarding the state of the human body in heath and disease, low molecular weight (LMW) proteome (<30 kDa) has been shown to contain a rich source of diagnostic biomarkers. Here we describe a protocol for top-down proteomic analysis to identify and characterize the LMW proteoforms present in four types of human plasma samples without immunoaffinity depletion and with depletion of the top two, six, and seven high-abundance proteins. Each type of plasma sample was first fractionated based on molecular weight using gel-eluted liquid fraction entrapment electrophoresis (GELFrEE). Then, the GELFrEE fractions containing up to 30 kDa were subjected to nanocapillary-LC-MS/MS, and the high-resolution MS and MS/MS data were processed using ProSightPC software. As a result, a total of 442 LMW proteins and cleaved products, including those with posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and single amino acid variations (SAAVs), were identified with a threshold E-value of 1 × 10(-4) from the four types of plasma samples.

  7. Study on antithrombotic and antiplatelet activities of low molecular weight fucoidan from Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Anjin; Zhang, Fang; Shi, Jie; Zhao, Xue

    2012-06-01

    The antithrombotic and antiplatelet effects of two fucoidan fractions with low molecular weight and different sulfate content from Laminaria japonica were compared in order to examine the influence of chemical character on their antithrombotic activity and the possible mechanism. Both LMW fucoidan fractions exhibited favorable antithrombotic activity in an Fecl3-induced arterial thrombosis. The antithrombotic activity of LMW fucoidan was related with decrease of TXB2 and whole blood viscosity and hematocrit. LMW fucoidan showed a correlation between anticoagulant, antiaggregant and antithrombotic effects in vivo. For LMW fucoidan, antithrombotic activity required high dose of 5-10 nmol kg-1, concomitantly with increase in anticoagulant activity and inhibition of platelet aggregation. Administration of LMW fucoidan significantly promoted the 6-keto-PGF1α content and decreased the TXB2 content, indicating its inhibition of tissue factor pathway and regulation of metabolism of arachidonic acid. By comparison, highly sulfated fucoidan LF2 with Mw 3900 seemed to be a more suitable choice for antithrombotic drug for its antithrombotic activity accompanied with specific inhibitory activity on platelet aggregation, low anticoagulant activity and low hemorrhagic risk in vivo.

  8. Low-molecular-weight protamine-modified PLGA nanoparticles for overcoming drug-resistant breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huixin; Zhao, Yongxing; Wang, Huiyuan; Gong, Junbo; He, Huining; Shin, Meong Cheol; Yang, Victor C; Huang, Yongzhuo

    2014-10-28

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major challenge for cancer therapy. Herein, we report a simple yet effective system, cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)-assisted poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (PLGA NPs), for improving doxorubicin (DOX) delivery and overcoming MDR cancer. We selected the naturally derived CPP low-molecular-weight protamine (LMWP) to modify PLGA NP for enhanced drug delivery. We demonstrated that multiple mechanisms ("synergistic multipronged delivery") were responsible for the anti-MDR effects of LMWP/PLGA NP. This delivery system could boost intracellular and intranuclear delivery, thereby circumventing drug efflux. Use of a P-glycoprotein inhibitor did not further increase the efficiency of intracellular delivery of LMWP/PLGA/DOX NP, suggesting that delivery of LMWP-based NP was not affected by transporter-mediated drug efflux. Importantly, enhanced uptake and penetration within the tumor was found in mice given LMWP-based NP. LMWP/PLGA NP effectively arrested tumor growth in mice harboring drug-resistant breast tumors, thereby improving treatment outcomes without detectable toxicities. These data suggest that our system could provide effective yet safe anti-MDR cancer therapy based on a synergistic, multipronged drug-delivery strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Isolation and characterization of low molecular weight glycosaminoglycans from marine mollusc Amussium pleuronectus (linne) using chromatography.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, R; Shanmugam, A

    2010-03-01

    The glycosaminoglycan (GAG) heparin is a polyanionic sulfated polysaccharide most recognized for its anticoagulant activity. In the present study, the GAGs were extracted from bivalve mollusc Amussium pleuronectus. The crude GAGs were fractionated by ion-exchange (DEAE-cellulose and Amberlite IRA-900 & 120) chromatography. The recovered active fractions (as determined by metachromatic assay) were confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and the active fractions were purified in Sephadex G-100 column. Fractionated and purified GAG molecular weight was determined through gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The structural characterization of low molecular weight GAG was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The activated partial thromboplastin time of purified GAG is 95 IU/mg and has molecular weight 6,500-7,500 Da. The disaccharide compositional analysis on the GAG sample was sulfated like porcine intestinal mucosal heparan sulfate, and it contains equivalent amount of uronic acid and hexosamine. The results of this study suggest that the GAG from A. pleuronectus could be an alternative source of heparin.

  10. Phosphorylation of low-molecular-weight proteins in preparations of rat heart sarcolemma and sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Lamers, J M; Stinis, J T

    1982-01-01

    Two substrate proteins for cAMP-dependent protein kinase detected in a rat heart sarcolemma preparation displayed molecular weights of 24,000 and 9000 in sodium dodecyl sulfate gels and were shown to be interconvertible. The 9000-dalton protein could readily be separated from other low molecular weight phosphoproteins (mol. wt. 14,000 and 7000) by the use of 15% polyacrylamide gels. In addition to an endogenous cAMP-dependent protein kinase the membrane preparation also contained a protein-phosphorylation system that required Ca2+ and calmodulin. It appeared that both 24,000- and 55,000-dalton proteins were substrates for the endogenous Ca2+- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Contaminating sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles, first loaded with calcium oxalate, could be separated from the enriched sarcolemma preparation by sucrose gradient centrifugation. The separation was confirmed by comparative analysis of 5'-nucleotidase, Na+ -Ca2+ antiporter, and (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-dependent ATPase activities and by determination of gel electrophoretic (phospho)protein composition, sialic acid, cholesterol, and phospholipid contents. The 24,000-dalton phosphoprotein complex was equally distributed between sarcolemmal and sarcoplasmic reticulum fractions, whereas the 55,000- and 7000-dalton proteins were predominantly found in the sarcolemmal fraction. The 24,000-dalton protein was most likely phospholamban, because no other phosphoprotein was found in the 20,000 molecular weight range.

  11. Comprehensive Analysis of Low-Molecular-Weight Human Plasma Proteome Using Top-Down Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Dong Huey; Nam, Eun Ji; Park, Kyu Hyung; Woo, Se Joon; Lee, Hye Jin; Kim, Hee Cheol; Yang, Eun Gyeong; Lee, Cheolju; Lee, Ji Eun

    2016-01-04

    While human plasma serves as a great source for disease diagnosis, low-molecular-weight (LMW) proteome (<30 kDa) has been shown to contain a rich source of diagnostic biomarkers. Here we employ top-down mass spectrometry to analyze the LMW proteoforms present in four types of human plasma samples pooled from three healthy controls (HCs) without immunoaffinity depletion and with depletion of the top two, six, and seven high-abundance proteins. The LMW proteoforms were first fractionated based on molecular weight using gel-eluted liquid fraction entrapment electrophoresis (GELFrEE). Then, the GELFrEE fractions containing up to 30 kDa were subjected to nanocapillary-LC-MS/MS, and the high-resolution MS and MS/MS data were processed using ProSightPC 3.0. As a result, a total of 442 LMW proteins and cleaved products, including those with post-translational modifications and single amino acid variations, were identified. From additional comparative analysis of plasma samples without immunoaffinity depletion between HCs and colorectal cancer (CRC) patients via top-down approach, tens of LMW proteoforms, including platelet factor 4, were found to show >1.5-fold changes between the plasma samples of HCs and CRC patients, and six of the LMW proteins were verified by Western blot analysis.

  12. Low molecular weight serine protease inhibitors from insects are proteins with highly conserved sequences.

    PubMed

    Boigegrain, R A; Pugnière, M; Paroutaud, P; Castro, B; Brehélin, M

    2000-02-01

    A low molecular weight protease inhibitor peptide found in ovaries of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (SGPI-2), was purified from plasma of the same locust and sequenced. It was named SGCI. It was found active towards chymotrypsin and human leukocyte elastase. SGCI was synthesized using a solid-phase procedure and the sequence of its reactive site for chymotrypsin was determined. Compared with an inhibitor purified earlier from another locust species, the total sequence of SGCI showed 88% identity. In particular, the sequence of the reactive site of these inhibitors was identical. Our search for a closely related peptide in an insect species far removed from locusts, the lepidopteran Spodoptera littoralis, was unfruitful but a different chymotrypsin inhibitor, belonging to the Kazal family, was found whose mass is greater than that of SGCI (20 vs 3.6 kDa). Its N-terminal sequence shares 80% identity with that of a chymotrypsin inhibitor purified earlier from the haemolymph of another lepidopteran. Conservation of the amino acid sequence in the reactive site seems to be an exception among protease inhibitors.

  13. Microparticles as a strategy for low-molecular-weight heparin delivery.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Samantha S M; Oliveira, Fabiana S; Gaitani, Cristiane M; Marchetti, Juliana M

    2011-05-01

    The aims of this work were preparation and physical-chemical characterization of a microparticulate release system for delivery of enoxaparin sodium (ENX), a low-molecular-weight heparin, as a potential vehicle for optimization of deep venous thrombosis therapy. Microparticles (MPs) containing ENX were prepared from polylactide-co-glycolic acid [PLGA; (50:50)] by a double emulsification/solvent evaporation method. The preparation parameters, such as proportion ENX/PLGA, surfactant concentration, type, time, and speed of stirring, were evaluated. The encapsulation efficiency and yield process were determined and optimized, and the in vitro release profile was analysed at 35 days. The MPs showed a spherical shape with smooth and regular surfaces. The size distribution showed a unimodal profile with an average size of 2.0 ± 0.9 μ m. The low encapsulation efficiency (<30%), characteristic of hydrophilic macromolecules was improved, reaching 50.2% with a procedure yield of 71.3%. The in vitro profile of ENX release from the MPs was evaluated and showed pseudo-zero-order kinetics. This indicated that diffusion was the main drug release mechanism.

  14. Purification of a Low Molecular Weight Fucoidan for SPECT Molecular Imaging of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Saboural, Pierre; Chaubet, Frédéric; Rouzet, Francois; Al-Shoukr, Faisal; Ben Azzouna, Rana; Bouchemal, Nadia; Picton, Luc; Louedec, Liliane; Maire, Murielle; Rolland, Lydia; Potier, Guy; Le Guludec, Dominique; Letourneur, Didier; Chauvierre, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Fucoidans constitute a large family of sulfated polysaccharides with several biochemical properties. A commercial fucoidan from brown algae, containing low molecular weight polysaccharidic species constituted of l-fucose, uronic acids and sulfate groups, was simply treated here with calcium acetate solution. This treatment led to a purified fraction with a yield of 45%. The physicochemical characterizations of the purified fucoidan using colorimetric assay, MALLS, dRI, FT-IR, NMR, exhibited molecular weight distributions and chemical profiles similar for both fucoidans whereas the sulfate and l-fucose contents increased by 16% and 71%, respectively. The biodistribution study in rat of both compounds labeled with 99mTc evidenced a predominant renal elimination of the purified fucoidan, but the crude fucoidan was mainly retained in liver and spleen. In rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion, we then demonstrated the better efficiency of the purified fucoidan. This purified sulfated polysaccharide appears promising for the development of molecular imaging in acute coronary syndrome. PMID:25251032

  15. Chemical Characterization of Low Molecular Weight Soluble Microbial Products in an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kunacheva, Chinagarn; Le, Chencheng; Soh, Yan Ni Annie; Stuckey, David C

    2017-02-21

    Effluents from wastewater treatment systems contain a variety of organic compounds, including end products from the degradation of influent substrates, nonbiodegradable feed compounds, and soluble microbial products (SMPs) produced by microbial metabolism. It is important to identify the major components of these SMPs to understand what is in wastewater effluents. In this study, physical pretreatments to extract and concentrate low molecular weight SMPs (MW< 580 Da) from effluents were optimized. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of a 200 mL effluent sample showed the best performance using a mixture of n-hexane, chloroform, and dichloromethane (70 mL) for extraction. For solid phase extraction (SPE), two OasisHLB cartridges were connected in-line to optimize recovery, and the eluted samples from each cartridge were analyzed separately to avoid overlapping peaks. Four solvents varying from polar to nonpolar (methanol, acetone, dichloromethane, and n-hexane) were selected to maximize the number of compound peaks eluted. A combination of SPE (OasisHLB) followed by LLE was shown to maximize compound identification and quantification. However, the compounds identified accounted for only 2.1 mg of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L (16% of total SMP as COD) because many SMPs have considerably higher MWs. Finally, the method was validated by analyzing a variety of different reactor effluents and feeds.

  16. The development of low-molecular weight hydrogels for applications in cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ran; Chen, Jin; Niu, Runfang

    2014-03-01

    To improve the anti-cancer efficacy and to counteract the side effects of chemotherapy, a variety of drug delivery systems have been invented in past decades, but few of these systems have succeeded in clinical trials due to their respective inherent shortcomings. Recently, low-molecular weight hydrogels of peptides that self-assemble via non-covalent interactions have attracted considerable attention due to their good biocompatibility, low toxicity, inherent biodegradability as well as their convenience of design. Low-molecular weight hydrogels have already shown promise in biomedical applications as diverse as 3D-cell culture, enzyme immobilization, controllable MSC differentiation, wound healing, drug delivery etc. Here we review the recent development in the use of low-molecular weight hydrogels for cancer therapy, which may be helpful in the design of soft materials for drug delivery.

  17. Antioxidant activity of low molecular weight alginate produced by thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Kelishomi, Zahra Habibi; Goliaei, Bahram; Mahdavi, Hossein; Nikoofar, Alireza; Rahimi, Mahmood; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Mamashli, Fatemeh; Bigdeli, Bahareh

    2016-04-01

    By definition, antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules. Therefore, such compounds have very important clinical roles. In this study alginate polymer was depolymerized by heat treatment. The resulting low molecular weight alginates were investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy, Viscometry, Dynamic light scattering and FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. Antioxidant properties of these heat products were studied by ABTS and superoxide radical scavenging assays. Results showed that heating caused breaks in the polymer chain and so generation of low molecular weight alginates. Antioxidant measurements confirmed antioxidant activity of alginate increased upon a decrease in molecular weight. Therefore, low molecular weight alginate produced by heating could be considered as a stronger antioxidant than alginate polymer. These products could be useful for industrial and biomedical applications.

  18. Utilization of low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis in pediatric and adolescent trauma patients.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sarah H; Klima, Jennifer; Gaines, Barbara A; Betz, Sally; Zenati, Mazen S

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use trauma registry data to describe the number and characteristics of patients 21 years or younger receiving thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin at 2 pediatric and 2 adult level 1 trauma centers. Among 706 patients, the average age was 18.5 years, and 94.6% were hospitalized at adult centers. The most common injuries were lower extremity fractures (35.6%) and head injuries (20.4%). Major bleeding was reported in 3 patients (0.4%), and thrombotic events were reported in 15 patients (2.1%). Despite a lack of scientific evidence, low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis is being used in young trauma patients (primarily those 14 years or older). Prospective multicenter studies are needed to accurately describe the risks and benefits of low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis in young trauma patients, thereby identifying those who truly benefit from this intervention.

  19. Role of low-molecular-weight heparin in the management of acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Borja, Javier

    2002-11-01

    In the past few years, several clinical trials with low-molecular-weight heparins in acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation have been published. In the acute phase of treatment, enoxaparin obtained better results than unfractionated heparin, but dalteparin and nadroparin did not. Enoxaparin also obtained better results than tinzaparin. From these results, it can be assumed that the efficacy of enoxaparin is higher than that of dalteparin and nadroparin. However, because low-molecular-weight heparins have not been compared head to head (except in the case of enoxaparin and tinzaparin), and given the differences between studies in patient selection criteria, design, treatment strategies, and efficacy variables, it cannot be concluded that one low-molecular-weight heparin is superior to another in the acute phase of treatment. Prolonged dalteparin treatment suggests a benefit, particularly for patients at high risk (defined as those with high troponin levels), and it can also be useful in patients waiting for invasive procedures.

  20. The antineoplastic effect of low-molecular-weight heparins – a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Püsküllüoğlu, Mirosława; Krzemieniecki, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    There is some evidence for the antitumor effect of heparins, especially the low-molecular-weight ones. The authors discuss the potential mechanism of this antineoplastic effect and present results from several in vitro and in vivo experiments. The clinical trials concerning the impact of low-molecular-weight heparins on the tumor and on the patients’ survival are described. The objective was to find out if heparins could be administered as an antitumor drug, independently of their anticoagulatory properties. The antitumor role of tissue factor, heparinase, chemokines, stromal proteins, cellular interactions as well as angiogenesis and immunology seems certain. The results of the available studies seem promising but large clinical trials are necessary in order to confirm the antineoplastic effect of the low-molecular-weight heparins and to approve them for standard anticancer treatment. It could be a breakthrough in modern oncology. PMID:23788954

  1. Low molecular weight thiols in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata upon exposure to arsenic and other trace elements.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yong; Su, Jinhui; Ma, Lena Q

    2004-05-01

    Low molecular weight thiol-containing compounds have been reported to play an important role in metal detoxification and accumulation in some higher plants. The formation of these low molecular weight thiols in the recently discovered arsenic hyperaccumulator, Chinese Brake fern (Pteris vittata) upon exposure to arsenic and other trace metals was investigated. In addition to cysteine and glutathione, an unidentified thiol was observed in the plants exposed to arsenic, which was not found in the control. The concentration of the unidentified thiol showed a very strong and positive correlation with arsenic concentration in the leaflets. The unidentified thiol was low in rachises and undetectable in the roots for As-treated plants. Total and acid-soluble thiols were also measured and the results indicated that arsenic mainly stimulated the synthesis of acid-soluble thiol in Chinese Brake. The investigations of other trace elements (Cd, Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, Hg, and Se) showed that these elements were not accumulated in Chinese Brake to high levels and the synthesis of the unidentified thiol in the plant was not observed. Our study suggests that the unidentified thiol was induced specifically by arsenic and the distribution patterns of the unidentified thiol and arsenic in the plant were consistent, indicating that the synthesis of this compound was related to As exposure.

  2. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) of highly non-polar low molecular weight polyisobutylenes.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Lajos; Nagy, Tibor; Deák, György; Kuki, Ákos; Antal, Borbála; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor

    2015-09-01

    Low molecular weight polyisobutylenes (PIB) with chlorine, olefin and succinic acid end-groups were studied using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS). To facilitate the adduct ion formation under DART conditions, NH4 Cl as an auxiliary reagent was deposited onto the PIB surface. It was found that chlorinated adduct ions of olefin and chlorine telechelic PIBs, i.e. [M + Cl](-) up to m/z 1100, and the deprotonated polyisobutylene succinic acid [MH](-) were formed as observed in the negative ion mode. In the positive ion mode formation of [M + NH4 ](+) , adduct ions were detected. In the tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra of [M + Cl](-) , product ions were absent, suggesting a simple dissociation of the precursor [M + Cl](-) into a Cl(-) ion and a neutral M without fragmentation of the PIB backbones. However, structurally important product ions were produced from the corresponding [M + NH4 ](+) ions, allowing us to obtain valuable information on the arm-length distributions of the PIBs containing aromatic initiator moiety. In addition, a model was developed to interpret the oligomer distributions and the number average molecular weights observed in DART-MS for PIBs and other polymers of low molecular weight. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The polysaccharide and low molecular weight components of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes: Structure and skin repairing properties.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Flaviana; Silipo, Alba; Molinaro, Antonio; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Schiraldi, Chiara; D'Agostino, Antonella; Izzo, Elisabetta; Rizza, Luisa; Bonina, Andrea; Bonina, Francesco; Lanzetta, Rosa

    2017-02-10

    The Opuntia ficus-indica multiple properties are reflected in the increasing interest of chemists in the identification of its natural components having pharmaceutical and/or cosmetical applications. Here we report the structural elucidation of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage that highlighted the presence of components differing for their chemical nature and the molecular weight distribution. The high molecular weight components were identified as a linear galactan polymer and a highly branched xyloarabinan. The low molecular weight components were identified as lactic acid, D-mannitol, piscidic, eucomic and 2-hydroxy-4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-butanoic acids. A wound healing assay was performed in order to test the cicatrizing properties of the various components, highlighting the ability of these latter to fasten dermal regeneration using a simplified in vitro cellular model based on a scratched keratinocytes monolayer. The results showed that the whole Opuntia mucilage and the low molecular weight components are active in the wound repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Low molecular weight PEIs modified by hydrazone-based crosslinker and betaine as improved gene carriers.

    PubMed

    Fang, Gang; Zeng, Fang; Yu, Changmin; Wu, Shuizhu

    2014-10-01

    Low-molecular-weight polyethyleneimine (LMW PEI) exhibits poorer transfection efficiency but lower cytotoxicity compared to high-molecular-weight polyethyleneimine (such as PEI 25kDa). To enhance the gene transfection performance of LMW PEI, we herein demonstrate a new strategy for modifying LMW PEI. A crosslinker containing an acid-labile hydrazone bond (hydrazone-based crosslinker) was synthesized and used to crosslink PEI 1.8kDa and convert it into higher-molecular-weight polycations. And the crosslinked polycations were further modified by incorporating a betaine monomer [N,N-dimethyl(acrylamidopropyl)ammonium propane sulfonate, DMAAPS] onto their surfaces. The molar percentages of the incorporated betaine molecules to amino groups on the polycations were determined as 21.2%, 36.0% and 77.2%, respectively. Molecular weights of the modified polycations were measured using capillary viscometry at pH 7.4 and 5.0, respectively, and the degradation of the polymers in acidic solution was confirmed. The PEIs modified with hydrazone and betaine (PEI-Hdz-DMAAPS) exhibit much lower cytotoxicity than PEI 25K, and they also show no or little hemolytic effect with their hemolysis rates around 5%. PEI-Hdz-DMAAPS21.2%/DNA and PEI-Hdz-DMAAPS36.0%/DNA complexes exhibit high transfection efficiencies, which are comparable to or higher than that of PEI 25K/DNA complex in the absence or presence of 10% serum. With these improved gene delivery properties, the PEI-Hdz-DMAAPS samples have great potential for serving as efficient gene carriers. This strategy may provide some insights for constructing some other biocompatible materials.

  5. A global survey of low-molecular weight carbohydrates in lentils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lentils contain a range of low-molecular weight carbohydrates (LMWC); however, those have not been well characterized. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the concentrations of LMWC in lentils grown in six locations, and (2) identify any genetic and environmental effects on those LMWC...

  6. A global survey of low-molecular weight carbohydrates in lentils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lentils contain a range of low-molecular weight carbohydrates (LMWC); however, they have not been well characterized. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the concentrations of LMWC in lentils grown in different environments and (2) identify any genetic and environmental effects on tho...

  7. TOXICOLOGICAL HIGHLIGHT (REDOX REDUX: A CLOSER LOOK AT CONCEPTAL LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT THIOLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Glutathione (GSH) is present as the most abundant low molecular weight thiol (LMWT) in virtually all mitochondria-bearing eucaryotic cells, often at millimolar concentrations (Meister, 1988). Functions of GSH include roles in DNA and protein synthesis, maintenance of cell membra...

  8. Determination of low molecular weight thiols using monobromobimane fluorescent labeling and high-performance liquid chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, Robert C.; Newton, Gerald L.

    1988-01-01

    Methods are described for the preparation and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of monobromobimane derivatives of low molecular weight thiols in extracts of biological samples. Typical problems encountered in the development and application of these methods are discussed. Analysis of mung bean extract is used as an example.

  9. TOXICOLOGICAL HIGHLIGHT (REDOX REDUX: A CLOSER LOOK AT CONCEPTAL LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT THIOLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Glutathione (GSH) is present as the most abundant low molecular weight thiol (LMWT) in virtually all mitochondria-bearing eucaryotic cells, often at millimolar concentrations (Meister, 1988). Functions of GSH include roles in DNA and protein synthesis, maintenance of cell membra...

  10. Isolation of a thermophilic bacterium capable of low-molecular-weight polyethylene degradation.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Mal Nam

    2013-02-01

    A thermophilic bacterium capable of low-molecular-weight polyethylene (LMWPE) degradation was isolated from a compost sample, and was identified as Chelatococcus sp. E1, through sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. LMWPE was prepared by thermal degradation of commercial PE in a strict nitrogen atmosphere. LMWPE with a weight-average-molecular-weight (Mw) in the range of 1,700-23,700 was noticeably mineralized into CO(2) by the bacterium. The biodegradability of LMWPE decreased as the Mw increased. The low molecular weight fraction of LMWPE decreased significantly as a result of the degradation process, and thereby both the number-average-molecular-weight and Mw increased after biodegradation. The polydispersity of LMWPE was either narrowed or widened, depending on the initial Mw of LMWPE, due to the preferential elimination of the low molecular weight fraction, in comparison to the high molecular weight portion. LMWPE free from an extremely low molecular weight fraction was also mineralized by the strain at a remarkable rate, and FTIR peaks assignable to C-O stretching appeared as a result of microbial action. The FTIR peaks corresponding to alkenes also became more intense, indicating that dehydrogenations occurred concomitantly with microbial induced oxidation.

  11. Anticancer properties of low molecular weight oat beta-glucan – An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Choromanska, Anna; Kulbacka, Julita; Rembialkowska, Nina; Pilat, Justyna; Oledzki, Remigiusz; Harasym, Joanna; Saczko, Jolanta

    2015-09-01

    Anticancer properties of 1-3, 1-4 oat beta glucan are under intensive investigation now. Antitumor characteristic of fungi and yeast beta-glucans have been widely recognized, but those polysaccharides are mostly insoluble which creates several problems especially in topical formulation. Also high molecular weight oat beta-glucans reveal high viscosity which restricts its application. According to those problems in the current study the antitumor activities of low molecular weight beta-glucan derived from oats were investigated in cancer cells: Me45, A431 and normal HaCaT and murine macrophages P388/D1. The low molecular weight beta-glucan from oat significantly deceased cancer cells viability, while for the normal cells it was non-toxic. It was observed that with the increasing incubation time and the beta-glucan concentration the cancer cells viability significantly deceased. Furthermore for the normal cells the low molecular weight beta-glucan from oat was non-toxic. Immunocytochemical ABC analysis showed that beta-glucan induced strong expression of caspase-12 in both cancer cell lines, while in HaCaT cells ABC reaction was significantly lower and in P388/D1 cell line ABC reaction was negative. Our preliminary studies show strong anti-tumor properties of new low molecular weight beta-glucan from oat and at the same time no toxicity for normal cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Prevalence, indication and compliance with the recommendations of prescription of low molecular weight heparin in oncology].

    PubMed

    Danklou, Jérôme; Strobbe, Geoffrey; Delbey, Stéphanie; Lefebvre-Kuntz, Danièle; Marliot, Guillaume

    2015-11-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a common complication in cancer and is the second cause of death below infection. Low molecular weight heparin is the gold standard in venous thromboembolism during cancer. This work aimed to evaluate the prevalence of prescription of low molecular weight heparin used at curative dose and the compliance of our practices with the recommendations. A retrospective study was led over a 3-month period, on adult patients suffering from venous thromboembolism who had received low molecular weight heparin at curative dose. A 4% prevalence of prescription of low molecular weight heparin at curative doses has been reported. The results showed an incidental discovery of venous thromboembolism on routine restaging scans in 64% cases. The most found indication was the treatment of deep vein thrombosis (51% cases). According to the dosage, overall compliance of prescription is estimated at 55%. The incidental discovery rate (64%) is consistent with the literature that confirms the high incidence of asymptomatic thrombosis. The rate of non-compliant prescriptions could result from a lack of re-evaluation and adjustment of dosages. These results confirm the need to educate practitioners in diagnosing and managing venous thromboembolism. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Holographic recording medium employing a photoconductive layer and a low molecular weight microcrystalline polymeric layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.

  14. Extraction of low molecular weight polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from ashes of coal-operated power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mangani, F.; Cappiello, A.; Crescentini, G.; Bruner, F.; Bonfanti, L.

    1987-09-01

    A new procedure based on liquid-solid chromatography for the extraction of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons has been implemented. This yields results analogous to those of Soxhlet extraction for low molecular weight compounds. A very important reduction in the time required for sample preparation prior to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis is obtained.

  15. Preclinical safety evaluation of low molecular weight galactomannans based standardized fenugreek seeds extract

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Pallavi; Mohan, Vishwaraman; Thakurdesai, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate acute oral toxicity, subchronic toxicity, and mutagenic potential of low molecular weight galactomannans based standardized fenugreek seeds extract (LMWGAL-TF) in laboratory animals rats as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. For the acute toxicity (AOT) study, LMWGAL-TF was orally administered to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at a dose of 2000 mg/kg with vehicle control (VC) group (n = 5 per sex per group) as per OECD guideline no. 423. For the repeated dose toxicity study, the SD rats were orally administered with a daily oral dose of LMWGAL-TF 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day with VC group (n = 15 per sex) for a period of 90 days followed by a recovery period of 28 days as per OECD guideline no. 408. The effects on body weight, food and water consumption, organ weights with hematology, clinical biochemistry, and histology were studied. The mutagenic potential of LMWGAL-TF was tested using reverse mutation assay (AMES test, OECD guideline No. 471). The LMWGAL-TF did not show mortality or treatment-related adverse signs during acute (dose 2000 mg/kg) and subchronic (90-days repeated dose 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) administration. The LMWGAL-TF showed oral lethal dose (LD50) more than 2000 mg/kg during AOT study. The dose of 1000 mg/kg was found as no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) in rats during subchronic toxicity study. Furthermore, LMWGAL-TF did not show mutagenic potential in vitro. In conclusion, LMWGAL-TF was found safe during acute and subchronic (90 days repeated dose) toxicity studies in rats with no mutagenicity. PMID:27822173

  16. Characterization of the modes of binding between human sweet taste receptor and low-molecular-weight sweet compounds.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Koizumi, Ayako; Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Tanaka, Takaharu; Abe, Keiko; Misaka, Takumi; Ishiguro, Masaji

    2012-01-01

    One of the most distinctive features of human sweet taste perception is its broad tuning to chemically diverse compounds ranging from low-molecular-weight sweeteners to sweet-tasting proteins. Many reports suggest that the human sweet taste receptor (hT1R2-hT1R3), a heteromeric complex composed of T1R2 and T1R3 subunits belonging to the class C G protein-coupled receptor family, has multiple binding sites for these sweeteners. However, it remains unclear how the same receptor recognizes such diverse structures. Here we aim to characterize the modes of binding between hT1R2-hT1R3 and low-molecular-weight sweet compounds by functional analysis of a series of site-directed mutants and by molecular modeling-based docking simulation at the binding pocket formed on the large extracellular amino-terminal domain (ATD) of hT1R2. We successfully determined the amino acid residues responsible for binding to sweeteners in the cleft of hT1R2 ATD. Our results suggest that individual ligands have sets of specific residues for binding in correspondence with the chemical structures and other residues responsible for interacting with multiple ligands.

  17. Freezing tolerance and low molecular weight cryoprotectants in an invasive parasitic fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi).

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Paakkonen, Tommi; Eerilä, Harri; Puukka, Katri; Riikonen, Joakim; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2012-01-01

    Insect cold hardiness is often mediated by low molecular weight cryoprotectants, such as sugars, polyols, and amino acids (AA). While many free-living northern insects must cope with extended periods of freezing ambient temperatures (Ta), the ectoparasitic deer ked Lipoptena cervi imago can encounter subfreezing Ta only during a short autumnal period between hatching and host location. Subsequently, it benefits from the body temperature of the cervid host for survival in winter. This study investigated the cold tolerance of the species by determining its lower lethal temperature (100% mortality, LLT100) during faster and slower cold acclimation, by determining the supercooling point (SCP) and by measuring the concentrations of potential low molecular weight cryoprotectants. The LLT100 of the deer ked was approximately -16 ° C, which would enable it to survive freezing nighttime Ta not only in its current area of distribution but also further north. The SCP was -7.8 ° C, clearly higher than the LLT100 , indicating that the deer ked displays freezing tolerance. The concentrations of free AA, especially nonessential AA, were higher in the cold-acclimated deer keds similar to several other insects. The concentrations of proline increased together with γ-aminobutyrate, arginine, asparagine, cystine, glutamate, glutamine, hydroxylysine, sarcosine, serine, and taurine. AA could be hypothesized to act as cryoprotectants by, e.g., protecting enzymes and lipid membranes from damage caused by cold. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  18. Characterization of the Modes of Binding between Human Sweet Taste Receptor and Low-Molecular-Weight Sweet Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Tanaka, Takaharu; Abe, Keiko; Misaka, Takumi; Ishiguro, Masaji

    2012-01-01

    One of the most distinctive features of human sweet taste perception is its broad tuning to chemically diverse compounds ranging from low-molecular-weight sweeteners to sweet-tasting proteins. Many reports suggest that the human sweet taste receptor (hT1R2–hT1R3), a heteromeric complex composed of T1R2 and T1R3 subunits belonging to the class C G protein–coupled receptor family, has multiple binding sites for these sweeteners. However, it remains unclear how the same receptor recognizes such diverse structures. Here we aim to characterize the modes of binding between hT1R2–hT1R3 and low-molecular-weight sweet compounds by functional analysis of a series of site-directed mutants and by molecular modeling–based docking simulation at the binding pocket formed on the large extracellular amino-terminal domain (ATD) of hT1R2. We successfully determined the amino acid residues responsible for binding to sweeteners in the cleft of hT1R2 ATD. Our results suggest that individual ligands have sets of specific residues for binding in correspondence with the chemical structures and other residues responsible for interacting with multiple ligands. PMID:22536376

  19. A novel low molecular weight endo-xylanase from Streptomyces sp. CS628 cultivated in wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Arifur; Choi, Yun Hee; Pradeep, G C; Choi, Yoon Seok; Choi, Eun Joo; Cho, Seung Sik; Yoo, Jin Cheol

    2014-07-01

    An extracellular low molecular weight xylanase (Xyn628) from Streptomyces sp. CS628 was isolated from Korean soil sample, produced in wheat bran medium, purified, and biochemically characterized. Xyn628 was purified 4.8-fold with a 33.78 % yield using Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. The purified xylanase was ~18.1 kDa estimated by SDS-PAGE and xylan zymography. N-terminal amino acid sequences of Xyn628 were AYIKEVVSRAYM. The enzyme was found to be stable in a broad range of pH (5.0-13.0) and up to 60 °C and have optimal pH and temperature of pH 11.0 and 60 °C, respectively. Xyn628 activities were remarkable affected by various detergents, chelators, modulators, and metal ions. The xylanase produced xylobiose and xylotriose as principal hydrolyzed end products from the xylan. It was found to degrade agro-waste materials like corn cob and wheat bran by Xyn628 (20 U/g) as shown by electron microscopy. As being simple in purification, low molecular weight, alkaline, thermostable, and ability to produce xylooligosaccharides show that Xyn628 has potential applications in bioindustries as a biobleaching agent or/and xylooligosaccharides production with an appropriate utilization of agro-waste.

  20. Low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis: preoperative versus postoperative initiation in patients undergoing elective hip surgery.

    PubMed

    Hull, R D; Pineo, G F; MacIsaac, S

    2001-01-01

    Administration of low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis in elective hip implant patients commonly begins 12 h preoperatively in European practices to optimize effectiveness, and 12 to 24 h postoperatively in North American practices to optimize safety. A meta-analysis comparing these two treatment regimes revealed that preoperative initiation demonstrated greater efficacy and superior safety for patients (10.0% rate of total deep-vein thrombosis vs. 15.3%, P = .023). In addition to the pre/postsurgical debate, proximity of initiation of low-molecular-weight heparin in relation to surgery is an issue of critical importance. Recent studies revealed that beginning therapy immediately within 2 h preoperatively or 6 h postoperatively dramatically decreased the risk of venous thrombosis. An investigation of low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis initiated 2 h before elective hip surgery or approximately 6 h after surgery compared with warfarin sodium revealed that total and proximal deep-vein thrombosis rates were reduced in patients receiving low-molecular-weight heparin compared with warfarin. The frequencies of deep-vein thrombosis for patients receiving preoperative and postoperative dalteparin vs. warfarin for all deep-vein thrombosis were 36 of 337 (10.7%, P < .001) and 44 of 336 (13.1%, P < .001) vs. 81 of 338 (24.0%); and for proximal deep-vein thrombosis were 3 of 354 (0.8%, P = .035) and 3 of 358 (0.8%, P = .033) vs. 11 of 363 (3.0%). Relative risk reductions for the dalteparin groups vs. warfarin ranged from 45% to 72%. In this case, low-molecular-weight heparin administered in close proximity to surgery provided superior efficacy over warfarin. Major bleeding was significantly increased with the preoperative regimen but not the postoperative regimen.

  1. Low-molecular-weight heparin inhibition in classical complement activation pathway during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Oberkersch, Roxana; Attorresi, Alejandra I; Calabrese, Graciela C

    2010-05-01

    Low-molecular-weight heparin is used clinically for the prevention of pregnancy complications associated with prothrombotic disorders, particularly anti-phospholipid syndrome. Nevertheless, recent studies have suggested that heparin may exert direct effects on the placental trophoblast, independently of its anticoagulant activity. In addition, heparin prevents complement activation in vivo and protects mice from pregnancy complications. The inhibition of the classical complement activation pathway by heparin was analyzed by means of in vitro assays and in pregnant women receiving prophylaxis with therapeutic doses (40 mg/day) of subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin by haemolysis of antibody-sensitized sheep erythrocytes (CH(50) assay). The specific interaction between low-molecular-weight heparin and the C1q subunit of the C1 complex of the complement cascade allowed the isolation of a small subpopulation of heparin ( 8.03+/-1.20 microg %), with an anti-activated factor X activity more than four times greater than the starting material. This subpopulation could be responsible for the in vitro inhibition of the classical complement activation pathway evaluated by the total haemolysis of antibody-sensitized sheep erythrocytes. About 60 microg/ml of low molecular weight heparin was needed to achieve 50% of haemolysis. The detection of the classical complement pathway inhibition in pregnant women treated with heparin required a first activation with aggregated human IgG. We concluded that the interaction between low-molecular-weight heparin and C1q could be relevant not only in the complement-dependent, but also in the complement-independent inflammation mechanisms responsible for the prevention of pregnancy loss. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Inhalable large porous microspheres of low molecular weight heparin: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Amit; Majumder, Quamrul H; Ahsan, Fakhrul

    2008-06-24

    This study tests the feasibility of large porous particles as long-acting carriers for pulmonary delivery of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Microspheres were prepared with a biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), by a double-emulsion-solvent-evaporation technique. The drug entrapment efficiencies of the microspheres were increased by modifying them with three different additivespolyethyleneimine (PEI), Span 60 and stearylamine. The resulting microspheres were evaluated for morphology, size, zeta potential, density, in vitro drug-release properties, cytotoxicity, and for pulmonary absorption in vivo. Scanning electron microscopic examination suggests that the porosity of the particles increased with the increase in aqueous volume fraction. The amount of aqueous volume fraction and the type of core-modifying agent added to the aqueous interior had varying degrees of effect on the size, density and aerodynamic diameter of the particles. When PEI was incorporated in the internal aqueous phase, the entrapment efficiency was increased from 16.22+/-1.32% to 54.82+/-2.79%. The amount of drug released in the initial burst phase and the release-rate constant for the core-modified microspheres were greater than those for the plain microspheres. After pulmonary administration, the half-life of the drug from the PEI- and stearylamine-modified microspheres was increased by 5- to 6-fold compared to the drug entrapped in plain microspheres. The viability of Calu-3 cells was not adversely affected when incubated with the microspheres. Overall, the data presented here suggest that the newly developed porous microspheres of LMWH have the potential to be used in a form deliverable by dry-powder inhaler as an alternative to multiple parenteral administrations of LMWH.

  3. Inhalable Large Porous Microspheres of Low Molecular Weight Heparin: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Amit; Majumder, Quamrul H.; Ahsan, Fakhrul

    2008-01-01

    This study tests the feasibility of large porous particles as long-acting carriers for pulmonary delivery of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Microspheres were prepared with a biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), by a double-emulsion–solvent-evaporation technique. The drug entrapment efficiencies of the microspheres were increased by modifying them with three different additives—polyethyleneimine (PEI), Span 60 and stearylamine. The resulting microspheres were evaluated for morphology, size, zeta potential, density, in vitro drug-release properties, cytotoxicity, and for pulmonary absorption in vivo. Scanning electron microscopic examination suggests that the porosity of the particles increased with the increase in aqueous volume fraction. The amount of aqueous volume fraction and the type of core-modifying agent added to the aqueous interior had varying degrees of effect on the size, density and aerodynamic diameter of the particles. When PEI was incorporated in the internal aqueous phase, the entrapment efficiency was increased from 16.22±1.32% to 54.82±2.79%. The amount of drug released in the initial burst phase and the release-rate constant for the core-modified microspheres were greater than those for the plain microspheres. After pulmonary administration, the half-life of the drug from the PEI- and stearylamine-modified microspheres was increased by 5- to 6-fold compared to the drug entrapped in plain microspheres. The viability of Calu-3 cells was not adversely affected when incubated with the microspheres. Overall, the data presented here suggest that the newly developed porous microspheres of LMWH have the potential to be used in a form deliverable by dry-powder inhaler as an alternative to multiple parenteral administrations of LMWH. PMID:18471921

  4. The use of low molecular weight protamine chemical chimera to enhance monomeric insulin intestinal absorption.

    PubMed

    He, Huining; Sheng, Jianyong; David, Allan E; Kwon, Young Min; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Yongzhuo; Wang, Jianxin; Yang, Victor C

    2013-10-01

    Although oral delivery of insulin offers a number of unmatched advantages, it nevertheless is beset by the poor permeability of insulin molecules through the epithelial cell membranes of the intestinal mucosal layer. We previously reported the development of low molecular weight protamine (LMWP) as a non-toxic yet potent cell-penetrating peptide, of which via covalent linkage was capable of translocating protein cargos through the membranes of almost all cell types. It is therefore hypothesized that LMWP could be practically employed as a safe and effective tool to deliver insulin across the intestinal mucosal membrane, thereby augmenting its absorption through the GI tract. However, formulating 1:1 monomeric insulin/LMWP conjugate presents a tall order of challenge, as the acidic insulin and basic LMWP would automatically form tight aggregates through electrostatic interactions. In this paper, we developed an innovative conjugation strategy to solve this problem, by using succinimidyl-[(N-maleimidopropionamido)-polyethyleneglycol] ester (NHS-PEG-MAL) as an intermediate cross-linker during the coupling process. Both SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy confirmed the formation of a homogenous, monomeric (1:1 ratio) insulin/LMWP conjugate without encountering the conventional problem of substrate aggregation. Cell culture studies demonstrated that transport of the Insulin-PEG-LMWP conjugate across the intestinal mucosal monolayer was augmented by almost five-folds compared to native insulin. Furthermore, results from the in situ loop absorption tests in rats showed that systemic pharmacological bioavailability of insulin was significantly enhanced after its conjugation with LMWP. Overall, the presented chemical conjugation with LMWP could offer a reliable and safe means to improve the intestinal permeability of therapeutic peptides/proteins, shedding light of the possibility for their effective oral delivery.

  5. The Use of Low Molecular Weight Protamine Chemical Chimera to Enhance Monomeric Insulin Intestinal Absorption

    PubMed Central

    He, Huining; Sheng, Jianyong; David, Allan E.; Kwon, Young Min; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Yongzhuo; Wang, Jianxin; Yang, Victor C.

    2013-01-01

    Although oral delivery of insulin offers a number of unmatched advantages, it nevertheless is beset by the poor permeability of insulin molecules through the epithelial cell membranes of the intestinal mucosal layer. We previously reported the development of low molecular weight protamine (LMWP) as a nontoxic yet potent cell penetrating peptide, of which via covalent linkage was capable of translocating protein cargos through the membranes of almost all cell types. It is therefore hypothesized that LMWP could be practically employed as a safe and effective tool to deliver insulin across the intestinal mucosal membrane, thereby augmenting its absorption through the GI tract. However, formulating 1:1 monomeric insulin/LMWP conjugate presents a tall order of challenge, as the acidic insulin and basic LMWP would automatically form tight aggregates through electrostatic interactions. In this paper, we developed an innovative conjugation strategy to solve this problem, by using succinimidyl-[(N-maleimidopropionamido)-polyethyleneglycol] ester (NHS-PEG-MAL) as an intermediate cross-linker during the coupling process. Both SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy confirmed the formation of a homogeneous, monomeric (1:1 ratio) insulin/LMWP conjugate without encountering the conventional problem of substrate aggregation. Cell culture studies demonstrated that transport of the Insulin-PEG-LMWP conjugate across the intestinal mucosal monolayer was augmented by almost five folds compared to native insulin. Furthermore, results from the in situ loop absorption tests in rats showed that systemic pharmacological bioavailability of insulin was significantly enhanced after its conjugation with LMWP. Overall, the presented chemical conjugation with LMWP could offer a reliable and safe means to improve the intestinal permeability of therapeutic peptides/proteins, shedding light of the possibility for their effective oral delivery. PMID:23863452

  6. Versatile low-molecular-weight hydrogelators: achieving multiresponsiveness through a modular design.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Lilia; Hunter, Christopher A; Tzokova, Nadejda; Waltho, Jonathan P; Tomas, Salvador

    2011-08-22

    Multiresponsive low-molecular-weight hydrogelators (LMWHs) are ideal candidates for the development of smart, soft, nanotechnology materials. The synthesis is however very challenging. On the one hand, de novo design is hampered by our limited ability to predict the assembly of small molecules in water. On the other hand, modification of pre-existing LMWHs is limited by the number of different stimuli-sensitive chemical moieties that can be introduced into a small molecule without seriously disrupting the ability to gelate water. Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of multistimuli LMWHs, based on a modular design, composed of a hydrophobic, disulfide, aromatic moiety, a maleimide linker, and a hydrophilic section based on an amino acid, here N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). As most LMWHs, these gelators experience reversible gel-to-sol transition following temperature changes. Additionally, the NAC moiety allows reversible control of the assembly of the gel by pH changes. The reduction of the aromatic disulfide triggers a gel-to-sol transition that, depending on the design of the particular LMWH, can be reverted by reoxidation of the resulting thiol. Finally, the hydrolysis of the cyclic imide moieties provides an additional trigger for the gel-to-sol transition with a timescale that is appropriate for use in drug-delivery applications. The efficient response to the multiple external stimuli, coupled to the modular design makes these LMWHs an excellent starting point for the development of smart nanomaterials with applications that include controlled drug release. These hydrogelators, which were discovered by serendipity rather than design, suggest nonetheless a general strategy for the introduction of multiple stimuli-sensitive chemical moieties, to offset the introduction of hydrophilic moieties with additional hydrophobic ones, in order to minimize the upsetting of the critical hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance of the LMWH.

  7. Low molecular weight chitosan nanoparticulate system at low N:P ratio for nontoxic polynucleotide delivery

    PubMed Central

    Alameh, Mohamad; DeJesus, Diogo; Jean, Myriam; Darras, Vincent; Thibault, Marc; Lavertu, Marc; Buschmann, Michael D; Merzouki, Abderrazzak

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan, a natural polymer, is a promising system for the therapeutic delivery of both plasmid DNA and synthetic small interfering RNA. Reports attempting to identify the optimal parameters of chitosan for synthetic small interfering RNA delivery were inconclusive with high molecular weight at high amine-to-phosphate (N:P) ratios apparently required for efficient transfection. Here we show, for the first time, that low molecular weight chitosan (LMW-CS) formulations at low N:P ratios are suitable for the in vitro delivery of small interfering RNA. LMW-CS nanoparticles at low N:P ratios were positively charged (ζ-potential ~20 mV) with an average size below 100 nm as demonstrated by dynamic light scattering and environmental scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Nanoparticles were spherical, a shape promoting decreased cytotoxicity and enhanced cellular uptake. Nanoparticle stability was effective for at least 20 hours at N:P ratios above two in a slightly acidic pH of 6.5. At a higher basic pH of 8, these nanoparticles were unravelled due to chitosan neutralization, exposing their polynucleotide cargo. Cellular uptake ranged from 50% to 95% in six different cell lines as measured by cytometry. Increasing chitosan molecular weight improved nanoparticle stability as well as the ability of nanoparticles to protect the oligonucleotide cargo from nucleases at supraphysiological concentrations. The highest knockdown efficiency was obtained with the specific formulation 92-10-5 that combines sufficient nuclease protection with effective intracellular release. This system attained >70% knockdown of the messenger RNA, similar to commercially available lipoplexes, without apparent cytotoxicity. Contrary to previous reports, our data demonstrate that LMW-CS at low N:P ratios are efficient and nontoxic polynucleotide delivery systems capable of transfecting a plethora of cell lines. PMID:22457597

  8. Supramolecular Low-Molecular-Weight Hydrogelator Stabilization of SERS-Active Aggregated Nanoparticles for Solution and Gas Sensing.

    PubMed

    Canrinus, Tjalling R; Lee, Wendy W Y; Feringa, Ben L; Bell, Steven E J; Browne, Wesley R

    2017-09-05

    The potential of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy in both laboratory and field analyses depends on the reliable formation of so-called SERS hot spots, such as those formed during gold or silver nanoparticle aggregation. Unfortunately such aggregates are not stable in solution because they typically grow until they precipitate. Here we describe the use of low-molecular-weight hydrogels formed through pH-triggered self-assembly that occurs at a rate that well matches the rates of aggregation of Au or Ag colloids, allowing them to be trapped at the SERS-active point in the aggregation process. We show that the colloid-containing gels give SERS signals similar to the parent colloid but are stable over several months. Moreover, lyophilized gels can be stored as dry powders for subsequent use in the analyses of gases and dissolved analytes by contact with either solutions or vapors. The present system shows how the combination of pH-switchable low-molecular-weight gelators and pH-induced colloid aggregation can be combined to make a highly stable, low-cost SERS platform for the detection of volatile organic compounds and the microvolume analysis of solutions.

  9. Microcystin-LR Detected in a Low Molecular Weight Fraction from a Crude Extract of Zoanthus sociatus

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Pérez, Dany; Alexei Rodríguez, Armando; Osorio, Hugo; Azevedo, Joana; Castañeda, Olga; Vasconcelos, Vítor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2017-01-01

    Cnidarian constitutes a great source of bioactive compounds. However, research involving peptides from organisms belonging to the order Zoanthidea has received very little attention, contrasting to the numerous studies of the order Actiniaria, from which hundreds of toxic peptides and proteins have been reported. In this work, we performed a mass spectrometry analysis of a low molecular weight (LMW) fraction previously reported as lethal to mice. The low molecular weight (LMW) fraction was obtained by gel filtration of a Zoanthus sociatus (order Zoanthidea) crude extract with a Sephadex G-50, and then analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) in positive ion reflector mode from m/z 700 to m/z 4000. Afterwards, some of the most intense and representative MS ions were fragmented by MS/MS with no significant results obtained by Protein Pilot protein identification software and the Mascot algorithm search. However, microcystin masses were detected by mass-matching against libraries of non-ribosomal peptide database (NORINE). Subsequent reversed-phase C18 HPLC (in isocratic elution mode) and mass spectrometry analyses corroborated the presence of the cyanotoxin Microcystin-LR (MC-LR). To the best of our knowledge, this finding constitutes the first report of MC-LR in Z. sociatus, and one of the few evidences of such cyanotoxin in cnidarians. PMID:28257074

  10. Effects of intensive insulin therapy combined with low molecular weight heparin anticoagulant therapy on severe pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    DU, JUN-DONG; ZHENG, XI; HUANG, ZHI-QIANG; CAI, SHOU-WANG; TAN, JING-WANG; LI, ZHAN-LIANG; YAO, YONG-MING; JIAO, HUA-BO; YIN, HUI-NAN; ZHU, ZI-MAN

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the effects of intensive insulin therapy (IIT) combined with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) anticoagulant therapy on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). A total of 134 patients with SAP that received treatment between June 2008 and June 2012 were divided randomly into groups A (control; n=33), B (IIT; n=33), C (LMWH; n=34) and D (IIT + LMWH; n=34). Group A were treated routinely. Group B received continuous pumped insulin, as well as the routine treatment, to maintain the blood sugar level between 4.4 and 6.1 mmol/l. Group C received a subcutaneous injection of LMWH every 12 h in addition to the routine treatment. Group D received IIT + LMWH and the routine treatment. The white blood cell count, hemodiastase, serum albumin, arterial partial pressure of oxygen and prothrombin time were recorded prior to treatment and 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after the initiation of treatment. The intestinal function recovery time, incidence rate of multiple organ failure (MOF), length of hospitalization and fatality rates were observed. IIT + LMWH noticeably increased the white blood cell count, hemodiastase level, serum albumin level and the arterial partial pressure of oxygen in the patients with SAP (P<0.05). It markedly shortened the intestinal recovery time and the length of stay and reduced the incidence rate of MOF, the surgery rate and the fatality rate (P<0.05). It did not aggravate the hemorrhagic tendency of SAP (P>0.05). IIT + LMWH had a noticeably improved clinical curative effect on SAP compared with that of the other treatments. PMID:24944612

  11. [Genetic analysis of contribution of low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits to dough strength in common wheat].

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Liu, Ying-Hua; Liu, Lin; Deng, Guang-Bing; Yu, Mao-Qun; Chen, Xiao

    2007-11-01

    Locus-specific primers of low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) genes and gliadin bands tightly linked to LMW-GS genes were analyzed to evaluate the effect of LMW-GS genes on dough strength in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Analysis of the F9 progeny from two crosses '99G45/Jing771' and 'Pm97034/J771' showed that the LMW-GS genes located at the Glu-B3 locus from the three parents had six Cysteine, but 'PB' (define) had a seven amino-acid deletion in the repetitive to 'GB' and 'JB' (define these abbreviations) and amino-acid substitution, two of which would be expected to cause changes in hydrophilicity.

  12. Low-molecular-weight heparins inhibit CCL21-induced T cell adhesion and migration.

    PubMed

    Christopherson, Kent W; Campbell, James J; Travers, Jeffrey B; Hromas, Robert A

    2002-07-01

    The chemokine CCL21, also known as Exodus-2/6-Ckine/secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine/T cell activator protein-4, is the most potent stimulator of T cell migration and adhesion yet described. Endothelial heparin-like glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are thought to present chemokines at sites of inflammation, maintaining a local concentration gradient to which leukocytes can respond. In contrast, this study found that GAGs markedly inhibit the ability of CCL21 to stimulate T cell adhesion and chemotaxis. Enzymes, such as heparinase, that split GAGs into component-sulfated saccharides abrogate this inhibition, suggesting a mechanism for local tissue regulation of CCL21 function. Low-molecular-weight heparins also strongly inhibit CCL21 adhesion and chemotaxis. Therefore, low-molecular-weight heparins may be effective therapeutic agents in decreasing the pathology of T cell-infiltrative autoimmune diseases by targeting the CCL21 regulation of T cell infiltration.

  13. Preparation of the low molecular weight serum proteome for mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Waybright, Timothy J; Chan, King C; Veenstra, Timothy D; Xiao, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of viable biomarkers or indicators of disease states is complicated by the inherent complexity of the chosen biological specimen. Every sample, whether it is serum, plasma, urine, tissue, cells, or a host of others, contains thousands of large and small components, each interacting in multiple ways. The need to concentrate on a group of these components to narrow the focus on a potential biomarker candidate becomes, out of necessity, a priority, especially in the search for immune-related low molecular weight serum biomarkers. One such method in the field of proteomics is to divide the sample proteome into groups based on the size of the protein, analyze each group, and mine the data for statistically significant items. This chapter details a portion of this method, concentrating on a method for fractionating and analyzing the low molecular weight proteome of human serum.

  14. Intermolecular complexation of low-molecular-weight succinoglycans directs solubility enhancement of pindolol.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoungtea; Cho, Eunae; Choi, Jae Min; Kim, Hwanhee; Jang, Ahri; Choi, Youngjin; Lee, Im Soon; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Jung, Seunho

    2014-06-15

    The low-molecular-weight succinoglycans isolated from Sinorhizobium meliloti are repeating octasaccharide units consisting of monomers, dimers, and trimers. Pindolol is a beta-blocker used to treat cardiovascular disorders. We investigated the formation of complexes between pindolol and low-molecular-weight succinoglycan monomers (SGs). Even though SGs have a linear structure, the solubility of pindolol in the presence of SGs was increased up to 7-fold compared with methyl-β-cyclodextrin reported as the best solubilizer of pindolol. Complexation of SGs with pindolol was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. Formation constants of complexes were determined from phase solubility diagrams. Conformation of complex was suggested based on a molecular docking study. The present study indicated that formation of pindolol/SGs complexes not only resulted in increased pindolol solubility but also could be useful for improving its clinical application as it did not affect cell viability.

  15. Role of laccase and low molecular weight metabolites from Trametes versicolor in dye decolorization.

    PubMed

    Moldes, Diego; Fernández-Fernández, María; Sanromán, M Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs) also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds.

  16. [Sequencing of low-molecular-weight DNA in blood plasma of irradiated rats].

    PubMed

    Vasilieva, I N; Bespalov, V G; Zinkin, V N; Podgornaya, O I

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular low-molecular-weight DNA in blood of irradiated rats was sequenced for the first time. The screening of sequences in the DDBJ database displayed homology of various parts of the rodent genome. Sequences of low-molecular-weight DNA in rat's plasma are enriched with G/C pairs and long interspersed elements relative to rat genome. DNA sequences in blood of rats irradiated at the doses of 8 and 100 Gy have marked distinctions. Data of sequencing of extracellular DNA from normal humans and with pathology were analyzed. DNA sequences of irradiated rats differ from the human ones by a wealth of long interspersed elements. This new knowledge lays the foundation for development of minimally invasive technologies of diagnosing the probability of pathology and controlling the adaptive resources of people in extreme environments.

  17. Role of Laccase and Low Molecular Weight Metabolites from Trametes versicolor in Dye Decolorization

    PubMed Central

    Moldes, Diego; Fernández-Fernández, María; Sanromán, M. Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs) also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds. PMID:22566767

  18. Pharmacological effects and clinical applications of ultra low molecular weight heparins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhang; Ji, Shengli; Sheng, Juzheng; Wang, Fengshan

    2014-02-01

    Heparin, one of the common anticoagulants, is clinically used to prevent and treat venous thromboembolism (VTE). Though it has been the drug of choice for many advanced medical and surgical procedures with a long history, the adverse events, such as bleeding, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), allergic reactions, follow. Therefore, low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) and ultra low molecular weight heparins (ULMWHs), with lower molecular weights, higher anti-FXa activity, longer half-life times and lower incidence of adverse events than unfractionated heparin (UFH), were researched and developed. Fondaparinux, a chemically synthesized ULMWH of pentasaccharide, has the same antithrombin III (AT-III)-binding sequence as found in UFH and LMWH. In addition, AVE5026 and RO-14, another two ULMWHs, are obtained by selective chemical depolymerization. In this paper, we review the preparation process, pharmacological effects and clinical applications of fondaparinux, AVE5026 and RO-14.

  19. Characterization of Rhizobial Isolates of Phaseolus vulgaris by Staircase Electrophoresis of Low-Molecular-Weight RNA

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez, Encarna; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Rodríguez-Navarro, Dulce Nombre; Trujillo, Martha E.; Daza, Antonio; Mateos, Pedro F.; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; van Berkum, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight (LMW) RNA molecules were analyzed to characterize rhizobial isolates that nodulate the common bean growing in Spain. Since LMW RNA profiles, determined by staircase electrophoresis, varied across the rhizobial species nodulating beans, we demonstrated that bean isolates recovered from Spanish soils presumptively could be characterized as Rhizobium etli, Rhizobium gallicum, Rhizobium giardinii, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and bv. trifolii, and Sinorhizobium fredii. PMID:11157280

  20. Immunochemical identity of the high and low molecular weight forms of Galapagos marine iguana hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Higgins, P J

    1978-01-01

    1. Two forms of Galapagos marine iguana methemoglobin, with molecular weights of 140,000 and 70,000 daltons, were identified in iguana RBC lysates by Sephadex G-200 molecular sieve fractionation. 2. The 140,000 dalton ferric hemoglobin was isolated by DEAE-Sephadex A-50 ion-exchange chromatography and found to be pure by electrophoretic and immunological criteria. 3. Immunochemical analyses revealed the high and low molecular weight hemoglobins to be antigenically identical.

  1. Crosslinker-Induced Effects on the Gelation Pathway of a Low Molecular Weight Hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Noteborn, Willem E M; Zwagerman, Damy N H; Talens, Victorio Saez; Maity, Chandan; van der Mee, Lars; Poolman, Jos M; Mytnyk, Serhii; van Esch, Jan H; Kros, Alexander; Eelkema, Rienk; Kieltyka, Roxanne E

    2017-03-01

    The use of polymeric crosslinkers is an attractive method to modify the mechanical properties of supramolecular materials, but their effects on the self-assembly of the underlying supramolecular polymer networks are poorly understood. Modulation of the gelation pathway of a reaction-coupled low molecular weight hydrogelator is demonstrated using (bio)polymeric crosslinkers of disparate physicochemical identities, providing a handle for control over materials properties.

  2. New cyanopeptide-derived low molecular weight inhibitors of trypsin-like serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Radau, Gregor; Schermuly, Sonja; Fritsche, Alexandra

    2003-08-01

    This paper deals with the design, syntheses, and inhibition tests of new low molecular weight thrombin inhibitors utilizing cyanopeptides, the secondary metabolites of cyanobacteria with interesting biological activities, as new lead structures. Starting with aeruginosin 98-B (1) as a lead structure, we have developed and synthesised new, selective acting inhibitors of serine proteases (RA-1005 and RA-1009, which are suitable targets for further structure-activity studies.

  3. Low molecular weight Neutral Boron Dipyrromethene (Bodipy) dyads for fluorescence-based neural imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Dan; Benniston, Andrew C.; Clift, Sophie; Baisch, Ulrich; Steyn, Jannetta; Everitt, Nicola; Andras, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The neutral low molecular weight julolidine-based borondipyrromethene (Bodipy) dyads JULBD and MJULBD were used for fast voltage-sensitive dye imaging of neurons in the crab stomatogastric ganglion. The fluorescence modulation of the dyads mirrors alterations in the membrane potential of the imaged neurons. The toxicity of the dyes towards the neurons is related to their structure in that methyl groups at the 3,5 positions results in reduced toxic effects.

  4. Inkjet-printed gold nanoparticle surfaces for the detection of low molecular weight biomolecules by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marsico, Alyssa L M; Creran, Brian; Duncan, Bradley; Elci, S Gokhan; Jiang, Ying; Onasch, Timothy B; Wormhoudt, Joda; Rotello, Vincent M; Vachet, Richard W

    2015-11-01

    Effective detection of low molecular weight compounds in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) is often hindered by matrix interferences in the low m/z region of the mass spectrum. Here, we show that monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can serve as alternate matrices for the very sensitive detection of low molecular weight compounds such as amino acids. Amino acids can be detected at low fmol levels with minimal interferences by properly choosing the AuNP deposition method, density, size, and monolayer surface chemistry. By inkjet-printing AuNPs at various densities, we find that AuNP clusters are essential for obtaining the greatest sensitivity. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  5. Differences of present recommendations and guidelines for generic low-molecular-weight heparins: is there room for harmonization.

    PubMed

    Harenberg, Job

    2011-01-01

    Based on the results of large clinical trials, several low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) have been approved for prophylaxis and the treatment of venous and arterial thromboembolism. As a result of expiration or pending expiration of patent protection of the originator LMWHs, the first generic LMWH enoxaparin has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for clinical use in all medical indications. The European Medicines Agency has set up guidelines for the production of generic LMWHs. The International Society of Thrombosis, the North American Thrombosis Forum and other scientific organizations raised concerns regarding the safety of generic LMWHs due to economic reasons. These organizations have published statements for the production of generic LMWHs to ensure the quality of the products and the safety for patients. Ideally, the differences between the actual recommendations and guidelines for the production of generic version of LMWHs should be harmonized.

  6. Dermal exposure to m-xylene leads to increasing oxidative species and low molecular weight DNA levels in rat skin.

    PubMed

    Rogers, J V; Gunasekar, P G; Garrett, C M; McDougal, J N

    2001-01-01

    Dermal absorption of organic solvents, such as m-xylene, can lead to skin inflammation and pathological changes within hours after exposure. This study detected oxidative species formation and low molecular weight (LMW) DNA in rat skin as potential indicators of m-xylene-induced skin injury. At 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after the beginning of a 1-h exposure, skin samples were removed and analyzed for oxidative species formation and LMW DNA analysis. At 2 h, mean oxidative species levels increased significantly (P < 0.05) above unexposed samples. Significantly higher (P < 0.05) LMW DNA values were observed at 2, 4, and 6 h compared to unexposed controls. These results show that oxidative species formation and LMW DNA levels in the skin may serve as indicators for predicting safe exposure levels to m-xylene and other volatile organic solvents. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Synthesis of the low molecular weight heat shock proteins in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, M.A.; Key, J.L. )

    1987-08-01

    Heat shock of living tissue induces the synthesis of a unique group of proteins, the heat shock proteins. In plants, the major group of heat shock proteins has a molecular mass of 15 to 25 kilodaltons. Accumulation to these proteins to stainable levels has been reported in only a few species. To examine accumulation of the low molecular weight heat shock proteins in a broader range of species, two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to resolve total protein from the following species: soybean (Glycine max L. Merr., var Wayne), pea (Pisum sativum L., var Early Alaska), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), wheat (Triticum asetivum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L., cv IR-36), maize (Zea mays L.), pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L. Leeke, line 23DB), and Panicum miliaceum L. When identified by both silver staining and incorporation of radiolabel, a diverse array of low molecular weight heat shock proteins was synthesized in each of these species. These proteins accumulated to significant levels after three hours of heat shock but exhibited considerable heterogeneity in isoelectric point, molecular weight, stainability, and radiolabel incorporation. Although most appeared to be synthesized only during heat shock, some were detectable at low levels in control tissue. Compared to the monocots, a higher proportion of low molecular weight heat shock proteins was detectable in control tissues from dicots.

  8. Ferrous iron chelating property of low-molecular weight succinoglycans isolated from Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eunae; Choi, Jae Min; Kim, Hwanhee; Tahir, Muhammad Nazir; Choi, Youngjin; Jung, Seunho

    2013-04-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for nitrogen-fixing legume root nodules, and the chelation of ferrous iron plays an important role in the mobility and availability of iron to the legume. In the present study, we investigated the iron-binding properties of low-molecular weight succinoglycans isolated from the nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Sinorhizobium meliloti. The low-molecular weight succinoglycans comprising three monomers (M1-M3), four dimers (D1-D4), and six trimers (T1-T6) of the succinoglycan repeating unit were purified by various chromatographic techniques. Interestingly, the colorimetric ferrozine method showed that the succinoglycans T6, M3, and D3 demonstrated a ferrous iron chelating ability of 83, 63, and 38 % per mg, respectively. The individual binding constants were determined as 43703, 2313, and 760 M(-1) for succinoglycans T6, M3, and D3 using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The complexation of succinoglycan and ferrous iron can cause structural changes, which were analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Furthermore, the complex could provide antioxidant activity through an anti-Fenton reaction. These results demonstrate that the low-molecular weight succinoglycans can effectively modulate iron biochemistry as a novel ferrous iron-acquisition system of S. meliloti.

  9. Western blotting of high and low molecular weight proteins using heat.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    A method for the electrophoretic transfer of high and low molecular weight proteins to nitrocellulose membranes following sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel is described here. The transfer was performed with heated (70-75 °C) normal transfer buffer from which methanol had been omitted. Complete transfer of high and low molecular weight antigens (molecular weight protein standards, a purified protein, and proteins from a human tissue extract) could be carried out in 10 min for a 7 % (0.75 mm) SDS polyacrylamide gel. For 10 and 12.5 % gels (0.75 mm) the corresponding time was 15 min. A complete transfer could be carried out in 20 min for 7, 10, and 12.5 % gels (1.5 mm gels). The permeability of the gel is increased by heat, such that the proteins trapped in the polyacrylamide gel matrix can be easily transferred to the membrane. The heat mediated transfer method was compared with a conventional transfer protocol, under similar conditions. The conventional method transferred minimal low molecular weight proteins while retaining most of the high molecular weight proteins in the gel. In summary, this procedure is particularly useful for the transfer of high molecular weight proteins, very rapid, and avoids the use of methanol.

  10. Ultrarapid electrophoretic transfer of high and low molecular weight proteins using heat.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2009-01-01

    An ultrarapid method for the electrophoretic transfer of high and low molecular weight proteins to nitrocellulose membranes following sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel is described here. The transfer was performed with heated (70-75 degrees C) normal transfer buffer from which methanol had been omitted. Complete transfer of high and low molecular weight antigens (molecular weight protein standards, a purified protein, and proteins from a human tissue extract) could be carried out in 10 min for a 7% (0.75 mm) SDS polyacrylamide gel. For 10 and 12.5% gels (0.75 mm) the corresponding time was 15 min. A complete transfer could be carried out in 20 min for 7, 10, and 12.5% gels (1.5 mm gels). The permeability of the gel is increased by heat, such that the proteins trapped in the polyacrylamide gel matrix can be easily transferred to the membrane. The heat mediated transfer method was compared with a conventional transfer protocol, under similar conditions. The conventional method transferred minimal low molecular weight proteins while retaining most of the high molecular weight proteins in the gel. In summary, this procedure is particularly useful for the transfer of high molecular weight proteins, very rapid, and avoids the use of methanol.

  11. Rectus sheath hematoma with low molecular weight heparin administration: a case series.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Laura E J; Wortham, Dale C; Litton, Kayleigh M

    2014-09-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon but potentially serious bleeding complication that can occur spontaneously or as a result of anticoagulation administration. Case number one: A 62 year old chronically ill Caucasian female develops a rectus sheath hematoma seven days after hospital discharge. The previous hospitalization included low molecular weight heparin administration for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis. The patient ultimately chooses comfort care and expires due to sepsis and respiratory failure. Case number two: A 79 year old Caucasian male develops a rectus sheath hematoma during hospital admission where LMWH is used for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis. He is managed conservatively; however, his hematocrit drops from 46 to 25.8%. Case number three: A 44 year old chronically ill Caucasian female is treated with therapeutic low molecular weight heparin for recent deep vein thrombosis during a hospital admission. She develops a large rectus sheath hematoma requiring embolization as well as blood transfusion. We believe this reflects an underreported significant cause of morbidity and mortality with low molecular weight heparin administration. We review the pathophysiology of rectus sheath hematoma as well as its presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. We identify at-risk populations and proposed contributing factors. We also discuss factors leading to underreporting as well as preventive strategies implemented at our institution.

  12. Megalin Knockout Mice as an Animal Model of Low Molecular Weight Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Leheste, Jörg-Robert; Rolinski, Boris; Vorum, Henrik; Hilpert, Jan; Nykjaer, Anders; Jacobsen, Christian; Aucouturier, Pierre; Moskaug, Jan Øivind; Otto, Albrecht; Christensen, Erik Ilsø; Willnow, Thomas E.

    1999-01-01

    Megalin is an endocytic receptor expressed on the luminal surface of the renal proximal tubules. The receptor is believed to play an important role in the tubular uptake of macromolecules filtered through the glomerulus. To elucidate the role of megalin in vivo and to identify its endogenous ligands, we analyzed the proximal tubular function in mice genetically deficient for the receptor. We demonstrate that megalin-deficient mice exhibit a tubular resorption deficiency and excrete low molecular weight plasma proteins in the urine (low molecular weight proteinuria). Proteins excreted include small plasma proteins that carry lipophilic compounds including vitamin D-binding protein, retinol-binding protein, α1-microglobulin and odorant-binding protein. Megalin binds these proteins and mediates their cellular uptake. Urinary loss of carrier proteins in megalin-deficient mice results in concomitant loss of lipophilic vitamins bound to the carriers. Similar to megalin knockout mice, patients with low molecular weight proteinuria as in Fanconi syndrome are also shown to excrete vitamin/carrier complexes. Thus, these results identify a crucial role of the proximal tubule in retrieval of filtered vitamin/carrier complexes and the central role played by megalin in this process. PMID:10514418

  13. The potential benefits of low-molecular-weight heparins in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Robert, Francisco

    2010-01-14

    Cancer patients are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism due to a range of factors directly related to their disease and its treatment. Given the high incidence of post-surgical venous thromboembolism in cancer patients and the poor outcomes associated with its development, thromboprophylaxis is warranted. A number of evidence-based guidelines delineate anticoagulation regimens for venous thromboembolism treatment, primary and secondary prophylaxis, and long-term anticoagulation in cancer patients. However, many give equal weight to several different drugs and do not make specific recommendations regarding duration of therapy. In terms of their efficacy and safety profiles, practicality of use, and cost-effectiveness the low-molecular-weight heparins are at least comparable to, and offer several advantages over, other available antithrombotics in cancer patients. In addition, data are emerging that the antithrombotics, and particularly low-molecular-weight heparins, may exert an antitumor effect which could contribute to improved survival in cancer patients when given for long-term prophylaxis. Such findings reinforce the importance of thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin in cancer patients.

  14. Cellular Viscosity in Prokaryotes and Thermal Stability of Low Molecular Weight Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Cuecas, Alba; Cruces, Jorge; Galisteo-López, Juan F; Peng, Xiaojun; Gonzalez, Juan M

    2016-08-23

    Some low molecular weight biomolecules, i.e., NAD(P)H, are unstable at high temperatures. The use of these biomolecules by thermophilic microorganisms has been scarcely analyzed. Herein, NADH stability has been studied at different temperatures and viscosities. NADH decay increased at increasing temperatures. At increasing viscosities, NADH decay rates decreased. Thus, maintaining relatively high cellular viscosity in cells could result in increased stability of low molecular weight biomolecules (i.e., NADH) at high temperatures, unlike what was previously deduced from studies in diluted water solutions. Cellular viscosity was determined using a fluorescent molecular rotor in various prokaryotes covering the range from 10 to 100°C. Some mesophiles showed the capability of changing cellular viscosity depending on growth temperature. Thermophiles and extreme thermophiles presented a relatively high cellular viscosity, suggesting this strategy as a reasonable mechanism to thrive under these high temperatures. Results substantiate the capability of thermophiles and extreme thermophiles (growth range 50-80°C) to stabilize and use generally considered unstable, universal low molecular weight biomolecules. In addition, this study represents a first report, to our knowledge, on cellular viscosity measurements in prokaryotes and it shows the dependency of prokaryotic cellular viscosity on species and growth temperature.

  15. Acceptability of low molecular weight heparin thromboprophylaxis for inpatients receiving palliative care: qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Noble, S I R; Nelson, A; Turner, C; Finlay, I G

    2006-03-11

    To find out what inpatients with advanced cancer who are receiving palliative care think about the effect of thromoprophylaxis on overall quality of life. Qualitative study using audiotaping of semistructured interviews. Regional cancer centre in Wales. 28 inpatients with advanced metastatic cancer receiving palliative care and low molecular weight heparin. Recurring themes on the effect of thromboprophylaxis on overall quality of life. Major emerging themes showed that patients knew about the risks of venous thromboembolism and the purpose of treatment with heparin. Media coverage had raised awareness about venous thromboembolism, and many had previous experience of thromboprophylaxis. All found low molecular weight heparin an acceptable intervention, and many said that it improved their quality of life by giving them a feeling of safety and reassurance. Antiembolic stockings were considered uncomfortable and had a negative impact on quality of life. Patients were concerned that because they had advanced disease they might not be eligible for thromboprophylaxis. Low molecular weight heparin is acceptable to inpatients with advanced cancer receiving palliative care and has a positive impact on overall quality of life. Antiembolic stockings are an unacceptable intervention in this patient group. Guidelines on thromboprophylaxis are urgently needed for palliative care inpatient units and hospices.

  16. Effect of heparin and a low-molecular weight heparinoid on PAF-induced airway responses in neonatally immunized rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, M.; Herd, C. M.; Page, C. P.

    1993-01-01

    1. We have investigated the effect of an unfractionated heparin preparation, a low-molecular weight heparinoid (Org 10172) and the polyanionic molecule polyglutamic acid against PAF-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary cell infiltration in neonatally immunized rabbits in vivo. 2. Exposure of neonatally immunized rabbits to aerosolized platelet activating factor (PAF) (80 micrograms ml-1 for 60 min) elicited an increase in airway responsiveness to inhaled histamine 24 h and 72 h following challenge which was associated with an infiltration of inflammatory cells into the airways, as assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). 3. A significant increase in the total numbers of cells recovered from BAL fluid was associated with significantly increased cell numbers of neutrophils, eosinophils and mononuclear cells 24 h following PAF exposure. The numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils in the airways remained elevated 72 h after challenge. 4. The intravenous administration of an unfractionated preparation of heparin (100 units kg-1) or Org 10172 (100 micrograms kg-1) 30 min prior to PAF exposure significantly inhibited the airway hyperresponsiveness induced by PAF, 24 h and 72 h following challenge. PAF-induced hyperresponsiveness was not significantly affected by prior intravenous administration of polyglutamic acid (100 micrograms kg-1). 5. The intravenous administration of unfractionated heparin (100 units kg-1), Org 10172 (100 micrograms kg-1) or polyglutamic acid (100 micrograms kg-1) 30 min prior to PAF exposure significantly inhibited the expected increase in total cell infiltration. 6. This study shows that unfractionated heparin and a low-molecular weight heparinoid, Org 10172, are capable of inhibiting both the airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary cell infiltration induced by PAF in the rabbit. PMID:7693273

  17. Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage Associated With Low Molecular Weight Heparin and Dual Anti-platelet Therapy After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Fatma; Kara, İskender; Okuyan, Hızır; Abaci, Adnan; Turkoglu, Melda; Aygencel, Gülbin

    2016-01-19

    A 54-year-old man had undergone to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and two stents were placed to left anterior coronary artery and circumflex artery. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) together with ticagrelor 90 mg twice a day and acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) were started after PCI due to high risk of stent trombosis. On the fourth day of patient's follow-up in the intensive care unit (ICU), bloody secretion was started from endotracheal tube. Hemoglobin dropping, bilateral infiltration on the chest X-ray and bleeding from lung were diagnosed as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH). Apart from LMWH and antiplatelet therapies with aspirin and ticagrelor, there were no other identified risk factors for DAH. As far as we know, our report is the first case of DAH caused by LMWH and dual anti-platelet therapy including ticagrelor. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Low-molecular-weight or unfractionated heparin in venous thromboembolism: the influence of renal function.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Schellong, Sebastian; Falga, Conxita; Zorrilla, Vanessa; Gallego, Pedro; Barrón, Manuel; Monreal, Manuel

    2013-05-01

    In patients with acute venous thromboembolism and renal insufficiency, initial therapy with unfractionated heparin may have some advantages over low-molecular-weight heparin. We used the Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) Registry data to evaluate the 15-day outcome in 38,531 recruited patients. We used propensity score matching to compare patients treated with unfractionated heparin with those treated with low-molecular-weight heparin in 3 groups stratified by creatinine clearance levels at baseline: >60 mL/min, 30 to 60 mL/min, or <30 mL/min. Patients initially receiving unfractionated heparin therapy (n = 2167) more likely had underlying diseases than those receiving low-molecular-weight heparin (n = 34,665). Propensity score-matched groups of patients with creatinine clearance levels >60 mL/min (n = 1598 matched pairs), 30 to 60 mL/min (n = 277 matched pairs), and <30 mL/min (n = 210 matched pairs) showed an increased 15-day mortality for unfractionated heparin compared with low-molecular-weight heparin (4.5% vs 2.4% [P = .001], 5.4% vs 5.8% [P = not significant], and 15% vs 8.1% [P = .02], respectively), an increased rate of fatal pulmonary embolism (2.8% vs 1.2% [P = .001], 3.2% vs 2.5% [P = not significant], and 5.7% vs 2.4% [P = .02], respectively), and a similar rate of fatal bleeding (0.3% vs 0.3%, 0.7% vs 0.7%, and 0.5% vs 0.0%, respectively). Multivariate analysis confirmed that patients treated with unfractionated heparin were at increased risk for all-cause death (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.4) and fatal pulmonary embolism (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.6). In comparison with low-molecular-weight heparin, initial therapy with unfractionated heparin was associated with a higher mortality and higher rate of fatal pulmonary embolism in patients with creatinine clearance levels >60 mL/min or <30 mL/min, but not in those with levels between 30 and 60 mL/min. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc

  19. High antiangiogenic and low anticoagulant efficacy of orally active low molecular weight heparin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Woo; Jeon, Ok Cheol; Kim, Sang Kyoon; Al-Hilal, Taslim Ahmed; Jin, Shun Ji; Moon, Hyun Tae; Yang, Victor C; Kim, Sang Yoon; Byun, Youngro

    2010-12-20

    Heparin, an anticoagulant that is widely used clinically, is also known to bind to several kinds of proteins through electrostatic interactions because of its polyanionic character. These interactions are mediated by the physicochemical properties of heparin such as sequence composition, sulfation patterns, charge distribution, overall charge density, and molecular size. Although this electrostatic character mediates its binding to many proteins related with tumor progression, thereby providing its antiangiogenic property, the administration of heparin for treating cancer is limited in clinical applications due to several drawbacks, such as its low oral absorption, unsatisfactory therapeutic effects, and strong anticoagulant activity which induces hemorrhaging. Here, we evaluated novel, orally active, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) derivatives (LHD) conjugated with deoxycholic acid (DOCA) that show reduced anticoagulant activity and enhanced antiangiogenic activity. The chemical conjugate of LMWH and DOCA was synthesized by conjugating the amine group of N-deoxycholylethylamine (EtDOCA) with the carboxylic groups of heparin at various DOCA conjugation ratios. The LMWH-DOCA conjugate series (LHD1, LHD1.5, LHD2, and LHD4) were further formulated with poloxamer 407 as a solubilizer for oral administration. An in vitro endothelial tubular formation and in vivo Matrigel plug assay were performed to verify the antiangiogenic potential of LHD. Finally, we evaluated tumor growth inhibition of oral LHD administration in a SCC7 model as well as in A549 human cancer cell lines in a mouse xenograft model. Increasing DOCA conjugation ratios showed decreased anticoagulant activity, eventually to zero. LHD could block angiogenesis in the tubular formation assay and the Matrigel plug assay. In particular, oral administration of LHD4, which has 4 molecules of DOCA per mole of LMWH, inhibited tumor growth in SCC7 mice model as well as A549 mice xenograft model. LHD4 was orally

  20. Rapid screening of low-molecular-weight phenols from persimmon (Diospyros kaki) pulp using liquid chromatography/UV-visible/electrospray mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Sentandreu, Enrique; Cerdán-Calero, Manuela; Halket, John M; Navarro, José L

    2015-06-01

    Persimmon fruits have been widely used in traditional medicine owing to their phenolic composition. This research aims to perform a rapid, detailed and affordable study of the profile of low-molecular-weight phenols from persimmon pulp. Two different HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n) analyses were performed using a routine three-dimensional ion trap mass spectrometer to analyze the ethanolic extract of persimmon pulp: (1) an untargeted data-dependent analysis to identify the majority of small phenols that included full MS and MS(2) scan events; (2) a targeted data-dependent analysis to identify polymerized phenols (dimers and formic acid adducts) through a source-induced dissociation analysis that included full MS and MS(2) scan events. Thirty-two low-molecular-weight phenols were detected, comprising gallic acid and its glycoside and acyl derivatives, glycosides of p-coumaric, vanillic and cinnamic acids and different flavone di-C-hexosides, most of them reported for the first time in persimmon. The use of a straightforward and affordable methodology of analysis led to obtain an up-to-date profiling of low-molecular-weight phenols in persimmon. The results can help future actions aimed to expand the understanding of the phenolic metabolome of persimmon cultivars. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Approaches for the analysis of low molecular weight compounds with laser desorption/ionization techniques and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Nina; Shevchenko, Denys; Bergquist, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes various approaches for the analysis of low molecular weight (LMW) compounds by different laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry techniques (LDI-MS). It is common to use an agent to assist the ionization, and small molecules are normally difficult to analyze by, e.g., matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) using the common matrices available today, because the latter are generally small organic compounds themselves. This often results in severe suppression of analyte peaks, or interference of the matrix and analyte signals in the low mass region. However, intrinsic properties of several LDI techniques such as high sensitivity, low sample consumption, high tolerance towards salts and solid particles, and rapid analysis have stimulated scientists to develop methods to circumvent matrix-related issues in the analysis of LMW molecules. Recent developments within this field as well as historical considerations and future prospects are presented in this review.

  2. Characterization of distinct alpha- and gamma-type gliadins and low molecular weight components from wheat endosperm as coeliac immunoreactive proteins.

    PubMed

    Rocher, A; Soriano, F; Molina, E; González-Limas, G; Méndez, E

    1995-02-22

    Distinct alpha- and gamma-type gliadins, as well as a few low molecular weight components have been identified as coeliac immunoreactive proteins from a chloroform/methanol extract from wheat endosperm. Characterization of these components involved the combination of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, immunoblotting following SDS-PAGE using a coeliac serum and microsequencing analysis. This has allowed the identification of a group of gliadins with different molecular weights, according to their N-terminal amino-acid sequence: five alpha-type gliadins of 31, 35, 38 and two of 45 kDa, one gamma 2-type gliadin of 40 kDa, two gamma 3-type gliadins of 31, and 50 kDa, and two gamma-type gliadins with an atypical gliadin N-terminal of 31, and 40 kDa, as well as a few unidentified low molecular weight components and three N-terminal blocked proteins, all exhibiting similar antigenicity.

  3. Sequential photochemical and microbial degradation of organic molecules bound to humic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Amador, J.A.; Zika, R.G. ); Alexander, M. )

    1989-11-01

    We studied the effects of photochemical processes on the mineralization by soil microorganisms of (2-{sup 14}C)glycine bound to soil humic acid. Microbial mineralization of these complexes in the dark increased inversely with the molecular weight of the complex molecules. Sunlight irradiation of glycine-humic acid complexes resulted in loss of absorbance in the UV range and an increase in the amount of {sup 14}C-labeled low-molecular-weight photoproducts and the rate and extent of mineralization. More than half of the radioactivity in the low-molecular-weight photoproducts appears to be associated with carboxylic acids. Microbial mineralization of the organic carbon increased with solar flux and was proportional to the loss of A{sub 330}. Mineralization was proportional to the percentage of the original complex that was converted to low-molecular-weight photoproducts. Only light at wavelengths below 380 nm had an effect on the molecular weight distribution of the products formed from the glycine-humic acid complexes and on the subsequent microbial mineralization. Our results indicate that photochemical processes generate low-molecular-weight, readily biodegradable molecules from high-molecular-weight complexes of glycine with humic acid.

  4. Investigation of colloidal graphite as a matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry of low molecular weight analytes.

    PubMed

    Warren, Alexander D; Conway, Ulric; Arthur, Christopher J; Gates, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of low molecular weight compounds by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry is problematic due to the interference and suppression of analyte ionisation by the matrices typically employed - which are themselves low molecular weight compounds. The application of colloidal graphite is demonstrated here as an easy to use matrix that can promote the ionisation of a wide range of analytes including low molecular weight organic compounds, complex natural products and inorganic complexes. Analyte ionisation with colloidal graphite is compared with traditional organic matrices along with various other sources of graphite (e.g. graphite rods and charcoal pencils). Factors such as ease of application, spectra reproducibility, spot longevity, spot-to-spot reproducibility and spot homogeneity (through single spot imaging) are explored. For some analytes, considerable matrix suppression effects are observed resulting in spectra completely devoid of matrix ions. We also report the observation of radical molecular ions [M(-●) ] in the negative ion mode, particularly with some aromatic analytes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Low-molecular-weight heparin biosimilars: potential implications for clinical practice. Australian Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin Biosimilar Working Group (ALBW).

    PubMed

    Nandurkar, H; Chong, B; Salem, H; Gallus, A; Ferro, V; McKinnon, R

    2014-05-01

    A working group of clinicians and scientists was formed to review the clinical considerations for use of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) biosimilars. LMWH are biological molecules of significant complexity; the full complexity of chemical structure is still to be elucidated. LMWH biosimilars are products that are biologically similar to their reference product and rely on clinical data from a reference product to establish safety and efficacy. The complex nature of LMWH molecules means that it is uncertain whether a LMWH biosimilar is chemically identical to its reference product; this introduces the possibility of differences in activity and immunogenicity. The challenge for regulators and clinicians is to evaluate the level of evidence required to demonstrate that a LMWH is sufficiently similar to the reference product. The consensus opinion of the working group is that prior to clinical use a LMWH biosimilar should have proven efficacy and safety, similar to the reference product with prospective studies, which should be confirmed with a proactive post-marketing pharmacovigilance programme. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  6. Organogelation and hydrogelation of low-molecular-weight amphiphilic dipeptides: pH responsiveness in phase-selective gelation and dye removal.

    PubMed

    Kar, Tanmoy; Debnath, Sisir; Das, Dibyendu; Shome, Anshupriya; Das, Prasanta Kumar

    2009-08-04

    The search for efficient low-molecular-weight gelators (LMWGs) with possible structure-activity correlation is on the rise. The present work reports a novel set of amphiphilic dipeptide-based carboxylic acids capable of efficiently gelating organic solvents. More interestingly, their sodium salts showed enhanced efficiency in organogelation with the additional ability to gelate water. Electrostatic interactions present in the aggregation of the sodium carboxylates of amphiphilic dipeptides seem to be important because some of the nongelator carboxylic acids turned out to be excellent gelators upon salt formation. The combinations and sequence of the amino acids in the dipeptide moiety were systematically altered to understand the collective importance of the nonpolar aliphatic/aromatic substitution in amino acids in the self-assembling behavior of amphiphiles. Almost a 20-fold enhancement in the gelation ability was observed on reversing the sequence of the amino acid residues, and in some cases, nongelators were transformed to efficient gelators. Spectroscopic and microscopic studies of these thermoreversible organo/hydrogels revealed that balanced participation of the noncovalent interactions including hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions are crucial for organo/hydrogelation. These dipeptides selectively gelate organic solvents from their mixtures with water, and the xerogels prepared from these organogels showed time-dependent adsorption of dyes such as crystal violet. The most remarkable feature of these gelators is the pH responsiveness, which was aptly utilized for the pH-dependent phase-selective gelation of either solvent in a biphasic mixture of oil and water. The dissimilar gelation ability of the acid and its salt originating from the pH responsiveness of the amphiphilic dipeptide was employed in the instant removal of large amounts of dyes for wastewater treatment.

  7. Antioxidants, low molecular weight carbohydrates, and total antioxidant capacity in strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa): effects of cultivar, ripening, and storage.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Marie E; Ekvall, Jimmy; Gustavsson, Karl-Erik; Nilsson, Jessica; Pillai, Deepa; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Svensson, Ulla; Akesson, Björn; Nyman, Margareta G L

    2004-05-05

    Four cultivars of strawberries (Senga Sengana, BFr77111, Elsanta, and Honeoye) were studied for their content of antioxidants, total antioxidant capacity, and low molecular weight carbohydrates in relation to harvest year, ripening stage, and cold storage. For ascorbic acid, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, and total antioxidative capacity, measured in both water-soluble and water-insoluble extracts, there was a 2-5-fold variation among cultivars. Unripe berries contained lower concentrations of chlorogenic acid and p-coumaric acid and also quercetin and kaempferol compared with riper berries. During cold storage for up to 3 days, relatively few changes in the concentration of the different antioxidants occurred. The concentrations of several investigated parameters were interrelated, for example, for ascorbic acid and water-soluble antioxidant capacity and for ellagic acid and water-insoluble antioxidant capacity. The dominating sugars in strawberries were fructose and glucose, but considerable amounts of sucrose were also present, and their contents varied among cultivars, giving a predicted glycemic index of approximately 81. Verbascose, raffinose, and stachyose were found in only minor amounts. The study shows that the concentration of a number of bioactive compounds in strawberries varied according to cultivar, ripening stage, and storage. This information should make it possible to select strawberries with an optimal content of bioactive compounds.

  8. Low molecular weight thermostable .beta.-D-glucosidase from acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOEpatents

    Himmel, Michael E.; Tucker, Melvin P.; Adney, William S.; Nieves, Rafael A.

    1995-01-01

    A purified low molecular weight .beta.-D-glucosidase is produced from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC 43068. The enzyme is water soluble, possesses activity against pNP-.beta.-D-glucopyranoside, has a high of degree of stability toward heat, exhibits optimal temperature activity at about 65.degree. C. at a pH range of from about 2 to about 7, has an inactivation temperature of about 80.degree. C. at a pH range of from about 2 to about 7 and has a molecular weight of about 50.5-54.5 kD as determineded by SDS-PAGE.

  9. O-acetylation of low-molecular-weight polysaccharide from Enteromorpha linza with antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongshan; Wang, Xiaomei; Zhao, Mingxing; Qi, Huimin

    2014-08-01

    Polysaccharide extracted from green algae Enteromorpha linza (EP) is a sulfated polysaccharide, which possesses excellent antioxidant activities. In present study, the acetylated derivatives of low-molecular-weight polysaccharide (LEP) was prepared with the method of response surface quadratic model. And then the antioxidant activities of the derivatives were investigated including scavenging effects of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The results of chemical analysis and FT-IR spectrum showed the acetylation was successful. And in addition, certain derivative with different degree of substitution (DS) exhibited different antioxidant activity.

  10. Total internal reflection ellipsometry and SPR detection of low molecular weight environmental toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabok, A. V.; Tsargorodskaya, A.; Hassan, A. K.; Starodub, N. F.

    2005-06-01

    The environmental toxins, such as herbicides simazine and atrazine, and T2 mycotoxin were registered with the optical methods of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and recently developed total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE). The immune assay approach was exploited for in situ registration of the above low molecular weight toxins with specific antibodies immobilised onto the gold surface via (poly)allylamine hydrochloride layer using electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) technique. The comparison of two methods of SPR and TIRE shows a higher sensitivity of the latter.

  11. Low Molecular Weight Heparin Induced Skin Necrosis without Platelet Fall Revealing Immunoallergic Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Godet, Thomas; Perbet, Sébastien; Lebreton, Aurélien; Gayraud, Guillaume; Cayot, Sophie; Tremblay, Aymeric; Ravinet, Aurélie; Christophe, Sébastien; Guérin, Renaud; Pascal, Julien; Jabaudon, Matthieu; Hassan, Amr; Sapin, Anne-Françoise; Bazin, Jean-Etienne; Constantin, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) are commonly used in the ICU setting for thromboprophylaxis as well as curative decoagulation as required during renal replacement therapy (RRT). A rare adverse event revealing immunoallergic LMWH induced thrombopenia (HIT) is skin necrosis at injection sites. We report the case of a patient presenting with skin necrosis witnessing an HIT after RRT, without thrombocytopenia. The mechanism remains unclear. Anti-PF4/heparin antibodies, functional tests (HIPA and/or SRA), and skin biopsy are of great help to evaluate differential diagnosis with a low pretest probability 4T's score. PMID:24307958

  12. Synthesis and kinetic studies of a low-molecular weight organocatalyst for phosphate hydrolysis in water.

    PubMed

    Merschky, Michael; Schmuck, Carsten

    2009-12-07

    Kinetic studies of a low-molecular weight organocatalyst 1 are presented. Compound 1 contains two histidines and one cationic side chain attached to a central aromatic core. In aqueous solution 1 accelerates the hydrolysis of a prototypal phosphodiester with rate enhancements of up to two orders of magnitude. A detailed HPLC analysis of hydrolysis experiments in Bis-Tris-buffer showed that the buffer itself can act as a nucleophile at least with the cyclic phosphate 16. Compound 1 is also an efficient host for the binding of bis-(para-nitrophenyl)-phosphate 14 with extraordinary high affinity of K(ass) = 24,400 M(-1) in buffered water.

  13. Chromatofocusing for separation of human cataractous lens low molecular weight proteins.

    PubMed

    Kabasawa, I; Watanabe, M; Kimura, M

    1983-01-01

    Four low molecular weight proteins (i.e. beta s, gamma H, gamma L1 & gamma L2 crystallins) were separated from the human cataractous lens cortex using gel filtration and chromatofocusing. Each of these four crystallins possessed its own subfractions in the pH gradient between 7.4 and 4.0 by chromatofocusing procedures. Analyses of the chromatofocusing patterns have further characterized the four crystallins. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of these crystallin subfractions showed the possible separation of the heterogeneous protein bands.

  14. Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin Use in a Case of Noncardiogenic Multifocal Perinatal Thromboembolic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Saxonhouse, Matthew A.; Tarquinio, Dan; Carney, Paul R.; Bennett, Jeff; Smith, Amy; Hunger, Stephen P.; Geyer, James D.

    2009-01-01

    A full-term neonate suffered multifocal cerebral infarctions due to multiple large vessel thrombi. Thrombophilia and cardiovascular assessments were negative, but due to the severity of the lesions and the concern for expansion of the thrombi or future embolic events, treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) was initiated. No complications from treatment were experienced. We present this severe case in order to highlight difficult management decisions for newborns with multifocal perinatal thromboembolic stroke and to stress the need for further practice guidelines and research in this area. PMID:19946420

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Low Molecular Weight Heparin by Liquid Phase Plasma Method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do-Jin; Kim, Hangun; Kim, Byung Hoon; Park, Young-Kwon; Lee, Heon; Park, Sung Hoon; Jung, Sang-Chul

    2015-08-01

    An liquid phase plasma process system was applied to the production of low molecular weight heparin. The molecular weight of produed heparin decreased with increasing liquid phase plasma treatment time. The abscission of the chemical bonds between the constituents of heparin by liquid phase plasma reaction did not alter the characteristics of heparin. Formation of any by-products due to side reaction was not observed. It is suggested that heparin was depolymerized by active oxygen radicals produced during the liquid phase plasma reaction.

  16. Low molecular weight thermostable {beta}-D-glucosidase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOEpatents

    Himmel, M.E.; Tucker, M.P.; Adney, W.S.; Nieves, R.A.

    1995-07-11

    A purified low molecular weight {beta}-D-glucosidase is produced from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC 43068. The enzyme is water soluble, possesses activity against pNP-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, has a high of degree of stability toward heat, exhibits optimal temperature activity at about 65 C at a pH range of from about 2 to about 7, has an inactivation temperature of about 80 C at a pH range of from about 2 to about 7 and has a molecular weight of about 50.5--54.5 kD as determined by SDS-PAGE. 6 figs.

  17. [Venous thrombo-embolic disease in cancer. Low molecular weight heparin indications].

    PubMed

    Nou, M; Laroche, J-P

    2016-05-01

    Cancer and venous thrombo-embolic disease (VTE) are closely related. Indeed, cancer can reveal VTE and VTE can be the first sign of cancer. Low molecular weight heparin (LWMH) is now the first line treatment in cancer patients. Compliance with marketing authorizations and guidelines are crucial for patient-centered decision-making. This work deals with the prescription of LWMH in patients who develop VTE during cancer in order to better recognize what should or should not be done. The patient's wishes must be taken into consideration when making the final therapeutic decision. The other treatments are discussed: vitamin K antagonists and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) may be useful.

  18. Concentration and fractionation of hydrophobic organic acid constituents from natural waters by liquid chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Malcolm, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    A scheme is presented which used adsorption chromatography with pH gradient elution and size-exclusion chromatography to concentrate and separate hydrophobic organic acids from water. A review of chromatographic processes involved in the flow scheme is also presented. Organic analytes which appear in each aqueous fraction are quantified by dissolved organic carbon analysis. Hydrophobic organic acids in a water sample are concentrated on a porous acrylic resin. These acids usually constitute approximately 30-50 percent of the dissolved organic carbon in an unpolluted water sample and are eluted with an aqueous eluent (dilute base). The concentrate is then passed through a column of polyacryloylmorpholine gel, which separates the acids into high- and low-molecular-weight fractions. The high- and low-molecular-weight eluates are reconcentrated by adsorption chromatography, then are eluted with a pH gradient into strong acids (predominately carboxylic acids) and weak acids (predominately phenolic compounds). For standard compounds and samples of unpolluted waters, the scheme fractionates humic substances into strong and weak acid fractions that are separated from the low molecular weight acids. A new method utilizing conductivity is also presented to estimate the acidic components in the methanol fraction.

  19. Low molecular weight fluorescent probes with good photostability for imaging RNA-rich nucleolus and RNA in cytoplasm in living cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Guofen; Sun, Yuming; Liu, Yong; Wang, Xiankun; Chen, Meiling; Miao, Fang; Zhang, Weijia; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Jin, Jianling

    2014-02-01

    We have synthesized two low molecular weight organic molecules, PY and IN successfully, which selectively stain nucleolus and cytoplasm of living cells in 30 min, with a much lower uptake in the nucleus. Nucleic acids electrophoresis and digest test of ribonuclease indicate their markedly higher affinity for RNA, especially PY. Moreover their RNA localization in cells is further supported by digest test of ribonuclease, namely, the nucleolar fluorescence signal is distinctly lost upon treatment with RNase. And, the fact that live cells stained by PY and IN still possess physiological function can be confirmed: 1) MTT assay demonstrates that the mitochondria of cells stained remains its electron mediating ability, 2) Double assay of PY/IN and propidium iodide as well as trypan blue testing show that the membrane of cells stained still is intact. Importantly, compared with the only commercial RNA probe, SYTO RNA-Select, PY and IN exhibit much better photostability when continuously illuminated with 488 nm laser and mercury lamp. These results prove that PY and IN are very attractive staining reagents for visualizing RNA in living cells.

  20. Study of Low Molecular Weight Impurities in Pluronic Triblock Copolymers using MALDI, Interaction Chromatography, and NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helming, Z.; Zagorevski, D.; Ryu, C. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers are a group of commercial macromolecular amphiphilic surfactants that have been widely studied for their applications in polymer-based nanotechnology and drug-delivery. It has been well-established that the synthesis of commercial Pluronic triblocks results in low molecular weight ``impurities,'' which are generally disregarded in the applications and study of these polymers. These species have been shown to have significant effects on the rheological properties of the material, as well as altering the supramolecular ``micellar'' structures for which the polymers are most often used. We have isolated the impurities from the bulk Pluronic triblock using Interaction Chromatography (IC) techniques, and subjected them to analysis by H1 NMR and MALDI (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization) Mass Spectrometry to identify relative block composition and molecular weight information. We report significant evidence of at least two polymeric components: a low-molecular-weight homopolymer of poly(ethylene oxide) and a ``blocky'' copolymer of both poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide). This has significant implications, not only for the applied usage of Pluronic triblock copolymers, but for the general scientific acceptance of the impurities and their effects on Pluronic micelle and hydrogel formation.

  1. Weak oligomerization of low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatase is conserved from mammals to bacteria.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Jascha; Bernadó, Pau; Xu, Huimin; Jin, Changwen; Pons, Miquel

    2009-08-01

    The well-characterized self-association of a mammalian low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (lmwPTP) produces inactive oligomers that are in equilibrium with active monomers. A role of the inactive oligomers as supramolecular proenzymes has been suggested. The oligomerization equilibrium of YwlE, a lmwPTP from Bacillus subtilis, was studied by NMR. Chemical shift data and NMR relaxation confirm that dimerization takes place through the enzyme's active site, and is fully equivalent to the dimerization previously characterized in a eukaryotic low-molecular-weight phosphatase, with similarly large dissociation constants. The similarity between the oligomerization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic phosphatases extends beyond the dimer and involves higher order oligomers detected by NMR relaxation analysis at high protein concentrations. The conservation across different kingdoms of life suggests a physiological role for lmwPTP oligomerization in spite of the weak association observed in vitro. Structural data suggest that substrate modulation of the oligomerization equilibrium could be a regulatory mechanism leading to the generation of signaling pulses. The presence of a phenylalanine residue in the dimerization site of YwlE, replacing a tyrosine residue conserved in all eukaryotic lmwPTPs, demonstrates that lmwPTP regulation by oligomerization can be independent from tyrosine phosphorylation.

  2. Role of the kidney in the expression of low molecular weight factors with growth factor activity.

    PubMed

    Jacob, C; Maachi, F; el Farricha, O; Dousset, B; Kessler, M; Belleville, F; Nabet, P

    1993-06-01

    Small molecules of peptidic nature, called low molecular weight growth factors (LMW-GF < 1000 Da) are present in normal human serum ultrafiltrate. They enhance the somatomedin activity as measured by the incorporation of 35SO4 into chick embryo cartilages. On the basis of this in vitro test, LMW-GF activities were measured in serum ultrafiltrates of hemodialyzed patients and renal transplant recipients during the post-transplantation follow-up. LMW-GF activity was always zero in patients with chronic renal failure. It was checked that these results were not due to the presence of low molecular weight somatomedin inhibitors or to the increased sulfate concentration. After successful renal transplantation, the LMW-GF activity of patients ultrafiltrates returned to normal at the same time or before the improvement of renal function. In case of post-transplant complications, a decrease in LMW-GF activity accompanied or even occurred prior to impairment of renal function. In functioning graft, LMW-GF activity reappears rapidly, whereas its normalization is delayed in case of tubular nephropathy or episode of acute rejection. It was suggested that the kidney is involved in LMW-GF molecules production or processing. It could be speculated that LMW-GF activity might be a prognostic factor in renal transplantation.

  3. Mesoporous Silica Chips for Selective Enrichment and Stabilization of Low Molecular Weight Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Ye; Tasciotti, Ennio; Li, Li; Chiappini, Ciro; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    The advanced properties of mesoporous silica have been demonstrated in applications which include chemical sensing, filtration, catalysis, drug-delivery and selective biomolecular uptake. These properties depend on the architectural, physical and chemical properties of the material, which in turn are determined by the processing parameters in evaporation-induced self-assembly. In this study, we introduce a combinatorial approach for the removal of the high molecular weight proteins and for the specific isolation and enrichment of low molecular weight species. This approach is based on Mesoporous Silica Chips able to fractionate, selectively harvest and protect from enzymatic degradation, peptides and proteins present in complex human biological fluids. We present the characterization of the harvesting properties of a wide range of mesoporous chips using a library of peptides and proteins standard and their selectivity on the recovery of serum peptidome. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we established the correlation between the harvesting specificity and the physico-chemical properties of mesoporous silica surfaces. The introduction of this mesoporous material with fine controlled properties will provide a powerful platform for proteomics application offering a rapid and efficient methodology for low molecular weight biomarker discovery. PMID:20013801

  4. Ultrastructure, glutathione and low molecular weight proteins of Penicillium brevicompactum in response to cobalt.

    PubMed

    Farrag, Rasha M

    2009-01-01

    Penicillium brevicompactum highly tolerated cobalt concentrations of 50, 200, 800 and 1000 ppm both through cell wall and intracellular sequestration- immobilization of the metal on/within the cell wall, cell wall thickness, presence of electron-dense deposits inside vacuoles (thiol peptides sequestering cobalt) and in the cytoplasm (cobalt), and presence of matrixed electron-dense deposits, only at 800 and 1000 ppm, were observed. Increased vacuole formation and plasmolysis were also observed. Fraction number 9 of the cell free extract showed maximum cobalt uptake for all the investigated cobalt concentrations. In this fraction, glutathione was only induced at 500, 800 and 1000 ppm. Maximum glutathione concentration supported maximum cobalt uptake at 800 ppm. Low molecular weight protein profiles of fraction number 9 revealed that the presence of cobalt induced the appearance of new proteins that were not detected in the same fraction of the control. These low molecular weight peptides (12-5 KDa) suggest the production of Co-metallothioneins. This is the first report of cobalt-induced glutathione by P. brevicompactum and suggests the possible production of phytochelatins.

  5. Mesoporous silica chips for selective enrichment and stabilization of low molecular weight proteome.

    PubMed

    Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Ye; Tasciotti, Ennio; Li, Li; Chiappini, Ciro; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-02-01

    The advanced properties of mesoporous silica have been demonstrated in applications, which include chemical sensing, filtration, catalysis, drug delivery and selective biomolecular uptake. These properties depend on the architectural, physical and chemical properties of the material, which in turn are determined by the processing parameters in evaporation-induced self-assembly. In this study, we introduce a combinatorial approach for the removal of the high molecular weight proteins and for the specific isolation and enrichment of low molecular weight species. This approach is based on mesoporous silica chips able to fractionate, selectively harvest and protect from enzymatic degradation, peptides and proteins present in complex human biological fluids. We present the characterization of the harvesting properties of a wide range of mesoporous chips using a library of peptides and proteins standard and their selectivity on the recovery of serum peptidome. Using MALDI-TOF-MS, we established the correlation between the harvesting specificity and the physicochemical properties of mesoporous silica surfaces. The introduction of this mesoporous material with fine controlled properties will provide a powerful platform for proteomics application offering a rapid and efficient methodology for low molecular weight biomarker discovery.

  6. Analysis of low molecular weight metabolites in tea using mass spectrometry-based analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Karl; Harrison, Scott J; Lane, Geoff A; Otter, Don E; Hemar, Yacine; Quek, Siew-Young; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world after water and there are numerous reported health benefits as a result of consuming tea, such as reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and many types of cancer. Thus, there is much interest in the chemical composition of teas, for example; defining components responsible for contributing to reported health benefits; defining quality characteristics such as product flavor; and monitoring for pesticide residues to comply with food safety import/export requirements. Covered in this review are some of the latest developments in mass spectrometry-based analytical techniques for measuring and characterizing low molecular weight components of tea, in particular primary and secondary metabolites. The methodology; more specifically the chromatography and detection mechanisms used in both targeted and non-targeted studies, and their main advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Finally, we comment on the latest techniques that are likely to have significant benefit to analysts in the future, not merely in the area of tea research, but in the analytical chemistry of low molecular weight compounds in general.

  7. Production and characterization of a low-molecular-weight bacteriocin from Bacillus licheniformis MKU3.

    PubMed

    Kayalvizhi, N; Gunasekaran, P

    2008-12-01

    Enhancing production and characterization of a low-molecular-weight bacteriocin from Bacillus licheniformis MKU3. The culture supernatant of B. licheniformis MKU3 exhibited bacteriocin-like activity against gram-positive and -negative bacteria and different fungi and yeast. SDS-PAGE analysis of the extracellular proteins of B. licheniformis MKU3 revealed a bacteriocin-like protein with a molecular mass of 1.5 kDa. This bacteriocin activity was found to be stable under a pH range of 3.0-10.0 and at temperatures up to 100 degrees C for 60 min, but inactivated by proteinase K, trypsin or pronase E. An experimental fractional factorial design for optimization of production medium resulted in a maximum activity of bacteriocin (11,000 AU ml(-1)) by B. licheniformis MKU3. A low-molecular-weight bacteriocin-like protein from B. licheniformis MKU3 exhibited a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against several gram-positive bacteria, several fungi and yeast. A 3.6-fold increase in the production of bacteriocin was achieved using the culture medium optimized through a fractional factorial design. A bacteriocin with wide spectrum of activity against gram-positive bacterial pathogens, filamentous fungi and yeast suggested its potential clinical use. Statistical method facilitated optimization of cultural medium for the improved production of bacteriocin.

  8. Low molecular weight heparin therapy in pediatric otogenic sigmoid sinus thrombosis: a safe treatment option?

    PubMed

    Ropposch, Thorsten; Nemetz, Ulrike; Braun, Eva Maria; Lackner, Andreas; Walch, Christian

    2012-07-01

    Septic thrombosis of the sigmoid and lateral sinus is a rare complication of acute otitis media, mastoiditis and cholesteatoma. Hence, the aim of this chat review was to analyze the demographics, presenting symptoms, diagnosis, and therapeutic management of otogenic sigmoid sinus thrombosis. Especially the role of low molecular weight heparin in the therapy of septic intracranial sinus thrombosis in children should be illuminated. A retrospective chart review was performed. Six patients were included in this trial. One patient was treated completely conservatively. All other patients underwent surgical treatment consisting of mastoidectomy (n=5), additional thrombectomy (n=3) and ligation of the internal jugular vein (n=2). All patients received intravenous antibiotics and anticoagulants. Unfractionated heparin was administered for three days after surgery followed by an anticoagulant therapy with low-molecular weight heparin for three months. The activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and the anti-factor-Xa-plasma-levels were monitored during anticoagulation in short term intervals. There were no complications related to the anticoagulant therapy. Recanalization was found in all patients who were treated without thrombectomy or ligation of the internal jugular vein and in the case of complete conservative treatment. Simple mastoidectomy combined with broad spectrum antibiotics is the therapy of choice. Our results indicate that anticoagulants represent a safe treatment option if they are administered correctly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Low molecular weight chitosan conjugated with folate for siRNA delivery in vitro: optimization studies

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Julio C; Qiu, Xingping; Winnik, Francoise M; Benderdour, Mohamed; Zhang, Xiaoling; Dai, Kerong; Shi, Qin

    2012-01-01

    The low transfection efficiency of chitosan is one of its drawbacks as a gene delivery carrier. Low molecular weight chitosan may help to form small-sized polymer-DNA or small interfering RNA (siRNA) complexes. Folate conjugation may improve gene transfection efficiency because of the promoted uptake of folate receptor-bearing cells. In the present study, chitosan was conjugated with folate and investigated for its efficacy as a delivery vector for siRNA in vitro. We demonstrate that the molecular weight of chitosan has a major influence on its biological and physicochemical properties, and very low molecular weight chitosan (below 10 kDa) has difficulty in forming stable complexes with siRNA. In this study, chitosan 25 kDa and 50 kDa completely absorbed siRNA and formed nanoparticles (≤220 nm) at a chitosan to siRNA weight ratio of 50:1. The introduction of a folate ligand onto chitosan decreased nanoparticle toxicity. Compared with chitosan-siRNA, folate-chitosan-siRNA nanoparticles improved gene silencing transfection efficiency. Therefore, folate-chitosan shows potential as a viable candidate vector for safe and efficient siRNA delivery. PMID:23209368

  10. A low molecular weight polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus blazei suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Niu, Y C; Liu, J C; Zhao, X M; Wu, X X

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that the low molecular weight polysaccharide extracts from Agaricus blazei are potential antitumor agents or adjuvant in tumor treatment. In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity of LMPAB, a low molecular weight polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus blazei, and the molecular mechanisms of its antitumor activity. The antitumor effect of LMPAB was examined using mouse sarcoma 180 (S180) xenograft models. Antiangiogenic effect of LMPAB was determined by chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis and Matrigel-induced neovascularization in vivo models. The mRNA and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were assessed using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Tumor inhibitory rates in the S180 xenograft models were 9.7, 23.9, and 33.0%, respectively, after administration of LMPAB at dose of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks. LMPAB also inhibited angiogenesis in the CAM model and Matrigel-induced neovascularization in C57BL/6 mice. The mRNA and protein levels of VEGF in tumor tissues were significantly down-regulated in the BALB/c mice received LMPAB treatment. Furthermore, significant down-regulation of serum VEGF levels was also observed in the mice. Our data suggest that LMPAB might be a promising agent for tumor therapy, and the antitumor and antiangiogenic effects of LMPAB may be related with down-regulation of VEGF.

  11. Finding of the Low Molecular Weight Inhibitors of Resuscitation Promoting Factor Enzymatic and Resuscitation Activity

    PubMed Central

    Demina, Galina R.; Makarov, Vadim A.; Nikitushkin, Vadim D.; Ryabova, Olga B.; Vostroknutova, Galina N.; Salina, Elena G.; Shleeva, Margarita O.; Goncharenko, Anna V.; Kaprelyants, Arseny S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Resuscitation promoting factors (RPF) are secreted proteins involved in reactivation of dormant actinobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They have been considered as prospective targets for the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs preventing reactivation of dormant tubercle bacilli, generally associated with latent tuberculosis. However, no inhibitors of Rpf activity have been reported so far. The goal of this study was to find low molecular weight compounds inhibiting the enzymatic and biological activities of Rpfs. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a novel class of 2-nitrophenylthiocyanates (NPT) compounds that inhibit muralytic activity of Rpfs with IC50 1–7 µg/ml. Fluorescence studies revealed interaction of active NPTs with the internal regions of the Rpf molecule. Candidate inhibitors of Rpf enzymatic activity showed a bacteriostatic effect on growth of Micrococcus luteus (in which Rpf is essential for growth protein) at concentrations close to IC50. The candidate compounds suppressed resuscitation of dormant (“non-culturable”) cells of M. smegmatis at 1 µg/ml or delayed resuscitation of dormant M. tuberculosis obtained in laboratory conditions at 10 µg/ml. However, they did not inhibit growth of active mycobacteria under these concentrations. Conclusions/Significance NPT are the first example of low molecular weight compounds that inhibit the enzymatic and biological activities of Rpf proteins. PMID:20016836

  12. Single-handed helical carbonaceous nanotubes prepared using a pair of cationic low molecular weight gelators

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Huayan; Wang, Qing; Guo, Yongmin; Li, Baozong; Li, Yi Yang, Yonggang

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • 3-aminophenol-formaldeyde resins were prepared through a templating method. • A pair of cationic gelators have been used as the templates. • Single-handed helical carbonaceous nanotubes were obtained after carbonization. • The carbonaceous nanotubes showed optical activity. - Abstract: We design a facile route to obtain enantiopure carbonaceous nanostructures, which have potential application as chiral sensors, electromagnetic wave absorbers, and asymmetric catalysts. A pair of cationic low molecular weight gelators was synthesized, which were able to self-assemble into twisted nanoribbons in ethanol at a concentration of 20 g L{sup −1} at 25 °C. Single-handed helical 3-aminophenol-formaldehyde resin nanotubes with optical activity were prepared using the self-assembly of the low molecular weight gelators as templates. After carbonization, single-handed helical carbonaceous nanotubes were obtained and characterized using circular dichroism, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the walls of the nanotubes are amorphous carbon. Moreover, the left- and right-handed helical nanotubes exhibit opposite optical activity.

  13. Mass spectrometric techniques for characterizing low-molecular-weight resins used as paint varnishes.

    PubMed

    Bonaduce, I; Colombini, M P; Degano, I; Di Girolamo, F; La Nasa, J; Modugno, F; Orsini, S

    2013-01-01

    The molecular structure of three low-molecular-weight resins used as paint varnishes has been characterized by use of an approach based on three different mass spectrometric techniques. We investigated the ketone resin MS2A, the aldehyde resin Laropal A81, and the hydrocarbon resin Regalrez 1094, now commonly used in restoration. To date, the molecular structures of these resins have not been completely elucidated. To improve current knowledge of the chemical composition of these materials, information obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py/GC/MS), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-ToF) was combined. Analysis, in solution, of the whole polymeric fraction of the resins by flow-injection ESI-Q-ToF, and of the non-polymeric fraction by GC-MS, enabled us to identify previously unreported features of the polymer structures. In addition, the Py-GC/MS profiles that we obtained will help to enhance the databases currently available in the literature. The proposed approach can be extended to other low-molecular-weight resins used as varnishes in conservation.

  14. Sensor Based on Aptamer Folding to Detect Low-Molecular Weight Analytes.

    PubMed

    Osypova, Alina; Thakar, Dhruv; Dejeu, Jérôme; Bonnet, Hugues; Van der Heyden, Angéline; Dubacheva, Galina V; Richter, Ralf P; Defrancq, Eric; Spinelli, Nicolas; Coche-Guérente, Liliane; Labbé, Pierre

    2015-08-04

    Aptamers have emerged as promising biorecognition elements in the development of biosensors. The present work focuses on the application of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) for the enantioselective detection of a low molecular weight target molecule (less than 200 Da) by aptamer-based sensors. While QCM-D is a powerful technique for label-free, real-time characterization and quantification of molecular interactions at interfaces, the detection of small molecules interacting with immobilized receptors still remains a challenge. In the present study, we take advantage of the aptamer conformational changes upon the target binding that induces displacement of water acoustically coupled to the sensing layer. As a consequence, this phenomenon leads to a significant enhancement of the detection signal. The methodology is exemplified with the enantioselective recognition of a low molecular weight model compound, L-tyrosinamide (L-Tym). QCM-D monitoring of L-Tym interaction with the aptamer monolayer leads to an appreciable signal that can be further exploited for analytical purposes or thermodynamics studies. Furthermore, in situ combination of QCM-D with spectroscopic ellipsometry unambiguously demonstrates that the conformational change induces a nanometric decrease of the aptamer monolayer thickness. Since QCM-D is sensitive to the whole mass of the sensing layer including water that is acoustically coupled, a decrease in thickness of the highly hydrated aptamer layer induces a sizable release of water that can be easily detected by QCM-D.

  15. Anti-heparanase activity of ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin produced by physicochemical depolymerization.

    PubMed

    Achour, Oussama; Poupard, Nicolas; Bridiau, Nicolas; Bordenave Juchereau, Stephanie; Sannier, Fredéric; Piot, Jean-Marie; Fruitier Arnaudin, Ingrid; Maugard, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an endo-β-D-glucuronidase that plays an important role in cancer progression, in particular during tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Inhibiting this enzyme is considered as one of the most promising approaches in cancer therapy. Heparin is a complex glycoaminoglycan known as a strong inhibitor of heparanase. It is primarily used in clinical practice for its anticoagulant activities, which may not be compatible with its use as anti-angiogenic agent. In this study, we described the production of ultra-low-molecular-weight heparins (ULMWH) by a physicochemical method that consists in a hydrogen peroxide-catalyzed radical hydrolysis assisted by ultrasonic waves. We assessed the structural characteristics, anticoagulant and anti-heparanase activities of the obtained heparin derivatives and compared them with three commercial low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH), glycol-split non-anticoagulant heparins and heparins produced by enzymatic methods. ULMWH generated by the physicochemical method were characterized by high anti-heparanase and moderate anticoagulant activities. These heparin derivatives might be potential candidates for cancer therapy when a compromise is needed between anti-heparanase and anticoagulant activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasma zinc's alter ego is a low-molecular-weight humoral factor.

    PubMed

    Ou, Ou; Allen-Redpath, Keith; Urgast, Dagmar; Gordon, Margaret-Jane; Campbell, Gill; Feldmann, Jörg; Nixon, Graeme F; Mayer, Claus-Dieter; Kwun, In-Sook; Beattie, John H

    2013-09-01

    Mild dietary zinc deprivation in humans and rodents has little effect on blood plasma zinc levels, and yet cellular consequences of zinc depletion can be detected in vascular and other tissues. We proposed that a zinc-regulated humoral factor might mediate the effects of zinc deprivation. Using a novel approach, primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were treated with plasma from zinc-deficient (<1 mg Zn/kg) or zinc-adequate (35 mg Zn/kg, pair-fed) adult male rats, and zinc levels were manipulated to distinguish direct and indirect effects of plasma zinc. Gene expression changes were analyzed by microarray and qPCR, and incubation of VSMCs with blood plasma from zinc-deficient rats strongly changed the expression of >2500 genes, compared to incubation of cells with zinc-adequate rat plasma. We demonstrated that this effect was caused by a low-molecular-weight (∼2-kDa) zinc-regulated humoral factor but that changes in gene expression were mostly reversed by adding zinc back to zinc-deficient plasma. Strongly regulated genes were overrepresented in pathways associated with immune function and development. We conclude that zinc deficiency induces the production of a low-molecular-weight humoral factor whose influence on VSMC gene expression is blocked by plasma zinc. This factor is therefore under dual control by zinc.

  17. Screening for low molecular weight compounds in fish meal solubles by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A simple analytical method using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was developed to screen for low molecular weight compounds in enzyme treated and untreated Alaskan pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) stickwater (SW) generated from processing fish meal with po...

  18. Low molecular weight chitosan-coated polymeric nanoparticles for sustained and pH-sensitive delivery of paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Abouelmagd, Sara A.; Ku, Youn Jin; Yeo, Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) is a promising polymer for surface modification of nanoparticles (NPs), which can impart both stealth effect and electrostatic interaction with cells at mildly acidic pH of tumors. We previously produced LMWC-coated NPs via covalent conjugation to poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA-LMWC NPs). However, this method had several weaknesses including inefficiency and complexity of the production as well as increased hydrophilicity of the polymer matrix, which led to poor drug release control. Here, we used the dopamine polymerization method to produce LMWC-coated NPs (PLGA-pD-LMWC NPs), where the core NPs were prepared with PLGA that served best to load and retain drugs and then functionalized with LMWC via polydopamine layer. The PLGA-pD-LMWC NPs overcame the limitations of PLGA-LMWC NPs while maintaining their advantages. First of all, PLGA-pD-LMWC NPs attenuated the release of paclitaxel to a greater extent than PLGA-LMWC NPs. Moreover, PLGA-pD-LMWC NPs had a pH-dependent surface charge profile and cellular interactions similar to PLGA-LMWC NPs, enabling acid-specific NP-cell interaction and enhanced drug delivery to cells in weakly acidic environment. Although the LMWC layer did not completely prevent protein binding in serum solution, PLGA-pD-LMWC NPs showed less phagocytic uptake than bare PLGA NPs. PMID:26453168

  19. Changes in low molecular weight phenolic compounds in Spanish, French, and American oak woods during natural seasoning and toasting.

    PubMed

    Cadahía, E; Muñoz, L; Fernández de Simón, B; García-Vallejo, M C

    2001-04-01

    The evolution of low molecular weight polyphenols in Spanish oak heartwood of Quercus robur,Quercus petraea, Quercus pyrenaica, and Quercus faginea was studied by HPLC, in relation to the processing of wood in barrel cooperage. The polyphenolic composition of Spanish woods subjected to natural seasoning for 3 years and to the toasting process was studied in relation to those of French oak of Q. robur (Limousin) and Q. petraea (Allier) and American oak of Q. alba (Missouri), which are habitually used in cooperage. The concentrations of benzoic and cinnamic acids and aldehydes of Spanish woods increased during seasoning depending on the duration of this process and in the same way as those of French and American woods. The process having the main influence on the phenolic composition of wood was the toasting. It led to high increases in the concentration of phenolic aldehydes and acids, especially cinnamic aldehydes (sinapic and coniferylic aldehydes), followed by benzoic aldehydes (syringaldehyde and vanillin) and benzoic acids (syringic and vanillic acids). This polyphenolic composition in Spanish oak species evolved during toasting as in French and American oak, but quantitative differences were found, which were especially important in American species with respect to the others.

  20. Neuroprotective effects of ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin in vitro and vivo models of ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-guo; Lü, Tai-sheng; Yuan, Hong-ying

    2011-06-01

    This study was conducted to demonstrate ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin's neuroprotective effects on ischemic injury both in vivo and in vitro studies. In vitro, the effect of ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin was tested in cultured PC12 cells exposed to Earle's solution containing sodium dithionite, to identify its neuroprotection to PC12 cells damaged by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The cell injury was detected by the tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5 diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In vivo, male Wistar rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion were evaluated for infarct volume followed by the treatment with ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin. The results in vitro showed that ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin significantly inhibited PC12 cells damage induced by OGD. Results in vivo showed that vein injection of Ultra-Low-molecular-weight heparin at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg exerted significant neuroprotective effects on rats with focal cerebral ischemic injury by significantly reducing the infarct volume compared with the injury group. All the findings suggest that ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin might act as a neuroprotective agent useful in the treatment of cerebral ischemia. © 2010 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2010 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  1. Low molecular-weight chitosan as a pH-sensitive stealth coating for tumor-specific drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Amoozgar, Zohreh; Park, Joonyoung; Lin, Qingnuo; Yeo, Yoon

    2012-01-01

    When a nanoparticle is developed for systemic application, its surface is typically protected by polyethylene glycol (PEG) to help their prolonged circulation and evasion of immune clearance. On the other hand, PEG can interfere with interactions between nanocarriers and target cells and negatively influence the therapeutic outcomes. To overcome this challenge, we propose low molecular-weight chitosan (LMWC) as an alternative surface coating, which can protect the nanomedicine in neutral pH but allow cellular interactions in weakly acidic pH of tumors. LMWCs with a molecular weight of 2–4 kDa, 4–6.5 kDa, and 11–22 kDa were produced by hydrogen peroxide digestion and covalently conjugated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Nanoparticles created with PLGA-LMWC conjugates showed pH-sensitive cell interactions, which enabled specific drug delivery to cells in a weakly acidic environment. The hydrophilic LMWC layer reduced opsonization and phagocytic uptake. These properties qualify LMWCs as a promising biomaterial for pH-sensitive stealth coating. PMID:22489704

  2. Interaction of low molecular weight group IIA phospholipase A2 with apoptotic human T cells: role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Boilard, Eric; Bourgoin, Sylvain G; Bernatchez, Chantale; Poubelle, Patrice E; Surette, Marc E

    2003-06-01

    Human group IIA phospholipase A2 (hIIA PLA2) is a 14 kDa secreted enzyme associated with inflammatory diseases. A newly discovered property of hIIA PLA2 is the binding affinity for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) glypican-1. In this study, the binding of hIIA PLA2 to apoptotic human T cells was investigated. Little or no exogenous hIIA PLA2 bound to CD3-activated T cells but significant binding was measured on activated T cells induced to undergo apoptosis by anti-CD95. Binding to early apoptotic T cells was greater than to late apoptotic cells. The addition of heparin and the hydrolysis of HSPG by heparinase III only partially inhibited hIIA PLA2 binding to apoptotic cells, suggesting an interaction with both HSPG and other binding protein(s). Two low molecular weight HSPG were coimmunoprecipitated with hIIA PLA2 from apoptotic T cells, but not from living cells. Treatment of CD95-stimulated T cells with hIIA PLA2 resulted in the release of arachidonic acid but not oleic acid from cells and this release was blocked by heparin and heparinase III. Altogether, these results suggest a role for hIIA PLA2 in the release of arachidonic acid from apoptotic cells through interactions with HSPG and its potential implication in the progression of inflammatory diseases.

  3. A new low molecular weight heparan sulphate antagonizes kappa-carrageenan-induced thrombosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Gervasi, G B; Bartoli, C; Carpita, G

    1991-07-01

    Kappa-carrageenan (kappa-carrageenin; kappa-carragheen) was found to be thrombogenic in rats. After i.p. injection of 3 mg/kg of kappa-carrageenan the thrombosis extended to a maximum 7.5 cm from the tip of the tail. Infarction frequency as well as the extent of infarction were inhibited by oral administration of a new heparan sulphate of low molecular weight (LMW-HS) (alpha-idosane). Mesoglycan and heparin were active when administered by parenteral route, and aspirin showed no effect; mesoglycan was inactive at 50 mg/kg per os. The present data confirm the validity of this experimental model for evaluating the protective effects of antithrombotic drugs and show the activity of oral administration of a new drug endowed with fibrinolytic activity.

  4. Low molecular weight carbohydrates in pine nuts from Pinus pinea L.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Aceituno, L; Ramos, L; Martinez-Castro, I; Sanz, M L

    2012-05-16

    Low molecular weight carbohydrates in pine nuts from Pinus pinea L. (n = 7) have been studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as their trimethylsilyl oximes. Besides previously reported components, such as glucose, fructose, sucrose, and raffinose, several soluble carbohydrates have been identified for the first time in this product, including saccharides (galactose, maltose, and planteose) and cyclitols (pinitol, galactinol, galactopinitol A1, fagopyritol B1, and other glycosyl-inositols). Most abundant cyclitols were chiro-inositol, fagopyritol B1, and pinitol, with concentrations ranging from 126.7 to 222.1 mg (100 g)(-1), 94.2 to 177.1 mg (100 g)(-1), and 51.2 to 282.8 mg (100 g)(-1), respectively.

  5. Low molecular weight PEI-based biodegradable lipopolymers as gene delivery vectors.

    PubMed

    Xun, Miao-Miao; Zhang, Xue-Chao; Zhang, Ji; Jiang, Qian-Qian; Yi, Wen-Jing; Zhu, Wen; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2013-02-21

    Non-viral gene vectors play an important role in the development of gene therapy. In this report, different hydrophobic chains were introduced into low molecular weight (LMW) PEI-based biodegradable oligomers to form a series of lipopolymers (LPs), and their structure-activity relationships were studied. Results revealed that the nine polymers can condense plasmid DNA well to form nanoparticles with appropriate sizes (120-250 nm) and positive zeta-potentials (+25-40 V). In vitro experiments were carried out and it was found that LP2 showed much higher transfection efficiency both in the presence and in the absence of serum under the polymer/DNA weight ratio of 0.8 in A549 cells.

  6. Inhibition of protein-protein interactions with low molecular weight compounds

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Marilyn M.; Weber, David J.; Shapiro, Paul S.; Coop, Andrew; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of issues associated with the design and development of low molecular weight inhibitors of protein-protein interactions is presented. Areas discussed include information on the nature of protein-protein interfaces, methods to characterize those interfaces and methods by which that information is applied towards ligand identification and design. Specific examples of the strategy for the identification of inhibitors of protein-protein interactions involving the proteins p56lck kinase, ERK2 and the calcium-binding protein S100B are presented. Physical characterization of the inhibitors identified in those studies shows them to have drug-like and lead-like properties, indicating their potential to be developed into therapeutic agents. PMID:21927717

  7. Qualification of HSQC methods for quantitative composition of heparin and low molecular weight heparins.

    PubMed

    Mauri, Lucio; Boccardi, Giovanni; Torri, Giangiacomo; Karfunkle, Michael; Macchi, Eleonora; Muzi, Laura; Keire, David; Guerrini, Marco

    2017-03-20

    An NMR HSQC method has recently been proposed for the quantitative determination of the mono- and disaccharide subunits of heparin and low molecular weight heparins (LMWH). The focus of the current study was the validation of this procedure to make the 2D-NMR method suitable for pharmaceutical quality control applications. Pre-validation work investigated the effects of several experimental parameters to assess robustness and to optimize critical factors. Important experimental parameters were pulse sequence selection, equilibration interval between pulse trains and temperature. These observations were needed so that the NMR method was sufficiently understood to enable continuous improvement. A standard validation study on heparin then examined linearity, repeatability, intermediate precision and limits of detection and quantitation; selected validation parameters were also determined for LMWH.

  8. [Antibacterial Activity of Alkylated and Acylated Derivatives of Low-Molecular Weight Chitosan].

    PubMed

    Shagdarova, B Ts; Il'ina, A V; Varlamov, V P

    2016-01-01

    A number of alkylated (quaternized) and acylated derivatives of low-molecular weight chitosan were obtained. The structure and composition of the compounds were confirmed by the results of IR and PMR spectroscopy, as well as conductometric titration. The effect of the acyl substituent and the degree of substitution of N-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) with the propyl fragment appended to amino groups of the C2 atom of polymer chains on antibacterial activity against typical representatives of gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms (Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli) was studied. The highest activity was in the case of N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium)propyl]chitosan chloride with the maximal substitution (98%). The minimal inhibitory concentration of the derivative was 0.48 µg/mL and 3.90 µg/mL for S. epidermis and E. coli, respectively.

  9. Crystal structure of SP-PTP, a low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase from Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Ku, Bonsu; Keum, Chae Won; Lee, Hye Seon; Yun, Hye-Yeoung; Shin, Ho-Chul; Kim, Bo Yeon; Kim, Seung Jun

    2016-09-23

    Streptococcus pyogenes, or Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is a pathogenic bacterium that causes a variety of infectious diseases. The GAS genome encodes one protein tyrosine phosphatase, SP-PTP, which plays an essential role in the replication and virulence maintenance of GAS. Herein, we present the crystal structure of SP-PTP at 1.9 Å resolution. Although SP-PTP has been reported to have dual phosphatase specificity for both phosphorylated tyrosine and serine/threonine, three-dimensional structural analysis showed that SP-PTP shares high similarity with typical low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatases (LMWPTPs), which are specific for phosphotyrosine, but not with dual-specificity phosphatases, in overall folding and active site composition. In the dephosphorylation activity test, SP-PTP consistently acted on phosphotyrosine substrates, but not or only minimally on phosphoserine/phosphothreonine substrates. Collectively, our structural and biochemical analyses verified SP-PTP as a canonical tyrosine-specific LMWPTP.

  10. The effect of a low molecular weight heparin on coagulation parameters in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Vargo, Cheryl L; Taylor, Susan M; Carr, Anthony; Jackson, Marion L

    2009-04-01

    The low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), dalteparin sodium, was administered subcutaneously (100 IU/kg) to 8 healthy cats twice daily for 13 doses. Anti-activated factor X (anti-Xa) activity was measured prior to administration (time 0), and 4, 6, 8, and 12 h after the 1st dose, 4 h after administration of the 3rd dose, and at 4, 6, 8, and 12 h after the last dose. Four cats developed measurable anti-Xa activity 4 h following a single dose, returning to baseline by 6 h. Anti-Xa activity was not detected at any time point in 4 cats. Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and antithrombin (AT) concentrations were unaffected by LMWH administration. Dalteparin, at 100 IU/kg SC, did not achieve anti-Xa activity in 4 out of 8 cats and failed to maintain anti-Xa activity beyond 4 h in the other 4 healthy cats.

  11. Low molecular weight chitosan-insulin polyelectrolyte complex: characterization and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Al-Kurdi, Zakieh I; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Leharne, Stephen A; Al Omari, Mahmoud M H; Badwan, Adnan A

    2015-03-30

    The aim of the work reported herein was to investigate the effect of various low molecular weight chitosans (LMWCs) on the stability of insulin using USP HPLC methods. Insulin was found to be stable in a polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) consisting of insulin and LMWC in the presence of a Tris-buffer at pH 6.5. In the presence of LMWC, the stability of insulin increased with decreasing molecular weight of LMWC; 13 kDa LMWC was the most efficient molecular weight for enhancing the physical and chemical stability of insulin. Solubilization of insulin-LMWC polyelectrolyte complex (I-LMWC PEC) in a reverse micelle (RM) system, administered to diabetic rats, results in an oral delivery system for insulin with acceptable bioactivity.

  12. In vivo endothelial siRNA delivery using polymeric nanoparticles with low molecular weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlman, James E.; Barnes, Carmen; Khan, Omar F.; Thiriot, Aude; Jhunjunwala, Siddharth; Shaw, Taylor E.; Xing, Yiping; Sager, Hendrik B.; Sahay, Gaurav; Speciner, Lauren; Bader, Andrew; Bogorad, Roman L.; Yin, Hao; Racie, Tim; Dong, Yizhou; Jiang, Shan; Seedorf, Danielle; Dave, Apeksha; Singh Sandhu, Kamaljeet; Webber, Matthew J.; Novobrantseva, Tatiana; Ruda, Vera M.; Lytton-Jean, Abigail K. R.; Levins, Christopher G.; Kalish, Brian; Mudge, Dayna K.; Perez, Mario; Abezgauz, Ludmila; Dutta, Partha; Smith, Lynelle; Charisse, Klaus; Kieran, Mark W.; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Danino, Dganit; Tuder, Rubin M.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Akinc, Akin; Panigrahy, Dipak; Schroeder, Avi; Koteliansky, Victor; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2014-08-01

    Dysfunctional endothelium contributes to more diseases than any other tissue in the body. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can help in the study and treatment of endothelial cells in vivo by durably silencing multiple genes simultaneously, but efficient siRNA delivery has so far remained challenging. Here, we show that polymeric nanoparticles made of low-molecular-weight polyamines and lipids can deliver siRNA to endothelial cells with high efficiency, thereby facilitating the simultaneous silencing of multiple endothelial genes in vivo. Unlike lipid or lipid-like nanoparticles, this formulation does not significantly reduce gene expression in hepatocytes or immune cells even at the dosage necessary for endothelial gene silencing. These nanoparticles mediate the most durable non-liver silencing reported so far and facilitate the delivery of siRNAs that modify endothelial function in mouse models of vascular permeability, emphysema, primary tumour growth and metastasis.

  13. Urinary enzymes and low molecular weight proteins as markers of tubular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Jung, K

    1994-11-01

    Reference intervals of different tubular markers, that is, low molecular weight proteins and urinary enzymes, show divergent data and wide ranges. The problems in establishing reference intervals for the tubular markers are caused by the necessarily different analytical methods. Also, the general rules of determining reference limits as well as the numerous physiological variables influencing tubular function are often not sufficiently taken into consideration. Compared to blood components, urinary tubular markers show a wide variability of values. This is due to the fact that the excretion of enzymes and proteins into urine represents an excretion into an open system. The influences of variables like age, sex, physical exercise, different urine flow rates, and biorhythms are immediately reflected by changed excretion rates of tubular markers. The problems occurring when the second morning urine sample is being used as a "standardized" collection method and the basis to characterize tubular function by analyte/creatinine ratios are discussed in this paper.

  14. Low Molecular Weight Norbornadiene Derivatives for Molecular Solar‐Thermal Energy Storage

    PubMed Central

    Quant, Maria; Lennartson, Anders; Dreos, Ambra; Kuisma, Mikael; Erhart, Paul; Börjesson, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Molecular solar‐thermal energy storage systems are based on molecular switches that reversibly convert solar energy into chemical energy. Herein, we report the synthesis, characterization, and computational evaluation of a series of low molecular weight (193–260 g mol−1) norbornadiene–quadricyclane systems. The molecules feature cyano acceptor and ethynyl‐substituted aromatic donor groups, leading to a good match with solar irradiation, quantitative photo‐thermal conversion between the norbornadiene and quadricyclane, as well as high energy storage densities (396–629 kJ kg−1). The spectroscopic properties and energy storage capability have been further evaluated through density functional theory calculations, which indicate that the ethynyl moiety plays a critical role in obtaining the high oscillator strengths seen for these molecules. PMID:27492997

  15. Low Molecular Weight Norbornadiene Derivatives for Molecular Solar-Thermal Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Quant, Maria; Lennartson, Anders; Dreos, Ambra; Kuisma, Mikael; Erhart, Paul; Börjesson, Karl; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper

    2016-09-05

    Molecular solar-thermal energy storage systems are based on molecular switches that reversibly convert solar energy into chemical energy. Herein, we report the synthesis, characterization, and computational evaluation of a series of low molecular weight (193-260 g mol(-1) ) norbornadiene-quadricyclane systems. The molecules feature cyano acceptor and ethynyl-substituted aromatic donor groups, leading to a good match with solar irradiation, quantitative photo-thermal conversion between the norbornadiene and quadricyclane, as well as high energy storage densities (396-629 kJ kg(-1) ). The spectroscopic properties and energy storage capability have been further evaluated through density functional theory calculations, which indicate that the ethynyl moiety plays a critical role in obtaining the high oscillator strengths seen for these molecules. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  16. Antioxidation activities of low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Tang, Qingjuan; Wang, Yi; Chang, Yaoguang; Zhao, Qin; Xue, Changhu

    2010-03-01

    Gelatin extracted from the body wall of the sea cucumber ( Stichopus japonicus) was hydrolyzed with flavourzyme. Low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate (LMW-GH) of 700-1700 Da was produced using an ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor system. Chemiluminescence analysis revealed that LMW-GH scavenges high free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner; IC50 value for superoxide and hydroxyl radicals was 442 and 285 μg mL-1, respectively. LMW-GH exhibited excellent inhibitory characteristics against melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. Furthermore, LMW-GH notably increased intracellular glutathione (GSH), which in turn suppressed melanogenesis. LMW-GH performs antioxidation activity, holding the potential of being used as a valuable ingredient in function foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals or nutriceuticals.

  17. Low Molecular Weight Opioid Peptide Esters Could be Developed as a New Class of Analgesics.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Joel S

    2011-01-01

    Low molecular weight opioid peptide esters (OPE) could become a class of analgesics with different side effect profiles than current opiates. OPE may have sufficient plasma stability to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB), undergo ester hydrolysis and produce analgesia. OPE of dipeptides, tyr-pro and tyr-gly conjugated to ethanol have a structure similar to the anesthestic agent, etomidate. Based upon the analgesic activity of dipeptide opioids, Lipinski's criteria, and permeability of select GABA esters to cross the BBB, opioid peptides (OP) conjugated to ethanol, cholesterol or 3-glucose are lead recommendations. Preliminary animal data suggests that tyr-pro-ethyl ester crosses the BBB and unexpectedly produces hyperalgesia. Currently, there are no approved OP analgesics available for clinical use. Clinical trials of good manufacturing practice OP administered to patients suffering from chronic pain with indwelling intrathecal pumps could resolve the issue that OP may be superior to opiates and may redirect research.

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite plates prepared using low molecular weight heparin (LMWH).

    PubMed

    Rajeswari, A; Kumar, V Ganesh; Karthick, V; Dhas, T Stalin; Potluri, Sri Lakshmi

    2013-11-01

    Materials with enhanced physical and biological properties have been used for biomedical applications and can be developed by functionalizing them using various components. Hydroxyapatite (HAP), among other available synthetic material, serves as one of the best tools in orthopaedics and ceramic coatings. The porous structure of HAP helps in bone cell regeneration, chemical integration of bone and also favours the interaction between bone and tissues. Herein, we have demonstrated a simple procedure for the synthesis of HAP using low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), a structural analogue of bone heparan sulphate proteoglycan. The presence of small sized HAP plates with well-defined structures was revealed using electron microscopic analysis. The phase purity of the synthesized HAP was evaluated using X-ray diffraction pattern obtained before and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF).

  19. Toxicological Evaluation of Low Molecular Weight Fucoidan in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Pai-An; Yan, Ming-De; Lin, Hong-Ting Victor; Li, Kuan-Lun; Lin, Yen-Chang

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, fucoidan has been well known for its pharmacological activities, and recently low molecular weight fucoidan (LMF) has been used in food supplements and pharmaceutical products. In the present study, LMF was extracted from Laminaria japonica by enzyme hydrolysis. The toxicity of LMF in mouse and rat models was determined by many methods, such as total arsenic content, bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosome aberration assay, and in vivo micronucleus assay. The present findings showed that LMF at 5000 μg/mL exhibited no mutagenicity. It also produced no formatting disruption of red blood cells in vivo. At 2000 mg/kg BW/day there were no toxicological indications. LMF is expected to be used as a safe food supplement. PMID:27347980

  20. In vivo endothelial siRNA delivery using polymeric nanoparticles with low molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Dahlman, James E; Barnes, Carmen; Khan, Omar F; Thiriot, Aude; Jhunjunwala, Siddharth; Shaw, Taylor E; Xing, Yiping; Sager, Hendrik B; Sahay, Gaurav; Speciner, Lauren; Bader, Andrew; Bogorad, Roman L; Yin, Hao; Racie, Tim; Dong, Yizhou; Jiang, Shan; Seedorf, Danielle; Dave, Apeksha; Singh Sandhu, Kamaljeet; Webber, Matthew J; Novobrantseva, Tatiana; Ruda, Vera M; Lytton-Jean, Abigail K R; Levins, Christopher G; Kalish, Brian; Mudge, Dayna K; Perez, Mario; Abezgauz, Ludmila; Dutta, Partha; Smith, Lynelle; Charisse, Klaus; Kieran, Mark W; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Danino, Dganit; Tuder, Rubin M; von Andrian, Ulrich H; Akinc, Akin; Panigrahy, Dipak; Schroeder, Avi; Koteliansky, Victor; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G

    2014-08-01

    Dysfunctional endothelium contributes to more diseases than any other tissue in the body. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can help in the study and treatment of endothelial cells in vivo by durably silencing multiple genes simultaneously, but efficient siRNA delivery has so far remained challenging. Here, we show that polymeric nanoparticles made of low-molecular-weight polyamines and lipids can deliver siRNA to endothelial cells with high efficiency, thereby facilitating the simultaneous silencing of multiple endothelial genes in vivo. Unlike lipid or lipid-like nanoparticles, this formulation does not significantly reduce gene expression in hepatocytes or immune cells even at the dosage necessary for endothelial gene silencing. These nanoparticles mediate the most durable non-liver silencing reported so far and facilitate the delivery of siRNAs that modify endothelial function in mouse models of vascular permeability, emphysema, primary tumour growth and metastasis.

  1. Low Molecular Weight Chitosan–Insulin Polyelectrolyte Complex: Characterization and Stability Studies

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kurdi, Zakieh I.; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Leharne, Stephen A.; Al Omari, Mahmoud M. H.; Badwan, Adnan A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work reported herein was to investigate the effect of various low molecular weight chitosans (LMWCs) on the stability of insulin using USP HPLC methods. Insulin was found to be stable in a polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) consisting of insulin and LMWC in the presence of a Tris-buffer at pH 6.5. In the presence of LMWC, the stability of insulin increased with decreasing molecular weight of LMWC; 13 kDa LMWC was the most efficient molecular weight for enhancing the physical and chemical stability of insulin. Solubilization of insulin-LMWC polyelectrolyte complex (I-LMWC PEC) in a reverse micelle (RM) system, administered to diabetic rats, results in an oral delivery system for insulin with acceptable bioactivity. PMID:25830681

  2. Low molecular weight fucoidan modulates P-selectin and alleviates diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingjie; Zhang, Quanbin; Luo, Dali; Wang, Jing; Duan, Delin

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious microvascular complication that can lead to chronic and end-stage renal failure. It is understood that inflammation is associated with the onset and process of DN. Low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) isolated from Saccharina japonica has anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the mechanism of LMWF in DN model induced by streptozotocin. The biochemical indices levels showed LMWF reduced the DN diagnostic indices to protect renal function. The HE stained sections exhibited LMWF protected normal morphological structures and reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in the kidneys of DN rats. Furthermore, the levels of P-selectin and selectin-dependent inflammatory cytokines resulting from LMWF were obviously decreased at both the transcriptional and protein levels. Thus, our results found that LMWF protected the renal function in DN rats and alleviated inflammation through the modulation of P-selectin and inflammatory cytokines. LMWF may have therapeutic potential against DN.

  3. Intentional low-molecular-weight heparin overdose: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Michael; Zumberg, Marc

    2012-12-01

    The reversal of low-molecular-weight heparins, particularly at supratherapeutic levels, remains challenging. The paucity of literature available to guide the treatment of these patients makes their management difficult for primary care providers, surgeons, and subspecialists alike. We report the case of a 34-year-old woman, who intentionally overdosed on enoxaparin (Lovenox) in a suicide attempt. Her initial antifactor Xa activity level was 8.3 IU/ml, the highest level reported in the literature to date. She was initially managed conservatively, however, within 24 h of admission she developed evidence of acute blood loss. Protamine sulfate and three doses of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) were administered in an effort to control bleeding. We report the effects of these measures and review the literature to date. Our study is one of the first to graph in-vivo antifactor Xa activity levels and to suggest a drug half-life of approximately 25 h.

  4. D-penicillamine and other low molecular weight thiols: review of anticancer effects and related mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Saurabh; Mumper, Russell J

    2013-08-28

    Low molecular weight thiols (LMWTs) like N-acetyl cysteine, D-penicillamine, captopril, Disulfiram and Amifostine, etc. have been used as chemo-preventive agents. Recent studies have reported cell growth inhibition and cytotoxicity in several different types of cancer cells following treatment with several LMWTs. Cytotoxic and cytostatic effects of LMWTs may involve interaction of the thiol group with cellular lipids, proteins, intermediates or enzymes. Some of the mechanisms that have been proposed include a p53 mediated apoptosis, thiyl radical induced DNA damage, membrane damage through lipid peroxidation, anti-angiogenic effects induced by inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase enzymes and angiostatin generation. LMWTs are strong chelators of transition metals like copper, nickel, zinc, iron and cobalt and may cause metal co-factor depletion resulting in cytotoxicity. Oxidation of thiol group can also generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  5. Outcomes in women receiving low-molecular-weight heparin during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    De Sancho, Maria T; Khalid, Sana; Christos, Paul J

    2012-12-01

    To assess the rate and type of maternal and infant complications among pregnant women receiving low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). Retrospective study of pregnant women on LMWH referred to two university hematology clinics from January 2001 to December 2010. We recorded the number of pregnancies, indication, dose and dose adjustments for LMWH, pregnancy outcomes (live births, maternal and infant complications) and side effects of LMWH. There were 89 pregnancies in 76 women. The most common indication for LMWH was a history of adverse outcome of pregnancy associated with thrombophilia. LMWH was adjusted in 75 and 45% of pregnancies in women on therapeutic and prophylactic doses, respectively. Live birth rate was 97%. There were 25 maternal and 11 infant complications. Side effects were minimal and included decreased bone mineral density and bleeding. LMWH use among pregnant women is associated with successful pregnancy outcomes. Although side effects were minimal, maternal and infant complications occurred in 28 and 12% of cases, respectively.

  6. Low molecular weight heparin restores antithrombin III activity from hyperglycemia induced alterations.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Marchi, E; Palazzni, E; Quatraro, A; Giugliano, D

    1990-01-01

    Alteration of antithrombin III (ATIII) activity, glycemia level dependent, exists in diabetes mellitus. In this study the ability of a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (Fluxum, Alfa-Wassermann S.p.A., Bologna, Italy), as well as unfractioned héparin, to preserve ATIII activity from glucose-induced alterations, both in vitro and in vivo, is reported. The subcutaneous and intravenous LMWH and heparin administration increases basal depressed ATIII activity in diabetic patients. Heparin shows an equivalent effect on both anti-IIa and anti-Xa activity of ATIII, while LMWH is more effective in preserving the anti-Xa activity. Similarity, heparin preserves ATIII activity from hyperglycemia-induced alterations, during hyperglycemic clamp, and LMWH infusion is able to preserve a significant amount of anti-Xa activity from glucose-induced alterations. Since diabetic patients show a high incidence of thrombotic accidents, LMWH appears to be a promising innovation for the prevention of diabetic thrombophylia.

  7. Combinatorial chemistry: libraries from libraries, the art of the diversity-oriented transformation of resin-bound peptides and chiral polyamides to low molecular weight acyclic and heterocyclic compounds.

    PubMed

    Nefzi, Adel; Ostresh, John M; Yu, Yongping; Yu, Jongping; Houghten, Richard A

    2004-05-28

    Combinatorial chemistry has deeply impacted the drug discovery process by accelerating the synthesis and screening of large numbers of compounds having therapeutic and/or diagnostic potential. These techniques offer unique enhancement in the potential identification of new and/or therapeutic candidates. Our efforts over the past 10 years in the design and diversity-oriented synthesis of low molecular weight acyclic and heterocyclic combinatorial libraries derived from amino acids, peptides, and/or peptidomimetics are described. Employing a "toolbox" of various chemical transformations, including alkylation, oxidation, reduction, acylation, and the use of a variety of multifunctional reagents, the "libraries from libraries" concept has enabled the continued development of an ever-expanding, structurally varied series of organic chemical libraries.

  8. Capture, enrichment, and mass spectrometric detection of low-molecular-weight biomarkers with nanoporous silicon microparticles.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jie; Zhao, Wei-Jie; Yu, Jie-Kai; Ma, Sai; Sailor, Michael J; Wu, Jian-Min

    2012-11-01

    Mining the disease information contained in the low-molecular-weight range of a proteomic profile is becoming of increasing interest in cancer research. This work evaluates the ability of nanoporous silicon microparticles (NPSMPs) to capture, enrich, protect, and detect low-molecular-weight peptides (LMWPs) sieved from a pool of highly abundant plasma proteins. The average pore size and porosity of NPSMPs are controlled by the electrochemical preparation conditions, and the critical parameters for admission or exclusion of protein with a definite molecular weight are determined by reflectometric-interference Fourier transform spectroscopy (RIFTS). Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis of the proteins captured by the NPSMPs show that the chemical nature of the NPSMPs surface and the solution pH also play vital roles in determining the affinity of NPSMPs for target analytes. It is found that carboxyl-terminated porous microparticles with a porosity of 26% (pore diameter around 9.0 nm) specifically fractionate, enrich and protect LMWPs sieved from either simulated samples or human serum samples. Moreover, NPSMPs containing captured peptides can be directly spotted onto a MALDI plate. When placed in a conventional MALDI matrix, laser irradiation of the particles results in the release of the target peptides confined in the nanopores, which are then ionized and detected in the MALDI experiment. As a proof-of-principle test case, mass spectra of NPSMPs prepared using serum from colorectal cancer patients and from control patients can be clearly distinguished by statistical analysis. The work demonstrates the utility of the method for discovery of biomarkers in the untapped LMWP fraction of human serum, which can be of significant value in the early diagnosis and management of diseases.

  9. A low molecular weight proteome comparison of fertile and male sterile 8 anthers of Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongxue; Adams, Christopher M.; Fernandes, John F.; Egger, Rachel L.; Walbot, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Summary During maize anther development, somatic locular cells differentiate to support meiosis in the pollen mother cells. Meiosis is an important event during anther growth and is essential for plant fertility as pollen contains the haploid sperm. A subset of maize male sterile mutants exhibit meiotic failure, including ms8 (male sterile 8) in which meiocytes arrest as dyads and the locular somatic cells exhibit multiple defects. Systematic proteomic profiles were analysed in biological triplicates plus technical triplicates comparing ms8 anthers with fertile sibling samples at both the premeiotic and meiotic stages; proteins from 3.5 to 20 kDa were fractionated by 1-D PAGE, cleaved with Lys-C and then sequenced using a LTQ Orbitrap Velos MS paradigm. Three hundred and 59proteins were identified with two or more assigned peptides in which each of those peptides were counted at least two or more times (0.4% peptide false discovery rate (FDR) and 0.2% protein FDR); 2761 proteins were identified with one or more assigned peptides (0.4% peptide FDR and 7.6% protein FDR). Stage-specific protein expression provides candidate stage markers for early anther development, and proteins specifically expressed in fertile compared to sterile anthers provide important clues about the regulation of meiosis. 49% of the proteins detected by this study are new to an independent whole anther proteome, and many small proteins missed by automated maize genome annotation were validated; these outcomes indicate the value of focusing on low molecular weight proteins. The roles of distinctive expressed proteins and methods for mass spectrometry of low molecular weight proteins are discussed. PMID:22748129

  10. Effects of a supersulfated low molecular weight heparin (IK-SSH) on different hemostatic parameters.

    PubMed

    Glusa, E; Barthel, W; Schenk, J; Radziwon, P; Butti, A; Markwardt, F; Breddin, K H

    1998-01-01

    In a phase I trial effects of a new supersulfated low molecular weight heparin (IK-SSH) on different hemostatic parameters were investigated in healthy volunteers. Parameters studied were activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time, Heptest, anti-activated factor II (anti-FIIa) and anti-activated factor X (anti-FXa) activity, platelet adhesion, platelet count, platelet-induced thrombin generation time (PITT), bleeding time, antithrombin III, fibrinogen and several safety parameters. After single intravenous (i.v.) injections of IK-SSH (0.14, 0.33 and 0.66 mg/kg) aPTT, Heptest and PITT were strongly and dose-dependently prolonged. After ascending subcutaneous (s.c.) doses of IK-SSH (0.33, 0.66 and 1 mg/kg) aPTT, Heptest and PITT were prolonged in a dose-dependent manner. Repeat s.c. injections of 1 mg/kg IK-SSH for 5 days markedly prolonged aPTT, Heptest and PITT. No cumulative effects were observed. Anti-FIIa and anti-FXa activity were not or only slightly increased. Bleeding time, thrombin time and platelet adhesion were not significantly changed after i.v. and s.c. injections of IK-SSH. However, tissue factor